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Sample records for rapidly destructive coxarthrosis

  1. [Coxarthrosis--an update].

    PubMed

    Imhof, H; Nöbauer-Huhmann, I; Trattnig, S

    2009-05-01

    Degenerative osteoarthritis of the hip joint (coxarthrosis) is the most common disease of the hip joint in adults. The diagnosis is based on a combination of radiographic findings and characteristic clinical symptoms. The lack of a radiographic consensus definition has seemingly resulted in a variation of the published incidences and prevalence of degenerative osteoarthritis of the hip joint. The chronological sequence of degeneration includes the following basic symptoms on conventional radiographs and CT: joint space narrowing, development of osteophytes, subchondral demineralisation/sclerosis and cyst formation, as well as loose bodies, joint malalignment and deformity. MR imaging allows additional visualization of early symptoms and/or activity signs such as cartilage edema, cartilage tears and defects, subchondral bone marrow edema, synovial edema and thickening, joint effusion and muscle atrophy.The scientific dispute concerns the significance of (minimal) joint malalignment (e.g. impingement, dysplasia etc.) and forms of malpositioning which as possible prearthrosis have a high probability of leading to degenerative osteoarthritis. Moreover, without any question, the preservation of joint containment and gender differences are important additional basic diagnostic principles, which have gained great interest in recent years.In research different MR procedures such as Na and H spectroscopy, T2*-mapping etc. with ultrahigh field MR allow cartilage metabolism and its changes in early degenerative osteoarthritis ("biochemical imaging") to be studied. There is no doubt that even in a few years new profound knowledge is to be expected in this field.

  2. [Rapidly destructive hip disease with resultant iliopectineal bursitis].

    PubMed

    Luning, H A; Koster, M N; Coene, L N

    2003-06-28

    A man aged 72 years developed complete destruction of his right hip joint within 12 weeks: 'rapidly destructive hip disease' (RDHD). Analysis of weight loss also revealed iliopectineal bursitis. Nine months after total hip arthroplasty, the patient was free of complaints and the bursitis had disappeared. The cause of RDHD is unclear. Associations have been made with osteonecrosis, chondrocalcinosis and arthropathies of other joints. The destruction of the acetabulum and the femoral head can lead to hydrops in the hip joint and, via a communication between the joint and the iliopectineal bursa, to inflammation of the bursa. This combination of diagnoses has not been described before.

  3. Rapid, non-destructive coral paleothermometry by synchrotron XR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tangri, N.; Mehta, A.; Marks, R.; Dunbar, R. B.

    2016-12-01

    We present advances in the use of synchrotron x-ray fluorescence (XRF) to recover climate signals from coral exoskeleton. Corals record sea surface temperature (SST), salinity, and other environmental conditions in the density and composition of their exoskeletons; in particular, SST is reflected in both the Sr/Ca ratio and the annual density banding. Synchrotron XRF has previously been used to examine the fine-scaled variability of Sr concentrations in the exoskeleton structure, but has not yet yielded any long-term SST reconstructions. Modern XRF techniques allow the detection of sub-ppm trace element concentrations and appear ideally suited to long climate reconstructions, as they are non-destructive, high-resolution (250 um) and potentially quite rapid ( 40 years of sample in 24 hours of instrument time). The low Sr content of the coral and its low change in concentration require a high brightness synchrotron source to generate a high signal-to-background ratio. However, difficulties arise from the local heterogeneity of Sr that is unrelated to environmental conditions. These variations of biological origin in Sr concentrations often mask the smaller-amplitude, annual and interannual SST signals. The challenge is to normalize the local variability in order to extract the climate signal. Other techniques have normalized against Ca, but in XRF the Ca signal is sensitive to only the surface 50 um of material, whereas the Sr signal comes from 1mm, so the values are not comparable. Instead, we normalize against density as calculated from beam transmission. We also explore the use of Rb normalization to filter out collection artifacts. Both Sr and Rb show strong annual signals and interesting departures from the density signal. Finally, we pair the XRF results with δ18O measurements to recover a convincing record of SST variation. Although challenges remain, we believe that synchrotron XRF techniques hold considerable promise to rapidly and accurately recover

  4. [Features of biochemical changes in blood serum according to the form of progression of idiopathic and dysplastic coxarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Gaĭko, G V; Magomedov, A M; Kalashnikov, A V; Kuzub, T A; Polishchuk, L V

    2013-01-01

    Carried out biochemical studies of blood serum (collagenase activity, glycosamineglicans and hydroxyproline fractions) of 72 patients with hip idiopathic osteoarthrosis and 30 patients with dysplastic osteoarthrosis of the iv-th stage in.accordance with J. H. Kellgren and J. S. Lavrence depending on the form of pathologic process progression. It has been proved that both with idiopathic and dysplastic coxartrosis metabolism of basic protein of osteochonrous tissue was broken both in catabolic and in synthetic phase of this process. The most deep changes 1 of biochemical values (collagenase, free and proteinbinded hydroxyprolines, the content of glycosamines) have been observed with rapid form of course progression of idiopathic and dysplastic coxarthrosis. Definite appropriateness promotesin.patients better understanding of coxarthrosis pathogenese, development of diagnostic and medical measures for patients with this severe orthopedic pathology.

  5. Rapid destruction of organic chemicals in groundwater using sunlight

    SciTech Connect

    Tyner, C.E.; Haslund, C.A.; Pacheco, J.E.; Holmes, J.T.

    1989-01-01

    We are currently investigating a solar-driven photocatalytic process that promises to destroy low concentrations of hazardous organic molecules in large volumes of contaminated groundwater or industrial waste streams. Preliminary results of laboratory-scale screening tests using a model compound, salicylic acid, and titanium dioxide catalyst have shown that no measurable reaction occurs without both uv light and catalyst; no measurable volatilization of the salicylic acid occurs at room temperature; salicylic acid destruction rates depend on catalyst supplier and concentration and on uv light intensity; and some intermediates are being formed and subsequently destroyed. Observed reaction rates are consistent with those observed in an initial pilot-scale solar test of a falling-film reactor, although further testing will be required to quantify the comparison. 10 refs., 5 figs.

  6. Bilateral rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint resulting from subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Takuaki; Schneider, Robert; Iwamoto, Yukihide; Bullough, Peter G

    2010-02-01

    A 57-year-old woman suffered rapid destruction of both hip joints over a 10 months period. At the first visit, her radiographs demonstrated slight joint space narrowing and acetabular cyst formation in both hips. Five months later, joint space narrowing had further progressed, and intra-articular injection of steroid was given in both hips. However, the hip pain gradually became worse. Five months later, both joint spaces had totally disappeared and both femoral heads had undergone massive collapse. At gross examination, both resected femoral heads showed extensive opaque yellow areas consistent with osteonecrosis. Microscopic examination of these areas revealed evidence of both extensive fracture and callus formation, as well as necrosis throughout, indicating that the osteonecrosis observed in this case was a secondary phenomenon superimposed on pre-existing osteoarthritis and subchondral fracture. There were many pseudogranulomatous lesions in the marrow space and necrotic area, where tiny fragments of bone and articular cartilage, surrounded by histiocytes and giant cells, were embedded, such as are typically seen in rapidly destructive arthrosis. No radiologic or morphologic evidence of primary osteonecrosis was noted. This case indicates that at least some cases of rapidly destructive arthritis are the result of subchondral fracture with superimposed secondary osteonecrosis.

  7. Inversion of the acetabular labrum triggers rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip: representative case report and proposed etiology.

    PubMed

    Fukui, Kiyokazu; Kaneuji, Ayumi; Fukushima, Mana; Matsumoto, Tadami

    2014-12-01

    The pathophysiology of rapidly destructive osteoarthritis (OA) of the hip is unknown. This study documented cases of inversion of the acetabular labrum, which has clinicoradiologic features similar to those of initial-stage rapidly destructive hip OA. Our study was based on a prospective review of data for 9 patients with rapidly destructive hip OA. Intraoperative findings showed that the anterosuperior portion of the acetabular labrum had inverted into the articular space, along with many fragments of articular cartilage, in all patients. Subchondral insufficiency fractures of the femoral heads were seen just under the inverted labra in 8 of the 9 patients. Inversion of the acetabular labrum may be involved in rapid joint-space narrowing and subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive hip OA.

  8. Rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint in a young adult with systemic lupus erythematosus.

    PubMed

    Lee, Yongseung; Motomura, Goro; Yamamoto, Takuaki; Nakashima, Yasuharu; Ohishi, Masanobu; Hamai, Satoshi; Iura, Kunio; Iwamoto, Yukihide

    2015-10-01

    A 37-year-old female had been treated with corticosteroids for systemic lupus erythematosus clinically diagnosed at age 10. She suddenly had right hip pain without any antecedent trauma. Four months after the onset of pain, she visited her primary care physician. On magnetic resonance imaging, joint space narrowing at the weight-bearing area was already seen with bone marrow edematous lesions in both the femoral head and acetabulum. She was treated non-operatively; however, her pain continued to worsen in severity. Thirteen months after the onset of pain, she was referred to our hospital. A plain radiograph showed subluxation of the collapsed femoral head accompanied by destruction of the acetabular rim. Because of her severe intractable pain, she underwent total hip arthroplasty 1 month after her first visit. Histological examination of the resected femoral head revealed pseudogranulomatous lesions along with prominent callus formation, suggesting rapid destruction of the femoral head.

  9. A rapid non-destructive method for root dentin moisture measurements

    PubMed Central

    Komabayashi, Takashi; Zhu, Qiang; Jiang, Jin; Safavi, Kamran E.; Spångberg, Larz S.W.

    2009-01-01

    Dentin moisture content is important in adhesive bonding and structural strength research. However, there is no rapid method available to assess dentin moisture without sample destruction. This study examined the use of a digital grain moisture meter to measure root dentin moisture in vitro. Extracted mandibular single rooted teeth were sectioned at the CEJ. The moisture of the root dentin was measured at six measuring modes for different grains and repeated five times. Dentin weight changes before and after drying were measured to obtain control values. The control values were compared with machine readings. In conclusion, (1) Each non-destructive measurement took less than 30 seconds. (2) 24 hours storage at 37°C and 100 % humidity did not restore dentin moisture. (3) Five grain modes had a high validity, and could be used for dentin moisture measurements. PMID:19157921

  10. Rapid non-destructive assessment of pork edible quality by using VIS/NIR spectroscopic technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Leilei; Peng, Yankun; Dhakal, Sagar; Song, Yulin; Zhao, Juan; Zhao, Songwei

    2013-05-01

    The objectives of this research were to develop a rapid non-destructive method to evaluate the edible quality of chilled pork. A total of 42 samples were packed in seal plastic bags and stored at 4°C for 1 to 21 days. Reflectance spectra were collected from visible/near-infrared spectroscopy system in the range of 400nm to 1100nm. Microbiological, physicochemical and organoleptic characteristics such as the total viable counts (TVC), total volatile basic-nitrogen (TVB-N), pH value and color parameters L* were determined to appraise pork edible quality. Savitzky-Golay (SG) based on five and eleven smoothing points, Multiple Scattering Correlation (MSC) and first derivative pre-processing methods were employed to eliminate the spectra noise. The support vector machines (SVM) and partial least square regression (PLSR) were applied to establish prediction models using the de-noised spectra. A linear correlation was developed between the VIS/NIR spectroscopy and parameters such as TVC, TVB-N, pH and color parameter L* indexes, which could gain prediction results with Rv of 0.931, 0.844, 0.805 and 0.852, respectively. The results demonstrated that VIS/NIR spectroscopy technique combined with SVM possesses a powerful assessment capability. It can provide a potential tool for detecting pork edible quality rapidly and non-destructively.

  11. [Dynamics of hip joint biomechanics in patients with coxarthrosis at the time of hippotherapy].

    PubMed

    Nareklishvili, T M

    2008-02-01

    The problems of degenerative-dystrophic abnormalities stimulate the development of new skills and methods of treatment and rehabilitation of the diseases. The goal of the study was to determine the efficacy of hippotherapy in patients with coxarthrosis, according to functional and biomechanical parameters. Hippotherapy involves the utilization of horseback riding to stimulate the patient's normal reactions and locomotion; to improve the balance and coordination of movement, normalize muscle tension, and eliminate pathological reflexes. The advantage of the hippotherapy is in the specific posture, which is adopted by hip joint at the time of riding and in movement, which is accomplished by rider, at different paces of the horse. 10 female patients from 14 to 32 years old with coxarthrosis were under the observation. The rehabilitation of the patients was carried out by means of hippotherapy, which consisted of three months riding three times a week. To evaluate the efficacy of treatment, a new method of biomechanical registration of hip joint movement during hippotherapy on pacing horse was developed. The dynamics of biomechanical curves before and after the treatment, as well as the clinical and functional parameters of the patients allowed the authors to conclude: hippotherapy improves a hip joint functional state in patients with coxarthrosis; improves the muscle-tendineous component of hip joint movement. Hippotherapy may be considered as the pathogenetic method of treatment of coxarthrosis. Drawing the biomechanical curve of hip joint movement at the time of riding is the objective method of studying its function.

  12. Monitoring fungal growth on brown rice grains using rapid and non-destructive hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Siripatrawan, U; Makino, Y

    2015-04-16

    This research aimed to develop a rapid, non-destructive, and accurate method based on hyperspectral imaging (HSI) for monitoring spoilage fungal growth on stored brown rice. Brown rice was inoculated with a non-pathogenic strain of Aspergillus oryzae and stored at 30 °C and 85% RH. Growth of A. oryzae on rice was monitored using viable colony counts, expressed as colony forming units per gram (CFU/g). The fungal development was observed using scanning electron microscopy. The HSI system was used to acquire reflectance images of the samples covering the visible and near-infrared (NIR) wavelength range of 400-1000 nm. Unsupervised self-organizing map (SOM) was used to visualize data classification of different levels of fungal infection. Partial least squares (PLS) regression was used to predict fungal growth on rice grains from the HSI reflectance spectra. The HSI spectral signals decreased with increasing colony counts, while conserving similar spectral pattern during the fungal growth. When integrated with SOM, the proposed HSI method could be used to classify rice samples with different levels of fungal infection without sample manipulation. Moreover, HSI was able to rapidly identify infected rice although the samples showed no symptoms of fungal infection. Based on PLS regression, the coefficient of determination was 0.97 and root mean square error of prediction was 0.39 log (CFU/g), demonstrating that the HSI technique was effective for prediction of fungal infection in rice grains. The ability of HSI to detect fungal infection at early stage would help to prevent contaminated rice grains from entering the food chain. This research provides scientific information on the rapid, non-destructive, and effective fungal detection system for rice grains. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness

    PubMed Central

    Das, Anshuman J.; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-01-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner. PMID:27606927

  14. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness.

    PubMed

    Das, Anshuman J; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-09-08

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner.

  15. Ultra-portable, wireless smartphone spectrometer for rapid, non-destructive testing of fruit ripeness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Das, Anshuman J.; Wahi, Akshat; Kothari, Ishan; Raskar, Ramesh

    2016-09-01

    We demonstrate a smartphone based spectrometer design that is standalone and supported on a wireless platform. The device is inherently low-cost and the power consumption is minimal making it portable to carry out a range of studies in the field. All essential components of the device like the light source, spectrometer, filters, microcontroller and wireless circuits have been assembled in a housing of dimensions 88 mm × 37 mm × 22 mm and the entire device weighs 48 g. The resolution of the spectrometer is 15 nm, delivering accurate and repeatable measurements. The device has a dedicated app interface on the smartphone to communicate, receive, plot and analyze spectral data. The performance of the smartphone spectrometer is comparable to existing bench-top spectrometers in terms of stability and wavelength resolution. Validations of the device were carried out by demonstrating non-destructive ripeness testing in fruit samples. Ultra-Violet (UV) fluorescence from Chlorophyll present in the skin was measured across various apple varieties during the ripening process and correlated with destructive firmness tests. A satisfactory agreement was observed between ripeness and fluorescence signals. This demonstration is a step towards possible consumer, bio-sensing and diagnostic applications that can be carried out in a rapid manner.

  16. Development of vibrational spectroscopic methods to rapidly and non-destructively assess quality of chicken breast meat

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Development of Vibrational Spectroscopic Methods to Rapidly and Non-Destructively Assess Quality of Chicken Breast Meat H. Zhuang1, M. Sohn2, S. Trabelsi1 and K. Lawrence1 1Quality and Safety Assessment Research Unit, ARS-USDA, 950 College Station Road, Athens, GA 30605 2University of Georgia, De...

  17. Direct, non-destructive, and rapid evaluation of developmental cotton fibers by ATR FT-IR spectroscopy

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Chemical, compositional, and structural differences within the fibers at different growth stages have been investigated considerably through a number of methodologies. Due to its direct, non-destructive, and rapid attribute, this study reports the utilization of attenuated total reflection Fourier t...

  18. Rapid and non-destructive identification of water-injected beef samples using multispectral imaging analysis.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jinxia; Cao, Yue; Wang, Qiu; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Liu, Changhong; Chen, Wei; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2016-01-01

    Water-injected beef has aroused public concern as a major food-safety issue in meat products. In the study, the potential of multispectral imaging analysis in the visible and near-infrared (405-970 nm) regions was evaluated for identifying water-injected beef. A multispectral vision system was used to acquire images of beef injected with up to 21% content of water, and partial least squares regression (PLSR) algorithm was employed to establish prediction model, leading to quantitative estimations of actual water increase with a correlation coefficient (r) of 0.923. Subsequently, an optimized model was achieved by integrating spectral data with feature information extracted from ordinary RGB data, yielding better predictions (r = 0.946). Moreover, the prediction equation was transferred to each pixel within the images for visualizing the distribution of actual water increase. These results demonstrate the capability of multispectral imaging technology as a rapid and non-destructive tool for the identification of water-injected beef.

  19. Non-Destructive and rapid evaluation of staple foods quality by using spectroscopic techniques: A review.

    PubMed

    Su, Wen-Hao; He, Hong-Ju; Sun, Da-Wen

    2017-03-24

    Staple foods, including cereals, legumes, and root/tuber crops, dominate the daily diet of humans by providing valuable proteins, starch, oils, minerals, and vitamins. Quality evaluation of staple foods is primarily carried out on sensory (e.g. external defect, color), adulteration (e.g. species, origin), chemical (e.g. starch, proteins), mycotoxin (e.g. Fusarium toxin, aflatoxin), parasitic infection (e.g. weevil, beetle), and internal physiological (e.g. hollow heart, black heart) aspects. Conventional methods for the quality assessment of staple foods are always laborious, destructive, and time-consuming. Requirements for online monitoring of staple foods have been proposed to encourage the development of rapid, reagentless, and noninvasive techniques. Spectroscopic techniques, such as visible-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy, and spectral imaging, have been introduced as promising analytical tools and applied for the quality evaluation of staple foods. This review summarizes the recent applications and progress of such spectroscopic techniques in determining various qualities of staple foods. Besides, challenges and future trends of these spectroscopic techniques are also presented.

  20. [Dynamic Hip Screw Osteosynthesis for Proximal Femoral Fractures in Patients with Coxarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Hrubina, M; Skoták, M; Letocha, J

    2015-01-01

    Evaluation of a group of patients with coxarthrosis who sustained fractures of the proximal femur and were treated by dynamic hip screw (DHS) osteosynthesis. The group comprised 23 DHS osteosyntheses in 22 patients treated between the years 1997 and 2012. The indication to osteosynthesis in all 23 cases was a stable pertrochanteric fracture of the femur; all patients had grade III or grade IV coxarthrosis (assessed on the Kellgren & Lawrence scale) and their physical health was classified as ASA 3 or 4. Preventive antibiotic therapy was administered within 48 hours of surgery. The evaluated factors included operative time, blood loss, specific complications such as infection, osteosynthetic material fractiure or osteosynthesis failure, requirement of revision surgery, post-operative mobility and patient survival. The follow-up was 2 years. The operative time was 35 min to 85 min (average, 49 min); blood losses ranged from 50 ml to 450 ml (average, 189 ml). Of the 23 hips, infectious complication was found in one (4.3%) and osteosynthetic material fractiure also in one (4.3%). There was no necessity of revision surgery due to osteosynthesis failure, nor any conversion to total hip arthroplasty. Postoperative mobility (with use of walking aids or forearm crutches) was achieved in 17 (77.3%) patients. The average survival of the patients was 6.3 months, the range from 7 days to 3 years. DHS osteosynthesis is a reliable method for the treatment of proximal femoral fractures due to osteoporosis. These fractures in patients with coxarthosis are primarily indicated to total hip arthroplasty. However, this is questionable in polymorbid elderly patients in whom hip replacement carries high risk. In such patients DHS osteosynthesis is preferred as a less risky procedure. DHS osteosynthesis is indicated for stable pertrochanteric fractures of the femur in a limited number of patients with advanced coxarthrosis in whom total hip replacement would be associated with an undue

  1. [Forces acting on foot soles during stair climbing in healthy probands and in patients with coxarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Savvidis, E; von der Decken, C B

    1999-04-01

    We investigated the contact forces acting on the sole of the foot of healthy persons and coxarthrosis patients climbing and descending stairs. The sole contact forces were determined using an experimental set-up comprising a stair construction provided with an integrated measuring step. In healthy subjects, the forces acting on the soles of the feet while climbing stairs were found to be 1.2 times their body weight. With regard to descending stairs, a distinction must be made between "hard" and "soft" walkers. In the case of "hard" walkers, the forces acting on the soles may be as much as 2.6 times body weight. These forces can be reduced by the wearing of shock-absorbing shoes. In coxarthrosis and prostheses-bearing patients, all movements are executed more slowly when climbing or descending stairs, so that only small dynamic forces arise. The greatest loads are about 1.2 times the patient's own weight. In these patients, an effective reduction by shockabsorbing footwear is not possible.

  2. Comparison of two treatments for coxarthrosis: local hyperthermia versus radio electric asymmetrical brain stimulation

    PubMed Central

    Castagna, Alessandro; Rinaldi, Salvatore; Fontani, Vania; Mannu, Piero; Margotti, Matteo Lotti

    2011-01-01

    Background: It is well known that psychological components are very important in the aging process and may also manifest in psychogenic movement disorders, such as coxarthrosis. This study analyzed the medical records of two similar groups of patients with coxarthrosis (n = 15 in each) who were treated in two different clinics for rehabilitation therapy. Methods: Patients in Group A were treated with a course of traditional physiotherapy, including sessions of local hyperthermia. Group B patients were treated with only a course of radioelectric asymmetrical brain stimulation (REAC) to improve their motor behavior. Results: Group A showed a significant decrease in symptoms of pain and stiffness, and an insignificant improvement in range of motion and muscle bulk. A single patient in this group developed worsened symptoms, and pain did not resolve completely in any patient. The patients in Group B had significantly decreased levels of pain and stiffness, and a significant improvement in range of motion and muscle bulk. No patients worsened in Group B, and the pain resolved completely in one patient. Conclusion: Both treatments were shown to be tolerable and safe. Patients who underwent REAC treatment appeared to have slightly better outcomes, with an appreciable improvement in both their physical and mental states. These aspects are particularly important in the elderly, in whom functional limitation is often associated with or exacerbated by a psychogenic component. PMID:21822376

  3. Litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose and non-linear dynamics stochastic resonance model.

    PubMed

    Ying, Xiaoguo; Liu, Wei; Hui, Guohua

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, litchi freshness rapid non-destructive evaluating method using electronic nose (e-nose) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) was proposed. EN responses to litchi samples were continuously detected for 6 d Principal component analysis (PCA) and non-linear stochastic resonance (SR) methods were utilized to analyze EN detection data. PCA method could not totally discriminate litchi samples, while SR signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) eigen spectrum successfully discriminated all litchi samples. Litchi freshness predictive model developed using SNR eigen values shows high predictive accuracy with regression coefficients R(2) = 0 .99396.

  4. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive assessment of meat quality using hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2016-05-01

    Meat is an important food item in human diet. Its production and consumption has greatly increased in the last decades with the development of economies and improvement of peoples' living standards. However, most of the traditional methods for evaluation of meat quality are time-consuming, laborious, inconsistent and destructive to samples, which make them not appropriate for a fast-paced production and processing environment. Development of innovative and non-destructive optical sensing techniques to facilitate simple, fast, and accurate evaluation of quality are attracting increasing attention in the food industry. Hyperspectral imaging is one of the promising techniques. It integrates the combined merits of imaging and spectroscopic techniques. This paper provides a comprehensive review on recent advances in evaluation of the important quality attributes of meat including color, marbling, tenderness, pH, water holding capacity, and also chemical composition attributes such as moisture content, protein content and fat content in pork, beef and lamb. In addition, the future potential applications and trends of hyperspectral imaging are also discussed in this paper.

  5. Rapid and non-destructive assessment of polyunsaturated fatty acids contents in Salmon using near-infrared hyperspectral imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tao, Feifei; Mba, Ogan; Liu, Li; Ngadi, Michael

    2017-04-01

    Polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs) are important nutrients present in Salmon. However, current methods for quantifying the fatty acids (FAs) contents in foods are generally based on gas chromatography (GC) technique, which is time-consuming, laborious and destructive to the tested samples. Therefore, the capability of near-infrared (NIR) hyperspectral imaging to predict the PUFAs contents of C20:2 n-6, C20:3 n-6, C20:5 n-3, C22:5 n-3 and C22:6 n-3 in Salmon fillets in a rapid and non-destructive way was investigated in this work. Mean reflectance spectra were first extracted from the region of interests (ROIs), and then the spectral pre-processing methods of 2nd derivative and Savitzky-Golay (SG) smoothing were performed on the original spectra. Based on the original and the pre-processed spectra, PLSR technique was employed to develop the quantitative models for predicting each PUFA content in Salmon fillets. The results showed that for all the studied PUFAs, the quantitative models developed using the pre-processed reflectance spectra by "2nd derivative + SG smoothing" could improve their modeling results. Good prediction results were achieved with RP and RMSEP of 0.91 and 0.75 mg/g dry weight, 0.86 and 1.44 mg/g dry weight, 0.82 and 3.01 mg/g dry weight for C20:3 n-6, C22:5 n-3 and C20:5 n-3, respectively after pre-processing by "2nd derivative + SG smoothing". The work demonstrated that NIR hyperspectral imaging could be a useful tool for rapid and non-destructive determination of the PUFA contents in fish fillets.

  6. Rapid, non-destructive evaluation of ultrathin WSe2 using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Eichfeld, Chad M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hossain, Lorraine; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    The utilization of tungsten diselenide (WSe2) in electronic and optoelectronic devices depends on the ability to understand and control the process-property relationship during synthesis. We demonstrate that spectroscopic ellipsometry is an excellent technique for accurate, non-destructive determination of ultra-thin (<30 nm) WSe2 properties. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were found to be independent of thickness down to 1.3 nm, and were used to determine film thickness, which was confirmed to be within 9% of values found via atomic force microscopy. Finally, the optical bandgap was found to closely correlate with thickness, ranging from 1.2 to 1.55 eV as the WSe2 is thinned to the equivalent of 2 atomic layers.

  7. Rapid, non-destructive evaluation of ultrathin WSe{sub 2} using spectroscopic ellipsometry

    SciTech Connect

    Eichfeld, Sarah M.; Lin, Yu-Chuan; Hossain, Lorraine; Eichfeld, Chad M.; Robinson, Joshua A.

    2014-09-01

    The utilization of tungsten diselenide (WSe{sub 2}) in electronic and optoelectronic devices depends on the ability to understand and control the process-property relationship during synthesis. We demonstrate that spectroscopic ellipsometry is an excellent technique for accurate, non-destructive determination of ultra-thin (<30 nm) WSe{sub 2} properties. The refractive index (n) and extinction coefficient (k) were found to be independent of thickness down to 1.3 nm, and were used to determine film thickness, which was confirmed to be within 9% of values found via atomic force microscopy. Finally, the optical bandgap was found to closely correlate with thickness, ranging from 1.2 to 1.55 eV as the WSe{sub 2} is thinned to the equivalent of 2 atomic layers.

  8. A rapid and non-destructive screenable marker, FAST, for identifying transformed seeds of Arabidopsis thaliana.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Takashi L; Shimada, Tomoo; Hara-Nishimura, Ikuko

    2010-02-01

    The creation of transgenic plants has contributed extensively to the advancement of plant science. Establishing homozygous transgenic lines is time-consuming and laborious, and using antibiotics or herbicides to select transformed plants may adversely affect the growth of some transgenic plants. Here we describe a novel technology, which we have named FAST (fluorescence-accumulating seed technology), that overcomes these difficulties. Although this technology was designed for use in Arabidopsis thaliana, it may be adapted for use in other plants. The technology is based on the expression of a fluorescent co-dominant screenable marker FAST, under the control of a seed-specific promoter, on the oil body membrane. The FAST marker harbors a fusion gene encoding either GFP or RFP with an oil body membrane protein that is prominent in seeds. The marker protein was only expressed in a specific organ (i.e. in dry seeds) and at a specific time (i.e. during dormancy), which are desirable features of selectable and/or screenable markers. This technique provides an immediate and non-destructive method for identifying transformed dry seeds. It identified the heterozygous transformed seeds among the T(1) population and the homozygous seeds among the T(2) population with a false-discovery rate of <1%. The FAST marker reduces the length of time required to produce homozygous transgenic lines from 7.5 to 4 months. Furthermore, it does not require sterilization, clean-bench protocols or the handling of large numbers of plants. This technology should greatly facilitate the generation of transgenic Arabidopsis plants.

  9. Recent advances in rapid and non-destructive determination of fat content and fatty acids composition of muscle foods.

    PubMed

    Tao, Feifei; Ngadi, Michael

    2017-01-24

    Conventional methods for determining fat content and fatty acids (FAs) composition are generally based on the solvent extraction and gas chromatography techniques, respectively, which are time-consuming, laborious, destructive to samples and require use of hazard solvents. These disadvantages make them impossible for large-scale detection or being applied to the production line of meat factories. In this context, the great necessity of developing rapid and non-destructive techniques for fat and FAs analyses has been highlighted. Measurement techniques based on near-infrared spectroscopy, Raman spectroscopy, nuclear magnetic resonance and hyperspectral imaging have provided interesting and promising results for fat and FAs prediction in varieties of foods. Thus, the goal of this article is to give an overview of the current research progress in application of the four important techniques for fat and FAs analyses of muscle foods, which consist of pork, beef, lamb, chicken meat, fish and fish oil. The measurement techniques are described in terms of their working principles, features and application advantages. Research advances for these techniques for specific food are summarized in detail and the factors influencing their modeling results are discussed. Perspectives on the current situation, future trends and challenges associated with the measurement techniques are also discussed.

  10. A new procedure for marinating fresh anchovies and ensuring the rapid destruction of Anisakis larvae.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Monsalvez, I; de Armas-Serra, C; Martínez, J; Dorado, M; Sánchez, A; Rodríguez-Caabeiro, F

    2005-05-01

    The consumption of marinated anchovies is the main route of transmission of anisakiasis in Spain. Because this country is one of the world's major tourist destinations, this traditional food also poses a potential health risk to millions of foreign visitors. Anisakis larvae are not destroyed by the traditional marinating procedure, and alternative methods, such as long-term storage in brine, freezing, or hydrostatic pressure treatment, all present major difficulties. In this study, we used high food-grade acetic acid concentrations (10, 20, 30, and 40% [vol/vol] in line with the quantum satis rule) to destroy these larvae rapidly, and we report data on the survival of Anisakis larvae exposed directly to different marinades and when the larvae are placed under the fish musculature. The percentage of salt and acetic acid in the fish tissue water phase was also determined. A marinating procedure is proposed that ensures the rapid death of Anisakis through the use of strong acetic acid concentrations. Posttreatment washes with water reduce these to levels acceptable to consumers. The sensory characteristics of the product were shown to be satisfactory. The actual selection of an acetic acid concentration for marinating depends on costs and the processing time available. The physiological stress of the larvae exposed to the different marinades was determined by measuring the levels of their stress proteins. The latter are good indicators of injury and might reflect the infectivity of larvae. In addition, we also used a rat model to determine the infectivity of larvae considered microscopically dead.

  11. An Automated System for Rapid Non-Destructive Enumeration of Growing Microbes

    PubMed Central

    London, Roanna; Schwedock, Julie; Sage, Andrew; Valley, Heather; Meadows, Jamie; Waddington, Michael; Straus, Don

    2010-01-01

    Background The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. Principal Findings We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5×106 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. Conclusion This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods. PMID:20062794

  12. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

    PubMed

    London, Roanna; Schwedock, Julie; Sage, Andrew; Valley, Heather; Meadows, Jamie; Waddington, Michael; Straus, Don

    2010-01-07

    The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6) cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  13. Non-destructive and rapid prediction of moisture content in red pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) powder using near-infrared spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression model

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Purpose: The aim of this study was to develop a technique for the non-destructive and rapid prediction of the moisture content in red pepper powder using near-infrared (NIR) spectroscopy and a partial least squares regression (PLSR) model. Methods: Three red pepper powder products were separated in...

  14. Towards development of a rapid and effective non-destructive testing strategy to identify brominated flame retardants in the plastics of consumer products.

    PubMed

    Gallen, Christie; Banks, Andrew; Brandsma, Sicco; Baduel, Christine; Thai, Phong; Eaglesham, Geoff; Heffernan, Amy; Leonards, Pim; Bainton, Paul; Mueller, Jochen F

    2014-09-01

    Polybrominated diphenyl ethers (PBDEs) are a class of brominated flame retardants (BFRs) once extensively used in the plastics of a wide range of consumer products. The listing of certain congeners that are constituents of commercial PBDE mixtures (including c-octaBDE) in the Stockholm Convention and tightening regulation of many other BFRs in recent years have created the need for a rapid and effective method of identifying BFR-containing plastics. A three-tiered testing strategy comparing results from non-destructive testing (X-ray fluorescence (XRF)) (n=1714), a surface wipe test (n=137) and destructive chemical analysis (n=48) was undertaken to systematically identify BFRs in a wide range of consumer products. XRF rapidly identified bromine in 92% of products later confirmed to contain BFRs. Surface wipes of products identified tetrabromobisphenol A (TBBPA), c-octaBDE congeners and BDE-209 with relatively high accuracy (>75%) when confirmed by destructive chemical analysis. A relationship between the amounts of BFRs detected in surface wipes and subsequent destructive testing shows promise in predicting not only the types of BFRs present but also estimating the concentrations present. Information about the types of products that may contain persistent BFRs will assist regulators in implementing policies to further reduce the occurrence of these chemicals in consumer products. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Rapid, non-destructive carbon analysis of forest soils using neutron-induced gamma-ray spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, L.; Mitra, S.; Yanai, R. D.; Levine, C. R.; Vadeboncoeur, M. A.

    2010-08-01

    Forest soils are pivotal to understanding global carbon (C) cycling and evaluating policies for mitigating global change. However, they are very difficult to monitor because of the heterogeneity of soil characteristics, the difficulty of representative sampling, and the slow time scale of response to environmental change. Here we demonstrate that use of gamma-ray spectroscopy facilitates in situ non-destructive analysis of C and other elements in forest soils. In this approach the element-specific gamma-rays are induced by fast and thermal neutrons interacting with the nuclei of the elements present in the soil. Background gamma-rays emanating from naturally occurring radionuclides in the forest are recorded as well. We applied this approach in a mature northern hardwood forest on glacial till soils at the Bartlett Experimental Forest in New Hampshire, USA. The inelastic neutron scattering (INS) system yielded strong signals in gamma-ray counts/h, from C and other elements present in the soil matrix that included silicon, oxygen, hydrogen, iron, aluminum, manganese and potassium. The INS sensitivity for carbon was 20.656 counts h{sup -1} kg{sup -1} C m{sup -2} based on current net C gamma-ray counts and the data for the O horizon and mineral soil to a depth of 30 cm obtained from a nearby quantitative soil pit (7.35 kg C m{sup -2}). We estimate the minimum detectable change to be {approx}0.34 kg C m{sup -2}, which is {approx}5% of the current soil C content, and the minimum detectable limit to be {approx}0.23 kg C m{sup -1}. Eight % reproducibility from 11 measurements was limited, in part, by the large variability in the system counting geometry due to the uneven forest microtopography. The INS approach has the potential to revolutionize belowground monitoring of C and other elements, because the possibility of detecting a 5% change in forest soils has not been possible with destructive sampling methods.

  16. Microwave dielectric method for the rapid, non-destructive determination of bulk density and moisture content of peanut hull pellets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    A dielectric-based method was used to determine rapidly and nondestructively moisture content and bulk density of peanut-hull pellets from free-space measurement of their dielectric properties at microwave frequencies. For moisture content determination, a permittivity-based function which allows mo...

  17. Analysis of body fluids for forensic purposes: from laboratory testing to non-destructive rapid confirmatory identification at a crime scene.

    PubMed

    Virkler, Kelly; Lednev, Igor K

    2009-07-01

    Body fluid traces recovered at crime scenes are among the most important types of evidence to forensic investigators. They contain valuable DNA evidence which can identify a suspect or victim as well as exonerate an innocent individual. The first step of identifying a particular body fluid is highly important since the nature of the fluid is itself very informative to the investigation, and the destructive nature of a screening test must be considered when only a small amount of material is available. The ability to characterize an unknown stain at the scene of the crime without having to wait for results from a laboratory is another very critical step in the development of forensic body fluid analysis. Driven by the importance for forensic applications, body fluid identification methods have been extensively developed in recent years. The systematic analysis of these new developments is vital for forensic investigators to be continuously educated on possible superior techniques. Significant advances in laser technology and the development of novel light detectors have dramatically improved spectroscopic methods for molecular characterization over the last decade. The application of this novel biospectroscopy for forensic purposes opens new and exciting opportunities for the development of on-field, non-destructive, confirmatory methods for body fluid identification at a crime scene. In addition, the biospectroscopy methods are universally applicable to all body fluids unlike the majority of current techniques which are valid for individual fluids only. This article analyzes the current methods being used to identify body fluid stains including blood, semen, saliva, vaginal fluid, urine, and sweat, and also focuses on new techniques that have been developed in the last 5-6 years. In addition, the potential of new biospectroscopic techniques based on Raman and fluorescence spectroscopy is evaluated for rapid, confirmatory, non-destructive identification of a body

  18. Rapid and non-destructive analysis of metallic dental restorations using X-ray fluorescence spectra and light-element sampling tools

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Furuhashi, K.; Uo, M.; Kitagawa, Y.; Watari, F.

    2012-12-01

    IntroductionRecently, allergic diseases caused by dental metals have been increasing. Therefore, rapid and accurate analytical methods for the metal restorations in the oral cavities of patients are required. The purpose of this study was to develop a non-destructive extraction method for dental alloys, along with a subsequent, rapid and accurate elemental analysis. Materials and methodSamples were obtained by polishing the surfaces of metal restorations using a dental rotating tool with disposable buffs and polishing pastes. As materials for the analysis, three dental alloys were used. To compare the sampling and analysis efficiencies, two buffs and seven pastes were used. After polishing the surface of a metal restoration, the buff was analyzed using X-ray scanning analytical microscopy (XSAM). ResultsThe efficiency of the analysis was judged based on the sampling rate achieved and the absence of disturbing elements in the background in fluorescence X-ray spectra. The best results were obtained for the combination of TexMet as a buff with diamond as a paste. This combination produced a good collection efficiency and a plain background in the fluorescence X-ray spectra, resulting in a high precision of the analysis.

  19. A bcl-2 transgene expressed in hepatocytes protects mice from fulminant liver destruction but not from rapid death induced by anti-Fas antibody injection

    PubMed Central

    1996-01-01

    Stimulation of the Fas (APO-1, CD95) receptor, which is present on a variety of cells, usually triggers a process of programmed cell death. Systemic injection of anti-Fas antibody into mice leads to fulminant liver destruction resulting from massive hepatocyte apoptosis, and to rapid death. Hepatocytes bear Fas but do not express Bcl-2, a protein that plays, in a number of conditions, a protective role against apoptosis. We have generated mice whose liver expresses Bcl-2 as the result of bcl-2 transgene placed under the control of the hepatocyte- specific alpha1-anti-trypsin gene promoter, but is otherwise not distinguishable from that of normal mice. These mice display a marked to almost total resistance to liver damage induced by anti-Fas antibody injection. This protective effect of Bcl-2 occurs in the absence of significant variations, in the stimulated livers, in the level of expression of other proteins also involved in resistance or sensitivity to apoptosis, namely Bcl-x, Bax, Bad, Bak, and p53. Mice with protected livers, however, die almost as rapidly as normal mice, which indicates that acute lethality results from stimulation of Fas receptors present on other target organs or cells. PMID:8642244

  20. Contrast-Enhanced CT Facilitates Rapid, Non-Destructive Assessment of Cartilage and Bone Properties of the Human Metacarpal

    PubMed Central

    Lakin, Benjamin A.; Ellis, Daniel J.; Shelofsky, Joshua S.; Freedman, Jonathan D.; Grinstaff, Mark W.; Snyder, Brian D.

    2016-01-01

    Objective The aim of this work is to establish the human metacarpal as a new whole joint surface early-stage osteoarthritis (OA) model that enables comparisons of articular cartilage and subchondral bone through high resolution contrast-enhanced CT (CECT) imaging, mechanical testing, and biochemical analysis. Design The 4th metacarpal was obtained from 12 human cadaveric donors and baseline μCT imaging was followed by indentation testing. The samples were then immersed in anionic (Ioxaglate) and cationic (CA4+) iodinated contrast agent solutions followed by CECT. Cartilage GAG content and distribution was measured using the 1,9 dimethylmethylene blue (DMMB) assay and Safranin-O histology staining. Linear regression was performed to compare cartilage and subchondral bone properties. Results Strong and significant positive correlations were observed between CA4+ CECT attenuation and both GAG content (R2=0.86) and equilibrium modulus (R2=0.84), while correlations using Ioxaglate were insignificant (R2≤0.24, p>0.05). Subchondral bone plate (SBP) thickness negatively and significantly correlated with SBP mineral density (R2=0.49). Cartilage GAG content significantly correlated with several trabecular bone properties, including positive correlations with bone volume fraction (%BV/TV, R2=0.67), trabecular number (Tb.N, R2=0.60), and trabecular thickness (R2=0.42), and negative relationships with structural model index (SMI, R2=0.78) and trabecular spacing (Tb.Sp, R2=0.56). Similarly, equilibrium modulus correlated positively with %BV/TV (R2=0.50), Tb.N (R2=0.59) and negatively with Tb.Sp (R2=0.55) and SMI (R2=0.60). Conclusion This study establishes the human metacarpal as a new early-stage OA model suitable for rapid, high resolution CECT imaging, mechanical testing, and biochemical analysis of the cartilage and subchondral bone, and for examining their inter-relationships. PMID:26067518

  1. Application of NIRS coupled with PLS regression as a rapid, non-destructive alternative method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Mabood, Fazal; Albroumi, Muhammaed; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Csuk, René; Khan, Abdul Latif; Alam, Tanveer; Alameri, Saif

    2017-09-01

    In the present study, for the first time, NIR spectroscopy coupled with PLS regression as a rapid and alternative method was developed to quantify the amount of Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (KBA) in different plant parts of Boswellia sacra and the resin exudates of the trunk. NIR spectroscopy was used for the measurement of KBA standards and B. sacra samples in absorption mode in the wavelength range from 700-2500 nm. PLS regression model was built from the obtained spectral data using 70% of KBA standards (training set) in the range from 0.1 ppm to 100 ppm. The PLS regression model obtained was having R-square value of 98% with 0.99 corelationship value and having good prediction with RMSEP value 3.2 and correlation of 0.99. It was then used to quantify the amount of KBA in the samples of B. sacra. The results indicated that the MeOH extract of resin has the highest concentration of KBA (0.6%) followed by essential oil (0.1%). However, no KBA was found in the aqueous extract. The MeOH extract of the resin was subjected to column chromatography to get various sub-fractions at different polarity of organic solvents. The sub-fraction at 4% MeOH/CHCl3 (4.1% of KBA) was found to contain the highest percentage of KBA followed by another sub-fraction at 2% MeOH/CHCl3 (2.2% of KBA). The present results also indicated that KBA is only present in the gum-resin of the trunk and not in all parts of the plant. These results were further confirmed through HPLC analysis and therefore it is concluded that NIRS coupled with PLS regression is a rapid and alternate method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra. It is non-destructive, rapid, sensitive and uses simple methods of sample preparation.

  2. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Simple Algorithm Analysis for Rapid and Non-Destructive Assessment of Developmental Cotton Fibers.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yongliang; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-06-22

    With cotton fiber growth or maturation, cellulose content in cotton fibers markedly increases. Traditional chemical methods have been developed to determine cellulose content, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive, mostly owing to the slow hydrolysis process of fiber cellulose components. As one approach, the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy technique has also been utilized to monitor cotton cellulose formation, by implementing various spectral interpretation strategies of both multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and 1-, 2- or 3-band/-variable intensity or intensity ratios. The main objective of this study was to compare the correlations between cellulose content determined by chemical analysis and ATR FT-IR spectral indices acquired by the reported procedures, among developmental Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant cotton fibers. It was observed that the R value, CIIR, and the integrated intensity of the 895 cm(-1) band exhibited strong and linear relationships with cellulose content. The results have demonstrated the suitability and utility of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, combined with a simple algorithm analysis, in assessing cotton fiber cellulose content, maturity, and crystallinity in a manner which is rapid, routine, and non-destructive.

