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Sample records for rapidly growing field

  1. [Infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria].

    PubMed

    García-Martos, Pedro; García-Agudo, Lidia

    2012-04-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are ubiquitous in nature and widely distributed in water, soil and animals. During the past three decades we have observed a notable increment of infections caused by RGM, both localized and disseminated, as well as nosocomial outbreaks of contaminated medical equipment. The microbiological diagnosis of RGM infections includes direct microscopic observation and culture. The taxonomic identification is performed by phenotypic, biochemical, chromatographic and molecular biology techniques. The treatment differs from that of other mycobacteriosis like tuberculosis, owing to the variable in vitro susceptibility of the species of this group. The RGM are resistant to conventional antituberculous drugs, but can be susceptible to broad spectrum antimicrobial agents. In this study we comment on the significant aspects of human infections by RGM, including their biology, epidemiology, pathology, microbiological diagnosis, taxonomic identification, antimicrobial susceptibility and treatment.

  2. Notes from the field: rapidly growing nontuberculous Mycobacterium wound infections among medical tourists undergoing cosmetic surgeries in the Dominican Republic--multiple states, March 2013-February 2014.

    PubMed

    Schnabel, David; Gaines, Joanna; Nguyen, Duc B; Esposito, Douglas H; Ridpath, Alison; Yacisin, Kari; Poy, Joe A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Lijewski, Virginia; McElroy, Nora P; Ahmad, Nina; Harrison, Cassandra; Parinelli, Ellen J; Beaudoin, Amanda L; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Pritchard, Scott; Jensen, Bette J; Toney, Nadege C; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Nyangoma, Edith N; Barry, Anita M; Feldman, Katherine A; Blythe, David; Perz, Joseph F; Morgan, Oliver W; Kozarsky, Phyllis; Brunette, Gary W; Sotir, Mark

    2014-03-07

    In August 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene (MDHMH) was notified of two persons with rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacterial (RG-NTM) surgical-site infections. Both patients had undergone surgical procedures as medical tourists at the same private surgical clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic the previous month. Within 7 days of returning to the United States, both sought care for symptoms that included surgical wound abscesses, clear fluid drainage, pain, and fever. Initial antibiotic therapy was ineffective. Material collected from both patients' wounds grew Mycobacterium abscessus exhibiting a high degree of antibiotic resistance characteristic of this organism.

  3. Deep brain stimulator infection by a novel rapid growing mycobacterium.

    PubMed

    Moritz, Donna C; Harrington, Amanda T; Slavin, Konstantin; Gomez, Christy; Jarrett, Olamide D

    2017-09-20

    Devise-related infections after deep brain stimulator implantation are not uncommon. However, infections due to mycobacteria have not been reported in the medical literature. We describe the first reported case of DBS infection due to a novel rapidly growing mycobacteria, most closely resembling Mycobacterium goodii, by rpoB gene sequencing.

  4. Growing Magnetic Fields in Central Compact Objects

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bernal, C. G.; Page, D.

    2011-10-01

    We study the effects of growth models of magnetic fields in Central Compact Objects (CCOs). Such a field evolution is not a new idea (Blandford, Applegate, & Hernquist 1983) but the evolutionary implications not have been followed up completely (Michel 1994). We discussed the new class of neutron stars which belong to five main types that have mainly been recognized in the last ten years. The possibility that a rapid weakly magnetized pulsar might have formed in SN1987A is commented.

  5. Nurturing a growing field: Computers & Geosciences

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mariethoz, Gregoire; Pebesma, Edzer

    2017-10-01

    Computational issues are becoming increasingly critical for virtually all fields of geoscience. This includes the development of improved algorithms and models, strategies for implementing high-performance computing, or the management and visualization of the large datasets provided by an ever-growing number of environmental sensors. Such issues are central to scientific fields as diverse as geological modeling, Earth observation, geophysics or climatology, to name just a few. Related computational advances, across a range of geoscience disciplines, are the core focus of Computers & Geosciences, which is thus a truly multidisciplinary journal.

  6. Rapidly Growing Thyroid Mass in an Immunocompromised Young Male Adult

    PubMed Central

    Santiago, Mónica; Martinez, José Hernán; Palermo, Coromoto; Figueroa, Carlos; Torres, Oberto; Trinidad, Rafael; Gonzalez, Eva; Miranda, Maria de Lourdes; Garcia, Miosotis; Villamarzo, Guillermo

    2013-01-01

    We describe a 20-year-old man diagnosed with a myelodysplastic syndrome (MDS), admitted to our hospital due to pancytopenia and fever of undetermined origin after myelosuppression with chemotherapy. Disseminated aspergillosis (DIA) was suspected when he developed skin and lung involvement. A rapidly growing mass was detected on the left neck area, during hospitalization. A thyroid ultrasound reported a 3.7 × 2.5 × 2.9 cm oval heterogeneous structure, suggestive of an abscess versus a hematoma. Fine needle aspiration of the thyroid revealed invasion of aspergillosis. Fungal thyroiditis is a rare occurrence. Thyroid fungal infection is difficult to diagnose; for this reason it is rarely diagnosed antemortem. To our knowledge, this is the 10th case reported in the literature in an adult where the diagnosis of fungal invasion to the thyroid was able to be corroborated antemortem by fine needle aspiration biopsy. PMID:23936688

  7. Glasses crystallize rapidly at free surfaces by growing crystals upward.

    PubMed

    Sun, Ye; Zhu, Lei; Kearns, Kenneth L; Ediger, Mark D; Yu, Lian

    2011-04-12

    The crystallization of glasses and amorphous solids is studied in many fields to understand the stability of amorphous materials, the fabrication of glass ceramics, and the mechanism of biomineralization. Recent studies have found that crystal growth in organic glasses can be orders of magnitude faster at the free surface than in the interior, a phenomenon potentially important for understanding glass crystallization in general. Current explanations differ for surface-enhanced crystal growth, including released tension and enhanced mobility at glass surfaces. We report here a feature of the phenomenon relevant for elucidating its mechanism: Despite their higher densities, surface crystals rise substantially above the glass surface as they grow laterally, without penetrating deep into the bulk. For indomethacin (IMC), an organic glass able to grow surface crystals in two polymorphs (α and γ), the growth front can be hundreds of nanometers above the glass surface. The process of surface crystal growth, meanwhile, is unperturbed by eliminating bulk material deeper than some threshold depth (ca. 300 nm for α IMC and less than 180 nm for γ IMC). As a growth strategy, the upward-lateral growth of surface crystals increases the system's surface energy, but can effectively take advantage of surface mobility and circumvent slow growth in the bulk.

  8. Glasses crystallize rapidly at free surfaces by growing crystals upward

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Ye; Zhu, Lei; Kearns, Kenneth L.; Ediger, Mark D.; Yu, Lian

    2011-01-01

    The crystallization of glasses and amorphous solids is studied in many fields to understand the stability of amorphous materials, the fabrication of glass ceramics, and the mechanism of biomineralization. Recent studies have found that crystal growth in organic glasses can be orders of magnitude faster at the free surface than in the interior, a phenomenon potentially important for understanding glass crystallization in general. Current explanations differ for surface-enhanced crystal growth, including released tension and enhanced mobility at glass surfaces. We report here a feature of the phenomenon relevant for elucidating its mechanism: Despite their higher densities, surface crystals rise substantially above the glass surface as they grow laterally, without penetrating deep into the bulk. For indomethacin (IMC), an organic glass able to grow surface crystals in two polymorphs (α and γ), the growth front can be hundreds of nanometers above the glass surface. The process of surface crystal growth, meanwhile, is unperturbed by eliminating bulk material deeper than some threshold depth (ca. 300 nm for α IMC and less than 180 nm for γ IMC). As a growth strategy, the upward-lateral growth of surface crystals increases the system’s surface energy, but can effectively take advantage of surface mobility and circumvent slow growth in the bulk. PMID:21444775

  9. Primary amyloid goiter mimicking rapid growing thyroid malignancy.

    PubMed

    Joung, Kyong Hye; Park, Jae-Yong; Kim, Koon Soon; Koo, Bon Seok

    2014-02-01

    Amyloid accumulation in the thyroid gland leading to a clinically detectable mass, known as amyloid goiter, is a rare condition associated with primary amyloidosis. Moreover, a localized primary amyloid goiter involving only the thyroid gland is rarer still. Here, we report a patient with a localized primary amyloid goiter that had grown rapidly, causing dysphagia and dyspnea on exercise, and confused us with malignancy such as anaplastic carcinoma. After surgery, no further symptoms occurred. A diagnosis of amyloid goiter was established on microscopic examination. In patients with a rapidly enlarging thyroid gland presenting with dysphagia, dyspnea, or hoarseness, amyloid goiter and malignancy should both be suspected, even when systemic amyloidosis is not suspected.

  10. Intraoral tumor with rapid growing. Report of a case.

    PubMed

    González-Martín-Moro, Javier; Cebrián-Carretero, Jose Luis; Gómez-García, Elena; del Castillo-Pardo de Vera, Jose Luis; del Val, Daniel

    2005-01-01

    The appearance of an intraoral mass is common in our specialty. Most are benign lesions, but some are primary malignancies. Metastases account for less than 1% of all oral malignancies. An 86 year old woman was referred to our department with a large, asymptomatic, intraoral, fast-growing mass. She had no previous cancer history or other relevant physical findings. The radiology studies showed underlying bone erosion. The histological study showed a metastatic adenocarcinoma with a suspected origin in the abdomen. We were unable to identify it by non invasive diagnostic procedures. Given the patient's general status and despite the ominous prognosis of such lesions, we decided not to perform any aggressive therapy beyond removing the oral mass, in order to maintain her quality of life. There have been no local recurrences until this time.

  11. E-cigarettes: a rapidly growing Internet phenomenon.

    PubMed

    Yamin, Cyrus K; Bitton, Asaf; Bates, David W

    2010-11-02

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) aerosolize nicotine and produce a vapor that emulates that of cigarettes but purportedly has fewer traditional toxins than secondhand smoke. Although e-cigarettes are widely sold online and by retailers, new research suggests that they may contain unexpected toxins and may provide unreliable nicotine delivery. Many countries have already banned or strictly regulated e-cigarettes. Currently in the United States, e-cigarettes are exempt from regulation as drug-delivery devices. Meanwhile, the presence of e-cigarettes on the Internet, including in Web searches, virtual user communities, and online stores where people sell e-cigarettes on commission, is increasing rapidly. Physicians should be aware of the popularity, questionable efficacy claims, and safety concerns of e-cigarettes so that they may counsel patients against use and advocate for research to inform an evidence-based regulatory approach.

  12. [Phyllodes tumour: a rare, rapidly growing breast tumour].

    PubMed

    den Exter, Paul L; Hornstra, Bonne J; Vree, Robbert

    2009-01-01

    A 40-year-old woman presented at the breast outpatient clinic with a giant tumour of her left breast. The size, rapid growth and radiological characteristics of the lesion led us to suspect a phyllodes tumour. A histological examination of a needle biopsy confirmed this diagnosis. An additional CT scan revealed no signs of metastases. We performed a mastectomy during which a tumour measuring 48 x 33 x 25 cm was resected. Histological examination revealed a borderline phyllodes tumour. Phyllodes tumours are rare fibroepithelial neoplasms of the breast and pre-operatively these are often difficult to differentiate from fibroadenomas. Phyllodes tumours have a variable clinical course with the ability to metastasize and a propensity to recur locally. Complete excision with wide margins is essential to prevent local recurrence. In our case, the surgical margins were limited and our patient was therefore treated with postoperative radiation therapy.

  13. Rapidly growing aortic arch aneurysm in Behcet's disease.

    PubMed

    Kojima, Nozomi; Sakano, Yasuhito; Ohki, Shin-Ichi; Misawa, Yoshio

    2011-03-01

    We present a patient with a nine-year history of Behçet's disease (BD), who developed a rapidly expanding aneurysm of the aortic arch. Three-dimensional computed tomography demonstrated a saccular aortic arch aneurysm with a maximal diameter of 5 cm. No bacteria were detected by serial blood cultures. The aneurysm, however, showed a multi-lobular cavity, mimicking an infectious aneurysm. Therefore, we prescribed antibacterial agents for one week. The patient still had a high-fever and an elevated C-reactive protein level thereafter. Aortic arch replacement was performed emergently. Because we were unable to determine whether the aneurysm was caused by infection or BD, the implanted prosthetic graft and the anastomotic sites were covered with a pedicle graft of the greater omentum, and we continued to administer antibacterial agents for four weeks postoperatively. The pathological examination showed neither bacteria nor cystic medial necrosis in the resected aortic wall. Inflammatory changes with eosinophilic infiltration were recognized mainly around the adventitia near the aneurysm. The patient had a favorable postoperative course without any complications.

  14. Halogenated graphenes: rapidly growing family of graphene derivatives.

    PubMed

    Karlický, František; Kumara Ramanatha Datta, Kasibhatta; Otyepka, Michal; Zbořil, Radek

    2013-08-27

    Graphene derivatives containing covalently bound halogens (graphene halides) represent promising two-dimensional systems having interesting physical and chemical properties. The attachment of halogen atoms to sp(2) carbons changes the hybridization state to sp(3), which has a principal impact on electronic properties and local structure of the material. The fully fluorinated graphene derivative, fluorographene (graphene fluoride, C1F1), is the thinnest insulator and the only stable stoichiometric graphene halide (C1X1). In this review, we discuss structural properties, syntheses, chemistry, stabilities, and electronic properties of fluorographene and other partially fluorinated, chlorinated, and brominated graphenes. Remarkable optical, mechanical, vibrational, thermodynamic, and conductivity properties of graphene halides are also explored as well as the properties of rare structures including multilayered fluorinated graphenes, iodine-doped graphene, and mixed graphene halides. Finally, patterned halogenation is presented as an interesting approach for generating materials with applications in the field of graphene-based electronic devices.

  15. Antimicrobial susceptibility of rapidly growing mycobacteria using the rapid colorimetric method.

    PubMed

    Ramis, I B; Cnockaert, M; von Groll, A; Nogueira, C L; Leão, S C; Andre, E; Simon, A; Palomino, J C; da Silva, P E A; Vandamme, P; Martin, A

    2015-07-01

    Drug susceptibility testing (DST) of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are recommended for guiding the antimicrobial therapy. We have evaluated the use of resazurin in Mueller-Hinton medium (MHR) for MIC determination of RGM and compared the results with those obtained with the reference standard broth microdilution in Mueller-Hinton (MH) and with the resazurin microtiter assay (REMA) in 7H9 broth. The MIC of eight drugs: amikacin (AMI), cefoxitin (FOX), ciprofloxacin (CIP), clarithromycin (CLA), doxycycline (DOX), linezolid (LZD), moxifloxacin (MXF) and trimethoprim-sulfamethoxazole (TMP-SMX) were evaluated against 76 RGM (18 species) using three methods (MH, MHR, and REMA) in a 96-well plate format incubated at 37 °C over 3-5 days. Results obtained in the MH plates were interpreted by the appearance of turbidity at the bottom of the well before adding the resazurin. MHR and 7H9-REMA plates were read by visual observation for a change in color from blue to pink. The majority of results were obtained at day 5 for MH and 1 day after for MHR and 7H9-REMA. However, the preliminary experiment on time to positivity results using the reference strain showed that the resazurin can be added to the MH at day 2 to produce the results at day 3, but future studies with large sets of strains are required to confirm this suggestion. A high level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.884) was obtained between the MH and the MHR. Comparison of results obtained with 7H9-REMA, on the other hand, revealed several discrepancies and a lower level of agreement (kappa 1.000-0.111). The majority of the strains were resistant to DOX and TMP-SMX, and the most active antimicrobials for RGM were AMI and FOX. In the present study, MHR represented an excellent alternative for MIC determination of RGM. The results could be read reliably, more easily, and more quickly than with the classical MH method.

  16. Integrated Field Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2004-08-01

    Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization August 2004 Report Documentation Page Form ApprovedOMB No. 0704-0188 Public reporting burden for the...Integrated Field Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR(S) 5d. PROJECT...acceptance of three field screening techniques to delineate chemical concentrations and potential biological effects of sediment contaminants. Defining

  17. Intra-urban air pollution in a rapidly growing Sahelian city.

    PubMed

    Lindén, J; Boman, J; Holmer, B; Thorsson, S; Eliasson, I

    2012-04-01

    In this paper we analyze spatial and temporal variations of air pollution (PM(1), PM(2.5), PM(10), CO, NO(x), O(3), Toluene and Benzene) and climate in areas of different development typology in Ouagadougou, Burkina Faso. Analyses are based on measurements from fixed sites and car traverse measurements during field studies in 2007 and 2010. Large spatial and temporal variations were found, showing a generally poor air quality situation, with extreme levels of PM(10), commonly exceeding air quality guidelines of WHO. Pollution levels increase considerably with increased atmospheric stability. Important sources were transported dust and re-suspension of dust from unpaved roads, but also traffic emissions and biomass burning. The spatial variations are examined with focus on effects for variations in potential exposure depending on for example area of residence and daily activity pattern, showing that great differences are likely to exist. Ouagadougou, like most developing countries worldwide, currently experiences an extremely rapid population growth in combination with limited financial means. This is likely to create increasingly harmful air pollution situations for the rapidly growing populations of these areas, and shows an urgent need for increased understanding of the pollution situation as well as development of mitigation strategies.

  18. Evaluation of Various Culture Media for Detection of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria from Patients with Cystic Fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Preece, Clair L.; Wichelhaus, Thomas A.; Perry, Audrey; Jones, Amanda L.; Cummings, Stephen P.; Hogardt, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from the sputum of patients with cystic fibrosis (CF) is challenging due to overgrowth by rapidly growing species that colonize the lungs of patients with CF. Extended incubation on Burkholderia cepacia selective agar (BCSA) has been recommended as an expedient culture method for the isolation of rapidly growing NTM in this setting. The aim of this study was to assess five selective media designed for the isolation of Burkholderia cepacia complex, along with two media designed for the isolation of mycobacteria (rapidly growing mycobacteria [RGM] medium and Middlebrook 7H11 agar), for their abilities to isolate NTM. All seven media were challenged with 147 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria and 185 isolates belonging to other species. RGM medium was then compared with the most selective brand of BCSA for the isolation of NTM from 224 sputum samples from patients with CF. Different agars designed for the isolation of B. cepacia complex varied considerably in their inhibition of other bacteria and fungi. RGM medium supported the growth of all isolates of mycobacteria and was more selective than any other medium. NTM were recovered from 17 of 224 sputum samples using RGM medium, compared with only 7 samples using the most selective brand of BCSA (P = 0.023). RGM medium offers a superior option, compared to other selective agars, for the isolation of rapidly growing mycobacteria from the sputum of patients with CF. Furthermore, the convenience of using RGM medium enables routine screening for rapidly growing NTM in all submitted sputum samples from patients with CF. PMID:27098962

  19. Rapid-growing juvenile xanthogranuloma on the scalp in 18-month-old girl.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Woo; Koh, Eun Jeong; Choi, Ha Young

    2011-09-01

    Juvenile xanthogranuloma (JXG) is an uncommon histiocytic cutaneous lesion. An 18-month-old girl visited our clinic due to rapid growing orange-yellowish lesion on scalp. Enlarging time from 1 mm to 12 mm was just 8 weeks. We excised the tumor and adjacent normal tissue. Histopathological study showed numerous eosinophils and Touton giant cells within the lesion. Immunohistochemical study revealed positive immunoreactivity for CD68 in most areas. No recurrence was seen during 12 months after resection. We report a case with rapidly growing JXG on scalp with peculiar histopathologic findings.

  20. Development of a rapid ATP bioluminescence assay for biocidal susceptibility testing of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Kapoor, Renuka; Yadav, Jagjit S

    2010-10-01

    An ATP-based biocide susceptibility assay for mycobacteria was developed by optimizing the cell lysis and assay conditions. Compared to the conventional agar plating method, the assay was rapid (1.5 h) and showed high sensitivity and specificity as determined by receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis. The test species, Mycobacterium immunogenum, M. chelonae, and M. abscessus, showed various susceptibilities to the glutaraldehyde- and isothiazolone-based test biocides.

  1. Rapid field-screening method for PCBs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vo-Dinh, Tuan; Watts, Wendi; Miller, Gordon H.; Pal, A.; Eastwood, DeLyle; Lidberg, Russell L.

    1993-03-01

    The analysis of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) generally requires selectivity and sensitivity. Even after cleanup, PCBs are usually at ultratrace levels in field samples, mixed in with other halocarbons, hydrocarbons, lipids, etc. The levels of PCBs typically found in water, soil, tissue, food, biota, and other matrices of interest are in the parts per billion (ppb) range. Most current measurement techniques for PCBs require chromatographic separations and are not practical for routine analysis. There is a strong need to have rapid and simple techniques to screen for PCBs under field conditions. The use of field screening analysis allows rapid decisions in remedial actions and reduces the need for sample preparations and time- consuming laboratory analyses. Field screening techniques also reduce the cost of clean-up operations. This paper describes a simple screening technique based on room temperature phosphorescence (RTP) and provides an overview of both this analytical procedure to detect trace levels of PCBs in environmental samples.

  2. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  3. Public Relations in Rapidly Growing Suburban Districts: Insights from Texas Superintendents Bonny Cain and Doug Otto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout Texas, enrollments in suburban school districts have been rising, and in some instances, the increases have been substantial. Causes of this demographic trend are multifaceted, but in most instances they are an intricate mix of state population growth and urban flight. Rapidly growing suburban districts, like all Texas districts,…

  4. A Novel Rapidly Growing Mycobacterium Species Causing an Abdominal Cerebrospinal Fluid Pseudocyst Infection

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Cory K.; de Man, Tom J. B.; Toney, Nadege C.; Kamboj, Kamal; Balada-Llasat, Joan-Miquel; Wang, Shu-Hua

    2016-01-01

    Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are a rare cause of ventriculoperitoneal shunt infections. We describe the isolation and identification of a novel, rapidly growing, nonpigmented NTM from an abdominal cerebrospinal fluid pseudocyst. The patient presented with fevers, nausea, and abdominal pain and clinically improved after shunt removal. NTM identification was performed by amplicon and whole-genome sequencing. PMID:27704004

  5. Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

    1973-01-01

    Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

  6. Structural analysis of biofilm formation by rapidly and slowly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mycobacterium avium complex (MAC) and rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) such as M. abscessus, M. mucogenicum, M. chelonae and M. fortuitum, implicated in healthcare-associated infections, are often isolated from potable water supplies as part of the microbial flora. To understa...

  7. Public Relations in Rapidly Growing Suburban Districts: Insights from Texas Superintendents Bonny Cain and Doug Otto

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Decman, John M.

    2005-01-01

    Throughout Texas, enrollments in suburban school districts have been rising, and in some instances, the increases have been substantial. Causes of this demographic trend are multifaceted, but in most instances they are an intricate mix of state population growth and urban flight. Rapidly growing suburban districts, like all Texas districts,…

  8. Vibrio natriegens: A Rapidly Growing Micro-Organism Ideally Suited for Class Experiments

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mullenger, L.; Gill, Nijole R.

    1973-01-01

    Describes five microbiological experiments using the marine organism Vibrio natriegens. This organism is highly suitable for laboratory work because it is non-pathogenic and grows extremely rapidly, having the distinction of the lowest mean generation time yet recorded (9.8 minutes). (JR)

  9. Quality Requirements in Rapidly Growing Higher Education Systems: The Israeli Example.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Mehrez, Abraham; Mizrahi, Shlomo

    2000-01-01

    Offers a quality-policy planning model for academic institutions, noting that rapidly growing higher education systems are often characterized by market failure in terms of program quality, because controlling bodies have incomplete information about program quality and low sensitivity to quality variations. Applies this framework to Israel,…

  10. An aircraft study of rapid precipitation development and electrification in a growing convective cloud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Willis, P. T.; Hallett, J.; Black, R. A.; Hendricks, W.

    The rapid initial precipitation growth and initial electrification of a convective cloud, growing as a new cell on the upshear side of a cloud system in Florida, is traced from radar data and aircraft penetrations at the -7°C to -10°C level. This study combines radar, microphysical and electrical measurements so that an examination of the interactions between the cloud dynamics, microphysics and electrification is possible. The first pass (-7°C) was characterized by a strong 23 m/s updraft, all liquid cloud water, no precipitation, and no significant electrification. In the 300 s between the two penetrations, precipitation developed very rapidly from < 15 dBZ to < 45 dBZ, and the vertical component of the electric field increased from below the measurement threshold to - 25 kv/m. The second penetration, which started at - 7°C and ended at - 10°C, was still exclusively updraft, but with lesser peak velocities and a more complex structure; i.e., no downdraft, but with relative minima in the updraft. The microphysics of the second pass displayed a segment of exclusively cloud liquid water (no precipitation size hydrometeors), a small segment of all liquid precipitation size hydrometeors, a small region of mixed hydrometeors and an extensive region of graupel hydrometeors, ranging in size from 100 μm to several mm. High cloud liquid water coexisted with the liquid and graupel hydrometeors in the strong updrafts. The electrification was observed to occur exclusively in the segments of the cloud pass where graupel were observed. Within this graupel region, where the graupel often coexisted with supercooled cloud liquid water, significant electric field occurred only at relative minima in the updraft. These relative velocity minima were also minima in the cloud liquid water content. The observed updraft velocities in these relative minima were close to balance velocities for the observed larger graupel hydrometeors. The strongest updrafts, where the formation and

  11. Rapidly growing pigmented tumor on a scalp nevus sebaceous of a pediatric patient: Observation or excision.

    PubMed

    Gaitan-Gaona, Francisco; Said, Mirra C; Galvan-Linares, Aldo; Palafox-Vigil, Gloria; Valdes-Rodriguez, Rodrigo

    2014-07-15

    A 14-year-old girl presented with a new, rapidly growing, pigmented tumor on a previously existing yellowish, verrucous plaque on the scalp. The patient received complete surgical excision. Routine histology ruled out basal cell carcinoma (BCC) and the histological diagnosis was pigmented trichoblastoma arising in nevus sebaceous (NS). It is important to define management for new lesions developing in pediatric patients with existing nevus sebaceus.

  12. Pacemaker pocket infection due to Mycobacterium goodii, a rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Yoo, David K; Hosseini-Moghaddam, Seyed M

    2017-01-10

    A woman aged 74 years with an implanted dual-chamber pacemaker presented with pacemaker site infection after failing empiric antimicrobial therapy. The pathogen was later identified as Mycobacterium goodii, a rapidly growing mycobacteria species. The pacemaker was subsequently removed and the patient was treated with oral ciprofloxacin and doxycycline with clinical improvement. In this article, we describe a rare case of pacemaker site infection by M. goodii. 2017 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  13. Survey of solid waste generation and composition in a rapidly growing urban area in Central Nigeria.

    PubMed

    Sha'Ato, R; Aboho, S Y; Oketunde, F O; Eneji, I S; Unazi, G; Agwa, S

    2007-01-01

    The objective of this study was to carry out a field survey of the solid waste generation profile in parts of Makurdi, a rapidly growing urban city in north central Nigeria. The areas surveyed covered low, medium and high-density residential quarters, representing high/medium/low income groups in the area. Results of the survey show that the bulk ( approximately 82%) of the solid waste generated in the area originates from households, rather than from commercial, institutional or industrial premises. Of the waste from households, a substantial proportion consists of various putrescible materials (36-57%), with ash, dust and sand (combined) forming another significant proportion (21-41%). From the non-household sources, putrescible matter is also significant (23-45%), as is the combined ash/dust/sand fraction (32-36%). The quantity of plastics/cellophane materials from household and non-household sources was, however, comparable (6-10%). There was more paper from commercial and institutional premises (9-12%) than from household or small/medium scale industrial premises (2-4%). Glass (0.1-6.9%), metals (mostly cans and bottle corks, 0.7-3.4%) and textiles (0.3-6%) form only a minor proportion of the waste across generators. Waste generation rates were for households, 0.54kg/cap/day; for commercial, 0.018kg/m(2)/day; institutional, 0.015kg/m(2)/day while for small and medium scale industries, the rate was 0.47kg/m(2)/day. As there is no previous study of this kind in the Makurdi urban area, what is reported here may be taken as baseline for the entire area. The implications of the findings for solid waste management planning are discussed.

  14. Airborne observations of electric fields around growing and decaying cumulus clouds

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Giori, K. L.; Nanevicz, J. E.

    1991-01-01

    Airborne electric field data were gathered in an atmospheric electrification study near Cape Canaveral, FL. A Learjet 36A was instrumented with eight electric field meters (mills) and five different particle probes. The local electric field enhancements at each field mill site were determined under lab conditions and verified using in-flight data. The overdetermined system of eight equations (one for each field mill) was solved using a weighted least squares algorithm to compute the magnitude and direction of the ambient electric field. The signal processing system allowed the measured data to be expressed in terms of earth coordinates, regardless of the attitude of the aircraft. Thus, it was possible to take maximum advantage of the Learjet's speed and maneuverability in studying the electric field structure in the vicinity of the clouds. Data gathered while circling just outside the boundary of a growing cumulus cloud show a nonsymmetric pattern of electric field strength. Field intensity grew rapidly over a period of less than 10 minutes. The observed direction of the ambient electric field vector can be explained by an ascending motion of the charge centers of a classic tripole model of a thunderstorm.

  15. Management of Infections with Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria after Unexpected Complications of Skin and Subcutaneous Surgical Procedures

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Jong Min; Kim, Jong Hwan

    2012-01-01

    Background Infection caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) is not uncommon, and the prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. Clinical diagnosis is difficult because there are no characteristic clinical features. There is also no standard antibiotic regimen for treating RGM infection. A small series of patients with RGM infections was studied to examine their treatments and outcomes. Methods A total of 5 patients who had developed postoperative infections from January 2009 to December 2010 were retrospectively reviewed. Patients were initially screened using a mycobacteria rapid screening test (polymerase chain reaction [PCR]-reverse blot hybridization assay). To confirm mycobacterial infection, specimens were cultured for nontuberculous mycobacteria and analyzed by 16 S ribosomal RNA and rpoB gene PCR. Results The patients were treated with intravenous antibiotics during hospitalization, and oral antibiotics were administered after discharge. The mean duration of follow-up was 9 months, and all patients were completely cured of infection with a regimen of a combination of antibiotics plus surgical treatment. Although none of the patients developed recurrence, there were complications at the site of infection, including hypertrophic scarring, pigmentation, and disfigurement. Conclusions Combination antibiotic therapy plus drainage of surgical abscesses appeared to be effective for the RGM infections seen in our patients. Although neither the exact dosage nor a standardized regimen has been firmly established, we propose that our treatment can provide an option for the management of rapidly growing mycobacterial infection. PMID:22783486

  16. Rapidly growing glandular papilloma associated with mucus production: a case report.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Shigeki; Goto, Taichiro; Emoto, Katsura; Hayashi, Yuichiro

    2014-05-22

    Pulmonary glandular papillomas are rare neoplasms, and their very slow or absent growth over time generally facilitates establishing the diagnosis. In an 84-year-old woman who underwent surgery for sigmoid colon cancer, a growing solitary pulmonary nodule was identified on postoperative follow-up computed tomography. A computer tomography-guided needle biopsy was performed under suspicion that the nodule was malignant. The histopathological findings suggested a glandular papilloma. Right basilar segmentectomy was carried out, and the lesion was completely resected. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed a benign glandular papilloma accompanied by mucus retention in the surrounding alveolar region. A malignant neoplasm is usually suspected when a pulmonary tumor shows rapid growth. However, glandular papillomas associated with mucus retention also tend to grow in some cases, and should be included in the differential diagnosis.

  17. Rapidly growing glandular papilloma associated with mucus production: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Pulmonary glandular papillomas are rare neoplasms, and their very slow or absent growth over time generally facilitates establishing the diagnosis. Case presentation In an 84-year-old woman who underwent surgery for sigmoid colon cancer, a growing solitary pulmonary nodule was identified on postoperative follow-up computed tomography. A computer tomography-guided needle biopsy was performed under suspicion that the nodule was malignant. The histopathological findings suggested a glandular papilloma. Right basilar segmentectomy was carried out, and the lesion was completely resected. Postoperative histopathological examination revealed a benign glandular papilloma accompanied by mucus retention in the surrounding alveolar region. Conclusions A malignant neoplasm is usually suspected when a pulmonary tumor shows rapid growth. However, glandular papillomas associated with mucus retention also tend to grow in some cases, and should be included in the differential diagnosis. PMID:24886616

  18. Nuclear oncology, a fast growing field of nuclear medicine

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olivier, Pierre

    2004-07-01

    Nuclear Medicine in oncology has been for a long time synonymous with bone scintigraphy, the first ever whole body imaging modality, and with treatment of thyroid cancer with iodine-131. More recently, somatostatin receptor scintigraphy (SRS) using peptides such as 111In-labelled octreotide became a reference imaging method in the detection and staging of neuroendocrine tumors while 131I- and 123I-MIBG remain the tracers of reference for pheochromocytomas and neuroblastomas. Lymphoscintigraphic imaging based on peritumoral injection of 99mTc-labelled colloids supports, in combination with per operative detection, the procedure of sentinel node identification in breast cancers and melanomas. Positron Emission Tomography (PET) is currently experiencing a considerable growth in oncology based on the use of 18F-FDG (fluorodeoxyglucose), a very sensitive, although non-specific, tumor tracer. Development of instrumentation is crucial in this expansion of PET imaging with new crystals being more sensitive and hybrid imagers that permit to reduce the acquisition time and offer fused PET-CT images. Current developments in therapy can be classified into three categories. Radioimmunotherapy (RIT) based on monoclonal antibodies (or fragments) labelled with beta-emitters. This technique has recently made its entrance in clinical practice with a 90Y-labelled anti-CD20 antibody ( 90Y-ibritumomab tiuxetan (Zevalin ®)) approved in US for the treatment of some subtypes of non-Hodgkin's lymphoma. Radionuclide-bone pain palliation has experienced developments with 153Sm-EDTMP, 186Re-HEDP or 89Sr, efficient in patients with widespread disease. Last, the same peptides, as those used in SRS, are being developed for therapy, labelled with 90Y, 111In or 177Lu in patients who failed to respond to other treatments. Overall, nuclear oncology is currently a fast growing field thanks to the combined developments of radiopharmaceuticals and instrumentation.

  19. Disseminated Cryptococcosis with Rapidly Growing Lung Nodules in an End-stage Renal Disease Patient

    PubMed Central

    Inaba, Atsushi; Okada, Akira; Yoshida, Taiko; Itoyama, Satoshi; Nakai, Tatsuro; Hisada, Tetsuya; Takano, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    A 73-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease was diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. He required continuous dialysis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Subsequently, multiple nodules were discovered in both lungs for the first time, and Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from the patient's sputum, blood, bilateral pleural fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, resulting in a diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis. This case represents an invaluable example of disseminated cryptococcosis with rapidly growing lung nodules in a dialysis patient, and illustrates that dialysis causes innate immune disorder and the reactivation of cryptococcosis. PMID:28154287

  20. Rapidly Growing Right Ventricular Outflow Tract Mass in Patient with Sarcomatoid Renal Cell Carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Jongmin; Choi, Kyung Un; Kim, Jeong Su; Hwang, Ki Won; Lee, Sang Hyun; Chon, Min Ku; Lee, Soo Yong; Lee, Dae Sung

    2016-01-01

    Cardiac metastasis from renal cell carcinoma (RCC) without inferior vena cava (IVC) involvements is extremely rare with few reported cases. Sarcomatoid RCC with rhabdoid feature is a rare pathologic type of RCC having aggressive behavior due to great metastatic potential. Here, we report a case of rapidly growing cardiac metastasis of RCC which brought on right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) obstruction without IVC and right atrial involvement in a 61-year-old woman. Cardiac arrest occurred during radical nephrectomy and echocardiography revealed mass nearly obstructing the RVOT which was not recognized by preoperative echocardiography 1 month ago. Postoperative immunohistochemical evaluation of renal mass revealed sarcomatoid RCC with rhabdoid feature. PMID:28090262

  1. Disseminated Cryptococcosis with Rapidly Growing Lung Nodules in an End-stage Renal Disease Patient.

    PubMed

    Inaba, Atsushi; Okada, Akira; Yoshida, Taiko; Itoyama, Satoshi; Nakai, Tatsuro; Hisada, Tetsuya; Takano, Hideki

    2017-01-01

    A 73-year-old man with type 2 diabetes mellitus and end-stage renal disease was diagnosed with acute myocardial infarction. He required continuous dialysis after percutaneous coronary intervention. Subsequently, multiple nodules were discovered in both lungs for the first time, and Cryptococcus neoformans was isolated from the patient's sputum, blood, bilateral pleural fluid, and cerebrospinal fluid cultures, resulting in a diagnosis of disseminated cryptococcosis. This case represents an invaluable example of disseminated cryptococcosis with rapidly growing lung nodules in a dialysis patient, and illustrates that dialysis causes innate immune disorder and the reactivation of cryptococcosis.

  2. Overweight, obesity, and inactivity and urban design in rapidly growing Chinese cities.

    PubMed

    Day, Kristen; Alfonzo, Mariela; Chen, Yufei; Guo, Zhan; Lee, Karen K

    2013-05-01

    China faces rising rates of overweight, obesity, and physical inactivity among its citizens. Risk is highest in China's rapidly growing cities and urban populations. Current urban development practices and policies in China heighten this risk. These include policies that support decentralization in land use planning; practices of neighborhood gating; and policies and practices tied to motor vehicle travel, transit planning, and bicycle and pedestrian infrastructure. In this paper, we review cultural, political, and economic issues that influence overweight, obesity, and inactivity in China. We examine key urban planning features and policies that shape urban environments that may compromise physical activity as part of everyday life, including walking and bicycling. We review the empirical research to identify planning and design strategies that support physical activity in other high-density cities in developing and developed countries. Finally, we identify successful strategies to increase physical activity in another growing, high-density city - New York City - to suggest strategies that may have relevance for rapidly urbanizing Chinese cities.

  3. In vitro activity of extracts and constituents of Pelagonium against rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Seidel, Veronique; Taylor, Peter W

    2004-06-01

    Extracts of the roots of plants of the Geraniaceae family have been used for many years in South Africa as native herbal remedies and there is circumstantial evidence for efficacy in the treatment of pulmonary tuberculosis. We have examined dried roots of Pelargonium reniforme and P. sidoides for antibacterial activity against rapidly growing mycobacteria. Fractions with activity against Mycobacterium aurum and M. smegmatis were obtained from both plant species by bioassay-guided fractionation of n-hexane extracts and were found to contain mixtures of straight-chain fatty acids. Analysis by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) of the corresponding fatty acid methyl esters revealed structures with chain lengths ranging from C12 to C26. Unsaturated compounds were analysed as the corresponding dimethyl disulfide adducts to determine double-bond positions. Active mixtures differed in the relative abundance of their components, but all contained 16:0 (palmitic), Delta9-18:1 (oleic) and Delta9,12-18:2 (linoleic acid) as the major components. When tested against M. aurum, M. smegmatis and other rapidly growing mycobacteria (M. fortuitum, M. abscessus and M. phlei), all saturated compounds except 12:0 were devoid of antimycobacterial activity, whereas unsaturated compounds showed antimycobacterial activity related to their degree of unsaturation, their chain length and the bacterial species tested. The most potent compound was linoleic acid, with MIC of 2 mg/l against M. aurum. Copyright 2004 Elsevier B.V.

  4. Variables Affecting Results of Sodium Chloride Tolerance Test for Identification of Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Conville, Patricia S.; Witebsky, Frank G.

    1998-01-01

    The sodium chloride tolerance test is often used in the identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria, particularly for distinguishing between Mycobacterium abscessus and Mycobacterium chelonae. This test, however, is frequently unreliable for the identification of some species. In this study we examined the following variables: medium manufacturer, inoculum concentration, and atmosphere and temperature of incubation. Results show that reliability is improved if the test and control slants are inoculated with an organism suspension spectrophotometrically equal to a 1 McFarland standard. Slants should be incubated at 35°C in ambient air and checked weekly for 4 weeks. Growth on control slants should be critically evaluated to determine the adequacy of the inoculum; colonies should number greater than 50. Salt-containing media should be examined carefully to detect pinpoint or tiny colonies, and colonies should number greater than 50 for a positive reaction. Concurrent use of a citrate slant may be helpful for distinguishing between M. abscessus and M. chelonae. Molecular methodologies are probably the most reliable means for the identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria and should be used, if possible, when unequivocal species identification is of particular importance. PMID:9620376

  5. Annual CO2 exchange of a peat field growing spring barley or perennial forage grass

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lohila, Annalea; Aurela, Mika; Tuovinen, Juha-Pekka; Laurila, Tuomas

    2004-09-01

    We report on net ecosystem CO2 exchange (NEE) measurements conducted with the eddy covariance method over agricultural peat soil in the 2-year period between October 2000 and October 2002. In 2001, spring barley and undersown grass were sown on the site. After the barley harvest, the perennial forage grass was left to grow, so that in 2002 the field was growing grass. A higher maximum net CO2 uptake was observed for barley than for grass during the height of the summer, peaking at about -1.0 and -0.75 mg CO2 m-2 s-1, respectively. The maximum nighttime total ecosystem respiration was measured in July and was similar for both crops, about 0.35 mg CO2 m-2s-1. During the growing season the field acted as a daily CO2 sink for only 40 days in barley versus 84 days in grass. In the winter the average carbon dioxide efflux varied from 15.6 to 16.5 μg CO2 m-2 s-1. The annual NEE of the agricultural peat soil growing barley and grass was 771 ± 104 and 290 ± 91 g CO2 m-2, respectively. The longer net CO2 uptake period was the main reason for the lower annual NEE for grass; however, owing to the higher amount of grass biomass produced the net ecosystem production (NEP), calculated as the sum of NEE and removed biomass, was slightly larger for grass (452 g C m-2) than for barley (336 g C m-2). These results show that the organic peat is still undergoing rapid decomposition after more than 100 years of cultivation activity. In addition, switching from an annual to a perennial crop did not turn the field into a CO2 sink, at least during a 1-year period.

  6. In vitro susceptibilities of rapidly growing mycobacteria to newer antimicrobial agents.

    PubMed Central

    Khardori, N; Nguyen, H; Rosenbaum, B; Rolston, K; Bodey, G P

    1994-01-01

    The in vitro antimicrobial susceptibilities of 42 isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria (Mycobacterium fortuitum, M. chelonae, and Mycobacterium species [other than M. fortuitum and M. chelonae]) to nine quinolones, including newer agents, two new aminoglycosides, and an aminocyclitol (trospectomycin) were determined by a broth microdilution method. The new quinolones, PD 117596, PD 127391, and PD 117558, showed excellent in vitro activities against M. fortuitum (MICs for 90% of isolates [MIC90s], 0.06, 0.06, and 0.12 microgram/ml, respectively). The MIC90 of ciprofloxacin for M. fortuitum was 0.5 microgram/ml. Only 14 to 28% of isolates of M. chelonae were susceptible to various quinolones. Most isolates of all three species were susceptible to the new aminoglycosides SCH 21420 and SCH 22591. The MIC90s of trospectomycin were 8 micrograms/ml for M. chelonae, 32 micrograms/ml for Mycobacterium species, and > 64 micrograms/ml for M. fortuitum. PMID:8141567

  7. Mycobacteriocins produced by rapidly growing mycobacteria are Tween-hydrolyzing esterases.

    PubMed Central

    Saito, H; Tomioka, H; Watanabe, T; Yoneyama, T

    1983-01-01

    Smegmatocin, a protein produced by Mycobacterium smegmatis ATCC 14468, was found to have an esterase activity, hydrolyzing Tween 80, polyoxyethylene sorbitan monooleate, added to the assay medium for various "bacteriocins" from mycobacteria. Because M. diernhoferi ATCC 19340 (indicator strain for smegmatocin) is highly susceptible to oleic acid and smegmatocin requires Tween 80 for manifestation of its anti-M. diernhoferi activity, it is likely that smegmatocin-mediated antimicrobial action is caused by oleic acid generated by hydrolysis of Tween 80 by the inherent esterase action of smegmatocin. Other mycobacteriocins from rapidly growing mycobacteria also have inherent esterase activity against Tween 80 and require Tween 80 for expression of antimycobacterial action. Smegmatocin was found to hydrolyze various polyoxyethylene (sorbitan) fatty acyl esters but not sorbitan monooleate and glyceryl esters. Images PMID:6826523

  8. Patient Report and Review of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infection after Cardiac Device Implantation.

    PubMed

    Phadke, Varun K; Hirsh, David S; Goswami, Neela D

    2016-03-01

    Mycobacterial infections resulting from cardiac implantable electronic devices are rare, but as more devices are implanted, these organisms are increasingly emerging as causes of early-onset infections. We report a patient with an implantable cardioverter-defibrillator pocket and associated bloodstream infection caused by an organism of the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, and we review the literature regarding mycobacterial infections resulting from cardiac device implantations. Thirty-two such infections have been previously described; most (70%) were caused by rapidly growing species, of which M. fortuitum group species were predominant.When managing such infections, clinicians should consider the potential need for extended incubation of routine cultures or dedicated mycobacterial cultures for accurate diagnosis; combination antimicrobial drug therapy, even for isolates that appear to be macrolide susceptible, because of the potential for inducible resistance to this drug class; and the arrhythmogenicity of the antimicrobial drugs traditionally recommended for infections caused by these organisms.

  9. Rapid DNA, RNA and protein extraction protocols optimized for slow continuously growing yeast cultures.

    PubMed

    Sasidharan, Kalesh; Amariei, Cornelia; Tomita, Masaru; Murray, Douglas B

    2012-08-01

    Conventional extraction protocols for yeast have been developed for relatively rapid-growing low cell density cultures of laboratory strains and often do not have the integrity for frequent sampling of cultures. Therefore, these protocols are usually inefficient for cultures under slow growth conditions or of non-laboratory strains. We have developed a combined mechanical and chemical disruption procedure using vigorous bead-beating that can consistently disrupt yeast cells (> 95%), irrespective of cell cycle and metabolic state. Using this disruption technique coupled with quenching, we have developed DNA, RNA and protein extraction protocols that are optimized for a large number of samples from slow-growing high-density industrial yeast cultures. Additionally, sample volume, the use of expensive reagents/enzymes, handling times and incubations were minimized. We have tested the reproducibility of our methods using triplicate/time-series extractions and compared these with commonly used protocols or commercially available kits. Moreover, we utilized a simple flow-cytometric approach to estimate the mitochondrial DNA copy number. Based on the results, our methods have shown higher reproducibility, yield and quality. Copyright © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  10. Rapid urbanization and the growing threat of violence and conflict: a 21st century crisis.

    PubMed

    Patel, Ronak B; Burkle, Frederick M

    2012-04-01

    As the global population is concentrated into complex environments, rapid urbanization increases the threat of conflict and insecurity. Many fast-growing cities create conditions of significant disparities in standards of living, which set up a natural environment for conflict over resources. As urban slums become a haven for criminal elements, youth gangs, and the arms trade, they also create insecurity for much of the population. Specific populations, such as women, migrants, and refugees, bear the brunt of this lack of security, with significant impacts on their livelihoods, health, and access to basic services. This lack of security and violence also has great costs to the general population, both economic and social. Cities have increasingly become the battlefield of recent conflicts as they serve as the seats of power and gateways to resources. International agencies, non-governmental organizations, and policy-makers must act to stem this tide of growing urban insecurity. Protecting urban populations and preventing future conflict will require better urban planning, investment in livelihood programs for youth, cooperation with local communities, enhanced policing, and strengthening the capacity of judicial systems.

  11. Mycobacterial contamination of metalworking fluids: involvement of a possible new taxon of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Moore, J S; Christensen, M; Wilson, R W; Wallace, R J; Zhang, Y; Nash, D R; Shelton, B

    2000-01-01

    Contamination of air and metalworking fluid (MWF) systems with a rapidly growing mycobacterium (RGM) was detected in 1995 in a single manufacturing plant with recent cases of hypersensitivity pneumonitis (HP). Extensive environmental sampling was performed to determine the extent of the contamination and its variability over time. RGM were present in multiple indoor air samples, 100% of the central MWF storage tanks, and 75% of the freestanding cutting, drilling, and grinding machines. With one exception, contamination was limited to a recently introduced formulation (brand) of semisynthetic MWF used in 95% of the facility's machining operations. In general, the mycobacterial counts were stable over time, with the degree of contamination ranging from 10(2)-10(7) colony forming units (CFU)/mL. A few systems were culture positive for the mycobacterium (> 10(1) CFU/mL), changed to culture negative (< 10(1) CFU/mL), then changed back to culture positive without explanation. Samples obtained from diluted (5%) but unused MWF, a replenishment line with 2% unused MWF, an MWF pasteurizer, city water, and deionized water were culture negative for this species of mycobacterium. Inoculation and growth studies demonstrated that this mycobacterium does not grow in liquid samples of 5% unused MWF. By molecular techniques, the mycobacterial isolates consisted of a single strain and represented a previously undescribed taxon closely related to Mycobacterium chelonae/abscessus. The relationship of this mycobacterium to the cases of HP is unknown.

  12. Mushroom growing project at the Los Humeros, Mexico geothermal field

    SciTech Connect

    Rangel, M.E.R.

    1998-12-01

    There are several projects of direct (non-electrical) use of geothermal energy in Mexico. Personnel of the Comision Federal de Electricidad (CFE) have experience in various of these projects, like drying of timber and fruits, space heating, food processing, etc. Taking this in consideration, CFE built the Los Humeros mushroom plant using for heat source the geothermal steam from Well H-1. The main purpose of the project was to take advantage of residual geothermal energy in a food production operation and to develop the appropriate technology. In 1992, existing installations were renovated, preparing appropriate areas for pasteurization, inoculation and production. The mushroom Pleurotus ostreatus var. florida and columbinus was used. A year later, CFE proposed the construction of improved facilities for growing edible mushrooms. New materials and equipment, as well as different operation conditions, were proposed on the basis of the experience gained in the initial project. The construction and renovation activities were completed in 1994.

  13. History of Reading: Status and Sources of a Growing Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranney, A. Garr; Miller, Janet

    Recent developments in the field of reading indicate that a number of reading educators recognize the importance of studying the history of reading as a part of the knowledge base of reading education. A questionnaire was mailed to all coordinators of United States and Canadian programs listed in the International Reading Association's…

  14. History of Reading: Status and Sources of a Growing Field.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Cranney, A. Garr; Miller, Janet

    Recent developments in the field of reading indicate that a number of reading educators recognize the importance of studying the history of reading as a part of the knowledge base of reading education. A questionnaire was mailed to all coordinators of United States and Canadian programs listed in the International Reading Association's…

  15. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species

    PubMed Central

    Russell, Ann E.; Raich, James W.

    2012-01-01

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO2 balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (±30) kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1, double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (±176) kg⋅ha−1, whereas net losses of soil N (0–100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (±915) kg⋅ha−1 (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ13C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg⋅ha−1⋅y−1. All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32–54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass. PMID:22689942

  16. Rapidly growing tropical trees mobilize remarkable amounts of nitrogen, in ways that differ surprisingly among species.

    PubMed

    Russell, Ann E; Raich, James W

    2012-06-26

    Fast-growing forests such as tropical secondary forests can accumulate large amounts of carbon (C), and thereby play an important role in the atmospheric CO(2) balance. Because nitrogen (N) cycling is inextricably linked with C cycling, the question becomes: Where does the N come from to match high rates of C accumulation? In unique experimental 16-y-old plantations established in abandoned pasture in lowland Costa Rica, we used a mass-balance approach to quantify N accumulation in vegetation, identify sources of N, and evaluate differences among tree species in N cycling. The replicated design contained four broad-leaved evergreen tree species growing under similar environmental conditions. Nitrogen uptake was rapid, reaching 409 (± 30) kg · ha(-1) · y(-1), double the rate reported from a Puerto Rican forest and greater than four times that observed at Hubbard Brook Forest (New Hampshire, USA). Nitrogen amassed in vegetation was 874 (± 176) kg · ha(-1), whereas net losses of soil N (0-100 cm) varied from 217 (±146) to 3,354 (± 915) kg · ha(-1) (P = 0.018) over 16 y. Soil C:N, δ(13)C values, and N budgets indicated that soil was the main source of biomass N. In Vochysia guatemalensis, however, N fixation contributed >60 kg · ha(-1) · y(-1). All species apparently promoted soil N turnover, such that the soil N mean residence time was 32-54 y, an order of magnitude lower than the global mean. High rates of N uptake were associated with substantial N losses in three of the species, in which an average of 1.6 g N was lost for every gram of N accumulated in biomass.

  17. Rapidly growing giant cell tumor of bone in a skeletally immature girl.

    PubMed

    Akaike, Gensuke; Ueno, Teruko; Matsumoto, Seiichi; Motoi, Noriko; Matsueda, Kiyoshi

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) in skeletally immature patients is rare, and little is known regarding how fast GCTB can grow. We report a case of a 10-year-old skeletally immature girl with pathologically proven GCTB with obvious growth plate invasion that showed surprisingly rapid growth over only 14 days. A radiograph of the left knee revealed well-circumscribed, geographic bone destruction at the distal metaphysis of the femur with a focal cortical defect, suggesting a pathologic fracture. No abnormal mineralization or periosteal reaction was seen. A CT without contrast and an MRI demonstrated a homogeneous lesion with cortical disruption posteriorly and laterally with a slight soft tissue extension. Biopsy showed numerous multinucleated giant cells and spindle-shaped mononuclear cells without any sign of malignancy, suggesting GCTB. However, rapid lesion enlargement and destruction of the surrounding cortex were noted 14 days after biopsy. Considering the amount of bone destruction, traditional treatment of curettage and bone cement would not suffice to sustain structural strength. In addition, considering the patient's age, the tumor location, and the aggressive course, a malignant tumor, especially a giant cell-rich osteosarcoma, could not be excluded. Therefore, en bloc resection, including the growth plate and prosthetic replacement, were performed. Confirmation of GCTB was made from a pathologic evaluation, and a breach to the growth plate was identified. Since very little inflammatory reaction, degenerative change, or aneurysmal, bone, cyst-like change was found, the growth plate invasion was confirmed as due to GCTB extension, not due to the preoperative biopsy.

  18. The spatial biology of transcription and translation in rapidly growing Escherichia coli.

    PubMed

    Bakshi, Somenath; Choi, Heejun; Weisshaar, James C

    2015-01-01

    Single-molecule fluorescence provides high resolution spatial distributions of ribosomes and RNA polymerase (RNAP) in live, rapidly growing Escherichia coli. Ribosomes are more strongly segregated from the nucleoids (chromosomal DNA) than previous widefield fluorescence studies suggested. While most transcription may be co-translational, the evidence indicates that most translation occurs on free mRNA copies that have diffused from the nucleoids to a ribosome-rich region. Analysis of time-resolved images of the nucleoid spatial distribution after treatment with the transcription-halting drug rifampicin and the translation-halting drug chloramphenicol shows that both drugs cause nucleoid contraction on the 0-3 min timescale. This is consistent with the transertion hypothesis. We suggest that the longer-term (20-30 min) nucleoid expansion after Rif treatment arises from conversion of 70S-polysomes to 30S and 50S subunits, which readily penetrate the nucleoids. Monte Carlo simulations of a polymer bead model built to mimic the chromosomal DNA and ribosomes (either 70S-polysomes or 30S and 50S subunits) explain spatial segregation or mixing of ribosomes and nucleoids in terms of excluded volume and entropic effects alone. A comprehensive model of the transcription-translation-transertion system incorporates this new information about the spatial organization of the E. coli cytoplasm. We propose that transertion, which radially expands the nucleoids, is essential for recycling of 30S and 50S subunits from ribosome-rich regions back into the nucleoids. There they initiate co-transcriptional translation, which is an important mechanism for maintaining RNAP forward progress and protecting the nascent mRNA chain. Segregation of 70S-polysomes from the nucleoid may facilitate rapid growth by shortening the search time for ribosomes to find free mRNA concentrated outside the nucleoid and the search time for RNAP concentrated within the nucleoid to find transcription initiation

  19. An Automated System for Rapid Non-Destructive Enumeration of Growing Microbes

    PubMed Central

    London, Roanna; Schwedock, Julie; Sage, Andrew; Valley, Heather; Meadows, Jamie; Waddington, Michael; Straus, Don

    2010-01-01

    Background The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. Principal Findings We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5×106 cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. Conclusion This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods. PMID:20062794

  20. Skin and Soft Tissue Infection due to Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria: Case Series and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Jung Re; Lee, Keun Hwa; Kim, Jinseok; Sung, Jae Kyung; Kim, Young Ree; Kim, Jae Wang

    2013-01-01

    Background Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) are ubiquitous in soil and water. Most NTM cause disease in humans only rarely unless some aspect of host defense is impaired. Recently, rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) is not uncommon, and the prevalence of RGM infection has been increasing. RGM causes a wide spectrum of pulmonary and extrapulmonary diseases and has been shown as an important source for opportunistic infection. Materials and Methods We report 5 patients of skin and soft tissue infection due to RGM in tertiary medical center in Jeju Island and analyzed 21 patients of skin and soft tissue infection due to RGM in Republic of Korea. Clinical, microbiological and epidemiological data were collected from each patient. NTM isolates were identified using conventional and molecular methods including 16S rDNA gene sequencing. Results The mean age of the RGM patients (n=26) was 54.9 ± 15.9 years and 73% were women. Mycobacterium fortuitum complex was the most common (12/26). Antimicrobial resistance for clarithromycin and quinolone were 12% and 60%, respectively. Clarithromycin based therapy was done in 46%. The mean duration of treatment was 21.2 ± 8.7 weeks. Conclusions Many cases can be cured after therapy for 4-7 month with at least 2 or 3 antibiotics according to in vitro susceptibility. Recent increasing of NTM cases suggests that species and subspecies identification is epidemiologically important, especially related to medical procedure, and surgery. PMID:24265954

  1. Evaluation of INNO-LiPA mycobacteria v2 assay for identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Jesús, Iría; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; García-Martos, Pedro

    2011-07-01

    A total of 54 rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) isolated from patients attended in the two hospitals of Cádiz Bay (Spain) were selected during a seven-year-period (2000-2006) in order to evaluate the INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay for mycobacterial identification, based on the reverse hybridization principle. The strains were cultured in Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H9 media and identified to the species level by sequencing of the 16S rRNA, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene, conventional tests and INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. By the molecular methods we identified a total of 12 different species: 23 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 11 M. chelonae, 10 M. abscessus, 2 M. senegalense, 1 M. alvei, 1 M. brumae, 1 M. mageritense, 1 M. mucogenicum, 1 M. neoaurum, 1 M. peregrinum, 1 M. septicum and 1 M. smegmatis. Fifty two strains (96.3%) were correctly identified by conventional techniques and 47 strains (87.0%) by INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. We find INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay simple to perform but it provides few advantages in comparison with conventional methods and sometimes needs complementary tests to identify Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, M. chelonae complex and specific species due to the great heterogeneity in the RGM group.

