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Sample records for rapid two-site immunoradiometric

  1. Elimination of "hook-effect" in two-site immunoradiometric assays by kinetic rate analysis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, K L; Parsons, G H; Allerdt, L J; Brooks, J M; Miles, L E

    1984-09-01

    Two-site or sandwich immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) offer theoretical advantages over competitive immunoassay systems for sensitivity, precision, and rapid incubation. The practical realization of these advantages has been limited by the phenomenon of the "high-dose hook effect," such that high concentrations of an analyte give similar responses to those of much lower concentrations. We have developed a kinetic rate monitoring IRMA system for use with the Kineti-Count 48TM, an automated kinetic radioassay analyzer, which eliminates "hook-effect" interference, thereby permitting optimal assay design for increasing sensitivity and reducing incubation time. Practical illustration of these concepts is demonstrated by a 10-min, automated, quantitative assay we developed for human choriogonadotropin. The assay can detect as little as 1.2 int. units/L and kinetically screens for the hook effect. Kinetic rate analysis of the two-site IRMA and potentially of nonisotopic counterparts permits improvements in the speed and reliability of these immunoassays.

  2. New monoclonal-antibody two-site solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for human thyrotropin evaluated

    SciTech Connect

    Pekary, A.E.; Hershman, J.M.

    1984-07-01

    The authors compared results with a commercial solid-phase two-site immunoradiometric assay kit for human thyrotropin in which monoclonal antibodies are used with those by our radioimmunoassay, which is optimized for measurement of low concentrations of thyrotropin. In the immunoradiometric assay a specific antibody to the beta subunit of human thyrotropin is immobilized on a polystyrene bead, and a radiolabeled monoclonal antibody directed against the alpha subunit provides a measure of bead-immobilized hormone. The mean thyrotropin concentrations in 70 euthyroid serum samples were similar in the two assays. Values for hypothyroid patients were clearly higher in both assays than values for euthyroid individuals. In commercial assays the major source of error in measurement of thyrotropin response to thyroliberin in terms of the increment over the basal concentration of thyrotropin has been systematic errors in the measurement of those basal concentrations. With the present assay, however, basal values are obtained with good precision and accuracy.

  3. Direct measurement of human plasma corticotropin-releasing hormone by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Linton, E.A.; McLean, C.; Nieuwenhuyzen Kruseman, A.C.; Tilders, F.J.; Van der Veen, E.A.; Lowry, P.J.

    1987-05-01

    A ''two-site'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) which allows the direct estimation of human CRH (hCRH) in plasma is described. Using this IRMA, basal levels of CRH in normal subjects ranged from 2-28 pg/mL (mean, 15 +/- 7 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 58). Values in men and women were similar. Plasma CRH values within this range were also found in patients with Cushing's syndrome, Addison's disease, and Nelson's syndrome, with no correlation between plasma CRH and ACTH levels in these patients. Elevated plasma CRH levels were found in pregnant women near term (1462 +/- 752 (+/- SD) pg/mL; n = 55), and the dilution curve of this CRH-like immunoreactivity paralleled the IRMA standard curve. After its immunoadsorption from maternal plasma, this CRH-like material eluted on reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography with a retention time identical to that of synthetic CRH and had equipotent bioactivity with the synthetic peptide in the perfused anterior pituitary cell bioassay. Circulating CRH was not detected in Wistar rats, even after adrenalectomy and subsequent ether stress. Synthetic hCRH was degraded by fresh human plasma relatively slowly; 65% of added CRH remained after 1 h of incubation at 37 C. Degradation was inhibited by heat treatment (54 C; 1 h), cold treatment (4 C; 4 h), or freezing and thawing. Loss of synthetic rat CRH occurred more rapidly when fresh rat plasma was used; only 20% of added CRH remained under the same conditions. The inability to measure CRH in peripheral rat plasma may be due to the presence of active CRH-degrading enzymes which fragment the CRH molecule into forms not recognized by the CRH IRMA.

  4. Measurement of anti-IgA antibodies by a two-site immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Homburger, H.A.; Smith, J.R.; Jacob, G.L.; Laschinger, C.; Naylor, D.H.; Pineda, A.A.

    1981-01-01

    To enable the detection of IgG class, anti-IgA antibodies and to investigate the possible occurrence of IgE class, anti-IgA antibodies, we developed a solid phase immunoradiometric assay, which uses purified IgA coupled covalently to microcrystalline cellulose as an immunosorbent. Radiolabeled, Fc specific anti-IgG and anti-IgE antibodies were used to detect specific aIgA after incubation of test sera or controls with the immunosorbent. IgG-aIgA were detected by the IRA in 100 and 67% of control sera with class specific and limited specificity aIgA. The IRA was sensitive to approximately two ng of class specific IgG-aIgA. IgG-aIgA also were detected by IRA in 7.9% of sera from patients with urticarial transfusion reactions and 73% of sera from patients with ataxia telangiectasia and IgA deficiency. Sera from 50 normal blood donors did not have detectable IgG-aIgA. Tests for IgE-aIgA were negative in all cases, including control sera with class specific IgG-aIgA. We conclude that the IRA is a sensitive and reproducible method for detection of class specific and limited specificity IgG-aIgA, and that IgE-aIgA do not mediate urticarial transfusion reactions.

  5. Standardisation of a two-site PTH immunoradiometric assay using various solid phase formats.

    PubMed

    Prasad, U V; Mohan, R Krishna; Samuel, G; Harinarayan, C V; Sivaprasad, N; Venkatesh, M

    2012-12-01

    Estimation of parathyroid hormone (PTH) levels is important in the management of metabolic bone disorders. Here we describe a simple, sensitive and specific second generation immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) to detect intact PTH levels using different solid phase matrices. Different methods for immobilization of antibodies have also been evaluated. Experiments were carried out with physical adsorption of antibodies, covalent coupling using 2 per cent glutaraldehyde and N,N`carbonyldiimidazole. In all cases, antibodies raised against C-terminal were used as solid phase agent. Detector antibodies were N terminal antibodies that were radio-iodinated with [125] I followed by gel purification. Several of the antibodies coupled to various solid phase matrices were incubated with PTH standards and the detector antibody as well as the commercially available tracer from DiaSorin kit to identify a suitable match pair. The best pair was polyclonal C-terminal PTH antibody along with the kit tracer from DiaSorin with regards to antibody coated to magnetic cellulose particles. Among the various antibodies and the solid phases evaluated, the best assay was obtained with the matched pair of antibodies (70×G67 and 70×G68) from Fitzgerald immobilized on polystyrene tubes. The polyclonal antibody against C-terminal PTH was chosen as the capture antibody and [125] I labelled polyclonal antibody against N-terminal PTH as the tracer. The sample values obtained in the antibody coated tubes were comparable to those obtained using a commercial kit. The results indicated the feasibility of adopting this system for further development into a PTH IRMA for regular production as there is no indigenous kit available for intact PTH.

  6. Direct measurement of the precursors of adrenocorticotropin in human plasma by two-site immunoradiometric assay

    SciTech Connect

    Crosby, S.R.; Stewart, M.F.; Ratcliffe, J.G.; White, A.

    1988-12-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the direct measurement of the precursors of ACTH in unextracted human plasma has been developed and evaluated clinically in normal subjects and patients with disorders of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis. The IRMA is based on an iodinated monoclonal antibody to ACTH and a monoclonal antibody to gamma MSH coupled to Sephacryl S300. The assay detects only peptides containing both epitopes, i.e. POMC (31K) and pro-ACTH (22K). The reference standard was partially purified POMC from culture medium of human corticotroph adenoma cells. The detection limit (greater than +2.5SD of the 0 standard) was 2.0 pmol/L and the within-assay coefficient of variation was less than 10% between 29 and 2600 pmol/L. Plasma concentrations of ACTH precursor peptides in 11 normal subjects sampled at 0930 h ranged from 5-34 pmol/L. The concentrations in the patient groups studied were: 260-2300 pmol/L in 5 patients with the ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer, less than 2.0-104 pmol/L in 10 patients with pituitary-dependent Cushing's disease, 23 pmol/L in a patient with Nelson's syndrome, and 3.0-230 pmol/L in 5 patients with Addison's disease. We conclude that this IRMA offers a simple and reliable method for measuring ACTH precursors in unextracted plasma. The proportionately greater elevation of ACTH precursors compared to ACTH in patients with the ectopic ACTH syndrome associated with small cell lung cancer but not in pituitary-dependent Cushing's syndrome, suggests that this assay may be clinically useful.

  7. Development and validation of a two-site immunoradiometric assay for human atrial natriuretic factor in unextracted plasma

    SciTech Connect

    Lewis, H.M.; Ratcliffe, W.A.; Stott, R.A.; Wilkins, M.R.; Baylis, P.H.

    1989-06-01

    This two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human atrial natriuretic factor (ANF)99-126 in plasma utilizes a mouse monoclonal antibody raised against rat (r) ANF103-125 with specificity directed towards the ring structure of ANF, and a rabbit antiserum to human (h) ANF99-126. The monoclonal antibody is radioiodinated, and the IgG fraction of the antiserum is coated onto wells of a microtiter plate. Plasma or standard hANF99-126 (150 microL) is incubated with the radioligand in coated wells for 24 h. The detection limit is 0.9 pg per well, corresponding to 2 pmol/L, with a working range (CV less than 10%) from 4.5 to 540 pmol/L. Intra- and interassay precision are 7% and 9%, respectively, and the assay is unaffected by plasma matrix. In humans, the IRMA is specific for hANF99-126, the major circulating form of ANF, and does not cross-react with metabolites having deletions at the carboxy terminus. Plasma IRMA values in normal seated subjects were 6.6 +/- 1.5 (SEM) pmol/L and results correlated with those of an extraction RIA (r = 0.81, P less than 0.001).

  8. Measurement of dimeric inhibin using a modified two-site immunoradiometric assay specific for oxidized (Met O) inhibin.

    PubMed

    Knight, P G; Muttukrishna, S

    1994-06-01

    Several years ago we developed a novel two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for dimeric inhibin. However, relative to the purified 32 kDa bovine inhibin standard used at that time, the immunopotencies of crude inhibin-containing samples were much less than their biopotencies estimated by pituitary cell bioassay. In attempting to improve assay performance and resolve this discrepancy we recently discovered that introduction of a preassay oxidation step to the IRMA results in a dramatic increase in the immunopotencies of inhibin-containing test samples (e.g.: bovine, human, porcine follicular fluid (FF)) and of a new (purified in 1993) 32 kDa bovine inhibin standard. However, the oxidation step did not affect the immunopotency of our original standard (purified in 1987), indicating that this material had undergone spontaneous oxidation during long-term storage, thus accounting for its higher immunopotency in our original IRMA and providing an explanation for the discrepancy between immunoactivity and bioactivity referred to above. These findings, together with other observations on the behaviour of oxidized and non-oxidized samples of inhibin, related peptide fragments and inhibin-containing samples in the IRMA and alpha subunit radioimmunoassay (RIA), indicate that the anti-beta A82-114 monoclonal antibody (E4) used as tracer in the IRMA binds selectively to the oxidized (Met O89,91,108) form of the peptide. This property of the antibody can be exploited to advantage by incorporating simple modifications to existing inhibin/activin immunoassays to ensure that all samples and standards are fully oxidized before antibody addition.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  9. Clinical utility of a two-site immunoradiometric assay for creatine kinase-MB in the detection of perioperative myocardial infarction

    SciTech Connect

    DePuey, E.G.; Aessopos, A.; Monroe, L.R.; Hall, R.J.; Thompson, W.L.; Sonnemaker, R.E.; Burdine, J.A.

    1983-08-01

    In 144 patients, creatine kinase MB was measured serially at 0, 8, 16, 24, 48 and 72 h using a two-site immunoradionmetric assay (IRMA). Cardiac enzymes were also measured, including SGOT, LDH, total CPK, and CK-MB by electrophoresis. The presence of perioperative myocardial infarction (poMI) was established in 24 patients by the appearance of new electrocardiographic Q waves and/or new wall motion abnormalities detected by radionuclide ventriculography. In patients without poMI, CK-MB (IRMA) was elevated at 0 to 8 h but decreased by 16 h. In patients with poMI, peak values occurred at 16 to 24 h. Using a threshold value of 8.5 EU/I, patients with poMI could be distinguished from those without with 97% accuracy (sensitivity = 88%, specificity = 99%). We conclude that the CK-MB (IRMA) can serve as a valuable postoperative screening tet for poMI.

  10. Sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human thyroid stimulating hormone

    SciTech Connect

    Piaditis, G.P.; Hodgkinson, S.C.; McLean, C.; Lowry, P.J.

    1985-01-01

    A liquid phase ''two-site'' immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specific for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) is described. The assay is based on the simultaneous addition of affinity purified sheep anti hTSH IgG- SVI and rabbit anti hTSH antiserum to standards and unknowns followed by 4h incubation at room temperature. The separation of free labelled sheep IgG- SVI from that bound to hTSH is achieved by the addition of sheep anti-rabbit IgG Fc fragment antiserum. The radiolabelled sheep anti-hTSH IgG- SVI was pretreated with solid phase urinary postmenopausal gonadotropins to remove cross reaction with FSH and LH. The assay is specific for hTSH and no cross reaction with the other anterior pituitary glycoproteins or protein hormones has been found. In addition it is characterized by a wide operating range, rapid equilibration of reactants and high sensitivity. The precision of dose estimates was less than 10% between 0.25-2.5 microU/ml and less than 2.5% over the range 2.5-60 microU/ml.

  11. Two-site Photometry and Spectroscopy of the Rapidly Pulsating sdB Star EC 22221-3152

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barlow, B. N.; Kilkenny, D.; Geier, S.; Dunlap, B. H.; Reichart, D. E.; LaCluyze, A. P.; Ivarsen, K. M.; Haislip, J. B.; Nysewander, M. C.

    2017-05-01

    We present follow-up photometry and spectroscopy of the rapidly pulsating subdwarf B star EC 22221-3152. Using the SAAO 1.0-m telescope and the 0.4-m Panchromatic Robotic Optical Monitoring and Polarimetry Telescopes (PROMPT) at the Cerro Tololo Inter-American Observatory (CTIO), we monitored the star photometrically for one week. By combining data from both telescopes, we were able to resolve 18 significant periodicities in the light curve. Seven of these signals consist of combination frequencies, a first harmonic, and possible rotational splittings that would be indicative of an 8.2-d rotation period. The remaining 11 periodicities appear to represent independent oscillation modes, including three not originally detected in the discovery work. Time series spectroscopy obtained with the Goodman spectrograph on the 4.1-m SOAR telescope reveals possible velocity variations corresponding to two of the observed pulsation modes. From atmospheric model fits to the spectra, we derive {T}{eff}=35600+/- 600 K, log g = 5.86 ± 0.15, and log N(He)/N(H) = -1.4 ± 0.3 and confirm the star’s status as one of the hottest sdBV r stars currently known. Based on observations at the SOAR telescope, a collaboration between CPNq-Brazil, NOAO, UNC, and MSU.

  12. Comparison of two immunoradiometric assays for serum thyrotropin

    SciTech Connect

    Scheinin, B.; Drew, H.; La France, N.; Ladenson, P.; Wagner, H.N. Jr.

    1985-05-01

    An ultra-sensitive TSH assay capable of detecting subnormal TSH levels would be useful in confirming suppressed pituitary function as seen in hyperthyroidism. Two sensitive immunoradiometric TSH assays (IRMA's) were studied to determine how well they distinguished thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects. Serono Diagnostics' method employs three monoclonal antibodies specific for different regions of the TSH molecule with a minimum detectable dose (MDD) limit of 0.1 ..mu..IU/ml. Precision studies using a low TSH control in the 1.8 ..mu..IU/ml range gave CV's of 15.0%. Boots-Celltech Diagnostics method is a two site IRMA using two monoclonal antibodies. The MDD limit is 0.05 ..mu..IU/ml with precision CV's of 29.3% at a TSH control range of 0.62 ..mu..IU/ml. In 24 chemically thyrotoxic patients, the mean serum TSH concentration was significantly lower than in the normal control subjects: for Serono, 0.19 ..mu..IU/ml vs. 2.34 ..mu..IU/ml and for Boots Celltech, 0.18 IU/ml vs 2.06 ..mu..IU/ml. The range of TSH was 0 to 0.5 ..mu..IU/ml in thyrotoxic patients using Serono with the exception of one patient having a TSH value of 0.8 ..mu..IU/ml. The normal range was 0.6 to 6.0 ..mu..IU/ml. For Boots Celltech the thyrotoxic range was 0 to 0.2 ..mu..IU/ml with that same thyrotoxic patient giving a TSH value of 0.7 ..mu..IU/ml with a normal range of 0.6 to 5.0 IU/ml. Serum TSH measurements using both procedures are highly sensitive for distinguishing thyrotoxic patients from normal subjects and are useful to confirm suppressed pituitary function.

  13. Specific immunoradiometric assay of insulin-like growth factor I with use of monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed

    Scott, M G; Cuca, G C; Petersen, J R; Lyle, L R; Burleigh, B D; Daughaday, W H

    1987-11-01

    We identified two monoclonal antibodies that bind spatially distinct epitopes on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Using these two antibodies, we developed a simultaneous, two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specific for IGF-I. This IRMA has no detectable cross reactivity with insulin, proinsulin, prolactin, or somatotropin, and less than 2% crossreactivity with IGF-II. The assay response varies linearly with IGF-I concentrations of 0-800 micrograms/L in serum; the detection limit is about 10 micrograms/L. A comparison of 26 IGF-I serum values from the IRMA and from a previously reported IGF-I specific RIA gave a correlation coefficient of 0.96 with no substantial bias (slope = 1.10). IGF-I values for serum, as an aid in assessing growth abnormalities, are easily (only three pipetting steps) obtained in less than 4 h.

  14. Specific immunoradiometric assay of insulin-like growth factor I with use of monoclonal antibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Scott, M.G.; Cuca, G.C.; Petersen, J.R.; Lyle, L.R.; Burleigh, B.D.; Daughaday, W.H.

    1987-11-01

    We identified two monoclonal antibodies that bind spatially distinct epitopes on insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Using these two antibodies, we developed a simultaneous, two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) specific for IGF-I. This IRMA has no detectable cross reactivity with insulin, proinsulin, prolactin, or somatotropin, and less than 2% crossreactivity with IGF-II. The assay response varies linearly with IGF-I concentrations of 0-800 micrograms/L in serum; the detection limit is about 10 micrograms/L. A comparison of 26 IGF-I serum values from the IRMA and from a previously reported IGF-I specific RIA gave a correlation coefficient of 0.96 with no substantial bias (slope = 1.10). IGF-I values for serum, as an aid in assessing growth abnormalities, are easily (only three pipetting steps) obtained in less than 4 h.

  15. Highly sensitive and reproducible immunoradiometric assay for total human renin using monoclonal antibodies, iodogen labelling and polystyrene star tubes

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, M.D.; Rasumussen, P.H.; Giese, J.

    1987-01-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for total renin concentration in human plasma is described. A new type of polystyrene tubes with a special bottom geometry, so-called Star Tubes were used. The lower limit of detection was 2 microIU per ml and the working range from 2 to 2000 microIU per ml. The variation for duplicate determinations on standards and plasma samples was 2.7% and the day to day variation was 4.8%. No significant interferences or cross reactivities were identified. EDTA-plasma was analyzed after dilution with a phosphate buffer. Plasma samples from different patient categories were analyzed. The results were compared with those obtained by our substrate enrichment method after acid activation of the samples had taken place. A linear correlation (r = 0.990) between the results obtained with the two methods was found.

  16. A new human chromogranin 'A' immunoradiometric assay for the diagnosis of neuroendocrine tumours

    PubMed Central

    Bernini, G P; Moretti, A; Ferdeghini, M; Ricci, S; Letizia, C; D'Erasmo, E; Argenio, G F; Salvetti, A

    2001-01-01

    We investigated whether plasma chromogranin A (CgA), measured by a new immunoradiometric assay, may be a sensitive and specific marker of phaeochromocytoma and of other neuroendocrine tumours. This study involved 121 patients of whom 20 with phaeochromocytoma, 28 with other neuroendocrine tumours (19 gastroenteropancreatic tumors, 3 medullary thyroid and 6 small cell lung carcinomas), 25 with solid nonfunctioning adrenocortical tumours and 48 with essential hypertension. In addition, 130 normal subjects were taken as controls. Plasma catecholamines were measured by using high-performance liquid chromatography, and CgA by a two-site sandwich immunoradiometric assay involving monoclonal antibodies raised against the unprocessed central domain (145–245) of human CgA. Plasma CgA in controls (49.0 ± 3.1 ng ml–1, mean ± SE) and in essential hypertensives (50.8 ± 3.5 ng ml–1) was lower (P< 0.0001) than in adrenocortical tumours (91.8 ± 13.2 ng ml–1), in phaeochromocytomas (254 ± 49 ng ml–1) and in patients with other neuroendocrine tumours (469 ± 84 ng ml–1). Plasma CgA and catecholamines identified 13 and 18 out of 20 phaeochromocytomas with sensitivity of 65% and 90%, respectively. Combined measurement of both markers improved sensitivity up to 100%. In the other neuroendocrine tumours, CgA was abnormal in 23/28 cases (sensitivity 82%) and in 6 it was the only circulating marker of disease. In gastroenteropancreatic tumours, CgA measurement identified all cases (sensitivity 100%). Specificity of CgA in patients with essential hypertension was 98%. In conclusion, CgA determination showed high sensitivity in identifying gastroenteropancreatic tumours and, in association with catecholamines, in detecting patients with phaeochromocytoma. CgA sometimes appeared to be the only circulating marker of disease. Since the specificity of CgA proved to be excellent, this assay may be useful for diagnosis both of functioning and non

  17. Data-reduction methods for immunoradiometric assays of thyrotropin compared

    SciTech Connect

    Haven, M.C.; Orsulak, P.J.; Arnold, L.L.; Crowley, G.

    1987-07-01

    In an attempt to optimize curve fitting for immunoradiometric assays, we investigated eight data-reduction methods with two commercially available assays of thyrotropin. In four of these methods linear data-reduction models are used: logit-log programs of Iso-Data, Micromedic, and Hewlitt-Packard, and probit-log of Hewlitt-Packard. The other four were nonlinear data-reduction models: Iso-Data's French curve (modified spline), four-parameter logistic function, and point-to-point methods, as well as a nonlinear least squares method. In using the eight data-reduction methods on data from analyses of 78 patients' samples, we found clinically relevant differences between models. In fact, differences found by changing data-reduction models were greater than the difference between the two commercial kits.

  18. Kinetics and equilibrium in the immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) of thyroglobuline.

    PubMed

    Garcia Gomez, J; Moreno Frigols, J L

    2002-01-01

    This paper studies the kinetics of the thyroglobuline reaction with its specific antibody immobilised on the inner wall of the reaction tube, and the subsequent binding of the immunocomplex formed with a second 125I-labelled antibody. These reactions are used in the immunoradiometric determination of thyroglobuline. Independent variables were analyte and labelled antibody, temperature, viscosity, and the medium's ionic strength. For the global process, mono-exponential kinetics were found to be dependent on the concentrations, such dependence fitting with the models discussed in the paper. Viscosity results clearly indicate its negative influence on the direct reaction rate. Ionic strength shows noticeable, but not too relevant, effects, which suggests that the variation caused by the glycerol addition is not due to the influence of the dielectric constant of the solutions used. The effect of temperature shows activation parameters similar to the viscous flow energy of water, which suggests diffusion control for the global process.

  19. [Evaluation of an immunoradiometric assay for succinylated ACTH].

    PubMed

    Saveanu, A; Barlier, A; De Boissezon, C; Kertesz, G; Jean, F; Argémi, B; Cailla, H; Jaquet, P

    1999-11-01

    A new immunoradiometric assay for succinylated ACTH using 3 monoclonal antibodies has been developed by Immunotech (I-IRMA). It was compared to a commercial immunoradiometric assay of ACTH (Nichols Institute, N-IRMA). The functional sensitivity of I-IRMA assay was estimated at 1.5 ng/L. The comparison of both methods on plasma samples withdrawn at 8 h from 47 normal subjects showed a good correlation coefficient (r = 0.83; P < 0.001). The 24-hours secretion profiles obtained by both methods were similar in 14 normal subjects. Nevertheless, the I-IRMA mean values were about 30% lower than the corresponding N-IRMA values. This difference increased to 50% when the ACTH concentrations were low, as it the case at 24 h or during the dexamethasone suppression test. During insulin hypoglycemia stimulation test, the two procedures gave similar values. Both methods applied to a pathologic population gave similar result to those obtained on normals. In 10 patients bearing corticotroph adenomas, the profiles of ACTH secretions during 24 h were similar using both methods. The I-IRMA values were lower about 30% than N-IRMA values during the base state or after the 8 mg-dexamethasone suppression test. This difference was also observed in 6 patients with corticotroph insufficiency. In conclusion, the comparison of N-IRMA and I-IRMA methods showed the validity of the new succinylated-ACTH assay which is more efficient in the lower range of ACTH concentration. This significant decrease in the sensitivity threshold may be useful in the establishment of the cure criteria in Cushing disease.

  20. The hook effect in calcitonin immunoradiometric assay: a case report.

    PubMed

    Fangous, Marie-Sarah; Kerspern, Hélène; Moineau, Marie-Pierre; Kerlan, Véronique; Alavi, Zarrin; Carré, Jean-Luc

    2012-12-01

    The hook effect, which has long been detected and documented for immunoradiometric assays (IRMA) such as those measuring prolactin or thyroglobulin, occurs when the serum antigen level is extremely high, thus inducing a bias in the methodology of measurement. We report the case of an 80-year-old man with confirmed medullary thyroid carcinoma (MTC). In the case reported here, the clinical status of the patient contrasts with his tumor antigen, serum calcitonin (CT), concentrations. The measured increased CT concentrations revealed the presence of a hook effect. This phenomenon occurs due to an excess of antigen during the one-step IRMA where the signal antibodies, bound to the non-captured antigens, are washed out during the measurement, inducing the loss of signal. Aiming to prevent the "hook effect", successive dilutions of the same sample of serum were done. Previous studies have shown when one-step IRMA reveals high concentrations of a tumor serum antigen (i.e. prolactin or thyroglobulin), a two-step IRMA or a systematic 1:10 dilution of the serum sample prevents the formation of the "hook effect". In our case report, the CT "hook effect" formation was prevented by performing serial dilutions of the serum sample. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  1. Immunoradiometric quantitation of tissue plasminogen activator-related antigen in human plasma: crypticity phenomenon and relationship to plasma fibrinolysis

    SciTech Connect

    Wun, T.C.; Capuano, A.

    1987-05-01

    A two-site immunoradiometric assay for tissue plasminogen activator (tPA) antigen has been developed using immunoaffinity purified antibody. Various treatments enhanced the detection of tPA antigen in the plasma samples. Maximum detection was obtained by acidification of plasma to pH 4.8 to 6.5 or addition of 0.5 mol/L of L-lysine or L-arginine. Acidification or addition of lysine to plasma is also required for maximum immunoadsorption of plasma tPA antigen on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose. These results indicate that plasma tPA antigen is partially cryptic to antibody in untreated plasma. The plasma tPA antigen isolated by immunoadsorption of either untreated plasma or acidified plasma on anti-tPA-Ig-sepharose consists mainly of a 100-kd plasminogen activator species as determined by fibrin-agar zymography. The 100-kd activity is possibly a tPA:inhibitor complex. A standardized sample preparation method was conveniently adopted by mixing 3 vol of plasma and 1 vol of 2 mol/L of L-lysine for the assay. Reconstitution and recovery studies showed that the method is specific and permits full detection of both free tPA and tPA:inhibitor complex. The validity of the assay is further supported by the finding that the spontaneous plasma fibrinolysis previously demonstrated to be dependent on plasma tPA antigen is correlated with tPA antigen content. Using the standardized assay, we found that tPA antigen concentrations in 16 blood bank plasmas are equivalent to 3.7 to 20 ng of 60 kd tPA/mL. In all the plasma tested, more than half of the antigen is undetected unless the plasma is treated as described above.

  2. Novel immunoradiometric assay of thyroglobulin in serum with use of monoclonal antibodies selected for lack of cross-reactivity with autoantibodies

    SciTech Connect

    Piechaczyk, M.; Baldet, L.; Pau, B.; Bastide, J.M.

    1989-03-01

    A multisite immunoradiometric assay for measurement of serum thyroglobulin (Tg), designated Magnogel-IRMA-Tg, has been developed, involving magnetic microbeads (Magnogel). This assay is based on the use of five anti-Tg monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) directed against three antigenic regions on the Tg molecule that are not recognized by anti-Tg autoantibodies (aAbs). Four of these MAbs, directed against two antigenic domains, were coupled to the magnetic beads and were used to trap the serum antigen. Another MAb, directed against the third region, was iodinated and served as the labeled second antibody. The Magnogel-IRMA-Tg technique is reproducible, rapid, and sensitive (lower detection limit, 3 micrograms/L). The assay reliably measures serum Tg in the presence of anti-Tg aAbs.

  3. One Course, Two Sites: Concerns and Considerations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Guerriero, Sam J.; Ramanathan, Hema

    Setting up a partnership site in a university-school partnership is challenging to the institution of higher education and the school involved, and it is even more challenging when two sites for the same college course are involved. The university is dealing with two schools in different locations, but it is imperative that the delivery at the two…

  4. First field trial of an immunoradiometric assay for the detection of malaria sporozoites in mosquitoes

    SciTech Connect

    Collins, F.H.; Zavala, F.; Graves, P.M.; Cochrane, A.H.; Gwadz, R.W.; Akoh, J.; Nussenzweig, R.S.

    1984-07-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using a monoclonal antibody to the major surface protein of Plasmodium falciparum sporozoites was used to assess the P. falciparum sporozoite rate in a West African population of Anopheles gambiae (s.1.). Unlike current dissection techniques, the IRMA could detect sporozoite antigen in dried as well as fresh mosquitoes. In a controlled comparison, the sensitivity of the IRMA was comparable that of the dissection technique. Additionally, the IRMA was species specific and quantitative. Sensitivity of the assay was sufficient to detect sporozoite infections resulting from the development of a single oocyst.

  5. Comparison between immunoradiometric and fluorimetric brain natriuretic peptide determination in patients with congestive heart failure.

    PubMed

    Feola, M; Valeri, L; Menditto, E; Nervo, E; Bianco, F; Aspromonte, N; Valle, R; Visconti, G

    2010-09-01

    This study compared two different methods, namely the immunoradiometric (IRMA) and fluorimetric (FIA), in order to determine plasma brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) in congestive heart failure (CHF) patients. CHF in-patients underwent echocardiography and plasma BNP determination using both two methods. The echocardiograms analysed left ventricular end-systolic (LVESV) and end-diastolic (LVEDV) volumes and systolic dysfunction [left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) <50%]. Seventy-three (71% males, age 67 ± 9.6 yr) patients were enrolled, 31.5% affected by valvular heart disease. The mean LVEF was 39.8 ± 14.1%; in 26 (35%) a hypertensive etiology emerged. The immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) BNP was found to be significantly lower than the FIA determination 116.5 ± 149 pg/ml vs 267.3 ± 285.6 pg/ml; p=0.0001) and the two methods were closely correlated (r=0.89; p=0.00001). Logistic regression demonstrated a significant correlation between BNP, LVEF, and LVESV/LVEDV (r=-0.45, p=0.0003; r=-0.48, p=0.00001; r=0.22 p=0.003; r=0.34 p=0.0001; r=0.13 p=0.02; r=0.28 p=0.001 IRMA and FIA, respectively). IRMA BNP and FIA BNP significantly increased according to the worsening functional class [from 34.3 ± 60.2 pg/ml in NYHA (New York Heart Association) I to 555.5 ± 273.1 pg/ml in NYHA IV; from 86.1 ± 162.1 pg/ml in NYHA I to 1070 ± 42.2 pg/ml in NYHA IV, respectively]. In severe systolic dysfunction (LVEF<30%), receiver operating characteristic analysis revealed a satisfactorily sensitivity and specificity using a cut-off point of 50.6 pg/ml with IRMA and 243 pg/ml with FIA. In mild systolic dysfunction (LVEF<50%), a good sensitivity and specificity using a cut-off point of 42 pg/ml with IRMA and 182 pg/ml with FIA emerged. In CHF patients both BNP methods correlated with NYHA class, LVEF, and ventricular volumes.

  6. Immunoradiometric assay for quantitation of Dirofilaria immitis antigen in dogs with heartworm infections

    SciTech Connect

    Hamilton, R.G.; Scott, A.L.

    1984-10-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) was developed, optimized, and validated for detection of parasite-specific antigen in sera from hosts with filarial infections, using Dirofilaria immitis in dogs as a model. The precision, reproducibility, and parallelism of the IRMA were examined, using precision profile analysis. The IRMA had acceptable precision and reproducibility (less than 15% intra-assay coefficient of variation (CV)) over a working range of 10 to 2000 ng of D immitis-antigen (AG)/ml. The IRMA parallelism (agreement between dilutions) was acceptable (less than 10% interdilutional CV) with laboratory-spiked D immitis AG sera containing no D immitis-antibody (AB). However, it was not acceptable (greater than 20% interdilutional CV) for analysis of sera from naturally infected dogs containing D immitis AB, probably due to dissociation of immune-complexed AG with increasing serum dilution. Nonparallelism limited the accuracy of binding data interpolation from the standard curve. Specificity of the IRMA was enhanced by preabsorption of the radiolabeled detection antibody with Toxocara canis AG before use. Varying amounts of D immitis AG (22 to 1000 ng/ml) were detected in 42% (20/48) of microfilaremic dogs. The presence of AG-specific AB at concentrations as low as 1 microgram/ml reduced the ability of the IRMA to detect D immitis AG. Factors that influence the accuracy and sensitivity of immunoassays for circulating filarial antigens are discussed.

  7. Quantitative human chorionic gonadotropin analysis. I. Comparison of an immunoradiometric assay and a radioimmunoassay

    SciTech Connect

    Shapiro, A.I.; Wu, T.F.; Ballon, S.C.; Lamb, E.J.

    1984-01-01

    An immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for the quantitative analysis of human chorionic gonadotropin (hCG) was evaluated for specificity, sensitivity, accuracy and precision. The results were compared with those of the conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA) used in our laboratory. The IRMA is a solid-phase, double-antibody immunoassay that sandwiches the intact hCG molecule between the two antibodies. It has specificity, accuracy, and precision which are similar to those of the RIA. The RIA is based upon the assumptions that the antigenicity of the tracer is not altered by the iodination process and that the antibody reacts equally with all of the antigens, including the radiolabeled antigen. The IRMA does not use radiolabeled antigens and thus is free of the assumptions made in the conventional RIA. The IRMA may be more accurate at the lower limits of the assay because it does not require logarithmic transformations. Since the IRMA does not measure the free beta-subunit of hCG, it cannot be endorsed as the sole technique to quantitate hCG in patients with gestational trophoblastic neoplasia until the significance of the free beta-subunit in these patients is determined.

  8. [Screening for congenital hypothyroidism with an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for thyroid stimulating hormone].

    PubMed

    Sander, J; Niehaus, C

    1986-01-01

    A commercial immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) was modified to be used with dried blood on filter paper of our neonatal screening programme. Sensitivity and precision were as good as with the conventional radioimmunoassay (RIA), but the IRMA was faster. In addition the IRMA was extremely cheap, because all kit reagents could be prediluted 1:4. Our screening procedure for congenital hypothyroidism now combines a determination of TSH with the IRMA technic and a determination of free thyroxin (FT4) by radioimmunoassay. The kit for FT4 can be diluted 1:3, as described earlier. The combination of TSH-IRMA und FT4-RIA to our knowledge is not only much faster but also considerably cheaper than measuring one parameter with consecutive retesting of suspicious samples, which is the procedure in some countries. As the combination gives two independent results it is also of greater clinical value than measuring TSH in dublicates, which is still officially recommended in the Federal Republic of Germany.

  9. The application of an immunoradiometric assay of plasma thyrotropin (TSH-IRMA) in molar pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Berghout, A; Endert, E; Wiersinga, W M; Touber, J L

    1988-01-01

    Plasma thyrotropin was measured by immunoradiometric assay (TSH-IRMA, "Sucrosep", Boots Celltech) in three patients with molar pregnancy. Two patients were hyperthyroid (increased plasma concentrations of FT4, FT4 index, and FT3 index), one patient was euthyroid (normal free thyroid hormone concentrations). TSH-IRMA values were below the detection limit (less than 0.1 mU/L) in the two hyperthyroid patients; the euthyroid patient had a TSH-IRMA value of 0.8 mU/L, within the reference range of normal subjects (0.5-3.3 mU/L). In vitro experiments demonstrated interference of the grossly elevated hCG levels in the TSH-IRMA, resulting in lower values. The observed interference was independent of ambient TSH concentrations, but related to hCG levels. We conclude that despite interference of hCG in TSH-IRMA the clinical usefulness of TSH-IRMA as a first-line test of thyroid function appears to be maintained in molar pregnancy.

  10. Evaluation of the immunoradiometric and electrochemiluminescence method for the measurement of serum insulin in children.

    PubMed

    Ochocińska, Agnieszka; Śnitko, Rafał; Czekuć-Kryśkiewicz, Edyta; Kępka, Alina; Szalecki, Mieczysław; Janas, Roman M

    2016-01-01

    Human insulin is a polypeptide hormone produced, stored, and secreted by the ß-cells in the pancreatic islets of Langerhans. Its secretion is stimulated by an increase of the glucose concentration in circulation. Non-radioactive assays are frequently used in many laboratories to measure hormone concentrations, as an alternative to the traditional "gold standard" radioimmuno- and immunoradiometric assays. The precise and reliable determination of the insulin concentration is an important concern in numerous diagnostic procedures. The aim of this study was to compare two commercially available assays (manual and automated) for measurement of serum insulin concentrations. Aliquots of the 86 randomly selected serum samples were measured by Elecsys Insulin Assay (cobas e411 immunoassay analyzer, Roche Diagnostics GmbH, Mannheim, Germany) and DIAsource INS-IRMA Kit (DIAsource ImmunoAssays S.A., Louvain-la-Neuve, Belgium). Compared assays exhibit good correlation (r = 0.996). Insulin concentrations were on average 4.2 μ IU/mL lower (p < 0.05) with the cobas e411 immunoassay analyzer when compared to those measured with DIAsouce Immunoassay. Our findings suggest that electrochemiluminescence method on the cobas e411 analyzer and manual IRMA method offered by the DIAsource for the serum insulin determination could be considered interchangeable.

  11. Solid-phase immunoradiometric assay for serum amyloid A protein using magnetisable cellulose particles.

    PubMed

    De Beer, F C; Dyck, R F; Pepys, M B

    1982-10-29

    An immunoradiometric assay for human serum amyloid A protein (SAA) was developed using magnetisable cellulose particles as the solid phase. Rabbit antiserum to to SAA was raised by immunization with SAA isolated from acute-phase serum by gel filtration in formic acid. The antiserum was rendered monospecific for SAA by solid-phase immunoabsorption with normal human serum, which contains only traces of SAA, and some was coupled covalently to the cellulose particles. Immunopurified anti-SAA antibodies were isolated from the monospecific anti-SAA serum by binding to, and elution from insolubilized acute-phase serum and were radiolabelled with 125I. The assay was calibrated with an acute phase serum which contained 6000 times more SAA than normal sera with the lowest detectable level of SAA, and an arbitrary value of 6000 U/l was assigned to this standard. Sera were tested in the native, undenatured state and there was no increase in SAA immunoreactivity following alkali treatment or heating. The assay range was from 1-2000 U/l so that all SAA levels above 6 U/l could be measured on a single (1:6) dilution of serum. The intra- and interassay coefficients of variation were 11.7 and 15.0% respectively. Among 100 healthy normal subjects (50 male, 50 female) the median SAA level was 9 U/l, range less than 1-100, with 93% below 20 U/l and only 2% below the lower limit of sensitivity of the assay (1 U/l).

  12. Quantitative measurement of serum hepatitis B surface antigen using an immunoradiometric assay in chronic hepatitis B.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Hyun-Woo; Lee, Ho-Young; Kim, Seog Gyun; Kim, Won; Jung, Yong Jin; Kang, Keon Wook; Chung, June-Key; Lee, Myung Chul; Lee, Dong Soo

    2011-03-01

    Measurement of serum hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) levels is important for the management of chronic hepatitis B patients in terms of monitoring response to antiviral therapy. This study aimed to evaluate the diagnostic performance of a new diagnostic kit, which quantitatively measures serum HBsAg level using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA)-based method. Measurements were compared with those obtained using a chemiluminescent microparticle immunoassay (CMIA)-based method. The blood samples of 96 patients with chronic hepatitis B were used in this study. Copy numbers of serum hepatitis B virus (HBV) DNA were determined in 23 of these samples. The correlation between and the concordance of IRMA and CMIA results were determined using Pearson's correlation coefficients. P values of 0.05 were considered to be statistically significant throughout. Laboratory diagnoses based on IRMA were wholly in agreement with those based on CMIA. Furthermore, serum HBsAg levels by IRMA were found to be highly correlated with those determined by CMIA (correlation coefficient R (2) = 0.838, p < 0.001). Serum HBsAg level and serum HBV DNA copies were found to be linearly related by both methods (R (2) = 0.067, p = 0.316 by IRMA, and R (2) = 0.101, p = 0.215 by CMIA). The diagnostic performance of the investigated IRMA method of determining HBsAg levels was found to be comparable with that of a CMIA-based method in chronic hepatitis B patients.

  13. Clinical utility of an immunoradiometric assay for parathyroid hormone (1-84) in primary hyperparathyroidism.

    PubMed

    Silverberg, Shonni J; Gao, Ping; Brown, Ijeoma; LoGerfo, Paul; Cantor, Tom L; Bilezikian, John P

    2003-10-01

    The reliable diagnosis of primary hyperparathyroidism depends on the measurement of PTH. The PTH assays in widespread use measure not only the hormone but also hormone fragments, thus limiting the clinical utility of the assays. A new immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) using an antigenic determinant at the extreme amino-terminal of the PTH molecule detects only full-length PTH (1-84). We compared three PTH assays and determined the presence of PTH (1-84) and PTH fragments in serum and parathyroid adenomas of patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. We studied 56 patients with primary hyperparathyroidism. PTH levels were increased in 63% using the midmolecule RIA; in 73% in the "intact" IRMA; and in 96% in the PTH (1-84)-IRMA. The PTH (1-84)-IRMA correlated with the other assays (midmolecule RIA R = +0.736; P < 0.0001; "intact"-IRMA R = +0.951; P < 0.0001) and indices of disease activity (serum calcium R = +0.511, P < 0.0001; alkaline phosphatase R = +0.489, P = 0.001; and radius bone density R = -0.366, P < 0.01). In 21 consecutive patients undergoing parathyroidectomy, 18 had parathyroid adenomas. Intact PTH was higher than PTH (1-84)-IRMA in both serum and glandular homogenates from these patients. Similar proportions of PTH (1-84) and hormone fragments were found in both adenomas [66 +/- 3% of "intact" PTH-reflected PTH (1-84) and sera (73 +/- 2% of "intact" PTH reflected PTH (1-84)]. We conclude that the PTH (1-84)-IRMA offers improved diagnostic sensitivity in patients with primary hyperparathyroidism than other currently available assays. This study also provides evidence that both PTH (1-84) and PTH fragments are produced in parathyroid adenomas and that peripheral metabolism of hormone and fragment does not alter the proportion of bioactive hormone.

  14. Influence of matrix on concentrations of somatotropin measured in serum with commercial immunoradiometric assays.

    PubMed

    Felder, R A; Holl, R W; Martha, P; Bauler, G; Hellman, P; Wills, M R; Thorner, M O

    1989-07-01

    Using immunoradiometric assays (IRMAs) from Hybritech Inc. (H) and Nichols Institute Diagnostics (ND), we measured somatotropin (human growth hormone, hGH) in serum samples obtained every 20 min for 24 h from 10 prepubertal subjects with short stature. Results obtained with the ND reagents were 2.74 times greater than those obtained with the H reagents (P = 0.00001, r = 0.94, SEE = 3.9, n = 720). We therefore compared the IRMAs with the standard hGH RIA from the National Institutes of Health (NIH) National Hormone and Pituitary Program, using the genetically engineered hGH preparations (from Genentech Inc.) 22-kDa hGH and methionated 20-kDa hGH. We also assayed human pituitary hGH (NIH, lot no. AFP-4793B). Each hGH preparation was diluted in three diluent buffer systems: horse serum from H and from ND, and human serum. The RIA and H-IRMA gave superimposable standard curves for all hGH preparations in each diluent. The methionated 20-kDa hGH was not detected in the H-assay. Use of human serum matrix in the ND-IRMA shifted the standard curve as compared with the horse-serum matrix, giving equivalent binding at lower concentrations; i.e., serum hGH was overestimated in samples assayed against standards diluted in horse serum. Quality-control materials (Ciba-Corning) yielded disparate results in all three assays, yet human serum pools containing hGH gave similar results in the H and the NIH assays, and higher values in ND. When a human serum standard was used in the ND assay, both IRMAs gave similar results to the RIA assay for human serum samples. Reference intervals for hGH should be determined by each analytical laboratory, to prevent misdiagnosis of patients. Furthermore, quality-control material should be of human origin, because commercially supplied quality-control material does not react the same as human serum in some hGH assays.

  15. Value and limitations of a highly sensitive immunoradiometric assay for thyrotropin in the study of thyrotroph function

    SciTech Connect

    Caldwell, G.; Gow, S.M.; Sweeting, V.M.; Beckett, G.J.; Seth, J.; Toft, A.D.

    1987-02-01

    Using a highly sensitive and specific immunoradiometric assay for thyrotropin, we studied thyrotroph function in 232 new patients referred to a thyroid clinic and in 13 patients after treatment for hyperthyroidism. Significant thyrotroph responsiveness to thyroliberin (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH) was found in all patients with values for basal thyrotropin greater than 0.1 milli-int unit/L. In no overtly hyperthyroid patient was any increment in thyrotropin recorded at 20 min after thyroliberin administration. In seven patients, four subclinically hyperthyroid and three who had received treatment, increments in thyrotropin from undetectable basal values were recorded, consistent with incomplete thyrotroph suppression. By use of assays with even higher sensitivity, one may be able to distinguish these patients from overtly hyperthyroid patients.

  16. A two-site bipolaron model for organic magnetoresistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wagemans, W.; Bloom, F. L.; Bobbert, P. A.; Wohlgenannt, M.; Koopmans, B.

    2008-04-01

    The recently proposed bipolaron model for large "organic magnetoresistance" (OMAR) at room temperature is extended to an analytically solvable two-site scheme. It is shown that even this extremely simplified approach reproduces some of the key features of OMAR, viz., the possibility to have both positive and negative magnetoresistance, as well as its universal line shapes. Specific behavior and limiting cases are discussed. Extensions of the model, to guide future experiments and numerical Monte Carlo studies, are suggested.

  17. Tear and serum IgE concentrations by Tandem-R IgE immunoradiometric assay in allergic patients

    SciTech Connect

    Insler, M.S.; Lim, J.M.; Queng, J.T.; Wanissorn, C.; McGovern, J.P.

    1987-08-01

    The authors studied a population of 39 allergic and 15 nonallergic patients, and determined their tear and serum IgE concentrations. Samples of tear and serum were tested for IgE by the Tandem-R immunoradiometric assay, which uses monoclonal antibody to produce a specific assay for IgE. The serum IgE levels in the study group showed a range from 23,280 to 16 IU/ml compared with controls of 72 to 2 IU/ml. Tear IgE in the study group varied from 159 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml compared with controls of 8 IU/ml to less than 1 IU/ml. A statistically significant correlation between tear and serum IgE exists in the allergic patients with eye symptoms. It also exists when serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml, the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml, or when both the serum IgE was greater than 100 IU/ml and the tear IgE greater than 4 IU/ml.

  18. An approach for immunoradiometric assay with metallic radionuclides: gallium-67-deferoxamine-dialdehyde starch-IgG

    SciTech Connect

    Furukawa, T.; Fujibayashi, Y.; Fukunaga, M.; Saga, T.; Endo, K.; Yokoyama, A. )

    1991-05-01

    Radiogallium (Ga) labeling of an immunoglobulin-G-deferoxamine conjugate (DF-IgG) to a high-specific radioactivity was performed to allow the development of a radiometallic immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) system. To increase the specific radioactivity of Ga-DF-IgG, we used dialdehyde starch (DAS) as a multi-site spacer for the binding of DF to IgG. Six DF molecules bound to each IgG molecule after DAS conjugation. DF-DAS-IgG was then labeled with the previously reported {sup 67}Ga labeling solution, producing labeled IgG with a specific radioactivity of 11,766 MBq/mg IgG. Using this method, we labeled an anti-CA125 tumor-associated antigen monoclonal antibody (130-22), allowing the first application of {sup 67}Ga-DF-DAS-IgG to an IRMA system. With this system, a higher sensitivity could be obtained than with {sup 125}I IRMA. In addition, a very high correlation (r = 0.995) was obtained between serum CA125 levels as determined by {sup 67}Ga IRMA and {sup 125}I IRMA. Gallium-67-labeled antibodies with a high-specific radioactivity appear to hold promise for use in highly sensitive radioassay systems.

  19. Immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and luteinizing hormone (LH) using common avidin solid phase.

    PubMed

    Vrinda, C; Paradkar, S N; Jyotsna, N; Sivaprasad, N

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes the use of avidin-biotin interaction as an affinity system, wherein avidin immobilized magnetizable particles (cellulose) are used as a common separation system in immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for hormones of the human reproductive system, human follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), and luteinizing hormone (LH). Biotinylated probe was prepared by biotinylation of specific monoclonal antibody for respective antigen using the caproyl derivative of biotin N-hydroxysuccinimide. The detector antibody for the respective antigen was radiolabelled with 125I by a chloramine-T oxidation method and purified by gel filtration. In the IRMA procedure, standard/sample, respective biotinylated, and radiolabelled antibody as a single reagent, and avidin solid phase were added simultaneously to the assay tubes. After incubation for 3 h with shaking, the bound complex was quantitated for its radioactivity associated with the common avidin solid phase. Results showed that the developed assay protocol is applicable to IRMA of FSH and LH with good precision (intra and inter assay CV less than 8% and 11%, respectively), good assay range (0-200 mIU/mL) and analytical recovery (87-110%). The assay could detect 0.5 mIU/mL and 0.9 mIU/mL of FSH and LH, respectively, and showed good correlation with commercially available kits (FSH y = 0.98x + 0.21 and LH y = 0.99x + 0.18).

  20. Assessment of the serum levels of bone alkaline phosphatase with a new immunoradiometric assay in patients with metabolic bone disease

    SciTech Connect

    Garnero, P.; Delmas, P.D.

    1993-10-01

    The authors measured serum bone alkaline phosphatase (B-ALP) with a new immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in a large sample of healthy controls comprising 173 women and 180 men, 20-88 yr of age, and in patients with metabolic bone disease. Using serum samples from patients with liver disease and patients with Paget's disease with elevated total alkaline phosphatase (T-ALP) as a source of, respectively, liver and bone isoenyzmes, they determined a liver cross-reactivity of the IRMA of 16% that was confirmed by electrophoresis of the circulating alkaline phosphatase isoenzymes. The IRMA was linear for serial sample dilutions, the recovery ranged from 89-110%, and the intra- and interassay variations were below 7% and 9%, respectively. B-ALP increased linearly with age in both sexes, and the mean B-ALP serum levels were not significantly different for women and men (11.3 [+-] 4.8 ng/mL for women; 11.0 [+-] 4.0 ng/mL for men). The increase in B-ALP after the menopause was significantly higher than that in T-ALP (+77% vs. +24%; P<0.001). When the values of postmenopausal women were expressed as the SD from the mean of premenopausal women, the mean Z scores were 2.2[+-] 1.8 for B-ALP and 0.9 [+-] 1.3 for T-ALP (P<0.001 between the two).

  1. Usefulness of a new immuno-radiometric assay to detect hepatitis C core antigen in a community-based population.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, K; Hasuike, S; Kusumoto, K; Ido, A; Uto, H; Kenji, N; Kohara, M; Stuver, S O; Tsubouchi, H

    2005-01-01

    A new immuno-radiometric assay (IRMA) to detect hepatitis C virus (HCV) core antigen (HCVcAg) has been developed. The aim of the present study was to investigate the sensitivity and specificity of this IRMA to measure HCV antigenemia, based on the detection of HCV RNA as the gold standard, and to assess the utility of the IRMA in a community-based population. Anti-HCV positive residents in a hyperendemic area of HCV infection in Japan were studied. Serum levels of HCVcAg were measured using IRMA, and the presence of HCV RNA was determined by a qualitative reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay. The sensitivity and the specificity of the IRMA were 96.4 and 100%, respectively. The sensitivity of the IRMA was similar between serological HCV group I (HCV genotypes 1a and 1b) (97.6%) and group II (HCV genotypes 2a and 2b) (94.0%). There was a strong correlation between serum HCVcAg level and HCV-RNA measured by a quantitative RT-PCR (r = 0.832, P < 0.0001). There also was a very strong correlation of HCVcAg level between IRMA measurements performed on serum and those performed on plasma (r = 0.984, P < 0.0001). In conclusion, this new IRMA is useful for the detection of HCV core antigen in a community-based population.

  2. Magnetic and orbital correlations in a two-site molecule

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raczkowski, Marcin; Frésard, Raymond; Oles, Andrzej M.

    2006-08-01

    We analyse the role of orbital degeneracy in possible magnetic and orbital instabilities by solving exactly a two-site molecule with two orbitals of either eg or t2g symmetry at quarter-filling. As a generic feature of both models one finds that the spin and orbital correlations have opposite signs in the low-temperature regime when the orbitals are degenerate, in agreement with the Goodenough-Kanamori rules. While Hund's exchange coupling JH induces ferromagnetic spin correlations in both models, it is more efficient for t2g orbitals where the orbital quantum number is conserved along the hopping processes. We show that the ground state and finite temperature properties may change even qualitatively with increasing Coulomb interaction when the crystal field splitting of the two orbitals is finite, and the Goodenough-Kanamori rules may not be followed.

  3. Two-Site Comparison of Transpiration by Larrea Tridentata

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavanaugh, M. L.; Kurc, S. A.; Scott, R. L.; Bryant, R. B.

    2008-12-01

    As a result of landscape changes within the desert southwestern U.S. such as increased grazing, reduced wildfire frequency, and changes in atmospheric conditions, the native creosotebush (Larrea tridentata) has encroached upon historically grass-dominated ecosystems, expanding in range and land cover density. To understand how creosotebush influences the water budget of ecosystems, heat balance sap flow sensors were employed on creosotebush stems at both the Santa Rita Experimental Range (SRER) and Walnut Gulch Experimental Watershed (WGEW). Additionally, both sites are equipped with eddy covariance towers, associated micrometeorological measurements, and profiles of water content reflectometers for soil moisture. The differences found between the two sites, including soil type and precipitation regime, are the basis of the following hypotheses. Firstly, we hypothesize that we will not see transpiration (T) responses following storms less than 5 mm at both sites. Secondly, we hypothesize that at both sites we will see a lagged response of T to large precipitation events, with evaporation being the dominate component in the partitioning of evapotranspiration (ET) for the first two days. Thirdly, we hypothesize that the ratio of plant transpiration to total evapotranspiration (T/ET) will be less at SRER due to the larger amount of bare soil exposed at this site. In this study, we show data from one summer at both sites and show how these relate to different precipitation events and soil moisture reservoirs.

  4. Performance Evaluation of the Serum Thyroglobulin Assays With Immunochemiluminometric Assay and Immunoradiometric Assay for Differentiated Thyroid Cancer.

    PubMed

    Cho, Yoon Young; Chun, Sejong; Lee, Soo Youn; Chung, Jae Hoon; Park, Hyung Doo; Kim, Sun Wook

    2016-09-01

    Measurement of postoperative serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is important for detecting persistent or recurrent differentiated thyroid cancer. We evaluated the analytic performance of the DxI 800 assay (Beckman Coulter, USA) for serum Tg and anti-thyroglobulin antibodies (TgAbs) in comparison with that of the GAMMA-10 assay (Shinjin Medics Inc., Korea) for serum Tg and RIA-MAT 280 assay (Stratec, Germany) for TgAb. We prospectively collected blood samples from 99 patients thyroidectomized for thyroid cancer. The functional sensitivity was investigated in standards and human serum. Precision and linearity were evaluated according to the guidelines of the Clinical and Laboratory Standards Institute. The correlation between the two assays was assessed in samples with different Tg ranges. The functional sensitivity of the DxI 800 assay for serum Tg was between 0.0313 and 0.0625 ng/mL. The total CV was 3.9-5.6% for serum Tg and 5.3-6.9% for serum TgAb. The coefficient of determination (R²) was 1.0 and 0.99 for serum Tg and TgAb, respectively. The cut-offs for serum TgAb were 4.0 IU/mL (DxI 800) and 60.0 IU/mL (RIA-MAT 280), and the overall agreement was 68.7%. The correlation between the two assays was excellent; the correlation coefficient was 0.99 and 0.88 for serum Tg and TgAb, respectively. The DxI 800 is a sensitive assay for serum Tg and TgAb, and the results correlated well with those from the immunoradiometric assays (IRMA). This assay has several advantages over the IRMA and could be considered an alternative test for Tg measurement.

  5. Determination of insulin-like growth factor-I reference values using an immunoradiometric assay in a Brazilian adult population.