  3. Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR) and Simple Algorithm Analysis for Rapid and Non-Destructive Assessment of Developmental Cotton Fibers

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Yongliang; Kim, Hee-Jin

    2017-01-01

    With cotton fiber growth or maturation, cellulose content in cotton fibers markedly increases. Traditional chemical methods have been developed to determine cellulose content, but it is time-consuming and labor-intensive, mostly owing to the slow hydrolysis process of fiber cellulose components. As one approach, the attenuated total reflection Fourier transform infrared (ATR FT-IR) spectroscopy technique has also been utilized to monitor cotton cellulose formation, by implementing various spectral interpretation strategies of both multivariate principal component analysis (PCA) and 1-, 2- or 3-band/-variable intensity or intensity ratios. The main objective of this study was to compare the correlations between cellulose content determined by chemical analysis and ATR FT-IR spectral indices acquired by the reported procedures, among developmental Texas Marker-1 (TM-1) and immature fiber (im) mutant cotton fibers. It was observed that the R value, CIIR, and the integrated intensity of the 895 cm−1 band exhibited strong and linear relationships with cellulose content. The results have demonstrated the suitability and utility of ATR FT-IR spectroscopy, combined with a simple algorithm analysis, in assessing cotton fiber cellulose content, maturity, and crystallinity in a manner which is rapid, routine, and non-destructive. PMID:28640185

  4. Rapid and non-destructive determination of quality parameters in the 'Tommy Atkins' mango using a novel handheld near infrared spectrometer.

    PubMed

    Marques, Emanuel José Nascimento; de Freitas, Sérgio Tonetto; Pimentel, Maria Fernanda; Pasquini, Celio

    2016-04-15

    The objective of this study was to evaluate the potential of a new handheld ultra-compact near infrared (NIR) spectrometer, based on the linear-variable filter (LVF) technology for rapid and non-destructive quality control analysis of the 'Tommy Atkins' mango. Multivariate calibration models were built using the Partial Least Squares (PLS) regression method to determine soluble solids (SS), dry matter (DM), titratable acidity (TA) and pulp firmness (PF). Different spectral pre-processing techniques were tested. Coefficient of determination and root mean square errors of prediction (RMSEP) values were, respectively: 0.92 and 0.55°Brix for SS, 0.67 and 0.51% for DM, 0.50 and 0.17% citric acid for TA, 0.72 and 12.2N for PF. The predictive models allowed monitoring physico-chemical changes in each fruit during ripening. The results show the feasibility of using the new NIR handheld spectrometer to determine quality parameters in the 'Tommy Atkins' mango.

  5. Application of NIRS coupled with PLS regression as a rapid, non-destructive alternative method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra.

    PubMed

    Al-Harrasi, Ahmed; Rehman, Najeeb Ur; Mabood, Fazal; Albroumi, Muhammaed; Ali, Liaqat; Hussain, Javid; Hussain, Hidayat; Csuk, René; Khan, Abdul Latif; Alam, Tanveer; Alameri, Saif

    2017-09-05

    In the present study, for the first time, NIR spectroscopy coupled with PLS regression as a rapid and alternative method was developed to quantify the amount of Keto-β-Boswellic Acid (KBA) in different plant parts of Boswellia sacra and the resin exudates of the trunk. NIR spectroscopy was used for the measurement of KBA standards and B. sacra samples in absorption mode in the wavelength range from 700-2500nm. PLS regression model was built from the obtained spectral data using 70% of KBA standards (training set) in the range from 0.1ppm to 100ppm. The PLS regression model obtained was having R-square value of 98% with 0.99 corelationship value and having good prediction with RMSEP value 3.2 and correlation of 0.99. It was then used to quantify the amount of KBA in the samples of B. sacra. The results indicated that the MeOH extract of resin has the highest concentration of KBA (0.6%) followed by essential oil (0.1%). However, no KBA was found in the aqueous extract. The MeOH extract of the resin was subjected to column chromatography to get various sub-fractions at different polarity of organic solvents. The sub-fraction at 4% MeOH/CHCl3 (4.1% of KBA) was found to contain the highest percentage of KBA followed by another sub-fraction at 2% MeOH/CHCl3 (2.2% of KBA). The present results also indicated that KBA is only present in the gum-resin of the trunk and not in all parts of the plant. These results were further confirmed through HPLC analysis and therefore it is concluded that NIRS coupled with PLS regression is a rapid and alternate method for quantification of KBA in Boswellia sacra. It is non-destructive, rapid, sensitive and uses simple methods of sample preparation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. A rapid, non-destructive methodology to monitor activity of sulfide-induced corrosion of concrete based on H2S uptake rate.

    PubMed

    Sun, Xiaoyan; Jiang, Guangming; Bond, Philip L; Wells, Tony; Keller, Jurg

    2014-08-01

    Many existing methods to monitor the corrosion of concrete in sewers are either very slow or destructive measurements. To overcome these limitations, a rapid, non-invasive methodology was developed to monitor the sulfide-induced corrosion process on concrete through the measurement of the H2S uptake rates of concrete at various corrosion stages. The H2S uptake rate for a concrete coupon was determined by measuring the gaseous H2S concentrations over time in a temperature- and humidity-controlled gas-tight reactor. The reliability of this method was evaluated by carrying out repeated tests on different concrete coupons previously exposed to 50 ppm of H2S, at 30 °C and 100% relative humidity for over 32 months. The H2S uptake measurements showed good reproducibility. It was also shown that a severely corroded coupon exhibited higher sulfide uptake rates than a less corroded coupon. This could be explained by the corrosion layer in the more corroded coupon having a higher biological sulfide oxidation activity than the less corroded coupon. Additionally, temperature changes had a stronger effect on the uptake rate of the heavily corroded coupon compared to the less corroded coupon. A corrosion rate of 8.9 ± 0.5 mm/year, estimated from the H2S uptake results, agreed well with the corrosion rate observed in real sewers under similar conditions. The method could be applied to investigate important factors affecting sulfide-induced concrete corrosion, particularly temperature, fluctuating gaseous H2S concentrations, oxygen concentrations, surface pH and relative humidity.

  7. Potential of multispectral imaging technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of the microbiological quality of beef filets during aerobic storage.

    PubMed

    Panagou, Efstathios Z; Papadopoulou, Olga; Carstensen, Jens Michael; Nychas, George-John E

    2014-03-17

    The performance of a multispectral imaging system has been evaluated in monitoring aerobically packaged beef filet spoilage at different storage temperatures (0, 4, 8, 12, and 16°C). Spectral data in the visible and short wave near infrared area (405-970nm) were collected from the surface of meat samples and correlated with microbiological data (log counts), for total viable counts (TVCs), Pseudomonas spp., and Brochothrix thermosphacta. Qualitative analysis (PLS-DA) was employed for the discrimination of meat samples in three microbiological quality classes based on the values of total viable counts, namely Class 1 (TVC<5.5log10CFU/g), Class 2 (5.5log10CFU/g7.0log10CFU/g). Furthermore, PLS regression models were developed to provide quantitative estimations of microbial counts during meat storage. In both cases model validation was implemented with independent experiments at intermediate storage temperatures (2 and 10°C) using different batches of meat. Results demonstrated good performance in classifying meat samples with overall correct classification rate for the three quality classes ranging from 91.8% to 80.0% for model calibration and validation, respectively. For quantitative estimation, the calculated regression coefficients between observed and estimated counts ranged within 0.90-0.93 and 0.78-0.86 for model development and validation, respectively, depending on the microorganism. Moreover, the calculated average deviation between observations and estimations was 11.6%, 13.6%, and 16.7% for Pseudomonas spp., B. thermosphacta, and TVC, respectively. The results indicated that multispectral vision technology has significant potential as a rapid and non-destructive technique in assessing the microbiological quality of beef fillets.

  8. Data destruction.

    PubMed

    Bergren, Martha Dewey

    2005-08-01

    School nurses are caretakers of a vast amount of sensitive student and family health information. In schools, older computer hardware that previously stored education records is recycled for less demanding student and employee functions. Sensitive data must be adequately erased before electronic storage devices are reassigned or are discarded. State and federal laws must be considered when permanently destroying personally identifiable student information. To fulfill their ethical and legal responsibilities, school nurses must be aware of record retention and data destruction policies and procedures for both paper and electronic records.

  9. Rapid and Non-destructive Detection and Identification of Two Strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Sikulu-Lord, Maggy T; Maia, Marta F; Milali, Masabho P; Henry, Michael; Mkandawile, Gustav; Kho, Elise A; Wirtz, Robert A; Hugo, Leon E; Dowell, Floyd E; Devine, Gregor J

    2016-06-01

    The release of Wolbachia infected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategies in the near future. We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to simultaneously detect and identify two strains of Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop and wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our aim is to find faster, cheaper alternatives for monitoring those releases than the molecular diagnostic techniques that are currently in use. Our findings indicate that NIRS can differentiate females and males infected with wMelPop from uninfected wild type samples with an accuracy of 96% (N = 299) and 87.5% (N = 377), respectively. Similarly, females and males infected with wMel were differentiated from uninfected wild type samples with accuracies of 92% (N = 352) and 89% (N = 444). NIRS could differentiate wMelPop and wMel transinfected females with an accuracy of 96.6% (N = 442) and males with an accuracy of 84.5% (N = 443). This non-destructive technique is faster than the standard polymerase chain reaction diagnostic techniques. After the purchase of a NIRS spectrometer, the technique requires little sample processing and does not consume any reagents.

  10. Rapid and Non-destructive Detection and Identification of Two Strains of Wolbachia in Aedes aegypti by Near-Infrared Spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Maia, Marta F.; Milali, Masabho P.; Henry, Michael; Mkandawile, Gustav; Kho, Elise A.; Wirtz, Robert A.; Hugo, Leon E.; Dowell, Floyd E.; Devine, Gregor J.

    2016-01-01

    The release of Wolbachia infected mosquitoes is likely to form a key component of disease control strategies in the near future. We investigated the potential of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) to simultaneously detect and identify two strains of Wolbachia pipientis (wMelPop and wMel) in male and female laboratory-reared Aedes aegypti mosquitoes. Our aim is to find faster, cheaper alternatives for monitoring those releases than the molecular diagnostic techniques that are currently in use. Our findings indicate that NIRS can differentiate females and males infected with wMelPop from uninfected wild type samples with an accuracy of 96% (N = 299) and 87.5% (N = 377), respectively. Similarly, females and males infected with wMel were differentiated from uninfected wild type samples with accuracies of 92% (N = 352) and 89% (N = 444). NIRS could differentiate wMelPop and wMel transinfected females with an accuracy of 96.6% (N = 442) and males with an accuracy of 84.5% (N = 443). This non-destructive technique is faster than the standard polymerase chain reaction diagnostic techniques. After the purchase of a NIRS spectrometer, the technique requires little sample processing and does not consume any reagents. PMID:27362709

  11. Accelerating dynamic genetic conservation efforts: Use of FT-IR spectroscopy for the rapid identification of trees resistant to destructive pathogens

    Treesearch

    C. Villari; R.A. Sniezko; L.E. Rodriguez-Saona; P. Bonello

    2017-01-01

    A strong focus on tree germplasm that can resist threats such as non-native insects and pathogens, or a changing climate, is fundamental for successful genetic conservation efforts. However, the unavailability of tools for rapid screening of tree germplasm for resistance to critical pathogens and insect pests is becoming an increasingly serious bottleneck. Here we...

  12. UV / Visible / Near-Infrared Reflectance Models for the Rapid and Non-Destructive Prediction and Classification of Cotton Color and Physical Indices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    High volume instrumentation (HVI), utilized in the cotton industry to determine the qualities and classifications of cotton fibers, is time consuming, and prone to day-to-day and location-to-location variations. UV / visible / NIR spectroscopy, a rapid and easy sampling technique, was investigated a...

  13. Polysaccharide-thickened aqueous fluoride solutions for rapid destruction of the nerve agent VX. Introducing the opportunity for extensive decontamination scenarios.

    PubMed

    Elias, Shlomi; Saphier, Sigal; Columbus, Ishay; Zafrani, Yossi

    2014-01-01

    Among the chemical warfare agents, the extremely toxic nerve agent VX (O-ethyl S-2-(diisopropylamino)ethyl methylphosphonothioate) is a target of high importance in the development of decontamination methods, due to its indefinite persistence on common environmental surfaces. Liquid decontaminants are mostly characterized by high corrosivity, usually offer poor coverage, and tend to flow and accumulate in low areas. Therefore, the development of a noncorrosive decontaminant, sufficiently viscous to resist dripping from the contaminated surface, is necessary. In the present paper we studied different polysaccharides-thickened fluoride aqueous solutions as noncorrosive decontaminants for rapid and efficient VX degradation to the nontoxic product EMPA (ethyl methylphosphonic acid). Polysaccharides are environmentally benign, natural, and inexpensive. Other known decontaminants cannot be thickened by polysaccharides, due to the sensitivity of the latter toward basic or oxidizing agents. We found that the efficiency of VX degradation in these viscous solutions in terms of kinetics and product identity is similar to that of KF aqueous solutions. Guar gum (1.5 wt %) with 4 wt % KF was chosen for further evaluation. The benign nature, rheological properties, adhering capabilities to different surfaces, and decontamination from a porous matrix were examined. This formulation showed promising properties for implementation as a spray decontaminant for common and sensitive environmental surfaces.

  14. Rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in farmed Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar) fillets using visible and near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging.

    PubMed

    He, Hong-Ju; Wu, Di; Sun, Da-Wen

    2014-08-01

    Drip loss and pH are important indices in quality assessment of salmon products. This work was carried out for rapid and non-destructive determination of drip loss and pH distribution in salmon fillets using near-infrared (Vis-NIR) hyperspectral imaging. Hyperspectral images were acquired for salmon fillet samples and their spectral signatures in the 400-1700nm range were extracted. Partial least square regression (PLSR) was used to correlate the spectra with reference drip loss and pH values. Important wavelengths were selected using the regression coefficients method to develop new PLSR models, leading to a correlation coefficient of cross-validation (rCV) of 0.834 with root-mean-square errors by cross-validation (RMSECV) of 0.067 for drip loss and a rCV of 0.877 with RMSECV of 0.046 for pH, respectively. Distribution maps of drip loss and pH were generated based on the new PLSR models using image processing algorithms. The results showed that Vis-NIR hyperspectral imaging technique combined with PLSR calibration analysis offers an effective quantitative capability for determining the spatial distribution of drip loss and pH in salmon fillets.

  15. A new rapid and non-destructive method to detect tephra layers and cryptotephras: applying to the first distal tephrostratigraphic record of the Chaîne des Puys volcanic field (France).

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jouannic, Gwénolé; Walter-Simonnet, Anne-Véronique; Bossuet, Gilles; Delabrousse, Eric; Cubizolle, Hervé

    2014-05-01

    Tephrostratigraphy has been considerably developed for 30 years, mainly in palaeo-environmental studies. In such studies, distal tephra layers are important chronological markers, but they are also tools to establish or specify record of past eruptions of a volcanic field. Nowadays, development of effective rapid methods to detect tephra layers in sedimentary records of various compositions is a challenge. Many classic methods for detection of tephra layers, like regular sampling or magnetic susceptibility measurements, have shown their limits. Regular sampling takes a long time, and finding tephra layers remains uncertain. Moreover, magnetic susceptibility maesurements, although it is a non-destructive method, is ineffective when tephra layers are made of volcanic glass shards with differentiated magma composition. X-ray fluorescence (XRF) is also a non-destructive method but it takes a very long time to analyze a core with sufficient high resolution, and measurements only concern the surface of the sediment. We propose a new method allows detection of tephra layers with, for the first time, a 3D resolution: the Computed Tomography Scan (CT- Scan). This method, regularly used in medicine, allows there to obtain pictures of materials density on 3D with inframillimetric measurement ranges. Then, it is possible to detect tephras, cryptotephras (invisible by naked eye), reworked tephra layers even when tephra layers don't outcrop at the surface of the sediment (and are therefore undetectable by usual methods like XRF and magnetic susceptibility). This method has been tried out on tephras sedimented in different types of sediments (silicated, carbonated and organic matter). Our results show that this method is very efficient for peaty environment. Used on coring carried out in Forez Mountains (French Massif Central), CT-Scan allows to detect more tephra layers than usual methods (XRF and magnetic susceptibility). Results presented here allow to build the first

  16. [The effect of verticalization of the resulting force (R) of weight bearing in the hip joint on morphologic characteristics of the medullary canal in the femoral shaft in patients with coxarthrosis].

    PubMed

    Jovanović, S

    1992-01-01

    An influence of verticalization of the resulting force of weight-bearing on the hip joint "R" on the morphological characteristics of the medullar canal on the proximal edge of the shaft of femur was researched. Progressive degenerative changes of the hip joint with a consequent sideways limping or changes of the collodiaphysial angle (ccd angle) were the cause of the verticalization of the resulting force "R". The analysis of patients treated and operated on The Orthopaedic Department of the General Hospital Osijek and The Orthopaedic Clinic of The Medical Faculty of The University of Zagreb. The research, undoubtedly, proved that the patients with coxarthrosis and side-ways in the hip or with changed collodiaphysial angle experienced verticalization of the resulting force of weigh-bearing of the hip joint and the proximal edge of femur which caused morphological changes of the medular canal of the shaft of femur.

  17. Mechanisms of contrast agent destruction.

    PubMed

    Chomas, J E; Dayton, P; Allen, J; Morgan, K; Ferrara, K W

    2001-01-01

    Various applications of contrast-assisted ultrasound, including blood vessel detection, perfusion estimation, and drug delivery, require controlled destruction of contrast agent microbubbles. The lifetime of a bubble depends on properties of the bubble shell, the gas core, and the acoustic waveform impinging on the bubble. Three mechanisms of microbubble destruction are considered: fragmentation, acoustically driven diffusion, and static diffusion. Fragmentation is responsible for rapid destruction of contrast agents on a time scale of microseconds. The primary characteristics of fragmentation are a very large expansion and subsequent contraction, resulting in instability of the bubble. Optical studies using a novel pulsed-laser optical system show the expansion and contraction of ultrasound contrast agent microbubbles with the ratio of maximum diameter to minimum diameter greater than 10. Fragmentation is dependent on the transmission pressure, occurring in over 55% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 2.4 MPa and in less than 10% of bubbles insonified with a peak negative transmission pressure of 0.8 MPa. The echo received from a bubble decorrelates significantly within two pulses when the bubble is fragmented, creating an opportunity for rapid detection of bubbles via a decorrelation-based analysis. Preliminary findings with a mouse tumor model verify the occurrence of fragmentation in vivo. A much slower mechanism of bubble destruction is diffusion, which is driven by both a concentration gradient between the concentration of gas in the bubble compared with the concentration of gas in the liquid, as well as convective effects of motion of the gas-liquid interface. The rate of diffusion increases during insonation, because of acoustically driven diffusion, producing changes in diameter on the time scale of the acoustic pulse length, thus, on the order of microseconds. Gas bubbles diffuse while they are not being insonified, termed

  18. Shock destruction armor system

    DOEpatents

    Froeschner, Kenneth E.

    1993-01-01

    A shock destruction armor system is constructed and arranged to destroy the force of impact of a projectile by shock hydrodynamics. The armor system is designed to comprise a plurality of superimposed armor plates each preferably having a thickness less than five times the projectile's diameter and are preferably separated one-from-another by a distance at least equal to one-half of the projectile's diameter. The armor plates are effective to hydrodynamically and sequentially destroy the projectile. The armor system is particularly adapted for use on various military vehicles, such as tanks, aircraft and ships.

  19. Tank 48 - Chemical Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-01-09

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory-scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents.

  20. Dust Formation and Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wiebe, Dmitry

    Recent infrared and sub-millimeter observations have opened up a new window in dust evolution studies. High angular resolution of Spitzer and Herschel space telescopes from near to far-infrared wavelengths allows observing dust emission in galactic and extragalactic star-forming complexes, covering a broad range of metallicities, radiation field properties, etc. A wide-scale picture of dust evolution starts to arise from these observations. In my contribution I will try to cover major recent advances in studies of dust formation and destruction, including such topics as a diverse role of supernovae in dust evolution, possibility of dust formation and/or growth in molecular clouds, and VSG and PAH evolution in HII regions and complexes.

  1. Shock destruction armor system

    SciTech Connect

    Froeschner, K.E.

    1993-05-25

    A shock destruction armor system mounted in a vertical relationship on an external surface of a vehicle for destroying the force of impact of an incoming projectile having a length, L, equal to an aspect ratio, m, times its diameter, D, said armor system is described comprising: armor plate means, comprising a plurality of substantially vertical super-imposed armor plates secured at only one edge thereof to said vehicle, each of said armor plates having a predetermined thickness and separated one-from another by a predetermined distance, said thickness of each of said armor plates progressively increasing from a frontal armor plate, adapted to receive the force of impact of an incoming projectile, to a last armor plate thereof, said distance between said armor plates progressively increasing from a first distance between said frontal armor plate and its next-following armor plate through a last distance between said last armor plate and its next-preceding armor plate, for hydrodynamically and sequentially at least substantially destroying an incoming projectile impacting a first of said armor plates, and for inducing debris generated from the explosion on an area of impact on the first armor plate to egress from such area prior to impact of such an incoming projectile on the next-following armor plate.

  2. Chlorophyll Destruction by the Bisulfite-Oxygen System 1

    PubMed Central

    Peiser, Galen D.; Yang, Shang Fa

    1977-01-01

    Destruction of chlorophyll, as determined by the loss in absorbance at 665 nm, occurred in two in vitro systems in the presence of bisulfite in 76% ethanol. The first system required light and O2 in addition to bisulfite and exhibited an optimum pH of 4. Chlorophyll functioned as a photosensitizer and there was little chlorophyll destruction occurring above pH 5. With 286 μeinsteins m−2 irradiation, approximately 80% of the chlorophyll was destroyed in three minutes. In the second system, chlorophyll destruction in the presence of bisulfite occurred in the dark and required Mn2+, O2, and glycine. Destruction of chlorophyll in this system was much more rapid than in the light system with approximately 70% destruction occurring in two seconds. In both systems, chlorophyll destruction was linked to bisulfite oxidation. The free radical scavengers hydroquinone, butylated hydroxytoluene, 1,2-dihydroxybenzene-3,5-disulfonic acid, and α-tocopherol were effective in inhibiting the destruction of chlorophyll in both systems. The singlet O2 scavengers, 2,5-dimethylfuran and 1,3-diphenylisobenzofuran, were ineffective inhibitors and β-carotene only slightly effective when tested in the light system. The evidence suggests that in these two systems chlorophyll was destroyed by free radicals, probably superoxide radical, which was produced during the aerobic oxidation of bisulfite. PMID:16660075

  3. Chlorophyll destruction in the presence of bisulfite. [Spinach oleracea

    SciTech Connect

    Peiser, G.; Yang, S.F.

    1985-01-01

    Chlorophyll extracted from Spinacia oleracea leaves as well as purified chlorophyll a in ethanolic solutions (pH 4) was rapidly destroyed, as measured by a decrease in absorbance, in the presence of sodium bisulfite, oxygen and light. Omission of sodium bisulfite, oxygen or light resulted in negligible destruction. The light requirement could be partially substituted by addition of manganous sulfate and destruction was further stimulated in the presence of linoleic acid. Hydroquinone, a free radical scavenger, inhibited both light and Mn/sup 2 +/-mediated (dark) destruction. These results suggest that free radicals produced during the aerobic oxidation of bisulfite are involved in the destruction of chlorophyll. When /sub 35/S-bisulfite was used, two labeled degradation products of chlorophyll were observed.

  4. Flameless thermal destruction of VOCs

    SciTech Connect

    Hohl, H.M.

    1997-04-01

    A new technology controls volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions with high destruction efficiencies. This article describes the technology developed by Thermatrix, Inc. of San Jose, CA. The field proven flameless thermal oxidation (FTO) is capable of destroying over 99.99 percent of a wide range of organic air pollution. Topics covered include FTO technology, high destruction efficiencies, VOCs in wastewater from chemical manufacturing; refinery fugitive emissions.

  5. The use of positive and negative reinforcement in the treatment of escape-maintained destructive behavior.

    PubMed

    Piazza, C C; Fisher, W W; Hanley, G P; Remick, M L; Contrucci, S A; Aitken, T L

    1997-01-01

    We identified 3 clients whose destructive behavior was sensitive to negative reinforcement (break from tasks) and positive reinforcement (access to tangible items, attention, or both). In an instructional context, we then evaluated the effects of reinforcing compliance with one, two, or all of these consequences (a break, tangible items, attention) when destructive behavior produced a break and when it did not (escape extinction). For 2 clients, destructive behavior decreased and compliance increased when compliance produced access to tangible items, even though destructive behavior resulted in a break. For 1 client, extinction was necessary to reduce destructive behavior and to increase compliance. Subsequently, when the schedule of reinforcement for compliance was faded for all clients, destructive behavior was lower and fading proceeded more rapidly when compliance produced multiple functional reinforcers (i.e., a break plus tangible items or attention) and destructive behavior was on extinction. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of relative reinforcement value and extinction on concurrent operants.

  6. Craton destruction and related resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Rixiang; Zhang, Hongfu; Zhu, Guang; Meng, Qingren; Fan, Hongrui; Yang, Jinhui; Wu, Fuyuan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Zheng, Tianyu

    2017-02-01

    Craton destruction is a dynamic event that plays an important role in Earth's evolution. Based on comprehensive observations of many studies on the North China Craton (NCC) and correlations with the evolution histories of other cratons around the world, craton destruction has be defined as a geological process that results in the total loss of craton stability due to changes in the physical and chemical properties of the involved craton. The mechanisms responsible for craton destruction would be as the follows: (1) oceanic plate subduction; (2) rollback and retreat of a subducting oceanic plate; (3) stagnation and dehydration of a subducting plate in the mantle transition zone; (4) melting of the mantle above the mantle transition zone caused by dehydration of a stagnant slab; (5) non-steady flow in the upper mantle induced by melting, and/or (6) changes in the nature of the lithospheric mantle and consequent craton destruction caused by non-steady flow. Oceanic plate subduction itself does not result in craton destruction. For the NCC, it is documented that westward subduction of the paleo-Pacific plate should have initiated at the transition from the Middle-to-Late Jurassic, and resulted in the change of tectonic regime of eastern China. We propose that subduction, rollback and retreat of oceanic plates and dehydration of stagnant slabs are the main dynamic factors responsible for both craton destruction and concentration of mineral deposits, such as gold, in the overriding continental plate. Based on global distribution of gold deposits, we suggest that convergent plate margins are the most important setting for large gold concentrations. Therefore, decratonic gold deposits appear to occur preferentially in regions with oceanic subduction and overlying continental lithospheric destruction/modification/growth.

  7. Nonlinear coherent destruction of tunneling

    SciTech Connect

    Luo Xiaobing; Xie Qiongtao; Wu Biao

    2007-11-15

    We study theoretically two coupled periodically curved optical waveguides with Kerr nonlinearity. We find that the tunneling between the waveguides can be suppressed in a wide range of parameters. This suppression of tunneling is found to be related to the coherent destruction of tunneling in a linear medium, which in contrast occurs only at isolated parameter points. Therefore, we call this suppression nonlinear coherent destruction of tunneling. This localization phenomenon can be observed readily with current experimental capability; it may also be observable in a different physical system, the Bose-Einstein condensate.

  8. Non-destructive determination of maize leaf and canopy chlorophyll content

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The objective of this study was to develop a rapid non-destructive technique to estimate total chlorophyll (Chl) content in a maize canopy using Chl content in a single leaf. The approach was (1) to calibrate and validate a reflectance-based non-destructive technique to estimate leaf Chl in maize; (...

  9. Atlantis Non-destructive Testing

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2003-10-29

    In the Orbiter Processing Facility, the nose cap (foreground) removed from Atlantis (behind) waits to be shipped to the original manufacturing company, Vought in Ft. Worth, Texas, a subsidiary of Lockheed Martin, to undergo non-destructive testing such as CAT scan and thermography.

  10. THE SITE OF ANGIOTONIN DESTRUCTION

    PubMed Central

    Sapirstein, Leo A.; Reed, Racheal K.; Page, Ernest W.

    1946-01-01

    1. Theoretical considerations render it unlikely that the greatest part of the angiotonase found in the organism is available for the destruction of angiotonia. A priori considerations support the view that only plasma angiotonase is involved in angiotonin destruction in vivo. 2. We have utilized the magnitude and duration of the presser response to angiotonin as an index of available angiotonase, and we have found that: (a) Nephrectomy and evisceration are without marked effect on angiotonin response. (b) Hemorrhage and hemodilution without shock cause a striking increase in the response to angiotonin and this appears to be due to removal of the plasma rather than the cells. Shock developing after hemorrhage results in a state of refractoriness to angiotonin. (c) Intact red cells in vitro have no destructive action on angiotonin, but after hemolysis they have several hundred times the activity of plasma, (d) Intravascular hemolysis, whether produced in vitro or in vivo, decreases the response to angiotonin to a degree which is consistent with the hypothesis that the normal animal destroys angiotonin entirely in its plasma. The active principle in hemolyzed blood is destroyed by heating to 65–70°C. for 15 minutes. 3. These findings support the hypothesis that all or at least the greatest part of angiotonin destruction under physiological circumstances occurs in the plasma, and the significance of this hypothesis is discussed. PMID:19871540

  11. Destructive wrist arthropathy of pseudogout

    SciTech Connect

    Smathers, R.L.; Keats, T.E.; Stelling, C.B.

    1982-01-01

    The wrist is a frequent site of arthropathy in the pseudogout syndrome (calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal deposition disease). Three cases of severe wrist arthropathy are presented to emphasize the destructive changes which may occur, including necrosis or collapse of the lunate and navicular bones. The roentgenographic findings characteristic of pseudogout in the wrist are discussed.

  12. Conceptualizing Chronic Self-Destructiveness.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelley, Kathryn

    Self-destructiveness can be viewed in two ways: as performing an act which one knows cognitively is not conducive to one's welfare but nonetheless leads to some pleasurable affect (e.g., overeating, smoking); or not performing an act one knows one should perform but which has some negative affective consequences (e.g., dental checkups, saving…

  13. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.; Pruneda, Cesar O.

    1995-01-01

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor.

  14. Molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.

    1995-07-18

    A molten salt destruction process is used to treat and destroy energetic waste materials such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels. The energetic material is pre-blended with a solid or fluid diluent in safe proportions to form a fluid fuel mixture. The fuel mixture is rapidly introduced into a high temperature molten salt bath. A stream of molten salt is removed from the vessel and may be recycled as diluent. Additionally, the molten salt stream may be pumped from the reactor, circulated outside the reactor for further processing, and delivered back into the reactor or cooled and circulated to the feed delivery system to further dilute the fuel mixture entering the reactor. 4 figs.

  15. Chondrule Destruction in Nebular Shocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-01

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios epsilon >~ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of "sandblasting" by finer dust. A flow with epsilon >~ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (~2 versus 8 km s-1) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  16. Chondrule destruction in nebular shocks

    SciTech Connect

    Jacquet, Emmanuel; Thompson, Christopher

    2014-12-10

    Chondrules are millimeter-sized silicate spherules ubiquitous in primitive meteorites, but whose origin remains mysterious. One of the main proposed mechanisms for producing them is melting of solids in shock waves in the gaseous protoplanetary disk. However, evidence is mounting that chondrule-forming regions were enriched in solids well above solar abundances. Given the high velocities involved in shock models, destructive collisions would be expected between differently sized grains after passage of the shock front as a result of differential drag. We investigate the probability and outcome of collisions of particles behind a one-dimensional shock using analytic methods as well as a full integration of the coupled mass, momentum, energy, and radiation equations. Destruction of protochondrules seems unavoidable for solid/gas ratios ε ≳ 0.1, and possibly even for solar abundances because of 'sandblasting' by finer dust. A flow with ε ≳ 10 requires much smaller shock velocities (∼2 versus 8 km s{sup –1}) in order to achieve chondrule-melting temperatures, and radiation trapping allows slow cooling of the shocked fragments. Initial destruction would still be extensive; although re-assembly of millimeter-sized particles would naturally occur by grain sticking afterward, the compositional heterogeneity of chondrules may be difficult to reproduce. We finally note that solids passing through small-scale bow shocks around few kilometer-sized planetesimals might experience partial melting and yet escape fragmentation.

  17. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  18. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  19. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  20. 43 CFR 4730.1 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... HORSES AND BURROS Destruction of Wild Horses or Burros and Disposal of Remains § 4730.1 Destruction. Except as an act of mercy, no wild horse or burro shall be destroyed without the authorization of the...

  1. Destruction of Pacific Corals by the Sea Star Acanthaster planci.

    PubMed

    Chesher, R H

    1969-07-18

    Acanthaster planci, a coral predator, is undergoing a population explosion in many areas of the Pacific Ocean. Data on feeding rates, population movements, and stages of infestation were collected along coral reefs of Guam and Palau. Direct observations on destruction of Guam's coral reefs indicate that narrow, fringing reefs may be killed as rapidly as 1 kilometer per month. In a 2(1/2)-year period, 90 percent of the coral was killed along 38 kilometers of Guam's shoreline.

  2. Laser osteoperforation for treatment of inflammatory and destructive bone diseases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Privalov, V. A.; Krochek, I. V.; Abushkin, I. A.; Shumilin, I. I.; Lappa, A. V.

    2009-07-01

    The method of laser osteoperforation was developed in experiment and then applied for treatment of 508 patients with osteomyelitis, 51 patients with nonunion and pseudo-joint and 34 patients with different forms of osteochondropathy. The clinical trial proved the efficiency of laser osteoperforation for treatment of both inflammatory and destructive bone diseases. This method is minimally invasive, promotes rapid reduction of bone and soft tissue inflammation, and apparently stimulates bone reparation.

  3. Enhancing Biopolymer Dynamics through Destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ross, Jennifer

    2012-02-01

    Microtubules are cytoskeletal filaments that organize intracellular space structurally and through active transport along their lengths. They need to be organized and remodeled quickly during development of differentiated cells or in mitosis. Much work has focused on remodeling from the ends because these long polymers can stochastically disassemble through dynamic instability or be actively disassembled. Microtubule-severing enzymes are a novel class of microtubule regulators that create new ends by cutting the filament. Thus, these proteins add a new dimension to microtubule regulation by their ability to create new microtubule ends. Interestingly, despite their destructive capabilities, severing has the ability to create new microtubule networks in cells. We are interested in the inherent biophysical activities of these proteins and their ability to remodel cellular microtubule networks. Interestingly, despite their destructive capabilities, severing has the ability to create new microtubule networks in cells. We use two-color single molecule total internal reflection fluorescence imaging to visualize purified severing enzymes and microtubules in vitro. We have examined two families of severing enzymes to find that their biophysical activities are distinct giving them different network-regulating abilities.

  4. Large geodes in rheumatoid arthritis without joint destruction.

    PubMed

    Rabar, Didier; Crozes, Philippe; Lernoud, Murielle; Meignan, Francis

    2002-12-01

    Although subchondral geodes are a well-known radiological feature of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), large geodes are uncommon. Progressive bone damage with pathological fractures has been reported. We report the case of a 49-year-old man with seropositive RA in whom large, rapidly progressive geodes in the wrists, hands, and feet contrasted with the absence of joint destruction, good functional tolerance, and moderate abnormalities of markers for inflammation. The location and rapid progression of the cyst-like lesions in this patient were highly unusual.

  5. Indirect Self-Destructiveness and Emotional Intelligence.

    PubMed

    Tsirigotis, Konstantinos

    2016-06-01

    While emotional intelligence may have a favourable influence on the life and psychological and social functioning of the individual, indirect self-destructiveness exerts a rather negative influence. The aim of this study has been to explore possible relations between indirect self-destructiveness and emotional intelligence. A population of 260 individuals (130 females and 130 males) aged 20-30 (mean age of 24.5) was studied by using the Polish version of the chronic self-destructiveness scale and INTE, i.e., the Polish version of the assessing emotions scale. Indirect self-destructiveness has significant correlations with all variables of INTE (overall score, factor I, factor II), and these correlations are negative. The intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates significantly the height of the emotional intelligence and vice versa: the height of the emotional intelligence differentiates significantly the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness. Indirect self-destructiveness has negative correlations with emotional intelligence as well as its components: the ability to recognize emotions and the ability to utilize emotions. The height of emotional intelligence differentiates the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness, and vice versa: the intensity of indirect self-destructiveness differentiates the height of emotional intelligence. It seems advisable to use emotional intelligence in the prophylactic and therapeutic work with persons with various types of disorders, especially with the syndrome of indirect self-destructiveness.

  6. [Imaging of chronic hip pain in adults].

    PubMed

    Chevrot, A; Drapé, J; Godefroy, D; Dupont, A

    2000-03-01

    Adult hip pathologies are mainly represented by the degenerative disease, so called "osteoarthrosis, or more precisely coxarthrosis". The means of imaging are exposed, according to their specific value: X Rays (measurement of the characteristic angles of the adult hip), Arthrography, CT Scanner, Arthro-CT Scanner, MRI, Bone Scintigraphy, Ultrasonography. Clinical findings differentiate a mechanical syndrome and an inflammatory syndrome. The coxarthrosis is the most frequent, under two forms: primary (idiopathic) coxarthrosis and secondary coxarthrosis. Primary (idiopathic) coxarthrosis has a localised narrowing of the joint space, osteophyte formation, subchondral sclerosis, cyst formation. The destruction progresses slowly, in 10 to 15 years leading to a complete destruction. Bilaterality is frequent. it is treated with total hip prosthesis. There is a rapid form (1 to 2 years) (Postel's Disease). Secondary coxarthrosis occurs after architectural vice, chondral diseases, lack of balance between the size of the head and the acetabulum as in the case of previous fracture or dislocation, avascular bone necrosis of the head of the femur, Paget's disease. Calcium pyrophosphate Deposition disease (CPPD) involves mostly aged women, and also leads to cox-arthrosis. Avascular bone necrosis of the head of the femur involves young adults. Bilateral involvement are frequent. MRI is the most sensitive and the most specific means of early diagnosis, The area of bone necrosis appears as well defined modifications of the upper head of the femur, precisely surrounded by a low signal intensity line on both Ti and T2 weighted imaging. MRI shows articular effusion, bone marrow edema. Scintigraphy gives early findings which are a characteristic, but non specific, hot spot. CT scanner is used for hip destruction evaluation. o Algodystrophy: transient osteoporosis of the hip has a cyclic course, lasting 3 to 9 months. MRI shows an inflammatory pattern in the area of the process(dark in

  7. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mondloch, Joseph E.; Katz, Michael J.; Isley, William C., III; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W.; Hall, Morgan G.; Decoste, Jared B.; Peterson, Gregory W.; Snurr, Randall Q.; Cramer, Christopher J.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Farha, Omar K.

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic ZrIV ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  8. Destruction of chemical warfare agents using metal-organic frameworks.

    PubMed

    Mondloch, Joseph E; Katz, Michael J; Isley, William C; Ghosh, Pritha; Liao, Peilin; Bury, Wojciech; Wagner, George W; Hall, Morgan G; DeCoste, Jared B; Peterson, Gregory W; Snurr, Randall Q; Cramer, Christopher J; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K

    2015-05-01

    Chemical warfare agents containing phosphonate ester bonds are among the most toxic chemicals known to mankind. Recent global military events, such as the conflict and disarmament in Syria, have brought into focus the need to find effective strategies for the rapid destruction of these banned chemicals. Solutions are needed for immediate personal protection (for example, the filtration and catalytic destruction of airborne versions of agents), bulk destruction of chemical weapon stockpiles, protection (via coating) of clothing, equipment and buildings, and containment of agent spills. Solid heterogeneous materials such as modified activated carbon or metal oxides exhibit many desirable characteristics for the destruction of chemical warfare agents. However, low sorptive capacities, low effective active site loadings, deactivation of the active site, slow degradation kinetics, and/or a lack of tailorability offer significant room for improvement in these materials. Here, we report a carefully chosen metal-organic framework (MOF) material featuring high porosity and exceptional chemical stability that is extraordinarily effective for the degradation of nerve agents and their simulants. Experimental and computational evidence points to Lewis-acidic Zr(IV) ions as the active sites and to their superb accessibility as a defining element of their efficacy.

  9. Using magnetic levitation for non-destructive quality control of plastic parts.

    PubMed

    Hennek, Jonathan W; Nemiroski, Alex; Subramaniam, Anand Bala; Bwambok, David K; Yang, Dian; Harburg, Daniel V; Tricard, Simon; Ellerbee, Audrey K; Whitesides, George M

    2015-03-04

    Magnetic levitation (MagLev) enables rapid and non-destructive quality control of plastic parts. The feasibility of MagLev as a method to: i) rapidly assess injection-molded plastic parts for defects during process optimization, ii) monitor the degradation of plastics after exposure to harsh environmental conditions, and iii) detect counterfeit polymers by density is demonstrated.

  10. Tank 48 Chemical Destruction - 13237

    SciTech Connect

    Simner, Steven P.; Aponte, Celia I.; Brass, Earl A.

    2013-07-01

    Small tank copper-catalyzed peroxide oxidation (CCPO) is a potentially viable technology to facilitate the destruction of tetraphenylborate (TPB) organic solids contained within the Tank 48H waste at the Savannah River Site (SRS). A maturation strategy was created that identified a number of near-term development activities required to determine the viability of the CCPO process, and subsequent disposition of the CCPO effluent. Critical activities included laboratory scale validation of the process and identification of forward transfer paths for the CCPO effluent. The technical documentation and the successful application of the CCPO process on simulated Tank 48 waste confirm that the CCPO process is a viable process for the disposition of the Tank 48 contents. (authors)

  11. Non-Destructive Testing Scanner

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1990-01-01

    Bio-Imaging Research's technology that originated in an aerospace program has come full circle with a new aerospace adaptation called the Advanced Computed Tomography Inspection System, or ACTIS. The medical version of CT scans the human body for tumors or other abnormalities, the ACTIS system finds imperfections in aerospace structures and components, such as castings, assemblies, rocket motors and nozzles. ACTIS is described by its developer as the most versatile CT scanner available for non-destructive testing applications. ACTIS is a variable geometry system. ACTIS source and detectors can be moved closer together or farther apart to optimize the geometry for different sizes of test objects. The combination of variable geometry, three sources, and focusing detectors makes ACTIS cost effective for a broad range of applications. System can scan anything from very small turbine blades to large rocket assemblies.

  12. Mediated electrochemical hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Hickman, R.G.; Farmer, J.C.; Wang, F.T.

    1991-08-01

    There are few permitted processes for mixed waste (radioactive plus chemically hazardous) treatment. We are developing electrochemical processes that convert the toxic organic components of mixed waste to water, carbon dioxide, an innocuous anions such as chloride. Aggressive oxidizer ions such as Ag{sup 2+} or Ce{sup +4} are produced at an anode. These can attack the organic molecules directly. They can also attack water which yields hydroxyl free radicals that in turn attack the organic molecules. The condensed (i.e., solid and/or liquid) effluent streams contain the inorganic radionuclide forms. These may be treated with existing technology and prepared for final disposal. Kinetics and the extent of destruction of some toxic organics have been measured. Depending on how the process is operated, coulombic efficiency can be nearly 100%. In addition, hazardous organic materials are becoming very expensive to dispose of and when they are combined with transuranic radioactive elements no processes are presently permitted. Mediated electrochemical oxidation is an ambient-temperature aqueous-phase process that can be used to oxidize organic components of mixed wastes. Problems associated with incineration, such as high-temperature volatilization of radionuclides, are avoided. Historically, Ag (2) has been used as a mediator in this process. Fe(6) and Co(3) are attractive alternatives to Ag(2) since they form soluble chlorides during the destruction of chlorinated solvents. Furthermore, silver itself is a toxic heavy metal. Quantitative data has been obtained for the complete oxidation of ethylene glycol by Fe(6) and Co(3). Though ethylene glycol is a nonhalogenated organic, this data has enabled us to make direct comparisons of activities of Fe(6) and Co(3) with Ag(2). Very good quantitative data for the oxidation of ethylene glycol by Ag(2) had already been collected. 4 refs., 6 figs.

  13. Destruction of polyvinyl chloride under extrusion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dmitriev, M. T.; Serebriakova, R. V.; Serebriakov, V. N.; Zimin, P. N.; Nastenko, A. V.; Derevianchenko, L. G.; Antsifirova, N. P.; Visloukh, V. V.

    1982-08-01

    An common industrial application of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the extrusive insulation of electric wires and cables. Experimental results are presented on the thermal and mechanical destruction of PVC under extrusion. Under extrusion conditions (at temperatures higher than 150 C), the evolution of hydrogen chloride determines practically the entire process of PVC destruction. The use of the present data to establish hygienic standards regarding safe concentrations of PVC destruction products in the work environment is discussed.

  14. [Destructive mastoiditis with thrombosis of the sigmoid sinus in a 8 year-old child presenting with concomitant chicken pox].

    PubMed

    Bogomil'skiĭ, M R; Polunin, M M; Ivanenko, A M; Poliakov, A A

    2014-01-01

    The specific clinical feature of mastoidities that developed in a patient presenting with chicken pox was the rapid progress in temporal bone destruction with partial thrombosis of the sigmoid sinusis in the absence of typical manifestations of mastoiditis. The pronounced destructive changes found in a series of CT images were regarded as the indications for urgent antromastoidotomy with the puncture of the sigmoid sinusis.

  15. Meteorology: are there trends in hurricane destruction?

    PubMed

    Pielke, Roger A

    2005-12-22

    Since the record impact of Hurricane Katrina, attention has focused on understanding trends in hurricanes and their destructive potential. Emanuel reports a marked increase in the potential destructiveness of hurricanes based on identification of a trend in an accumulated annual index of power dissipation in the North Atlantic and western North Pacific since the 1970s. If hurricanes are indeed becoming more destructive over time, then this trend should manifest itself in more destruction. However, my analysis of a long-term data set of hurricane losses in the United States shows no upward trend once the data are normalized to remove the effects of societal changes.

  16. Destruction of chlorofluorocarbons and halons

    SciTech Connect

    Matchett, J.M.; Miller, K.B.; Purcell, C.W.

    1995-06-01

    The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer requires the phaseout of ozone-depleting substances in most developed countries by January 1, 1996. Developing, or Article 5, countries have been allowed additional time in which to produce these chemicals. Contrary to the Protocol`s intent, current estimates indicate that production of these chemicals by Article 5 countries could easily equal that of the developed world before their production is required to be eliminated. The Montreal Protocol also requires that used chlorofluorcarbons (CFCs) and halons are disposed of in an environmentally acceptable manner. One mechanism devised by the Montreal Protocol to reduce the amount of ozone-depleting substances that may need to be destroyed is to transfer those chemicals to Article 5 countries. Theoretically, this has the added benefit of also eliminating the need for additional production by those countries. This paper discusses the major issues associated with the disposal/destruction of ozone-depleting substances, including the transfer of these chemicals to Article 5 countries. Potential implications of the barriers to ozone-depleting substance transfer on the viability of the Montreal Protocol will also be discussed.