  2. [Assessment of in vitro susceptibility to antimicrobials of rapidly growing mycobacteria by E-test].

    PubMed

    García-Agudo, Lidia; García-Martos, Pedro; Jesús, Iría; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel

    2009-07-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are considered opportunistic pathogens. An increasing number of post traumatic or surgical infections are caused by these microorganisms. To determine the antimicrobial susceptibility of RGM using the E-test method. A total of 54 isolates of RGM was obtained from several clinical samples and selected for this study Strains were identified to the species level by phenotypic and biochemical characteristics, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene (PRA) and sequencing of the 16S rRNA. Susceptibility was investigated by E-test to amikacin, cefoxitin, ciprofioxacin, clarithromycin, imipenem, quinupristin/dalfopristin, linezolid and tigecycline. Twelve different species of RGM were identified: Mycobacterium fortuitum (23 strains), M chelonae (11), M abscessus (10), Msenegalense (2), Malvei (1), Mbrumae (1), Mmageritense (1), mucogenicum (1), M neoaurum (1), Mperegrinum (1), M septicum (1) y M smegmatis (1). All the strains were inhibited by low concentrations of amikacin and tigecycline. Susceptibility to cefoxitin, fluoroquinolones, clarithromycin, imipenem and linezolid was variable. All but two strains were resistant to quinupristin/ dalfopristin. Due to the uneven antimicrobial susceptibility of different species of RGM, an antimicrobial susceptibility test is mandatory for these microorganisms. The E-test method is well suited to determine minimum inhibitory concentrations.

  3. Evaluation of INNO-LiPA mycobacteria v2 assay for identification of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    García-Agudo, Lidia; Jesús, Iría; Rodríguez-Iglesias, Manuel; García-Martos, Pedro

    2011-01-01

    A total of 54 rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) isolated from patients attended in the two hospitals of Cádiz Bay (Spain) were selected during a seven-year-period (2000–2006) in order to evaluate the INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay for mycobacterial identification, based on the reverse hybridization principle. The strains were cultured in Löwenstein-Jensen and Middlebrook 7H9 media and identified to the species level by sequencing of the 16S rRNA, PCR-restriction enzyme analysis of the hsp65 gene, conventional tests and INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. By the molecular methods we identified a total of 12 different species: 23 Mycobacterium fortuitum, 11 M. chelonae, 10 M. abscessus, 2 M. senegalense, 1 M. alvei, 1 M. brumae, 1 M. mageritense, 1 M. mucogenicum, 1 M. neoaurum, 1 M. peregrinum, 1 M. septicum and 1 M. smegmatis. Fifty two strains (96.3%) were correctly identified by conventional techniques and 47 strains (87.0%) by INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay. We find INNO-LiPA Mycobacteria v2 assay simple to perform but it provides few advantages in comparison with conventional methods and sometimes needs complementary tests to identify Mycobacterium fortuitum complex, M. chelonae complex and specific species due to the great heterogeneity in the RGM group. PMID:24031745

  4. Rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria infection of prosthetic knee joints: A report of two cases.

    PubMed

    Kim, Manyoung; Ha, Chul-Won; Jang, Jae Won; Park, Yong-Beom

    2017-08-01

    Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) cause prosthetic knee joint infections in rare cases. Infections with rapidly growing non-tuberculous mycobacteria (RGNTM) are difficult to treat due to their aggressive clinical behavior and resistance to antibiotics. Infections of a prosthetic knee joint by RGNTM have rarely been reported. A standard of treatment has not yet been established because of the rarity of the condition. In previous reports, diagnoses of RGNTM infections in prosthetic knee joints took a long time to reach because the condition was not suspected, due to its rarity. In addition, it is difficult to identify RGNTM in the lab because special identification tests are needed. In previous reports, after treatment for RGNTM prosthetic infections, knee prostheses could not be re-implanted in all cases but one, resulting in arthrodesis or resection arthroplasty; this was most likely due to the aggressiveness of these organisms. In the present report, two cases of prosthetic knee joint infection caused by RGNTM (Mycobacterium abscessus) are described that were successfully treated, and in which prosthetic joints were finally reimplanted in two-stage revision surgery. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. An automated system for rapid non-destructive enumeration of growing microbes.

    PubMed

    London, Roanna; Schwedock, Julie; Sage, Andrew; Valley, Heather; Meadows, Jamie; Waddington, Michael; Straus, Don

    2010-01-07

    The power and simplicity of visual colony counting have made it the mainstay of microbiological analysis for more than 130 years. A disadvantage of the method is the long time required to generate visible colonies from cells in a sample. New rapid testing technologies generally have failed to maintain one or more of the major advantages of culture-based methods. We present a new technology and platform that uses digital imaging of cellular autofluorescence to detect and enumerate growing microcolonies many generations before they become visible to the eye. The data presented demonstrate that the method preserves the viability of the microcolonies it detects, thus enabling generation of pure cultures for microbial identification. While visual colony counting detects Escherichia coli colonies containing about 5x10(6) cells, the new imaging method detects E. coli microcolonies when they contain about 120 cells and microcolonies of the yeast Candida albicans when they contain only about 12 cells. We demonstrate that digital imaging of microcolony autofluorescence detects a broad spectrum of prokaryotic and eukaryotic microbes and present a model for predicting the time to detection for individual strains. Results from the analysis of environmental samples from pharmaceutical manufacturing plants containing a mixture of unidentified microbes demonstrate the method's improved test turnaround times. This work demonstrates a new technology and automated platform that substantially shortens test times while maintaining key advantages of the current methods.

  6. A Rapidly Growing Instability in the Wake of Airfoils with Multiple Trailing Vortices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, Jason; Savas, Omer

    2000-11-01

    Dye flow visualization and two-dimensional PIV measurements are performed in the wakes of airfoils with multiple trailing vortices. The circulation-based Reynolds number of the vortices is of order 100,000. From the flow visualization data, an instability is observed to develop in the wake within 25 spans downstream of the airfoil. At approximately 50 spans, the instability becomes highly non-linear and three-dimensional, which, for some run parameters, results in an exchange of vorticity from opposite sides of the wake. By 200 spans, the dye is completely dispersed from the vortices and no coherent structures are visible in the wake. The PIV data indicate that the wake's "two-dimensional" kinetic energy decreases by a half at the onset of the non-linear behavior. By 200 spans, the "two-dimensional" kinetic energy is a fraction of its initial value. Further quantitative analyses demonstrate that at 200 spans, the resulting vortex core radius is on average 20of the individual vortices. The results of this study indicate that this rapidly growing instability has the potential for being a solution to the wake hazard problem

  7. Clinical and Taxonomic Status of Pathogenic Nonpigmented or Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria

    PubMed Central

    Brown-Elliott, Barbara A.; Wallace, Richard J.

    2002-01-01

    The history, taxonomy, geographic distribution, clinical disease, and therapy of the pathogenic nonpigmented or late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are reviewed. Community-acquired disease and health care-associated disease are highlighted for each species. The latter grouping includes health care-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks as well as sporadic disease cases. Treatment recommendations for each species and type of disease are also described. Special emphasis is on the Mycobacterium fortuitum group, including M. fortuitum, M. peregrinum, and the unnamed third biovariant complex with its recent taxonomic changes and newly recognized species (including M. septicum, M. mageritense, and proposed species M. houstonense and M. bonickei). The clinical and taxonomic status of M. chelonae, M. abscessus, and M. mucogenicum is also detailed, along with that of the closely related new species, M. immunogenum. Additionally, newly recognized species, M. wolinskyi and M. goodii, as well as M. smegmatis sensu stricto, are included in a discussion of the M. smegmatis group. Laboratory diagnosis of RGM using phenotypic methods such as biochemical testing and high-performance liquid chromatography and molecular methods of diagnosis are also discussed. The latter includes PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis, hybridization, ribotyping, and sequence analysis. Susceptibility testing and antibiotic susceptibility patterns of the RGM are also annotated, along with the current recommendations from the National Committee for Clinical Laboratory Standards (NCCLS) for mycobacterial susceptibility testing. PMID:12364376

  8. Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Nontuberculous Mycobacteria Among Patients Undergoing Cosmetic Surgery in the Dominican Republic.

    PubMed

    Green, Daniel A; Whittier, Susan; Greendyke, William; Win, Cindy; Chen, Xiaowei; Hamele-Bena, Diane

    2017-01-01

    Rapidly growing nontuberculous mycobacteria (RG-NTM), which can contaminate inadequately sterilized medical instruments, have been known to cause serious postsurgical skin and soft tissue infections that often are characterized by a prolonged incubation period and a disfiguring clinical course. Historically, these infections have been associated with surgical procedures performed outside the United States. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention recently reported an outbreak of RG-NTM infections among women who underwent cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. Because of the large Dominican American community in upper Manhattan, we have recently observed a number of these cases at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center. We highlight the case of a 55-year-old woman who developed a postsurgical RG-NTM infection after bilateral breast reduction in the Dominican Republic; she experienced progressive deformity of her left breast until the causative pathogen was identified 20 months after her initial surgery. To assist in the timely diagnosis and treatment of these infections, we aim to promote greater awareness among physicians who are likely to encounter such patients. We present the pathologic findings of a review of 7 cases of RG-NTM infections seen at NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital/Columbia University Medical Center and discuss the diagnostic and therapeutic challenges associated with these infections, such as prolonged incubation periods, the need for acid-fast stains and mycobacterial cultures, and the combination of surgical therapy and lengthy antibiotic courses that are often required for treatment.

  9. Epidemiology of infections due to nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria diagnosed in an urban area.

    PubMed

    Esteban, J; Martín-de-Hijas, N Z; Fernandez, A-I; Fernandez-Roblas, R; Gadea, I

    2008-10-01

    The objective was to determine the incidence, clinical significance, and epidemiology of the isolates of nonpigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) in Madrid, Spain. Patients with new isolates of NPRGM during 2005 were selected prospectively for review of clinical charts. Clinical significance was analyzed according internationally accepted criteria. Randomly amplified polymorphic DNA (RAPD) was used for the genotyping of the isolates. NPRGM were identified in 70 patients (1.51 cases/100,000 inhabitants). The species were M. abscessus (in 5 patients), M. chelonae (in 9), M. fortuitum (in 40), M. peregrinum (in 9), M. mageritense (in 5), M. mucogenicum (in 2), and M. alvei (in 1 patient). The isolates were clinically significant in 17 cases (24.3%, 0.39 cases/100,000 inhabitants): in 4 cases of M. abscessus, in 5 of M. chelonae, and in 9 of M. fortuitum. Only 10.7% of the respiratory isolates were significant, whereas 75% of the nonrespiratory ones were significant (p < 0.001). RAPD analysis showed no relationship among the 74 strains available for the study. No characteristic resistance pattern could be found, although 4 strains appeared to be resistant to amikacin. Significant isolates were mainly nonrespiratory ones. The most significant species was M. abscessus. No relationship between the various isolates was detected, ruling out interhuman transmission between these cases.

  10. Mercuric reductase activity and evidence of broad-spectrum mercury resistance among clinical isolates of rapidly growing mycobacteria

    SciTech Connect

    Steingrube, V.A.; Wallace, R.J. Jr.; Steele, L.C.; Pang, Y.J. )

    1991-05-01

    Resistance to mercury was evaluated in 356 rapidly growing mycobacteria belonging to eight taxonomic groups. Resistance to inorganic Hg2+ ranged from 0% among the unnamed third biovariant complex of Mycobacterium fortuitum to 83% among M. chelonae-like organisms. With cell extracts and 203Hg(NO3)2 as the substrate, mercuric reductase (HgRe) activity was demonstrable in six of eight taxonomic groups. HgRe activity was inducible and required NADPH or NADH and a thiol donor for optimai activity. Species with HgRe activity were also resistant to organomercurial compounds, including phenylmercuric acetate. Attempts at intraspecies and intragenus transfer of HgRe activity by conjugation or transformation were unsuccessful. Mercury resistance is common in rapidly growing mycobacteria and appears to function via the same inducible enzyme systems already defined in other bacterial species. This system offers potential as a strain marker for epidemiologic investigations and for studying genetic systems in rapidly growing mycobacteria.

  11. Rapid-Growing Mycobacteria Infections in Medical Tourists: Our Experience and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Singh, Mansher; Dugdale, Caitlin M; Solomon, Isaac H; Huang, Anne; Montgomery, Mary W; Pomahac, Bohdan; Yawetz, Sigal; Maguire, James H; Talbot, Simon G

    2016-09-01

    "Medical tourism" has gained popularity over the past few decades. This is particularly common with patients seeking elective cosmetic surgery in the developing world. However, the risk of severe and unusual infectious complications appears to be higher than for patients undergoing similar procedures in the United States. The authors describe their experience with atypical mycobacterial infections in cosmetic surgical patients returning to the United States postoperatively. A review of patient medical records presenting with infectious complications after cosmetic surgery between January 2010 and July 2015 was performed. Patients presenting with mycobacterial infections following cosmetic surgery were reviewed in detail. An extensive literature review was performed for rapid-growing mycobacteria (RGM) related to cosmetic procedures. Between January 2010 and July 2015, three patients presented to our institution with culture-proven Mycobacterium abscessus at the sites of recent cosmetic surgery. All had surgery performed in the developing world. The mean age of these patients was 36 years (range, 29-44 years). There was a delay of up to 16 weeks between the initial presentation and correct diagnosis. All patients were treated with surgical drainage and combination antibiotics with complete resolution. We present series of patients with mycobacterial infections after cosmetic surgery in the developing world. This may be related to the endemic nature of these bacteria and/or inadequate sterilization or sterile technique. Due to low domestic incidence of these infections, diagnosis may be difficult and/or delayed. Consulting physicians should have a low threshold to consider atypical etiologies in such scenarios. 5 Therapeutic. © 2016 The American Society for Aesthetic Plastic Surgery, Inc. Reprints and permission: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  12. A new biosensor for rapid BOD estimation by using immobilized growing cell beads.

    PubMed

    Su, Y C; Huang, J H; Liu, M L

    1986-04-01

    A closed, reactor-type sensor system for rapid estimation of BOD by the use of immobilized growing whole cells of a facultative bacterium, Bacillus polymyxa D-21, in kappa-carrageenan and an oxygen electrode is described. This system consists of a transformer, a recorder, a thermostated water bath (30 +/- 1 degree C), a magnetic stirrer (200 rpm), an oxygen electrode, and a flask containing 10 g (wet weight) immobilized cell beads of 2-3 mm in diameter. The total time required for an assay is less than 15 min. The calibration curves obtained show a linear relationship between the rate of oxygen consumption and the concentration of standard wastewater solution which contains equal amounts of glucose and L-glutamic acid each at a concentration below 10 mg/l. The measurement is independent of the pH of the wastewater solution under investigation. The rate of oxygen consumption was reproducible with an average relative error of 5.89% when a standard wastewater solution containing 12 mg/l of glucose and 12 mg/l of L-glutamic acid was assayed 54 times. When the immobilized cell beads were suspended in a 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 6.0) and stored at 25 degrees C, the response of the sensor system remained unchanged for about 30 days. However, based on the observed linear relationship between the rate of oxygen consumption and the concentration of standard wastewater solution, the sensor system should remain usable for at least 2 months. There is a good correlation between BOD5 determined by a conventional method and BOD5 determined by the proposed method when wastewater samples from a local fermentation factory were assayed.

  13. Management of a rapidly growing peritoneal dialysis population at the First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xueqing; Yang, Xiao; Huang, Naya

    2014-06-01

    Managing a rapidly growing peritoneal dialysis program with more than 1000 patients involves multiple challenges, labor constraints, logistics, and excessive geographic distance. This paper describes how Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China, manages those issues, while simultaneously improving quality of the care and, subsequently, clinical outcomes.

  14. Rapidly Growing Brtl/+ Mouse Model of Osteogenesis Imperfecta Improves Bone Mass and Strength with Sclerostin Antibody Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Sinder, Benjamin P.; Salemi, Joseph D.; Ominsky, Michael S.; Caird, Michelle S.; Marini, Joan C.; Kozloff, Kenneth M.

    2014-01-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk that presents most severely in children. Anti-resorptive bisphosphonates are frequently used to treat pediatric OI and controlled clinical trials have shown bisphosphonate therapy improves vertebral outcomes but has little benefit on long bone fracture rate. New treatments which increase bone mass throughout the pediatric OI skeleton would be beneficial. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a potential candidate anabolic therapy for pediatric OI and functions by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation via the canonical wnt signaling pathway. To explore the effect of Scl-Ab on the rapidly growing OI skeleton, we treated rapidly growing 3 week old Brtl/+ mice, harboring a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly->Cys substitution on col1a1, for 5 weeks with Scl-Ab. Scl-Ab had anabolic effects in Brtl/+ and led to new cortical bone formation and increased cortical bone mass. This anabolic action resulted in improved mechanical strength to WT Veh levels without altering the underlying brittle nature of the material. While Scl-Ab was anabolic in trabecular bone of the distal femur in both genotypes, the effect was less strong in these rapidly growing Brtl/+ mice compared to WT. In conclusion, Scl-Ab was able to stimulate bone formation in a rapidly growing Brtl/+ murine model of OI, and represents a potential new therapy to improve bone mass and reduce fracture risk in pediatric OI. PMID:25445450

  15. Rapid Mineralization of Benzo[a]pyrene by a Microbial Consortium Growing on Diesel Fuel

    PubMed Central

    Kanaly, Robert A.; Bartha, Richard; Watanabe, Kazuya; Harayama, Shigeaki

    2000-01-01

    A microbial consortium which rapidly mineralized the environmentally persistent pollutant benzo[a]pyrene was recovered from soil. The consortium cometabolically converted [7-14C]benzo[a]pyrene to 14CO2 when it was grown on diesel fuel, and the extent of benzo[a]pyrene mineralization was dependent on both diesel fuel and benzo[a]pyrene concentrations. Addition of diesel fuel at concentrations ranging from 0.007 to 0.2% (wt/vol) stimulated the mineralization of 10 mg of benzo[a]pyrene per liter 33 to 65% during a 2-week incubation period. When the benzo[a]pyrene concentration was 10 to 100 mg liter−1 and the diesel fuel concentration was 0.1% (wt/vol), an inoculum containing 1 mg of cell protein per liter (small inoculum) resulted in mineralization of up to 17.2 mg of benzo[a]pyrene per liter in 16 days. This corresponded to 35% of the added radiolabel when the concentration of benzo[a]pyrene was 50 mg liter−1. A radiocarbon mass balance analysis recovered 25% of the added benzo[a]pyrene solubilized in the culture suspension prior to mineralization. Populations growing on diesel fuel most likely promoted emulsification of benzo[a]pyrene through the production of surface-active compounds. The consortium was also analyzed by PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis of 16S rRNA gene fragments, and 12 dominant bands, representing different sequence types, were detected during a 19-day incubation period. The onset of benzo[a]pyrene mineralization was compared to changes in the consortium community structure and was found to correlate with the emergence of at least four sequence types. DNA from 10 sequence types were successfully purified and sequenced, and that data revealed that eight of the consortium members were related to the class Proteobacteria but that the consortium also included members which were related to the genera Mycobacterium and Sphingobacterium. PMID:11010861

  16. Effect of diet composition on pregnancy outcome in overnourished rapidly growing adolescent sheep.

    PubMed

    Wallace, Jacqueline M; Milne, John S; Redmer, Dale A; Aitken, Raymond P

    2006-12-01

    of exposure to high protein intakes. The data imply that it is high-energy intakes that are the primary cause of impaired placental development and adverse pregnancy outcome in rapidly growing adolescent sheep.

  17. Relation of Stem Diameter, Branch Basal Area, and Leaf Biomass in Rapidly Growing Loblolly Pine

    Treesearch

    Thomas M. Williams; Charles A. Gresham

    2004-01-01

    Twenty loblolly pines, growing in International Paper’s maximum growth experiment at Bainbridge GA, were destructively sampled at the end of the sixth growing season. Ten trees in the control and 10 in the maximum treatment were sampled. All trees were planted at a 2.4- by 3.6-m spacing and grown with complete competition control. The maximum trees also received...

  18. Composite Tissue Transplantation: A Rapidly Advancing Field

    PubMed Central

    Ravindra, K.V.; Wu, S.; Bozulic, L.; Xu, H.; Breidenbach, W.C.; Ildstad, S.T.

    2008-01-01

    Composite tissue allotransplantation (CTA) is emerging as a potential treatment for complex tissue defects. It is currently being performed with increasing frequency in the clinic. The feasibility of the procedure has been confirmed through 30 hand transplantation, 3 facial reconstructions, and vascularized knee, esophageal, and tracheal allografts. A major drawback for CTA is the requirement for lifelong immunosuppression. The toxicity of these agents has limited the widespread application of CTA. Methods to reduce or eliminate the requirement for immunosuppression and promote CTA acceptance would represent a significant step forward in the field. Multiple studies suggest that mixed chimerism established by bone marrow transplantation promotes tolerance resulting in allograft acceptance. This overview focuses on the history and the exponentially expanding applications of the new frontier in CTA transplantation: immunology associated with CTA; preclinical animal models of CTA; clinical experience with CTA; and advances in mixed chimerism–induced tolerance in CTA. Additionally, some important hurdles that must be overcome in using bone marrow chimerism to induce tolerance to CTA are also discussed. PMID:18589081

  19. [Factors influencing CH4 emissions from a permanently flooded rice field during rice growing period].

    PubMed

    Cai, Zucong; Xie, Deti; Xu, Hua; Wei, Chaofu; Gao, Ming

    2003-05-01

    Permanently flooded rice fields are the rice fields which emit the largest amount of CH4 in China. A 6-years (1995-2000) measurement carried out in a permanently flooded rice field in Chongqing, China showed that draining floodwater in winter and planting upland crops, either winter wheat or rape, instead of fallow under flooded conditions not only stopped CH4 emission during the winter season, but also mitigated CH4 emission during following rice growing period. CH4 emission could also be mitigated by ridge-cultivation. By using the results obtained from 1998-2000, statistical analysis indicated a significant relationship between the mean CH4 emission over the rice growing period and averaged soil moisture in winter season, which explained 56% of the variation of the CH4 emissions among the years and treatments. The averaged soil moisture (0-20 cm) in winter season and soil temperature (5 cm) over the rice growing period explained 78% of the variation. The significance of soil moisture in winter season in CH4 emission during the following rice growing period was further demonstrated by a lysimeter experiment. The relationships implied that the precipitation during non-rice growing period, which dominates soil moisture at a large spatial scale, and the soil temperature during the rice growing period would be the main factors controlling the annual variation of CH4 emissions from rice fields.

  20. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013-2014(1).

    PubMed

    Schnabel, David; Esposito, Douglas H; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M Anita; Feldman, Katherine A; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N; Nguyen, Duc B; Perz, Joseph F; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A; Jensen, Bette J; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W; Brunette, Gary W; Pritchard, P Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H; Rhee, Susan M; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-08-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment.

  1. Rapidly growing Brtl/+ mouse model of osteogenesis imperfecta improves bone mass and strength with sclerostin antibody treatment.

    PubMed

    Sinder, Benjamin P; Salemi, Joseph D; Ominsky, Michael S; Caird, Michelle S; Marini, Joan C; Kozloff, Kenneth M

    2015-02-01

    Osteogenesis imperfecta (OI) is a heritable collagen-related bone dysplasia, characterized by brittle bones with increased fracture risk that presents most severely in children. Anti-resorptive bisphosphonates are frequently used to treat pediatric OI and controlled clinical trials have shown that bisphosphonate therapy improves vertebral outcomes but has little benefit on long bone fracture rate. New treatments which increase bone mass throughout the pediatric OI skeleton would be beneficial. Sclerostin antibody (Scl-Ab) is a potential candidate anabolic therapy for pediatric OI and functions by stimulating osteoblastic bone formation via the canonical Wnt signaling pathway. To explore the effect of Scl-Ab on the rapidly growing OI skeleton, we treated rapidly growing 3week old Brtl/+ mice, harboring a typical heterozygous OI-causing Gly→Cys substitution on col1a1, for 5weeks with Scl-Ab. Scl-Ab had anabolic effects in Brtl/+ and led to new cortical bone formation and increased cortical bone mass. This anabolic action resulted in improved mechanical strength to WT Veh levels without altering the underlying brittle nature of the material. While Scl-Ab was anabolic in trabecular bone of the distal femur in both genotypes, the effect was less strong in these rapidly growing Brtl/+ mice compared to WT. In conclusion, Scl-Ab was able to stimulate bone formation in a rapidly growing Brtl/+ murine model of OI, and represents a potential new therapy to improve bone mass and reduce fracture risk in pediatric OI. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Environmental Field Surveys, EMF Rapid Program, Engineering Project No.3

    SciTech Connect

    Enertech Consultants

    1996-04-01

    The EMF Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) includes several engineering research in the area of exposure assessment and source characterization. RAPID engineering project No. 3: ''Environmental Field Surveys'' was performed to obtain information on the levels and characteristics of different environments, for which only limited data were available, especially in comparison to magnetic field data for the residential environment and for electric utility facilities, such as power lines and substations. This project was also to provide information on the contribution of various field sources in the surveyed environments. Magnetic field surveys were performed at four sites for each of five environments: schools, hospitals, office buildings, machine shops, and grocery stores. Of the twenty sites surveyed, 11 were located in the San Francisco Bay Area and 9 in Massachusetts. The surveys used a protocol based on magnetic field measurements and observation of activity patterns, designed to provide estimates of magnetic field exposure by type of people and by type of sources. The magnetic field surveys conducted by this project produced a large amount of data which will form a part of the EMF measurement database Field and exposure data were obtained separately for ''area exposure'' and ''at exposure points''. An exposure point is a location where persons engage in fixed, site specific activities near a local source that creates a significant increase in the area field. The area field is produced by ''area sources'', whose location and field distribution is in general not related to the location of the people in the area.

  3. Characteristics of growing media mixes and application for open-field production of strawberry (Fragaria ananassa)

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Pathogen-free growing media are widely used for strawberry production in protected structures in Europe but not common in the United States. There is a need to investigate the feasibility of producing strawberry fruits in open fields with the pathogen-free media in the U.S. The objective of the stud...

  4. Social Adjustment among Students Growing up in Foreign Mission-Field Contexts

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Firmin, Michael; Warner, Susan; Lowe, Amybeth

    2006-01-01

    This study utilized a qualitative research method with a sample of 24 students at a private evangelical Christian university in the midwest. The students' developmental years had been spent growing up in mission foreign-field contexts as missionary kids (MKs). In-depth interviews were conducted and transcribed, with coding and theme analysis…

  5. Growing Indian Fig Opuntia on selenium-laden agriculture drainage sediment under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Growing alternative crops for saline and selenium (Se) impacted lands in arid regions, e.g., Western United States, depends upon the plant’s ability to tolerate the presence of high salts and boron (B). In this field study, we planted 2-month old cacti plants on 30 x 1m beds and evaluated the abilit...

  6. Rapid Proton Transfer Mediated by a Strong Laser Field

    SciTech Connect

    Markevitch, Alexei N.; Levis, Robert J.; Romanov, Dmitri A.; Smith, Stanley M.

    2006-04-28

    Kinetic energy distributions of H{sup +} ejected from a polyatomic molecule, anthraquinone, subjected to 60 fs, 800 nm laser pulses of intensity between 0.2 and 4.0x10{sup 14} W{center_dot}cm{sup -2}, reveal field-driven restructuring of the molecule prior to Coulomb explosion. Calculations demonstrate fast intramolecular proton migration into a field-dressed metastable potential energy minimum. The proton migration occurs in the direction perpendicular to the polarization of the laser field. Rapid field-mediated isomerization is an important new phenomenon in coupling of polyatomic molecules with intense lasers.

  7. Rapidly growing primary gastric B-cell lymphoma after eradication of Helicobacter pylori.

    PubMed

    Furusyo, N; Kanamoto, K; Nakamura, S; Yao, T; Suekane, H; Yano, Y; Ariyama, I; Hayashi, J; Kashiwagi, S

    1999-10-01

    Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) infection plays a decisive role in primary gastric B-cell lymphoma especially of mucosa-associated lymphoid tissue (MALT)-type. We treated a 47-year-old male patient with primary gastric B-cell lymphoma associated with H. pylori infection. Although antibiotic therapy for eradication of H. pylori caused great improvement in the low-grade MALT lymphoma-like lesion, the small areas of high-grade lesion rapidly formed a new bulky mass in only 8 weeks. This suggests that eradication of H. pylori is not effective for high-grade lymphoma.

  8. Cellular Midpalatal Suture Changes after Rapid Maxillary Expansion in Growing Subjects: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Caprioglio, Alberto; Fastuca, Rosamaria; Zecca, Piero Antonio; Beretta, Matteo; Mangano, Carlo; Piattelli, Adriano; Macchi, Aldo; Iezzi, Giovanna

    2017-01-01

    The present case report aimed to investigate immediate histologic changes in midpalatal suture in humans following rapid maxillary expansion compared to control. Three patients (mean age 8.3 ± 0.9 years) were enrolled in the case report and underwent midpalatal suture biopsy. Two patients underwent treatment before biopsy. The third patient did not show transversal maxillary deficiency and was enrolled as a control. Biopsy samples of midpalatal suture at 7 (subject 1) and 30 days (subject 2) after maxillary expansion as well as of one control (subject 3) were collected and processed for histology. In the control (subject 3) inter-digitations at the palatal suture gap were observed. At 7 days (subject 1) mature bone with small marrow spaces and trabecular bone with the peculiar storiform appearance inside the soft tissue and collagen fibers running parallel only in the central part were present. At 30 days (subject 2), a greater number of newly-formed bone trabeculae with a perpendicular orientation to the long axis of the suture could be seen. At 30 days the fibrous component of bone tissue was less represented compared to the sample at 7 days. Data from the preliminary histological results showed that bone formation was observed in the gap after rapid maxillary expansion, although the healing process was still ongoing. PMID:28287481

  9. Rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma with surrounding ductal hyperplasia mimics breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT imaging.

    PubMed

    Makis, William; Ciarallo, Anthony; Hickeson, Marc; Derbekyan, Vilma

    2011-07-01

    A 30-year-old woman was referred for an F-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) PET/CT to rule out lymphoma, and was found to have an incidental FDG-avid right breast nodule that grew significantly in size and FDG uptake on a subsequent scan, raising suspicion of a growing breast malignancy. Histologic evaluation showed a complex fibroadenoma with adenosis and surrounding ductal hyperplasia. Although variable F-18 FDG uptake in fibroadenomas has been described, a distinction between simple and complex fibroadenomas has not been made in the PET literature, even though complex fibroadenomas have a higher propensity to develop into malignancies. This case shows that a rapidly growing complex fibroadenoma can mimic a breast malignancy on serial F-18 FDG PET/CT scans, showing significant increase in both size and FDG-avidity on follow-up studies.

  10. Relative in vitro growth rates of duckweeds (Lemnaceae) - the most rapidly growing higher plants.

    PubMed

    Ziegler, P; Adelmann, K; Zimmer, S; Schmidt, C; Appenroth, K-J

    2015-01-01

    Relative growth rates (RGR), doubling times (DT) and relative weekly yields (RY) of 39 clones (ecotypes) from 13 species representing all five genera of duckweeds were determined under standardised cultivation conditions. RGR ranged overall from 0.153 to 0.519 day(-1) , DT from 1.34 to 4.54 days and RY from 2.9 to 37.8 week(-1) . The RGR and RY data can be compared directly to other published findings to only a limited extent on account of missing clonal designations for and limited accessibility to previously investigated clones, as well as the use of different data denominators. However, they are consistent with the published results of other comparative duckweed studies of similar scope in showing that RGR does not vary primarily at the level of the genus or species, but rather reflects the adaptation of individual clones to specific local conditions. The RGR data support the widely held assumption that duckweeds can grow faster than other higher plants and that they can thus surpass land-based agricultural crops in productivity. Duckweeds are highly promising for the production of biomass for nutrition and energy, but extensive clonal comparison will be required to identify the most suitable isolates for this purpose.

  11. Rapid growing clay coatings to reduce the fire threat of furniture.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yeon Seok; Li, Yu-Chin; Pitts, William M; Werrel, Martin; Davis, Rick D

    2014-02-12

    Layer-by-layer (LbL) assembly coatings reduce the flammability of textiles and polyurethane foam but require extensive repetitive processing steps to produce the desired coating thickness and nanoparticle fire retardant content that translates into a fire retardant coating. Reported here is a new hybrid bi-layer (BL) approach to fabricate fire retardant coatings on polyurethane foam. Utilizing hydrogen bonding and electrostatic attraction along with the pH adjustment, a fast growing coating with significant fire retardant clay content was achieved. This hybrid BL coating exhibits significant fire performance improvement in both bench scale and real scale tests. Cone calorimetry bench scale tests show a 42% and 71% reduction in peak and average heat release rates, respectively. Real scale furniture mockups constructed using the hybrid LbL coating reduced the peak and average heat release rates by 53% and 63%, respectively. This is the first time that the fire safety in a real scale test has been reported for any LbL technology. This hybrid LbL coating is the fastest approach to develop an effective fire retardant coating for polyurethane foam.

  12. In-vitro evaluation of the adhesion to polypropylene sutures of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Zamora, N; Esteban, J; Kinnari, T J; Celdrán, A; Granizo, J J; Zafra, C

    2007-09-01

    The ability of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) to attach to polypropylene sutures was evaluated using an in-vitro assay. Thirty clinical isolates and five culture collection strains of NPRGM, together with Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 35983, were tested. Mycobacterium fortuitum and Mycobacterium chelonae showed the highest attachment ability, which differed significantly from the results obtained with Mycobacterium peregrinum. According to these results, NPRGM are able to attach to polypropylene sutures, and the species implicated most frequently in human infection showed increased levels of attachment in comparison with the other mycobacteria studied.

  13. Rapidly Growing Chest Wall Mass in a Case of Sporadic Metastatic Paraganglioma: Imaging With 4 Different PET Radiopharmaceuticals.

    PubMed

    Janssen, Ingo; Xekouki, Paraskevi; Nambuba, Joan; Chen, Clara C; Herscovitch, Peter; Millo, Corina M; Schrump, David S; Pacak, Karel

    2016-05-01

    Pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PGLs) are rare tumors and mostly benign. We report on a 32-year-old woman with metastatic PGL who was first diagnosed with an abdominal PGL at the age of 12 years. She soon developed metastatic disease and received several treatments including external beam radiation and chemotherapy. When she was referred to our institution in 2014, her major complaint was a rapidly growing chest wall mass on the left side. The patient was imaged at our institution with 4 different PET radiopharmaceuticals.

  14. A rapidly growing moraine-dammed glacial lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thompson, Sarah S.; Benn, Douglas I.; Dennis, Kathryn; Luckman, Adrian

    2012-04-01

    Moraine-dammed glacial lakes are becoming increasingly common in the Himalaya as a result of glacier mass loss, causing concern about glacier lake outburst flood risk. In addition to extant lakes, the potential exists for many more to form, as more glaciers ablate down to the level of potential moraine dams. In this paper, we document the recent rapid growth of, a moraine-dammed lake on Ngozumpa Glacier, Nepal. Using a combination of ground-based mapping and sonar surveys, aerial photographs (< 1 m resolution), and ASTER imagery (15 m resolution), processes and rates of lake expansion have been determined. The lake first formed between 1984 and 1992 when collapse of an englacial conduit allowed water to accumulate at the level of a gap in the lateral moraine, ~km from the glacier terminus. Lake growth was initially slow, but since 2001 it has undergone exponential growth at an average rate of 10% y-1. In 2009, the lake area was 300,000 m2, and its volume was at least 2.2 million m3. Calving, subaqueous melting, and melting of subaerial ice faces all contribute to the expansion of the lake; but large-scale, full-height slab calving is now the dominant contributor to growth. Comparison with other lakes in the region indicate that lake growth will likely continue unchecked whilst the spillway remains at its current level and may attain a volume of hundreds of millions of cubic metres within the next few decades.

  15. Method and apparatus for rapidly growing films on substrates using pulsed supersonic jets

    DOEpatents

    Eres, Diula; Lowndes, Douglas H.

    1992-01-01

    A method and apparatus for the rapid and economical deposition of uniform and high quality films upon a substrate for subsequent use in producing electronic devices, for example. The resultant films are either epitaxial (crystalline) or amorphous depending upon the incidence rate and the temperature and structure of the substrate. The deposition is carried out in a chamber maintained at about 10.sup.-6 Torr. A gaseous source of the material for forming the deposit is injected into the deposition chamber in the form of a pulsed supersonic jet so as to obtain a high incidence rate. The supersonic jet is produced by a pulsed valve between a relatively high presure reservoir, containing the source gaseous molecules, and the deposition chamber; the valve has a small nozzle orifice (e.g., 0.1-1.0 mm diameter). The type of deposit (crystalline amorphous) is then dependent upon the temperature and structure of the substrate. Very high deposition rates are achieved, and the deposit is very smooth and of uniform thickness. Typically the deposition rate is about 100 times that of much more expensive conventional molecular beam methods for deposition, and comparable to certain expensive plasma-assisted CVD methods of the art. The high growth rate of this method results in a reduced contamination of the deposit from other elements in the environment. The method is illustrated by the deposition of epitaxial and amorphour germanium films upon GaAs substrates.

  16. Protective effect of breastfeeding on diarrhea among children in a rapidly growing newly developed society.

    PubMed

    Ehlayel, Mohammad S; Bener, Abdulbari; Abdulrahman, Hatim M

    2009-01-01

    of infantile diarrhea. This observation is particularly important given the growing concern that, as an unwanted effect of 'modernization', breastfeeding is on the decline in Qatar and comparable populations elsewhere.

  17. Neonatal sepsis in a rapidly growing, tertiary neonatal intensive care unit: Trends over 18 years.

    PubMed

    Heo, Ju Sun; Shin, Seung Han; Jung, Young Hwa; Kim, Ee-Kyung; Choi, Eun Hwa; Kim, Han-Suk; Lee, Hoan Jong; Choi, Jung-Hwan

    2015-10-01

    We investigated changes in the admission patterns of neonatal intensive care units and the epidemiology of neonatal sepsis following the rapid expansion and improvements in neonatal intensive care. Data on the admission of neonates with culture-proven sepsis between 1996 and 2013 (period I, 1996-2005; period II, 2006-2013) were collected retrospectively. The admission of extremely low-birthweight (ELBW) infants increased between periods I and II (11.1 vs 28.7 infants per 1000 live births, P < 0.001). The survival rate of the ELBW infants improved (57.5 vs 80.1%, P < 0.001), and duration of hospital stay increased (median, 64 vs 80 days, P = 0.001). The incidence of sepsis among all infants and ELBW infants increased (all infants, 5.9 vs 12.7 cases per 1000 live births; ELBW infants, 189.5 vs 290.1 cases per 1000 live births). In ELBW infants, the incidence of sepsis caused by coagulase-negative Staphylococcus (CONS), significantly increased during period II (8.8 vs 25.4%, P = 0.039). On multivariate analysis, central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization were independently associated with increased sepsis rate, particularly CONS in ELBW infants. The inborn admission rate for ELBW infants has increased significantly and is accompanied by improved survival and longer hospital stay. The incidence of neonatal sepsis, particularly in ELBW infants, has also increased, and CONS has emerged as a major pathogen. Central vascular catheters and prolonged hospitalization could be independent risk factors for the increased sepsis rate, particularly sepsis due to CONS. © 2015 Japan Pediatric Society.

  18. Multistate US Outbreak of Rapidly Growing Mycobacterial Infections Associated with Medical Tourism to the Dominican Republic, 2013–20141

    PubMed Central

    Esposito, Douglas H.; Gaines, Joanna; Ridpath, Alison; Barry, M. Anita; Feldman, Katherine A.; Mullins, Jocelyn; Burns, Rachel; Ahmad, Nina; Nyangoma, Edith N.; Nguyen, Duc B.; Perz, Joseph F.; Moulton-Meissner, Heather A.; Jensen, Bette J.; Lin, Ying; Posivak-Khouly, Leah; Jani, Nisha; Morgan, Oliver W.; Brunette, Gary W.; Pritchard, P. Scott; Greenbaum, Adena H.; Rhee, Susan M.; Blythe, David; Sotir, Mark

    2016-01-01

    During 2013, the Maryland Department of Health and Mental Hygiene in Baltimore, MD, USA, received report of 2 Maryland residents whose surgical sites were infected with rapidly growing mycobacteria after cosmetic procedures at a clinic (clinic A) in the Dominican Republic. A multistate investigation was initiated; a probable case was defined as a surgical site infection unresponsive to therapy in a patient who had undergone cosmetic surgery in the Dominican Republic. We identified 21 case-patients in 6 states who had surgery in 1 of 5 Dominican Republic clinics; 13 (62%) had surgery at clinic A. Isolates from 12 (92%) of those patients were culture-positive for Mycobacterium abscessus complex. Of 9 clinic A case-patients with available data, all required therapeutic surgical intervention, 8 (92%) were hospitalized, and 7 (78%) required ≥3 months of antibacterial drug therapy. Healthcare providers should consider infection with rapidly growing mycobacteria in patients who have surgical site infections unresponsive to standard treatment. PMID:27434822

  19. Field-Scale Soil Moisture Mapping Using RapidEye Satellite Imagery and Distributed Hydrologic Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yourek, M. A.; Brooks, E. S.; Magney, T. S.; Anderson, T. R.; Brown, D. J.

    2013-12-01

    In the dryland cropping region of the Pacific Northwest there is a growing need for tools which capture the spatial variability in soil moisture and crop response within a field. Soil moisture distribution within a field often reflects the spatial variability in underlying soil properties and is often well correlated with crop yield patterns. With improved modeling and management tools that capture this field-scale spatial variability, nitrogen fertilizer prescription maps can be developed which optimize nitrogen-use efficiency and profit while minimizing nitrous oxide emissions and nitrate leaching losses. In this project we use high spatial resolution (5 meter) vegetation indices calculated from RapidEye visual, near infrared, and red-edge wavebands to capture changes in crop response throughout the growing season. The late season drying/senescence patterns are compared to simulated soil moisture patterns from a grid-based distributed hydrologic model and apparent soil electrical conductivity patterns measured using an EM38 sensor. Observed soil moisture, surface runoff and surface saturation patterns are compared to model predictions in two ~10 ha field catchments, each having distinct soil properties, climates and topography. We investigate the use of vegetation indices from RapidEye imagery to identify characteristic soil structural patterns as a way to improve both dry and wet season soil moisture predictions.

  20. Magnetometeorology: Relationships between the weather and the earth's magnetic field. [solar cycle effects on length of growing season

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    King, J. W.; Willis, D. M.

    1974-01-01

    A comparison of meteorological pressures and the strength of the earth's magnetic field suggests that the magnetic field exerts, through some unknown process, a controlling influence on the average pressure in the troposphere at high latitudes. Changes in the length of the growing season are related to the solar cycle effects on the geomagnetic field. On average, the growing season is about 25 days longer near sunspot maximum than near sunspot minimum. Comparison of growing season and solar data reveals the geophysically interesting fact that the growing season tends to be the longest about a year after sunspot maximum.

  1. Prosthetic joint infections secondary to rapidly growing mycobacteria: Two case reports and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Henry, Michael W; Miller, Andy O; Kahn, Barbara; Windsor, Russel E; Brause, Barry D

    2016-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are a rare but treatable cause of prosthetic joint infections. This study reports on two patients comprising three prosthetic joint infections caused by RGM successfully treated at the institution. With removal of the infected prosthetic joint and judicious use of prolonged courses of antibiotics, patients with prosthetic joint infections secondary to RGM can both be cured and retain function of the affected joint. In addition, this study identified 40 additional cases reported during an extensive review of the literature and provide a summary of these cases. These infections can present within days of arthroplasty or can develop only decades after the index surgery. The clinical presentations often mimic those of more routine bacterial prosthetic joint infections.

  2. Rapidly changing climatic conditions for wine grape growing in the Okanagan Valley region of British Columbia, Canada.

    PubMed

    Rayne, Sierra; Forest, Kaya

    2016-06-15

    A statistical analysis was conducted on long-term climate records for sites bordering Okanagan Lake in the Okanagan Valley viticultural region of British Columbia, Canada. Average wine grape growing season temperatures are increasing rapidly in the area over the post-1980 period at rates upwards of 7.0±1.3°C/century. Similar increases in the average dormant season temperature are evident. These temperature changes are likely some of the most extreme observed among the world's wine producing areas during the past few decades. Growing degree day base 10°C (GDD10) has increased by nearly 50% at some locations since the 1970s, resulting in major impacts on the corresponding climate classification for viticulture. If current climate trends continue, the southern and central portions of the region will likely enter Winkler region II within the next few decades, placing them in the same category as well-established warmer wine regions from France, Spain, Italy, and Australia. The large dormant season temperature increases over the last several decades have resulted in the area no longer being a cold season outlier when compared to most other cool-climate viticultural areas. Based on average growing season temperatures, the southern end of Okanagan Lake has moved out of the cool-climate viticultural classification and into the intermediate zone, while the central and northern regions are now at the cool/intermediate viticulture interface, similar to the historical positions of the Rhine Valley in Germany, northern Oregon in the United States, and the Loire Valley, Burgundy-Cote, Burgundy-Beaujolais, and Champagne appelations of France. The corresponding suitable grape species for the area have evolved into warmer region varietals during this time frame, having substantial economic impacts on producers. Increased temperatures are also expected to bring greater threats from agricultural pests, notably Pierce's disease from the bacterium Xylella fastidiosa.

  3. Rapid magnetofluidic mixing in a uniform magnetic field.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Gui-Ping; Nguyen, Nam-Trung

    2012-11-21

    This paper reports the investigation of mixing phenomena caused by the interaction between a uniform magnetic field and a magnetic fluid in a microfluidic chamber. The flow system consists of a water-based ferrofluid and a mixture of DI water and glycerol. Under a uniform magnetic field, the mismatch in magnetization of the fluids leads to instability at the interface and subsequent rapid mixing. The mismatch of magnetization is determined by concentration of magnetic nanoparticles. Full mixing at a relatively low magnetic flux density up to 10 mT can be achieved. The paper discusses the impact of key parameters such as magnetic flux density, flow rate ratio and viscosity ratio on the mixing efficiency. Two main mixing regimes are observed. In the improved diffusive mixing regime under low field strength, magnetic particles of the ferrofluid migrate into the diamagnetic fluid. In the bulk transport regime under high field strength, the fluid system is mixed rapidly by magnetically induced secondary flow in the chamber. The mixing concept potentially provides a wireless solution for a lab-on-a-chip system that is low-cost, robust, free of induced heat and independent of pH level or ion concentration.

  4. Rapid evaluation of potential fields in particle systems

    SciTech Connect

    Greengard, L.F.

    1987-01-01

    The evaluation of Coulombic or gravitational interactions in large-scale ensembles of particles is an integral part of the numerical simulation of a large number of physical processes. Examples include celestial mechanics, plasma physics, the vortex method in fluid dynamics, molecular dynamics, and the solution of the Laplace equation via potential theory. In a typical application, a numerical model follows the trajectories of a number of particles moving in accordance with Newton's second law of motion in a field generated by the whole ensemble. In many situations, in order to be of physical interest, the simulation has to involve thousands of particles (or more), and the fields have to be evaluated for a large number of configurations. An algorithm is presented here for the rapid evaluation of the potential and force fields in large-scale systems of particles. Both two- and three-dimensional versions of the algorithm were constructed,and various applications are discussed.

  5. Rapid change of field line connectivity and reconnection in stochastic magnetic fields

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, Yi-Min; Bhattacharjee, A.; Boozer, Allen H.

    2014-10-01

    Magnetic fields without a direction of continuous symmetry have the generic feature that neighboring field lines exponentiate away from each other and become stochastic, and hence the ideal constraint of preserving magnetic field line connectivity becomes exponentially sensitive to small deviations from ideal Ohm's law. The idea of breaking field line connectivity by stochasticity as a mechanism for fast reconnection is tested with numerical simulations based on reduced magnetohydrodynamics equations with a strong guide field line-tied to two perfectly conducting end plates. Starting from an ideally stable force-free equilibrium, the system is allowed to undergo resistive relaxation. Two distinct phases are found in the process of resistive relaxation. During the quasi-static phase, rapid change of field line connectivity and strong induced flow are found in regions of high field line exponentiation. However, although the field line connectivity of individual field lines can change rapidly, the overall pattern of field line mapping appears to deform gradually. From this perspective, field line exponentiation appears to cause enhanced diffusion rather than reconnection. In some cases, resistive quasi-static evolution can cause the ideally stable initial equilibrium to cross a stability threshold, leading to formation of intense current filaments and rapid change of field line mapping into a qualitatively different pattern. It is in this onset phase that the change of field line connectivity is more appropriately designated as magnetic reconnection. Our results show that rapid change of field line connectivity appears to be a necessary, but not a sufficient condition for fast reconnection.

  6. Rapidly growing Mycobacterium infections after cosmetic surgery in medical tourists: the Bronx experience and a review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Cusumano, Lucas R; Tran, Vivy; Tlamsa, Aileen; Chung, Philip; Grossberg, Robert; Weston, Gregory; Sarwar, Uzma N

    2017-10-01

    Medical tourism is increasingly popular for elective cosmetic surgical procedures. However, medical tourism has been accompanied by reports of post-surgical infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM). The authors' experience working with patients with RGM infections who have returned to the USA after traveling abroad for cosmetic surgical procedures is described here. Patients who developed RGM infections after undergoing cosmetic surgeries abroad and who presented at the Montefiore Medical Center (Bronx, New York, USA) between August 2015 and June 2016 were identified. A review of patient medical records was performed. Four patients who presented with culture-proven RGM infections at the sites of recent cosmetic procedures were identified. All patients were treated with a combination of antibiotics and aggressive surgical treatment. This case series of RGM infections following recent cosmetic surgeries abroad highlights the risks of medical tourism. Close monitoring of affected patients by surgical and infectious disease specialties is necessary, as aggressive surgical debridement combined with appropriate antibiotic regimens is needed to achieve cure. Given the increasing reports of post-surgical RGM infections, consultants should have a low threshold for suspecting RGM, as rapid diagnosis may accelerate the initiation of targeted treatment and minimize morbidity. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Rapid infectious disease screening for field medical emergencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ho, Winston; Rao, Srivasta V.; Low, Peter W.; Hess, John R.

    2000-08-01

    Current blood tests cannot provide rapid support for field medical emergencies that require blood in excess of the tested supply, especially, when additional blood needs to be drawn from the available walking pool. A fluorescence-based rapid infectious disease screening system, based on a disposable disk with an array of wash-free, one-step, membrane strips and an array of optical probes can be used to quantify a panel of transmissible diseases in parallel with high specificity, high sensitivity, and operational simplicity. We have designed and constructed a sandwich membrane assay platform and a laboratory prototype optoelectronic measuring device and used this combined system to quantify hepatitis C antibody over the concentration range of 2 ng/ml to 100 ng/ml in 3 to 5 minutes.

  8. Field test of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.; Amaro, C.R.

    1993-12-01

    A field test of the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) was conducted as part of a demonstration sponsored by the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration (BWID). The RTML is a mobile, field- deployable laboratory developed for use at buried radioactive waste remediation sites to allow onsite preparation and analysis of soil, smear, and air filter samples for alpha and gamma-emitting contaminants. Analytical instruments installed in the RTML include an extended range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer, two large-area ionization chamber alpha spectrometers, and four alpha continuous air monitors. The performance of the RTML was tested at the Test Reactor Area and Cold Test Pit near the Radioactive Waste Management Complex at the INEL. Objectives, experimental procedures, and an evaluation of the performance of the RTML are presented.

  9. Rapid topography mapping of scalar fields: Large molecular clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeole, Sachin D.; López, Rafael; Gadre, Shridhar R.

    2012-08-01

    An efficient and rapid algorithm for topography mapping of scalar fields, molecular electron density (MED) and molecular electrostatic potential (MESP) is presented. The highlight of the work is the use of fast function evaluation by Deformed-atoms-in-molecules (DAM) method. The DAM method provides very rapid as well as sufficiently accurate function and gradient evaluation. For mapping the topography of large systems, the molecular tailoring approach (MTA) is invoked. This new code is tested out for mapping the MED and MESP critical points (CP's) of small systems. It is further applied to large molecular clusters viz. (H2O)25, (C6H6)8 and also to a unit cell of valine crystal at MP2/6-31+G(d) level of theory. The completeness of the topography is checked by extensive search as well as applying the Poincaré-Hopf relation. The results obtained show that the DAM method in combination with MTA provides a rapid and efficient route for mapping the topography of large molecular systems.

  10. Field demonstration of rapid turnaround, multilevel groundwater screening

    SciTech Connect

    Tingle, A.R.; Baker, L.; Long, D.D.; Miracle, M.

    1994-09-01

    A combined technology approach to rapidly characterizing source area and downgradient groundwater associated with a past fuel spill has been field tested. The purpose of this investigation was to determine the presence and extent of fuel-related compounds or indications of their biodegradation in groundwater. The distance from the source area to be investigated was established by calculating the potential extent of a plume based only on groundwater flow velocities. To accomplish this objective, commercially available technologies were combined and used to rapidly assess the source area and downgradient groundwater associated with the fuel discharge. The source of contamination that was investigated overlies glacial sand and gravel outwash deposits. Historical data suggest that from 1955 to 1970 as many as 1 to 6 million pi of aviation gasoline (AVGAS) were god at the study area. Although the remedial investigation (RI) for this study area indicated fuel-related groundwater contamination at the source area, fuel-related contamination was not detected in downgradient monitoring wells. Rapid horizontal groundwater velocities and the 24-year time span from the last reported spill farther suggest that a plume of contaminated groundwater could extend several thousand feet downgradient. The lack of contamination downgradient from the source suggests two possibilities: (1) monitoring wells installed during the RI did not intersect the plume or (2) fuel-related compounds had naturally degraded.

  11. Rapid adhesive bonding and field repair of aerospace materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.

    1985-01-01

    Adhesive bonding in the aerospace industry typically utilizes autoclaves or presses which have considerable thermal mass. As a consequence, the rates of heatup and cooldown of the bonded parts are limited and the total time and cost of the bonding process are often relatively high. Many of the adhesives themselves do not inherently require long processing times. Bonding could be performed rapidly if the heat was concentrated in the bond lines or at least in the adherends. Rapid Adhesive Bonding concepts are developed to utilize induction heating techniques to provide heat directly to the bond line and/or adherends without heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. Bonding times for specimens can be cut by a factor of 10 to 100 compared to standard press or autoclave bonding. The development of Rapid Adhesive Bonding for lap shear specimens (per ASTM D1002 and D3163), for aerospace panel or component bonding, and for field repair needs of metallic and advanced fiber reinforced polymeric-matrix composite structures is reviewed. Equipment and procedures are described for bonding and repairing thin sheets, simple geometries, and honeycomb core panels.

  12. Effect of Antibiotics and Antibiofilm Agents in the Ultrastructure and Development of Biofilms Developed by Nonpigmented Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria.

    PubMed

    Muñoz-Egea, María-Carmen; García-Pedrazuela, María; Mahillo-Fernandez, Ignacio; Esteban, Jaime

    2016-01-01

    We analyze the effect of amikacin, ciprofloxacin, and clarithromycin, alone and associated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC) and Tween 80, at different times and concentrations in nonpigmented rapidly growing mycobacteria (NPRGM) biofilms. For this purpose, confocal laser scanning microscopy and image analysis were used to study the development and behavior of intrinsic autofluorescence, covered area, thickness, and cell viability in NPRGM biofilms after adding antibiotics alone and associated with antibiofilm agents. In this study, ciprofloxacin is the most active antibiotic against this type of biofilm and thickness is the most affected parameter. NAC and Tween 80 combined with antibiotics exert a synergistic effect in increasing the percentage of dead bacteria and also reducing the percentage of covered surface and thickness of NPRGM biofilms. Tween 80 seems to be an antibiofilm agent more effective than NAC due to its higher reduction in the percentage of cover surface and thickness. In conclusion, the results obtained in this work show that phenotypic parameters (thickness, percentage of covered surface, autofluorescence, percentage of live/dead bacteria) are affected by combining antibiotics and antibiofilm agents, ciprofloxacin and Tween 80 being the most active agents against NPRGM biofilms.