    PubMed

    Leite, Denise B; Meirelles, Ricardo M R; Mandarim-De-Lacerda, Carlos A; Matos, Haroldo J; Santos-Filho, Sebastião D; Bernardo-Filho, Mario

    2012-01-01

    Serum levels of total insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) reflect endogenous growth hormone (GH) secretion in healthy adults, which makes it a good diagnostic marker for screening of GH-related disorders. Studies also have supported a possible relation between IGF-I levels and the risk and prognostic for some malignancies, besides a relation between IGF-I levels and mortality. As the determination of the IGF-I normal values for local populations is strongly desired, the aim of this investigation was to determine reference values for IGF-I using an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in an adult Brazilian population of Rio de Janeiro city, since there is no other study using this methodology in Brazilian population, and that this method is widely used in Brazil and worldwide. The study included samples of blood taken from 484 healthy subjects (251 men and 233 women) aged 18-70. The subjects agreed with this study, approved by the Ethical Committee of the Instituto Estadual de Hematologia Arthur de Siqueira Cavalcanti, Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. The samples were analyzed using a Diagnostic System Laboratories kit. For data analysis, age- and sex-specific figures were fitted after transformation of IGF-I values. In adulthood, a slow age-dependent decrease was found. There was no significant difference in IGF-I values between men and women. This study established age-specific IGF-I reference values, for a healthy Brazilian adult population, determined by a widely IGF-I, IRMA used currently in Brazil.

  6. Diesel and silica monitoring at two sites following hurricane sandy.

    PubMed

    Freund, Alice; Zuckerman, Norman; Luo, Honghong; Hsu, Hsiao-Hsien; Lucchini, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Following Hurricane Sandy, which hit New York City and New Jersey in October 2012, industrial hygienists from the Mount Sinai and Belleview/New York University occupational medicine clinics conducted monitoring for diesel exhaust and silica in lower Manhattan and Rockaway Peninsula. Average daytime elemental carbon levels at three stations in lower Manhattan on December 4, 2012, ranged from 9 to18 μg/m(3). Sub-micron particle counts at various times on the same day were over 200,000 particles per cubic centimeter on many streets in lower Manhattan. In Rockaway Peninsula on December 12, 2012, all average daytime elemental carbon levels were below a detection limit of approximately 7 μg/m(3). The average daytime crystalline silica dust concentration was below detection at two sites on Rockaway Peninsula, and was 0.015 mg/m(3) quartz where sand was being replaced on the beach. The daily average levels of elemental carbon and airborne particulates that we measured are in the range of levels that have been found to cause respiratory effects in sensitive subpopulations like asthmatic patients after 2 hr of exposure. Control of exposure to diesel exhaust must be considered following natural disasters where diesel-powered equipment is used in cleanup and recovery. Although peak silica exposures were not likely captured in this study, but were reported by a government agency to have exceeded recommended guidelines for at least one cleanup worker, we recommend further study of silica exposures when debris removal operations or traffic create visible levels of suspended dust from soil or sand.

  7. Validation of a hybrid two-site gamma model for naphthalene desorption kinetics

    SciTech Connect

    Ahn, I.S.; Lion, L.W.; Shuler, M.L.

    1999-09-15

    Three models for sorption/desorption of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) contaminants from soil were compared for their ability to predict the transport of PAH in soil: a gamma model, a two-site/two-region nonequilibrium model, and a hybrid model. In the hybrid model, soil organic matter was conceptually divided into two compartments; a fraction with rapid sorption/desorption kinetics and a compartment with mass-transfer-limited kinetics. Contaminant sorbed in the rapid compartment was assumed to be in instantaneous equilibrium with the aqueous phase, while the release of contaminant from the slow fraction was assumed to be governed by a gamma distribution of rate coefficients. The hybrid model successfully described the initial rapid release of a model PAH contaminant, naphthalene, from a sieved soil sample of moderate organic content ({approx_equal} 2.3%) as well as the following slow release observed over 25 days in batch desorption experiments. Other necessary model parameters, such as the hydrodynamic dispersion coefficient of naphthalene and the macropore porosity, were evaluated in separate experiments. A transport model incorporating the hybrid model for naphthalene sorption/desorption successfully predicted the elution profile of naphthalene in independent soil-column experiments with no adjustable parameters. The success of the hybrid model suggests that a wide array of rate controls govern PAH desorption. This conclusion is consistent with the view of soils as consisting of a mix of different sorptive constituents and heterogeneous physical constraints on PAH release.

  8. Highly Specific Detection of Myostatin Prodomain by an Immunoradiometric Sandwich Assay in Serum of Healthy Individuals and Patients

    PubMed Central

    Widera, Christian; Gottlieb, Jens; Vogel, Arndt; Schmidt, Sebastian; Brandes, Gudrun; Heuft, Hans-Gert; Lichtinghagen, Ralf; Kempf, Tibor; Wollert, Kai C.; Bauersachs, Johann; Heineke, Joerg

    2013-01-01

    Background Myostatin is a muscle derived factor that functions as a negative regulator of skeletal muscle growth. Induction of myostatin expression was observed in rodent models of muscle wasting and in cachectic patients with cancer or pulmonary disease. Therefore, there is an increasing interest to use serum myostatin as a biomarker. Methods We established an immunoradiometric sandwich assay (IRMA), which uses a commercially available chicken polyclonal, affinity purified antibody directed against human myostatin prodomain. We determined the serum concentrations of myostatin prodomain in 249 healthy individuals as well as 169 patients with heart failure, 53 patients with cancer and 44 patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Results The IRMA had a detection limit of 0.7ng/ml, an intraassay imprecision of ≤14.1% and an interassay imprecision of ≤ 18.9%. The specificity of our assay was demonstrated by size exclusion chromatography, detection of myostatin by Western-blotting and a SMAD-dependent transcriptional-reporter assay in the signal-rich serum fractions, as well as lack of interference by unspecific substances like albumin, hemoglobin or lipids. Myostatin prodomain was stable at room temperature and resistant to freeze-thaw cycles. Apparently healthy individuals over the age of 55 had a median myostatin prodomain serum concentration of 3.9ng/ml (25th-75th percentiles, 2-7ng/ml) and we could not detect increased levels in patients with stable chronic heart failure or cancer related weight loss. In contrast, we found strongly elevated concentrations of myostatin prodomain (median 26.9ng/ml, 25th-75th percentiles, 7-100ng/ml) in the serum of underweight patients with chronic pulmonary disease. Conclusions We established a highly specific IRMA for the quantification of myostatin prodomain concentration in human serum. Our assay could be useful to study myostatin as a biomarker for example in patients with chronic pulmonary disease, as we detected highly

  9. Determination of free insulin-like growth factor-I in human serum: comparison of ultrafiltration and direct immunoradiometric assay.

    PubMed

    Frystyk, J; Ivarsen, P; Støving, R K; Dall, R; Bek, T; Hagen, C; Ørskov, H

    2001-04-01

    Two fundamentally different methods are currently used for the determination of free insulin-like growth factor-I (IGF-I): ultrafiltration by centrifugation (UF) and direct immunoradiometric assay (IRMA). The aim was to evaluate a commercial IRMA (DSL, Webster, TX, USA) and to compare it with UF. In the IRMA it is recommended that samples be incubated for 2 h at 5;C. When comparing samples (n = 8) incubated for 1 and 2 h, levels increased by 27 +/- 5% (P< 0.0001). When incubating samples at 22;C instead of 5;C, levels increased by 192 +/- 32% (P< 0.0001). Addition of IGF-binding protein-1 (IGFBP-1) to normal sera (n = 6) dose-dependently decreased ultrafiltered free IGF-I only (P< 0.0007). Similarly, UF was more sensitive than IRMA to addition of IGFBP-2 (P< 0.05). In healthy subjects (n = 35) IRMA yielded 20% higher levels than UF (1.09 +/- 0.09 vs 0.91 +/- 0.12 microg/L; P< 0.0001). IRMA and UF yielded similar results in healthy subjects treated with IGF-I (n = 5) or growth hormone (n = 7) and in acromegalic patients (n = 6) before and after somatostatin analogue treatment. However, marked differences were observed in conditions with elevated IGFBP-1 and -2. In type-1 diabetics (n = 23) ultrafiltered free IGF-I was more reduced than IRMA free IGF-I (38 +/- 9 vs 76 +/- 7% of matched controls (n = 13); P< 0.0001). In patients with chronic renal failure (n = 25), IRMA free IGF-I was identical to control levels (n = 13), whereas ultrafiltered free IGF-I was decreased by 51 +/- 7% (P< 0.0001). Similarly, women with anorexia nervosa (n = 9) studied before and after weight gain showed significant changes in ultrafiltered free IGF-I only (P< 0.03). In conclusion, IRMA was not very robust with respect to variations in sample incubation and this may bias results. IRMA generally yielded higher levels than UF, in accordance with the knowledge that IRMA measures free plus readily dissociable IGF-I. IRMA was less affected than UF by added IGFBP-1 and -2, and reductions in free

  10. Enhancing effect of human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH) monoclonal antibody in the hTSH immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) system.

    PubMed

    Mirapurkar, Shubhangi; Samuel, G; Borkute, S D; Sivaprasad, N

    2012-01-01

    Different monoclonal antibodies, both commercial and indigenously produced, were evaluated in various combinations to optimize an immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) system for human thyroid stimulating hormone (hTSH). During these studies, it was observed that mixing one of the indigenously produced hTSH monoclonal antibody (2B11) in the hTSH IRMA system using Immunotech (Beckman Coulter, Czech Republic) kit reagents, led to an overall increase in the assay binding and sensitivity (from 0.025 mIU/L to 0.015mIU/L) of this IRMA system. This is not a general property of all monoclonal antibodies against hTSH. The mechanism for this enhancement can be attributed to the formation of a multicomponent complex.

  11. A comparison of forest dynamics at two sites in the Southeastern Ozark Mountains of Missouri

    Treesearch

    Michael A. Jenkins; Stephen G. Pallardy

    1993-01-01

    Changes in tree species composition and regeneration patterns were studied in 53 permanent vegetation plots located at two sites (Pioneer Forest and University State Forest) in oak-hickory forests of southeastern Missouri where mortality and decline of red oak species have been identified. The two sites also exhibited differing levels of decline and mortality. Between...

  12. Microbiomes of American Oysters (Crassostrea virginica) Harvested from Two Sites in the Chesapeake Bay.

    PubMed

    Ossai, Sylvia; Ramachandran, Padmini; Ottesen, Andrea; Reed, Elizabeth; DePaola, Angelo; Parveen, Salina

    2017-07-27

    In this study, we used 16S rRNA gene amplicons to describe the bacterial microbiota associated with oysters (Crassostrea virginica) and seawater collected from two sites in the Chesapeake Bay. The dominant bacterial groups included those belonging to the order Pelagibacteraceae, family Enterobacteriaceae, and genus Synechococcus The microbiomes varied among oysters from the same site and between the two sites and months. Copyright © 2017 Ossai et al.

  13. Differences in serum thyroglobulin measurements by 3 commercial immunoradiometric assay kits and laboratory standardization using Certified Reference Material 457 (CRM-457).

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji In; Kim, Ji Young; Choi, Joon Young; Kim, Hee Kyung; Jang, Hye Won; Hur, Kyu Yeon; Kim, Jae Hyeon; Kim, Kwang-Won; Chung, Jae Hoon; Kim, Sun Wook

    2010-09-01

    Serum thyroglobulin (Tg) is essential in the follow-up of patients with differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). However, interchangeability and standardization between Tg assays have not yet been achieved, even with the development of an international Tg standard (Certified Reference Material 457 [CRM-457]). Serum Tg from 30 DTC patients and serially diluted CRM-457 were measured using 3 different immunoradiometric assays (IRMA-1, IRMA-2, IRMA-3). The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) method was used to describe the concordance of each IRMA to CRM-457. The serum Tg measured by 3 different IRMAs correlated well (r > .85, p < .0001), but clinically relevant discrepancies were found in 13.3% of patients. IRMA-3, which claims to be standardized to CRM-457, showed the best ICC (p(1) = .98) for the CRM-457. Hospitals caring for patients with DTC should either set their own cutoffs for IRMAs for Tg based on their patient pools, or adopt IRMAs standardized to CRM-457 and calibrate their laboratory using CRM-457.

  14. Economy and efficiency in routine thyroid-function testing: use of a sensitive immunoradiometric assay for thyrotropin in a general hospital laboratory.

    PubMed

    Thornes, H M; McLeod, D T; Carr, D

    1987-09-01

    We measured thyrotropin (TSH) with a sensitive immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) in 2329 consecutive serum samples received for thyroid-function tests from hospital and general practice. Of these, 185 (7.9%) had TSH values less than 0.2 milli-int. unit/L: 33 (1.4%) were hyperthyroid, 20 (0.9%) were being treated for hyperthyroidism, 115 (4.9%) were receiving L-thyroxin, and 17 (0.7%) were clinically euthyroid but had severe non-thyroidal illnesses. In the first 506 serum samples, we also measured free thyroxin, free triiodothyronine (FT3), and total thyroxin. Thyroliberin (thyrotropin-releasing hormone, TRH) tests performed on 84 patients showed that an undetectable initial TSH (usually ascribable to therapy with thyroxin) predicted a flat TRH response. All untreated thyrotoxic patients had undetectable TSH. Experience confirmed that this TSH assay, in conjunction with a supplementary assay of FT3 when the TSH concentration is less than twice the limit of detection, is efficient and economical for routine evaluation of thyroid function in an unselected population.

  15. An exact solution for R2,eff in CPMG experiments in the case of two site chemical exchange

    PubMed Central

    Baldwin, Andrew J.

    2014-01-01

    The Carr–Purcell–Meiboom–Gill (CPMG) experiment is widely used to quantitatively analyse the effects of chemical exchange on NMR spectra. In a CPMG experiment, the effective transverse relaxation rate, R2,eff, is typically measured as a function of the pulse frequency, νCPMG. Here, an exact expression for how R2,eff varies with νCPMG is derived for the commonly encountered scenario of two-site chemical exchange of in-phase magnetisation. This result, summarised in Appendix A, generalises a frequently used equation derived by Carver and Richards, published in 1972. The expression enables more rapid analysis of CPMG data by both speeding up calculation of R2,eff over numerical methods by a factor of ca. 130, and yields exact derivatives for use in data analysis. Moreover, the derivation provides insight into the physical principles behind the experiment. PMID:24852115

  16. Signatures of many-body localization in the dynamics of two-site entanglement

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Iemini, Fernando; Russomanno, Angelo; Rossini, Davide; Scardicchio, Antonello; Fazio, Rosario

    2016-12-01

    We are able to detect clear signatures of dephasing—a distinct trait of many-body localization (MBL)—via the dynamics of two-site entanglement, quantified through the concurrence. Using the protocol implemented by M. Schreiber et al. [Science 349, 842 (2015), 10.1126/science.aaa7432], we show that in the MBL phase the average two-site entanglement decays in time as a power law, while in the Anderson localized phase it tends to a plateau. The power-law exponent is not universal and displays a clear dependence on the interaction strength. This behavior is also qualitatively different from the ergodic phase, where the two-site entanglement decays exponentially. All the results are obtained by means of time-dependent density matrix renormalization-group simulations and further corroborated by analytical calculations on an effective model. Two-site entanglement has been measured in cold atoms: our analysis paves the way for the first direct experimental test of many-body dephasing in the MBL phase.

  17. Longitudinal Development of Antisocial Behaviors in Young and Early Adolescent Puerto Rican Children at Two Sites

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bird, Hector R.; Shrout, Patrick E.; Davies, Mark; Canino, Glorisa; Duarte, Cristiane S.; Shen, Sa; Loeber, Rolf

    2007-01-01

    Objective: This report provides descriptive longitudinal findings over three waves of a study designed to assess the development of antisocial behaviors in young and early adolescent Puerto Rican children at two sites. Method: Through the use of standard assessment measures, representative samples of Puerto Rican children of both genders 5 to 13…

  18. A novel immunoradiometric assay detects full-length human PTH but not amino-terminally truncated fragments: implications for PTH measurements in renal failure.

    PubMed

    John, M R; Goodman, W G; Gao, P; Cantor, T L; Salusky, I B; Jüppner, H

    1999-11-01

    In 8 adolescents with end-stage renal disease (ESRD), basal PTH concentrations measured with a novel immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) (Scantibodies Laboratory, Inc.; S-IRMA) were invariably lower than those estimated with an established assay (Nichols Institute; N-IRMA) (263 +/- 228 versus 645 +/- 442 pg/ml, respectively; p<0.00001). During in vivo dynamic testing, set points for calcium-regulated PTH release were indistinguishable for both IRMAs (1.21 +/- 0.05 versus 1.22 +/- 0.06). However, maximal PTH concentrations were significantly lower when measured by S-IRMA then by N-IRMA (557 +/- 448 and 1114 +/- 606 pg/ml, respectively); minimum PTH concentrations were 41 +/- 65 pg/ml (5.0 +/- 4.2% of maximum) and 189 +/- 137 pg/ml (13.6 +/- 7.2% of maximum), respectively. Correlation between PTH and blood ionized calcium indicated that PTH measured by S-IRMA decreased more readily than the concentrations determined by N-IRMA. The N-IRMA showed indistinguishable cross-reactivity with hPTH(1-84) and hPTH(7-84), while the S-IRMA detected only the full-length peptide. Furthermore, the radiolabeled detection antibody of the N-IRMA interacted equivalently with hPTH(1-34) and hPTH(2-34), while the S-IRMA showed crossreactivity only with hPTH(1-34). These differences in assay specificity could explain the observed differences in ESRD, and suggest that PTH concentrations estimated by the S-IRMA reflect more accurately the amount of biologically active PTH in the circulation. Since low concentrations of PTH are frequently associated with adynamic bone disease, our findings may have significant implications for the treatment of renal osteodystrophy with calcium and/or biologically active vitamin D analogs.

  19. Pulsatile characteristics of spontaneous growth hormone (GH) concentration profiles in boys evaluated by an ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay: Evidence for ultradian periodicity of GH secretion

    SciTech Connect

    Goji, Katsumi )

    1993-03-01

    To investigate underlying ultradian periodicities in spontaneous circulating GH concentrations, blood samples were drawn from 15 normal short boys every 20 min over a 24-h period, and plasma GH concentrations were measured using an ultrasensitive immunoradiometric assay. The limit of detection for the GH assay was 0.01 [mu]g/L. The GH time series were analyzed using the Cluster program, Ultra program, cosinor analysis, and autocorrelation analysis. Plasma GH concentrations in 1,095 samples derived from 15 normal short boys were all within the detectable range of the assay and ranged from 0.07-52.2 [mu]g/L. Thirty-six percent of the GH values in the 1,095 samples from 15 normal short boys were below 1 [mu]g/L, and 82% of them occurred during the diurnal awakening period. Cluster analysis disclosed a total of 176 peaks in 15 normal short boys, with a mean [+-] SEM number of significant GH peaks of 12.1 [+-] 0.5/24 h. Twelve percent of the 176 peaks were below 1 [mu]g/L, and 95% of them occurred during the diurnal awakening period. In addition, Cluster analysis disclosed 161 interpulse intervals in total, with a mean [+-] SEM interval of 116.5 [+-] 4.3 min. The GH interpulse interval did not show a significant 24-h rhythm, whereas the GH peak height increased significantly at night. An independent discrete peak detection in program, Ultra, identified 12.6 [+-] 0.5 GH peaks/24 h. This result was in good agreement with that from analysis by the Cluster program (P = NS). Autocorrelation analysis revealed that GH time series were significantly autocorrelated in 9 of the 15 boys, with maximal autocorrelation coefficients at 115.5 min, on the average. The mean autocorrelation coefficient for a group of 15 normal short boys was significantly positive at a 100-min lag. These findings suggest that there could be a regularly occurring periodicity of approximately 100-120 min in the human GH time series. 18 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  20. Two-site adsolubilization model of incorporation of fluoromonomers into fluorosurfactants formed on cotton fabric.

    PubMed

    Hanumansetty, Srinivas; O'Rear, Edgar

    2014-04-08

    The adsorption of surfactants and adsolubilization of organic compounds on knit cotton fabric are fundamentally important in admicellar polymerization to impart characteristics like water repellency, stain resistance, and flame retardancy. The main objective of this research is to study adsorption and adsolubilization of fluororsurfactants and fluoromonomers used to obtain water repellency characteristics. Adsorption of nonionic (fluoroaliphatic amine oxide) and cationic (fluoroaliphatic quaternary ammonium surfactant) fluororsurfactants at the interface of cotton is investigated with and without fluoroacrylate monomers. A two-site adsolubilization model was used to predict the aggregation number of fluorosurfactant.

  1. Successful recruitment methods in the community for a two-site clinical trial.

    PubMed

    Fairbanks, Eileen; Shah, Shivani; Wilde, Mary H; McDonald, Margaret V; Brasch, Judith; McMahon, James M

    2014-11-01

    Effective screening and recruitment are essential to the success of randomized clinical trials. This report is to describe key screening and recruitment strategies in a two site randomized clinical trial (RCT) conducted in community settings with a vulnerable chronically ill population and to suggest valuable approaches when planning trials. Differences between sites in a complex study with two considerably different environments (academic versus home care) and their participant pools presented challenges which required different screening and recruitment methods. A high level of communication between sites, creative problem solving and the ability to be flexible when problems were encountered were needed for successful screening and recruitment. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. An investigation of solar erythemal ultraviolet radiation at two sites in tourist attraction areas of Thailand

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buntoung, Sumaman; Pattarapanitchai, Somjet; Wattan, Rungrat; Masiri, Itsara; Promsen, Worrapass; Tohsing, Korntip; Janjai, Serm

    2013-05-01

    Islands on the southern coasts of Thailand are famous attractions for local and foreign tourists. Tourists usually expose their skins to solar radiation for tanning. Thus information on solar ultraviolet radiation (UV) is of importance for tourists to protect themselves from adverse effects of UV. In this work, solar erythemal ultraviolet radiation (EUV) at two touristic sites namely Samui island (9.451°N, 100.033°E) and Phuket island (8.104°N, 98.304°E) was investigated. In investigating EUV, broadband UV radiometers (Kipp & Zonen, model UVS-B-C) were installed at existing meteorological stations in Samui and Phuket islands. A one-year period of EUV data from these two sites was analyzed. The level of UV index at these sites was studied. The values of UV index higher than 12 at noon time of clear days are usually found in the summer at both sites. Seasonal variation of EUV at both sites was investigated. It was found that the tropical monsoons have strong influence on this variation. Finally, global broadband radiation measured at the sites was also used to establish a correlation between EUV and global broadband radiation. Higher correlation was found for the case of clear sky, as compared to the case of cloudy sky. The correlation obtained from this analysis can be used to estimate EUV from global broadband radiation at these two sites.

  3. Spin models for two-site resonant tunnelling dynamics of bosons in a tilted optical lattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Buyskikh, Anton; Pekker, David; Daley, Andrew

    2016-05-01

    We study the non-equilibrium dynamics of a one dimensional tilted Bose-Hubbard model, beginning from unit filling in the Mott insulator regime. Studying a quench to the resonance point for tunnelling of the particles over two sites, we show how in the presence of a superlattice, a spin model emerges involving two subchains described by an Ising model that are then coupled by interaction terms. Using this model, we study the behaviour of the system near the quantum critical point in the vicinity of the tunnelling resonance, especially looking at the out-of-equilibrium dynamics after the quench. We compare the dephasing of local observables corresponding to the number of doubly occupied sites, which were measured in recent experiments, to the dynamics expected in the presence of noise and decoherence. These results should be directly measurable in experiments, and provide a diagnostic tool for investigating decoherence in such out-of-equilibrium dynamics.

  4. Phytochemical differences between Calia secundiflora (Leguminosae) growing at two sites in Mexico.

    PubMed

    Zavala-Chávez, Fernando; García-Mateos, Rosario; Soto-Hernández, Marcos; Kite, Geofrey

    2006-01-01

    The ecology and quinolizidine alkaloid chemistry of Calia secundiflora (Ortega) Yakovlev growing at two sites in Mexico were compared. At one site (Hidalgo) the vegetation was dominated by Flourensia resinosa and C. secundiflora, at the other site (Queretaro) C. secundiflora and Dodanaea viscosa were dominant. The Hidalgo site had shallower soils with less organic matter, N, P, and CaCO3. Seeds of C. secundiflora from each site accumulated a similar range of quinolizidine alkaloids, but the profile of alkaloids in the leaves and roots were different. The leaves and roots of plants at Hidalgo accumulated a similar range of alkaloids to the seeds with cytisine and/or N-methylcytisine being most abundant, whereas at Queretaro the leaves and roots accumulated lupinine, with other alkaloids being relatively minor constituents. The latter profile has not been reported previously for C. secundiflora.

  5. Physical, chemical, and biological data for two sites on the upper Kenai River, Alaska, 1998

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dorava, Joseph M.; Ness, Lee

    1999-01-01

    Water-quality data were collected and stream characteristics were documented from two sites along the upper Kenai River in the Kenai National Wildlife Refuge, Alaska. These data were collected to describe the current status of the sites and to provide baseline information from which changes in the future could be evaluated. Physical characteristics included channel geometry surveys, and measurements of channel widths and water discharge at each site. Chemical data included stream water temperature, dissolved-oxygen concentration, pH, specific conductance, E. coli and fecal coliform counts, and nutrient concentration. Data on concentrations of trace elements and various organic compounds in bed sediments and the tissue of slimy sculpin were also collected. Biological characteristics were evaluated using measurements of the bacteria, benthic macroinvertebrate, and fish communities.

  6. Two-site kinetic modeling of bacteriophages transport through columns of saturated dune sand.

    PubMed

    Schijven, Jack F; Hassanizadeh, S Majid; de Bruin, Ria H A M

    2002-08-01

    Breakthrough curves, on a semi-log scale, from tests in porous media with block-input of viruses, bacteria, protozoa and colloidal particles often exhibit a typical skewness: a rather slowly rising limb and a smooth transition of a declining limb to a very long tail. One-site kinetic models fail to fit the rising and declining limbs together with the tail satisfactorily. Inclusion of an equilibrium adsorption site does not seem to improve simulation results. This was encountered in the simulation of breakthrough curves from a recent field study on the removal of bacteriophages MS2 and PRD1 by passage through dune sand. In the present study, results of laboratory experiments for the study of this issue are presented. Breakthrough curves of salt and bacteriophages MS2, PRDI, and phiX174 in 1 D column experiments have been measured. One- and two-site kinetic models have been applied to fit and predict breakthrough curves from column experiments. The two-site model fitted all breakthrough curves very satisfactorily, accounting for the skewness of the rising limb as well as for the smooth transition of the declining limb to the tail of the breakthrough curve. The one-site model does not follow the curvature of the breakthrough tail, leading to an overestimation of the inactivation rate coefficient for attached viruses. Interaction with kinetic site 1 is characterized by relatively fast attachment and slow detachment, whereas attachment to and detachment from kinetic site 2 is fast. Inactivation of viruses and interaction with kinetic site 2 provide only a minor contribution to removal. Virus removal is mainly determined by the attachment to site 1. Bacteriophage phiX174 attached more than MS2 and PRD1, which can be explained by the greater electrostatic repulsion that MS2 and PRD1 experience compared to the less negatively charged phiX174.

  7. PM2.5 Indoor Air Quality at Two Sites in London Ontario - A Case Study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mates, A. V.; Xu, X.; Gilliland, J.; Maltby, M. J.

    2010-12-01

    Studies have shown an association between ambient fine particulate matter (PM2.5) and health impacts, particularly for the elderly and children. As part of a larger study, PM2.5 concentrations were measured using the DustTrak (Model 8520, TSI, St. Paul, MN, USA) at two schools within the city of London, Ontario (Canada). Site A was in a suburban environment while site B was in an urban setting. Monitoring took place for 3 weeks during winter (Feb. 16 - Mar. 8) and 3 weeks during spring (May 05 - 25) of 2010. The winter campaign monitored indoor PM2.5 only, while the spring campaign added outdoor monitors (PM2.5 and CO2) after the first week. Ten min. concentrations were used for analysis. Indoor measurements were split into weekday and weekend. For the same time interval, the outdoor concentrations showed mean values of 18 and 21 μg/m3 for sites A & B, respectively, both under the Canada Wide Standard of 30 μg/m3. Measurements at the two sites showed good associations (R^2 = 0.44), during the spring campaign. This indicates that the outdoor PM2.5 had similar sources. For indoor concentrations, Site B showed a significantly different mean concentration 5 times higher compared to site A during the winter ( 8.1 vs. 1.5 μg/m3 ) and 3 times higher (11.9 vs. 3.7 μg/m3) during the spring campaign. Since the outdoor concentrations were similar the large difference in indoor concentrations could be attributed to the following factors: site B being an older building, and the different physical characteristics between the two sites. The spring measurements showed an increase of 50% from weekday to weekend for site A and 22% for site B. The higher level of PM2.5 during weekends is possibly due to the infiltration of outdoor air while the ventilation/filtration system is shut off. During the winter campaign, Site A showed a 14% higher concentration during weekdays compared to weekends while site B weekend concentrations were 17% higher compared to weekday, which will be

  8. Light non-methane hydrocarbons at two sites in the Indo-Gangetic Plain.

    PubMed

    Lal, S; Sahu, L K; Venkataramani, S; Mallik, C

    2012-04-01

    Measurements of light (C(2)-C(5)) non-methane hydrocarbons (NMHCs) were made along with ozone (O(3)), oxides of nitrogen (NO(x)), carbon monoxide (CO) and methane (CH(4)) at Hissar and Kanpur in the Indo-Gangetic Plain (IGP) in India during the month of December, 2004. Air samplings during noon and evening hours provided an opportunity to study the emission characteristics and changes during this period at these sites. The mixing ratio of O(3) was higher during noon hours due to photochemical formation, while the levels of precursor gases showed elevated values during the evening hours on a clear sky day. On foggy days there is no such variation. The lower mixing ratios of O(3) observed on foggy days could be due to the slower rate of photochemical formation caused by a reduction in solar flux and surface deposition caused by the presence of a stable planetary boundary layer. Propene and ethene show the highest evening to noon ratio due to their faster reactivities with OH radicals. Correlations among different species of the measured gases indicate contributions of emissions from biomass and biofuel burning as well as fossil fuel combustion. Although qualitatively in relation to O(3), the propylene (propene) equivalents of NMHCs have been calculated to investigate their roles in O(3) photochemistry and compared with the data from Ahmedabad, an urban site in western India. The important result, which has emerged from the analysis of the observed data, is that while the total amount of these NMHCs is least at Hissar and highest at Ahmedabad, the total propylene-equivalent is highest at Hissar and lowest at Ahmedabad. Further, these two sites in the IGP show significant contributions, almost 72-77%, by propene and ethene while the contribution by these two gases at Ahmedabad is only about 47%. The surface level mixing ratios of O(3) could be treated as representative for the chemical characterization of air mass at a regional scale over the IGP as the month long

  9. Effects of topography and soil properties on recharge at two sites in an agricultural field

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Delin, G.N.; Healy, R.W.; Landon, M.K.; Böhlke, J.K.

    2000-01-01

    Field experiments were conducted from 1992 to 1995 to estimate ground water recharge rates at two sites located within a 2.7-hectare agricultural field. The field lies in a sand plain setting in central Minnesota and is cropped continuously in field corn. The sites are located at a topographically high (upland) site and a topographically low (lowland) site in an effort to quantify the effects of depression focusing of recharge. Three site-specific methods were used to estimate recharge rates: well hydrograph analysis, chlorofluorocarbon age dating, and an unsaturated zone water balance. All three recharge methods indicated that recharge rates at the lowland site (annual average of all methods of 29 cm) exceeded those at the upland site (annual average of 18 cm). On an annual basis, estimates by the individual methods ranged from 12 to 44 percent of precipitation at the upland site and from 21 to 83 percent at the lowland site. The difference in recharge rates between the sites is primarily attributed to depression focusing of surface water runon at the lowland site. However, two other factors were also important: the presence of thin lamellae at the upland site, and coarser textured soils below a depth of 1.5 m at the lowland site.

  10. Two-Site Appendectomy in Children: Description of Technique and Outcomes.

    PubMed

    Slater, Bethany J; Rothenberg, Steven S

    2017-04-01

    Laparoscopic appendectomy is one of the most common operations. Single-site appendectomy has been gaining popularity; however, it has certain disadvantages. The purpose of this study was to review the results of an essentially scarless laparoscopic appendectomy technique. A retrospective review of all patients who underwent two-site appendectomy for appendicitis between January 2015 and February 2016 was performed. For all cases, a 4 mm trocar and a 5 mm trocar were placed through an infraumbilical incision and a 3 mm trocar was placed in the suprapubic region. Fifty patients underwent appendectomy using this technique. The average age was 9.7 years (5-16 years) and average weight was 40 kg (15.7-73.3 kg). The classifications of appendicitis consisted of 32 simple, 5 suppurative, 4 gangrenous, and 8 perforated. The average operative time was 29 minutes (6-53 minutes) and average length of stay was 1.9 days (1-6 days). There were three minor complications, and all cases were completed with this technique, including in obese patients and for perforated appendicitis. All patients reported satisfaction with their postoperative cosmetic outcome. This technique allows for the main incision to be hidden at the umbilicus, creating an essentially scarless cosmetic result. The addition of a 3 mm suprapubic port leads to increased maneuverability of the instruments and better retraction of the appendix. It is also feasible in obese children and cases of perforated appendicitis.

  11. Comparative Analysis of the Surface Ozone variations at Two Sites in Elbrus Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tarasova, O. A.; Kuznetsov, G. I.; Senik, I. A.; Elansky, N. F.; Sosonkin, M. G.; Godunova, V. G.

    2006-12-01

    Ozone research in mountain regions are of the great importance as they provide opportunity to observe background changes of the surface ozone levels. Of the interest are the data of the long-term measurements as they show the long-term changes of ozone concentrations which can be later attributed to the effects of precursors emissions regulations or to global dynamical processes. Unlike Alps the Caucasus Mountain are situated not on the way of the arriving air masses with uplifting of pollutants but along the main stream. Since 1989 the measurements of the surface ozone are carried out at Kislovodsk High Mountain Station (43.7N, 42.7E, 2070 asl). In 2003 the parallel measurements started at Terskol station (43N, 42E, 3100 asl). The first comparison is performed for year 2005. In general the levels of ozone concentration are very close at these sites (with median 41,3 ppb and 42,8 ppb correspondingly as estimated on the hourly averaged data). Nevertheless several principal differences are observed in the shape of distribution function, seasonal and diurnal cycles. In particular, both sites are characterized by seasonality with double peak, but at Kislovodsk Station the spring maximum is more pronounced while at Terskol the summer one is prevailing. The details of the comparison and interpretation the physical mechanisms of the observed variability at two sites are discussed in the poster.

  12. Flowering phenology of tree rhododendron along an elevation gradient in two sites in the Eastern Himalayas.

    PubMed

    Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Luedeling, Eike; Shrestha, Krishna Kumar; Guan, Kaiyun; Xu, Jianchu

    2013-03-01

    Flowering phenology of tree rhododendron (Rhododendron arboreum Sm.) was monitored in situ along elevation gradients in two distinct ecological settings. Observations were carried out in Gaoligong Nature Reserve (GNR) in China and in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in Nepal. Using the crown density method, flowering events of the selected species were recorded. Flowering duration and synchrony were determined within each site and along the elevation gradient in each study area. Our observations showed high synchrony throughout the elevation gradient, especially for peak flowering. Mean 15-day soil temperature, soil parameters (soil moisture, nitrogen, organic matter and pH), age of the observed trees, and site characteristics (litter cover, canopy cover, inclination) were related to mean initial and peak flowering dates using partial least squares regression (PLS). Results differed between the two sites, but winter temperature was the most important variable affecting the regression model for both initial flowering and peak flowering at both sites. After temperature, soil moisture was the most important variable for explaining initial flowering dates. The distribution of tree rhododendron indicates that it is able to grow in a wide range of habitats with different environmental conditions. The recent trend of rising winter-spring temperature and the detected bloom-advancing effect of high temperatures during this period suggest that tree rhododendron might expand its distributional range in response to global warming.

  13. Flowering phenology of tree rhododendron along an elevation gradient in two sites in the Eastern Himalayas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ranjitkar, Sailesh; Luedeling, Eike; Shrestha, Krishna Kumar; Guan, Kaiyun; Xu, Jianchu

    2013-03-01

    Flowering phenology of tree rhododendron ( Rhododendron arboreum Sm.) was monitored in situ along elevation gradients in two distinct ecological settings. Observations were carried out in Gaoligong Nature Reserve (GNR) in China and in the Kanchenjunga Conservation Area (KCA) in Nepal. Using the crown density method, flowering events of the selected species were recorded. Flowering duration and synchrony were determined within each site and along the elevation gradient in each study area. Our observations showed high synchrony throughout the elevation gradient, especially for peak flowering. Mean 15-day soil temperature, soil parameters (soil moisture, nitrogen, organic matter and pH), age of the observed trees, and site characteristics (litter cover, canopy cover, inclination) were related to mean initial and peak flowering dates using partial least squares regression (PLS). Results differed between the two sites, but winter temperature was the most important variable affecting the regression model for both initial flowering and peak flowering at both sites. After temperature, soil moisture was the most important variable for explaining initial flowering dates. The distribution of tree rhododendron indicates that it is able to grow in a wide range of habitats with different environmental conditions. The recent trend of rising winter-spring temperature and the detected bloom-advancing effect of high temperatures during this period suggest that tree rhododendron might expand its distributional range in response to global warming.

  14. Nonparametric statistical methods for comparing two sites based on data with multiple non-detect limits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millard, Steven P.; Deverel, Steven J.

    1988-12-01

    As concern over the effects of trace amounts of pollutants has increased, so has the need for statistical methods that deal appropriately with data that include values reported as "less than" the detection limit. It has become increasingly common for water quality data to include censored values that reflect more than one detection limit for a single analyte. For such multiply censored data sets, standard statistical methods (for example, to compare analyte concentration in two areas) are not valid. In such cases, methods from the biostatistical field of survival analysis are applicable. Several common two-sample censored data rank tests are explained, and their behaviors are studied via a Monte Carlo simulation in which sample sizes and censoring mechanisms are varied under an assumed lognormal distribution. These tests are applied to shallow groundwater chemistry data from two sites in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The best overall test, in terms of maintained α level, is the normal scores test based on a permutation variance. In cases where the α level is maintained, however, the Peto-Prentice statistic based on an asymptotic variance performs as well or better.

  15. Differential arsenic binding in the sediments of two sites in Chile's lower Loa River basin.

    PubMed

    Bugueño, Manuel P; Acevedo, Sara E; Bonilla, Carlos A; Pizarro, Gonzalo E; Pasten, Pablo A

    2014-01-01

    Fluvial sediments from two lower Loa River basin sites in northern Chile were compared in order to probe the effects of vegetation and organic matter (OM) on As accumulation in fluvial environments. The two sites were the Sloman dam, which lacks macrophytes and has a low OM content (2.4%) in sediments, and the Quillagua Oasis, which is 23 km downstream from the Sloman site and has a higher OM (6.2%) in sediments and abundant aquatic plant life. The Quillagua site had preferential As enrichment with a co-occurrence pattern that differed from that of the Sloman site, which had a lower As concentration (1528 vs. 262 mg/kg d.w., respectively). At the Quillagua site, As concentration was strongly correlated with Mn and OM (r = 0.91 and 0.85, respectively); while at the Sloman site, As concentration in sediments was significantly correlated with Ca and Sr (r = 0.63 and 0.54, respectively). Sequential extraction analyses showed that the Sloman site had higher percentage of easily exchangeable As within the surface sediment (12%, 45 mg/kg d.w.) compared with the Quillagua site (3%, 40 mg/kg d.w.). These contrasting results suggest that both vegetation and OM control the immobilization and accumulation of As in the arid Loa River basin.

  16. Salt-mediated two-site ligand binding by the cocaine-binding aptamer.

    PubMed

    Neves, Miguel A D; Slavkovic, Sladjana; Churcher, Zachary R; Johnson, Philip E

    2017-02-17

    Multisite ligand binding by proteins is commonly utilized in the regulation of biological systems and exploited in a range of biochemical technologies. Aptamers, although widely utilized in many rationally designed biochemical systems, are rarely capable of multisite ligand binding. The cocaine-binding aptamer is often used for studying and developing sensor and aptamer-based technologies. Here, we use isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) and NMR spectroscopy to demonstrate that the cocaine-binding aptamer switches from one-site to two-site ligand binding, dependent on NaCl concentration. The high-affinity site functions at all buffer conditions studied, the low-affinity site only at low NaCl concentrations. ITC experiments show the two ligand-binding sites operate independently of one another with different affinities and enthalpies. NMR spectroscopy shows the second binding site is located in stem 2 near the three-way junction. This ability to control ligand binding at the second site by adjusting the concentration of NaCl is rare among aptamers and may prove a useful in biotechnology applications. This work also demonstrates that in vitro selected biomolecules can have functions as complex as those found in nature. © The Author(s) 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of Nucleic Acids Research.

  17. Temporal variation of fine particle mass at two sites in Mexico City

    SciTech Connect

    Serrano, P.; Allen, G.; Castillejos, M.; Gold, D.; Speizer, F.; Hernandez, M.; Hayes, C.; McDonnell, W.

    1994-12-31

    Simultaneous sampling of fine mass (PM{sub 2.5}, using an integrated 24 hour gravimetric method) and the particle scattering extinction coefficient (b{sub sp}, using a heated integrating nephelometer) were used to estimate continuous fine particle concentration at two sites in Mexico City. Linear regression analysis of the 24 h averages of b{sub sp} and the PM{sub 2.5} integrated samples was done on a seasonal basis. The coefficients of determination (R{sup 2}) between these methods ranged from 0.84 to 0.90 for the different sampling periods. These data are the first attempt to describe the diurnal variation of fine mass in Mexico City. Distinct and different diurnal patterns were observed for both sites. For the site located near an industrialized area, a sharp peak occurred between 0700 and 0900 hours and a second smaller but broader peak occurred late at night. This site is characterized by the presence of primary pollutants, with PM{sub 10} annual mean concentrations exceeding 150 {micro}g {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3}. The second bite is located in a residential area down wind of the industrialized area, and is characterized by the presence of secondary pollutants with much lower PM{sub 10} concentrations (annual mean of under 50 {micro}g {center_dot} m{sup {minus}3}). The diurnal fine mass pattern at this site had a broad peak between 0900 and 1200 hours. On individual days, fine mass was sometimes highly correlated with ozone.

  18. Soil micromorphology, geochemistry and microbiology at two sites on James Ross Island, Maritime Antarctica

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Meier, Lars A.; Krauze, Patryk; Prater, Isabel; Scholten, Thomas; Wagner, Dirk; Kühn, Peter; Mueller, Carsten W.

    2017-04-01

    Referring to the fundamental question in ecosystem research, how biotic and abiotic processes interact, only a few studies exist for polar regions that integrate microbiological and soil scientific studies . Soils comprise the complex structure and environment that fosters water storage and nutrient cycling determined by its unique chemical, physical and biological properties with respect to the specific climate and parent material. In the extreme environment of Antarctica, soil biological processes are primarily controlled by microbial communities (Bacteria, Archaea and Fungi), and thus microbiota may also determine soils chemical and physical properties in a landscape lacking higher plants at an average air temperature below 0°C. James Ross Island, Maritime Antarctica, offers a pristine laboratory and an exceptional opportunity to study pedogenesis without the influence of vascular plants and burrowing animals. We analysed micromorphological features, chemical and microbiological measures at two sites on James Ross Island (Brandy Bay and St. Martha Cove) with similar substrates (mostly fine-grained calcareous sandstones and siltstones of the Alpha Member of the Santa Martha Formation with varying amounts of conglomerates and mudstones) at similar topographic positions (small plateaus at similar elevation (80m a.s.l.)). The sites represent luv- and leeward conditions with respect to the main southwesterly winds. The climate on James Ross Island is to be described as semi-arid polar-continental, which is in clear contrast to the Southern Shetlands (e.g. King George Island) north of the Antarctic Peninsula. We will present first results of soil physical (bulk density, soil moisture and grains size distribution), pedochemical (SOC, total N and S, pH, CECeff, and pedogenic oxides) micromorphological and microbial analyses (Microbial DNA content, microbial abundances).

  19. A Two-site Randomized Clinical Trial of Integrated Psychosocial Treatment for ADHD-Inattentive Type

    PubMed Central

    Pfiffner, Linda J.; Hinshaw, Stephen P.; Owens, Elizabeth; Zalecki, Christine; Kaiser, Nina M.; Villodas, Miguel; McBurnett, Keith

    2014-01-01

    Objective This study evaluated the efficacy of the Child Life and Attention Skills (CLAS) program, a behavioral psychosocial treatment integrated across home and school, for youth with Attention Deficit Hyperactivity Disorder-Inattentive Type (ADHD-I). Method In a two-site randomized controlled trial, 199 children (ages 7-11) were randomized to CLAS (N=74), parent-focused treatment (PFT, N=74), or treatment as usual (TAU, N=51). We compared groups on parent and teacher ratings of inattention symptoms, organizational skills, social skills, and global improvement at post-treatment, and also at follow-up during the subsequent school year. Results CLAS resulted in greater improvements in teacher-reported inattention, organizational skills, social skills, and global functioning relative to both PFT and TAU at post-treatment. Parents of children in CLAS reported greater improvement in organizational skills than PFT and greater improvements on all outcomes relative to TAU at post-treatment. Differences between CLAS and TAU were maintained at follow-up for most parent-reported measures but were not significant for teacher-reported outcomes. Conclusions These findings extend support for CLAS across two study sites, revealing that integrating parent, teacher, and child treatment components, specifically adapted for ADHD-I, is superior to parent training alone and to usual care. Direct involvement of teachers and children in CLAS appears to amplify effects at school and home and underscores the importance of coordinating parent, teacher, and child treatment components for cross-setting effects on symptoms and impairment associated with ADHD-I. PMID:24865871

  20. The pattern of coral reef development at two sites in the Seychelles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Collier, J. S.; Humber, S. R.

    2004-12-01

    Extensive drilling and dating of modern reef complexes worldwide have shown them to be just thin veneers of Holocene material deposited on older Pleistocene limestone. Where the Pleistocene substrate has been imaged seismically it is often characterised by rough karst topography that is thought to be the result of exposure to subaerial weathering during sea-level low stands. The importance of this antecedent karst topography relative to organic growth processes in controlling present day reef morphology has been much debated. We present high-resolution side-scan backscatter and 2D bathymetric survey results from two sites in the Seychelles (western Indian Ocean). These sites are relatively protected and reef morphology is not modified by tropical storms. The sonogram mosaics reveal areas of uniform backscatter intensity, together with regions of coarse image texture and isolated objects. Based on image texture and gross morphology, the mosaics have been classified into two categories of sediment (fine and coarse sand), seagrass beds, and four categories of reef (low relief reefs, patches, pinnacles, high relief continuous reef). The interpretation was ground truthed by independent diver observations and sediment grain size analysis. The pattern of reef development in these two leeward reefs is complex, with no shore-parallel zoning. The total spatial coverage of the reef classes is only 15% of the total surveyed area. Within these mapped reef areas, actual hard coral cover is estimated to be < 50%, so the actual hard-ground coverage is relatively small. Within the various reef types, no simple relationship between morphological parameters such as spatial area, perimeter water depth and height was found. We speculate that the dominant control on reef development is antecedent granite or karst limestone topography.

  1. Determination of the Mixing Layer Height Over two Sites, Using Pilot Balloons During the MILAGRO Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wohrnschimmel, H.; Alonso, A. L.; Ángeles, F.; Sosa, G.; Varela, J.; Cárdenas, B.

    2007-12-01

    Among the mechanisms that affect air quality there is a variety of meteorological processes. An important process in this context are the changes in the mixing layer height during a day and over the year. The mixing layer height is the portion of the atmosphere close to the surface layer where air pollutants get diluted, without leaving this layer. Therefore, it is important to describe the variations in the height of the mixing layer, i.e. the vertical dilution of air pollution, since this is a process mitigating naturally the impact of emissions. There exist different methods to obtain information on the mixing layer height, among them radio soundings, the application of vertical wind profilers, and launching pilot balloons. In this study, pilot balloons have been used simultaneously over two sites of the Mexico City Metropolitan Area during the MILAGRO campaign in March 2006. The objective was to determine the vertical wind profiles and derive information on the mixing layer height. Daily, four pilot balloons were launched, at 9:00, 12:00, 15:00, and 18:00 hours, over Tenango del Aire (a rural area in the Southeast of Mexico City), and over Ciudad Universitaria, in the Southern metropolitan area. At some occasions, night time measurements have been carried out at 21:00 and 24:00. A variability of the diurnal evolution of the mixing layer was observed along March, which could be related to surface temperature. The diurnal evolution showed a sudden growth of the mixing layer between 9:00 and 12:00 hours. Data intercomparisons were carried out for pilot balloons versus radio soundings during a few days at a third site, Tula, in the North of Mexico City. Both intercomparisons showed that pilot balloons are an effective method to obtain information about the development of the mixing layer.

  2. Source Apportionment of Carbonaceous Aerosols at Two Sites on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, C. E.; Barrett, T. E.; Gunsch, M.; Pratt, K.; Sheesley, R. J.

    2016-12-01

    Aerosols both directly and indirectly affect the Earth's albedo by scattering or absorbing solar radiation and acting as cloud and ice condensation nuclei. In order to better understand the variability of aerosol sources in the Alaskan Arctic, this study utilizes radiocarbon analysis for the apportionment of total organic carbon to fossil and contemporary carbon sources. Fossil sources include fossil fuel combustion and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from fossil precursors while contemporary sources include biomass combustion, primary biogenic emissions, and SOA produced from biogenic and biomass combustion-derived precursors. Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected in August/September 2015 at two Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement climate research facilities. Barrow, AK, is located on the northern most point of the United States; the site is 7.4 km north of the village of Barrow (population 4,581). Research shows the site receives minimal aerosol contribution from the village with dominant contributions from long range transport. Oliktok Point, AK, is 300 km south east of Barrow in a region of intense petroleum development. It receives contributions from the petroleum industry surrounding it as well as from long range transport. The proximity of the two sites allows for a finer spatial analysis of Arctic carbonaceous aerosol source contributions. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and radiocarbon (14C) abundance. Preliminary results show Barrow had OC concentrations from 0.05 to 0.16 µg/m3, while Oliktok had concentrations of OC from 0.11 to 0.27 µg/m3. EC concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.013 µg/m3 in Barrow, 0.002 to 0.088 µg/m3 in Oliktok. In Barrow, 14C abundance shows the contribution of fossil sources remained in the range of 21% to 28%. At Oliktok, analysis reveals an increase from 30% contribution from fossil sources in August to a 70% contribution at the end of September.

  3. Chemical characterization and factor analysis of PM2.5 in two sites of Monterrey, Mexico.

    PubMed

    Martinez, Marco A; Caballero, Porfirio; Carrillo, Olivia; Mendoza, Alberto; Mejia, Gerardo Manuel

    2012-07-01

    The Monterrey Metropolitan Area (MMA) has shown a high concentration of PM2.5 in its atmosphere since 2003. The contribution of possible sources of primary PM2.5 and its precursors is not known. In this paper we present the results of analyzing the chemical composition of sixty 24-hr samples of PM2.5 to determine possible sources of PM2.5 in the MMA. The samples were collected at the northeast and southeast of the MMA between November 22 and December 12, 2007, using low-volume devices. Teflon and quartz filters were used to collect the samples. The concentrations of 16 airborne trace elements were determined using x-ray fluorescence (XRF). Anions and cations were determined using ion chromatography. Organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) were determined by thermal optical analysis. The results show that Ca had the maximum mean concentration of all elements studied, followed by S. Enrichment factors above 50 were calculated for S, Cl, Cu, Zn, Br and Pb. This indicates that these elements may come from anthropogenic sources. Overall, the major average components of PM2.5 were OC (41.7%), SO4(2-) (22.9%), EC (7.4%), crustal material (11.4%), and NO3- (12.6%), which altogether accounted for 96% of the mass. Statistically, we did not find any difference in SO4(2-) concentrations between the two sites. The fraction of secondary organic carbon was between 24% and 34%. The results of the factor analysis performed over 10 metals and OC and EC show that there are three main sources of PM2.5: crustal material and vehicle exhaust; industrial activity; and fuel oil burning. The results show that SO4(2-), OC, and crustal material are important components of PM2.5 in MMA. Further work is necessary to evaluate the proportion of secondary inorganic and organic aerosol in order to have a better understanding of the sources and precursors of aerosols in the MMA.

  4. Biogenic and fossil contributions to organic aerosol at two sites on the North Slope of Alaska

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moffett, Claire; Barrett, Tate; Gunsch, Matthew; Pratt, Kerri; Sheesley, Rebecca

    2017-04-01

    Aerosols both directly and indirectly affect the Earth's albedo by scattering or absorbing solar radiation and acting as cloud and ice condensation nuclei. In order to better understand the variability of aerosol sources in the Alaskan Arctic, this study utilizes radiocarbon analysis for the apportionment of total organic carbon to fossil and contemporary carbon sources. Fossil sources include fossil fuel combustion and secondary organic aerosol (SOA) from fossil precursors while contemporary sources include biomass combustion, primary biogenic emissions, and SOA produced from biogenic and biomass combustion-derived precursors. Total suspended particulate (TSP) samples were collected in August/September 2012, 2015, and 2016 at two Department of Energy Atmospheric Radiation Measurement climate research facilities. Barrow, AK, is located on the northern most point of the United States; the site is 7.4 km north of the village of Barrow (population 4,581). Research shows the site receives minimal aerosol contribution from the village with dominant contributions from long range transport. Oliktok Point, AK, is 300 km south east of Barrow in a region of intense petroleum development. It receives contributions from the petroleum industry surrounding it as well as from long range transport. The proximity of the two sites allows for a finer spatial analysis of Arctic carbonaceous aerosol source contributions. Samples were analyzed for organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and radiocarbon (14C) abundance. Preliminary results for 2015 show Barrow had OC concentrations from 0.05 to 0.16 μg/m3, while Oliktok had concentrations of OC from 0.11 to 0.27 μg/m3. EC concentrations ranged from 0.002 to 0.013 μg/m3 in Barrow, 0.002 to 0.088 μg/m3 in Oliktok. In Barrow, 14C abundance shows the contribution of fossil sources remained in the range of 21% to 28%. At Oliktok, analysis reveals an increase from 30% contribution from fossil sources in August to a 70% contribution at

  5. Two-site equilibrium model for ion exchange between monovalent cations and zeolite-a in a molten salt.

    SciTech Connect

    Simpson, M. F.; Gougar, M. L. D.; Engineering Technology

    2003-09-03

    A two-site model has been derived and tested against experimental data for monovalent species ion exchange in molten chloride salt/zeolite A. This system is of interest for the application of spent nuclear fuel treatment. Fission products and transuranics that accumulate in a molten salt electrorefining process can be preferentially removed and eventually stabilized in a waste form, using zeolite A. An excellent fit of Cs-Rb-Na-Li-K data to the model was found with different selectivity sequences for the two sites. Cesium was found to be the preferred cation in the ?-cage sites, while lithium was preferred in the framework sites.

  6. Zinc ions as cytochrome C oxidase inhibitors: two sites of action.

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, S S; Azarkina, N V; Vygodina, T V; Siletsky, S A; Konstantinov, A A

    2005-02-01

    Zinc ions are shown to be an efficient inhibitor of mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase activity, both in the solubilized and the liposome-reconstituted enzyme. The effect of zinc is biphasic. First there occurs rapid interaction of zinc with the enzyme at a site exposed to the aqueous phase corresponding to the mitochondrial matrix. This interaction is fully reversed by EDTA and results in a partial inhibition of the enzyme activity (50-90%, depending on preparation) with an effective K(i) of approximately 10 microM. The rapid effect of zinc is observed with the solubilized enzyme, it vanishes upon incorporation of cytochrome oxidase in liposomes, and it re-appears when proteoliposomes are supplied with alamethicin that makes the membrane permeable to low molecular weight substances. Zinc presumably blocks the entrance of the D-protonic channel opening into the inner aqueous phase. Second, zinc interacts slowly (tens of minutes, hours) with a site of cytochrome oxidase accessible from the outer aqueous phase bringing about complete inhibition of the enzymatic activity. The slow phase is characterized by high affinity of the inhibitor for the enzyme: full inhibition can be achieved upon incubation of the solubilized oxidase for 24 h with zinc concentration as low as 2 microM. The rate of zinc inhibitory action in the slow phase is proportional to Zn(2+) concentration. The slow interaction of zinc with the outer surface of liposome-reconstituted cytochrome oxidase is observed only with the enzyme turning over or in the presence of weak reductants, whereas incubation of zinc with the fully oxidized proteoliposomes does not induce the inhibition. It is shown that zinc ions added to cytochrome oxidase proteoliposomes from the outside inhibit specifically the slow electrogenic phase of proton transfer, coupled to a transition of cytochrome oxidase from the oxo-ferryl to the oxidized state (the F --> O step corresponding to transfer of the 4th electron in the catalytic

  7. Evaluation of a Single-Beam Sonar System to Map Seagrass at Two Sites in Northern Puget Sound, Washington

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Stevens, Andrew W.; Lacy, Jessica R.; Finlayson, David P.; Gelfenbaum, Guy

    2008-01-01

    Seagrass at two sites in northern Puget Sound, Possession Point and nearby Browns Bay, was mapped using both a single-beam sonar and underwater video camera. The acoustic and underwater video data were compared to evaluate the accuracy of acoustic estimates of seagrass cover. The accuracy of the acoustic method was calculated for three classifications of seagrass observed in underwater video: bare (no seagrass), patchy seagrass, and continuous seagrass. Acoustic and underwater video methods agreed in 92 percent and 74 percent of observations made in bare and continuous areas, respectively. However, in patchy seagrass, the agreement between acoustic and underwater video was poor (43 percent). The poor agreement between the two methods in areas with patchy seagrass is likely because the two instruments were not precisely colocated. The distribution of seagrass at the two sites differed both in overall percent vegetated and in the distribution of percent cover versus depth. On the basis of acoustic data, seagrass inhabited 0.29 km2 (19 percent of total area) at Possession Point and 0.043 km2 (5 percent of total area) at the Browns Bay study site. The depth distribution at the two sites was markedly different. Whereas the majority of seagrass at Possession Point occurred between -0.5 and -1.5 m MLLW, most seagrass at Browns Bay occurred at a greater depth, between -2.25 and -3.5 m MLLW. Further investigation of the anthropogenic and natural factors causing these differences in distribution is needed.