  17. Weapons of mass destruction, WMD.

    PubMed

    Vogel, H

    2007-08-01

    Since the invasion into Iraq in 2003, weapons of mass destruction (WMD), have come to general notice; they include today chemical, biological, and atomic/nuclear weapons, (CW, BW, and AW). Radiological findings shall be described. X-ray findings of victims of WMD are described. From CW, own observations are reported. Examples of (possible) X-ray findings of victims of BW are described. AW may induce radiation disease. Exposure to sulfur-lost induces severe bronchitis; if the radiograph shows pulmonary infiltrations, the prognosis is bad; a late consequence maybe bronchiectasis. BW can be based on bacteria, virus or toxins. An approach of the X-ray findings for BW victims is based on the assumption that the disease induced by BW has the same (or a similar) clinic and radiology as that induced by the original microorganism or by the unchanged toxism. This approximation may have its limits, if the germ or toxin has been modified. In survivors of AW, the radiology is probably that of victims of thermal radiation and blast. WMD seem to be a real or a possible threat. They can be used in war, in terrorist attacks, in crime, and in action of secret services. In case that WMD are employed, X-ray diagnostic will be used to evaluate the prognosis (triage) and the risk of infection.

  18. Explosive destruction of 26Al

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kahl, D.; Yamaguchi, H.; Shimizu, H.; Abe, K.; Beliuskina, O.; Cha, S. M.; Chae, K. Y.; Ge, Z.; Hayakawa, S.; Kwag, M. S.; Kim, D. H.; Moon, J. Y.; Park, S. Y.; Yang, L.

    2017-09-01

    The γ -ray emission associated with the radioactive decay of 26Al is one of the key pieces of observational evidence indicating stellar nucleosynthesis is an ongoing process in our Galaxy, and it was the first such radioactivity to be detected. Despite numerous efforts in stellar modeling, observation, nuclear theory, and nuclear experiment over the past four decades, the precise sites and origin of Galactic ^{26} Al remain elusive. We explore the present experimental knowledge concerning the destruction of ^{26} Al in massive stars. The precise stellar rates of neutron-induced reactions on ^{26} Al, such as (n,p) and (n, α , have among the largest impacts on the total ^{26} Al yield. Meanwhile, reactions involving the short-lived isomeric state of ^{26} Al such as radiative proton capture are highly-uncertain at present. Although we presented on-going experimental work from n_TOF at CERN with an ^{26} Al target, the present proceeding focuses only on the ^{26} Al isomeric radioactive beam production aspect and the first experimental results at CRIB.

  19. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  20. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  1. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  2. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  3. 9 CFR 51.6 - Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit for destruction of animals. 51.6 Section 51.6 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION... ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF BRUCELLOSIS Indemnity for Cattle, Bison, and Swine § 51.6 Destruction of...

  4. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  5. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  6. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  7. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  8. 32 CFR 2001.47 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destruction. 2001.47 Section 2001.47 National... ARCHIVES AND RECORDS ADMINISTRATION CLASSIFIED NATIONAL SECURITY INFORMATION Safeguarding § 2001.47... pulverizing. Agencies shall comply with the destruction equipment standard stated in § 2001.42(b) of...

  9. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  10. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  11. 27 CFR 19.617 - Destruction records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction records. 19.617 Section 19.617 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU....617 Destruction records. Each time that a proprietor voluntarily destroys spirits, denatured...

  12. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  13. Legal Weapons of Mass Destruction Consequence Management

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2002-05-01

    LEGAL WEAPONS OF MASS DESTRUCTION CONSEQUENCE MANAGEMENT SEMINAR REPORT Defense Threat Reduction Agency Advanced Systems ...guidance documents pertinent to WMD CM ; • Contribute to the development of a Federal Legal Reference Deskbook for WMD consequence management . The...of medical responders during a Weapons of Mass Destruction (WMD)–Consequence Management ( CM ) event. Use of the Military Posse Comitatus

  14. 5 CFR 1312.29 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Information § 1312.29 Destruction. The destruction of classified material will be accomplished under the.... Classified official record material will be processed to the Information Systems and Technology, Records.... Classified nonrecord material will be destroyed as soon as it becomes excess to the needs of the office....

  15. Self-Destructive Behavior in Women.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kessel, Greer; Chrisler, Joan C.

    Trichotillomania (hair-pulling) and delicate self-cutting are self-destructive behaviors which utilize the body as a vehicle for self-expression. Like anorexia and bulimia, these behaviors occur primarily in young women. This study compared groups of women college students who engage in these self-destructive behaviors with those who do not. It…

  16. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  17. 27 CFR 20.222 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction. 20.222 Section 20.222 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL DISTRIBUTION AND USE OF DENATURED ALCOHOL AND RUM Destruction §...

  18. Energetic materials destruction using molten salt

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.; Pruneda, C.O.; Brummond, W.A.

    1994-04-29

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. LLNL has built a small-scale unit to test the destruction of HE using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process. In addition to the high explosive HMX, destruction has been carried out on RDX, PETN, ammonium picrate, TNT, nitroguanadine, and TATB. Also destroyed was a liquid gun propellant comprising hydroxyammonium nitrate, triethanolammonium nitrate and water. In addition to these pure components, destruction has been carried out on a number of commonly used formulations, such as LX-10, LX-16, LX-17, and PBX-9404.

  19. Rubidium dimer destruction by a diode laser

    SciTech Connect

    Ban, T.; Aumiler, D.; Pichler, G.

    2005-02-01

    We observed rubidium dimer destruction by excitation of rubidium vapor with diode laser light tuned across the Rb D{sub 2} resonance line in a 2400 GHz tuning interval. The destruction was measured for rubidium atom concentrations in the (1-9)x10{sup 16} cm{sup -3} range, pump beam power up to 43 mW, and with a 5 Torr of the helium buffer gas. We discuss the physical mechanisms involved and specify the molecular pathways which may effectively lead to the observed dimer destruction.

  20. Non-destructive identification of twisted light.

    PubMed

    Li, Pengyun; Wang, Bo; Song, Xinbing; Zhang, Xiangdong

    2016-04-01

    The non-destructive identification of the orbital angular momentum (OAM) is essential to various applications in the optical information processing. Here, we propose and demonstrate experimentally an efficient method to identify non-destructively the OAM by using a modified Mach-Zehnder interferometer. Our schemes are applicable not only to the case with integer charges, but also to optical vortices with noninteger charges. Our Letter presents the first experimental demonstration of the non-destructive identification of twisted light with integer or noninteger topological charges, which has potential applications in the OAM-based data transmission for optical communications.

  1. The use of positive and negative reinforcement in the treatment of escape-maintained destructive behavior.

    PubMed Central

    Piazza, C C; Fisher, W W; Hanley, G P; Remick, M L; Contrucci, S A; Aitken, T L

    1997-01-01

    We identified 3 clients whose destructive behavior was sensitive to negative reinforcement (break from tasks) and positive reinforcement (access to tangible items, attention, or both). In an instructional context, we then evaluated the effects of reinforcing compliance with one, two, or all of these consequences (a break, tangible items, attention) when destructive behavior produced a break and when it did not (escape extinction). For 2 clients, destructive behavior decreased and compliance increased when compliance produced access to tangible items, even though destructive behavior resulted in a break. For 1 client, extinction was necessary to reduce destructive behavior and to increase compliance. Subsequently, when the schedule of reinforcement for compliance was faded for all clients, destructive behavior was lower and fading proceeded more rapidly when compliance produced multiple functional reinforcers (i.e., a break plus tangible items or attention) and destructive behavior was on extinction. The results are discussed in terms of the effects of relative reinforcement value and extinction on concurrent operants. PMID:9210307

  2. On the rate of destruction of lithium in late-type main-sequence stars

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Christensen-Dalsgaard, J.; Gough, D. O.; Thompson, M. J.

    1992-01-01

    It it shown that the rate of destruction of lithium by nuclear reactions in the outer mixed layers of late-type main-sequence stars depends on both the depth of the region where mixing occurs and the stratification within it. The mixed region includes and probably extends beneath the base of the convection zone. As the star evolves on the main sequence, the properties of the convection zone vary in a simple manner. If the mixed layer behaves similarly, then the mean destruction rate can easily be related to the present local value evaluated at the base of the mixed layer. In the case of the sun, it is found that if mixing is rapid compared with the nuclear destruction rate, then the mean destruction rate is approximately equal to one-half the present local value.

  3. TECHNOLOGIES FOR CFC/HALON DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an overview of the current status of possible technologies used to destroy chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons chemicals implicated in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol an international treaty to control the production a...

  4. TECHNOLOGIES FOR CFC/HALON DESTRUCTION

    EPA Science Inventory

    The report presents an overview of the current status of possible technologies used to destroy chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs) and halons chemicals implicated in the destruction of the stratospheric ozone layer. The Montreal Protocol an international treaty to control the production a...

  5. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt revisited

    SciTech Connect

    Loehle, C.

    1996-02-01

    A very important analysis of the problem of habitat destruction concluded that such destruction may lead to an extinction debt, which is the irreversible loss of species following a prolonged transient or delay. An error in interpretation of this model led the authors to apply the results to all types of habitat destruction, but in fact the model applies only to an across-the-board decrease in fecundity, not to disturbances. For repeated, spatially random disturbance, a different model applies. For habitat destruction on regional scales (reduction in ecosystem area without disturbance in remnant areas), one must, in contrast, apply species-area relations based on the distribution of different habitat types (e.g., elevational and rainfall gradients, physiographic and edaphic variability). The error in interpretation of the basic model is presented, followed by clarification of model usage and development of a new model that applies to disturbance events.

  6. 32 CFR 644.497 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... Destruction. Disposal by the Corps of Engineers, as authorized in AR 405-90, does not contemplate expenditure... appropriate Army of Air Force command for disposal action under AR 405-90 or AFR 87-4 as appropriate. However...

  7. Benefiting from a trail of destruction.

    PubMed

    Pickersgill, Julie

    2013-09-01

    Data destruction and IT asset disposal are heavily regulated and complex areas, especially within the NHS, which is responsible for the safekeeping of extremely personal data on millions of UK citizens. In the light of escalating efforts by the Information Commissioner's Office (ICO) to ensure compliance with the Data Protection Act 1998, data destruction specialist, Julie Pickersgill, of Advanced Digital Dynamics, outlines the requirements on estates departments for the secure disposal of IT equipment - and how to avoid falling foul of the law.

  8. A Novel Chemical Nitrate Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Dziewinski, J.; Marczak, S.

    1999-03-01

    Nitrates represent one of the most significant pollutant discharged to the Baltic Sea by the Sliiamae hydrometallurgical plant. This article contains a brief overview of the existing nitrate destruction technologies followed by the description of a new process developed by the authors. The new chemical process for nitrate destruction is cost effective and simple to operate. It converts the nitrate to nitrogen gas which goes to the atmosphere.

  9. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilbrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-01-01

    Classification of meteorites is most effectively carried out by petrographic and mineralogic studies of thin sections, but a rapid and accurate classification technique for the many samples collected in dense collection areas (hot and cold deserts) is of great interest. Oil immersion techniques have been used to classify a large proportion of the US Antarctic meteorite collections since the mid-1980s [1]. This approach has allowed rapid characterization of thousands of samples over time, but nonetheless utilizes a piece of the sample that has been ground to grains or a powder. In order to compare a few non-destructive techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Moessbauer spectroscopy.

  10. [Cytoflavine effect on exudative-destructive manifestations of lung tuberculosis in children and teenagers].

    PubMed

    Volchegorskiĭ, I A; Novoselov, P N; Denisenko, I A

    2009-01-01

    A prospective, placebo-controlled ordinary-"blind"-randomized investigation of the cytoflavine effect on roentgenological manifestations of exudative-destructive processes in pulmonary tissues in cases of tuberculosis in children and teenagers has been performed in comparison to changes in the the functional state of neutrophilic granulocytes and Micobacterium tuberculosis incidence in sputum during a standard four-months course of antituberculosis therapy. It is estasblished that the administration of cytoflavine at the beginning of antituberculosis complex therapy (10 mL per 24 hours, for 5 days) results in rapid suppression of exudative-destructive disease manifestations and quick cavity repair in tuberculosis-affected areas, at an increase in the probability of outcome with "small post-tuberculosis changes". The rapid suppression of exudative-destructive processes in patients having received cytoflavine was caused by its optimizing influence on phagocytic blood capacity and did not depend on the development of abacillarity in patients.

  11. SARM1 activation triggers axon degeneration locally via NAD⁺ destruction.

    PubMed

    Gerdts, Josiah; Brace, E J; Sasaki, Yo; DiAntonio, Aaron; Milbrandt, Jeffrey

    2015-04-24

    Axon degeneration is an intrinsic self-destruction program that underlies axon loss during injury and disease. Sterile alpha and TIR motif-containing 1 (SARM1) protein is an essential mediator of axon degeneration. We report that SARM1 initiates a local destruction program involving rapid breakdown of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD(+)) after injury. We used an engineered protease-sensitized SARM1 to demonstrate that SARM1 activity is required after axon injury to induce axon degeneration. Dimerization of the Toll-interleukin receptor (TIR) domain of SARM1 alone was sufficient to induce locally mediated axon degeneration. Formation of the SARM1 TIR dimer triggered rapid breakdown of NAD(+), whereas SARM1-induced axon destruction could be counteracted by increased NAD(+) synthesis. SARM1-induced depletion of NAD(+) may explain the potent axon protection in Wallerian degeneration slow (Wld(s)) mutant mice. Copyright © 2015, American Association for the Advancement of Science.

  12. Prediction of Eggshell Ultrastructure via Some Non-destructive and Destructive Measurements in Fayoumi Breed

    PubMed Central

    Radwan, Lamiaa M.; Galal, A.; Shemeis, A. R.

    2015-01-01

    Possibilities of predicting eggshell ultrastructure from direct non-destructive and destructive measurements were examined using 120 Fayoumi eggs collected from the flock at 45 weeks of age. The non-destructive measurements included weight, length and width of the egg. The destructive measurements were breaking strength and shell thickness. The eggshell ultrastructure traits involved the total thickness of eggshell layer, thickness of palisade layer, cone layer and total score. Prediction of total thickness of eggshell layer based on non-destructive measurements individually or simultaneously was not possible (R2 = 0.01 to 0.16). The destructive measurements were far more accurate than the non-destructive in predicting total thickness of eggshell layer. Prediction based on breaking strength alone was more accurate (R2 = 0.85) than that based on shell thickness alone (R2 = 0.72). Adding shell thickness to breaking strength (the best predictor) increased the accuracy of prediction by 5%. The results obtained indicated that both non-destructive and destructive measurements were not useful in predicting the cone layer (R2 not exceeded 18%). The maximum accuracy of prediction of total score (R2 = 0.48) was obtained from prediction based on breaking strength alone. Combining shell thicknesses and breaking strength into one equation was no help in improving the accuracy of prediction. PMID:26104404

  13. Prediction of Eggshell Ultrastructure via Some Non-destructive and Destructive Measurements in Fayoumi Breed.

    PubMed

    Radwan, Lamiaa M; Galal, A; Shemeis, A R

    2015-07-01

    Possibilities of predicting eggshell ultrastructure from direct non-destructive and destructive measurements were examined using 120 Fayoumi eggs collected from the flock at 45 weeks of age. The non-destructive measurements included weight, length and width of the egg. The destructive measurements were breaking strength and shell thickness. The eggshell ultrastructure traits involved the total thickness of eggshell layer, thickness of palisade layer, cone layer and total score. Prediction of total thickness of eggshell layer based on non-destructive measurements individually or simultaneously was not possible (R(2) = 0.01 to 0.16). The destructive measurements were far more accurate than the non-destructive in predicting total thickness of eggshell layer. Prediction based on breaking strength alone was more accurate (R(2) = 0.85) than that based on shell thickness alone (R(2) = 0.72). Adding shell thickness to breaking strength (the best predictor) increased the accuracy of prediction by 5%. The results obtained indicated that both non-destructive and destructive measurements were not useful in predicting the cone layer (R(2) not exceeded 18%). The maximum accuracy of prediction of total score (R(2) = 0.48) was obtained from prediction based on breaking strength alone. Combining shell thicknesses and breaking strength into one equation was no help in improving the accuracy of prediction.

  14. Destruction of a Magnetized Star

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    completely.Amplifying EncountersFor stars that survive their encounter with the black hole, Guillochon and McCourt find that the process of partial disruption and re-accretion can amplify the magnetic field of the star by up to a factor of 20. Repeated encounters of the star with the black hole could amplify the field even more.The authors suggest an interesting implication of this idea: a population of highly magnetized stars may have formed in our own galactic center, resulting from their encounters with the supermassive black hole Sgr A*.A turbulent magnetic field forms after a partial stellar disruption and re-accretion of the tidal tails. [Adapted from Guillochon McCourt 2017]Effects in DestructionFor stars that are completely shredded and form a tidal stream after their encounter with the black hole, the authors find that the magnetic field geometry straightens within the stream of debris. There, the pressure of the magnetic field eventually dominates over the gas pressure and self-gravity.Guillochon and McCourt find that the fields new configuration isnt ideal for powering jets from the black hole but it is strong enough to influence how the stream interacts with itself and its surrounding environment, likely affecting what we can expect to see from these short-lived events.These simulations have clearly demonstrated the need to further explore the role of magnetic fields in the disruptions of stars by black holes.BonusCheck out the full (brief) video from one of the simulations by Guillochon and McCourt (be sure to watch it in high-res!). It reveals the evolution of a stars magnetic field configuration as the star is partially disrupted by the forces of a supermassive black hole and then re-accretes.CitationJames Guillochon and Michael McCourt 2017 ApJL 834 L19. doi:10.3847/2041-8213/834/2/L19

  15. Measuring low-level porosity structures by using a non-destructive terahertz inspection system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Hongwei; Ke, Lin

    2017-09-01

    It is demanded a non-contact, non-destructive and reliable system and method of porosity measurement because conventional techniques are contact and cubersome. We have developed a method by using THz inspection system, which allows measuring the porosity rapidly and non-invasively, by introducing an external perturbation. The embodiments of the external perturbation can be mechanical or pulsed laser.

  16. Entropic destruction of a moving heavy quarkonium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fadafan, Kazem Bitaghsir; Tabatabaei, Seyed Kamal

    2016-07-01

    Recently it has been shown that the peak of the quarkonium entropy at the deconfinement transition is related to the emergent entropic force which destructs the quarkonium. Using the AdS/CFT correspondence, we consider dissociation of a moving heavy quarkonium by entropic force. For larger distance of quark and antiquark, the entropy of moving quarkonium increases, monotonically. We find that the entropic force destructs the moving quarkonium easier than the static case. By considering the Maxwell charge, we study the effect of the medium on the destruction of heavy quarkonium. It is shown that the quarkonium dissociates easier in the medium. Our results imply that the quarkonium dissociates easier when it moves orthogonal to the plasma wind rather than parallel.

  17. [Comparative toxicity of photosensitizers in varying destruction].

    PubMed

    Sinitsina, O O; Zholdakova, Z I; Poliakova, E E; Golovach, E N; Sycheva, L P; Beliaeva, N N; Kuznetsova, N A

    2007-01-01

    The toxicity of the photosensitizers proflavine acetate (PA) versus methylene blue (MB) was evaluated during their varying destruction. Under the influence of visible light, a partial (25%) transformation of the photosensitizers was shown to be attended by their enhanced toxicity and 100% destruction of the parent substances caused a reduction in their hazard. PA and its phototransformation products mainly affect the antiperoxide protection system and the structural and functional states of the liver, kidney, and duodenum. The maximum noneffective dose is 0.002 mg/kg. The possibility of using PA for water disinfection depends on the ratio of safe and effective concentrations. A partial (25%) MB destruction products cause mutagenic effects; the permissible dose of the mutagen is 0.00025 mg/kg. MB is not recommended for disinfection of all types of waters.

  18. Creative Destruction and Subjective Well-Being.

    PubMed

    Aghion, Philippe; Akcigit, Ufuk; Deaton, Angus; Roulet, Alexandra

    2016-12-01

    In this paper we analyze the relationship between turnover-driven growth and subjective wellbeing. Our model of innovation-led growth and unemployment predicts that: (i) the effect of creative destruction on expected individual welfare should be unambiguously positive if we control for unemployment, less so if we do not; (ii) job creation has a positive and job destruction has a negative impact on wellbeing; (iii) job destruction has a less negative impact in US Metropolitan Statistical Areas (MSA) within states with more generous unemployment insurance policies; (iv) job creation has a more positive effect on individuals that are more forward-looking. The empirical analysis using cross-sectional MSA-level and individual-level data provide empirical support to these predictions.

  19. Non-Destructive State Machine Reverse Engineering

    SciTech Connect

    Smith, Jessica L.

    2013-10-10

    Most of the integrated circuits (ICs) that are in electronic systems today are based on state machines. We are taking advantage of this to develop a hardware reverse engineering method that discovers the IC’s underlying state machine, rather than its transistors and gates. While there are other methods for destructively reverse engineering ICs or for non-destructively characterizing ICs, our method offers a fast and accurate analysis while remaining non-destructive. To do this, we present an intelligent brute-force method of exploring the logic of the IC using only the input and outputs designed into the IC - the I/O pins. From this exploration, we can apply a folding algorithm to discover the designed state machine.

  20. Matrix metalloproteinases in destructive lung disease.

    PubMed

    Houghton, A McGarry

    2015-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) play essential physiologic roles in numerous processes ranging from development to wound repair. Unfortunately, given the broad substrate specificity of the MMP family as a whole, aberrant degradation of extracellular matrix proteins can result in destructive disease. Emphysema, the result of destroyed lung elastin and collagen matrix, is the prototypical example of such a destructive process. More recent data has highlighted that MMPs play much more elaborate physiologic and pathophysiologic roles than simple matrix protein cleavage. Key pathophysiological roles for MMPs in emphysema will be discussed herein.

  1. Method for non-destructive testing

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-08-30

    Non-destructive testing method may include providing a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is exposed to photons. The source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen being exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. Annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen are detected.

  2. 27 CFR 40.253 - Destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction. 40.253 Section 40.253 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) TOBACCO MANUFACTURE OF TOBACCO PRODUCTS, CIGARETTE PAPERS AND TUBES,...

  3. Climatology of destructive hailstorms in Brazil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martins, Jorge A.; Brand, Veronika S.; Capucim, Mauricio N.; Felix, Rafael R.; Martins, Leila D.; Freitas, Edmilson D.; Gonçalves, Fabio L. T.; Hallak, Ricardo; Dias, Maria A. F. Silva; Cecil, Daniel J.

    2017-02-01

    Hail is considered to be among the most complex extreme weather phenomena of the atmosphere. Every year, notably in the southern Brazilian States, destructive hailstorms result in serious economic losses and cause a great social impact destroying crops, homes, medical facilities and schools. The aim of this study is to document the spatial, annual, and diurnal variation in destructive hailstorm frequency during a 22 year period from 1991 to 2012 in Brazil. The analysis is based on a collection of reports released by the Brazilian National Civil Protection Secretariat - SEDEC. Based on reports of emergency assistance given to the population affected by a disaster, the information discussed in this work is assumed as representative only of destructive hailstorms. The analysis reveals a large spatial variability, with the majority of hailstorm occurrences distributed in the three southernmost Brazilian States. Within those states, the number of hail reports was observed to increase with increasing population density in rural areas. Hailstorms were reported most often in the late afternoon and evening of the winter/spring transition, in agreement with a few other areas in the subtropics with available studies, but different from the majority of studies for temperate zones, which suggest spring/summer as the hail season. Although the results show some discrepancies compared to satellite hail signatures, the findings of this work confirm that southern Brazil is a region prone to the development of strong convective storms, with high annual numbers of destructive hail events.

  4. Destruction of dirty ice mantles by sputtering

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Aannestad, P. A.

    1973-01-01

    Dirty ice mantles are destroyed efficiently by sputtering of He atoms when clouds encounter shock velocities greater than 13-15 km/sec. Destruction due to grain-grain collisions is found to be about .001 times less efficient. Sputtering in the hot intercloud medium should make intercloud grains smaller than cloud grains.

  5. Home destruction within the Hayman Fire perimeter

    Treesearch

    Jack Cohen; Rick Stratton

    2003-01-01

    The Hayman Fire report on home destruction examines the following four questions: 1. How many homes were destroyed out of the total number of homes within the Hayman Fire perimeter? 2. What was the relative wildland fire intensity associated with the destroyed homes? 3. What was the categorical cause of home ignition suggested by the associated wildland fire intensity...

  6. Non-destructive monitoring of curing process in precast concrete

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aparicio, S.; Ranz, J.; Fernández, R.; Albert, V.; Fuente, J. V.; Hernández, M. G.

    2012-12-01

    Currently, the use of precast concrete elements has gained importance because it offers many advantages over site-cast concrete. A disadvantage of site-cast concrete is that its properties vary according to the manufacturing method, the environment and even the operator who carried out the mixing, pouring and implementation of the concrete. Precast concrete elements are manufactured in a controlled environment (typically referred to as a precast plant) and this reduces the shrinkage and creep. One of the key properties of precast concrete is the capability to gain compressive strength rapidly under the appropriate conditions. The compressive strength determines if the precast can be stripped from the form or manipulated. This parameter is measured using destructive testing over cylindrical or cubic samples. The quality control of precast is derived from the fracture suffered by these elements, resulting in a "pass or fail" evaluation. In most cases, the solution to this problem is to allow the material to cure for a few hours until it acquires sufficient strength to handle the precast element. The focus of this paper is the description of the research project "CUREND". This project aims to design a non-destructive methodology to monitor the curing process in precast concrete. The monitoring will be performed using wireless sensor networks.

  7. Processes of Fatigue Destruction in Nanopolymer-Hydrophobised Ceramic Bricks

    PubMed Central

    Fic, Stanisław; Szewczak, Andrzej; Barnat-Hunek, Danuta; Łagód, Grzegorz

    2017-01-01

    The article presents a proposal of a model of fatigue destruction of hydrophobised ceramic brick, i.e., a basic masonry material. The brick surface was hydrophobised with two inorganic polymers: a nanopolymer preparation based on dialkyl siloxanes (series 1–5) and an aqueous silicon solution (series 6–10). Nanosilica was added to the polymers to enhance the stability of the film formed on the brick surface. To achieve an appropriate blend of the polymer liquid phase and the nano silica solid phase, the mixture was disintegrated by sonication. The effect of the addition of nano silica and sonication on changes in the rheological parameters, i.e., viscosity and surface tension, was determined. Material fatigue was induced by cyclic immersion of the samples in water and drying at a temperature of 100 °C, which caused rapid and relatively dynamic movement of water. The moisture and temperature effect was determined by measurement of changes in surface hardness performed with the Vickers method and assessment of sample absorbability. The results provided an approximate picture of fatigue destruction of brick and hydrophobic coatings in relation to changes in their temporal stability. Additionally, SEM images of hydrophobic coatings in are shown. PMID:28772404

  8. Laser active thermography for non-destructive testing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Semerok, A.; Grisolia, C.; Fomichev, S. V.; Thro, P.-Y.

    2013-11-01

    Thermography methods have found their applications in different fields of human activity. The non-destructive feature of these methods along with the additional advantage by automated remote control and tests of nuclear installations without personnel attendance in the contaminated zone are of particular interest. Laser active pyrometry and laser lock-in thermography for in situ non-destructive characterization of micrometric layers on graphite substrates from European tokamaks were under extensive experimental and theoretical studies in CEA (France). The studies were aimed to obtain layer characterization with cross-checking the layer thermal contact coefficients determined by active laser pyrometry and lock-in thermography. The experimental installation comprised a Nd-YAG pulsed repetition rate laser (1 Hz - 10 kHz repetition rate frequency, homogeneous spot) and a home-made pyrometer system based on two pyrometers for the temperature measurements in 500 - 2600 K range. For both methods, the layer characterization was provided by the best fit of the experimental results and simulations. The layer thermal contact coefficients determined by both methods were quite comparable. Though there was no gain in the measurements accuracy, lock-in measurements have proved their advantage as being much more rapid. The obtained experimental and theoretical results are presented. Some practical applications and possible improvements of the methods are discussed.

  9. Onsite Gaseous Centrifuge Enrichment Plant UF6 Cylinder Destructive Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    Anheier, Norman C.; Cannon, Bret D.; Qiao, Hong; Carter, Jennifer C.; McNamara, Bruce K.; O'Hara, Matthew J.; Phillips, Jon R.; Curtis, Michael M.

    2012-07-17

    The IAEA safeguards approach for gaseous centrifuge enrichment plants (GCEPs) includes measurements of gross, partial, and bias defects in a statistical sampling plan. These safeguard methods consist principally of mass and enrichment nondestructive assay (NDA) verification. Destructive assay (DA) samples are collected from a limited number of cylinders for high precision offsite mass spectrometer analysis. DA is typically used to quantify bias defects in the GCEP material balance. Under current safeguards measures, the operator collects a DA sample from a sample tap following homogenization. The sample is collected in a small UF6 sample bottle, then sealed and shipped under IAEA chain of custody to an offsite analytical laboratory. Current practice is expensive and resource intensive. We propose a new and novel approach for performing onsite gaseous UF6 DA analysis that provides rapid and accurate assessment of enrichment bias defects. DA samples are collected using a custom sampling device attached to a conventional sample tap. A few micrograms of gaseous UF6 is chemically adsorbed onto a sampling coupon in a matter of minutes. The collected DA sample is then analyzed onsite using Laser Ablation Absorption Ratio Spectrometry-Destructive Assay (LAARS-DA). DA results are determined in a matter of minutes at sufficient accuracy to support reliable bias defect conclusions, while greatly reducing DA sample volume, analysis time, and cost.

  10. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, W.A.; Upadhye, R.S.

    1996-02-13

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath. 2 figs.

  11. Injector nozzle for molten salt destruction of energetic waste materials

    DOEpatents

    Brummond, William A.; Upadhye, Ravindra S.

    1996-01-01

    An injector nozzle has been designed for safely injecting energetic waste materials, such as high explosives, propellants, and rocket fuels, into a molten salt reactor in a molten salt destruction process without premature detonation or back burn in the injection system. The energetic waste material is typically diluted to form a fluid fuel mixture that is injected rapidly into the reactor. A carrier gas used in the nozzle serves as a carrier for the fuel mixture, and further dilutes the energetic material and increases its injection velocity into the reactor. The injector nozzle is cooled to keep the fuel mixture below the decomposition temperature to prevent spontaneous detonation of the explosive materials before contact with the high-temperature molten salt bath.

  12. Non-destructive monitoring of river embankments using GPR

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    di Prinzio, Monica; Bittelli, Marco; Castellarin, Attilio; Rossi Pisa, Paola

    2010-05-01

    Non-destructive investigations and controls of civil structures are improving day by day, however the scientific literature reports only a few documented cases of Ground Penetrating Radar (GPR) applications to the detection of voids and discontinuities in hydraulic defense structures such as river embankments and levee systems. GPR can assist decision making in a number of fields by enhancing our knowledge of subsurface features. We applied successfully GPR to the monitoring of river levees for the detectioning of animal burrows in river levees, which may trigger levee failures by piping. The manageability and the non-invasivity of GPR have resulted to be particularly suitable for this application. First because GPR is an extensive investigation method that enables one to rapidly cover a wide area, locating voids that are difficult and costly to locate using other intrusive methods. Second, GPR returns detailed information about the possible presence of voids and discontinuities within river embankments.

  13. Climate change and habitat destruction: a deadly anthropogenic cocktail.

    PubMed

    Travis, J M J

    2003-03-07

    Climate change and habitat destruction are two of the greatest threats to global biodiversity. Lattice models have been used to investigate how hypothetical species with different characteristics respond to habitat loss. The main result shows that a sharp threshold in habitat availability exists below which a species rapidly becomes extinct. Here, a similar modelling approach is taken to establish what determines how species respond to climate change. A similar threshold exists for the rate of climate change as has been observed for habitat loss-patch occupancy remains high up to a critical rate of climate change, beyond which species extinction becomes likely. Habitat specialists, especially those of relatively poor colonizing ability are least able to keep pace with climate change. The interaction between climate change and habitat loss might be disastrous. During climate change, the habitat threshold occurs sooner. Similarly, species suffer more from climate change in a fragmented habitat.

  14. Explosive destruction system for disposal of chemical munitions

    DOEpatents

    Tschritter, Kenneth L [Livermore, CA; Haroldsen, Brent L [Manteca, CA; Shepodd, Timothy J [Livermore, CA; Stofleth, Jerome H [Albuquerque, NM; DiBerardo, Raymond A [Baltimore, MD

    2005-04-19

    An explosive destruction system and method for safely destroying explosively configured chemical munitions. The system comprises a sealable, gas-tight explosive containment vessel, a fragment suppression system positioned in said vessel, and shaped charge means for accessing the interior of the munition when the munition is placed within the vessel and fragment suppression system. Also provided is a means for treatment and neutralization of the munition's chemical fills, and means for heating and agitating the contents of the vessel. The system is portable, rapidly deployable and provides the capability of explosively destroying and detoxifying chemical munitions within a gas-tight enclosure so that there is no venting of toxic or hazardous chemicals during detonation.

  15. Immediate Cementless Hemiarthroplasty for Severe Destructive Glenohumeral Tuberculous Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kosiyatrakul, Arkaphat

    2013-01-01

    The glenohumeral joint tuberculosis (TB) is rare as compared with other joints. Plaster immobilization, arthrodesis, and resection arthroplasty have been proposed as the additional treatments with anti-TB medications in severe destructive arthritis. To our knowledge, however, the surgical treatment with shoulder arthroplasty has never been reported. We present two cases of active TB with unsalvageable glenohumeral joint. The cementless hemishoulder arthroplasties were performed immediately following the radical debridement. Anti-TB medications were given for 12 months after the surgery. Postoperatively, the patients were satisfied with the rapid symptomatic relief and significant functional recovery. With the follow-up period of 5 years, the operative results were still satisfactory and the reactivation of the infection was not detected. PMID:24167752

  16. Destructive and Non-Destructive Analysis Techniques for Failure Detection of QFN Packages

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Adhila, M. N.; Wedianti, S.; Suhaimi, W. S. W. M.; Aishah, I.

    2010-03-01

    One of the latest developments in packaging technology is the QFN (Quad Flat Non-Lead) packages, which is both a chip scale package and plastic encapsulated package with lead pad at the bottom. In this paper, different type of commercial QFN single die packages were characterized by using destructive and non-destructive techniques. Non-destructive techniques such as Scanning Acoustic Microscope (SAM) and X-Ray analysis were used to observe package cracking, delamination and other failure mode. Application of SAM include detection of delaminations between lead frame, die face, paddle, heat sink, cracks and plastic encapsulant. In comparison to other techniques, SAM is sensitive to detect beneath the surface of devices which would be inaccessible otherwise by both conventional optical and electron microscopy inspection methods. Destructive technique such as Field Emission Electron Microscopy (FESEM) was implemented to address the failures of the QFN single die packages such as die cracking, lifted ball bonds and other failure mode.

  17. Influence of flow variability on floodplain formation and destruction, Little Missouri River, North Dakota

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Miller, J.R.; Friedman, J.M.

    2009-01-01

    Resolving observations of channel change into separate planimetric measurements of floodplain formation and destruction reveals distinct relations between these processes and the flow regime. We analyzed a time sequence of eight bottomland images from 1939 to 2003 along the Little Missouri River, North Dakota, to relate geomorphic floodplain change to flow along this largely unregulated river. At the decadal scale, floodplain formation and destruction varied independently. Destruction was strongly positively correlated with the magnitude of infrequent high flows that recur every 5-10 yr, whereas floodplain formation was negatively correlated with the magnitude of frequent low flows exceeded 80% of the time. At the century scale, however, a climatically induced decrease in peak flows has reduced the destruction rate, limiting the area made available for floodplain formation. The rate of destruction was not uniform across the floodplain. Younger surfaces were consistently destroyed at a higher rate than older surfaces, suggesting that throughput of contaminants would have occurred more rapidly than predicted by models that assume uniform residence time of sediment across the floodplain. Maps of floodplain ages produced by analysis of sequential floodplain images are similar to maps of forest ages produced through dendrochronology, confirming the assumption of dendrogeomorphic studies that riparian tree establishment in this system is limited to recent channel locations. ?? 2009 Geological Society of America.

  18. Destruction of microbial collections in response to select agent and toxin list regulations.

    PubMed

    Casadevall, Arturo; Imperiale, Michael J

    2010-06-01

    In this study we have followed up on anecdotal and hearsay evidence that microbial collections were destroyed in the United States following the imposition of the regulations associated with the Select Agents and Toxins List, to validate or refute that information. Using a questionnaire, we documented 13 episodes of microbial collection destruction involving viral, bacterial, and fungal strains, which we believe is almost certainly an underestimate of the number of collections destroyed. In every case, the motivation for the destruction of the collection was a desire to avoid the perceived burdens of the regulatory environment associated with operating under the Select Agent Regulations. Some institutions that destroyed isolates considered, and in some cases tried, transferring their collections to registered institutions prior to collection destruction but desisted when confronted with transport regulations. Destruction of microbial collections represents a loss of strains and biological diversity available for biomedical research and future mechanistic, forensic, and epidemiologic investigations. Given the rapid evolution of microbial strains, the destruction of archival collections is a potentially irretrievable loss that was an unintended consequence of regulations to protect society against the nefarious use of biological agents. Furthermore, unregistered institutions continue to destroy newly acquired clinical isolates, thus preventing the establishment of new repository collections. We recommend that government agencies develop plans to ensure that microbial collections are preserved when considering future additions to microbial threat lists under which the possession of certain microbes is criminalized.

  19. Hybrid holographic non-destructive test system

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kurtz, R. L. (Inventor)

    1978-01-01

    An automatic hybrid holographic non-destructive testing (HNDT) method and system capable of detecting flaws or debonds contained within certain materials are described. This system incorporates the techniques of optical holography, acoustical/optical holography and holographic correlation in determining the structural integrity of a test object. An automatic processing system including a detector and automatic data processor is used in conjunction with the three holographic techniques for correlating and interpreting the information supplied by the non-destructive systems. The automatic system also includes a sensor which directly translates an optical data format produced by the holographic techniques into electrical signals and then transmits this information to a digital computer for indicating the structural properties of the test object. The computer interprets the data gathered and determines whether further testing is necessary as well as the format of this new testing procedure.

  20. Rapid Evaporation of microbubbles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gautam, Jitendra; Esmaeeli, Asghar

    2008-11-01

    When a liquid is heated to a temperature far above its boiling point, it evaporates abruptly. Boiling of liquid at high temperatures can be explosive and destructive, and poses a potential hazard for a host of industrial processes. Explosive boiling may occur if a cold and volatile liquid is brought into contact with a hot and non-volatile liquid, or if a liquid is superheated or depressurized rapidly. Such possibilities are realized, for example, in the depressurization of low boiling point liquefied natural gas (LNG) in the pipelines or storage tanks as a result of a leak. While boiling of highly heated liquids can be destructive at macroscale, the (nearly) instantaneous pace of the process and the release of large amount of kinetic energy make the phenomena extremely attractive at microscale where it is possible to utilize the released energy to derive micromechanical systems. For instance, there is currently a growing interest in micro-explosion of liquid for generation of micro bubbles for actuation purposes. The aim of the current study is to gain a fundamental understanding of the subject using direct numerical simulations. In particular, we seek to investigate the boundary between stable and unstable nucleus growth in terms of the degree of liquid superheat and to compare the dynamics of unstable and stable growth.

  1. Radiation-thermal destruction of cellulose

    SciTech Connect

    Ershov, B.G.; Samuilova, S.D.; Petropavlovskii, G.A.; Vasil'eva, G.G.

    1984-01-01

    A method of reducing the degree of polymerization of cellulose is explored. The cellulose is irradiated with gamma radiation from a /sup 60/Co source. The temperature is controlled between 303-433/sup 0/K. The temperature dependence of the depolymerization is described graphically. The radiation destruction of cellulose is accompanied by the formation of carboxyl and carbonyl groups. The carbonyl concentration is considerably higher than carboxyl at all temperatures. The concentrations of these groups increases with increasing temperature.

  2. Molten salt destruction of base hydrolysate

    SciTech Connect

    Watkins, B.E.; Kanna, R.L.; Chambers, R.D.; Upadhye, R.S.; Promeda, C.O.

    1996-10-01

    There is a great need for alternatives to open burn/open detonation of explosives and propellants from dismantled munitions. LANL has investigated the use of base hydrolysis for the demilitarization of explosives. Hydrolysates of Comp B, Octol, Tritonal, and PBXN-109 were processed in the pilot molten salt unit (in building 191). NOx and CO emissions were found to be low, except for CO from PBXN-109 processing. This report describes experimental results of the destruction of the base hydrolysates.

  3. Freon destruction in a nanosecond corona discharge

    SciTech Connect

    Akhmedzhanov, R.A.; Vikharev, A.L.; Gorbachev, A.M.

    1995-12-31

    One of the main reasons for destruction of the ozone layer is high content of freon in the Earth atmosphere. The life time of chlorofluorocarbons (CFC) in the stratosphere is tens of years, therefore, along with abandonment of the use of CFC compositions. of importance is the search for efficient ways to purify both industrial gaseous wastes and the atmosphere proper from pollution. Among various purification methods the most promising seems to be the method based on freon destruction during processes of dissociative electron attachment. Freon molecules in this case are destroyed selectively mainly at the stage of plasma decay by cold electrons, for which the constant of dissociative attachment is especially high (k{sub a} = 10{sup -7} - 10{sup -9}cm{sup 3}/s). By that, as the source of electrons we propose using nanosecond discharges with a high level of the reduced electric field, E/N, when the main share of the pulse energy goes into ionization, and gas heating is insignificant. These requirements are best met by the use of barrier and pulse corona discharge, which are widely employed for ozone generation and purification of gaseous wastes. Plasma of such discharges is composed of chaotically arising nanosecond microdischarges. The possibility to purify atmosphere from freons directly by means of a nanosecond microwave discharge produced the troposphere by ground-based sources is also studied. An important problem for the said applications, along with estimation of efficiency of freon destruction is determination of chemical composition of the products that appear at the post-discharge stage as the result of plasma chemical reaction. This presentation gives results of experimental studies of freon destruction in a pulse-periodic nanosecond corona discharge.

  4. Technologies Underlying Weapons of Mass Destruction

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1993-12-01

    Safeguards and the Civilian Nuclear Fuel Cycle 181 Appendix 4-D: Dual -Use Export Controls 191 5 The Proliferation of Delivery Systems summary 198...to which ‘‘ dual -use’ technologies or products—those also having legitimate applications-are involved in the devel- opment of weapons of mass...destruction is important, since both the feasibility of controlling dual -use items and the implications of doing so depend on the extent of their other

  5. Non-Destructive Evaluation of Aerospace Composites

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-03-01

    Master of Science in Materials Science Jeremy D. Johnson, BS Captain, USAF March 2009 APPROVED FOR PUBLIC RELEASE; DISTRIBUTION UNLIMITED...non-destructive material evaluation (NDE) were used to inspect various forms of damage commonly found in aerospace fiberglass composites: voids...ultrasound, and flash IR thermography were analyzed for the detection of defects. Test results and analysis of each NDE method’s capabilities

  6. Emergency Destruction of Information Storing Media

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-12-01

    Section G HEAT and INCINERATION APPENDIX H- DESTRUCT TECHNOLOGY COMlPENDIM Section A SHREDDERS Section B PULVERIZERS Section C HAMMERMILLS Section D...Mechanical mutilation devices that are based on cutting can be grouped into three cate- gories: shredders, rotary knife mills, and hammermills . The...by the rotating blades and passed through the cutting stage again. c. Hammermiils A hammermill is a device that destroys material by pounding it

  7. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will accept... accredited veterinarian attesting to the destruction of the animals; (d) A written, sworn statement by the...

  8. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Schottky Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Megan C.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Wilcox, Edward P.; Phan, Anthony M.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2014-01-01

    This presentation contains test results for destructive failures in DC-DC converters. We have shown that Schottky diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects. Future work will be completed to identify parameter that determines diode susceptibility.

  9. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  10. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  11. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of...

  12. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  13. Facing towards or Turning away from Destructive Narcissism

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Flynn, Denis; Skogstad, Helga

    2006-01-01

    This paper presents a detailed theoretical discussion of destructive narcissism in relation to Freud and Rosenfeld and later theorists. In destructive narcissism, the destructiveness is itself idealised and overrides "the vital functions which serve the purpose of self-preservation" (Freud, S., 1914, "On narcissism" S.E. 14: 87)--a feature which…

  14. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  15. 7 CFR 160.9 - Destructively distilled wood turpentine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destructively distilled wood turpentine. 160.9 Section... REGULATIONS AND STANDARDS FOR NAVAL STORES General § 160.9 Destructively distilled wood turpentine. The designation “destructively distilled wood turpentine” shall refer to the kind of spirits of turpentine...

  16. Bone mineral density in patients with destructive arthrosis of the hip joint.

    PubMed

    Okano, Kunihiko; Aoyagi, Kiyoshi; Enomoto, Hiroshi; Osaki, Makoto; Chiba, Ko; Yamaguchi, Kazumasa

    2014-05-01

    Recent reports have shown the existence of subchondral insufficiency fracture in rapidly destructive arthrosis of the hip joint (RDA), and the findings suggest that osteopenia is related to the pathogenesis of the rapid progression of this disease. Therefore, we measured bone mineral density (BMD) in RDA patients. We measured BMD of the lumbar spine, radius, and calcaneus using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry in 19 patients with RDA and 75 with osteoarthritis of the hip (OA) and compared BMD at different skeletal sites between RDA and OA patients. No significant differences were observed in BMD of the lumbar spine, ultradistal radius, mid-radius, and calcaneous between the RDA and OA groups. Our data suggest that RDA is not accompanied by generalized osteoporosis. Factors other than generalized bone status, for example, BMD around the affected hip joint before destruction, need to be analyzed to elucidate the pathophysiological mechanism of RDA.