  13. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast-growing methane-oxidizing bacteria.

    PubMed

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-05-01

    Methane-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast-growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential.

  14. Miniaturized extinction culturing is the preferred strategy for rapid isolation of fast‐growing methane‐oxidizing bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Hoefman, Sven; van der Ha, David; De Vos, Paul; Boon, Nico; Heylen, Kim

    2012-01-01

    Summary Methane‐oxidizing bacteria (MOB) have a large potential as a microbial sink for the greenhouse gas methane as well as for biotechnological purposes. However, their application in biotechnology has so far been hampered, in part due to the relative slow growth rate of the available strains. To enable the availability of novel strains, this study compares the isolation of MOB by conventional dilution plating with miniaturized extinction culturing, both performed after an initial enrichment step. The extinction approach rendered 22 MOB isolates from four environmental samples, while no MOB could be isolated by plating. In most cases, extinction culturing immediately yielded MOB monocultures making laborious purification redundant. Both type I (Methylomonas spp.) and type II (Methylosinus sp.) MOB were isolated. The isolated methanotrophic diversity represented at least 11 different strains and several novel species based on 16S rRNA gene sequence dissimilarity. These strains possessed the particulate (100%) and soluble (64%) methane monooxygenase gene. Also, 73% of the strains could be linked to a highly active fast‐growing mixed MOB community. In conclusion, miniaturized extinction culturing was more efficient in rapidly isolating numerous MOB requiring little effort and fewer materials, compared with the more widely applied plating procedure. This miniaturized approach allowed straightforward isolation and could be very useful for subsequent screening of desired characteristics, in view of their future biotechnological potential. PMID:22070783

  15. “Mycobacterium massilipolynesiensis” sp. nov., a rapidly-growing mycobacterium of medical interest related to Mycobacterium phlei

    PubMed Central

    Phelippeau, M.; Asmar, S.; Osman, D. Aboubaker; Sassi, M.; Robert, C.; Michelle, C.; Musso, D.; Drancourt, M.

    2017-01-01

    In French Polynesia, respiratory tract clinical isolate M26, displayed unusual phenotype and contradictory phylogenetic affiliations, suggesting a hitherto unidentified rapidly-growing Mycobacterium species. The phenotype of strain M26 was further characterized and its genome sequenced. Strain M26 genome consists in a 5,732,017-bp circular chromosome with a G + C% of 67.54%, comprising 5,500 protein-coding genes and 52 RNA genes (including two copies of the 16 S rRNA gene). One region coding for a putative prophage was also predicted. An intriguing characteristic of strain M26’s genome is the large number of genes encoding polyketide synthases and nonribosomal peptide synthases. Phylogenomic analysis showed that strain M26’s genome is closest to the Mycobacterium phlei genome with a 76.6% average nucleotide identity. Comparative genomics of 33 Mycobacterium genomes yielded 361 genes unique to M26 strain which functional annotation revealed 84.21% of unknown function and 3.88% encoding lipid transport and metabolism; while 48.87% of genes absent in M26 strain have unknown function, 9.5% are implicated in transcription and 19% are implicated in transport and metabolism. Strain M26’s unique phenotypic and genomic characteristics indicate it is representative of a new species named “Mycobacterium massilipolynesiensis”. Looking for mycobacteria in remote areas allows for the discovery of new Mycobacterium species. PMID:28074866

  16. Phytoextraction of heavy metals by willows growing in biosolids under field conditions.

    PubMed

    Laidlaw, W S; Arndt, S K; Huynh, T T; Gregory, D; Baker, A J M

    2012-01-01

    Biosolids produced by sewage treatment facilities can exceed guideline thresholds for contaminant elements. Phytoextraction is one technique with the potential to reduce these elements allowing reuse of the biosolids as a soil amendment. In this field trial, cuttings of seven species/cultivars of Salix(willows) were planted directly into soil and into biosolids to identify their suitability for decontaminating biosolids. Trees were irrigated and harvested each year for three consecutive years. Harvested biomass was weighed and analyzed for the contaminant elements: As, Cd, Cu, Cr, Hg, Pb, Ni, and Zn. All Salix cultivars, except S. chilensis, growing in soils produced 10 to 20 t ha(-1) of biomass, whereas most Salix cultivars growing in biosolids produced significantly less biomass (<6 t ha(-1)). Salix matsudana (30 t ha(-1)) and S. × reichardtii A. Kerner (18 t ha(-1)) had similar aboveground biomass production in both soil and biosolids. These were also the most successful cultivars in extracting metals from biosolids, driven by superior biomass increases and not high tissue concentrations. The willows were effectual in extracting the most soluble/exchangeable metals (Cd, 0.18; Ni, 0.40; and Zn, 11.66 kg ha(-1)), whereas Cr and Cu were extracted to a lesser degree (0.02 and 0.11 kg ha(-1)). Low bioavailable elements, As, Hg, and Pb, were not detectable in any of the aboveground biomass of the willows.

  17. Groundwater geochemistry in the Seminole Well Field, Cedar Rapids, Iowa

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Boyd, Robert A.

    1999-01-01

    The City of Cedar Rapids obtains its municipal water supply from four well fields in an alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River in east-central Iowa. Since 1992, the City and the U.S. Geological Survey have cooperatively studied the groundwater-flow system and water chemistry near the well fields. The geochemistry in the alluvial aquifer near the Seminole Well Field was assessed to identify potentially reactive minerals and possible chemical reactions that produce observed changes in water chemistry. Calcite, dolomite, ferrihydrite, quartz, rhodochrosite, and siderite were identified as potentially reactive minerals by calculating saturation indexes. Aluminosiicate minerals including albite, Ca-montmorillonite, gibbsite, illite, K-feldspar, and kaolinite were identified as potentially reactive minerals using hypothetical saturation indexes calculated with an assumed dissolved aluminum concentration of 1 microgram per liter. Balanced chemical equations derived from inverse-modeling techniques were used to assess chemical reactions as precipitation percolates to the water table. Calcite dissolution was predominate, but aluminosilicate weathering, cation exchange, and redox reactions also likely occurred. Microbial-catalyzed redox reactions altered the chemical composition of water infiltrating from the Cedar River into the alluvial aquifer by consuming dissolved oxygen, reducing nitrate, and increasing dissolved iron and manganese concentrations. Nitrate reduction only occurred in relatively shallow (3 to 7 meters below land surface) groundwater near the Cedar River and did not occur in water infiltrating to deeper zones of the alluvial aquifer.

  18. Rapid parameterization of small molecules using the Force Field Toolkit

    PubMed Central

    Mayne, Christopher G.; Saam, Jan; Schulten, Klaus; Tajkhorshid, Emad; Gumbart, James C.

    2013-01-01

    The inability to rapidly generate accurate and robust parameters for novel chemical matter continues to severely limit the application of molecular dynamics (MD) simulations to many biological systems of interest, especially in fields such as drug discovery. Although the release of generalized versions of common classical force fields, e.g., GAFF and CGenFF, have posited guidelines for parameterization of small molecules, many technical challenges remain that have hampered their wide-scale extension. The Force Field Toolkit (ffTK), described herein, minimizes common barriers to ligand parameterization through algorithm and method development, automation of tedious and error-prone tasks, and graphical user interface design. Distributed as a VMD plugin, ffTK facilitates the traversal of a clear and organized workflow resulting in a complete set of CHARMM-compatible parameters. A variety of tools are provided to generate quantum mechanical target data, set up multidimensional optimization routines, and analyze parameter performance. Parameters developed for a small test set of molecules using ffTK were comparable to existing CGenFF parameters in their ability to reproduce experimentally measured values for pure-solvent properties (<15% error from experiment) and free energy of solvation (±0.5 kcal/mol from experiment). PMID:24000174

  19. Rapid assessment of rice seed availability for wildlife in harvested fields

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, B.J.; Miller, M.R.; Casazza, M.L.; Coates, P.S.; Farinha, M.A.; Benjamin, Gustafson K.; Yee, J.L.; Fleskes, J.P.

    2011-01-01

    Rice seed remaining in commercial fields after harvest (waste rice) is a critical food resource for wintering waterfowl in rice-growing regions of North America. Accurate and precise estimates of the seed mass density of waste rice are essential for planning waterfowl wintering habitat extents and management. In the Sacramento Valley of California, USA, the existing method for obtaining estimates of availability of waste rice in harvested fields produces relatively precise estimates, but the labor-, time-, and machineryintensive process is not practical for routine assessments needed to examine long-term trends in waste rice availability. We tested several experimental methods designed to rapidly derive estimates that would not be burdened with disadvantages of the existing method. We first conducted a simulation study of the efficiency of each method and then conducted field tests. For each approach, methods did not vary in root mean squared error, although some methods did exhibit bias for both simulations and field tests. Methods also varied substantially in the time to conduct each sample and in the number of samples required to detect a standard trend. Overall, modified line-intercept methods performed well for estimating the density of rice seeds. Waste rice in the straw, although not measured directly, can be accounted for by a positive relationship with density of rice on the ground. Rapid assessment of food availability is a useful tool to help waterfowl managers establish and implement wetland restoration and agricultural habitat-enhancement goals for wintering waterfowl. ?? 2011 The Wildlife Society.

  20. RAPID CASING CORROSION IN HIGH TEMPERATURE LIQUID DOMINATED GEOTHERMAL FIELDS

    SciTech Connect

    Bixley, P.F.; Wilson, D.M.

    1985-01-22

    Downhole logging and workover operations on 12-20 year old wells in several high temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal fields in New Zealand has shown that severe corrosion has commonly occurred in the production casing string where this is unprotected by larger diameter casings. To date corrosion products from only one well have been examined in detail. These indicate that corrosion attack commences at the outer casing wall and continues at a rate as great as 0.8mm/year. Rapid corrosion has been attributed to neutral or slightly acid high bicarbonate waters formed by the absorption of steam and gas into shallow aquifers not directly connected to the deeper, high chloride reservoir.

  1. Simple and rapid field tests for brucellosis in livestock.

    PubMed

    Abdoel, Theresia; Dias, Isabel Travassos; Cardoso, Regina; Smits, Henk L

    2008-08-25

    Four simple and rapid field tests for the serodiagnosis of brucellosis in cattle, goat, sheep and swine were developed. The performance of the assays was investigated using serum samples collected in Portugal from animals originating from herds with a defined sanitary status with respect to the presence of brucellosis. The sensitivity calculated for the bovine, caprine, ovine and swine Brucella lateral flow assays based on results obtained for samples collected from animals with culture confirmed brucellosis was 90%, 100%, 90% and 73%, respectively. None of the samples from animals from herds free of brucellosis reacted in the flow assays indicating a high specificity. However, as expected, some degree of reactivity was observed when testing selected serum samples that reacted non-specific in reference tests for brucellosis.

  2. Modified Field's staining--a rapid stain for Trichomonas vaginalis.

    PubMed

    Afzan, M Yusuf; Sivanandam, S; Kumar, G Suresh

    2010-10-01

    Trichomonas vaginalis, a flagellate protozoan parasite commonly found in the human genitourinary tract, is transmitted primarily by sexual intercourse. Diagnosis is usually by in vitro culture method and staining with Giemsa stain. There are laboratories that use Gram stain as well. We compared the use of modified Field's (MF), Giemsa, and Gram stains on 2 axenic and xenic isolates of T. vaginalis, respectively. Three smears from every sediment of spun cultures of all 4 isolates were stained, respectively, with each of the stains. We showed that MF staining, apart from being a rapid stain (20 s), confers sharper staining contrast, which differentiates the nucleus and the cytoplasm of the organism when compared to Giemsa and Gram staining especially on parasites from spiked urine samples. The alternative staining procedure offers in a diagnostic setting a rapid stain that can easily visualize the parasite with sharp contrasting characteristics between organelles especially the nucleus and cytoplasm. Vacuoles are more clearly visible in parasites stained with MF than when stained with Giemsa.

  3. Rapidly growing black holes and host galaxies in the distant Universe from the Herschel Radio Galaxy Evolution Project

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drouart, G.; De Breuck, C.; Vernet, J.; Seymour, N.; Lehnert, M.; Barthel, P.; Bauer, F. E.; Ibar, E.; Galametz, A.; Haas, M.; Hatch, N.; Mullaney, J. R.; Nesvadba, N.; Rocca-Volmerange, B.; Röttgering, H. J. A.; Stern, D.; Wylezalek, D.

    2014-06-01

    We present results from a comprehensive survey of 70 radio galaxies at redshifts 1 growing extremely rapidly, having SFR ≈ 100-5000 M⊙ yr-1 and ṀBH ≈ 1-100 M⊙ yr-1. The mean specific SFRs (sSFR) of radio galaxies at z> 2.5 are higher than the sSFR of typical star forming galaxies over the same redshift range, but are similar or perhaps lower than the galaxy population for radio galaxies at z< 2.5. By comparing the sSFR and the specific ṀBH (sṀBH), we conclude that black holes in radio loud AGN are already, or soon will be, overly massive compared to their host galaxies in terms of expectations from the local MBH-MGal relation. In order to catch up with the black hole, the galaxies require about an order of magnitude more time to grow in mass at the observed SFRs compared to the time the black hole is actively accreting

  4. Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov., a rapidly growing mycobacterium closely related to members of the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group

    PubMed Central

    Nogueira, Christiane Lourenço; Whipps, Christopher M.; Matsumoto, Cristianne Kayoko; Chimara, Erica; Droz, Sara; Tortoli, Enrico; de Freitas, Denise; Cnockaert, Margo; Palomino, Juan Carlos; Martin, Anandi; Vandamme, Peter

    2015-01-01

    Five isolates of non-pigmented, rapidly growing mycobacteria were isolated from three patients and, in an earlier study, from zebrafish. Phenotypic and molecular tests confirmed that these isolates belong to the Mycobacterium chelonae–Mycobacterium abscessus group, but they could not be confidently assigned to any known species of this group. Phenotypic analysis and biochemical tests were not helpful for distinguishing these isolates from other members of the M. chelonae–M. abscessus group. The isolates presented higher drug resistance in comparison with other members of the group, showing susceptibility only to clarithromycin. The five isolates showed a unique PCR restriction analysis pattern of the hsp65 gene, 100 % similarity in 16S rRNA gene and hsp65 sequences and 1–2 nt differences in rpoB and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences. Phylogenetic analysis of a concatenated dataset including 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, and rpoB sequences from type strains of more closely related species placed the five isolates together, as a distinct lineage from previously described species, suggesting a sister relationship to a group consisting of M. chelonae, Mycobacterium salmoniphilum, Mycobacterium franklinii and Mycobacterium immunogenum. DNA–DNA hybridization values >70 % confirmed that the five isolates belong to the same species, while values < 70 % between one of the isolates and the type strains of M. chelonae and M. abscessus confirmed that the isolates belong to a distinct species. The polyphasic characterization of these isolates, supported by DNA–DNA hybridization results, demonstrated that they share characteristics with M. chelonae–M. abscessus members, but constitute a different species, for which the name Mycobacterium saopaulense sp. nov. is proposed. The type strain is EPM 10906T ( = CCUG 66554T = LMG 28586T = INCQS 0733T). PMID:26358475

  5. Mycobacterium sediminis sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arabiense sp. nov., two rapidly growing members of the genus Mycobacterium.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Feng; Chen, Xiu; Zhang, Xiao-Mei; Zhi, Xiao-Yang; Yao, Ji-Cheng; Jiang, Yi; Xiong, Zhi; Li, Wen-jun

    2013-11-01

    Two novel isolates of rapidly growing, Gram-stain-positive, non-chromogenic species of the genus Mycobacterium, strain YIM M13028(T) from a sediment sample collected from the South China Sea (19° 30.261' N 111° 0.247' E) at a depth of 42 m and strain YIM 121001(T) from a coastal zone sand sample collected in Dubai, United Arab Emirates, were obtained in our laboratory. Their taxonomic positions were determined by a polyphasic approach. Good growth of the two strains was observed at 28 °C and pH 7.0 with 0-2 % NaCl on tryptic soy agar medium. Both strains formed round orange-red colonies, strain YIM M13028(T) had a rough surface, while YIM 121001(T) was smooth. Cellular fatty acids, whole-cell protein profiles and TLC analysis of their mycolic acids show significant differences from reference stains. Phenotypic characteristics and multilocus sequence analysis (MLSA) of 16S rRNA gene, hsp65, rpoB and 16S-23S internal transcribed spacer (ITS) sequences indicated that both strains YIM M13028(T) and YIM 121001(T) belong to the genus Mycobacterium. DNA-DNA hybridization values revealed a low relatedness (<70 %) of the two isolates with the type strains Mycobacterium neoaurum DSM 44074(T) and Mycobacterium hodleri DSM 44183(T). The low DNA-DNA hybridization values (40.4±3.5 %) between strains YIM M13028(T) and YIM 121001(T) and phenotypic distinctiveness indicated that the two strains were representatives of different novel species of the genus Mycobacterium. The names proposed for these novel species are Mycobacterium sediminis sp. nov. and Mycobacterium arabiense sp. nov., and the type strains are YIM M13028(T) ( = DSM 45643(T) = KCTC 19999(T)) and YIM 121001(T) ( = DSM 45768(T) = JCM 18538(T)), respectively.

  6. Effects of landscape change on fish assemblage structure in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in North Carolina, USA

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kennen, J.G.; Chang, M.; Tracy, B.H.

    2005-01-01

    We evaluated a comprehensive set of natural and land-use attributes that represent the major facets of urban development at fish monitoring sites in the rapidly growing Raleigh-Durham, North Carolina metropolitan area. We used principal component and correlation analysis to obtain a nonredundant subset of variables that extracted most variation in the complete set. With this subset of variables, we assessed the effect of urban growth on fish assemblage structure. We evaluated variation in fish assemblage structure with nonmetric multidimensional scaling (NMDS). We used correlation analysis to identify the most important environmental and landscape variables associated with significant NMDS axes. The second NMDS axis is related to many indices of land-use/land-cover change and habitat. Significant correlations with proportion of largest forest patch to total patch size (r = -0.460, P < 0.01), diversity of patch types (r = 0.554, P < 0.001), and population density (r = 0.385, P < 0.05) helped identify NMDS axis 2 as a disturbance gradient. Positive and negative correlations between the abundance of redbreast sunfish Lepomis auritus and bluehead chub Nocomis leptocephalus, respectively, and NMDS axis 2 also were evident. The North Carolina index of biotic integrity and many of its component metrics were highly correlated with urbanization. These results indicate that aquatic ecosystem integrity would be optimized by a comprehensive integrated management strategy that includes the preservation of landscape function by maximizing the conservation of contiguous tracts of forested lands and vegetative cover in watersheds. ?? 2005 by the American Fisheries Society.

  7. Rapid Numerical Simulation of Viscous Axisymmetric Flow Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tweedt, Daniel L.; Chima, Rodrick V.

    1995-01-01

    A two-dimensional Navier-Stokes code has been developed for rapid numerical simulation of axisymmetric flow fields, including flow fields with an azimuthal velocity component. The azimuthal-invariant Navier-Stokes equations in a cylindrical coordinate system are mapped to a general body-fitted coordinate system, with the streamwise viscous terms then neglected by applying the thin-layer approximation. Turbulence effects are modeled using an algebraic model, typically the Baldwin-Lomax turbulence model, although a modified Cebeci-Smith model can also be used. The equations are discretized using central finite differences and solved using a multistage Runge-Kutta algorithm with a spatially varying time step and implicit residual smoothing. Results are presented for calculations of supersonic flow over a waisted body-of-revolution, transonic flow through a normal shock wave in a straight circular duct of constant cross sectional area, swirling supersonic (inviscid) flow through a strong shock in a straight radial duct, and swirling subsonic flow in an annular-to-circular diffuser duct. Comparisons between computed and experimental results are in fair to good agreement, demonstrating that the viscous code can be a useful tool for practical engineering design and analysis work.

  8. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Experiment

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Braun, Scott A.; Kakar, Ramesh; Zipser, Edward; Heymsfield, Gerald; Albers, Cerese; Brown, Shannon; Durden, Stephen; Guimond, Stephen; Halverson, Jeffery; Heymsfield, Andrew; hide

    2013-01-01

    In August–September 2010, NASA, NOAA, and the National Science Foundation (NSF) conducted separate but closely coordinated hurricane field campaigns, bringing to bear a combined seven aircraft with both new and mature observing technologies. NASA's Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment, the subject of this article, along with NOAA's Intensity Forecasting Experiment (IFEX) and NSF's Pre-Depression Investigation of Cloud-Systems in the Tropics (PREDICT) experiment, obtained unprecedented observations of the formation and intensification of tropical cyclones. The major goal of GRIP was to better understand the physical processes that control hurricane formation and intensity change, specifically the relative roles of environmental and inner-core processes. A key focus of GRIP was the application of new technologies to address this important scientific goal, including the first ever use of the unmanned Global Hawk aircraft for hurricane science operations. NASA and NOAA conducted coordinated flights to thoroughly sample the rapid intensification (RI) of Hurricanes Earl and Karl. The tri-agency aircraft teamed up to perform coordinated flights for the genesis of Hurricane Karl and Tropical Storm Matthew and the non-redevelopment of the remnants of Tropical Storm Gaston. The combined GRIP–IFEX–PREDICT datasets, along with remote sensing data from a variety of satellite platforms [Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite (GOES), Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM), Aqua, Terra, CloudSat, and Cloud–Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO)], will contribute to advancing understanding of hurricane formation and intensification. This article summarizes the GRIP experiment, the missions flown, and some preliminary findings.

  9. Electric Field Measurements During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) Field Program

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bateman, Monte G.; Blakeslee, Richard J.; Mach, Douglas M.

    2010-01-01

    During the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) field program, a system of 6 electric field mills was flown on one of NASA's Global Hawk aircraft. We placed several mills on the aircraft to enable us to measure the vector electric field. We created a distributed, ethernet-connected system so that each sensor has its own embedded Linux system, complete with web server. This makes our current generation system fully "sensor web enabled." The Global Hawk has several unique qualities, but relevant to quality storm electric field measurements are high altitude (20 km) and long duration (20-30 hours) flights. There are several aircraft participating in the GRIP program, and coordinated measurements are happening. Lightning and electric field measurements will be used to study the relationships between lightning and other storm characteristics. It has been long understood that lightning can be used as a marker for strong convective activity. Past research and field programs suggest that lightning flash rate may serve as an indicator and precursor for rapid intensification change in tropical cyclones and hurricanes. We have the opportunity to sample hurricanes for many hours at a time and observe intensification (or de-intensification) periods. The electrical properties of hurricanes during such periods are not well known. American

  10. Gas exchange in Paulownia species growing under different soil moisture conditions in the field.

    PubMed

    Llano-Sotelo, J M; Alcaraz-Melendez, L; Castellanos Villegas, A E

    2010-07-01

    In order to evaluate their responses to drought, we determined the photosynthetic activity water potential, stomatal conductance, transpiration, water use efficiency photosynthetic photon flux density and leaf temperature of Paulownia imperialis, P. fortunei and P. elongata in three different soil moisture conditions in the field. Our results showed that P. imperialis had greater photosynthesis (8.86 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1)) and instantaneous water use efficiency (0.79 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) than either P. elongata (8.20 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.71 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)) or P. fortunei (3.26 micromol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) and 0.07 micromol CO2 mmol H2O(-1)). The rapid growth of Paulownia did not appear to be correlated with photosynthetic rates. Paulownia fortunei showed more transpiration (48.78 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1)) and stomatal conductance (840 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) than P. imperialis (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 540 mmol m(-2) s(-1)) and P. elongata (20 mmol H2O m(-2) s(-1) and 410 mmol m(-2) s(-1)), which allowed these two Paulownia species to increase their tolerance to low soil moisture, and maintain higher water use efficiency under these conditions. According to our physiological gas exchange field tests, Paulownia imperialis does appear to be capable of successful growth in semiarid zones.

  11. Rapid brain MRI acquisition techniques at ultra-high fields

    PubMed Central

    Setsompop, Kawin; Feinberg, David A.; Polimeni, Jonathan R.

    2017-01-01

    Ultra-high-field MRI provides large increases in signal-to-noise ratio as well as enhancement of several contrast mechanisms in both structural and functional imaging. Combined, these gains result in a substantial boost in contrast-to-noise ratio that can be exploited for higher spatial resolution imaging to extract finer-scale information about the brain. With increased spatial resolution, however, is a concurrent increased image encoding burden that can cause unacceptably long scan times for structural imaging and slow temporal sampling of the hemodynamic response in functional MRI—particularly when whole-brain imaging is desired. To address this issue, new directions of imaging technology development—such as the move from conventional 2D slice-by-slice imaging to more efficient Simultaneous MultiSlice (SMS) or MultiBand imaging (which can be viewed as “pseudo-3D” encoding) as well as full 3D imaging—have provided dramatic improvements in acquisition speed. Such imaging paradigms provide higher SNR efficiency as well as improved encoding efficiency. Moreover, SMS and 3D imaging can make better use of coil sensitivity information in multi-channel receiver arrays used for parallel imaging acquisitions through controlled aliasing in multiple spatial directions. This has enabled unprecedented acceleration factors of an order of magnitude or higher in these imaging acquisition schemes, with low image artifact levels and high SNR. Here we review the latest developments of SMS and 3D imaging methods and related technologies at ultra-high field for rapid high-resolution functional and structural imaging of the brain. PMID:26835884

  12. Rapid accurate field diagnosis of Indian visceral leishmaniasis.

    PubMed

    Sundar, S; Reed, S G; Singh, V P; Kumar, P C; Murray, H W

    1998-02-21

    A firm diagnosis of visceral leishmaniasis (kala-azar) requires demonstration of the parasite in organ aspirates or tissue biopsy samples. The aim of this prospective study was to assess the diagnostic usefulness of non-invasive testing for antibody to the leishmanial antigen K39 by means of antigen-impregnated nitrocellulose paper strips adapted for use under field conditions. One drop of peripheral blood is applied to the hitrocellulose strip. Three drops of test buffer (phosphate-buffered saline plus bovine serum albumin) are added to the dried blood. The development of two visible bands indicates presence of IgG anti-K39. 323 consecutive patients with suspected kala-azar referred to two specialist units in India, and 25 healthy controls, provided fingerstick blood samples for the test. Spleen aspirates were taken from 250 patients. Kala-azar was confirmed by microscopy of spleen-aspirate smears in 127 patients. The K39 strip test was positive in all 127; the estimated sensitivity was therefore 100% (95% CI 98-100). Four patients had positive strip tests but negative aspirate smears; all four responded to treatment for leishmaniasis. 217 individuals, including the 25 healthy controls, 73 patients with malaria or tuberculosis, and 119 spleen-aspirate-negative patients who had presumed malaria or cirrhosis (79) or no final diagnosis (40), had negative strip-test results. None of the 119 aspirate-negative patients developed evidence of kala-azar during 3-6 months of follow-up. The estimated specificity of the strip test was 98% (95-100; 217/221). Detection of anti-K39 by immunochromatographic strip testing is a rapid and non-invasive method of diagnosing kala-azar, which has good sensitivity and specificity and is well suited for use in field conditions.

  13. Growing Together: Boston Area Youth Follow Food from Field to Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVaux, Ari

    2001-01-01

    The Food Project brings together Boston-area youth to grow and distribute food for the hungry and in the process, develop leadership and job skills. Summer crew workers (high school students) grow vegetables, distribute them to food pantries, and sell them at farmer's markets. Crew leaders learn more about sustainable agriculture and hone…

  14. Growing Together: Boston Area Youth Follow Food from Field to Table.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    LeVaux, Ari

    2001-01-01

    The Food Project brings together Boston-area youth to grow and distribute food for the hungry and in the process, develop leadership and job skills. Summer crew workers (high school students) grow vegetables, distribute them to food pantries, and sell them at farmer's markets. Crew leaders learn more about sustainable agriculture and hone…

  15. Slowly and Rapidly Propagating "Liquid Flames" in Gravitational Fields

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Shkadinsky, K. G.; Shkadinskaya, G. V.; Matkowsky, B. J.; Gokoglu, S. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    We consider the combustion, in a gravitational field, of a heterogeneous powder mixture compressed into a solid sample, in which the high temperature ahead of the reaction zone destroys the solid, due, e.g. to melting of some of components of the mixture. Thus, a suspension is formed, consisting of a liquid bath containing solid or liquid particles. Processes such as heat and mass transfer as well as chemical reactions in the suspension determine the structure of the combustion wave and its propagation velocity. Under the influence of gravitational forces there is the possibility of relative motion of the liquid and solid. Previous theoretical analyses considered the rate of beat transfer between the solid and liquid phases to be sufficiently large that their two distinct temperatures rapidly equilibrated to a single temperature. In addition to this case, we also consider the case when the rate of heat transfer is not so large and the model involves the separate temperatures of the solid and liquid phases. We find that multiplicity of traveling wave structures is possible. In particular, in addition to a low velocity structure, which is essentially the same as that obtained from the one temperature description, we find a high velocity structure, which does not exist in the one temperature description, but rather depends on the fact that the solid and fluid temperatures differ from each other. Both structures can exist for the same parameter values in a given range. We describe the dependence of the combustion characteristics of the two structures on gravitational forces and other factors. In particular, we compare the characteristics in gravity and microgravity environments.

  16. Evaluation of capillary and myofiber density in the pectoralis major muscles of rapidly growing, high-yield broiler chickens during increased heat stress.

    PubMed

    Joiner, K S; Hamlin, G A; Lien, A R J; Bilgili, S F

    2014-09-01

    Skeletal muscle development proceeds from early embryogenesis through marketing age in broiler chickens. While myofiber formation is essentially complete at hatching, myofiber hypertrophy can increase after hatch by assimilation of satellite cell nuclei into myofibers. As the diameter of the myofibers increases, capillary density peripheral to the myofiber is marginalized, limiting oxygen supply and subsequent diffusion into the myofiber, inducing microischemia. The superficial and deep pectoralis muscles constitute 25% of the total body weight in a market-age bird; thus compromise of those muscle groups can have profound economic impact on broiler production. We hypothesized that marginal capillary support relative to the hypertrophic myofibers increases the incidence of microischemia, especially in contemporary high-yield broilers under stressing conditions such as high environmental temperatures. We evaluated the following parameters in four different broiler strains at 39 and 53 days of age when reared under thermoneutral (20 to 25 C) versus hot (30 to 35 C) environmental conditions: capillary density, myofiber density and diameter, and degree of myodegeneration. Our data demonstrate that myofiber diameter significantly increased with age (P > or = 0.0001), while the absolute numbers of capillaries, blood vessels, and myofibers visible in five 400 x microscopic fields decreased (P > or = 0.0001). This is concomitant with marginalization of vascular support in rapidly growing myofibers. The myofiber diameter was significantly lower with hot environmental temperatures (P > or = 0.001); therefore, the absolute number of myofibers visible in five 400X microscopic fields was significantly higher. The incidence and subjective degree of myodegeneration characterized by loss of cross-striations, myocyte hyperrefractility, sarcoplasmic vacuolation, and nuclear pyknosis or loss also increased in hot conditions. Differences among strains were not observed.

  17. High temperature and deformation field measurements at the vicinity of dynamically growing shear bands

    SciTech Connect

    Rosakis, A.J.; Ravichandran, G.; Zhou, M.

    1995-12-31

    The phenomenon of dynamic initiation and propagation of adiabatic shear bands is experimentally and numerically investigated. Pre-notched metal plates are subjected to asymmetric impact load histories (dynamic mode-II loading). Dynamic shear bands emanate from the notch tip and propagate rapidly in a direction nearly parallel to the direction of the impact. Real time temperature histories along a line intersecting and perpendicular to the shear band paths are recorded by means of a high-speed infrared detector system. The materials studied are C-300 (a maraging steel) and Ti - 6 Al - 4 V alloy. Experiments show that the peak temperatures inside the propagating shear bands are approaching 90% of the melting point for C-300 and are significantly lower for the titanium alloy (up to 600{degrees}C). Additionally, measured distances of shear band propagation indicate stronger resistance to shear banding by the Ti - 6Al - 4V alloy. Deformation fields around the propagating shear bands are recorded using high-speed photography. Shear band speeds are found to strongly depend on impact velocities, and are as high as 1200 m/s for C-300 steels. Finite Element simulations of the experiments are carried out under the context of plane strain, considering finite deformations, inertia, heat conduction, thermal softening, strain hardening and strain-rate hardening. In the simulations, the shear band propagation is assumed to be governed by a critical plastic strain criterion. The results are compared with experimental measurements obtained using the high-speed infrared detectors and high-speed photography.

  18. Growing Pains from Rapid Growth: A Historical Case Study of George Fox University from 1983 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a historical case study of George Fox University (GFU) in Newberg, Oregon. Using organizational lifecycle as a theoretical framework, George Fox University had a long and delayed childhood in that it remained a small and struggling institution for most of the 20th century, and then experienced rapid growth in the late 1980s. This…

  19. Growing Pains from Rapid Growth: A Historical Case Study of George Fox University from 1983 to 2003

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Railsback, Gary L.

    2007-01-01

    This article is a historical case study of George Fox University (GFU) in Newberg, Oregon. Using organizational lifecycle as a theoretical framework, George Fox University had a long and delayed childhood in that it remained a small and struggling institution for most of the 20th century, and then experienced rapid growth in the late 1980s. This…

  20. The positive effect of soybean protein hydrolysates-calcium complexes on bone mass of rapidly growing rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Ying; Liu, He; Ren, Jianhua; Li, Xin; Guo, Shuntang

    2013-08-01

    It was previously found that soybean protein hydrolysates (SPHs) can bind with calcium to form soluble complexes and promote calcium uptake by Caco-2 cells. However, the role of SPHs-calcium complexes on bone mass still needs to be explored. Fast growing male and female rats (n = 72) were assigned to eight groups: Control, lactic acid calcium (LCa), SPHs-calcium complexes (SPHCa) and casein phosphopeptides calcium (CPPCa). After four weeks treatment, oral administration of SPHCa significantly increased femur BMD of rats compared with Control and LCa groups (P < 0.05), while there are no obvious difference on the BMD of femur and lumbar vertebrae between SPHCa and CPPCa groups. Also, SPHCa showed a tendency to improve the mechanical properties of vertebra lumber for female rats. These findings suggest that the SPHs-calcium complexes might have positive effects on bone accretion of fast growing animals. This study brings new insight for better understanding the role of soybean protein itself on bone mass.

  1. Calculating High Resolution CWSI Maps for Entire Growing Season of a Cultivated Barley Field with UAV-Collected Surface Temperatures.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffmann, H.; Jensen, R.; Nieto Solana, H.; Friborg, T.; Thomsen, A.

    2015-12-01

    With agriculture as the largest consumer of freshwater and an overall increasing pressure on water resources, developing more efficient irrigation systems is important. Combining the crop water stress index (CWSI) with unmanned aerial vehicles (UAVs) enables detection of which specific areas within a cultivated field that requires irrigation to ensure healthy growing plants. In this study remotely sensed, high resolution surface temperatures are collected with a thermal camera onboard an UAV. Temperatures are used to calculate spatially distributed, high resolution CWSI maps over a barley field during growing seasons 2014 and 2015. In early stages of the barley growing season, surface temperatures are an ensemble of both soil and canopy temperatures. Canopy temperatures are extracted using leaf area index and the two source energy balance modelling scheme. This approach enables CWSI calculations for homogeneous and evenly distributed crops (such as barley) during early as well as late stages of a growing season. CWSI maps are calculated using both an empirical and an analytical approach and are compared and validated against modelled canopy conductance and transpiration rates.

  2. Integrated Field-Screening for Rapid Sediment Characterization

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2000-09-30

    control response. A scatter plot representing the IC50’ s response for both QwikSed and the sea urchin development test (percent of control) on the same...Rapid Sediment Characterization 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER 5c. PROGRAM ELEMENT NUMBER 6. AUTHOR( S ) 5d. PROJECT NUMBER 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f...WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME( S ) AND ADDRESS(ES) Space and Naval Warfare Systems Center, San Diego,4301 Pacific Hwy,San Diego

  3. Concentrations of Cu, growth, and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in naturally enriched Cu soil

    SciTech Connect

    Cook, C.M.; Vardaka, E.; Lanaras, T.

    1997-02-01

    The Serbo-Macedonian massif of northern Greece is notable for the occurrence of numerous small areas of sulphide mineralisation. Varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation, associated with post-Miocene volcanic rocks of rhyolitic composition, can be encountered in agricultural fields which are used mainly for wheat production. Although Cu is a trace element essential to plant nutrition, in excess, it is phytotoxic causing stunted growth, chlorosis and root malformation. Previous studies on wheat growing in these naturally enriched Cu soils have shown that plants have reduced growth, chlorosis and chloroplast ultrastructural changes and a reduced efficiency of the photochemistry of photosystem II (PSII). The objective of this study was to examine the relationship between the Cu concentration of the soil and the plant tissue Cu concentration, growth and chlorophyll content of field-cultivated wheat growing in soils with varying degrees of porphyry copper mineralisation. 15 refs., 2 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Rapid dissipation of magnetic fields due to the Hall current

    SciTech Connect

    Vainshtein, S. I.; Chitre, S. M.; Olinto, A. V.

    2000-04-01

    We propose a mechanism for the fast dissipation of magnetic fields which is effective in a stratified medium where ion motions can be neglected. In such a medium, the field is frozen into the electrons, and Hall currents prevail. Although Hall currents conserve magnetic energy, in the presence of density gradients they are able to create current sheets which can be sites for efficient dissipation of magnetic fields. We recover the frequency {omega}{sub MH} for Hall oscillations modified by the presence of density gradients. We show that these oscillations can lead to an exchange of energy between different components of the field. We calculate the time evolution, and show that magnetic fields can dissipate on a time scale of order 1/{omega}{sub MH}. This mechanism can play an important role in magnetic dissipation in systems with very steep density gradients, where the ions are static such as those found in the solid crust of neutron stars. (c) 2000 The American Physical Society.

  5. Framework for Rapid Situational Awareness in the Field

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    counterparts while identifying and countering threats, intercultural competence has been a military priority for some time. As reflected in Army field manuals...and DoD strategic documents, intercultural competence is now seen as critical at every level of military operations (Blascovich & Hartel, 2008...Press. Lustig, M., & Koester, J. (2010). Intercultural competence : Interpersonal communication across cultures (6th edition). Boston, MA: Allyn

  6. Developing and evaluating rapid field methods to estimate peat carbon

    Treesearch

    Rodney A. Chimner; Cassandra A. Ott; Charles H. Perry; Randall K. Kolka

    2014-01-01

    Many international protocols (e.g., REDD+) are developing inventories of ecosystem carbon stocks and fluxes at country and regional scales, which can include peatlands. As the only nationally implemented field inventory and remeasurement of forest soils in the US, the USDA Forest Service Forest Inventory and Analysis Program (FIA) samples the top 20 cm of organic soils...

  7. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  8. Rapid subsidence over oil fields measured by SAR

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fielding, E. J.; Blom, R. G.; Goldstein, R. M.

    1998-01-01

    The Lost Hills and Belridge oil felds are in the San Joaquin Valley, California. The major oil reservoir is high porosity and low permeability diatomite. Extraction of large volumes from shallow depths causes reduction in pore pressure and subsequent compaction, forming a surface subsidence bowl. We measure this subsidence from space using interferometric analysis of SAR (Synthetic Aperture Radar) data collected by the European Space Agency Remote Sensing Satellites (ERS-1 and ERS-2). Maximum subsidence rates are as high as 40 mm in 35 days or > 400 mm/yr, measured from interferograms with time separations ranging from one day to 26 months. The 8- and 26-month interferograms contain areas where the subsidence gradient exceeds the measurement possible with ERS SAR, but shows increased detail in areas of less rapid subsidence. Synoptic mapping of subsidence distribution from satellite data powerfully complements ground-based techniques, permits measurements where access is difficult, and aids identification of underlying causes.

  9. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Although maize is the second most important crop worldwide, and the most important C4 crop, no study on biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOCs) has yet been conducted on this crop at ecosystem scale and over a whole growing season. This has led to large uncertainties in cropland BVOC emission estimations. This paper seeks to fill this gap by presenting, for the first time, BVOC fluxes measured in a maize field at ecosystem scale (using the disjunct eddy covariance by mass scanning technique) over a whole growing season in Belgium. The maize field emitted mainly methanol, although exchanges were bi-directional. The second most exchanged compound was acetic acid, which was taken up mainly in the growing season. Bi-directional exchanges of acetaldehyde, acetone and other oxygenated VOCs also occurred, whereas the terpenes, benzene and toluene exchanges were small, albeit significant. Surprisingly, BVOC exchanges were of the same order of magnitude on bare soil and on well developed vegetation, suggesting that soil is a major BVOC reservoir in agricultural ecosystems. Quantitatively, the maize BVOC emissions observed were lower than those reported in other maize, crops and grasses studies. The standard emission factors (SEFs) estimated in this study (231 ± 19 µg m-2 h-1 for methanol, 8 ± 5 µg m-2 h-1 for isoprene and 4 ± 6 µg m-2 h-1 for monoterpenes) were also much lower than those currently used by models for C4 crops, particularly for terpenes. These results suggest that maize fields are small BVOC exchangers in north-western Europe, with a lower BVOC emission impact than that modelled for growing C4 crops in this part of the world. They also reveal the high variability in BVOC exchanges across world regions for maize and suggest that SEFs should be estimated for each region separately.

  10. An aerosol climatology for a rapidly growing arid region (southern Arizona): Major aerosol species and remotely sensed aerosol properties

    PubMed Central

    Sorooshian, Armin; Wonaschütz, Anna; Jarjour, Elias G.; Hashimoto, Bryce I.; Schichtel, Bret A.; Betterton, Eric A.

    2014-01-01

    This study reports a comprehensive characterization of atmospheric aerosol particle properties in relation to meteorological and back trajectory data in the southern Arizona region, which includes two of the fastest growing metropolitan areas in the United States (Phoenix and Tucson). Multiple data sets (MODIS, AERONET, OMI/TOMS, MISR, GOCART, ground-based aerosol measurements) are used to examine monthly trends in aerosol composition, aerosol optical depth (AOD), and aerosol size. Fine soil, sulfate, and organics dominate PM2.5 mass in the region. Dust strongly influences the region between March and July owing to the dry and hot meteorological conditions and back trajectory patterns. Because monsoon precipitation begins typically in July, dust levels decrease, while AOD, sulfate, and organic aerosol reach their maximum levels because of summertime photochemistry and monsoon moisture. Evidence points to biogenic volatile organic compounds being a significant source of secondary organic aerosol in this region. Biomass burning also is shown to be a major contributor to the carbonaceous aerosol budget in the region, leading to enhanced organic and elemental carbon levels aloft at a sky-island site north of Tucson (Mt. Lemmon). Phoenix exhibits different monthly trends for aerosol components in comparison with the other sites owing to the strong influence of fossil carbon and anthropogenic dust. Trend analyses between 1988 and 2009 indicate that the strongest statistically significant trends are reductions in sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon, and increases in fine soil during the spring (March–May) at select sites. These results can be explained by population growth, land-use changes, and improved source controls. PMID:24707452

  11. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces

    PubMed Central

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A. Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X.

    2016-01-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young’s elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils. PMID:27664958

  12. 3D deformation field in growing plant roots reveals both mechanical and biological responses to axial mechanical forces.

    PubMed

    Bizet, François; Bengough, A Glyn; Hummel, Irène; Bogeat-Triboulot, Marie-Béatrice; Dupuy, Lionel X

    2016-10-01

    Strong regions and physical barriers in soils may slow root elongation, leading to reduced water and nutrient uptake and decreased yield. In this study, the biomechanical responses of roots to axial mechanical forces were assessed by combining 3D live imaging, kinematics and a novel mechanical sensor. This system quantified Young's elastic modulus of intact poplar roots (32MPa), a rapid <0.2 mN touch-elongation sensitivity, and the critical elongation force applied by growing roots that resulted in bending. Kinematic analysis revealed a multiphase bio-mechanical response of elongation rate and curvature in 3D. Measured critical elongation force was accurately predicted from an Euler buckling model, indicating that no biologically mediated accommodation to mechanical forces influenced bending during this short period of time. Force applied by growing roots increased more than 15-fold when buckling was prevented by lateral bracing of the root. The junction between the growing and the mature zones was identified as a zone of mechanical weakness that seemed critical to the bending process. This work identified key limiting factors for root growth and buckling under mechanical constraints. The findings are relevant to crop and soil sciences, and advance our understanding of root growth in heterogeneous structured soils.

  13. Field methods for rapidly characterizing paint waste during bridge rehabilitation.

    PubMed

    Shu, Zhan; Axe, Lisa; Jahan, Kauser; Ramanujachary, Kandalam V

    2015-09-01

    For Department of Transportation (DOT) agencies, bridge rehabilitation involving paint removal results in waste that is often managed as hazardous. Hence, an approach that provides field characterization of the waste classification would be beneficial. In this study, an analysis of variables critical to the leaching process was conducted to develop a predictive tool for waste classification. This approach first involved identifying mechanistic processes that control leaching. Because steel grit is used to remove paint, elevated iron concentrations remain in the paint waste. As such, iron oxide coatings provide an important surface for metal adsorption. The diffuse layer model was invoked (logKMe=4.65 for Pb and logKMe=2.11 for Cr), where 90% of the data were captured within the 95% confidence level. Based on an understanding of mechanistic processes along with principal component analysis (PCA) of data obtained from field-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF), statistically-based models for leaching from paint waste were developed. Modeling resulted in 96% of the data falling within the 95% confidence level for Pb (R(2) 0.6-0.9, p ⩽ 0.04), Ba (R(2) 0.5-0.7, p ⩽ 0.1), and Zn (R(2) 0.6-0.7, p ⩽ 0.08). However, the regression model obtained for Cr leaching was not significant (R(2) 0.3-0.5, p ⩽ 0.75). The results of this work may assist DOT agencies with applying a predictive tool in the field that addresses the mobility of trace metals as well as disposal and management of paint waste during bridge rehabilitation.

  14. Rapid, learning-induced inhibitory synaptogenesis in murine barrel field

    PubMed Central

    Jasinska, M.; Siucinska, E.; Cybulska-Klosowicz, A.; Pyza, E.; Furness, D.N.; Kossut, M.; Glazewski, S.

    2010-01-01

    The structure of neurones changes during development and in response to injury or alteration in sensory experience. Changes occur in the number, shape and dimensions of dendritic spines together with their synapses. However, precise data on these changes in response to learning are sparse. Here, we show using quantitative transmission electron microscopy that a simple form of learning involving mystacial vibrissae results in about 70% increase in the density of inhibitory synapses on spines of neurones located in layer IV barrels that represent the stimulated vibrissae. The spines contain one asymmetrical (excitatory) and one symmetrical (inhibitory) synapse (double-synapse spines) and their density increases 3-fold due to learning with no apparent change in the density of asymmetrical synapses. This effect seems to be specific for learning as pseudoconditioning (where the conditioned and unconditioned stimuli are delivered at random) does not lead to the enhancement of symmetrical synapses, but instead results in an up-regulation of asymmetrical synapses on spines. Symmetrical synapses of cells located in barrels receiving the conditioned stimulus show also a greater concentration of γ-amino-butyric acid (GABA) in their presynaptic terminals. These results indicate that the immediate effect of classical conditioning in the ‘conditioned’ barrels is rapid, pronounced and inhibitory. PMID:20089926

  15. Field trials of a rapid test for G6PD deficiency in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria.

    PubMed

    Tantular, I S; Iwai, K; Lin, K; Basuki, S; Horie, T; Htay, H H; Matsuoka, H; Marwoto, H; Wongsrichanalai, C; Dachlan, Y P; Kojima, S; Ishii, A; Kawamoto, F

    1999-04-01

    A rapid single-step screening method for detection of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6 PD) deficiency was evaluated on Halmahera Island, Maluku Province, Indonesia, and in Shan and Mon States, Myanmar, in combination with a rapid diagnosis of malaria by an acridine orange staining method. Severe deficiency was detected by the rapid test in 45 of 1126 volunteers in Indonesia and 54 of 1079 in Myanmar, but it was difficult to distinguish blood samples with mild deficiency from those with normal activity. 89 of 99 severely deficient cases were later confirmed by formazan ring method in the laboratory, but 5 with mild and 5 with no deficiency were misdiagnosed as severe. Of the samples diagnosed as mild and no deficiency on-site, none was found to be severely deficient by the formazan method. Malaria patients were simultaenously++ detected on-site in 273 samples on Halmahera island and 277 samples from Shan and Mon States. In Mon State, primaquine was prescribed safely to G6 PD-normal malaria patients infected with Plasmodium vivax and/or gametocytes of P. falciparum. The new rapid test for G6 PD deficiency may be useful for detecting severe cases under field conditions, and both rapid tests combined are can be useful in malaria-endemic areas, facilitating early diagnosis, prompt and radical treatment of malaria and suppression of malaria transmission.

  16. A Multi-Level Approach to Modeling Rapidly Growing Mega-Regions as a Coupled Human-Natural System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koch, J. A.; Tang, W.; Meentemeyer, R. K.

    2013-12-01

    concept of our modeling approach and describe its strengths and weaknesses. We furthermore use empirical data for the states of North and South Carolina to demonstrate how the modeling framework can be applied to a large, heterogeneous study system with diverse decision-making agents. Grimm et al. (2005) Pattern-Oriented Modeling of Agent-Based Complex Systems: Lessons from Ecology. Science 310, 987-991. Liu et al. (2013) Framing Sustainability in a Telecoupled World. Ecology and Society 18(2), 26. Meentemeyer et al. (2013) FUTURES: Multilevel Simulations of Merging Urban-Rural Landscape Structure Using a Stochastic Patch-Growing Algorithm. Annals of the Association of American Geographers 103(4), 785-807.

  17. Planetary Nebulae: Reviews and Previews of a Rapidly Evolving Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balick, Bruce

    2015-01-01

    Observational results from the ground and space in the past decade and covering the entire spectrum have jolted and energized research into the nature, the formation, and the evolution of planetary nebulae (PNs). The 101-level bubble structure of PNs turned out to be a pleasant but misleading fantasy as observations by HST and ALMA revealed basic details of their infancy. Some combination of close geriatric binary stars (the precusrors of SN Ia's) and magnetic fields dredged into the dusty winds appear to play vital roles in the ejection and collimation of AGB atmospheres. As a result, PNe and their antecedents, AGB stars and prePNs, are providing an array of new opportunities to study asymmetric wind formation, complex gas dynamics, CNO production rates in various galactic environments, and galaxy structure and evolution. I shall review the highlights of recent results, summarize their interpretations, and show some of the observational opportunities to monitor in the next decade, many of which couple strongly to research to related fields.This talk is dedicated to the career of Olivier Chesneau (1972-2014) who pioneered new high-resolution imaging methods that peered into the deep inner cores of nascent planetary nebulae. We remember Olivier as everyone's enthusiastic friend and colleague whose career ended in full stride.

  18. Ownership or leasing of CT scanners by nonradiologist physicians: a rapidly growing trend that raises concern about self-referral.

    PubMed

    Levin, David C; Rao, Vijay M; Parker, Laurence; Frangos, Andrea J; Sunshine, Jonathan H

    2008-12-01

    The aim of this study was to examine recent nationwide trends in the ownership or leasing of computed tomographic (CT) scanners in private offices by nonradiologist physicians. The Medicare Part B fee-for-service data sets for 2001 though 2006 were used to identify all CT scans performed in nonhospital, private-office settings. Ownership or leasing of CT scans was determined by tabulating all global and technical-component-only claims. Professional-component claims were excluded. The specialty of the owner or lessee was determined using Medicare's physician specialty codes. Procedure volume trends and growth rates among all nonradiologist physicians as a group were compared with those among radiologists. Individual specialty volume trends and growth rates were also studied. From 2001 to 2006, Medicare private-office CT scan volume in facilities owned by radiologists increased by 85%. CT scan volume in facilities owned or leased by nonradiologist physicians as a group increased by 263%. The nonradiologic specialties with the largest volumes in 2006 were primary care (192,255 scans), internal medicine subspecialties other than cardiology and medical oncology (184,991 scans), urology (125,850 scans), cardiology (104,739 scans), and medical oncology (61,976 scans). Excluding CT scans performed in independent diagnostic testing facilities (for which physician ownership cannot be determined), nonradiologists' private-office CT market share rose from 16% in 2001 to 28% in 2006. The majority of Medicare private-office CT scans are done in facilities owned by radiologists. However, nonradiologist physicians are acquiring or leasing CT scanners in increasing numbers, and the growth trend is much more rapid among them than it is among radiologists (85% among radiologists from 2001 to 2006, compared with 263% among nonradiologists). As a result, nonradiologists' market share has increased considerably. At a time when both cost containment and reduction in radiation exposure

  19. Pitch-angle diffusion of electrons through growing and propagating along a magnetic field electromagnetic wave in Earth's radiation belts

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, C.-R. Dokgo, K.; Min, K.-W.; Woo, M.-H.; Choi, E.-J.; Hwang, J.; Park, Y.-D.; Lee, D.-Y.

    2015-06-15

    The diffusion of electrons via a linearly polarized, growing electromagnetic (EM) wave propagating along a uniform magnetic field is investigated. The diffusion of electrons that interact with the growing EM wave is investigated through the autocorrelation function of the parallel electron acceleration in several tens of electron gyration timescales, which is a relatively short time compared with the bounce time of electrons between two mirror points in Earth's radiation belts. Furthermore, the pitch-angle diffusion coefficient is derived for the resonant and non-resonant electrons, and the effect of the wave growth on the electron diffusion is discussed. The results can be applied to other problems related to local acceleration or the heating of electrons in space plasmas, such as in the radiation belts.

  20. A Framework Predicting Water Availability in a Rapidly Growing, Semi-Arid Region under Future Climate Change

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, B.; Benner, S. G.; Glenn, N. F.; Lindquist, E.; Dahal, K. R.; Bolte, J.; Vache, K. B.; Flores, A. N.

    2014-12-01

    Climate change can lead to dramatic variations in hydrologic regime, affecting both surface water and groundwater supply. This effect is most significant in populated semi-arid regions where water availability are highly sensitive to climate-induced outcomes. However, predicting water availability at regional scales, while resolving some of the key internal variability and structure in semi-arid regions is difficult due to the highly non-linearity relationship between rainfall and runoff. In this study, we describe the development of a modeling framework to evaluate future water availability that captures elements of the coupled response of the biophysical system to climate change and human systems. The framework is built under the Envision multi-agent simulation tool, characterizing the spatial patterns of water demand in the semi-arid Treasure Valley area of Southwest Idaho - a rapidly developing socio-ecological system where urban growth is displacing agricultural production. The semi-conceptual HBV model, a population growth and allocation model (Target), a vegetation state and transition model (SSTM), and a statistically based fire disturbance model (SpatialAllocator) are integrated to simulate hydrology, population and land use. Six alternative scenarios are composed by combining two climate change scenarios (RCP4.5 and RCP8.5) with three population growth and allocation scenarios (Status Quo, Managed Growth, and Unconstrained Growth). Five-year calibration and validation performances are assessed with Nash-Sutcliffe efficiency. Irrigation activities are simulated using local water rights. Results show that in all scenarios, annual mean stream flow decreases as the projected rainfall increases because the projected warmer climate also enhances water losses to evapotranspiration. Seasonal maximum stream flow tends to occur earlier than in current conditions due to the earlier peak of snow melting. The aridity index and water deficit generally increase in the

  1. A rapid estimation of near field tsunami run-up

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Riqueime, Sebastian; Fuentes, Mauricio; Hayes, Gavin; Campos, Jamie

    2015-01-01

    Many efforts have been made to quickly estimate the maximum run-up height of tsunamis associated with large earthquakes. This is a difficult task, because of the time it takes to construct a tsunami model using real time data from the source. It is possible to construct a database of potential seismic sources and their corresponding tsunami a priori.However, such models are generally based on uniform slip distributions and thus oversimplify the knowledge of the earthquake source. Here, we show how to predict tsunami run-up from any seismic source model using an analytic solution, that was specifically designed for subduction zones with a well defined geometry, i.e., Chile, Japan, Nicaragua, Alaska. The main idea of this work is to provide a tool for emergency response, trading off accuracy for speed. The solutions we present for large earthquakes appear promising. Here, run-up models are computed for: The 1992 Mw 7.7 Nicaragua Earthquake, the 2001 Mw 8.4 Perú Earthquake, the 2003Mw 8.3 Hokkaido Earthquake, the 2007 Mw 8.1 Perú Earthquake, the 2010 Mw 8.8 Maule Earthquake, the 2011 Mw 9.0 Tohoku Earthquake and the recent 2014 Mw 8.2 Iquique Earthquake. The maximum run-up estimations are consistent with measurements made inland after each event, with a peak of 9 m for Nicaragua, 8 m for Perú (2001), 32 m for Maule, 41 m for Tohoku, and 4.1 m for Iquique. Considering recent advances made in the analysis of real time GPS data and the ability to rapidly resolve the finiteness of a large earthquake close to existing GPS networks, it will be possible in the near future to perform these calculations within the first minutes after the occurrence of similar events. Thus, such calculations will provide faster run-up information than is available from existing uniform-slip seismic source databases or past events of pre-modeled seismic sources.