  8. Bioavailability, ecotoxicity, and geological characteristics of trace lead in sediments from two sites on Negro River, Uruguay, South America.

    PubMed

    Míguez, Diana M; Huertas, Raquel; Carrara, María V; Carnikián, Agustín; Bouvier, María E; Martínez, María J; Keel, Karen; Pioda, Carolina; Darré, Elena; Pérez, Ramiro; Viera, Santiago; Massa, Enrique

    2012-04-01

    Bioassays of two sites along the Rio Negro in Uruguay indicate ecotoxicity, which could be attributable to trace concentrations of lead in river sediments. Monthly samples at two sites at Baygorria and Bonete locations were analyzed for both particle size and lead. Lead was determined by atomic spectrometry in river water and sediment and particle size by sieving and sedimentation. Data showed that Baygorria's sediments have greater percentage of clay than Bonete's (20.4 and 5.8%, respectively). Lead was measurable in Baygorria's sediments, meanwhile in Bonete's, it was always below the detection limit. In water samples, lead was below detection limit at both sites. Bioassays using sub-lethal growth and survival test with Hyalella curvispina amphipod, screening with bioluminescent bacteria Photobacterium leiognathi, and acute toxicity bioassay with Pimephales promelas fish indicated toxicity at Baygorria, with much less effect at Bonete. Even though no lethal effects could be demonstrated, higher sub-lethal toxicity was found in samples from Baygorria site, showing a possible concentration of the contaminant in the clay fraction.

  9. The Safety and Efficacy of Two-site Phacotrabeculectomy with Mitomycin C under Retrobulbar and Topical Anesthesia

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez, Raquel; Alburquerque, Rachel; Sauer, Tripper

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Purpose: To evaluate and compare the safety and efficacy of combined two-site phacoemulsification and trabeculectomy surgery with mitomycin C (MMC) in glaucoma-cataract patients with retrobulbar or topical anesthesia. Patients and methods: A retrospective, nonrandomized review of consecutive phacotrabeculectomy patients with a minimum follow-up time of 6 months, no previous glaucoma surgeries, and a preoperative visual acuity (VA) greater than light perception. The main outcome measures were preoperative and postoperative VA, intraocular pressure (IOP), use of glaucoma medications, and complications. A complete surgical success required an IOP from 6 to 18 mm Hg, no visually devastating complications, no return to surgery, and no use of glaucoma medications. Qualified success allowed the use of up to two glaucoma medications. Anesthesia groups were compared by student t-tests and log rank comparison of Kaplan-Meier survival rates. Results: Eighty-seven eyes (83 patients) met inclusion criteria, with a mean follow-up of 19 ± 12 months (6-57 months). The average eye gained 3.1 ± 4.9 lines of VA, lost 4.0 ± 7.1 mm Hg of IOP, and decreased 1.0 ± 1.3 glaucoma medications. Retrobulbar and topical anesthesia groups had statistically equivalent mean changes in VA (p = 0.910), IOP (p = 0.268), and use of glaucoma medications (p = 0.964). Postoperative complication rates were also statistically similar (p = 0.580). Complete success was greater in the retrobulbar group (p = 0.006), however, qualified success was equivalent in both groups (p = 0.769). Conclusion: Two-site phacotrabeculectomy with MMC in West Indian patients is as safe and effective for glaucoma-cataract patients with topical anesthesia as it is under retrobulbar anesthesia, and without short-term losses in VA and the chance of serious complications from injection. How to cite this article: Rodriguez R, Alburquerque R, Sauer T, Batlle JF. The Safety and Efficacy of Two-site Phacotrabeculectomy with

  10. On two site-specific nitrite-sensing nanocomposites having a core-shell structure: Construction, characterization and sensing performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kadeerhazi, Muhetaer; Ali, Azam; Bekhit, Alaa El-Din

    2017-01-01

    This paper reported two site-specific nitrite-sensing nanocomposite samples having a core-shell structure, where Fe3O4 nanoparticles were used as core, two rhodamine derivatives served as chemosensor and MCM-41 was applied as supporting host, respectively. These composite samples and their structure were analyzed and confirmed SEM/TEM, XRD, N2 adsorption/desorption, magnetic feature, IR and thermogravimetric analysis. Their nitrite sensing performance was discussed based on emission quenching, with limit of detection as low as 1.2 μM. Detailed analysis suggested that these composite samples followed a static sensing mechanism based on an additive reaction between NO+ and chemosensors. After being quenched by nitrite, these samples could be recovered by sulphamic acid.

  11. Relationships between airborne fungal spore concentration of Cladosporium and the summer climate at two sites in Britain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hollins, P. D.; Kettlewell, P. S.; Atkinson, M. D.; Stephenson, D. B.; Corden, J. M.; Millington, W. M.; Mullins, J.

    Cladosporium conidia have been shown to be important aeroallergens in many regions throughout the world, but annual spore concentrations vary considerably between years. Understanding these annual fluctuations may be of value in the clinical management of allergies. This study investigates the number of days in summer when spore concentration exceeds the allergenic threshold in relation to regional temperature and precipitation at two sites in England and Wales over 27 years. Results indicate that number of days in summer when the Cladosporium spores are above the allergenic concentration is positively correlated with regional temperature and negatively correlated with precipitation for both sites over the study period. Further analysis used a winter North Atlantic Oscillation index to explore the potential for long-range forecasting of the aeroallergen. For both spore measurement sites, a positive correlation exists between the winter North Atlantic Oscillation index and the number of days in summer above the allergenic threshold for Cladosporium spore concentration.

  12. Poaceae, Secale spp. and Artemisia spp. pollen in the air at two sites of different degrees of urbanisation.

    PubMed

    Kruczek, Aleksandra; Puc, Małgorzata; Wolski, Tomasz

    2017-03-21

    Among herbal plants, most cases of allergic reactions, like seasonal inflammation of nasal mucosa, conjunctivitis and pollen asthma, are related to the allergens from grass pollen. As the blossoming and pollination of rye is known to start the pollen season of grasses, information about the airborne rye pollen count permits alerting the people allergic to certain allergens contained in rye pollen. An important cause of allergy is also the pollen from wormwood, blossoming in late summer, as its two main allergens produce cross-reactions with many other plant allergens. The aim of the study was to evaluate the risk of allergic reactions in persons with pollinosis on the basis of the pollen calendar, analysis of concentrations of pollen grains of grass and rye, and comparison of diurnal pattern of airborne pollen grain concentrations at two sites with different degrees of urbanisation (Gudowo in the country and the city of Szczecin) in 2012-2014. The concentration of pollen was measured by the volume method. Length of the pollination season was determined by the method of 98%, assuming that the beginning and the end of the pollen season are the days on which 1% and 99% of the annual sum of pollen appeared. The first pollen grains to appear in the air are those produced by rye, followed by those produced by grass and wormwood. The pollen seasons of grasses and wormwood started about one week earlier in Gudowo than in Szczecin, while the pollen season of rye started at almost the same time in the country and in the city. Airborne pollen counts of grasses, rye and wormwood were much higher in the country than in the city. The differences most probably result from the different floristic composition at these two sites and reflect the local contribution of the taxa studied in the country. The risk of allergy caused by the pollen of the taxa analysed was much higher in Gudowo (in the country), than in Szczecin city.

  13. Tension-dependent DNA cleavage by restriction endonucleases: two-site enzymes are "switched off" at low force.

    PubMed

    Gemmen, Gregory J; Millin, Rachel; Smith, Douglas E

    2006-08-01

    DNA looping occurs in many important protein-DNA interactions, including those regulating replication, transcription, and recombination. Recent theoretical studies predict that tension of only a few piconewtons acting on DNA would almost completely inhibit DNA looping. Here, we study restriction endonucleases that require interaction at two separated sites for efficient cleavage. Using optical tweezers we measured the dependence of cleavage activity on DNA tension with 15 known or suspected two-site enzymes (BfiI, BpmI, BsgI, BspMI, Cfr9I, Cfr10I, Eco57I, EcoRII, FokI, HpaII, MboII, NarI, SacII, Sau3AI, and SgrAI) and six one-site enzymes (BamHI, EcoRI, EcoRV, HaeIII, HindIII, and DNaseI). All of the one-site enzymes were virtually unaffected by 5 pN of tension, whereas all of the two-site enzymes were completely inhibited. These enzymes thus constitute a remarkable example of a tension sensing "molecular switch." A detailed study of one enzyme, Sau3AI, indicated that the activity decreased exponentially with tension and the decrease was approximately 10-fold at 0.7 pN. At higher forces (approximately 20-40 pN) cleavage by the one-site enzymes EcoRV and HaeIII was partly inhibited and cleavage by HindIII was enhanced, whereas BamHI, EcoRI, and DNaseI were largely unaffected. These findings correlate with structural data showing that EcoRV bends DNA sharply, whereas BamHI, EcoRI, and DNaseI do not. Thus, DNA-directed enzyme activity involving either DNA looping or bending can be modulated by tension, a mechanism that could facilitate mechanosensory transduction in vivo.

  14. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    DOE PAGES

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ₁ from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ΓE). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT.more » It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.« less

  15. Full self-consistency versus quasiparticle self-consistency in diagrammatic approaches: Exactly solvable two-site Hubbard model

    SciTech Connect

    Kutepov, A. L.

    2015-07-22

    Self-consistent solutions of Hedin's equations (HE) for the two-site Hubbard model (HM) have been studied. They have been found for three-point vertices of increasing complexity (Γ = 1 (GW approximation), Γ₁ from the first-order perturbation theory, and the exact vertex ΓE). Comparison is made between the cases when an additional quasiparticle (QP) approximation for Green's functions is applied during the self-consistent iterative solving of HE and when QP approximation is not applied. Results obtained with the exact vertex are directly related to the present open question—which approximation is more advantageous for future implementations, GW + DMFT or QPGW + DMFT. It is shown that in a regime of strong correlations only the originally proposed GW + DMFT scheme is able to provide reliable results. Vertex corrections based on Perturbation Theory systematically improve the GW results when full self-consistency is applied. The application of QP self-consistency combined with PT vertex corrections shows similar problems to the case when the exact vertex is applied combined with QP sc. An analysis of Ward Identity violation is performed for all studied in this work's approximations and its relation to the general accuracy of the schemes used is provided.

  16. A study of steric chirality: the chiral nematic phase of a system of chiral two-site HGO molecules

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Varga, Szabolcs; Jackson, George

    2011-03-01

    The liquid crystalline phase behaviour of a chiral two-site hard Gaussian overlap fluid is examined using the well-known Parsons-Lee extension of the theory of Onsager. The hard-core model is constructed such that the vector connecting the centers of two hard Gaussian segments is perpendicular to the long axes of both segments. The microscopic chirality of the particle can be controlled with the dihedral angle between the long axes of the hard Gaussian segments, the distance between the two segments, and the length-to-breath ratios of each segment. In the framework of the Parsons-Lee approach three different types of phases are considered, namely, the isotropic liquid state, and the nematic and the chiral nematic (cholesteric) liquid crystalline states. For simplicity, the orientation of the particles is restricted to the plane perpendicular to the twist axis, and the particles do not have internal freedom to rotate around their main symmetry axes. The geometric condition for the formation of a chiral nematic phase, the properties of the helical structure, and the phase boundary of the ordering transition are determined by means of a free energy minimization. It is shown that steric (shape) chirality always gives rise to a helical structure in the nematic phase, and that the low density chiral systems can undergo a transition from an isotropic liquid to a twisted nematic phase on increasing the density. Analytical expressions are obtained for the twist period (pitch) in the limit of parallel stacking of the rod-like segments in layers normal to the helical axis, which are only valid for systems characterized by weak chiral strengths. A key finding of the numerical calculations is that the pitch is very sensitive to the segment separation, but not to the density or aspect ratio. It is interesting to note that the inverse of the pitch is predicted to depend linearly on the dihedral angle in all of the cases studied.

  17. {Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and aliphatic hydrocarbons in gas and particle phases in two sites of Mexico: MILAGRO project}

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amador-Muñoz, O.; Villalobos-Pietrini, R.; Castro, T.; Gaspariano-Larino, R.

    2009-04-01

    Aliphatic hydrocarbons are markers of anthropogenic and biogenic emission sources1; meanwhile PAHs are generated by incomplete combustion sources2. The last ones are important compounds due to their carcinogenic and mutagenic properties3,4. The aim of this study was to identify and quantify aliphatic hydrocarbons and PAHs in gas and particles phases of the atmospheric aerosol and to determine the day and night time behavior during the MILAGRO (Megacity Initiative: Local Global and Research Observations) campaign. The gas phase was collected on polyurethane foam, while particles less than 2.5 m (PM2.5) were collected on glass fiber filters covered with Teflon (TIGF, pallflex) of 8x10 in. Samplings were carried out with a high volume sampler (Tisch) with a flow of 1.13 m3 min-1 at two sites: Instituto Mexicano del Petróleo (T0) and Tecamac (T1) located at North and Northeast of Mexico City, respectively during day (7:00 am-7:00 pm) and night time (7:00 pm-7:00 am) from 1 to 29 of March, 2006. Ninteen PAHs and 23 aliphatic hydrocarbons from n-C13H28 to n-C35H72 were analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry in impact mode. The samples were spiked with deuterads PAHs and aliphatics hydrocarbons before ultrasound extraction. Medians comparisons were made with Mann-Whitney U test. PAHs with molecular weight (MW) less than 228 g mol-1 were distributed in the gas phase, in both sites. Higher concentrations of PAHs ≥ 228 g mol-1 in PM2.5, were observed during night period (p

  18. Foliar response of an Ailanthus altissima clone in two sites with different levels of ozone-pollution.

    PubMed

    Gravano, Elisabetta; Giulietti, Valentina; Desotgiu, Rosanna; Bussotti, Filippo; Grossoni, Paolo; Gerosa, Giacomo; Tani, Corrado

    2003-01-01

    Potted plants of Ailanthus altissima, produced by root suckers coming from a single symptomatic mother tree, were placed in two sites in the vicinity of Florence (central Italy), with different levels of ozone pollution. These plants were kept in well watered conditions during the period May-September 1999. In the high pollution site (Settignano-SET) the level of ozone exposure (AOT40) reached at the end of the season a value of 31 ppm h, whereas in the "low pollution" site (Cascine-CAS) the exposure to ozone was 11 ppm h. A. altissima showed foliar symptoms in early July at SET and in the second half of July at CAS when exposure values reached 5 ppm h at both sites. However, at the end of August the conditions of the plantlets were rather similar in both sites. Microscopic and ultrastructural analysis were performed at the first onset of symptoms at SET (the CAS leaflets were asymptomatic). Observing the upper leaf surface where the brown stipples were visible, it was found that the cells of the palisade mesophyll displayed loss of chlorophyll and the organelles in the cytoplasm were damaged. Swelling of thylacoids was observed in the CAS leaflets, thus indicating the possible onset of a pre-visual damage. The injured cells were separated from the healthy ones by a layer of callose. We conclude that the sensitivity to ozone of A. altissima leaves is related to its leaf structure, with low leaf density and large intercellular spaces. Cell walls, as well as acting as mechanical barriers against the spread of ozone within the cell, also provide important detoxifying processes.

  19. Bay breeze climatology at two sites along the Chesapeake bay from 1986-2010: Implications for surface ozone.

    PubMed

    Stauffer, Ryan M; Thompson, Anne M

    Hourly surface meteorological measurements were coupled with surface ozone (O3) mixing ratio measurements at Hampton, Virginia and Baltimore, Maryland, two sites along the Chesapeake Bay in the Mid-Atlantic United States, to examine the behavior of surface O3 during bay breeze events and quantify the impact of the bay breeze on local O3 pollution. Analyses were performed for the months of May through September for the years 1986 to 2010. The years were split into three groups to account for increasingly stringent environmental regulations that reduced regional emissions of nitrogen oxides (NOx): 1986-1994, 1995-2002, and 2003-2010. Each day in the 25-year record was marked either as a bay breeze day, a non-bay breeze day, or a rainy/cloudy day based on the meteorological data. Mean eight hour (8-h) averaged surface O3 values during bay breeze events were 3 to 5 parts per billion by volume (ppbv) higher at Hampton and Baltimore than on non-bay breeze days in all year periods. Anomalies from mean surface O3 were highest in the afternoon at both sites during bay breeze days in the 2003-2010 study period. In conjunction with an overall lowering of baseline O3 after the 1995-2002 period, the percentage of total exceedances of the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) 75 ppbv 8-h O3 standard that occurred on bay breeze days increased at Hampton for 2003-2010, while remaining steady at Baltimore. These results suggest that bay breeze circulations are becoming more important to causing exceedance events at particular sites in the region, and support the hypothesis of Martins et al. (2012) that highly localized meteorology increasingly drives air quality events at Hampton.

  20. A new significance on the vertical component ratio of the power spectra between two sites in the application of array methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xinrui; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Array methods like spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) method and the centerless circular array (CCA) method have provided a convenient means of inferring the phase velocity of surface waves. However, these methods are under the assumption of horizontally layered medium (lateral homogeneity) while the ground structure is actually likely to be inclined. Hence, it is expected to obtain more detailed information of ground structure such as inclination by making better use of the records. In recent years, the seismic interferometry theory has also been widely used to estimate ground structure. According to seismic interferometry theory, the cross correlation of motion between two sites is proportional to the imaginary part of the Green's function (IOG) between the two sites in diffuse wavefield. In this study, we can obtain the ratio of IOG between two sites by taking the ratio of power spectra between the same two sites. We propose this ratio as an indicator of the lateral heterogeneity between two sites. Through numerical simulation and a field test, we demonstrate that the significance of ratio of power spectra can be interpreted from the sight of ratio of IOG successfully.

  1. A new significance on the vertical component ratio of the power spectra between two sites in the application of array methods.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xinrui; Morikawa, Hitoshi

    2016-01-01

    Array methods like spatial auto-correlation (SPAC) method and the centerless circular array (CCA) method have provided a convenient means of inferring the phase velocity of surface waves. However, these methods are under the assumption of horizontally layered medium (lateral homogeneity) while the ground structure is actually likely to be inclined. Hence, it is expected to obtain more detailed information of ground structure such as inclination by making better use of the records. In recent years, the seismic interferometry theory has also been widely used to estimate ground structure. According to seismic interferometry theory, the cross correlation of motion between two sites is proportional to the imaginary part of the Green's function (IOG) between the two sites in diffuse wavefield. In this study, we can obtain the ratio of IOG between two sites by taking the ratio of power spectra between the same two sites. We propose this ratio as an indicator of the lateral heterogeneity between two sites. Through numerical simulation and a field test, we demonstrate that the significance of ratio of power spectra can be interpreted from the sight of ratio of IOG successfully.

  2. Characterisation of PM 10 atmospheric aerosols for the wet season 2005 at two sites in East Africa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mkoma, Stelyus L.; Maenhaut, Willy; Chi, Xuguang; Wang, Wan; Raes, Nico

    Ambient daily PM 10 aerosol samples were collected at two sites in Tanzania in May and June 2005 (during the wet season), and their chemical characteristics were studied. The sites were a rural site in Morogoro and an urban kerbside site in Dar es Salaam. A Gent PM 10 stacked filter unit sampler with sequential Nuclepore polycarbonate filters, providing fine and coarse size fractions, and a PM 10 sampler with quartz fibre filters were deployed. Parallel collections of 24 h were made with the two samplers and the number of these collections was 13 in Morogoro and 16 in Dar es Salaam. The average mass concentration of PM 10 was 27 ± 11 μg/m 3 in Morogoro and 51 ± 21 μg/m 3 in Dar es Salaam. In Morogoro, the mean concentrations of organic carbon (OC), elemental carbon (EC), and water-soluble organic carbon (WSOC) were 6.8, 0.51, and 2.8 μg/m 3, respectively. In contrast, higher mean concentrations (11.9, 4.6, and 3.3 μg/m 3, respectively) were obtained for Dar es Salaam. At both sites, species and elements, such as black carbon, NH 4+, non-sea-salt SO 42-, K, and Ni (and at Dar es Salaam also V, As, Br, and Pb) were mainly present in the fine size fraction. The common crustal and sea-salt elements, including Na, Mg, Al, Si, Cl, Ca, Ti, Mn, Fe, and Sr, and also NO 3- and P (and to a lesser extent Cu and Zn) were concentrated in the coarse particles. Aerosol chemical mass closure indicated that the PM 10 mass in Morogoro consisted, on average, of 48% organic matter (OM), 44% crustal matter, 4% sea salt, and 2% EC, while in Dar es Salaam OM, crustal matter, sea salt, and EC represented 37%, 32%, 9%, and 9% of the PM 10 mass. The contributions of the secondary inorganic aerosol (non-sea-salt sulphate, nitrate, and ammonium) were small, i.e., only 5% in total at each site. Carbonaceous materials and crustal matter were thus the most important components of the PM 10 mass. It is suggested that biomass burning is a major contributor to the OM; at Dar es Salaam there is

  3. Using the Conceptual Site Model to Remediate Two Sites in New England and Reach License Termination and Site Reuse

    SciTech Connect

    Glucksberg, Nadia; Peters, Jay

    2008-01-15

    presents the similarities and differences between the CSMs for these two sites and how each site used the CSM to reach closure. Although each of these site have unique histories and physical features, the CSM approach was used to understand the geology, hydrogeology, migration and exposure pathways, and regulatory requirements to successfully characterize and plan closure of the sites. A summary of how these attributes affected site closure is provided.

  4. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  5. Use of the Performance Diagnostic Checklist to Select an Intervention Designed to Increase the Offering of Promotional Stamps at Two Sites of a Restaurant Franchise

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Rodriguez, Manuel; Wilder, David A.; Therrien, Kelly; Wine, Byron; Miranti, Reylissa; Daratany, Kenneth; Salume, Gloria; Baranovsky, Greg; Rodriquez, Matias

    2006-01-01

    The performance diagnostic checklist (PDC) was administered to examine the variables influencing the offering of promotional stamps by employees at two sites of a restaurant franchise. PDC results suggested that a lack of appropriate antecedents, equipment and processes, and consequences were responsible for the deficits. Based on these results,…

  6. Model simulations of cooking organic aerosol (COA) over the UK using estimates of emissions based on measurements at two sites in London

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ots, Riinu; Vieno, Massimo; Allan, James D.; Reis, Stefan; Nemitz, Eiko; Young, Dominique E.; Coe, Hugh; Di Marco, Chiara; Detournay, Anais; Mackenzie, Ian A.; Green, David C.; Heal, Mathew R.

    2016-11-01

    Cooking organic aerosol (COA) is currently not included in European emission inventories. However, recent positive matrix factorization (PMF) analyses of aerosol mass spectrometer (AMS) measurements have suggested important contributions of COA in several European cities. In this study, emissions of COA were estimated for the UK, based on hourly AMS measurements of COA made at two sites in London (a kerbside site in central London and an urban background site in a residential area close to central London) for the full calendar year of 2012 during the Clean Air for London (ClearfLo) campaign. Iteration of COA emissions estimates and subsequent evaluation and sensitivity experiments were conducted with the EMEP4UK atmospheric chemistry transport modelling system with a horizontal resolution of 5 km × 5 km. The spatial distribution of these emissions was based on workday population density derived from the 2011 census data. The estimated UK annual COA emission was 7.4 Gg per year, which is an almost 10 % addition to the officially reported UK national total anthropogenic emissions of PM2.5 (82 Gg in 2012), corresponding to 320 mg person-1 day-1 on average. Weekday and weekend diurnal variation in COA emissions were also based on the AMS measurements. Modelled concentrations of COA were then independently evaluated against AMS-derived COA measurements from another city and time period (Manchester, January-February 2007), as well as with COA estimated by a chemical mass balance model of measurements for a 2-week period at the Harwell rural site (˜ 80 km west of central London). The modelled annual average contribution of COA to ambient particulate matter (PM) in central London was between 1 and 2 µg m-3 (˜ 20 % of total measured OA1) and between 0.5 and 0.7 µg m-3 in other major cities in England (Manchester, Birmingham, Leeds). It was also shown that cities smaller than London can have a central hotspot of population density of smaller

  7. Eastern-Mediterranean ventilation variability during sapropel S1 formation, evaluated at two sites influenced by deep-water formation from Adriatic and Aegean Seas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Filippidi, A.; Triantaphyllou, M. V.; De Lange, G. J.

    2016-07-01

    Present-day bottom-water ventilation in the Eastern Mediterranean basin occurs through deep-water convection originating from the two marginal basins, i.e. Adriatic and Aegean Seas. In the paleo record, long periods of enhanced deep-water formation have been alternating with shorter periods of reduced deep-water formation. The latter is related mainly to low-latitude humid climate conditions and the enhanced deposition and preservation of organic-rich sediment units (sapropels). This study focuses on sedimentary archives of the most-recent sapropel S1, retrieved from two sites under the direct influence of the two deep-water formation areas. Restricted oxygen conditions have developed rapidly at the beginning of S1 deposition in the Adriatic site, but bottom-water conditions have not persistently remained anoxic during the full interval of sapropel deposition. In fact, the variability in intensity and persistence of sedimentary redox conditions at the two deep-water formation sites is shown to be related to brief episodes of climate cooling. In the Adriatic site, sapropel deposition appears to have been interrupted twice. The 8.2 ka event, only recovered at the Adria site, is characterized by gradually increasing suboxic to possibly intermittently oxic conditions and decreasing Corg fluxes, followed by an abrupt re-establishment of anoxic conditions. Another important event that disrupted sapropel S1 formation, has taken place at ca. 7.4 cal ka BP. The latter event has been recovered at both sites. In the Adriatic site it is followed by a period of sedimentary conditions that gradually change from suboxic to more permanently oxic, as deduced from the Mn/Al pattern. Using the same proxy for suboxic/oxic sedimentary redox conditions, we observe that conditions in the Aegean Sea site shift to more permanently oxic from the 7.4 ka event onwards. However, at both sites the accumulation and preservation of enhanced amounts of organic matter have continued under these

  8. Visibility of the New Moon at Two Sites. I: Maryland Situated at Northern Geographical Latitude. II: Sacramento Peak Situated at High Altitude above Sea Level

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mikhail, J. S.; Asaad, A. S.; Nawar, S.; Hassanin, N. Y.

    1995-01-01

    The optimum conditions to see the crescent of the new Moon have been obtained at Sacramento Peak and Maryland. We have used the data of the sky twilight brightness given by Koomenet al. (1952) for the two sites. The results show that the crescent can not be seen at the two sites for sun's depression less than 4° and 8° elongation between Sun, Moon and Earth confirming the results obtained before by Asaadet al. (1976). The visibility conditions at Maryland and Sacramento Peak are better than that obtained before for the three sites Misallat, Helwan and Daraw at Egypt. The reason is mainly due to the decrease in the sky twilight brightness at sites having higher geographical northern latitudes and high elevation above sea level.

  9. Eliminating interference from heterophilic antibodies in a two-site immunoassay for creatine kinase MB by using F(ab')2 conjugate and polyclonal mouse IgG.

    PubMed

    Vaidya, H C; Beatty, B G

    1992-09-01

    Heterophilic antibodies interfere in two-site immunoassays. Our purpose was to screen for the samples containing heterophilic antibodies that react with mouse immunoglobulins and to use them to determine how to eliminate interference in various two-site immunoassays being developed in our laboratory. Of approximately 2600 samples screened, 81 had heterophilic antibodies. When creatine kinase MB (CKMB) concentration was measured with intact antibody conjugate in these 81 samples, 18 (22%) samples had apparent CKMB values significantly greater than values measured with Hybritech's "Tandem -E CKMB immunoenzymetric" assay and Corning agarose-gel electrophoresis. Adding up to 133 mg/L of polymerized IgG or up to 1666 mg/L polyclonal mouse IgG in the assay did not eliminate the interference in all the samples. However, adding F(ab')2 conjugate plus 40 mg/L of polymerized IgG or 83 mg/L of polyclonal mouse IgG eliminated the interference in all the samples. This approach was also effective in eliminating the interference in 15 samples containing 4.7-165.2 mg/L of human antimouse antibody (HAMA). Combined use of F(ab')2 conjugate and polyclonal mouse IgG is recommended to eliminate interference from heterophilic antibodies that react with murine immunoglobulins or HAMA in two-site murine-antibody-based assays.

  10. Comparison of Two Site-Specifically 18F-Labeled Affibodies for PET Imaging of EGFR Positive Tumors

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    The epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) serves as an attractive target for cancer molecular imaging and therapy. Our previous positron emission tomography (PET) studies showed that the EGFR-targeting affibody molecules 64Cu-DOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-FBEM-ZEGFR:1907 can discriminate between high and low EGFR-expression tumors and have the potential for patient selection for EGFR-targeted therapy. Compared with 64Cu, 18F may improve imaging of EGFR-expression and is more suitable for clinical application, but the labeling reaction of 18F-FBEM-ZEGFR:1907 requires a long synthesis time. The aim of the present study is to develop a new generation of 18F labeled affibody probes (Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907) and to determine whether they are suitable agents for imaging of EGFR expression. The first approach consisted of conjugating ZEGFR:1907 with NOTA and radiolabeling with Al18F to produce Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907. In a second approach the prosthetic group 18F-labeled-2-cyanobenzothiazole (18F-CBT) was conjugated to Cys-ZEGFR:1907 to produce 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907. Binding affinity and specificity of Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 to EGFR were evaluated using A431 cells. Biodistribution and PET studies were conducted on mice bearing A431 xenografts after injection of Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 or 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 with or without coinjection of unlabeled affibody proteins. The radiosyntheses of Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 and 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 were completed successfully within 40 and 120 min with a decay-corrected yield of 15% and 41% using a 2-step, 1-pot reaction and 2-step, 2-pot reaction, respectively. Both probes bound to EGFR with low nanomolar affinity in A431 cells. Although 18F-CBT-ZEGFR:1907 showed instability in vivo, biodistribution studies revealed rapid and high tumor accumulation and quick clearance from normal tissues except the bones. In contrast, Al18F-NOTA-ZEGFR:1907 demonstrated high in vitro and in vivo stability, high tumor uptake

  11. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  12. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    PubMed

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  13. Atmospheric photochemical reactivity and ozone production at two sites in Hong Kong: Application of a Master Chemical Mechanism-photochemical box model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ling, Z. H.; Guo, H.; Lam, S. H. M.; Saunders, S. M.; Wang, T.

    2014-09-01

    A photochemical box model incorporating the Master Chemical Mechanism (v3.2), constrained with a full suite of measurements, was developed to investigate the photochemical reactivity of volatile organic compounds at a semirural site (Mount Tai Mo Shan (TMS)) and an urban site (Tsuen Wan (TW)) in Hong Kong. The levels of ozone (O3) and its precursors, and the magnitudes of the reactivity of O3 precursors, revealed significant differences in the photochemistry at the two sites. Simulated peak hydroperoxyl radical (HO2) mixing ratios were similar at TW and TMS (p = 0.05), while the simulated hydroxyl radical (OH) mixing ratios were much higher at TW (p < 0.05), suggesting different cycling processes between OH and HO2 at the two sites. The higher OH at TW was due to high-NO mixing ratios, which shifted the HOx (OH + HO2) balance toward OH by the propagation of HO2 and alkyl peroxy radicals (RO2) with NO. HOx production was dominated by O3 photolysis at TMS, but at TW, both HCHO and O3 photolyses were found to be major contributors. By contrast, radical-radical reactions governed HOx radical losses at TMS, while at TW, the OH + NO2 reaction was found to dominate in the morning and the radical-radical reactions at noon. Overall, the conversion of NO to NO2 by HO2 dictated the O3 production at the two sites, while O3 destruction was dominated by the OH + NO2 reaction at TW, and at TMS, O3 photolysis and the O3 + HO2 reaction were the major mechanisms. The longer OH chain length at TMS indicated that more O3 was produced for each radical that was generated at this site.

  14. Ratiometric analysis in hyperpolarized NMR (I): test of the two-site exchange model and the quantification of reaction rate constants.

    PubMed

    Li, Lin Z; Kadlececk, Stephen; Xu, He N; Daye, Dania; Pullinger, Benjamin; Profka, Harrilla; Chodosh, Lewis; Rizi, Rahim

    2013-10-01

    Conventional methods for the analysis of in vivo hyperpolarized (13) C NMR data from the lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) reaction usually make assumptions on the stability of rate constants and/or the validity of the two-site exchange model. In this study, we developed a framework to test the validity of the assumption of stable reaction rate constants and the two-site exchange model in vivo via ratiometric fitting of the time courses of the signal ratio L(t)/P(t). Our analysis provided evidence that the LDH enzymatic kinetics observed by hyperpolarized NMR are in near-equilibrium and satisfy the two-site exchange model for only a specific time window. In addition, we quantified both the forward and reverse exchange rate constants of the LDH reaction for the transgenic and mouse xenograft models of breast cancer using the ratio fitting method developed, which includes only two modeling parameters and is less sensitive to the influence of instrument settings/protocols, such as flip angles, degree of polarization and tracer dosage. We further compared the ratio fitting method with a conventional two-site exchange modeling method, i.e. the differential equation fitting method, using both the experimental and simulated hyperpolarized NMR data. The ratio fitting method appeared to fit better than the differential equation fitting method for the reverse rate constant on the mouse tumor data, with less relative errors on average, whereas the differential equation fitting method also resulted in a negative reverse rate constant for one tumor. The simulation results indicated that the accuracy of both methods depends on the width of the transport function, noise level and rate constant ratio; one method may be more accurate than the other based on the experimental/biological conditions aforementioned. We were able to categorize our tumor models into specific conditions of the computer simulation and to estimate the errors of rate quantification. We also discussed possible

  15. Theoretical nuclear magnetic resonance-lineshape study of a two-site chemical exchange model of sodium ions (I = 3/2) in an intracellular environment.

    PubMed Central

    Berggren, E; Westlund, P O

    1990-01-01

    We present a theoretical calculation of the lineshape function based on the solution of the semiclassical Liouville equation, of a two-site chemical exchange model of biological relevance. The bound site is allowed to be in the slow region regime that is the inverse quadrupole interaction of one bound site is in the same range as the reorientational correlation time. We compare different chemical exchange models, and several different physical situations are investigated. The variation of the width at half height (WHH) and the relative intensity (l/lo) is shown to be important, experimentally accessible quantities that are useful in order to discriminate between different model systems. PMID:2383629

  16. A Tale of Two Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Steve; Heming, Rob

    1991-01-01

    Describes the processes by which two camps constructed new dining halls. Discusses initial information gathering and cost projections, management of planning and finances, building design, contracting, clearing and excavation, foundation work, installation of electrical and other service systems, and landscaping. (SV)

  17. A Tale of Two Sites.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Heming, Steve; Heming, Rob

    1991-01-01

    Describes the processes by which two camps constructed new dining halls. Discusses initial information gathering and cost projections, management of planning and finances, building design, contracting, clearing and excavation, foundation work, installation of electrical and other service systems, and landscaping. (SV)

  18. Energy dependence of localization with interactions and disorder: The generalized inverse participation ratio of an ensemble of two-site Anderson-Hubbard systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wortis, Rachel; Perera, Jayanayana

    2015-03-01

    We explore the effect of interactions on novel features found in non-interacting disordered systems. Johri and Bhatt [PRL 109 076402 (2012), PRB 86 125140 (2012)] showed that for non-interacting particles moving in a disordered potential Lifshitz states lead to a decrease in localization at the band edges. This is reflected in an abrupt decline in the inverse participation ratio following a sharp peak. We consider an ensemble of two-site Anderson-Hubbard systems and study a generalization of the inverse participation ratio applicable to interacting systems. With on-site Coulomb repulsion U, two types of resonances can occur: As in the non-interacting case, the potentials at the two sites may be similar. In addition, the potential at one site may differ from its neighbor by U. We demonstrate that these two types of resonance and the diversity of transitions in the interacting case result in much more varied dependence of localization on energy, with multiple local minima, including a strong suppression and more structure near the Fermi level. Opportunities for experimental observation are considered. NSERC of Canada.

  19. Explanation of the pressure-induced red shifts of 2E- 4A2 transition line for Cr 3+ ions in the two sites of chrysoberyl

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wen-Chen, Zheng

    1996-04-01

    By using the bond length dependence of covalency reduction factor obtained from the high pressure spectroscopy of ruby (Al 2O 3 : Cr 3+), the pressure-induced shifts of 2E- 4A2 transition line for Cr 3+ ions in both sites (mirror site and inverse site) of chrysoberyl BeAl 2O 4 : Cr 3+ are calculated from the distinctive compressibilities of metal-ligand bond for Cr 3+ ions in the two sites. The results are in reasonable agreement with the observed values. It suggests that the large difference of the pressure-induced shifts of 2E- 4A2 transition line between the Cr 3+ ions at the mirror sites and the inverse sites of chrysoberyl is due mainly to the different average bond compressiblity.

  20. Determination of black carbon in fine particles using a semi-continuous method at two sites in the city of Guadalajara, Mexico, during 2007.

    PubMed

    Hernández-Mena, Leonel; Saldarriaga-Noreña, Hugo; Murillo-Tovar, Mario A; Amador-Muñoz, Omar; López-López, Alberto; Waliszewski, Stefan M

    2011-09-01

    The black carbon is a pollutant species primarily emitted from the combustion of fossil fuels (diesel). Their concentrations associated to PM2.5 were monitoring at two sites in the city of Guadalajara. From January to May (except April), downtown site shown 2.7, 2.6, 4.0 and 2.3 times higher monthly concentrations. The dry season two showed higher concentrations respect to at least one of the others seasons (p < 0.0001) at each site, probably due to atmospheric conditions less favorable for the dispersal of pollutants. During the 24 h period were observed at the year two peaks of concentrations: the highest morning peak and lower night peak, both probably related to anthropogenic activity.

  1. Estimation of sediment-discharge reduction for two sites of the Yazoo River basin demonstration erosion control project, north-central Mississippi, 1985-94

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Rebich, R.A.

    1995-01-01

    Sediment-discharge reduction was estimated at two Demonstration Erosion Control sites in north-central Mississippi for the period 1985 through 1994. Decreasing trends were detected in flow-adjusted sediment discharge at Hotopha Creek near Batesville for the study period. The annual reduction in sediment discharge at this site was about 7 percent (0.68 ton per day per year). Decreasing trends were also detected in flow- adjusted sediment discharge at Otoucalofa Creek Canal near Water Valley for the study period. The annual reduction in sediment discharge at this site was about 11 percent (5.33 tons per day per year). The computations used to estimate sediment-discharge reduction were based on time series of instantaneous sediment discharges for the study period. Non-parametric procedures were used to compute trends in sediment discharge and to quantify reductions over time at the two sites. Parametric procedures were then used to verify the non-parametric results.

  2. Coherent potential theory of a random binary alloy Effects of scattering from two-sites clusters and off-diagonal randomness

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moorjani, K.; Tanaka, T.; Sokoloski, M. M.; Bose, S. M.

    1974-01-01

    Extension of the single-site coherent potential approximation for random binary alloys to include the effect of off-diagonal randomness and pair scattering. This extension is achieved by analyzing a one-band model of a random binary alloy in terms of a two-sites coherent potential approximation. Numerical results are presented for a number of different alloys. In the overlapping-band case, the presence of off-diagonal randomness is shown to modify the bandwidths to values larger than those obtained from the virtual-crystal approximation. A simple iterative procedure is described for overcoming the convergence difficulties in the split-band case. In this limit, the inclusion of pair scattering and off-diagonal randomness is found to lead to the appearance of structure in the density of states of the minority component band.

  3. Comparability of suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended-solids data for two sites on the L'Anguille River, Arkansas, 2001 to 2003

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Galloway, Joel M.; Evans, Dennis A.; Green, W. Reed

    2005-01-01

    Suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data collected with automatic pumping samplers at the L'Anguille River near Colt and the L'Anguille River at Palestine, Arkansas, August 2001 to October 2003 were compared using ordinary least squares regression analyses to determine the relation between the two datasets for each of the two sites. The purpose of this report is to describe the suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended-solids data and examine the comparability of the two datasets for each site. Suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data for the L'Anguille River varied spatially and temporally from August 2001 to October 2003. The site at the L'Anguille River at Palestine represents a larger portion of the L'Anguille River Basin than the site near Colt, and generally had higher median suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids and greater ranges in values. The differences between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data for the L'Anguille River near Colt appeared inversely related to streamflow and not related to time. The relation between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids at the L'Anguille River at Palestine was more variable than at Colt and did not appear to have a relation with flow or time. The relation between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids for the L'Anguille River near Colt shows that total suspended solids increased proportionally as suspended-sediment concentration increased. However, the relation between suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids for the L'Anguille River at Palestine showed total suspended solids increased less proportionally as suspended-sediment concentration increased compared to the L'Anguille River near Colt. Differences between the two analytical methods may partially explain differences between the suspended-sediment concentration and total suspended solids data at

  4. Relationships between climate, soil moisture and phenology of the woody cover in two sites located along the West African latitudinal gradient

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seghieri, Josiane; Vescovo, Aude; Padel, Karine; Soubie, Remy; Arjounin, Marc; Boulain, Nicolas; de Rosnay, Patricia; Galle, Sylvie; Gosset, Marielle; Mouctar, Abakar H.; Peugeot, Christophe; Timouk, Franck

    2009-08-01

    SummaryThe study quantifies the relationships at local scale between phenology and determinants of climate and soil water resources at two sites located along the latitudinal gradient of West Africa, one in the central Sahel (Mali), the other in the Sudanian bioclimatic zone (Benin). The aim is to improve our knowledge on possible vegetation response to possible climate change. Within the Sudanian site, average annual rainfall is 1200 mm, extending from April to October, while, in the Sahelian site, it is 370 mm, occurring from June to September. Physical data were collected from the African Monsoon Multidisciplinary Analysis research programme. The phenology of the dominant species was monitored in four types of vegetation cover at the wetter site, and in three types of vegetation cover at the drier site. For each sampled plant, leafing, flowering and fruiting were recorded as binary variables in terms of the presence/absence of phenophases. A small proportion of the variability of each phenophase occurrence is explained by the logit models. However, rainfall rise is significantly linked to leafing probability increase in the Sahelian site but not in the Sudanian site. Day length extension and temperature decrease are significantly correlated with an increase in leafing in the Sudanian site, but not in the Sahelian. On both sites, the increase in cumulative rainfall is not found to be linked to an increased probability of reproductive phenophases (negative or non-significant relationships). Air temperature is positively correlated with flowering rate in the Sudanian site, but, all other factors being constant, no climate factors are found to be highly significant of flowering occurrence in the Sahel. Fruiting probability is positively correlated mainly with temperature within the Sahelian site. Leafing occurrence is positively correlated with soil moisture in the 0-1 m layer for the Sudanian site, but not for the Sahelian site. Significant relationships between

  5. Atmospheric mercury concentrations at two sites in the Kyushu Islands, Japan, and evidence of long-range transport from East Asia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marumoto, Kohji; Hayashi, Masahiko; Takami, Akinori

    2015-09-01

    Continuous monitoring of atmospheric gaseous mercury at Fukuoka and Minamata in the Kyushu Islands, western Japan, was carried out from June 2012 to May 2013 to investigate the influence of long-range transport of mercury in the Asian region. Speciation data at Fukuoka indicated that approximately 99% of the atmospheric mercury was in the gaseous elemental form. The average concentration of gaseous elemental mercury (GEM) at Fukuoka was slightly higher than that of total gaseous mercury (TGM) at Minamata. Synchronous pollution events of higher concentrations of both GEM at Fukuoka and TGM at Minamata were frequently observed from late fall to early spring. We infer that these events occurred due to long-range transport of mercury rather than local, domestic emission sources because the two sites are far apart (about 150 km), and local sources would be unlikely to synchronously influence concentrations at both sites over such a long distance. The results of backward trajectory analyses indicated that these events occurred when air masses came from the Asian continent. In addition, the pollution events were often the result of cold fronts or migratory anticyclones that passed over the Kyushu Islands, often accompanied by descending cool and heavy air currents. Thus, these results indicate that, under specific climate conditions, higher concentrations of atmospheric mercury are transported to the Kyushu Islands from the Asian continent, and are evident in ground-based observations there.

  6. Site-directed mutations and kinetic studies show key residues involved in alkylammonium interactions and reveal two sites for phosphorylcholine in Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphorylcholine phosphatase.

    PubMed

    Beassoni, Paola R; Otero, Lisandro H; Boetsch, Cristhian; Domenech, Carlos E; González-Nilo, Fernado D; Lisa, Angela T

    2011-07-01

    Pseudomonas aeruginosa phosphorylcholine phosphatase (PchP) catalyzes the hydrolysis of phosphorylcholine (Pcho) to produce choline and inorganic phosphate. PchP belongs to the haloacid dehalogenase superfamily (HAD) and possesses the three characteristic motifs of this family: motif I ((31)D and (33)D), motif II ((166)S), and motif III ((242)K, (261)G, (262)D and (267)D), which fold to form the catalytic site that binds the metal ion and the phosphate moiety of Pcho. Based on comparisons to the PHOSPHO1 and PHOSPHO2 human enzymes and the choline-binding proteins of Gram-(+) bacteria, we selected residues (42)E and (43)E and the aromatic triplet (82)YYY(84) for site-directed mutagenesis to study the interactions with Pcho and p-nitrophenylphosphate as substrates of PchP. Because mutations in (42)E, (43)E and the three tyrosine residues affect both the substrate affinity and the inhibitory effect produced by high Pcho concentrations, we postulate that two sites, one catalytic and one inhibitory, are present in PchP and that they are adjacent and share residues.

  7. Two sites on P-selectin (the lectin and epidermal growth factor-like domains) are involved in the adhesion of monocytes to thrombin-activated endothelial cells.

    PubMed Central

    Murphy, J F; McGregor, J L

    1994-01-01

    P-selectin, also known as GMP-140, PADGEM or CD62, is expressed on the surface of thrombin-activated platelets and endothelial cells (EC). It is a member of the selectin family of adhesion molecules that regulate leucocyte interactions with the blood vessel wall. In this study we have found that peptides derived from both the lectin (residues 19-34 and 51-61) and epidermal growth factor (EGF)-like (residues 127-139) domains inhibit the adhesion of peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC), elutriated monocytes and a monocytic cell line (U937) to thrombin-activated EC. This inhibition occurred in a concentration-dependent manner and the peptide most active at the lowest concentrations was the one derived from the EGF-like motif (127-139). The scrambled forms of these peptides, identical in amino acid composition to the authentic peptides but with altered sequences, were not inhibitory. Thrombin-activated platelets supported adhesion of U937 cells and this adhesion was dramatically inhibited by the two peptides derived from the lectin-like domain (residues 19-34 and 51-61). All three peptides, when conjugated to BSA and coated on plastic plates, mediated U937 cell adhesion. This study shows, for the first time, that two sites on P-selectin, the lectin and EGF-like domains, are involved in the adhesion of monocytes to thrombin-activated EC. PMID:7526845

  8. Small and large forms of hepatitis B e antigen in the serum: determination by two-site sandwich radioimmunoassay with monoclonal antibodies.

    PubMed Central

    Baba, K; Ise, I; Aihara, S; Kishimoto, S; Tsuda, F; Tachibana, K; Miyakawa, Y; Mayumi, M

    1986-01-01

    Serum samples containing hepatitis B e antigen (HBeAg) were subjected to electrophoresis in agarose, and fast-migrating 'small' HBeAg and slow-migrating 'large' IgG-associated HBeAg were pooled separately. HBeAg of each category was determined by a two-site radioimmunoassay that sandwiched HBeAg between monoclonal antibody (anti-HBe) against one epitope of HBeAg, fixed on a solid support, and anti-HBe against another epitope, labelled with radioiodine. Eighteen sera in which small HBeAg dominated revealed activities of hepatitis B surface antigen-associated DNA polymerase significantly higher than 14 sera in which large HBeAg dominated (logarithm of ct/min, mean +/- s.e. 3.36 +/- 0.08 versus 2.14 +/- 0.11, P less than 0.01). Shift from small HBeAg to large HBeAg was observed, along with the disappearance of DNA polymerase, in the serum from two carriers who seroconverted to anti-HBe. PMID:3742877

  9. Effects of altered water quality and trace elements on the infection variables of Paradiplozoon ichthyoxanthon (Monogenea: Diplozoidae) from two sites in the Vaal River system, South Africa.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Beric Michael; Avenant-Oldewage, Annemariè

    2016-01-01

    Using parasites as sentinel organisms has received increased attention due to their responses toward environmental degradation. In some sections of the Vaal River, South Africa, water quality is altered and biota distribution affected. The aims of this study were to assess and compare infection variables of Paradipolozoon ichthyoxanthonAvenant-Oldewage, 2014 in Avenant- Oldewage et al. (2014) at two sites along the Vaal River and compare the water quality and trace element levels at the sites. Infection variables of the parasite, physico-chemical variables, and sediment and water samples for trace element analysis were collected at each site. Conductivity and trace element concentrations were higher at the Vaal River site than the Vaal Dam. Temporal variances in water quality and parasite prevalence, mean intensity and mean abundance, at intervals over a 14 year period occurred, P. ichthyoxanthon was absent at the Vaal River site though the host fish are present. Prevalence peaks in summer and winter. Comparison of infection data to water quality and trace elements indicated that conductivity and trace element levels negatively affected/correlated with the infection variables. Higher trace elements concentration and conductivity at the Vaal River site are thought to be driving factors responsible for absence of the parasite.

  10. Development of an efficient signal amplification strategy for label-free enzyme immunoassay using two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jin-Bao; Tang, Ying; Yang, Hong-Ming

    2015-02-15

    Constructing a recombinant protein between a reporter enzyme and a detector protein to produce a homogeneous immunological reagent is advantageous over random chemical conjugation. However, the approach hardly recombines multiple enzymes in a difunctional fusion protein, which results in insufficient amplification of the enzymatic signal, thereby limiting its application in further enhancement of analytical signal. In this study, two site-specific biotinylated recombinant proteins, namely, divalent biotinylated alkaline phosphatase (AP) and monovalent biotinylated ZZ domain, were produced by employing the Avitag-BirA system. Through the high streptavidin (SA)-biotin interaction, the divalent biotinylated APs were clustered in the SA-biotin complex and then incorporated with the biotinylated ZZ. This incorporation results in the formation of a functional macromolecule that involves numerous APs, thereby enhancing the enzymatic signal, and in the production of several ZZ molecules for the interaction with immunoglobulin G (IgG) antibody. The advantage of this signal amplification strategy is demonstrated through ELISA, in which the analytical signal was substantially enhanced, with a 32-fold increase in the detection sensitivity compared with the ZZ-AP fusion protein approach. The proposed immunoassay without chemical modification can be an alternative strategy to enhance the analytical signals in various applications involving immunosensors and diagnostic chips, given that the label-free IgG antibody is suitable for the ZZ protein.

  11. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking ...

  12. Transdiagnostic cognitive-behavioral therapy for patients with eating disorders: a two-site trial with 60-week follow-up.

    PubMed

    Fairburn, Christopher G; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A; O'Connor, Marianne E; Bohn, Kristin; Hawker, Deborah M; Wales, Jackie A; Palmer, Robert L

    2009-03-01

    The aim of this study was to compare two cognitive-behavioral treatments for outpatients with eating disorders, one focusing solely on eating disorder features and the other a more complex treatment that also addresses mood intolerance, clinical perfectionism, low self-esteem, or interpersonal difficulties. A total of 154 patients who had a DSM-IV eating disorder but were not markedly underweight (body mass index over 17.5), were enrolled in a two-site randomized controlled trial involving 20 weeks of treatment and a 60-week closed period of follow-up. The control condition was an 8-week waiting list period preceding treatment. Outcomes were measured by independent assessors who were blind to treatment condition. Patients in the waiting list control condition exhibited little change in symptom severity, whereas those in the two treatment conditions exhibited substantial and equivalent change, which was well maintained during follow-up. At the 60-week follow-up assessment, 51.3% of the sample had a level of eating disorder features less than one standard deviation above the community mean. Treatment outcome did not depend on eating disorder diagnosis. Patients with marked mood intolerance, clinical perfectionism, low self-esteem, or interpersonal difficulties appeared to respond better to the more complex treatment, with the reverse pattern evident among the remaining patients. These two transdiagnostic treatments appear to be suitable for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. The simpler treatment may best be viewed as the default version, with the more complex treatment reserved for patients with marked additional psychopathology of the type targeted by the treatment.

  13. Urologic Chronic Pelvic Pain Syndrome Symptom Flares: Characterization of the Full Spectrum of Flares at Two Sites of the Mapp Research Network

    PubMed Central

    Sutcliffe, Siobhan; Colditz, Graham A.; Goodman, Melody S.; Pakpahan, Ratna; Vetter, Joel; Ness, Timothy J.; Andriole, Gerald L.; Lai, H. Henry

    2014-01-01

    Objectives To describe the full spectrum of symptom exacerbations defined by interstitial cystitis/bladder pain syndrome and chronic prostatitis/chronic pelvic pain syndrome patients as flares, and to investigate their associated health-care utilization and bother at two sites of the Trans-Multidisciplinary Approaches to the Study of Chronic Pelvic Pain (Trans-MAPP) Epidemiology and Phenotyping study. Patients and methods Participants completed a flare survey that asked them: 1) whether they had ever had flares (“symptoms that are much worse than usual”) that lasted <1 hr, >1 hr and <1 day, and >1 day; and 2) for each duration of flare, to report their: a) average length and frequency; b) typical levels of urologic and pelvic pain symptoms; and c) levels of health-care utilization and bother. We compared participants' responses to their non-flare Trans-MAPP values and across flares using generalized linear mixed models. Results Seventy six of 85 participants (89.4%) completed the flare survey, 72 of whom reported having flares (94.7%). Flares varied widely in terms of their duration (seconds to months), frequency (several times per day to once per year or less), and intensity and type of symptoms (e.g., pelvic pain versus urologic symptoms). Flares of all duration were associated with greater pelvic pain, urologic symptoms, disruption to participants' activities, and bother, with increasing severity of each of these factors as the duration of flares increased. Days-long flares were also associated with greater health-care utilization. In addition to duration, symptoms (pelvic pain, in particular) were also significant determinants of flare-related bother. Conclusions Our findings suggest that flares are common and associated with greater symptoms, health-care utilization, disruption, and bother. Our findings also inform the characteristics of flares most bothersome to patients (i.e., increased pelvic pain and duration), and thus of greatest importance to

  14. Two Drosophila model neurons can regenerate axons from the stump or from a converted dendrite, with feedback between the two sites.

    PubMed

    Rao, Kavitha S; Rolls, Melissa M

    2017-08-17

    After axon severing, neurons recover function by reinitiating axon outgrowth. New outgrowth often originates from the remaining axon stump. However, in many mammalian neurons, new axons initiate from a dendritic site when the axon is injured close to the cell body. Drosophila sensory neurons are ideal for studying neuronal injury responses because they can be injured reproducibly in a variety of genetic backgrounds. In Drosophila, it has been shown that a complex sensory neuron, ddaC, can regenerate an axon from a stump, and a simple sensory neuron, ddaE, can regenerate an axon from a dendrite. To provide a more complete picture of axon regeneration in these cell types, we performed additional injury types. We found that ddaE neurons can initiate regeneration from an axon stump when a stump remains. We also showed that ddaC neurons regenerate from the dendrite when the axon is severed close to the cell body. We next demonstrated if a stump remains, new axons can originate from this site and a dendrite at the same time. Because cutting the axon close to the cell body results in growth of the new axon from a dendrite, and cutting further out may not, we asked whether the initial response in the cell body was similar after both types of injury. A transcriptional reporter for axon injury signaling, puc-GFP, increased with similar timing and levels after proximal and distal axotomy. However, changes in dendritic microtubule polarity differed in response to the two types of injury, and were influenced by the presence of a scar at the distal axotomy site. We conclude that both ddaE and ddaC can regenerate axons either from the stump or a dendrite, and that there is some feedback between the two sites that modulates dendritic microtubule polarity.

  15. Transdiagnostic Cognitive-Behavioral Therapy for Patients With Eating Disorders: A Two-Site Trial With 60-Week Follow-Up

    PubMed Central

    Fairburn, Christopher G.; Cooper, Zafra; Doll, Helen A.; O’Connor, Marianne E.; Bohn, Kristin; Hawker, Deborah M.; Wales, Jackie A.; Palmer, Robert L.

    2010-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to compare two cognitive-behavioral treatments for outpatients with eating disorders, one focusing solely on eating disorder features and the other a more complex treatment that also addresses mood intolerance, clinical perfectionism, low self-esteem, or interpersonal difficulties. Method A total of 154 patients who had a DSM-IV eating disorder but were not markedly underweight (body mass index over 17.5), were enrolled in a two-site randomized controlled trial involving 20 weeks of treatment and a 60-week closed period of follow-up. The control condition was an 8-week waiting list period preceding treatment. Outcomes were measured by independent assessors who were blind to treatment condition. Results Patients in the waiting list control condition exhibited little change in symptom severity, whereas those in the two treatment conditions exhibited substantial and equivalent change, which was well maintained during follow-up. At the 60-week follow-up assessment, 51.3% of the sample had a level of eating disorder features less than one standard deviation above the community mean. Treatment outcome did not depend on eating disorder diagnosis. Patients with marked mood intolerance, clinical perfectionism, low self-esteem, or interpersonal difficulties appeared to respond better to the more complex treatment, with the reverse pattern evident among the remaining patients. Conclusions These two transdiagnostic treatments appear to be suitable for the majority of outpatients with an eating disorder. The simpler treatment may best be viewed as the default version, with the more complex treatment reserved for patients with marked additional psychopathology of the type targeted by the treatment. PMID:19074978

  16. PM chemical composition and oxidative potential of the soluble fraction of particles at two sites in the urban area of Milan, Northern Italy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Perrone, Maria Grazia; Zhou, Jun; Malandrino, Mery; Sangiorgi, Giorgia; Rizzi, Cristiana; Ferrero, Luca; Dommen, Josef; Bolzacchini, Ezio

    2016-03-01

    Recent epidemiological evidence support the hypothesis that health effects from inhalation of air particles are governed by more than just particle mass, since specific chemical components have been identified as important contributors to mortality and hospitality admissions. We studied the chemical composition and the oxidative potential (OP) of total suspended particle (TSP) samples from Milan at two sites with different traffic loads: a site in the low emission zone (LEZ) and a traffic site (TR) outside. Two a-cellular assays; dithiothreitol (OPDTT) and 2‧,7' dichlorofluorescin (OPDCFH) were used to characterize the OP of the soluble fraction of particles. TSP samples from LEZ showed significantly lower concentrations of traffic-related chemical components compared to TR. The decrease in the concentrations from TR to LEZ was maximum for EC, with a LEZ/TR ratio of 0.64 (±0.18), and a significant reduction (p < 0.01) was also observed for PAHs (LEZ/TR = 0.73 ± 0.16), elements (Mn, Cu, Zn, Cd, Pb: LEZ/TR ranged between 0.64 and 0.82), OC (LEZ/TR = 0.85 ± 0.12) and NH4+ (LEZ/TR = 0.92 ± 0.07). OP measures, expressed as OP/m3 or OP/mg, were comparable between sites both for OPDTT and OPDCFH, thus not showing any significant impact of local traffic on OP values at sites. OPDTT and OPDCFH showed contrasting seasonal and daily trends, indicating that the two a-cellular assays gave complementary information on the OP of particles in Milan. The two OP assays resulted to be sensitive to different chemical properties of PM samples. OPDTT correlated positively only with Global Radiation (Spearman's rs = 0.38, p < 0.05), which could be considered as a proxy for high concentrations of secondary oxidizing organics, while OPDCFH was related to various PM chemical species, mainly correlated with total mass (rs = 0.65; p < 0.01), elements (e.g. Zn, rs = 0.67; As, rs = 0.65; p < 0.01) and the sum of sulfate and nitrate (rs = 0.63; p < 0.01), a proxy for secondary aerosol.