  17. Polymer mechanochemistry: from destructive to productive.

    PubMed

    Li, Jun; Nagamani, Chikkannagari; Moore, Jeffrey S

    2015-08-18

    When one brings "polymeric materials" and "mechanical action" into the same conversation, the topic of this discussion might naturally focus on everyday circumstances such as failure of fibers, fatigue of composites, abrasion of coatings, etc. This intuitive viewpoint reflects the historic consensus in both academia and industry that mechanically induced chemical changes are destructive, leading to polymer degradation that limits materials lifetime on both macroscopic and molecular levels. In the 1930s, Staudinger observed mechanical degradation of polymers, and Melville later discovered that polymer chain scission caused the degradation. Inspired by these historical observations, we sought to redirect the destructive mechanical energy to a productive form that enables mechanoresponsive functions. In this Account, we provide a personal perspective on the origin, barriers, developments, and key advancements of polymer mechanochemistry. We revisit the seminal events that offered molecular-level insights into the mechanochemical behavior of polymers and influenced our thinking. We also highlight the milestones achieved by our group along with the contributions from key comrades at the frontier of this field. We present a workflow for the design, evaluation, and development of new "mechanophores", a term that has come to mean a molecular unit that chemically responds in a selective manner to a mechanical perturbation. We discuss the significance of computation in identifying pairs of points on the mechanophore that promote stretch-induced activation. Attaching polymer chains to the mechanophore at the most sensitive pair and locating the mechanophore near the center of a linear polymer are thought to maximize the efficiency of mechanical-to-chemical energy transduction. We also emphasize the importance of control experiments to validate mechanochemical transformations, both in solution and in the solid state, to differentiate "mechanical" from "thermal" activation

  18. Destruction of Refractory Carbon in Protoplanetary Disks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anderson, Dana E.; Bergin, Edwin A.; Blake, Geoffrey A.; Ciesla, Fred J.; Visser, Ruud; Lee, Jeong-Eun

    2017-08-01

    The Earth and other rocky bodies in the inner solar system contain significantly less carbon than the primordial materials that seeded their formation. These carbon-poor objects include the parent bodies of primitive meteorites, suggesting that at least one process responsible for solid-phase carbon depletion was active prior to the early stages of planet formation. Potential mechanisms include the erosion of carbonaceous materials by photons or atomic oxygen in the surface layers of the protoplanetary disk. Under photochemically generated favorable conditions, these reactions can deplete the near-surface abundance of carbon grains and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons by several orders of magnitude on short timescales relative to the lifetime of the disk out to radii of ˜20-100+ au from the central star depending on the form of refractory carbon present. Due to the reliance of destruction mechanisms on a high influx of photons, the extent of refractory carbon depletion is quite sensitive to the disk’s internal radiation field. Dust transport within the disk is required to affect the composition of the midplane. In our current model of a passive, constant-α disk, where α = 0.01, carbon grains can be turbulently lofted into the destructive surface layers and depleted out to radii of ˜3-10 au for 0.1-1 μm grains. Smaller grains can be cleared out of the planet-forming region completely. Destruction may be more effective in an actively accreting disk or when considering individual grain trajectories in non-idealized disks.

  19. FIRST 100 T NON-DESTRUCTIVE MAGNET

    SciTech Connect

    J. R. SIMS; ET AL

    1999-10-01

    The first 100 T non-destructive (100 T ND) magnet and power supplies as currently designed are described. This magnet will be installed as part of the user facility research equipment at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory (NHMFL) Pulsed Field Facility at Los Alamos National Laboratory. The 100 T ND magnet will provide a 100 T pulsed field of 5 ms duration (above 90% of full field) in a 15 mm diameter bore once per hour. Magnet operation will be non-destructive. The magnet will consist of a controlled power outer coil set which produces a 47 T platform field in a 225 mm diameter bore. Located within the outer coil set will be a 220 mm outer diameter capacitor powered insert coil. Using inertial energy storage a synchronous motor/generator will provide ac power to a set of seven ac-dc converters rated at 64 MW/80 MVA each. These converters will energize three independent coil circuits to create 170 MJ of field energy in the outer coil set at the platform field of 47 T. The insert will then be energized to produce the balance of the 100 T peak field using a 2.3 MJ, 18 kV (charged to 15 kV), 14.4 mF capacitor bank controlled with solid-state switches. The magnet will be the first of its kind and the first non-destructive, reusable 100 T pulsed magnet. The operation of the magnet will be described along with special features of its design and construction.

  20. Biologic and chemical weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Bozeman, William P; Dilbero, Deanna; Schauben, Jay L

    2002-11-01

    Weapons of mass destruction (WMDs) are capable of producing massive casualties and are typically grouped into nuclear, biologic, and chemical weapons. In the wake of the September 11th disasters, attention to terrorist groups and the potential for use of WMDs has increased. Biologic and chemical weapons are relatively accessible and inexpensive to develop, and are thought to be the most available to foreign states and subnational terrorist groups. This article reviews various biologic and chemical weapons, including emergency diagnosis and management of selected agents.

  1. Anode materials for electrochemical waste destruction

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Molton, Peter M.; Clarke, Clayton

    1990-01-01

    Electrochemical Oxidation (ECO) offers promise as a low-temperature, atmospheric pressure method for safe destruction of hazardous organic chemical wastes in water. Anode materials tend to suffer corrosion in the intensely oxidizing environment of the ECO cell. There is a need for cheaper, more resistant materials. In this experiment, a system is described for testing anode materials, with examples of several common anodes such as stainless steel, graphite, and platinized titanium. The ECO system is simple and safe to operate and the experiment can easily be expanded in scope to study the effects of different solutions, temperatures, and organic materials.

  2. Constraining Tidal Dissipation in Stars and Destruction Rates of Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jackson, Brian; Penev, K.; Barnes, R.

    2011-01-01

    Several recent studies have shown that the orbits of most transiting extra-solar planets, with periods of order a few days, are not stable against tidal decay. If the host star rotates slowly enough, tidal dissipation within the star causes the planet to spiral in over many millions or billions of years. Because the rate of tidal decay increases rapidly as orbital semi-major axis drops, planets that start out very close to their host stars are quickly destroyed, while planets farther out require more time. We calculate the times left for known transiting exoplanets as a function of the rate of tidal dissipation within the host star. For a population of such planets, we expect to observe a minority of planets near the end of their lives since those planets will only survive for a short time more. For an assumed tidal dissipation rate, if we find instead that a majority of transiting planets have only a small fraction of the lifetimes left before destruction, we can conclude the assumed tidal dissipation rate is too large. Thus, we can estimate the rate of tidal dissipation within planet-hosting stars by considering the distributions of times left of transiting planets for a range of assumed dissipation rates. We must also account for important selection and observational biases. Our results based on such an analysis suggest stellar dissipation rates corresponding to tidal Q-values of 106 and larger are consistent with observations, while values of 105 and smaller are not. Given these constraints, we estimate the rates of tidal destruction of transiting exoplanets.

  3. Destruction of energetic materials by supercritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Beulow, S.J.; Dyer, R.B.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Oldenborg, R.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Sanchez, J.A.; Spontarelli, T.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation is a relatively low-temperature process that can give high destruction efficiencies for a variety of hazardous chemical wastes. Results are presented examining the destruction of high explosives and propellants in supercritical water and the use of low temperature, low pressure hydrolysis as a pretreatment process. Reactions of cyclotrimethylene trinitramine (RDX), cyclotetramethylene tetranitramine (HMX), nitroguanidine (NQ), pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN), and 2,4,6-trinitrotoluene (TNT) are examined in a flow reactor operated at temperatures between 400{degrees}C and 650{degrees}C. Explosives are introduced into the reactor at concentrations below the solubility limits. For each of the compounds, over 99.9% is destroyed in less than 30 seconds at temperatures above 600{degrees}C. The reactions produce primarily N{sub 2}, N{sub 2}O,CO{sub 2}, and some nitrate and nitrite ions. The distribution of reaction products depends on reactor pressure, temperature, and oxidizer concentration. Kinetics studies of the reactions of nitrate and nitrite ions with various reducing reagents in supercritical water show that they can be rapidly and completely destroyed at temperatures above 525{degrees}C. The use of slurries and hydrolysis to introduce high concentrations of explosives into a supercritical water reactor is examined. For some compounds the rate of reaction depends on particle size. The hydrolysis of explosives at low temperatures (<100{degrees}C) and low pressures (<1 atm) under basic conditions produces water soluble, non-explosive products which are easily destroyed by supercritical water oxidation. Large pieces of explosives (13 cm diameter) have been successfully hydrolyzed. The rate, extent, and products of the hydrolysis depend on the type and concentration of base. Results from the base hydrolysis of triple base propellant M31A1E1 and the subsequent supercritical water oxidation of the hydrolysis products are presented.

  4. EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION CATALYST TESTING

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2008-07-30

    The 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) main treatment train includes the peroxide destruction module (PDM) where the hydrogen peroxide residual from the upstream ultraviolet light/hydrogen peroxide oxidation unit is destroyed. Removal of the residual peroxide is necessary to protect downstream membranes from the strong oxidizer. The main component of the PDM is two reaction vessels utilizing granular activated carbon (GAC) as the reaction media. The PDM experienced a number of operability problems, including frequent plugging, and has not been utilized since the ETF changed to groundwater as the predominant feed. The unit seemed to be underperforming in regards to peroxide removal during the early periods of operation as well. It is anticipated that a functional PDM will be required for wastewater from the vitrification plant and other future streams. An alternate media or methodology needs to be identified to replace the GAC in the PDMs. This series of bench scale tests is to develop information to support an engineering study on the options for replacement of the existing GAC method for peroxide destruction at the ETF. A number of different catalysts will be compared as well as other potential methods such as strong reducing agents. The testing should lead to general conclusions on the viability of different catalysts and identify candidates for further study and evaluation.

  5. Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease

    PubMed Central

    José Ricardo Kina; Yumi Umeda Suzuki, Thaís; Fumico Umeda Kina, Eunice; Kina, Juliana; Kina, Mônica

    2016-01-01

    Background: Non-Inflammatory Destructive Periodontal Disease (NIDPD), is a severe destructive periodontal disease, that is characterized by the attachment loss and alveolar bone loss, without signs of the gingival inflammation, and the periodontal pocket development. Objective: Despite the fact that various cases of NIDPD have been reported; their etiology and disease evolution is still indefinite, and therefore, are open for discussion. Method: An NIDPD case was studied in order to demonstrate features of the disease, and discuss the possible etiology and treatment. Results: In this clinical case, the etiology of NIDPD seems to be an association of endogenous opportunist bacteria with anatomical aspects, occlusion pattern, emotional stress and mouth breathing condition. Conclusion: In spite of all cases described in the literature are comparable and may have similar etiology as related in this clinical case, additional research is needed to identify and clarify the role of the etiologic factors which determine the disease. PMID:27053968

  6. Brittle Destruction of Carbon Based Materials

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koza, Y.; Amouroux, S.; Bazylev, B. N.; Berthe, E.; Kuehnlein, W.; Linke, J.; Penkalla, H. J.; Singheiser, L.

    Erosion mechanisms for different carbon based materials (graphite, carbon fiber composites (CFCs), Si-doped CFC) have been studied under brittle destruction under intense transient thermal loads (ELMs, plasma disruptions, VDEs) with respect to material erosion in different particle emission regimes, characterization of emitted particles, and behavior of preheated samples. Furthermore, the experimental data were compared with 3-D numerical simulation on the onset of brittle destruction. From a morphological point of view, the resulting erosion patterns on the test samples and ejected particles differ significantly for the three materials. The isotropic graphite shows a homogeneous erosion profile with flat craters, while the CFC forms no crater and only preferential erosion in localized spots in the PAN fiber area while the pitch fiber strands remain almost undamaged. The particles originating from graphite samples which have been collected on TEM grids are composed of nano sized amorphous carbon. CFCs have been the source for sub Î 1/4 m sized agglomerated fragments of crystalline carbon or silicon particles with âe 1/4 50 nm diameter. Preheating of the test samples to 500 or 800°C results in a remarkable increase of the erosion depth and weight loss compared to the samples loaded at room temperature and identical heat fluxes. In particular, melting phenomena in the Si-doped CFC materials became essential at elevated temperatures.

  7. Complementary Electromagnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, Gui Yun; Wilson, John; Morozov, Maxim

    2011-06-01

    The use of non-destructive evaluation (NDE) for defect detection and failure prediction in structures and specimens is widespread in energy industries, aimed at ageing power plants and pipelines, material degradation, fatigue and radiation damage, etc. At present there are no suitable electromagnetic NDE methods for the measurement and characterization of material degradation, in irradiated samples in particular, which is very important and timely for the nuclear power industry in the UK. This paper reports recent developments in the field of electromagnetic (EM) NDE at Newcastle University, including pulsed eddy current (PEC), pulsed magnetic flux leakage (PMFL), magnetic Barkhausen emission (MBE) and magneto-acoustic emission (MAE). As different EM methods have different strengths, an integrative EM framework is introduced. Case studies through the second round robin tests organized by the Universal Network for Magnetic Non-Destructive Evaluation (UNMNDE), representing eighteen leading research groups worldwide in the area of electromagnetic NDE, are reported. Twelve samples with different ageing times and rolling reduction ratios were tested using different magnetic methods among the UNMNDE members. Based on the studies, the complementary characteristics of electromagnetic techniques for NDE are discussed.

  8. MUCORMYCOSIS IN SEVERELY BURNED PATIENTS. REPORT OF TWO CASES PRESENTING EXTENSIVE DESTRUCTION OF THE FACE AND NASAL CAVITY

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Two cases of fatal mucormycosis presenting rapid widespread destruction of the face and nasal cavity are reported as a complication of extensive...recognition of mucormycosis infection depends upon its distinctive dry, black, ischemic necrosis of the face and nasal cavity with early spread to the orbit

  9. Autoimmune melanocyte destruction is required for robust CD8+ memory T cell responses to mouse melanoma

    PubMed Central

    Byrne, Katelyn T.; Côté, Anik L.; Zhang, Peisheng; Steinberg, Shannon M.; Guo, Yanxia; Allie, Rameeza; Zhang, Weijun; Ernstoff, Marc S.; Usherwood, Edward J.; Turk, Mary Jo

    2011-01-01

    A link between autoimmunity and improved antitumor immunity has long been recognized, although the exact mechanistic relationship between these two phenomena remains unclear. In the present study we have found that vitiligo, the autoimmune destruction of melanocytes, generates self antigen required for mounting persistent and protective memory CD8+ T cell responses to melanoma. Vitiligo developed in approximately 60% of mice that were depleted of regulatory CD4+ T cells and then subjected to surgical excision of large established B16 melanomas. Mice with vitiligo generated 10-fold larger populations of CD8+ memory T cells specific for shared melanoma/melanocyte antigens. CD8+ T cells in mice with vitiligo acquired phenotypic and functional characteristics of effector memory, suggesting that they were supported by ongoing antigen stimulation. Such responses were not generated in melanocyte-deficient mice, indicating a requirement for melanocyte destruction in maintaining CD8+ T cell immunity to melanoma. Vitiligo-associated memory CD8+ T cells provided durable tumor protection, were capable of mounting a rapid recall response to melanoma, and did not demonstrate phenotypic or functional signs of exhaustion even after many months of exposure to antigen. This work establishes melanocyte destruction as a key determinant of lasting melanoma-reactive immune responses, thus illustrating that immune-mediated destruction of normal tissues can perpetuate adaptive immune responses to cancer. PMID:21540555

  10. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning. Revision 1

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-11-02

    As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process has been demonstrated for the destruction of HE and HE-containing wastes. MSD converts the organic constituents of the waste into non-hazardous substances such as carbon dioxide, nitrogen and water. Any inorganic constituents of the waste, such as binders and metallic particles, are retained in the molten salt. LLNL has built a small-scale (about 1 kg/hr throughput) unit to test the destruction of HE using the MSD process. The authors have demonstrated that HE`s and liquid propellants can be safely and fully destroyed using the molten salt destruction process. The authors are currently working on a number of improvements to the process. They are modifying the design of unit to obtain more throughput without any increase in salt entrainment. They are implementing an advanced nozzle design for injection of larger particles. They are defining operating envelopes for a number of high explosives and formulations. They are developing models to study the temperature profile of a top-feed nozzle for feeding larger particles into the unit.

  11. Staphylococcus lugdunensis endocarditis with destruction of the ventricular septum and multiple native valves.

    PubMed

    Ishiekwene, Celestine; Ghitan, Monica; Kuhn-Basti, Margaret; Chapnick, Edward; Lin, Yu Shia

    2017-01-01

    Staphylococcus lugdunensis (S. lugdunensis) is a coagulase negative staphylococcus (CoNS) that can cause destructive infective endocarditis. S. lugdunensis, unlike other CoNS, should be considered to be a pathogen. We report the first case of S. lugdunensis endocarditis causing ventricular septal defect and destruction of the aortic and mitral valves. A 53-year-old male with morbid obesity and COPD presented with intermittent fever and progressive shortness of breath for 2 weeks. Chest examination showed bilateral basal crepitations, and a grade 2 systolic murmur along the right sternal border. The leukocyte count was 26,000 cells/μl with 89% neutrophils. He was treated with intravenous vancomycin and ceftriaxone. Blood cultures grew Staphylococcus lugdunensis. Transthoracic echocardiogram, which was limited by body habitus, showed no definite valvular vegetations. Repeat transthoracic echocardiogram performed one week later revealed a large aortic valve vegetation Vancomycin was switched to daptomycin on day 4 because of difficulty achieving therapeutic levels of vancomycin and the development of renal insufficiency. Open heart surgery on day 10 revealed aortic valve and mitral valve vegetations with destruction, left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) septal abscess and ventricular septal defect (VSD). Bio-prosthetic aortic and mitral valve replacement, LVOT and VSD repair were done. Intraoperative cultures grew Staphylococcus lugdunensis. The patient was discharged home with daptomycin to complete 6 weeks of treatment. S. lugdunensis can cause rapidly progressive endocarditis with valve and septal destruction. Early diagnosis and therapy are essential, with consideration of valve replacement.

  12. Hypergolic Propellant Destruction Evaluation Cost Benefit Analysis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kessel, Kurt

    2010-01-01

    At space vehicle launch sites such as Vandenberg Air Force Base (VAFB), Cape Canaveral Air Force Station (CCAFS) and Kennedy Space Center (KSC), toxic vapors and hazardous liquid wastes result from the handling of commodities (hypergolic fuels and oxidizers), most notably from transfer operations where fuel and oxidizer are transferred from bulk storage tanks or transfer tankers to space launch vehicles. During commodity transfer at CCAFS and KSC, wet chemical scrubbers (typically containing four scrubbing towers) are used to neutralize fuel saturated vapors from vent systems on tanks and tanker trailers. For fuel vapors, a citric acid solution is used to scrub out most of the hydrazine. Operation of both the hypergolic fuel and oxidizer vapor scrubbers generates waste scrubber liquor. Currently, scrubber liquor from the fuel vapor scrubber is considered non-hazardous. The scrubber liquor is defined as spent citric acid scrubber solution; the solution contains complexed hydrazine I methylhydrazine and is used to neutralize nonspecification hypergolic fuel generated by CCAFS and KSC. This project is a collaborative effort between Air Force Space Command (AFSPC), Space and Missile Center (SMC), the CCAFS, and National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) to evaluate microwave destruction technology for the treatment of non-specification hypergolic fuel generated at CCAFS and KSC. The project will capitalize on knowledge gained from microwave treatment work being accomplished by AFSPC and SMC at V AFB. This report focuses on the costs associated with the current non-specification hypergolic fuel neutralization process (Section 2.0) as well as the estimated costs of operating a mobile microwave unit to treat non-specification hypergolic fuel (Section 3.0), and compares the costs for each (Section 4.0).The purpose of this document is to assess the costs associated with waste hypergolic fuel. This document will report the costs associated with the current fuel

  13. [Rapidly vanishing hip--a mystery].

    PubMed

    Keren, Yaniv; Sigal, Amit; Greental, Arnan; Vlodavsky, Euvgeni; Soudry, Michael; Militianu, Daniela

    2013-01-01

    Rapidly destructive hip disease is a rare condition, the cause of which is yet to be clarified, and is described in the literature by scant case reports. The disease was first described by Forestier in 1957, and since then many names have been proposed to describe the rapid vanishing of the femoral head, and occasionally the acetabulum. This condition initially represents as acute hip pain, and rapidly progresses to complete vanishing of the proximal femur, within a few months. We briefly discuss the literature regarding this phenomenon, and describe a case of a female patient who suffered from complete disappearance of the femoral head within 9 weeks.

  14. Organic waste destruction by indirect electrooxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Leffrang, U.; Ebert, K.; Flory, K.

    1995-04-01

    The destruction of organic model substances by indirect electrooxidation was investigated. The oxidation agent Co(III) was used because of the high redox potential of the Co(III)/Co(II) redox couple (E{sub O}=1.808 V). Experiments were performed in a batch and in a continuous electrolytic cell by using various model substances (especially phenol and different chlorophenols). Intermediate and final products of the oxidation were identified and quantified. Organic carbon is ultimately transformed to CO{sub 2} and to small amounts of CO. The residual carbon in the process solution was determined by TOC measurement to be about 20 ppm. Organic chlorine is oxidized via chlorate to perchlorate. The remaining amount of adsorbable organic halogens (AOX) was less than 3 ppm. Based on these results, a pilot plant was constructed and is presently in operation.

  15. Developmentally programmed nuclear destruction during yeast gametogenesis.

    PubMed

    Eastwood, Michael D; Cheung, Sally W T; Lee, Kwan Yin; Moffat, Jason; Meneghini, Marc D

    2012-07-17

    Autophagy controls cellular catabolism in diverse eukaryotes and modulates programmed cell death in plants and animals. While studies of the unicellular yeast Saccharomyces cerevisiae have provided fundamental insights into the mechanisms of autophagy, the roles of cell death pathways in yeast are less well understood. Here, we describe widespread developmentally programmed nuclear destruction (PND) events that occur during yeast gametogenesis. PND is executed through apoptotic-like DNA fragmentation in coordination with an unusual form of autophagy that is most similar to mammalian lysosomal membrane permeabilization and mega-autophagy, a form of plant autophagic cell death. Undomesticated strains execute gametogenic PND broadly in maturing colonies to the apparent benefit of sibling cells, confirming its prominence during the yeast life cycle. Our results reveal that diverse cell-death-related processes converge during gametogenesis in a microbe distantly related to plants or animals, highlighting gametogenesis as a process during which programmed cell death mechanisms may have evolved.

  16. Non-destructive testing method and apparatus

    DOEpatents

    Akers, Douglas W [Idaho Falls, ID

    2011-10-04

    Non-destructive testing apparatus may comprise a photon source and a source material that emits positrons in response to bombardment of the source material with photons. The source material is positionable adjacent the photon source and a specimen so that when the source material is positioned adjacent the photon source it is exposed to photons produced thereby. When the source material is positioned adjacent the specimen, the specimen is exposed to at least some of the positrons emitted by the source material. A detector system positioned adjacent the specimen detects annihilation gamma rays emitted by the specimen. Another embodiment comprises a neutron source and a source material that emits positrons in response to neutron bombardment.

  17. Destructive Single-Event Failures in Diodes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Casey, Megan C.; Gigliuto, Robert A.; Lauenstein, Jean-Marie; Wilcox, Edward P.; Kim, Hak; Chen, Dakai; Phan, Anthony M.; LaBel, Kenneth A.

    2013-01-01

    In this summary, we have shown that diodes are susceptible to destructive single-event effects, and that these failures occur along the guard ring. By determining the last passing voltages, a safe operating area can be derived. By derating off of those values, rather than by the rated voltage, like what is currently done with power MOSFETs, we can work to ensure the safety of future missions. However, there are still open questions about these failures. Are they limited to a single manufacturer, a small number, or all of them? Is there a threshold rated voltage that must be exceeded to see these failures? With future work, we hope to answer these questions. In the full paper, laser results will also be presented to verify that failures only occur along the guard ring.

  18. Is work conducive to self-destruction?

    PubMed

    Karcher, C J; Linden, L L

    1982-01-01

    While the current literature contains numerous studies and even more numerous assumptions linking aspects of the work setting, stress, and mortality; no systematic investigation has been made of possible patterns of stress-induced self-destructive behaviors among the work settings per se. This research paper attempts to help fill that gap by reporting on an analysis of data on industry, age and mortality rates for seven stress-related causes of death (suicide, homocide, hypertensive heart disease, cirrhosis of the liver, arteriosclerotic heart disease, ulcer of the stomach, and hypertension). Using available United States' mortality statistics, a consistent pattern is found for all of the stress-related types of deaths by industry and age. A suggested explanation of this pattern is based on status integration theory.

  19. NON-DESTRUCTIVE FLAW DETECTION APPARATUS

    DOEpatents

    Stateman, M.J.; Holloway, H.R.

    1957-12-17

    An apparatus is described for the non-destructive detection of flaws in electrical conducting articles. The particular feature of the detection apparatus is that a flaw in the front or back of the test article will not be masked by signals caused by the passage of the end and front of the article through the detection apparatus. The present invention alleviates the above problem by mounting detection coils on directly opposite sides of the test passageway so that the axes of the pickup coils are perpendicular to the axis of an energizing coil through which the article is passed. A flaw in the article will cause a change in the voltage induced in one pickup coil, but passage of the end or front of the article will not produce unequal signals. The signals are compared in appropriate electrical circuitry to actuate a recorder only when unequal signals are present, indicating the presence of a flaw.

  20. Non-destructive evaluation of composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Chu, Tsuchin Philip

    1996-01-01

    The composite materials have been used in aerospace industries for quite some time. Several non-destructive evaluation (NDE) methods have been developed to inspect composites in order to detect flaws, matrix cracking, and delamination. These methods include ultrasonics, acoustic emission, shearography, thermography, X-ray, and digital image correlation. The NDE Branch of Marshall Space Flight Center has recently acquired a thermal imaging NDE system. The same system has been used at NASA Langley Research Center for detecting disbonds. In order to compare different NDE methods, three carbon/carbon composite panels were used for experiment using ultrasonic C-scan, shearography, and thermography methods. These panels have teflon inserts to simulate the delamination between plies in a composite panel. All three methods have successfully located the insert. The experiment and results are presented in the following sections.

  1. Worse than enemies. The CEO's destructive confidant.

    PubMed

    Sulkowicz, Kerry J

    2004-02-01

    The CEO is often the most isolated and protected employee in the organization. Few leaders, even veteran CEOs, can do the job without talking to someone about their experiences, which is why most develop a close relationship with a trusted colleague, a confidant to whom they can tell their thoughts and fears. In his work with leaders, the author has found that many CEO-confidant relationships function very well. The confidants keep their leaders' best interests at heart. They derive their gratification vicariously, through the help they provide rather than through any personal gain, and they are usually quite aware that a person in their position can potentially abuse access to the CEO's innermost secrets. Unfortunately, almost as many confidants will end up hurting, undermining, or otherwise exploiting CEOs when the executives are at their most vulnerable. These confidants rarely make the headlines, but behind the scenes they do enormous damage to the CEO and to the organization as a whole. What's more, the leader is often the last one to know when or how the confidant relationship became toxic. The author has identified three types of destructive confidants. The reflector mirrors the CEO, constantly reassuring him that he is the "fairest CEO of them all." The insulator buffers the CEO from the organization, preventing critical information from getting in or out. And the usurper cunningly ingratiates himself with the CEO in a desperate bid for power. This article explores how the CEO-confidant relationship plays out with each type of adviser and suggests ways CEOs can avoid these destructive relationships.

  2. Galaxy simulation with dust formation and destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoyama, Shohei; Hou, Kuan-Chou; Shimizu, Ikkoh; Hirashita, Hiroyuki; Todoroki, Keita; Choi, Jun-Hwan; Nagamine, Kentaro

    2017-04-01

    We perform smoothed particle hydrodynamics (SPH) simulations of an isolated galaxy with a new treatment for dust formation and destruction. To this aim, we treat dust and metal production self-consistently with star formation and supernova (SN) feedback. For dust, we consider a simplified model of grain size distribution by representing the entire range of grain sizes with large and small grains. We include dust production in stellar ejecta, dust destruction by SN shocks, grain growth by accretion and coagulation and grain disruption by shattering. We find that the assumption of fixed dust-to-metal mass ratio becomes no longer valid when the galaxy is older than 0.2 Gyr, at which point the grain growth by accretion starts to contribute to the non-linear rise of dust-to-gas ratio. As expected in our previous one-zone model, shattering triggers grain growth by accretion since it increases the total surface area of grains. Coagulation becomes significant when the galaxy age is greater than ∼ 1 Gyr; at this epoch, the abundance of small grains becomes high enough to raise the coagulation rate of small grains. We further compare the radial profiles of dust-to-gas ratio (D) and dust-to-metal ratio (D/Z, i.e. depletion) at various ages with observational data. We find that our simulations broadly reproduce the radial gradients of dust-to-gas ratio and depletion. In the early epoch (≲ 0.3 Gyr), the radial gradient of D follows the metallicity gradient with D/Z determined by the dust condensation efficiency in stellar ejecta, while the D gradient is steeper than the Z gradient at the later epochs because of grain growth by accretion. The framework developed in this paper is applicable to any SPH-based galaxy evolution simulations including cosmological ones.

  3. Hypoxia and tissue destruction in pulmonary TB

    PubMed Central

    Belton, Moerida; Brilha, Sara; Manavaki, Roido; Mauri, Francesco; Nijran, Kuldip; Hong, Young T; Patel, Neva H; Dembek, Marcin; Tezera, Liku; Green, Justin; Moores, Rachel; Aigbirhio, Franklin; Al-Nahhas, Adil; Fryer, Tim D; Elkington, Paul T; Friedland, Jon S

    2016-01-01

    Background It is unknown whether lesions in human TB are hypoxic or whether this influences disease pathology. Human TB is characterised by extensive lung destruction driven by host matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), particularly collagenases such as matrix metalloproteinase-1 (MMP-1). Methods We investigated tissue hypoxia in five patients with PET imaging using the tracer [18F]-fluoromisonidazole ([18F]FMISO) and by immunohistochemistry. We studied the regulation of MMP secretion in primary human cell culture model systems in normoxia, hypoxia, chemical hypoxia and by small interfering RNA (siRNA) inhibition. Results [18F]FMISO accumulated in regions of TB consolidation and around pulmonary cavities, demonstrating for the first time severe tissue hypoxia in man. Patlak analysis of dynamic PET data showed heterogeneous levels of hypoxia within and between patients. In Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M.tb)-infected human macrophages, hypoxia (1% pO2) upregulated MMP-1 gene expression 170-fold, driving secretion and caseinolytic activity. Dimethyloxalyl glycine (DMOG), a small molecule inhibitor which stabilises the transcription factor hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF)-1α, similarly upregulated MMP-1. Hypoxia did not affect mycobacterial replication. Hypoxia increased MMP-1 expression in primary respiratory epithelial cells via intercellular networks regulated by TB. HIF-1α and NF-κB regulated increased MMP-1 activity in hypoxia. Furthermore, M.tb infection drove HIF-1α accumulation even in normoxia. In human TB lung biopsies, epithelioid macrophages and multinucleate giant cells express HIF-1α. HIF-1α blockade, including by targeted siRNA, inhibited TB-driven MMP-1 gene expression and secretion. Conclusions Human TB lesions are severely hypoxic and M.tb drives HIF-1α accumulation, synergistically increasing collagenase activity which will lead to lung destruction and cavitation. PMID:27245780

  4. Habitat destruction and the extinction debt revisited: the Allee effect.

    PubMed

    Chen, Ling-ling; Hui, Cang; Lin, Z S

    2009-09-01

    Habitat destruction, often caused by anthropogenic disturbance, can lead to the extinction of species at an unprecedented rate. It is important, therefore, to consider habitat destruction when assessing population viability. Another factor often ignored in population viability analysis, is the Allee effect that adds to the risk of populations already on the verge of extinction. Understanding the Allee effect on species dynamics and response to habitat destruction has intrinsic value in conservation prioritization. Here, the Allee effect was considered in a multi-species hierarchical competition model. Results showed that species persistence declines dramatically due to the Allee effect, and certain species become more susceptible to habitat destruction than others. Two extinction orders emerged under habitat destruction: either the best competitor becomes extinct first or the best colonizer first. The extinction debt and order, as well as the time lag between habitat destruction and species extinction, were found to be determined by species abundance and the intensity of the Allee effect.

  5. Quantification of microbubble destruction of three fluorocarbon-filled ultrasonic contrast agents.

    PubMed

    Moran, C M; Anderson, T; Pye, S D; Sboros, V; McDicken, W N

    2000-05-01

    The assessment of myocardial blood velocity using ultrasonic contrast agents is based on the premise that the vast majority of contrast microbubbles within a myocardial region can be destroyed by an acoustic pulse of sufficient magnitude. Determination of the period of time after destruction that a region of myocardium needs to reperfuse may be used to assess myocardial blood velocity. In this study, we investigated the acoustic pressure sensitivity of three solutions of intravenous fluorocarbon-filled contrast agents and the magnitude of acoustic pulse required to destroy the contrast agent microbubbles. A novel tissue-mimicking phantom was designed and manufactured to investigate the relationships between mean integrated backscatter, incident acoustic pressure and number of frames of insonation for three fluorocarbon-filled contrast agents (Definity(R), Optison(R), and Sonazoid(R), formerly NC100100). Using a routine clinical ultrasound (US) scanner (Acuson XP-10), modified to allow access to the unprocessed US data, the contrast agents were scanned at the four acoustic output powers. All three agents initially demonstrated a linear relationship between mean integrated backscatter and number of frames of insonation. For all three agents, mean integrated backscatter decreased more rapidly at higher acoustic pressures, suggesting a more rapid destruction of the microbubbles. In spite of the fact that there was no movement of microbubbles into or out of the beam, only the results from Definity(R) suggested that a complete destruction of the contrast agent microbubbles had occurred within the total duration of insonation in this study.

  6. Destruction of Interstellar Dust in Evolving Supernova Remnant Shock Waves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-01-01

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al. (1996), we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities 200 km s(exp -1) for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of approximately 2 compared to those of Jones et al. (1996), who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of approximately 3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of approximately 2-3 Gyr. These increases, while not able resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step towards understanding the origin, and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  7. Thermal therapy with magnetic nanoparticles for cell destruction

    PubMed Central

    Vegerhof, Adi; Motei, Menachem; Rudinzky, Arkady; Malka, Dror; Popovtzer, Rachela; Zalevsky, Zeev

    2016-01-01

    In this article we suggest a new concept for cell destruction based upon manipulating magnetic nanoparticles (MNPs) by applying external, low frequency alternating magnetic field (AMF) that oscillates the particles, together with focused laser illumination. Assessment of temperature profiles in a head and neck squamous cell carcinoma sample showed that cells with MNPs, treated with AMF (3 Hz, 300 mW) and laser irradiation (30 mW), reached 42°C after 4.5 min, as opposed to cells treated with laser but without AMF. Moreover, a theoretical model was developed to assess the overall theoretical temperature rise, which was shown to be 50% lower than the experimental temperature. Furthermore, we found that the combination of laser irradiation and AMF decreased the number of live cells by ~50%. Thus, the concentrated assembly of laser heating with AMF-induced MNP oscillations leads to more rapid and efficient cell death. These results suggest that the manipulated MNP technique can serve as a superior agent for PTT, with improved cell death capabilities. PMID:27895997

  8. An integrated approach to monitoring a field test of in situ contaminant destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Aines, R D; Carrigan, C; Chiarappa, M; Eaker, C; Elsholtz, A; Hudson, G B; Leif, R; Newmark, R L

    1998-12-01

    The development of in situ thermal remediation techniques requires parallel development of techniques capable of monitoring the physical and chemical changes for purposes of process control. Recent research indicates that many common contaminants can be destroyed in situ by hydrous pyrolysis/oxidation (HPO), eliminating the need for costly surface treatment and disposal. Steam injection, combined with supplemental air, can create the conditions in which HP0 occurs. Field testing of this process, conducted in the summer of 1997, indicates rapid destruction of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs). Previous work established a suite of underground geophysical imaging techniques capable of providing sufficient knowledge of the physical changes in the subsurface during thermal treatment at sufficient frequencies to be used to monitor and guide the heating and extraction processes. In this field test, electrical resistance tomography (ERT) and temperature measurements provided the primary information regarding the temporal and spatial distribution of the heated zones. Verifying the in situ chemical destruction posed new challenges. We developed field methods for sampling and analyzing hot water for contaminants, oxygen, intermediates and products of reaction. Since the addition of air or oxygen to the contaminated region is a critical aspect of HPO, noble gas tracers were used to identify fluids from different sources. The combination of physical monitoring with noble gas identification of the native and injected fluids and accurate fluid sampling resulted in an excellent temporal and spatial evaluation of the subsurface processes, from which the amount of in situ destruction occurring in the treated region could be quantified. The experimental field results constrain the destruction rates throughout the site, and enable site management to make accurate estimates of total in situ destruction based on the recovered carbon. As of October, 1998, over 400,000 kg (900

  9. NON-DESTRUCTIVE SOIL CARBON ANALYZER.

    SciTech Connect

    Wielopolski, Lucian; Hendrey, G.; Orion, I.; Prior, S.; Rogers, H.; Runion, B.; Torbert, A.

    2004-02-01

    This report describes the feasibility, calibration, and safety considerations of a non-destructive, in situ, quantitative, volumetric soil carbon analytical method based on inelastic neutron scattering (INS). The method can quantify values as low as 0.018 gC/cc, or about 1.2% carbon by weight with high precision under the instrument's configuration and operating conditions reported here. INS is safe and easy to use, residual soil activation declines to background values in under an hour, and no radiological requirements are needed for transporting the instrument. The labor required to obtain soil-carbon data is about 10-fold less than with other methods, and the instrument offers a nearly instantaneous rate of output of carbon-content values. Furthermore, it has the potential to quantify other elements, particularly nitrogen. New instrumentation was developed in response to a research solicitation from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE LAB 00-09 Carbon Sequestration Research Program) supporting the Terrestrial Carbon Processes (TCP) program of the Office of Science, Biological and Environmental Research (BER). The solicitation called for developing and demonstrating novel techniques for quantitatively measuring changes in soil carbon. The report includes raw data and analyses of a set of proof-of-concept, double-blind studies to evaluate the INS approach in the first phase of developing the instrument. Managing soils so that they sequester massive amounts of carbon was suggested as a means to mitigate the atmospheric buildup of anthropogenic CO{sub 2}. Quantifying changes in the soils' carbon stocks will be essential to evaluating such schemes and documenting their performance. Current methods for quantifying carbon in soil by excavation and core sampling are invasive, slow, labor-intensive and locally destroy the system being observed. Newly emerging technologies, such as Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Near-Infrared Spectroscopy, offer soil

  10. Amplifying elements of arthritis and joint destruction.

    PubMed

    van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L; Joosten, Leo A B; Abdollahi-Roodsaz, Shahla; Koenders, Marije I

    2007-11-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by chronic joint inflammation and variable degrees of bone and cartilage erosion. Studies in animal models of arthritis provide insight into elements which can amplify destructive features. The presence of immune complexes in the joint makes arthritis more erosive. Although considerable bone erosion still occurs in the absence of FcgammaR triggering by immune complexes, through cytokine-induced RANKL and direct osteoclast activation, cartilage erosion is heavily dependent on the FcgammaR pathway. T cell factors such as IFNgamma and IL17 further amplify erosion through upregulation of the damaging FcgammaRI and stimulation of the influx of granulocytes, respectively. Apart from immune elements, environmental pressure and components of tissue damage contribute through innate pathways. Spontaneous T cell-dependent arthritis in IL1Ra-/- mice is absent under germ-free conditions, and markedly suppressed in TLR4-deficient mice. Moreover, TLR4 blocking with a receptor antagonist suppresses erosive arthritis.

  11. Detection of weapons of mass destruction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bjorkholm, Paul J.

    2003-07-01

    High Energy X-ray cargo screening is a mature technology that has proven its value in the detection of contraband material hidden within cargo including fully loaded sea containers. To date high energy screening has been largely applied to manifest verification and to drug detection. However, the dramatic change in world terrorism has altered the application. Now it is essential that weapons of mass destruction (WMD"s) be interdicted with incredibly high accuracy. The implication of a missed detection has gone from loss of revenue or the lowering of the street price of drugs to potentially stopping, at least for some significant time, most world commerce. Screening containers with high energy x-rays (~250+ mm of steel penetration) is capable of detecting all nuclear threats at a fraction of the strategically important mass. The screening operation can be automated so that no human decisions are required with very low false alarms. Finally, the goal of 100% inspection of cargo inbound to the United States from the twenty largest international ports is an achievable goal with hardware costs in the area of that already spent on airport security.

  12. Hodoscope Cineradiography Of Nuclear Fuel Destruction Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    De Volpi, A.

    1983-08-01

    Nuclear reactor safety studies have applied cineradiographic techniques to achieve key information regarding the durability of fuel elements that are subjected to destructive transients in test reactors. Beginning with its development in 1963, the fast-neutron hodoscope has recorded data at the TREAT reactor in the United States of America. Consisting of a collimator instrumented with several hundred parallel channels of detectors and associated instrumentation, the hodoscope measures fuel motion that takes place within thick-walled steel test containers. Fuel movement is determined by detecting the emission of fast neutrons induced in the test capsule by bursts of the test reactor that last from 0.3 to 30 s. The system has been designed so as to achieve under certain typical conditions( horizontal) spatial resolution less than lmm, time resolution close to lms, mass resolution below 0.1 g, with adequate dynamic range and recording duration. A variety of imaging forms have been developed to display the results of processing and analyzing recorded data.*

  13. Photocatalytic destruction of trichloroethylene in air

    SciTech Connect

    Jacoby, W.A.; Nimlos, M.R.; Blake, D.M.

    1993-12-31

    Trichlorethylene (TCE) in air reacts in contact with irradiated TiO{sub 2} to form carbon dioxide and hydrogen chloride as well as the following products: dichloroacethylchloride, phosgene, carbon dioxide, and molecular chlorine. The stoichiometry of the reaction will be discussed and a Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate expression relating the TCE destruction rate to the partial pressures of TCE and oxygen will be presented. The reaction has been studied in both the differential and integral modes. The reaction rate and product distribution have been investigated as a function of water vapor partial pressure as well as the intensity and wavelength of the UV light. The apparatus employs annular and flat photoreactors with thin films of TiO{sub 2}. All effluent from the photoreactors flows directly into a 10 meter path length cell in an Fourier Transform Infra-Red spectrometer. This allows accurate and precise determination of reaction products (except chlorine) as evidenced by excellent carbon balances, event at very high conversions.

  14. Amplifying elements of arthritis and joint destruction

    PubMed Central

    van den Berg, Wim B; van Lent, Peter L; Joosten, Leo A B; Abdollahi‐Roodsaz, Shahla; Koenders, Marije I

    2007-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease characterised by chronic joint inflammation and variable degrees of bone and cartilage erosion. Studies in animal models of arthritis provide insight into elements which can amplify destructive features. The presence of immune complexes in the joint makes arthritis more erosive. Although considerable bone erosion still occurs in the absence of FcγR triggering by immune complexes, through cytokine‐induced RANKL and direct osteoclast activation, cartilage erosion is heavily dependent on the FcγR pathway. T cell factors such as IFNγ and IL17 further amplify erosion through upregulation of the damaging FcγRI and stimulation of the influx of granulocytes, respectively. Apart from immune elements, environmental pressure and components of tissue damage contribute through innate pathways. Spontaneous T cell‐dependent arthritis in IL1Ra–/– mice is absent under germ‐free conditions, and markedly suppressed in TLR4‐deficient mice. Moreover, TLR4 blocking with a receptor antagonist suppresses erosive arthritis. PMID:17934095

  15. Photocatalytic destruction of automobile exhaust emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Kaviranta, P.D.; Peden, C.H.F.

    1996-10-01

    Hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and nitrogen oxides contained in automobile exhaust emissions are among the major atmospheric air pollutants. During the first few minutes of a cold start of the engine, the emission levels of unburned hydrocarbon and CO pollutants are very high due to the inefficiency of the cold engine and the poor activity of the catalysts lower temperatures. Therefore, it is necessary to provide an alternative approach to deal with this specific problem in order to meet near-term regulatory requirements. Our approach has been to use known photocatalytic reactions obtainable on semiconducting powders such as titanium dioxide. In this presentation we describe our recent studies aimed at the photocatalytic reduction of unburned hydrocarbons and carbon monoxide in automobile exhaust emissions. Our results demonstrate the effective destruction of propylene into water and carbon dioxide. The conversion was found to be dependent on the propylene flow rate. The reaction rate was studied as a function of time, humidity and temperature. The effect of the power of the UV source on conversion will also be presented.

  16. The preventive destruction of a hazardous asteroid

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aleksandrova, A. G.; Galushina, T. Yu.; Prishchepenko, A. B.; Kholshevnikov, K. V.; Chechetkin, V. M.

    2016-06-01

    One means of countering a hazardous asteroid is discussed: destruction of the object using a nuclear charge. Explosion of such an asteroid shortly before its predicted collision would have catastrophic consequences, with numerous highly radioactive fragments falling onto the Earth. The possibility of exploding the asteroid several years before its impact is also considered. Such an approach is made feasible because the vast majority of hazardous objects pass by the Earth several times before colliding with it. Computations show that, in the 10 years following the explosion, only a negligible number of fragments fall onto the Earth, whose radioactivity has substantially reduced during this time. In most cases, none of these fragments collides with the Earth. Thus, this proposed method for eliminating a threat from space is reasonable in at least two cases: when it is not possible to undergo a soft removal of the object from the collisional path, and to destroy objects that are continually returning to near-Earth space and require multiple removals from hazardous orbits.