  2. Field-testing of the rapid assessment of disability questionnaire.

    PubMed

    Marella, Manjula; Busija, Lucy; Islam, Fakir M Amirul; Devine, Alexandra; Fotis, Kathy; Baker, Sally M; Sprunt, Beth; Edmonds, Tanya J; Huq, Nafisa Lira; Cama, Anaseini; Keeffe, Jill E

    2014-09-01

    The Rapid Assessment of Disability (RAD) questionnaire measures the magnitude and impact of disability and aims to inform the design of disability inclusive development programs. This paper reports the psychometric evaluation of the RAD. The initial version of the RAD comprised five sections: 1) demographics, 2) functioning, 3) rights awareness, 4) well-being, and 5) access to the community. Item functioning and construct validity were assessed in a population-based study in Bangladesh. Data were analysed using descriptive statistics (sections 2 and 5) and Rasch modelling (sections 3 and 4). A subsequent case-control study in Fiji tested the refined questionnaire in a cross-cultural setting and assessed the sensitivity and specificity of the RAD section 2 to identify people with disability. 2,057 adults took part in the study (1,855 in Bangladesh and 202 in Fiji). The prevalence of disability estimated using RAD section 2 in Bangladesh was 10.5% (95% CI 8.8-12.2), with satisfactory sensitivity and specificity (62.4% and 81.2%, respectively). Section 3 exhibited multidimensionality and poor differentiation between levels of rights awareness in both Bangladesh (person separation index [PSI] = 0.71) and Fiji (PSI = 0.0), and was unable to distinguish between people with and without disability (Bangladesh p = 0.786, Fiji p = 0.43). This section was subsequently removed from the questionnaire pending re-development. Section 4 had good ability to differentiate between levels of well-being (PSI = 0.82). In both countries, people with disability had significantly worse well-being scores than people without disability (p < 0.001) and also access to all sectors of community except legal assistance, drinking water and toilets (p < 0.001). Filed-testing in Bangladesh and Fiji confirmed the psychometric robustness of functioning, well-being, and community access sections of the RAD. Information from the questionnaire can be used to inform and evaluate disability inclusive

  3. Norway`s development prospect list grows through old field reworkings and new finds

    SciTech Connect

    Knott, D.

    1998-08-17

    The list of Norwegian offshore fields under development or lined up for development has grown considerably in the last year. Wood Mackenzie Consultants Ltd., Edinburgh, says fields likely to be brought on stream in the next 5 years have total reserves of 6.4 billion bbl of oil and 25.7 tcf of gas. The analyst attributes growth in the developments list to several factors: development delays on current projects due to construction or technical problems; delays forced on operators by the Norwegian government; the award of a number of gas sales allocations by the GFU (Gas Negotiating Committee); the planned exploitation of older finds previously considered uncommercial for technical or logistical reasons; and the continuing normal progression of discoveries through to the development stage following a sustained period of successful exploration.

  4. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  5. RAPID ARSENITE OXIDATION BY THERMUS AQUATICUS AND THERMUS THERMOPHILUS: FIELD AND LABORATORY INVESTIGATIONS. (R826189)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed ...

  6. Pancreatic Cancer: Progress and Challenges in a Rapidly Moving Field.

    PubMed

    Collisson, Eric A; Olive, Kenneth P

    2017-03-01

    "Pancreatic Cancer: Advances in Science and Clinical Care," a Special Conference of the American Association for Cancer Research, was held in Orlando, FL, on May 12 to 15, bringing together more than 450 basic, translational, clinical, and epidemiologic pancreatic cancer researchers as well as pancreatic cancer patients, survivors, and advocates. Pancreatic cancer remains one of the great challenges in medicine, but the accelerating pace of research and early hints of clinical successes to come were palpable throughout the meeting. Prominent meeting themes included immunology and the tumor microenvironment, heterogeneity of both the epithelial and stromal compartments, personalized medicine efforts to integrate molecular information into clinical practice, new approaches to early detection, and clinical trials using a host of novel targeted therapies. Adding to the vibrant atmosphere of the meeting, a coalition of pancreatic cancer research and support foundations participated, with several innovative initiatives announced by individual organizations. We present here a summary of meeting highlights, a series of "success factors" that will benchmark the progress of the field over the next 2 years, and three challenges to the pancreatic cancer research community as it moves toward to the goal of extending patient survival. Cancer Res; 77(5); 1060-2. ©2017 AACR.

  7. [Quantifying direct N2O emissions from paddy fields during rice growing season in China: model establishment].

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian-Wen; Qin, Yan-Mei; Liu, Shu-Wei

    2009-02-15

    Various water management regimes, such as continuous flooding (F), flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding (F-D-F), and flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding-moist intermittent irrigation but without water logging (F-D-F-M), are currently practiced in paddy rice production in China. These water regimes have incurred a sensitive change in direct N2O emission from rice paddy fields. In order to establish statistical models quantifying the country-specific emission factor and background emission of N2O in paddy fields during the rice growing season, we compiled and statistically analyzed field data on 71 N2O measurements from 17 field studies that were published in peer-reviewed Chinese and English journals. For each field study, we documented the seasonal N2O emission, the type and amount of organic amendment and fertilizer nitrogen application, the water management regime, the drainage duration, the field location and cropping season. Seasonal total N2O was, on average, equivalent to 0.02% of the nitrogen applied in the continuous flooding rice paddies. Under the water regime of F-D-F or the F-D-F-M, seasonal N2O emissions increased with N fertilizer applied in rice paddies. Applying an Ordinary Least Square (OLS) linear regression model resulted in an emission factor of 0.42% for N2O, and in unpronounced background N2 O emission under the water regime of F-D-F. Under the F-D-F-M water regime, N2O emission factor and N2O-N background emission were estimated to be 0.73% and 0.79 kg x hm(-2) during the paddy rice growing season, respectively. After considering three different water regimes in rice paddies in China, the emission factor of N for N2O and N2O-N background emission averaged 0.54% and 0.43 kg x hm(-2). The results of this study suggest that paddy rice relative to upland crop production could have contributed to mitigating N2O emissions from agriculture in China. The emission factor of N for N2O and its background emissions can be directly adopted to develop

  8. Metal contamination of soil and translocation in vegetables growing under industrial wastewater irrigated agricultural field of Vadodara, Gujarat, India.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, K K; Singh, N K; Patel, M P; Tiwari, M R; Rai, U N

    2011-09-01

    The present investigation was carried out to evaluate metals concentration in ten vegetable crops growing in mixed industrial effluent irrigated agricultural field near Vadodara, Gujarat, India. Differential accumulation and translocation of various metals in selected vegetables plant species was observed. A higher concentration of metals were found in order of Fe>Mn>Zn>Cd>Cu>Pb>Cr>As in soil irrigated with industrial effluent than soil irrigated with tube well water; however, the concentration of As, Cr and Pb found below detection limit in tube well water irrigated soil. Metal accumulation in root and top of vegetables varied significantly both in relations to metal concentration in the soil and the plant genotype. Among ten vegetable species studied five vegetable species, i.e. Spinach, Radish, Tomato, Chili and Cabbage growing in mixed industrial effluent irrigated agricultural field showed high accumulation and translocation of toxic metals (As, Cd, Cr, Pb and Ni) in their edible parts, thus, their cultivation are unsafe with respect to possible transfer in food chain and health hazards. However, it is suggested that vegetable crops restricting toxic metal in non-edible port may be recommended for cultivation in such metal contaminated agricultural field. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. The status of health communication: education and employment outlook for a growing field.

    PubMed

    McKeever, Brooke Weberling

    2014-12-01

    Using an online survey of health communication practitioners and academics (N = 372), this study investigates the educational background (degrees, knowledge, skills, and coursework) perceived to be important for employment in health communication. It provides an update on what may be needed in terms of graduate education, as well as which areas may be emerging as most important in the field. The purpose is to inform students, educators, administrators, and practitioners about the current status and possible future trends in health communication education and practice.

  10. Online computing of non-stationary distributions velocity fields by an accuracy controlled growing neural gas.

    PubMed

    Frezza-Buet, Hervé

    2014-12-01

    This paper presents a vector quantization process that can be applied online to a stream of inputs. It enables to set up and maintain a dynamical representation of the current information in the stream as a topology preserving graph of prototypical values, as well as a velocity field. The algorithm relies on the formulation of the accuracy of the quantization process, that allows for both the updating of the number of prototypes according to the stream evolution and the stabilization of the representation from which velocities can be extracted. A video processing application is presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Selected Water-Quality Data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids Well Fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 1999-2005

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.; Schnoebelen, Douglas J.

    2010-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer at approximately 40 to 80 feet deep. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality near the well fields since 1992. Previous cooperative studies between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, evaluation of surface and ground-water interaction, assessment of pesticides in groundwater and surface water, and to evaluate water quality near a wetland area in the Seminole well field. Typical water-quality analyses included major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. In addition, two synoptic samplings included analyses of additional pesticide degradates in water samples. Physical field parameters (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were recorded with each water sample collected. This report presents the results of water quality data-collection activities from January 1999 through December 2005. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance samples, water-quality analyses, and statistical summaries are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly and synoptic sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  12. Selected water-quality data from the Cedar River and Cedar Rapids well fields, Cedar Rapids, Iowa, 2006-10

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Littin, Gregory R.

    2012-01-01

    The Cedar River alluvial aquifer is the primary source of municipal water in the Cedar Rapids, Iowa area. Municipal wells are completed in the alluvial aquifer approximately 40 to 80 feet below land surface. The City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have been conducting a cooperative study of the groundwater-flow system and water quality of the aquifer since 1992. Cooperative reports between the City of Cedar Rapids and the U.S. Geological Survey have documented hydrologic and water-quality data, geochemistry, and groundwater models. Water-quality samples were collected for studies involving well field monitoring, trends, source-water protection, groundwater geochemistry, surface-water-groundwater interaction, and pesticides in groundwater and surface water. Water-quality analyses were conducted for major ions (boron, bromide, calcium, chloride, fluoride, iron, magnesium, manganese, potassium, silica, sodium, and sulfate), nutrients (ammonia as nitrogen, nitrite as nitrogen, nitrite plus nitrate as nitrogen, and orthophosphate as phosphorus), dissolved organic carbon, and selected pesticides including two degradates of the herbicide atrazine. Physical characteristics (alkalinity, dissolved oxygen, pH, specific conductance and water temperature) were measured in the field and recorded for each water sample collected. This report presents the results of routine water-quality data-collection activities from January 2006 through December 2010. Methods of data collection, quality-assurance, and water-quality analyses are presented. Data include the results of water-quality analyses from quarterly sampling from monitoring wells, municipal wells, and the Cedar River.

  13. Suites of root traits differ between annual and perennial species growing in the field.

    PubMed

    Roumet, Catherine; Urcelay, Carlos; Díaz, Sandra

    2006-01-01

    Here, we tested whether root traits associated with resource acquisition and conservation differed between life histories (annuals, perennials) and families (Fabaceae, Asteraceae and Poaceae). Root topology, morphology, chemistry and mycorrhizal colonization were measured on whole root systems of 18 field-grown herbaceous species grown and harvested in central Argentina. Annuals differed from perennials in several root traits important in resource uptake and conservation. They exhibited higher specific root length (SRL), root nitrogen concentration (RNC) and mycorrhizal colonization but had lower root tissue density (RTD) than perennials. They did not differ in topology or construction cost. These differences were consistent among families. Families differed only in a few root traits known to be strongly associated with certain lineages such as topology and nitrogen concentration. There was a strong parallel between root traits and analogous leaf traits described in the literature for annuals and perennials. Our results suggest the existence at the root level of an acquisitive vs conservative syndrome consistent among families similar to that previously reported for above-ground traits.

  14. Effects of exposure to electromagnetic field (1.8/0.9 GHz) on testicular function and structure in growing rats.

    PubMed

    Ozlem Nisbet, H; Nisbet, Cevat; Akar, Aysegul; Cevik, Mesut; Karayigit, M Onder

    2012-10-01

    The aim of our study was to evaluate the possible effects of whole-body electromagnetic field (EMF) exposure on reproduction in growing male rats. Male albino Wistar rats (2 days old) were exposed to EMF 1800 and 900 MHz for 2 h continuously per day for 90 days. Sham control was kept under similar conditions except that the field was not applied for the same period. After blood samples were collected, the animals were sacrificed 24 h after the last exposure and the tissues of interest were harvested. The mean plasma total testosterone showed similarity among the two study groups and was significantly higher than the sham control rats. The percentage of epididymal sperm motility was significantly higher in the 1800 MHz group (P<0.05). The morphologically normal spermatozoa rates were higher and the tail abnormality and total percentage abnormalities were lower in the 900 MHz group (P<0.05). Histopathologic parameters in the 1800 MHz group were significantly higher (P<0.05). In conclusion, the present study indicated that exposure to electromagnetic wave caused an increase in testosterone level, epididymal sperm motility (forward), and normal sperm morphology of rats. As a consequences, 1800 and 900 MHz EMF could be considered to be a cause of precocious puberty in growing rats.

  15. Routine Use of PCR–Reverse Cross-Blot Hybridization Assay for Rapid Identification of Mycobacterium Species Growing in Liquid Media

    PubMed Central

    Sanguinetti, M.; Posteraro, B.; Ardito, F.; Zanetti, S.; Cingolani, A.; Sechi, L.; De Luca, A.; Ortona, L.; Fadda, G.

    1998-01-01

    A PCR–reverse cross-blot hybridization assay procedure that is able to rapidly identify 13 species of clinically relevant mycobacteria was evaluated for routine use in the identification of acid-fast isolates growing in BACTEC 460 TB (12B and 13A) and BACTEC 9000 MB (Myco/F) liquid media. Eight of the probes used were already described by Kox et al. (L. F. F. Kox et al., J. Clin. Microbiol. 33:3225–3233, 1995). In addition, we used six other probes specific for M. chelonae, M. malmoense or M. szulgai, M. genavense, M. gordonae, M. terrae, and M. marinum/M. ulcerans that we designed ourselves. This procedure allowed us to identify 459 mycobacterial species directly from broth cultures of 5,466 clinical samples collected over 1 year and processed with the radiometric or nonradiometric BACTEC system. Our results were in agreement with those obtained by conventional identification methods and also with those obtained by mycolic acid analysis by high-performance liquid chromatography. This assay seems to be a reliable procedure for the routine identification of mycobacteria, providing an accurate identification of mycobacterial isolates more rapidly than conventional tests, with remarkable implications for an efficacious specific antimycobacterial therapy. PMID:9620371

  16. Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber Security in the Navy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    Both the DSB and the Secretary of Defense have advocated continuous and auto - matic IT testing, which requires dedicated facilities (OSD, 2010, p. 10... money ” issues are also problematic for rapid acquisition programs. These 26 Rapid Acquisition and Fielding for Information Assurance and Cyber... money needs to be moved. There has been pushback from traditional stakeholders when funding is redirected to fulfill urgent needs (i.e., “robbing

  17. Interannual Variability in Growing Season Carbon Budget at a Customarily Cultivated Rice Paddy Field in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, M.; Miyata, A.; Nagai, H.; Yamada, T.; Ono, K.; Han, G.; Yoshikoshi, H.; Saito, M.

    2004-12-01

    Rice paddy fields in eastern Asian countries are irrigated during most of the growing season. Since flooded paddy fields are favorable for methanogenesis, it is necessary to measure both carbon dioxide flux and methane flux in order to estimate carbon budget of the paddy fields. As one of AsiaFlux network sites we continue long-term measurements of carbon dioxide and methane fluxes at a customarily cultivated paddy field in central Japan. At the study site rice is transplanted in early May and harvested in early or middle September. We are measuring carbon dioxide flux by the eddy covariance method and methane flux by the gradient method. In 2003 we had the coolest summer in these 10 years, while the 2004 summer was the third warmest since 1946: Air temperatures averaged from June to August in 2003 and 2004 were 0.6 ° C below and 1.3 ° C above the 30-year average, respectively. Carbon dioxide flux showed distinct seasonal variation with rice growth. In 2004, net daily carbon dioxide uptake by the ecosystem became obvious in late May, increased to the maximum daily uptake of 11 gC m-2 d-1 in July, and then decreased to nearly zero at the end of August. In 2003, carbon dioxide uptake showed temporary decrease in mid-growing season because of small amount of solar radiation and low temperature. The sum of carbon dioxide uptake by the ecosystem from the transplanting to the end of August was 443 gC m-2 in 2003, and 553 gC m-2 in 2004. Methane emission in 2004 started a month after transplanting, increased gradually and reached midsummer peak of 331 mgC m-2 d-1 in late July with a flush of methane at the final drainage. The seasonal variation of methane flux in 2003 was generally similar to that in 2004, but flushes of methane at midsummer drainages as well as final drainage were observed more distinctly than in 2004. Despite small amount of methane flushes, seasonal methane emission in 2004 was greater than that in 2003 by 2 gC m-2. Higher soil temperature and larger

  18. Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Guidelines for growing perennial grasses for biofuel and bioproducts Rob Mitchell Abstract: Switchgrass, big bluestem, and warm-season grass mixtures provide numerous benefits. Existing field equipment, herbicides, and cultivar improvement promote rapid establishment in the planting year. These gra...

  19. Total dural irradiation: RapidArc versus static-field IMRT: A case study

    SciTech Connect

    Kelly, Paul J.

    2012-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare conventional fixed-gantry angle intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) with RapidArc for total dural irradiation. We also hypothesize that target volume-individualized collimator angles may produce substantial normal tissue sparing when planning with RapidArc. Five-, 7-, and 9-field fixed-gantry angle sliding-window IMRT plans were generated for comparison with RapidArc plans. Optimization and normal tissue constraints were constant for all plans. All plans were normalized so that 95% of the planning target volume (PTV) received at least 100% of the dose. RapidArc was delivered using 350 Degree-Sign clockwise and counterclockwise arcs. Conventional collimator angles of 45 Degree-Sign and 315 Degree-Sign were compared with 90 Degree-Sign on both arcs. Dose prescription was 59.4 Gy in 33 fractions. PTV metrics used for comparison were coverage, V{sub 107}%, D1%, conformality index (CI{sub 95}%), and heterogeneity index (D{sub 5}%-D{sub 95}%). Brain dose, the main challenge of this case, was compared using D{sub 1}%, Dmean, and V{sub 5} Gy. Dose to optic chiasm, optic nerves, globes, and lenses was also compared. The use of unconventional collimator angles (90 Degree-Sign on both arcs) substantially reduced dose to normal brain. All plans achieved acceptable target coverage. Homogeneity was similar for RapidArc and 9-field IMRT plans. However, heterogeneity increased with decreasing number of IMRT fields, resulting in unacceptable hotspots within the brain. Conformality was marginally better with RapidArc relative to IMRT. Low dose to brain, as indicated by V5Gy, was comparable in all plans. Doses to organs at risk (OARs) showed no clinically meaningful differences. The number of monitor units was lower and delivery time was reduced with RapidArc. The case-individualized RapidArc plan compared favorably with the 9-field conventional IMRT plan. In view of lower monitor unit requirements and shorter delivery time, Rapid

  20. A Portable Kit for Rapid Diagnosis of Infectious Diseases under Field Conditions

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1980-08-14

    A PORTABLE KIT FOR RAPID~ DIAGNOSIS OF INFECTIOUS DISEASES UNDER FIELD CONDITIONS W. R. SANBORN REPORT NO. 80-22 ELECT o JUL 198 ~SA NAV) AL HEALTH ...DIAGNOSIS of INFECTIOUS DISEASES under FIELD CONDITIONS I / Warren R. Sanborn Head, Microbiology Branch Biological Sciences Division Naval Health ...formation. Blood and stool examinations for parasites require a microscope, I as do examinations for certain superficial mycoses . The McArthur microscope

  1. A field-deployable device for the rapid detection of cyanide poisoning in whole blood

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Boehringer, Hans; Tong, Winnie; Chung, Roy; Boss, Gerry; O'Farrell, Brendan

    2012-06-01

    Feasibility of a field-deployable device for the rapid and early diagnosis of cyanide poisoning in whole blood using the spectral shift of the vitamin B12 precursor cobinamide upon binding with cyanide as an indicator is being assessed. Cyanide is an extremely potent and rapid acting poison with as little as 50 mg fatal to humans. Cyanide poisoning has been recognized as a threat from smoke inhalation and potentially through weapons of mass destruction. Currently, no portable rapid tests for the detection of cyanide in whole blood are available. Cobinamide has an extremely high affinity for cyanide and captures hemoglobin associated cyanide from red blood cells. Upon binding of cyanide, cobinamide undergoes a spectral shift that can be measured with a spectrophotometer. We have combined the unique cyanide-binding properties of cobinamide with blood separation technology, sample transport and a detection system, and are developing a rapid, field deployable, disposable device which will deliver an intuitive result to a first responder, allowing for rapid response to exposure events. Feasibility of the cobinamide-Cyanide chemistry in a rapid test using a whole blood sample from a finger-stick has been demonstrated with an assay time from sample collection to a valid result of under 5 minutes. Data showing the efficacy of the diagnostic method and initial device design concepts will be shown.

  2. [Quantifying direct N2O emissions from paddy fields during rice growing season in China: model and input data validation].

    PubMed

    Zou, Jian-Wen; Liu, Shu-Wei; Qin, Yan-Mei; Feng, De-Sheng; Zhu, Hui-Lin; Xu, Yong-Zhong

    2009-04-15

    The models on direct N2O emissions from rice paddies under different water regimes developed by the authors were validated against field measurements in China reported in 2005-2007 and in other regions. In flooding rice paddies (F), N2O emission predicted by the model was consistent with previous reports in other regions. Under the water regime of flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding (F-D-F), the model developed in this study was comparable to that established by using worldwide database. The models also well fitted N2O emissions from rice paddies under the water regime of flooding-midseason drainage-reflooding-moisture but without waterlogging (F-D-F-M) in China. Consistency of rice production data derived from the database of this study with those reported in previous studies suggests that the model input data of rice production had high reliability. The input data showed that water management and nitrogen input regimes have greatly changed in rice paddies since the 1950s. During the 1950s-1970s, about 20%-25% of the rice paddy was continuous water logging, and 75%-80% under the water regime of F-D-F. Since the 1980s, about 12%-16%, 77% and 7%-12% of paddy fields were under the water regimes of F, F-D-F and F-D-F-M, respectively. Total N input during the rice growing season averaged 87.49 kg x hm(-2) in the 1950s and 224.64 kg x hm(-2) in the 1990s. Chemical N input during the rice growing season has increased from 37.4 kg x hm(-2) in the 1950s to 198.8 kg x hm(-2) in the 1990s, accounting for 43% and 88% of the seasonal total N inputs, respectively. Manure N input was applied at stable rate, ranging from 45.2 kg x hm(-2) to 48.2 kg x hm(-2) during the 1950s-1970s, but thereafter it decreased over time. The contribution of manure N to total N inputs has decreased from 52% in the 1950s to 9% in the 1990s. Crop residue N retained during the rice growing season has increased from 4.9 kg x hm(-2) in the 1950s to 6.3 kg x hm(-2) in the 1980s. A high spatial

  3. Rapid Field Measurement of Dissolved Inorganic Carbon Based on CO{sub 2} Analysis

    SciTech Connect

    VESPER, DJ, Edenborn, Harry

    2012-01-01

    Dissolved inorganic carbon (DIC) is commonly measured in water and is an important parameter for understanding carbonate equilibrium, carbon cycling, and water-rock interaction. While accurate measurements can be made in the analytical laboratory, we have developed a rapid, portable technique that can be used to obtain accurate and precise data in the field as well.

  4. Validation of the Puumala virus rapid field test for bank voles in Germany.

    PubMed

    Reil, D; Imholt, C; Rosenfeld, U M; Drewes, S; Fischer, S; Heuser, E; Petraityte-Burneikiene, R; Ulrich, R G; Jacob, J

    2017-02-01

    Puumala virus (PUUV) causes many human infections in large parts of Europe and can lead to mild to moderate disease. The bank vole (Myodes glareolus) is the only reservoir of PUUV in Central Europe. A commercial PUUV rapid field test for rodents was validated for bank-vole blood samples collected in two PUUV-endemic regions in Germany (North Rhine-Westphalia and Baden-Württemberg). A comparison of the results of the rapid field test and standard ELISAs indicated a test efficacy of 93-95%, largely independent of the origin of the antigens used in the ELISA. In ELISAs, reactivity for the German PUUV strain was higher compared to the Swedish strain but not compared to the Finnish strain, which was used for the rapid field test. In conclusion, the use of the rapid field test can facilitate short-term estimation of PUUV seroprevalence in bank-vole populations in Germany and can aid in assessing human PUUV infection risk.

  5. Photometric light curves for ten rapidly rotating stars in Alpha Persei, the Pleiades, and the field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Prosser, Charles F.; Schild, Rudolph E.; Stauffer, John R.; Jones, Burton F.

    1993-01-01

    We present the results from a photometric monitoring program of ten rapidly rotating stars observed during 1991 using the FLWO 48-in. telescope. Brightness variations for an additional six cluster stars observed with the Lick 40-in. telescope are also given. The periods and light curves for seven Alpha Persei members, two Pleiades members, and one naked T Tauri field star are reported.

  6. Rapid field assessment of RO desalination of brackish agricultural drainage water.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John; Rahardianto, Anditya; Gu, Han; Uchymiak, Michal; Bartman, Alex; Hedrick, Marcos; Lara, David; Cooper, Jim; Faria, Jose; Christofides, Panagiotis D; Cohen, Yoram

    2013-05-15

    Rapid field evaluation of RO feed filtration requirements, selection of effective antiscalant type and dose, and estimation of suitable scale-free RO recovery level were demonstrated using a novel approach based on direct observation of mineral scaling and flux decline measurements, utilizing an automated Membrane Monitor (MeMo). The MeMo, operated in a stand-alone single-pass desalting mode, enabled rapid assessment of the adequacy of feed filtration by enabling direct observation of particulate deposition on the membrane surface. The diagnostic field study with RO feed water of high mineral scaling propensity revealed (via direct MeMo observation) that suspended particulates (even for feed water of turbidity <1 NTU) could serve as seeds for promoting surface crystal nucleation. With feed filtration optimized, a suitable maximum RO water recovery, with complete mineral scale suppression facilitated by an effective antiscalant dose, can be systematically and directly identified (via MeMo) in the field for a given feed water quality. Scale-free operating conditions, determined via standalone MeMo rapid diagnostic tests, were shown to be applicable to spiral-would RO system as validated via both flux decline measurements and ex-situ RO plant membrane scale monitoring. It was shown that the present approach is suitable for rapid field assessment of RO operability and it is particularly advantageous when evaluating water sources of composition that may vary both temporally and across the regions of interest.

  7. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) anomalies are associated with lung disease due to rapidly growing mycobacteria and AAT inhibits Mycobacterium abscessus infection of macrophages.

    PubMed

    Chan, Edward D; Kaminska, Aleksandra M; Gill, Wendy; Chmura, Kathryn; Feldman, Nicole E; Bai, Xiyuan; Floyd, Corinne M; Fulton, Kayte E; Huitt, Gwen A; Strand, Matthew J; Iseman, Michael D; Shapiro, Leland

    2007-01-01

    Rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are ubiquitous in the environment but cause lung disease in only a fraction of exposed individuals. This variable susceptibility to disease implies vulnerability to RGM infection due to weakness in host defense. Since most persons who contract RGM lung disease have no known host defense defect, it is likely that uncharacterized host deficiencies exist that predispose to RGM infection. Alpha-1-antitrypsin (AAT) is a host factor that may protect individuals from respiratory infections. Therefore, we assessed AAT protein anomalies as a risk factor for RGM lung disease. In a cohort of 100 patients with RGM lung disease, Mycobacterium (M.) abscessus was the most prevalent organism, isolated in 64 (64%) subjects. Anomalous AAT proteins were present in 27% of the cohort, which is 1.6 times the estimated prevalence of anomalous AAT proteins in the United States population (p=0.008). In in vitro studies, both AAT and a synthetic inhibitor of serine proteases suppressed M. abscessus infection of monocyte-derived macrophages by up to 65% (p<0.01). AAT may be an anti-RGM host-defense factor, and anomalous AAT phenotypes or AAT deficiency may constitute risk factors for pulmonary disease due to RGM.

  8. A rapidly growing epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen treated by laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy: Report of a case.

    PubMed

    Kumamoto, Yusuke; Kaizu, Takashi; Tajima, Hiroshi; Kubo, Hidefumi; Nishiyama, Ryo; Watanabe, Masahiko

    2015-06-02

    Epidermoid cysts arising in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen are exceedingly rare, furthermore the natural course of them is hardly known. We report a case correctly diagnosed with epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen, followed by 1 year observation, finally underwent surgical treatment. The patient presented with diarrhea. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a pancreatic cyst 20 mm in diameter, surrounded by a solid component showing the same enhancement as the spleen, suggesting the presence of an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen. One year later, back discomfort developed, and a CT scan revealed that the cyst had grown to 38 mm in diameter. To obtain a definitive diagnosis, we performed a laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy. The histopathological diagnosis was compatible with an epidermoid cyst in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen, which is benign. The postoperative course was uneventful. This case demonstrates that an epidermoid cyst arising in an intrapancreatic accessory spleen can rapidly grow, even if it is benign. Laparoscopic spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy can be a useful procedure, with the advantages of low invasiveness and organ preservation, for the treatment of benign or low-grade malignant tumors located in the pancreatic body or tail.

  9. Growing trend of China's contribution to the field of spine: a 10-year survey of the literature.

    PubMed

    Jia, Zhi Wei; Wu, Yao Hong; Li, Hao; Li, Hai Feng; Zhao, Xi Yan; Tang, Yong; Yao, Cong Liang; Zhao, Ya Chao; Liu, Long Gang; Wang, De Li; He, Qing; Ruan, Di Ke

    2015-08-01

    China, as a rapidly developing country with the largest population including over 50,000 orthopaedic surgeons, has an increasing importance in the field of spine. However, the quantity and quality of research production in the field of spine in the major regions of China-Mainland China, Taiwan, and Hong Kong is unclear. This study aimed to investigate the contribution of China to the field of spine. Articles published in the 5 major spine journals originating from Mainland China, Taiwan and Hong Kong in 2004-2013 were retrieved from the database of Web of Science. The number of articles, impact factors, citations, article type, city, institution, funding source and conflict of interest were analyzed. There were 1006 publications in the 5 spine journals between 2004 and 2013 from China, including 706 from Mainland China, 210 from Taiwan, and 90 from Hong Kong. The time trend of the number of articles from these three regions showed a significant increase of 8.74-fold (from 23 to 201) between 2004 and 2013 (p = 0.000). From 2006, the number of publications from Mainland China exceeded Taiwan and Hong Kong. Mainland China had the highest total impact factors (1686.54) and total citations (4214), followed by Taiwan (498.93; 2009) and Hong Kong (222.89; 1311). Hong Kong had the highest mean impact factor (2.48) and mean citations (14.46), followed by Mainland China (2.40; 10.26) and Taiwan (2.38; 10.14). The journal Spine published the largest number of articles (470), followed by European Spine Journal (268). Chinese contributions to the field of spine have a significant increase during the past 10 years, particularly from Mainland China. Hong Kong had the highest quality research output in terms of mean impact factor and mean citation per article.

  10. Standing Helicon Wave Induced by a Rapidly Bent Magnetic Field in Plasmas.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takayama, Sho; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira

    2016-04-01

    An electron energy probability function and a rf magnetic field are measured in a rf hydrogen helicon source, where axial and transverse static magnetic fields are applied to the source by solenoids and to the diffusion chamber by filter magnets, respectively. It is demonstrated that the helicon wave is reflected by the rapidly bent magnetic field and the resultant standing wave heats the electrons between the source and the magnetic filter, while the electron cooling effect by the magnetic filter is maintained. It is interpreted that the standing wave is generated by the presence of a spatially localized change of a refractive index.

  11. Use of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy for the rapid determination of the digestible energy and metabolizable energy content of corn fed to growing pigs.

    PubMed

    Li, Juntao; Li, Quanfeng; Li, Defa; Chen, Yiqiang; Wang, Xiaoxiao; Yang, Wunjun; Zhang, Liying

    2016-01-01

    The ability of near-infrared reflectance spectroscopy (NIRS) to determine the digestible energy (DE) and metabolizable energy (ME) content of corn fed to growing pigs was tested. One hundred and seventeen corn samples, comprising different planting regions and varieties were collected from all over China in a three-year period. The samples were randomly split into a calibration set (n = 88) and a validation set (n = 29). The actual and calculated DE and ME content of the corn samples was determined by digestion-metabolism experiments and the prediction equations of Noblet and Perez (J Anim Sci. 71:3389-98,1993). The samples were then subjected to NIRS scanning and calibrations were performed by the modified partial least square (MPLS) regression method based on 77 different spectral pre-treatments. The NIRS equations based on the actually determined and calculated DE and ME were built separately and then validated using validation samples. The NIRS equations obtained from actually determined DE, the coefficient of determination for calibration (RSQcal), cross-validation (R(2) CV), and validation (RSQv) were 0.89, 0.87 and 0.86, and these values for determined ME were 0.87, 0.86 and 0.86. For the NIRS equations built from calculated DE, the RSQcal, R(2) CV, and RSQv values were 0.88, 0.85 and 0.84, and these values for calculated ME were 0.86, 0.84 and 0.82. Except for the equation based on calculated ME (RPDv = 2.38, < 2.50), the other three equations built from actually determined energy and calculated DE produced good prediction performance (RPDv ranging from 2.53 to 2.69, > 2.50) when applied to validation samples. These results indicate that NIRS can be used as a quantitative method for the rapid determination of the available energy in corn fed to growing pigs, and the NIRS equations based on the actually determined energy produced better predictive performance than those built from calculated energy values.

  12. Strong Peak Electric Field in Streamer Discharges Caused by Rapid Changes in the External Electric Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ihaddadene, K. M. A.; Celestin, S. J.

    2015-12-01

    Laboratory spark discharges in air and lightning stepped leaders produce X-rays [e.g., Dwyer et al., GRL, 32, L20809, 2005; Nguyen et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 41, 234012, 2008; Rahman et al., GRL, 35, L06805, 2008; March and Montanyà, GRL, 37, L19801, 2010; 38, L04803, 2011; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl., 45, 425202, 2012; 48, 025205, 2015]. However, the processes behind the production of these X-rays are still not fully understood. Recently, the encounter between negative and positive streamers has been suggested as a plausible mechanism for the production of X-rays by spark discharges [Cooray et al., JASTP, 71, 1890, 2009; Kochkin et al., J. Phys. D: Appl. Phys., 45, 425202, 2012], but the increase of the electric field involved in this process is accompanied by a strong increase of the conductivity, which in turn makes this electric field collapse over a few tens of picoseconds, preventing the production of significant X-ray emissions [Ihaddadene and Celestin, GRL, 45, 5644, 2015]. Moreover, it has been reported that X-ray emission in laboratory spark discharges is influenced by the time derivative of the applied voltage [March and Montanya, GRL, 37, L19801, 2010]. Additionally, Celestin and Pasko [JGR, 116, A03315, 2011, Section 3.3] have indicated that quickly increasing applied voltages had an impact on peak electric fields in streamer numerical models. In this work, we simulate numerically the effect of impulsive applied electric fields on the dynamics of streamer discharges in air at ground level and investigate conditions under which production of thermal runaway electrons and the associated X-rays is possible.

  13. Rapid Transition of the Hole Rashba Effect from Strong Field Dependence to Saturation in Semiconductor Nanowires

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luo, Jun-Wei; Li, Shu-Shen; Zunger, Alex

    2017-09-01

    The electric field manipulation of the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effects provides a route to electrically control spins, constituting the foundation of the field of semiconductor spintronics. In general, the strength of the Rashba effects depends linearly on the applied electric field and is significant only for heavy-atom materials with large intrinsic spin-orbit interaction under high electric fields. Here, we illustrate in 1D semiconductor nanowires an anomalous field dependence of the hole (but not electron) Rashba effect (HRE). (i) At low fields, the strength of the HRE exhibits a steep increase with the field so that even low fields can be used for device switching. (ii) At higher fields, the HRE undergoes a rapid transition to saturation with a giant strength even for light-atom materials such as Si (exceeding 100 meV Å). (iii) The nanowire-size dependence of the saturation HRE is rather weak for light-atom Si, so size fluctuations would have a limited effect; this is a key requirement for scalability of Rashba-field-based spintronic devices. These three features offer Si nanowires as a promising platform for the realization of scalable complementary metal-oxide-semiconductor compatible spintronic devices.

  14. Point-of-use membrane filtration and hyperchlorination to prevent patient exposure to rapidly growing mycobacteria in the potable water supply of a skilled nursing facility.

    PubMed

    Williams, Margaret M; Chen, Tai-Ho; Keane, Tim; Toney, Nadege; Toney, Sean; Armbruster, Catherine R; Butler, W Ray; Arduino, Matthew J

    2011-09-01

    Healthcare-associated outbreaks and pseudo-outbreaks of rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) are frequently associated with contaminated tap water. A pseudo-outbreak of Mycobacterium chelonae-M. abscessus in patients undergoing bronchoscopy was identified by 2 acute care hospitals. RGM was identified in bronchoscopy specimens of 28 patients, 25 of whom resided in the same skilled nursing facility (SNF). An investigation ruled out bronchoscopy procedures, specimen collection, and scope reprocessing at the hospitals as sources of transmission. To identify the reservoir for RGM within the SNF and evaluate 2 water system treatments, hyperchlorination and point-of-use (POU) membrane filters, to reduce RGM. A comparative in situ study of 2 water system treatments to prevent RGM transmission. An SNF specializing in care of patients requiring ventilator support. RGM and heterotrophic plate count (HPC) bacteria were examined in facility water before and after hyperchlorination and in a subsequent 24-week assessment of filtered water by colony enumeration on Middlebrook and R2A media. Mycobacterium chelonae was consistently isolated from the SNF water supply. Hyperchlorination reduced RGM by 1.5 log(10) initially, but the population returned to original levels within 90 days. Concentration of HPC bacteria also decreased temporarily. RGM were reduced below detection level in filtered water, a 3-log(10) reduction. HPC bacteria were not recovered from newly installed filters, although low quantities were found in water from 2-week-old filters. POU membrane filters may be a feasible prevention measure for healthcare facilities to limit exposure of sensitive individuals to RGM in potable water systems.

  15. Diversity, Community Composition, and Dynamics of Nonpigmented and Late-Pigmenting Rapidly Growing Mycobacteria in an Urban Tap Water Production and Distribution System

    PubMed Central

    Dubrou, S.; Konjek, J.; Macheras, E.; Welté, B.; Guidicelli, L.; Chignon, E.; Joyeux, M.; Gaillard, J. L.; Heym, B.; Tully, T.

    2013-01-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network. PMID:23835173

  16. In vitro interaction of some drug combinations to inhibit rapidly growing mycobacteria isolates from cats and dogs and these isolates' susceptibility to cefovecin and clofazimine.

    PubMed

    Bennie, C J M; To, J L K; Martin, P A; Govendir, M

    2015-01-01

    To investigate whether selected drug combinations used to treat rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have drug-drug interactions that affect efficacy and to investigate each isolate's susceptibility to cefovecin and clofazimine, individually. In vitro susceptibility testing of bacterial isolates. Initially, five feline isolates and one canine isolate from both Mycobacterium fortuitum and M. smegmatis clusters (n = 12) underwent microbroth susceptibility testing to individual drugs to establish minimum inhibitory concentrations (MIC) of cefovecin, ciprofloxacin, clarithromycin, clofazimine, doxycycline, enrofloxacin, trimethoprim and sulfanilamide (the latter two as a combination). Checkerboard assays were then performed for susceptible M. smegmatis isolates for the following combinations: clarithromycin (one isolate only) versus enrofloxacin, clarithromycin vs doxycycline, clarithromycin vs trimethoprim/sulfanilamide; enrofloxacin vs doxycycline (six isolates); enrofloxacin vs trimethoprim/sulfanilamide (six isolates). Susceptible M. fortuitum isolates were tested against enrofloxacin versus doxycycline (four isolates only). All six M. fortuitum isolates were susceptible to enrofloxacin, but only four of six were susceptible to doxycycline. All six M. smegmatis isolates were susceptible to doxycycline, enrofloxacin and trimethoprim/sulfanilamide. A single isolate from the 12, a M. smegmatis isolate, was susceptible to clarithromycin. The fractional inhibitory concentration of each drug ranged from 0.64 to 1.84, indicating that neither synergism nor antagonism was evident. All 12 isolates were resistant to cefovecin. The clofazimine MIC50 to inhibit isolate growth was approximately 3.3 μg/mL for both strains. Drugs commonly used for treatment of RGM, when tested as combinations, do not appear to antagonise one another in vitro. Cefovecin is not efficacious for treatment of RGM infections. © 2015 Australian Veterinary Association.

  17. Diversity, community composition, and dynamics of nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria in an urban tap water production and distribution system.

    PubMed

    Dubrou, S; Konjek, J; Macheras, E; Welté, B; Guidicelli, L; Chignon, E; Joyeux, M; Gaillard, J L; Heym, B; Tully, T; Sapriel, G

    2013-09-01

    Nonpigmented and late-pigmenting rapidly growing mycobacteria (RGM) have been reported to commonly colonize water production and distribution systems. However, there is little information about the nature and distribution of RGM species within the different parts of such complex networks or about their clustering into specific RGM species communities. We conducted a large-scale survey between 2007 and 2009 in the Parisian urban tap water production and distribution system. We analyzed 1,418 water samples from 36 sites, covering all production units, water storage tanks, and distribution units; RGM isolates were identified by using rpoB gene sequencing. We detected 18 RGM species and putative new species, with most isolates being Mycobacterium chelonae and Mycobacterium llatzerense. Using hierarchical clustering and principal-component analysis, we found that RGM were organized into various communities correlating with water origin (groundwater or surface water) and location within the distribution network. Water treatment plants were more specifically associated with species of the Mycobacterium septicum group. On average, M. chelonae dominated network sites fed by surface water, and M. llatzerense dominated those fed by groundwater. Overall, the M. chelonae prevalence index increased along the distribution network and was associated with a correlative decrease in the prevalence index of M. llatzerense, suggesting competitive or niche exclusion between these two dominant species. Our data describe the great diversity and complexity of RGM species living in the interconnected environments that constitute the water production and distribution system of a large city and highlight the prevalence index of the potentially pathogenic species M. chelonae in the distribution network.

  18. Rapidly Rotating, X-Ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Mason, Elena; Boyd, Patricia; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2016-01-01

    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type F-K, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, which are evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  19. Rapidly Rotating, X-Ray Bright Stars in the Kepler Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Howell, Steve B.; Mason, Elena; Boyd, Patricia; Smith, Krista Lynne; Gelino, Dawn M.

    2016-11-01

    We present Kepler light curves and optical spectroscopy of twenty X-ray bright stars located in the Kepler field of view. The stars, spectral type F-K, show evidence for rapid rotation including chromospheric activity 100 times or more above the Sun at maximum and flaring behavior in their light curves. Eighteen of our objects appear to be (sub)giants and may belong to the class of FK Com variables, which are evolved rapidly spinning single stars with no excretion disk and high levels of chromospheric activity. Such stars are rare and are likely the result of W UMa binary mergers, a process believed to produce the FK Com class of variable and their descendants. The FK Com stage, including the presence of an excretion disk, is short lived but leads to longer-lived stages consisting of single, rapidly rotating evolved (sub)giants with high levels of stellar activity.

  20. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV)

    PubMed Central

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M.; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A. S.

    2017-01-01

    Background White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Methods/Principal Findings Here, we report on the development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) employing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against VP28 (envelope protein of WSSV). The LFIA detected WSSV in ~20 min and showed no cross-reactivity with other shrimp viruses, viz. Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHHNV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay, as determined by real-time PCR, was 103 copies of WSSV. In a time course infectivity experiment, ~104 WSSV particles were injected in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LFIA could rapidly (~ 20 min) detect the virus in different tissues after 3 h (hemolymph), 6 h (gill tissue) and 12 h (head soft tissue, eye stalk, and pleopod) of infection. Based on these findings, a validation study was performed using 75 field samples collected from different geographical locations in India. The LFIA results obtained were compared with the conventional “gold standard test”, viz. one-step PCR. The analysis of results in 2x2 matrix indicated very high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.77%) of LFIA. Similarly, Cohen’s kappa coefficient of 0.983 suggested "very good agreement” between the developed LFIA and the conventional one-step PCR. Conclusion The LFIA developed for the rapid detection of WSSV has an excellent potential for use in the field and could prove to be a boon to the aquaculture industry. PMID:28046005

  1. Field-Usable Lateral Flow Immunoassay for the Rapid Detection of White Spot Syndrome Virus (WSSV).

    PubMed

    Kulabhusan, Prabir Kumar; Rajwade, Jyutika M; Sugumar, Vimal; Taju, Gani; Sahul Hameed, A S; Paknikar, Kishore M

    2017-01-01

    White spot disease (WSD), a major threat to sustainable aquaculture worldwide, is caused by White spot syndrome virus (WSSV). The diagnosis of WSD relies heavily on molecular detection of the virus by one-step PCR. These procedures are neither field-usable nor rapid enough considering the speed at which the virus spreads. Thus, development of a rapid, reliable and field-usable diagnostic method for the detection of WSSV infection is imperative to prevent huge economic losses. Here, we report on the development of a lateral flow immunoassay (LFIA) employing gold nanoparticles conjugated to a polyclonal antibody against VP28 (envelope protein of WSSV). The LFIA detected WSSV in ~20 min and showed no cross-reactivity with other shrimp viruses, viz. Monodon Baculovirus (MBV), Hepatopancreatic parvovirus (HPV) and Infectious Hypodermal and Hematopoietic Necrosis virus (IHHNV). The limit of detection (LOD) of the assay, as determined by real-time PCR, was 103 copies of WSSV. In a time course infectivity experiment, ~104 WSSV particles were injected in Litopenaeus vannamei. The LFIA could rapidly (~ 20 min) detect the virus in different tissues after 3 h (hemolymph), 6 h (gill tissue) and 12 h (head soft tissue, eye stalk, and pleopod) of infection. Based on these findings, a validation study was performed using 75 field samples collected from different geographical locations in India. The LFIA results obtained were compared with the conventional "gold standard test", viz. one-step PCR. The analysis of results in 2x2 matrix indicated very high sensitivity (100%) and specificity (96.77%) of LFIA. Similarly, Cohen's kappa coefficient of 0.983 suggested "very good agreement" between the developed LFIA and the conventional one-step PCR. The LFIA developed for the rapid detection of WSSV has an excellent potential for use in the field and could prove to be a boon to the aquaculture industry.

  2. Can Home Monitoring Allow Earlier Detection of Rapid Visual Field Progression in Glaucoma?

    PubMed

    Anderson, Andrew J; Bedggood, Phillip A; George Kong, Yu Xiang; Martin, Keith R; Vingrys, Algis J

    2017-07-29

    Recent developments in electronic technology are making it possible to home monitor the sensitivity of the central visual field using portable devices. We used simulations to investigate whether the higher test frequency afforded by home monitoring improves the early detection of rapid visual field loss in glaucoma and how any benefits might be affected by imperfect compliance or increased variability in the home-monitoring test. Computer simulation, with parameter selection confirmed with a cohort study. A total of 43 patients with treated glaucoma (both open-angle and closed-angle), ocular hypertension or glaucoma suspects (mean age, 71 years; range, 37-89 years), were followed in the cohort study. We simulated series (n = 100 000) of visual fields for patients with stable glaucoma and patients with progressing glaucoma for 2 in-clinic (yearly and 6-monthly) and 3 home-monitoring (monthly, fortnightly, and weekly) schedules, each running over a 5-year period. Various percentages of home-monitored fields were omitted at random to simulate reduced compliance, and the variability of the home monitored fields also was manipulated. We used previously published variability characteristics for perimetry and confirmed their appropriateness for a home-monitoring device by measuring the device's retest variability at 2 months in a cohort of 43 patients. The criterion for flagging progression in our simulation was a significant slope of the ordinary least squares regression of a simulated patient's mean deviation (MD) data. The sensitivity for identifying rapid visual field loss (-2 decibels [dB]/year loss of MD). Although a sensitivity of 0.8 for rapid field loss was achieved after 2.5 years of 6-monthly testing in the clinic, weekly home monitoring achieved this by 0.9 years despite moderate test compliance of 63%. The improved performance of weekly home monitoring over 6-monthly clinical testing was retained even when home monitoring was assumed to produce more

  3. Microwave Field Strength Measurement in a Rubidium Clock Cavity via Adiabatic Rapid Passage.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-09-26

    ber) Adiabatic rapid passage Atomic clocks * Microwave field strength AftFR7 ACT (Confna On r’ee side yf "*"myr a"d UeIIIIIIIIr blocek ember) Ridium...7 RD-A57 79 MICROWAE IELD STRENGTH MESUREMENT IN A RUBIDIUM / CLOCK CAVITY VIA ADIAB..(U) AEROSPACE CORP EL SEGUNDO CR CHEMISTRYAND PHYSICSLAB R P...OF STANOARLS-1963-A 9% % % -w-- w-- €,, .6 . k, . . . •i •• -• 0Microwave Field Strength Measurement N in a Rubidium Clock Cavity via 12 Adiabatic

  4. Rapid adhesive bonding concepts for specimen and panel fabrication and field repair

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Stein, B. A.; Hodges, W. T.

    1984-01-01

    The NASA Langley Research Center has developed bonding concepts for aerospace composite materials which employ induction heating to directly apply heat to the bond line and/or adherends without simultaneously heating the entire structure, supports, and fixtures of a bonding assembly. These methods have demonstrated bonding process time reductions of two to three orders of magnitude, by comparison with conventional press molding. Attention is presently given to rapid adhesive bonding for lap shear specimens for aerospace panel bonding or field repair, as well as for the field repair requirements of metallic and advanced polymeric matrix composite structures.

  5. Rapid Changes of Photospheric Magnetic Field after Tether-cutting Reconnection and Magnetic Implosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Chang; Deng, N.; Liu, R.; Lee, J.; Wiegelmann, T.; Jing, J.; Xu, Y.; Wang, S.; Wang, H.

    2012-05-01

    A rapid and persistent change of the photospheric magnetic field co-temporal with the impulsive phase of solar flare emissions has been recognized as an important element of the flare process from both observational and theoretical points of view. Using the state-of-the-art photospheric vector magnetograms acquired by HMI and Hinode, we have studied such a change associated with the 2011 February 13 M6.6 flare in NOAA AR 11158. Our aim is not only to identify the field change but also to understand it in the context of magnetic reconnection involved with the flare. In our analysis, (1) the rapid change is detected in a compact region lying at the central neutral line, where the mean horizontal field strength increased significantly by 28% in 30 minutes. The field also becomes more sheared and inclined to the surface. (2) Sunspot umbrae with opposite polarity lying on the two sides of the compact region experienced sudden perturbations, moving in opposite directions at an apparent velocity of 3 km/s against the long-term evolution. (3) The field variation induces a downward Lorentz-force change acting on the compact region and two opposite horizontal components of the Lorentz-force change consistent with the sunspot motions. (4) Four conspicuous UV flare kernels appear at the event onset and are linked to ribbon-like hard X-ray emissions in the impulsive phase. The compact region lies between the central two kernels that are co-spatial with the central feet of the sigmoid according to the nonlinear force-free field (NLFFF) model. (5) The NLFFF model further shows that strong coronal currents are concentrated immediately above the compact region and undergo apparent downward collapse after the sigmoid eruption. These results are discussed in favor of both the tether-cutting reconnection producing the flare and the ensuing implosion (collapse) of the coronal field resulting from the energy release.

  6. Flood hazard and a rapidly growing capital in the floodplain: Social response on major 18th-century Danube floods in Pest (East-Budapest)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiss, Andrea

    2014-05-01

    Due to its floodplain location, Pest was especially prone to damages caused by great flood events. Before water regulation works, the greatest flood events, and the highest rate of destruction occurred during ice jam floods. Whereas in the first half of the 18th century Pest is restricted to the medieval downtown located on a higher terrain (Danube terrace), from the mid 18th century onwards the rapidly growing population established suburbs around the downtown in the lower-lying flood plain. Thus, while in the first half of the century floods were more dangerous for the harvest in the agricultural lands, in the second half of the century at the same place suburbs, urban areas with thousands of inhabitants were prone to the same danger. In the first half of the century at least three particularly large flood events, in 1712, 1732 and 1744, caused increasing problems in the close vicinity of the town (and its lands), the second half of the century - as part of a climatic anomaly (Maldá) famous of its weather extremes - was characterised by two extreme (in 1775 and 1799), at least two larger (1789 and 1795) and some more, medium-sized ice jam floods. While in terms of damaged houses the loss was only some dozens in the early part of the century, several hundreds of houses - actually, complete suburbs were erased by floods in 1775 and 1799. In the poster presentation a series of known damaging 18th-century floods, occurred at Pest, is presented, the short-term impacts (e.g. damages), and medium-, long-term administrative responses as well as related long-term landscape changes influenced by floods and flood protection are discussed. Another important aim of the poster is to present the main reasons why in the 18th century these great ice jam floods caused much greater damages (e.g. percentage of collapsed houses in suburbs) in Pest protected by dams than, for example, in the Buda suburbs with no dams, partly also located in high flood-risk areas, in the immediate

  7. Standing helicon induced by a rapidly bent magnetic field in plasmas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Takahashi, Kazunori; Takayama, Sho; Komuro, Atsushi; Ando, Akira; Plasma physics Team

    2016-09-01

    An electron energy probability function and an rf magnetic field are measured in an rf hydrogen helicon source, where axial and transverse static magnetic fields are applied to the source by solenoids and to the diffusion chamber by filter magnets, respectively. It is demonstrated that the helicon wave is reflected by the rapidly bent magnetic field and the resultant standing wave heats the electrons between the source and the magnetic filter, while the electron cooling effect by the magnetic filter is maintained. It is interpreted that the standing wave is generated by the presence of spatially localized change of a refractive index. The application to the hydrogen negative ion source used for the neutral beam injection system for fusion plasma heating is discussed. This work is partially supported by grant-in-aid for scientific research (16H04084 and 26247096) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science.

  8. Rapid compensation of visual search strategy in patients with chronic visual field defects.

    PubMed

    Jacquin-Courtois, Sophie; Bays, Paul M; Salemme, Romeo; Leff, Alexander P; Husain, Masud

    2013-04-01

    The aim of this study was to test the effect and specificity of a novel, compensatory eye movement training therapy designed to improve visual search performance in patients with homonymous visual field defects. Seven patients with chronic homonymous visual field defects and six healthy control subjects were tested. All subjects completed the single training period (300 trials). Subjects were assessed on three different saccadic tasks (a visual search task, a rapid scanning task and a reading task) which were evaluated at three time points on the same day: two before and one after the training period. The computer-based training consisted of a novel ramp-step search paradigm that required subjects to pursue a stimulus (ramp phase) and then saccade to find its location when it suddenly jumped (step phase). Pre-therapy we confirmed that patients differed from controls on the visual search task. Post-training we demonstrated a clear improvement in terms of reaction time required to complete the visual search. This effect was confined to: (1) the patient group only; (2) targets presented to the blind visual field of the patients only; (3) the visual search task only and not the rapid scanning or reading task. These results demonstrate that rapid, compensatory changes can occur in patients with visual field defects that impact on their ability to carry out efficient visual search. We plan to translate this therapy, along with appropriate testing materials, in a free-to-use, internet-based application based on this intervention. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Are BVOC exchanges in agricultural ecosystems overestimated? Insights from fluxes measured in a maize field over a whole growing season

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bachy, Aurélie; Aubinet, Marc; Schoon, Niels; Amelynck, Crist; Bodson, Bernard; Moureaux, Christine; Heinesch, Bernard

    2016-04-01

    Maize is the most important C4 crop worldwide. It is also the second most important crop worldwide (C3 and C4 mixed), and is a dominant crop in some world regions. Therefore, it can potentially influence local climate and air quality through its exchanges of gases with the atmosphere. Among others, biogenic volatile organic compounds (BVOC) are known to influence the atmospheric composition and thereby modify greenhouse gases lifetime and pollutant formation in the atmosphere. However, so far, only two studies have dealt with BVOC exchanges from maize. Moreover, these studies were conducted on a limited range of meteorological and phenological conditions, so that the knowledge of BVOC exchanges by this crop remains poor. Here, we present the first BVOC measurement campaign performed at ecosystem-scale on a maize field during a whole growing season. It was carried out in the Lonzée Terrestrial Observatory (LTO), an ICOS site. BVOC fluxes were measured by the disjunct by mass-scanning eddy covariance technique with a proton transfer reaction mass spectrometer for BVOC mixing ratios measurements. Outstanding results are (i) BVOC exchanges from soil were as important as BVOC exchanges from maize itself; (ii) BVOC exchanges observed on our site were much lower than exchanges observed by other maize studies, even under normalized temperature and light conditions, (iii) they were also lower than those observed on other crops grown in Europe. Lastly (iv), BVOC exchanges observed on our site under standard environmental conditions, i.e., standard emission factors SEF, were much lower than those currently considered by BVOC exchange up-scaling models. From those observations, we deduced that (i) soil BVOC exchanges should be better understood and should be incorporated in terrestrial BVOC exchanges models, and that (ii) SEF for the C4 crop plant functional type cannot be evaluated at global scale but should be determined for each important agronomic and pedo-climatic region

  10. Seasonal and Interannual Variability in Growing Season Carbon Budget at a Rice Paddy Field in Central Japan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mano, M.; Miyata, A.; Nagai, H.; Yamada, T.; Ono, K.; Han, H. G.; Kobayashi, Y.