  17. [Effects of blocking two sites of transforming growth factor-β/Smads signaling on the formation of scar-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts].

    PubMed

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Liangping; Lei, Rui; Shen, Yichen; Shen, Hui; Wu, Zhinan; Xu, Jinghong

    2015-10-01

    To explore the effects of blocking two sites of TGF-β/Smads signaling on the formation of scar-related proteins in human skin fibroblasts. Two lentivirus vectors encoding soluble TGF-β receptor II (sTβRII) and mutant Smad 4-Smad 4ΔM4 were respectively transfected into human skin fibroblast cell line human foreskin fibroblast 1 (HFF-1) cells with the optimum multiplicity of infection (MOI) of 50. The protein expressions of sTβRII and Smad 4ΔM4 of the two types of transfected cells were determined by Western blotting so as to compare with those of the untransfected cells. The HFF-1 cells were divided into 6 groups as named below according to the random number table, with 6 dishes in each group, 1×10(4) cells per dish. Co-transfection group, transfected with the two previous lentivirus vectors, mixed with the ratio of 1:1 and MOI of 50, and then stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 72 h; sTβRII group, transfected with lenti-sTβRII with MOI of 50, with the other treatment as above; Smad 4ΔM4 group, transfected with lenti-Smad 4ΔM4 with MOI of 50, with the other treatment as above; negative virus group, transfected with empty lentivirus vector, with the other treatment as above; positive control group, stimulated with 5 ng/mL TGF-β1 for 72 h; and blank control group, conventionally cultured without any other treatment. After stimulation, Western blotting and real-time fluorescent quantitative RT-PCR were respectively used to determine the protein and mRNA expressions of fibronectin in cells of each group. ELISA and Sircol collagen assay were respectively used to determine the protein expressions of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) and total collagen in the cell culture supernate of each group. Data were processed with one-way analysis of variance and SNK-(q test). (1) HFF-1 cells transfected with lenti-sTβRII and HFF-1 cells transfected with lenti-Smad 4ΔM4 respectively expressed higher levels of sTβRII protein and Smad 4ΔM4 protein compared with

  18. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  19. Imaging Shallow Aquitard Breaches with P waves: Results from a Walk-away test and a Reflection Survey at two Sites in Memphis, Tennessee, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ge, J.; Magnani, M.; Waldron, B. A.

    2006-12-01

    We present the results of two seismic reflection experiments conducted in the Great Memphis area in April and July 2006. The two experiments consisted in a walk-away test and in the acquisition of a 1 km seismic reflection profile. The acquisition of the seismic data is part of a larger effort aimed at imaging the lateral continuity of the Upper Claiborne confining clay that separates the Memphis aquifer, the region's primary drinking water source, from the upper unconfined aquifer and protects the drinking aquifer from exposure to potential contamination. During the walk-away test, four P-wave sources, a 7.5 kg sledge hammer, a 20 kg weight drop, a 12-gauge Buffalo gun, and a Minivibe source were tested at two sites with the goal of selecting the best P-wave seismic source and acquisition parameters for shallow reflection surveys. Boreholes nearby both sites encountered the Upper Claiborne unit at a depth ranging from 10 m to 40 m. One site is located within a 100-meter length of road median that can be considered an urban environment. The second site is located at Shelby Farms within the City of Memphis yet reflects a rural setting with minimal noise and no subsurface infrastructure. Performing identical walk-away tests at both sites, the results indicate that the energy source selection is site dependent. At the urban site, the energy generated by the weight drop source is more coherent and can be interpreted with more confidence on the recorded data. However the Shelby Farms site the 12-gauge shotgun produced the strongest recorded energy, the highest dominant frequency and the broadest frequency band (6- 110 Hz). Strong attenuations are observed at both sites with a much higher attenuation in the urban road median site, where the near surface materials consisted of gravels, sands, clays, and pebbles. For both sites, surface waves and refractions dominate the seismic recordings. Filtering and gain of the data revealed the presence of shallow reflections related

  20. A brief patient self-administered substance use screening tool for primary care: two-site validation study of the Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS)

    PubMed Central

    McNeely, Jennifer; Strauss, Shiela M; Saitz, Richard; Cleland, Charles M; Palamar, Joseph J; Rotrosen, John; Gourevitch, Marc N

    2015-01-01

    Background Substance use screening is widely encouraged in healthcare settings, but the lack of a screening approach that fits easily into clinical workflows has restricted its broad implementation. The Substance Use Brief Screen (SUBS) was developed as a brief, self-administered instrument to identify unhealthy use of tobacco, alcohol, illicit drugs, and prescription drugs. We evaluated the validity and test-retest reliability of the SUBS in adult primary care patients. Methods Adults age 18-65 were enrolled from urban safety net primary care clinics to self-administer the SUBS using touch-screen tablet computers for a test-retest reliability study (n=54) and a two-site validation study (n=586). In the test-retest reliability study, the SUBS was administered twice within a 2-week period. In the validation study, the SUBS was compared to reference standard measures, including self-reported measures and saliva drug tests. We measured test-retest reliability and diagnostic accuracy of the SUBS for detection of unhealthy use and substance use disorder for tobacco, alcohol, and drugs (illicit and prescription drug misuse). Results Test-retest reliability was good or excellent for each substance class. For detection of unhealthy use, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 97.8% (95% CI 93.7 to 99.5) and 95.7% (95% CI 92.4 to 97.8), respectively, for tobacco; and 85.2% (95% CI 79.3 to 89.9) and 77.0% (95% CI 72.6 to 81.1) for alcohol. For unhealthy use of illicit or prescription drugs, sensitivity was 82.5% (95% CI 75.7 to 88.0) and specificity 91.1% (95% CI 87.9 to 93.6). With respect to identifying a substance use disorder, the SUBS had sensitivity and specificity of 100.0% (95% CI 92.7 to 100.0) and 72.1% (95% CI 67.1 to 76.8) for tobacco; 93.5% (95% CI 85.5 to 97.9) and 64.6% (95% CI 60.2 to 68.7) for alcohol; and 85.7% (95% CI 77.2 to 92.0) and 82.0% (95% CI 78.2 to 85.3) for drugs. Analyses of area under the receiver operating curve (AUC) indicated good

  1. The role of the organic layer for phosphorus nutrition of young beech trees (Fagus sylvatica L.) at two sites differing in soil Phosphorus availability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hauenstein, Simon

    2016-04-01

    Simon Hauenstein1, Thomas Pütz2, and Yvonne Oelmann1, 1 Geoecology, Department of Geosciences, University of Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany 2 Agrosphere (IBG-3), Forschungszentrum Jülich, Jülich, Germany The accumulation of an organic layer in forests is linked to the ratio between litterfall rates and decomposition rates with decomposition rates being decelerated due to acidification and associated nutrient depletion with proceeding ecosystem development. Nevertheless, the nutrient pool in the organic layer might still represent an important source for Phosphorus (P) nutrition of forests on nutrient-poor soils. Our objective was to assess the importance of the organic layer to P nutrition of young beech trees at two sites differing in soil P availability. We established a mesocosm experiment including plants and soil from a Phosphorus depleted forest site on a Haplic Podzol in Lüss and a Phosphorus rich forest site on a Eutric Cambisol in Bad Brückenau either with or without the organic layer. After 1 year under outdoor conditions, we applied 33P to the pots. After 0h, 24h, 48h, 96h, 192h, 528h we destructively harvested the young beech trees (separated into leaves, branches, stems) and sampled the organic layer and mineral soil of the pots. In each soil horizon we measured concentrations of resin-extractable P, plant available P fractions and total P. We extracted the xylem sap of the whole 2-year-old trees by means of scholander pressure bomb. 33P activity was measured for every compartment in soil and plant. The applied 33P was recovered mainly in the organic layer in Lüss, whereas it was evenly distributed among organic and mineral horizons in pots of Bad Brückenau soil. Comparing pots with and without an organic layer, the specific 33P activity differed by 323% between pots with and without an organic layer present in the Lüss soil. For both sites, the presence of the organic layer increased 33P activity in xylem sap compared to the treatment without

  2. Rapid Reading, Yes

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Frommer, Harvey

    1971-01-01

    Recommends instruction in rapid reading fo high school and college students and asserts that flexibility of speed and reasoning provide the foundation for effective rapid reading. Describes the components of rapid reading as orientation, selection, clarification, arrangement, review, and study. (RW)

  3. Rapidly solidified materials, 1985

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, P.W.; Carbonara, R.S.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the papers given at a conference on phase transformations in metals. Topics considered at the conference included rapidly solidified titanium alloys, aging response of rapidly solidified titanium-tungsten alloys, silicon diffusion in amorphous alloys, crystalline transformation, structural relaxation, crystallization, surface oxidation, metallic glasses, magnetic properties, calorimetry, microscopy, nucleation, texture formation, austenitic steels, elevated temperature ductility loss, precipitation in a rapidly solidified alloy, energy savings through the use of amorphous steels in distribution transformers, and a review of the uses of rapidly quenched materials by the major industrial groups.

  4. Gifted Rapid Readers.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Schale, Florence

    A preliminary study is reported which attempted to define gifted rapid readers, authenticate the performances of three subjects who were designated as gifted rapid readers, and explore the relationship of a subject's ability to perceive print eidetically and to read and/or skim. Volunteer subjects were a 15-year-old girl from the Philippines, a…

  5. Modeling rapidly rotating stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rieutord, M.

    2006-06-01

    We review the quest of modeling rapidly rotating stars during the past 40 years and detail the challenges to be taken up by models facing new data from interferometry, seismology, spectroscopy... We then present the progress of the ESTER project aimed at giving a physically self-consistent model for the structure and evolution of rapidly rotating stars.

  6. Rapid improvement teams.

    PubMed

    Alemi, F; Moore, S; Headrick, L; Neuhauser, D; Hekelman, F; Kizys, N

    1998-03-01

    Suggestions, most of which are supported by empirical studies, are provided on how total quality management (TQM) teams can be used to bring about faster organizationwide improvements. Ideas are offered on how to identify the right problem, have rapid meetings, plan rapidly, collect data rapidly, and make rapid whole-system changes. Suggestions for identifying the right problem include (1) postpone benchmarking when problems are obvious, (2) define the problem in terms of customer experience so as not to blame employees nor embed a solution in the problem statement, (3) communicate with the rest of the organization from the start, (4) state the problem from different perspectives, and (5) break large problems into smaller units. Suggestions for having rapid meetings include (1) choose a nonparticipating facilitator to expedite meetings, (2) meet with each team member before the team meeting, (3) postpone evaluation of ideas, and (4) rethink conclusions of a meeting before acting on them. Suggestions for rapid planning include reducing time spent on flowcharting by focusing on the future, not the present. Suggestions for rapid data collection include (1) sample patients for surveys, (2) rely on numerical estimates by process owners, and (3) plan for rapid data collection. Suggestions for rapid organizationwide implementation include (1) change membership on cross-functional teams, (2) get outside perspectives, (3) use unfolding storyboards, and (4) go beyond self-interest to motivate lasting change in the organization. Additional empirical investigations of time saved as a consequence of the strategies provided are needed. If organizations solve their problems rapidly, fewer unresolved problems may remain.

  7. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  8. Rapid Airplane Parametric Input Design (RAPID)

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smith, Robert E.

    1995-01-01

    RAPID is a methodology and software system to define a class of airplane configurations and directly evaluate surface grids, volume grids, and grid sensitivity on and about the configurations. A distinguishing characteristic which separates RAPID from other airplane surface modellers is that the output grids and grid sensitivity are directly applicable in CFD analysis. A small set of design parameters and grid control parameters govern the process which is incorporated into interactive software for 'real time' visual analysis and into batch software for the application of optimization technology. The computed surface grids and volume grids are suitable for a wide range of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulation. The general airplane configuration has wing, fuselage, horizontal tail, and vertical tail components. The double-delta wing and tail components are manifested by solving a fourth order partial differential equation (PDE) subject to Dirichlet and Neumann boundary conditions. The design parameters are incorporated into the boundary conditions and therefore govern the shapes of the surfaces. The PDE solution yields a smooth transition between boundaries. Surface grids suitable for CFD calculation are created by establishing an H-type topology about the configuration and incorporating grid spacing functions in the PDE equation for the lifting components and the fuselage definition equations. User specified grid parameters govern the location and degree of grid concentration. A two-block volume grid about a configuration is calculated using the Control Point Form (CPF) technique. The interactive software, which runs on Silicon Graphics IRIS workstations, allows design parameters to be continuously varied and the resulting surface grid to be observed in real time. The batch software computes both the surface and volume grids and also computes the sensitivity of the output grid with respect to the input design parameters by applying the precompiler tool

  9. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.; Shu, Huidy; Haman, Aissa; Sejvar, James J.; Miller, Bruce L.

    2009-01-01

    In contrast with more common dementing conditions that typically develop over years, rapidly progressive dementias can develop subacutely over months, weeks, or even days and be quickly fatal. Because many rapidly progressive dementias are treatable, it is paramount to evaluate and diagnose these patients quickly. This review summarizes recent advances in the understanding of the major categories of RPD and outlines efficient approaches to the diagnosis of the various neurodegenerative, toxic-metabolic, infectious, autoimmune, neoplastic, and other conditions that may progress rapidly. PMID:18668637

  10. Rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease.

    PubMed

    Schmidt, Christian; Wolff, Martin; Weitz, Michael; Bartlau, Thomas; Korth, Carsten; Zerr, Inga

    2011-09-01

    Different rates of progression have been observed among patients with Alzheimer disease. Risk factors that accelerate deterioration have been identified and some are being discussed, such as genetics, comorbidity, and the early appearance of Alzheimer disease motor signs. Progressive forms of Alzheimer disease have been reported with rapid cognitive decline and disease duration of only a few years. This short review aims to provide an overview of the current knowledge of rapidly progressive Alzheimer disease. Furthermore, we suggest that rapid, in this context, should be defined as a Mini-Mental State Examination score decrease of 6 points per year.

  11. Hydropower RAPID Toolkit

    SciTech Connect

    2016-12-01

    This fact sheet provides a brief overview of the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Hydropower Regulatory and Permitting Information Desktop (RAPID) Toolkit including its capabilities, features, and benefits.

  12. ISS-RapidScat

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2014-01-22

    Artist rendering of NASA ISS-RapidScat instrument inset, which will launch to the International Space Station in 2014 to measure ocean surface wind speed and direction and help improve weather forecasts, including hurricane monitoring.

  13. RAPID and DDS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Utz, Hans Heinrich

    2011-01-01

    This talk gives an overview of the the Robot Applications Programmers Interface Delegate (RAPID) as well as the distributed systems middleware Data Distribution Service (DDS). DDS is an open software standard, RAPID is cleared for open-source release under NOSA. RAPID specifies data-structures and semantics for high-level telemetry published by NASA robotic software. These data-structures are supported by multiple robotic platforms at Johnson Space Center (JSC), Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL) and Ames Research Center (ARC), providing high-level interoperability between those platforms. DDS is used as the middleware for data transfer. The feature set of the middleware heavily influences the design decision made in the RAPID specification. So it is appropriate to discuss both in this introductory talk.

  14. Deconstruction Rapid Assessment Tool

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Deconstruction Rapid Assessment Tool (EPA 905-F-15-001) instructions, form and spreadsheet for assessing and triaging structures being considered for deconstruction. Promote environmental stewardship and economic revitalization through deconstruction.

  15. Rapid road repair vehicle

    SciTech Connect

    Mara, L.M.

    1999-09-07

    Disclosed are improvements to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  16. Rapid small lot manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Harrigan, R.W.

    1998-05-09

    The direct connection of information, captured in forms such as CAD databases, to the factory floor is enabling a revolution in manufacturing. Rapid response to very dynamic market conditions is becoming the norm rather than the exception. In order to provide economical rapid fabrication of small numbers of variable products, one must design with manufacturing constraints in mind. In addition, flexible manufacturing systems must be programmed automatically to reduce the time for product change over in the factory and eliminate human errors. Sensor based machine control is needed to adapt idealized, model based machine programs to uncontrolled variables such as the condition of raw materials and fabrication tolerances.

  17. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1999-01-01

    Disclosed are improvments to a rapid road repair vehicle comprising an improved cleaning device arrangement, two dispensing arrays for filling defects more rapidly and efficiently, an array of pre-heaters to heat the road way surface in order to help the repair material better bond to the repaired surface, a means for detecting, measuring, and computing the number, location and volume of each of the detected surface imperfection, and a computer means schema for controlling the operation of the plurality of vehicle subsystems. The improved vehicle is, therefore, better able to perform its intended function of filling surface imperfections while moving over those surfaces at near normal traffic speeds.

  18. Rapid Cycling and Its Treatment

    MedlinePlus

    ... may be rapid, ultra-rapid or ultradian cycling. Biological rhythm disturbances: This theory proposes that people with rapid cycling have daily biological rhythms that are out of sync with typical “ ...

  19. Navigate the Digital Rapids

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindsay, Julie; Davis, Vicki

    2010-01-01

    How can teachers teach digital citizenship when the digital landscape is changing so rapidly? How can teachers teach proper online social interactions when the students are outside their classroom and thus outside their control? Will encouraging students to engage in global collaborative environments land teachers in hot water? These are the…

  20. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  1. Rapid Prototyping in PVS

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Munoz, Cesar A.; Butler, Ricky (Technical Monitor)

    2003-01-01

    PVSio is a conservative extension to the PVS prelude library that provides basic input/output capabilities to the PVS ground evaluator. It supports rapid prototyping in PVS by enhancing the specification language with built-in constructs for string manipulation, floating point arithmetic, and input/output operations.

  2. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  3. Rapid response deluge system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mille, J. R.

    1984-08-01

    The development of a rapid response deluge system by the Ammunition Equipment Directorate (AED) for use in suppressing propellant fires during demilitarization shows great promise. Prototype systems have been tested and data acquired on their efficiencies. Present system vs previous generations and lessons learned are discussed.

  4. Rapid Prototyping Reconsidered

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Desrosier, James

    2011-01-01

    Continuing educators need additional strategies for developing new programming that can both reduce the time to market and lower the cost of development. Rapid prototyping, a time-compression technique adapted from the high technology industry, represents one such strategy that merits renewed evaluation. Although in higher education rapid…

  5. AFRPL Rapid Indexing System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Beltran, Alfred A.

    A modified Keyword Out of Context (KWOC) system was developed to gain rapid control over more than 8,000 scattered, unindexed documents. This was the first step in providing the technical information support required by Air Force Rocket Propulsion Laboratory scientists and engineers. Implementation of the KWOC system, computer routines, and…

  6. Rapid wetting dynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carlson, Andreas; Bellani, Gabriele; Amberg, Gustav

    2010-11-01

    Contact lines between solids and liquid or gas interfaces appear in very many instances of fluid flows. This could be coffee stains, water-oil mixtures in oil recovery, hydrophobic feet of insects or leaves in nature. In the present work we elucidate some of the wetting physics governing the very rapid wetting. Experimental and numerical results of spontaneously spreading droplets are presented, where focus is directed towards understanding the very rapid flow regime and highly dynamic initial wetting phase, where the contact line speed is limited by dissipative processes on a molecular scale occurring at the contact line. In particular we show the influence of the surface wettability and the liquid viscosity on the spreading dynamics, such as the contact line motion and dynamic contact angle in time.

  7. Rapid climate change

    SciTech Connect

    Morantine, M.C.

    1995-12-31

    Interactions between insolation changes due to orbital parameter variations, carbon dioxide concentration variations, the rate of deep water formation in the North Atlantic and the evolution of the northern hemisphere ice sheets during the most recent glacial cycle will be investigated. In order to investigate this period, a climate model is being developed to evaluate the physical mechanisms thought to be most significant during this period. The description of the model sub-components will be presented. The more one knows about the interactions between the sub-components of the climate system during periods of documented rapid climate change, the better equipped one will be to make rational decisions on issues related to impacts on the environment. This will be an effort to gauge the feedback processes thought to be instrumental in rapid climate shifts documented in the past, and their potential to influence the current climate. 53 refs.

  8. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, L.M.

    1998-05-05

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find at the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was not heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past. 2 figs.

  9. Rapid road repair vehicle

    DOEpatents

    Mara, Leo M.

    1998-01-01

    Disclosed is a rapid road repair vehicle capable of moving over a surface to be repaired at near normal posted traffic speeds to scan for and find an the high rate of speed, imperfections in the pavement surface, prepare the surface imperfection for repair by air pressure and vacuum cleaning, applying a correct amount of the correct patching material to effect the repair, smooth the resulting repaired surface, and catalog the location and quality of the repairs for maintenance records of the road surface. The rapid road repair vehicle can repair surface imperfections at lower cost, improved quality, at a higher rate of speed than was was heretofor possible, with significantly reduced exposure to safety and health hazards associated with this kind of road repair activities in the past.

  10. Rapid Detection of Pathogens

    SciTech Connect

    David Perlin

    2005-08-14

    Pathogen identification is a crucial first defense against bioterrorism. A major emphasis of our national biodefense strategy is to establish fast, accurate and sensitive assays for diagnosis of infectious diseases agents. Such assays will ensure early and appropriate treatment of infected patients. Rapid diagnostics can also support infection control measures, which monitor and limit the spread of infectious diseases agents. Many select agents are highly transmissible in the early stages of disease, and it is critical to identify infected patients and limit the risk to the remainder of the population and to stem potential panic in the general population. Nucleic acid-based molecular approaches for identification overcome many of the deficiencies associated with conventional culture methods by exploiting both large- and small-scale genomic differences between organisms. PCR-based amplification of highly conserved ribosomal RNA (rRNA) genes, intergenic sequences, and specific toxin genes is currently the most reliable approach for bacterial, fungal and many viral pathogenic agents. When combined with fluorescence-based oligonucleotide detection systems, this approach provides real-time, quantitative, high fidelity analysis capable of single nucleotide allelic discrimination (4). These probe systems offer rapid turn around time (<2 h) and are suitable for high throughput, automated multiplex operations that are critical for clinical diagnostic laboratories. In this pilot program, we have used molecular beacon technology invented at the Public health Research Institute to develop a new generation of molecular probes to rapidly detect important agents of infectious diseases. We have also developed protocols to rapidly extract nucleic acids from a variety of clinical specimen including and blood and tissue to for detection in the molecular assays. This work represented a cooperative research development program between the Kramer-Tyagi/Perlin labs on probe development

  11. Rapidly refuelable fuel cell

    DOEpatents

    Joy, R.W.

    1982-09-20

    A rapidly refuelable dual cell of an electrochemical type is described wherein a single anode cooperates with two cathodes and wherein the anode has a fixed position and the cathodes are urged toward opposite faces of the anodes at constant and uniform force. The associated cathodes are automatically retractable to permit the consumed anode remains to be removed from the housing and a new anode inserted between the two cathodes.

  12. Rapid Runway Repair Study.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    This report describes a series of tests to evaluate a system for rapidly repairing airfield pavement using polymer concrete (synthetic polymer plus...aggregate), thermally cured by microwave power. The technique, developed by the Syracuse University Research Corporation (SURC) for highway...maintenance, uses a truck-mounted 50-kilowatt microwave generator to irradiate areas patched with polymer concrete . Test results indicate that the polymer

  13. Rapid frequency scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-08-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x, y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5T(2) after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5T(2). However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5T(2), even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B(1), periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation.

  14. Rapidly Progressive Dementia

    PubMed Central

    Geschwind, Michael D.

    2016-01-01

    Purpose of Review This article presents a practical and informative approach to the evaluation of a patient with a rapidly progressive dementia (RPD). Recent Findings Prion diseases are the prototypical causes of RPD, but reversible causes of RPD might mimic prion disease and should always be considered in a differential diagnosis. Aside from prion diseases, the most common causes of RPD are atypical presentations of other neurodegenerative disorders, curable disorders including autoimmune encephalopathies, as well as some infections, and neoplasms. Numerous recent case reports suggest dural arterial venous fistulas sometimes cause RPDs. Summary RPDs, in which patients typically develop dementia over weeks to months, require an alternative differential than the slowly progressive dementias that occur over a few years. Because of their rapid decline, patients with RPDs necessitate urgent evaluation and often require an extensive workup, typically with multiple tests being sent or performed concurrently. Jakob-Creutzfeldt disease, perhaps the prototypical RPD, is often the first diagnosis many neurologists consider when treating a patient with rapid cognitive decline. Many conditions other than prion disease, however, including numerous reversible or curable conditions, can present as an RPD. This chapter discusses some of the major etiologies for RPDs and offers an algorithm for diagnosis. PMID:27042906

  15. Rapid Frequency Scan EPR

    PubMed Central

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A.; Quine, Richard W.; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2011-01-01

    In rapid frequency scan EPR with triangular scans, sufficient time must be allowed to insure that the magnetization in the x,y plane decays to baseline at the end of the scan, which typically is about 5 T2 after the spins are excited. To permit relaxation of signals excited toward the extremes of the scan the total scan time required may be much longer than 5 T2. However, with periodic, saw-tooth excitation, the slow-scan EPR spectrum can be recovered by Fourier deconvolution of data recorded with a total scan period of 5 T2, even if some spins are excited later in the scan. This scan time is similar to polyphase excitation methods. The peak power required for either polyphase excitation or rapid frequency scans is substantially smaller than for pulsed EPR. The use of an arbitrary waveform generator (AWG) and cross loop resonator facilitated implementation of the rapid frequency scan experiments reported here. The use of constant continuous low B1, periodic excitation waveform, and constant external magnetic field is similar to polyphase excitation, but could be implemented without the AWG that is required for polyphase excitation. PMID:21664848

  16. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process is often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts were developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens are cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press bonding. The development of rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1003 and D3163), for aerospace panel bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric matrix composite structures are reviewed.

  17. Rapid Target Locator

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bisbee, John

    1985-12-01

    Like beauty, "real time" is in the eye of the beholder. Airborne electro-optical (EO) reconnaissance systems can transmit an image in real time to a display in an imagery interpreter's (II) console, but it then takes around 15 min for the II to issue his report. Thus, while the II sees real-time imagery, the officer in the field who requested the coverage sees a report that is not real time and that may be rapidly losing its value. The greatest delay in issuing the report comes from having to determine where the target is. This is currently done on the Analytical Photogrammetric Positioning System (APPS) that uses stereophotomaps to determine the x, y, z coordinates of a point on the ground; it takes many minutes to measure the position of each target. Our goal is to reduce that portion of the recce cycle that uses Itek technology--from time over target to issuance of a report--to less than 2 min. A still shorter time would be desirable in the face of rapidly moving targets,, but there is little point in making the time negligible compared to that required for Oil to evaluate the report and issue orders, plus the time required to respond to the orders. It is clear that we can achieve this 2-min goal only if we can greatly reduce the time it now takes to determine the location of a target. The accuracy with which a target is located should not suffer while the time is reduced. There is a tradeoff to be made between timeliness and accuracy when the target is moving: neither short time with poor accuracy nor high accuracy with long time is desirable. We have arbitrarily adopted goals in which a target can be located to about 100 ft in less than half a minute. The experiments reported here investigated one concept, called Rapid Target Locator (RATL), for achieving this performance.

  18. Right-Rapid-Rough

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lawrence, Craig

    2003-01-01

    IDEO (pronounced 'eye-dee-oh') is an international design, engineering, and innovation firm that has developed thousands of products and services for clients across a wide range of industries. Its process and culture attracted the attention of academics, businesses, and journalists around the world, and are the subject of a bestselling book, The Art of Innovation by Tom Kelley. One of the keys to IDEO's success is its use of prototyping as a tool for rapid innovation. This story covers some of IDEO's projects, and gives reasons for why they were successful.

  19. Pakistan RAPID III.

    PubMed

    Bhatti, M U

    1990-01-01

    The author describes the software called RAPID (Resources for the Awareness of Population Impact on Development), which was developed by the Futures Group, a U.S. company. The software is designed for IBM-PCs and compatibles, with a configuration that includes 640K RAM, a fixed disk drive, and DOS 2.0 or higher. The application in Pakistan of this software in an information, education, and communication program sponsored by the National Institute of Population Studies, including the translation of the software into Urdu, is briefly outlined.

  20. Models of Rapid Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, G. H.; Broughton, J. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Laser annealing studies provide much information on various consequences of rapid solidification, including the trapping of impurities in the crystal, the generation of vacancies and twins, and on the fundamental limits to the speed of the crystal-melt interface. Some results obtained by molecular dynamics methods of the solidification of a Lennard-Jones liquid are reviewed. An indication of the relationship of interface speed to undercooling for certain materials can be derived from this model. Ising model simulations of impurity trapping in silicon are compared with some of the laser annealing results. The consequences of interface segregation and atomic strain are discussed.

  1. Models of Rapid Solidification

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gilmer, G. H.; Broughton, J. Q.

    1984-01-01

    Laser annealing studies provide much information on various consequences of rapid solidification, including the trapping of impurities in the crystal, the generation of vacancies and twins, and on the fundamental limits to the speed of the crystal-melt interface. Some results obtained by molecular dynamics methods of the solidification of a Lennard-Jones liquid are reviewed. An indication of the relationship of interface speed to undercooling for certain materials can be derived from this model. Ising model simulations of impurity trapping in silicon are compared with some of the laser annealing results. The consequences of interface segregation and atomic strain are discussed.

  2. Rapid and Quiet Drill

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sherrit, Stewart; Badescu, Mircea; Bar-Cohen, Yoseph; Chang, Zensheu; Bao, Xiaoqi

    2007-01-01

    This describes aspects of the rapid and quiet drill (RAQD), which is a prototype apparatus for drilling concrete or bricks. The design and basic principle of operation of the RAQD overlap, in several respects, with those of ultrasonic/ sonic drilling and coring apparatuses described in a number of previous NASA Tech Briefs articles. The main difference is that whereas the actuation scheme of the prior apparatuses is partly ultrasonic and partly sonic, the actuation scheme of the RAQD is purely ultrasonic. Hence, even though the RAQD generates considerable sound, it is characterized as quiet because most or all of the sound is above the frequency range of human hearing.

  3. FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    Carol J. Johnstone and Shane Koscielniak

    2002-09-30

    When large transverse and longitudinal emittances are to be transported through a circular machine, extremely rapid acceleration holds the advantage that the beam becomes immune to nonlinear resonances because there is insufficient time for amplitudes to build up. Uncooled muon beams exhibit large emittances and require fast acceleration to avoid decay losses and would benefit from this style of acceleration. The approach here employs a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG magnet structure and a fixed frequency acceleration system. Acceptance is enhanced by the use only of linear lattice elements, and fixed-frequency rf enables the use of cavities with large shunt resistance and quality factor.

  4. Rapid prototype and test

    SciTech Connect

    Gregory, D.L.; Hansche, B.D.

    1996-06-01

    In order to support advanced manufacturing, Sandia has acquired the capability to produce plastic prototypes using stereolithography. Currently, these prototypes are used mainly to verify part geometry and ``fit and form`` checks. This project investigates methods for rapidly testing these plastic prototypes, and inferring from prototype test data actual metal part performance and behavior. Performances examined include static load/stress response, and structural dynamic (modal) and vibration behavior. The integration of advanced non-contacting measurement techniques including scanning laser velocimetry, laser holography, and thermoelasticity into testing of these prototypes is described. Photoelastic properties of the epoxy prototypes to reveal full field stress/strain fields are also explored.

  5. Rapid Decisions From Experience

    PubMed Central

    Zeigenfuse, Matthew D.; Pleskac, Timothy J.; Liu, Taosheng

    2014-01-01

    In many everyday decisions, people quickly integrate noisy samples of information to form a preference among alternatives that offer uncertain rewards. Here, we investigated this decision process using the Flash Gambling Task (FGT), in which participants made a series of choices between a certain payoff and an uncertain alternative that produced a normal distribution of payoffs. For each choice, participants experienced the distribution of payoffs via rapid samples updated every 50 ms. We show that people can make these rapid decisions from experience and that the decision process is consistent with a sequential sampling process. Results also reveal a dissociation between these preferential decisions and equivalent perceptual decisions where participants had to determine which alternatives contained more dots on average. To account for this dissociation, we developed a sequential sampling rank-dependent utility model, which showed that participants in the FGT attended more to larger potential payoffs than participants in the perceptual task despite being given equivalent information. We discuss the implications of these findings in terms of computational models of preferential choice and a more complete understanding of experience-based decision making. PMID:24549141

  6. Advances in rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, C. L.; McCarty, G. D.; Pardo, B. T.; Bryce, E. A.

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System's QuickCast(trademark) resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast(trademark) resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. They use the selective laser sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  7. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM)

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-02-18

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Today markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies, to survive, have to be able to respond with quick-to-market, improved, high quality, cost efficient products. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies. The RRM project was established to leverage the expertise and resources of US private industries and federal agencies to develop, integrate, and deploy new technologies that meet critical needs for effective product realization. The RRM program addressed a needed change in the US Manufacturing infrastructure that will ensure US competitiveness in world market typified by mass customization. This project provided the effort needed to define, develop and establish a customizable infrastructure for rapid response product development design and manufacturing. A major project achievement was the development of a broad-based framework for automating and integrating the product and process design and manufacturing activities involved with machined parts. This was accomplished by coordinating and extending the application of feature-based product modeling, knowledge-based systems, integrated data management, and direct manufacturing technologies in a cooperative integrated computing environment. Key technological advancements include a product model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering environment, knowledge-based software aids for design and process planning, and new production technologies to make products directly from design application software.

  8. The Rapid Burster

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2017-01-31

    These four images show an artist's impression of gas accreting onto the neutron star in the binary system MXB 1730-335, also known as the "Rapid Burster." In such a binary system, the gravitational pull of the dense neutron star is stripping gas away from its stellar companion (a low-mass star, not shown in these images). The gas forms an accretion disk and spirals towards the neutron star. Observations of the Rapid Burster using three X-ray space telescopes -- NASA's NuSTAR and Swift, and ESA's XMM-Newton -- have revealed what happens around the neutron star before and during a so-called "type-II" burst. These bursts are sudden, erratic and extremely intense releases of X-rays that liberate enormous amounts of energy during periods when very little emission occurs otherwise. Before the burst, the fast-spinning magnetic field of the neutron star keeps the gas flowing from the companion star at bay, preventing it from reaching closer to the neutron star and effectively creating an inner edge at the center of the disk (Figure 1, panel 1). During this phase, only small amounts of gas leak towards the neutron star. However, as the gas continues to flow and accumulate near this edge, it spins faster and faster. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA21418

  9. Diet for rapid weight loss

    MedlinePlus

    ... diet; VLCD; Low-calorie diet; LCD; Very low energy diet; Weight loss - rapid weight loss; Overweight - rapid ... AM, Aveyard P. Clinical effectiveness of very-low-energy diets in the management of weight loss: a ...

  10. RAVE: Rapid Visualization Environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Klumpar, D. M.; Anderson, Kevin; Simoudis, Avangelos

    1994-01-01

    Visualization is used in the process of analyzing large, multidimensional data sets. However, the selection and creation of visualizations that are appropriate for the characteristics of a particular data set and the satisfaction of the analyst's goals is difficult. The process consists of three tasks that are performed iteratively: generate, test, and refine. The performance of these tasks requires the utilization of several types of domain knowledge that data analysts do not often have. Existing visualization systems and frameworks do not adequately support the performance of these tasks. In this paper we present the RApid Visualization Environment (RAVE), a knowledge-based system that interfaces with commercial visualization frameworks and assists a data analyst in quickly and easily generating, testing, and refining visualizations. RAVE was used for the visualization of in situ measurement data captured by spacecraft.

  11. Solid state rapid thermocycling

    DOEpatents

    Beer, Neil Reginald; Spadaccini, Christopher

    2014-05-13

    The rapid thermal cycling of a material is targeted. A solid state heat exchanger with a first well and second well is coupled to a power module. A thermoelectric element is coupled to the first well, the second well, and the power module, is configured to transfer thermal energy from the first well to the second well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a first direction, and is configured to transfer thermal energy from the second well to the first well when current from the power module flows through the thermoelectric element in a second direction. A controller may be coupled to the thermoelectric elements, and may switch the direction of current flowing through the thermoelectric element in response to a determination by sensors coupled to the wells that the amount of thermal energy in the wells falls below or exceeds a pre-determined threshold.

  12. Rapid Prototyping Roadmapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.

    1998-01-01

    Roadmapping has long been thought of as a process for getting from point A to point B within a single discipline. Roadmapping for Rapid Prototyping has multiple paths of which we will diagram in this meeting. When you consider the dynamic change that the computer has made in both developing as well as manufacturing products, we could only assume that further electronic medium matched with mechanical inventions will continue. This industry roadmap is intended to point and lead us to the promised manufacturing land. We hope to reduce the inherent risk associated with technology development by providing a clear goal of mapping to a manufacturing process. The work of DoE in 1994 was excellent and began a journey that would benefit the decision makers and allow for choices that would be good investment decisions. While this work included government agencies, this map is broader and includes industry and academia input.

  13. Rapid diagnosis of sepsis

    PubMed Central

    Bloos, Frank; Reinhart, Konrad

    2014-01-01

    Fast and appropriate therapy is the cornerstone in the therapy of sepsis. However, the discrimination of sepsis from non-infectious causes of inflammation may be difficult. Biomarkers have been suggested to aid physicians in this decision. There is currently no biochemical technique available which alone allows a rapid and reliable discrimination between sepsis and non-infectious inflammation. Procalcitonin (PCT) is currently the most investigated biomarker for this purpose. C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 perform inferior to PCT in most studies and their value in diagnosing sepsis is not defined. All biomarkers including PCT are also released after various non-infectious inflammatory impacts. This shortcoming needs to be taken into account when biomarkers are used to aid the physician in the diagnosis of sepsis. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) based pathogen detection may improve time to adequate therapy but cannot rule out the presence of infection when negative. PMID:24335467

  14. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Mathew W. (Inventor)

    2011-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal or transverse direction at the tip, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip. Each measured change in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference signals, with each reference signal identified with a polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component. The tip preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  15. A two-site, two-arm, 34-week, double-blind, parallel-group, randomized controlled trial of reduced nicotine cigarettes in smokers with mood and/or anxiety disorders: trial design and protocol.

    PubMed

    Allen, Sophia I; Foulds, Jonathan; Pachas, Gladys N; Veldheer, Susan; Cather, Corinne; Azzouz, Nour; Hrabovsky, Shari; Hameed, Ahmad; Yingst, Jessica; Hammett, Erin; Modesto, Jennifer; Krebs, Nicolle M; Zhu, Junjia; Liao, Jason; Muscat, Joshua E; Richie, John; Evins, A Eden

    2017-01-19

    The U.S. Food and Drug Administration can set standards for cigarettes that could include reducing their nicotine content. Such a standard should improve public health without causing unintended serious consequences for sub-populations. This study evaluates the effect of progressive nicotine reduction in cigarettes on smoking behavior, toxicant exposure, and psychiatric symptoms in smokers with comorbid mood and/or anxiety disorders using a two-site, two-arm, double-blind, parallel group, randomized controlled trial (RCT) in four phases over 34 weeks. Adult smokers (N = 200) of 5 or more cigarettes per day will be randomized across two sites (Penn State and Massachusetts General). Participants must have not had a quit attempt in the prior month, nor be planning to quit in the next 6 months, meet criteria for a current or lifetime unipolar mood and/or anxiety disorder based on the structured Mini-International Neuropsychiatric Interview, and must not have an unstable medical or psychiatric condition. After a week of smoking their own cigarettes, participants receive two weeks of Spectrum research cigarettes with usual nicotine content (11.6 mg). After this baseline period, participants will be randomly assigned to continue smoking Spectrum research cigarettes that contain either (a) Usual Nicotine Content (11.6 mg); or (b) Reduced Nicotine Content: the nicotine content per cigarette is progressively reduced from approximately 11.6 mg to 0.2 mg in five steps over 18 weeks. At the end of the randomization phase, participants will be offered the choice to either (a) quit smoking with assistance, (b) continue smoking free research cigarettes, or (c) return to purchasing their own cigarettes, for the final 12 weeks of the study. The primary outcome measure is blood cotinine; key secondary outcomes are: exhaled carbon monoxide, urinary total NNAL- 4-(methylnitrosamino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanol and 1-hydroxypyrene, oxidative stress biomarkers including 8

  16. The rapid transient surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, C.; Lu, J. R.; Wright, S. A.; Tonry, J.; Tully, R. B.; Szapudi, I.; Takamiya, M.; Hunter, L.; Riddle, R.; Chen, S.; Chun, M.

    2016-07-01

    The Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS) is a proposed rapid-response, high-cadence adaptive optics (AO) facility for the UH 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will uniquely address the need for high-acuity and sensitive near-infrared spectral follow-up observations of tens of thousands of objects in mere months by combining an excellent observing site, unmatched robotic observational efficiency, and an AO system that significantly increases both sensitivity and spatial resolving power. We will initially use RTS to obtain the infrared spectra of 4,000 Type Ia supernovae identified by the Asteroid Terrestrial-Impact Last Alert System over a two year period that will be crucial to precisely measuring distances and mapping the distribution of dark matter in the z < 0.1 universe. RTS will comprise an upgraded version of the Robo-AO laser AO system and will respond quickly to target-of-opportunity events, minimizing the time between discovery and characterization. RTS will acquire simultaneous-multicolor images with an acuity of 0.07-0.10" across the entire visible spectrum (20% i'-band Strehl in median conditions) and <0.16" in the near infrared, and will detect companions at 0.5" at contrast ratio of 500. The system will include a high-efficiency prism integral field unit spectrograph: R = 70-140 over a total bandpass of 840-1830nm with an 8.7" by 6.0" field of view (0.15" spaxels). The AO correction boosts the infrared point-source sensitivity of the spectrograph against the sky background by a factor of seven for faint targets, giving the UH 2.2-m the H-band sensitivity of a 5.7-m telescope without AO.

  17. Advances in rapid prototyping

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1993-12-31

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{trademark} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. Sandia uses patterns generated from rapid prototyping processes to reduce the cycle time and cost of fabricating prototype parts in support of a Sandia National Laboratories managed program called FASTCAST. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{trademark} resin and software, they experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible, using this technology, to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable firs article and small lots size production parts. They use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster, with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This presentation will focus on the successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes.

  18. The immunohistochemical expression profile of osteopontin in normal human tissues using two site-specific antibodies reveals a wide distribution of positive cells and extensive expression in the central and peripheral nervous systems.

    PubMed

    Kunii, Yasuto; Niwa, Shin-ichi; Hagiwara, Yoshiaki; Maeda, Masahiro; Seitoh, Tsutomu; Suzuki, Toshimitsu

    2009-09-01

    To elucidate the cellular distribution of osteopontin (OPN) in normal human tissues, we undertook immunohistochemistry using two site-specific OPN antibodies. The 10A16 monoclonal antibody was raised against the amino acid sequence just downstream of the thrombin cleavage site, while the O-17 polyclonal antibody was raised against the N-terminal peptide. Each antibody has been confirmed previously to react with both whole OPN and its relevant fragments. The expression pattern for these two antibodies was similar in distribution. In addition, we also identified expression in Ebner's gland, type II pneumocytes, Kupffer cells, cells of the endocrine organs, anterior lens capsule and ciliary body, synovial type A cells, mesothelia, adipocytes, and mast cells. Neurons and glia in the central nervous system and spinal cord, cranial and peripheral nerve sheaths, ganglion cells in the sympathetic ganglion, intestinal plexuses, retina, and choroid plexus also regularly exhibited OPN positivity. Testicular germ cells, pancreatic exocrine cells, and follicular dendritic cells reacted with 10A16 only, whereas lutein cells and taste bud cells exhibited O-17 reactivity alone. These minor differences were hypothesized to reflect the state of OPN in the cells; that is, whether OPN was in its whole molecule or fragmented form. In conclusion, we demonstrate that OPN is widely distributed in normal human cells, particularly those comprising the central and peripheral nervous systems.

  19. The Rapid Transient Surveyor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baranec, Christoph; Tonry, John; Wright, Shelley; Tully, R. Brent; Lu, Jessica R.; Takamiya, Marianne Y.; Hunter, Lisa

    2016-01-01

    The next decade of astronomy will be dominated by large area surveys (see the detailed discussion in the Astro-2010 Decadal survey and NRC's recent OIR System Report). Ground-based optical transient surveys, e.g., LSST, ZTF and ATLAS and space-based exoplanet, supernova, and lensing surveys such as TESS and WFIRST will join the Gaia all-sky astrometric survey in producing a flood of data that will enable leaps in our understanding of the universe. There is a critical need for further characterization of these discoveries through high angular resolution images, deeper images, spectra, or observations at different cadences or periods than the main surveys. Such follow-up characterization must be well matched to the particular surveys, and requires sufficient additional observing resources and time to cover the extensive number of targets.We describe plans for the Rapid Transient Surveyor (RTS), a permanently mounted, rapid-response, high-cadence facility for follow-up characterization of transient objects on the U. of Hawai'i 2.2-m telescope on Maunakea. RTS will comprise an improved robotic laser adaptive optics system, based on the prototype Robo-AO system (formerly at the Palomar 1.5-m and now at the Kitt Peak 2.2-m telescope), with simultaneous visible and near-infrared imagers as well as a near-infrared integral field spectrograph (R~100, λ = 850 - 1830 nm, 0.15″ spaxels, 8.7″×6.0″ FoV). RTS will achieve an acuity of ~0.07″ in visible wavelengths and < 0.16″ in the near infrared leading to an increase of the infrared point-source sensitivity against the sky background by a factor of ~9, crucial for efficient near-infrared spectroscopy.RTS will allow us to map the dark matter distribution in the z < 0.1 local universe with ten times better accuracy and precision than previous experiments. ATLAS will discover several thousand SNIae per year, measuring SNIa peak brightness, and decline rates, while RTS will measure reddening by dust, confirm SN type and

  20. Building a rapid response team.

    PubMed

    Halvorsen, Lisa; Garolis, Salomeja; Wallace-Scroggs, Allyson; Stenstrom, Judy; Maunder, Richard

    2007-01-01

    The use of rapid response teams is a relatively new approach for decreasing or eliminating codes in acute care hospitals. Based on the principles of a code team for cardiac and/or respiratory arrest in non-critical care units, the rapid response teams have specially trained nursing, respiratory, and medical personnel to respond to calls from general care units to assess and manage decompensating or rapidly changing patients before their conditions escalate to a full code situation. This article describes the processes used to develop a rapid response team, clinical indicators for triggering a rapid response team call, topics addressed in an educational program for the rapid response team members, and methods for evaluating effectiveness of the rapid response team.

  1. Rapid Polymer Sequencer

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stolc, Viktor (Inventor); Brock, Matthew W (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    Method and system for rapid and accurate determination of each of a sequence of unknown polymer components, such as nucleic acid components. A self-assembling monolayer of a selected substance is optionally provided on an interior surface of a pipette tip, and the interior surface is immersed in a selected liquid. A selected electrical field is impressed in a longitudinal direction, or in a transverse direction, in the tip region, a polymer sequence is passed through the tip region, and a change in an electrical current signal is measured as each polymer component passes through the tip region. Each of the measured changes in electrical current signals is compared with a database of reference electrical change signals, with each reference signal corresponding to an identified polymer component, to identify the unknown polymer component with a reference polymer component. The nanopore preferably has a pore inner diameter of no more than about 40 nm and is prepared by heating and pulling a very small section of a glass tubing.

  2. Rapid diagnosis in serology.

    PubMed

    García-Bermejo, Isabel; de Ory, Fernando

    2017-04-01

    Serological diagnosis of acute phase infections implies the detection of IgM specific response, an effective marker of primary infection, but with less clinical significance in reactivations or reinfections. The aim of this article is to provide an updated view of the rapid diagnosis in serology by detecting the IgM isotype and reviewing its applications and limitations. Point-of-care (PoC) tests are analyzed. PoC tests are used in geographical areas where traditional tests are not available, as well as in other circumstances where their use brings the diagnosis directly to the target population. Likewise, their use reduces the response time between taking the sample and the diagnosis, making it easier to make clinical decisions. PoC assays have proven cost-effective, especially in preventing vertical transmission of syphilis and HIV infection. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and Sociedad Española de Enfermedades Infecciosas y Microbiología Clínica. All rights reserved.

  3. Problems of rapid growth.

    PubMed

    Kim, T D

    1980-01-01

    South Korea's export-oriented development strategy has achieved a remarkable growth record, but it has also brought 2 different problems: 1) since the country's exports accounted for about 1% of total world export volume, the 1st world has become fearful about Korea's aggressive export drive; and 2) the fact that exports account for over 30% of its total gross national product (GNP) exposes the vulnerability of South Korea's economy itself. South Korea continues to be a poor nation, although it is rated as 1 of the most rapidly growing middle income economies. A World Bank 1978 report shows Korea to be 28th of 58 middle income countries in terms of per capita GNP in 1976. Of 11 newly industrializing countries (NIC), 5 in the European continent are more advanced than the others. A recent emphasis on the basic human needs approach has tended to downgrade the concept of GNP. Korea has only an abundant labor force and is without any natural resources. Consequently, Korea utilized an export-oriented development strategy. Oil requirements are met with imports, and almost all raw materials to be processed into exportable products must be imported. To pay import bills Korea must export and earn foreign exchange. It must be emphasized that foreign trade must always be 2-way traffic. In order to export more to middle income countries like Korea, the countries of the 1st world need to ease their protectionist measures against imports from developing countries.

  4. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  5. Determination of heavy metal content and lipid profiles in mussel extracts from two sites on the moroccan atlantic coast and evaluation of their biological activities on MIN6 pancreatic cells.

    PubMed

    Boumhras, M; Ouafik, S; Nury, T; Gresti, J; Athias, A; Ragot, K; Nasser, B; Cherkaoui-Malki, M; Lizard, G

    2014-11-01

    Mussels may concentrate pollutants, with possibly significant side effects on human health. Therefore, mussels (Mytilus galloprovincialis) from two sites of the Moroccan Atlantic coast (Jorf Lasfar [JL], an industrial site, and Oualidia [OL], a vegetable-growing area), were subjected to biochemical analyses to quantify the presence of heavy metals (Cd, Cr, and Pb) and to establish the lipid profile: fatty acid, cholesterol, oxysterol, phytosterol and phospholipid content. In addition, mussel lipid extracts known to accumulate numerous toxic components were tested on murine pancreatic β-cells (MIN6), and their biological activities were measured with various flow cytometric and biochemical methods to determine their impacts on cell death induction, organelle dysfunctions (mitochondria, lysosomes, and peroxisomes), oxidative stress and insulin secretion. The characteristics of JL and OL lipid extracts were compared with those of commercially available mussels from Spain (SP) used for human consumption. OL and JL contained heavy metals, high amounts of phospholipids, and high levels of oxysterols; the [(unsaturated fatty acids)/(saturated fatty acids)] ratio, which can be considered a sign of environmental stress leading to lipid peroxidation, was low. On MIN6 cells, JL and OL lipid extracts were able to trigger cell death. This event was associated with overproduction of H2 O2 , increased catalase activity, a decreased GSH level, lipid peroxidation and stimulation of insulin secretion. These effects were not observed with SP lipid extracts. These data suggest that some components from OL and JL lipid extracts might predispose to pancreatic dysfunctions. Epidemiological studies would be needed to assess the global risk on human health and the metabolic disease incidence in a context of regular seafood consumption from the OL and JL areas.

  6. Rapid Active Sampling Package

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Peters, Gregory

    2010-01-01

    A field-deployable, battery-powered Rapid Active Sampling Package (RASP), originally designed for sampling strong materials during lunar and planetary missions, shows strong utility for terrestrial geological use. The technology is proving to be simple and effective for sampling and processing materials of strength. Although this originally was intended for planetary and lunar applications, the RASP is very useful as a powered hand tool for geologists and the mining industry to quickly sample and process rocks in the field on Earth. The RASP allows geologists to surgically acquire samples of rock for later laboratory analysis. This tool, roughly the size of a wrench, allows the user to cut away swaths of weathering rinds, revealing pristine rock surfaces for observation and subsequent sampling with the same tool. RASPing deeper (.3.5 cm) exposes single rock strata in-situ. Where a geologist fs hammer can only expose unweathered layers of rock, the RASP can do the same, and then has the added ability to capture and process samples into powder with particle sizes less than 150 microns, making it easier for XRD/XRF (x-ray diffraction/x-ray fluorescence). The tool uses a rotating rasp bit (or two counter-rotating bits) that resides inside or above the catch container. The container has an open slot to allow the bit to extend outside the container and to allow cuttings to enter and be caught. When the slot and rasp bit are in contact with a substrate, the bit is plunged into it in a matter of seconds to reach pristine rock. A user in the field may sample a rock multiple times at multiple depths in minutes, instead of having to cut out huge, heavy rock samples for transport back to a lab for analysis. Because of the speed and accuracy of the RASP, hundreds of samples can be taken in one day. RASP-acquired samples are small and easily carried. A user can characterize more area in less time than by using conventional methods. The field-deployable RASP used a Ni

  7. Rapid Statistical Methods: Part 1.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lyon, A. J.

    1980-01-01

    Discusses some rapid statistical methods which are intended for use by physics teachers. Part one of this article gives some of the simplest and most commonly useful rapid methods. Part two gives references to the relevant theory together with some alternative and additional methods. (HM)

  8. In-Space Rapid Manufacturing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Kenneth G.

    1998-01-01

    In-space manufacturing objectives are: (1) Develop and demonstrate capability to directly fabricate components in space using rapid prototyping technology - ceramics (alumina, silicon nitride, zirconia), metallics (stainless, inconel, etc.), high strength/temperature plastics (PEEK). and ABS plastics (starting point). (2) Perform material science experiments on rapid prototyping candidate materials in microgravity.

  9. Monoclonal antibodies to the major feline allergen Fel d I. II. Single step affinity purification of Fel d I, N-terminal sequence analysis, and development of a sensitive two-site immunoassay to assess Fel d I exposure.

    PubMed

    Chapman, M D; Aalberse, R C; Brown, M J; Platts-Mills, T A

    1988-02-01

    Two mAb were used to develop new techniques for the purification and quantitation of the major feline salivary allergen, Felis domesticus allergen I (Fel d I). The allergen was purified from aqueous house dust extract with a high Fel d I content by affinity chromatography over a monoclonal immunosorbent and elution with 4 mM HCl, pH 2.5. This single step procedure gave 40 to 50% recovery of 90% pure allergen which, following final purification by size exclusion HPLC, showed a single line on immunodiffusion and crossed immunoelectrophoresis against monospecific anti-Fel d I and polyclonal anti-cat dander antibodies. The m.w. of native Fel d I was 39,000 on size exclusion HPLC, and 17,000 under nonreducing conditions on gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequence (33 residues) showed no homology with other known protein sequences. The combination of the SDS-PAGE and N-terminal sequence data suggests that Fel d I is a non-covalently linked homodimer. A two-site RIA was developed using mAb directed against different epitopes on Fel d I. This assay was species-specific, highly sensitive (0.0004 U/ml), and showed an excellent correlation with a polyclonal inhibition RIA (n = 27, r = 0.93, p less than 0.001). Cat allergen extracts used for immediate skin tests showed marked differences in Fel d I content (from 0.1 to 30 U/ml). Consistently high Fel d I levels were found at monthly intervals in six dust samples from four houses with cats (10 to 100 U/g of dust). Comparisons of Fel d I and mite and pollen allergen levels showed that house dust can contain greater than 100 micrograms/g of either of these allergens and is a potent source of foreign environmental antigens. Monoclonal affinity chromatography provides a major breakthrough in the purification of Fel d I, from a source material that would otherwise have been considered impossible (house dust). The mAb assay for Fel d I is both more sensitive and more easily standardized than existing techniques. These

  10. Molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum drug resistance markers reveals partial recovery of chloroquine susceptibility but sustained sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine resistance at two sites of different malaria transmission intensities in Rwanda.