  17. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2014-10-01 2014-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  18. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2012-10-01 2012-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  19. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 9 2013-10-01 2013-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  20. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  1. 50 CFR 28.43 - Destruction of dogs and cats.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-10-01

    ... 50 Wildlife and Fisheries 8 2011-10-01 2011-10-01 false Destruction of dogs and cats. 28.43 Section 28.43 Wildlife and Fisheries UNITED STATES FISH AND WILDLIFE SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR... VIOLATIONS OF PARTS 25, 26, AND 27 Impoundment Procedures § 28.43 Destruction of dogs and cats. Dogs and cats...

  2. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  3. 19 CFR 191.44 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.44 Section 191.44 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Rejected Merchandise § 191.44 Destruction under...

  4. 19 CFR 191.25 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.25 Section 191.25 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY (CONTINUED) DRAWBACK Manufacturing Drawback § 191.25 Destruction under...

  5. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2012-04-01 2010-04-01 true Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  6. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  7. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2011-04-01 2010-04-01 true Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  8. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  9. 27 CFR 479.24 - Destructive device determination.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 3 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destructive device determination. 479.24 Section 479.24 Alcohol, Tobacco Products, and Firearms BUREAU OF ALCOHOL, TOBACCO, FIREARMS, AND EXPLOSIVES, DEPARTMENT OF JUSTICE FIREARMS AND AMMUNITION MACHINE GUNS, DESTRUCTIVE DEVICES...

  10. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  11. 32 CFR 644.494 - Donation, abandonment or destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 4 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 true Donation, abandonment or destruction. 644.494 Section 644.494 National Defense Department of Defense (Continued) DEPARTMENT OF THE ARMY (CONTINUED) REAL... Land) § 644.494 Donation, abandonment or destruction. (a) General. Improvements may be...

  12. 21 CFR 884.4500 - Obstetric fetal destructive instrument.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Obstetric fetal destructive instrument. 884.4500 Section 884.4500 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES... destructive instrument is a device designed to crush or pull the fetal body to facilitate the delivery of...

  13. Self-Destructive Behavior in People with Dissociative Disorders.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Saxe, Glenn N.; Chawla, Neharika; Van der Kolk, Bessel

    2002-01-01

    Study assesses self-destructive behavior in a group of inpatients who have dissociative disorders compared to those who report few dissociative symptoms. Results reveal that these patients more frequently engage in self-destructive behaviors, use more methods of self-injury, and begin to injure themselves at an earlier age then patients who do not…

  14. 49 CFR 15.19 - Destruction of SSI.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 1 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Destruction of SSI. 15.19 Section 15.19... Destruction of SSI. (a) DOT. Subject to the requirements of the Federal Records Act (5 U.S.C. 105), including... essential transactions, DOT destroys SSI when no longer needed to carry out the agency's function. (b) Other...

  15. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  16. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  17. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  18. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  19. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  20. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  1. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  2. 9 CFR 2.129 - Confiscation and destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Confiscation and destruction of animals. 2.129 Section 2.129 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE ANIMAL WELFARE REGULATIONS Miscellaneous § 2.129 Confiscation and destruction of...

  3. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  4. 9 CFR 54.7 - Procedures for destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Procedures for destruction of animals. 54.7 Section 54.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT... SCRAPIE Scrapie Indemnification Program § 54.7 Procedures for destruction of animals. (a) Scrapie-positive...

  5. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  6. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  7. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  8. 27 CFR 25.221 - Voluntary destruction of beer.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... beer. 25.221 Section 25.221 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.221 Voluntary destruction of beer. (a) On brewery premises. (1) A brewer may destroy, at the brewery, beer on which the tax has...

  9. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  10. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  11. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  12. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  13. 27 CFR 24.294 - Destruction of wine.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of wine. 24..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL WINE Removal, Return and Receipt of Wine Removals Without Payment of Tax § 24.294 Destruction of wine. (a) General. Wine on bonded wine premises may be destroyed on or off wine...

  14. Principles in the Psychotherapy of Self-Destructive Borderline Patients

    PubMed Central

    PLAKUN, ERIC M.

    1994-01-01

    Patients with borderline personality disorder often exhibit lethal or nonlethal self-destructive behavior. The author offers seven principles for establishing and maintaining a therapeutic alliance in the insight-oriented psychodynamic psychotherapy of borderline personality disorder patients with self-destructive behavior serious enough to threaten the continuity of the therapy. PMID:22700187

  15. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  16. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  17. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  18. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  19. 10 CFR 52.10 - Attacks and destructive acts.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 2 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Attacks and destructive acts. 52.10 Section 52.10 Energy NUCLEAR REGULATORY COMMISSION (CONTINUED) LICENSES, CERTIFICATIONS, AND APPROVALS FOR NUCLEAR POWER PLANTS General Provisions § 52.10 Attacks and destructive acts. Neither an applicant for a license to manufacture...

  20. Willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction.

    PubMed

    Mulvaney, J M; LaBarre, D; Pastel, R; Landauer, M

    2001-12-01

    A survey assessed the willingness to pay for defense against weapons of mass destruction. The results were evaluated according to the benefit to society. The results indicated preferences for increased spending on intelligence gathering, training, and equipment. We concluded that the United States is spending less for weapons of mass destruction defense than the sample population was willing to pay.

  1. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will...

  2. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE... Indemnity for Sheep, Goats, and Horses § 51.25 Proof of destruction. The Veterinarian in Charge will...

  3. Destructive Leadership: The Hatfield and McCoy Feud

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Sparks, George; Wolf, Patricia; Zurick, Andryce M.

    2015-01-01

    This paper explores the phenomenon of destructive leadership using the historical case study of the feud between the Hatfields and McCoys. The characteristics of destructive leadership as well as the consequences of this leadership style are reviewed, examined and analyzed. Utilizing a case from history to shine light on a contemporary problem,…

  4. Horseradish Peroxidase Inactivation: Heme Destruction and Influence of Polyethylene Glycol

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Liang; Luo, Siqiang; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe

    2013-01-01

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediates efficient conversion of many phenolic contaminants and thus has potential applications for pollution control. Such potentially important applications suffer however from the fact that the enzyme becomes quickly inactivated during phenol oxidation and polymerization. The work here provides the first experimental data of heme consumption and iron releases to support the hypothesis that HRP is inactivated by heme destruction. Product of heme destruction is identified using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heme macrocycle destruction involving deprivation of the heme iron and oxidation of the 4-vinyl group in heme occurs as a result of the reaction. We also demonstrated that heme consumption and iron releases resulting from HRP destruction are largely reduced in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), providing the first evidence to indicate that heme destruction is effectively suppressed by co-dissolved PEG. These findings advance a better understanding of the mechanisms of HRP inactivation. PMID:24185130

  5. Horseradish peroxidase inactivation: heme destruction and influence of polyethylene glycol.

    PubMed

    Mao, Liang; Luo, Siqiang; Huang, Qingguo; Lu, Junhe

    2013-11-04

    Horseradish peroxidase (HRP) mediates efficient conversion of many phenolic contaminants and thus has potential applications for pollution control. Such potentially important applications suffer however from the fact that the enzyme becomes quickly inactivated during phenol oxidation and polymerization. The work here provides the first experimental data of heme consumption and iron releases to support the hypothesis that HRP is inactivated by heme destruction. Product of heme destruction is identified using liquid chromatography with mass spectrometry. The heme macrocycle destruction involving deprivation of the heme iron and oxidation of the 4-vinyl group in heme occurs as a result of the reaction. We also demonstrated that heme consumption and iron releases resulting from HRP destruction are largely reduced in the presence of polyethylene glycol (PEG), providing the first evidence to indicate that heme destruction is effectively suppressed by co-dissolved PEG. These findings advance a better understanding of the mechanisms of HRP inactivation.

  6. Destruction and Sequestration of H2O on Mars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Clark, Benton

    2016-07-01

    The availability of water in biologically useable form on any planet is a quintessential resource, even if the planet is in a zone habitable with temperature regimes required for growth of organisms (above -18 °C). Mars and most other planetary objects in the solar system do not have sufficient liquid water at their surfaces that photosynthesis or chemolithoautotrophic metabolism could occur. Given clear evidence of hydrous mineral alteration and geomorphological constructs requiring abundant supplies of liquid water in the past, the question arises whether this H2O only became trapped physically as ice, or whether there could be other, more or less accessible reservoirs that it has evolved into. Salts containing S or Cl appear to be ubiquitous on Mars, having been measured in soils by all six Mars landed missions, and detected in additional areas by orbital investigations. Volcanoes emit gaseous H2S, S, SO2, HCl and Cl2. A variety of evidence indicates the geochemical fate of these gases is to be transformed into sulfates, chlorides, chlorates and perchlorates. Depending on the gas, the net reaction causes the destruction of between one and up to eight molecules of H2O per atom of S or Cl (although hydrogen atoms are also released, they are lost relatively rapidly to atmospheric escape). Furthermore, the salt minerals formed often incorporate H2O into their crystalline structures, and can result in the sequestration of up to yet another six (sometimes, more) molecules of H2O. In addition, if the salts are microcrystalline or amorphous, they are potent adsorbents for H2O. In certain cases, they are even deliquescent under martian conditions. Finally, the high solubility of the vast majority of these salts (with notable exception of CaSO4) can result in dense brines with low water activity, aH, as well as cations which can be inimical to microbial metabolism, effectively "poisoning the well." The original geologic materials on Mars, igneous rocks, also provide some

  7. Rapid Prototyping

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1999-01-01

    Javelin, a Lone Peak Engineering Inc. Company has introduced the SteamRoller(TM) System as a commercial product. The system was designed by Javelin during a Phase II NASA funded small commercial product. The purpose of the invention was to allow automated-feed of flexible ceramic tapes to the Laminated Object Manufacturing rapid prototyping equipment. The ceramic material that Javelin was working with during the Phase II project is silicon nitride. This engineered ceramic material is of interest for space-based component.

  8. Prediction of maize seed attributes using a rapid single kernel near infrared instrument

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-destructive measurements of seed attributes would significantly enhance breeder selection of seeds with specific traits and potentially improve hybrid development. A single kernel near infrared reflectance (NIR) instrument was developed for rapidly predicting maize grain attributes, which would ...

  9. Non destructive testing of soft body armor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bhise, Karan

    Pristine bullet proof vests are extremely effective at halting pre-determined projectile threats and have saved over 3000 lives. However, the effectiveness of these vests to halt a bullet is seen to decrease over time.Owing to the importance of bullet proof vests over a period of time, tests to determine their effectiveness have been carried out on every batch of vests at the time of inception and at certain time intervals by shooting a bullet through them. A few vests from every batch are picked up and shot at to check for bullet penetration during this process while these results are extrapolated onto the other vests from the batch.One of the main issues with this method is the fact that testing a few jackets among a large set of jackets does not guarantee the safety of every jacket in the entire batch.Further the jackets that are shot-at have the possibility of undergoing substantial damage during the process thus compromising its safety rendering them unsafe for future use.As the vest penetration phenomenon is extremely complex too, there arose a need for a better testing procedure that could not only help ensure more safety, but also save time and money.The new testing procedure proposed a non-destructive evaluation of the jackets that would solve the issues previous faced in testing the vests. This would lead to the building of a portable set up which could be carried to any location to test jackets in a matter of minutes thus saving time and money.

  10. Cryogenic Storage Tank Non-Destructive Evaluation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arens, Ellen

    2010-01-01

    This slide presentation reviews the work in non-destructive evaluation (NDE) of cryogenic storage tanks. Four large cryogenic tanks, constructed in 1965 with perlite insulation in the annular regions, are of concern. The construction of the tanks, two Liquid Oxygen (LOX) and two Liquid Hydrogen (LH2), are described. The loss rate for the LOX tank at Pad A is slightly higher than that for the one at Pad B. The concerns for the LH2 tank at Pad B are that there is a significantly higher boil-off rate than that at Pad A, that there is mold growth, indicative of increased heat flow, that there is a long down-time needed for repairs, and that 3 of 5 full thermal cycles have been used on the Pad B LH2 tank. The advantages and disadvantages of thermal imaging are given. A detailed description of what is visible of the structures in the infra-red is given and views of the thermal images are included. Missing Perlite is given as the probable cause of the cold spot on the Pad B LH2 tank. There is no indications of problematic cold regions on the Pad A LH2 tank, as shown by the thermal images given in the presentation. There is definite indication of a cold region on the Pad A LOX tank. There is however concerns with thermal imaging, as thermal images can be significantly effected by environmental conditions, image differences on similar days but with different wind speeds. Other effects that must be considered include ambient temperature, humidity levels/dew, and cloud reflections

  11. PROCESSING ALTERNATIVES FOR DESTRUCTION OF TETRAPHENYLBORATE

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, D; Thomas Peters, T; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-02-27

    Two processes were chosen in the 1980's at the Savannah River Site (SRS) to decontaminate the soluble High Level Waste (HLW). The In Tank Precipitation (ITP) process (1,2) was developed at SRS for the removal of radioactive cesium and actinides from the soluble HLW. Sodium tetraphenylborate was added to the waste to precipitate cesium and monosodium titanate (MST) was added to adsorb actinides, primarily uranium and plutonium. Two products of this process were a low activity waste stream and a concentrated organic stream containing cesium tetraphenylborate and actinides adsorbed on monosodium titanate (MST). A copper catalyzed acid hydrolysis process was built to process (3, 4) the Tank 48H cesium tetraphenylborate waste in the SRS's Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). Operation of the DWPF would have resulted in the production of benzene for incineration in SRS's Consolidated Incineration Facility. This process was abandoned together with the ITP process in 1998 due to high benzene in ITP caused by decomposition of excess sodium tetraphenylborate. Processing in ITP resulted in the production of approximately 1.0 million liters of HLW. SRS has chosen a solvent extraction process combined with adsorption of the actinides to decontaminate the soluble HLW stream (5). However, the waste in Tank 48H is incompatible with existing waste processing facilities. As a result, a processing facility is needed to disposition the HLW in Tank 48H. This paper will describe the process for searching for processing options by SRS task teams for the disposition of the waste in Tank 48H. In addition, attempts to develop a caustic hydrolysis process for in tank destruction of tetraphenylborate will be presented. Lastly, the development of both a caustic and acidic copper catalyzed peroxide oxidation process will be discussed.

  12. VOC Destruction by Catalytic Combustion Microturbine

    SciTech Connect

    Tom Barton

    2009-03-10

    This project concerned the application of a catalytic combustion system that has been married to a micro-turbine device. The catalytic combustion system decomposes the VOC's and transmits these gases to the gas turbine. The turbine has been altered to operate on very low-level BTU fuels equivalent to 1.5% methane in air. The performance of the micro-turbine for VOC elimination has some flexibility with respect to operating conditions, and the system is adaptable to multiple industrial applications. The VOC source that was been chosen for examination was the emissions from coal upgrading operations. The overall goal of the project was to examine the effectiveness of a catalytic combustion based system for elimination of VOCs while simultaneously producing electrical power for local consumption. Project specific objectives included assessment of the feasibility for using a Flex-Microturbine that generates power from natural gas while it consumes VOCs generated from site operations; development of an engineering plan for installation of the Flex-Microturbine system; operation of the micro-turbine through various changes in site and operation conditions; measurement of the VOC destruction quantitatively; and determination of the required improvements for further studies. The micro-turbine with the catalytic bed worked effectively to produce power on levels of fuel much lower than the original turbine design. The ability of the device to add or subtract supplemental fuel to augment the amount of VOC's in the inlet air flow made the device an effective replacement for a traditional flare. Concerns about particulates in the inlet flow and the presence of high sulfur concentrations with the VOC mixtures was identified as a drawback with the current catalytic design. A new microturbine design was developed based on this research that incorporates a thermal oxidizer in place of the catalytic bed for applications where particulates or contamination would limit the lifetime of

  13. NITRATE DESTRUCTION LITERATURE SURVEY AND EVALUATION CRITERIA

    SciTech Connect

    Steimke, J.

    2011-02-01

    This report satisfies the initial phase of Task WP-2.3.4 Alternative Sodium Recovery Technology, Subtask 1; Develop Near-Tank Nitrate/Nitrite Destruction Technology. Some of the more common anions in carbon steel waste tanks at SRS and Hanford Site are nitrate which is corrosive, and nitrite and hydroxide which are corrosion inhibitors. At present it is necessary to periodically add large quantities of 50 wt% caustic to waste tanks. There are three primary reasons for this addition. First, when the contents of salt tanks are dissolved, sodium hydroxide preferentially dissolves and is removed. During the dissolution process the concentration of free hydroxide in the tank liquid can decrease from 9 M to less than 0.2 M. As a result, roughly half way through the dissolution process large quantities of sodium hydroxide must be added to the tank to comply with requirements for corrosion control. Second, hydroxide is continuously consumed by reaction with carbon dioxide which occurs naturally in purge air used to prevent buildup of hydrogen gas inside the tanks. The hydrogen is generated by radiolysis of water. Third, increasing the concentration of hydroxide increases solubility of some aluminum compounds, which is desirable in processing waste. A process that converts nitrate and nitrite to hydroxide would reduce certain costs. (1) Less caustic would be purchased. (2) Some of the aluminum solid compounds in the waste tanks would become more soluble so less mass of solids would be sent to High Level Vitrification and therefore it would be not be necessary to make as much expensive high level vitrified product. (3) Less mass of sodium would be fed to Saltstone at SRS or Low Level Vitrification at Hanford Site so it would not be necessary to make as much low level product. (4) At SRS less nitrite and nitrate would be sent to Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) so less formic acid would be consumed there and less hydrogen gas would be generated. This task involves

  14. Perchlorate Removal, Destruction, and Field Monitoring Demonstration

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-10-02

    operational pH (3 to 5), bicarbonate will be converted rapidly to carbonic acid and achieve equilibrium. A backpressure regulator will maintain constant...Groundwater Composition Perchlorate, mg/L 1.5 0.05 Bicarbonate Alkalinity, mg/L 150 150 Treated water composition Perchlorate, mg/L...0.004 ɘ.004 Bicarbonate alkalinity, mg/L N/A - 5 30 WBA resin treatment capacity, BV 6500 15,500 Regeneration solution Biodegrade and

  15. Destruction of Xenopus cyclins A and B2, but not B1, requires binding to p34cdc2.

    PubMed Central

    Stewart, E; Kobayashi, H; Harrison, D; Hunt, T

    1994-01-01

    The specific and rapid destruction of cyclins A and B during mitosis is their most remarkable property. A short peptide motif of approximately 10 amino acids near the N-terminus, known as the destruction box, is absolutely required for programmed proteolysis. In this paper we show that although the destruction box is necessary for the degradation of cyclin A, it is not sufficient. Mutant versions of cyclin A that cannot form complexes with p34cdc2 are stable, which we interpret to mean that this cyclin must bind to p34cdc2 in order to undergo programmed proteolysis. Thus, N-terminal fragments of cyclin A containing little more than the destruction box and its surroundings are indestructible. p34cdc2 binding also appears to be required for the destruction of cyclin B2. In contrast, cyclin B1 does not require p34cdc2 binding for specific proteolysis. The systems for the proteolysis of cyclins A, B1 and B2 thus appear to show important differences in the way they recognize their substrates. Images PMID:8313903

  16. A More Rapid, Rapid Response.

    PubMed

    Robison, Justin; Slamon, Nicholas B

    2016-09-01

    Critical care physicians' standard for arrival to a rapid response team activation is 10 minutes or less at this institution. This study proposes that a FaceTime (Apple, Cupertino, CA) video call between the staff at the bedside and the critical care physician will allow the implementation of potentially life-saving therapies earlier than the current average response (4.5 min). Prospective cohort study. Freestanding, tertiary-care children's hospital. Pediatric patients ages 0-17. Six units were chosen as matched pairs. In the telemedicine units, after notification of an rapid response team, the critical care intensivist established a FaceTime video call with the nurse at the bedside and gathered history, visually assessed the patient, and suggested interventions. Simultaneously, the rapid response nurse, respiratory therapist, and fellow were dispatched to respond to the bedside. After the video call, the intensivist also reported to the bedside. The control units followed the standard rapid response team protocol: the intensivist physically responded to the bedside. Differences in response time, number of interventions, Pediatric Early Warning System scores, and disposition were measured, and the PICU course of those transferred was evaluated. The telemedicine group's average time to establish FaceTime interface was 2.6 minutes and arrival at bedside was 3.7 minutes. The control group average arrival time was 3.6 minutes. The difference between FaceTime interface and physical arrival in the control group was statistically significant (p = 0.012). Physical arrival times between the telemedicine and control groups remained consistent. Fifty-eight percent of the telemedicine patients and 73% of the control patients were admitted to the PICU (p = 0.13). Of patients transferred to the PICU, there was no difference in rate of intubation, initiation of bilevel positive airway pressure, central line placement, or vasopressors. The study group averaged 1.4 interventions

  17. A RAPID NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SALT MARSH GRASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the primary productivity of salt marshes requires accurate estimates of biomass. Unfortunately, these estimates vary enough within and among salt marshes to require large numbers of replicates if the averages are to be statistically meaningful. Large numbers of repl...

  18. A RAPID NON-DESTRUCTIVE METHOD FOR ESTIMATING ABOVEGROUND BIOMASS OF SALT MARSH GRASSES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Understanding the primary productivity of salt marshes requires accurate estimates of biomass. Unfortunately, these estimates vary enough within and among salt marshes to require large numbers of replicates if the averages are to be statistically meaningful. Large numbers of repl...

  19. Annual cycle and destruction of Eighteen Degree Water

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Billheimer, Sam; Talley, Lynne D.

    2016-09-01

    Eighteen Degree Water (EDW), the subtropical mode water of the western North Atlantic, is a voluminous, weakly stratified upper ocean water mass that acts as a subsurface reservoir of heat, nutrients, and CO2. This thick layer persists throughout the year, but nearly half of its volume is dispersed or mixed away, diffusing its properties into the thermocline, from the time it outcrops in winter until it is renewed the following year. CTD observations from Argo profiling floats and acoustically tracked, isothermally bound profiling floats are used to quantify EDW destruction rates and investigate the relevant processes responsible for the large annual cycle of EDW. EDW destruction occurs primarily at the top of the EDW layer, with the highest EDW destruction rates occurring during early summer. Slower, steadier EDW destruction is observed in early winter. EDW destruction is dominated by 1-D vertical diffusion, while mesoscale, along-isopycnal stirring is also significant, explaining approximately 1/3 of the total annual EDW destruction. Destruction via along-isopycnal processes is more prevalent near the Gulf Stream than in the southern Sargasso Sea, due to higher potential vorticity gradients and enhanced mesoscale activity.

  20. Integrated system for the destruction of organics by hydrolysis and oxidation with peroxydisulfate

    DOEpatents

    Cooper, John F.; Balazs, G. Bryan; Hsu, Peter; Lewis, Patricia R.; Adamson, Martyn G.

    2000-01-01

    An integrated system for destruction of organic waste comprises a hydrolysis step at moderate temperature and pressure, followed by direct chemical oxidation using peroxydisulfate. This system can be used to quantitatively destroy volatile or water-insoluble halogenated organic solvents, contaminated soils and sludges, and the organic component of mixed waste. The hydrolysis step results in a substantially single phase of less volatile, more water soluble hydrolysis products, thus enabling the oxidation step to proceed rapidly and with minimal loss of organic substrate in the off-gas.

  1. [The effect of hemosorption on the immunological status of patients with acute destructive pancreatitis].

    PubMed

    Shugaev, A I; Shabanova, L F

    1993-01-01

    Patients with acute destructive pancreatitis were found to have pronounced changes in the immune system manifesting themselves by reduced general amount of lymphocytes mainly at the expense of T-lymphocytes with helper and suppressor activity and in less degree--at the expense of B-lymphocytes, increase of poorly differentiated O-cells, reduction of immunoglobulin C. Hemosorption on the sorbent SKN promotes more rapid recovery of indices of the immune system in the group of patients with the area of injured pancreas less than 50% and is practically ineffective for its total injury.

  2. RapidScat and Hurricane Patricia

    NASA Image and Video Library

    2015-11-06

    NASA's RapidScat's antenna, lower right, was pointed at Hurricane Patricia as the powerful storm approached Mexico on Oct. 23, 2015. Patricia was the strongest hurricane ever recorded in the Western Hemisphere, with maximum winds of 200 mph (320 kilometers per hour). When it first made landfall on the Pacific coast of Mexico on Oct. 23, it was a destructive Category 5 storm. The videos are from the International Space Station. RapidScat's spinning antenna, lower right, collects wind-speed data from Hurricane Patricia. http://photojournal.jpl.nasa.gov/catalog/PIA20049

  3. DESTRUCTION OF INTERSTELLAR DUST IN EVOLVING SUPERNOVA REMNANT SHOCK WAVES

    SciTech Connect

    Slavin, Jonathan D.; Dwek, Eli; Jones, Anthony P.

    2015-04-10

    Supernova generated shock waves are responsible for most of the destruction of dust grains in the interstellar medium (ISM). Calculations of the dust destruction timescale have so far been carried out using plane parallel steady shocks, however, that approximation breaks down when the destruction timescale becomes longer than that for the evolution of the supernova remnant (SNR) shock. In this paper we present new calculations of grain destruction in evolving, radiative SNRs. To facilitate comparison with the previous study by Jones et al., we adopt the same dust properties as in that paper. We find that the efficiencies of grain destruction are most divergent from those for a steady shock when the thermal history of a shocked gas parcel in the SNR differs significantly from that behind a steady shock. This occurs in shocks with velocities ≳200 km s{sup −1} for which the remnant is just beginning to go radiative. Assuming SNRs evolve in a warm phase dominated ISM, we find dust destruction timescales are increased by a factor of ∼2 compared to those of Jones et al., who assumed a hot gas dominated ISM. Recent estimates of supernova rates and ISM mass lead to another factor of ∼3 increase in the destruction timescales, resulting in a silicate grain destruction timescale of ∼2–3 Gyr. These increases, while not able to resolve the problem of the discrepant timescales for silicate grain destruction and creation, are an important step toward understanding the origin and evolution of dust in the ISM.

  4. Coral reef destruction of Small island in 44 years and destructive fishing in Spermonde Archipelago, Indonesia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nurdin, Nurjannah; Komatsu, Teruhisa; Rani, Chair; Supriadi; Fakhriyyah, Sitti; Agus

    2016-11-01

    Coral reefs are among the most diverse and threatened ecosystems on the planet. The most commonly stated for developing coral reef remote sensing techniques is to asses and or to monitor the status of these ecosystems. The study site was selected one of small island in inner zone Spermonde archipelago, Indonesia. We used Landsat MSS, Landsat TM, Landsat ETM, and Landsat OLI data to examine changes in the coral reefs of inner zone island in the Spermonde Archipelago from 1972 to 2016. The image processing are gap fills, atmospheric correction, geometric corrections, image composites, water column corrections, unsupervised classifications, and reclassification. Some of component change detection procedure was applied to define change. The results showed significant changes in 44 years. Disturbed coral reefs are typically characterized by loss of coral cover by increase in the abundance of dead corals and rubble. Local factors such as destructive fishing is direct destruction of inner zone island. While the impact of local threats may be reduced through management action, global threats to coral reefs are likely to increase in severity in the coming years.

  5. Non-destructive sampling of rock-dwelling microbial communities using sterile adhesive tape.

    PubMed

    Cutler, Nick A; Oliver, Anna E; Viles, Heather A; Whiteley, Andrew S

    2012-12-01

    Building stone provides a habitat for an array of microorganisms, many of which have been demonstrated to have a deleterious effect on the appearance and/or structural integrity of stone masonry. It is essential to understand the composition and structure of stone-dwelling (lithobiontic) microbial communities if successful stone conservation strategies are to be applied, particularly in the face of global environmental change. Ideally, the techniques used to sample such assemblages should be non-destructive due to the sensitive conservation status of many stone buildings. This paper quantitatively assesses the performance of sterile adhesive tape as a non-destructive sampling technique and compares the results of tape sampling with an alternative, destructive, sampling method. We used DNA fingerprinting (TRFLP) to characterise the algal, fungal and bacterial communities living on a stone slab. Our results demonstrate that tape sampling may be used to collect viable quantities of microbial DNA from environmental samples. This technique is ideally suited to the sampling of microbial biofilms, particularly when these communities are dominated by green algae. It provides a good approximation of total community diversity (i.e. the aggregate diversity of epilithic and endolithic communities). Tape sampling is straightforward, rapid and cost effective. When combined with molecular analytical techniques, this sampling method has the potential to make a major contribution to efforts to understand the structure of lithobiontic microbial communities and our ability to predict the response of such communities to future environmental change.

  6. Destructive spondylarthropathy in hemodialyzed patients. A new syndrome.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, D; Naveau, B; Bardin, T; Drueke, T; Treves, R; Dryll, A

    1984-04-01

    Spinal radiologic lesions suggestive of destructive spondylarthropathy were found in 10 patients on long-term hemodialysis. These lesions were characterized by severe narrowing of the intervertebral disc, associated with erosions and geodes of the adjacent vertebral plates without osteophytosis. In 9 of the 10 patients the lesions were located in the cervical spine, and in 1 patient, in the lumbar spine. Microbial spondylitis, degenerative disc disease, and destructive spondylarthropathy of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate deposition disease were each, in turn, ruled out. The finding of apatite crystals by transmission electron microscopy in 1 disc specimen suggests that these crystals may be associated with destructive vertebral disc lesions in dialysis patients.

  7. Tank 50H Tetraphenylborate Destruction Results

    SciTech Connect

    Peters, T.B.

    2003-10-03

    We conducted several scoping tests with both Tank 50H surrogate materials (KTPB and phenol) as well as with actual Tank 50H solids. These tests examined whether we could destroy the tetraphenylborate in the surrogates or actual Tank 50H material either by use of Fenton's Reagent or by hydrolysis (in Tank 50H conditions at a maximum temperature of 50 degrees C) under a range of conditions. The results of these tests showed that destruction of the solids occurred only under a minority of conditions. (1)Using Fenton's Reagent and KTPB as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at pH ranges greater than 9. (2)Using Fenton's Reagent and phenol as the Tank 50H surrogate, no reaction occurred at a pH of 14. (3)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, a reaction occurred at a pH of 9.5 in the presence of ECC additives. (4)Using Fenton's Reagent and actual Tank 50H slurry, after a thirty three day period, all attempts at hydrolysis (at pH 14) were too slow to be viable. This happened even in the case of higher temperature (50 degrees C) and added (100 ppm) copper. Tank 50H is scheduled to return to HLW Tank Farm service with capabilities of transferring and receiving salt supernate solutions to and from the Tank Farms and staging feed for the Saltstone Facility. Before returning Tank 50H to Tank Farm service as a non-organic tank, less than 5 kg of TPB must remain in Tank 50H. Recently, camera inspections in Tank 50H revealed two large mounds of solid material, one in the vicinity of the B5 Riser Transfer Pump and the other on the opposite side of the tank. Personnel sampled and analyzed this material to determine its composition. The sample analysis indicated presence of a significant quantity of organics in the solid material. This quantity of organic material exceeds the 5 kg limit for declaring only trace amounts of organic material remain in Tank 50H. Additionally, these large volumes of solids, calculated as approximately 61K gallons, present other

  8. Destructive and non-destructive determination of the transport current density radial distribution: Application to Bi-2212 textured rods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martínez, E.; Natividad, E.; Angurel, L. A.; Navarro, R.; Yang, Y.; Beduz, C.

    2003-03-01

    Destructive and non-destructive methods to estimate the radial distribution of the transport critical current, Jc( r), of long cylindrical superconductors are presented. The non-destructive method is based on the measurement of self-field AC losses as a function of the current amplitude, Q( I0) and takes into account the E- J characteristics of the material. Both methods have been used to derive the Jc( r) profiles of long and thin Bi-2212 rods textured by laser-induced zone melting techniques. The obtained results have been correlated with the microstructure of the samples and their critical temperature.

  9. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands...

  10. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands...

  11. Destructive electronics from electrochemical-mechanically triggered chemical dissolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sim, Kyoseung; Wang, Xu; Li, Yuhang; Linghu, Changhong; Gao, Yang; Song, Jizhou; Yu, Cunjiang

    2017-06-01

    The considerable need to enhance data and hardware security suggest one possible future for electronics where it is possible to destroy them and even make them disappear physically. This paper reports a type of destructive electronics which features fast transience from chemical dissolution on-demand triggered in an electrochemical-mechanical manner. The detailed materials, mechanics, and device construction of the destructive electronics are presented. Experiment and analysis of the triggered releasing and transience study of electronic materials, resistors and metal-oxide-semiconductor field effect transistors illustrate the key aspects of the destructive electronics. The reported destructive electronics is useful in a wide range of areas from security and defense, to medical applications

  12. [Mechanism of bone destruction and the contribution of T lymphocytes].

    PubMed

    Komatsu, Noriko

    2016-06-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA), one of the most common autoimmune diseases, is characterized by inflammation and bone destruction in the joints. Abnormal activation of the immune system leads to RANKL-dependent osteoclast differentiation, which ultimately results in bone destruction in RA. A newly identified Th17 subset induces osteoclastogenesis potently by upregulating RANKL on synovial fibroblasts, indicating a synergy between T-synovial fibroblast plays a primary role in the bone destruction. Immune-regulating factors, such as CTLA-4 highly expressed on regulatory T cells, are identified as new bone-regulating factors and can be attractive therapeutic targets for bone destruction in RA. The mechanism by which T cells contribute to the RA pathogenesis will help understand the etiology of RA and develop therapeutic approach against it.

  13. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks...

  14. Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    Senseless demolition in progress, showing destruction of perfectly decent and recyclable mill building. Problem exacerbated by high value of scrap iron. - Phoenix Iron Company, Rolling Mill, North of French Creek, west of Fairview Avenue, Phoenixville, Chester County, PA

  15. Non-Destructive Classification Approaches for Equilibrated Ordinary Chondrites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Righter, K.; Harrington, R.; Schroeder, C.; Morris, R. V.

    2013-09-01

    In order to compare a few non-destructive classification techniques with the standard approaches, we have characterized a group of chondrites from the Larkman Nunatak region using magnetic susceptibility and Mössbauer spectroscopy.

  16. A Treatment Program for a Self-Destructive Child

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Thomas, Richard L.; Howard, Gail A.

    1971-01-01

    The treatment program for the modification of self-destructive behavior of an institutionalized mentally retarded boy who needed constant physical restraints employed a variety of approaches and emphasized the development of an interpersonal relationship. (KW)

  17. NON-DESTRUCTIVE TESTING METHODS FOR GEOTHERMAL PIPING.

    SciTech Connect

    BERNDT,M.L.

    2001-03-23

    Non-destructive testing is a key component of optimized plant inspection and maintenance programs. Risk based inspection, condition based maintenance and reliability centered maintenance systems all require detection, location and sizing of defects or flaws by non-destructive methods. Internal damage of geothermal piping by corrosion and erosion-corrosion is an ongoing problem requiring inspection and subsequent maintenance decisions to ensure safe and reliable performance. Conventional manual ultrasonic testing to determine remaining wall thickness has major limitations, particularly when damage is of a random and localized nature. Therefore, it is necessary to explore alternative non-destructive methods that offer potential benefits in terms of accurate quantification of size, shape and location of damage, probability of detection, ability to use on-line over long ranges, and economics. A review of non-destructive methods and their applicability to geothermal piping was performed. Based on this, ongoing research will concentrate on long range guided wave and dynamic methods.

  18. Thermal Destruction Of CB Contaminants Bound On Building ...

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    Symposium Paper An experimental and theoretical program has been initiated by the U.S. EPA to investigate issues of chemical/biological agent destruction in incineration systems when the agent in question is bound on common porous building interior materials. This program includes 3-dimensional computational fluid dynamics modeling with matrix-bound agent destruction kinetics, bench-scale experiments to determine agent destruction kinetics while bound on various matrices, and pilot-scale experiments to scale-up the bench-scale experiments to a more practical scale. Finally, model predictions are made to predict agent destruction and combustion conditions in two full-scale incineration systems that are typical of modern combustor design.

  19. Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2015-07-01

    L R E P O R T DTRA-TR-13-52 Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria Distribution Statement A...Z39.18 00-07-2015 Technical N/A Biocidal Energetic Materials for the Destruction of Spore Forming Bacteria HDTRA1-10-1-0108 Emily M. Hunt, Ph.D. West...understand the interaction between spore forming bacteria and thermite reactions and products and to exploit energetic material reactions with

  20. Evaluation of destructive methods for managing decontamination wastes

    SciTech Connect

    Piciulo, P.L.; Adams, J.W.

    1986-01-01

    Results are discussed of a laboratory evaluation of destructive methods for processing chemical decontamination wastes. Incineration, acid digestion and wet-air oxidation are capable of degrading decontamination reagents and organic ion-exchange resins. The extent of destruction as a function of operating parameters was waste specific. The reagents used in the testing were: EDTA, oxalic acid, citric acid, picolinic acid and LND-101A.

  1. A Review of Non-destructive Detection for Fruit Quality

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Haisheng; Zhu, Fengmei; Cai, Jinxing

    An overview of non-destructive detection in quality of post-harvest fruit was presented in this paper, and the research and application were discussed. This paper elaborated the fruit quality detection methods which were based on one of the following properties: optical properties, sonic vibration, machine vision technique, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electronic noses, electrical properties, computed tomography. At last, the main problems of non-destructive detection in application were also explained.

  2. The Combine Use of Semi-destructive and Non-destructive Methods for Tiled Floor Diagnostics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štainbruch, Jakub; Bayer, Karol; Jiroušek, Tomáš; Červinka, Josef

    2017-04-01

    The combination of semi-destructive and non-destructive methods was used to asset the conditions of a tiled floor in the historical monument Minaret, situated in the park complex of the Chateau Lednice (South Moravia Region, Czech Republic), before its renovation. Another set of measurements is going to be performed after the conservation works are finished. (The comparison of the results collected during pre- and post-remediation measurements will be known and presented during the General Assembly meeting in Wien.) The diagnostic complex of methods consisted of photogrammetry, resistivity drilling and georadar. The survey was aimed to contour extends of air gaps beneath the tiles and the efficiency of filling gaps by means of injection, consolidation and gluing individual layers. The state chateau Lednice creates a part of the Lednice-Valtice precinct, a UNESCO landmark, and belongs among the greatest historic monuments in Southern Moravia. In the chateau park there is a romantic observation tower in the shape of a minaret built according to the plans of Josef Hardtmuth between 1798-1804. The Minaret has been extensively renovated for many decades including the restoration of mosaic floors from Venetian terazzo. During the static works of the Minaret building between 1999-2000, the mosaic floors in the rooms on the second floor were transferred and put back onto concrete slabs. Specifically, the floor was cut up to tiles and these were glued to square slabs which were then attached to the base plate. The transfer was not successful and the floor restoration was finalized between 2016-2017. The damage consisted in separating the original floor from the concrete plate which led to creating gaps. Furthermore, the layers of the floor were not compact. It was necessary to fill the gaps and consolidate and glue the layers. The existence of air gap between individual layers of the tiles and their degradation was detected using two different diagnostic methods: semi-destructive

  3. Destruction of XM-46 (aka LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction Process

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-03-01

    The experimental work done on the destruction of the liquid gun propellant XM-46 (or LGP-1846) using the Molten Salt Destruction (MSD) Process at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) for the US Army is described in this report. The current methods of disposal of large quantities of high explosives (HE), propellants and wastes containing energetic materials by open burning or open detonation (OB/OD), or by incineration, are becoming undesirable. LLNL is developing MSD as an alternative to OB/OD and incineration of energetic materials. A series of 18 continuous experimental runs were made wherein a solution of XM-46 and water was injected into a bed of molten salt comprising the carbonates of sodium, potassium and lithium, along with air. The results from these experiments, described in detail in the main body of this report, show that: XM-46 can be safely and completely destroyed in a bed of molten salt at temperatures well below those needed for incineration. Under optimum operating conditions, less than 1% of the chemically bound nitrogen in the XM-46 is converted to NO{sub x}, and less than 1% carbon is converted to CO. There exist, however, a number of technical uncertainties: We need to understand better why nitrates build up in the salt bath, and what we can do to reduce this amount. We need to understand the mechanism of XM-46 oxidation and ways to minimize the formation of CO and NO{sub x}. In addition, we would like to find out ways by which a more concentrated solution of XM-46 can be introduced into the reactor, so as to increase the throughputs.

  4. Targeting antigen to diverse APCs inactivates memory CD8+ T cells without eliciting tissue-destructive effector function.

    PubMed

    Kenna, Tony J; Waldie, Tanya; McNally, Alice; Thomson, Meagan; Yagita, Hideo; Thomas, Ranjeny; Steptoe, Raymond J

    2010-01-15

    Memory T cells develop early during the preclinical stages of autoimmune diseases and have traditionally been considered resistant to tolerance induction. As such, they may represent a potent barrier to the successful immunotherapy of established autoimmune diseases. It was recently shown that memory CD8+ T cell responses are terminated when Ag is genetically targeted to steady-state dendritic cells. However, under these conditions, inactivation of memory CD8+ T cells is slow, allowing transiently expanded memory CD8+ T cells to exert tissue-destructive effector function. In this study, we compared different Ag-targeting strategies and show, using an MHC class II promoter to drive Ag expression in a diverse range of APCs, that CD8+ memory T cells can be rapidly inactivated by MHC class II+ hematopoietic APCs through a mechanism that involves a rapid and sustained downregulation of TCR, in which the effector response of CD8+ memory cells is rapidly truncated and Ag-expressing target tissue destruction is prevented. Our data provide the first demonstration that genetically targeting Ag to a broad range of MHC class II+ APC types is a highly efficient way to terminate memory CD8+ T cell responses to prevent tissue-destructive effector function and potentially established autoimmune diseases.

  5. Dust Destruction in the ISM: A Re-Evaluation of Dust Lifetimes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Nuth, J. A., III

    2011-01-01

    There is a long-standing conundrum in interstellar dust studies relating to the discrepancy between the time-scales for dust formation from evolved stars and the apparently more rapid destruction in supernova-generated shock waves. Aims. We re-examine some of the key issues relating to dust evolution and processing in the interstellar medium. Methods. We use recent and new constraints from observations, experiments, modelling and theory to re-evaluate dust formation in the interstellar medium (ISM). Results. We find that the discrepancy between the dust formation and destruction time-scales may not be as significant as has previously been assumed because of the very large uncertainties involved. Conclusions. The derived silicate dust lifetime could be compatible with its injection time-scale, given the inherent uncertainties in the dust lifetime calculation. The apparent need to re-form significant quantities of silicate dust in the tenuous interstellar medium may therefore not be a strong requirement. Carbonaceous matter, on the other hand, appears to be rapidly recycled in the ISM and, in contrast to silicates, there are viable mechanisms for its re-formation in the ISM.

  6. Rapid-scan EPR imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eaton, Sandra S.; Shi, Yilin; Woodcock, Lukas; Buchanan, Laura A.; McPeak, Joseph; Quine, Richard W.; Rinard, George A.; Epel, Boris; Halpern, Howard J.; Eaton, Gareth R.

    2017-07-01

    In rapid-scan EPR the magnetic field or frequency is repeatedly scanned through the spectrum at rates that are much faster than in conventional continuous wave EPR. The signal is directly-detected with a mixer at the source frequency. Rapid-scan EPR is particularly advantageous when the scan rate through resonance is fast relative to electron spin relaxation rates. In such scans, there may be oscillations on the trailing edge of the spectrum. These oscillations can be removed by mathematical deconvolution to recover the slow-scan absorption spectrum. In cases of inhomogeneous broadening, the oscillations may interfere destructively to the extent that they are not visible. The deconvolution can be used even when it is not required, so spectra can be obtained in which some portions of the spectrum are in the rapid-scan regime and some are not. The technology developed for rapid-scan EPR can be applied generally so long as spectra are obtained in the linear response region. The detection of the full spectrum in each scan, the ability to use higher microwave power without saturation, and the noise filtering inherent in coherent averaging results in substantial improvement in signal-to-noise relative to conventional continuous wave spectroscopy, which is particularly advantageous for low-frequency EPR imaging. This overview describes the principles of rapid-scan EPR and the hardware used to generate the spectra. Examples are provided of its application to imaging of nitroxide radicals, diradicals, and spin-trapped radicals at a Larmor frequency of ca. 250 MHz.

  7. Observational signatures of self-destructive civilizations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stevens, Adam; Forgan, Duncan; James, Jack O'malley

    2016-10-01

    We address the possibility that intelligent civilizations that destroy themselves could present signatures observable by humanity. Placing limits on the number of self-destroyed civilizations in the Milky Way has strong implications for the final three terms in Drake's Equation, and would allow us to identify which classes of solution to Fermi's Paradox fit with the evidence (or lack thereof). Using the Earth as an example, we consider a variety of scenarios in which humans could extinguish their own technological civilization. Each scenario presents some form of observable signature that could be probed by astronomical campaigns to detect and characterize extrasolar planetary systems. Some observables are unlikely to be detected at interstellar distances, but some scenarios are likely to produce significant changes in atmospheric composition that could be detected serendipitously with next-generation telescopes. In some cases, the timing of the observation would prove crucial to detection, as the decay of signatures is rapid compared with humanity's communication lifetime. In others, the signatures persist on far longer timescales.