    2005-12-01

    Rice paddy in eastern Asia emits methane because it is irrigated during most of the growing season. Therefore it is necessary to measure carbon dioxide and methane fluxes simultaneously in order to estimate the carbon budget of the rice paddy. We continue a long-term flux measurement using micrometeorological methods at a customarily cultivated rice paddy in Central Japan. In this study we examine seasonal and interannual variability of carbon budget of the rice paddy by comparing fluxes in two years, 2004 and 2005, which had quite different water managements. At the study site rice is transplanted in early May and harvested in early or middle September. Midsummer drainage is conducted to remove unfavorable gases in the soil and compact the soil to prevent fall down of rice and so on. Fluxes of carbon dioxide and methane were measured by the eddy covariance and the gradient method respectively. We analyzed data obtained from May 2nd, which was the transplanting day in both years, to the end of August. The 2004 summer was the third warmest since 1945, while the 2005 summer was similar to the normal. There were no major differences in the maximum daily uptake of carbon dioxide between the years. Accumulated carbon dioxide, however, showed differences: the net uptake of C during the season in 2004 was 538 g C m-2, that was 28 % greater than that in 2005. This is because of high temperature and large amount of solar radiation in 2004. The daily methane emission in 2004 became obvious in late May, increased to 0.2 g C m-2 d-1 in June and 0.4 g C m-2 d-1 in August, and then decreased to near zero. In 2005, although the seasonal variation of the methane emission was almost same until late June, the emission decreased to 0.1 g C m-2 d-1 in late July. This may have resulted from a decline of methane production by methanogens owing to soil aeration because the longer midsummer drainage was conducted (22 days in 2005 and 9 days in 2004). The total methane emission in 2005 (11

  11. Rapid arsenite oxidation by Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus: Field and laboratory investigations

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gihring, T.M.; Druschel, G.K.; McCleskey, R.B.; Hamers, R.J.; Banfield, J.F.

    2001-01-01

    Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus, common inhabitants of terrestrial hot springs and thermally polluted domestic and industrial waters, have been found to rapidly oxidize arsenite to arsenate. Field investigations at a hot spring in Yellowstone National Park revealed conserved total arsenic transport and rapid arsenite oxidation occurring within the drainage channel. This environment was heavily colonized by Thermus aquaticus. In laboratory experiments, arsenite oxidation by cultures of Thermus aquaticus YT1 (previously isolated from Yellowstone National Park) and Thermus thermophilus HB8 was accelerated by a factor of over 100 relative to abiotic controls. Thermus aquaticus and Thermus thermophilus may therefore play a large and previously unrecognized role in determining arsenic speciation and bioavailability in thermal environments.

  12. Test plan for preparing the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory for field deployment

    SciTech Connect

    McIsaac, C.V.; Sill, C.W.; Gehrke, R.J.; Killian, E.W.; Watts, K.D.

    1994-04-01

    This plan describes experimental work that will be performed during fiscal year 1994 to prepare the Rapid Transuranic Monitoring Laboratory (RTML) for routine field use by US Department of Energy (DOE) Environmental Restoration and Waste Management programs. The RTML is a mobile, field-deployable laboratory developed at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) that provides a rapid, cost-effective means of characterizing and monitoring radioactive waste remediation sites for low-level radioactive contaminants. Analytical instruments currently installed in the RTML include an extended-range, germanium photon analysis spectrometer with an automatic sample changer; two, large-area, ionization chamber alpha spectrometers; and four alpha continuous air monitors. The RTML was field tested at the INEL during June 1993 in conjunction with the Buried Waste Integrated Demonstration`s remote retrieval demonstration. The major tasks described in this test plan are to (a) evaluate the beta detectors for use in screening soil samples for {sup 90}Sr, (b) upgrade the alpha spectral analysis software programs, and (c) upgrade the photon spectral analysis software programs.

  13. Rapid ELISA Using a Film-Stack Reaction Field with Micropillar Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Suzuki, Yuma; Morioka, Kazuhiro; Ohata, Soichiro; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Yang, Ming

    2017-01-01

    A film-stack reaction field with a micropillar array using a motor stirrer was developed for the high sensitivity and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reaction. The effects of the incubation time of a protein (30 s, 5 min, and 10 min) on the fluorescence intensity in ELISAs were investigated using a reaction field with different micropillar array dimensions (5-µm, 10-µm and 50-µm gaps between the micropillars). The difference in fluorescence intensity between the well with the reaction field of 50-µm gap for the incubation time of 30 s and the well without the reaction field with for incubation time of 10 min was 6%. The trend of the fluorescence intensity in the gap between the micro pillars in the film-stack reaction field was different between the short incubation time and the long incubation time. The theoretical analysis of the physical parameters related with the biomolecule transport indicated that the reaction efficiency defined in this study was the dominant factor determining the fluorescence intensity for the short incubation time, whereas the volumetric rate of the circulating flow through the space between films and the specific surface area were the dominant factors for the long incubation time. PMID:28696378

  14. Rapid ELISA Using a Film-Stack Reaction Field with Micropillar Arrays.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Yuma; Morioka, Kazuhiro; Ohata, Soichiro; Shimizu, Tetsuhide; Nakajima, Hizuru; Uchiyama, Katsumi; Yang, Ming

    2017-07-11

    A film-stack reaction field with a micropillar array using a motor stirrer was developed for the high sensitivity and rapid enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) reaction. The effects of the incubation time of a protein (30 s, 5 min, and 10 min) on the fluorescence intensity in ELISAs were investigated using a reaction field with different micropillar array dimensions (5-µm, 10-µm and 50-µm gaps between the micropillars). The difference in fluorescence intensity between the well with the reaction field of 50-µm gap for the incubation time of 30 s and the well without the reaction field with for incubation time of 10 min was 6%. The trend of the fluorescence intensity in the gap between the micro pillars in the film-stack reaction field was different between the short incubation time and the long incubation time. The theoretical analysis of the physical parameters related with the biomolecule transport indicated that the reaction efficiency defined in this study was the dominant factor determining the fluorescence intensity for the short incubation time, whereas the volumetric rate of the circulating flow through the space between films and the specific surface area were the dominant factors for the long incubation time.

  15. Continuous Magnetic Field Monitoring Using Rapid Re-Excitation of NMR Probe Sets.

    PubMed

    Dietrich, Benjamin E; Brunner, David O; Wilm, Bertram J; Barmet, Christoph; Pruessmann, Klaas P

    2016-06-01

    MRI relies on static and spatially varying dynamic magnetic fields of high accuracy. NMR field probes permit the direct observation of spatiotemporal field dynamics for diverse purposes such as data correction, field control, sequence validation, and hardware characterization. However, due to probe signal decay and dephasing existing field cameras are limited in terms of readout duration and the extent of k -space that can be covered. The present work aims to overcome these limitations by the transition to short-lived NMR probes and rapid re-excitation. The proposed approach uses probes with T 2 so short that thermal relaxation dominates signal decay even in the presence of strongest gradients. They are integrated with transmit, receive and sequencing electronics that permit high-rate re-excitation with optional probe alternation as well as complementary RF pulse recording. The system is demonstrated by monitoring of sample MRI sequences with long readouts and large gradient moments. It is compared with the conventional long-lived probe concept and characterized in terms of net sensitivity and sources of systematic error. Continuous k -space trajectory mapping is demonstrated and validated by trajectory-based image reconstruction.

  16. Phase-field investigation on the non-equilibrium interface dynamics of rapid alloy solidification

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Jeong

    2011-01-01

    The research program reported here is focused on critical issues that represent conspicuous gaps in current understanding of rapid solidification, limiting our ability to predict and control microstructural evolution (i.e. morphological dynamics and microsegregation) at high undercooling, where conditions depart significantly from local equilibrium. More specifically, through careful application of phase-field modeling, using appropriate thin-interface and anti-trapping corrections and addressing important details such as transient effects and a velocity-dependent (i.e. adaptive) numerics, the current analysis provides a reasonable simulation-based picture of non-equilibrium solute partitioning and the corresponding oscillatory dynamics associated with single-phase rapid solidification and show that this method is a suitable means for a self-consistent simulation of transient behavior and operating point selection under rapid growth conditions. Moving beyond the limitations of conventional theoretical/analytical treatments of non-equilibrium solute partitioning, these results serve to substantiate recent experimental findings and analytical treatments for single-phase rapid solidification. The departure from the equilibrium solid concentration at the solid-liquid interface was often observed during rapid solidification, and the energetic associated non-equilibrium solute partitioning has been treated in detail, providing possible ranges of interface concentrations for a given growth condition. Use of these treatments for analytical description of specific single-phase dendritic and cellular operating point selection, however, requires a model for solute partitioning under a given set of growth conditions. Therefore, analytical solute trapping models which describe the chemical partitioning as a function of steady state interface velocities have been developed and widely utilized in most of the theoretical investigations of rapid solidification. However, these

  17. Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H: An Innovative Approach to Deliver Campus- Based Field Experiences to Pre-Entry Extension Educators

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Weeks, Penny Pennington; Weeks, William G.

    2012-01-01

    Eat, Grow, Lead 4-H Club was created as a pilot program for college students seeking to gain experience as non-formal youth educators, specifically serving pre-entry level Extension educators through a university-based 4-H club. Seventeen student volunteers contributed an estimated 630 hours of service to the club during spring 2011. The club…

  18. Rapid 3-D forward modeling of gravity and gravity gradient tensor fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Longwei, C.; Dai, S.; Zhang, Q.

    2014-12-01

    Three-dimensional inversion are the key process in gravity exploration. In the commonly used scheme of inversion, the subsurface of the earth is usually divided into many small prism blocks (or grids) with variable density values. A key task in gravity inversion is to calculate the composite fields (gravity and gravity gradient tensor) generated by all these grids, this is known as forward modeling. In general forward modeling is memory-demanding and time-consuming. One scheme to rapidly calculate the fields is to implement it in Fourier domain and use fast Fourier transform algorithm. The advantage of the Fourier domain method is, obviously, much faster. However, the intrinsic edge effect of the Fourier domain method degrades the precision of the calculated fields. We have developed an innovative scheme to directly calculate the fields in spatial domain. There are two key points in this scheme. One key point is spatial discretization. Spatial convolution formula is discretized using an approach similar to normal difference method. A key idea during discretization is to use the analytical formula of a cubic prism, and this makes the resultant discrete formula have clear physical meaning: it embodies the superposition principle of the fields and is the exact formula to calculate the fields generated by all grids. The discretization only requires the grids have the same dimension in horizontal directions, and grids in different layers may have different dimension in vertical direction, and this offers more flexibility for inversion. Another key point is discrete convolution calculation. We invoke a high efficient two-dimensional discrete convolution algorithm, and it guarantees both time-saving and memory-saving. Its memory cost has the same order as the number of grids. Numerical test result shows that for a model with a dimension of 1000x1000x201 grids, it takes about 300s to calculate the fields on 1000x1000 field points in a personal computer with 3.4-GHz CPU

  19. Use of refractometry and colorimetry as field methods to rapidly assess antimalarial drug quality.

    PubMed

    Green, Michael D; Nettey, Henry; Villalva Rojas, Ofelia; Pamanivong, Chansapha; Khounsaknalath, Lamphet; Grande Ortiz, Miguel; Newton, Paul N; Fernández, Facundo M; Vongsack, Latsamy; Manolin, Ot

    2007-01-04

    The proliferation of counterfeit and poor-quality drugs is a major public health problem; especially in developing countries lacking adequate resources to effectively monitor their prevalence. Simple and affordable field methods provide a practical means of rapidly monitoring drug quality in circumstances where more advanced techniques are not available. Therefore, we have evaluated refractometry, colorimetry and a technique combining both processes as simple and accurate field assays to rapidly test the quality of the commonly available antimalarial drugs; artesunate, chloroquine, quinine, and sulfadoxine. Method bias, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy relative to high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) analysis of drugs collected in the Lao PDR were assessed for each technique. The HPLC method for each drug was evaluated in terms of assay variability and accuracy. The accuracy of the combined method ranged from 0.96 to 1.00 for artesunate tablets, chloroquine injectables, quinine capsules, and sulfadoxine tablets while the accuracy was 0.78 for enterically coated chloroquine tablets. These techniques provide a generally accurate, yet simple and affordable means to assess drug quality in resource-poor settings.

  20. Combining rapid bioassessment and field-based microcosms for identifying impacts in an urban river.

    PubMed

    O'Brien, Matthew L; Pettigrove, Vincent; Carew, Melissa E; Hoffmann, Ary A

    2010-08-01

    Rapid bioassessment indices based on macroinvertebrates are the most commonly used tools for assessing stream condition. However, once stream degradation has been detected, it is often difficult to identify which environmental stressors are most important because of changes in multiple correlated factors. In this study, we examined eight sites in an urban river watershed using a field-based microcosm experiment and the rapid bioassessment-based biotic index, SIGNAL. The experiment assessed the effects of polluted river sediment by examining the macroinvertebrate taxa that colonized sediments at an unpolluted wetland. Results were compared with an assessment of field-collected macroinvertebrates using SIGNAL, a biotic index that assigns pollution sensitivity scores to macroinvertebrate families, and environmental data, to determine whether sediment pollution or other factors such as habitat deterioration were likely to be influencing riverine macroinvertebrate communities. The microcosm results indicated that common species (Tanytarsus fuscithorax, Procladius paludicola, and Ablabesmyia notabilis) and the overall macroinvertebrate assemblage did not significantly change among sediments from different sites, with the exception of local effects on a few uncommon taxa (Chironomus pseudoppositus, Kiefferulus martini, Cladotanytarsus australomancus, Chaoboridae, Polypedilum "S1," and Tanytarsus belairensis). In contrast, SIGNAL showed a gradual trend of deterioration from upstream to downstream, decreasing from a score of 6.5 in upstream areas (unimpacted) to a score of 4.4 in the downstream sites (moderately impacted). This result combined with a significant correlation of SIGNAL scores to habitat data suggested that habitat deterioration rather than polluted sediment was likely to be responsible for the declining stream condition detected with the rapid bioassessment approach. The addition of the microcosms to other monitoring approaches could be useful for determining

  1. Obesity reduces bone density through activation of PPAR gamma and suppression of Wnt/Beta-Catenin in rapidly growing male rats

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The relationship between obesity and skeletal development remains largely ambiguous. In this report, total enteral nutrition (TEN) was used to feed growing male rats intragastrically, with a high 45% fat diet (HFD) to induce obesity. We found that fat mass was increased (P<0.05) compared to rats fed...

  2. Growing seasons of Nordic mountain birch in northernmost Europe as indicated by long-term field studies and analyses of satellite images.

    PubMed

    Shutova, E; Wielgolaski, F E; Karlsen, S R; Makarova, O; Berlina, N; Filimonova, T; Haraldsson, E; Aspholm, P E; Flø, L; Høgda, K A

    2006-11-01

    The phenophases first greening (bud burst) and yellowing of Nordic mountain birch (Betula pubescens ssp.tortuosa, also called B. p. ssp. czerepanovii) were observed at three sites on the Kola Peninsula in northernmost Europe during the period 1964-2003, and at two sites in the trans-boundary Pasvik-Enare region during 1994-2003. The field observations were compared with satellite images based on the GIMMS-NDVI dataset covering 1982-2002 at the start and end of the growing season. A trend for a delay of first greening was observed at only one of the sites (Kandalaksha) over the 40 year period. This fits well with the delayed onset of the growing season for that site based on satellite images. No significant changes in time of greening at the other sites were found with either field observations or satellite analyses throughout the study period. These results differ from the earlier spring generally observed in other parts of Europe in recent decades. In the coldest regions of Europe, e.g. in northern high mountains and the northernmost continental areas, increased precipitation associated with the generally positive North Atlantic Oscillation in the last few decades has often fallen as snow. Increased snow may delay the time of onset of the growing season, although increased temperature generally causes earlier spring phenophases. Autumn yellowing of birch leaves tends towards an earlier date at all sites. Due to both later birch greening and earlier yellowing at the Kandalaksha site, the growing season there has also become significantly shorter during the years observed. The sites showing the most advanced yellowing in the field throughout the study period fit well with areas showing an earlier end of the growing season from satellite images covering 1982-2002. The earlier yellowing is highly correlated with a trend at the sites in autumn for earlier decreasing air temperature over the study period, indicating that this environmental factor is important also for

  3. Validation of a Rapid Rabies Diagnostic Tool for Field Surveillance in Developing Countries.

    PubMed

    Léchenne, Monique; Naïssengar, Kemdongarti; Lepelletier, Anthony; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Bourhy, Hervé; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dacheux, Laurent

    2016-10-01

    One root cause of the neglect of rabies is the lack of adequate diagnostic tests in the context of low income countries. A rapid, performance friendly and low cost method to detect rabies virus (RABV) in brain samples will contribute positively to surveillance and consequently to accurate data reporting, which is presently missing in the majority of rabies endemic countries. We evaluated a rapid immunodiagnostic test (RIDT) in comparison with the standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and confirmed the detection of the viral RNA by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our analysis is a multicentre approach to validate the performance of the RIDT in both a field laboratory (N'Djamena, Chad) and an international reference laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). In the field laboratory, 48 samples from dogs were tested and in the reference laboratory setting, a total of 73 samples was tested, representing a wide diversity of RABV in terms of animal species tested (13 different species), geographical origin of isolates with special emphasis on Africa, and different phylogenetic clades. Under reference laboratory conditions, specificity was 93.3% and sensitivity was 95.3% compared to the gold standard FAT test. Under field laboratory conditions, the RIDT yielded a higher reliability than the FAT test particularly on fresh and decomposed samples. Viral RNA was later extracted directly from the test filter paper and further used successfully for sequencing and genotyping. The RIDT shows excellent performance qualities both in regard to user friendliness and reliability of the result. In addition, the test cassettes can be used as a vehicle to ship viral RNA to reference laboratories for further laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations using nucleotide sequencing. The potential for satisfactory use in remote locations is therefore very high to improve the global knowledge of rabies epidemiology

  4. Recommendations for Guidelines for Environment-Specific Magnetic-Field Measurements, Rapid Program Engineering Project #2

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.; IIT Research Institute; Magnetic Measurements; Survey Research Center, University of California; T. Dan Bracken, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The purpose of this project was to document widely applicable methods for characterizing the magnetic fields in a given environment, recognizing the many sources co-existing within that space. The guidelines are designed to allow the reader to follow an efficient process to (1) plan the goals and requirements of a magnetic-field study, (2) develop a study structure and protocol, and (3) document and carry out the plan. These guidelines take the reader first through the process of developing a basic study strategy, then through planning and performing the data collection. Last, the critical factors of data management, analysis reporting, and quality assurance are discussed. The guidelines are structured to allow the researcher to develop a protocol that responds to specific site and project needs. The Research and Public Information Dissemination Program (RAPID) is based on exposure to magnetic fields and the potential health effects. Therefore, the most important focus for these magnetic-field measurement guidelines is relevance to exposure. The assumed objective of an environment-specific measurement is to characterize the environment (given a set of occupants and magnetic-field sources) so that information about the exposure of the occupants may be inferred. Ideally, the researcher seeks to obtain complete or "perfect" information about these magnetic fields, so that personal exposure might also be modeled perfectly. However, complete data collection is not feasible. In fact, it has been made more difficult as the research field has moved to expand the list of field parameters measured, increasing the cost and complexity of performing a measurement and analyzing the data. The guidelines address this issue by guiding the user to design a measurement protocol that will gather the most exposure-relevant information based on the locations of people in relation to the sources. We suggest that the "microenvironment" become the base unit of area in a study, with

  5. Two-dimensional shear bands growing dynamically in plates: An investigation of transient deformation fields, temperature fields and shear band toughness

    SciTech Connect

    Rosakis, A.J.

    1995-12-31

    The phenomenon of dynamic initiation and propagation of two-dimensional adiabatic shear bands is experimentally and numerically investigated. Prenotched metal plates are subjected to asymmetric impact load histories (dynamic mode-II loading). Dynamic shear bands emanate from the notch-tip and propagate rapidly in a direction nearly parallel to the direction of impact. Real time temperature histories along a line intersecting and perpendicular to the shear band paths are recorded by means of a high speed infrared detector system. The materials studied are C-300 (a maraging steel), HY-100 steel and Ti-6Al-4V. Experiments show that the peak temperatures inside the propagating shear bands are approaching 90% of the melting point for C-300 and are significantly lower for the titanium alloy (up to 6000C). Additionally, measured distances of shear band propagation indicate stronger resistance to shear banding by HY-100 steel and Ti-6Al-4V. Deformation fields around the propagating shear band are recorded using high speed photography. Shear band speeds are found to strongly depend on impact velocity are as high as 1200 m/s for C-300 steel. Finite element simulations of the experiment are carried out under the context of plane strain, considering finite deformations, inertia, heat conduction, thermal softening, strain hardening and strain-rate hardening. In the simulations, the shear band propagation is assumed to be governed by a critical plastic strain criterion. The results are compared with experimental measurements obtained using the high speed infrared detectors and high speed photography. Finally, the numerical calculations are used to investigate motions of shear band toughness. The shear band driving force is calculated as a function of shear band velocity and compared to the crack driving force versus velocity relations for mode-I, opening cracks in the same material.

  6. Self-Consistent Field Model Spectra and Images for the Rapid Rotator α Cephei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aufdenberg, Jason P.; MacGregor, K.; Sola, M.

    2012-05-01

    Non-LTE synthetic radiation fields have been coupled to Self-Consistent Field (SCF) rotating star models to predict images, interferometric observables (visibilities and closure phases), spectral energy distributions (SEDs), and high-resolution spectra for comparison with rapid rotater alpha Cephei (Alderamin). SCF models include differential rotation from the interior to the surface and differ from Roche models that assume a point-mass approximation of the gravitational potential and axially symmetric uniform rotation. SCF models are parametrized by a mass, the ratio of the axial rotation rate to the critical rate, and the degree and kind (solar or anti-solar) of differential rotation. Model spectra have been computed using a parallel interpolation algorithm (coded in Fortran90 with openMPI) which maps a radiation field database onto the rotationally distorted model star. The SCF model describes the surface shape and gravitational field from the pole to the equator. The luminosity and the von Zeipel exponent specify the variation in effective temperature with stellar latitude. The radiation field is interpolated at each point on the star for each wavelength, emergent angle, local effective, and local surface gravity. Model images are compared to the reconstructed images of Alderamin (Zhao et al. 2009) from the Michigan InfraRed Combiner (MIRC) at the CHARA Array. Model SEDs are compared to ultraviolet, visual and near-IR spectrophotometry. High-resolution model spectra are compared Alderamin's Mg II 4481 A line from the ELODIE spectral archive. We have found models near 2.2 solar masses with anti-solar differential rotation which match simultaneously the absolute magnitude, B-V color index, and projected axial ratio measured for Alderamin. The model images differ from the observations in brightness-temperature distribution over the projected stellar surface, the strength of the Mg II line profile, and the strength of the ultraviolet continuum. This work is

  7. Impact of the calculation resolution of AAA for small fields and RapidArc treatment plans.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chin Loon; Cuijpers, Johan P; Senan, Suresh; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the impact of the calculation resolution of the anisotropic analytical algorithms (AAA) for a variety of small fields in homogeneous and heterogeneous media and for RapidArc plans. Dose distributions calculated using AAA version 8.6.15 (AAA8) and 10.0.25 (AAA10) were compared to measurements performed with GafChromic EBT film, using phantoms made of polystyrene or a combination of polystyrene and cork. The accuracy of the algorithms calculated using grid resolutions of 2.5 and 1.0 mm was investigated for different field sizes, and for a limited selection of RapidArc plans (head and neck, small meningioma, and lung). Additional plans were optimized to create excessive multileaf collimator modulation and measured on a homogenous phantom. Gamma evaluation criterion of 3% dose difference and 2- or 1-mm distance to agreement (DTA) were applied to evaluate the accuracy of the algorithms. For fields ≤3 × 3 cm(2) , both versions of AAA predicted lower peak doses and broader penumbra widths than the measurements. However, AAA10 and a finer calculation grid improved the agreement. For RapidArc plans with many small multileaf collimator (MLC) segments and relatively high number of monitor units (MU), AAA8 failed to identify small dose peaks within the target. Both versions performed better in polystyrene than in cork. In homogeneous cork layers, AAA8 underestimated the average target dose for a clinical lung plan. This was improved with AAA10 calculated using a 1 mm grid. AAA10 improves the accuracy of dose calculations, and calculation grid of 1.0 mm is superior to using 2.5 mm, although calculation times increased by factor of 5. A suitable upper MU constraint should be assigned during optimization to avoid plans with high modulation. For plans with a relative high number of monitor units, calculations using 1 mm grid resolution are recommended. For planning target volume (PTV) which contains relatively large area of low density tissue, users should be

  8. Impact of the calculation resolution of AAA for small fields and RapidArc treatment plans.

    PubMed

    Ong, Chin Loon; Cuijpers, Johan P; Senan, Suresh; Slotman, Ben J; Verbakel, Wilko F A R

    2011-08-01

    To investigate the impact of the calculation resolution of the anisotropic analytical algorithms (AAA) for a variety of small fields in homogeneous and heterogeneous media and for RapidArc plans. Dose distributions calculated using AAA version 8.6.15 (AAA8) and 10.0.25 (AAA10) were compared to measurements performed with GafChromic EBT film, using phantoms made of polystyrene or a combination of polystyrene and cork. The accuracy of the algorithms calculated using grid resolutions of 2.5 and 1.0 mm was investigated for different field sizes, and for a limited selection of RapidArc plans (head and neck, small meningioma, and lung). Additional plans were optimized to create excessive multileaf collimator modulation and measured on a homogenous phantom. Gamma evaluation criterion of 3% dose difference and 2- or 1-mm distance to agreement (DTA) were applied to evaluate the accuracy of the algorithms. For fields < or = 3 x 3 cm2, both versions of AAA predicted lower peak doses and broader penumbra widths than the measurements. However, AAA10 and a finer calculation grid improved the agreement. For RapidArc plans with many small multileaf collimator (MLC) segments and relatively high number of monitor units (MU), AAA8 failed to identify small dose peaks within the target. Both versions performed better in polystyrene than in cork. In homogeneous cork layers, AAA8 underestimated the average target dose for a clinical lung plan. This was improved with AAA10 calculated using a 1 mm grid. AAA10 improves the accuracy of dose calculations, and calculation grid of 1.0 mm is superior to using 2.5 mm, although calculation times increased by factor of 5. A suitable upper MU constraint should be assigned during optimization to avoid plans with high modulation. For plans with a relative high number of monitor units, calculations using 1 mm grid resolution are recommended. For planning target volume (PTV) which contains relatively large area of low density tissue, users should be

  9. Field flatteners fabricated with a rapid prototyper for K-edge subtraction imaging of small animals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Ying; Zhang, Honglin; Bewer, Brian; Florin Gh. Popescu, Bogdan; Nichol, Helen; Chapman, Dean

    2008-04-01

    One of the difficulties in X-ray imaging is the need to record a wide dynamic range of intensities on the detector. For example, some rays may miss the object being imaged entirely while others may suffer many orders of magnitude attenuation in passing through. In K-edge subtraction (KES) [E. Rubenstein, et al., Trans. Am. Clin. Climatol. Assoc. 97 (1985) 27.] imaging subtle differences in transmission through an object about the absorption edge of an element are used to create an image of the projected density of that element. This is done by a logarithmic subtraction of images acquired with energies above and below the absorption edge. For KES, the detector must register this transmitted intensity range in a linear manner for the subtraction method to be successful. The range of intensities which may strike the detector has inspired the concept of a field flattener. A field flattener is a device placed in the beam path that attenuates the input monochromatic beam to equalize X-ray absorption due to differences in the density of soft and hard tissues of an object before it passes through the object and thus achieves a flattened image. This removes the need for a wide dynamic range linear detector and allows detectors with modest performance to be used successfully in KES applications. The field flattener improves the S/ N ratio since X-ray exposures can be increased up to detector saturation. However, a field flattener removes anatomical information from each raw image (above or below K-edge) that may provide useful landmarks. Using rapid prototyping technology, two sets of field flatteners were fabricated and used in a KES experiment. This paper describes the procedure to design and fabricate field flatteners based on animal images from X-ray computed tomography (CT). Analysis of experimental data and KES images of a rat head with and without the field flattener are also presented. The results show a promising improvement of S/ N ratio using a field flattener

  10. Crop growing practices

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    This chapter reviews the literature on two specific aspects of cotton growing practices; tillage management and nutrient management. Conservation tillage systems were developed to reduce soil erosion from agricultural fields. Besides this function, conservation tillage systems can improve the water ...

  11. Strong-field dynamo action in rapidly rotating convection with no inertia.

    PubMed

    Hughes, David W; Cattaneo, Fausto

    2016-06-01

    The earth's magnetic field is generated by dynamo action driven by convection in the outer core. For numerical reasons, inertial and viscous forces play an important role in geodynamo models; however, the primary dynamical balance in the earth's core is believed to be between buoyancy, Coriolis, and magnetic forces. The hope has been that by setting the Ekman number to be as small as computationally feasible, an asymptotic regime would be reached in which the correct force balance is achieved. However, recent analyses of geodynamo models suggest that the desired balance has still not yet been attained. Here we adopt a complementary approach consisting of a model of rapidly rotating convection in which inertial forces are neglected from the outset. Within this framework we are able to construct a branch of solutions in which the dynamo generates a strong magnetic field that satisfies the expected force balance. The resulting strongly magnetized convection is dramatically different from the corresponding solutions in which the field is weak.

  12. Spatiotemporal variations in growing season exchanges of CO2, H2O,and sensible heat in agricultural fields of the Southern GreatPlains

    SciTech Connect

    Fischer, Marc L.; Billesbach, David P.; Berry, Joseph A.; Riley,William J.; Torn, Margaret S.

    2007-06-13

    Climate, vegetation cover, and management create fine-scaleheterogeneity in unirrigated agricultural regions, with important but notwell-quantified consequences for spatial and temporal variations insurface CO2, water, and heat fluxes. We measured eddy covariance fluxesin seven agricultural fields--comprising winter wheat, pasture, andsorghum--in the U.S. Southern Great Plains (SGP) during the 2001-2003growing seasons. Land-cover was the dominant source of variation insurface fluxes, with 50-100 percent differences between fields planted inwinter-spring versus fields planted in summer. Interannual variation wasdriven mainly by precipitation, which varied more than two-fold betweenyears. Peak aboveground biomass and growing-season net ecosystem exchange(NEE) of CO2 increased in rough proportion to precipitation. Based on apartitioning of gross fluxes with a regression model, ecosystemrespiration increased linearly with gross primary production, but with anoffset that increased near the time of seed production. Because theregression model was designed for well-watered periods, it successfullyretrieved NEE and ecosystem parameters during the peak growing season,and identified periods of moisture limitation during the summer. Insummary, the effects of crop type, land management, and water limitationon carbon, water, and energy fluxes were large. Capturing the controllingfactors in landscape scale models will be necessary to estimate theecological feedbacks to climate and other environmental impactsassociated with changing human needs for agricultural production of food,fiber, and energy.

  13. Field evaluation of rapid HIV serologic tests for screening and confirming HIV-1 infection in Honduras.

    PubMed

    Stetler, H C; Granade, T C; Nunez, C A; Meza, R; Terrell, S; Amador, L; George, J R

    1997-03-01

    To determine the ability of simple, rapid tests to identify HIV-1 antibody-positive specimens in field settings using the World Health Organization's (WHO) alternative testing strategies. Three-phase evaluation of simple, rapid assays using banked specimens and prospectively collected serum specimens at regional hospitals and rural clinics. Seven test (Retrocell, Genie, HIVCHEK, SUDS HIV-1, Testpack, Serodia HIV-1, and HIV-1/2 RTD) were evaluated and results compared with standard enzyme immunoassay (EIA) and Western blot results (phase 1). Further evaluation consisted of prospective testing of routine specimens at regional (phase 2; n = 900) and rural, peripheral laboratories (phase 3; n = 1266) throughout Honduras with selected assays. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated for each assay and combination of assays for each phase to evaluate the effectiveness of the WHO alternative testing strategies. All tests in all phases were > 99% sensitive after correcting for technical errors, with two exceptions (SUDS, phase 1; HIVCHEK, phase 3). In phase 3, where the testing algorithm was diagnostic, several combinations of assays were 100% sensitive and specific using WHO strategy II or III. For the Honduras Ministry of Health, the combination of Retrocell and Genie was found to be equally sensitive, more specific (no indeterminate results), and less expensive than EIA/Western blot. Combinations of rapid, simple HIV antibody assays provide sensitivity and specificity performance comparable to EIA/Western blot. Application of these combinations in the WHO alternative testing strategies provides an inexpensive and effective method of determining HIV status. Assay combinations using these strategies can be easily performed in small, rural laboratories and have been implemented in routine HIV screening in Honduras.

  14. Field accuracy of fourth-generation rapid diagnostic tests for acute HIV-1: a systematic review

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, Joseph M.; Macpherson, Peter; Adams, Emily R.; Ochodo, Eleanor; Sands, Anita; Taegtmeyer, Miriam

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Fourth-generation HIV-1 rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) detect HIV-1 p24 antigen to screen for acute HIV-1. However, diagnostic accuracy during clinical use may be suboptimal. Methods: Clinical sensitivity and specificity of fourth-generation RDTs for acute HIV-1 were collated from field evaluation studies in adults identified by a systematic literature search. Results: Four studies with 17 381 participants from Australia, Swaziland, the United Kingdom and Malawi were identified. All reported 0% sensitivity of the HIV-1 p24 component for acute HIV-1 diagnosis; 26 acute infections were missed. Specificity ranged from 98.3 to 99.9%. Conclusion: Fourth-generation RDTs are currently unsuitable for the detection of acute HIV-1. PMID:26558545

  15. Field testing a rapid project development method. Tanzania and Honduras: case studies.

    PubMed

    1996-07-01

    Targeted projects conducted by nongovernmental organizations (NGO) and other local groups form the core of the AIDS Control and Prevention (AIDSCAP) Project's comprehensive HIV/AIDS prevention programs in 17 countries. Each of the 465 subprojects is based upon a detailed subagreement outlining the project's objectives, each organization's responsibilities in meeting the objectives, the products to be delivered by the implementing agency, and the indicators for measuring whether the objectives have been met. AIDSCAP country and regional staff work closely with each implementing agency to review and strengthen every subagreement. AIDSCAP's rapid project development method, field tested in Tanzania and Honduras in 1995, accelerated the process by bringing together in one place staff from implementing agencies and AIDSCAP country and regional offices. In so doing, AIDSCAP and its partners were able to write, review, and complete most of the subagreements for each country program in just 2 weeks. The experiences in Tanzania and Honduras are described.

  16. Field Testing of Rapid Electrokinetic Nanoparticle Treatment for Corrosion Control of Steel in Concrete

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Cardenas, Henry E.; Alexander, Joshua B.; Kupwade-Patil,Kunal; Calle, Luz Marina

    2009-01-01

    This work field tested the use of electrokinetics for delivery of concrete sealing nanoparticles concurrent with the extraction of chlorides. Several cylinders of concrete were batched and placed in immersion at the Kennedy Space Center Beach Corrosion Test Site. The specimens were batched with steel reinforcement and a 4.5 wt.% (weight percent) content of sodium chloride. Upon arrival at Kennedy Space Center, the specimens were placed in the saltwater immersion pool at the Beach Corrosion Test Site. Following 30 days of saltwater exposure, the specimens were subjected to rapid chloride extraction concurrent with electrokinetic nanoparticle treatment. The treatments were operated at up to eight times the typical current density in order to complete the treatment in 7 days. The findings indicated that the short-term corrosion resistance of the concrete specimens was significantly enhanced as was the strength of the concrete.

  17. Rapid and field-deployable biological and chemical Raman-based identification

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Botonjic-Sehic, Edita; Paxon, Tracy L.; Boudries, Hacene

    2011-06-01

    Pathogen detection using Raman spectroscopy is achieved through the use of a sandwich immunoassay. Antibody-modified magnetic beads are used to capture and concentrate target analytes in solution and surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS) tags are conjugated with antibodies and act as labels to enable specific detection of biological pathogens. The rapid detection of biological pathogens is critical to first responders, thus assays to detect E.Coli and Anthrax have been developed and will be reported. The problems associated with pathogen detection resulting from the spectral complexity and variability of microorganisms are overcome through the use of SERS tags, which provide an intense, easily recognizable, and spectrally consistent Raman signal. The developed E. coli assay has been tested with 5 strains of E. coli and shows a low limit of detection, on the order of 10 and 100 c.f.u. per assay. Additionally, the SERS assay utilizes magnetic beads to collect the labeled pathogens into the focal point of the detection laser beam, making the assay robust to commonly encountered white powder interferants such as flour, baking powder, and corn starch. The reagents were also found to be stable at room temperature over extended periods of time with testing conducted over a one year period. Finally, through a specialized software algorithm, the assays are interfaced to the Raman instrument, StreetLab Mobile, for rapid-field-deployable biological identification.

  18. Rapid tsunami models and earthquake source parameters: Far-field and local applications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Geist, E.L.

    2005-01-01

    Rapid tsunami models have recently been developed to forecast far-field tsunami amplitudes from initial earthquake information (magnitude and hypocenter). Earthquake source parameters that directly affect tsunami generation as used in rapid tsunami models are examined, with particular attention to local versus far-field application of those models. First, validity of the assumption that the focal mechanism and type of faulting for tsunamigenic earthquakes is similar in a given region can be evaluated by measuring the seismic consistency of past events. Second, the assumption that slip occurs uniformly over an area of rupture will most often underestimate the amplitude and leading-wave steepness of the local tsunami. Third, sometimes large magnitude earthquakes will exhibit a high degree of spatial heterogeneity such that tsunami sources will be composed of distinct sub-events that can cause constructive and destructive interference in the wavefield away from the source. Using a stochastic source model, it is demonstrated that local tsunami amplitudes vary by as much as a factor of two or more, depending on the local bathymetry. If other earthquake source parameters such as focal depth or shear modulus are varied in addition to the slip distribution patterns, even greater uncertainty in local tsunami amplitude is expected for earthquakes of similar magnitude. Because of the short amount of time available to issue local warnings and because of the high degree of uncertainty associated with local, model-based forecasts as suggested by this study, direct wave height observations and a strong public education and preparedness program are critical for those regions near suspected tsunami sources.

  19. Interactive terrain visualization enables virtual field work during rapid scientific response to the 2010 Haiti earthquake

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cowgill, Eric; Bernardin, Tony S.; Oskin, Michael E.; Bowles, Christopher; Yikilmaz, M. Burak; Kreylos, Oliver; Elliott, Austin J.; Bishop, Scott; Gold, Ryan D.; Morelan, Alexander; Bawden, Gerald W.; Hamann, Bernd; Kellogg, Louise

    2012-01-01

    The moment magnitude (Mw) 7.0 12 January 2010 Haiti earthquake is the first major earthquake for which a large-footprint LiDAR (light detection and ranging) survey was acquired within several weeks of the event. Here, we describe the use of virtual reality data visualization to analyze massive amounts (67 GB on disk) of multiresolution terrain data during the rapid scientific response to a major natural disaster. In particular, we describe a method for conducting virtual field work using both desktop computers and a 4-sided, 22 m3 CAVE immersive virtual reality environment, along with KeckCAVES (Keck Center for Active Visualization in the Earth Sciences) software tools LiDAR Viewer, to analyze LiDAR point-cloud data, and Crusta, for 2.5 dimensional surficial geologic mapping on a bare-earth digital elevation model. This system enabled virtual field work that yielded remote observations of the topographic expression of active faulting within an ∼75-km-long section of the eastern Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault spanning the 2010 epicenter. Virtual field observations indicated that the geomorphic evidence of active faulting and ancient surface rupture varies along strike. Landform offsets of 6–50 m along the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault east of the 2010 epicenter and closest to Port-au-Prince attest to repeated recent surface-rupturing earthquakes there. In the west, the fault trace is well defined by displaced landforms, but it is not as clear as in the east. The 2010 epicenter is within a transition zone between these sections that extends from Grand Goâve in the west to Fayette in the east. Within this transition, between L'Acul (lat 72°40′W) and the Rouillone River (lat 72°35′W), the Enriquillo–Plantain Garden fault is undefined along an embayed low-relief range front, with little evidence of recent surface rupture. Based on the geometry of the eastern and western faults that show evidence of recent surface rupture, we propose that the 2010

  20. Changes in soybean phytate content as a result of field growing conditions and influence on tofu texture.

    PubMed

    Ishiguro, Takahiro; Ono, Tomotada; Wada, Takahiro; Tsukamoto, Chigen; Kono, Yuhi

    2006-04-01

    It is known that tofu quality tends to vary among soybeans even of the same variety. Cultivation environments can affect the contents of the soybeans. Twenty-seven soybean varieties were grown in a drained paddy field and an upland field, and then their protein and phytate contents were determined using the Fourier transfer infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR) method. The phytate contents of 12 varieties were higher in the drained paddy field than in the upland field. On the other hand, the environmental factor had little effect on the protein contents. In order to determine whether the difference in phytate content affected tofu texture, the hardness of the tofu made from phytate-added soymilk was measured. The tofu texture having more phytate became softer in the range of the common coagulant concentration. We concluded that the difference in the phytate content of the soybeans among the environmental conditions is a factor that causes fluctuation in tofu quality.

  1. Orientation of growing crystals of Co- or Gd-containing L-threonine dehydrogenase by magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maki, Syou; Ishikawa, Kazuhiko; Ataka, Mitsuo

    2009-12-01

    L-Threonine dehydrogenase from Pyrococcus horikoshii (TDH) is a water-soluble metalloenzyme, the molecular structure of which has been unknown until recently. The Zn 2+ ion in the native TDH, prepared as a recombinant protein, is replaced artificially with Co 2+, Ni 2+ or Gd 3+. These samples are crystallized in homogeneous magnetic fields of 2-10 T. Half of the Co- or Gd-substituted crystals show magnetic orientation in a field of 2 T at 278 K whereas the crystals of the native TDH require a 4 T magnetic field for half orientation. The sensitivity to magnetic orientation can thus be increased by metal substitution. On the other hand, we cannot assign clear changes in the size, number, and quality of the native and metal-substituted crystals with and without the presence of the magnetic field.

  2. Comparative evaluation of two rapid field tests for malaria diagnosis: Partec Rapid Malaria Test® and Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background About 90% of all malaria deaths in sub-Saharan Africa occur in children under five years. Fast and reliable diagnosis of malaria requires confirmation of the presence of malaria parasites in the blood of patients with fever or history suggestive of malaria; hence a prompt and accurate diagnosis of malaria is the key to effective disease management. Confirmation of malaria infection requires the availability of a rapid, sensitive, and specific testing at an affordable cost. We compared two recent methods (the novel Partec Rapid Malaria Test® (PT) and the Binax Now® Malaria Rapid Diagnostic Test (BN RDT) with the conventional Giemsa stain microscopy (GM) for the diagnosis of malaria among children in a clinical laboratory of a hospital in a rural endemic area of Ghana. Methods Blood samples were collected from 263 children admitted with fever or a history of fever to the pediatric clinic of the Agogo Presbyterian Hospital. The three different test methods PT, BN RDT and GM were performed independently by well trained and competent laboratory staff to assess the presence of malaria parasites. Results were analyzed and compared using GM as the reference standard. Results In 107 (40.7%) of 263 study participants, Plasmodium sp. was detected by GM. PT and BN RDT showed positive results in 111 (42.2%) and 114 (43.4%), respectively. Compared to GM reference standard, the sensitivities of the PT and BN RDT were 100% (95% CI: 96.6-100) and 97.2% (95% CI: 92.0-99.4), respectively, specificities were 97.4% (95% CI: 93.6-99.3) and 93.6% (95% CI: 88.5-96.9), respectively. There was a strong agreement (kappa) between the applied test methods (GM vs PT: 0.97; p < 0.001 and GM vs BN RDT: 0.90; p < 0.001). The average turnaround time per tests was 17 minutes. Conclusion In this study two rapid malaria tests, PT and BN RDT, demonstrated a good quality of their performance compared to conventional GM. Both methods require little training, have short turnaround times, are

  3. Phase field modeling of rapid crystallization in the phase-change material AIST

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tabatabaei, Fatemeh; Boussinot, Guillaume; Spatschek, Robert; Brener, Efim A.; Apel, Markus

    2017-07-01

    We carry out phase field modeling as a continuum simulation technique in order to study rapid crystallization processes in the phase-change material AIST (Ag4In3Sb67Te26). In particular, we simulate the spatio-temporal evolution of the crystallization of a molten area of the phase-change material embedded in a layer stack. The simulation model is adapted to the experimental conditions used for recent measurements of crystallization rates by a laser pulse technique. Simulations are performed for substrate temperatures close to the melting temperature of AIST down to low temperatures when an amorphous state is involved. The design of the phase field model using the thin interface limit allows us to retrieve the two limiting regimes of interface controlled (low temperatures) and thermal transport controlled (high temperatures) dynamics. Our simulations show that, generically, the crystallization velocity presents a maximum in the intermediate regime where both the interface mobility and the thermal transport, through the molten area as well as through the layer stack, are important. Simulations reveal the complex interplay of all different contributions. This suggests that the maximum switching velocity depends not only on material properties but also on the precise design of the thin film structure into which the phase-change material is embedded.

  4. Investigating the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy.

    PubMed

    Pirbodaghi, Tohid; Vigolo, Daniele; Akbari, Samin; deMello, Andrew

    2015-05-07

    The widespread application of microfluidic devices in the biological and chemical sciences requires the implementation of complex designs and geometries, which in turn leads to atypical fluid dynamic phenomena. Accordingly, a complete understanding of fluid dynamics in such systems is key in the facile engineering of novel and efficient analytical tools. Herein, we present an accurate approach for studying the fluid dynamics of rapid processes within microfluidic devices using bright-field microscopy with white light illumination and a standard high-speed camera. Specifically, we combine Ghost Particle Velocimetry and the detection of moving objects in automated video surveillance to track submicron size tracing particles via cross correlation between the speckle patterns of successive images. The efficacy of the presented technique is demonstrated by measuring the flow field over a square pillar (80 μm × 80 μm) in a 200 μm wide microchannel at high volumetric flow rates. Experimental results are in excellent agreement with those obtained via computational fluid dynamics simulations. The method is subsequently used to study the dynamics of droplet generation at a flow focusing microfluidic geometry. A unique feature of the presented technique is the ability to perform velocimetry analysis of high-speed phenomena, which is not possible using micron-resolution particle image velocimetry (μPIV) approaches based on confocal or fluorescence microscopy.

  5. A quantitative health assessment index for rapid evaluation of fish condition in the field

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, S.M. ); Brown, A.M. ); Goede, R.W. )

    1993-01-01

    The health assessment index (HAI) is an extension and refinement of a previously published field necropsy system. The HAI is a quantitative index that allows statistical comparisons of fish health among data sets. Index variables are assigned numerical values based on the degree of severity or damage incurred by an organ or tissue from environmental stressors. This approach has been used to evaluate the general health status of fish populations in a wide range of reservoir types in the Tennessee River basin (North Carolina, Tennessee, Alabama, Kentucky), in Hartwell Reservoir (Georgia, South Carolina) that is contaminated by polychlorinated biphenyls, and in the Pigeon River (Tennessee, North Carolina) that receives effluents from a bleaches kraft mill. The ability of the HAI to accurately characterize the health of fish in these systems was evaluated by comparing this index to other types of fish health measures (contaminant, bioindicator, and reproductive analysis) made at the same time as the HAI. In all cases, the HAI demonstrated the same pattern of fish health status between sites as did each of the other more sophisticated health assessment methods. The HAI has proven to be a simple and inexpensive means of rapidly assessing general fish health in field situations. 29 refs., 5 tabs.

  6. Rapid and effective correction of RF inhomogeneity for high field magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Cohen, M S; DuBois, R M; Zeineh, M M

    2000-08-01

    The well-known variability in the distribution of high frequency electromagnetic fields in the human body causes problems in the analysis of structural information in high field magnetic resonance images. We describe a method of compensating for the purely intensity-based effects. In our simple and rapid correction algorithm, we first use statistical means to determine the background image noise level and the edges of the image features. We next populate all "noise" pixels with the mean signal intensity of the image features. These data are then smoothed by convolution with a gaussian filter using Fourier methods. Finally, the original data that are above the noise level are normalized to the smoothed images, thereby eliminating the lowest spatial frequencies in the final, corrected data. Processing of a 124 slice, 256 x 256 volume dataset requires under 70 sec on a laptop personal computer. Overall, the method is less prone to artifacts from edges or from sensitivity to absolute head position than are other correction techniques. Following intensity correction, the images demonstrated obvious qualitative improvement and, when subjected to automated segmentation tools, the accuracy of segmentation improved, in one example, from 35.3% to 84.7% correct, as compared to a manually-constructed gold standard.

  7. Validation of a Rapid Rabies Diagnostic Tool for Field Surveillance in Developing Countries

    PubMed Central

    Léchenne, Monique; Naïssengar, Kemdongarti; Lepelletier, Anthony; Alfaroukh, Idriss Oumar; Bourhy, Hervé; Zinsstag, Jakob; Dacheux, Laurent

    2016-01-01

    Background One root cause of the neglect of rabies is the lack of adequate diagnostic tests in the context of low income countries. A rapid, performance friendly and low cost method to detect rabies virus (RABV) in brain samples will contribute positively to surveillance and consequently to accurate data reporting, which is presently missing in the majority of rabies endemic countries. Methodology/Principal findings We evaluated a rapid immunodiagnostic test (RIDT) in comparison with the standard fluorescent antibody test (FAT) and confirmed the detection of the viral RNA by real time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). Our analysis is a multicentre approach to validate the performance of the RIDT in both a field laboratory (N’Djamena, Chad) and an international reference laboratory (Institut Pasteur, Paris, France). In the field laboratory, 48 samples from dogs were tested and in the reference laboratory setting, a total of 73 samples was tested, representing a wide diversity of RABV in terms of animal species tested (13 different species), geographical origin of isolates with special emphasis on Africa, and different phylogenetic clades. Under reference laboratory conditions, specificity was 93.3% and sensitivity was 95.3% compared to the gold standard FAT test. Under field laboratory conditions, the RIDT yielded a higher reliability than the FAT test particularly on fresh and decomposed samples. Viral RNA was later extracted directly from the test filter paper and further used successfully for sequencing and genotyping. Conclusion/Significance The RIDT shows excellent performance qualities both in regard to user friendliness and reliability of the result. In addition, the test cassettes can be used as a vehicle to ship viral RNA to reference laboratories for further laboratory confirmation of the diagnosis and for epidemiological investigations using nucleotide sequencing. The potential for satisfactory use in remote locations is

  8. Growing inhomogeneities in cosmological Goldstone modes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benson, Katherine M.

    1992-08-01

    We examine the evolution of initial inhomogeneities in a Goldstone field in an expanding Friedmann-Robertson-Walker universe. We find subhorizon inhomogeneities grow, relative to the homogeneous state. This stems not from growing fluctuations - which simply redshift - but from rapid (ϱ ~ a-6) decay of the homogeneous state. We show how Goldstone modes escape assumptions - some inapplicable, some ill-founded - underpinning conventional analyses of cosmological fluctuations. Finally, we reconcile our analysis to standard cosmology, noting that the Goldstone evolution is essentially decoupled and dynamical. This material is based upon work supported by NSF grants PHY-87-14654 (while the author was at Harvard University) and PHY91-06210.

  9. Growing Opuntia (cactus) and Brassica species for the long-term remediation of selenium-contaminated soil under field conditions

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Identifying alternative crops for planting in Se-containing agricultural soils of western central California will depend upon the plants’ ability to tolerate high salt and boron (B) conditions. Multi-year field studies were conducted on Se-laden soils with different cactus clones (Opuntia-ficus indi...

  10. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F.; Weibel, Douglas B.; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-01-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 103 and 5 × 104 cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. PMID:26085615

  11. Field-Applicable Recombinase Polymerase Amplification Assay for Rapid Detection of Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae.

    PubMed

    Liljander, Anne; Yu, Mingyan; O'Brien, Elizabeth; Heller, Martin; Nepper, Julia F; Weibel, Douglas B; Gluecks, Ilona; Younan, Mario; Frey, Joachim; Falquet, Laurent; Jores, Joerg

    2015-09-01

    Contagious caprine pleuropneumonia (CCPP) is a highly contagious disease caused by Mycoplasma capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae that affects goats in Africa and Asia. Current available methods for the diagnosis of Mycoplasma infection, including cultivation, serological assays, and PCR, are time-consuming and require fully equipped stationary laboratories, which make them incompatible with testing in the resource-poor settings that are most relevant to this disease. We report a rapid, specific, and sensitive assay employing isothermal DNA amplification using recombinase polymerase amplification (RPA) for the detection of M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae. We developed the assay using a specific target sequence in M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae, as found in the genome sequence of the field strain ILRI181 and the type strain F38 and that was further evidenced in 10 field strains from different geographical regions. Detection limits corresponding to 5 × 10(3) and 5 × 10(4) cells/ml were obtained using genomic DNA and bacterial culture from M. capricolum subsp. capripneumoniae strain ILRI181, while no amplification was obtained from 71 related Mycoplasma isolates or from the Acholeplasma or the Pasteurella isolates, demonstrating a high degree of specificity. The assay produces a fluorescent signal within 15 to 20 min and worked well using pleural fluid obtained directly from CCPP-positive animals without prior DNA extraction. We demonstrate that the diagnosis of CCPP can be achieved, with a short sample preparation time and a simple read-out device that can be powered by a car battery, in <45 min in a simulated field setting. Copyright © 2015 Liljander et al.

  12. Too Fast to Measure: Network Adjustment of Rapidly Changing Gravity Fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kennedy, J.; Ferre, T. P. A.

    2014-12-01

    Measurements of spatially-variable gravity at the field scale are difficult; measurements of the time-varying field even more so. Every previous gravity survey using relative gravimeters—still the workhorse of gravity studies, despite their nearly 80 year history—has assumed a static gravity field during the course of a survey, which may last days to weeks. With recently-improved instrumentation, however, measurements of fields changing on the order of tens of nm/sec2 per day are now possible. In particular, the A-10 portable absolute gravimeter provides not only absolute control, but also the change in that control during the course of a survey. Using digitally-recording spring-based relative gravimeters (namely, the ZLS Burris meter and the Scintrex CG-5), with their more efficient data collection and lower drift than previous generations, many more data are collected in a day. We demonstrate a method for incorporating in the least-squares network adjustment of relative gravity data a relation between the rate of change of gravity, dg, and distance from an infiltration source, x. This relation accounts for the fact that gravity at stations adjacent to the infiltration source changes more rapidly than stations further away; if all measurements collected over several days are to be included in a single network-adjustment, consideration of this change is required. Two methods are used to simulate the dg(x) relation: a simple model where dg is a linear function of x, and a coupled-hydrogeophysical method where a groundwater flow model predicts the nonlinear spatial variation of dg. Then, the change in gravity between different, independently adjusted surveys is used to parameterize the groundwater model. Data from two recent field examples, an artificial recharge facility near Tucson, Arizona, USA, and from the 2014 Lower Colorado River pulse flow experiment, clearly show the need to account for gravity change during a survey; maximum rates of change for the two

  13. OPG-Fc treatment in growing pigs leads to rapid reductions in bone resorption markers, serum calcium, and bone formation markers.

    PubMed

    Sipos, W; Zysset, P; Kostenuik, P; Mayrhofer, E; Bogdan, C; Rauner, M; Stolina, M; Dwyer, D; Sommerfeld-Stur, I; Pendl, G; Resch, H; Dall'Ara, E; Varga, P; Pietschmann, P

    2011-12-01

    Inhibition of the receptor activator of NF-κB ligand (RANKL) is a novel therapeutic option in the treatment of osteoporosis and related diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate bone metabolism and structure in pigs after RANKL inhibition. 12 growing pigs were assigned to 2 groups with 6 animals each. The OPG group received recombinant human OPG-Fc (5 mg/kg IV) at day 0, the control group was given 0.9% NaCl solution. Serum levels of OPG-Fc, calcium (Ca), phosphorus (P), and bone turnover markers were evaluated every 5 days, and pigs were euthanized on day 20. Serum OPG-Fc concentration peaked at day 5 and coincided with significantly decreased Ca, P, and bone turnover markers. By day 15, measureable OPG-Fc serum levels could only be detected in 2/6 animals. With OPG-Fc clearance starting at day 10, serum Ca and P concentrations were not different between the 2 groups. TRACP5b, P1CP, and BAP levels significantly decreased by 40-70% relative to vehicle controls in the OPG-Fc group between days 5 and 10, indicating that pharmacologic concentration of OPG-Fc led to systemic concomitant inhibition of bone formation and resorption in young growing pigs. Dual X-ray absorptiometry data derived from the proximal femur did not differ between the 2 groups. μCT analysis of selected bone sites demonstrated an OPG-Fc-induced improvement of specific bone architectural indices and bone mineralization.