    PubMed

    Kateera, Fredrick; Nsobya, Sam L; Tukwasibwe, Steven; Hakizimana, Emmanuel; Mutesa, Leon; Mens, Petra F; Grobusch, Martin P; van Vugt, Michèle; Kumar, Nirbhay

    2016-12-01

    Faced with intense levels of chloroquine (CQ) resistance in Plasmodium falciparum malaria, Rwanda replaced CQ with amodiaquine (AQ)+sulfadoxine-pyrimethamine (SP) in 2001, and subsequently with artemether-lumefantrine (AL) in 2006, as first-line treatments for uncomplicated malaria. Following years of discontinuation of CQ use, re-emergence of CQ-susceptible parasites has been reported in countries including Malawi, Kenya and Tanzania. In contrast, high levels of SP resistant mutant parasites continue to be reported even in countries of presumed reduced SP drug selection pressure. The prevalence and distributions of genetic polymorphisms linked with CQ and SP resistance at two sites of different malaria transmission intensities are described here to better understand drug-related genomic adaptations over time and exposure to varying drug pressures in Rwanda. Using filter paper blood isolates collected from P. falciparum infected patients, DNA was extracted and a nested PCR performed to identify resistance-mediating polymorphisms in the pfcrt, pfmdr1, pfdhps and pfdhfr genes. Amplicons from a total of 399 genotyped samples were analysed by ligase detection reaction fluorescent microsphere assay. CQ susceptible pfcrt 76K and pfmdr1 86N wild-type parasites were found in about 50% and 81% of isolates, respectively. Concurrently, SP susceptible pfdhps double (437G-540E), pfdhfr triple (108N-51I-59R), quintuple pfdhps 437G-540E/pfdhfr 51I-59R-108N and sextuple haplotypes were found in about 84%, 85%, 74% and 18% of isolates, respectively. High-level SP resistance associated pfdhfr 164L and pfdhps 581G mutant prevalences were noted to decline. Mutations pfcrt 76T, pfdhfr 59R and pfdhfr 164L were found differentially distributed between the two study sites with the pfdhfr 164L mutants found only at Ruhuha site, eastern Rwanda. Overall, sustained intense levels of SP resistance mutations and a recovery of CQ susceptible parasites were found in this study following 7 years

  11. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria.

    PubMed

    Visser, Theodoor; Daily, Jennifer; Hotte, Nora; Dolkart, Caitlin; Cunningham, Jane; Yadav, Prashant

    2015-12-01

    Maintaining quality, competitiveness and innovation in global health technology is a constant challenge for manufacturers, while affordability, access and equity are challenges for governments and international agencies. In this paper we discuss these issues with reference to rapid diagnostic tests for malaria. Strategies to control and eliminate malaria depend on early and accurate diagnosis. Rapid diagnostic tests for malaria require little training and equipment and can be performed by non-specialists in remote settings. Use of these tests has expanded significantly over the last few years, following recommendations to test all suspected malaria cases before treatment and the implementation of an evaluation programme to assess the performance of the malaria rapid diagnostic tests. Despite these gains, challenges exist that, if not addressed, could jeopardize the progress made to date. We discuss recent developments in rapid diagnostic tests for malaria, highlight some of the challenges and provide suggestions to address them.

  12. [Rapid PCR authentication Lonicera japanica].

    PubMed

    Jiang, Chao; Hou, Jing-Yi; Huang, Lu-Qi; Yuan, Yuan; Chen, Min; Jin, Yan

    2014-10-01

    To simply and rapid authenticate Lonicera japanica. Rapid allele-specific PCR primer was designed base on trnL-trnF 625 G/T Single nucleotide polymorphism and the PCR reaction systems including annealing temperature was optimized; optimized results were performed to authenticate L. japanica and its 9 adulterants. When 100 x SYBR Green I was added in the PCR product of 87 degrees C initial denatured 1 min; 87 degrees C denatured 5 s, 68 degrees C annealing 5 s, 30 cycle; L. japanica visualize strong green fluorescence under 365 nm UV lamp whereas adulterants without. The results indicate rapid allele-specific PCR could authenticate L. japanica and its adulterants rapidly and simply.

  13. Rapidly Progressing Alzheimer's: Something Else?

    MedlinePlus

    ... Something else? My mother has been diagnosed with Alzheimer's disease, but she seems to be declining rapidly. Doesn' ... Answers from Jonathan Graff-Radford, M.D. Yes, Alzheimer's disease usually worsens slowly. But its speed of progression ...

  14. Water Resources of Rapides Parish

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Griffith, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Rapides Parish, located in central Louisiana, contains fresh groundwater and surface-water resources. In 2005, about 443 million gallons per day (Mgal/d) were withdrawn from water sources in Rapides Parish. About 92 percent (409 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from surface water, and 8 percent (34 Mgal/d) was withdrawn from groundwater. Withdrawals for power generation accounted for 91 percent (403 Mgal/d) of the total water withdrawn. Withdrawals for other uses included public supply (27 Mgal/d), irrigation (9 Mgal/d), and aquaculture (3 Mgal/d). Water withdrawals in the parish generally increased from 1960 to 1995 and decreased from 1995 to 2005. This fact sheet summarizes basic information on the water resources of Rapides Parish, La. Information on groundwater and surface-water availability, quality, development, use, and trends is based on previously published reports listed in the references section.

  15. Rapid manufacturing of aluminum components.

    PubMed

    Sercombe, T B; Schaffer, G B

    2003-08-29

    A manufacturing technique for the production of aluminum components is described. A resin-bonded part is formed by a rapid prototyping technique and then debound and infiltrated by a second aluminum alloy under a nitrogen atmosphere. During thermal processing, the aluminum reacts with the nitrogen and is partially transformed into a rigid aluminum nitride skeleton, which provides the structural rigidity during infiltration. The simplicity and rapidity of this process in comparison to conventional production routes, combined with the ability to fabricate complicated parts of almost any geometry and with high dimensional precision, provide an additional means to manufacture aluminum components.

  16. A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-15

    A Rapidly Deployable Bridge System Gareth R. Thomas1 and Bernard J. Sia2 1ATA Engineering, 11995 El Camino Real, San Diego, CA 92130; PH (858) 480...PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND ADDRESS(ES) ATA Engineering,11995 El Camino Real,San Diego,CA,92130 8. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION REPORT NUMBER

  17. Rapid Transit to Sentence Writing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Panuska, Janet A.

    This paper offers a sample selection of exercises from the text "Rapid Transit to Sentence Writing," which is based on the idea that learning to write a sentence is a process which involves understanding the relationship of the parts of the sentence to the whole sentence. The book received the 1989 Innovative Teaching Honors Award from…

  18. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  19. Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid-equilibrium rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are especially useful because if experimental data can be fit by these simpler rate equations, the Michaelis constants can be interpreted as equilibrium constants. However, for some reactions it is necessary to use the more complicated steady-state rate equations. Thermodynamics is…

  20. Rapid Prototyping Enters Mainstream Manufacturing.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Winek, Gary

    1996-01-01

    Explains rapid prototyping, a process that uses computer-assisted design files to create a three-dimensional object automatically, speeding the industrial design process. Five commercially available systems and two emerging types--the 3-D printing process and repetitive masking and depositing--are described. (SK)

  1. The Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Roger A.; Handley, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Developed Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale using Chiasson induction to produce hypnotic susceptibility scale which is quickly administered and yields scores comparable to the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). Found that validation study with college students (N=100) produced a correlation of .88 with the SHSS:C and…

  2. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  3. Evolution of rapid nerve conduction.

    PubMed

    Castelfranco, Ann M; Hartline, Daniel K

    2016-06-15

    Rapid conduction of nerve impulses is a priority for organisms needing to react quickly to events in their environment. While myelin may be viewed as the crowning innovation bringing about rapid conduction, the evolution of rapid communication mechanisms, including those refined and enhanced in the evolution of myelin, has much deeper roots. In this review, a sequence is traced starting with diffusional communication, followed by transport-facilitated communication, the rise of electrical signaling modalities, the invention of voltage-gated channels and "all-or-none" impulses, the emergence of elongate nerve axons specialized for communication and their fine-tuning to enhance impulse conduction speeds. Finally within the evolution of myelin itself, several innovations have arisen and have been interactively refined for speed enhancement, including the addition and sealing of layers, their limitation by space availability, and the optimization of key parameters: channel density, lengths of exposed nodes and lengths of internodes. We finish by suggesting several design principles that appear to govern the evolution of rapid conduction. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled SI: Myelin Evolution. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  4. The Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Page, Roger A.; Handley, George W.

    1989-01-01

    Developed Rapid Induction Susceptibility Scale using Chiasson induction to produce hypnotic susceptibility scale which is quickly administered and yields scores comparable to the Stanford Hypnotic Susceptibility Scale, Form C (SHSS:C). Found that validation study with college students (N=100) produced a correlation of .88 with the SHSS:C and…

  5. Rapid-Equilibrium Enzyme Kinetics

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Alberty, Robert A.

    2008-01-01

    Rapid-equilibrium rate equations for enzyme-catalyzed reactions are especially useful because if experimental data can be fit by these simpler rate equations, the Michaelis constants can be interpreted as equilibrium constants. However, for some reactions it is necessary to use the more complicated steady-state rate equations. Thermodynamics is…

  6. Rapidly Deployed Modular Telemetry System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Varnavas, Kosta A. (Inventor); Sims, William Herbert, III (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    The present invention is a telemetry system, and more specifically is a rapidly deployed modular telemetry apparatus which utilizes of SDR technology and the FPGA programming capability to reduce the number of hardware components and programming required to deploy a telemetry system.

  7. Rapid Adhesive Bonding of Composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Tyeryar, J. R.; Fox, R. L.; Sterling, S. Elmo, Jr.; Buckley, J. D.; Inge, Spencer V., Jr.; Burcher, L. G.; Wright, Robert E., Jr.

    1986-01-01

    Strong bonds created in less time and with less power than use of conventional bonding methods. Rapid adhesive bonding (RAB) technique for composites uses high-frequency induction heating toroids to quickly heat metallic susceptor impregnated with thermoplastic adhesive or sandwiched between thermoset or thermoplastic adhesive cloths or films. Susceptor steel screen or perforated steel foil.

  8. Portable Diagnostics and Rapid Germination

    SciTech Connect

    Dunn, Zachary Spencer

    2016-12-01

    In the Bioenergy and Defense Department of Sandia National Laboratories, characterization of the BaDx (Bacillus anthracis diagnostic cartridge) was performed and rapid germination chemistry was investigated. BaDx was tested with complex sample matrixes inoculated with Bacillus anthracis, and the trials proved that BaDx will detect Bacillus anthracis in a variety of the medium, such as dirt, serum, blood, milk, and horse fluids. The dimensions of the device were altered to accommodate an E. coli or Listeria lateral flow immunoassay, and using a laser printer, BaDx devices were manufactured to identify E. coli and Listeria. Initial testing with E. coli versions of BaDx indicate that the device will be viable as a portable diagnostic cartridge. The device would be more effective with faster bacteria germination; hence studies were performed the use of rapid germination chemistry. Trials with calcium dipicolinic acid displayed increased cell germination, as shown by control studies using a microplate reader. Upon lyophilization the rapid germination chemistry failed to change growth patterns, indicating that the calcium dipicolinic acid was not solubilized under the conditions tested. Although incompatible with the portable diagnostic device, the experiments proved that the rapid germination chemistry was effective in increasing cell germination.

  9. Rapid-scan EPR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Sandra S.; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A.; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250 MHz.

  10. Rapid tooling by rapid prototyping: tools made by laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Macht, Michael; Breitinger, Frank

    1996-08-01

    In view of the competitive situation on the international market, companies are being forced to develop products more rapidly and with less likelihood of errors occurring. In the recent past, product development has been greatly speeded up, above all by computer-aided methods. However, these are not entirely sufficient to achieve a further reduction in product development times. New manufacturing methods such as 'rapid prototyping' (RP) now make it possible to obtain not only computer models but also actual physical patterns in a very early development stage. As RP technologies gained in strength, a demand arose for prototypes in the actual material which it was intended to use for the production article. Using suitable process chains, it is now possible to produce components from various near-series plastics (for example by vacuum casting) and also from metals (e.g. by lost-wax casting or sand casting). At the Augsburg User Center run by Institute for Machine Tools and Industrial Management of Munich Technical University, processes for the rapid production of prototype tools which unite machining methods, RP technologies and molding techniques have therefore been developed.

  11. Screening Tests for the Rapid Detection of Diarrhetic Shellfish Toxins in Washington State

    PubMed Central

    Eberhart, Bich-Thuy L.; Moore, Leslie K.; Harrington, Neil; Adams, Nicolaus G.; Borchert, Jerry; Trainer, Vera L.

    2013-01-01

    The illness of three people due to diarrhetic shellfish poisoning (DSP) following their ingestion of recreationally harvested mussels from Sequim Bay State Park in the summer of 2011, resulted in intensified monitoring for diarrhetic shellfish toxins (DSTs) in Washington State. Rapid testing at remote sites was proposed as a means to provide early warning of DST events in order to protect human health and allow growers to test “pre-harvest” shellfish samples, thereby preventing harvest of toxic product that would later be destroyed or recalled. Tissue homogenates from several shellfish species collected from two sites in Sequim Bay, WA in the summer 2012, as well as other sites throughout Puget Sound, were analyzed using three rapid screening methods: a lateral flow antibody-based test strip (Jellett Rapid Test), an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and a protein phosphatase 2A inhibition assay (PP2A). The results were compared to the standard regulatory method of liquid chromatography coupled with tandem mass spectroscopy (LC-MS/MS). The Jellett Rapid Test for DSP gave an unacceptable number of false negatives due to incomplete extraction of DSTs using the manufacturer’s recommended method while the ELISA antibody had low cross-reactivity with dinophysistoxin-1, the major toxin isomer in shellfish from the region. The PP2A test showed the greatest promise as a screening tool for Washington State shellfish harvesters. PMID:24084788

  12. The long-term fate of permafrost peatlands under rapid climate warming.

    PubMed

    Swindles, Graeme T; Morris, Paul J; Mullan, Donal; Watson, Elizabeth J; Turner, T Edward; Roland, Thomas P; Amesbury, Matthew J; Kokfelt, Ulla; Schoning, Kristian; Pratte, Steve; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan J; Sanderson, Nicole; Garneau, Michelle; Carrivick, Jonathan L; Woulds, Clare; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren; Galloway, Jennifer M

    2015-12-09

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon, owing to cold conditions which suppress anaerobic decomposition. However, climate warming and permafrost thaw threaten the stability of this carbon store. The ultimate fate of permafrost peatlands and their carbon stores is unclear because of complex feedbacks between peat accumulation, hydrology and vegetation. Field monitoring campaigns only span the last few decades and therefore provide an incomplete picture of permafrost peatland response to recent rapid warming. Here we use a high-resolution palaeoecological approach to understand the longer-term response of peatlands in contrasting states of permafrost degradation to recent rapid warming. At all sites we identify a drying trend until the late-twentieth century; however, two sites subsequently experienced a rapid shift to wetter conditions as permafrost thawed in response to climatic warming, culminating in collapse of the peat domes. Commonalities between study sites lead us to propose a five-phase model for permafrost peatland response to climatic warming. This model suggests a shared ecohydrological trajectory towards a common end point: inundated Arctic fen. Although carbon accumulation is rapid in such sites, saturated soil conditions are likely to cause elevated methane emissions that have implications for climate-feedback mechanisms.

  13. The long-term fate of permafrost peatlands under rapid climate warming

    PubMed Central

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Morris, Paul J.; Mullan, Donal; Watson, Elizabeth J.; Turner, T. Edward; Roland, Thomas P.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Kokfelt, Ulla; Schoning, Kristian; Pratte, Steve; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan J.; Sanderson, Nicole; Garneau, Michelle; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Woulds, Clare; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren; Galloway, Jennifer M.

    2015-01-01

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon, owing to cold conditions which suppress anaerobic decomposition. However, climate warming and permafrost thaw threaten the stability of this carbon store. The ultimate fate of permafrost peatlands and their carbon stores is unclear because of complex feedbacks between peat accumulation, hydrology and vegetation. Field monitoring campaigns only span the last few decades and therefore provide an incomplete picture of permafrost peatland response to recent rapid warming. Here we use a high-resolution palaeoecological approach to understand the longer-term response of peatlands in contrasting states of permafrost degradation to recent rapid warming. At all sites we identify a drying trend until the late-twentieth century; however, two sites subsequently experienced a rapid shift to wetter conditions as permafrost thawed in response to climatic warming, culminating in collapse of the peat domes. Commonalities between study sites lead us to propose a five-phase model for permafrost peatland response to climatic warming. This model suggests a shared ecohydrological trajectory towards a common end point: inundated Arctic fen. Although carbon accumulation is rapid in such sites, saturated soil conditions are likely to cause elevated methane emissions that have implications for climate-feedback mechanisms. PMID:26647837

  14. The long-term fate of permafrost peatlands under rapid climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Morris, Paul J.; Mullan, Donal; Watson, Elizabeth J.; Turner, T. Edward; Roland, Thomas P.; Amesbury, Matthew J.; Kokfelt, Ulla; Schoning, Kristian; Pratte, Steve; Gallego-Sala, Angela; Charman, Dan J.; Sanderson, Nicole; Garneau, Michelle; Carrivick, Jonathan L.; Woulds, Clare; Holden, Joseph; Parry, Lauren; Galloway, Jennifer M.

    2015-12-01

    Permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon, owing to cold conditions which suppress anaerobic decomposition. However, climate warming and permafrost thaw threaten the stability of this carbon store. The ultimate fate of permafrost peatlands and their carbon stores is unclear because of complex feedbacks between peat accumulation, hydrology and vegetation. Field monitoring campaigns only span the last few decades and therefore provide an incomplete picture of permafrost peatland response to recent rapid warming. Here we use a high-resolution palaeoecological approach to understand the longer-term response of peatlands in contrasting states of permafrost degradation to recent rapid warming. At all sites we identify a drying trend until the late-twentieth century; however, two sites subsequently experienced a rapid shift to wetter conditions as permafrost thawed in response to climatic warming, culminating in collapse of the peat domes. Commonalities between study sites lead us to propose a five-phase model for permafrost peatland response to climatic warming. This model suggests a shared ecohydrological trajectory towards a common end point: inundated Arctic fen. Although carbon accumulation is rapid in such sites, saturated soil conditions are likely to cause elevated methane emissions that have implications for climate-feedback mechanisms.

  15. Rapid mask prototyping for microfluidics.

    PubMed

    Maisonneuve, B G C; Honegger, T; Cordeiro, J; Lecarme, O; Thiry, T; Fuard, D; Berton, K; Picard, E; Zelsmann, M; Peyrade, D

    2016-03-01

    With the rise of microfluidics for the past decade, there has come an ever more pressing need for a low-cost and rapid prototyping technology, especially for research and education purposes. In this article, we report a rapid prototyping process of chromed masks for various microfluidic applications. The process takes place out of a clean room, uses a commercially available video-projector, and can be completed in less than half an hour. We quantify the ranges of fields of view and of resolutions accessible through this video-projection system and report the fabrication of critical microfluidic components (junctions, straight channels, and curved channels). To exemplify the process, three common devices are produced using this method: a droplet generation device, a gradient generation device, and a neuro-engineering oriented device. The neuro-engineering oriented device is a compartmentalized microfluidic chip, and therefore, required the production and the precise alignment of two different masks.

  16. RATT: Rapid Annotation Transfer Tool

    PubMed Central

    Otto, Thomas D.; Dillon, Gary P.; Degrave, Wim S.; Berriman, Matthew

    2011-01-01

    Second-generation sequencing technologies have made large-scale sequencing projects commonplace. However, making use of these datasets often requires gene function to be ascribed genome wide. Although tool development has kept pace with the changes in sequence production, for tasks such as mapping, de novo assembly or visualization, genome annotation remains a challenge. We have developed a method to rapidly provide accurate annotation for new genomes using previously annotated genomes as a reference. The method, implemented in a tool called RATT (Rapid Annotation Transfer Tool), transfers annotations from a high-quality reference to a new genome on the basis of conserved synteny. We demonstrate that a Mycobacterium tuberculosis genome or a single 2.5 Mb chromosome from a malaria parasite can be annotated in less than five minutes with only modest computational resources. RATT is available at http://ratt.sourceforge.net. PMID:21306991

  17. Validation of rapid microbiological methods.

    PubMed

    Peris-Vicente, Juan; Carda-Broch, Samuel; Esteve-Romero, Josep

    2015-06-01

    Classical microbiological methods currently have unacceptably long cycle times. Rapid microbiological methods have been available on the market for decades and have been applied by the clinical and food industries. However, their implementation in the pharmaceutical industry has been hampered by stringent regulations on validation and comparison with classical methods. To encourage the implementation of these methodologies, they must be validated to assess that the results are straightforward. A comparison with traditional methods should be also performed. In this review, information about the validation of rapid microbiological methods reported in the literature is provided as well as an explanation of the difficulty of validation of these methods. A comparison with traditional methods is also discussed. This information is useful for industries and laboratories that can potentially implement these methods. © 2014 Society for Laboratory Automation and Screening.

  18. Mechanical and hydrologic basis for the rapid motion of a large tidewater glacier. 1: Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meier, Mark; Lundstrom, Scott; Stone, Dan; Kamb, Barclay; Engelhardt, Hermann; Humphrey, Neil; Dunlap, William W.; Fahnestock, Mark; Krimmel, Robert M.; Walters, Roy

    1994-01-01

    Measurements of glacier flow velocity and basal water pressure at two sites on Columbia Glacier, Alaska, are combined with meteorological and hydrologic data to provide an observational basis for assessing the role of water storage and basal water pressure in the rapid movement of this large glacier. During the period from July 5 to August 31, 1987, coordinated observations were made of glacier surface motion and of water level in five boreholes drilled to (or in one case near to) the glacier bed at two sites, 5 and 12 km from the terminus. Glacier velocities increased downglacier in this reach from about 4 m/d to about 7 m/d. Three types of time variation in velocity and other variables were revealed: (1) Diurnal fluctuation in water input/output, borehole water level, and ice velocity (fluctuation amplitude 5 to 8%); (2) Speed-up events in glacier motion (15-30% speed-up), lasting about three days, and ocurring at times of enhanced input of water, in some cases from rain and in others from ice ablation enhanced by strong, warm winds; (3) 'Extra-slowdown' events, in which, after a speed-up event, the ice velocity decreased in about 3 days to a level consistently lower than that prior to the speed-up event. All of the time variations were due, directly or indirectly, to variations in water input to the glacier.

  19. Rapid synthesis of beta zeolites

    DOEpatents

    Fan, Wei; Chang, Chun -Chih; Dornath, Paul; Wang, Zhuopeng

    2015-08-18

    The invention provides methods for rapidly synthesizing heteroatom containing zeolites including Sn-Beta, Si-Beta, Ti-Beta, Zr-Beta and Fe-Beta. The methods for synthesizing heteroatom zeolites include using well-crystalline zeolite crystals as seeds and using a fluoride-free, caustic medium in a seeded dry-gel conversion method. The Beta zeolite catalysts made by the methods of the invention catalyze both isomerization and dehydration reactions.

  20. A Rapid Global Effects Capability

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-06-01

    emerging technologies, future platforms, and force structure .3 Research included historical references, primary, and secondary sources. Interviews...40 RECOMMENDATIONS………………………………………………………………. 41 BIBLIOGRAPHY ...including, but not limited to, basing, emerging technologies, future platforms, and force structure .8 Thesis statement A Rapid Global Effects

  1. Rapid SAW Sensor Development Tools

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wilson, William C.; Atkinson, Gary M.

    2007-01-01

    The lack of integrated design tools for Surface Acoustic Wave (SAW) devices has led us to develop tools for the design, modeling, analysis, and automatic layout generation of SAW devices. These tools enable rapid development of wireless SAW sensors. The tools developed have been designed to integrate into existing Electronic Design Automation (EDA) tools to take advantage of existing 3D modeling, and Finite Element Analysis (FEA). This paper presents the SAW design, modeling, analysis, and automated layout generation tools.

  2. Rapid Continuous Multimaterial Extrusion Bioprinting.

    PubMed

    Liu, Wanjun; Zhang, Yu Shrike; Heinrich, Marcel A; De Ferrari, Fabio; Jang, Hae Lin; Bakht, Syeda Mahwish; Alvarez, Mario Moisés; Yang, Jingzhou; Li, Yi-Chen; Trujillo-de Santiago, Grissel; Miri, Amir K; Zhu, Kai; Khoshakhlagh, Parastoo; Prakash, Gyan; Cheng, Hao; Guan, Xiaofei; Zhong, Zhe; Ju, Jie; Zhu, Geyunjian Harry; Jin, Xiangyu; Shin, Su Ryon; Dokmeci, Mehmet Remzi; Khademhosseini, Ali

    2017-01-01

    The development of a multimaterial extrusion bioprinting platform is reported. This platform is capable of depositing multiple coded bioinks in a continuous manner with fast and smooth switching among different reservoirs for rapid fabrication of complex constructs, through digitally controlled extrusion of bioinks from a single printhead consisting of bundled capillaries synergized with programmed movement of the motorized stage. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Rapid Sampling from Sealed Containers

    SciTech Connect

    Johnston, R.G.; Garcia, A.R.E.; Martinez, R.K.; Baca, E.T.

    1999-02-28

    The authors have developed several different types of tools for sampling from sealed containers. These tools allow the user to rapidly drill into a closed container, extract a sample of its contents (gas, liquid, or free-flowing powder), and permanently reseal the point of entry. This is accomplished without exposing the user or the environment to the container contents, even while drilling. The entire process is completed in less than 15 seconds for a 55 gallon drum. Almost any kind of container can be sampled (regardless of the materials) with wall thicknesses up to 1.3 cm and internal pressures up to 8 atm. Samples can be taken from the top, sides, or bottom of a container. The sampling tools are inexpensive, small, and easy to use. They work with any battery-powered hand drill. This allows considerable safety, speed, flexibility, and maneuverability. The tools also permit the user to rapidly attach plumbing, a pressure relief valve, alarms, or other instrumentation to a container. Possible applications include drum venting, liquid transfer, container flushing, waste characterization, monitoring, sampling for archival or quality control purposes, emergency sampling by rapid response teams, counter-terrorism, non-proliferation and treaty verification, and use by law enforcement personnel during drug or environmental raids.

  4. Rapid recalibration to audiovisual asynchrony.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Erik; Alais, David; Cass, John

    2013-09-11

    To combine information from different sensory modalities, the brain must deal with considerable temporal uncertainty. In natural environments, an external event may produce simultaneous auditory and visual signals yet they will invariably activate the brain asynchronously due to different propagation speeds for light and sound, and different neural response latencies once the signals reach the receptors. One strategy the brain uses to deal with audiovisual timing variation is to adapt to a prevailing asynchrony to help realign the signals. Here, using psychophysical methods in human subjects, we investigate audiovisual recalibration and show that it takes place extremely rapidly without explicit periods of adaptation. Our results demonstrate that exposure to a single, brief asynchrony is sufficient to produce strong recalibration effects. Recalibration occurs regardless of whether the preceding trial was perceived as synchronous, and regardless of whether a response was required. We propose that this rapid recalibration is a fast-acting sensory effect, rather than a higher-level cognitive process. An account in terms of response bias is unlikely due to a strong asymmetry whereby stimuli with vision leading produce bigger recalibrations than audition leading. A fast-acting recalibration mechanism provides a means for overcoming inevitable audiovisual timing variation and serves to rapidly realign signals at onset to maximize the perceptual benefits of audiovisual integration.

  5. Rapid diagnosis of pulmonary tuberculosis

    PubMed Central

    Sarmiento, José Mauricio Hernández; Restrepo, Natalia Builes; Mejía, Gloria Isabel; Zapata, Elsa; Restrepo, Mary Alejandra; Robledo, Jaime

    2014-01-01

    Introduction World Health Organization had estimated 9.4 million tuberculosis cases on 2009, with 1.7 million of deaths as consequence of treatment and diagnosis failures. Improving diagnostic methods for the rapid and timely detection of tuberculosis patients is critical to control the disease. The aim of this study was evaluating the accuracy of the cord factor detection on the solid medium Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer agar compared to the Lowenstein Jensen medium for the rapid tuberculosis diagnosis. Methods Patients with suspected tuberculosis were enrolled and their sputum samples were processed for direct smear and culture on Lowenstein Jensen and BACTEC MGIT 960, from which positive tubes were subcultured on Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer agar. Statistical analysis was performed comparing culture results from Lowenstein Jensen and the thin layer agar, and their corresponding average times for detecting Mycobacterium tuberculosis. The performance of cord factor detection was evaluated determining its sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive value. Results 111 out of 260 patients were positive for M. tuberculosis by Lowenstein Jensen medium with an average time ± standard deviation for its detection of 22.3 ± 8.5 days. 115 patients were positive by the MGIT system identifying the cord factor by the Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer agar which average time ± standard deviation was 5.5 ± 2.6 days. Conclusion The cord factor detection by Middlebrook 7H11 thin layer agar allows early and accurate tuberculosis diagnosis during an average time of 5 days, making this rapid diagnosis particularly important in patients with negative sputum smear. PMID:25419279

  6. Rapid prototyping of pulse oximeter.

    PubMed

    Jalan, P; Bracio, B R; Rider, P J; Toniolo, H

    2006-01-01

    Measurement of oxygen saturation levels in blood is a vital activity during most medical treatments. A pulse oximeter is a device most commonly used to perform this measurement. It provides convenient, non-invasive and continuous monitoring of oxygen levels in a human body. However, it is often a tedious task to select the appropriate hardware and software components to manufacture a pulse oximeter that gives accurate results. This paper describes a student project, which had the goals to expose the student to this important technique of applying rapid prototyping methods to the design of a state of the art pulse oximeter.

  7. Rapid qualitative protease microassay (RPM).

    PubMed

    Mohan, S; Ma, P W K; Luthe, D S

    2005-09-30

    A rapid qualitative protease microassay (RPM) was developed as an alternative to conventional assays of cysteine protease activity in HPLC fractions. Using this technique protease activity in samples could be visually determined within 5 min. The method was sensitive to 3.3x10(-7) U/mL of papain and detected cysteine protease activity in dilute HPLC fractions with activity of 5.4x10(-5) U/mL. Because the method monitors the decolorization of Coomassie Brilliant Blue stained substrate, it can be modified to detect other classes of proteases.

  8. Rapid thermal processing by stamping

    DOEpatents

    Stradins, Pauls; Wang, Qi

    2013-03-05

    A rapid thermal processing device and methods are provided for thermal processing of samples such as semiconductor wafers. The device has components including a stamp (35) having a stamping surface and a heater or cooler (40) to bring it to a selected processing temperature, a sample holder (20) for holding a sample (10) in position for intimate contact with the stamping surface; and positioning components (25) for moving the stamping surface and the stamp (35) in and away from intimate, substantially non-pressured contact. Methods for using and making such devices are also provided. These devices and methods allow inexpensive, efficient, easily controllable thermal processing.

  9. Rapid self-healing hydrogels

    PubMed Central

    Phadke, Ameya; Zhang, Chao; Arman, Bedri; Hsu, Cheng-Chih; Mashelkar, Raghunath A.; Lele, Ashish K.; Tauber, Michael J.; Arya, Gaurav; Varghese, Shyni

    2012-01-01

    Synthetic materials that are capable of autonomous healing upon damage are being developed at a rapid pace because of their many potential applications. Despite these advancements, achieving self-healing in permanently cross-linked hydrogels has remained elusive because of the presence of water and irreversible cross-links. Here, we demonstrate that permanently cross-linked hydrogels can be engineered to exhibit self-healing in an aqueous environment. We achieve this feature by arming the hydrogel network with flexible-pendant side chains carrying an optimal balance of hydrophilic and hydrophobic moieties that allows the side chains to mediate hydrogen bonds across the hydrogel interfaces with minimal steric hindrance and hydrophobic collapse. The self-healing reported here is rapid, occurring within seconds of the insertion of a crack into the hydrogel or juxtaposition of two separate hydrogel pieces. The healing is reversible and can be switched on and off via changes in pH, allowing external control over the healing process. Moreover, the hydrogels can sustain multiple cycles of healing and separation without compromising their mechanical properties and healing kinetics. Beyond revealing how secondary interactions could be harnessed to introduce new functions to chemically cross-linked polymeric systems, we also demonstrate various potential applications of such easy-to-synthesize, smart, self-healing hydrogels. PMID:22392977

  10. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  11. Rapid ISS Power Availability Simulator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Downing, Nicholas

    2011-01-01

    The ISS (International Space Station) Power Resource Officers (PROs) needed a tool to automate the calculation of thousands of ISS power availability simulations used to generate power constraint matrices. Each matrix contains 864 cells, and each cell represents a single power simulation that must be run. The tools available to the flight controllers were very operator intensive and not conducive to rapidly running the thousands of simulations necessary to generate the power constraint data. SOLAR is a Java-based tool that leverages commercial-off-the-shelf software (Satellite Toolkit) and an existing in-house ISS EPS model (SPEED) to rapidly perform thousands of power availability simulations. SOLAR has a very modular architecture and consists of a series of plug-ins that are loosely coupled. The modular architecture of the software allows for the easy replacement of the ISS power system model simulator, re-use of the Satellite Toolkit integration code, and separation of the user interface from the core logic. Satellite Toolkit (STK) is used to generate ISS eclipse and insulation times, solar beta angle, position of the solar arrays over time, and the amount of shadowing on the solar arrays, which is then provided to SPEED to calculate power generation forecasts. The power planning turn-around time is reduced from three months to two weeks (83-percent decrease) using SOLAR, and the amount of PRO power planning support effort is reduced by an estimated 30 percent.

  12. Rapidly Developing Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis

    PubMed Central

    Nielsen, Jonas

    2013-01-01

    Severe cutaneous reactions with potentially fatal outcomes can have many different causes. The Stevens-Johnson syndrome (SJS) and toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN) are rare. They are characterized by a low incidence but high mortality, and drugs are most commonly implicated. Urgent active therapy is required. Prompt recognition and withdrawal of suspect drug and rapid intervention can result in favourable outcome. No further international guidelines for treatment exist, and much of the treatment relies on old or experimental concepts with no scientific evidence. We report on a 54-year-old man experiencing rapidly developing drug-induced severe TEN and presented multiorgan failure involving the respiratory and circulatory system, coagulopathy, and renal insufficiency. Detachment counted 30% of total body surface area (TBSA). SCORTEN = 5, indicating a mortality rate >90%. The patient was sedated and mechanically ventilated, supported with fluids and inotropes to maintain a stable circulation. Component therapy was guided by thromboelastography (TEG). The patient received plasmapheresis, and shock reversal treatment was initiated. He was transferred to a specialized intensive care burn unit within 24 hours from admittance. The initial care was continued, and hemodialysis was started. Pulmonary, circulatory, and renal sequelae resolved with intensive care, and re-epithelialization progressed slowly. The patient was discharged home on hospital day 19. PMID:24069541

  13. Rapid starting methanol reactor system

    DOEpatents

    Chludzinski, Paul J.; Dantowitz, Philip; McElroy, James F.

    1984-01-01

    The invention relates to a methanol-to-hydrogen cracking reactor for use with a fuel cell vehicular power plant. The system is particularly designed for rapid start-up of the catalytic methanol cracking reactor after an extended shut-down period, i.e., after the vehicular fuel cell power plant has been inoperative overnight. Rapid system start-up is accomplished by a combination of direct and indirect heating of the cracking catalyst. Initially, liquid methanol is burned with a stoichiometric or slightly lean air mixture in the combustion chamber of the reactor assembly. The hot combustion gas travels down a flue gas chamber in heat exchange relationship with the catalytic cracking chamber transferring heat across the catalyst chamber wall to heat the catalyst indirectly. The combustion gas is then diverted back through the catalyst bed to heat the catalyst pellets directly. When the cracking reactor temperature reaches operating temperature, methanol combustion is stopped and a hot gas valve is switched to route the flue gas overboard, with methanol being fed directly to the catalytic cracking reactor. Thereafter, the burner operates on excess hydrogen from the fuel cells.

  14. Rapid Geophysical Surveyor. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.; Carpenter, G.S.; Josten, N.E.

    1993-01-01

    The Rapid Geophysical Surveyor (RGS) is a system designed to rapidly and economically collect closely-spaced geophysical data used for characterization of US Department of Energy waste sites. Geophysical surveys of waste sites are an important first step in the remediation and closure of these sites; especially older sites where historical records are inaccurate and survey benchmarks have changed because of refinements in coordinate controls and datum changes. Closely-spaced data are required to adequately differentiate pits, trenches, and soil vault rows whose edges may be only a few feet from each other. A prototype vehicle designed to collect magnetic field data was built at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) during the summer of 1992. The RGS was funded by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration program. This vehicle was demonstrated at the Subsurface Disposal Area (SDA) within the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL in September 1992. Magnetic data were collected over two areas in the SDA, with a total survey area of about 1.7 acres. Data were collected at a nominal density of 2{1/2} in. along survey lines spaced 1-ft apart. Over 350,000 data points were collected over a 6 day period corresponding to about 185 worker-days using conventional ground survey techniques.

  15. Rapidly rotating neutron star progenitors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Postnov, K. A.; Kuranov, A. G.; Kolesnikov, D. A.; Popov, S. B.; Porayko, N. K.

    2016-12-01

    Rotating proto-neutron stars can be important sources of gravitational waves to be searched for by present-day and future interferometric detectors. It was demonstrated by Imshennik that in extreme cases the rapid rotation of a collapsing stellar core may lead to fission and formation of a binary proto-neutron star which subsequently merges due to gravitational wave emission. In this paper, we show that such dynamically unstable collapsing stellar cores may be the product of a former merger process of two stellar cores in a common envelope. We applied population synthesis calculations to assess the expected fraction of such rapidly rotating stellar cores which may lead to fission and formation of a pair of proto-neutron stars. We have used the BSE (Binary Star Evolution) population synthesis code supplemented with a new treatment of stellar core rotation during the evolution via effective core-envelope coupling, characterized by the coupling time, τc. The validity of this approach is checked by direct MESA calculations of the evolution of a rotating 15 M⊙ star. From comparison of the calculated spin distribution of young neutron stars with the observed one, reported by Popov and Turolla, we infer the value τc ≃ 5 × 105 yr. We show that merging of stellar cores in common envelopes can lead to collapses with dynamically unstable proto-neutron stars, with their formation rate being ˜0.1-1 per cent of the total core collapses, depending on the common envelope efficiency.

  16. Moved by a Rapid Transit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bueter, C.

    2013-04-01

    Enticing by virtue of its predictability, historical utility, and spectacle, the transit of Venus is a niche event among astronomical phenomena. Though the value of a transit for scientific purposes is now diminished, the brief appearance of Venus silhouetted against the background of the Sun in 2004 moved the artistic community to celebrate the rare alignment. Artists of all ages combined old traditions with fresh technology to create a 21st-century tapestry of music, sculpture, paintings, glasswork, quilts, sky shows, and digital imagery. A full catalog of transit-related art generated over the centuries would feature the sampling of entries presented here and at the Moved by a Rapid Transit website.

  17. Rapid solidification of metallic particulates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grant, N. J.

    1982-01-01

    In order to maximize the heat transfer coefficient the most important variable in rapid solidification is the powder particle size. The finer the particle size, the higher the solidification rate. Efforts to decrease the particle size diameter offer the greatest payoff in attained quench rate. The velocity of the liquid droplet in the atmosphere is the second most important variable. Unfortunately the choices of gas atmospheres are sharply limited both because of conductivity and cost. Nitrogen and argon stand out as the preferred gases, nitrogen where reactions are unimportant and argon where reaction with nitrogen may be important. In gas atomization, helium offers up to an order of magnitude increase in solidification rate over argon and nitrogen. By contrast, atomization in vacuum drops the quench rate several orders of magnitude.

  18. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  19. Customer-experienced rapid prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Lijuan; Zhang, Fu; Li, Anbo

    2008-12-01

    In order to describe accurately and comprehend quickly the perfect GIS requirements, this article will integrate the ideas of QFD (Quality Function Deployment) and UML (Unified Modeling Language), and analyze the deficiency of prototype development model, and will propose the idea of the Customer-Experienced Rapid Prototyping (CE-RP) and describe in detail the process and framework of the CE-RP, from the angle of the characteristics of Modern-GIS. The CE-RP is mainly composed of Customer Tool-Sets (CTS), Developer Tool-Sets (DTS) and Barrier-Free Semantic Interpreter (BF-SI) and performed by two roles of customer and developer. The main purpose of the CE-RP is to produce the unified and authorized requirements data models between customer and software developer.

  20. Rapid Prototyping of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    1998-01-01

    This progress report for the project Rapid Production of Composite Structures covers the period from July 14, 1997 to June 30, 1998. It will present a short overview of the project, followed by the results to date and plans for the future. The goal of this research is to provide a minimum 100x reduction in the time required to produce arbitrary, laminated products without the need for a separate mold or an autoclave. It will accomplish this by developing the science underlying the rapid production of composite structures, specifically those of carbon fiber-epoxy materials. This scientific understanding will be reduced to practice in a demonstration device that will produce a part on the order of 12" by 12" by 6". Work in the past year has focussed on developing an understanding of the materials issues and of the machine design issues. Our initial goal was to use UV cureable resins to accomplish full cure on the machine. Therefore, we have centered our materials work around whether or not UV cureable resins will work. Currently, the answer seems to be that they will not work, because UV light cannot penetrate the carbon fibers, and because no "shadow" curing seems to occur. As a result, non-UV cureable resins are being investigated. This has resulted in a change in the machine design focus. We are now looking into a "dip and place" machine design, whereby a prepreg layer would have one side coated with a curing agent, and then would be placed onto the previous layer. This would lead to cure at the interface, but not to the top of the layer. The formulation of the resins to accomplish this task at room or slightly elevated temperatures is being investigated, as is the machine design needed to apply the curing agent and then cure or partially cure the part. A final, out-of-autoclave, post-cure may be needed with this strategy, as final cure on the machine may not be possible, as it was for the initial UV cure strategy. The remainder of this report details the progress

  1. Rapid world modelling for robotics

    SciTech Connect

    Littile, C.Q.; Wilson, C.W.

    1996-04-01

    The ability to use an interactive world model, whether it is for robotics simulation or most other virtual graphical environments, relies on the users ability to create an accurate world model. Typically this is a tedious process, requiring many hours to create 3-D CAD models of the surfaces within a workspace. The goal of this ongoing project is to develop usable methods to rapidly build world models of real world workspaces. This brings structure to an unstructured environment and allows graphical based robotics control to be accomplished in a reasonable time frame when traditional CAD modelling is not enough. To accomplish this, 3D range sensors are deployed to capture surface data within the workspace. This data is then transformed into surface maps, or models. A 3D world model of the workspace is built quickly and accurately, without ever having to put people in the environment.

  2. Rapid Data Delivery System (RDDS)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cress, Jill J.; Goplen, Susan E.

    2007-01-01

    Since the start of the active 2000 summer fire season, the U. S. Geological Survey (USGS) Rocky Mountain Geographic Science Center (RMGSC) has been actively engaged in providing crucial and timely support to Federal, State, and local natural hazards monitoring, analysis, response, and recovery activities. As part of this support, RMGSC has developed the Rapid Data Delivery System (RDDS) to provide emergency and incident response teams with timely access to geospatial data. The RDDS meets these needs by combining a simple web-enabled data viewer for the selection and preview of vector and raster geospatial data with an easy to use data ordering form. The RDDS viewer also incorporates geospatial locations for current natural hazard incidents, including wildfires, earthquakes, hurricanes, and volcanoes, allowing incident responders to quickly focus on their area of interest for data selection.

  3. Rapid Solidification of Magnetic Oxides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kalonji, G.; Deguire, M. R.

    1985-01-01

    The enhanced control over microstructural evolution inherent in rapid solidification processing techniques are exploited to create novel ceramic magnetic materials. The great sensitivity of magnetic properties to local structure provides a powerful probe both for the study of structure and of microscopic solidification mechanisms. The first system studied is the SrO-Fe2O3 binary, which contains the commercially important hard magnetic compound strontium hexaferrite. The products were analyzed by transmission electron microscopy, Mossbauer spectroscopy, magnetic measurements, and differential thermal analysis. As-quenched ribbons contain high concentrations of super-paramagnetic particles, 80 to 250 Angstroms in diameter, in a glassy matrix. This suggests the possibility of crystallizing monodomain strontium hexaferrite during subsequent heat treatment, with a resulting increase in coercivity over conventionally processed ferrite magnets. That magnetic properties can be controlled in solidification processing by varying the quench rate is demonstrated.

  4. Rapid Prototyping in the Instructional Design Process.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Nixon, Elizabeth Krick; Lee, Doris

    2001-01-01

    Discusses instructional design models and examines rapid prototyping, a model that combines computer design strategies, constructivist learning theory, and cognitive psychology. Highlights include limitations of linear models; instructional problems appropriate and those not appropriate for rapid prototyping; and rapid prototyping as a paradigm…

  5. Rapid Prototyping in Instructional Design: Creating Competencies

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Fulton, Carolyn D.

    2010-01-01

    Instructional designers working in rapid prototyping environments currently do not have a list of competencies that help to identify the knowledge, skills, and attitudes (KSAs) required in these workplaces. This qualitative case study used multiple cases in an attempt to identify rapid prototyping competencies required in a rapid prototyping…

  6. Furnace For Rapid Melting And Freezing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.

    1988-01-01

    Proposed furnace rapidly heats and cools specimens in material-processing experiments. Preheated specimen heated rapidly above melting temperature by contact with hotter, more massive object. Once molten, cooled rapidly with flowing gas. Particularly useful for experiments requiring artificial low gravitation produced by flying KC-135 airplanes in parabolic trajectories.

  7. Rapid Prototyping of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    1998-01-01

    This final report for the project Rapid Production of Composite Structures covers the period from July 14, 1997 to September 30, 1998. It will present a short overview of the project, followed by the results to date and plans for the future. The goal of this research is to provide a minimum 100x reduction in the time required to produce arbitrary, laminated products without the need for a separate mold or an autoclave. It will accomplish this by developing the science underlying the rapid production of composite structures, specifically those of carbon fiber-epoxy materials. This scientific understanding will be reduced to practice in a demonstration device that will produce a part on the order of 12in. by 12in. by 6in. Work in the past year has focussed on developing an understanding of the materials issues and of the machine design issues. Our initial goal was to use UV cureable resins to accomplish full cure on the machine. Therefore, we have centered our materials work around whether or not UV cureable resins will work. Currently, the answer seems to be that they will not work, because UV light cannot penetrate the carbon fibers, and because no "shadow" curing seems to occur. As a result, non-UV cureable resins are being investigated. This has resulted in a change in the machine design focus. We are now looking into a "dip and place" machine design, whereby a prepreg layer would have one side coated with a curing agent, and then would be placed onto the previous layer. This would lead to cure at the interface, but not to the top of the layer. The formulation of the resins to accomplish this task at room or slightly elevated temperatures is being investigated, as is the machine design needed to apply the curing agent and then cure or partially cure the part. A final, out-of-autoclave, post-cure may be needed with this strategy, as final cure on the machine may not be possible, as it was for the initial UV cure strategy. The remainder of this report details the

  8. Rapid Prototyping of Composite Structures

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Colton, Jonathan S.

    1998-01-01

    This final report for the project Rapid Production of Composite Structures covers the period from July 14, 1997 to September 30, 1998. It will present a short overview of the project, followed by the results to date and plans for the future. The goal of this research is to provide a minimum 100x reduction in the time required to produce arbitrary, laminated products without the need for a separate mold or an autoclave. It will accomplish this by developing the science underlying the rapid production of composite structures, specifically those of carbon fiber-epoxy materials. This scientific understanding will be reduced to practice in a demonstration device that will produce a part on the order of 12in. by 12in. by 6in. Work in the past year has focussed on developing an understanding of the materials issues and of the machine design issues. Our initial goal was to use UV cureable resins to accomplish full cure on the machine. Therefore, we have centered our materials work around whether or not UV cureable resins will work. Currently, the answer seems to be that they will not work, because UV light cannot penetrate the carbon fibers, and because no "shadow" curing seems to occur. As a result, non-UV cureable resins are being investigated. This has resulted in a change in the machine design focus. We are now looking into a "dip and place" machine design, whereby a prepreg layer would have one side coated with a curing agent, and then would be placed onto the previous layer. This would lead to cure at the interface, but not to the top of the layer. The formulation of the resins to accomplish this task at room or slightly elevated temperatures is being investigated, as is the machine design needed to apply the curing agent and then cure or partially cure the part. A final, out-of-autoclave, post-cure may be needed with this strategy, as final cure on the machine may not be possible, as it was for the initial UV cure strategy. The remainder of this report details the

  9. Implementing a Measurement Feedback System: A Tale of Two Sites.

    PubMed

    Bickman, Leonard; Douglas, Susan R; De Andrade, Ana Regina Vides; Tomlinson, Michele; Gleacher, Alissa; Olin, Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2016-05-01

    A randomized experiment was conducted in two outpatient clinics evaluating a measurement feedback system called contextualized feedback systems. The clinicians of 257 Youth 11-18 received feedback on progress in mental health symptoms and functioning either every 6 months or as soon as the youth's, clinician's or caregiver's data were entered into the system. The ITT analysis showed that only one of the two participating clinics (Clinic R) had an enhanced outcome because of feedback, and only for the clinicians' ratings of youth symptom severity on the SFSS. A dose-response effect was found only for Clinic R for both the client and clinician ratings. Implementation analyses showed that Clinic R had better implementation of the feedback intervention. Clinicians' questionnaire completion rate and feedback viewing at Clinic R were 50 % higher than clinicians at Clinic U. The discussion focused on the differences in implementation at each site and how these differences may have contributed to the different outcomes of the experiment.

  10. Rainwater chemical composition at two sites in Central Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Báez, A. P.; Belmont, R. D.; García, R. M.; Torres, M. C. B.; Padilla, H. G.

    2006-04-01

    Chemical analyses were performed on rainwater samples collected at the National Autonomous University of Mexico (UNAM) in Mexico City and at a wooded site, Rancho Viejo (RV) in the State of Mexico, for the periods 1994-2000 and 1994-1999, respectively. At UNAM, rainwater was collected for the entire rainy season period each year, while at RV, technical considerations limited collection to weekends only. The results showed large variations in rainwater chemical composition in most years, mainly because of the variability of meteorological conditions and also because of changes in source emissions. Sulfates and NH 4+ showed higher annual volume-weighted mean concentrations (VWMC) in both sites. At UNAM, the maximum annual VWMC for SO 42- occurred in March and the minimum in July and August. Lower concentrations of almost all ions were found at RV; however, the H + concentration was higher at this site. The pH in Mexico City, calculated from the annual VWMC of H +, was 4.95, which is a little higher than pH values reported in some other countries. Despite the fact that sulfate and NO 3- concentrations were lower at RV, the pH was lower. Air-mass back trajectories were calculated for individual concentrations of SO 42-, H +, NH 4+, Ca 2+, and Mg 2+, observed at each sampling site for weekend data. At RV, sulfate concentrations were higher when air-mass back trajectories indicated a wind flow from Mexico City and Toluca at 1000 MAGL (meters above ground level) and 3000 MAGL. The hydrogen ion exhibited the same behavior. Calcium and Mg 2+ concentrations were also higher when the wind blew from urban areas at 1000 and 3000 MAGL. At UNAM, H + concentration was lower and Ca 2+ and Mg 2+ were higher when wind blew from the northern sector of the city at 1000 and 3000 MAGL. In UNAM, the NO 3-/SO 42- and NH 4+/SO 42- ratios were 0.5 and 1.09 in 1994 and 0.86 and 1.64 in 2000, respectively, indicating a decrease in SO 2 emissions resulting from the change of fuel oil to gas fuel. The SO 42-/Ca 2+ ratio was significantly lower at the UNAM site (1.82) compared to RV (5.36), and the SO 42-/H + ratio was significantly higher at the UNAM site (6.77) compared to RV (2.01). The Spearman's rho correlation between ionic concentrations indicated a positive correlation in most cases ( p < 0.05) for data from UNAM and RV. The multiple regression correlation analysis to predict H + concentration in Mexico City showed that NO 3-, NH 4+, SO 42-, and Ca 2+ contributed 23.2%, 20.9%, 8.0%, and 6.1%, respectively, to the H + prediction, while Cl - plus Na + plus K + only contributed 2.2%, and Mg 2+ did not contribute. Sea-salt contribution to rainwater chemical composition was negligible with any wind direction at both levels. Excess sulfate (non-sea-salt sulfate) represented 98.7% of the total sulfate in rainwater collected during weekends at RV and 98.6% for weekend and annual rain samples at UNAM.

  11. GAS HYDRATES AT TWO SITES OF AN ACTIVE CONTINENTAL MARGIN.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kvenvolden, K.A.

    1985-01-01

    Sediment containing gas hydrates from two distant Deep Sea Drilling Project sites (565 and 568), located about 670 km apart on the landward flank of the Middle America Trench, was studied to determine the geochemical conditions that characterize the occurrence of gas hydrates. Site 565 was located in the Pacific Ocean offshore the Nicoya Peninsula of Costa Rica in 3,111 m of water. The depth of the hole at this site was 328 m, and gas hydrates were recovered from 285 and 319 m. Site 568 was located about 670 km to the northwest offshore Guatemala in 2,031 m of water. At this site the hole penetrated to 418 m, and gas hydrates were encountered at 404 m.

  12. A two-site study of QW Puppis .

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wright, D. J.; Pollard, K. R.; Cottrell, P. L.

    A multi-site campaign involving photometry and high resolution spectroscopy from South Africa and New Zealand of the gamma Doradus star QW Puppis has been completed. This is the first spectroscopic analysis of QW Puppis. Preliminary results are given below.

  13. Severe malaria in children in Yemen: two site observational study

    PubMed Central

    Al-Taiar, Abdullah; Jaffar, Shabbar; Assabri, Ali; Al-Habori, Molham; Azazy, Ahmed; Al-Mahdi, Nagiba; Ameen, Khaled; Greenwood, Brian M; Whitty, Christopher J M

    2006-01-01

    Objectives To assess the burden of malaria on health services, describe the clinical presentation of severe malaria in children, and identify factors associated with mortality by means of a prospective observational study. Setting Two public hospitals in Taiz (mountain hinterland) and Hodeidah (coastal plain), Yemen. Participants Children aged 6 months to 10 years. Results Of 12 301 paediatric admissions, 2071 (17%) were for suspected severe malaria. The proportion of such admissions varied according to the season (from 1% to 40%). Falciparum malaria was confirmed in 1332 children; 808 had severe disease as defined by the World Health Organization. Main presentations were respiratory distress (322/808, 40%), severe anaemia (291/800, 37%), and cerebral malaria (60/808, 8%). Twenty two of 26 children who died had a neurological presentation. No deaths occurred in children with severe anaemia but no other signs of severity. In multivariate analysis, a Blantyre coma score ≤ 2, history of fits, female sex, and hyperlactataemia predicted mortality; severe anaemia, respiratory distress, and hyperparasitaemia were not significant predictors of mortality. Conclusions Severe malaria puts a high burden on health services in Yemen. Although presentation is similar to African series, some important differences exist. Case fatality is higher in girls. PMID:17053235

  14. Implementing a Measurement Feedback System: A Tale of Two Sites

    PubMed Central

    Douglas, Susan R.; Vides De Andrade, Ana Regina; Tomlinson, Michele; Gleacher, Alissa; Olin, Serene; Hoagwood, Kimberly

    2015-01-01

    A randomized experiment was conducted in two outpatient clinics evaluating a measurement feedback system called contextualized feedback systems. The clinicians of 257 Youth 11–18 received feedback on progress in mental health symptoms and functioning either every 6 months or as soon as the youth’s, clinician’s or caregiver’s data were entered into the system. The ITT analysis showed that only one of the two participating clinics (Clinic R) had an enhanced outcome because of feedback, and only for the clinicians’ ratings of youth symptom severity on the SFSS. A dose–response effect was found only for Clinic R for both the client and clinician ratings. Implementation analyses showed that Clinic R had better implementation of the feedback intervention. Clinicians’ questionnaire completion rate and feedback viewing at Clinic R were 50 % higher than clinicians at Clinic U. The discussion focused on the differences in implementation at each site and how these differences may have contributed to the different outcomes of the experiment. PMID:25876736

  15. Flu channel drug resistance: a tale of two sites.

    PubMed

    Pielak, Rafal M; Chou, James J

    2010-03-01

    The M2 proteins of influenza A and B virus, AM2 and BM2, respectively, are transmembrane proteins that oligomerize in the viral membrane to form proton-selective channels. Proton conductance of the M2 proteins is required for viral replication; it is believed to equilibrate pH across the viral membrane during cell entry and across the trans-Golgi membrane of infected cells during viral maturation. In addition to the role of M2 in proton conductance, recent mutagenesis and structural studies suggest that the cytoplasmic domains of the M2 proteins also play a role in recruiting the matrix proteins to the cell surface during virus budding. As viral ion channels of minimalist architecture, the membrane-embedded channel domain of M2 has been a model system for investigating the mechanism of proton conduction. Moreover, as a proven drug target for the treatment of influenza A infection, M2 has been the subject of intense research for developing new anti-flu therapeutics. AM2 is the target of two anti-influenza A drugs, amantadine and rimantadine, both belonging to the adamantane class of compounds. However, resistance of influenza A to adamantane is now widespread due to mutations in the channel domain of AM2. This review summarizes the structure and function of both AM2 and BM2 channels, the mechanism of drug inhibition and drug resistance of AM2, as well as the development of new M2 inhibitors as potential anti-flu drugs.

  16. A Tale of Two Sites: Planning Ahead for August 2017

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartlett, Jennifer L.; Bell, S.

    2012-01-01

    On August 21, 2017, most of the United States will experience a partial solar eclipse with a total solar eclipse visible from a narrow band, approximately 73 mi (118 km) wide, crossing twelve states. The Shawnee National Forest, Illinois falls within this favored region but Austin, Texas does not. While both locations lie along the April 8, 2024, path of totality, the Forest is still better positioned. On average, three solar eclipse tracks race across the globe every two years; in rare years, as many as five solar eclipses, including partial ones, can occur. Because each individual track covers less than 1% of the Earth's surface, an average of 375 years lapse between total solar eclipses at a particular site. In 2017, the longest duration of totality for the eclipse will darken the Shawnee National Forest (37°34.5’ N, 89°7.3’ W) for 2 min. 44 sec. In 2024, totality will last 4 min. 13 sec. over the Forest. Although July 7, 1442, was the last total solar eclipse here, an annular solar eclipse was visible in 1865. In 2017, Austin will only experience a partial eclipse with 65% of the Sun obscured. In 2024, totality will darken the state capital for 1 min. 48 sec. The last total solar eclipse here occurred on May 26, 1397, which was immediately preceded by another on January 21, 1395. More recently, two annular solar eclipses were visible during the 20th century. The August and April weather at both sites is generally favorable; while clouds and rain are possible, neither is a significant threat. What your outreach program will see and do during these eclipses depends heavily on where you are, or can go. For those impatiently awaiting their next eclipse fix, a partially eclipsed sun will set over both sites on May 20, 2012.