  8. Destruction of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing.

    PubMed Central

    Palumbo, S A; Smith, J L; Kissinger, J C

    1977-01-01

    We studied the thermal resistance of Staphylococcus aureus during frankfurter processing in respect to whether staphylococci are killed by the heating step of the process and whether heat injury interferes with the quantitative estimation of the survivors. With S. aureus 198E, heat injury could be demonstrated only when large numbers of cells (10(8)/g) were present and at a product temperature of 140 degrees F (60 degrees C). On tryptic soy agar and tryptic soy agar plus 7% NaCl media, at temperatures less than 140 degrees F, the counts were virtually identical; above 140 degrees F, the counts converged, with the organisms dying so rapidly that heat injury was not demonstrable. Heat injury was thus judged not to interfere with the quantitative estimation of staphylococci surviving the normal commercial heating given frankfurters. By using a combination of direct plating on tryptic soy agar and a most-probable-number technique, we detected no viable cells (less than 0.3/g) of several strains of S. aureus in frankfurters heated to 160 degrees F (71.1 degrees C). This temperature is compatible with the normal final temperature to which federally inspected processors heat their frankfurters and with the temperature needed to destroy salmonellae. PMID:563701

  9. Relationship-based nursing care and destructive demands.

    PubMed

    Kristoffersen, Margareth; Friberg, Febe

    2017-09-01

    The relationship between the nurse and the patient is understood as fundamental in nursing care. However, numerous challenges can be related to the provision of relationship-based nursing care. Challenges exist when nurses do not respond adequately to the patient's appeal for help. Moreover, challenges arising in the nurse-patient relationship can be understood as more destructive demands from the patient to the nurse, thus begging inquiry into such a relationship. The overall aim is to explore and argue the relevance of problematizing destructive demands evident within relationship-based nursing care. This theoretical article explores destructive demands based on the phenomenological philosophy of the Danish theologian and philosopher Knud E. Løgstrup and provides examples of nurses' experiences in everyday nursing care. The examples are drawn from a Norwegian empirical study based on a hermeneutical research design. Participants and research context: Data consisted of qualitative interviews and qualitative follow-up interviews with 13 nurses with varying work experience within the primary and secondary somatic and psychiatric health service, from inside as well as outside institutions. Ethical consideration: The original empirical study was approved by the Norwegian Social Science Data Services. Information was given and consent was obtained from the participants. Two themes are described: strong impressions formed in meetings with patients and persistent concern over the burden of work and ability to endure. Destructive demands related to relationship-based nursing care are discussed along two lines, first, by further elucidating nurses' everyday experiences connected to destructive demands and, second, by highlighting the significance of including destructive demands within the relationship-based nursing care. Including destructive demands related to relationship-based nursing care is of particular significance in enabling the proposition that radical, one

  10. Application of VNIR hyperspectral imaging for non-destructive prediction of pH, color, and drip loss of chicken breast fillets

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Non-destructive and rapid prediction of quality attributes of chicken breast fillets using visible and near-infrared (VNIR) hyperspectral imaging (400-1000 nm) was carried out in this work. All hyperspectral images were acquired for bone (dorsal) side of chicken breast. A forward principal component...

  11. Destruction of liver haem by norethindrone. Conversion into green pigments

    PubMed Central

    White, Ian N. H.

    1981-01-01

    1. Factors affecting the norethindrone-mediated conversion of hepatic haem into green pigments have been studied in the rat. Concentrations of haem and green pigments were estimated spectrophotometrically after esterification and separation by silica gel high-pressure liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.). 2. Accumulation of green pigments in the liver was dependent on the dose of steroid and the time after dosing, maximum values being reached after 4–8h. Phenobarbitone pretreatment of rats resulted in an 8-fold increase in the concentration of green pigments at these times. 3. In microsomal systems in vitro, the formation of green pigments in the presence of NADPH and norethindrone was also dependent on the concentration of steroid and incubation times. Reaction rates very rapidly became non-linear with time, consistent with the self-catalysed destruction of the form(s) of cytochrome P-450 responsible for the metabolic activation of norethindrone. Microsomal mixtures incubated for a short period of time (1min) with norethindrone gave only one green-pigment peak after h.p.l.c. Longer incubation times gave four or five additional green pigments. Results suggested that multiple green pigments may arise by metabolic transformation of a single precursor. 4. When liver haem was prelabelled with 14C by using 5-amino[4-14C]laevulinic acid, subsequent dosing with norethindrone in vivo gave rise to three major 14C-labelled-green-pigment peaks on h.p.l.c. None of these components had the same retention times as the green pigments produced by microsomal fractions in vitro. 5. When liver haem was prelabelled with 59Fe by using 59FeCl3, norethindrone administration resulted in the detection of 59Fe-labelled green pigments if subsequent esterification was carried out under neutral conditions with trimethyloxonium tetrafluoroborate, but not when carried out under acidic conditions with methanol/H2SO4. These results suggested that green pigments normally contain chelated iron and

  12. Hamster and Murine Models of Severe Destructive Lyme Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Munson, Erik; Nardelli, Dean T.; Du Chateau, Brian K.; Callister, Steven M.; Schell, Ronald F.

    2012-01-01

    Arthritis is a frequent complication of infection in humans with Borrelia burgdorferi. Weeks to months following the onset of Lyme borreliosis, a histopathological reaction characteristic of synovitis including bone, joint, muscle, or tendon pain may occur. A subpopulation of patients may progress to a chronic, debilitating arthritis months to years after infection which has been classified as severe destructive Lyme arthritis. This arthritis involves focal bone erosion and destruction of articular cartilage. Hamsters and mice are animal models that have been utilized to study articular manifestations of Lyme borreliosis. Infection of immunocompetent LSH hamsters or C3H mice results in a transient synovitis. However, severe destructive Lyme arthritis can be induced by infecting irradiated hamsters or mice and immunocompetent Borrelia-vaccinated hamsters, mice, and interferon-gamma- (IFN-γ-) deficient mice with viable B. burgdorferi. The hamster model of severe destructive Lyme arthritis facilitates easy assessment of Lyme borreliosis vaccine preparations for deleterious effects while murine models of severe destructive Lyme arthritis allow for investigation of mechanisms of immunopathology. PMID:22461836

  13. Molecular beam, mass spectrometric sampling in hazardous waste destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Nimlos, M.R.; Milne, T.A.; McKinnon, J.T.

    1995-03-01

    This paper describes the study of the destruction of hazardous waste in which compounds and conditions are screened and byproducts are detected with a molecular beam, mass spectrometer (MBMS). Three destruction techniques were investigated as potential solar-driven processes: catalytic steam reforming, photothermal oxidation, and photocatalytic oxidation. These processes were investigated using an MBMS-equipped with a triple quadrupole mass spectrometer. The MS/MS capabilities of this instrument were used to characterize products using daughter and parent ion scanning modes. With catalytic steam reforming, a number of chlorinated and nonchlorinated compounds were screened for their susceptibility to destruction using a rhodium catalyst. The destruction efficiencies were high at modest temperatures (700-900{degrees}C) and few byproducts were measured. Choloronaphthalene was studied as a model compound for the photothermal oxidation processes. An enhancement in the destruction rate in air was measured by adding near UV light (300-340 nm). Byproducts were measured and the identities of these products were determined using daughter ion MS/MS spectrometry. The gas-phase photocatalytic oxidation of trichloroethylene (TCE) was measured at ambient temperatures using the MBMS. The identity of these byproducts was determined using parent ion MS/MS spectrometry.

  14. Bacterially induced bone destruction: mechanisms and misconceptions.

    PubMed Central

    Nair, S P; Meghji, S; Wilson, M; Reddi, K; White, P; Henderson, B

    1996-01-01

    replacement of bone matrix. At the present time, it is not possible to define a general mechanism by which bacteria promote loss of bone matrix. Many bacteria are capable of stimulating bone matrix loss, and the information available would suggest that each organism possesses different factors which interact with bone in different ways. With the rapid increase in antibiotic resistance, particularly with Staphylococcus aureus and M. tuberculosis, organisms responsible for much bone pathology in developed countries only two generations ago, we would urge that much greater attention should be focused on the problem of bacterially induced bone remodelling in order to define pathogenetic mechanisms which could be therapeutic targets for the development of new treatment modalities. PMID:8698454

  15. Assessment of disinfectants in explosive destruction system for biological agent destruction : LDRD final report FY04.

    SciTech Connect

    Simmons, Blake Alexander; Didlake, John E. Jr.; Bradshaw, Robert W.; Crooker, Paul J.; Buffleben, George M.

    2005-01-01

    Treatment systems that can neutralize biological agents are needed to mitigate risks from novel and legacy biohazards. Tests with Bacillus thuringiensis and Bacillus steurothemophilus spores were performed in a 190-liter, 1-112 lb TNT equivalent rated Explosive Destruction System (EDS) system to evaluate its capability to treat and destroy biological agents. Five tests were conducted using three different agents to kill the spores. The EDS was operated in steam autoclave, gas fumigation and liquid decontamination modes. The first three tests used EDS as an autoclave, which uses pressurized steam to kill the spores. Autoclaving was performed at 130-140 deg C for up to 2-hours. Tests with chlorine dioxide at 750 ppm concentration for 1 hour and 10% (vol) aqueous chlorine bleach solution for 1 hour were also performed. All tests resulted in complete neutralization of the bacterial spores based on no bacterial growth in post-treatment incubations. Explosively opening a glass container to expose the bacterial spores for treatment with steam was demonstrated and could easily be done for chlorine dioxide gas or liquid bleach.

  16. Destruction of 1,1,1-trichloroethane and 1,2-dichloroethane DNAPLs by catalyzed H2O2 propagations (CHP).

    PubMed

    Smith, Brant A; Teel, Amy L; Watts, Richard J

    2015-01-01

    Catalyzed H2O2 propagations (CHP) was studied to treat 1,1,1-trichloroethane (TCA) and 1,1-dichloroethane (DCA) dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and to elucidate the reactive oxygen species responsible for their destruction. A TCA DNAPL was rapidly destroyed by CHP at a rate 3.5 times greater than its maximum rate of dissolution. Using systems that generate a single reactive oxygen species, the species responsible for TCA DNAPL destruction was found to be superoxide. Both hydroxyl radical and superoxide were responsible for the destruction of the DCA DNAPL. Both compounds were destroyed at equal rates in a mixed TCA/DCA DNAPL, which suggests that the rate of treatment is limited by a surface phenomenon at the DNAPL-water interface. The optimum pH for the destruction of TCA and DCA DNAPLs was near the pKa of 4.8 for perhydroxyl radical-superoxide systems. The results of this research demonsrate that TCA and DCA DNAPLs are effectively destroyed by CHP and that superoxide generation is necessary for effective TCA DNAPL destruction, while both hydroxyl radical and superoxide are necessary for effective DCA DNAPL destruction.

  17. Hypothyroidism presenting as destructive arthropathy of the fingers.

    PubMed Central

    Gerster, J. C.; Quadri, P.; Saudan, Y.

    1985-01-01

    A patient presenting with destructive arthropathy of the proximal interphalangeal (PIP) joints of the hands is described. She was initially believed to have rheumatoid arthritis but non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs were of no help. The patient was subsequently found to have hypothyroidism and erosive osteoarthritis of the fingers. Joint swelling, pain and stiffness responded dramatically to thyroid hormone substitution. The PIP joint spaces reappeared on the radiographs within 9 months. This case suggest that hypothyroidism may induce destructive arthropathy of the finger joints. As thyroxine replacement may reverse the rheumatic complaints, hypothyroidism should be considered in the differential diagnosis of a destructive arthropathy of unclear aetiology. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 PMID:3983045

  18. Winnicott on Jung: destruction, creativity and the unrepressed unconscious.

    PubMed

    Meredith-Owen, William

    2011-02-01

    This paper considers Winnicott's critique of Jung, principally expressed in his review of Memories, Dreams, Reflections, which asserts that Jung's creative contribution to analysis was constrained by his failure to integrate his 'primitive destructive impulses', subsequent to inadequate early containment. It is argued that although Winnicott's diagnosis illuminates Jung's shadow, particularly his constraints vis-à-vis the repressed Freudian unconscious, it fails to appreciate the efficacy of the compensatory containment Jung found in the collective unconscious. This enigmatic relationship between destruction and creativity-so central to late Winnicott-is illuminated by Matte Blanco's bi-logic, and further explored in relation to William Blake. Winnicott's personal resolution through his Jung-inspired 'splitting headache' dream of destruction-previously considered in this Journal by Morey (2005) and Sedgwick (2008)-is given particular attention.

  19. Community Destruction and Traumatic Stress in Post-Tsunami Indonesia

    PubMed Central

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Nobles, Jenna; Sumantri, Cecep

    2013-01-01

    How are individuals affected when the communities they live in change for the worse? This question is central to understanding neighborhood effects, but few study designs generate estimates that can be interpreted causally. We address issues of inference through a natural experiment, examining post-traumatic stress at multiple time points in a population differentially exposed to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The data, from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery, include interviews with over 16,000 Indonesian adults before and after the event. These data are combined with satellite imagery, direct observation, and informant interviews to examine the consequences of community destruction for post-traumatic stress. Using multilevel linear mixed models, we show that community destruction worsens post-traumatic stress, net of rigorous controls for individual experiences of trauma and loss. Furthermore, the effect of community destruction persists over time and extends across a wide range of community types. PMID:22940603

  20. Community destruction and traumatic stress in post-tsunami Indonesia.

    PubMed

    Frankenberg, Elizabeth; Nobles, Jenna; Sumantri, Cecep

    2012-01-01

    How are individuals affected when the communities they live in change for the worse? This question is central to understanding neighborhood effects, but few study designs generate estimates that can be interpreted causally. We address issues of inference through a natural experiment, examining post-traumatic stress at multiple time points in a population differentially exposed to the 2004 Indian Ocean tsunami. The data, from the Study of the Tsunami Aftermath and Recovery, include interviews with over 16,000 Indonesian adults before and after the event. These data are combined with satellite imagery, direct observation, and informant interviews to examine the consequences of community destruction for post-traumatic stress. Using multilevel linear mixed models, we show that community destruction worsens post-traumatic stress, net of rigorous controls for individual experiences of trauma and loss. Furthermore, the effect of community destruction persists over time and extends across a wide range of community types.

  1. The destruction of halogenated organic chemicals by plasma pyrolysis.

    PubMed

    Barton, T G; Mordy, J A

    1984-08-01

    Very high destruction efficiencies for halogenated chemicals have been achieved by plasma pyrolysis. Destruction efficiencies exceeded 99.9999999% for tests with polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs). Preliminary tests with tetrachloromethane have obtained destruction efficiencies exceeding 99.99%. The plasma pyrolysis process involved the creation of a 250-kW plasma with a temperature in excess of 25 000 degrees C. The toxic material was injected into the plasma zone at a rate between 1 and 2 L/min. Thermochemical and photochemical dissociation of the toxic materials produced atoms and ions which recombined to form primarily H2, CO, HCl, and particulate carbon. The HCl was neutralized by NaOH. The flaring of the H2 and CO should destroy to a high degree any trace residuals. The application of plasma pyrolysis for the ultimate disposal of toxicological waste was also investigated. Rat carcasses containing mean lethal dosage of PCB were pyrolyzed.

  2. Catalytic destruction of tars in biomass-derived gases

    SciTech Connect

    Mudge, L K; Baker, E G; Brown, M D; Wilcox, W A

    1988-02-01

    The Biomass and Municipal Waste Technology Division of the US Department of Energy is sponsoring studies at the Pacific Northwest Laboratory on catalytic destruction of condensible hydrocarbons (tars) in biomass-derived gases. Currently gasifiers generate a significant amount of tars in the product gases. These tars create problems with plugging in downstream equipment and with wastewater treatment. Partial oxidation of the gas stream in a secondary fluid bed of catalyst destroys the tars in biomass-derived gases while increasing the energy content of the product gas by over 20%. Catalysts that remain active for tar destruction are used in the secondary reactor which is specially designed to promote destruction of tars and minimize oxidation of combustible gases such as CO and H/sub 2/. Results of studies with different catalysts which have been tested for this application are described.

  3. Severe periodontal destruction in alpha-mannosidosis: a case series.

    PubMed

    Kalsi, Jagdip S; Auplish, Gita; Johnson, Adele R; Darbar, Ulpee R

    2012-01-01

    Alpha-mannosidosis is a rare genetic lysosomal storage disorder that is inherited in an autosomal recessive pattern. Severe periodontal breakdown in alpha-mannosidosis patients has not previously been reported in the literature. The purposes of this paper are to: present the cases of 2 siblings diagnosed with alpha-mannosidosis, each of whom had varying severity of periodontal destruction; and provide an overview of alpha-mannosidosis, the possible reasons for the periodontal destruction, and the periodontal management in the 2 affected siblings. Both had preventive and nonsurgical periodontal therapy followed by a 5-year period of supportive therapy. Their pattern of bone loss was consistent with those with periodontitis as a manifestation of systemic diseases, with the extent of periodontal destruction being related to the severity of the alpha-mannosidosis. Alpha-mannosidosis patients present with social disfigurements and, to prevent tooth loss that can add to this, early periodontal diagnosis is important to optimize management and intervention.

  4. A kind of specific osteolytic destruction of the vertebral bodies

    PubMed Central

    Peng, Baogan; Chen, Jinhong; Pang, Xiaodong; Hei, Yan

    2012-01-01

    This report describes two young patients with osteolytic destruction in two adjacent vertebral bodies along with the intervertebral disc, and reveals its possible mechanism. A lateral radiograph and CT scan displayed a giant osteolytic cavity in the L4 vertebral body. An MRI or CT scan with a two-dimensional reconstruction displayed the same changes in the L4 vertebral body and lower endplate erosion in the L3 vertebral body. A comprehensive preoperative evaluation did not identify a specific cause of vertebral destruction. Both patients underwent anterior lumbar fusion surgery. The lesions were removed for histological and immunohistochemical examination. Histopathological study of the destructed vertebral bodies in the two patients revealed the disruption or atrophy of bone trabeculae with infiltration of a large amount of B-lymphocytes and macrophages into the marrow cavities. Studies of its pathogenesis reveal that it is likely to be a B-lymphocyte-mediated local immune inflammatory reaction in the lumbar spine. PMID:22675148

  5. Waste destruction with 500 kW three phase AC plasma torch

    SciTech Connect

    Polovtsev, I.S.

    1995-12-31

    Experiments for gas destruction with the help of the new three phase AC plasma generator were performed. Advantages of the new type plasma generator were studied. It was shown that this generator can be successfully used for destruction of hazardous waste. Tests of methane, freon and malathion destruction were performed. Results of the tests shows complete destruction of the injected gases.

  6. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  7. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2011-04-01 2011-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  8. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2013-04-01 2013-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  9. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2012-04-01 2012-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  10. 27 CFR 25.223 - Destruction of beer off brewery premises.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2014-04-01 2014-04-01 false Destruction of beer off... TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY ALCOHOL BEER Voluntary Destruction § 25.223 Destruction of beer off brewery premises. (a) Destruction without supervision. A brewer may destroy beer...

  11. Habitat destruction and metacommunity size in pen shell communities.

    PubMed

    Munguia, Pablo; Miller, Thomas E

    2008-11-01

    1. In spatially structured communities, habitat destruction can have two effects: first, a main effect that occurs because of the loss of habitat area within a larger region, and a secondary effect due to changes in the spatial arrangement of local communities. Changes to the spatial arrangement can, in turn, affect the migration and extinction rates within local communities. 2. Our study involved the experimental destruction of entire local communities within larger regions in natural marine microcosms. Large and small arrays of dead pen shells were created in a shallow bay in north Florida, and the colonization by both encrusting and motile species on this empty substrate were followed through time. After most species had become established, half of the large arrays were perturbed to create small arrays by removal of half the shells, simulating habitat destruction. 3. After 48 days of further community development, comparisons of the large arrays, reduced arrays and original small arrays suggested that the mechanisms by which habitat destruction affects diversity could depend upon the size of the region affected and the natural history of the species being studied. 4. Habitat destruction reduced the diversity of motile species to a level lower than that found in the undisturbed small arrays, suggesting that the species that assembled in the original large metacommunities negatively influenced the species that occurred ultimately in the converted small arrays. 5. With sessile species, habitat destruction created richness levels that were intermediate to those of small and large arrays. The initial predestruction richness appears to have had a positive effect; because sessile species cannot disperse as adults, they may not respond to significant shifts in metacommunity size later in succession. Initial metacommunity size may be important for allowing individuals to select appropriate habitats before they settle.

  12. Periodontium destruction associated with oncology therapy. Five case reports

    SciTech Connect

    Wright, W.E.

    1987-08-01

    Radiation treatment to the head and neck and cytotoxic chemotherapy can produce deleterious side effects to the periodontium that are generally transient in nature, reversible, and do not result in permanently visible defects. However, combinations of the malignant disease itself, the direct and indirect effects of medical therapy and associated oral infections, along with local trauma can lead to periodontal tissue destruction with resulting permanent architectural defects. Five case reports illustrate destructive alterations of the periodontium that were associated with oncology therapy. Proposed guidelines for periodontal treatment of compromised individuals undergoing oncology therapies are suggested.

  13. Cambium Destruction in Conifers Caused by Pinewood Nematodes

    PubMed Central

    Myers, Ronald F.

    1986-01-01

    Percentage and rate of mortality in 2-4-year-old conifers depended upon the numbers of pinewood nematodes Bursaphelenchus xylophilus inoculated into their stems. In addition, percentage of conifer mortality was greater for spring inoculations when cambial activity was greater than for late summer and fall inoculations. Gross and histological examination of stems revealed destruction of the cambial layer, including fusiform and ray intitials and their derivatives. These data suggest that cambial and ray destruction causes tree death through blockage of tracheids by gas, oleoresin, or metabolites from dying ray tissues. PMID:19294198

  14. Coupled field induced conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Xiangqian; Sun, Xiudong

    2016-12-01

    We study the control of quantum interference in a four-level atom driven by three coherent fields forming a closed loop. The spontaneous emission spectrum shows two sets of peaks which are dramatically influenced by the fields. Due to destructive quantum interference, a dark line can be observed in the emission spectrum, and the condition of the dark line is given. We found that the conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference can be achieved through controlling the Rabi frequency of the external fields.

  15. Morphine: a protective or destructive role in neurons?

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yan; Chen, Qiuyue; Yu, Long-Chuan

    2008-12-01

    Morphine has received intensive research interest for a long time. However, until recently, the protective versus destructive roles of morphine in the neuronal system have not been studied. There is evidence suggesting that morphine induces apoptotic cell death in neuronal and glial cells, whereas controversial studies support a neuroprotective role for morphine. The exact mechanisms for both protective and destructive pathways are not clear and are still under investigation. Improved understanding of morphine neuroprotection and neurotoxicity will be helpful to control morphine side effects in medical applications and to identify new targets for potential therapies and prevention strategies to opioid addiction.

  16. Mechanisms of CFR composites destruction studying with pulse acoustic microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petronyuk, Y. S.; Morokov, E. S.; Levin, V. M.; Ryzhova, T. B.; Chernov, A. V.

    2016-05-01

    Non-destructive inspection of carbon-fiber-reinforced (CFR) composites applied in aerospace industry attracts a wide attention. In the paper, high frequency focused ultrasound (50-100 MHz) has been applied to study the bulk microstructure of the CFR material and mechanisms of its destruction under the mechanical loading. It has been shown impulse acoustic microscopy provides detecting the areas of adhesion loss at millimeter and micron level. Behavior of the CFR laminate structure fabricated by prepreg or infusion technology has been investigated under the tensile and impact loading.

  17. Destruction of dimethyl methylphosphonate using a microwave plasma torch

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Uhm, Han S.; Cho, Soon C.; Hong, Yong C.; Park, Yang G.; Park, Ju S.

    2008-02-01

    A microwave plasma torch with a microwave power of 1.2kW destroys dimethyl methylphosphonate (DMMP) with a destruction rate of 1.14l/h, demonstrating a safe removal capability of stockpiled chemical weapons. The FTIR spectra of the discharge gas from DMMP destruction indicates near perfect elimination of DMMP when the proper amount of oxygen gas is added. This can be confirmed by the gas chromatography spectra, which show the disappearance of even intermediary compounds. The compactness and light weight of the microwave plasma torch provide an effective means of on-site removal of the chemical warfare agents found on a battlefield.

  18. Coupled field induced conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Xiangqian Sun, Xiudong

    2016-12-15

    We study the control of quantum interference in a four-level atom driven by three coherent fields forming a closed loop. The spontaneous emission spectrum shows two sets of peaks which are dramatically influenced by the fields. Due to destructive quantum interference, a dark line can be observed in the emission spectrum, and the condition of the dark line is given. We found that the conversion between destructive and constructive quantum interference can be achieved through controlling the Rabi frequency of the external fields.

  19. Product acceptance environmental and destructive testing for reliability.

    SciTech Connect

    Dvorack, Michael A.; Kerschen, Thomas J.; Collins, Elmer W.

    2007-08-01

    To determine whether a component is meeting its reliability requirement during production, acceptance sampling is employed in which selected units coming off the production line are subjected to additional environmental and/or destructive tests that are within the normal environment space to which the component is expected to be exposed throughout its life in the Stockpile. This report describes what these tests are and how they are scored for reliability purposes. The roles of screens, Engineering Use Only tests, and next assembly product acceptance testing are also discussed, along with both the advantages and disadvantages of environmental and destructive testing.

  20. Pairing correlations near a Kondo-destruction quantum critical point

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pixley, J. H.; Deng, Lili; Ingersent, Kevin; Si, Qimiao

    2015-05-01

    Motivated by the unconventional superconductivity observed in heavy-fermion metals, we investigate pairing susceptibilities near a continuous quantum phase transition of the Kondo-destruction type. We solve two-impurity Bose-Fermi Anderson models with Ising and Heisenberg forms of the interimpurity exchange interaction using continuous-time quantum Monte Carlo and numerical renormalization-group methods. Each model exhibits a Kondo-destruction quantum critical point separating Kondo-screened and local-moment phases. For antiferromagnetic interimpurity exchange interactions, singlet pairing is found to be enhanced in the vicinity of the transition. Implications of this result for heavy-fermion superconductivity are discussed.

  1. Feather loss and feather destructive behavior in pet birds.

    PubMed

    Rubinstein, Jonathan; Lightfoot, Teresa

    2014-01-01

    Feather loss in psittacine birds is a common and frustrating clinical presentation. Causes include medical and nonmedical causes of feather loss with and without overt feather destructive behavior. Underlying causes include inappropriate husbandry and housing; parasitic, viral and bacterial infections; metabolic and allergic diseases; and behavioral disorders. Prior to a diagnosis of a behavioral disorder, medical causes of feather loss must be excluded through a complete medical work-up including history, physical examination, and diagnostic testing. This article focuses on common medical and nonmedical causes of feather loss and feather destructive behavior and approaches to diagnosis and treatment.

  2. Using hip measures to avoid misdiagnosing early rapid onset osteoarthritis for osteonecrosis.

    PubMed

    Nelson, Fred R T; Bhandarkar, Varun S; Woods, Tammy A

    2014-06-01

    In the early phases, subchondral insufficiency fractures and rapidly destructive osteoarthritis of the hip are often mistaken for osteonecrosis of the hip. Three hip measures were used comparing combined subchondral insufficiency fractures and rapidly destructive 18 osteoarthritis patients to 18 osteonecrosis patients. Due to the rarity of these conditions there was no statistical power. Initial diagnoses for the osteoarthritis patients were recorded. The osteoarthritis group had significantly higher means for Tönnis angle (P < 0.001), lateral center edge angle (P = 0.006), and acetabular extrusion index (P = 0.014). Only 7 of the 18 patients were initially diagnosed without reservation as subchondral insufficiency fracture or rapidly destructive osteoarthritis. Using hip measures will reduce the misdiagnosis of rapid onset osteoarthritis of the hip for osteonecrosis.

  3. The reaction of HOCl and cyanocobalamin: corrin destruction and the liberation of cyanogen chloride

    PubMed Central

    Abu-Soud, Husam M.; Maitra, Dhiman; Byun, Jaeman; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A.; Banerjee, Jashoman; Saed, Ghassan M.; Diamond, Michael P.; Andreana, Peter R.; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2012-01-01

    Overproduction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been associated with the development of variety of disorders such as inflammation, heart disease, pulmonary fibrosis and cancer through its ability to modify different biomolecules. HOCl is a potent oxidant generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system. Recently, we have provided evidence to support the important link between higher levels of HOCl with heme destruction and free iron release from hemoglobin and RBCs. Our current finding extend this work and show the ability of HOCl to mediate the destruction of metal-ion derivatives of tetrapyrrole macrocyclic rings, such as cyanocobalamin (Cobl) a common pharmacological form of vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin is a water soluble vitamin which plays an essential role as an enzyme cofactor and antioxidant, modulating nucleic acid metabolism and gene regulation. It is widely used as a therapeutic agent and supplement, because of its efficacy and stability. In this report, we demonstrate that while Cobl can be an excellent antioxidant, exposure to high levels of HOCl can overcome the beneficial effects of Cobl and generate proinflammatory reaction products. Our rapid kinetic, HPLC and mass spectrometric analyses showed that HOCl can mediate corrin ring destruction and liberate cyanogen chloride (CNCl) through a mechanism that initially involves α-axial ligand replacement in Cobl to form a chlorinated derivative, hydrolysis, and cleavage of the phosphor-nucleotide moiety. Additionally, it can liberate free Co which can perpetuate metal-ion induced oxidant stress. Taken together, this is the first report of generation of toxic molecular products through the interaction of Cobl with HOCl. PMID:22138102

  4. The reaction of HOCl and cyanocobalamin: corrin destruction and the liberation of cyanogen chloride.

    PubMed

    Abu-Soud, Husam M; Maitra, Dhiman; Byun, Jaeman; Souza, Carlos Eduardo A; Banerjee, Jashoman; Saed, Ghassan M; Diamond, Michael P; Andreana, Peter R; Pennathur, Subramaniam

    2012-02-01

    Overproduction of hypochlorous acid (HOCl) has been associated with the development of a variety of disorders such as inflammation, heart disease, pulmonary fibrosis, and cancer through its ability to modify various biomolecules. HOCl is a potent oxidant generated by the myeloperoxidase-hydrogen peroxide-chloride system. Recently, we have provided evidence to support the important link between higher levels of HOCl and heme destruction and free iron release from hemoglobin and RBCs. Our current findings extend this work and show the ability of HOCl to mediate the destruction of metal-ion derivatives of tetrapyrrole macrocyclic rings, such as cyanocobalamin (Cobl), a common pharmacological form of vitamin B12. Cyanocobalamin is a water-soluble vitamin that plays an essential role as an enzyme cofactor and antioxidant, modulating nucleic acid metabolism and gene regulation. It is widely used as a therapeutic agent and supplement, because of its efficacy and stability. In this report, we demonstrate that although Cobl can be an excellent antioxidant, exposure to high levels of HOCl can overcome the beneficial effects of Cobl and generate proinflammatory reaction products. Our rapid kinetic, HPLC, and mass spectrometric analyses showed that HOCl can mediate corrin ring destruction and liberate cyanogen chloride (CNCl) through a mechanism that initially involves α-axial ligand replacement in Cobl to form a chlorinated derivative, hydrolysis, and cleavage of the phosphonucleotide moiety. Additionally, it can liberate free Co, which can perpetuate metal-ion-induced oxidant stress. Taken together, these results are the first report of the generation of toxic molecular products through the interaction of Cobl with HOCl. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Investigations of emergency destruction methods for recovered, explosively configured, chemical warfare munitions: Interim emergency destruction methods - evaluation report

    SciTech Connect

    Baer, M.R.; Cooper, P.W.; Kipp, M.E.

    1995-07-01

    At the request of the U.S. Army Non-Stockpile Chemical Material Office, the Sandia Explosives Containment System Design Team investigated mature destruction systems for destroying recovered chemical warfare munitions (CWM). The goal of the investigations was to identify and examine available techniques for the destruction of recovered CWM. The result of this study is a recommendation for an interim solution, a solution for use on any munitions found while an optimal, long-term solution is developed. Sandia is also performing the long-term solution study to develop a system that destroys CWM, contains the blast and fragments, and destroys the chemical agent without insult to the environment.

  6. Non-invasive and non-destructive characterization of tissue engineered constructs using ultrasound imaging technologies: a review

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kang; Wagner, William R.

    2015-01-01

    With the rapid expansion of biomaterial development and coupled efforts to translate such advances toward the clinic, non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tools to evaluate implants in situ in a timely manner are critically needed. The required multilevel information is comprehensive, including structural, mechanical, and biological changes such as scaffold degradation, mechanical strength, cell infiltration, extracellular matrix formation and vascularization to name a few. With its inherent advantages of non-invasiveness and non-destructiveness, ultrasound imaging can be an ideal tool for both preclinical and clinical uses. In this review, currently available ultrasound imaging technologies that have been applied in vitro and in vivo for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed and some new emerging ultrasound technologies and multi-modality approaches utilizing ultrasound are introduced. PMID:26518412

  7. Non-invasive and Non-destructive Characterization of Tissue Engineered Constructs Using Ultrasound Imaging Technologies: A Review.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang; Wagner, William R

    2016-03-01

    With the rapid expansion of biomaterial development and coupled efforts to translate such advances toward the clinic, non-invasive and non-destructive imaging tools to evaluate implants in situ in a timely manner are critically needed. The required multi-level information is comprehensive, including structural, mechanical, and biological changes such as scaffold degradation, mechanical strength, cell infiltration, extracellular matrix formation and vascularization to name a few. With its inherent advantages of non-invasiveness and non-destructiveness, ultrasound imaging can be an ideal tool for both preclinical and clinical uses. In this review, currently available ultrasound imaging technologies that have been applied in vitro and in vivo for tissue engineering and regenerative medicine are discussed and some new emerging ultrasound technologies and multi-modality approaches utilizing ultrasound are introduced.

  8. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.5 Disinfection or destruction of materials. (a) In order to prevent the spread of disease, materials...

  9. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH DISEASE, PLEUROPNEUMONIA, RINDERPEST, AND CERTAIN OTHER COMMUNICABLE DISEASES OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY § 53.5 Disinfection or destruction of materials. (a) In order to prevent the spread of disease, materials...

  10. 19 CFR 158.41 - Destruction of prohibited merchandise.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction of prohibited merchandise. 158.41 Section 158.41 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... in force on the date of entry or withdrawal for consumption, may be destroyed under Government...

  11. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-06100

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2014-11-07

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-06100. This package was selected for examination based on several characteristics: - This was the first destructively examined package in which the fiberboard assembly was fabricated from softwood fiberboard. - The package contained a relatively high heat load to contribute to internal temperature, which is a key environmental factor for fiberboard degradation. - The package has been stored in the middle or top of a storage array since its receipt in K- Area, positions that would contribute to increased service temperatures. No significant changes were observed for attributes that were measured during both field surveillance and destructive examination. Except for the axial gap, all observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The axial gap met the 1 inch maximum criterion during field surveillance, but was just over the criterion during SRNL measurements. When re-measured at a later date, it again met the criterion. The bottom of the lower fiberboard assembly and the drum interior had two small stains at matching locations, suggestive of water intrusion. However, the fiberboard assembly did not contain any current evidence of excess moisture. No evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. Despite exposure to the elevated temperatures of this higher-then-average wattage package, properties of the fiberboard and O-rings are consistent with those of new packages.

  12. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  13. Destruction of the Fractional Quantum Hall Effect by Disorder

    DOE R&D Accomplishments Database

    Laughlin, R. B.

    1985-07-01

    It is suggested that Hall steps in the fractional quantum Hall effect are physically similar to those in the ordinary quantum Hall effect. This proposition leads to a simple scaling diagram containing a new type of fixed point, which is identified with the destruction of the fractional states by disorder. 15 refs., 3 figs.

  14. Training Foster Parents to Handle Destructive Behavior. Instructor's Manual.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Ryan, Patricia

    This manual, one of a series of manuals developed for the Foster Parent Training Project at Eastern Michigan University, was designed to assist instructors in presenting course content to foster parents on how to deal with destructive behavior in their foster children. The introductory section presents information for the instructor on aspects of…

  15. Treatment of multiply controlled destructive behavior with food reinforcement.

    PubMed Central

    Adelinis, J D; Piazza, C C; Goh, H L

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which the positive reinforcement of communication would reduce multiply controlled destructive behavior in the absence of relevant extinction components. When edible reinforcement for appropriate communication and nonfood reinforcers for problem behavior were available simultaneously, responding was allocated almost exclusively toward the behavior that produced edible reinforcement. PMID:11317997

  16. 27 CFR 26.41 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.41 Section 26.41 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From Puerto Rico § 26.41 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar containers...

  17. 27 CFR 26.207 - Destruction of marks and brands.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... brands. 26.207 Section 26.207 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE... Products Coming Into the United States From the Virgin Islands § 26.207 Destruction of marks and brands. The marks, brands, and serial numbers required by this part to be placed on barrels, casks, or similar...

  18. 15 CFR 721.3 - Destruction or disposal of records.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 15 Commerce and Foreign Trade 2 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction or disposal of records. 721.3 Section 721.3 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE CHEMICAL WEAPONS CONVENTION...

  19. 19 CFR 191.37 - Destruction under Customs supervision.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Destruction under Customs supervision. 191.37 Section 191.37 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... Customs supervision. A claimant may destroy merchandise and obtain unused merchandise drawback...

  20. Treatment of multiply controlled destructive behavior with food reinforcement.

    PubMed

    Adelinis, J D; Piazza, C C; Goh, H L

    2001-01-01

    We evaluated the extent to which the positive reinforcement of communication would reduce multiply controlled destructive behavior in the absence of relevant extinction components. When edible reinforcement for appropriate communication and nonfood reinforcers for problem behavior were available simultaneously, responding was allocated almost exclusively toward the behavior that produced edible reinforcement.

  1. Evaluation of nitrate and nitrite destruction/separation technologies

    SciTech Connect

    Hobbs, D.T.

    1997-08-29

    This report describes and evaluates four types of nitrate and nitrite destruction and separation technologies that could be used to treat the aqueous, alkaline, nitrate-bearing mixed waste that is generated by the In-Tank Precipitation (ITP) process at the Savannah River Site (SRS). The technologies considered in this report include thermal, hydrothermal, chemical, and electrochemical technologies.

  2. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  3. Music as a Treatment Channel of Adolescent Destructivity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lehtonen, Kimmo; Shaughnessy, Michael F.

    A young person showing strong destructive symptoms often has too much hatred toward adults, other authorities, and society for the "voice of reason" to penetrate or reach some fixed point in his or her psyche. Music, however, activates emotions raising problems of the real field of life to be dealt with in symbolic form. This paper discusses the…

  4. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2011-07-01 2011-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  5. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2013-07-01 2013-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  6. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2014-07-01 2014-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  7. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2012-07-01 2012-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  8. 32 CFR 2400.31 - Destruction of classified information.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... 32 National Defense 6 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Destruction of classified information. 2400.31 Section 2400.31 National Defense Other Regulations Relating to National Defense OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY REGULATIONS TO IMPLEMENT E.O. 12356; OFFICE OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY POLICY...

  9. Photooxidative destruction in the photochemical purification of water

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipova, M.B.; Tereshchenko, L.Ya.; Martynova, I.A.

    1994-09-20

    The authors studied the possibility of using the combined action of UV radiation and an oxidant, hydrogen peroxide, for removing organic pollutants from drinking water and industrial sewage in a single-lamp continuous reactor. Using phenol as an example, it was found that nearly complete destruction of phenol and intermediate aromatic compounds can be achieved as a result of photooxidative treatment.

  10. ADSORPTION AND CATALYTIC DESTRUCTION OF TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN HYDROPHOBIC ZEOLITES

    EPA Science Inventory

    Several chromium exchanged ZSM-5 zeolites of varying SiO2/Al2O3 ratio were prepared and investigated for ambient (23 ?C) adsorption and subsequent oxidative destruction (250-400 ?C) of gaseous trichloroethylene (TCE, Cl2C=CHCl) in a humid air stream. With an increase in the SiO2...

  11. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ...) consigning the animal from a farm or livestock market directly to a slaughter establishment; or (f) In unique... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF...

  12. NonDestructive Evaluation for Industrial & Development Applications

    SciTech Connect

    Hunter, James F.

    2016-10-12

    Provide overview of weld inspection for Non-Destructive Testing at LANL. This includes radiography (RT/DR/CR/CT for x-ray & neutron sources), ultrasonic testing (UT/PAUT), dye penetrant inspection (PT), eddy current inspection (ET) and magnetic particle testing (MT). Facilities and capabilities for weld inspection will be summarized with examples.

  13. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  14. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  15. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  16. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  17. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  18. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  19. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2011-01-01 2011-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  20. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  1. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  2. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  3. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  4. 9 CFR 53.4 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 53.4 Section 53.4 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF... animals. (a) Except as provided in paragraph (b) of this section, animals infected with or exposed to...

  5. 9 CFR 51.29 - Destruction of animals; time limit.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals; time limit. 51.29 Section 51.29 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED...

  6. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  7. 9 CFR 50.7 - Destruction of animals.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Destruction of animals. 50.7 Section 50.7 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  8. 9 CFR 51.25 - Proof of destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Proof of destruction. 51.25 Section 51.25 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES ANIMALS DESTROYED BECAUSE OF...

  9. Textbook Coverage of the Destruction of the Armenians

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Lindquist, David H.

    2012-01-01

    Despite its importance as the event establishing that the 20th century would be known as "the age of genocide," the destruction of the Armenians that occurred between the mid-1890s and 1923 is given marginal coverage in contemporary U. S. high school history textbooks. This article critiques that coverage and identifies the overall flow…

  10. Combating the Proliferation of Weapons of Mass Destruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Jenkins, Bonnie

    1997-01-01

    Reveals the growing threat posed to all countries by the proliferation of weapons of mass destruction. Discusses the international effort combating this proliferation including the Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty, Strategic Arms Reduction Treaties, Biological Weapons Convention, and Chemical Weapons Convention. Also considers regional arms…

  11. Educational Reform: Its Role in the Economic Destruction of Society.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bates, Richard

    This paper examines the role played by educational reform (as advocated by economic rationalism) in the economic destruction of Australian society. It is argued that two mechanisms for containing economic difficulties are the plundering of the nation state and the application of new technologies of production. Strategies of educational reform, as…

  12. Longitudinal Relations Between Constructive and Destructive Conflict and Couples’ Sleep

    PubMed Central

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Koss, Kalsea J.; Kelly, Ryan J.; Rauer, Amy J.

    2016-01-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples’ sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples’ sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor–partner interdependence models indicated that husbands’ use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives’ sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands’ and wives’ use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. PMID:25915089

  13. Implications of Sensory Stimulation in Self-Destructive Behavior.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Edelson, Stephen M.

    1984-01-01

    The author extends the self stimulatory theory of self destructive behavior in autistic, schizophrenic, and mentally retarded individuals to suggest that damage of the skin's nerve structure lowers the tactile sensory threshold for physical input and enables individuals to obtain sensory stimulation by repeatedly depressing the damaged area. (CL)

  14. Destruction of Hazardous Industrial Chemicals Using an Arcjet Plasma Torch*

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fleddermann, C. B.; Snyder, H. R.; Gahl, J. M.

    1996-10-01

    A small-scale thermal plasma torch has been used for the disposal of hazardous industrial chemicals including alcohols, ketones, and chlorinated hydrocarbons. The plasma jet is operated at currents up to 200 Amperes and waste flow rates up to 600 ml/hr. Argon is used as the plasma gas with oxygen added to the reactor to alter the reaction chemistry. Destruction of the waste and by-product formation are monitored using a residual gas analyzer, and the temperature of the plasma plume is measured using an enthalpy probe. The by-products of the destruction of acetone are primarily carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of hydrocarbons. Adding oxygen to the reactor increases the production of carbon dioxide and significantly decreases the amount of acetone in the exhaust gases. This reactor has achieved greater than 99 percent destruction efficiency for acetone when oxygen is added to the reaction mixture at an arcjet current of 75 Amperes, with similar destruction efficiencies observed for ethanol and trichloroethylene. *Supported by the U.S. DOE through the WERC program administered by New Mexico State University.

  15. Destructive Leadership Behaviors and Workplace Attitudes in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woestman, Daniel S.; Wasonga, Teresa Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated destructive leadership behaviors (DLBs) and their influence on K-12 workplace attitudes (subordinate consideration for leaving their job, job satisfaction, and levels of stress). Quantitative survey method was used to gather data from experienced professional educators. Analyses of data show that the practice of DLB exists…

  16. Non-destructive methods for food texture assessment

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Food texture is important to the successful marketing and profitability of food products. Non-destructive sensing would allow food producers and processors to inspect, sort, grade, or track individual product items, so that they can deliver consistent, superior food products to the marketplace. Over...

  17. Aggressive nasopalatine duct cyst with complete destruction of palatine bone

    PubMed Central

    Sankar, D.; Muthusubramanian, Veerabahu; Nathan, J. A.; Nutalapati, Ravi Sankar; Jose, Yasmin Mary; kumar, Y. Naren

    2016-01-01

    Nasopalatine duct cyst is the nonodontogenic developmental cyst, frequently occurring in the midline of the anterior maxillary region. The clinical presentation of the cyst is often varied and presents a diagnostic difficulty and frequently misdiagnosed as developmental or inflammatory odontogenic cystic lesion. This paper represents a large infected nasopalatine duct cyst presenting with complete destruction of anterior palate and pyriform rim. PMID:27829777

  18. Education in Somalia: History, Destruction, and Calls for Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of education in Somalia: in precolonial traditional Somalia; during colonial rule by Italy; under civilian rule, 1960-69; and under military rule, 1969-90. Describes the total destruction of the education system since the 1991 collapse of the state, widespread illiteracy and adolescent involvement in thuggery, and the urgent…

  19. Optimizing the Treatment of Acute Duct-Destructive Pancreatitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Zhakiev, Bazylbek S.; Karsakbayev, Uteugali G.; Kelimberdiev, Mersaid S.; ?uhamedgalieva, Bodagoz M.; K?nonenko, Aleksander F.

    2016-01-01

    The search for new methods for treating duct-destructive pancreatitis is a relevant problem. Endogenous intoxication and oxidative stress that accompany acute pancreatitis often progress even after surgery, which forces one to search for additional possibilities of preventing these severe consequences. This research studied the effect of small…

  20. 14 CFR 249.7 - Restrictions on record destruction.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... 14 Aeronautics and Space 4 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restrictions on record destruction. 249.7 Section 249.7 Aeronautics and Space OFFICE OF THE SECRETARY, DEPARTMENT OF TRANSPORTATION (AVIATION... shall retain all records remaining in its custody as of the beginning of an “open mail rate...