  14. Acute Pulmonary Artery Obstruction as the Primary Manifestation of a Rapidly Growing Intimal Sarcoma in a 54-Year-Old Patient.

    PubMed

    Westhofen, Sumi; Kugler, Christian; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Deuse, Tobias

    2016-12-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that is often misdiagnosed and most often only recognized postmortem during the autopsy. We present the case of a male patient with a rapidly progressive pulmonary tumor who underwent urgent pneumonectomy for increasing symptoms of chest pain and septic clinical picture. Histological analysis revealed the diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sarcoma. Despite an R1-resection and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient is in good clinical health and free of tumor relapse 1 year after the surgery.

  15. Acute Pulmonary Artery Obstruction as the Primary Manifestation of a Rapidly Growing Intimal Sarcoma in a 54-Year-Old Patient

    PubMed Central

    Westhofen, Sumi; Kugler, Christian; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Deuse, Tobias

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary artery sarcoma is a rare malignant neoplasm that is often misdiagnosed and most often only recognized postmortem during the autopsy. We present the case of a male patient with a rapidly progressive pulmonary tumor who underwent urgent pneumonectomy for increasing symptoms of chest pain and septic clinical picture. Histological analysis revealed the diagnosis of a pulmonary artery sarcoma. Despite an R1-resection and adjuvant chemotherapy, the patient is in good clinical health and free of tumor relapse 1 year after the surgery. PMID:28018820

  16. Development of a field-based separator for the rapid identification of uranium and plutonium

    SciTech Connect

    Mertz, Carol J.; Kaminski, Michael D.; Shkrob, Ilya A.; Kalensky, Michael; Sullivan, Vivian S.; Tsai, Yifen

    2015-07-01

    The development of rapid, radioanalytical techniques to separate uranium and plutonium from complex, field samples are needed for the timely and accurate determination of nuclear material origin, and processing activities. Widespread use of nuclear power and technology in the world has increased demands on analytical laboratories from the monitoring of numerous low-level, environmental samples with variable compositions. Environmental sampling has proven to be one of the strongest technical measures for detecting nuclear material and activities. With the increase in sampling demands, new technologies must offer improvements such as automation, high throughput, reproducible chemical separations, short analysis times, and reduced costs to be effective. We have been developing a portable, separations system for uranium (U) and plutonium (Pu) separations based upon selective extraction of target elements using an extraction chromatographic resin which would allow for simple and fast identifcation when coupled with the appropriate sample digestor and detection systems. The microfluidic design minimizes elution volumes and concentrates the elements of interest in a purified stream. Flowsheet development and testing was demonstrated on a single, micro-column system with an acidified, iron, uranium, and plutonium nitrate stream. The recovery of Pu was optimized by examining various reducing agents at different concentrations for rapid, quantitative recovery from the flow-through design. Quantitative recovery and high selectivity of U and Pu was achieved in the appropriate stripping stages and provided purified and concentrated U and Pu streams. The microfluidic system suggests automation in a small, footprint unit while exploiting the in-line processing of extraction chromatographic resins as the primary means of concentrating the radionuclides from the raw acidic feed and separating the elements into purified streams.

  17. Field evaluation of a dual rapid diagnostic test for HIV infection and syphilis in Lima, Peru.

    PubMed

    Bristow, Claire C; Leon, Segundo R; Huang, Emily; Brown, Brandon J; Ramos, Lourdes B; Vargas, Silver K; Flores, Juan A; Caceres, Carlos F; Klausner, Jeffrey D

    2016-05-01

    Screening for HIV and syphilis in key populations is recommended by the WHO to reduce the morbidity, mortality and transmission associated with undiagnosed and untreated infections. Rapid point-of-care tests that can detect multiple infections with a single fingerprick whole blood specimen using a single device are gaining popularity. We evaluated the field performance of a rapid dual HIV and syphilis test in people at high risk of HIV and syphilis infections. Participants included men who have sex with men and transgender women recruited in Lima, Peru. Reference standard testing for detection of HIV and syphilis infections, conducted using blood samples from venipuncture, included Treponema pallidum particle agglutination and fourth-generation HIV enzyme immunoassay for which positive results had a confirmation HIV Western blot test. For the evaluation test, SD BIOLINE HIV/Syphilis Duo test (Standard Diagnostics, Korea), a fingerprick blood specimen was used. Sensitivity and specificity were calculated and the exact binomial method was used to determine 95% CIs. A total of 415 participants were recruited for the study. The dual test sensitivity for detection of T. pallidum infection was 89.2% (95% CI 83.5% to 93.5%) and specificity 98.8% (95% CI 96.5% to 99.8%). For detection of HIV infection, the sensitivity of the dual test was 99.1% (95% CI 94.8% to 100%) and specificity 99.4% (95% CI 97.7% to 99.9%). This high performing dual test should be considered for the use in clinical settings to increase uptake of simultaneous testing of HIV and syphilis and accelerate time to treatment for those who need it. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/

  18. Rapid evaluation of fresh ex vivo kidney tissue with full-field optical coherence tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jain, Manu; Robinson, Brian D.; Salamoon, Bekheit; Thouvenin, Olivier; Boccara, Claude; Mukherjee, Sushmita

    2015-01-01

    Background: Full-field optical coherence tomography (FFOCT) is a real-time imaging technique that rapidly generates images reminiscent of histology without any tissue processing, warranting its exploration for evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue. Methods: Fresh tissue sections from tumor and adjacent nonneoplastic kidney (n = 25 nephrectomy specimens; clear cell renal cell carcinoma (CCRCC) = 12, papillary RCC (PRCC) = 4, chromophobe RCC (ChRCC) = 4, papillary urothelial carcinoma (PUC) = 1, angiomyolipoma (AML) = 2 and cystic nephroma = 2) were imaged with a commercial FFOCT device. Sections were submitted for routine histopathological diagnosis. Results: Glomeruli, tubules, interstitium, and blood vessels were identified in nonneoplastic tissue. In tumor sections, the normal architecture was completely replaced by either sheets of cells/trabeculae or papillary structures. The former pattern was seen predominantly in CCRCC/ChRCC and the latter in PRCC/PUC (as confirmed on H&E). Although the cellular details were not very prominent at this resolution, we could identify unique cytoplasmic signatures in some kidney tumors. For example, the hyper-intense punctate signal in the cytoplasm of CRCC represents glycogen/lipid, large cells with abundant hyper-intense cytoplasm representing histiocytes in PRCC, and signal-void large polygonal cell representing adipocytes in AML. According to a blinded analysis was performed by an uropathologist, all nonneoplastic tissues were differentiated from neoplastic tissues. Further, all benign tumors were called benign and malignant were called malignant. A diagnostic accuracy of 80% was obtained in subtyping the tumors. Conclusion: The ability of FFOCT to reliably differentiate nonneoplastic from neoplastic tissue and identify some tumor types makes it a valuable tool for rapid evaluation of ex vivo kidney tissue e.g. for intraoperative margin assessment and kidney biopsy adequacy. Recently, higher resolution images were achieved

  19. Improving our knowledge of the rapid geomagnetic field intensity variation observed in Europe around 800 AD

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gómez-Paccard, M.; Chauvin, A.; Lanos, P.; Dufresne, P.; Kovacheva, M.; Hill, M. J.; Beamud, E.; Gutiérrez-Lloret, S.; Cañavate, V.; Blain, S.; Bouvier, A.; Oberlin, C.; Guibert, P.; Sapin, C.; Pringent, D.

    2011-12-01

    Available European data indicate that during the past 2500 years there have been periods of rapid intensity geomagnetic fluctuations interspersed with periods of little change. The challenge now is to precisely describe these rapid changes. The aim of this study is to obtain an improved description of the sharp geomagnetic intensity change that took place in Western Europe around 800 yrs AD as well as to investigate if this peak is observed at a continental scale. For this purpose 13 precisely dated early medieval Spanish pottery fragments, 4 archeological French kilns and a 3 collections of bricks used for the construction of different historical buildings from France and with ages ranging between 330 to 1290 AD have been studied. The material collected has been dated by archeological/historical constraints together with radiocarbon,thermoluminiscence (TL) and archeomagentic analysis. From classical Thellier experiments including TRM anisotropy and cooling rate corrections upon archeointensity estimates and conducted on 164 specimens (119 of them giving reliable results) ten new high-quality mean intensities have been obtained. The new intensity data together with a selection of the most reliable data from Western Europe have been relocated to the latitude of Paris and confirm the existence of an intensity maxima of ~85 μT centred at ~850 AD and related to intensity changes up to 20 μT per century. The results also indicate that a previous abrupt intensity change (reaching a maximum value of ~ 90 μT) took place in Western Europe around 650 AD. A selection of high-quality intensity data from Bulgaria, Italy and Greece indicate a very similar intensity trend for Eastern Europe. Although available data indicate that the duration of such periods of high intensities may be of less than one century more data are needed to infer the exact duration of these maximums. A comparison between the selected data and regional and global geomagnetic field models indicates that

  20. Field-deployable colorimetric biosensor system for the rapid detection of pathogenic organisms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duy, Janice

    The rapid identification of pathogenic organisms is necessary for recognizing and managing human and environmental health risks. Numerous detection schemes are available, but most are difficult to employ in non-laboratory settings due to their need for bulky, specialized equipment, multiple reagents, or highly trained personnel. To address this problem, a rapid, field-compatible biosensor system based on the colorimetric detection of nucleic acid hybrids was developed. Peptide nucleic acid (PNA) probes were used to capture ribosomal RNA sequences from environmental samples. Non-target nucleic acids, including single-base mismatches flanked by adenines and uracils, were removed with a micrococcal nuclease digestion step. Matched PNA-RNA hybrids remained intact and were indicated by the cyanine dye DiSC2(5). PNA-containing duplexes function as templates for the aggregation of DiSC2(5), visualized as a change in solution color from blue to purple. This transition can be measured as an increase in the solution absorbance at 540 nm (dye aggregate) at the expense of the dye monomer peak at 650 nm. These concomitant spectral changes were used to calculate a "hybridization signal" using the ratio A aggregate/Amonomer ≈ A540/A650. Testing with pathogenic environmental samples was accomplished using two model organisms: the harmful algal bloom-causing dinoflagellate Alexandrium species, and the potato wart disease-causing fungus Synchytrium endobioticum. In both cases, the colorimetric approach was able to distinguish the targets with sensitivities rivaling those of established techniques, but with the advantages of decreased hands-on time and cost. Assay fieldability was tested with a portable colorimeter designed to quantify the dye-indicated hybridization signal and assembled from commercially available components. Side-by-side testing revealed no difference in the sensing performance of the colorimeter compared to a laboratory spectrophotometer (Pearson's r=0

  1. Equatorial Wave Activity during NOAA's 2016 El Niño Rapid Response Field Campaign

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kiladis, G. N.; Dias, J.; Gehne, M.; Mayer, K.

    2016-12-01

    The El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) field campaign targeted equatorial Pacific atmospheric convective activity during January-March 2016 through enhanced observations using dropsondes from the NOAA G-IV aircraft and radiosonde observations from Kiritimati (Christmas) Island and the NOAA research ship the Ronald H. Brown. This presentation examines the equatorial wave activity observed during ENRR and its relationship to tropical convection, and compares this activity to observations of past large El Niño events. The 2015-16 El Niño had much in common with the events during 1982-83 and 1997-98, with similar amplitude sea surface temperature (SST) anomalies, but also differed in several key aspects. All of these episodes featured enhanced convectively coupled Kelvin wave activity crossing the entire Pacific basin, which is generally absent during the northern winter seasons of near normal or La Niña SSTs. Prior to the ENRR period during December 2015 a large amplitude Madden-Julian Oscillation (MJO) was observed, with a convective signal that propagated unusually far to the east ( 150W). This was associated with an eastward displacement of the North Pacific storm track and heavy precipitation along the west coast of North America, broadly matching the large scale behavior of MJO evolution in statistical composites during El Niño. A second MJO-like event occurred during the latter part of February, 2016, but despite a similar convective heating field, the basic state flow was much different than during December, with a well-developed "westerly duct" which favored the intrusion of extratropical Rossby wave energy into the equatorial eastern Pacific region, as can be seen in E Vector fields. This latter event was accompanied by a distinct lack of an extended storm track and associated precipitation along the west coast of North America. Based on the preliminary results of AMIP simulations using observed SSTs, these differences are difficult to reproduce, and are

  2. Rapid phenotyping of crop root systems in undisturbed field soils using X-ray computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Pfeifer, Johannes; Kirchgessner, Norbert; Colombi, Tino; Walter, Achim

    2015-01-01

    X-ray computed tomography (CT) has become a powerful tool for root phenotyping. Compared to rather classical, destructive methods, CT encompasses various advantages. In pot experiments the growth and development of the same individual root can be followed over time and in addition the unaltered configuration of the 3D root system architecture (RSA) interacting with a real field soil matrix can be studied. Yet, the throughput, which is essential for a more widespread application of CT for basic research or breeding programs, suffers from the bottleneck of rapid and standardized segmentation methods to extract root structures. Using available methods, root segmentation is done to a large extent manually, as it requires a lot of interactive parameter optimization and interpretation and therefore needs a lot of time. Based on commercially available software, this paper presents a protocol that is faster, more standardized and more versatile compared to existing segmentation methods, particularly if used to analyse field samples collected in situ. To the knowledge of the authors this is the first study approaching to develop a comprehensive segmentation method suitable for comparatively large columns sampled in situ which contain complex, not necessarily connected root systems from multiple plants grown in undisturbed field soil. Root systems from several crops were sampled in situ and CT-volumes determined with the presented method were compared to root dry matter of washed root samples. A highly significant (P < 0.01) and strong correlation (R(2) = 0.84) was found, demonstrating the value of the presented method in the context of field research. Subsequent to segmentation, a method for the measurement of root thickness distribution has been used. Root thickness is a central RSA trait for various physiological research questions such as root growth in compacted soil or under oxygen deficient soil conditions, but hardly assessable in high throughput until today, due

  3. The NOAA El Niño Rapid Response Field Campaign: Implementation Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Spackman, J. R.; Dole, R. M.; Webb, R. S.; Barnet, C. D.; Barsugli, J. J.; Cifelli, R.; Compo, G. P.; Cox, C. J.; Darby, L. S.; Fairall, C. W.; Hartten, L. M.; Hoell, A.; Hoerling, M. P.; Intrieri, J. M.; Iraci, L. T.; Johnston, P. J.; Kiladis, G. N.; Konopleva-Akish, E.; Newman, M.; Ryoo, J. M.; Smith, C. A.; White, A. B.; Wick, G. A.; Wolfe, D. E.; Wolter, K.

    2016-12-01

    The NOAA El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) field campaign gathered unprecedented observations at the heart of the recent strong El Niño in January to March 2016. Despite extremely limited lead times, NOAA mounted a complex field response in a remote part of the world in four months for a campaign that usually takes two or three years to plan. Deploying multiple research aircraft, a NOAA oceangoing vessel, and with observations from Kiritimati, the field campaign was designed to examine the tropical-extratropical response to convection triggered by the warm El Niño ocean conditions in the central and eastern tropical Pacific proceeding high-impact weather events expected to occur downstream in the continental U.S. This presentation provides a detailed overview of the implementation of the ENRR field campaign. The NOAA Gulfstream IV research aircraft completed 22 successful science flights, releasing over 625 dropsondes in the central tropical Pacific to examine the thermodynamic, wind, and precipitation environments around large-scale convection located between the equator and 5°N south of Hawaii. To add spatial and temporal sampling, radiosonde balloons were launched twice daily from Kiritimati in the central tropical Pacific and up to 8 times daily from the NOAA Ronald H. Brown research vessel in the data-sparse eastern tropical Pacific. The ENRR sampling strategy was complemented by additional research flights with the NASA Global Hawk (GH), two U.S. Air Force Weather Reconnaissance C-130Js, and the NASA Ames-led Alpha Jet. To link atmospheric processes observed by the G-IV in the tropics with downstream weather events at midlatitudes, NOAA led three long-endurance flights with the GH in the eastern Pacific as part of the Sensing Hazards with Operational Unmanned Technology (SHOUT) project. The final series of G-IV flights captured the cascade of dynamical processes between the tropics and precipitation along the U.S. West Coast over a week-long period in early

  4. Evaluation of a rapid field tool for assessing household diet quality in Mozambique.

    PubMed

    Rose, Donald; Meershoek, Stephan; Ismael, Carina; McEwan, Margaret

    2002-06-01

    The Nutrition Section of the Mozambican Ministry of Health recently implemented a low-cost, rapid field tool for assessing the quality of household diets. Such tools can play an important part in targeting development assistance in countries where resources are scarce. This paper evaluates how well the tool performs at describing household dietary intakes in northern Mozambique and explores ways to improve it. The food-group classification and scoring system that form the core of the tool were applied to household data (n = 1,140) collected in a previous quantitative diet study in Nampula and Cabo Delgado Provinces. Using mean intakes as a criterion, the diet assessment tool performed well on all nutrients studied, except vitamin A. Those classified by the tool into the top group of diet quality had the highest mean intakes of energy, protein, and iron as well as the highest mean scores on the Mozambican Diet Quality Index, whereas those classified in the bottom group had the lowest intakes. Sensitivity rates for the diet assessment tool could be substantially improved by raising the cutoff point for an acceptable diet from the current threshold of 20 points to 23 points. Regression analysis was used to suggest other possible improvements. Such improvements were only marginal and do not justify field implementation, given the added complexity in classifying and scoring. This paper provides evidence that, with some minor changes, the Ministry of Health diet assessment method can be a useful tool in describing the dietary situation of groups of Mozambican households. Since this tool is both inexpensive and simple to use, there may be interest in adapting it for use in other low-income countries. A series of steps for doing so is outlined at the end of this paper.

  5. Crystal growing

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Neville, J. P.

    1990-01-01

    One objective is to demonstrate the way crystals grow and how they affect the behavior of material. Another objective is to compare the growth of crystals in metals and nonmetals. The procedures, which involve a supersaturated solution of a salt that will separate into crystals on cooling and the pouring off of an eutectic solution to expose the crystals formed by a solid solution when an alloy of two metals forms a solid and eutectic solution on cooling, are described.

  6. Development of a diagnostic diagram for rapid field assessment of acidosis severity in diarrheic calves.

    PubMed

    Bellino, Claudio; Arnaudo, Fabrizio; Biolatti, Cristina; Borrelli, Antonio; Gianella, Paola; Maurella, Cristiana; Zabaldano, Giuseppe; Cagnasso, Aurelio; D'Angelo, Antonio

    2012-02-01

    To develop a diagnostic diagram for rapid field assessment of acidosis severity in diarrheic calves. Prospective cross-sectional study. 148 Piedmontese calves (38 calves in preliminary experiments; 83 diarrheic calves and 27 healthy control calves in the primary experiment). Physical examination was performed and a standard data collection form was completed for each calf. Blood samples were obtained and submitted for evaluation of acid-base balance, performance of a CBC, and measurement of electrolyte and total protein concentrations. Severe metabolic acidosis (extracellular base excess more negative than -10 mmol/L) was associated with abnormal mental status, delayed or absent suckle reflex, abnormal posture or gait, enophthalmos, and cold oral mucosal membranes. Clinical signs associated with severe metabolic acidosis were arranged into a grid to create a diagnostic diagram. Sensitivity and specificity of the diagnostic diagram for the prediction of severe metabolic acidosis were 88% and 79%, respectively. Use of the diagnostic diagram may aid differentiation between severe and nonsevere acidosis patterns as determined on the basis of clinical signs.

  7. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars.

    PubMed

    van Saders, Jennifer L; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S; Aguirre, Victor Silva; Pinsonneault, Marc H; García, Rafael A; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R

    2016-01-14

    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of 'gyrochronology' uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can--unlike existing models--reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  8. Modeling cavitation in a rapidly changing pressure field - application to a small ultrasonic horn.

    PubMed

    Žnidarčič, Anton; Mettin, Robert; Dular, Matevž

    2015-01-01

    Ultrasonic horn transducers are frequently used in applications of acoustic cavitation in liquids. It has been observed that if the horn tip is sufficiently small and driven at high amplitude, cavitation is very strong, and the tip can be covered entirely by the gas/vapor phase for longer time intervals. A peculiar dynamics of the attached cavity can emerge with expansion and collapse at a self-generated frequency in the subharmonic range, i.e. below the acoustic driving frequency. The term "acoustic supercavitation" was proposed for this type of cavitation Žnidarčič et al. (2014) [1]. We tested several established hydrodynamic cavitation models on this problem, but none of them was able to correctly predict the flow features. As a specific characteristic of such acoustic cavitation problems lies in the rapidly changing driving pressures, we present an improved approach to cavitation modeling, which does not neglect the second derivatives in the Rayleigh-Plesset equation. Comparison with measurements of acoustic supercavitation at an ultrasonic horn of 20kHz frequency revealed a good agreement in terms of cavity dynamics, cavity volume and emitted pressure pulsations. The newly developed cavitation model is particularly suited for simulation of cavitating flow in highly fluctuating driving pressure fields.

  9. Prediction System for Rapid Identification of Salmonella Serotypes Based on Pulsed-Field Gel Electrophoresis Fingerprints

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Wei-Jiun; Hise, Kelley B.; Chen, Hung-Chia; Keys, Christine; Chen, James J.

    2012-01-01

    A classification model is presented for rapid identification of Salmonella serotypes based on pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) fingerprints. The classification model was developed using random forest and support vector machine algorithms and was then applied to a database of 45,923 PFGE patterns, randomly selected from all submissions to CDC PulseNet from 2005 to 2010. The patterns selected included the top 20 most frequent serotypes and 12 less frequent serotypes from various sources. The prediction accuracies for the 32 serotypes ranged from 68.8% to 99.9%, with an overall accuracy of 96.0% for the random forest classification, and ranged from 67.8% to 100.0%, with an overall accuracy of 96.1% for the support vector machine classification. The prediction system improves reliability and accuracy and provides a new tool for early and fast screening and source tracking of outbreak isolates. It is especially useful to get serotype information before the conventional methods are done. Additionally, this system also works well for isolates that are serotyped as “unknown” by conventional methods, and it is useful for a laboratory where standard serotyping is not available. PMID:22378901

  10. Weakened magnetic braking as the origin of anomalously rapid rotation in old field stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van Saders, Jennifer L.; Ceillier, Tugdual; Metcalfe, Travis S.; Silva Aguirre, Victor; Pinsonneault, Marc H.; García, Rafael A.; Mathur, Savita; Davies, Guy R.

    2016-01-01

    A knowledge of stellar ages is crucial for our understanding of many astrophysical phenomena, and yet ages can be difficult to determine. As they become older, stars lose mass and angular momentum, resulting in an observed slowdown in surface rotation. The technique of ‘gyrochronology’ uses the rotation period of a star to calculate its age. However, stars of known age must be used for calibration, and, until recently, the approach was untested for old stars (older than 1 gigayear, Gyr). Rotation periods are now known for stars in an open cluster of intermediate age (NGC 6819; 2.5 Gyr old), and for old field stars whose ages have been determined with asteroseismology. The data for the cluster agree with previous period-age relations, but these relations fail to describe the asteroseismic sample. Here we report stellar evolutionary modelling, and confirm the presence of unexpectedly rapid rotation in stars that are more evolved than the Sun. We demonstrate that models that incorporate dramatically weakened magnetic braking for old stars can—unlike existing models—reproduce both the asteroseismic and the cluster data. Our findings might suggest a fundamental change in the nature of ageing stellar dynamos, with the Sun being close to the critical transition to much weaker magnetized winds. This weakened braking limits the diagnostic power of gyrochronology for those stars that are more than halfway through their main-sequence lifetimes.

  11. Rapid acquisition of high resolution full wave-field borehole seismic data

    SciTech Connect

    Sleefe, G.E.; Harding, R.S. Jr.; Fairborn, J.W.; Paulsson, B.N.P.

    1993-04-01

    An essential requirement for both Vertical Seismic Profiling (VSP) and Cross-Hole Seismic Profiling (CHSP) is the rapid acquisition of high resolution borehole seismic data. Additionally, full wave-field recording using three-component receivers enables the use of both transmitted and reflected elastic wave events in the resulting seismic images of the subsurface. To this end, an advanced three- component multi-station borehole seismic receiver system has been designed and developed by Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) and OYO Geospace. The system requires data from multiple three-component wall-locking accelerometer packages and telemeters digital data to the surface in real-time. Due to the multiplicity of measurement stations and the real-time data link, acquisition time for the borehole seismic survey is significantly reduced. The system was tested at the Chevron La Habra Test Site using Chevron`s clamped axial borehole vibrator as the seismic source. Several source and receiver fans were acquired using a four-station version of the advanced system. For comparison purposes, an equivalent data set was acquired using a standard analog wall-locking geophone receiver. The test data indicate several enhancements provided by the multi-station receiver relative to the standard, drastically improved signal-to-noise ratio, increased signal bandwidth, the detection of multiple reflectors, and a true 4:1 reduction in survey time.

  12. Rapid full-field OCT assessment of clinical tissue specimens (Conference Presentation)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dalimier, Eugénie; Harms, Fabrice; Brossollet, Charles; Benoit, Emilie; Martins, Franck; Boccara, Claude A.

    2016-03-01

    FFOCT (Full Field Optical Coherence Tomography) is a novel optical technology that gives access to very high resolution tomography images of biological tissues within minutes, non-invasively. This makes it an attractive tool to bridge the gap between medical imaging modalities (MRI, ultrasound, CT) used for cancer lesion identification or targeting and histological diagnosis. Clinical tissue specimens, such as surgical cancer margins or biopsies, can potentially be assessed rapidly, by the clinician, in the aim to help him decide on the course of action. A fast FFOCT prototype was built, that provides 1cm2 images with 1 µm resolution in 1 minute, and can accommodate samples up to 50mm diameter. Specific work was carried out to implement a large sample holder, high-speed image acquisition system, optimized scanning, and accelerated GPU tiles stitching. Results obtained on breast, urology, and digestive tissues show the efficiency of the technique for the detection of cancer on clinical tissue specimens, and reinforce the clinical relevance of the technique. The technical and clinical results show that the fast FFOCT system can successfully be used for a fast assessment of cancer excision margins or biopsies providing a very valuable tool in the clinical environment.

  13. Rapid analysis of non-uniformly sampled pulsed field gradient data for velocity estimation.

    PubMed

    Raghavan, K; Park, J C; Pavlovskaya, G E; Gibbs, S J

    2001-06-01

    Bretthorst's recent generalization of the Lomb-Scargle periodogram shows that a sufficient statistic for frequency estimation from non-uniformly, but simultaneously sampled quadrature data is equivalent to the FFT of those data with the missing samples replaced by zeros. We have applied this concept to the rapid analysis of pulsed field gradient MRI data which have been non-uniformly sampled in the velocity encoding wave vector q. For a small number of q samples, it is more computationally efficient to calculate the periodogram directly rather than using the FFT algorithm with a large number of zeros. The algorithm we have implemented for finding the peak of the generalized periodogram is simple and robust; it involves repeated apodization and grid searching of the periodogram until the desired velocity resolution is achieved. The final estimate is refined by quadratic interpolation. We have tested the method for fully developed Poiseuille flow of a Newtonian fluid and have demonstrated substantial improvement in the precision of velocity measurement achievable in a fixed acquisition time with non-uniform sampling. The method is readily extendible to multidimensional data. Analysis of a 256 by 256 pixel image with 8 q samples and an effective velocity resolution of better than 1/680 of the Nyquist range requires approximately 1 minute computation time on a 400 MHz SUN Ultrasparc II processor.

  14. Technology assessment and strategy for development of a Rapid Field Water Microbiology Test Kit. Technical report

    SciTech Connect

    Preston, D.R.; Schaub, S.A.

    1991-09-01

    A literature and market search of existing technology for the detection, identification, and quantification of microorganisms in water was conducted. Based upon the availability of technologies and their configurations, an assessment of the appropriate strategies to pursue for the near and long term development plans in development of the Rapid Field Bacteriology Test Kit was performed. Near term technologies to improve the Army's capability to detect microorganisms would appear to be essentially improvements in versatility and measurement of coliform indicator organisms. New chromogenic and fluorogenic indicator substances associated with new substrates appear to be best suited for test kit development either for quantitative membrane filter tests or presence/absence and multiple fermentation tests. Test times, incubator requirements, and operator involvement appear to be similar to older technologies. Long term development would appear to favor such technologies as genetic probes with amplification of the hydridized nucleic acid materials of positive samples, and some immunological based systems such as enzyme linked, immuno-sorbent assays. In both cases, the major problems would appear to be sample preparation and development of signal strengths from the reactions which would allow the user to see results in 1 hour.

  15. Rapid immunohistochemistry based on alternating current electric field for intraoperative diagnosis of brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Tanino, Mishie; Sasajima, Toshio; Nanjo, Hiroshi; Akesaka, Shiori; Kagaya, Masami; Kimura, Taichi; Ishida, Yusuke; Oda, Masaya; Takahashi, Masataka; Sugawara, Taku; Yoshioka, Toshiaki; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Akagami, Yoichi; Goto, Akiteru; Minamiya, Yoshihiro; Tanaka, Shinya

    2015-01-01

    Rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) can contribute to the intraoperative diagnosis of central nervous system (CNS) tumors. We have recently developed a new IHC method based on an alternating current electric field to facilitate the antigen-antibody reaction. To ensure the requirement of R-IHC for intraoperative diagnosis, 183 cases of CNS tumors were reviewed regarding the accuracy rate of diagnosis without R-IHC. The diagnostic accuracy was 90.7 % (166/183 cases) [corrected] in which definitive diagnoses were not provided in 17 cases because of the failure of glioma grading and differential diagnosis of lymphoma and glioma. To establish the clinicopathological application, R-IHC for frozen specimens was compared with standard IHC for permanent specimens. 33 gliomas were analyzed, and the Ki-67/MIB-1 indices of frozen specimens by R-IHC were consistent with the grade and statistically correlated with those of permanent specimens. Thus, R-IHC provided supportive information to determine the grade of glioma. For discrimination between glioma and lymphoma, R-IHC was able to provide clear results of CD20 and Ki-67/MIB-1 in four frozen specimens of CNS lymphoma as well as standard IHC. We conclude that the R-IHC for frozen specimens can provide important information for intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors.

  16. Genotypic Variation in Grain P Loading across Diverse Rice Growing Environments and Implications for Field P Balances.

    PubMed

    Vandamme, Elke; Wissuwa, Matthias; Rose, Terry; Dieng, Ibnou; Drame, Khady N; Fofana, Mamadou; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Venuprasad, Ramaiah; Jallow, Demba; Segda, Zacharie; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Sirisena, Dinarathna; Kato, Yoichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    More than 60% of phosphorus (P) taken up by rice (Oryza spp.) is accumulated in the grains at harvest and hence exported from fields, leading to a continuous removal of P. If P removed from fields is not replaced by P inputs then soil P stocks decline, with consequences for subsequent crops. Breeding rice genotypes with a low concentration of P in the grains could be a strategy to reduce maintenance fertilizer needs and slow soil P depletion in low input systems. This study aimed to assess variation in grain P concentrations among rice genotypes across diverse environments and evaluate the implications for field P balances at various grain yield levels. Multi-location screening experiments were conducted at different sites across Africa and Asia and yield components and grain P concentrations were determined at harvest. Genotypic variation in grain P concentration was evaluated while considering differences in P supply and grain yield using cluster analysis to group environments and boundary line analysis to determine minimum grain P concentrations at various yield levels. Average grain P concentrations across genotypes varied almost 3-fold among environments, from 1.4 to 3.9 mg g(-1). Minimum grain P concentrations associated with grain yields of 150, 300, and 500 g m(-2) varied between 1.2 and 1.7, 1.3 and 1.8, and 1.7 and 2.2 mg g(-1) among genotypes respectively. Two genotypes, Santhi Sufaid and DJ123, were identified as potential donors for breeding for low grain P concentration. Improvements in P balances that could be achieved by exploiting this genotypic variation are in the range of less than 0.10 g P m(-2) (1 kg P ha(-1)) in low yielding systems, and 0.15-0.50 g P m(-2) (1.5-5.0 kg P ha(-1)) in higher yielding systems. Improved crop management and alternative breeding approaches may be required to achieve larger reductions in grain P concentrations in rice.

  17. Genotypic Variation in Grain P Loading across Diverse Rice Growing Environments and Implications for Field P Balances

    PubMed Central

    Vandamme, Elke; Wissuwa, Matthias; Rose, Terry; Dieng, Ibnou; Drame, Khady N.; Fofana, Mamadou; Senthilkumar, Kalimuthu; Venuprasad, Ramaiah; Jallow, Demba; Segda, Zacharie; Suriyagoda, Lalith; Sirisena, Dinarathna; Kato, Yoichiro; Saito, Kazuki

    2016-01-01

    More than 60% of phosphorus (P) taken up by rice (Oryza spp.) is accumulated in the grains at harvest and hence exported from fields, leading to a continuous removal of P. If P removed from fields is not replaced by P inputs then soil P stocks decline, with consequences for subsequent crops. Breeding rice genotypes with a low concentration of P in the grains could be a strategy to reduce maintenance fertilizer needs and slow soil P depletion in low input systems. This study aimed to assess variation in grain P concentrations among rice genotypes across diverse environments and evaluate the implications for field P balances at various grain yield levels. Multi-location screening experiments were conducted at different sites across Africa and Asia and yield components and grain P concentrations were determined at harvest. Genotypic variation in grain P concentration was evaluated while considering differences in P supply and grain yield using cluster analysis to group environments and boundary line analysis to determine minimum grain P concentrations at various yield levels. Average grain P concentrations across genotypes varied almost 3-fold among environments, from 1.4 to 3.9 mg g−1. Minimum grain P concentrations associated with grain yields of 150, 300, and 500 g m−2 varied between 1.2 and 1.7, 1.3 and 1.8, and 1.7 and 2.2 mg g−1 among genotypes respectively. Two genotypes, Santhi Sufaid and DJ123, were identified as potential donors for breeding for low grain P concentration. Improvements in P balances that could be achieved by exploiting this genotypic variation are in the range of less than 0.10 g P m−2 (1 kg P ha−1) in low yielding systems, and 0.15–0.50 g P m−2 (1.5–5.0 kg P ha−1) in higher yielding systems. Improved crop management and alternative breeding approaches may be required to achieve larger reductions in grain P concentrations in rice. PMID:27729916

  18. Growing smooth interfaces with inhomogeneous moving external fields: dynamical transitions, devil's staircases, and self-assembled ripples.

    PubMed

    Chaudhuri, Abhishek; Sreeram, P A; Sengupta, Surajit

    2002-10-21

    We study the steady state structure and dynamics of an interface in a pure Ising system on a square lattice placed in an inhomogeneous external field with a profile designed to stabilize a flat interface and translated with velocity v(e). For small v(e), the interface is stuck to the profile, is macroscopically smooth, and is rippled with a periodicity in general incommensurate with the lattice parameter. For arbitrary orientations of the profile, the local slope of the interface locks in to one of infinitely many rational values (devil's staircase) which most closely approximates the profile. These "lock-in" structures and ripples disappear as v(e) increases. For still larger v(e) the profile detaches from the interface.

  19. Do Zebra Mussels Grow Faster on Live Unionids than on Inanimate Substrate? A Study with Field Enclosures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hörmann, Leonhard; Maier, Gerhard

    2006-05-01

    The zebra mussel Dreissena polymorpha has invaded numerous freshwaters in Europe and North America and can foul many types of solid substrates, including unionid bivalves. In field experiments we compared growth rates of dreissenids on live specimens of the freshwater bivalve Anodonta cygnea to growth rates of dreissenids on stones. Dreissena density in the study lake was about 1000 m-2 in most places, Anodonta density approximately 1 m-2 and about 50% of the Anodonta were infested with 10-30 Dreissena . In summer/autumn small dreissenids generally grew faster on live Anodonta than on stones. Similar trends were observed for spring, but differences of growth increments between dreissenids on live Anodonta and stones were usually not significant. Dreissenids settled down or moved towards the ingestion/egestion siphons of Anodonta and ingestion siphons of dreissenids were directed towards siphons of Anodonta . These results suggest that dreissenids can use the food provided by the filter current of the large Anodonta .

  20. Nuclear DNA methylation and chromatin condensation phenotypes are distinct between normally proliferating/aging, rapidly growing/immortal, and senescent cells.

    PubMed

    Oh, Jin Ho; Gertych, Arkadiusz; Tajbakhsh, Jian

    2013-03-01

    This study reports on probing the utility of in situ chromatin texture features such as nuclear DNA methylation and chromatin condensation patterns - visualized by fluorescent staining and evaluated by dedicated three-dimensional (3D) quantitative and high-throughput cell-by-cell image analysis - in assessing the proliferative capacity, i.e. growth behavior of cells: to provide a more dynamic picture of a cell population with potential implications in basic science, cancer diagnostics/prognostics and therapeutic drug development. Two types of primary cells and four different cancer cell lines were propagated and subjected to cell-counting, flow cytometry, confocal imaging, and 3D image analysis at various points in culture. Additionally a subset of primary and cancer cells was accelerated into senescence by oxidative stress. DNA methylation and chromatin condensation levels decreased with declining doubling times when primary cells aged in culture with the lowest levels reached at the stage of proliferative senescence. In comparison, immortal cancer cells with constant but higher doubling times mostly displayed lower and constant levels of the two in situ-derived features. However, stress-induced senescent primary and cancer cells showed similar levels of these features compared with primary cells that had reached natural growth arrest. With regards to global DNA methylation and chromatin condensation levels, aggressively growing cancer cells seem to take an intermediate level between normally proliferating and senescent cells. Thus, normal cells apparently reach cancer-cell equivalent stages of the two parameters at some point in aging, which might challenge phenotypic distinction between these two types of cells. Companion high-resolution molecular profiling could provide information on possible underlying differences that would explain benign versus malign cell growth behaviors.

  1. The NOAA El Niño Rapid Response Field Campaign: Science Overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dole, R. M.; Spackman, J. R.; Webb, R. S.; Barnet, C.; Cifelli, R.; Compo, G. P.; Fairall, C. W.; Hartten, L. M.; Hoell, A.; Intrieri, J. M.; Kiladis, G. N.; Johnston, P. E.; Hoerling, M. P.; Newman, M.; Smith, C. A.; Wick, G. A.; Wolfe, D. E.; Wolter, K.

    2016-12-01

    Forecasts by mid-summer 2015 indicated the likelihood of a strong and potentially record El Niño for the upcoming winter. The forecasts posed a fundamental challenge to NOAA: To what extent could the agency adapt its research and services, given advance information of a potentially extreme climate event? Taking a proactive approach, NOAA initiated the NOAA El Niño Rapid Response (ENRR) project. The ENRR included an observational field campaign led by the ESRL Physical Sciences Division together with model experiments performed to optimize observational strategies and support NOAA services in anticipating risks and impacts related to this event. The full ENRR ultimately involved contributions from across NOAA as well as from external partners. This presentation focuses on the ENRR field campaign. It summarizes the primary drivers for the campaign, questions, hypotheses, and objectives, a few surprises and lessons learned, and concludes with thoughts on future directions. The main aim of the field campaign was to determine the initial tropical atmospheric response linking this El Niño to its global impacts. Intensive observations were conducted in a data-sparse region over the central Pacific Ocean near the heart of El Niño, using NOAA's Gulfstream IV (G-IV) to obtain wind, temperature, moisture, and precipitation profiles from dropsondes, tail Doppler radar, and flight level observations. Most flights were over the central tropical Pacific, sampling organized tropical convection and convective outflow. The G-IV data were augmented in the central Pacific by radiosonde launches from Kiritimati and in the eastern tropical Pacific from the NOAA ship Ronald H. Brown. In the extratropics, a scanning X-band radar was deployed in Santa Clara CA. Additional extratropical flights were conducted by NOAA with the Global Hawk, and by partners at NASA Ames and the Scripps Institution of Oceanography. Data from the ENRR campaign were provided in real-time for assimilation into

  2. Temperature fields during the development of autoignition in a rapid compression machine.

    PubMed

    Griffiths, J F; MacNamara, J P; Mohamed, C; Whitaker, B J; Pan, J; Sheppard, C G

    2001-01-01

    Temperature and concentration fields have been investigated in the cylindrical combustion chamber of a rapid compression machine (RCM) by schlieren photography, chemiluminescent imaging and planar laser induced fluorescence of acetone and of formaldehyde in a 2-dimensional sheet across the diameter. The timescale of particular interest was up to 10 ms after the piston has stopped. Experiments were performed in non-reactive and reactive conditions. Acetone was seeded in non-reactive mixtures. Combustion was studied first in a system containing di-tert-butyl peroxide vapour in the presence of oxygen. The decomposition of di-tert-butyl peroxide generates methyl radicals, which are then oxidised if oxygen is present. The overall reaction is exothermic and is characteristic of a conventional thermal ignition. In addition, chemiluminescence, resulting from CH2O*, accompanies the oxidation process. The combustion of n-pentane was then investigated at compressed gas temperatures that spanned the range in which there is a negative temperature dependence of the overall reaction rate, typically 750-850 K. The response to thermal feedback in this more complex thermokinetic system can be the opposite of the "thermal runaway" that accompanies di-tert-butyl peroxide combustion. The purpose of making comparisons between these two types of systems was to show how the temperature field generated in the RCM is modified in different ways by the interaction with the chemistry and to discuss the implications of this for the spatial development of spontaneous ignition. As the piston of the RCM moves it shears gas off the walls of the chamber. This probably creates a roll-up vortex, but more importantly it also collects gas from the walls and moves it across the cylinder head pushing it forward into a plug at the centre. Thus, soon after the end of compression there is an adiabatically heated gas which extends virtually to the wall, but this incorporates a plug of colder gas at its core

  3. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test®, for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria

    PubMed Central

    Di Domenico, Enea G.; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T.; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology. PMID:27708625

  4. Development of an in vitro Assay, Based on the BioFilm Ring Test(®), for Rapid Profiling of Biofilm-Growing Bacteria.

    PubMed

    Di Domenico, Enea G; Toma, Luigi; Provot, Christian; Ascenzioni, Fiorentina; Sperduti, Isabella; Prignano, Grazia; Gallo, Maria T; Pimpinelli, Fulvia; Bordignon, Valentina; Bernardi, Thierry; Ensoli, Fabrizio

    2016-01-01

    Microbial biofilm represents a major virulence factor associated with chronic and recurrent infections. Pathogenic bacteria embedded in biofilms are highly resistant to environmental and chemical agents, including antibiotics and therefore difficult to eradicate. Thus, reliable tests to assess biofilm formation by bacterial strains as well as the impact of chemicals or antibiotics on biofilm formation represent desirable tools for a most effective therapeutic management and microbiological risk control. Current methods to evaluate biofilm formation are usually time-consuming, costly, and hardly applicable in the clinical setting. The aim of the present study was to develop and assess a simple and reliable in vitro procedure for the characterization of biofilm-producing bacterial strains for future clinical applications based on the BioFilm Ring Test® (BRT) technology. The procedure developed for clinical testing (cBRT) can provide an accurate and timely (5 h) measurement of biofilm formation for the most common pathogenic bacteria seen in clinical practice. The results gathered by the cBRT assay were in agreement with the traditional crystal violet (CV) staining test, according to the κ coefficient test (κ = 0.623). However, the cBRT assay showed higher levels of specificity (92.2%) and accuracy (88.1%) as compared to CV. The results indicate that this procedure offers an easy, rapid and robust assay to test microbial biofilm and a promising tool for clinical microbiology.

  5. Compartmental analysis of roots in intact rapidly-growing Spergularia marina and Lactuca sativa: partial characterization of the symplasms functional in the radial transport of Na/sup +/ and K/sup +/

    SciTech Connect

    Lazof, D.B.

    1987-01-01

    Techniques of compartmental analysis were adapted to the study of intact roots of rapidly-growing Spergularia marine and Lactuca sativa. Using large numbers of plants short time-courses of uptake and chase, /sup 42/K/sup +/ and /sup 22/Na/sup +/ transport could be resolved, even during a chase following a brief 10 minute labeling period. The use of intact plant systems allowed distinction of that portion of the isotope flux into the root, associated with the ion-conducting symplasms. A small compartment, which rapidly (t/sub .5/ < 1 min) exchanges with the external medium was implicated in the radial transport of N/sup +/, accounting for the observed obtention of linear translocation rates within minutes of transferring to labeled solution. The ion contents of this compartment varied in proportion to the external ion concentration. When K/sup +/ was at a high external concentration, labeled K/sup +/ exchanged into this same symplasm, but chasing a short pulse indicated that K/sup +/ transport to the xylem was not through a rapidly-exchanging compartment. At physiological concentrations of K/sup +/ the evidence indicated that transport of K/sup +/ across the root proceeded through a compartment which was not exchanging rapidly with the external medium. The rise to a linear rate of isotope translocation was gradual and translocation during a chase, following a brief pulse,was prolonged, indicating that this compartment retained its specific activity for a considerable period.

  6. [The feed value in growing pigs of a new cultivar of field beans (Vicia faba L.) supplemented with DL-methionine or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalog].

    PubMed

    Abel, H j; Burghard, G

    2002-02-01

    A basal control mixture of barley, soy bean meal and soy bean oil was replaced by 25% of the new field bean-cultivar 'Divine' and the resulting two mixtures were supplemented with minerals, trace elements, vitamins and amino acids according to the ideal protein concept. The control diet was adjusted with DL-methionine (DL-Met), the field bean mixture either with DL-Met or DL-methionine-hydroxyanalogue (DL-MHA) assuming biological equivalence on a molar basis for both supplements. The three experimental diets were fed to growing pigs (35-40 kg bwt.). Spontaneous urine samples were analysed separately for determining parameters that characterize the acid-base status of the pigs. There were no significant differences between experimental groups in nutrient digestibilities. The level of bacterially fermentable substances was increased in the diets containing field beans. The field beans contained 14 mg ME/kg DM. There were no significant (p < 0,05) differences in N- and mineral-retentions (Ca, P, Na, K) between the treatments. The stronger alkalinity found in urine after feeding the field bean mixtures resulted from a higher electrolyte balance of the diet.

  7. Assessment of the suitability of mannitol salt agar for growing bovine-associated coagulase-negative staphylococci and its use under field conditions.

    PubMed

    De Visscher, A; Haesebrouck, F; Piepers, S; Vanderhaeghen, W; Supré, K; Leroy, F; Van Coillie, E; De Vliegher, S

    2013-10-01

    This study aimed at testing the applicability of mannitol salt agar (MSA), a medium generally used in human medicine for differentiating Staphylococcus aureus from coagulase-negative staphylococci (CNS), for culturing bovine-associated CNS species. All test isolates from a comprehensive collection of well-identified CNS species, including both reference strains and field isolates, were able to grow. Subsequently, bulk milk samples and teat apex swabs were used to examine the capability of MSA for yielding CNS under field conditions. Sixty-nine and 47 phenotypically different colonies were retrieved from bulk milk and teat apices, respectively. The majority of isolates from teat apices were staphylococci, whereas in bulk milk, staphylococci formed a minority. After 24h of growth, recovery of separate colonies of CNS was much more convenient on MSA compared to a non-selective blood agar. The results of this study indicate that MSA is a suitable medium for both growth and recovery of bovine-associated CNS.

  8. Hydraulic Signals from the Roots and Rapid Cell-Wall Hardening in Growing Maize (Zea mays L.) Leaves Are Primary Responses to Polyethylene Glycol-Induced Water Deficits.

    PubMed

    Chazen, O.; Neumann, P. M.

    1994-04-01

    We investigated mechanisms involved in inhibition of maize (Zea mays L.) leaf-elongation growth following addition of non-penetrating osmolyte to the root medium. The elongation rate of the first true leaf remained inhibited for 4 h after addition of polyethylene glycol 6000 (PEG; -0.5 MPa water potential), despite progressive osmotic adjustment in the growing leaf tissues. Thus, inhibition of leaf growth did not appear to be directly related to loss of leaf capacity to maintain osmotic potential gradients. Comparative cell-wall-extension capacities of immature (still expanding) leaf tissues were measured by creep extensiometry using whole plants. Reductions in irreversible (plastic) extension capacity (i.e. wall hardening) were detected minutes and hours after addition of PEG to the roots, by both in vivo and in vitro assay. The onset of the wall-hardening response could be detected by in vitro assay only 2 min after addition of PEG. Thus, initiation of wall hardening appeared to precede transcription-regulated responses. The inhibition of both leaf growth and wall-extension capacity was reversed by removal of PEG after 4 h. Moreover, wall hardening could be induced by other osmolytes (mannitol, NaCl). Thus, the leaf responses did not appear to be related to any specific (toxic) effect of PEG. We conclude that hardening of leaf cell walls is a primary event in the chain of growth regulatory responses to PEG-induced water deficits in maize. The signaling processes by which PEG, which is not expected to penetrate root cell walls or membranes, might cause cell-wall hardening in relatively distant leaves was also investigated. Plants with live or killed roots were exposed to PEG. The killed roots were presumed to be unable to produce hormonal or electrical signals in response to addition of PEG; however, inhibition of leaf elongation and hardening of leaf cell walls were detected with both live and killed roots. Thus, neither hormonal signaling nor signaling via

  9. Selection for Fungicide Resistance Within a Growing Season in Field Populations of Phytophthora infestans at the Center of Origin.

    PubMed

    Grünwald, Niklaus J; Sturbaum, Anne K; Montes, Gaspar Romero; Serrano, Edith Garay; Lozoya-Saldaña, Hector; Fry, William E

    2006-12-01

    ABSTRACT The central highlands of Mexico should provide an optimal testing ground for evaluating the potential threat of selection for resistance to fungicides in the population of Phytophthora infestans. We evaluated the hypotheses that exposure to the fungicides azoxystrobin, cymoxanil, dimethomorph, fluazinam, mancozeb, metalaxyl, and propamocarb hydrochloride would lead to (i) a shift in the sensitivity distributions (i.e., selection) and (ii) a lower genotypic diversity of the population. We compared populations from unsprayed plots with populations that had been exposed to several applications of each of the fungicides within a single field season. This study provides novel baseline data and shows that the Toluca valley P. infestans population has a wide range of sensitivities to the fungicides fluazinam, cymoxanil, dimethomorph, metalaxyl, and propamocarb. Directional selection toward resistance combined with a reduction in genetic diversity of the P. infestans population was observed only for the fungicide metalaxyl. The results obtained provide direct experimental support for continuing vigilance regarding further introductions of exotic strains of P. infestans into the United States.

  10. Determination of insecticidal Cry1Ab protein in soil collected in the final growing seasons of a nine-year field trial of Bt-maize MON810.

    PubMed

    Gruber, Helga; Paul, Vijay; Meyer, Heinrich H D; Müller, Martin

    2012-02-01

    Cultivation of genetically modified maize (Bt-maize; event MON810) producing recombinant δ-endotoxin Cry1Ab, leads to introduction of the insecticidal toxin into soil by way of root exudates and plant residues. This study investigated the fate of Cry1Ab in soil under long-term Bt-maize cultivation in an experimental field trial performed over nine growing seasons on four South German field sites cultivated with MON810 and its near isogenic non Bt-maize variety. Cry1Ab protein was quantified in soil (<2 mm size) using an in-house validated ELISA method. The assay was validated according to the criteria specified in European Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The assay enabled quantification of Cry1Ab protein at a decision limit (CCα) of 2.0 ng Cry1Ab protein g(-1) soil with analytical recovery in the range 49.1-88.9%, which was strongly correlated with clay content. Cry1Ab protein was only detected on one field site at concentrations higher than the CCα, with 2.91 and 2.57 ng Cry1Ab protein g(-1) soil in top and lower soil samples collected 6 weeks after the eighth growing season. Cry1Ab protein was never detected in soil sampled in the spring before the next farming season at any of the four experimental sites. No experimental evidence for accumulation or persistence of Cry1Ab protein in different soils under long-term Bt-maize cultivation can be drawn from this field study.

  11. Net ecosystem exchange, gross primary production, and ecosystem respiration of carbon dioxide during barley growing season in rice-barley paddy field of Korea

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, M.; Shim, K.; Min, S.; Kim, Y.; Kim, S.; So, K.

    2013-12-01

    This study was conducted to measure carbon dioxide exchange between customarily cultivated rice-barley double cropping paddy field and the atmosphere during barley growing season (October 2012 and June 2013) and to estimate carbon dioxide fluxes using agro-meteorological factors (temperature, net radiation etc. ) and barley biomass. The carbon dioxide fluxes were quantified by eddy covariance technique in paddy fields with rice-barley double cropping system, located at the Gimje flux site in the southwestern coast of Korea. The total values of net ecosystem carbon dioxide exchange (NEE), gross primary production (GPP), and ecosystem respiration (Re) were -100.6, 782.7, and 682.5 g C m-2 during barley growing season, respectively. The NEE was tended to keep between 0 and 5 g C m-2 d-1 from sowing date (Oct. 21, 2012) to winter rest stage (Dec. 3, 2012 to Feb. 22, 2013), and gradually decreased in tillering stage (Feb. 23, 2013 to May 5, 2013) with its maximum around heading date, and then started to increase in ripening stage (May 6, 2013 to Jun. 8, 2013). The soil temperature was strongly correlated with the Re (r2=0.86), while the net radiation showed the weak relationship with the GPP during the emergence, seedling, and winter rest stage. The aboveground biomass of barley was significantly correlated with the values of NEE (r2=0.79), GPP (r2=0.83), and Re (r2=0.77), respectively.

  12. Risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens in a rapidly growing metropolitan area in the U.S. Great Plains.

    PubMed

    Noden, Bruce H; Loss, Scott R; Maichak, Courtney; Williams, Faithful

    2017-01-01

    The prevalence of tick-borne diseases has increased dramatically in many urban areas of the U.S., yet little is known about the ecology of ticks and tick-borne pathogens in relation to characteristics of North American urban and suburban landscapes. This study aimed to begin identification of the risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens within a rapidly expanding metropolitan area in the U.S. Great Plains region. Ten sites across Oklahoma City, Oklahoma were selected for tick sampling based on presence of tick habitat and level of urbanization intensity. Sampling was conducted using CO2 traps and flagging in June, July and October 2015. A total of 552 ticks were collected from eight of the ten sampled greenspaces. The majority of ticks collected in summer were Amblyomma americanum (N=534 (97.8%)), followed by Dermacentor variabilis (N=10 (1.8%)) and Amblyomma maculatum (N=2 (0.3%)). Ixodes scapularis adult females (N=4) and nymphal A. americanum (N=2) were also collected in October 2015. Tick species diversity was highest in sites with >15% of the surrounding landscape composed of undeveloped land. Rickettsia sp. (including R. amblyommii and 'Candidatus R. andeanae'), Ehrlichia chaffeensis and/or E. ewingii were detected in tick pools from all eight sites where ticks were found. Our data suggest that the risk of encountering ticks and tick-borne pathogens exists throughout the Oklahoma City metropolitan area and that tick populations are likely influenced by urbanization intensity. Continued research is needed to clarify the full range of abiotic and biotic features of urban landscapes that influence the risk of encountering ticks and transmitting tick-borne diseases.

  13. Carbonaceous Matter in Growing Nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, M. V.; Stangl, C. M.; Horan, A. J.

    2015-12-01

    Atmospheric nanoparticles constitute the greatest portion of ambient aerosol loading by number. A major source of atmospheric nanoparticles is new particle formation (NPF), a gas to particle conversion process whereby clusters nucleate from gas phase precursors to form clusters on the order of one or a few nanometers and then grow rapidly to climatically relevant sizes. A substantial fraction of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) are thought to arise from NPF. In order to better predict the frequency, growth rates, and climatic impacts of NPF, knowledge of the chemical mechanisms by which nucleated nanoparticles grow is needed. The two main contributors to particle growth are (neutralized) sulfate and carbonaceous matter. Particle growth by sulfuric acid condensation is generally well understood, though uncertainty remains about the extent of base neutralization and the relative roles of ammonia and amines. Much less is known about carbonaceous matter, and field measurements suggest that nitrogen-containing species are important. In this presentation, recent work by our group will be described that uses a combination of ambient measurements, laboratory experiments and computational work to study carbonaceous matter in growing nanoparticles. These studies span a range of particle sizes from the initial adsorption of molecules onto a nanometer-size ammonium bisulfate seed cluster to reactions in particles that are large enough to support condensed-phase chemistry.

  14. Rapid Water Uptake and Limited Storage Capacity at Height of Growing Season in Four Temperate Tree Species in a Central Pennsylvania Catchment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gaines, K.; Meinzer, F. C.; Duffy, C.; Thomas, E.; Eissenstat, D. M.

    2014-12-01

    rapid water uptake and tree water storage limited to about a month in duration. These findings are necessary for modeling of hydrologic parameters that are influenced by tree water age. They also indicate that trees on shallow soil in this catchment may be at risk if droughts lasting over a month occur more frequently in future years.