  17. Early detection and rapid response

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Westbrooks, Randy G.; Eplee, Robert E.; Simberloff, Daniel; Rejmánek, Marcel

    2011-01-01

    Prevention is the first line of defense against introduced invasive species - it is always preferable to prevent the introduction of new invaders into a region or country. However, it is not always possible to detect all alien hitchhikers imported in cargo, or to predict with any degree of certainty which introduced species will become invasive over time. Fortunately, the majority of introduced plants and animals don't become invasive. But, according to scientists at Cornell University, costs and losses due to species that do become invasive are now estimated to be over $137 billion/year in the United States. Early detection and rapid response (EDRR) is the second line of defense against introduced invasive species - EDRR is the preferred management strategy for preventing the establishment and spread of invasive species. Over the past 50 years, there has been a gradual shift away from large and medium scale federal/state single-agency-led weed eradication programs in the United States, to smaller interagency-led projects involving impacted and potential stakeholders. The importance of volunteer weed spotters in detecting and reporting suspected new invasive species has also been recognized in recent years.

  18. Rapid purification of recombinant histones.

    PubMed

    Klinker, Henrike; Haas, Caroline; Harrer, Nadine; Becker, Peter B; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method "rapid histone purification" (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants.

  19. Rapid Response Flood Water Mapping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Policelli, Fritz; Brakenridge, G. R.; Coplin, A.; Bunnell, M.; Wu, L.; Habib, Shahid; Farah, H.

    2010-01-01

    Since the beginning of operation of the MODIS instrument on the NASA Terra satellite at the end of 1999, an exceptionally useful sensor and public data stream have been available for many applications including the rapid and precise characterization of terrestrial surface water changes. One practical application of such capability is the near-real time mapping of river flood inundation. We have developed a surface water mapping methodology based on using only bands 1 (620-672 nm) and 2 (841-890 nm). These are the two bands at 250 m, and the use of only these bands maximizes the resulting map detail. In this regard, most water bodies are strong absorbers of incoming solar radiation at the band 2 wavelength: it could be used alone, via a thresholding procedure, to separate water (dark, low radiance or reflectance pixels) from land (much brighter pixels) (1, 2). Some previous water mapping procedures have in fact used such single band data from this and other sensors that include similar wavelength channels. Adding the second channel of data (band 1), however, allows a band ratio approach which permits sediment-laden water, often relatively light at band 2 wavelengths, to still be discriminated, and, as well, provides some removal of error by reducing the number of cloud shadow pixels that would otherwise be misclassified as water.

  20. Rapid Purification of Recombinant Histones

    PubMed Central

    Klinker, Henrike; Becker, Peter B.; Mueller-Planitz, Felix

    2014-01-01

    The development of methods to assemble nucleosomes from recombinant histones decades ago has transformed chromatin research. Nevertheless, nucleosome reconstitution remains time consuming to this day, not least because the four individual histones must be purified first. Here, we present a streamlined purification protocol of recombinant histones from bacteria. We termed this method “rapid histone purification” (RHP) as it circumvents isolation of inclusion bodies and thereby cuts out the most time-consuming step of traditional purification protocols. Instead of inclusion body isolation, whole cell extracts are prepared under strongly denaturing conditions that directly solubilize inclusion bodies. By ion exchange chromatography, the histones are purified from the extracts. The protocol has been successfully applied to all four canonical Drosophila and human histones. RHP histones and histones that were purified from isolated inclusion bodies had similar purities. The different purification strategies also did not impact the quality of octamers reconstituted from these histones. We expect that the RHP protocol can be readily applied to the purification of canonical histones from other species as well as the numerous histone variants. PMID:25090252

  1. Rapid Gradient-Echo Imaging

    PubMed Central

    Hargreaves, Brian

    2012-01-01

    Gradient echo sequences are widely used in magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) for numerous applications ranging from angiography to perfusion to functional MRI. Compared with spin-echo techniques, the very short repetition times of gradient-echo methods enable very rapid 2D and 3D imaging, but also lead to complicated “steady states.” Signal and contrast behavior can be described graphically and mathematically, and depends strongly on the type of spoiling: fully balanced (no spoiling), gradient spoiling, or RF-spoiling. These spoiling options trade off between high signal and pure T1 contrast while the flip angle also affects image contrast in all cases, both of which can be demonstrated theoretically and in image examples. As with spin-echo sequences, magnetization preparation can be added to gradient-echo sequences to alter image contrast. Gradient echo sequences are widely used for numerous applications such as 3D perfusion imaging, functional MRI, cardiac imaging and MR angiography. PMID:23097185

  2. [Rapid-sequence anesthesia induction].

    PubMed

    Lloréns Herrerías, J

    2003-02-01

    Rapid-sequence induction (RSI) techniques are designed to reduce the risk of aspiration in cases where risk is high. ISR is often for surgery, particularly under emergency conditions, but is also found in procedures requiring emergency tracheal intubation inside and outside the hospital. ISR techniques have proven safe for reducing the risk of aspiration and providing good conditions for intubation in such situations. The great variety of clinical situations that can be involved means that the combination of drugs to be used should be individualized for each case. In addition to the two objectives of RSI named and the particular nature of a case, the risk of presenting unforeseen difficult intubation is yet another factor affecting choice of drugs. Precisely because of this last factor and the good results obtained with short-acting opiates, great interest has developed in recent years in RSI that does not use neuromuscular blocking agents. However, conclusive data are unavailable. Studies are often difficult to compare because of small differences in the combination of drugs, the dosing of one or more of them, the route of administration, or because the criteria used to define ideal intubation conditions are different.

  3. Rapid fluctuations in solar flares

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sturrock, Peter A.

    1986-01-01

    Study of rapid fluctuations in the emission of radiation from solar flares provides a promising approach for probing the magneto-plasma structure and plasma processes that are responsible for a flare. It is proposed that elementary flare bursts in X-ray and microwave emission may be attributed to fine structure of the coronal magnetic field, related to the aggregation of photospheric magnetic field into magnetic knots. Fluctuations that occur on a subsecond time-scale may be due to magnetic islands that develop in current sheets during magnetic reconnection. The impulsive phase may sometimes represent the superposition of a large number of the elementary energy-release processes responsible for elementary flare bursts. If so, the challenge of trying to explain the properties of the impulsive phase in terms of the properties of the elementary processes must be faced. Magnetic field configurations that might produce solar flares are divided into a number of categories, depending on: whether or not there is a filament; whether there is no current sheet, a closed current sheet, or an open current sheet; and whether the filament erupts into the corona, or is ejected completely from the Sun's atmosphere. Analysis of the properties of these possible configurations is compared with different types of flares, and to Bai's subdivision of gamma-ray/proton events.

  4. Interface fluctuations during rapid drainage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ayaz, Monem; Toussaint, Renaud; Schäfer, Gerhard; Jørgen Måløy, Knut; Moura, Marcel

    2017-04-01

    We experimentally study the interface dynamics of an immiscible fluid as it invades a monolayer of saturated porous medium through rapid drainage. The seemingly stable and continuous motion of the interface at macroscale, involves numerous abrupt pore-scale jumps and local reconfigurations of the interface. By computing the velocity fluctuations along the invasion front from sequences of images captured at high frame rate, we are able to study both the local and global behavior. The latter displays an intermittent behavior with power-law distributed avalanches in size and duration. As the system is drained potential surface energy is stored at the interface up to a given threshold in pressure. The energy released generates elastic waves at the confining plate, which we detect using piezoelectric type acoustic sensors. By detecting pore-scale events emanating from the depinning of the interface, we look to develop techniques for localizing the displacement front. To assess the quality of these techniques, optical monitoring is done in parallel using a high speed camera.

  5. Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar.

    PubMed

    Gillam, Erin H; Ulanovsky, Nachum; McCracken, Gary F

    2007-03-07

    The sonar systems of bats and dolphins are in many ways superior to man-made sonar and radar systems, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the signal-processing strategies underlying these capabilities. A major feature determining the efficiency of sonar systems is the sensitivity to noise and jamming signals. Previous studies indicated that echolocating bats may adjust their signal structure to avoid jamming ('jamming avoidance response'; JAR). However, these studies relied on behavioural correlations and not controlled experiments. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence for JAR in bats. We presented bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) with 'playback stimuli' consisting of recorded echolocation calls at one of six frequencies. The bats exhibited a JAR by shifting their call frequency away from the presented playback frequency. When the approaching bats were challenged by an abrupt change in the playback stimulus, they responded by shifting their call frequencies upwards, away from the playback. Interestingly, even bats initially calling below the playback's frequency shifted their frequencies upwards, 'jumping' over the playback frequency. These spectral shifts in the bats' calls occurred often within less than 200 ms, in the first echolocation call emitted after the stimulus switch-suggesting that rapid jamming avoidance is important for the bat.

  6. Rapid jamming avoidance in biosonar

    PubMed Central

    Gillam, Erin H; Ulanovsky, Nachum; McCracken, Gary F

    2006-01-01

    The sonar systems of bats and dolphins are in many ways superior to man-made sonar and radar systems, and considerable effort has been devoted to understanding the signal-processing strategies underlying these capabilities. A major feature determining the efficiency of sonar systems is the sensitivity to noise and jamming signals. Previous studies indicated that echolocating bats may adjust their signal structure to avoid jamming (‘jamming avoidance response’; JAR). However, these studies relied on behavioural correlations and not controlled experiments. Here, we provide the first experimental evidence for JAR in bats. We presented bats (Tadarida brasiliensis) with ‘playback stimuli’ consisting of recorded echolocation calls at one of six frequencies. The bats exhibited a JAR by shifting their call frequency away from the presented playback frequency. When the approaching bats were challenged by an abrupt change in the playback stimulus, they responded by shifting their call frequencies upwards, away from the playback. Interestingly, even bats initially calling below the playback's frequency shifted their frequencies upwards, ‘jumping’ over the playback frequency. These spectral shifts in the bats' calls occurred often within less than 200 ms, in the first echolocation call emitted after the stimulus switch—suggesting that rapid jamming avoidance is important for the bat. PMID:17254989

  7. Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Carr, Natasha B.; Means, Robert E.

    2013-01-01

    The overall goal of the Wyoming Basin Rapid Ecoregional Assessment (REA) is to provide information that supports regional planning and analysis for the management of ecological resources. The REA provides an assessment of baseline ecological conditions, an evaluation of current risks from drivers of ecosystem change (including energy development, fire, and invasive species), and a predictive capacity for evaluating future risks (including climate change). Additionally, the REA may be used for identifying priority areas for conservation or restoration and for assessing cumulative effects of multiple land uses. The Wyoming Basin REA will address Management Questions developed by the Bureau of Land Management and other agency partners for 8 major biomes and 19 species or species assemblages. The maps developed for addressing Management Questions will be integrated into overall maps of landscape-level ecological values and risks. The maps can be used to address the goals of the REA at a number of levels: for individual species, species assemblages, aquatic and terrestrial systems, and for the entire ecoregion. This allows flexibility in how the products of the REA are compiled to inform planning and management actions across a broad range of spatial scales.

  8. New rapid multicolor PRINS protocol.

    PubMed

    Yan, Ju; Gadji, Macoura; Krabchi, Kada; Drouin, Régen

    2006-01-01

    In the multiple-color primed in situ labeling (multi-PRINS) technique, using ddNTPs between two PRINS reactions can block the free 3'-end generated in the previous PRINS reaction, thus avoiding the next PRINS reaction, using it as a primer to perform spurious elongation at nondesired sites. However, by omitting the blocking step and taking advantage of the color mixing, we developed a simple and rapid multi-PRINS technique to simultaneously detect three chromosomes in the same cell. With this protocol, one can create a third color using the two most common forms of labeled dUTP (biotin- and digoxigenin-labeled dUTP) and two fluorochromes (fluorescein and rhodamine). The signals at the centromeres of three different chromosomes displayed perfect yellow, red, and green colors, respectively. The entire procedure could be completed in less than 90 min because the blocking step was omitted. This protocol is practical and efficient for multi-PRINS so that even more than three chromosome targets could be detected in the same cell.

  9. Rapid prototyping applications for manufacturing

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; Maguire, M.C.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1996-01-01

    Recent advances in stereolithography and selective laser sintering have had a significant impact on the overall quality of parts produced using these rapid prototyping processes. The development and implementation of 3D System`s QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software for building investment casting patterns have proven to be major steps toward fabricating highly accurate patterns with very good surface finishes. As participants in the Beta test program for QuickCast{sup TM} resin and software, we experienced a steep learning curve and were able to build accurate parts in a short period of time. It is now possible using this technology to produce highly accurate prototype parts as well as acceptable first article and small lot size production parts. We use the Selective Laser Sintering (SLS) process to fabricate prototype wax patterns for investment casting. DTM Corporation recently introduced the use of their polycarbonate material for fabricating investment casting patterns. The polycarbonate material is processed significantly faster with improved strength, dimensional stability, and without a support structure during the build process. Sandia is currently changing from investment casting wax to polycarbonate for the fabrication of investment casting patterns using the SLS process. This report will focus on our successes with these new materials from the standpoints of application, accuracy, surface finish, and post processing. Also presented will be examples of parts manufactured by these processes. 6 refs., 10 figs.

  10. Rapid HIV test in family practice.

    PubMed

    Poirier, C; Aymeric, S; Grammatico-Guillon, L; Lebeau, J P; Bernard, L; Le Bret, P; Le Moal, G; Gras, G

    2015-06-01

    The 2010-2014 HIV/AIDS French program recommends using HIV rapid diagnostic tests in family practice. Our aim was to assess the acceptability and feasibility of the RDT in family practice in France. The first part of this study was to determine the opinions of family practitioners (FPs) concerning the news guidelines for screening and the possible use of rapid HIV tests in their practice. The second part was a feasibility study of the actual use of rapid HIV tests given to FPs during six months. The third part was a qualitative analysis of experience feedback to determine the impediments to using rapid HIV tests. Seventy-seven percent of the 352 FPs interviewed were favorable to rapid HIV tests use. The three main impediments were: misinterpretation of test result, complexity of quality control, and lack of training: 23 of the 112 FPs having volunteered to evaluate the rapid HIV tests followed the required training session. Sixty-nine tests were handed out, and three rapid HIV tests were used; the qualitative study involved 12 FPs. The participants all agreed on the difficult use of rapid HIV tests in daily practice. The main reasons were: too few opportunities or requests for use, complex handling, difficulties in proposing the test, fear of having to announce seropositivity, significantly longer consultation. Although FPs are generally favorable to rapid HIV tests use in daily practice, the feasibility and contribution of rapid HIV tests are limited in family practice. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  11. Rapid intraoperative zygoma fracture imaging.

    PubMed

    Czerwinski, Marcin; Parker, Wendy L; Beckman, Lorne; Williams, H Bruce

    2009-09-01

    A fractured zygoma frequently results in an aesthetically displeasing facial asymmetry. Open reduction and internal fixation may accurately realign the facial skeleton but often with undesirable sequelae. The authors' objective was to develop a precise technique of intraoperative zygoma fracture imaging using a C-arm to permit anatomical fracture realignment while reducing the extent of skeletal exposure required. The simplicity and accessibility of this method should allow its widespread clinical application. First, using a model skull, the relative positions of the C-arm required to adequately depict zygoma projection, width, arch contour, and zygoma rotation were defined. Second, diverse zygoma fracture types were created in six cadaver heads with a Mini Bionix machine and were repaired using C-arm guidance; accuracy was confirmed with postoperative computed tomography. Third, after defining optimal operating room setup, the accuracy in a clinical case was assessed. Two C-arm views were defined. The zygoma projection view (C-arm at 70 to 90 degrees to the skull's coronal plane) allows visualization of projection, width, and contour. The rotation view (C-arm at 70 to 90 degrees to the skull's sagittal plane) allows visualization of zygoma rotation. Postoperative computed tomographic imaging confirmed anatomical repair in all cases. Average operating room duration was less than 30 minutes, with operating room times decreasing progressively. The authors have developed an accurate technique of intraoperative zygoma fracture imaging and reduction guidance. This technique may decrease the risks of open access by potentially limiting direct skeletal exposure to buttresses where skeletal stabilization is required. In addition, this method is simple, can be learned and used rapidly, and is readily accessible.

  12. Rapid DOTS expansion in India.

    PubMed Central

    Khatri, G. R.; Frieden, Thomas R.

    2002-01-01

    Since late 1998 the coverage of the DOTS strategy in India has been expanded rapidly. In both 2000 and 2001 the country probably accounted for more than half the global increase in the number of patients treated under DOTS and by early 2002 more than a million patients were being treated in this way in India. As a result, nearly 200 000 lives were saved. The lessons learnt relate to the importance of the following elements of the programme: (1) getting the science right and ensuring technical excellence; (2) building commitment and ensuring the provision of funds and flexibility in their utilization; (3) maintaining focus and priorities; (4) systematically appraising each area before starting service delivery; (5) ensuring an uninterrupted drug supply; (6) strengthening the established infrastructure and providing support for staff; (7) supporting the infrastructure required in urban areas; (8) ensuring full-time independent technical support and supervision, particularly during the initial phases of implementation; (9) monitoring intensively and giving timely feedback; and (10) continuous supervision. Tuberculosis (TB) control still faces major challenges in India. To reach its potential, the control programme needs to: continue to expand so as to cover the remaining half of the country, much of which has a weaker health infrastructure than the areas already covered; increase its reach in the areas already covered so that a greater proportion of patients is treated; ensure sustainability; improve the patient-friendliness of services; confront TB associated with human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infection. It is expected that HIV will increase the number of TB cases by at least 10% and by a considerably higher percentage if HIV becomes much more widespread. India's experience shows that DOTS can achieve high case-detection and cure rates even with imperfect technology and often with an inadequate public health infrastructure. However, this can only happen if the

  13. Rapid nuclear import of short nucleic acids.

    PubMed

    Kitagawa, Mai; Okamoto, Akimitsu

    2016-10-01

    Exogenous short-chain nucleic acids undergo rapid import into the nucleus. Fluorescence-labeled dT1-13 DNA microinjected into the cytoplasm domain of a HeLa cell was rapidly imported into the nucleus domain within 1min. This is much more rapid than what has been observed for intracellular diffusion of small molecules. In contrast, import of longer nucleic acids with a length of over 30nt into the nucleus was suppressed.

  14. Rapid Thawing and Heating of Foods

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1974-09-01

    has been designed for the rapid thawing and heating of foods and has been tried out on scalloped potatoes , Creole squash, noodles and cheese, and...not be equal to the average temperature in the food. This situation has led us to construct a stirred- water calorimeter with which enthalpy changes...the rapid heating experiments, because the specific heat of food depends strongly on its water content. 4. Main Results Rapid thawing and

  15. An Analysis of Army Rapid Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-09-01

    regulations support a repeatable and manageable rapid acquisition process. The methodology used to analyze the research is the knowledge value-added theory...regulations support a repeatable and manageable rapid acquisition process. The methodology used to analyze the research is the knowledge value-added...Joint Rapid Acquisition Cell JUON joint urgent operational needs KVA knowledge value-added LCSSP life cycle signature support plan LRIP low

  16. Investigating Rapid Uplift and Subsidence Near Norris, Yellowstone, During 2013-2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stovall, W. K.; Cervelli, P. F.; Shelly, D. R.

    2014-12-01

    Although Yellowstone's last magmatic eruption occurred about 70,000 years ago, hydrothermal explosions, earthquakes, and ground deformation still occur as testament to ongoing volcanic and tectonic processes. Since the late 1990s, a network of continuously recording Global Positioning System (GPS) receivers has recorded uplift and subsidence of the caldera and northwest caldera margin near Norris Geyser Basin. Previous deformation episodes have shown opposing vertical motion at the two sites, which has been attributed to temporal variations in magmatic fluid flux from the caldera laterally through the Norris-Mammoth fault corridor that intersects the caldera's northwest margin (Dzurisin et al., 2012; Wicks et al., 2006). These episodes have exhibited gradual changes, transitioning from uplift to subsidence (and vice versa) over weeks to months. Large earthquake swarms accompanied transitions from caldera uplift to subsidence in 1985 and 2010. Recent deformation in Yellowstone differs from previously observed episodes. In the latter half of 2013, uplift began around Norris, and by January of 2014 it reached rates of over 15 cm/yr. Also at the start of 2014, caldera deformation shifted from approximately 4 years of slow subsidence to slow uplift. On March 30, 2014, a M4.8 earthquake, the largest in Yellowstone since 1980, occurred northwest of Norris Geyser Basin near the center of uplift. Shortly after the event, deformation near Norris abruptly reversed to rapid subsidence (over 20 cm/yr). Caldera uplift began to accelerate around the same time. Thus, uplift can occur simultaneously in both the caldera and the Norris area, and dramatic reversals from rapid uplift to rapid subsidence can occur within a matter of days. While the complexity of the deformation defies a simple explanation, we hypothesize that the rapid transition from uplift to subsidence at Norris may indicate that the M4.8 earthquake opened a pathway for fluid migration away from Norris and allowed an

  17. Rapidity Correlation Structures from Causal Hydrodynamics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gavin, Sean; Moschelli, George; Zin, Christopher

    2016-08-01

    Viscous diffusion can broaden the rapidity dependence of two-particle transverse momentum fluctuations. Surprisingly, measurements at RHIC by the STAR collaboration demonstrate that this broadening is accompanied by the appearance of unanticipated structure in the rapidity distribution of these fluctuations in the most central collisions. Although a first order classical Navier-Stokes theory can roughly explain the rapidity broadening, it cannot explain the additional structure. We propose that the rapidity structure can be explained using the second order causal Israel-Stewart hydrodynamics with stochastic noise.

  18. Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions.

    PubMed

    Vladimirov, Alexey A

    2017-02-10

    We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.

  19. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Selected Radionuclides

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    The rapid methods documents are supplement guidance in a planned series designed to present radioanalytical laboratory personnel, Incident Commanders (and their designees), and other field response personnel.

  20. Correspondence between Soft and Rapidity Anomalous Dimensions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladimirov, Alexey A.

    2017-02-01

    We establish a correspondence between ultraviolet singularities of soft factors for multiparticle production and rapidity singularities of soft factors for multiparton scattering. This correspondence is a consequence of the conformal mapping between scattering geometries. The correspondence is valid to all orders of perturbation theory and in this way, provides one with a proof of rapidity renormalization procedure for multiparton scattering [including the transverse momentum dependent (TMD) factorization as a special case]. As a by-product, we obtain an exact relation between the rapidity anomalous dimension and the well-known soft anomalous dimension. The three-loop expressions for TMD and a general multiparton scattering rapidity anomalous dimension are derived.

  1. Exploring the Pathway to Rapid District Improvement

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lane, Brett

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this report is to describe a "Framework for District Capacity Building and Improvement" and, through the use of two illustrative case stories, explore how districts can engage in rapid and sustainable improvement efforts. The supporting research, our framework, and a corresponding set of rapid improvement indicators is…

  2. Rapid Prototyping of Mobile Learning Games

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Federley, Maija; Sorsa, Timo; Paavilainen, Janne; Boissonnier, Kimo; Seisto, Anu

    2014-01-01

    This position paper presents the first results of an on-going project, in which we explore rapid prototyping method to efficiently produce digital learning solutions that are commercially viable. In this first phase, rapid game prototyping and an iterative approach was tested as a quick and efficient way to create learning games and to evaluate…

  3. Principles of Rapid Acquisition and Systems Engineering

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-06-14

    PRINCIPLES OF RAPID ACQUISITION AND SYSTEMS ENGINEERING GRADUATE RESEARCH PROJECT Jennifer...United States Government and is not subject to copyright protection in the United States. ii PRINCIPLES OF RAPID ACQUISITION AND SYSTEMS...Major, USAF June 2012 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A. APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED iii PRINCIPLES

  4. Correction: Rapid Burster = MXB 1730-335

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kretschmar, P.; Shaw, S. E.; Kuulkers, E.; Wijnands, R.; Turler, M.; Mowlavi, N.; Courvoisier, T.; Markwardt, C.; Oosterbroek, T.; Orr, A.; Paizis, A.; K. Ebisawa

    2005-08-01

    In ATel #593, the Rapid Burster was also labeled 4U 1730-335, an identifier found in the SIMBAD database. Walter H.G. Lewin has brought to our attention that this is a misnomer, since the Rapid Burster is not included in the 4th Uhuru catalog. The correct name is MXB 1730-335.

  5. Methods of Rapid Evaluation, Assessment, and Appraisal

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    McNall, Miles; Foster-Fishman, Pennie G.

    2007-01-01

    A central issue in the use of rapid evaluation and assessment methods (REAM) is achieving a balance between speed and trustworthiness. In this article, the authors review the key differences and common features of this family of methods and present a case example that illustrates how evaluators can use rapid evaluation techniques in their own…

  6. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-10-18

    The Respond and Pump in Days (RAPID) project was initiated to pump part of the contents of tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. This document establishes the basis for all set points and ranges used in the RAPID project.

  7. Test plan for the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor

    SciTech Connect

    Roybal, L.G.

    1993-06-01

    This document describes the test plant for demonstrating and testing a set of optically pumped cesium-based total field magnetometers using the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor platform. The proposed testing will be used to assess the function of these magnetometers as deployed on the Rapid Geophysical Surveyor and evaluate the practical utility of high resolution magnetic data for supporting waste retrieval efforts.

  8. Rapid Analysis: Matching Solutions to Changing Situations.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Brethower, Dale M.

    1997-01-01

    To perform rapid analysis one must ask the right questions at the right time and engage in active listening. This article examines the fundamentals of rapid analysis: business need, performance requirement, work processes, interventions, and evaluation. Includes an analysis completeness checklist (organizational need/opportunity, economic…

  9. Deconvolution of sinusoidal rapid EPR scans.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Rinard, George A; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2011-02-01

    In rapid scan EPR the magnetic field is scanned through the signal in a time that is short relative to electron spin relaxation times. Previously it was shown that the slow-scan lineshape could be recovered from triangular rapid scans by Fourier deconvolution. In this paper a general Fourier deconvolution method is described and demonstrated to recover the slow-scan lineshape from sinusoidal rapid scans. Since an analytical expression for the Fourier transform of the driving function for a sinusoidal scan was not readily apparent, a numerical method was developed to do the deconvolution. The slow scan EPR lineshapes recovered from rapid triangular and sinusoidal scans are in excellent agreement for lithium phthalocyanine, a trityl radical, and the nitroxyl radical, tempone. The availability of a method to deconvolute sinusoidal rapid scans makes it possible to scan faster than is feasible for triangular scans because of hardware limitations on triangular scans.

  10. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration.

    PubMed

    Lochhead, Jeannie D; Nelson, Michele A; Schneider, Alan L

    2016-05-18

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia.

  11. Risks and Benefits of Rapid Clozapine Titration

    PubMed Central

    Lochhead, Jeannie D.; Nelson, Michele A.; Schneider, Alan L.

    2016-01-01

    Clozapine is often considered the gold standard for the treatment of schizophrenia. Clinical guidelines suggest a gradual titration over 2 weeks to reduce the risks of adverse events such as seizures, hypotension, agranulocytosis, and myocarditis. The slow titration often delays time to therapeutic response. This raises the question of whether, in some patients, it may be safe to use a more rapid clozapine titration. The following case illustrates the potential risks associated with the use of multiple antipsychotics and rapid clozapine titration. We present the case of a young man with schizophrenia who developed life threatening neuroleptic malignant syndrome (NMS) during rapid clozapine titration and treatment with multiple antipsychotics. We were unable to find another case in the literature of NMS associated with rapid clozapine titration. This case is meant to urge clinicians to carefully evaluate the risks and benefits of rapid clozapine titration, and to encourage researchers to further evaluate the safety of rapid clozapine titration. Rapid clozapine titration has implications for decreasing health care costs associated with prolonged hospitalizations, and decreasing the emotional suffering associated with uncontrolled symptoms of psychosis. Clozapine is considered the most effective antipsychotic available thus efforts should focus on developing strategies that would allow for safest and most efficient use of clozapine to encourage its utilization for treatment resistance schizophrenia. PMID:27403276

  12. Degeneration of rapid eye movement sleep circuitry underlies rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder.

    PubMed

    McKenna, Dillon; Peever, John

    2017-04-10

    During healthy rapid eye movement sleep, skeletal muscles are actively forced into a state of motor paralysis. However, in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder-a relatively common neurological disorder-this natural process is lost. A lack of motor paralysis (atonia) in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder allows individuals to actively move, which at times can be excessive and violent. At first glance this may sound harmless, but it is not because rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder patients frequently injure themselves or the person they sleep with. It is hypothesized that the degeneration or dysfunction of the brain stem circuits that control rapid eye movement sleep paralysis is an underlying cause of rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. The link between brain stem degeneration and rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder stems from the fact that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder precedes, in the majority (∼80%) of cases, the development of synucleinopathies such as Parkinson's disease, dementia with Lewy bodies, and multiple system atrophy, which are known to initially cause degeneration in the caudal brain stem structures where rapid eye movement sleep circuits are located. Furthermore, basic science and clinical evidence demonstrate that lesions within the rapid eye movement sleep circuits can induce rapid eye movement sleep-specific motor deficits that are virtually identical to those observed in rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder. This review examines the evidence that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is caused by synucleinopathic neurodegeneration of the core brain stem circuits that control healthy rapid eye movement sleep and concludes that rapid eye movement sleep behavior disorder is not a separate clinical entity from synucleinopathies but, rather, it is the earliest symptom of these disorders. © 2017 International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.

  13. [Rapid prototyping: a very promising method].

    PubMed

    Haverman, T M; Karagozoglu, K H; Prins, H-J; Schulten, E A J M; Forouzanfar, T

    2013-03-01

    Rapid prototyping is a method which makes it possible to produce a three-dimensional model based on two-dimensional imaging. Various rapid prototyping methods are available for modelling, such as stereolithography, selective laser sintering, direct laser metal sintering, two-photon polymerization, laminated object manufacturing, three-dimensional printing, three-dimensional plotting, polyjet inkjet technology,fused deposition modelling, vacuum casting and milling. The various methods currently being used in the biomedical sector differ in production, materials and properties of the three-dimensional model which is produced. Rapid prototyping is mainly usedforpreoperative planning, simulation, education, and research into and development of bioengineering possibilities.

  14. Rapidly solidified metal coatings by peen plating

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, H. P.

    1987-01-01

    Specimens of 7075-T6 aluminum alloy were peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum powders, and the cross-sections of the coated specimens were examined by light and electron microscopy. The properties of the peen plated specimens were also compared with those of shot peened specimens without any coating. It is found that peen plating with rapidly solidified metals improves the fatigue properties of the coated samples to a greater extent than shot peening alone. Specimens of 7075-T6 alloy peen plated with rapidly solidified tin-lead and aluminum exhibited better fatigue resistance than shot peened specimens in both air and salt water.

  15. Hadron rapidity spectra within a hybrid model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khvorostukhin, A. S.; Toneev, V. D.

    2017-01-01

    A 2-stage hybrid model is proposed that joins the fast initial state of interaction, described by the hadron string dynamics (HSD) model, to subsequent evolution of the expanding system at the second stage, treated within ideal hydrodynamics. The developed hybrid model is assigned to describe heavy-ion collisions in the energy range of the NICA collider under construction in Dubna. Generally, the model is in reasonable agreement with the available data on proton rapidity spectra. However, reproducing proton rapidity spectra, our hybrid model cannot describe the rapidity distributions of pions. The model should be improved by taking into consideration viscosity effects at the hydrodynamical stage of system evolution.

  16. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  17. A scoping review of rapid review methods.

    PubMed

    Tricco, Andrea C; Antony, Jesmin; Zarin, Wasifa; Strifler, Lisa; Ghassemi, Marco; Ivory, John; Perrier, Laure; Hutton, Brian; Moher, David; Straus, Sharon E

    2015-09-16

    Rapid reviews are a form of knowledge synthesis in which components of the systematic review process are simplified or omitted to produce information in a timely manner. Although numerous centers are conducting rapid reviews internationally, few studies have examined the methodological characteristics of rapid reviews. We aimed to examine articles, books, and reports that evaluated, compared, used or described rapid reviews or methods through a scoping review. MEDLINE, EMBASE, the Cochrane Library, internet websites of rapid review producers, and reference lists were searched to identify articles for inclusion. Two reviewers independently screened literature search results and abstracted data from included studies. Descriptive analysis was conducted. We included 100 articles plus one companion report that were published between 1997 and 2013. The studies were categorized as 84 application papers, seven development papers, six impact papers, and four comparison papers (one was included in two categories). The rapid reviews were conducted between 1 and 12 months, predominantly in Europe (58 %) and North America (20 %). The included studies failed to report 6 % to 73 % of the specific systematic review steps examined. Fifty unique rapid review methods were identified; 16 methods occurred more than once. Streamlined methods that were used in the 82 rapid reviews included limiting the literature search to published literature (24 %) or one database (2 %), limiting inclusion criteria by date (68 %) or language (49 %), having one person screen and another verify or screen excluded studies (6 %), having one person abstract data and another verify (23 %), not conducting risk of bias/quality appraisal (7 %) or having only one reviewer conduct the quality appraisal (7 %), and presenting results as a narrative summary (78 %). Four case studies were identified that compared the results of rapid reviews to systematic reviews. Three studies found that the conclusions between

  18. [Rapidly vanishing hip--a mystery].

    PubMed

    Keren, Yaniv; Sigal, Amit; Greental, Arnan; Vlodavsky, Euvgeni; Soudry, Michael; Militianu, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly destructive hip disease is a rare condition, the cause of which is yet to be clarified, and is described in the literature by scant case reports. The disease was first described by Forestier in 1957, and since then many names have been proposed to describe the rapid vanishing of the femoral head, and occasionally the acetabulum. This condition initially represents as acute hip pain, and rapidly progresses to complete vanishing of the proximal femur, within a few months. We briefly discuss the literature regarding this phenomenon, and describe a case of a female patient who suffered from complete disappearance of the femoral head within 9 weeks.

  19. Cation distributions on rapidly solidified cobalt ferrite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    De Guire, Mark R.; Kalonji, Gretchen; O'Handley, Robert C.

    1990-01-01

    The cation distributions in two rapidly solidified cobalt ferrites have been determined using Moessbauer spectroscopy at 4.2 K in an 8-T magnetic field. The samples were obtained by gas atomization of a Co0-Fe2O3-P2O5 melt. The degree of cation disorder in both cases was greater than is obtainable by cooling unmelted cobalt ferrite. The more rapidly cooled sample exhibited a smaller departure from the equilibrium cation distribution than did the more slowly cooled sample. This result is explained on the basis of two competing effects of rapid solidification: high cooling rate of the solid, and large undercooling.

  20. Rapid auditory learning of temporal gap detection.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Srikanta K; Panda, Manasa R

    2016-07-01

    The rapid initial phase of training-induced improvement has been shown to reflect a genuine sensory change in perception. Several features of early and rapid learning, such as generalization and stability, remain to be characterized. The present study demonstrated that learning effects from brief training on a temporal gap detection task using spectrally similar narrowband noise markers defining the gap (within-channel task), transfer across ears, however, not across spectrally dissimilar markers (between-channel task). The learning effects associated with brief training on a gap detection task were found to be stable for at least a day. These initial findings have significant implications for characterizing early and rapid learning effects.

  1. Rapid 500-mb cyclogenesis and anticyclogenesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Alberta, Timothy L.; Colucci, Stephen J.; Davenport, J. C.

    1991-01-01

    The process of intensification of 500-mb cyclones and anticyclones as represented in NMC's 500-mb analyses is investigated, using a sample of records for 500-mb cyclones and anticyclones drawn from the cool season of September 1983 through May 1984 to determine the statistically large intensification rates and thus to establish criteria for rapid intensification. From the catalog of all rapidly intensifying 500-mb cyclones and anticyclones defined by these criteria, seasonal and geographical frequency distributions of cyclogenesis and anticyclogenesis is constructed. It is shown that, for the data sample used in this analysis, the operational forecast models tend to underpredict rapid developments of 500-mb cyclones and anticyclones.

  2. Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan)

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Grand River/Grand Rapids (Michigan) of the Urban Waters Federal Partnership (UWFP) reconnects urban communities with their waterways by improving coordination among federal agencies and collaborating with community-led efforts

  3. Rapid Chemical Exposure and Dose Research

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    EPA evaluates the potential risks of the manufacture and use of thousands of chemicals. To assist with this evaluation, EPA scientists developed a rapid, automated model using off the shelf technology that predicts exposures for thousands of chemicals.

  4. NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS ATLANTA RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Mass Spectrometer Location:  Altanta, Georgia Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  Atlanta SPMS Guide EPA Sites Get Google Earth ...

  5. FNAS/Rapid Spectral Inversion Methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poularikas, Alexander

    1997-01-01

    The purpose of this investigation was to study methods and ways for rapid inversion programs involving the correlated k-method, and to study the infrared observations of Saturn from the Cassini orbiter.

  6. Rapid Equilibrium-Ordered Enzyme Mechanisms.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Chauncey, Thomas R.; And Others

    1985-01-01

    Discusses: (1) characteristic initial velocity behavior (considering the five-step reaction sequence for rapid equilibrium-order bisubstrate mechanisms); (2) dead-end inhibition; (3) inhibition by single products; and (4) an activator as a leading reactant. (JN)

  7. Proceedings of structural metals by rapid solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Froes, F.H.; Savage, S.J.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains over 40 selections. Some of the titles are: Dispersion strengthened Al-Fe-Si alloys containing V, Mn, Cr or Mo; Powder size distribution and heat treatment effects on the hardness of Al-Fe-Ce-W alloy; Consolidation and properties of thermally stable Al-Cr-Zr alloys produced by rapid solidification; and Feasibility of rapid solidification processing of aluminum-lithium-beryllium alloys.

  8. Rapid modification of retroviruses using lipid conjugates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mukherjee, Nimisha G.; Lyon, L. Andrew; LeDoux, Joseph M.

    2009-02-01

    Methods are needed to manipulate natural nanoparticles. Viruses are particularly interesting because they can act as therapeutic cellular delivery agents. Here we examine a new method for rapidly modifying retroviruses that uses lipid conjugates composed of a lipid anchor (1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphoethanolamine), a polyethylene glycol chain, and biotin. The conjugates rapidly and stably modified retroviruses and enabled them to bind streptavidin. The implication of this work for modifying viruses for gene therapy and vaccination protocols is discussed.

  9. Preliminary Component Integration Using Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, Ken; Salvail, Pat; Gordon, Gail (Technical Monitor)

    2001-01-01

    Rapid prototyping is a very important tool that should be used by both design and manufacturing disciplines during the development of elements for the aerospace industry. It helps prevent lack of adequate communication between design and manufacturing engineers (which could lead to costly errors) through mutual consideration of functional models generated from drawings. Rapid prototyping techniques are used to test hardware for design and material compatibility at Marshall Space Flight Center.

  10. Integrated Field Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization August 2004 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Integrated Field Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...acceptance of three field screening techniques to delineate chemical concentrations and potential biological effects of sediment contaminants. Defining

  11. Review on CNC-Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Z, M. Nafis O.; Y, Nafrizuan M.; A, Munira M.; J, Kartina

    2012-09-01

    This article reviewed developments of Computerized Numerical Control (CNC) technology in rapid prototyping process. Rapid prototyping (RP) can be classified into three major groups; subtractive, additive and virtual. CNC rapid prototyping is grouped under the subtractive category which involves material removal from the workpiece that is larger than the final part. Richard Wysk established the use of CNC machines for rapid prototyping using sets of 2½-D tool paths from various orientations about a rotary axis to machine parts without refixturing. Since then, there are few developments on this process mainly aimed to optimized the operation and increase the process capabilities to stand equal with common additive type of RP. These developments include the integration between machining and deposition process (hybrid RP), adoption of RP to the conventional machine and optimization of the CNC rapid prototyping process based on controlled parameters. The article ended by concluding that the CNC rapid prototyping research area has a vast space for improvement as in the conventional machining processes. Further developments and findings will enhance the usage of this method and minimize the limitation of current approach in building a prototype.

  12. Rapid bacteriophage MS2 transport in an oxic sandy aquifer in cold climate: Field experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitsand, Hanne M. L.; Ilyas, Aamir; Østerhus, Stein W.

    2015-12-01

    Virus removal during rapid transport in an unconfined, low-temperature (6°C) sand and gravel aquifer was investigated at a riverbank field site, 25 km south of Trondheim in central Norway. The data from bacteriophage MS2 inactivation and transport experiments were applied in a two-site kinetic transport model using HYDRUS-1D, to evaluate the mechanisms of virus removal and whether these mechanisms were sufficient to protect the groundwater supplies. The results demonstrated that inactivation was negligible to the overall removal and that irreversible MS2 attachment to aquifer grains, coated with iron precipitates, played a dominant role in the removal of MS2; 4.1 log units of MS2 were removed by attachment during 38 m travel distance and less than 2 days residence time. Although the total removal was high, pathways capable of allowing virus migration at rapid velocities were present in the aquifer. The risk of rapid transport of viable viruses should be recognized, particularly for water supplies without permanent disinfection.

  13. An Approach for Evaluating the Repeatability of Rapid Wetland Assessment Methods: The Effects of Training and Experience

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Herlihy, Alan T.; Sifneos, Jean; Bason, Chris; Jacobs, Amy; Kentula, Mary E.; Fennessy, M. Siobhan

    2009-08-01

    We sampled 92 wetlands from four different basins in the United States to quantify observer repeatability in rapid wetland condition assessment using the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol (DERAP). In the Inland Bays basin of Delaware, 58 wetland sites were sampled by multiple observers with varying levels of experience (novice to expert) following a thorough training workshop. In the Nanticoke (Delaware/Maryland), Cuyahoga (Ohio), and John Day (Oregon) basins, 34 wetlands were sampled by two expert teams of observers with minimal protocol training. The variance in observer to observer scoring at each site was used to calculate pooled standard deviations (SDpool), coefficients of variation, and signal-to-noise ratios for each survey. The results showed that the experience level of the observer had little impact on the repeatability of the final rapid assessment score. Training, however, had a large impact on observer to observer repeatability. The SDpool in the Inland Bay survey with training (2.2 points out of a 0-30 score) was about half that observed in the other three basins where observers had minimal training (SDpool = 4.2 points). Using the results from the survey with training, we would expect that two sites assessed by different, trained observers who obtain DERAP scores differing by more than 4 points are highly likely to differ in ecological condition, and that sites with scores that differ by 2 or fewer points are within variability that can be attributed to observer differences.

  14. An approach for evaluating the repeatability of rapid wetland assessment methods: the effects of training and experience.

    PubMed

    Herlihy, Alan T; Sifneos, Jean; Bason, Chris; Jacobs, Amy; Kentula, Mary E; Fennessy, M Siobhan

    2009-08-01

    We sampled 92 wetlands from four different basins in the United States to quantify observer repeatability in rapid wetland condition assessment using the Delaware Rapid Assessment Protocol (DERAP). In the Inland Bays basin of Delaware, 58 wetland sites were sampled by multiple observers with varying levels of experience (novice to expert) following a thorough training workshop. In the Nanticoke (Delaware/Maryland), Cuyahoga (Ohio), and John Day (Oregon) basins, 34 wetlands were sampled by two expert teams of observers with minimal protocol training. The variance in observer to observer scoring at each site was used to calculate pooled standard deviations (SD(pool)), coefficients of variation, and signal-to-noise ratios for each survey. The results showed that the experience level of the observer had little impact on the repeatability of the final rapid assessment score. Training, however, had a large impact on observer to observer repeatability. The SD(pool) in the Inland Bay survey with training (2.2 points out of a 0-30 score) was about half that observed in the other three basins where observers had minimal training (SD(pool) = 4.2 points). Using the results from the survey with training, we would expect that two sites assessed by different, trained observers who obtain DERAP scores differing by more than 4 points are highly likely to differ in ecological condition, and that sites with scores that differ by 2 or fewer points are within variability that can be attributed to observer differences.

  15. The long-term fate of permafrost peatlands under rapid climate warming

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Swindles, Graeme T.; Morris, Paul J.

    2016-04-01

    High-latitude permafrost peatlands contain globally important amounts of soil organic carbon, owing to cold conditions which suppress anaerobic decomposition. However, there is much concern that climate warming and subsequent permafrost thaw threaten the stability of this carbon store. The ultimate fate of permafrost peatlands and their carbon stores is unclear because of complex feedbacks between peat accumulation, hydrology and vegetation. Unfortunately, field monitoring campaigns only span the last few decades and therefore provide an incomplete picture of permafrost peatland response to rapid warming in the twentieth century. Here we use a high-resolution palaeoecological approach to understand the longer-term response of peatlands in Subarctic Sweden in contrasting states of permafrost degradation to recent rapid warming. At all sites we identify a drying trend until the late-twentieth century; however, two sites subsequently experienced a rapid shift to wetter conditions as permafrost thawed in response to climatic warming, culminating in collapse of the peat domes. Commonalities between study sites lead us to propose a five-phase model for permafrost peatland response to climatic warming. This model suggests a shared ecohydrological trajectory towards a common end point: inundated Arctic fen. Although carbon accumulation is rapid in such sites, and thus peatland ecosystem services are resumed, saturated soil conditions are likely to cause elevated methane emissions that have implications for climate-feedback mechanisms. We outline our plans to test the model published in Swindles et al. (2015) using the same methodological approach in other high-latitude locations, including zones of continuous and discontinuous permafrost. Reference: Swindles, G.T., Morris, P.J., Mullan, D., Watson, E.J., Turner, T.E., Roland, T., Amesbury, M.J., Kokfelt, U., Schoning, K., Pratte, S., Gallego-Sala, A., Charman, D.J., Sanderson, N., Garneau, M., Carrivick, J.L., Woulds, C

  16. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech

    PubMed Central

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T.

    2015-01-01

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. PMID:25716790

  17. Rapid, generalized adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech.

    PubMed

    Van der Burg, Erik; Goodbourn, Patrick T

    2015-04-07

    The brain is adaptive. The speed of propagation through air, and of low-level sensory processing, differs markedly between auditory and visual stimuli; yet the brain can adapt to compensate for the resulting cross-modal delays. Studies investigating temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech have used prolonged adaptation procedures, suggesting that adaptation is sluggish. Here, we show that adaptation to asynchronous audiovisual speech occurs rapidly. Participants viewed a brief clip of an actor pronouncing a single syllable. The voice was either advanced or delayed relative to the corresponding lip movements, and participants were asked to make a synchrony judgement. Although we did not use an explicit adaptation procedure, we demonstrate rapid recalibration based on a single audiovisual event. We find that the point of subjective simultaneity on each trial is highly contingent upon the modality order of the preceding trial. We find compelling evidence that rapid recalibration generalizes across different stimuli, and different actors. Finally, we demonstrate that rapid recalibration occurs even when auditory and visual events clearly belong to different actors. These results suggest that rapid temporal recalibration to audiovisual speech is primarily mediated by basic temporal factors, rather than higher-order factors such as perceived simultaneity and source identity. © 2015 The Author(s) Published by the Royal Society. All rights reserved.

  18. Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP).

    PubMed

    Bowen, Robert E; Depledge, Michael H

    2006-01-01

    RAMP embraces the integrated use of methods for the rapid measurement, assessment and access to information on the nature, sources and influences of coastal environmental change. It embraces approaches held in the literature, research and programs of RAMP (Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution) and the emerging work described as RASE (Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators). To protect coastal ecosystems and the health of communities effectively, management infrastructure requires the tools and resources necessary to detect damage to coastal ecosystems and their components, identify causative agents, impose remedial action, and demonstrate that measures have been effective. Pragmatic monitoring and prediction capabilities must also be built to provide further confidence that human impacts are being minimized and that threats to human health have been contained. For most of the world, however, the ability to build such capability is a technical challenge and often cost prohibitive. These constraints point to the need to develop and expand the integrated use of simple, robust, cost-effective environmental assessment procedures. This paper suggests that a system built around the Rapid Assessment of Marine Pollution (RAMP) and the Rapid Assessment of Socio-Economic Indicators (RASE) can, should and in some cases already has been effective in meeting such informational and management needs.

  19. Open architecture for rapid deployment of capability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Glassman, Jacob

    2016-05-01

    Modern warfare has drastically changed from conventional to non-conventional and from fixed threats to dynamic ones over the past several decades. This unprecedented fundamental shift has now made our adversaries and their weapons more nebulous and ever changing. Our current acquisition system however is not suited to develop, test and deploy essential capability to counter these dynamic threats in time to combat them. This environment requires a new infrastructure in our system design to rapidly adopt capabilities that we do not currently plan for or even know about. The key to enabling this rapid implementation is Open Architecture in acquisition. The DoD has shown it can rapidly prototype capabilities such as unmanned vehicles but has severely struggled in moving from the prototyping to deployment. A major driver of this disconnect is the lack of established infrastructure to employ said capability such as launch and recovery systems and command and control. If we are to be successful in transitioning our rapid capability to the warfighter we must implement established well defined interfaces and enabling technologies to facilitate the rapid adoption of capability so the warfighter has the tools to effectively counter the threat.

  20. An Exponential Regulator for Rapidity Divergences

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Ye; Neill, Duff; Zhu, Hua Xing

    2016-04-01

    Finding an efficient and compelling regularization of soft and collinear degrees of freedom at the same invariant mass scale, but separated in rapidity is a persistent problem in high-energy factorization. In the course of a calculation, one encounters divergences unregulated by dimensional regularization, often called rapidity divergences. Once regulated, a general framework exists for their renormalization, the rapidity renormalization group (RRG), leading to fully resummed calculations of transverse momentum (to the jet axis) sensitive quantities. We examine how this regularization can be implemented via a multi-differential factorization of the soft-collinear phase-space, leading to an (in principle) alternative non-perturbative regularization of rapidity divergences. As an example, we examine the fully-differential factorization of a color singlet's momentum spectrum in a hadron-hadron collision at threshold. We show how this factorization acts as a mother theory to both traditional threshold and transverse momentum resummation, recovering the classical results for both resummations. Examining the refactorization of the transverse momentum beam functions in the threshold region, we show that one can directly calculate the rapidity renormalized function, while shedding light on the structure of joint resummation. Finally, we show how using modern bootstrap techniques, the transverse momentum spectrum is determined by an expansion about the threshold factorization, leading to a viable higher loop scheme for calculating the relevant anomalous dimensions for the transverse momentum spectrum.

  1. Rapid Runway Repair Program Subtask 1.07 - Rapid Concrete Cutting.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1983-06-01

    AD-Rl3i 771 RRPID RUNWAY’REPAIR PROGRAM SUBTA5K 187 - RAPID 1/3 CONCRETE CUTTING (U) 8DM CORP MCLEAN YVA RKMOATS ET IL. JUN 83 8DM/W-82-778 TR 7...I RAPID RUNWAY REPAIR PROGRAM SUBTASK 1.07 - RAPID CONCRETE CUTTING MOATS, R.K. [BOM), WANG, F.D., DEARS, WILLIAM (ENGINEERING & SCIENCE TECHNOLOGY...Program Final Technical ReportMarch 1982 - January 1983 -’’ • Subtask 1.07 - Rapid Concrete Cutting 1982N - Janury 1983 6. PERFORMING ORG. REPORT NUMBER

  2. Rapid solidification of Nb-base alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gokhale, A. B.; Javed, K. R.; Abbaschian, G. J.; Lewis, R. E.

    1988-01-01

    New Nb-base alloys are of interest for aerospace structural applications at high temperatures, viz, 800 to 1650 C. Fundamental information regarding the effects of rapid solidification in achieving greatly refined microstructures, extended solid solubility, suppression of embrittling equilibrium phases, and formation of new phases is desired in a number of Nb-X alloys. The microstructures and selected properties of Nb-Si and other Nb-base alloys are presented for materials both rapidly quenched from the equilibrium liquidus and rapidly solidified following deep supercooling. Electromagnetic levitation was used to achieve melting and supercooling in a containerless inert gas environment. A variety of solidification conditions were employed including splatting or drop casting of supercooled samples. The morphology and composition of phases formed are discussed in terms of both solidification history and bulk composition.

  3. Rapid-scan EPR of immobilized nitroxides.

    PubMed

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W; Rinard, George A; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J; Boratyński, Przemysław J; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2014-10-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for (14)N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for (15)N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10″ magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes.

  4. Library reuse in a rapid development environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde, JO; Weed, Daniel; Gottlieb, Robert; Neal, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    The Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division (AFMD) established a Rapid Development Laboratory (RDL) to investigate and improve new 'rapid development' software production processes and refine the use of commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tools. These tools and processes take an avionics design project from initial inception through high fidelity, real-time, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. One central theme of a rapid development process is the use and integration of a variety of COTS tools: This paper discusses the RDL MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries, as well as the techniques for managing and documenting these libraries. This paper also shows the methods used for building simulations with the Advanced Simulation Development System (ASDS) libraries, and provides metrics to illustrate the amount of reuse for five complete simulations. Combining ASDS libraries with MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries is discussed.

  5. Library reuse in a rapid development environment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Uhde, JO; Weed, Daniel; Gottlieb, Robert; Neal, Douglas

    1995-01-01

    The Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division (AFMD) established a Rapid Development Laboratory (RDL) to investigate and improve new 'rapid development' software production processes and refine the use of commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tools. These tools and processes take an avionics design project from initial inception through high fidelity, real-time, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. One central theme of a rapid development process is the use and integration of a variety of COTS tools: This paper discusses the RDL MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries, as well as the techniques for managing and documenting these libraries. This paper also shows the methods used for building simulations with the Advanced Simulation Development System (ASDS) libraries, and provides metrics to illustrate the amount of reuse for five complete simulations. Combining ASDS libraries with MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries is discussed.

  6. Strong Dynamo Action in Rapidly Rotating Suns

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brown, Benjamin P.; Browning, Matthew K.; Brun, Allan Sacha; Miesch, Mark S.; Nelson, Nicholas J.; Toomre, Juri

    2007-11-01

    Stellar dynamos are driven by complex couplings between rotation and turbulent convection, which drive global-scale flows and build and rebuild stellar magnetic fields. When stars like our sun are young, they rotate much more rapidly than the current solar rate. Observations generally indicate that more rapid rotation is correlated with stronger magnetic activity and perhaps more effective dynamo action. Here we examine the effects of more rapid rotation on dynamo action in a star like our sun. We find that vigorous dynamo action is realized, with magnetic field generated throughout the bulk of the convection zone. These simulations do not possess a penetrative tachocline of shear where global-scale fields are thought to be organized in our sun, but despite this we find strikingly ordered fields, much like sea-snakes of toroidal field, which are organized on global scales. We believe this to be a novel finding.

  7. Library reuse in a rapid development environment

    SciTech Connect

    Uhde, J.; Weed, D.; Gottlieb, R.; Neal, D.

    1995-09-01

    The Aeroscience and Flight Mechanics Division (AFMD) established a Rapid Development Laboratory (RDL) to investigate and improve new `rapid development` software production processes and refine the use of commercial, off-the-shelf (COTS) tools. These tools and processes take an avionics design project from initial inception through high fidelity, real-time, hardware-in-the-loop (HIL) testing. One central theme of a rapid development process is the use and integration of a variety of COTS tools: This paper discusses the RDL MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries, as well as the techniques for managing and documenting these libraries. This paper also shows the methods used for building simulations with the Advanced Simulation Development System (ASDS) libraries, and provides metrics to illustrate the amount of reuse for five complete simulations. Combining ASDS libraries with MATRIX(sub x)(R) libraries is discussed.

  8. Rapidly solidified ferromagnetic shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Craciunescu, C. M.; Ercuta, A.; Mitelea, I.; Valeanu, M.; Teodorescu, V. S.; Lupu, N.; Chiriac, H.

    2008-05-01

    Ferromagnetic shape memory alloys have been manufactured by various techniques involving rapid solidification. Bulk alloys have been obtained by extracting the melted alloy in especially designed copper molds; glass coated wires have been obtained by drawing the melt from glass recipients followed by water cooling and ribbons have been fabricated by melt-spinning. Microstructural observations show particular solidification aspects of fractured areas, while ferromagnetic behavior has been detected in glass coated wires obtained by rapid solidification. The martensitic microstructure was observed on Co-Ni-Ga rapid solidified bulk alloys and Fe-Pd ribbons. The memory effect was detected using a Vibran system that allows the detection of the phase transition for the ribbons and by visual observation for other specimens. The conclusions of the observations are related to the comparison between the ferromagnetic behaviors of shape memory alloys solidified using different techniques.

  9. Rapid Business Process Discovery (R-BPD)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghose, Aditya; Koliadis, George; Chueng, Arthur

    Modeling is an important and time consuming part of the Business Process Management life-cycle. An analyst reviews existing documentation and queries relevant domain experts to construct both mental and concrete models of the domain. To aid this exercise, we propose the Rapid Business Process Discovery (R-BPD) framework and prototype tool that can query heterogeneous information resources (e.g. corporate documentation, web-content, code e.t.c.) and rapidly construct proto-models to be incrementally adjusted to correctness by an analyst. This constitutes a departure from building and constructing models toward just editing them. We believe this rapid mixed-initiative modeling will increase analyst productivity by significant orders of magnitude over traditional approaches. Furthermore, the possibility of using the approach in distributed and real-time settings seems appealing and may help in significantly improving the quality of the models being developed w.r.t. being consistent, complete, and concise.

  10. Subcortical amygdala pathways enable rapid face processing.

    PubMed

    Garvert, Mona M; Friston, Karl J; Dolan, Raymond J; Garrido, Marta I

    2014-11-15

    Human faces may signal relevant information and are therefore analysed rapidly and effectively by the brain. However, the precise mechanisms and pathways involved in rapid face processing are unclear. One view posits a role for a subcortical connection between early visual sensory regions and the amygdala, while an alternative account emphasises cortical mediation. To adjudicate between these functional architectures, we recorded magnetoencephalographic (MEG) evoked fields in human subjects to presentation of faces with varying emotional valence. Early brain activity was better explained by dynamic causal models containing a direct subcortical connection to the amygdala irrespective of emotional modulation. At longer latencies, models without a subcortical connection had comparable evidence. Hence, our results support the hypothesis that a subcortical pathway to the amygdala plays a role in rapid sensory processing of faces, in particular during early stimulus processing. This finding contributes to an understanding of the amygdala as a behavioural relevance detector.