  1. Destructive Leadership Behaviors and Workplace Attitudes in Schools

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Woestman, Daniel S.; Wasonga, Teresa Akinyi

    2015-01-01

    The study investigated destructive leadership behaviors (DLBs) and their influence on K-12 workplace attitudes (subordinate consideration for leaving their job, job satisfaction, and levels of stress). Quantitative survey method was used to gather data from experienced professional educators. Analyses of data show that the practice of DLB exists…

  2. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2013-01-01 2013-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH...

  3. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2014-01-01 2014-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH...

  4. 9 CFR 53.5 - Disinfection or destruction of materials.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2012-01-01 2012-01-01 false Disinfection or destruction of materials. 53.5 Section 53.5 Animals and Animal Products ANIMAL AND PLANT HEALTH INSPECTION SERVICE, DEPARTMENT OF AGRICULTURE COOPERATIVE CONTROL AND ERADICATION OF LIVESTOCK OR POULTRY DISEASES FOOT-AND-MOUTH...

  5. Education in Somalia: History, Destruction, and Calls for Reconstruction.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Abdi, Ali A.

    1998-01-01

    Traces the history of education in Somalia: in precolonial traditional Somalia; during colonial rule by Italy; under civilian rule, 1960-69; and under military rule, 1969-90. Describes the total destruction of the education system since the 1991 collapse of the state, widespread illiteracy and adolescent involvement in thuggery, and the urgent…

  6. The association between periodontal disease and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis extends the link between the HLA-DR shared epitope and severity of bone destruction.

    PubMed

    Marotte, H; Farge, P; Gaudin, P; Alexandre, C; Mougin, B; Miossec, P

    2006-07-01

    To evaluate a possible association between wrist and periodontal destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, and between periodontal destruction, dry mouth, and labial salivary gland biopsy and the contribution of genetic factors (the shared epitope (SE) and IL1B (+3954) or TNFA (-238 or -308) gene polymorphisms). 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled. Periodontal damage was defined according to the Hugoson and Jordan criteria on panoramic dental x rays. Typing for the SE and cytokine polymorphisms was undertaken by enzyme linked oligosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR), relative risk (RR), and chi2 values were calculated to quantify associations. An association was observed between wrist and periodontal bone destruction (chi2=11.82; p<0.001): 63 patients had both wrist and periodontal destruction, 31 had wrist destruction alone, 20 had periodontal destruction alone, and 33 had no destruction at either site. An association was seen between a positive labial salivary gland biopsy and periodontal bone destruction (RR=2.73 (95% CI, 1.35 to 5.51), p<0.01, n=41) or wrist bone destruction (RR=4.52 (1.96 to 10.45), p<0.001, n=41). The SE was associated with wrist bone destruction (OR=2.5 (1.16 to 5.42), p<0.05) and periodontal bone destruction (OR=2.2 (1.04 to 4.84), p<0.05). No association was found between the selected cytokine polymorphisms and bone destruction. A strong association was found between wrist and periodontal bone destruction. The destruction risk was further increased in patients with sicca syndrome. The SE appears to be a severity genetic marker for both wrist and periodontal bone destruction.

  7. The association between periodontal disease and joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis extends the link between the HLA‐DR shared epitope and severity of bone destruction

    PubMed Central

    Marotte, H; Farge, P; Gaudin, P; Alexandre, C; Mougin, B; Miossec, P

    2006-01-01

    Objective To evaluate a possible association between wrist and periodontal destruction in rheumatoid arthritis, and between periodontal destruction, dry mouth, and labial salivary gland biopsy and the contribution of genetic factors (the shared epitope (SE) and IL1B (+3954) or TNFA (−238 or −308) gene polymorphisms). Methods 147 patients with rheumatoid arthritis were enrolled. Periodontal damage was defined according to the Hugoson and Jordan criteria on panoramic dental x rays. Typing for the SE and cytokine polymorphisms was undertaken by enzyme linked oligosorbent assay. Odds ratios (OR), relative risk (RR), and χ2 values were calculated to quantify associations. Results An association was observed between wrist and periodontal bone destruction (χ2 = 11.82; p<0.001): 63 patients had both wrist and periodontal destruction, 31 had wrist destruction alone, 20 had periodontal destruction alone, and 33 had no destruction at either site. An association was seen between a positive labial salivary gland biopsy and periodontal bone destruction (RR = 2.73 (95% CI, 1.35 to 5.51), p<0.01, n = 41) or wrist bone destruction (RR = 4.52 (1.96 to 10.45), p<0.001, n = 41). The SE was associated with wrist bone destruction (OR = 2.5 (1.16 to 5.42), p<0.05) and periodontal bone destruction (OR = 2.2 (1.04 to 4.84), p<0.05). No association was found between the selected cytokine polymorphisms and bone destruction. Conclusions A strong association was found between wrist and periodontal bone destruction. The destruction risk was further increased in patients with sicca syndrome. The SE appears to be a severity genetic marker for both wrist and periodontal bone destruction. PMID:16284099

  8. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish.

    PubMed

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2015-03-15

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease.

  9. Non-destructive techniques for the detection of fungal infection in cereal grains.

    PubMed

    Orina, Irene; Manley, Marena; Williams, Paul J

    2017-10-01

    Infection of cereal grains by fungi is a serious problem worldwide. Depending on the environmental conditions, cereal grains may be colonised by different species of fungi. These fungi cause reduction in yield, quality and nutritional value of the grain; and of major concern is their production of mycotoxins which are harmful to both humans and animals. Early detection of fungal contamination is an essential control measure for ensuring storage longevity and food safety. Conventional methods for detection of fungal infection, such as culture and colony techniques or immunological methods are either slow, labour intensive or difficult to automate. In recent years, there has been an increasing need to develop simple, rapid, non-destructive methods for early detection of fungal infection and mycotoxins contamination in cereal grains. Methods such as near infrared (NIR) spectroscopy, NIR hyperspectral imaging, and electronic nose were evaluated for these purposes. This paper reviews the different non-destructive techniques that have been considered thus far for detection of fungal infection and mycotoxins in cereal grains, including their principles, application and limitations. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Destruction of Representative Navy Wastes Using Supercritical Water Oxidation. Final report

    SciTech Connect

    Rice, S.F.; Steeper, R.R.; LaJeunesse, C.A.

    1993-10-01

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO) is a rapidly emerging technology that presents potential as a hazardous waste treatment method for a wide variety of industrial chemicals ranging from common organic solvents to complex formulations such as paints, lubricating oils, and degreasers. The Naval Civil Engineering Laboratory is contributing to the development of this technology for application to waste materials generated at naval shipyards and bases. These wastes include paint stripping and changeout fluids generated from equipment service procedures as well as herbicides, pesticides, paint, and numerous other materials associated with base facility maintenance. An important design consideration in the development of SCWO systems centers on choosing a reactor operating temperature such that the destruction of the waste organic is sufficiently complete. This report examines the temperature dependence of the oxidation in supercritical water of seven common organic compounds and three industrial commercial materials over the temperature range of 430{degree}C to 585{degree}C and reaction times ranging from seven to thirty seconds at a pressure of 27.5 MPa (4000 psi). The materials studies are methanol, phenol, methyl ethyl ketone, ethylene glycol, acetic acid, methylene chloride, 1,1,1-tichloroethane (TCA), latex paint, motor oil, and Roundup, a commercial general purpose herbicide. The results indicate that for most materials, temperatures over 530{degree}C and residence times near 20 seconds afford destruction efficiencies of greater than 99.95%

  11. Loss of cftr function leads to pancreatic destruction in larval zebrafish

    PubMed Central

    Navis, Adam; Bagnat, Michel

    2016-01-01

    The development and function of many internal organs requires precisely regulated fluid secretion. A key regulator of vertebrate fluid secretion is an anion channel, the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR). Loss of CFTR function leads to defects in fluid transport and cystic fibrosis (CF), a complex disease characterized by a loss of fluid secretion and mucus buildup in many organs including the lungs, liver, and pancreas. Several animal models including mouse, ferret and pig have been generated to investigate the pathophysiology of CF. However, these models have limited accessibility to early processes in the development of CF and are not amenable for forward genetic or chemical screens. Here, we show that Cftr is expressed and localized to the apical membrane of the zebrafish pancreatic duct and that loss of cftr function leads to destruction of the exocrine pancreas and a cystic fibrosis phenotype that mirrors human disease. Our analyses reveal that the cftr mutant pancreas initially develops normally, then rapidly loses pancreatic tissue during larval life, reflecting pancreatic disease in CF. Altogether, we demonstrate that the cftr mutant zebrafish is a powerful new model for pancreatitis and pancreatic destruction in CF. This accessible model will allow more detailed investigation into the mechanisms that drive CF of the pancreas and facilitate development of new therapies to treat the disease. PMID:25592226

  12. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison.

    PubMed

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-02-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400-1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR.

  13. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1995-09-26

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center ( a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. Major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year. In addition, there are vast energetic materials demilitarization inventories world-wide, including those in the former Soviet Union and eastern Bloc countries. Although recycling and reusing is the preferred method of dealing with these surplus materials, there will always be the necessity of destroying intractable or unusable energetic materials. Traditionally, open bum/open detonation (OB/OD) has been the method of choice for the destruction of energetic materials. Public concerns and increasingly stringent environmental regulations have made open burning and open detonation of energetic materials increasingly costly and nearly unacceptable. Thus, the impetus to develop environmentally sound alternatives to dispose of energetic materials is great.

  14. Neural network and principal component regression in non-destructive soluble solids content assessment: a comparison*

    PubMed Central

    Chia, Kim-seng; Abdul Rahim, Herlina; Abdul Rahim, Ruzairi

    2012-01-01

    Visible and near infrared spectroscopy is a non-destructive, green, and rapid technology that can be utilized to estimate the components of interest without conditioning it, as compared with classical analytical methods. The objective of this paper is to compare the performance of artificial neural network (ANN) (a nonlinear model) and principal component regression (PCR) (a linear model) based on visible and shortwave near infrared (VIS-SWNIR) (400–1000 nm) spectra in the non-destructive soluble solids content measurement of an apple. First, we used multiplicative scattering correction to pre-process the spectral data. Second, PCR was applied to estimate the optimal number of input variables. Third, the input variables with an optimal amount were used as the inputs of both multiple linear regression and ANN models. The initial weights and the number of hidden neurons were adjusted to optimize the performance of ANN. Findings suggest that the predictive performance of ANN with two hidden neurons outperforms that of PCR. PMID:22302428

  15. Heavy-fermion quantum criticality and destruction of the Kondo effect in a nickel oxypnictide.

    PubMed

    Luo, Yongkang; Pourovskii, Leonid; Rowley, S E; Li, Yuke; Feng, Chunmu; Georges, Antoine; Dai, Jianhui; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu'an; Si, Qimiao; Ong, N P

    2014-08-01

    A quantum critical point arises at a continuous transformation between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Studies in antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion materials have revealed that quantum criticality has several classes, with an unconventional type that involves a critical destruction of the Kondo entanglement. To understand such varieties, it is important to extend the materials basis beyond the usual setting of intermetallic compounds. Here we show that a nickel oxypnictide, CeNiAsO, exhibits a heavy-fermion antiferromagnetic quantum critical point as a function of either pressure or P/As substitution. At the quantum critical point, non-Fermi-liquid behaviour appears, which is accompanied by a divergent effective carrier mass. Across the quantum critical point, the low-temperature Hall coefficient undergoes a rapid sign change, suggesting a sudden jump of the Fermi surface and a destruction of the Kondo effect. Our results imply that the enormous materials basis for the oxypnictides, which has been so crucial in the search for high-temperature superconductivity, will also play a vital role in the effort to establish the universality classes of quantum criticality in strongly correlated electron systems.

  16. Heavy-fermion quantum criticality and destruction of the Kondo effect in a nickel oxypnictide

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Yongkang; Pourovskii, Leonid; Rowley, S. E.; Li, Yuke; Feng, Chunmu; Georges, Antoine; Dai, Jianhui; Cao, Guanghan; Xu, Zhu'An; Si, Qimiao; Ong, N. P.

    2014-08-01

    A quantum critical point arises at a continuous transformation between distinct phases of matter at zero temperature. Studies in antiferromagnetic heavy-fermion materials have revealed that quantum criticality has several classes, with an unconventional type that involves a critical destruction of the Kondo entanglement. To understand such varieties, it is important to extend the materials basis beyond the usual setting of intermetallic compounds. Here we show that a nickel oxypnictide, CeNiAsO, exhibits a heavy-fermion antiferromagnetic quantum critical point as a function of either pressure or P/As substitution. At the quantum critical point, non-Fermi-liquid behaviour appears, which is accompanied by a divergent effective carrier mass. Across the quantum critical point, the low-temperature Hall coefficient undergoes a rapid sign change, suggesting a sudden jump of the Fermi surface and a destruction of the Kondo effect. Our results imply that the enormous materials basis for the oxypnictides, which has been so crucial in the search for high-temperature superconductivity, will also play a vital role in the effort to establish the universality classes of quantum criticality in strongly correlated electron systems.

  17. Investigation of carbon tetrachloride destruction by copper acetate.

    PubMed

    Chien, Yi-Chi

    2012-01-01

    Halogenated synthetic organic compounds are used in a wide variety of pesticides, solvents, refrigerants, fire retardants, and paints that cause extensive pollution to the air, surface water, groundwater, and soils. Carbon tetrachloride (CCl) is a typical halogenated synthetic organic compound that has been suspected to be toxic and carcinogenic and to cause ozone depletion. In the present work, molecular-level destruction of CCl by copper acetate was investigated by extended X-ray absorption fine structural spectra, X-ray absorption near-edge spectra, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction spectroscopy. Experimentally, the Cl species dissociated from CCl were abstracted by copper species and formed CuCl. At 473 to 533 K, reaction products (copper chloride) aggregated on the surfaces of CuO, which might cause the obstruction of further CCl destruction. Due to the insertion of Cl species into the matrix of CuO, the bond distances of Cu-O and Cu-(O)-Cu were increased by 0.3 to 0.4 Å and 0.3 to 0.6 Å, respectively. However, at 603 K, because 79.5% of the Cu was in the CCl destruction solid products, the coordination number of Cu-(O)-Cu increased to 5.6. Molecular level investigations are a key to identifying the mechanisms of the CCl destruction process. In addition, identification of the molecular characteristics of the products may help in safe disposal of the toxic substances. The success of this study paved the way for the destruction of halogenated organic compounds by copper acetate.

  18. Maternal exposure to hurricane destruction and fetal mortality.

    PubMed

    Zahran, Sammy; Breunig, Ian M; Link, Bruce G; Snodgrass, Jeffrey G; Weiler, Stephan; Mielke, Howard W

    2014-08-01

    The majority of research documenting the public health impacts of natural disasters focuses on the well-being of adults and their living children. Negative effects may also occur in the unborn, exposed to disaster stressors when critical organ systems are developing and when the consequences of exposure are large. We exploit spatial and temporal variation in hurricane behaviour as a quasi-experimental design to assess whether fetal death is dose-responsive in the extent of hurricane damage. Data on births and fetal deaths are merged with Parish-level housing wreckage data. Fetal outcomes are regressed on housing wreckage adjusting for the maternal, fetal, placental and other risk factors. The average causal effect of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction is captured by difference-in-differences analyses. The adjusted odds of fetal death are 1.40 (1.07-1.83) and 2.37 (1.684-3.327) times higher in parishes suffering 10-50% and >50% wreckage to housing stock, respectively. For every 1% increase in the destruction of housing stock, we observe a 1.7% (1.1-2.4%) increase in fetal death. Of the 410 officially recorded fetal deaths in these parishes, between 117 and 205 may be attributable to hurricane destruction and postdisaster disorder. The estimated fetal death toll is 17.4-30.6% of the human death toll. The destruction caused by Hurricanes Katrina and Rita imposed significant measurable losses in terms of fetal death. Postdisaster migratory dynamics suggest that the reported effects of maternal exposure to hurricane destruction on fetal death may be conservative. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://group.bmj.com/group/rights-licensing/permissions.

  19. Nurses' perceptions of conflict as constructive or destructive.

    PubMed

    Kim, Wonsun Sunny; Nicotera, Anne M; McNulty, Julie

    2015-09-01

    The aim of this study was to examine nurses' perceptions of constructive and destructive conflicts and their management among nurses. Conflict among nurses is common and has been associated with lack of collaboration, lack of communication and disruptive behaviour, with the potential to have negative impact teamwork. However, unlike the broader social science literature, positive views of conflict are scarce in the nursing literature. Given the various functions of conflict and the high stakes of ineffective conflict management in nursing, it is necessary to examine how nurses understand both sides of conflict: constructive and destructive. A qualitative descriptive design. Data were collected from 34 full time nurses as part of a conflict skills training course offered over 6 months beginning in October 2009. Each participant was asked to write a weekly journal about conflicts in his/her work place. Data yielded 163 entries (82 classified as constructive and 81 as destructive). Results showed that quality patient care and cooperative communication contributed to the perception that conflict is constructive in nature. The central underlying themes in nurses' perceptions of destructive conflict were time constraints, role conflict and power differences that are not managed through communication. This article helps to identify nursing perceptions of constructive and destructive conflict and to understand complexities nurses face during their interactions with other nurses, physicians and patients. The insight that constructive views are related to constructive processes provides an excellent opportunity for an educational intervention, so that we can educate nurses to analyse problems and learn how to manage conflict with effective collaborative processes. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  20. PEROXIDE DESTRUCTION TESTING FOR THE 200 AREA EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    SciTech Connect

    HALGREN DL

    2010-03-12

    The hydrogen peroxide decomposer columns at the 200 Area Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) have been taken out of service due to ongoing problems with particulate fines and poor destruction performance from the granular activated carbon (GAC) used in the columns. An alternative search was initiated and led to bench scale testing and then pilot scale testing. Based on the bench scale testing three manganese dioxide based catalysts were evaluated in the peroxide destruction pilot column installed at the 300 Area Treated Effluent Disposal Facility. The ten inch diameter, nine foot tall, clear polyvinyl chloride (PVC) column allowed for the same six foot catalyst bed depth as is in the existing ETF system. The flow rate to the column was controlled to evaluate the performance at the same superficial velocity (gpm/ft{sup 2}) as the full scale design flow and normal process flow. Each catalyst was evaluated on peroxide destruction performance and particulate fines capacity and carryover. Peroxide destruction was measured by hydrogen peroxide concentration analysis of samples taken before and after the column. The presence of fines in the column headspace and the discharge from carryover was generally assessed by visual observation. All three catalysts met the peroxide destruction criteria by achieving hydrogen peroxide discharge concentrations of less than 0.5 mg/L at the design flow with inlet peroxide concentrations greater than 100 mg/L. The Sud-Chemie T-2525 catalyst was markedly better in the minimization of fines and particle carryover. It is anticipated the T-2525 can be installed as a direct replacement for the GAC in the peroxide decomposer columns. Based on the results of the peroxide method development work the recommendation is to purchase the T-2525 catalyst and initially load one of the ETF decomposer columns for full scale testing.

  1. Rapid shallow breathing

    MedlinePlus

    Tachypnea; Breathing - rapid and shallow; Fast shallow breathing; Respiratory rate - rapid and shallow ... Shallow, rapid breathing has many possible medical causes, including: Asthma Blood clot in an artery in the lung Choking ...

  2. An Investigation into PAH Destruction in Nearby Supernova Remnants, North Polar Spur and Cygnus Loop

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkhart, Sarah M.; Witt, Adolf N.

    2015-01-01

    Our goal in conducting this research was to look at the polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH)/large dust grain emission intensity ratio in nearby supernova remnants to find evidence for selective PAH destruction by hot gas and high velocity shock waves within these regions, as predicted by the models of Arendt et al. (2010) and Micelotta et al. (2010a,b). Two supernova remnants were studied- the North Polar Spur (NPS) and the Cygnus Loop. The data for PAHs were obtained from the WISE W3 12 micron all-sky map processed by Meisner & Finkbeiner (2014), and the data for the larger grains come from the IRAS 100 micron all-sky map processed by Schlegel, Finkbeiner & Davis (1998). After obtaining a control PAH/large grain intensity ratio of ~2.8 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) from two high latitude clouds, MBM 30 and MBM 32, we found that the intensity ratios across the NPS and Cygnus Loop were not far off- ~2.7 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr) and ~3.1 (DN/px)/(MJy/sr), respectively- showing no evidence of selective large-scale PAH destruction in supernova remnants. The individual intensities for both PAHs and large grains do decrease inside the Cygnus Loop, however, suggesting a decrease in abundances of both grain types, which could mean total dust grain destruction with the normal ratios coming from foreground and background dust located in the line of sight of the remnant. In addition, temperature and E(B-V) measurements taken from calibrated IRAS images show that while the dust column density increases in the Eastern Veil of the Cygnus Loop, the dust temperature reaches a local maximum, indicating the heating of large grains by interaction with the hot gas in the remnant. The PAH/large grain ratio in the Eastern Veil does decrease and could be indicative of currently ongoing active grain destruction there, with the PAHs being destroyed on a more rapid timescale than the large grains.We are grateful for financial support from the NSF REU Program grant to the Department of Physics & Astronomy at

  3. Non-destructive assessment of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) exposure by fluorimetric analysis of crab urine.

    PubMed

    Koenig, Samuel; Savage, Candida; Kim, Jonathan P

    2008-12-01

    The detection of urinary polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) metabolites by fluorescence spectrophotometry is particularly effective as a practical means to assess PAH exposure in decapod crabs. However, the practical application of this technique has thus far only been tested for the European shore crab (Carcinus maenas) and only a few field studies have been conducted in heavily polluted areas. The present study evaluated the adaptability of this method as a rapid, cost-effective and non-destructive biomonitoring tool for the New Zealand crab species, Macrophthalmus hirtipes (stalk-eyed mud crab). A field gradient could be detected among the sites and different input sources of PAH contamination could be discerned through the differentiation of pyrogenic and petrogenic PAH signatures. The present study shows that the fluorescence screening method is sensitive to relatively low levels of PAH contamination and more broadly applicable to smaller crab species than C. maenas, for which the technique was developed.

  4. Molten salt destruction of energetic material wastes as an alternative to open burning

    SciTech Connect

    Upadhye, R.S.; Brummond, W.A.; Pruneda, C.O.; Watkins, B.E.

    1994-09-08

    The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory in conjunction with the Energetic Materials Center (a partnership of Lawrence Livermore and Sandia National Laboratories), is developing methods for the safe and environmentally sound destruction of explosives and propellants as a part of the Laboratory`s ancillary demilitarization mission. As a result of the end of the Cold War and the shift in emphasis to a smaller stockpile, many munitions, both conventional and nuclear, are scheduled for retirement and rapid dismantlement and demilitarization. major components of these munitions are the explosives and propellants, or energetic materials. The Department of Energy has thousands of pounds of energetic materials which result from dismantlement operations at the Pantex Plant. The Department of Defense has several hundred million pounds of energetic materials in its demilitarization inventory, with millions more added each year.

  5. Usage of FTIR-ATR as Non-Destructive Analysis of Selected Toxic Dyes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bartošová, Alica; Blinová, Lenka; Sirotiak, Maroš; Michalíková, Anna

    2017-06-01

    The degradation of the environment which is due to the discharge of polluting wastewater from industrial sources poses a real problem in several countries. Textile industries use large volumes of water in their operations, discharging thus large volume of wastewater into the environment, most of which is untreated. The wastewater contains a variety of chemicals from various stages of process operations, including desizing, scouring, bleaching and dyeing. The main purpose of this paper is to introduce Infrared Spectrometry with Fourier transformation as a non-destructive method for study, identifation and rapid determination of selected representatives of cationic (Methylene Blue), azo (Congo Red, Eriochrome Black T) and nitroso (Naphthol Green B) dyes. In conjunction with the ATR technique, FTIR offers a reliable detection method of dyes without extraction by other dangerous substances. Spectral interpretation of dye spectra revealed valuable information about the identification and characterization of each group of dyes.

  6. Invasive fungal laryngopharyngitis resulting in laryngeal destruction with complete laryngotracheal separation: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Swiss, Tyler; Cervantes, Sergio Santino; Hinni, Michael; Lott, David G

    2017-01-01

    As the treatment of hematopoietic cancers evolves, otolaryngologists will see a higher incidence of opportunistic infections. We discuss a case of invasive fungal disease that invaded the larynx, pharynx, trachea, and pulmonary parenchyma after chemotherapy. The patient, a 46-year-old woman, presented 1 week after undergoing induction chemotherapy. Her initial symptoms were odynophagia and dysphagia. Despite encouraging findings on physical examination, her health rapidly declined and she required an urgent tracheotomy and multiple operations to address spreading necrosis. Because of her inability to heal, she was not a candidate for laryngectomy, so she was treated with conservative management. The patient was then lost to follow-up, but she returned 5 months later with laryngeal destruction and a complete laryngotracheal separation. While noninvasive fungal laryngitis is routinely encountered, its invasive counterpart is rare. The literature demonstrates that some cases completely resolve with medical therapy alone but that surgery is necessary in others. We recommend surgical debridement of all necrotic tissue.

  7. The characteristics and processes of NO{sub x} formation/destruction in staged combustion

    SciTech Connect

    Xu, Zhe; Hayashi, Shigeru; Takagi, Toshimi

    1999-07-01

    The characteristics and processes of NO formation and destruction in methane-air staged combustion taking place in the re-burning technique were studied numerically by using detailed chemical kinetics compiled by GRL Special attention was paid to the effects of equivalence ratio, temperature and pressure. The model of staged combustion used in the computation consists of three stages: firstly well-stirred reactor, and then two one-dimensional plug flows, one with a secondary fuel inlet, the other a secondary air inlet. It is assumed that the secondary fuel is injected instantaneously at the inlet of the second stage, and the secondary air is injected over a certain time along the flow in the third stage. After their injection, secondary fuel and air are rapidly mixed with the primary combustion gas which comes from the previous stage. The results are described.

  8. Apparatus and method for destructive removal of particles contained in flowing fluid

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yang, L. C. (Editor)

    1980-01-01

    An apparatus and method for destructively removing particles from a flowing gas containing the particles is described. In the specific embodiments disclosed the apparatus is adapted to remove carbon particles from diesel engine exhaust products. The exhaust products are directed to a predetermined location where they are rapidly vaporized and combine with oxygen in the exhaust products to form carbon dioxide. Vaporization in one embodiment is effected by a discharge grid located within an exhaust conduit, the grid being chosen so that alternate conductors defining the grid are spaced apart a distance approximately 125 times the mean diameter of the particles to be removed. A voltage differential of approximately 690 volts is applied across adjacent conductors.

  9. Chemodetection and Destruction of Host Urea Allows Helicobacter pylori to Locate the Epithelium.

    PubMed

    Huang, Julie Y; Sweeney, Emily Goers; Sigal, Michael; Zhang, Hai C; Remington, S James; Cantrell, Michael A; Kuo, Calvin J; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R

    2015-08-12

    The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with the gastric mucosa to avoid the microbicidal acid in the stomach lumen. The cues H. pylori senses to locate and colonize the gastric epithelium have not been well defined. We show that metabolites emanating from human gastric organoids rapidly attract H. pylori. This response is largely controlled by the bacterial chemoreceptor TlpB, and the main attractant emanating from epithelia is urea. Our previous structural analyses show that TlpB binds urea with high affinity. Here we demonstrate that this tight binding controls highly sensitive responses, allowing detection of urea concentrations as low as 50 nM. Attraction to urea requires that H. pylori urease simultaneously destroys the signal. We propose that H. pylori has evolved a sensitive urea chemodetection and destruction system that allows the bacterium to dynamically and locally modify the host environment to locate the epithelium.

  10. Chemodetection and Destruction of Host Urea Allows Helicobacter pylori to Locate the Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Julie Y.; Sweeney, Emily Goers; Sigal, Michael; Zhang, Hai C.; Remington, S. James; Cantrell, Michael A.; Kuo, Calvin J.; Guillemin, Karen; Amieva, Manuel R.

    2015-01-01

    SUMMARY The gastric pathogen Helicobacter pylori interacts intimately with the gastric mucosa to avoid the microbicidal acid in the stomach lumen. The cues H. pylori senses to locate and colonize the gastric epithelium have not been well defined. We show that metabolites emanating from human gastric organoids rapidly attract H. pylori. This response is largely controlled by the bacterial chemoreceptor TlpB, and the main attractant emanating from epithelia is urea. Our previous structural analyses show that TlpB binds urea with high affinity. Here we demonstrate that this tight binding controls highly sensitive responses, allowing detection of urea concentrations as low as 50 nanomolar. Attraction to urea requires that H. pylori urease simultaneously destroys the signal. We propose that H. pylori has evolved a sensitive urea chemodetection and destruction system that allows the bacterium to dynamically and locally modify the host environment to locate the epithelium. PMID:26269952

  11. Grain destruction in shocks in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Mckee, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Destruction of interstellar dust occurs predominantly in supernova shock waves in the warm neutral/ionized medium (density approximately = 0.25/cu cm, temperature approximately = 10(exp 4) K). Recent theoretical developments and laboratory data for sputtering processes and grain-grain collisional vaporization allows us to better evaluate the grain destruction rate in interstellar shocks in the warm medium. We find that, independent of composition, grain denstruction in supernova blast waves is dominated by nonthermal sputtering for shock velocities greater than 50 km/s and less than or equal to 150 km/s and thermal sputtering at higher shock velocities. We use a detailed scheme for the vaporization of grains colliding at high velocities (v(sub s) greater than or equal to 20 km/s) and show that the grain-grain collision destruction process is only dominant for shock velocities of less than or equal to 50-80 km/s and is less important than previously assumed. Nevertheless, the grain-grain destruction rates are of order 30%-90% of the sputtering rates at v(sub s) greater than 100 km/s and less than 200 km/s and are important in vaporizing the cores of grains. Detailed results for grain destruction as a function of grain size and composition are presented. We also present results for silicon carbide, iron, ice, and porous test particles. For carbonaceous grains we find that the fractional destruction is less than or equal to 0.29, and for silicate it is less than or equal to 0.45, for v(sub s) less than or equal to 200 km/s. We have calculated grain lifetimes, using the three-phase model of the interstellar medium, and find lifetimes of 4 x 10(exp 8) yr for carbonaceous grains and 2.2 x 10(exp 8) yr for silicate grains. Given that the typical stardust injection timescale of 2.5 x 10(exp 9) yr, we conclude that efficient mechanisms for grain growth in the interstellar medium must exist in order that a significant fraction of the refractory elements be incorporated in

  12. Grain destruction in shocks in the interstellar medium

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, A. P.; Tielens, A. G. G. M.; Hollenbach, D. J.; Mckee, C. F.

    1994-01-01

    Destruction of interstellar dust occurs predominantly in supernova shock waves in the warm neutral/ionized medium (density approximately = 0.25/cu cm, temperature approximately = 10(exp 4) K). Recent theoretical developments and laboratory data for sputtering processes and grain-grain collisional vaporization allows us to better evaluate the grain destruction rate in interstellar shocks in the warm medium. We find that, independent of composition, grain denstruction in supernova blast waves is dominated by nonthermal sputtering for shock velocities greater than 50 km/s and less than or equal to 150 km/s and thermal sputtering at higher shock velocities. We use a detailed scheme for the vaporization of grains colliding at high velocities (v(sub s) greater than or equal to 20 km/s) and show that the grain-grain collision destruction process is only dominant for shock velocities of less than or equal to 50-80 km/s and is less important than previously assumed. Nevertheless, the grain-grain destruction rates are of order 30%-90% of the sputtering rates at v(sub s) greater than 100 km/s and less than 200 km/s and are important in vaporizing the cores of grains. Detailed results for grain destruction as a function of grain size and composition are presented. We also present results for silicon carbide, iron, ice, and porous test particles. For carbonaceous grains we find that the fractional destruction is less than or equal to 0.29, and for silicate it is less than or equal to 0.45, for v(sub s) less than or equal to 200 km/s. We have calculated grain lifetimes, using the three-phase model of the interstellar medium, and find lifetimes of 4 x 10(exp 8) yr for carbonaceous grains and 2.2 x 10(exp 8) yr for silicate grains. Given that the typical stardust injection timescale of 2.5 x 10(exp 9) yr, we conclude that efficient mechanisms for grain growth in the interstellar medium must exist in order that a significant fraction of the refractory elements be incorporated in

  13. Screening of Maritime Containers to Intercept Weapons of Mass Destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Manatt, D R; Sleaford, B; Schaffer, T; Accatino, M R; Slaughter, D; Mauger, J; Newmark, R; Prussin, S; Luke, J; Frank, M; Bernstein, A; Alford, O; Mattesich, G; Stengel, J; Hall, J; Descalle, M A; Wolford, J; Hall, H; Loshak, A; Sale, K; Trombino, D; Dougan, A D; Pohl, B; Dietrich, D; Weirup, D; Walling, R; Rowland, M; Johnson, D; Hagmann, C; Hankins, D

    2004-02-18

    The goal of our research was to address the problem of detection of weapons of mass destruction (WMD) materials within containers in common use on commercial cargo trafficking. LLNL has created an experimental test bed for researching potential solutions using (among other techniques) active interrogation with neutrons. Experiments and computational modeling were used to determine the effectiveness of the technique. Chemical weapons materials and high explosives can be detected using neutron activation and simple geometries with little or no intervening material. However in a loaded container there will be nuisance alarms from conflicting signatures resulting from the presence of material between the target and the detector (and the interrogation source). Identifying some elements may require long counting times because of the increased background. We performed some simple signature measurements and simulations of gamma-ray spectra from several chemical simulants. We identified areas where the nuclear data was inadequate to perform detailed computations. We concentrated on the detection of SNM in cargo containers, which will be emphasized here. The goal of the work reported here is to develop a concept for an active neutron interrogation system that can detect small targets of SNM contraband in cargo containers, roughly 5 kg HEU or 1 kg Pu, even when well shielded by a thick cargo. It is essential that the concept be reliable and have low false-positive and false-negative error rates. It also must be rapid to avoid interruption of commerce, completing the analysis in minutes. A potentially viable concept for cargo interrogation has been developed and its components have been evaluated experimentally. A new radiation signature unique to SNM has been identified that utilizes high-energy, fission-product gamma rays. That signature due to {gamma}-radiation in the range 3-6 MeV is distinct from normal background radioactivity that does not extend above 2.6 MeV. It

  14. Non-destructive microstructural analysis with depth resolution

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zolotoyabko, E.; Quintana, J. P.

    2003-01-01

    A depth-sensitive X-ray diffraction technique has been developed with the aim of studying microstructural modifications in inhomogeneous polycrystalline materials. In that method, diffraction profiles are measured at different X-ray energies varied by small steps. X-rays at higher energies probe deeper layers of material. Depth-resolved structural information is retrieved by comparing energy-dependent diffraction profiles. The method provides non-destructive depth profiling of the preferred orientation, grain size, microstrain fluctuations and residual strains. This technique is applied to the characterization of seashells. Similarly, energy-variable X-ray diffraction can be used for the non-destructive characterization of different laminated structures and composite materials.

  15. Microbial destruction of cyanide wastes in gold mining: process review.

    PubMed

    Akcil, Ata; Mudder, Terry

    2003-03-01

    Microbial destruction of cyanide and its related compounds is one of the most important biotechnologies to emerge in the last two decades for treating process and tailings solutions at precious metals mining operations. Hundreds of plant and microbial species (bacteria, fungi and algae) can detoxify cyanide quickly to environmentally acceptable levels and into less harmful by-products. Full-scale bacterial processes have been used effectively for many years in commercial applications in North America. Several species of bacteria can convert cyanide under both aerobic and anaerobic conditions using it as a primary source of nitrogen and carbon. Other organisms are capable of oxidizing the cyanide related compounds of thiocyanate and ammonia under varying conditions of pH, temperature, nutrient levels, oxygen, and metal concentrations. This paper presents an overview of the destruction of cyanide in mining related solutions by microbial processes.

  16. Microbial destruction of chitin in soils under different moisture conditions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yaroslavtsev, A. M.; Manucharova, N. A.; Stepanov, A. L.; Zvyagintsev, D. G.; Sudnitsyn, I. I.

    2009-07-01

    The most favorable moisture conditions for the microbial destruction of chitin in soils are close to the total water capacity. The water content has the most pronounced effect on chitin destruction in soils in comparison with other studied substrates. It was found using gas-chromatographic and luminescent-microscopic methods that the maximum specific activity of the respiration of the chitinolytic community was at a rather low redox potential with the soil moisture close to the total water capacity. The range of moisture values under which the most intense microbial transformation of chitin occurred was wider in clayey and clay loamy soils as compared with sandy ones. The increase was observed due to the contribution of mycelial bacteria and actinomycetes in the chitinolytic complex as the soil moisture increased.

  17. Non-destructive examination system of vitreous body

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shibata, Takuma; Gong, Jin; Watanabe, Yosuke; Kabir, M. Hasnat; Masato, Makino; Furukawa, Hidemitsu; Nishitsuka, Koichi

    2014-04-01

    Eyeball plays a quite important role in acquiring the vision. Vitreous body occupies the largest part of the eyeball and consists of biological, elastic, transparent, gel materials. In the present medical examination, the non-destructive examination method of the vitreous body has not been well established. Here, we focus on an application of dynamic light scattering to this topic. We tried to apply our lab-made apparatus, scanning microscopic light scattering (SMILS), which was specially designed for observing the nanometer-scale network structure in gel materials. In order to examine the vitreous body using SMILS method, a commercial apparatus, nano Partica (Horiba Co. Ltd.) was also customized. We analyzed vitreous body using both the SMILS and the customized nano Partica. We successfully examined the vitreous bodies of healthy pigs in non-destructive way.

  18. Coral poaching worsens tsunami destruction in Sri Lanka

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernando, H. J. S.; McCulley, J. L.; Mendis, S. G.; Perera, K.

    Observations of the trail of destruction of the Sumatra tsunami of 26 December 2004 indicate remarkable, small-scale spatial variations, of the order of a few kilometers, of water inundation and destruction in southwestern Sri Lanka [Shiermeier, 2005; Liu et al., 2005] that are much smaller than the tsunami wavelength of ˜100 km.For example, the town of Peraliya, was awash with an approximately 1.5-km water inundation from a wave of 10 m in height; the inundation there carried the passenger train Samudra Devi (the “Ocean Queen”) inland some 50 m, killing 1700 people. Yet,˜3 km south, in Hikkaduwa, there was a mere 2-3 m wave height, 50-m inundation and no deaths.

  19. Boby-Vortex Interaction, Sound Generation and Destructive Interference

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kao, Hsiao C.

    2000-01-01

    It is generally recognized that interaction of vortices with downstream blades is a major source of noise production. To analyze this problem numerically, a two-dimensional model of inviscid flow together with the method of matched asymptotic expansions is proposed. The method of matched asymptotic expansions is used to match the inner region of incompressible flow to the outer region of compressible flow. Because of incompressibility, relatively simple numerical methods are available to treat multiple vortices and multiple bodies of arbitrary shape. Disturbances from vortices and bodies propagate outward as sound waves. Due to their interactions, either constructive or destructive interference may result. When it is destructive, the combined sound intensity can be reduced, sometimes substantially. In addition, an analytical solution to sound generation by the cascade-vonex interaction is given.

  20. Photolytic AND Catalytic Destruction of Organic Waste Water Pollutants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Torosyan, V. F.; Torosyan, E. S.; Kryuchkova, S. O.; Gromov, V. E.

    2017-01-01

    The system: water supply source - potable and industrial water - wastewater - sewage treatment - water supply source is necessary for water supply and efficient utilization of water resources. Up-to-date technologies of waste water biological treatment require for special microorganisms, which are technologically complex and expensive but unable to solve all the problems. Application of photolytic and catalytically-oxidizing destruction is quite promising. However, the most reagents are strong oxidizers in catalytic oxidation of organic substances and can initiate toxic substance generation. Methodic and scientific approaches to assess bread making industry influence on the environment have been developed in this paper in order to support forecasting and taking technological decisions concerning reduction of this influence. Destructive methods have been tested: ultra violet irradiation and catalytic oxidation for extraction of organic compounds from waste water by natural reagents.

  1. Infrared Thermography for Temperature Measurement and Non-Destructive Testing

    PubMed Central

    Usamentiaga, Rubèn; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G.

    2014-01-01

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed. PMID:25014096

  2. Mandibular destructive radiolucent lesion: The first sign of multiple myeloma

    PubMed Central

    Fregnani, Eduardo-Rodrigues; Leite, Amanda-Almeida; Parahyba, Claudia-Joffily; Nesrallah, Ana-Cristina-Alo; Ramos-Perez, Flávia-Maria-de Moraes

    2016-01-01

    The occurrence of a mandibular lesion as the first sign of multiple myeloma (MM) is uncommon. This report describes a case of MM diagnosed because of a mandibular lesion. A 62-year-old woman presented a destructive radiolucent lesion in the right mandibular ramus. The lesion caused rupture of the anterior cortical bone and extended from the retromolar area to the coronoid process. An incisional biopsy was performed. Histopathological examination revealed numerous pleomorphic plasma cells, some with binucleated nuclei. The tumor cells showed kappa light-chain restriction. Bone marrow biopsy showed findings of massive infiltration of neoplastic plasma cells, besides lesions in the vertebrae. The diagnosis of MM was established. The patient underwent autologous hematopoietic stem-cell transplantation. Currently, the patient is under regular follow up after 40 months of initial treatment. In conclusion, MM should be considered in the differential diagnosis of destructive mandibular lesions. Key words:Mandible, multiple myeloma, radiolucent lesion. PMID:27703618

  3. Destruction mechanisms for formaldehyde in atmospheric pressure low temperature plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Storch, Daniel G.; Kushner, Mark J.

    1993-01-01

    Formaldehyde (CH2O) is a common pollutant of indoor air in residences and commercial buildings. The removal of CH2O from atmospheric pressure gas streams (N2/O2/H2O/CH2O) using plasmas generated by a dielectric barrier discharge has been theoretically investigated with the goal of cleansing indoor air. The model consists of a full accounting of the electron, ion, and neutral chemical kinetics in contaminated humid air. We find that the destruction of CH2O results dominantly from chemical attack by OH and O radicals, with the primary end products being CO and H2O. The predicted destruction rates for CH2O are typically 2-8 ppm/(mJ cm-3) (parts per million of CH2O in air/energy deposition). The elimination of the unwanted byproducts, CO and NO, using a platinum catalyst is discussed.

  4. Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants (SNRs), gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV λ1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus, these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the C IV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared with the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction, and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  5. Energy Release Channels During Destruction of Impurity-Helium Condensates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khmelenko, V. V.; Pelmenev, A. A.; Krushinskaya, I. N.; Bykhalo, I. B.; Boltnev, R. E.; Lee, D. M.

    2013-05-01

    Injection of an impurity-helium gas jet passed through a radiofrequency discharge into a volume of superfluid helium leads to the growth of nanoclusters of impurity species which form impurity-helium condensates (IHCs). IHCs are porous materials with very low impurity density (˜1020 cm-3). High average concentrations of stabilized free radicals can be achieved on the large total surface (˜100 m2/cm3) of impurity nanoclusters. Warming of the IHCs leads to the destruction of the samples and formation of excited atoms and molecules as a consequence of the recombination of stabilized free radicals. We studied the influence of the nitrogen content in neon-helium and krypton-helium gas mixtures on the thermoluminescence spectra accompanying the destruction of the IHC samples, which were formed by using these gas mixtures. The energy release channels in the IHC samples were revealed from analysis of the thermoluminescence spectra.

  6. Challenges of cervical reconstruction for destructive spondyloarthropathy in renal osteodystrophy.

    PubMed

    Elder, Benjamin D; Petteys, Rory J; Sciubba, Daniel M; Wolinsky, Jean-Paul

    2016-08-01

    Patients with end stage renal disease on hemodialysis may present with destructive spondyloarthropathy of the spine, most commonly in the subaxial cervical and lumbar spine, often with severe stenosis and instability. However, surgical management of these patients is challenging due to a high pseudarthrosis rate, poor bone quality, and medical frailty. We present a 49-year-old man on hemodialysis who presented with C4-C5 vertebral body destruction and a focal kyphotic deformity with myelopathy. The patient underwent a 360 degree decompression and reconstructive procedure that resulted in posterior instrumentation failure. Several salvage techniques were used in order to adequately stabilize the spine while preserving the patient's remaining cervical motion. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  7. Non-destructive Faraday imaging of dynamically controlled ultracold atoms

    SciTech Connect

    Gajdacz, Miroslav; Pedersen, Poul L.; Mørch, Troels; Hilliard, Andrew J.; Arlt, Jan; Sherson, Jacob F.

    2013-08-15

    We describe an easily implementable method for non-destructive measurements of ultracold atomic clouds based on dark field imaging of spatially resolved Faraday rotation. The signal-to-noise ratio is analyzed theoretically and, in the absence of experimental imperfections, the sensitivity limit is found to be identical to other conventional dispersive imaging techniques. The dependence on laser detuning, atomic density, and temperature is characterized in a detailed comparison with theory. Due to low destructiveness, spatially resolved images of the same cloud can be acquired up to 2000 times. The technique is applied to avoid the effect of shot-to-shot fluctuations in atom number calibration, to demonstrate single-run vector magnetic field imaging and single-run spatial imaging of the system's dynamic behavior. This demonstrates that the method is a useful tool for the characterization of static and dynamically changing properties of ultracold atomic clouds.

  8. Infrared thermography for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing.

    PubMed

    Usamentiaga, Rubén; Venegas, Pablo; Guerediaga, Jon; Vega, Laura; Molleda, Julio; Bulnes, Francisco G

    2014-07-10

    The intensity of the infrared radiation emitted by objects is mainly a function of their temperature. In infrared thermography, this feature is used for multiple purposes: as a health indicator in medical applications, as a sign of malfunction in mechanical and electrical maintenance or as an indicator of heat loss in buildings. This paper presents a review of infrared thermography especially focused on two applications: temperature measurement and non-destructive testing, two of the main fields where infrared thermography-based sensors are used. A general introduction to infrared thermography and the common procedures for temperature measurement and non-destructive testing are presented. Furthermore, developments in these fields and recent advances are reviewed.