  15. Evolution of Rhyolite at Laguna del Maule, a Rapidly Inflating Volcanic Field in the Southern Andes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Andersen, N. L.; Singer, B. S.; Jicha, B. R.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Rogers, N. W.

    2012-12-01

    The Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (LdM) is host to both the foremost example of post-glacial rhyolitic volcanism in the southern Andes and rapid, ongoing crustal deformation. The flare-up of high-silica eruptions was coeval with deglaciation at 24 ka. Rhyolite and rhyodacite domes and coulees totaling 6.5 km3 form a 20 km ring around the central lake basin. This spatial and temporal concentration of rhyolite is unprecedented in the history of the volcanic field. Colinear major and trace element variation suggests these lavas share a common evolutionary history (Hildreth et al., 2010). Moreover, geodetic observations (InSAR & GPS) have identified rapid inflation centered in the western side of the rhyolite dome ring at a rate of 17 cm/year for five years, which has accelerated to 30 cm/yr since April 2012. The best fit to the geodetic data is an expanding magma body located at 5 km depth (Fournier et al., 2010; Le Mevel, 2012). The distribution of high-silica volcanism, most notably geochemically similar high-silica rhyolite lavas erupted 12 km apart of opposite sides of the lake within a few kyr of each other, raises the possibility that the shallow magma intrusion represents only a portion of a larger rhyolitic body, potentially of caldera forming dimensions. We aim to combine petrologic models with a precise geochronology to formulate a model of the evolution of the LdM magma system to its current state. New 40Ar/39Ar age determinations show rhyolitic volcanism beginning at 23 ka with the eruption of the Espejos rhyolite, followed by the Cari Launa Rhyolite at 14.5 ka, two flows of the Barrancas complex at 6.4 and 3.9 ka, and the Divisoria rhyolite at 2.2 ka. In contrast, significant andesitic and dacitic volcanism is largely absent from the central basin of LdM since the early post-glacial period suggesting a coincident basin-wide evolution from andesite to dacite to rhyolite and is consistent with a shallow body of low-density rhyolite blocking the eruption

  16. An Event Related Field Study of Rapid Grammatical Plasticity in Adult Second-Language Learners

    PubMed Central

    Bastarrika, Ainhoa; Davidson, Douglas J.

    2017-01-01

    The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how Spanish adult learners of Basque respond to morphosyntactic violations after a short period of training on a small fragment of Basque grammar. Participants (n = 17) were exposed to violation and control phrases in three phases (pretest, training, generalization-test). In each phase participants listened to short Basque phrases and they judged whether they were correct or incorrect. During the pre-test and generalization-test, participants did not receive any feedback. During the training blocks feedback was provided after each response. We also ran two Spanish control blocks before and after training. We analyzed the event-related magnetic- field (ERF) recorded in response to a critical word during all three phases. In the pretest, classification was below chance and we found no electrophysiological differences between violation and control stimuli. Then participants were explicitly taught a Basque grammar rule. From the first training block participants were able to correctly classify control and violation stimuli and an evoked violation response was present. Although the timing of the electrophysiological responses matched participants' L1 effect, the effect size was smaller for L2 and the topographical distribution differed from the L1. While the L1 effect was bilaterally distributed on the auditory sensors, the L2 effect was present at right frontal sensors. During training blocks two and three, the violation-control effect size increased and the topography evolved to a more L1-like pattern. Moreover, this pattern was maintained in the generalization test. We conclude that rapid changes in neuronal responses can be observed in adult learners of a simple morphosyntactic rule, and that native-like responses can be achieved at least in small fragments of second language. PMID:28174530

  17. An Event Related Field Study of Rapid Grammatical Plasticity in Adult Second-Language Learners.

    PubMed

    Bastarrika, Ainhoa; Davidson, Douglas J

    2017-01-01

    The present study used magnetoencephalography (MEG) to investigate how Spanish adult learners of Basque respond to morphosyntactic violations after a short period of training on a small fragment of Basque grammar. Participants (n = 17) were exposed to violation and control phrases in three phases (pretest, training, generalization-test). In each phase participants listened to short Basque phrases and they judged whether they were correct or incorrect. During the pre-test and generalization-test, participants did not receive any feedback. During the training blocks feedback was provided after each response. We also ran two Spanish control blocks before and after training. We analyzed the event-related magnetic- field (ERF) recorded in response to a critical word during all three phases. In the pretest, classification was below chance and we found no electrophysiological differences between violation and control stimuli. Then participants were explicitly taught a Basque grammar rule. From the first training block participants were able to correctly classify control and violation stimuli and an evoked violation response was present. Although the timing of the electrophysiological responses matched participants' L1 effect, the effect size was smaller for L2 and the topographical distribution differed from the L1. While the L1 effect was bilaterally distributed on the auditory sensors, the L2 effect was present at right frontal sensors. During training blocks two and three, the violation-control effect size increased and the topography evolved to a more L1-like pattern. Moreover, this pattern was maintained in the generalization test. We conclude that rapid changes in neuronal responses can be observed in adult learners of a simple morphosyntactic rule, and that native-like responses can be achieved at least in small fragments of second language.

  18. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification.

    PubMed

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50-100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions.

  19. Rapid release of mercury from intertidal sediments exposed to solar radiation: a field experiment.

    PubMed

    Canário, João; Vale, Carlos

    2004-07-15

    There is increasing evidence of the primary importance of photochemical reactions and transfer of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere. Although mercury in aquatic sediments is efficiently retained, resuspension and bioturbation in intertidal sediments may expose temporarily anoxic sediments to solar radiation. Field experiments were performed to investigate these processes. Anoxic sediments from two areas in the Tagus estuary with different degrees of Hg contamination (experiments I and II) were homogenized and distributed into two sets of 36 uncovered Petri dishes. The samples were placed on the intertidal sediments and exposed to direct solar radiation and kept under dark (control) for 6-8 h. The decrease rates of acid volatile sulfides (abrupt in the first 3 h) and of pyrite (linear) were the same in sediments under solar radiation and dark. The total Hg concentrations were relatively constant in sediments kept in dark, but decreased from 17.6 to 7.65 and 3.45 to 1.35 nmol g(-1) in experiments I and II, respectively. In those exposed to solar radiation during the period of higher UV intensity. Similar evolutions were found in nonreactive Hg in pore waters (3.00-2.59 and 0.725-0.105 nM). On the contrary, reactive Hg was higher in pore waters of the sediments exposed to solar radiation and increased with time, from 424 to 845 pM and 53 to 193 pM. These results indicate that most mercury released in pore waters was photochemically reduced in a short period of time and escaped rapidly to the atmosphere. Episodes of bottom resuspension and bioturbation in the intertidal sediments enhance the transfer of gaseous mercury to the atmosphere.

  20. Rapid development of cyanobacterial crust in the field for combating desertification

    PubMed Central

    Park, Chan-Ho; Li, Xin Rong; Zhao, Yang; Jia, Rong Liang; Hur, Jae-Seoun

    2017-01-01

    Desertification is currently a major concern, and vast regions have already been devastated in the arid zones of many countries. Combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals is a novel method of restoring desertified areas. Three cyanobacteria, Nostoc sp. Vaucher ex Bornet & Flahault, Phormidium sp. Kützing ex Gomont and Scytonema arcangeli Bornet ex Flahault were isolated and tested in this study. Tacki-SprayTM (TKS7), which consists of bio-polysaccharides and tackifiers, was used as a soil fixing agent. In addition, superabsorbent polymer (SAP) was applied to the soil as a water-holding material and nutrient supplement. Application of cyanobacteria with superabsorbent polymer and TKS7 (CST) remarkably improved macro-aggregate stability against water and erodibility against wind after 12 months of inoculation when compared to the control soil. The mean weight diameter and threshold friction velocity of the CST treated soil were found to be 75% and 88% of those of the approximately 20-year-old natural cyanobacterial crust (N-BSC), respectively, while these values were 68% and 73% of those of the N-BSC soil after a single treatment of cyanobacteria alone (CY). Interestingly, biological activities of CST were similar to those of CY. Total carbohydrate contents, cyanobacterial biomass, microbial biomass, soil respiration, carbon fixation and effective quantum yield of CST treated soil were enhanced by 50–100% of the N-BSC, while those of control soil were negligible. Our results suggest that combined application of cyanobacteria with soil fixing chemicals can rapidly develop cyanobacterial crust formation in the field within 12 months. The physical properties and biological activities of the inoculated cyanobacterial crust were stable during the study period. The novel method presented herein serves as another approach for combating desertification in arid regions. PMID:28644849

  1. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test (Parascreen™) for malaria diagnosis in the Peruvian Amazon

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background The rapid diagnostic tests for malaria (RDT) constitute a fast and opportune alternative for non-complicated malaria diagnosis in areas where microscopy is not available. The objective of this study was to validate a RDT named Parascreen™ under field conditions in Iquitos, department of Loreto, Peru. Parascreen™ is a RDT that detects the histidine-rich protein 2 (HRP2) antigen from Plasmodium falciparum and lactate deshydrogenase from all Plasmodium species. Methods Parascreen™ was compared with microscopy performed by experts (EM) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using the following indicators: sensitivity (Se), specificity (Sp), positive (PV+) and negative predictive values (PV-), positive (LR+) and negative likehood ratio (LR-). Results 332 patients with suspected non-complicated malaria who attended to the MOH health centres were enrolled between October and December 2006. For P. falciparum malaria, Parascreen™ in comparison with EM, had Se: 53.5%, Sp: 98.7%, PV+: 66.7%, PV-: 97.8%, LR+: 42.27 and LR-: 0.47; and for non-P. falciparum malaria, Se: 77.1%, Sp: 97.6%, PV+: 91.4%, PV-: 92.7%, LR+: 32.0 and LR-: 0.22. The comparison of Parascreen™ with PCR showed, for P. falciparum malaria, Se: 81.8%, Sp: 99.1%, PV+: 75%, PV-: 99.4, LR+: 87.27 and LR-: 0.18; and for non-P. falciparum malaria Se: 76.1%, Sp: 99.2%, PV+: 97.1%, PV-: 92.0%, LR+: 92.51 and LR-: 0.24. Conclusions The study results indicate that Parascreen™ is not a valid and acceptable test for malaria diagnosis under the field conditions found in the Peruvian Amazon. The relative proportion of Plasmodium species, in addition to the genetic characteristics of the parasites in the area, must be considered before applying any RDT, especially after the finding of P. falciparum malaria parasites lacking pfhrp2 gene in this region. PMID:20529273

  2. Diagnostic performance characteristics of a rapid field test for anthrax in cattle.

    PubMed

    Muller, Janine; Gwozdz, Jacek; Hodgeman, Rachel; Ainsworth, Catherine; Kluver, Patrick; Czarnecki, Jill; Warner, Simone; Fegan, Mark

    2015-07-01

    Although diagnosis of anthrax can be made in the field with a peripheral blood smear, and in the laboratory with bacterial culture or molecular based tests, these tests require either considerable experience or specialised equipment. Here we report on the evaluation of the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of a simple and rapid in-field diagnostic test for anthrax, the anthrax immunochromatographic test (AICT). The AICT detects the protective antigen (PA) component of the anthrax toxin present within the blood of an animal that has died from anthrax. The test provides a result in 15min and offers the advantage of avoiding the necessity for on-site necropsy and subsequent occupational risks and environmental contamination. The specificity of the test was determined by testing samples taken from 622 animals, not infected with Bacillus anthracis. Diagnostic sensitivity was estimated on samples taken from 58 animals, naturally infected with B. anthracis collected over a 10-year period. All samples used to estimate the diagnostic sensitivity and specificity of the AICT were also tested using the gold standard of bacterial culture. The diagnostic specificity of the test was estimated to be 100% (99.4-100%; 95% CI) and the diagnostic sensitivity was estimated to be 93.1% (83.3-98.1%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Four samples produced false negative AICT results. These were among 9 samples, all of which tested positive for B. anthracis by culture, where there was a time delay between collection and testing of >48h and/or the samples were collected from animals that were >48h post-mortem. A statistically significant difference (P<0.001; Fishers exact test) was found between the ability of the AICT to detect PA in samples from culture positive animals <48h post-mortem, 49 of 49, Se=100% (92.8-100%; 95% CI) compared with samples tested >48h post-mortem 5 of 9 Se=56% (21-86.3%; 95% CI) (Clopper-Pearson method). Based upon these results a post hoc cut-off for use of

  3. Currents, magnetization and AC-losses of YBa 2Cu 3O 7 superconductors in rapidly changing magnetic fields

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kwasnitza, K.; Plotzner, V.; Waldmann, M.; Widmer, E.

    1988-06-01

    In YBa 2Cu 3O 7 samples of different shape time dependent magnetization currents were induced at 4.2K by the application of rapid magnetic field changes. This contactless method allows the study of the intergrain and intragrain currents in the resistive flux flow state.

  4. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  5. A Method to Teach Age-Specific Demography with Field Grown Rapid Cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants)

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Kelly, Martin G.; Terrana, Sebastian

    2004-01-01

    In this paper, we demonstrate that rapid cycling "Brassica rapa" (Wisconsin Fast Plants) can be used in inquiry-based, student ecological fieldwork. We are the first to describe age-specific survival for field-grown Fast Plants and identify life history traits associated with individual survival. This experiment can be adapted by educators as a…

  6. Rapid wide-field Mueller matrix polarimetry imaging based on four photoelastic modulators with no moving parts.

    PubMed

    Alali, Sanaz; Gribble, Adam; Vitkin, I Alex

    2016-03-01

    A new polarimetry method is demonstrated to image the entire Mueller matrix of a turbid sample using four photoelastic modulators (PEMs) and a charge coupled device (CCD) camera, with no moving parts. Accurate wide-field imaging is enabled with a field-programmable gate array (FPGA) optical gating technique and an evolutionary algorithm (EA) that optimizes imaging times. This technique accurately and rapidly measured the Mueller matrices of air, polarization elements, and turbid phantoms. The system should prove advantageous for Mueller matrix analysis of turbid samples (e.g., biological tissues) over large fields of view, in less than a second.

  7. Utilization of proteomics in experimental field conditions--A case study of poplars growing on grassland affected by long-term starch wastewater irrigation.

    PubMed

    Szuba, Agnieszka; Lorenc-Plucińska, Gabriela

    2015-08-03

    The presented study verified the possibility of using proteomics as a tool for investigating poplars growing on obviously separate plots. The examination covered poplars planted on grassland irrigated for 40 years with potato industry wastewater and in a plot appropriate for poplar planting, spaced at a distance of 67 km from each other (hereinafter referred to as forest). The work aimed to compare the obtained proteomic results with data on biometric and biochemical parameters and mineral composition as well as to assess, at a molecular level, the usefulness of grasslands for planting. Proteome analysis showed that most of the stress-related proteins detected were less abundant on the irrigated grassland, confirming the viability of its revegetation with poplars. Proteomic data corresponded well with the other results, highlighting the probable reason for the proteome changes; i.e. deficiency of phosphate ions detected in the forest area. Moreover, proteome analysis revealed biotic stress symptoms in plants growing on the grassland, which were also well explained by other data but would not have been detected without performing the proteomic analysis. Therefore, environmental plant proteomics is a useful and valuable tool during field studies, even when samples are taken from plots some distance apart. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Field evaluation of diagnostic performance of malaria rapid diagnostic tests in western Kenya.

    PubMed

    Wanja, Elizabeth W; Kuya, Nickline; Moranga, Collins; Hickman, Mark; Johnson, Jacob D; Moseti, Carolyne; Anova, Lalaine; Ogutu, Bernhards; Ohrt, Colin

    2016-09-07

    Malaria continues to be a major burden in the endemic regions of Kenya. Health outcomes associated with case management are dependent on the use of appropriate diagnostic methods. Rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs) have provided an important tool to help implement the WHO recommended parasite-based diagnosis in regions where expert microscopy is not available. One of the questions that must be answered when implementing RDTs is whether these tests are useful in a specific endemic region, as well as the most appropriate RDT to use. Data on the sensitivity and specificity of RDT test kits is important information to help guide test selection by national malaria control programmes. This study evaluated the diagnostic performance of RDTs including First Response (FR), CareStart (CS), SD Bioline (SD), and Binax Now (BN). The performance of these malaria kits was compared to microscopy, the gold standard, for the detection of malaria parasites. The malaria RDTs were also compared to PCR which is a more sensitive reference test. Five-hundred participants were included in the study through community screening (50 %) and testing suspected malaria cases referred from health facilities. Of the 500 participants recruited, 33 % were malaria positive by microscopy while 51.2 % were positive by PCR. Compared to microscopy, the sensitivity of eight RDTs to detect malaria parasites was 90.3-94.8 %, the specificity was 73.3-79.3 %, the positive predictive value was 62.2-68.8 %, and the negative predictive value was 94.3-96.8 %. Compared to PCR, the sensitivity of the RDTs to detect malaria parasites was 71.1-75.4 %, the specificity was 80.3-84.4 %, the positive predictive value was 80.3-83.3 %, and the negative predictive value was 73.7-76.1 %. The RDTs had a moderate measure of agreement with both microscopy (>80.1 %) and PCR (>77.6 %) with a κ > 0.6. The performance of the evaluated RDTs using field samples was moderate; hence they can significantly improve the quality

  9. One-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocol for rapid determination of emetic Bacillus cereus isolates.

    PubMed

    Kaminska, Paulina S; Fiedoruk, Krzysztof; Jankowska, Dominika; Mahillon, Jacques; Nowosad, Karol; Drewicka, Ewa; Zambrzycka, Monika; Swiecicka, Izabela

    2015-04-01

    Bacillus cereus, the Gram-positive and spore-forming ubiquitous bacterium, may cause emesis as the result of food intoxication with cereulide, a heat-stable emetic toxin. Rapid determination of cereulide-positive B. cereus isolates is of highest importance due to consequences of this intoxication for human health and life. Here we present a 1-day pulsed-field gel electrophoresis for emetic B. cereus isolates, which allows rapid and efficient determination of their genomic relatedness and helps determining the source of intoxication in case of outbreaks caused by these bacilli.

  10. AutoGrow: A Novel Algorithm for Protein Inhibitor Design

    PubMed Central

    Durrant, Jacob; Amaro, Rommie E.; McCammon, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Due in part to the increasing availability of crystallographic protein structures as well as rapid improvements in computing power, the past few decades have seen an explosion in the field of computer-based rational drug design. Several algorithms have been developed to identify or generate potential ligands in silico by optimizing the ligand-receptor hydrogen bond, electrostatic, and hydrophobic interactions. We here present AutoGrow, a novel computer-aided drug design algorithm that combines the strengths of both fragment-based growing and docking algorithms. To validate AutoGrow, we recreate three crystallographically resolved ligands from their constituent fragments. PMID:19207419

  11. Large multifocal cardiac myxoma causing the sudden unexpected death of a 2-month-old infant--a rapidly growing, acquired lesion versus a congenital process?: a case report.

    PubMed

    Kure, Kiyoe; Lingamfelter, Daniel; Taboada, Eugenio

    2011-06-01

    We report the occurrence of a clinically undiagnosed biatrial myxoma with left ventricular involvement in a 2-month-old male infant, resulting in sudden death. During a routine well-baby examination, a grade (34) holosystolic murmur was detected at the left sternal border with radiation to the axilla and back. On the following day, the patient collapsed and died suddenly. An autopsy revealed a large multifocal neoplasm diffusely involving the aortic valve while displaying mitral, tricuspid, and left ventricular extensions. The ensuing histopathologic and immunohistochemical studies were diagnostic for myxoma. We discuss the occurrence of cardiac myxoma within the pediatric population and review the literature as to theorize whether this lesion was a congenital process versus a rapidly growing tumor that developed after the child was born. Lastly, we address the potential for sudden death in patients with such tumors.

  12. Field Evaluation of a Semiautomated Method for Rapid and Simple Analysis of Recreational Water Microbiological Quality

    PubMed Central

    Anglès d'Auriac, Marc B.; Roberts, Hildegarde; Shaw, Terri; Sirevåg, Reidun; Hermansen, Leonila Fajardo; Berg, James D.

    2000-01-01

    An early warning system using a rapid enzymatic semiautomated method suitable for fecal coliform detection in recreational waters within 8 h was developed further and evaluated in this study. This rapid method was compared to the standard method followed in the United Kingdom. We used 1,011 samples originating from 206 different locations in Wales. When we assessed the presence or absence of fecal coliforms, targeting very low levels of contamination, we obtained 83.9% agreement between the rapid method and the lauryl sulfate broth-membrane filtration technique, whereas direct confirmation of the samples processed by the rapid method showed 89.3% agreement. Environmental enzymatic background activity was found to be the main limiting factor for this method. Owing to a specific and integrated handling of the results by the software of the instrument, the percentage of false-positive results (a consequence of enzymatic background) was successfully limited to 2.9% by the direct confirmation evaluation. However, 7.8% false-negative results due to “late-growers” had to be accepted in order to produce results within a working day. At present, the method can be used in a more conservative way to assess the environmental threshold of 100 CFU of fecal coliforms per 100 ml in recreational waters. The implications of our findings with regard to the applicability of rapid enzymatic methods are discussed. PMID:11010890

  13. Three-Dimensional Evaluation of the Upper Airway Morphological Changes in Growing Patients with Skeletal Class III Malocclusion Treated by Protraction Headgear and Rapid Palatal Expansion: A Comparative Research

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Ju; Wu, Zizhong; Xie, Yongtao; Li, Liang; Liu, Hong; Guo, Tiantian; Chen, Chen; Zhang, Shijie

    2015-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to evaluate the morphological changes of upper airway after protraction headgear and rapid maxillary expansion (PE) treatment in growing patients with Class III malocclusion and maxillary skeletal deficiency compared with untreated Class III patients by cone-beam computed tomography (CBCT). Methods Thirty growing patients who have completed PE therapy were included in PE group. The control group (n = 30) was selected from the growing untreated patients with the same diagnosis. The CBCT scans of the pre-treatment (T1) and post-treatment (T2) of PE group and the control group were collected. Reconstruction and registration of the 3D models of T1 and T2 were completed. By comparing the data obtained from T1, T2 and control group, the morphological changes of the upper airway during the PE treatment were evaluated. Results Comparing with the data from T1 group, the subspinale (A) of maxilla and the upper incisor (UI) of the T2 group were moved in the anterior direction. The gnathion (Gn) of mandible was moved in the posterior-inferior direction. The displacement of the hyoid bone as well as the length and width of dental arch showed significant difference. The volume and mean cross-sectional area of nasopharynx, velopharynx and glossopharynx region showed significant difference. The largest anteroposterior/the largest lateral (AP/LR) ratios of the velopharynx and glossopharynx were increased, but the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx was decreased. In addition, the length and width of the maxillary dental arch, the displacement of the hyoid bone, the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx, and the AP/LR ratio of the hypopharynx and velopharynx showed significant difference between the data from control and T2 group. Conclusion The PE treatment of Class Ⅲ malocclusion with maxillary skeletal hypoplasia leads to a significant increase in the volume of nasopharynx and velopharynx. PMID:26252015

  14. Two-gluon rapidity correlations of strong colour field in pp, pA and AA collisions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Ye-Yin; Xu, Ming-Mei; Zhang, Heng-Ying; Wu, Yuan-Fang

    2016-11-01

    Using the CGC formalism, we calculate the two-gluon rapidity correlations of strong colour fields in pp, pA and AA collisions, respectively. If one trigger gluon is fixed at central rapidity, a ridge-like correlation pattern is obtained in symmetry pp and AA collisions, and a huge bump-like correlation pattern is presented in asymmetry pA collisions. It is demonstrated that long-range ridge-like rapidity correlations are caused by the stronger correlation with the gluon of colour source. These features are independent of the azimuthal angular of two selected gluon. They are qualitatively consistent with current observed data at LHC. The transverse momentum and incident energy dependence of the ridge and bump-like correlations are also systematically studied. The ridge is more likely observed at higher incident energy and lower transverse momentum of trigger gluon.

  15. Bioaccumulation and translocation of metals in the natural vegetation growing on fly ash lagoons: a field study from Santaldih thermal power plant, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Maiti, Subodh Kumar; Jaiswal, Shishir

    2008-01-01

    A field study was conducted in the fly ash lagoons of Santandih Thermal Power Plant located in West Bengal (India) to find out total, EDTA and DTPA extractable metals in fly ash and their bioaccumulation in root and shoot portion of the naturally growing vegetation. Fly ash sample has alkaline pH and low conductivity. The concentration of total Cu, Zn, Pb and Ni were found higher than weathered fly ash and natural soil, where as Co, Cd and Cr were found traces. Five dominant vegetation namely, Typha latifolia, Fimbristylis dichotoma, Amaranthus defluxes, Saccharum spontaenum and Cynodon dactylon were collected in the winter months (November-December). Bioaccumulation of metals in root and shoot portions were found varied significantly among the species, but all concentration were found within toxic limits. Correlation between total, DTPA and EDTA extractable metals viz. root and shoot metals concentration were studied. Translocation factor (TF) for Cu, Zn and Ni were found less than unity, indicates that these metals are immobilized in the root part of the plants. Metals like Mn have TF greater than unity. The study infers that natural vegetation removed Mn by phytoextraction mechanisms (TF > 1), while other metals like Zn, Cu, Pb and Ni were removed by rhizofiltration mechanisms (TF < 1). The field study revealed that T. latifolia and S. spontaenum plants could be used for bioremediation of fly ash lagoon.

  16. Rapid Fielding: Case Study Concerning the Fielding of the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) M270A1 to 2d Battalion 4th Field Artillery Fort Sill, Oklahoma

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-06-16

    practice rockets (RRPRs). The flight phase at White Sands Missile Range, New Mexico, consisted of firing many pods of M26 and M26A2 rockets as well as...RAPID FIELDING: CASE STUDY CONCERNING THE FIELDING OF THE MULTIPLE-LAUNCH ROCKET SYSTEM M270A1 TO 2D BATTALION, 4TH FIELD ARTILLERY...Fielding: Case Study concerning the fielding of the Multiple Launch Rocket System (MLRS) M270A1 to 2d Battalion 4th Field Artillery Fort Sill

  17. Growing Spaceships?

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Robertson, Glen A.

    2013-01-01

    NASA currently has a program called the Space Synthetic Biology Project. Synthetic Biology or SynBio is the design and construction of new biological functions and systems not found in nature. Four NASA field centers, along with experts from industry and academia, have been partnering on the Space Synthetic Biology Project and are working on new breakthroughs in this increasingly useful pursuit, which is part a science discipline and part engineering. Led by researchers at NASA s Ames Research Center, the team is studying how this powerful new tool can help NASA now and in the future. The project was created to harness biology in reliable, robust, engineered systems to support the agency s exploration and science missions, to improve life on Earth and to help shape NASA's future. The program also is intended to contribute foundational tools to the synthetic biology research community.

  18. Rapid quantification of soilborne pathogen communities in wheat-based long-term field experiments

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Traditional isolation and quantification of inoculum density is difficult for most soilborne pathogens. Quantitative PCR methods have been developed to rapidly identify and quantify many of these pathogens using a single DNA extract from soil. Rainfed experiments operated continuously for up to 84 y...

  19. Rapid changes in corticospinal excitability during force field adaptation of human walking.

    PubMed

    Barthélemy, D; Alain, S; Grey, M J; Nielsen, J B; Bouyer, L J

    2012-03-01

    Force field adaptation of locomotor muscle activity is one way of studying the ability of the motor control networks in the brain and spinal cord to adapt in a flexible way to changes in the environment. Here, we investigate whether the corticospinal tract is involved in this adaptation. We measured changes in motor-evoked potentials (MEPs) elicited by transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) in the tibialis anterior (TA) muscle before, during, and after subjects adapted to a force field applied to the ankle joint during treadmill walking. When the force field assisted dorsiflexion during the swing phase of the step cycle, subjects adapted by decreasing TA EMG activity. In contrast, when the force field resisted dorsiflexion, they increased TA EMG activity. After the force field was removed, normal EMG activity gradually returned over the next 5 min of walking. TA MEPs elicited in the early swing phase of the step cycle were smaller during adaptation to the assistive force field and larger during adaptation to the resistive force field. When elicited 5 min after the force field was removed, MEPs returned to their original values. The changes in TA MEPs were larger than what could be explained by changes in background TA EMG activity. These effects seemed specific to walking, as similar changes in TA MEP were not seen when seated subjects were tested during static dorsiflexion. These observations suggest that the corticospinal tract contributes to the adaptation of walking to an external force field.

  20. Rapid determination of cell mass and density using digitally controlled electric field in a microfluidic chip.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yuliang; Lai, Hok Sum Sam; Zhang, Guanglie; Lee, Gwo-Bin; Li, Wen Jung

    2014-11-21

    The density of a single cell is a fundamental property of cells. Cells in the same cycle phase have similar volume, but the differences in their mass and density could elucidate each cell's physiological state. Here we report a novel technique to rapidly measure the density and mass of a single cell using an optically induced electrokinetics (OEK) microfluidic platform. Presently, single cellular mass and density measurement devices require a complicated fabrication process and their output is not scalable, i.e., it is extremely difficult to measure the mass and density of a large quantity of cells rapidly. The technique reported here operates on a principle combining sedimentation theory, computer vision, and microparticle manipulation techniques in an OEK microfluidic platform. We will show in this paper that this technique enables the measurement of single-cell volume, density, and mass rapidly and accurately in a repeatable manner. The technique is also scalable - it allows simultaneous measurement of volume, density, and mass of multiple cells. Essentially, a simple time-controlled projected light pattern is used to illuminate the selected area on the OEK microfluidic chip that contains cells to lift the cells to a particular height above the chip's surface. Then, the cells are allowed to "free fall" to the chip's surface, with competing buoyancy, gravitational, and fluidic drag forces acting on the cells. By using a computer vision algorithm to accurately track the motion of the cells and then relate the cells' motion trajectory to sedimentation theory, the volume, mass, and density of each cell can be rapidly determined. A theoretical model of micro-sized spheres settling towards an infinite plane in a microfluidic environment is first derived and validated experimentally using standard micropolystyrene beads to demonstrate the viability and accuracy of this new technique. Next, we show that the yeast cell volume, mass, and density could be rapidly

  1. EMF Rapid Program Engineering Projects, Project 1, Development of Recommendations for Guidelines for Field Source Measurement

    SciTech Connect

    Electric Research and Management, Inc.

    1997-03-11

    The goal of this project is to develop a protocol for measuring the electric and magnetic fields around sources. Data from these measurements may help direct future biological effects research by better defining the complexity of magnetic and electric fields to which humanity is exposed, as well asprovide the basis for rigorous field exposure analysis and risk assessment once the relationship between field exposure and biological response. is better understood. The data base also should have sufficient spatial and temporal characteristics to guide electric and magnetic field management. The goal of Task A is to construct a set of characteristics that would be ideal to have for guiding and interpreting biological studies and for focusing any future effort at field management. This ideal set will then be quantified and reduced according to the availability (or possible development of) instrumentation to measure the desired characteristics. Factors that also will be used to define pragmatic data sets will be the cost of collecting the data, the cost of developing an adequate data base, and the needed precision in measuring specific characteristics. A field, electric or magnetic, will always be ,some function of time and space. The first step in this section of the protocol development will be to determine what span of time and what portion of space are required to quantify the electric and magnetic fields around sources such as appliances and electrical apparatus. Constraints on time will be set by examining measurement limitations and biological data requirements.

  2. Magnetic field topology and chemical abundance distributions of the young, rapidly rotating, chemically peculiar star HR 5624

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kochukhov, O.; Silvester, J.; Bailey, J. D.; Landstreet, J. D.; Wade, G. A.

    2017-09-01

    Context. The young, rapidly rotating Bp star HR 5624 (HD 133880) shows an unusually strong non-sinusoidal variability of its longitudinal magnetic field. This behaviour was previously interpreted as the signature of an exceptionally strong, quadrupole-dominated surface magnetic field geometry. Aims: We studied the magnetic field structure and chemical abundance distributions of HR 5624 with the aim to verify the unusual quadrupolar nature of its magnetic field and to investigate correlations between the field topology and chemical spots. Methods: We analysed high-resolution, time series Stokes parameter spectra of HR 5624 with the help of a magnetic Doppler imaging inversion code based on detailed polarised radiative transfer modelling of the line profiles. Results: We refined the stellar parameters, revised the rotational period, and obtained new longitudinal magnetic field measurements. Our magnetic Doppler inversions reveal that the field structure of HR 5624 is considerably simpler and the field strength is much lower than proposed by previous studies. We find a maximum local field strength of 12 kG and a mean field strength of 4 kG, which is about a factor of three weaker than predicted by quadrupolar field models. Our model implies that overall large-scale field topology of HR 5624 is better described as a distorted, asymmetric dipole rather than an axisymmetric quadrupole. The chemical abundance maps of Mg, Si, Ti, Cr, Fe, and Nd obtained in our study are characterised by large-scale, high-contrast abundance patterns. These structures correlate weakly with the magnetic field geometry and, in particular, show no distinct element concentrations in the horizontal field regions predicted by theoretical atomic diffusion calculations. Conclusions: We conclude that the surface magnetic field topology of HR 5624 is not as unusual as previously proposed. Considering these results together with other recent magnetic mapping analyses of early-type stars suggests that

  3. A review of rapid and field-portable analytical techniques for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure.

    PubMed

    Jackson, Randy; Logue, Brian A

    2017-04-01

    Although commonly known as a highly toxic chemical, cyanide is also an essential reagent for many industrial processes in areas such as mining, electroplating and synthetic fiber production. The "heavy" use of cyanide in these industries, along with its necessary transportation, increases the possibility of human exposure. Another relatively common, but consistently overlooked, mode of cyanide exposure is inhalation of fire smoke. Both civilians and fire rescue personnel risk exposure during the unfortunate event of a structure fire. Additionally, fire rescue personnel risk long-term effects of habitual exposure throughout their careers in fire rescue. The relatively rapid onset of cyanide toxicity and the fact that cyanide exposure symptoms mimic other medical conditions necessitate a rapid, sensitive, portable, and accurate method for the diagnosis of cyanide exposure. This review focuses on the important issues concerning accurate point-of-care diagnosis of cyanide exposure and cyanide detection technologies that may allow a commercial cyanide exposure diagnostic to become a reality.

  4. Methods for automatized detection of rapid changes in lateral boundary condition fields for NWP limited area models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tudor, M.

    2015-08-01

    Three-hourly temporal resolution of lateral boundary data for limited area models (LAMs) can be too infrequent to resolve rapidly moving storms. This problem is expected to be worse with increasing horizontal resolution. In order to detect intensive disturbances in surface pressure moving rapidly through the model domain, a filtered surface pressure field (MCUF) is computed operationally in the ARPEGE global model of Météo France. The field is distributed in the coupling files along with conventional meteorological fields used for lateral boundary conditions (LBCs) for the operational forecast using limited area model ALADIN (Aire Limitée Adaptation dynamique Développement InterNational) in the Meteorological and Hydrological Service of Croatia (DHMZ). Here an analysis is performed of the MCUF field for the LACE coupling domain for the period from 23 January 2006, when it became available, until 15 November 2014. The MCUF field is a good indicator of rapidly moving pressure disturbances (RMPDs). Its spatial and temporal distribution can be associated with the usual cyclone tracks and areas known to be supporting cyclogenesis. An alternative set of coupling files from the IFS operational run in the European Centre for Medium-Range Weather Forecasts (ECMWF) is also available operationally in DHMZ with 3-hourly temporal resolution, but the MCUF field is not available. Here, several methods are tested that detect RMPDs in surface pressure a posteriori from the IFS model fields provided in the coupling files. MCUF is computed by running ALADIN on the coupling files from IFS. The error function is computed using one-time-step integration of ALADIN on the coupling files without initialization, initialized with digital filter initialization (DFI) or scale-selective DFI (SSDFI). Finally, the amplitude of changes in the mean sea level pressure is computed from the fields in the coupling files. The results are compared to the MCUF field of ARPEGE and the results of same

  5. Is Sordac’s Rapid Acquisition Process Best Prepared To Field Solutions For Future Technological Challenges

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2016-03-31

    risks to the government, has spun off applicable and relevant technologies, and has been critical in enhancing the most capable and feared fighting... success despite rapidly evolving future challenges.2 Admiral William McRaven Commander, USSOCOM “SOCOM 2020” Introduction The Department of...spin-off technologies, and have proven to be critical to the most capable and feared fighting force in the world. SORDAC’s culture and practices

  6. Field Evaluation of a Dual Rapid Immunodiagnostic Test for HIV and Syphilis infection in Peru

    PubMed Central

    Bristow, Claire C.; Leon, Segundo R.; Huang, Emily; Ramos, Lourdes B.; Vargas, Silver K.; Flores, Juan A.; Konda, Kelika A.; Caceres, Carlos F.; Klausner, Jeffrey D.

    2015-01-01

    Background Integrated prevention for HIV and syphilis is warranted because both syphilis and HIV infections have evidence-based, scalable interventions using current health care mechanisms. The advent of dual rapid point-of-care tests, single devices that can detect multiple infections using the same specimen, provides the opportunity to integrate the screening of syphilis into HIV programs, potentially increasing the numbers of people tested and allowing for same-day testing and treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test (MedMira Inc, Halifax, Nova Scotia, Canada), a qualitative, rapid immunoassay that detects antibodies to T. pallidum and HIV. Methods The reference standard test for comparison to the T. pallidum component of the Multiplo TP/HIV Test was Treponema Pallidum Particle Agglutination assay. For the HIV component, the reference test included a 4th-generation enzyme immunoassay with a confirmatory Western blot test. Results The sensitivity and specificity for the HIV antibody component were 93.8% (95% CI: 69.8%, 99.8%) and 100% (95% CI: 97.7%, 100%), respectively. The Treponema pallidum component of the test had a sensitivity of 81.0% (95% CI: 68.1%, 94.6%) and a specificity of 100% (95% CI: 97.6%, 100%). Conclusions Our study showed excellent performance of the HIV antibody component of the test and very good performance for the Treponema pallidum antibody component of the MedMira Multiplo Rapid TP/HIV Antibody Test, which should be considered to improve screening coverage. Use of effective dual tests will create improved access to more comprehensive care by integrating the screening of syphilis into HIV prevention programs. PMID:26650998

  7. Rapid determination of fluid viscosity using low-field two-dimensional NMR.

    PubMed

    Deng, Feng; Xiao, Lizhi; Chen, Weiliang; Liu, Huabing; Liao, Guangzhi; Wang, Mengying; Xie, Qingming

    2014-10-01

    The rapid prediction of fluid viscosity, especially the fluid in heavy-oil petroleum reservoirs, is of great importance for oil exploration and transportation. We suggest a new method for rapid prediction of fluid viscosity using two-dimensional (2D) NMR relaxation time distributions. DEFIR, Driven-Equilibrium Fast-Inversion Recovery, a new pulse sequence for rapid measurement of 2D relaxation times, is proposed. The 2D relation between the ratio of transverse relaxation time to longitudinal relaxation time (T1/T2) and T1 distribution of fluid are obtained by means of DEFIR with only two one-dimensional measurements. The measurement speed of DEFIR pulse sequence over 2 times as fast as that of the traditional 2D method. Using Bloembergen theory, the relation between the distributions and fluid viscosity is found. Precise method for viscosity prediction is then established. Finally, we apply this method to a down-hole NMR fluid analysis system and realized on-site and on-line prediction of viscosity for formation fluids. The results demonstrated that the new method for viscosity prediction is efficient and accurate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Geological reasons for rapid water encroachment in wells at Sutorma oil field

    SciTech Connect

    Arkhipov, S.V.; Dvorak, S.V.; Sonich, V.P.; Nikolayeva, Ye.V.

    1987-12-01

    The Sutorma oil field on the northern Surgut dome is one of the new fields in West Siberia. It came into production in 1982, but already by 1983 it was found that the water contents in the fluids produced were much greater than the design values. The adverse effects are particularly pronounced for the main reservoir at the deposit, the BS/sub 10//sup 2/ stratum. Later, similar problems occurred at other fields in the Noyarbr and Purpey regions. It is therefore particularly important to elucidate the geological reasons for water encroachment.

  9. Rapid estimation of Aedes aegypti population size using simulation modeling, with a novel approach to calibration and field validation.

    PubMed

    Williams, Craig R; Johnson, Petrina H; Long, Sharron A; Rapley, Luke P; Ritchie, Scott A

    2008-11-01

    New approaches for control of the dengue vector Aedes aegypti (L.) are being developed, including the potential introduction of life-shortening symbiont bacteria into field populations and the release of transgenic strains with reduced vector competency. With these new approaches comes the need for rapid estimations of existing field population size. Here, we describe the use of simulation modeling with container-inhabiting mosquito simulation (CIMSiM) for estimation of Ae. aegypti pupal crop size in north Queensland, Australia. CIMSiM was calibrated for local conditions by deploying "sentinel key containers" (tire, 2-liter plastic bucket, 0.6-liter pot plant base, and tarpaulin indentation) in which water flux and pupal productivity were studied for 72 d. Iterative adjustment of CIMSiM parameters was used to fit model outputs to match that of sentinel key containers. This calibrated model was then used in a blind field validation, in which breeding container and local meteorological data were used to populate CIMSiM, and model outputs were compared with a field pupal survey. Actual pupae per ha during two 10-d periods in 2007 fell within 95% confidence intervals of simulated pupal crop estimates made by 10 replicate simulations in CIMSiM, thus providing a successful field validation. Although the stochasticity of the field environment can never be wholly simulated, CIMSiM can provide field-validated estimates of pupal crop in a timely manner by using simple container surveys.

  10. Development of arsenic testing field kit--a tool for rapid on-site screening of arsenic contaminated water sources.

    PubMed

    Deshpande, Leena S; Pande, Sunil P

    2005-02-01

    Recognizing the enormity and severity of the problem of arsenic poisoning in ground water, the capabilities of commercially available arsenic detection field kits were critically evaluated. In the light of findings of the evaluation of these kits, their merits and limitations; a simple, efficient, prudent, userfriendly, indigenous field kit has been developed. The kit can be used for rapid on-site screening of arsenic contaminated water sources and is capable of detecting arsenic concentration as low as 0.01 mg L(-1), the guideline value for arsenic set by the WHO. The kit has been subjected to extensive laboratory and field testing. The details of development of the kit and its salient features are presented in the paper.

  11. Rapid Spatial Mapping of Focused Ultrasound Fields Using a Planar Fabry-Pérot Sensor.

    PubMed

    Martin, Eleanor; Zhang, Edward Z; Guggenheim, James A; Beard, Paul C; Treeby, Bradley E

    2017-09-04

    Measurement of high acoustic pressures is necessary in order to fully characterise clinical high-intensity focused ultrasound (HIFU) fields, and for accurate validation of computational models of ultrasound propagation. However, many existing measurement devices are unable to withstand the extreme pressures generated in these fields, and those that can often exhibit low sensitivity. Here, a planar Fabry-Pérot interferometer with hard dielectric mirrors and spacer was designed, fabricated, and characterised and its suitability for measurement of nonlinear focused ultrasound fields was investigated. The noise equivalent pressure of the scanning system scaled with the adjustable pressure detection range between 49 kPa for pressures up to 8 MPa and 152 kPa for measurements up to 25 MPa, over a 125 MHz measurement bandwidth. Measurements of the frequency response of the sensor showed that it varied by less than 3 dB in the range 1 - 62 MHz. The effective element size of the sensor was 65 μm and waveforms were acquired at a rate of 200 Hz. The device was used to measure the acoustic pressure in the field of a 1.1 MHz single element spherically focused bowl transducer. Measurements of the acoustic field at low pressures compared well with measurements made using a PVDF needle hydrophone. At high pressures, the measured peak focal pressures agreed well with the focal pressure modelled using the Khokhlov-Zabolotskaya-Kuznetsov equation. Maximum peak positive pressures of 25 MPa, and peak negative pressures of 12 MPa were measured, and planar field scans were acquired in scan times on the order of 1 minute. The properties of the sensor and scanning system are well suited to measurement of nonlinear focused ultrasound fields, in both the focal region and the low pressure peripheral regions. The fast acquisition speed of the system and its low noise equivalent pressure are advantageous, and with further development of the sensor, it has potential in application to HIFU

  12. [Research and practice. For a rapid transfer of knowledge in the field of nursing].

    PubMed

    Ducharme, F

    1998-01-01

    The need to accelerate the process of transferring knowledge from research to practice is a growing concern for researchers and clinicians in the nursing sciences. Francine Ducharme, associate professor at the nursing science faculty of the Université de Montréal and researcher at the Institut universitaire de gériatrie de Montréal, first describes the current research in the nursing sciences and its contributions to public health and to the cost-effectiveness of the health care system. She then discusses the problem of the still very slow transition of knowledge from theory to practice. Finally, she presents strategies to integrate a knowledge transfer process within the research processes and outlines a model for cooperation between clinicians and researchers as well as a number of scenarios for the future.

  13. Rapid Fabrication of Graphene Field-Effect Transistors with Liquid-metal Interconnects and Electrolytic Gate Dielectric Made of Honey.

    PubMed

    Ordonez, Richard C; Hayashi, Cody K; Torres, Carlos M; Melcher, Jordan L; Kamin, Nackieb; Severa, Godwin; Garmire, David

    2017-08-31

    Historically, graphene-based transistor fabrication has been time-consuming due to the high demand for carefully controlled Raman spectroscopy, physical vapor deposition, and lift-off processes. For the first time in a three-terminal graphene field-effect transistor embodiment, we introduce a rapid fabrication technique that implements non-toxic eutectic liquid-metal Galinstan interconnects and an electrolytic gate dielectric comprised of honey. The goal is to minimize cost and turnaround time between fabrication runs; thereby, allowing researchers to focus on the characterization of graphene phenomena that drives innovation rather than a lengthy device fabrication process that hinders it. We demonstrate characteristic Dirac peaks for a single-gate graphene field-effect transistor embodiment that exhibits hole and electron mobilities of 213 ± 15 and 166 ± 5 cm (2)/V·s respectively. We discuss how our methods can be used for the rapid determination of graphene quality and can complement Raman Spectroscopy techniques. Lastly, we explore a PN junction embodiment which further validates that our fabrication techniques can rapidly adapt to alternative device architectures and greatly broaden the research applicability.

  14. Field trial evaluating changes in prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from growing broilers medicated with enrofloxacin, apramycin and amoxicillin.

    PubMed

    da Costa, Paulo Martins; Belo, Anabela; Gonçalves, José; Bernardo, Fernando

    2009-11-18

    The present study investigates, under field conditions, the influence of antimicrobial administration on prevalence and patterns of antimicrobial resistance among Escherichia coli and Enterococcus spp. isolated from growing broilers. For this purpose, a group of 16,000 commercial broiler chickens was treated with enrofloxacin from day 1 to day 3, gentamicin from day 19 to day 21, and ampicillin from day 26 to day 28. A control group of 16,000 broilers was placed in the same controlled environment poultry house. Fecal (from both groups) and feed samples were collected at regular intervals. Few E. coli isolates were obtained from either farm environment or poultry feed samples, while enterococci were found to be ubiquitous among these samples. The frequency of resistance against most antimicrobials tested was significantly higher (P<0.05) in E. coli isolated from broilers receiving intermittent antimicrobial pressure than that from non-medicated broilers, whereas in enterococci these differences were only observed among structurally related antimicrobial drugs and over a short period of time. By the time the broilers reached market age (33 days), several multi-resistant E. coli and enterococci were detected in the feces of the medicated group. Results suggest that antimicrobial resistance in E. coli was mainly medication-dependent, whereas among enterococci, changes observed over time were apparently influenced by factors apart from antimicrobial exposure, namely the resistance organisms previously present in farm environment and those present in feedstuffs.

  15. Phenotypic and molecular fingerprinting of fast growing rhizobia of field-grown pigeonpea from the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

    PubMed

    Costa, F M; Schiavo, J A; Brasil, M S; Leite, J; Xavier, G R; Fernandes, P I

    2014-01-21

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the diversity of rhizobial isolates obtained from root nodules of pigeonpea plants grown at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal. The bacterial isolates were isolated from root nodules from field-growing pigeonpea grown in two rural settlements of the Aquidauana municipality. The bacterial isolates were characterized phenotypically by means of cultural characterization, intrinsic antibiotic resistance (IAR), salt and high incubation temperature tolerance, and amylolytic and cellulolytic activities. The molecular characterization of the bacterial isolates was carried out using amplified ribosomal DNA restriction analysis (ARDRA) and Box-polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. In addition, the symbiotic performance of selected rhizobial isolates was evaluated in a greenhouse experiment using sterile substrate. The phenotypic characterization revealed that the bacterial strains obtained from pigeonpea root nodules presented characteristics that are uncommon among rhizobial isolates, indicating the presence of new species nodulating the pigeonpea plants in the Brazilian Pantanal. The molecular fingerprinting of these bacterial isolates also showed a highly diverse collection, with both techniques revealing less than 25% similarity among bacterial isolates. The evaluation of symbiotic performance also indicated the presence of microorganisms with high potential to increase the growth and nitrogen content at the shoots of pigeonpea plants. The results obtained in this study indicate the presence of a highly diversified rhizobial community nodulating the pigeonpea at the eastern edge of the Brazilian Pantanal.

  16. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; ...

    2014-08-05

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and moremore » accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for eight months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of another commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of calibration cylinders.« less

  17. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    DOE PAGES

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; ...

    2014-12-15

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 μmol mol-1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of themore » optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for 8 months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of a commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of reference gas cylinders.« less

  18. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-08-01

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for eight months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of another commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of calibration cylinders.

  19. Development and field testing of a rapid and ultra-stable atmospheric carbon dioxide spectrometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiang, B.; Nelson, D. D.; McManus, J. B.; Zahniser, M. S.; Wehr, R. A.; Wofsy, S. C.

    2014-12-01

    We present field test results for a new spectroscopic instrument to measure atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) with high precision (0.02 μmol mol-1, or ppm at 1 Hz) and demonstrate high stability (within 0.1 ppm over more than 8 months), without the need for hourly, daily, or even monthly calibration against high-pressure gas cylinders. The technical novelty of this instrument (ABsolute Carbon dioxide, ABC) is the spectral null method using an internal quartz reference cell with known CO2 column density. Compared to a previously described prototype, the field instrument has better stability and benefits from more precise thermal control of the optics and more accurate pressure measurements in the sample cell (at the mTorr level). The instrument has been deployed at a long-term ecological research site (the Harvard Forest, USA), where it has measured for 8 months without on-site calibration and with minimal maintenance, showing drift bounds of less than 0.1 ppm. Field measurements agree well with those of a commercially available cavity ring-down CO2 instrument (Picarro G2301) run with a standard calibration protocol. This field test demonstrates that ABC is capable of performing high-accuracy, unattended, continuous field measurements with minimal use of reference gas cylinders.

  20. Identification of different subtypes of rapid growing Atypical Mycobacterium from water and soil sources: Using PCR-RFLP using hsp65 and rRNA 16s-23s genes.

    PubMed

    Varahram, Mohammad; Farnia, Parissa; Saif, Shima; Marashian, Mehran; Farnia, Poopak; Ghanavi, Jaladein; Velayati, Ali Akbar

    2016-12-01

    Nontuberculosis mycobacteria (NTM) are a diverse group of microorganisms that cause a variety of diseases in humans including skin, respiratory, and gastrointestinal tract infection. Generally, NTM are classified into two categories: rapid (<7days) and slow growing (>7days). In this study, we aimed to investigate NTM frequency and prevalence in environmental samples. Additionally, we tried to identify various subtypes of isolated rapid growing mycobacteria (RGM). Through a prospective descriptive cross-sectional study, water and soil samples were gathered from four neighboring towns around Tehran, the capital of Iran, at different geographic directions. Every 100m(2) of the studied areas gave one sample containing 6g of soil in 3-5cm depth deposited in 50mL sterile water as sampling media. After digestion and decontamination, DNA from culture-positive specimens (RGM) were extracted using phenol-chloroform methods. Then the molecular identification of species and subspecies were performed using 16s-23s rRNA and hsp65 gene. In total, 341 RGM were found, out of which 322 (94.4%) were identified and 20 (5.8%) could not be identified. The most frequent RGM was, Mycobacterium fortuitum (72; 22%), Mycobacterium senegalense (58; 17.7%), Mycobacterium parafortuitum (44; 13.4%) and Mycobacterium conceptionense type 1 (24; 7.2%), and Mycobacterium cheloni type 1 (20; 6.0%). As shown in Table 1, M. fortuitum had more subtypes (8), and the frequency of subtypes 1 (27.7%), 4 (16.6%), and 5 (13.8%) were higher. Among subtypes of M. senegalense, subtype 1 had a higher frequency (70.4%) in comparison to subtype 2 (29.5%). M. cheloni had just one subtype. Our results showed M. fortuitum as the most prominent strain isolated from environmental samples. The frequency was similar in different places, irrespective of climatic variations. Availability of various subtypes of M. fortuitum might indicate a large circulation of this RGM in soil and water of Iranian territory. This high

  1. Accuracy of Acuros XB and AAA dose calculation for small fields with reference to RapidArc(®) stereotactic treatments.

    PubMed

    Fogliata, Antonella; Nicolini, Giorgia; Clivio, Alessandro; Vanetti, Eugenio; Cozzi, Luca

    2011-11-01

    To assess the accuracy against measurements of two photon dose calculation algorithms (Acuros XB and the Anisotropic Analytical algorithm AAA) for small fields usable in stereotactic treatments with particular focus on RapidArc(®). Acuros XB and AAA were configured for stereotactic use. Baseline accuracy was assessed on small jaw-collimated open fields for different values for the spot sizes parameter in the beam data: 0.0, 0.5, 1, and 2 mm. Data were calculated with a grid of 1 × 1 mm(2). Investigated fields were: 3 × 3, 2 × 2, 1 × 1, and 0.8 × 0.8 cm(2) with a 6 MV photon beam generated from a Clinac2100iX (Varian, Palo Alto, CA). Profiles, PDD, and output factors were measured in water with a PTW diamond detector (detector size: 4 mm(2), thickness 0.4 mm) and compared to calculations. Four RapidArc test plans were optimized, calculated and delivered with jaw settings J3 × 3, J2 × 2, and J1 × 1 cm(2), the last was optimized twice to generate high (H) and low (L) modulation patterns. Each plan consisted of one partial arc (gantry 110° to 250°), and collimator 45°. Dose to isocenter was measured in a PTW Octavius phantom and compared to calculations. 2D measurements were performed by means of portal dosimetry with the GLAaS method developed at authors' institute. Analysis was performed with gamma pass-fail test with 3% dose difference and 2 mm distance to agreement thresholds. Open square fields: penumbrae from open field profiles were in good agreement with diamond measurements for 1 mm spot size setting for Acuros XB, and between 0.5 and 1 mm for AAA. Maximum MU difference between calculations and measurements was 1.7% for Acuros XB (0.2% for fields greater than 1 × 1 cm(2)) with 0.5 or 1 mm spot size. Agreement for AAA was within 0.7% (2.8%) for 0.5 (1 mm) spot size. RapidArc plans: doses were evaluated in a 4 mm diameter structure at isocenter and computed values differed from measurements by 0.0, -0.2, 5.5, and

  2. Interplay effect of angular dependence and calibration field size of MapCHECK 2 on RapidArc quality assurance.

    PubMed

    Jin, Hosang; Keeling, Vance P; Johnson, Daniel A; Ahmad, Salahuddin

    2014-05-08

    The purpose of this study is to investigate an effect of angular dependence and calibration field size of MapCHECK 2 on RapidArc QA for 6, 8, 10, and 15 MV. The angular dependence was investigated by comparing MapCHECK 2 measurements in MapPHAN-MC2 to the corresponding Eclipse calculations every 10° using 10× 10 cm2 and 3 × 3 cm2 fields. Fourteen patients were selected to make RapidArc plans using the four energies, and verification plans were delivered to two phantom setups: MapCHECK 2/MapPHAN phantom (MapPHAN QA) and MapCHECK 2 on an isocentric mounting fixture (IMF QA). Migration of MapCHECK 2 on IMF was simulated by splitting arcs every 10° and displacing an isocenter of each partial arc in the Eclipse system (IMFACTUAL QA). To investigate the effect of calibration field size, MapCHECK 2 was calibrated by two field sizes (10 × 10 cm2 and 3 × 3 cm2) and applied to all QA measurements. The γ test was implemented using criteria of 1%/1 mm, 2%/2 mm, and 3%/3 mm. A mean dose of all compared points for each plan was compared with respect to a mean effective field size of the RapidArc plan. The angular dependence was considerably high at gantry angles of 90° ± 10° and 270° ± 10° (for 10 × 10/3 × 3 cm2 at 90°, 30.6% ± 6.6%/33.4%± 5.8% (6 MV), 17.3% ± 5.3%/15.0% ± 6.8% (8 MV), 8.9%± 2.9%/7.8% ± 3.2% (10 MV), and 2.2% ± 2.3%/-1.3% ± 2.6% (15 MV)). For 6 MV, the angular dependence significantly deteriorated the γ passing rate for plans of large field size in MapPHAN QA (< 90% using 3%/3 mm); however, these plans passed the γ test in IMFACTUAL QA (> 95%). The different calibration field sizes did not make any significant dose difference for both MapPHAN QA and IMFACTUAL QA. For 8, 10, and 15 MV, the angular dependence does not make any clinically meaningful impact on MapPHAN QA. Both MapPHAN QA and IMFACTUAL QA presented clinically acceptable γ passing rates using 3%/3 mm. MapPHAN QA showed better passing rates than IMFACTUAL QA for the

  3. Rapid Evolution of Parasite Resistance in a Warmer Environment: Insights from a Large Scale Field Experiment

    PubMed Central

    Mateos-Gonzalez, Fernando; Sundström, L. Fredrik; Schmid, Marian; Björklund, Mats

    2015-01-01

    Global climate change is expected to have major effects on host-parasite dynamics, with potentially enormous consequences for entire ecosystems. To develop an accurate prognostic framework, theoretical models must be supported by empirical research. We investigated potential changes in host-parasite dynamics between a fish parasite, the eyefluke Diplostomum baeri, and an intermediate host, the European perch Perca fluviatilis, in a large-scale semi-enclosed area in the Baltic Sea, the Biotest Lake, which since 1980 receives heated water from a nuclear power plant. Two sample screenings, in two consecutive years, showed that fish from the warmer Biotest Lake were now less parasitized than fish from the Baltic Sea. These results are contrasting previous screenings performed six years after the temperature change, which showed the inverse situation. An experimental infection, by which perch from both populations were exposed to D. baeri from the Baltic Sea, revealed that perch from the Baltic Sea were successfully infected, while Biotest fish were not. These findings suggest that the elevated temperature may have resulted, among other outcomes, in an extremely rapid evolutionary change through which fish from the experimental Biotest Lake have gained resistance to the parasite. Our results confirm the need to account for both rapid evolutionary adaptation and biotic interactions in predictive models, and highlight the importance of empirical research in order to validate future projections. PMID:26035300

  4. Different effects of biochar and a nitrification inhibitor application on paddy soil denitrification: A field experiment over two consecutive rice-growing seasons.