  11. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Douglas M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory's main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. In this presentation, the system is described and some initial results are presented.

  12. Rapid Quench in an Electrostatic Levitator

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Rogers, Jan R.; Matson, Michael M.

    2016-01-01

    The Electrostatic Levitation (ESL) Laboratory at the NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The ESL laboratory’s main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy, as a quench medium. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to eight quench vessels can be loaded into a wheel inside the chamber that is indexed with control software. The system has been tested successfully with samples of zirconium, iron-cobalt alloys, iron-chromium-nickel, titanium-zirconium-nickel alloys, and a silicon-cobalt alloy. This new rapid quench system will allow materials science studies of undercooled materials and new materials development. The system is described and some initial results are presented.

  13. Rapid-Scan EPR of Immobilized Nitroxides

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Zhelin; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Tseitlin, Mark; Elajaili, Hanan; Kathirvelu, Velavan; Clouston, Laura J.; Boratyński, Przemysław J.; Rajca, Andrzej; Stein, Richard; Mchaourab, Hassane; Eaton, Sandra S.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2014-01-01

    X-band electron paramagnetic resonance spectra of immobilized nitroxides were obtained by rapid scan at 293 K. Scan widths were 155 G with 13.4 kHz scan frequency for 14N-perdeuterated tempone and for T4 lysozyme doubly spin labeled with an iodoacetamide spirocyclohexyl nitroxide and 100 G with 20.9 kHz scan frequency for 15N-perdeuterated tempone. These wide scans were made possible by modifications to our rapid-scan driver, scan coils made of Litz wire, and the placement of highly conducting aluminum plates on the poles of a Bruker 10" magnet to reduce resistive losses in the magnet pole faces. For the same data acquisition time, the signal-to-noise for the rapid-scan absorption spectra was about an order of magnitude higher than for continuous wave first-derivative spectra recorded with modulation amplitudes that do not broaden the lineshapes. PMID:25240151

  14. A STUDY OF RAPID CAVITY TUNING.

    SciTech Connect

    ZHAO, Y.

    2001-07-12

    An FFAG moot likely requires rapid cavity tuning. The cavity must also have a very high gradient. To satisfy both the high power and rapid tuning requirements is a big challenge. Detailed investigation of the possibility is addressed. Included are general thoughts, dual-loop and simple loop analyses, and a study of using ferrite or PIN diodes. Also proposed is a phase control scheme, which may be a better solution if the needed components can be developed. Finally, an energy analysis reveals the difficult of high power tuning.

  15. Tools for Rapid Understanding of Malware Code

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-05-07

    AFRL-OSR-VA-TR-2015-0109 TOOLS FOR RAPID UNDERSTANDING OF MALWARE CODE Saumya Debray ARIZONA UNIV BOARD OF REGENTS TUCSON Final Report 05/07/2015...Tools for Rapid Understanding of Malware Code 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER n/a 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA9550-11-1-0191 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER n/a 6. AUTHOR(S...A significant shortcoming of existing malware analysis tools is their lack of general-purpose automated support for dealing with advanced code

  16. Rapid extraction methods for organics in soil

    SciTech Connect

    Alsop, G.M.; Conway, R.A.

    1983-03-01

    This article presents rapid methods for the extraction and subsequent analysis of organics in soils potentially contaminated from chemical wastes. A methylene chloride extraction, on both a micro scale in a syringe and a macro scale in a shaken flask, with subsequent gravimetric analysis are described. On wet soils, anhydrous sodium sulfate is added to bind the water before adding methylene chloride and mixing with a vortex touch mixer. A baseline procedure is the direct gravimetric determination of volatile organics corrected with a Karl Fischer determination of water. Estimates of time saved by using the rapid methods, as well as precision and accuracy data, are presented.

  17. Ignition regimes in rapid compression machines

    SciTech Connect

    Grogan, Kevin p; Goldsborough, S. Scott; ihme, matthias

    2015-08-01

    A rapid compression machine is an experimental apparatus used to study ignition chemistry at conditions that are relevant to internal combustion engines and gas turbines. However, due to the operating characteristics of these devices, heat transfer effects and inhomogeneous ignition events can be encountered. Hence, this paper develops a combustion regime diagram, which incorporates these effects in order to better understand physical in uences on the measurements. This diagram employs familiar Damkohler number and Reynolds number scaling, and seeks to provide an operational guide for rapid compression machine experiments. This diagram is compared to experimental data and good agreement is found.

  18. Recent progress on FFAGS for rapid acceleration

    SciTech Connect

    C. Johnstone; S. Koscielniak

    2002-12-10

    Muon acceleration is one of the more difficult stages to develop for a Neutrino Factory or Muon Collider. The large transverse and longitudinal admittances which must be designed into the system and the rapidity with which acceleration must take place because of muon decay preclude the use of conventional synchrotron design. The approach here employs fixed-field architectures for muon acceleration; specifically, a fixed-field alternating gradient or FFAG accelerator. This paper explores the FFAG option, in particular addressing an adjustment in the rf phase which, although characteristic of fixed-field machines, becomes problematic in the context of rapid acceleration.

  19. Non-rapid eye movement sleep parasomnias.

    PubMed

    Mahowald, Mark W; Schenck, Carlos H

    2005-11-01

    Parasomnias are unpleasant or undesirable behavioral or experiential phenomena that occur during sleep. Once believed unitary phenomena related to psychiatric disorders, it is now clear that parasomnias result from several different phenomena and usually are not related to psychiatric conditions. Parasomnias are categorized as primary (disorders of the sleep states) and secondary (disorders of other organ systems that manifest themselves during sleep). Primary sleep parasomnias can be classified according to the sleep state of origin: rapid eye movement sleep, non-rapid eye movement sleep, and miscellaneous (those not respecting sleep state). Secondary sleep parasomnias are classified by the organ system involved.

  20. RAPID REMOVAL OF A GROUNDWATER CONTAMINANT PLUME.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Lefkoff, L. Jeff; Gorelick, Steven M.; ,

    1985-01-01

    A groundwater management model is used to design an aquifer restoration system that removes a contaminant plume from a hypothetical aquifer in four years. The design model utilizes groundwater flow simulation and mathematical optimization. Optimal pumping and injection strategies achieve rapid restoration for a minimum total pumping cost. Rapid restoration is accomplished by maintaining specified groundwater velocities around the plume perimeter towards a group of pumping wells located near the plume center. The model does not account for hydrodynamic dispersion. Results show that pumping costs are particularly sensitive to injection capacity. An 8 percent decrease in the maximum allowable injection rate may lead to a 29 percent increase in total pumping costs.

  1. Accuracy of rapid disposition by emergency clinicians.

    PubMed

    Backay, Andrew; Bystrzycki, Adam; Smit, De Villiers; Keogh, Martin; O'Reilly, Gerard; Mitra, Biswadev

    2015-07-27

    Objectives Rapid disposition protocols are increasingly being considered for implementation in emergency departments (EDs). Among patients presenting to an adult tertiary referral hospital, this study aimed to compare prediction accuracy of a rapid disposition decision at the conclusion of history and examination, compared with disposition following standard assessment.Methods Prospective observational data were collected for 1 month between October and November 2012. Emergency clinicians (including physicians, registrars, hospital medical officers, interns and nurse practitioners) filled out a questionnaire within 5 min of obtaining a history and clinical examination for eligible patients. Predicted patient disposition (representing 'rapid disposition') was compared with final disposition (determined by 'standard assessment').Results There were 301 patient episodes included in the study. Predicted disposition was correct in 249 (82.7%, 95% confidence interval (CI) 78.0-86.8) cases. Accuracy of predicting discharge to home appeared highest among emergency physicians at 95.8% (95% CI 78.9-99.9). Overall accuracy at predicting admission was 79.7% (95% CI 67.2-89.0). The remaining 20.3% (95% CI 11.0-32.8) were not admitted following standard assessment.Conclusion Rapid disposition by ED clinicians can predict patient destination accurately but was associated with a potential increase in admission rates. Any model of care using rapid disposition decision making should involve establishment of inpatient systems for further assessment, and a culture of timely inpatient team transfer of patients to the most appropriate treating team for ongoing patient management.What is known about the topic? In response to the National Emergency Access Targets, there has been widespread adoption of rapid-disposition-themed care models across Australia. Although there is emerging data that clinicians can predict disposition accurately, this data is currently limited.What does this paper

  2. RapidScat and Hurricane Patricia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-06

    NASA's RapidScat's antenna, lower right, was pointed at Hurricane Patricia as the powerful storm approached Mexico on Oct. 23, 2015. Patricia was the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere, with maximum winds of 200 mph (320 kilometers per hour). When it first made landfall on the Pacific coast of Mexico on Oct. 23, it was a destructive Category 5 storm. The videos are from the International Space Station. RapidScat's spinning antenna, lower right, collects wind-speed data from Hurricane Patricia. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20049

  3. Rapid prototyping of glass microfluidic chips

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kotz, Frederik; Plewa, Klaus; Bauer, Werner; Hanemann, Thomas; Waldbaur, Ansgar; Wilhelm, Elisabeth; Neumann, Christiane; Rapp, Bastian E.

    2015-03-01

    In academia the rapid and flexible creation of microfluidic chips is of great importance for microfluidic research. Besides polymers glass is a very important material especially when high chemical and temperature resistance are required. However, glass structuring is a very hazardous process which is not accessible to most members of the microfluidic community. We therefore sought a new method for the rapid and simple creation of transparent microfluidic glass chips by structuring and sintering amorphous silica suspensions. The whole process from a digital mask layout to a microstructured glass sheet can be done within two days. In this paper we show the applicability of this process to fabricate capillary driven microfluidic systems.

  4. Virtual environment architecture for rapid application development

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Grinstein, Georges G.; Southard, David A.; Lee, J. P.

    1993-01-01

    We describe the MITRE Virtual Environment Architecture (VEA), a product of nearly two years of investigations and prototypes of virtual environment technology. This paper discusses the requirements for rapid prototyping, and an architecture we are developing to support virtual environment construction. VEA supports rapid application development by providing a variety of pre-built modules that can be reconfigured for each application session. The modules supply interfaces for several types of interactive I/O devices, in addition to large-screen or head-mounted displays.

  5. API rapid bioassay procedures for drilling fluids

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1989-01-01

    This study evaluates the applicability of existing rapid toxicity test methods (duration of 2 hours or less) using the sea urchin sperm test and marine luminescent bacteria assay system for testing the toxicity of drilling fluids. The correlation between the results of these two test and the results of 96-hour static acute toxicity tests conducted with mysids was also evaluated, and it was determined that it may be possible to use rapid assays to conservatively predict compliance of drilling fluid with a mysid toxicity limitation.

  6. Instructional authoring by direct manipulation of simulations: Exploratory applications of RAPIDS. RAPIDS 2 authoring manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    RAPIDS II is a simulation-based intelligent tutoring system environment. It is a system for producing computer-based training courses that are built on the foundation of graphical simulations. RAPIDS II simulations can be animated and they can have continuously updating elements.

  7. Analysis of Rapid Acquisition Processes to Fulfill Future Urgent Needs

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-12-01

    do not provide an effective means for future rapid acquisition requirements, do not effectively promote the agility needed for rapid acquisition, and...the agility needed for rapid acquisition, and actually encumber the rapid acquisition process. vi THIS PAGE INTENTIONALLY LEFT BLANK vii...requirements. In addition, leadership changes do not effectively promote the agility needed for rapid acquisition and actually encumbers the rapid acquisition

  8. Neural bases of rapid word learning.

    PubMed

    Shtyrov, Yury

    2012-08-01

    Humans are unique in developing large lexicons as their communication tool; to achieve this, they are able to learn new words rapidly. However, neural bases of this rapid learning, which may be an expression of a more general cognitive mechanism likely rooted in plasticity at cellular and synaptic levels, are not yet understood. In this update, the author highlights a selection of recent studies that attempted to trace word learning in the human brain noninvasively. A number of brain areas, most notably in hippocampus and neocortex, appear to take part in word acquisition. Critically, the currently available data not only demonstrate the hippocampal role in rapid encoding followed by slow-rate consolidation of cortical word memory traces but also suggest immediate neocortical involvement in the word memory trace formation. Echoing early behavioral studies in ultra-rapid word learning, the reviewed neuroimaging experiments can be taken to suggest that our brain may effectively form new cortical circuits online, as it gets exposed to novel linguistic patterns in the sensory input.

  9. Rapidly pulsed, high intensity, incoherent light source

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Evans, J. C., Jr.; Brandhorst, H. W., Jr. (Inventor)

    1974-01-01

    A rapid pulsing, high intensity, incoherent light is produced by selectively energizing a plurality of discharge lamps with a triggering circuit. Each lamp is connected to a capacitor, and a power supply is electrically connected to all but one of the capacitors. This last named capacitor is electrically connected to a discharge lamp which is connected to the triggering circuit.

  10. Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land Logistics

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-03-01

    Land logistics, the reader is invited to consider the broad applicability of similar frameworks to other military domains. 2. Conceptual ...UNCLASSIFIED 2 Figure 1: Conceptual breakdown that underpins the Rapid Technology Assessment Framework for Land logistics The first question...several judgement- based elements. In particular, refinement, verification and validation of many of the framework elements were conducted in a

  11. Rapid purification of fluorescent enzymes by ultrafiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjaminson, M. A.; Satyanarayana, T.

    1983-01-01

    In order to expedite the preparation of fluorescently tagged enzymes for histo/cytochemistry, a previously developed method employing gel column purification was compared with a more rapid modern technique using the Millipore Immersible CX-ultrafilter. Microscopic evaluation of the resulting conjugates showed comparable products. Much time and effort is saved using the new technique.

  12. Rapid purification of fluorescent enzymes by ultrafiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Benjaminson, M. A.; Satyanarayana, T.

    1983-01-01

    In order to expedite the preparation of fluorescently tagged enzymes for histo-cyctochemistry, a previously developed method employing gel column purification was compared with a more rapid modern technique using the Millipore Immersible CX-ultrafilter. Microscopic evaluation of the resulting conjugates showed comparable products. Much time and effort is saved using the new technique.

  13. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  14. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2013-04-02

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  15. Utilizing Information Technology to Facilitate Rapid Acquisition

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-01

    PAGES 109 14. SUBJECT TERMS Rapid Acquisition, eCommerce , eProcurement, Information Technology, Contracting, Global Information Network...Agency. 5 eCommerce and eProcurement, and possess an adequate knowledge of information technology. D. RESEARCH QUESTIONS 1. Primary Research... eCommerce , Information Technology, and eProcurement knowledge, and government and private industry reports utilizing numerous library and Internet

  16. Evolution: a rapid flight towards birds.

    PubMed

    Ksepka, Daniel T

    2014-11-03

    Remarkable feathered dinosaur fossils have blurred the lines between early birds and their non-avian dinosaur relatives. Rapid skeletal evolution and decreasing body size along one particular lineage of theropod dinosaurs paved the way for the spectacular radiation of birds. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  18. Rapid radiative clearing of protoplanetary discs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Haworth, Thomas J.; Clarke, Cathie J.; Owen, James E.

    2016-04-01

    The lack of observed transition discs with inner gas holes of radii greater than ˜50 au implies that protoplanetary discs dispersed from the inside out must remove gas from the outer regions rapidly. We investigate the role of photoevaporation in the final clearing of gas from low mass discs with inner holes. In particular, we study the so-called `thermal sweeping' mechanism which results in rapid clearing of the disc. Thermal sweeping was originally thought to arise when the radial and vertical pressure scalelengths at the X-ray heated inner edge of the disc match. We demonstrate that this criterion is not fundamental. Rather, thermal sweeping occurs when the pressure maximum at the inner edge of the dust heated disc falls below the maximum possible pressure of X-ray heated gas (which depends on the local X-ray flux). We derive new critical peak volume and surface density estimates for rapid radiative clearing which, in general, result in rapid dispersal happening less readily than in previous estimates. This less efficient clearing of discs by X-ray driven thermal sweeping leaves open the issue of what mechanism (e.g. far-ultraviolet heating) can clear gas from the outer disc sufficiently quickly to explain the non-detection of cold gas around weak line T Tauri stars.

  19. A Rapid and Quantitative Recombinase Activity Assay

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    We present here a comparison between the recombinase systems FLP-FRT and Cre-loxP. A transient excision based dual luciferase expression assay is used for its rapid and repeatable nature. The detection system was designed within an intron to remove the remaining recombinase recognition site and no...

  20. Rapid Profile: A Second Language Screening Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Rapid Profile, developed by Manfred Pienemann of National Languages Institute of Australia/Language Acquisition Research Centre, is a computer-based procedure for screening speech samples collected from language learners to assess their level of language development as compared to standard patterns in the acquisition of the target language. Rapid…

  1. Utilizing Rapid Prototyping for Architectural Modeling

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kirton, E. F.; Lavoie, S. D.

    2006-01-01

    This paper will discuss our approach to, success with and future direction in rapid prototyping for architectural modeling. The premise that this emerging technology has broad and exciting applications in the building design and construction industry will be supported by visual and physical evidence. This evidence will be presented in the form of…

  2. Classroom Evaluation of a Rapid Prototyping System.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Tennyson, Stephen A.; Krueger, Thomas J.

    2001-01-01

    Introduces rapid prototyping which creates virtual models through a variety of automated material additive processes. Relates experiences using JP System 5 in freshman and sophomore engineering design graphics courses. Analyzes strengths and limitations of the JP System 5 and discusses how to use it effectively. (Contains 15 references.)…

  3. Rapid cycling with true potato seed

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Rapid generation cycling via true seed production can increase the efficiency of potato breeding programs and genetics studies. This study was carried out to determine the fruit ripening and seed treatment conditions needed for generating true potato seed (TPS) with a high germination rate in a shor...

  4. Rapid visco analysis of food protein pastes

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Whey protein isolate (WPI) powders are used in many formulations to boost nutrients. To predict the pasting behavior of proteins, WPI was tested under varying temperatures, using the Rapid-Visco-Analyzer (RVA), under pasting temperatures from 65 to 75 degrees'C, RVA speeds from 100 to 500 rpm, and ...

  5. Integrating Rapid Prototyping into Graphic Communications

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2015-01-01

    Integrating different science, technology, engineering, and mathematics (STEM) areas can help students learn and leverage both the equipment and expertise at a single school. In comparing graphic communications classes with classes that involve rapid prototyping (RP) technologies like 3D printing, there are sufficient similarities between goals,…

  6. Rapid detection and identification of infectious agents

    SciTech Connect

    Kingsbury, D.T.; Falkow, S.

    1985-01-01

    This book contains papers divided among five sections. Some of the paper titles are: Aspects of Using Nucleic Acid Filter Hybridization to Characterize and Detect Enteroviral RNAs; Rapid Identification of Lesihmania Species using Specific Hybridization of Kinetoplast DNA Sequences; Selection of DNA Probes for use in the Diagnosis of Infectious Disease; and Summary of DNA Probes.

  7. Rapid Response Reforestation: Studies in Fire Restoration

    Treesearch

    Robin Rose; Diane L. Haase

    2005-01-01

    The Nursery Technology Cooperative has been conducting projects to examine forest seedling quality and reforestation success in the Pacific Northwest for more than 20 years. Because of the large wildfires in recent years, there is a growing interest in studying reforestation strategies for optimum restoration following a fire. We have developed 2 “Rapid Response...

  8. NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS HOUSTON RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Single-particle Mass Spectrometer Location:  Houston, Texas Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  Houston SPMS Guide Houston Project Plan  (PDF) Houston ...

  9. Rapid Development of Bioinformatics Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Jian; Zhang, Liang

    2003-01-01

    As the Human Genome Project experiences remarkable success and a flood of biological data is produced, bioinformatics becomes a very "hot" cross-disciplinary field, yet experienced bioinformaticians are urgently needed worldwide. This paper summarises the rapid development of bioinformatics education in China, especially related…

  10. Nonglacial rapid climate events: past and future.

    PubMed

    Overpeck, J; Webb, R

    2000-02-15

    The paleoclimate record makes it clear that rapid climate shifts of the 20th century are only a subset of possible climate system behavior that might occur in the absence of glacial conditions, and that climatic surprises could be a challenge for society even in the absence of significant greenhouse warming.

  11. Rapid Profile: A Second Language Screening Procedure.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mackey, Alison; And Others

    1991-01-01

    Rapid Profile, developed by Manfred Pienemann of National Languages Institute of Australia/Language Acquisition Research Centre, is a computer-based procedure for screening speech samples collected from language learners to assess their level of language development as compared to standard patterns in the acquisition of the target language. Rapid…

  12. Rapid mapping of hurricane damage to forests

    Treesearch

    Erik M. Nielsen

    2009-01-01

    The prospects for producing rapid, accurate delineations of the spatial extent of forest wind damage were evaluated using Hurricane Katrina as a test case. A damage map covering the full spatial extent of Katrina?s impact was produced from Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) satellite imagery using higher resolution training data. Forest damage...

  13. Set point calculations for RAPID project

    SciTech Connect

    HICKMAN, G.L.

    1999-08-27

    The Respond and Pump in Days (RAPID) project was initiated to pump part of the contents of tank 241-SY-101 into tank 241-SY-102. This document establishes the basis for all set points and ranges used in the RAPID project. There are 23 instrument and/or control loops utilized by the RAPID project. These range from the simple indication loop with two components to complex indication, control, and alarm loops with up to eight components. Several loops include safety class elements. This document is intended to describe the loops in full and to provide the basis for each of the element setpoints, ranges and accuracies identified in the RAPID project Master Equipment List (MEL). These values are developed in two steps. First, the base value is identified with reference to the supporting document providing that value. Second, a spreadsheet calculation is performed on each element and loop, utilizing a standard methodology described below, that takes into account known and suspected variance in output and establishes the actual setpoint used on a given element. The results of the spreadsheet are reported directly in this document.

  14. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  15. Blackbody cavity radiometer has rapid response

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Haley, F. C.

    1966-01-01

    Fast response, spectrally linear standard detector in the form of a blackbody cavity radiometer calibrates rapidly responding photodetectors against a calibrated standard detector. A power amplifier with maximum available gain reduces error signal without stability loss. It may be used as a blackbody radiator by manipulation of the bridge variable arm.

  16. Rapid pasteurization of shell eggs using RF

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A novel method for rapidly pasteurizing eggs in the shell could enhance the safety of the United States’ food supply. Current federal regulations do not require eggs sold in stores to be pasteurized, yet these eggs are often consumed raw or undercooked and cause untold cases of salmonella illness ea...

  17. Cognitive Predictors of Rapid Picture Naming

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decker, Scott L.; Roberts, Alycia M.; Englund, Julia A.

    2013-01-01

    Deficits in rapid automatized naming (RAN) have been found to be a sensitive cognitive marker for children with dyslexia. However, there is a lack of consensus regarding the construct validity and theoretical neuro-cognitive processes involved in RAN. Additionally, most studies investigating RAN include a narrow range of cognitive measures. The…

  18. Rapid Assessment for Conservation Education (RACE).

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jacobson, Susan K.

    1997-01-01

    The Rapid Assessment for Conservation Education (RACE) provides guidelines and tools for identifying conservation education needs and recommending subsequent actions. Interviews, surveys, workshops, and public meetings are among the methods of qualitative and quantitative data collection used to gather information quickly and inexpensively.…

  19. Detection sensitivity of influenza rapid diagnostic tests

    PubMed Central

    Sakai-Tagawa, Yuko; Ozawa, Makoto; Yamada, Shinya; Uchida, Yuko; Saito, Takehiko; Takahashi, Kazuo; Sugaya, Norio; Tashiro, Masato; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2014-01-01

    We compared the sensitivity of influenza rapid diagnostic tests (IRDTs) currently available in Japan for various influenza virus strains, including human H7N9 and H5N1 isolates. We found that all of the IRDTs examined detected these viruses, but their detection sensitivities differed. PMID:25079880

  20. NARSTO EPA SS BALTIMORE RAPID SPMS DATA

    Atmospheric Science Data Center

    2014-04-25

    NARSTO EPA SS BALTIMORE RAPID SPMS DATA Project Title:  NARSTO ... Single-particle Mass Spectrometer Location:  Baltimore, Maryland Spatial Resolution:  Point Measurements ...   Order Data Guide Documents:  Baltimore SPMS Guide Baltimore Project Plan  (PDF) ...

  1. Rapid Cognitive Assessment of Learners' Knowledge Structures

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kalyuga, Slava

    2006-01-01

    Traditional assessment methods are not always suitable for diagnosing learners' knowledge structures at different levels of their expertise. This paper describes an alternative schema-based rapid assessment technique and its application in the area of arithmetic word problem solving. The technique is based on an assessment of the extent to which…

  2. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2005-03-08

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  3. High precision, rapid laser hole drilling

    DOEpatents

    Chang, Jim J.; Friedman, Herbert W.; Comaskey, Brian J.

    2007-03-20

    A laser system produces a first laser beam for rapidly removing the bulk of material in an area to form a ragged hole. The laser system produces a second laser beam for accurately cleaning up the ragged hole so that the final hole has dimensions of high precision.

  4. Rapid Naming Speed and Chinese Character Recognition

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Liao, Chen-Huei; Georgiou, George K.; Parrila, Rauno

    2008-01-01

    We examined the relationship between rapid naming speed (RAN) and Chinese character recognition accuracy and fluency. Sixty-three grade 2 and 54 grade 4 Taiwanese children were administered four RAN tasks (colors, digits, Zhu-Yin-Fu-Hao, characters), and two character recognition tasks. RAN tasks accounted for more reading variance in grade 4 than…

  5. PyTrilinos Rapid Prototyping Package

    SciTech Connect

    Spotz, William F.

    2005-03-01

    PyTrilinos provides access to selected Trilinos packages from the python scripting language. This allows interactive and dynamic creation of Trilinos objects, rapid prototyping that does not require compilation, and "gluing" Trilinos scripts to other python modules, such as plotting, etc. The currently supported packages are Epetra, EpetraExt, and NOX.

  6. Rapid Development of Bioinformatics Education in China

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhong, Yang; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Ma, Jian; Zhang, Liang

    2003-01-01

    As the Human Genome Project experiences remarkable success and a flood of biological data is produced, bioinformatics becomes a very "hot" cross-disciplinary field, yet experienced bioinformaticians are urgently needed worldwide. This paper summarises the rapid development of bioinformatics education in China, especially related…

  7. A High-Resolution Chronology of Rapid Forest Transitions following Polynesian Arrival in New Zealand

    PubMed Central

    McWethy, David B.; Wilmshurst, Janet M.; Whitlock, Cathy; Wood, Jamie R.; McGlone, Matt S.

    2014-01-01

    Human-caused forest transitions are documented worldwide, especially during periods when land use by dense agriculturally-based populations intensified. However, the rate at which prehistoric human activities led to permanent deforestation is poorly resolved. In the South Island, New Zealand, the arrival of Polynesians c. 750 years ago resulted in dramatic forest loss and conversion of nearly half of native forests to open vegetation. This transformation, termed the Initial Burning Period, is documented in pollen and charcoal records, but its speed has been poorly constrained. High-resolution chronologies developed with a series of AMS radiocarbon dates from two lake sediment cores suggest the shift from forest to shrubland occurred within decades rather than centuries at drier sites. We examine two sites representing extreme examples of the magnitude of human impacts: a drier site that was inherently more vulnerable to human-set fires and a wetter, less burnable site. The astonishing rate of deforestation at the hands of small transient populations resulted from the intrinsic vulnerability of the native flora to fire and from positive feedbacks in post-fire vegetation recovery that increased landscape flammability. Spatially targeting burning in highly-flammable seral vegetation in forests rarely experiencing fire was sufficient to create an alternate fire-prone stable state. The New Zealand example illustrates how seemingly stable forest ecosystems can experience rapid and permanent conversions. Forest loss in New Zealand is among the fastest ecological transitions documented in the Holocene; yet equally rapid transitions can be expected in present-day regions wherever positive feedbacks support alternate fire-inhibiting, fire-prone stable states. PMID:25372150

  8. A high-resolution chronology of rapid forest transitions following polynesian arrival in New Zealand.

    PubMed

    McWethy, David B; Wilmshurst, Janet M; Whitlock, Cathy; Wood, Jamie R; McGlone, Matt S

    2014-01-01

    Human-caused forest transitions are documented worldwide, especially during periods when land use by dense agriculturally-based populations intensified. However, the rate at which prehistoric human activities led to permanent deforestation is poorly resolved. In the South Island, New Zealand, the arrival of Polynesians c. 750 years ago resulted in dramatic forest loss and conversion of nearly half of native forests to open vegetation. This transformation, termed the Initial Burning Period, is documented in pollen and charcoal records, but its speed has been poorly constrained. High-resolution chronologies developed with a series of AMS radiocarbon dates from two lake sediment cores suggest the shift from forest to shrubland occurred within decades rather than centuries at drier sites. We examine two sites representing extreme examples of the magnitude of human impacts: a drier site that was inherently more vulnerable to human-set fires and a wetter, less burnable site. The astonishing rate of deforestation at the hands of small transient populations resulted from the intrinsic vulnerability of the native flora to fire and from positive feedbacks in post-fire vegetation recovery that increased landscape flammability. Spatially targeting burning in highly-flammable seral vegetation in forests rarely experiencing fire was sufficient to create an alternate fire-prone stable state. The New Zealand example illustrates how seemingly stable forest ecosystems can experience rapid and permanent conversions. Forest loss in New Zealand is among the fastest ecological transitions documented in the Holocene; yet equally rapid transitions can be expected in present-day regions wherever positive feedbacks support alternate fire-inhibiting, fire-prone stable states.

  9. Rapid ductile afterslip from coseismic heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Platt, J. D.; Meade, B. J.; Savage, H. M.; Rowe, C. D.

    2015-12-01

    Earthquakes are typically followed by months of afterslip, the total of which is generally an order of magnitude smaller than the seismic slip. The classic model for afterslip envisions seismic slip transferring stress to adjacent regions, driving accelerated stable sliding that expands the rupture area. However, a small proportion of earthquakes exhibit unusually large and rapid afterslip in the hours immediately following rupture. Here we present a new model that bridges the transition from seismic to postseismic deformation and may explain these observations of rapid afterslip. Seismic slip produces a significant temperature rise that slowly diffuses into the surrounding material following the cessation of seismic slip. Any process with strong temperature dependence is more sensitive to this heat transient than to the ambient temperatures present during the interseismic period. Coupling the temperature evolution of a fault to a ductile flow law we model postseismic deformation during the heat transient. Our idea of coseismic heating enhancing ductile flow is supported by field observations of micro-shear zones adjacent to psuedotachylyte veins. Enhanced ductility is largely confined to the zone that deformed seismically, making our model equivalent to rapid afterslip. Combining analytic and numerical methods we solve for the total afterslip in terms of the slip rate and fault strength during seismic slip and the ductile flow parameters. Our results are sensitive to the assumed rheology and deforming zone thickness, and while total afterslip is generally small some plausible parameter ranges predict afterslip comparable to or greater than the seismic slip developing over timescales shorter than an hour. We demonstrate that rapid afterslip can drive significant frictional heating, leading to a thermal runaway instability that produces a near total postseismic stress drop. To conclude we investigate the tsunami magnitude that rapid afterslip could produce.

  10. Rapid steroid hormone actions via membrane receptors.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Nofrat; Verma, Anjali; Bivens, Caroline B; Schwartz, Zvi; Boyan, Barbara D

    2016-09-01

    Steroid hormones regulate a wide variety of physiological and developmental functions. Traditional steroid hormone signaling acts through nuclear and cytosolic receptors, altering gene transcription and subsequently regulating cellular activity. This is particularly important in hormonally-responsive cancers, where therapies that target classical steroid hormone receptors have become clinical staples in the treatment and management of disease. Much progress has been made in the last decade in detecting novel receptors and elucidating their mechanisms, particularly their rapid signaling effects and subsequent impact on tumorigenesis. Many of these receptors are membrane-bound and lack DNA-binding sites, functionally separating them from their classical cytosolic receptor counterparts. Membrane-bound receptors have been implicated in a number of pathways that disrupt the cell cycle and impact tumorigenesis. Among these are pathways that involve phospholipase D, phospholipase C, and phosphoinositide-3 kinase. The crosstalk between these pathways has been shown to affect apoptosis and proliferation in cardiac cells, osteoblasts, and chondrocytes as well as cancer cells. This review focuses on rapid signaling by 17β-estradiol and 1α,25-dihydroxy vitamin D3 to examine the integrated actions of classical and rapid steroid signaling pathways both in contrast to each other and in concert with other rapid signaling pathways. This new approach lends insight into rapid signaling by steroid hormones and its potential for use in targeted drug therapies that maximize the benefits of traditional steroid hormone-directed therapies while mitigating their less desirable effects. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Modelling Observable Properties of Rapidly Rotating Stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Castañeda, D.; Deupree, R. G.; Aufdenberg, J.

    2016-11-01

    To fully understand the Be star phenomenon, one must have a reasonable degree of knowledge about the star beneath the disk, which is often found to be rapidly rotating. Rapid rotation complicates modelling because fundamental properties like the stellar luminosity and effective temperature require knowledge of the angle of inclination at which the star is observed. Furthermore our knowledge of the structure of rapidly rotating stars is on a less sure foundation than for non-rotating stars. The uncertainties in the inclination and the surface properties of a few rapidly rotating stars have been substantially reduced by interferometric observations over the last decade, and these stars can be used as tests of rotating stellar models, even if those stars themselves may not be Be stars. Vega, as an MK standard, is historically a very important star because it is used for calibration purposes. However, several studies have suggested that Vega is a rapidly rotating star viewed at a very low inclination angle, raising questions as to how well we really know its properties. Appropriate modelling has been challenging and there is still room for debate over the actual properties of Vega, as opposed to its observed properties. We have previously shown that under certain conditions both the stellar surface properties and the deduced surface properties scale from one model to another with the same surface shape. We used this scaling algorithm with realistic 2D models to compute high-resolution spectral energy distributions and interferometric visibilities to determine the best rotating model fit to Vega. Detailed comparisons between the computed and observed data will be presented.

  12. JPSS CGS Tools For Rapid Algorithm Updates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. C.; Grant, K. D.

    2011-12-01

    The National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA) and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) are jointly acquiring the next-generation civilian weather and environmental satellite system: the Joint Polar Satellite System (JPSS). JPSS will contribute the afternoon orbit component and ground processing system of the restructured National Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellite System (NPOESS). As such, JPSS replaces the current Polar-orbiting Operational Environmental Satellites (POES) managed by NOAA and the ground processing component of both POES and the Defense Meteorological Satellite Program (DMSP) replacement known as the Defense Weather Satellite System (DWSS), managed by the Department of Defense (DoD). The JPSS satellites will carry a suite of sensors designed to collect meteorological, oceanographic, climatological, and solar-geophysical observations of the earth, atmosphere, and space. The ground processing system for JPSS is known as the JPSS Common Ground System (JPSS CGS), and consists of a Command, Control, and Communications Segment (C3S) and the Interface Data Processing Segment (IDPS). Both are developed by Raytheon Intelligence and Information Systems (IIS). The Interface Data Processing Segment will process NPOESS Preparatory Project, Joint Polar Satellite System and Defense Weather Satellite System satellite data to provide environmental data products to NOAA and DoD processing centers operated by the United States government. Under NPOESS, Northrop Grumman Aerospace Systems Algorithms and Data Products (A&DP) organization was responsible for the algorithms that produce the EDRs, including their quality aspects. For JPSS, that responsibility has transferred to NOAA's Center for Satellite Applications & Research (STAR). As the Calibration and Validation (Cal/Val) activities move forward following both the NPP launch and subsequent JPSS and DWSS launches, rapid algorithm updates may be required. Raytheon and

  13. Rapid Flow Analysis Studies with Spectroscopic Detectors.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thalib, Amlius

    A rapid flow analysis study based on segmented flow and flow injection principles is described in this thesis. The main objective of this study was to establish the response characteristics in continuous flow analysis systems in order to improve sampling rates with several types of spectroscopic detectors. It was found from flame photometric studies that non-segmented flowing streams are applicable to rapid flow analysis with automatic sample aspiration. Calcium was used as a typical example and determined at sampling rates up to 360 h('-1) with a detection limit of 0.05 mg L(' -1). A rapid flow system is reported using direct aspiration for AAS analysis with both manual injection and automatic aspiration techniques, and found to give sampling rates of up to 600-720 samples h('-1). Speed of analysis was reduced by about 50% when using an external peristaltic pump in the flow system design, due to increased sample dispersion. A novel aspect of a rapid flow injection approach reported with ICPAES detection includes the method of injecting samples via a peristaltic pump with simultaneous computer data processing. Determination of serum cations (Na, K, Ca, Mg and Fe) was demonstrated as an example of an application of the technique at sampling rates of 240 h('-1). Precision and detection limits for 13 elements in a single standard solution are reported. The use of automated aspiration sampling is also reported in this method for comparison. Further studies on flow characteristics were carried out by a combination of the rapid flow system with very short sampling times as low as 2 seconds using UV-visible spectrophotometric detection. Analysis of human blood serum samples was used as an example where total protein and inorganic phosphate were determined at sampling rates of 240 h('-1) and 360 h('-1) respectively. The novel aspects of the results from these studies include the very rapid sample throughput developed with simple and inexpensive experimental approaches in

  14. RAPID MAPPING TOOL: AN ARCMAP EXTENSION

    SciTech Connect

    STEVE P. LINGER; PAUL M. RICH; DOUG WALTHER; MARC S. WITKOWSKI; MARCIA A. JONES; HARI S. KHALSA

    2002-06-18

    Cartographic production laboratories produce large volumes of maps for diverse customers. Turnaround time and consistency are key concerns. The Rapid Mapping Tool is an ArcMap based tool that enables rapid creation of maps to meet customer needs. This tool was constructed using VB/VBA, ArcObjects, and ArcGIS templates. The core capability of ArcMap is extended for custom map production by storing specifications associated with a map or template in a companion XML document. These specifications include settings and preferences used to create custom maps. The tool was developed as a component of an enterprise GIS, which enables spatial data management and delivery using ArcSDE, ArcIMS, Oracle, and a web-based request tracking system.

  15. IFSAR for the Rapid Terrain Visualization Demonstration

    SciTech Connect

    BURNS,BRYAN L.; EICHEL,PAUL H.; HENSLEY JR.,WILLIAM H.; KIM,THEODORE J.

    2000-10-31

    The Rapid Terrain Visualization Advanced Concept Technology Demonstration (RTV-ACTD) is designed to demonstrate the technologies and infrastructure to meet the Army requirement for rapid generation of digital topographic data to support emerging crisis or contingencies. The primary sensor for this mission is an interferometric synthetic aperture radar (IFSAR) designed at Sandia National Laboratories. This paper will outline the design of the system and its performance, and show some recent flight test results. The RTV IFSAR will meet DTED level III and IV specifications by using a multiple-baseline design and high-accuracy differential and carrier-phase GPS navigation. It includes innovative near-real-time DEM production on-board the aircraft. The system is being flown on a deHavilland DHC-7 Army aircraft.

  16. Rapid quenching effects in PVC films

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lee, H. D.; Mandell, J. F.; Mcgarry, F. J.

    1981-01-01

    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin films (with no additives, 30-100 micrometers thick), due to rapid quenching (approximately 300 C/sec) through the glass transition temperature, have been observed. The more severe the quench, the greater is the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC has also been studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements takes place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra have been applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching have been monitored by tensile creep and stress-strain to failure. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content, due to rapid quenching.

  17. Microstructures and properties of rapidly solidified alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shechtman, D.; Horowitz, E.

    1984-01-01

    The microstructure and properties of rapidly solidified aluminum alloys were researched. The effects of powder and flake chemistry and morphology and alternative consolidation processing parameters are being conducted. Samples of the powders being utilized were obtained for comprehensive metallurgical characterization. Seven aluminum alloys in the form of thin foils were studied by a variety of techniques including optical metallography, scanning electron microscope, and transmission electron microscope. Details of the microstructural characteristics are presented along with a discussion of the solidification process. A better understanding of the microstructure of the rapidly solidified aluminum alloys prepared by a variety of techniques such as roller quenching, the vacuum atomized procedure, ultrasonically atomized in inert atmospheres, and atomized in flue gas was provided.

  18. Rapid Adenovirus typing method for species identification.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Fabienne; Wittkop, Linda; Bader, Clément; Kassab, Somar; Tumiotto, Camille; Berciaud, Sylvie; Wodrich, Harald; Lafon, Marie-Edith

    2017-11-01

    Adenoviruses are characterized by a large variability, reflected by their classification in species A to G. Certain species, eg A and C, could be associated with increased clinical severity, both in immunocompetent and immunocompromised hosts suggesting that in some instances species identification provides clinically relevant information. Here we designed a novel "pVI rapid typing method" to obtain quick, simple and cost effective species assignment for Adenoviruses, thanks to combined fusion temperature (Tm) and amplicon size analysis. Rapid typing results were compared to Sanger sequencing in the hexon gene for 140 Adenovirus-positive clinical samples included in the Typadeno study. Species A and C could be identified with a 100% positive predictive value, thus confirming the value of this simple typing method. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Rapid quenching effects in glassy polymers

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mcgarry, F. J.

    1982-01-01

    Using a specially constructed microbalance for hydrostatic weighing, density changes in PVC thin film due to rapid quenching through the glass transition temperature were observed. The more severe the quench, the greater the free volume content. Isobaric volume recovery of PVC was also studied by volume dilatometry. Both show aging of relaxing molecular rearrangements taking place as a linear function of logarithmic aging time at room temperature. Distribution of retardation times and Primak's distributed activation energy spectra were applied to the volume recovery data. The concomitant changes in mechanical properties of PVC after quenching were monitored by tensile creep stress-stran to failure rates. All reflect the presence of excess free volume content due to rapid quenching.

  20. [Rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin].

    PubMed

    Wang, Ji-fen; Yu, Jing; Guo, Xin; Sun, Xing-long; Wang, Ding-fang

    2011-07-01

    The method of rapid analysis of added ingredients in heroin was studied in the present paper. Adding sucrose, fructose, glucose, starch, caffeine and phenacetin to heroin with a certain percentage, the changes in the infrared spectrum with the concentration of heroin increasing and the detection limit of the additives were determined. Whether or not heroin can be detected in the sample with high concentration of added ingredients was studied using Raman spectroscopy. Similarly, in high purity of heroin, whether or not Raman spectroscopy can detect the added ingredients was tested. Through systematic experiments, the results showed that: using infrared spectroscopy and Raman spectroscopy to test the added ingredients of heroin is a rapid and effective method. Each has both advantages and disadvantages. We should select the appropriate method according to the actual cases.

  1. Rapid Sampling for Visualizations with Ordering Guarantees

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Albert; Blais, Eric; Parameswaran, Aditya; Indyk, Piotr; Madden, Sam; Rubinfeld, Ronitt

    2015-01-01

    Visualizations are frequently used as a means to understand trends and gather insights from datasets, but often take a long time to generate. In this paper, we focus on the problem of rapidly generating approximate visualizations while preserving crucial visual properties of interest to analysts. Our primary focus will be on sampling algorithms that preserve the visual property of ordering; our techniques will also apply to some other visual properties. For instance, our algorithms can be used to generate an approximate visualization of a bar chart very rapidly, where the comparisons between any two bars are correct. We formally show that our sampling algorithms are generally applicable and provably optimal in theory, in that they do not take more samples than necessary to generate the visualizations with ordering guarantees. They also work well in practice, correctly ordering output groups while taking orders of magnitude fewer samples and much less time than conventional sampling schemes. PMID:26779380

  2. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, John T.; Fehlau, Paul E.; France, Stephen W.

    1981-01-01

    A nondestructive method for uniqely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  3. Rapid scanning system for fuel drawers

    DOEpatents

    Caldwell, J.T.; Fehlau, P.E.; France, S.W.

    A nondestructive method for uniquely distinguishing among and quantifying the mass of individual fuel plates in situ in fuel drawers utilized in nuclear reactors is described. The method is both rapid and passive, eliminating the personnel hazard of the commonly used irradiation techniques which require that the analysis be performed in proximity to an intense neutron source such as a reactor. In the present technique, only normally decaying nuclei are observed. This allows the analysis to be performed anywhere. This feature, combined with rapid scanning of a given fuel drawer (in approximately 30 s), and the computer data analysis allows the processing of large numbers of fuel drawers efficiently in the event of a loss alert.

  4. Validation of Rapid Radiochemical Method for Californium ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief In the event of a radiological/nuclear contamination event, the response community would need tools and methodologies to rapidly assess the nature and the extent of contamination. To characterize a radiologically contaminated outdoor area and to inform risk assessment, large numbers of environmental samples would be collected and analyzed over a short period of time. To address the challenge of quickly providing analytical results to the field, the U.S. EPA developed a robust analytical method. This method allows response officials to characterize contaminated areas and to assess the effectiveness of remediation efforts, both rapidly and accurately, in the intermediate and late phases of environmental cleanup. Improvement in sample processing and analysis leads to increased laboratory capacity to handle the analysis of a large number of samples following the intentional or unintentional release of a radiological/nuclear contaminant.

  5. Temporal coherence structure rapidly shapes neuronal interactions

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Kai; Xu, Yanbo; Yin, Pingbo; Oxenham, Andrew J.; Fritz, Jonathan B.; Shamma, Shihab A.

    2017-01-01

    Perception of segregated sources is essential in navigating cluttered acoustic environments. A basic mechanism to implement this process is the temporal coherence principle. It postulates that a signal is perceived as emitted from a single source only when all of its features are temporally modulated coherently, causing them to bind perceptually. Here we report on neural correlates of this process as rapidly reshaped interactions in primary auditory cortex, measured in three different ways: as changes in response rates, as adaptations of spectrotemporal receptive fields following stimulation by temporally coherent and incoherent tone sequences, and as changes in spiking correlations during the tone sequences. Responses, sensitivity and presumed connectivity were rapidly enhanced by synchronous stimuli, and suppressed by alternating (asynchronous) sounds, but only when the animals engaged in task performance and were attentive to the stimuli. Temporal coherence and attention are therefore both important factors in auditory scene analysis. PMID:28054545

  6. Superconductivity and magnetism in rapidly solidified perovskites

    SciTech Connect

    O'Handley, R.C.; Kalonji, G.

    1991-01-01

    The report is divided into six parts, reflecting major thrusts of our work since 1987. The six areas are: molecular orbital theory of high {Tc} superconductivity; rapid solidification processing of oxide superconductors; time dependent magnetic and superconducting properties of these inhomogeneous materials; excess Gd in Gd{sub 1+x}Ba{sub 2-x}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} perovskites; rapid solidification and directional annealing to achieve high Jc; and Mossbauer studies of T = Fe, Co and Ni site selection in YBa{sub 2}(CuT){sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}} and GdBa{sub 2}(CuT){sub 3}O{sub 7-{delta}}.

  7. Rapid field-screening method for PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Watts, Wendi; Miller, Gordon H.; Pal, A.; Eastwood, DeLyle; Lidberg, Russell L.

    1993-03-01

    The analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) generally requires selectivity and sensitivity. Even after cleanup, PCBs are usually at ultratrace levels in field samples, mixed in with other halocarbons, hydrocarbons, lipids, etc. The levels of PCBs typically found in water, soil, tissue, food, biota, and other matrices of interest are in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Most current measurement techniques for PCBs require chromatographic separations and are not practical for routine analysis. There is a strong need to have rapid and simple techniques to screen for PCBs under field conditions. The use of field screening analysis allows rapid decisions in remedial actions and reduces the need for sample preparations and time- consuming laboratory analyses. Field screening techniques also reduce the cost of clean-up operations. This paper describes a simple screening technique based on room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and provides an overview of both this analytical procedure to detect trace levels of PCBs in environmental samples.

  8. Molecular Adaptation during a Rapid Adaptive Radiation

    PubMed Central

    Kapralov, Maxim V.; Votintseva, Antonina A.; Filatov, Dmitry A.

    2013-01-01

    “Explosive” adaptive radiations on islands remain one of the most puzzling evolutionary phenomena and the evolutionary genetic processes behind such radiations remain unclear. Rapid morphological and ecological evolution during island radiations suggests that many genes may be under fairly strong selection, although this remains untested. Here, we report that during a rapid recent diversification in the Hawaiian endemic plant genus Schiedea (Caryophyllaceae), 5 in 36 studied genes evolved under positive selection. Positively selected genes are involved in defence mechanisms, photosynthesis, and reproduction. Comparison with eight mainland plant groups demonstrates both the relaxation of purifying selection and more widespread positive selection in Hawaiian Schiedea. This provides compelling evidence that adaptive evolution of protein-coding genes may play a significant role during island adaptive radiations. PMID:23355532

  9. Microstructures in rapidly solidified niobium aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hebsur, Mohan G.; Locci, Ivan E.

    1988-01-01

    The microstructures of niobium aluminides produced by chill block melt spinning were compared to those of niobium aluminides produced by conventional casting. The rapidly solidified alloys were rapidly solidified by melt spinning in an argon atmosphere, and the melt-spun ribbons were examined by optical, X-ray, and TEM techniques. Microstructures were found to range from single-phase for Nb-75 at. pct Al (NbAl3) to two phase for Nb-46 at. pct Al (NbAl3 + Nb2Al). It was found that the melt spinning of Nb-aluminides produced finer grained microstructures than those produced in induction-melted ingots or in powders produced by the rotating electrode process. Ternary additions such as Cr, Ti, and Si tended to form intermetallic phases along the grain boundaries.

  10. THE RAPID CYCLING MEDICAL SYNCHROTRON RCMS.

    SciTech Connect

    PEGGS,S.; BARTON,D.; BEEBE-WANG,J.; CARDONA,J.; BRENNAN,M.; FISCHER,W.; GARDNER,C.; GASSNER,D.; ET AL

    2002-06-02

    Thirteen hadron beam therapy facilities began operation between 1990 and 2001 - 5 in Europe, 4 in North America, 3 in Japan, and 1 in South Africa [l]. Ten of them irradiate tumors with protons, 2 with Carbon- 12 ions, and 1 with both protons and Carbon-12. The facility with the highest patient throughput - a total of 6 174 patients in 11 years and as many as 150 patient treatments per day -is the Loma Linda University Medical Center, which uses a weak focusing slow cycling synchrotron to accelerate beam for delivery to passive scattering nozzles at the end of rotatable gantries [2, 3,4]. The Rapid Cycling Medical Synchrotron (RCMS) is a second generation synchrotron that, by contrast with the Loma Linda synchrotron, is strong focusing and rapid cycling, with a repetition rate of 30 Hz. Primary parameters for the RCMS are listed in Table 1.

  11. Relatively Inexpensive Rapid Prototyping of Small Parts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Swan, Scott A.

    2003-01-01

    Parts with complex three-dimensional shapes and with dimensions up to 8 by 8 by 10 in. (20.3 by 20.3 by 25.4 cm) can be made as unitary pieces of a room-temperature-curing polymer, with relatively little investment in time and money, by a process now in use at Johnson Space Center. The process is one of a growing number of processes and techniques that are known collectively as the art of rapid prototyping. The main advantages of this process over other rapid-prototyping processes are greater speed and lower cost: There is no need to make paper drawings and take them to a shop for fabrication, and thus no need for the attendant paperwork and organizational delays. Instead, molds for desired parts are made automatically on a machine that is guided by data from a computer-aided design (CAD) system and can reside in an engineering office.

  12. Low Gravity Rapid Thermal Analysis of Glass

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tucker, Dennis S.; Ethridge, Edwin C.; Smith, Guy A.

    2004-01-01

    It has been observed by two research groups that ZrF4-BaF2-LaF3-AlF3-NaF (ZBLAN) glass crystallization is suppressed in microgravity. The mechanism for this phenomenon is unknown at the present time. In order to better understand the mechanism, an experiment was performed on NASA's KC135 reduced gravity aircraft to obtain quantitative crystallization data. An apparatus was designed and constructed for performing rapid thermal analysis of milligram quantities of ZBLAN glass. The apparatus employs an ellipsoidal furnace allowing for rapid heating and cooling. Using this apparatus nucleation and crystallization kinetic data was obtained leading to the construction of time-temperature-transformation curves for ZBLAN in microgravity and unit gravity.

  13. Brief communication: rapid culture of tubercle bacilli.

    PubMed Central

    Vasanthakumari, R.; Jagannath, K.

    1998-01-01

    One of the biggest obstacles to the correct diagnosis and efficient treatment of tuberculosis is the absence of a rapid technique for culturing tubercle bacilli and for testing their susceptibility to antituberculosis drugs. Current procedures typically take 6-10 weeks to perform. This article describes a simple, rapid, reliable and cheap method of culturing tubercle bacilli using a liquid medium consisting of a mixture of coconut water, horse serum, glycerol and benzylpenicillin. Addition of specific concentrations of antituberculosis drugs to the medium, permits information on the drug susceptibility of tubercle bacilli to be obtained in only 6 days. The procedure requires no special instruments or technical skill and can therefore be carried out routinely in the average laboratory in developing countries. PMID:9744252

  14. Advantages of IRMA over RIA in the measurement of ACTH.

    PubMed

    Gibson, S; Pollock, A; Littley, M; Shalet, S; White, A

    1989-11-01

    A technically simple and rapid two-site immunoradiometric assay (IRMA) for human ACTH, based on monoclonal antibodies (MAbs), was compared with a clinically validated ACTH radioimmunoassay (RIA). Both methods measure ACTH 1-39 in unextracted plasma and cross-react less than 0.5% with ACTH fragments. ACTH levels were assessed in 103 patient samples: for concentrations in the range 5.3-1000 ng/L, results by the two methods were significantly correlated (r = 0.82, n = 86, P less than 0.001). The IRMA was more sensitive and had a wider working range than the RIA (detection limits 5.3 ng/L (IRMA) vs 11 ng/L (RIA); CV less than 10% between 19 and 1000 ng/L (IRMA) and CV less than 15% between 30 and 400 ng/L (RIA). In two patients for whom discrepant results were obtained, measurement of ACTH by bioassay and ACTH precursors by direct IRMA demonstrated the greater accuracy of the ACTH IRMA result. The improved performance of the IRMA combined with its many practical advantages compared to RIA, make it ideal for use in detailed clinical and physiological studies which have previously been hampered by the poor reliability of ACTH measurement.

  15. RAPID FORMATION OF SATURN AFTER JUPITER COMPLETION

    SciTech Connect

    Kobayashi, Hiroshi; Ormel, Chris W.; Ida, Shigeru E-mail: ormel@astro.berkeley.edu

    2012-09-01

    We have investigated Saturn's core formation at a radial pressure maximum in a protoplanetary disk, which is created by gap opening by Jupiter. A core formed via planetesimal accretion induces the fragmentation of surrounding planetesimals, which generally inhibits further growth of the core by removal of the resulting fragments due to radial drift caused by gas drag. However, the emergence of the pressure maximum halts the drift of the fragments, while their orbital eccentricities and inclinations are efficiently damped by gas drag. As a result, the core of Saturn rapidly grows via accretion of the fragments near the pressure maximum. We have found that in the minimum-mass solar nebula, kilometer-sized planetesimals can produce a core exceeding 10 Earth masses within two million years. Since Jupiter may not have undergone significant type II inward migration, it is likely that Jupiter's formation was completed when the local disk mass has already decayed to a value comparable to or less than Jovian mass. The expected rapid growth of Saturn's core on a timescale comparable to or shorter than the observationally inferred disk lifetime enables Saturn to acquire the current amount of envelope gas before the disk gas is completely depleted. The high heat energy release rate onto the core surface due to the rapid accretion of the fragments delays onset of runaway gas accretion until the core mass becomes somewhat larger than that of Jupiter, which is consistent with the estimate based on interior modeling. Therefore, the rapid formation of Saturn induced by gap opening of Jupiter can account for the formation of multiple gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) without significant inward migration and larger core mass of Saturn than that of Jupiter.

  16. Methods of Recording Rapid Wind Changes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Magnan, A

    1932-01-01

    The purpose of our research was to determine the rapid changes of air currents which impose varying stresses on the wings of airplanes. We attempted to express in figures the turbulence of the air, which perhaps plays some role in the behavior of airplanes in flight, as well as in the realization of certain methods of gliding flight. This is the reason which led us to conceive and develop the experimental equipment (hot-wire anemometer) described herein.

  17. Rapid and highly fieldable viral diagnostic

    DOEpatents

    McKnight, Timothy E.

    2016-12-20

    The present invention relates to a rapid, highly fieldable, nearly reagentless diagnostic to identify active RNA viral replication in a live, infected cells, and more particularly in leukocytes and tissue samples (including biopsies and nasal swabs) using an array of a plurality of vertically-aligned nanostructures that impale the cells and introduce a DNA reporter construct that is expressed and amplified in the presence of active viral replication.

  18. QEPAS detector for rapid spectral measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosterev, A. A.; Buerki, P. R.; Dong, L.; Reed, M.; Day, T.; Tittel, F. K.

    2010-07-01

    A quartz enhanced photoacoustic spectroscopy sensor designed for fast response was used in combination with a pulsed external cavity quantum cascade laser to rapidly acquire gas absorption data over the 1196-1281 cm-1 spectral range. The system was used to measure concentrations of water vapor, pentafluoroethane (freon-125), acetone, and ethanol both individually and in combined mixtures. The precision achieved for freon-125 concentration in a single 1.1 s long spectral scan is 13 ppbv.