  9. Grain destruction in a supernova remnant shock wave

    SciTech Connect

    Raymond, John C.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2013-12-01

    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants (SNRs), gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV λ1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 μm and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus, these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the C IV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared with the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction, and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre-shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  10. Laser-induced propagation and destruction of amyloid beta fibrils.

    PubMed

    Yagi, Hisashi; Ozawa, Daisaku; Sakurai, Kazumasa; Kawakami, Toru; Kuyama, Hiroki; Nishimura, Osamu; Shimanouchi, Toshinori; Kuboi, Ryoichi; Naiki, Hironobu; Goto, Yuji

    2010-06-18

    The amyloid deposition of amyloid beta (Abeta) peptides is a critical pathological event in Alzheimer disease (AD). Preventing the formation of amyloid deposits and removing preformed fibrils in tissues are important therapeutic strategies against AD. Previously, we reported the destruction of amyloid fibrils of beta(2)-microglobulin K3 fragments by laser irradiation coupled with the binding of amyloid-specific thioflavin T. Here, we studied the effects of a laser beam on Abeta fibrils. As was the case for K3 fibrils, extensive irradiation destroyed the preformed Abeta fibrils. However, irradiation during spontaneous fibril formation resulted in only the partial destruction of growing fibrils and a subsequent explosive propagation of fibrils. The explosive propagation was caused by an increase in the number of active ends due to breakage. The results not only reveal a case of fragmentation-induced propagation of fibrils but also provide insights into therapeutic strategies for AD.

  11. The empty mother: women's fear of their destructive envy.

    PubMed

    Ellman, C S

    2000-10-01

    This paper explains the importance of understanding the little girl's envy of her mother and how the resolution of this envy (and her fear of other women's envy) is crucial to a woman's development. I postulate that envy is a universal part of female development (with more or less destructive effects on a woman's personality, depending on the libidinal/sexual components of her attachment to both parents). I hope to show that by interpreting a woman's fear of her destructive envy, one can free her not only to enjoy her own sexuality and to find appropriate ways to express her aggression, but also to be more creative. I believe that guilt about these envious feelings often leads to profound inhibitions and masochistic behavior. Two clinical examples illustrate how envy manifests itself in treatment with a woman analyst, and how the working through of intense envious feelings leads to a greater ability to enjoy one's own capacities without constant fear of retribution.

  12. Grain Destruction in a Supernova Remnant Shock Wave

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Raymond, John C.; Ghavamian, Parviz; Williams, Brian J.; Blair, William P.; Borkowski, Kazimierz J.; Gaetz, Terrance J.; Sankrit, Ravi

    2014-01-01

    Dust grains are sputtered away in the hot gas behind shock fronts in supernova remnants, gradually enriching the gas phase with refractory elements. We have measured emission in C IV (lambda)1550 from C atoms sputtered from dust in the gas behind a non-radiative shock wave in the northern Cygnus Loop. Overall, the intensity observed behind the shock agrees approximately with predictions from model calculations that match the Spitzer 24 micron and the X-ray intensity profiles. Thus these observations confirm the overall picture of dust destruction in SNR shocks and the sputtering rates used in models. However, there is a discrepancy in that the CIV intensity 10'' behind the shock is too high compared to the intensities at the shock and 25'' behind it. Variations in the density, hydrogen neutral fraction and the dust properties over parsec scales in the pre- shock medium limit our ability to test dust destruction models in detail.

  13. Non-destructive NIR FT Raman analysis of plants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Schrader, B.; Klump, H. H.; Schenzel, K.; Schulz, H.

    1999-10-01

    Non-destructive analyses of animal and plant cells and tissues by 'classical' Raman spectroscopy with excitation in the visible range have not been possible since the samples are destroyed photochemically or their fluorescence conceals the Raman spectra completely. When excited with the Nd:YAG laser line at 1064 nm fluorescence-free Raman spectra of animal or plant cells and tissues can be recorded without special preparation. In this paper we concentrate on plants and its constituents: essential oils, natural dyes, flavors, spices, alkaloids and fibers can be characterized. The spectra allow the observation of biochemical processes, to observe the distribution of natural products, application to taxonomy, optimizing plant breeding, the harvesting time and control of food—everything non-destructively in living plants!

  14. Non-destructive techniques based on eddy current testing.

    PubMed

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future.

  15. Non-Destructive Techniques Based on Eddy Current Testing

    PubMed Central

    García-Martín, Javier; Gómez-Gil, Jaime; Vázquez-Sánchez, Ernesto

    2011-01-01

    Non-destructive techniques are used widely in the metal industry in order to control the quality of materials. Eddy current testing is one of the most extensively used non-destructive techniques for inspecting electrically conductive materials at very high speeds that does not require any contact between the test piece and the sensor. This paper includes an overview of the fundamentals and main variables of eddy current testing. It also describes the state-of-the-art sensors and modern techniques such as multi-frequency and pulsed systems. Recent advances in complex models towards solving crack-sensor interaction, developments in instrumentation due to advances in electronic devices, and the evolution of data processing suggest that eddy current testing systems will be increasingly used in the future. PMID:22163754

  16. From the Magic of Light to the Destruction of Night

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posch, Thomas

    2012-09-01

    Life on the Earth depends on the light from the Sun. Humans generally have a very positive attitude towards light. This paper discusses the 'magic of light' - i.e. our dependence on and even addiction to light - and how it gradually led to the destruction of natural darkness by means of excessive artificial illumination. Furthermore, we develop a theory of the aesthetic value of natural nightscapes, which we illustrate by masterpieces from the history of painting.

  17. Dust Destruction Rates and Lifetimes in the Magellanic Clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Boyer, Martha L.; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-01-01

    The nature, composition, abundance, and size distribution of dust in galaxies is determined by the rate at which it is created in the different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetime and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust in these galaxies. We find dust lifetimes of 22+/-13 Myr (30+/-17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 +/- 32 Myr (72 +/- 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass, and the fact that the dust-destroying isolated SNe in the MCs seem to be preferentially occurring in regions with higher than average dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios. We also calculate the supernova rate and the current star formation rate in the MCs, and use them to derive maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars and core collapse supernovae (CCSNe). We find that the injection rates are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs. This supports the conclusion that, unless the dust destruction rates have been considerably overestimated, most of the dust must be reconstituted from surviving grains in dense molecular clouds. More generally, we also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio and the ambient gas density and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  18. IET. Aerial view of snaptran destructive experiment in 1964. Camera ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    IET. Aerial view of snaptran destructive experiment in 1964. Camera facing north. Test cell building (TAN-624) is positioned away from coupling station. Weather tower in right foreground. Divided duct just beyond coupling station. Air intake structure on south side of shielded control room. Experiment is on dolly at coupling station. Date: 1964. INEEL negative no. 64-1736 - Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, Test Area North, Scoville, Butte County, ID

  19. Formation and Destruction Processes of Carbonaceous Interstellar Dust

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Contreras C, S.; Ricketts, C. L.; Salama, F.

    2011-05-01

    The study of the formation and the destruction processes of cosmic dust is essential to understand and to quantify the budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules. Although dust with all its components plays an important role in the evolution of interstellar chemistry and in the formation of organic molecules, little is known on the formation and destruction processes of carbonaceous dust. Polycyclic Aromatic Hydrocarbons (PAHs) are important chemical building blocks of interstellar dust. They are detected in interplanetary dust particles (IDPs) and in meteoritic samples. Additionally, observational, laboratory, and theoretical point to PAHs, in their neutral and ionized forms, as an important component of the interstellar medium. Therefore, it is imperative that laboratory experiments be conducted to study the dynamic processes of carbon grain formation from PAH precursors. Studies of interstellar dust analogs formed from a variety of PAH and hydrocarbon precursors (CH4, C2H4, C2H2) as well as species that include the atoms O, N, and S, have recently been performed in our laboratory under conditions that simulate interstellar and circumstellar environments. The species formed in the pulsed discharge nozzle (PDN) plasma source are detected and characterized with a high-sensitivity cavity ringdown spectrometer (CRDS) coupled to a Reflectron time-of-flight mass spectrometer (ReTOF-MS), thus providing both spectroscopic and ion mass information in-situ. We report the first measurements obtained in these experiments. The formation and destruction paths of carbonaceous molecules will be discussed. From these unique measurements, we derive information on the size and the structure of interstellar dust grain particles, the growth and the destruction processes of interstellar dust and the resulting budget of extraterrestrial organic molecules.

  20. Emergency Metacarpophalangeal Arthroplastywith Bone Grafting for Traumatic Joint Destruction.

    PubMed

    Pomares, G; Calafat, V; Montoya-Faivre, D; Dap, F; Dautel, G

    2017-08-05

    Emergency arthroplasty of the metacarpophalangeal joint (MCPJ) remains a valuable treatment option in patients with MCPJ destruction but may raise challenges in the event of substantial metacarpal and/or phalangeal bone defects. We report three cases ofMCPJdestruction with bone defects at the proximal first phalanx treated with emergency silicone implant arthroplasty combined with bone grafting. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Masson SAS.

  1. System and method for high precision isotope ratio destructive analysis

    DOEpatents

    Bushaw, Bruce A; Anheier, Norman C; Phillips, Jon R

    2013-07-02

    A system and process are disclosed that provide high accuracy and high precision destructive analysis measurements for isotope ratio determination of relative isotope abundance distributions in liquids, solids, and particulate samples. The invention utilizes a collinear probe beam to interrogate a laser ablated plume. This invention provides enhanced single-shot detection sensitivity approaching the femtogram range, and isotope ratios that can be determined at approximately 1% or better precision and accuracy (relative standard deviation).

  2. Destruction of public and governmental experiments of GMO in Europe.

    PubMed

    Kuntz, Marcel

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this article is to compile the destruction of GMO trials from academic or governmental research institutes in Europe, in a factual manner and to highlight their main characteristics. About 80 acts of vandalism against academic or governmental research on GMOs are identified, mainly in 4 countries; namely France, Germany, the United Kingdom and Switzerland. Examples are also provided for Italy and Belgium. The general conclusions that can be drawn from these acts are also discussed.

  3. Method and apparatus for low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons

    DOEpatents

    Reagen, William Kevin; Janikowski, Stuart Kevin

    1999-01-01

    A method and apparatus for decomposing halogenated hydrocarbons are provided. The halogenated hydrocarbon is mixed with solvating agents and maintained in a predetermined atmosphere and at a predetermined temperature. The mixture is contacted with recyclable reactive material for chemically reacting with the recyclable material to create dehalogenated hydrocarbons and halogenated inorganic compounds. A feature of the invention is that the process enables low temperature destruction of halogenated hydrocarbons.

  4. Longitudinal relations between constructive and destructive conflict and couples' sleep.

    PubMed

    El-Sheikh, Mona; Kelly, Ryan J; Koss, Kalsea J; Rauer, Amy J

    2015-06-01

    We examined longitudinal relations between interpartner constructive (negotiation) and destructive (psychological and physical aggression) conflict strategies and couples' sleep over 1 year. Toward explicating processes of effects, we assessed the intervening role of internalizing symptoms in associations between conflict tactics and couples' sleep. Participants were 135 cohabiting couples (M age = 37 years for women and 39 years for men). The sample included a large representation of couples exposed to economic adversity. Further, 68% were European American and the remainder were primarily African American. At Time 1 (T1), couples reported on their conflict and their mental health (depression, anxiety). At T1 and Time 2, sleep was examined objectively with actigraphs for 7 nights. Three sleep parameters were derived: efficiency, minutes, and latency. Actor-partner interdependence models indicated that husbands' use of constructive conflict forecasted increases in their own sleep efficiency as well as their own and their wives' sleep duration over time. Actor and partner effects emerged, and husbands' and wives' use of destructive conflict strategies generally predicted worsening of some sleep parameters over time. Several mediation and intervening effects were observed for destructive conflict strategies. Some of these relations reveal that destructive conflict is associated with internalizing symptoms, which in turn are associated with some sleep parameters longitudinally. These findings build on a small, albeit growing, literature linking sleep with marital functioning, and illustrate that consideration of relationship processes including constructive conflict holds promise for gaining a better understanding of factors that influence the sleep of men and women. (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved).

  5. A non-destructive DNA sampling technique for herbarium specimens.

    PubMed

    Shepherd, Lara D

    2017-01-01

    Herbarium specimens are an important source of DNA for plant research but current sampling methods require the removal of material for DNA extraction. This is undesirable for irreplaceable specimens such as rare species or type material. Here I present the first non-destructive sampling method for extracting DNA from herbarium specimens. DNA was successfully retrieved from robust leaves and/or stems of herbarium specimens up to 73 years old.

  6. ENCEPHALOMYELITIS ACCOMPANIED BY MYELIN DESTRUCTION EXPERIMENTALLY PRODUCED IN MONKEYS

    PubMed Central

    Rivers, Thomas M.; Schwentker, Francis F.

    1935-01-01

    The repeated intramuscular injections of aqueous emulsions and alcohol-ether extracts of sterile normal rabbit brains in some manner produced pathological changes accompanied by myelin destruction in the brains of 7 of 8 monkeys (Macacus rhesus). Eight, control monkeys remained well. Cultures from the involved brains remained sterile, and no transmissible agent was demonstrated by means of intracerebral inoculations of emulsions of bits of the brains into monkeys, rabbits, guinea pigs, and white mice. PMID:19870385

  7. LSP Composite Susbtrate Destructive Evaluation Test Assessment Manual

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Kovach, Daniel J.; Erickson, Grant J.

    2013-01-01

    This document specifies the processes to perform post-strike destructive damage evaluation of tested CFRP panels.It is recognized that many factors besides lightning damage protection are involved in the selection of an appropriate Lightning Strike Protection (LSP) for a particular system (e.g., cost, weight, corrosion resistance, shielding effectiveness, etc.). This document strives primarily to address the standardized generation of damage protection performance data.

  8. [Symptomatic and evolutive characteristics of articular destruction noted in chondrocalcinosis].

    PubMed

    Villiaumey, J; Larget-Piet, B; Menza, C D; Rotterdam, M

    1975-04-01

    Referring to 17 personal observations, the authors endeavour to clarify the main clinical and radiological traits of the destructive arthropathies occuring in patients suffering from diffuse, articular chondrocalcinosis. These arthropathies appear to be relatively frequent and older, obese women suffering from demineralization are more readily affected. The knees, coxo-femoral joints and the shoulders are principally concerned, and to a lesser extent the wrists, the trapezo-metacarpal joints and even the spine. The lesions can be polyarticular and symmetrical, be grouped in more or less random oligoarticular combinations or may occur in only a single joint space. Clinically, these destructive arthropathies give rise to severe pain and very marked functional impotence. The joints are swollen without any signs of inflammation. The joint movements are painful, stiff, and limited. Axial deviations are frequent. Radiologically, the lesions occur throughout the cartilage sheath, the inter-chondrial bone, and in the underlying epiphysary bone, in the form of massive geodes and massives loss of tissue substance. On the other hand, the process of reconstruction is very limited. In the patients studied, chondrocalcinosis was proved by the very characteristic pictures of calcic incrustations of the cartilage sheath and the fibro-cartilages, by the discovery of micro-crystals of calcium pyrophosphate in the articular fluid or, at biopsy, by the thickness of the synovial fluid. This chondrocalcinosis was primary in the cases. These destructive lesions were easily distinguishable from nervous or diabetic osteo-arthropathies, and from tumoral, infectious, rheumatic, or vascular changes. Thus, chondrocalcinosis is among the most common causes of osteo-articular destruction. It should be looked for systematically in all patients with lytic arthropathies of unknown etiology.

  9. Martyrdom redefined: self-destructive killers and vulnerable narcissism.

    PubMed

    Bobadilla, Leonardo

    2014-08-01

    Lankford shows that suicide terrorists have much in common with maladjusted persons who die by suicide. However, what differentiates suicidal killers from those who "only" commit suicide? A key element may be vulnerable narcissism. Narcissism has been simultaneously linked to interpersonal aggression, achievement, and depression. These traits may explain the paradoxical picture of a person who may appear "normal" in some aspects, and yet hate himself and others so intensely as to seek mutual destruction.

  10. Destruction of variola virus: memorandum from a WHO meeting.

    PubMed Central

    1994-01-01

    This Memorandum discusses the fate of variola virus stocks which have been kept in two WHO Collaborating Centres, as well as cloned DNA fragments of variola virus genome, smallpox vaccine, and seed vaccinia virus for the production of this vaccine. General and specific recommendations are given concerning destruction of variola virus; storage, distribution and handling of cloned DNA fragments of variola virus genome; and about stocks of smallpox vaccine. PMID:7867128

  11. Embedded Non-Destructive Evaluation for Glass Armor

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2011-12-05

    Unclassified In House NDE and Electromagnetic Compatibility Capabilities Millimeter wave Scanning Imager Phased Array Ultrasound Immersion Tank Low...DISTRIBUTION A: Approved for public release; distribution is unlimited Embedded NDE for Glass Armor Sensor Enhanced Armor- Non-Destructive...Standard Form 298 (Rev. 8-98) Prescribed by ANSI Std Z39-18 Unclassified Armor Solutions Tested with Ultrasonics NDT/E leading to Sensor Enhanced

  12. DUST DESTRUCTION RATES AND LIFETIMES IN THE MAGELLANIC CLOUDS

    SciTech Connect

    Temim, Tea; Dwek, Eli; Boyer, Martha L.; Tchernyshyov, Kirill; Meixner, Margaret; Gall, Christa; Roman-Duval, Julia

    2015-02-01

    The dust budget in galaxies depends on the rate at which dust grains are created in different stellar sources and destroyed by interstellar shocks. Because of their extensive wavelength coverage, proximity, and nearly face-on geometry, the Magellanic Clouds (MCs) provide a unique opportunity to study these processes in great detail. In this paper, we use the complete sample of supernova remnants (SNRs) in the MCs to calculate the lifetimes and destruction efficiencies of silicate and carbon dust. We find dust lifetimes of 22 ± 13 Myr (30 ± 17 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC, and 54 ± 32 Myr (72 ± 43 Myr) for silicate (carbon) grains in the SMC. The corresponding dust destruction rates are 2.3 × 10{sup –2} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.9 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) and 3.0 × 10{sup –3} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1} (5.6 × 10{sup –4} M {sub ☉} yr{sup –1}) for silicate (carbon) grains in the LMC and SMC, respectively. The significantly shorter lifetimes in the MCs, as compared to the Milky Way, are explained as the combined effect of their lower total dust mass and preferentially higher dust-to-gas (D2G) mass ratios in the vicinity of the SNRs. We find that the maximum dust injection rates by asymptotic giant branch stars and core collapse supernovae are an order of magnitude lower than the dust destruction rates by the SNRs, suggesting that most of the dust may be reconstituted in dense molecular clouds. We also discuss the dependence of the dust destruction rate on the local D2G mass ratio, ambient gas density, and metallicity, as well as the application of our results to other galaxies and dust evolution models.

  13. Thermal and destructive interrogation of ceramic matrix composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ojard, Greg; Doza, Douglas; Ouyang, Zhong; Angel, Paul; Smyth, Imelda; Santhosh, Unni; Ahmad, Jalees; Gowayed, Yasser

    2015-03-01

    Ceramic matrix composites are intended for elevated temperature use and their performance at temperature must be clearly understood as insertion efforts are to be realized. Most efforts to understand ceramic matrix composites at temperature are based on their lifetime at temperature under stress based on fatigue or creep testing or residual testing after some combination of temperature, stress and time. While these efforts can be insightful especially based on their mechanical performance, there is no insight into how other properties are changing with thermal exposure. To gain additional insight into oxidation behavior of CMC samples, a series of fatigue and creep samples tested at two different temperatures were non-destructively interrogated after achieving run-out conditions by multiple thermal methods and limited X-ray CT. After non-destructive analysis, residual tensile tests were undertaken at room temperature. The resulting residual properties will be compared against the non-destructive data. Analysis will be done to see if data trends can be determined and correlated to the level and duration of exposure.

  14. VOC destruction by water diluted hydrogen mild combustion.

    PubMed

    Sabia, P; Romeo, F; de Joannon, M; Cavaliere, A

    2007-06-01

    This study represents a preliminary numerical evaluation of the effect of steam dilution and hydrogen addition on the oxidation of formaldehyde and benzene, chosen as representative of the volatile organic compounds (VOC), in mild condition by evaluating the autoignition time and the steady state attainment. These parameters are important in the design of thermal VOC destruction plants since they influence the abatement efficiency and, therefore, the plant dimension. It has come out that, in comparison with the system diluted in nitrogen, steam induces lower autoignition times and, on the other hand, longer times for the attainment of the steady state. In contrast, for very high water content the autoignition time slightly increases. In particular results have shown that is possible to identify an optimum value of steam content that allows for the attainment of the steady state condition by the lowest residence time. Hydrogen addition to systems diluted in nitrogen promotes the oxidation reactions and anticipates the steady state condition. In steam diluted systems hydrogen delays the autoignition of the mixtures even though anticipates the attainment of the complete destruction of the VOC. The rate of production analysis has showed that the H(2)/O(2) reactions, that promote the ignition and the destruction of VOC, are sensibly modified by the presence of water and hydrogen.

  15. Self-destructive consequences of sex-role socialization.

    PubMed

    Clifton, A K; Lee, D E

    1976-01-01

    Suicide proneness and self-destruction scales, together with measures of self-favorability and self-confidence, were administered to two samples (n = 106 and n = 213). The affective responses of the second sample (134 women and 79 men) were measured by asking respondents to circle adjectives classified for activity-passivity, positive-negativeness, and extroversion-introversion that expressed their feelings toward eight situations. Women scored lower than men on suicide proneness, higher on self-destruction, and lower on self-favorability and self-confidence. Women reacted more passively to the situations than men and more negatively to the public challenge situation. Women tend to extrovert (turn outward on others) their positive feelings in pleasant situations and to introvert (turn blame on themselves) their negative reactions to unpleasant situations. Men do the reverse. It is suggested that women are self-destructive in passive ways, reflecting their lack of self-favorability and confidence and manifested by failure to react to everyday situations in ego-building ways.

  16. Cytokine-Mediated Bone Destruction in Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Kyoung Woon; Yang, Chul-Woo; Park, Sung-Hwan; Ju, Ji Hyeon

    2014-01-01

    Bone homeostasis, which involves formation and resorption, is an important process for maintaining adequate bone mass in humans. Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an autoimmune disease characterized by inflammation and bone loss, leading to joint destruction and deformity, and is a representative disease of disrupted bone homeostasis. The bone loss and joint destruction are mediated by immunological insults by proinflammatory cytokines and various immune cells. The connection between bone and immunity has been intensely studied and comprises the emerging field of osteoimmunology. Osteoimmunology is an interdisciplinary science investigating the interplay between the skeletal and the immune systems. The main contributors in osteoimmunology are the bone effector cells, such as osteoclasts or osteoblasts, and the immune cells, particularly lymphocytes and monocytes. Physiologically, osteoclasts originate from immune cells, and immune cells regulate osteoblasts and vice versa. Pathological conditions such as RA might affect these interactions, thereby altering bone homeostasis, resulting in the unfavorable outcome of bone destruction. In this review, we describe the osteoclastogenic roles of the proinflammatory cytokines and immune cells that are important in the pathophysiology of RA. PMID:25295284

  17. Destruction of explosives and rocket fuels by supercritical water oxidation

    SciTech Connect

    Dyer, R.B.; Buelow, S.J.; Harradine, D.M.; Robinson, J.M.; Foy, B.R.; Atencio, J.H.; Dell'Orco, P.C.; Funk, K.A.; McInroy, R.E.; Rofer, C.K.; Counce, D.A.; Trujillo, P.E. Jr. ); Wander, J.D. )

    1992-01-01

    Traditional methods for disposing of PEPs have been open burning or open detonation (OB/OD); however, regulatory agencies are likely to prohibit OB/OD because of the uncontrolled air emissions and soil contaminations. Likewise, controlled incineration carries a liability for air pollution because large quantities of NO{sub x} are produced in the conventional combustion chemistry of PEPS. Soil and ground water have already been contaminated with PEPs through normal operations at manufacturing plants and military bases. Incineration can be used for decontamination of these soils, with the associated liability for air pollution, but few satisfactory and economic methods exist for ground water decontamination. A clear need exists for improved disposal and destruction methods. The destruction of energetic materials, including propellants, explosives and pyrotechnics (PEPS) by oxidation in supercritical water is described. The focus is on the chemistry of the process. The destruction efficiencies and products of reaction contained in the aqueous and gaseous effluents of several representative PEPs are reported.

  18. Non-Destructive Testing for Control of Radioactive Waste Package

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plumeri, S.; Carrel, F.

    2015-10-01

    Characterization and control of radioactive waste packages are important issues in the management of a radioactive waste repository. Therefore, Andra performs quality control inspection on radwaste package before disposal to ensure the compliance of the radwast characteristics with Andra waste disposal specifications and to check the consistency between Andra measurements results and producer declared properties. Objectives of this quality control are: assessment and improvement of producer radwaste packages quality mastery, guarantee of the radwaste disposal safety, maintain of the public confidence. To control radiological characteristics of radwaste package, non-destructive passive methods (gamma spectrometry and neutrons counting) are commonly used. These passive methods may not be sufficient, for instance to control the mass of fissile material contained inside radwaste package. This is particularly true for large concrete hull of heterogeneous radwaste containing several actinides mixed with fission products like 137Cs. Non-destructive active methods, like measurement of photofission delayed neutrons, allow to quantify the global mass of actinides and is a promising method to quantify mass of fissile material. Andra has performed different non-destructive measurements on concrete intermediate-level short lived nuclear waste (ILW-SL) package to control its nuclear material content. These tests have allowed Andra to have a first evaluation of the performance of photofission delayed neutron measurement and to identify development needed to have a reliable method, especially for fissile material mass control in intermediate-level long lived waste package.

  19. Non-destructive method for the analysis of gold(I) cyanide plating baths Complexometric determination of nickel and indium.

    PubMed

    Pribil, R; Veselý, V

    1972-12-01

    A method is described for rapid determination of nickel and indium in gold(I) cyanide baths containing large amounts of citric acid and/or sodium citrate, without previous destruction of organic matter. Gold is removed by extraction with ethyl acetate. In one aliquot of the solution indium is masked with thioglycollic acid and nickel is precipitated with sodium diethyldithiocarbamate, extracted into chloroform, stripped into water and determined complexometrically. In a second aliquot indium and nickel are precipitated together with the same reagent and stripped into water, then nickel is masked with 1,10-phenanthroline, and indium is determined by direct titration with EDTA.

  20. Detection of Secondary Phases in UNS S32760 Superduplex Stainless Steel by Destructive and Non-destructive Techniques

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Argandona, G.; Biezma, M. V.; Berrueta, J. M.; Berlanga, C.; Ruiz, A.

    2016-12-01

    Duplex stainless steels (DSS), with a microstructure of an approximately equal mixture of ferrite ( α) and austenite ( γ) phases, are susceptible to the formation of undesirable phases if manufacturing processes are not carefully controlled. In particular, sigma phase (σ) is a Cr- and Mo-rich intermetallic phase, formed generally when DSS are by the temperature range from 600 to 900 °C, even for very short time periods. The precipitation of this phase induces detrimental effects in mechanical and corrosion resistance properties in the material, and even a low volume percentage of σ phase can significantly affect these properties. The current paper presents the effect of thermal treatments on UNS S32760 superduplex stainless steel seamless tubes, applied in order to promote the precipitation of different σ phase percentages in a ferrite/austenite microstructure. The detection and quantification of the σ phase using non-destructive ultrasounds testing has been one of the most relevant events of this study that contributes to improving the correlation of the results obtained using destructive and non-destructive techniques for the quantification of undesirable phases in superduplex seamless tubes during the manufacturing process.

  1. Rapid Dispersion of Polymicrobial Wound Biofilms with Depolymerase Enzymes

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-11-01

    International Phage Biology Meeting. Olympia, WA. Poster. “Rapid Destruction of Biofilm Matrices by Bacteriophage-Encoded Enzymes” ( August , 2011...International Phage Biology Meeting. Olympia, WA. Symposium speaker. “Tail Spikes and Biofilm Degradation” ( August , 2013) 11. Uniformed Services...biofilms for wastewater treatment. Stockholm: Royal Institute of Technology. 22. Comte S, Guibaud G, Baudu M (2007) Effect of extraction method on EPS from

  2. PUBLISHER'S NOTE: Rapid Communications Rapid Communications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miller, Tom

    2009-09-01

    As part of a general review of Superconductor Science and Technology, we have been examining the scope for Rapid Communications (RAPs). We recognize these articles make up an important part of the journal representing the latest state-of-the-art research in superconductivity. To reflect this, we have devised a new scope for this article type: 'Rapid Communications. The journal offers open access to outstanding short articles (no longer than 5 journal pages or 4500 words including figures) reporting new and timely developments in superconductivity and its applications. These articles should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity to the readers of Superconductor Science and Technology, but are not expected to meet any requirement of 'general interest'. RAPs will be processed quickly (average receipt to online publication for RAPs is around 60 days) and are permanently free to read in the electronic journal. Authors submitting a RAP should provide reasons why the work is urgent and requires rapid publication. Each RAP will be assessed for suitability by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor before full peer review takes place.' The essential points are: They should report very substantial new advances in superconductivity and its application; They must be no longer than 5 journal pages long (approx. 4500 words); Average publication time for a Rapid Communication is 60 days; They are free to read. As mentioned in the previous publisher's announcement (2009 Supercond. Sci. Technol. 22 010101), each submitted Rapid Communication must come with a letter justifying why it should be prioritized over regular papers and will be pre-assessed by our Reviews and Rapid Communications Editor. In addition, we will work with the authors of any Rapid Communication to promote and raise the visibility of the work presented in it. We will be making further changes to the journal in the near future and we write to you accordingly. Thank you for your kind

  3. Application of the three phase AC plasma generator for drug destruction

    SciTech Connect

    Polovtsev, I.S.

    1996-12-31

    Experiments for gas destruction with the help of the new three phase AC plasma generator were performed. Advantages of the new type plasma generator were studied. It was shown that this generator can be successfully used for destruction of hazardous wastes. Tests on methane, freon and malathion were performed. Results of the tests show complete destruction of the injected gases.

  4. 3 CFR - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Mass Destruction Presidential Documents Other Presidential Documents Notice of November 4, 2010 Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of...

  5. 76 FR 70317 - Continuation of the National Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2011-11-10

    ... With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0; #0; Presidential Documents #0; #0; #0;#0;Federal... Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order 12938, the President declared a... weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means of delivering such weapons. On July 28, 1998,...

  6. 75 FR 68671 - Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction

    Federal Register 2010, 2011, 2012, 2013, 2014

    2010-11-08

    ... Notice of November 4, 2010--Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction #0; #0... Continuation of Emergency With Respect to Weapons of Mass Destruction On November 14, 1994, by Executive Order... of nuclear, biological, and chemical weapons (weapons of mass destruction) and the means...

  7. Non-destructive determination of total polyphenols content and classification of storage periods of Iron Buddha tea using multispectral imaging system.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Chuanwu; Liu, Changhong; Pan, Wenjuan; Ma, Fei; Xiong, Can; Qi, Li; Chen, Feng; Lu, Xuzhong; Yang, Jianbo; Zheng, Lei

    2015-06-01

    Total polyphenols is a primary quality indicator in tea which is consumed worldwide. The feasibility of using near infrared reflectance (NIR) spectroscopy (800-2500nm) and multispectral imaging (MSI) system (405-970nm) for prediction of total polyphenols contents (TPC) of Iron Buddha tea was investigated in this study. The results revealed that the predictive model by MSI using partial least squares (PLS) analysis for tea leaves was considered to be the best in non-destructive and rapid determination of TPC. Besides, the ability of MSI to classify tea leaves based on storage period (year of 2004, 2007, 2011, 2012 and 2013) was tested and the classification accuracies of 95.0% and 97.5% were achieved using LS-SVM and BPNN models, respectively. These overall results suggested that MSI together with suitable analysis model is a promising technology for rapid and non-destructive determination of TPC and classification of storage periods in tea leaves.

  8. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-03431

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2012-05-30

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-03431. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. All observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. Except for modest corrosion of the lead shield (which is typical of these packages following several years service), no evidence of a degraded condition was found in this package. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the KArea Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-03431 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1.

  9. Destructive Examination of Shipping Package 9975-02019

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W. L.

    2016-06-13

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on the components of shipping package 9975-02019 as part of a comprehensive SRS surveillance program for plutonium material stored in the K-Area Complex (KAC). During the field surveillance inspection of this package in KAC, two non-conforming conditions were noted: the axial gap of 1.577 inch exceeded the 1 inch maximum criterion, and two areas of dried glue residue were noted on the upper fiberboard subassembly. This package was subsequently transferred to SRNL for more detailed inspection and destructive examination. In addition to the conditions noted in KAC, the following conditions were noted: - Numerous small spots of corrosion were observed along the bottom edge of the drum. - In addition to the smeared glue residue on the upper fiberboard subassembly, there was also a small dark stain. - Mold was present on the side and bottom of the lower fiberboard subassembly. Dark stains from elevated moisture content were also present in these areas. - A dark spot with possible light corrosion was observed on the primary containment vessel flange, and corresponding rub marks were observed on the secondary containment vessel ID. - The fiberboard thermal conductivity in the radial orientation was above the specified range. When the test was repeated with slightly lower moisture content, the result was acceptable. The moisture content for both tests was within a range typical of other packages in storage. The observed conditions must be fully evaluated by KAC to ensure the safety function of the package is being maintained. Several factors can contribute to the concentration of moisture in the fiberboard, including higher than average initial moisture content, higher internal temperature (due to internal heat load and placement within the array of packages), and the creation of additional moisture as the fiberboard begins to degrade.

  10. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-02168

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.

    2010-11-18

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-02028 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1. Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-02168. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Two conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer, and (2) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance Program Authority was notified of these conditions and will document the findings

  11. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-02028

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W.; Stefek, T.

    2009-12-30

    Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-02028. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Four conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer; (2) The lead shield height exceeds drawing requirements; (3) Mold was observed on the lower fiberboard subassembly; and (4) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance Program Authority was notified of these conditions and will document the disposition by surveillance report. All other observations and test results met identified criteria, or were collected for information and trending purposes. The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality prevention, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program, destructive examination of package 9975-02028 was performed

  12. Technical area status report for waste destruction and stabilization

    SciTech Connect

    Dalton, J.D.; Harris, T.L.; DeWitt, L.M.

    1993-08-01

    The Office of Environmental Restoration and Waste Management (EM) was established by the Department of Energy (DOE) to direct and coordinate waste management and site remediation programs/activities throughout the DOE complex. In order to successfully achieve the goal of properly managing waste and the cleanup of the DOE sites, the EM was divided into five organizations: the Office of Planning and Resource Management (EM-10); the Office of Environmental Quality Assurance and Resource Management (EM-20); the Office of Waste Operations (EM-30); the Office of Environmental Restoration (EM-40); and the Office of Technology and Development (EM-50). The mission of the Office of Technology Development (OTD) is to develop treatment technologies for DOE`s operational and environmental restoration wastes where current treatment technologies are inadequate or not available. The Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP) was created by OTD to assist in the development of treatment technologies for the DOE mixed low-level wastes (MLLW). The MWIP has established five Technical Support Groups (TSGs) whose purpose is to identify, evaluate, and develop treatment technologies within five general technical areas representing waste treatment functions from initial waste handling through generation of final waste forms. These TSGs are: (1) Front-End Waste Handling, (2) Physical/Chemical Treatment, (3) Waste Destruction and Stabilization, (4) Second-Stage Destruction and Offgas Treatment, and (5) Final Waste Forms. This report describes the functions of the Waste Destruction and Stabilization (WDS) group. Specifically, the following items are discussed: DOE waste stream identification; summary of previous efforts; summary of WDS treatment technologies; currently funded WDS activities; and recommendations for future activities.

  13. Role of PTPα in the destruction of periodontal connective tissues.

    PubMed

    Rajshankar, Dhaarmini; Sima, Corneliu; Wang, Qin; Goldberg, Stephanie R; Kazembe, Mwayi; Wang, Yongqiang; Glogauer, Michael; Downey, Gregory P; McCulloch, Christopher A

    2013-01-01

    IL-1β contributes to connective tissue destruction in part by up-regulating stromelysin-1 (MMP-3), which in fibroblasts is a focal adhesion-dependent process. Protein tyrosine phosphatase-α (PTPα) is enriched in and regulates the formation of focal adhesions, but the role of PTPα in connective tissue destruction is not defined. We first examined destruction of periodontal connective tissues in adult PTPα(+/+) and PTPα(-/-) mice subjected to ligature-induced periodontitis, which increases the levels of multiple cytokines, including IL-1β. Three weeks after ligation, maxillae were processed for morphometry, micro-computed tomography and histomorphometry. Compared with unligated controls, there was ∼1.5-3 times greater bone loss as well as 3-fold reduction of the thickness of the gingival lamina propria and 20-fold reduction of the amount of collagen fibers in WT than PTPα(-/-) mice. Immunohistochemical staining of periodontal tissue showed elevated expression of MMP-3 at ligated sites. Second, to examine mechanisms by which PTPα may regulate matrix degradation, human MMP arrays were used to screen conditioned media from human gingival fibroblasts treated with vehicle, IL-1β or TNFα. Although MMP-3 was upregulated by both cytokines, only IL-1β stimulated ERK activation in human gingival fibroblasts plated on fibronectin. TIRF microscopy and immunoblotting analyses of cells depleted of PTPα activity with the use of various mutated constructs or with siRNA or PTPα(KO) and matched wild type fibroblasts were plated on fibronectin to enable focal adhesion formation and stimulated with IL-1β. These data showed that the catalytic and adaptor functions of PTPα were required for IL-1β-induced focal adhesion formation, ERK activation and MMP-3 release. We conclude that inflammation-induced connective tissue degradation involving fibroblasts requires functionally active PTPα and in part is mediated by IL-1β signaling through focal adhesions.

  14. Osteochondral destruction in pigmented villonodular synovitis during the clinical course.

    PubMed

    Nishida, Yoshihiro; Tsukushi, Satoshi; Nakashima, Hiroatsu; Sugiura, Hideshi; Yamada, Yoshihisa; Urakawa, Hiroshi; Arai, Eisuke; Ishiguro, Naoki

    2012-02-01

    In pigmented villonodular synovitis (PVNS), some cases recur and progress to osteochondral destruction. The aim of our study was to clarify the occurrence of osteochondral destruction according to the location of PVNS during the clinical course. Seventy-two patients with PVNS (43 female, 29 male) with a mean age of 40 years (range 3-87 yrs) had been referred to our institutions. Factors influencing the occurrence of osteochondral destruction were investigated. Mean followup was 60 months (range 12-190 mo). Adjacent bone change occurred in 24 (42%) of 57 patients, who were evaluated at the time of the first consultation. Eight (89%) of 9 patients with hip lesions initially had bone lesions, significantly more frequently than those with other lesions (p = 0.038). Duration of symptoms was significantly correlated with the occurrence of bone lesions in diffuse knee lesions (p = 0.005). During followup, patients with location in the knee had a significantly higher incidence of osteoarthritic change (73%) compared to those with foot and ankle involvement (p = 0.027). Re-operation was more frequently required for knee lesions due to the high recurrence rate (32%). Patients who required re-operation had significantly more marked osteoarthritic change in knees (p = 0.001) during followup than those who did not. For PVNS arising in knees, repeated recurrences followed by re-operation resulted in the progression of osteoarthritic change. PVNS arising in hips, feet, and ankles developed bone lesions initially, probably due to the limited volume of these joints. The indications for re-operation for recurrent knee lesions require careful consideration regarding progression of osteoarthritic change.

  15. Pathogenic role of basic calcium phosphate crystals in destructive arthropathies.

    PubMed

    Ea, Hang-Korng; Chobaz, Véronique; Nguyen, Christelle; Nasi, Sonia; van Lent, Peter; Daudon, Michel; Dessombz, Arnaud; Bazin, Dominique; McCarthy, Geraldine; Jolles-Haeberli, Brigitte; Ives, Annette; Van Linthoudt, Daniel; So, Alexander; Lioté, Frédéric; Busso, Nathalie

    2013-01-01

    basic calcium phosphate (BCP) crystals are commonly found in osteoarthritis (OA) and are associated with cartilage destruction. BCP crystals induce in vitro catabolic responses with the production of metalloproteases and inflammatory cytokines such as interleukin-1 (IL-1). In vivo, IL-1 production induced by BCP crystals is both dependant and independent of NLRP3 inflammasome. We aimed to clarify 1/ the role of BCP crystals in cartilage destruction and 2/ the role of IL-1 and NLRP3 inflammasome in cartilage degradation related to BCP crystals. synovial membranes isolated from OA knees were analysed by alizarin Red and FTIR. Pyrogen free BCP crystals were injected into right knees of WT, NLRP3 -/-, ASC -/-, IL-1α -/- and IL-1β-/- mice and PBS was injected into left knees. To assess the role of IL-1, WT mice were treated by intra-peritoneal injections of anakinra, the IL-1Ra recombinant protein, or PBS. Articular destruction was studied at d4, d17 and d30 assessing synovial inflammation, proteoglycan loss and chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystals were frequently found in OA synovial membranes including low grade OA. BCP crystals injected into murine knee joints provoked synovial inflammation characterized by synovial macrophage infiltration that persisted at day 30, cartilage degradation as evidenced by loss of proteoglycan staining by Safranin-O and concomitant expression of VDIPEN epitopes, and increased chondrocyte apoptosis. BCP crystal-induced synovitis was totally independent of IL-1α and IL-1β signalling and no alterations of inflammation were observed in mice deficient for components of the NLRP3-inflammasome, IL-1α or IL-1β. Similarly, treatment with anakinra did not prevent BCP crystal effects. In vitro, BCP crystals elicited enhanced transcription of matrix degrading and pro-inflammatory genes in macrophages. intra-articular BCP crystals can elicit synovial inflammation and cartilage degradation suggesting that BCP crystals have a direct pathogenic

  16. DESTRUCTIVE EXAMINATION OF SHIPPING PACKAGE 9975-00600

    SciTech Connect

    Daugherty, W

    2007-10-29

    The Savannah River Site (SRS) stores packages containing plutonium (Pu) materials in the K-Area Complex (KAC). The Pu materials are packaged per the DOE 3013 Standard and stored within Model 9975 shipping packages in KAC. The KAC facility DSA (Document Safety Analysis) [1] credits the Model 9975 package to perform several safety functions, including criticality, impact resistance, containment, and fire resistance to ensure the plutonium materials remain in a safe configuration during normal and accident conditions. The Model 9975 package is expected to perform its safety function for at least 12 years from initial packaging. The DSA recognizes the degradation potential for the materials of package construction over time in the KAC storage environment and requires an assessment of materials performance to validate the assumptions of the analysis and ultimately predict service life. As part of the comprehensive Model 9975 package surveillance program [2-3], destructive examination of package 9975-00600 was performed following field surveillance in accordance with Reference [4]. Field surveillance of the Model 9975 package in KAC included nondestructive examination of the drum, fiberboard, lead shield and containment vessels [5]. Results of the field surveillance are provided in Attachment 1. Destructive and non-destructive examinations have been performed on specified components of shipping package 9975-00600. For those attributes that were also measured during the field surveillance, no significant changes were observed. Three conditions were identified that do not meet inspection criteria. These conditions are subject to additional investigation and disposition by the Surveillance Program Authority. The conditions include: (1) The lead shield was covered with a white corrosion layer; (2) The lead shield height dimension exceeded drawing requirements; and (3) Fiberboard thermal conductivity in the axial direction exceeded the specified range. The Surveillance

  17. Non-destructive method for determining neutron exposure

    DOEpatents

    Gold, R.; McElroy, W.N.

    1983-11-01

    A non-destructive method for determination of neutron exposure in an object, such as a reactor pressure vessel, is based on the observation of characteristic gamma-rays emitted by activation products in the object by using a unique continuous gamma-ray spectrometer. The spectrometer views the object through appropriate collimators to determine the absolute emission rate of these characteristic gamma-rays, thereby ascertaining the absolute activity of given activation products in the object. These data can then be used to deduce the spatial and angular dependence of neutron exposure at regions of interest within the object.

  18. Paranasal Rosai-Dorfman Disease with Osseous Destruction

    PubMed Central

    Koempel, Jeffrey A.

    2017-01-01

    Rosai-Dorfman disease is a rare histiocytic proliferative disorder of unknown etiology typically characterized by cervical lymphadenopathy. Extranodal involvement often manifests in the head and neck region. We present a 10-year-old male who presented to our hospital with left epiphora from an aggressive paranasal mass invading the left orbit with osseous destruction. The mass was surgically biopsied and debulked with histopathological examination revealing Rosai-Dorfman disease. Although rarely found in the sinuses, Rosai-Dorfman disease should be considered when evaluating sinonasal masses. PMID:28321353

  19. Diffusion Dynamics and Creative Destruction in a Simple Classical Model

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    ABSTRACT The article explores the impact of the diffusion of new methods of production on output and employment growth and income distribution within a Classical one‐sector framework. Disequilibrium paths are studied analytically and in terms of simulations. Diffusion by differential growth affects aggregate dynamics through several channels. The analysis reveals the non‐steady nature of economic change and shows that the adaptation pattern depends both on the innovation's factor‐saving bias and on the extent of the bias, which determines the strength of the selection pressure on non‐innovators. The typology of different cases developed shows various aspects of Schumpeter's concept of creative destruction. PMID:27642192

  20. APPARATUS FOR NON-DESTRUCTIVE INSPECTION OF CANTILEVERED MEMBERS

    DOEpatents

    Taylor, E.R.; Mahoney, C.H.; Lay, C.R.

    1961-10-24

    An apparatus for non-destructive inspection of cantilevered members, such as compressor blades, is described. The member under inspection is vibrated with a regulated source of air under pressure. The amplitude of vibration of the member is maintained at its natural frequency. The frequency of vibration of the member is measured. An indication of an excessive decay or erratic shifting in the measured frequency above an allowable hysteretic decay is provided as an indication of a fault in the member. The member is vibrated for a selected test period. (AEC)