  19. Rapid Polymer Concrete Repairs Using Available Fillers

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-02-01

    report was reviewed and cleared for public release by the Air Force Research Laboratory Tyndall Site (AFRL/MLQ) Public Affairs Office (PAO) and is...AFRL-ML-TY-TP-2005-4544 RAPID POLYMER CONCRETE REPAIRS USING AVAILABLE FILLERS David W. Fowler, Ph. D, P.E., Chul Suh, P.E., and...February 2006 DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release; distribution unlimited. Air Force Research Laboratory Materials and

  20. Background removal procedure for rapid scan EPR.

    PubMed

    Tseitlin, Mark; Czechowski, Tomasz; Quine, Richard W; Eaton, Sandra S; Eaton, Gareth R

    2009-01-01

    In rapid scan EPR the changing magnetic field creates a background signal with components at the scan frequency and its harmonics. The amplitude of the background signal increases with scan width and is more significant for weak EPR signals such as are obtained in the presence of magnetic field gradients. A procedure for distinguishing this background from the EPR signal is proposed, mathematically described, and tested for various experimental conditions.

  1. Rapid Genotyping of Swine Influenza Viruses

    PubMed Central

    Mak, Polly W.Y.; Wong, Chloe K.S.; Li, Olive T.W.; Chan, Kwok Hung; Cheung, Chung Lam; Ma, Edward S.; Webby, Richard J.; Guan, Yi; Peiris, Joseph S. Malik

    2011-01-01

    The emergence of pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus highlighted the need for enhanced surveillance of swine influenza viruses. We used real-time reverse–transcription PCR–based genotyping and found that this rapid and simple genotyping method may identify reassortants derived from viruses of Eurasian avian-like, triple reassortant-like, and pandemic (H1N1) 2009 virus lineages. PMID:21470462

  2. Removable partial dentures: use of rapid prototyping.

    PubMed

    Lima, Julia Magalhaes Costa; Anami, Lilian Costa; Araujo, Rodrigo Maximo; Pavanelli, Carlos A

    2014-10-01

    The CAD/CAM technology associated with rapid prototyping (RP) is already widely used in the fabrication of all-ceramic fixed prostheses and in the biomedical area; however, the use of this technology for the manufacture of metal frames for removable dentures is new. This work reports the results of a literature review conducted on the use of CAD/CAM and RP in the manufacture of removable partial dentures. © 2014 by the American College of Prosthodontists.

  3. Rapid Prototyping: State of the Art

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2003-10-23

    Inkjet and 3D Printing • Lamination Stereolithography was the first type of rapid prototyping technology to be introduced commercially and it...includes processes such as stereolithography, fused deposition modeling, laser sintering, and 3D inkjet printing. RP systems produce models, prototype...Process. 5 A final example, inkjet printing, is shown in Figure 5. Unlike the previous examples, the laser is replaced with an inkjet head that deposits a

  4. Rapidity gaps between jets at D0

    SciTech Connect

    Abachi, S.; D0 Collaboration

    1995-07-01

    Results are presented from an analysis of the particle multiplicity distribution between high transverse energy jets produced at the Fermilab Tevatron p{bar p} Collider at {radical}s = 1.8 Tev. Using the D0 detector, we examine the particle multiplicity distribution between the two highest transverse energy jets. For events with large rapidity separation, we observed a significant excess of events at low tagged-particle multiplicity which is consistent with a strongly interacting color-singlet exchange process.

  5. New Methodology for Rapid Seismic Risk Assessment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Melikyan, A. E.; Balassanian, S. Y.

    2002-05-01

    Seismic risk is growing worldwide and is, increasingly, a problem of developing countries. Along with growing urbanization future earthquakes will have more disastrous social and economic consequences. Seismic risk assessment and reduction are important goals for each country located in seismically active zone. For Armenia these goals are of primary importance because the results of studies carried out by Armenian NSSP for assessment of the losses caused by various types of disasters in Armenia had shown that earthquakes are the most disastrous hazard for Armenia. The strategy for seismic risk reduction in 1999 was adopted by the Government of Armenia as a high priority state program. The world experience demonstrates that for efficient response the rapid assessment of seismic losses is necessary. There are several state-of-the-art approaches for seismic risk assessment (Radius, Hazus, etc.). All of them required large amount of various input data, which is impossible to collect in many developing countries, in particular in Armenia. Taking into account this very serious problem existing for developing countries, as well as rapid seismic risk assessment need immediately after strong earthquake the author undertake the attempt to contribute into a new approach for rapid seismic risk assessment under the supervision of Prof. S. Balassanian. The analysis of numerous factors influencing seismic risk in Armenia shows that the following elements contribute most significantly to the possible losses: seismic hazard; density of population; vulnerability of structures. Proposed approach for rapid seismic risk assessment based on these three factors has been tested for several seismic events. These tests have shown that such approach might represent from 80 to 90 percent of real losses.

  6. Precursors to Rapid Elevations in Intracranial Pressure

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    difference between the systemic arterial blood pressure and the intracranial pressure , CPP = ABP − ICP. 2Ischemia is a decrease in blood supply...and the average arterial blood pressure , µABP, were consistently higher. Our results seem to be inconsistent with the observations of previous studies...1 PRECURSORS TO RAPID ELEVATIONS IN INTRACRANIAL PRESSURE James McNames1, Cristina Crespo1, Mateo Aboy1, Miles Ellenby2, Susanna Lai2, Robert

  7. Virtual Combat Convoy Trainer: Successful Rapid Prototyping

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-12-01

    32825 ABSTRACT The Lockheed Martin (LM) and Fire Arms Training Systems (FATS) Virtual Combat Convoy Trainer ( VCCT ) was developed as a rapid...based systems with complimentary capabilities which allowed the system to go from concept to deployment in under 21 days. The LM-FATS VCCT ...solution (aka VCCT -L) provides basic to advanced convoy skills training and mission rehearsal, incorporating precision weapons engagement training

  8. Rapid GRB Afterglow Response With SARA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garimella, K. V.; Homewood, A. L.; Hartmann, D. H.; Riddle, C.; Fuller, S.; Manning, A.; McIntyre, T.; Henson, G.

    2006-05-01

    The Clemson GRB Follow-Up program utilizes the SARA 0.9-m telescope to observe optical afterglows of Gamma Ray Bursts. SARA is not yet robotic; it operates under direct and Target-of-Opportunity (ToO) interrupt modes. To facilitate rapid response and timely reporting of data analysis results, we developed a software suite that operates in two phases: first, to notify observers of a burst and assist in data collection, and second, to quickly analyze the images.

  9. A Rapidly Relocatable Ocean Prediction System

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-01

    REPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 The public reporting burden for this collection of information is estimated to average 1 ...information if it does not display a currently valid 0MB control number. PLEASE DO NOT RETURN YOUR FORM TO THE ABOVE ORGANIZATION. 1 . REPORT DATE (DD...MM-YYYY) 2. REPORT TYPE 3. DATES COVERED (From - To) 13-02-2007 Conference Proceeding 1 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER A Rapidly

  10. Uav Data Processing for Rapid Mapping Activities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tampubolon, W.; Reinhardt, W.

    2015-08-01

    During disaster and emergency situations, geospatial data plays an important role to serve as a framework for decision support system. As one component of basic geospatial data, large scale topographical maps are mandatory in order to enable geospatial analysis within quite a number of societal challenges. The increasing role of geo-information in disaster management nowadays consequently needs to include geospatial aspects on its analysis. Therefore different geospatial datasets can be combined in order to produce reliable geospatial analysis especially in the context of disaster preparedness and emergency response. A very well-known issue in this context is the fast delivery of geospatial relevant data which is expressed by the term "Rapid Mapping". Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) is the rising geospatial data platform nowadays that can be attractive for modelling and monitoring the disaster area with a low cost and timely acquisition in such critical period of time. Disaster-related object extraction is of special interest for many applications. In this paper, UAV-borne data has been used for supporting rapid mapping activities in combination with high resolution airborne Interferometric Synthetic Aperture Radar (IFSAR) data. A real disaster instance from 2013 in conjunction with Mount Sinabung eruption, Northern Sumatra, Indonesia, is used as the benchmark test for the rapid mapping activities presented in this paper. On this context, the reliable IFSAR dataset from airborne data acquisition in 2011 has been used as a comparable dataset for accuracy investigation and assessment purpose in 3 D reconstructions. After all, this paper presents a proper geo-referencing and feature extraction method of UAV data to support rapid mapping activities.

  11. The genomic landscape of rapid repeated evolutionary ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Atlantic killifish populations have rapidly adapted to normally lethal levels of pollution in four urban estuaries. Through analysis of 384 whole killifish genome sequences and comparative transcriptomics in four pairs of sensitive and tolerant populations, we identify the aryl hydrocarbon receptor–based signaling pathway as a shared target of selection. This suggests evolutionary constraint on adaptive solutions to complex toxicant mixtures at each site. However, distinct molecular variants apparently contribute to adaptive pathway modification among tolerant populations. Selection also targets other toxicity-mediatinggenes and genes of connected signaling pathways; this indicates complex tolerance phenotypes and potentially compensatory adaptations. Molecular changes are consistent with selection on standing genetic variation. In killifish, high nucleotide diversityhas likely been a crucial substrate for selective sweeps to propel rapid adaptation. This manuscript describes genomic evaluations that contribute to our understanding of the ecological and evolutionary risks associated with chronic contaminant exposures to wildlife populations. Here, we assessed genetic patterns associated with long-term response to an important class of highly toxic environmental pollutants. Specifically, chemical-specific tolerance has rapidly and repeatedly evolved in an estuarine fish species resident to estuaries of the Atlantic U.S. coast. We used laboratory studies to ch

  12. Rapid direct PCR for ABO blood typing.

    PubMed

    Lee, Hwan Young; Park, Myung Jin; Kim, Na Young; Yang, Woo Ick; Shin, Kyoung-Jin

    2011-01-01

    Many different molecular typing methods have been reported to complement routine serological ABO blood typing in forensics. However, these ABO genotyping methods are often time-consuming and call for an initial DNA isolation step that requires the use of expensive kits or reagents. We report here a rapid direct ABO genotyping method that eliminates the need for DNA extraction from fresh blood, hair, and body fluid stains before PCR. Using a fast PCR instrument and an optimized polymerase, the genotyping method-which employs a multiplex allele-specific primer set for the simultaneous detection of three single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) sites (nucleotides 261, 526, and 803)-identifies A, B, O01/O02, O03, and cis-AB01 alleles in around 70 min from sample collection to electropherogram. Not only will this ABO genotyping method be efficiently used in forensic practice for rapid screening of samples before full-blown multilocus short tandem repeat profiling, but it will also demonstrate an example of rapid direct genotyping of SNPs that offers the advantages of time- and cost-efficiency, convenience, and reduced contamination during DNA analysis.

  13. Rapid turnover of mitochondrial uncoupling protein 3

    PubMed Central

    Azzu, Vian; Mookerjee, Shona A.; Brand, Martin D.

    2013-01-01

    UCP3 (uncoupling protein 3) and its homologues UCP2 and UCP1 are regulators of mitochondrial function. UCP2 is known to have a short half-life of approx. 1 h, owing to its rapid degradation by the cytosolic 26S proteasome, whereas UCP1 is turned over much more slowly by mitochondrial autophagy. In the present study we investigate whether UCP3 also has a short half-life, and whether the proteasome is involved inUCP3 degradation. UCP3 half-life was examined in the mouse C2C12 myoblast cell line by inhibiting protein synthesis with cycloheximide and monitoring UCP3 protein levels by immunoblot analysis. We show that UCP3 has a short half-life of 0.5–4 h. Rapid degradation was prevented by a cocktail of proteasome inhibitors, supporting a proteasomal mechanism for turnover. In addition, this phenotype is recapitulated in vitro: UCP3 was degraded in mitochondria isolated from rat skeletal muscle or brown adipose tissue with a half-life of 0.5–4 h, but only in the presence of a purified 26S proteasomal fraction. This in vitro proteolysis was also sensitive to proteasome inhibition. This phenotype is in direct contrast with the related proteins UCP1 and the adenine nucleotide translocase, which have long half-lives. Therefore UCP3 is turned over rapidly in multiple cell types in a proteasome-dependent manner. PMID:19954423

  14. Aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine

    SciTech Connect

    Mittal, Gaurav; Sung, Chih-Jen

    2006-04-15

    The aerodynamics inside a rapid compression machine after the end of compression is investigated using planar laser-induced fluorescence (PLIF) of acetone. To study the effect of reaction chamber configuration on the resulting aerodynamics and temperature field, experiments are conducted and compared using a creviced piston and a flat piston under varying conditions. Results show that the flat piston design leads to significant mixing of the cold vortex with the hot core region, which causes alternate hot and cold regions inside the combustion chamber. At higher pressures, the effect of the vortex is reduced. The creviced piston head configuration is demonstrated to result in drastic reduction of the effect of the vortex. Experimental conditions are also simulated using the Star-CD computational fluid dynamics package. Computed results closely match with experimental observation. Numerical results indicate that with a flat piston design, gas velocity after compression is very high and the core region shrinks quickly due to rapid entrainment of cold gases. Whereas, for a creviced piston head design, gas velocity after compression is significantly lower and the core region remains unaffected for a long duration. As a consequence, for the flat piston, adiabatic core assumption can significantly overpredict the maximum temperature after the end of compression. For the creviced piston, the adiabatic core assumption is found to be valid even up to 100 ms after compression. This work therefore experimentally and numerically substantiates the importance of piston head design for achieving a homogeneous core region inside a rapid compression machine. (author)

  15. RAPID-SELEX for RNA Aptamers

    PubMed Central

    Ozer, Abdullah; Pagano, John M.; White, Brian S.; Shalloway, David; Lis, John T.; Craighead, Harold G.

    2013-01-01

    Aptamers are high-affinity ligands selected from DNA or RNA libraries via SELEX, a repetitive in vitro process of sequential selection and amplification steps. RNA SELEX is more complicated than DNA SELEX because of the additional transcription and reverse transcription steps. Here, we report a new selection scheme, RAPID-SELEX (RNA Aptamer Isolation via Dual-cycles SELEX), that simplifies this process by systematically skipping unnecessary amplification steps. Using affinity microcolumns, we were able to complete a multiplex selection for protein targets, CHK2 and UBLCP1, in a third of the time required for analogous selections using a conventional SELEX approach. High-throughput sequencing of the enriched pools from both RAPID and SELEX revealed many identical candidate aptamers from the starting pool of 5×1015 sequences. For CHK2, the same sequence was preferentially enriched in both selections as the top candidate and was found to bind to its respective target. These results demonstrate the efficiency and, most importantly, the robustness of our selection scheme. RAPID provides a generalized approach that can be used with any selection technology to accelerate the rate of aptamer discovery, without compromising selection performance. PMID:24376564

  16. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; ...

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used tomore » separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.« less

  17. Rapid determination of actinides in seawater samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.; Utsey, Robin C.; McAlister, Daniel R.

    2014-03-09

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in seawater samples has been developed at the Savannah River National Laboratory. The actinides can be measured by alpha spectrometry or inductively-coupled plasma mass spectrometry. The new method employs novel pre-concentration steps to collect the actinide isotopes quickly from 80 L or more of seawater. Actinides are co-precipitated using an iron hydroxide co-precipitation step enhanced with Ti+3 reductant, followed by lanthanum fluoride co-precipitation. Stacked TEVA Resin and TRU Resin cartridges are used to rapidly separate Pu, U, and Np isotopes from seawater samples. TEVA Resin and DGA Resin were used to separate and measure Pu, Am and Cm isotopes in seawater volumes up to 80 L. This robust method is ideal for emergency seawater samples following a radiological incident. It can also be used, however, for the routine analysis of seawater samples for oceanographic studies to enhance efficiency and productivity. In contrast, many current methods to determine actinides in seawater can take 1–2 weeks and provide chemical yields of ~30–60 %. This new sample preparation method can be performed in 4–8 h with tracer yields of ~85–95 %. By employing a rapid, robust sample preparation method with high chemical yields, less seawater is needed to achieve lower or comparable detection limits for actinide isotopes with less time and effort.

  18. Rapid Analysis of Pharmacology for Infectious Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Hopkins, Andrew L; Bickerton, G. Richard; Carruthers, Ian M; Boyer, Stephen K; Rubin, Harvey; Overington, John P

    2011-01-01

    Pandemic, epidemic and endemic infectious diseases are united by a common problem: how do we rapidly and cost-effectively identify potential pharmacological interventions to treat infections? Given the large number of emerging and neglected infectious diseases and the fact that they disproportionately afflict the poorest members of the global society, new ways of thinking are required to develop high productivity discovery systems that can be applied to a large number of pathogens. The growing availability of parasite genome data provides the basis for developing methods to prioritize, a priori potential drug targets and analyze the pharmacological landscape of an infectious disease. Thus the overall objective of infectious disease informatics is to enable the rapid generation of plausible, novel medical hypotheses of test-able pharmacological experiments, by uncovering undiscovered relationships in the wealth of biomedical literature and databases that were collected for other purposes. In particular our goal is to identify potential drug targets present in a pathogen genome and prioritize which pharmacological experiments are most likely to discover drug-like lead compounds rapidly against a pathogen (i.e. which specific compounds and drug targets should be screened, in which assays and where they can be sourced). An integral part of the challenge is the development and integration of methods to predict druggability, essentiality, synthetic lethality and polypharmocology in pathogen genomes, while simultaneously integrating the inevitable issues of chemical tractability and the potential for acquired drug resistance from the start. PMID:21401504

  19. CMOS-controlled rapidly tunable photodetectors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Ray

    With rapidly increasing data bandwidth demands, wavelength-division-multiplexing (WDM) optical access networks seem unavoidable in the near future. To operate WDM optical networks in an efficient scheme, wavelength reconfigurability and scalability of the network are crucial. Unfortunately, most of the existing wavelength tunable technologies are neither rapidly tunable nor spectrally programmable. This dissertation presents a tunable photodetector that is designed for dynamic-wavelength allocation WDM network environments. The wavelength tuning mechanism is completely different from existing technologies. The spectrum of this detector is programmable through low-voltage digital patterns. Since the wavelength selection is achieved by electronic means, the device wavelength reconfiguration time is as fast as the electronic switching time. In this dissertation work, we have demonstrated a tunable detector that is hybridly integrated with its customized CMOS driver and receiver with nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time. In addition to its nanosecond wavelength reconfiguration time, the spectrum of this detector is digitally programmable, which means that it can adapt to system changes without re-fabrication. We have theoretically developed and experimentally demonstrated two device operating algorithms based on the same orthogonal device-optics basis. Both the rapid wavelength tuning time and the scalability make this novel device very viable for new reconfigurable WDM networks. By taking advantage of CMOS circuit design, this detector concept can be further extended for simultaneous multiple wavelength detection. We have developed one possible chip architecture and have designed a CMOS tunable optical demux for simultaneous controllable two-wavelength detection.

  20. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    DOE PAGES

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organicsmore » present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.« less

  1. Rapid prototyping applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Atwood, C. L.; McCarty, G. D.; Pardo, B. T.; Bryce, E. A.

    In an effort to reduce the cycle time for producing prototypical mechanical and electro-mechanical components, Sandia National Laboratories has integrated rapid prototyping processes into the design and manufacturing process. The processes currently in operation within the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory are Stereolithography (SL), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Direct Shell Production Casting (DSPC). These emerging technologies have proven to be valuable tools for reducing lead times and fabrication costs. Sandia uses the SL and SLS processes to support internal product development efforts. Their primary use is to fabricate patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia-managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. The DSPC process is currently being developed as a method of fabricating ceramic investment casting molds directly from a CAD solid model. Sandia is an Alpha machine test site for this process. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. It will also provide a lead-in for a tour of the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory, where these processes will be demonstrated.

  2. Rapid Radiochemical Methods for Asphalt Paving Material ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Technical Brief Validated rapid radiochemical methods for alpha and beta emitters in solid matrices that are commonly encountered in urban environments were previously unavailable for public use by responding laboratories. A lack of tested rapid methods would delay the quick determination of contamination levels and the assessment of acceptable site-specific exposure levels. Of special concern are matrices with rough and porous surfaces, which allow the movement of radioactive material deep into the building material making it difficult to detect. This research focuses on methods that address preparation, radiochemical separation, and analysis of asphalt paving materials and asphalt roofing shingles. These matrices, common to outdoor environments, challenge the capability and capacity of very experienced radiochemistry laboratories. Generally, routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques produce liquid samples (representative of the original sample material) that can be processed using available radiochemical methods. The asphalt materials are especially difficult because they do not readily lend themselves to these routine sample preparation and dissolution techniques. The HSRP and ORIA coordinate radiological reference laboratory priorities and activities in conjunction with HSRP’s Partner Process. As part of the collaboration, the HSRP worked with ORIA to publish rapid radioanalytical methods for selected radionuclides in building material matrice

  3. Rapid Expectation Adaptation during Syntactic Comprehension

    PubMed Central

    Fine, Alex B.; Jaeger, T. Florian; Farmer, Thomas A.; Qian, Ting

    2013-01-01

    When we read or listen to language, we are faced with the challenge of inferring intended messages from noisy input. This challenge is exacerbated by considerable variability between and within speakers. Focusing on syntactic processing (parsing), we test the hypothesis that language comprehenders rapidly adapt to the syntactic statistics of novel linguistic environments (e.g., speakers or genres). Two self-paced reading experiments investigate changes in readers’ syntactic expectations based on repeated exposure to sentences with temporary syntactic ambiguities (so-called “garden path sentences”). These sentences typically lead to a clear expectation violation signature when the temporary ambiguity is resolved to an a priori less expected structure (e.g., based on the statistics of the lexical context). We find that comprehenders rapidly adapt their syntactic expectations to converge towards the local statistics of novel environments. Specifically, repeated exposure to a priori unexpected structures can reduce, and even completely undo, their processing disadvantage (Experiment 1). The opposite is also observed: a priori expected structures become less expected (even eliciting garden paths) in environments where they are hardly ever observed (Experiment 2). Our findings suggest that, when changes in syntactic statistics are to be expected (e.g., when entering a novel environment), comprehenders can rapidly adapt their expectations, thereby overcoming the processing disadvantage that mistaken expectations would otherwise cause. Our findings take a step towards unifying insights from research in expectation-based models of language processing, syntactic priming, and statistical learning. PMID:24204909

  4. Rapid Progression of Coronary Atherosclerosis: A Review

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Priyank; Bajaj, Sharad; Virk, Hartaj; Bikkina, Mahesh; Shamoon, Fayez

    2015-01-01

    Atherosclerosis is chronic disease, the prevalence of which has increased steadily as the population ages. Vascular injury is believed to be critical initiating event in pathogenesis of spontaneous atherosclerosis. Syndrome of accelerated atherosclerosis has been classically described in patients undergoing heart transplantation, coronary artery bypass graft, and percutaneous transluminal coronary angioplasty. In contrast to spontaneous atherosclerosis, denuding endothelial injury followed by thrombus formation and initial predominant smooth muscle cell proliferation is believed to be playing a significant role in accelerated atherosclerosis. There is no universal definition of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. However most studies describing the phenomenon have used the following definition: (i) > or = 10% diameter reduction of at least one preexisting stenosis > or = 50%, (ii) > or = 30% diameter reduction of a preexisting stenosis <50%, and (iii) progression of a lesion to total occlusion within few months. Recent studies have described the role of coronary vasospasm, human immunodeficiency virus, various inflammatory markers, and some genetic mutations as predictors of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. As research in the field of vascular biology continues, more factors are likely to be implicated in the pathogenesis of rapid progression of atherosclerosis. PMID:26823982

  5. Rapid determination of actinides in asphalt samples

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod L.; Culligan, Brian K.; Hutchison, Jay B.

    2014-01-12

    A new rapid method for the determination of actinides in asphalt samples has been developed that can be used in emergency response situations or for routine analysis If a radiological dispersive device (RDD), Improvised Nuclear Device (IND) or a nuclear accident such as the accident at the Fukushima Nuclear Power Plant in March, 2011 occurs, there will be an urgent need for rapid analyses of many different environmental matrices, including asphalt materials, to support dose mitigation and environmental clean up. The new method for the determination of actinides in asphalt utilizes a rapid furnace step to destroy bitumen and organics present in the asphalt and sodium hydroxide fusion to digest the remaining sample. Sample preconcentration steps are used to collect the actinides and a new stacked TRU Resin + DGA Resin column method is employed to separate the actinide isotopes in the asphalt samples. The TRU Resin plus DGA Resin separation approach, which allows sequential separation of plutonium, uranium, americium and curium isotopes in asphalt samples, can be applied to soil samples as well.

  6. Laser-assisted rapid prototyping in Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathuria, Yash P.

    2002-04-01

    In the recent past years, developments in the rapid prototyping of various parts have taken new dynamic turns in manufacturing technology. Besides the use of new materials, unrelenting demands for the downsizing of miniature components in the micro-domain have expanded the application area of the rapid prototype product. Their requirements with reduced time lag have forced the manufacturers to adopt and develop innovative techniques which meet these demands. In order to overcome this problem, several techniques, predominantly laser stereolithography, have successfully been used in Japan for the past several years to generate a complex micro-/macro part of polymer resin based in two- or three-dimensional domains. The main disadvantage of this process is that they consist of two or more steps for producing metallic/metal-matrix composite microstructures. But recently developed new technologies of selective laser sintering/generating and ballistic particles manufacturing processes offer the possibility of the direct generation of these microstructures in a single step process. The last two processes actually have limitations on the feature size produced, due to the minimum size of the molten droplet. But the selective laser sintering technique can bind the particles by melting together at the interfacial grain contact area only and thus producing smaller feature sizes. Based upon these techniques, the present paper aims to review the current status and the future prospective of laser assisted rapid prototyping in Japan.

  7. Rapid prototyping applications at Sandia National Laboratories

    SciTech Connect

    Atwood, C.L.; McCarty, G.D.; Pardo, B.T.; Bryce, E.A.

    1994-02-01

    In an effort to reduce the cycle time for producing prototypical mechanical and electro-mechanical components, Sandia National Laboratories has integrated rapid prototyping processes into the design and manufacturing process. The processes currently in operation within the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory are Stereolithography (SL), Selective Laser Sintering (SLS), and Direct Shell Production Casting (DSPC). These emerging technologies have proven to be valuable tools for reducing lead times and fabrication costs. Sandia uses the SL and SLS processes to support internal product development efforts. Their primary use is to fabricate patterns for investment casting in support of a Sandia-managed program called FASTCAST that integrates computational technologies and experimental data into the investment casting process. These processes are also used in the design iteration process to produce proof-of-concept models, hands-on models for design reviews, fit-check models, visual aids for manufacturing, and functional parts in assemblies. The DSPC process is currently being developed as a method of fabricating ceramic investment casting molds directly from a CAD solid model. Sandia is an Alpha machine test site for this process. This presentation will provide an overview of the SL and SLS processes and an update of our experience and success in integrating these technologies into the product development cycle. It will also provide a lead-in for a tour of the Rapid Prototyping Laboratory, where these processes will be demonstrated.

  8. MSFC Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Rapid Quench System

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    SanSoucie, Michael P.; Craven, Paul D.; Rogers, Jan R.

    2014-01-01

    The NASA Marshall Space Flight Center (MSFC) Electrostatic Levitator (ESL) Laboratory is a unique facility for investigators studying high-temperature materials. The laboratory boasts two levitators in which samples can be levitated, heated, melted, undercooled, and resolidified, all without the interference of a container or data-gathering instrument. The ESL main chamber has been upgraded with the addition of a rapid quench system. This system allows samples to be dropped into a quench vessel that can be filled with a low melting point material, such as a gallium or indium alloy. Thereby allowing rapid quenching of undercooled liquid metals. Up to 8 quench vessels can be loaded into the quench wheel, which is indexed with LabVIEW control software. This allows up to 8 samples to be rapidly quenched before having to open the chamber. The system has been tested successfully on several zirconium samples. Future work will be done with other materials using different quench mediums. Microstructural analysis will also be done on successfully quench samples.

  9. Rapid Aminoglycoside NP Test for Rapid Detection of Multiple Aminoglycoside Resistance in Enterobacteriaceae.

    PubMed

    Nordmann, Patrice; Jayol, Aurélie; Dobias, Jan; Poirel, Laurent

    2017-04-01

    The rapid aminoglycoside NP (Nordmann/Poirel) test was developed to rapidly identify multiple aminoglycoside (AG) resistance in Enterobacteriaceae It is based on the detection of the glucose metabolism related to enterobacterial growth in the presence of a defined concentration of amikacin plus gentamicin. Formation of acid metabolites was evidenced by a color change (orange to yellow) of the red phenol pH indicator. The rapid aminoglycoside NP test was evaluated by using bacterial colonies of 18 AG-resistant isolates producing 16S rRNA methylases, 20 AG-resistant isolates expressing AG-modifying enzymes (acetyl-, adenyl-, and phosphotransferases), and 10 isolates susceptible to AG. Its sensitivity and specificity were 100% and 97%, respectively, compared to the broth dilution method, which was taken as the gold standard for determining aminoglycoside resistance. The test is inexpensive, rapid (<2 h), and implementable worldwide. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Microbiology.

  10. Rapid Column Extraction method for SoilRapid Column Extraction method for Soil

    SciTech Connect

    Maxwell, Sherrod, L. III; Culligan, Brian K.

    2005-11-07

    The analysis of actinides in environmental soil and sediment samples is very important for environmental monitoring as well as for emergency preparedness. A new, rapid actinide separation method has been developed and implemented that provides total dissolution of large soil samples, high chemical recoveries and effective removal of matrix interferences. This method uses stacked TEVA Resin{reg_sign}, TRU Resin{reg_sign} and DGA-Resin{reg_sign} cartridges from Eichrom Technologies (Darien, IL, USA) that allows the rapid separation of plutonium (Pu) neptunium (Np), uranium (U), americium (Am), and curium (Cm) using a single multi-stage column combined with alpha spectrometry. The method combines a rapid fusion step for total dissolution to dissolve refractory analytes and matrix removal using cerium fluoride precipitation to remove the difficult soil matrix. By using vacuum box cartridge technology with rapid flow rates, sample preparation time is minimized.

  11. Rapid thermal conditioning of sewage sludge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Jianhong

    Rapid thermal conditioning (RTC) is a developing technology recently applied to sewage sludge treatment. Sludge is heated rapidly to a reaction temperature (up to about 220sp°C) under sufficient pressure to maintain the liquid phase. Reaction is quenched after 10 to 30 seconds when the mixture of sludge and steam pass through a pressure let-down valve. This process reduces the amount of sludge requiring land disposal, eliminates the need for polymer coagulant, improves dewaterability, increases methane production, and further reduces the concentration of pathogens. The odor problem associated with traditional thermal conditioning processes is largely minimized. Ammonia removal is readily integrated with the process. For this research, a pilot unit was constructed capable of processing 90 liters of sludge per hour. Over 22 runs were made with this unit using sludge from New York City Water Pollution Control Plants (WPCP). Sludges processed in this equipment were tested to determine the effect of RTC operating conditions on sludge dewaterability, biodegradability, and other factors affecting the incorporation of RTC into wastewater treatment plants. Dewaterability of thermally conditioned sludge was assessed for cetrifugeability and filterability. Bench scale centrifugation was used for evaluating centrifugeability, pressure filtration and capillary suction time (CST) for filterability. A mathematical model developed for centrifuge dewatering was used to predict the effect of RTC on full scale centrifuge performance. Particle size distribution and solids density of raw and treated PDS were also analyzed. An observed increase in sludge solids density at least partially explains its improved centrifugeability. An investigation of thermally conditioned amino acids showed that the L-isomer is highly biodegradable while the D-isomers are generally less so. Glucose is highly biodegradable, but rapidly becomes refractory as thermal conditioning time is lengthened. This

  12. Modified TB rapid test by proteinase K for rapid diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis.

    PubMed

    Yari, Shamsi; Hadizadeh Tasbiti, Alireza; Ghanei, Mostafa; Shokrgozar, Mohammad Ali; Fateh, Abolfazl; Yari, Fatemeh; Bahrmand, Ahmadreza

    2016-03-01

    The diagnosis of pleural tuberculosis continues to be a challenge due to the low sensitivity of traditional diagnostic methods. Better and more rapid tests are needed for diagnosis of pleural TB. In this study, pleural fluids were tested with rapid test to determine Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MTB antigen). Affinity chromatography was used to purify specific polyclonal antibodies against MTB antigen. Pleural samples after decontamination were treated with proteinase K. Rapid test for pleural fluids was prepared by specific antibody. Rapid test was performed on 85 pleural fluid patients. The patients had a mean age of 46.55 ± 15.96 years and 38 were men. The performance of rapid test, using proteinase K, was found to be the most impressive: sensitivity 93%, specificity 94%, PPV 90%, and NPV 96% compared with adenosine deaminase test (ADA), PCR, smear, and culture. The present study did demonstrate that modified TB rapid test can substantially improve the diagnosis of extrapulmonary TB. © 2015 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Rapid Response in Psychological Treatments for Binge-Eating Disorder

    PubMed Central

    Hilbert, Anja; Hildebrandt, Thomas; Agras, W. Stewart; Wilfley, Denise E.; Wilson, G. Terence

    2015-01-01

    Objective Analysis of short- and long-term effects of rapid response across three different treatments for binge-eating disorder (BED). Method In a randomized clinical study comparing interpersonal psychotherapy (IPT), cognitive-behavioral guided self-help (CBTgsh), and behavioral weight loss (BWL) treatment in 205 adults meeting DSM-IV criteria for BED, the predictive value of rapid response, defined as ≥ 70% reduction in binge-eating by week four, was determined for remission from binge-eating and global eating disorder psychopathology at posttreatment, 6-, 12-, 18-, and 24-month follow-up. Results Rapid responders in CBTgsh, but not in IPT or BWL, showed significantly greater rates of remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders, which was sustained over the long term. Rapid and non-rapid responders in IPT and rapid responders in CBTgsh showed a greater remission from binge-eating than non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and BWL. Rapid responders in CBTgsh showed greater remission from binge-eating than rapid responders in BWL. Although rapid responders in all treatments had lower global eating disorder psychopathology than non-rapid responders in the short term, rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT were more improved than those in BWL and non-rapid responders in each treatment. Rapid responders in BWL did not differ from non-rapid responders in CBTgsh and IPT. Conclusions Rapid response is a treatment-specific positive prognostic indicator of sustained remission from binge-eating in CBTgsh. Regarding an evidence-based stepped care model, IPT, equally efficacious for rapid and non-rapid responders, could be investigated as a second-line treatment in case of non-rapid response to first-line CBTgsh. PMID:25867446

  14. Rapid response manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1998-02-10

    US industry is fighting to maintain its competitive edge in the global market place. Markets fluctuate rapidly. Companies have to be able to respond quickly with improved, high quality, cost efficient products. Because companies and their suppliers are geographically distributed, rapid product realization is dependent on the development of a secure integrated concurrent engineering environment operating across multiple business entities. The way products are developed and brought to market can be improved and made more efficient through the proper incorporation of emerging technologies implemented in a secure environment. This documents the work done under this CRADA to develop capabilities, which permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process. Lockheed Martin Energy Systems (LMES), through a CRADA with the National Center for Manufacturing Sciences (NCMS), worked within a consortium of major industrial firms--Ford, General Motors, Texas Instruments, United Technologies, and Eastman Kodak--and several small suppliers of advanced manufacturing technology--MacNeal-Schwendler Corp., Teknowledge Corp., Cimplex Corp., Concentra, Spatial Technology, and Structural Dynamics Research Corp. (SDRC)--to create infrastructure to support the development and implementation of secure engineering environments for Rapid Response Manufacturing. The major accomplishment achieved under this CRADA was the demonstration of a prototypical implementation of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined parts in a secure NWC compliant environment. Specifically, methods needed to permit the effective application, incorporation, and use of advanced technologies in a secure environment to facilitate the product realization process were developed and demonstrated. An important aspect of this demonstration was

  15. Global Landslides on Rapidly Spinning Spheroids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scheeres, Daniel J.; Sanchez, P.

    2013-10-01

    The angle of repose and conditions for global landslides on the surfaces of small, rapidly spinning, spheroidal asteroids are studied. Applying techniques of soil mechanics, we develop a theory for, and examples of, how regolith will fail and flow in this microgravity environment. Our motivation is to develop an understanding of the "top-shaped" class of asteroids based on analytical soil mechanics. Our analysis transforms the entire asteroid surface into a local frame where we can model it as a conventional granular pile with a surface slope, acceleration and height variations as a function of the body's spin rate, shape and density. A general finding is that the lowest point on a rapidly spinning spheroid is at the equator with the effective height of surface material monotonically increasing towards the polar regions, where the height can be larger than the physical radius of the body. We study the failure conditions of both cohesionless and cohesive regolith, and develop specific predictions of the surface profile as a function of the regolith angle of friction and the maximum spin rate experienced by the body. The theory also provides simple guidelines on what the shape may look like, although we do not analyze gravitationally self-consistent evolution of the body shape. The theory is tested with soft-sphere discrete element method granular mechanics simulations to better understand the dynamical aspects of global asteroid landslides. We find significant differences between failure conditions for cohesive and cohesionless regolith. In the case of cohesive regolith, we show that extremely small values of strength (much less than that found in lunar regolith) can stabilize a surface even at very rapid spin rates. Cohesionless surfaces, as expected, fail whenever their surface slopes exceed the angle of friction. Based on our analysis we propose that global landslides and the flow of material towards the equator on spheroidal bodies are precipitated by exogenous

  16. Rapid Prototyping of Patterned Multifunctional Nanostructures

    SciTech Connect

    FAN,HONGYOU; LU,YUNFENG; LOPEZ,GABRIEL P.; BRINKER,C. JEFFREY

    2000-07-18

    The ability to engineer ordered arrays of objects on multiple length scales has potential for applications such as microelectronics, sensors, wave guides, and photonic lattices with tunable band gaps. Since the invention of surfactant templated mesoporous sieves in 1992, great progress has been made in controlling different mesophases in the form of powders, particles, fibers, and films. To date, although there have been several reports of patterned mesostructures, materials prepared have been limited to metal oxides with no specific functionality. For many of the envisioned applications of hierarchical materials in micro-systems, sensors, waveguides, photonics, and electronics, it is necessary to define both form and function on several length scales. In addition, the patterning strategies utilized so far require hours or even days for completion. Such slow processes are inherently difficult to implement in commercial environments. The authors present a series of new methods of producing patterns within seconds. Combining sol-gel chemistry, Evaporation-Induced Self-Assembly (EISA), and rapid prototyping techniques like pen lithography, ink-jet printing, and dip-coating on micro-contact printed substrates, they form hierarchically organized silica structures that exhibit order and function on multiple scales: on the molecular scale, functional organic moieties are positioned on pore surfaces, on the mesoscale, mono-sized pores are organized into 1-, 2-, or 3-dimensional networks, providing size-selective accessibility from the gas or liquid phase, and on the macroscale, 2-dimensional arrays and fluidic or photonic systems may be defined. These rapid patterning techniques establish for the first time a link between computer-aided design and rapid processing of self-assembled nanostructures.

  17. Microfluidic gene arrays for rapid genomic profiling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    West, Jay A.; Hukari, Kyle W.; Hux, Gary A.; Shepodd, Timothy J.

    2004-12-01

    Genomic analysis tools have recently become an indispensable tool for the evaluation of gene expression in a variety of experiment protocols. Two of the main drawbacks to this technology are the labor and time intensive process for sample preparation and the relatively long times required for target/probe hybridization. In order to overcome these two technological barriers we have developed a microfluidic chip to perform on chip sample purification and labeling, integrated with a high density genearray. Sample purification was performed using a porous polymer monolithic material functionalized with an oligo dT nucleotide sequence for the isolation of high purity mRNA. These purified mRNA"s can then rapidly labeled using a covalent fluorescent molecule which forms a selective covalent bond at the N7 position of guanine residues. These labeled mRNA"s can then released from the polymer monolith to allow for direct hybridization with oligonucletide probes deposited in microfluidic channel. To allow for rapid target/probe hybridization high density microarray were printed in microchannels. The channels can accommodate array densities as high as 4000 probes. When oligonucleotide deposition is complete, these channels are sealed using a polymer film which forms a pressure tight seal to allow sample reagent flow to the arrayed probes. This process will allow for real time target to probe hybridization monitoring using a top mounted CCD fiber bundle combination. Using this process we have been able to perform a multi-step sample preparation to labeled target/probe hybridization in less than 30 minutes. These results demonstrate the capability to perform rapid genomic screening on a high density microfluidic microarray of oligonucleotides.

  18. Rapid Spontaneously Resolving Acute Subdural Hematoma.

    PubMed

    Gan, Qi; Zhao, Hexiang; Zhang, Hanmei; You, Chao

    2017-01-18

    This study reports a rare patient of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma. In addition, an analysis of potential clues for the phenomenon is presented with a review of the literature. A 1-year-and-2-month-old boy fell from a height of approximately 2 m. The patient was in a superficial coma with a Glasgow Coma Scale of 8 when he was transferred to the authors' hospital. Computed tomography revealed the presence of an acute subdural hematoma with a midline shift beyond 1 cm. His guardians refused invasive interventions and chose conservative treatment. Repeat imaging after 15 hours showed the evident resolution of the hematoma and midline reversion. Progressive magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated the complete resolution of the hematoma, without redistribution to a remote site. Even though this phenomenon has a low incidence, the probability of a rapid spontaneously resolving acute subdural hematoma should be considered when patients present with the following characteristics: children or elderly individuals suffering from mild to moderate head trauma; stable or rapidly recovered consciousness; and simple acute subdural hematoma with a moderate thickness and a particularly low-density band in computed tomography scans.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 License, where it is permissible to download and share the work provided it is properly cited. The work cannot be changed in any way or used commercially. http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0.

  19. Rapid approximate inversion of airborne TEM

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fullagar, Peter K.; Pears, Glenn A.; Reid, James E.; Schaa, Ralf

    2015-11-01

    Rapid interpretation of large airborne transient electromagnetic (ATEM) datasets is highly desirable for timely decision-making in exploration. Full solution 3D inversion of entire airborne electromagnetic (AEM) surveys is often still not feasible on current day PCs. Therefore, two algorithms to perform rapid approximate 3D interpretation of AEM have been developed. The loss of rigour may be of little consequence if the objective of the AEM survey is regional reconnaissance. Data coverage is often quasi-2D rather than truly 3D in such cases, belying the need for `exact' 3D inversion. Incorporation of geological constraints reduces the non-uniqueness of 3D AEM inversion. Integrated interpretation can be achieved most readily when inversion is applied to a geological model, attributed with lithology as well as conductivity. Geological models also offer several practical advantages over pure property models during inversion. In particular, they permit adjustment of geological boundaries. In addition, optimal conductivities can be determined for homogeneous units. Both algorithms described here can operate on geological models; however, they can also perform `unconstrained' inversion if the geological context is unknown. VPem1D performs 1D inversion at each ATEM data location above a 3D model. Interpretation of cover thickness is a natural application; this is illustrated via application to Spectrem data from central Australia. VPem3D performs 3D inversion on time-integrated (resistive limit) data. Conversion to resistive limits delivers a massive increase in speed since the TEM inverse problem reduces to a quasi-magnetic problem. The time evolution of the decay is lost during the conversion, but the information can be largely recovered by constructing a starting model from conductivity depth images (CDIs) or 1D inversions combined with geological constraints if available. The efficacy of the approach is demonstrated on Spectrem data from Brazil. Both separately and in

  20. Rapid River Hatchery - Spring Chinook, Final Report

    SciTech Connect

    Watson, M.

    1996-05-01

    This report presents the findings of the independent audit of the Rapid River Hatchery (Spring Chinook). The hatchery is located in the lower Snake River basin near Riggins Idaho. The hatchery is used for adult collection, egg incubation, and rearing of spring chinook. The audit was conducted in April 1996 as part of a two-year effort that will include 67 hatcheries and satellite facilities located on the Columbia and Snake River system in Idaho, Oregon, and Washington. The hatchery operating agencies include the US Fish and Wildlife Service, Idaho Department of Fish and Game, Oregon Department of Fish and Wildlife, and Washington Department of Fish and Wildlife.

  1. CFD Script for Rapid TPS Damage Assessment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McCloud, Peter

    2013-01-01

    This grid generation script creates unstructured CFD grids for rapid thermal protection system (TPS) damage aeroheating assessments. The existing manual solution is cumbersome, open to errors, and slow. The invention takes a large-scale geometry grid and its large-scale CFD solution, and creates a unstructured patch grid that models the TPS damage. The flow field boundary condition for the patch grid is then interpolated from the large-scale CFD solution. It speeds up the generation of CFD grids and solutions in the modeling of TPS damages and their aeroheating assessment. This process was successfully utilized during STS-134.

  2. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess.

    PubMed

    Aycan, Abdurrahman; Aktas, Ozgür Yusuf; Guzey, Feyza Karagoz; Tufan, Azmi; Isler, Cihan; Aycan, Nur; Gulsen, İsmail; Arslan, Harun

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation.

  3. Rapidly Progressive Spontaneous Spinal Epidural Abscess

    PubMed Central

    Aktas, Ozgür Yusuf; Guzey, Feyza Karagoz; Tufan, Azmi; Isler, Cihan; Aycan, Nur; Gulsen, İsmail

    2016-01-01

    Spinal epidural abscess (SEA) is a rare disease which is often rapidly progressive. Delayed diagnosis of SEA may lead to serious complications and the clinical findings of SEA are generally nonspecific. Paraspinal abscess should be considered in the presence of local low back tenderness, redness, and pain with fever, particularly in children. In case of delayed diagnosis and treatment, SEA may spread to the epidural space and may cause neurological deficits. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) remains the method of choice in the diagnosis of SEA. Treatment of SEA often consists of both medical and surgical therapy including drainage with percutaneous entry, corpectomy, and instrumentation. PMID:27688918

  4. [Rapid antibiotic susceptibility test in Clinical Microbiology].

    PubMed

    March Rosselló, Gabriel Alberto; Bratos Pérez, Miguel Ángel

    2016-01-01

    The most widely used antibiotic susceptibility testing methods in Clinical Microbiology are based on the phenotypic detection of antibiotic resistance by measuring bacterial growth in the presence of the antibiotic being tested. These conventional methods take typically 24hours to obtain results. A review is presented here of recently developed techniques for the rapid determination of antibiotic susceptibility. Data obtained with different methods such as molecular techniques, flow cytometry, chemiluminescence, mass spectrometry, commercial methods used in routine work, colorimetric methods, nephelometry, microarrays, microfluids, and methods based on cell disruption and sequencing, are analyzed and discussed in detail.

  5. Creative education for rapid response team implementation.

    PubMed

    Johnson, Amy L

    2009-01-01

    The Institute for Healthcare Improvement advocates implementation of rapid response teams (RRTs) to bring experts to the bedside to assist with patient assessment and treatment. Due to shrinking budgets and limited resources, initiating new programs and policies can be challenging in the health care environment. This article highlights a creative approach that a community hospital used to provide staff education during the RRT implementation process. This education plan includes a review of learning considerations, creation of a video, and other strategies that could be used by staff development educators for a variety of other topics.

  6. Rapidly solidified titanium alloys by melt overflow

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gaspar, Thomas A.; Bruce, Thomas J., Jr.; Hackman, Lloyd E.; Brasmer, Susan E.; Dantzig, Jonathan A.; Baeslack, William A., III

    1989-01-01

    A pilot plant scale furnace was designed and constructed for casting titanium alloy strips. The furnace combines plasma arc skull melting techniques with melt overflow rapid solidification technology. A mathematical model of the melting and casting process was developed. The furnace cast strip of a suitable length and width for use with honeycomb structures. Titanium alloys Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-14Al-21 Nb were successfully cast into strips. The strips were evaluated by optical metallography, microhardness measurements, chemical analysis, and cold rolling.

  7. Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM). Final CRADA report

    SciTech Connect

    Cain, W.D.; Waddell, W.L.

    1997-08-28

    A major accomplishment of the Rapid Response Manufacturing (RRM) project was the development of a broad-based generic framework for automating and integrating the design-to-manufacturing activities associated with machined part products. Key components of the framework are a manufacturing model that integrates product and process data in a consistent, minimally redundant manner, an advanced computer-aided engineering working environment, knowledge-based software systems for design, process planning, and manufacturing and new production technologies for making products directly from design application software.

  8. Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis after immunotherapy for cancer.

    PubMed

    Parker, M G; Atkins, M B; Ucci, A A; Levey, A S

    1995-04-01

    Cytokines have been used in experimental and standard protocols for immune enhancement for cancer. The combination of interleukin-2 and interferon-alpha 2 beta has been used in experimental protocols for metastatic renal cell carcinoma. A man who developed rapidly progressive renal failure after receiving this combination therapy is reported. A renal biopsy revealed a pauci-immune crescentic glomerulonephritis. Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies and antiglomerular basement membrane antibodies were absent. The spectrum of renal disease and potentially related extrarenal manifestations associated with interleukin-2 and inteferon-alpha are reviewed. A pathogenesis of altered cell-mediated immunity, consistent with abnormalities in extrarenal organs after immune enhancement, is proposed.

  9. Achievement of Bevalac rapid mode switching

    SciTech Connect

    Lothrop, F.; Stevenson, R.; Miller, R.; Alonso, J.

    1985-05-01

    Rapid changes of ion, intensity, beam line, and output energy between two modes have been achieved. The techniques for switching among the Bevalac's several injectors are described. Energy level limits at the output (for q/A = 1/2) are 470 to 2100 MeV/n (high power) or 50 to 1050 MeV/n (low power). Depending on specific field value differences, the total time required for a mode change is less than one minute. This mode of operation greatly improves program efficiency in interleaving medical and nuclear science programs at the Bevalac.

  10. Rapid diagnosis of sexually transmitted infections.

    PubMed

    Otero-Guerra, Luis; Fernández-Blázquez, Ana; Vazquez, Fernando

    2017-02-23

    Sexually transmitted infections (STIs) are responsible for an enormous burden of morbidity and mortality. Worldwide, millions of cases of STIs, such as syphilis, chlamydia, or gonorrhoea occur every year, and there is now an increase in antimicrobial resistance in pathogens, such as gonococcus. Delay in diagnosis is one of the factors that justifies the difficulty in controlling these infections. Rapid diagnostic tests allow the introduction of aetiological treatment at the first visit, and also leads to treating symptomatic and asymptomatic patients more effectively, as well as to interrupt the epidemiological transmission chain without delay. The World Health Organisation includes these tests in its global strategy against STIs.

  11. The rapid disability rating scale-2.

    PubMed

    Linn, M W; Linn, B S

    1982-06-01

    A revised version of the Rapid Disability Rating Scale (RDRS-2) is presented. Item definitions have been sharpened and directions expanded to indicate that ratings are based upon the patient's performance in regard to behavior, and that prosthesis normally used by the patient should be included in the assessment. Three items have been added to increase the breadth of the scale. Response items have been changed from three-point to four-point ratings in order to increase group discrimination amd make the scale more sensitive to changes in treatment. The new appraisals of reliability, factor structure, and validity are reported, along with the potential uses of the scale.

  12. Air Duster abuse causing rapid airway compromise.

    PubMed

    Winston, Amanda; Kanzy, Abed; Bachuwa, Ghassan

    2015-01-07

    Inhalant abuse is potentially life-threatening and has resulted in many complications such as central nervous system depression, cardiac dysrhythmia and hypoxia. Inhalant abuse causing angioedema is rarely reported in the medical literature. In this report we present a case of rapidly progressive airway compromise following recreational huffing. Our patient required intubation and intensive care unit admission with complete recovery after 5 days. The aetiology of airway compromise is postulated to be due to commonly reported frost bite injury and rarely reported angioedema. To the best of our knowledge this the second case reporting angioedema secondary to huffing Air Duster. 2015 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Vega is a Rapidly Rotating Star

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-04-13

    2006 Nature Publishing Group Vega is a rapidly rotating star D. M. Peterson1, C. A. Hummel2,3, T. A. Pauls4, J. T. Armstrong4, J. A. Benson5, G...C. Gilbreath4, R. B. Hindsley4, D. J. Hutter5, K. J. Johnston3, D. Mozurkewich6 & H. R. Schmitt4,7 Vega, the second brightest star in the northern...problems: the star is too bright compared to its peers3 and it has unusually shaped absorption line profiles, leading some4,5 to suggest that it is a

  14. Preliminary Component Integration Utilizing Rapid Prototyping Techniques

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cooper, K.; Salvail, P.

    2001-01-01

    One of the most costly errors committed during the development of an element to be used in the space industry is the lack of communication between design and manufacturing engineers. A very important tool that should be utilized in the development stages by both design and manufacturing disciplines is rapid prototyping. Communication levels are intensified with the injection of functional models that are generated from a drawing. At the Marshall Space Flight Center, this discipline is utilized on a more frequent basis as a manner by which hardware may be tested for design and material compatibility.

  15. PAGER - Rapid Assessment of an Earthquake's Impact

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Earle, Paul S.; Wald, David J.

    2007-01-01

    PAGER (Prompt Assessment of Global Earthquakes for Response) is an automated system to rapidly assess the number of people and regions exposed to severe shaking by an earthquake, and inform emergency responders, government agencies, and the media to the scope of the potential disaster. PAGER monitors the U.S. Geological Survey?s near real-time U.S. and global earthquake detections and automatically identifies events that are of societal importance, well in advance of ground-truth or news accounts.

  16. RAPID DAMAGE ASSESSMENT FROM HIGH RESOLUTION IMAGERY

    SciTech Connect

    Vijayaraj, Veeraraghavan; Bright, Eddie A; Bhaduri, Budhendra L

    2008-01-01

    Disaster impact modeling and analysis uses huge volumes of image data that are produced immediately following a natural or an anthropogenic disaster event. Rapid damage assessment is the key to time critical decision support in disaster management to better utilize available response resources and accelerate recovery and relief efforts. But exploiting huge volumes of high resolution image data for identifying damaged areas with robust consistency in near real time is a challenging task. In this paper, we present an automated image analysis technique to identify areas of structural damage from high resolution optical satellite data using features based on image content.

  17. Energy-beam-driven rapid fabrication system

    DOEpatents

    Keicher, David M.; Atwood, Clinton L.; Greene, Donald L.; Griffith, Michelle L.; Harwell, Lane D.; Jeantette, Francisco P.; Romero, Joseph A.; Schanwald, Lee P.; Schmale, David T.

    2002-01-01

    An energy beam driven rapid fabrication system, in which an energy beam strikes a growth surface to form a molten puddle thereon. Feed powder is then injected into the molten puddle from a converging flow of feed powder. A portion of the feed powder becomes incorporated into the molten puddle, forcing some of the puddle contents to freeze on the growth surface, thereby adding an additional layer of material. By scanning the energy beam and the converging flow of feed powder across the growth surface, complex three-dimensional shapes can be formed, ready or nearly ready for use. Nearly any class of material can be fabricated using this system.

  18. Articulatory events are imitated under rapid shadowing

    PubMed Central

    Honorof, Douglas N.; Weihing, Jeffrey; Fowler, Carol A.

    2013-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that rapid shadowers imitate the articulatory gestures that structure acoustic speech signals—not just acoustic patterns in the signals themselves—overcoming highly practiced motor routines and phonological conditioning in the process. In a first experiment, acoustic evidence indicated that participants reproduced allophonic differences between American English /l/ types (light and dark) in the absence of the positional variation cues more typically present with lateral allophony. However, imitative effects were small. In a second experiment, varieties of /l/ with exaggerated light/dark differences were presented by ear. Acoustic measures indicated that all participants reproduced differences between /l/ types; larger average imitative effects obtained. Finally, we examined evidence for imitation in articulation. Participants ranged in behavior from one who did not imitate to another who reproduced distinctions among light laterals, dark laterals and /w/, but displayed a slight but inconsistent tendency toward enhancing imitation of lingual gestures through a slight lip protrusion. Overall, results indicated that most rapid shadowers need not substitute familiar allophones as they imitate reorganized gestural constellations even in the absence of explicit instruction to imitate, but that the extent of the imitation is small. Implications for theories of speech perception are discussed. PMID:23418398

  19. Rapid Diagnosis of Leptospirosis by Multiplex PCR

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, Siti Aminah; Sandai, Doblin Anak; Musa, Suzana; Hoe, Chee Hock; Riadzi, Mehdi; Lau, Kwok Leong; Tang, Thean Hock

    2012-01-01

    Background: Traditionally, the most common diagnostic approach used for diagnosing leptospirosis was the demonstration of immune-seroconversion in acute and convalescent patient serum samples. Recently, a variety of molecular techniques, including conventional and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR), have been developed for the specific detection of pathogenic bacteria from the genus Leptospira. PCR is a sensitive, specific, and rapid technique that has been successfully used to detect several microorganisms; including those of clinical significance. Methods: In this study, we developed a multiplex PCR (mPCR) assay for detecting Leptospira’s DNA. The mPCR assay detects both the 16S rRNA gene and the major outer membrane lipoprotein gene, which is known as LipL32. Representative serovars were tested from 10 species of Leptospira and 23 other species of bacteria. Results: A positive result was obtained from all leptospiral serovars. The amplification sensitivity for the multiplex assay was 21.8 pg and 1 × 103 leptospires/ml. This mPCR assay has the potential to facilitate a rapid and sensitive diagnosis for acute leptospirosis. Conclusion: The mPCR assay developed in this study can be used for the early detection of leptospirosis. The LipL32 gene could also serve as another target to aid in the efficient detection of leptospiral infection because using 2 sets of primers in mPCR increases the sensitivity and specificity of the test. PMID:23610544

  20. Rapid Quantitative Pharmacodynamic Imaging with Bayesian Estimation

    PubMed Central

    Koller, Jonathan M.; Vachon, M. Jonathan; Bretthorst, G. Larry; Black, Kevin J.

    2016-01-01

    We recently described rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging, a novel method for estimating sensitivity of a biological system to a drug. We tested its accuracy in simulated biological signals with varying receptor sensitivity and varying levels of random noise, and presented initial proof-of-concept data from functional MRI (fMRI) studies in primate brain. However, the initial simulation testing used a simple iterative approach to estimate pharmacokinetic-pharmacodynamic (PKPD) parameters, an approach that was computationally efficient but returned parameters only from a small, discrete set of values chosen a priori. Here we revisit the simulation testing using a Bayesian method to estimate the PKPD parameters. This improved accuracy compared to our previous method, and noise without intentional signal was never interpreted as signal. We also reanalyze the fMRI proof-of-concept data. The success with the simulated data, and with the limited fMRI data, is a necessary first step toward further testing of rapid quantitative pharmacodynamic imaging. PMID:27092045