    PubMed

    Wang, Shuwei; Shan, Jun; Xia, Yongqiu; Tang, Quan; Xia, Longlong; Lin, Jinghui; Yan, Xiaoyuan

    2017-09-01

    Biochar and nitrification inhibitors are increasingly being proposed as amendments to improve nitrogen use efficiency (NUE). However, their effects on soil denitrification and the major N loss in rice paddies over an entire rice-growing season are not well understood. In this study, using intact soil core incubation combined with N2/Ar technique, the impacts of biochar and a nitrification inhibitor (Ni), 2-chloro-6-(trichloromethyl)-pyridine, on rice yield and soil denitrification, as well as ammonia (NH3) volatilization, were investigated over two rice-growing seasons in the Taihu Lake region of China. Field experiments were designed with four treatments: N0 (no N applied), N270 (270kg N ha(-1) applied), N270+C (25tha(-1) biochar applied) and N270+Ni (2-chloro-6- [trichloromethyl] -pyridine, 1.35kgha(-1)N applied). Compared with single application of N fertilizer alone (N270), biochar (N270+C) and Ni (N270+Ni) applications increased rice yields by 4.2-5.2% and 6.2-7.3%, respectively. The cumulative N2-N and NH3-N losses in different treatments varied from 11.9 to 21.8% and from 11.5 to 22.0% of the applied N, respectively. Compared with the single application of N fertilizer, the Ni application increased total NH3 emission by 4.0-20.6% and significantly decreased total N2-N emission by 9.7-19.4% (p<0.05), while the biochar application increased total NH3 and N2-N emissions by 8.6-17.9% and 3.3-9.7%, respectively. Overall, the biochar application resulted in an 11-15% higher net gaseous N than the Ni application. Although the biochar application may increase the rice yield and consequently the plant N uptake, it also promoted N loss more than Ni. Therefore biochar may not be good for maintaining soil fertility over a long period. Instead, applying Ni may be an optimal practice to ensure food security, while decreasing gaseous N loss, for rice production in the Taihu Lake region of China. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Towards accurate cosmological predictions for rapidly oscillating scalar fields as dark matter

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ureña-López, L. Arturo; Gonzalez-Morales, Alma X.

    2016-07-01

    As we are entering the era of precision cosmology, it is necessary to count on accurate cosmological predictions from any proposed model of dark matter. In this paper we present a novel approach to the cosmological evolution of scalar fields that eases their analytic and numerical analysis at the background and at the linear order of perturbations. The new method makes use of appropriate angular variables that simplify the writing of the equations of motion, and which also show that the usual field variables play a secondary role in the cosmological dynamics. We apply the method to a scalar field endowed with a quadratic potential and revisit its properties as dark matter. Some of the results known in the literature are recovered, and a better understanding of the physical properties of the model is provided. It is confirmed that there exists a Jeans wavenumber kJ, directly related to the suppression of linear perturbations at wavenumbers k > kJ, and which is verified to be kJ = a √mH. We also discuss some semi-analytical results that are well satisfied by the full numerical solutions obtained from an amended version of the CMB code CLASS. Finally we draw some of the implications that this new treatment of the equations of motion may have in the prediction of cosmological observables from scalar field dark matter models.

  6. Rapid immunocytochemistry based on alternating current electric field using squash smear preparation of central nervous system tumors.

    PubMed

    Moriya, Jun; Tanino, Mishie Ann; Takenami, Tomoko; Endoh, Tomoko; Urushido, Masana; Kato, Yasutaka; Wang, Lei; Kimura, Taichi; Tsuda, Masumi; Nishihara, Hiroshi; Tanaka, Shinya

    2016-01-01

    The role of intraoperative pathological diagnosis for central nervous system (CNS) tumors is crucial for neurosurgery when determining the surgical procedure. Especially, treatment of carmustine (BCNU) wafers requires a conclusive diagnosis of high-grade glioma proven by intraoperative diagnosis. Recently, we demonstrated the usefulness of rapid immunohistochemistry (R-IHC) that facilitates antigen-antibody reaction under alternative current (AC) electric field in the intraoperative diagnosis of CNS tumors; however, a higher proportion of water and lipid in the brain parenchyma sometimes leads to freezing artifacts, resulting in poor quality of frozen sections. On the other hand, squash smear preparation of CNS tumors for cytology does not affect the frozen artifacts, and the importance of smear preparation is now being re-recognized as being better than that of the tissue sections. In this study, we established the rapid immunocytochemistry (R-ICC) protocol for squash smears of CNS tumors using AC electric field that takes only 22 min, and demonstrated its usefulness for semi-quantitative Ki-67/MIB-1 labeling index and CD 20 by R-ICC for intraoperative diagnosis. R-ICC by AC electric field may become a substantial tool for compensating R-IHC and will be applied for broad antibodies in the future.

  7. Utilisation of young and old soil carbon sources by microbial groups differ during the growing season and between experimental treatments in a long-term field experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Börjesson, Gunnar; Menichetti, Lorenzo; Thornton, Barry; Campbell, Colin; Kätterer, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    Soil organic matter (SOM)is the largest active carbon pool in the terrestrial environment. SOM is a key factor for soil fertility, but is also important for the sequestration of atmospheric CO2. In agricultural soils, management of plant residues and the use of organic fertilisers play important roles for maintaining SOM. Switching from C3 plants to C4 plants such as maize, enables a natural labelling in situ; when coupled with compound specific 13C isotope analysis of phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) it allows the proportion of new C (fixed after the switch added to soil from above- and belowground litter and root exudates) and the proportion of old C (fixed prior to the switch derived from turnover of organic matter) utilised by the soil microbial community to be determined. (new paragraph) A field experiment in Sweden, amended with different mineral and organic fertilisers since 1956, was grown with C3 plants, mainly cereals until 1999. From the year 2000 silage maize was grown every year. In 2012, soil from four replicate plots of five experimental treatments, N fertilised, N fertilised amended with straw and sewage sludge, and two controls (bare fallow and cropped unfertilised) were sampled three times, at the start, middle and end of the growing season. Phospholipid fatty acids (PLFAs) were extracted from all soil samples and analysed for concentrations and 13C content. (new paragraph) Total PLFA concentrations and also the PLFA/SOM ratios increased with SOM in the different treatments. Seasonal variation in total PLFA was small except for the most SOM-rich treatment (sewage sludge) where concentrations significantly decreased during the growing season indicating the depletion of a labile SOM pool. Weighted mean values of δ13C in PLFAs show that the plots fertilised with only calcium nitrate had the highest δ13C-values in PLFAs before (-20.24 o) and after the vegetation period (-20.37 o), due to a large input of 13C-enriched plant material. However, during

  8. Impact of revised and potential future albedo estimates on CCSM3 simulations of growing-season surface temperature fields for North America

    Treesearch

    Warren E. Heilman; David Y. Hollinger; Xiuping Li; Xindi Bain; Shiyuan. Zhong

    2010-01-01

    Recently published albedo research has resulted in improved growing-season albedo estimates for forest and grassland vegetation. The impact of these improved estimates on the ability of climate models to simulate growing-season surface temperature patterns is unknown. We have developed a set of current-climate surface temperature scenarios for North America using the...

  9. Comparative field evaluation of two rapid immunochromatographic tests for the diagnosis of bovine tuberculosis in African buffaloes (Syncerus caffer).

    PubMed

    Michel, A L; Simões, M

    2009-01-15

    Panels of sera from African buffalo with confirmed bovine tuberculosis and from known uninfected controls were used to evaluate the performance of two commercial rapid chromatographic immunoassays (A and B) for the detection of antibodies to Mycobacterium bovis. The sensitivity was 33% and 23%, respectively, while the specificity was determined at 90% and 94%, respectively. Overall the performance of both diagnostic tests under field conditions was not found sufficiently high to support their use in bovine tuberculosis management and control strategies in South African game reserves.

  10. Light emission from a dielectric subjected to a rapidly alternating electric field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chernyshev, V. V.

    1983-12-01

    Experiments are reported in which light emission was observed in liquid and solid dielectrics which were in contact with a ferroelectric during the polarization reversal (switching) of the ferroelectric domains. In the experiments, samples of an optically nontransparent ferroelectric ceramic, barium titanate, in the form of 10-mm-diameter, 2-mm-thick disk were used, with a 50-Hz sinusoidal switching voltage applied to the disks through deposited electrodes. In experiments with liquid electrodes, the sample was immersed in a glass cell holding the liquid. The solid dielectrics studied were reactively sputtered silicon dioxide and an anodic aluminum oxide produced by electrochemical oxidation through a vacuum-deposited film of pure aluminum. Results indicate there is a threshold field above which the light emission is observed. The existence of this threshold and its level are in agreement with data in the literature on the critical field for the switching of domains in ferroelectrics.

  11. Rapid modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipoles for a masked density field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilson, M. J.; Peacock, J. A.; Taylor, A. N.; de la Torre, S.

    2017-01-01

    In this work, we reformulate the forward modelling of the redshift-space power spectrum multipole moments for a masked density field, as encountered in galaxy redshift surveys. Exploiting the symmetries of the redshift-space correlation function, we provide a masked-field generalization of the Hankel transform relation between the multipole moments in real and Fourier space. Using this result, we detail how a likelihood analysis requiring computation for a broad range of desired P(k) models may be executed 103-104 times faster than with other common approaches, together with significant gains in spectral resolution. We present a concrete application to the complex angular geometry of the VIMOS Public Extragalactic Redshift Survey PDR-1 release and discuss the validity of this technique for finite-angle surveys.

  12. Surface characterization of rapidly grown TiO2 nanotubes assisted by field supporting effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    David, T. Manovah; Wilson, P.; Joseph, Shibu; Ramesh, C.; Murugesan, N.; Sagayaraj, P.

    2015-06-01

    This study examines the electrochemical anodization of Ti foils in the presence of oxalic acid and malonic acid as field supporting agents. Notably, these additional electrolyte constituents are found to have a strong influence in the formation of TiO2 nanotubes. These nanotubes were also found to possess good crystallinity and better surface morphology. Interestingly, the TiO2 nanotubes grown showed hydrophobic behavior.

  13. Exact results on equations of motion in vacuum string field theory [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hata, Hiroyuki; Moriyama, Sanefumi

    2005-12-01

    We prove some algebraic relations on the translationally invariant solutions and the lump solutions in vacuum string field theory. We show that up to the subtlety at the midpoint the definition of the half-string projectors of the known sliver solution can be generalized to other solutions. We also find that we can embed the translationally invariant solution into the matrix equation of motion with the zero-mode.

  14. A field deployable method for a rapid screening analysis of inorganic arsenic in seaweed.

    PubMed

    Bralatei, Edi; Nekrosiute, Karolina; Ronan, Jenny; Raab, Andrea; McGovern, Evin; Stengel, Dagmar B; Krupp, Eva M; Feldmann, Joerg

    2017-01-01

    Inorganic arsenic (iAs) in 13 store-bought edible seaweed samples and 34 dried kelp (Laminaria digitata) samples was determined by a newly developed, field-deployable method (FDM) with the aid of a field test kit for arsenic in water. Results from the FDM were compared to results from speciation analysis achieved by using high performance liquid chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (HPLC-ICP-MS). The FDM consisted of a simple extraction method using diluted HNO3 to quantitatively extract iAs without decomposing the organoarsenicals to iAs followed by the selective volatilisation of iAs as arsine (AsH3) and subsequent chemo-trapping on a filter paper soaked in mercury bromide (HgBr2) solution. Method optimization with a sub-set of samples showed 80-94% iAs recovery with the FDM with no matrix effect from organo-arsenic species in the form of dimethylarsinic acid (DMA) on the iAs concentration. The method displayed good reproducibility with an average error of ±19% and validation by HPLC-ICP-MS showed that the results from the FDM were comparable (slope = 1.03, R(2) = 0.70) to those from speciation analysis with no bias. The FDM can be conducted within an hour and the observed limit of quantification was around 0.05 mg kg(-1) (dry weight). This method is well suited for on-site monitoring of iAs in seaweed before it is harvested and can thus be recommended for use as a screening method for iAs in seaweed. Graphical abstractScreening seaweed for their inorganic arsenic concentration within one hour without bias has been made possible in the field by using a field deployable arsenic kit. Its accuracy and precision was compared to HPLC-ICPMS.

  15. RAPID COMMUNICATION: High performance superconducting wire in high applied magnetic fields via nanoscale defect engineering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wee, Sung Hun; Goyal, Amit; Zuev, Yuri L.; Cantoni, Claudia

    2008-09-01

    High temperature superconducting (HTS) wires capable of carrying large critical currents with low dissipation levels in high applied magnetic fields are needed for a wide range of applications. In particular, for electric power applications involving rotating machinery, such as large-scale motors and generators, a high critical current, Ic, and a high engineering critical current density, JE, in applied magnetic fields in the range of 3-5 Tesla (T) at 65 K are required. In addition, exceeding the minimum performance requirements needed for these applications results in a lower fabrication cost, which is regarded as crucial to realize or enable many large-scale bulk applications of HTS materials. Here we report the fabrication of short segments of a potential superconducting wire comprised of a 4 µm thick YBa2Cu3O7-δ (YBCO) layer on a biaxially textured substrate with a 50% higher Ic and JE than the highest values reported previously. The YBCO film contained columns of self-assembled nanodots of BaZrO3 (BZO) roughly oriented along the c-axis of YBCO. Although the YBCO film was grown at a high deposition rate, three-dimensional self-assembly of the insulating BZO nanodots still occurred. For all magnetic field orientations, minimum Ic and JE at 65 K, 3 T for the wire were 353 A cm-1 and 65.4 kA cm-2, respectively.

  16. Force-Field Based Quasi-Chemical Method for Rapid Evaluation of Binary Phase Diagrams.

    PubMed

    Sweere, Augustinus J M; Fraaije, Johannes G E M

    2015-11-05

    We present the Pair Configurations to Molecular Activity Coefficients (PAC-MAC) method. The method is based on the pair sampling technique of Blanco (Fan, C. F.; Olafson, B. D.; Blanco, M.; Hsu, S. L. Application of Molecular Simulation to Derive Phase Diagrams of Binary Mixtures. Macromolecules 1992, 25, 3667-3676) with an extension that takes the packing of the molecules into account by a free energy model. The intermolecular energy is calculated using classical force fields. PAC-MAC is able to predict activity coefficients and corresponding vapor-liquid equilibrium diagrams at least 4 orders of magnitude faster than molecular simulations. The accuracy of the PAC-MAC method is tested by comparing the results with experimental data and with the results of the COSMO-SAC model (Lin, S.-T.; Sandler, S. I. A Priori Phase Equilibrium Prediction from a Segment Contribution Solvation Model. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res. 2002, 41, 899-913). PAC-MAC (using the OPLS-aa force field) is shown to be comparable in accuracy to COSMO-SAC, at the considerable advantage that PAC-MAC in principle does not require quantum calculation, provided proper force fields to be available.

  17. Rapid field-based landslide hazard assessment in response to post-earthquake emergency

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frattini, Paolo; Gambini, Stefano; Cancelliere, Giorgio

    2016-04-01

    On April 25, 2015 a Mw 7.8 earthquake occurred 80 km to the northwest of Kathmandu (Nepal). The largest aftershock, occurred on May 12, 2015, was the Mw 7.3 Nepal earthquake (SE of Zham, China), 80 km to the east of Kathmandu. . The earthquakes killed ~9000 people and severely damaged a 10,000 sqkm region in Nepal and neighboring countries. Several thousands of landslides have been triggered during the event, causing widespread damages to mountain villages and the evacuation of thousands of people. Rasuwa was one of the most damaged districts. This contribution describes landslide hazard analysis of the Saramthali, Yarsa and Bhorle VDCs (122 km2, Rasuwa district). Hazard is expressed in terms of qualitative classes (low, medium, high), through a simple matrix approach that combines frequency classes and magnitude classes. The hazard analysis is based primarily on the experience gained during a field survey conducted in September 2014. During the survey, local knowledge has been systematically exploited through interviews with local people that have experienced the earthquake and the coseismic landslides. People helped us to recognize fractures and active deformations, and allowed to reconstruct a correct chronicle of landslide events, in order to assign the landslide events to the first shock, the second shock, or the post-earthquake 2015 monsoon. The field experience was complemented with a standard analysis of the relationship between potential controlling factors and the distribution of landslides reported in Kargel et al (2016). This analysis allowed recognizing the most important controlling factor. This information was integrated with the field observations to verify the mapped units and to complete the mapping in area not accessible for field activity. Finally, the work was completed with the analysis and the use of a detailed landslide inventory produced by the University of Milano Bicocca that covers most of the area affected by coseismic landslides in

  18. Development of a Rapid, Standardized Data Inventory for R2K Field Programs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Arko, R. A.; Chayes, D. N.; Carbotte, S. M.; Ryan, W. B.; Lehnert, K. A.; Shank, T. M.

    2003-12-01

    Effective data management for Ridge2000 requires the production of a complete data inventory for every field program in a timely and standardized way. We are developing a set of forms to document 1.) basic field program information (dates and locations, platform, science party, etc); 2.) an inventory of sensor systems, data types (marine geophysical, physical and chemical oceanographic, rock and sediment samples, and biological), and file formats; 3.) supplemental attachments (written reports, instrument diagrams, etc); and 4.) a basic navigation track. We regard this as the minimal set of metadata which should be produced immediately at the end of a field program, in order to publicize it in an online database and satisfy agency requirements. We have developed a prototype set of Portable Document Format (PDF) forms which can be completed during a cruise through a combination of manual and automated input. PDF is a stable and widely-used format, with software available as both a commercial product (Adobe Acrobat) and an open-source library (http://www.pdflib.org). Completing a PDF form requires only the Acrobat Reader software, which is freely available for every major computing platform. Acrobat offers extensive functionality to aid in data inventory, including the ability to verify content on-the-fly, import data from other files and forms, show controlled vocabularies as pop-up menus, export to XML format, and print a high-quality readable report. Prototype forms have been tested on a recent transit of the CGC Healy, and we plan to continue testing on other ships and soliciting community feedback over the next several months. We envision a long-term plan in which a master set of forms is deployed with every R2K field program, along with a copy of Acrobat Reader, on lightweight storage media such as USB keys. The completed forms will then be transmitted to the data management center, where they are ingested automatically and the information made available in the

  19. Rapid bacteriophage MS2 transport in an oxic sandy aquifer in cold climate: Field experiments and modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kvitsand, Hanne M. L.; Ilyas, Aamir; Østerhus, Stein W.

    2015-12-01

    Virus removal during rapid transport in an unconfined, low-temperature (6°C) sand and gravel aquifer was investigated at a riverbank field site, 25 km south of Trondheim in central Norway. The data from bacteriophage MS2 inactivation and transport experiments were applied in a two-site kinetic transport model using HYDRUS-1D, to evaluate the mechanisms of virus removal and whether these mechanisms were sufficient to protect the groundwater supplies. The results demonstrated that inactivation was negligible to the overall removal and that irreversible MS2 attachment to aquifer grains, coated with iron precipitates, played a dominant role in the removal of MS2; 4.1 log units of MS2 were removed by attachment during 38 m travel distance and less than 2 days residence time. Although the total removal was high, pathways capable of allowing virus migration at rapid velocities were present in the aquifer. The risk of rapid transport of viable viruses should be recognized, particularly for water supplies without permanent disinfection.

  20. A treatment planning study comparing volumetric arc modulation with RapidArc and fixed field IMRT for cervix uteri radiotherapy.

    PubMed

    Cozzi, Luca; Dinshaw, Ketayun Ardeshir; Shrivastava, Shyam Kishore; Mahantshetty, Umesh; Engineer, Reena; Deshpande, Deepak Dattatray; Jamema, S V; Vanetti, Eugenio; Clivio, Alessandro; Nicolini, Giorgia; Fogliata, Antonella

    2008-11-01

    A treatment planning study was performed to evaluate the performance of the novel volumetric modulated single arc radiotherapy on cervix uteri cancer patients. Conventional fixed field IMRT was used as benchmark. CT datasets of eight patients were included in the study. Plans were optimised with the aim to assess organs at risk and healthy tissue sparing while enforcing highly conformal target coverage. Planning objectives for PTV were: maximum significant dose lower than 52.5 Gy and minimum significant dose higher than 47.5 Gy. For organs at risk, the median and maximum doses were constrained to be lower than 30 (rectum), 35 (bladder) and 25 Gy (small bowel) and 47.5 Gy; additional objectives were set on various volume thresholds. Plans were evaluated on parameters derived from dose volume histograms and on NTCP estimates. Peripheral doses at 5, 10 and 15 cm from the PTV surface were recorded to assess the low-level dose bath. The MU and delivery time were scored to measure expected treatment efficiency. Both RapidArc and IMRT resulted in equivalent target coverage but RapidArc had an improved homogeneity (D(5%)-D(95%) = 3.5 +/- 0.6 Gy for RapidArc and 4.3 +/- 0.8 Gy for IMRT) and conformity index (CI(90%) = 1.30 +/- 0.06 for RapidArc and 1.41 +/- 0.15 for IMRT). On rectum the mean dose was reduced by about 6 Gy (10 Gy for the rectum fraction not included in the PTV). Similar trends were observed for the various dose levels with reductions ranging from approximately 3 to 14.4 Gy. For the bladder, RapidArc allowed a reduction of mean dose ranging from approximately 4 to 6Gy and a reduction from approximately 3 to 9 Gy w.r.t. IMRT. Similar trends but with smaller absolute differences were observed for the small bowel and left and right femur. NTCP calculations on bladder and rectum confirmed the DVH data with a potential relative reduction ranging from 30 to 70% from IMRT to RapidArc. The healthy tissue was significantly less irradiated in the medium to high dose

  1. AC electric field for rapid assembly of nanostructured polyaniline onto microsized gap for sensor devices.

    PubMed

    La Ferrara, Vera; Rametta, Gabriella; De Maria, Antonella

    2015-07-01

    Interconnected network of nanostructured polyaniline (PANI) is giving strong potential for enhancing device performances than bulk PANI counterparts. For nanostructured device processing, the main challenge is to get prototypes on large area by requiring precision, low cost and high rate assembly. Among processes meeting these requests, the alternate current electric fields are often used for nanostructure assembling. For the first time, we show the assembly of nanostructured PANI onto large electrode gaps (30-60 μm width) by applying alternate current electric fields, at low frequencies, to PANI particles dispersed in acetonitrile (ACN). An important advantage is the short assembly time, limited to 5-10 s, although electrode gaps are microsized. That encouraging result is due to a combination of forces, such as dielectrophoresis (DEP), induced-charge electrokinetic (ICEK) flow and alternate current electroosmotic (ACEO) flow, which speed up the assembly process when low frequencies and large electrode gaps are used. The main achievement of the present study is the development of ammonia sensors created by direct assembling of nanostructured PANI onto electrodes. Sensors exhibit high sensitivity to low gas concentrations as well as excellent reversibility at room temperature, even after storage in air.

  2. CLUSTERING OF OBSCURED AND UNOBSCURED QUASARS IN THE BOOeTES FIELD: PLACING RAPIDLY GROWING BLACK HOLES IN THE COSMIC WEB

    SciTech Connect

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Alexander, David M.; Goulding, Andrew D.; Myers, Adam D.; Brodwin, Mark; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Caldwell, Nelson; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cool, Richard J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Stern, Daniel; Le Floc'h, Emeric

    2011-04-20

    We present the first measurement of the spatial clustering of mid-infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using a sample in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.8 selected from the 9 deg{sup 2} Booetes multiwavelength survey. Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope and X-ray observations have revealed large populations of obscured quasars that have been inferred from models of the X-ray background and supermassive black hole evolution. To date, little is known about obscured quasar clustering, which allows us to measure the masses of their host dark matter halos and explore their role in the cosmic evolution of black holes and galaxies. In this study, we use a sample of 806 mid-infrared-selected quasars and {approx}250,000 galaxies to calculate the projected quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function w{sub p} (R). The observed clustering yields characteristic dark matter halo masses of log(M{sub halo} [h {sup -1} M{sub sun}]) = 12.7{sup +0.4}{sub -0.6} and 13.3{sup +0.3}{sub -0.4} for unobscured quasars (QSO-1s) and obscured quasars (Obs-QSOs), respectively. The results for QSO-1s are in excellent agreement with previous measurements for optically selected quasars, while we conclude that the Obs-QSOs are at least as strongly clustered as the QSO-1s. We test for the effects of photometric redshift errors on the optically faint Obs-QSOs, and find that our method yields a robust lower limit on the clustering; photo-z errors may cause us to underestimate the clustering amplitude of the Obs-QSOs by at most {approx}20%. We compare our results to previous studies, and speculate on physical implications of stronger clustering for obscured quasars.

  3. Equipping Liberal Arts Students with Skills in Data Analytics: Drake University Partners with Regional Businesses to Offer New Programs in a Rapidly Growing Field. A BHEF Case Study

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Business-Higher Education Forum, 2016

    2016-01-01

    This case study examines how Business-Higher Education Forum (BHEF) member Drake University, a private university with a strong liberal arts tradition, is equipping its students to become data-enabled professionals. Through the collaboration of its business and higher education members, BHEF launched the National Higher Education and Workforce…

  4. Clustering of Obscured and Unobscured Quasars in the Boötes Field: Placing Rapidly Growing Black Holes in the Cosmic Web

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hickox, Ryan C.; Myers, Adam D.; Brodwin, Mark; Alexander, David M.; Forman, William R.; Jones, Christine; Murray, Stephen S.; Brown, Michael J. I.; Cool, Richard J.; Kochanek, Christopher S.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.; Eisenstein, Daniel; Assef, Roberto J.; Eisenhardt, Peter R.; Gorjian, Varoujan; Stern, Daniel; Le Floc'h, Emeric; Caldwell, Nelson; Goulding, Andrew D.; Mullaney, James R.

    2011-04-01

    We present the first measurement of the spatial clustering of mid-infrared-selected obscured and unobscured quasars, using a sample in the redshift range 0.7 < z < 1.8 selected from the 9 deg2 Boötes multiwavelength survey. Recently, the Spitzer Space Telescope and X-ray observations have revealed large populations of obscured quasars that have been inferred from models of the X-ray background and supermassive black hole evolution. To date, little is known about obscured quasar clustering, which allows us to measure the masses of their host dark matter halos and explore their role in the cosmic evolution of black holes and galaxies. In this study, we use a sample of 806 mid-infrared-selected quasars and ≈250,000 galaxies to calculate the projected quasar-galaxy cross-correlation function wp (R). The observed clustering yields characteristic dark matter halo masses of log(M halo [h -1 M sun]) = 12.7+0.4 -0.6 and 13.3+0.3 -0.4 for unobscured quasars (QSO-1s) and obscured quasars (Obs-QSOs), respectively. The results for QSO-1s are in excellent agreement with previous measurements for optically selected quasars, while we conclude that the Obs-QSOs are at least as strongly clustered as the QSO-1s. We test for the effects of photometric redshift errors on the optically faint Obs-QSOs, and find that our method yields a robust lower limit on the clustering; photo-z errors may cause us to underestimate the clustering amplitude of the Obs-QSOs by at most ~20%. We compare our results to previous studies, and speculate on physical implications of stronger clustering for obscured quasars.

  5. A Survey of the Rapidly Emerging Field of Nanotechnology: Potential Applications for Scientific Instruments and Technologies for Atmospheric Entry Probes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Meyyappan, M.; Arnold, J. O.

    2005-01-01

    The field of Nanotechnology is well funded worldwide and innovations applicable to Solar System Exploration are emerging much more rapidly than thought possible just a few years ago. This presentation will survey recent innovations from nanotechnololgy with a focus on novel applications to atmospheric entry science and probe technology, in a fashion similar to that presented by Arnold and Venkatapathy at the previous workshop forum at Lisbon Portugal, October 6-9, 2003. Nanotechnology is a rapidly emerging field that builds systems, devices and materials from the bottom up, atom by atom, and in so doing provides them with novel and remarkable macro-scale performance. This technology has the potential to revolutionize space exploration by reducing mass and simultaneously increasing capability. Thermal, Radiation, Impact Protective Shields: Atmospheric probes and humans on long duration deep space missions involved in Solar System Exploration must safely endure 3 significant hazards: (i) atmospheric entry; (ii) radiation; and (iii) micrometeorite or debris impact. Nanostructured materials could be developed to address all three hazards with a single protective shield, which would involve much less mass than a traditional approach. The concept can be ready in time for incorporation into NASA s Crew Exploration Vehicle, and possible entry probes to fly on the Jupiter Icy Moons

  6. Development of a lateral flow immunoassay for rapid field detection of the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta (Hymenoptera: Formicidae).

    PubMed

    Valles, Steven M; Strong, Charles A; Callcott, Anne-Marie A

    2016-07-01

    The red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta, is an aggressive, highly invasive pest ant species from South America that has been introduced into North America, Asia, and Australia. Quarantine efforts have been imposed in the USA to minimize further spread of the ant. To aid the quarantine efforts, there remains an acute need for a rapid, field portable method for the identification of these ants. In this report, we describe two novel monoclonal antibodies that specifically bind the S. invicta venom protein 2 produced by S. invicta. Using these monoclonal antibodies we developed a lateral flow immunoassay that provides a rapid and portable method for the identification of S. invicta ants. The lateral flow immunoassay was validated against purified S. invicta venom protein 2 and 33 unique ant species (representing 15 % of the total species and 42 % of the Myrmicinae genera found in Florida), and only S. invicta and the S. invicta/richteri hybrid produced a positive result. These monoclonal antibodies were selective to S. invicta venom protein 2 and did not bind to proteins from congeners (i.e., S. geminata or S. richteri) known to produce a S. invicta venom protein 2 ortholog. This S. invicta lateral flow immunoassay provides a new tool for regulatory agencies in the USA to enforce quarantine protocols and limit the spread of this invasive ant. Graphical Abstract Field method to detect and identify the red imported fire ant, Solenopsis invicta.

  7. Rapid, specific, simple, in-field detection of Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum by loop-mediated isothermal amplification.

    PubMed

    Hodgetts, J; Hall, J; Karamura, G; Grant, M; Studholme, D J; Boonham, N; Karamura, E; Smith, J J

    2015-12-01

    To develop and evaluate a loop-mediated isothermal amplification (LAMP) assay for Xanthomonas campestris pathovar musacearum (Xcm), the causal agent of banana Xanthomonas wilt, a major disease of banana in Africa. LAMP primers were designed to the general secretion pathway protein D gene and tested against 17 isolates of Xcm encompassing the known genetic and geographic diversity of the bacterium and all isolates were detected. Seventeen other Xanthomonas isolates, including closely related Xanthomonas vasicola, other bacterial pathogens/endophytes of Musa and two healthy Musa varieties gave negative results with the LAMP assay. The assay showed good sensitivity, detecting as little as 51 fg of Xcm DNA, a greater level of sensitivity than that of an Xcm PCR assay. Amplification with the LAMP assay was very rapid, typically within 9 min from bacterial cultures. Symptomatic field samples of Musa from Uganda were tested and all produced amplification in less than 13 min. The LAMP assay provides rapid, sensitive detection of the pathogen that is ideally suited for deployment in laboratories with basic facilities and in-field situations. This is the first LAMP assay for Xcm which provides a significant improvement compared to existing diagnostics. © 2015 Crown copyright. © 2015 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  8. Field evaluation of a rapid diagnostic test to detect antibodies in human toxocariasis.

    PubMed

    Lim, P K C; Yamasaki, H; Mak, J W; Wong, S F; Chong, C W; Yap, I K S; Ambu, S; Kumarasamy, V

    2015-08-01

    Human toxocariasis which is caused mainly by the larvae of Toxocara canis and Toxocara cati, is a worldwide zoonotic disease that can be a potentially serious human infection. The enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) using T. canis excretory-secretory (TES) antigens harvested from T. canis larvae is currently the serological test for confirming toxocariasis. An alternative to producing large amounts of Toxocara TES and improved diagnosis for toxocariasis is through the development of highly specific recombinant antigens such as the T. canis second stage larva excretory-secretory 30 kDa protein (recTES-30). The aim of this study was to evaluate the sensitivity and specificity of a rapid diagnostic kit (RDT, named as iToxocara kit) in comparison to recTES-30 ELISA in Serendah Orang Asli village in Selangor, Malaysia. A total of 133 subjects were included in the study. The overall prevalence rates by ELISA and RDT were 29.3% and 33.1%, respectively, with more positive cases detected in males than females. However, no association was found between toxocariasis and gender or age. The percentage sensitivity, specificity, positive predictive value and negative predictive value of RDT were 85.7%, 90.1%, 80% and 93.2%, respectively. The prevalence for toxocariasis in this population using both ELISA and RDT was 27.1% (36/133) and the K-concordance test suggested good agreement of the two tests with a Cohen's kappa of 0.722, P<0.01. In addition, the followed-up Spearman rank correlation showed a moderately high correlation at R=0.704 and P<0.01. In conclusion, the RDT kit was faster and easier to use than an ELISA and is useful for the laboratory diagnosis of hospitalized cases of toxocariasis.

  9. Rapid Transient Pressure Field Computations in the Nearfield of Circular Transducers using Frequency Domain Time-Space Decomposition

    PubMed Central

    Alles, E. J.; Zhu, Y.; van Dongen, K. W. A.; McGough, R. J.

    2013-01-01

    The fast nearfield method, when combined with time-space decomposition, is a rapid and accurate approach for calculating transient nearfield pressures generated by ultrasound transducers. However, the standard time-space decomposition approach is only applicable to certain analytical representations of the temporal transducer surface velocity that, when applied to the fast nearfield method, are expressed as a finite sum of products of separate temporal and spatial terms. To extend time-space decomposition such that accelerated transient field simulations are enabled in the nearfield for an arbitrary transducer surface velocity, a new transient simulation method, frequency domain time-space decomposition (FDTSD), is derived. With this method, the temporal transducer surface velocity is transformed into the frequency domain, and then each complex-valued term is processed separately. Further improvements are achieved by spectral clipping, which reduces the number of terms and the computation time. Trade-offs between speed and accuracy are established for FDTSD calculations, and pressure fields obtained with the FDTSD method for a circular transducer are compared to those obtained with Field II and the impulse response method. The FDTSD approach, when combined with the fast nearfield method and spectral clipping, consistently achieves smaller errors in less time and requires less memory than Field II or the impulse response method. PMID:23160476

  10. Rapid transient pressure field computations in the nearfield of circular transducers using frequency-domain time-space decomposition.

    PubMed

    Alles, E J; Zhu, Y; van Dongen, K W A; McGough, R J

    2012-10-01

    The fast nearfield method, when combined with time-space decomposition, is a rapid and accurate approach for calculating transient nearfield pressures generated by ultrasound transducers. However, the standard time-space decomposition approach is only applicable to certain analytical representations of the temporal transducer surface velocity that, when applied to the fast nearfield method, are expressed as a finite sum of products of separate temporal and spatial terms. To extend time-space decomposition such that accelerated transient field simulations are enabled in the nearfield for an arbitrary transducer surface velocity, a new transient simulation method, frequency-domain time-space decomposition (FDTSD), is derived. With this method, the temporal transducer surface velocity is transformed into the frequency domain, and then each complex-valued term is processed separately. Further improvements are achieved by spectral clipping, which reduces the number of terms and the computation time. Trade-offs between speed and accuracy are established for FDTSD calculations, and pressure fields obtained with the FDTSD method for a circular transducer are compared with those obtained with Field II and the impulse response method. The FDTSD approach, when combined with the fast nearfield method and spectral clipping, consistently achieves smaller errors in less time and requires less memory than Field II or the impulse response method.

  11. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice.

    PubMed

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P; Lovell, John T; Moyers, Brook T; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B; McNally, Kenneth L; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E; McKay, John K

    2017-02-21

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.

  12. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

    PubMed Central

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P.; Lovell, John T.; Moyers, Brook T.; Baraoidan, Marietta; Naredo, Maria Elizabeth B.; McNally, Kenneth L.; Poland, Jesse; Bush, Daniel R.; Leung, Hei; Leach, Jan E.; McKay, John K.

    2017-01-01

    To ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. Here we demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor-intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Genetic mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution. PMID:28220807

  13. The Intestinal Microbiome in Infectious Diseases: The Clinical Relevance of a Rapidly Emerging Field.

    PubMed

    Harris, Vanessa C; Haak, Bastiaan W; Boele van Hensbroek, Michaël; Wiersinga, Willem J

    2017-01-01

    The field of infectious disease is undergoing a paradigm shift as the intestinal microbiome is becoming understood. The aim of this review is to inform infectious disease physicians of the potential relevance of the intestinal microbiome to their practice. We searched Medline using both index and text words relating to infectious diseases, microbiome, and probiotics. Relevant articles published up through 2017 were reviewed within Rayyan. The review illustrates pathophysiologic concepts linking the microbiome and infectious diseases; specifically, the intestinal microbiome's relevance to early immune development, the microbiome and enteric infections, the microbiome's relevance in compromised hosts, and antimicrobial resistance. Within each subject, there are specific examples of diseases and at-risk patient populations where a role for the microbiome has been strongly established. This provides an overview of the significance of the intestinal microbiome to microbiology, pediatric and adult infectious diseases with an underpinning of concepts useful for the practicing clinician.

  14. Phase transition in an Aubry-André system with a rapidly oscillating magnetic field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mishra, Tridev; Shashidhara, Rajath; Guha Sarkar, Tapomoy; Bandyopadhyay, Jayendra N.

    2016-11-01

    We investigate a variant of the Aubry-André-Harper (AAH) model corresponding to a bosonic optical lattice of ultracold atoms under an effective oscillatory magnetic field. In the limit of high-frequency oscillation, the system maybe approximated by an effective time-independent Hamiltonian. We have studied localization-delocalization transition exhibited by the effective Hamiltonian. The effective Hamiltonian is found to retain the tight-binding tridiagonal form in position space. In a striking contrast to the usual AAH model, this non-dual system shows an energy-dependent mobility edge—a feature which is usually reminiscent of Hamiltonians with beyond-nearest-neighbor hoppings in real space. Finally, we discuss possibilities of experimentally realizing this system in optical lattices.

  15. The Intestinal Microbiome in Infectious Diseases: The Clinical Relevance of a Rapidly Emerging Field

    PubMed Central

    Haak, Bastiaan W; Boele van Hensbroek, Michaël; Wiersinga, Willem J

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The field of infectious disease is undergoing a paradigm shift as the intestinal microbiome is becoming understood. The aim of this review is to inform infectious disease physicians of the potential relevance of the intestinal microbiome to their practice. We searched Medline using both index and text words relating to infectious diseases, microbiome, and probiotics. Relevant articles published up through 2017 were reviewed within Rayyan. The review illustrates pathophysiologic concepts linking the microbiome and infectious diseases; specifically, the intestinal microbiome’s relevance to early immune development, the microbiome and enteric infections, the microbiome’s relevance in compromised hosts, and antimicrobial resistance. Within each subject, there are specific examples of diseases and at-risk patient populations where a role for the microbiome has been strongly established. This provides an overview of the significance of the intestinal microbiome to microbiology, pediatric and adult infectious diseases with an underpinning of concepts useful for the practicing clinician. PMID:28852682

  16. Nondecoupling phenomena in QED in a magnetic field and noncommutative QED [rapid communication

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorbar, E. V.; Hashimoto, Michio; Miransky, V. A.

    2005-03-01

    The dynamics in QED in a strong constant magnetic field and its connection with the noncommutative QED are studied. It is shown that in the regime with the lowest Landau level (LLL) dominance the U (1) gauge symmetry in the fermion determinant is transformed into the noncommutative U(1)nc gauge symmetry. In this regime, the effective action is intimately connected with that in noncommutative QED and the original U (1) gauge Ward identities are broken (the LLL anomaly). On the other hand, it is shown that although a contribution of each of an infinite number of higher Landau levels is suppressed in an infrared region, their cumulative contribution is not (a nondecoupling phenomenon). This leads to a restoration of the original U (1) gauge symmetry in the infrared dynamics. The physics underlying this phenomenon reflects the important role of a boundary dynamics at spatial infinity in this problem.

  17. Field-based high throughput phenotyping rapidly identifies genomic regions controlling yield components in rice

    DOE PAGES

    Tanger, Paul; Klassen, Stephen; Mojica, Julius P.; ...

    2017-02-21

    In order to ensure food security in the face of population growth, decreasing water and land for agriculture, and increasing climate variability, crop yields must increase faster than the current rates. Increased yields will require implementing novel approaches in genetic discovery and breeding. We demonstrate the potential of field-based high throughput phenotyping (HTP) on a large recombinant population of rice to identify genetic variation underlying important traits. We find that detecting quantitative trait loci (QTL) with HTP phenotyping is as accurate and effective as traditional labor- intensive measures of flowering time, height, biomass, grain yield, and harvest index. Furthermore, geneticmore » mapping in this population, derived from a cross of an modern cultivar (IR64) with a landrace (Aswina), identified four alleles with negative effect on grain yield that are fixed in IR64, demonstrating the potential for HTP of large populations as a strategy for the second green revolution.« less

  18. Continued Rapid Uplift at Laguna del Maule Volcanic Field (Chile) from 2007 through 2014

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Mével, H.; Feigl, K. L.; Cordova, L.; DeMets, C.; Lundgren, P.

    2014-12-01

    The current rate of uplift at Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic field in Chile is among the highest ever observed geodetically for a volcano that is not actively erupting. Using data from interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) and the Global Positioning System (GPS) recorded at five continuously operating stations, we measure the deformation field with dense sampling in time (1/day) and space (1/hectare). These data track the temporal evolution of the current unrest episode from its inception (sometime between 2004 and 2007) to vertical velocities faster than 200 mm/yr that continue through (at least) July 2014. Building on our previous work, we evaluate the temporal evolution by analyzing data from InSAR (ALOS, TerraSAR-X, TanDEM-X) and GPS [http://dx.doi.org/ 10.1093/gji/ggt438]. In addition, we consider InSAR data from (ERS, ENVISAT, COSMO-Skymed, and UAVSAR), as well as constraints from magneto-telluric (MT), seismic, and gravity surveys. The goal is to test the hypothesis that a recent magma intrusion is feeding a large, existing magma reservoir. What will happen next? To address this question, we analyze the temporal evolution of deformation at other large silicic systems such as Yellowstone, Long Valley, and Three Sisters, during well-studied episodes of unrest. We consider several parameterizations, including piecewise linear, parabolic, and Gaussian functions of time. By choosing the best-fitting model, we expect to constrain the time scales of such episodes and elucidate the processes driving them.

  19. Development of a rapid soil water content detection technique using active infrared thermal methods for in-field applications.

    PubMed

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory-based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil heterogeneity.

  20. Development of a Rapid Soil Water Content Detection Technique Using Active Infrared Thermal Methods for In-Field Applications

    PubMed Central

    Antonucci, Francesca; Pallottino, Federico; Costa, Corrado; Rimatori, Valentina; Giorgi, Stefano; Papetti, Patrizia; Menesatti, Paolo

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the suitability of active infrared thermography and thermometry in combination with multivariate statistical partial least squares analysis as rapid soil water content detection techniques both in the laboratory and the field. Such techniques allow fast soil water content measurements helpful in both agricultural and environmental fields. These techniques, based on the theory of heat dissipation, were tested by directly measuring temperature dynamic variation of samples after heating. For the assessment of temperature dynamic variations data were collected during three intervals (3, 6 and 10 s). To account for the presence of specific heats differences between water and soil, the analyses were regulated using slopes to linearly describe their trends. For all analyses, the best model was achieved for a 10 s slope. Three different approaches were considered, two in the laboratory and one in the field. The first laboratory-based one was centred on active infrared thermography, considered measurement of temperature variation as independent variable and reported r = 0.74. The second laboratory–based one was focused on active infrared thermometry, added irradiation as independent variable and reported r = 0.76. The in-field experiment was performed by active infrared thermometry, heating bare soil by solar irradiance after exposure due to primary tillage. Some meteorological parameters were inserted as independent variables in the prediction model, which presented r = 0.61. In order to obtain more general and wide estimations in-field a Partial Least Squares Discriminant Analysis on three classes of percentage of soil water content was performed obtaining a high correct classification in the test (88.89%). The prediction error values were lower in the field with respect to laboratory analyses. Both techniques could be used in conjunction with a Geographic Information System for obtaining detailed information on soil

  1. The Taylor Creek Rhyolite of New Mexico: a rapidly emplaced field of lava domes and flows

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Duffield, W.A.; Dalrymple, G.B.

    1990-01-01

    The Tertiary Taylor Creek Rhyolite of southwest New Mexico comprises at least 20 lava domes and flows. Each of the lavas was erupted from its own vent, and the vents are distributed throughout a 20 km by 50 km area. The volume of the rhyolite and genetically associated pyroclastic deposits is at least 100 km3 (denserock equivalent). The rhyolite contains 15%-35% quartz, sanidine, plagioclase, ??biotite, ??hornblende phenocrysts. Quartz and sanidine account for about 98% of the phenocrysts and are present in roughly equal amounts. With rare exceptions, the groundmass consists of intergrowths of fine-grained silica and alkali feldspar. Whole-rock major-element composition varies little, and the rhyolite is metaluminous to weakly peraluminous; mean SiO2 content is about 77.5??0.3%. Similarly, major-element compositions of the two feldsparphenocryst species also are nearly constant. However, whole-rock concentrations of some trace-elements vary as much as several hundred percent. Initial radiometric age determinations, all K-Ar and fission track, suggest that the rhyolite lava field grew during a period of at least 2 m.y. Subsequent 40Ar/39Ar ages indicate that the period of growth was no more than 100 000 years. The time-space-composition relations thus suggest that the Taylor Creek Rhyolite was erupted from a single magma reservoir whose average width was at least 30 km, comparable in size to several penecontemporaneous nearby calderas. However, this rhyolite apparently is not related to a caldera structure. Possibly, the Taylor Creek Phyolite magma body never became sufficiently volatile rich to produce a large-volume pyroclastic eruption and associated caldera collapse, but instead leaked repeatedly to feed many relatively small domes and flows. The new 40Ar/39Ar ages do not resolve preexisting unknown relative-age relations among the domes and flows of the lava field. Nonetheless, the indicated geologically brief period during which Taylor Creek Rhyolite magma was

  2. Rapid melting dynamics of the Morteratsch glacier (Swiss Alps) from UAV photogrammetry and field spectroscopy data

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Di Mauro, Biagio; Garzonio, Roberto; Rossini, Micol; Baccolo, Giovanni; Julitta, Tommaso; Cavallini, Giuseppe; Mattavelli, Matteo; Colombo, Roberto

    2017-04-01

    The impact of atmospheric impurities on the optical properties of snow and ice has been largely acknowledged in the scientific literature. Beyond this, the evaluation of the effect of specific organic and inorganic particles on melting dynamics remains a major challenge. In this contribution, we examine the annual melting dynamics of a large valley glacier of the Swiss Alps using UAV photogrammetry. We then compare the melting patterns to the presence of surface impurities on the glacier surface. Two surveys (in July and September 2016) with a lightweight Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) were organized on the ablation zone of the Morteratsch glacier (Swiss Alps). The UAV (DJI, Phantom 4) was equipped with a high resolution digital camera, and flew at a constant altitude of 150 from the glacier surface. 30 ground control points were placed on the glacier, and their coordinates were determined with a differential GPS (dGPS) for georeferencing UAV images. Contemporary to the UAV surveys, field spectroscopy data were collected on the glacier surface with an Analytical Spectral Device (ASD Field spec.) spectrometer covering the visible and near infrared spectral ranges, and ice samples were collected to determine the abundance of microorganism and algae. From the UAV RGB data, two point clouds were created using Structure from Motion (SfM) algorithms. The point clouds (each consisting of about 15M points) were then converted in Digital Surface Models (DSM) and orthomosaics by interpolation. The difference between the two DSM was calculated and converted in Snow Water Equivalent (SWE), in order to assess the ice lost by the glacier during the ablation season. The point clouds were compared and the displacement vectors were estimated using different algorithms. The elevation changes estimated from UAV data were compared with the abundance of microorganisms and algae. The reflectance spectra of ice with microorganisms and algae show a chlorophyll absorption feature at 680 nm

  3. Rapid elimination of field colonies of subterranean termites (Isoptera: Rhinotermitidae) using bistrifluron solid bait pellets.

    PubMed

    Evans, Theodore A

    2010-04-01

    The efficacy of bistrifluron, a chitin synthesis inhibitor, in cellulose bait pellets was evaluated on the mound-building subterranean termite, Coptotermes acinaciformis (Froggatt). Three concentrations of the bistrifluron were used: 0 (untreated control), 0.5, and 1.0% over an 8 wk period. Both doses of bistrifluron bait eliminated (viz. termites absent from nest or mound) termite colonies: 83% of colonies (10 of 12) were either eliminated or moribund (viz. colony had no reproductive capacity and decreased workforce) after 8 wk, compared with none of the control colonies. The remaining two treated colonies were deemed to be in decline. Early signs that bistrifluron was affecting the colonies included: 3 wk after baiting mound temperatures showed a loss of metabolic heat, 4 wk after baiting foraging activity in feeding stations was reduced or absent, and dissection of two mounds at 4 wk showed they were moribund. Colony elimination was achieved in around half or less the time, and with less bait toxicant, than other bait products tested under similar conditions in the field, because of either the active ingredient, the high surface area of the pellets, or a combination of both. This suggests the sometimes long times reported for control using baits may be reduced significantly. The use of a mound building species demonstrated clearly colony level effects before and after termites stopped foraging in bait stations.

  4. Rapid detection of Aspergillus flavus in rice using biofunctionalized carbon nanotube field effect transistors.

    PubMed

    Villamizar, Raquel A; Maroto, Alicia; Rius, F Xavier

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, we have used carbon nanotube field effect transistors (FET) that have been functionalized with protein G and IgG to detect Aspergillus flavus in contaminated milled rice. The adsorbed protein G on the carbon nanotubes walls enables the IgG anti-Aspergillus antibodies to be well oriented and therefore to display full antigen binding capacity for fungal antigens. A solution of Tween 20 and gelatine was used as an effective blocking agent to prevent the non-specific binding of the antibodies and other moulds and also to protect the transducer against the interferences present in the rice samples. Our FET devices were able to detect at least 10 μg/g of A. flavus in only 30 min. To evaluate the selectivity of our biosensors, Fusarium oxysporum and Penicillium chrysogenum were tested as potential competing moulds for A. flavus. We have proved that our devices are highly selective tools for detecting mycotoxigenic moulds at low concentrations in real samples.

  5. Rapid detection of peanut oil adulteration using low-field nuclear magnetic resonance and chemometrics.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wenran; Wang, Xin; Chen, Lihua

    2017-02-01

    (1)H low-field nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) and chemometrics were employed to screen the quality changes of peanut oil (PEO) adulterated with soybean oil (SO), rapeseed oil (RO), or palm oil (PAO) in ratios ranging from 0% to 100%. Significant differences in the LF-NMR parameters, single component relaxation time (T2W), and peak area proportion (S21 and S22), were detected between pure and adulterated peanut oil samples. As the ratio of adulteration increased, the T2W, S21, and S22 changed linearly; however, the multicomponent relaxation times (T21 and T22) changed slightly. The established principal component analysis or discriminant analysis models can correctly differentiate authentic PEO from fake and adulterated samples with at least 10% of SO, RO, or PAO. The binary blends of oils can be clearly classified by discriminant analysis when the adulteration ratio is above 30%, illustrating possible applications in screening the oil species in peanut oil blends. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Rapid measurement of field-saturated hydraulic conductivity for areal characterization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Nimmo, J.R.; Schmidt, K.M.; Perkins, K.S.; Stock, J.D.

    2009-01-01

    To provide an improved methodology for characterizing the field-saturated hydraulic conductivity (Kfs) over broad areas with extreme spatial variability and ordinary limitations of time and resources, we developed and tested a simplified apparatus and procedure, correcting mathematically for the major deficiencies of the simplified implementation. The methodology includes use of a portable, falling-head, small-diameter (???20 cm) single-ring infiltrometer and an analytical formula for Kfs that compensates both for nonconstant falling head and for the subsurface radial spreading that unavoidably occurs with small ring size. We applied this method to alluvial fan deposits varying in degree of pedogenic maturity in the arid Mojave National Preserve, California. The measurements are consistent with a more rigorous and time-consuming Kfs measurement method, produce the expected systematic trends in Kfs when compared among soils of contrasting degrees of pedogenic development, and relate in expected ways to results of widely accepted methods. ?? Soil Science Society of America. All rights reserved.

  7. A replicated climate change field experiment reveals rapid evolutionary response in an ecologically important soil invertebrate.

    PubMed

    Bataillon, Thomas; Galtier, Nicolas; Bernard, Aurelien; Cryer, Nicolai; Faivre, Nicolas; Santoni, Sylvain; Severac, Dany; Mikkelsen, Teis N; Larsen, Klaus S; Beier, Claus; Sørensen, Jesper G; Holmstrup, Martin; Ehlers, Bodil K

    2016-07-01

    Whether species can respond evolutionarily to current climate change is crucial for the persistence of many species. Yet, very few studies have examined genetic responses to climate change in manipulated experiments carried out in natural field conditions. We examined the evolutionary response to climate change in a common annelid worm using a controlled replicated experiment where climatic conditions were manipulated in a natural setting. Analyzing the transcribed genome of 15 local populations, we found that about 12% of the genetic polymorphisms exhibit differences in allele frequencies associated to changes in soil temperature and soil moisture. This shows an evolutionary response to realistic climate change happening over short-time scale, and calls for incorporating evolution into models predicting future response of species to climate change. It also shows that designed climate change experiments coupled with genome sequencing offer great potential to test for the occurrence (or lack) of an evolutionary response. © 2016 The Authors. Global Change Biology Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Field Application of a Rapid Spectrophotometric Method for Determination of Persulfate in Soil

    PubMed Central

    Cunningham, Colin J.; Pitschi, Vanessa; Anderson, Peter; Barry, D. A.; Patterson, Colin; Peshkur, Tanya A.

    2013-01-01

    Remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils can be performed both in situ and ex situ using chemical oxidants such as sodium persulfate. Standard methods for quantifying persulfate require either centrifugation or prolonged settling times. An optimized soil extraction procedure was developed for persulfate involving simple water extraction using a modified disposable syringe. This allows considerable saving of time and removes the need for centrifugation. The extraction time was reduced to only 5 min compared to 15 min for the standard approach. A comparison of the two approaches demonstrated that each provides comparable results. Comparisons were made using high (93 g kg−1 soil) and low (9.3 g kg−1 soil) additions of sodium persulfate to a petroleum hydrocarbon-contaminated soil, as well as sand spiked with diesel. Recoveries of 95±1% and 96±10% were observed with the higher application rate in the contaminated soil and spiked sand, respectively. Corresponding recoveries of 86±5% and 117±19% were measured for the lower application rate. Results were obtained in only 25 min and the method is well suited to batch analyses. In addition, it is suitable for application in a small field laboratory or even a mobile, vehicle-based system, as it requires minimal equipment and reagents. PMID:23776446

  9. Effects of protein concentration and degradability on performance, ruminal fermentation, and nitrogen metabolism in rapidly growing heifers fed high-concentrate diets from 100 to 230 kg body weight.

    PubMed

    Devant, M; Ferret, A; Gasa, J; Calsamiglia, S; Casals, R

    2000-06-01

    Twenty crossbred heifers (101 +/- 4.5 kg BW) were used to examine the effects of protein concentration and degradability on performance, ruminal fermentation, nutrient digestion, N balance, and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Heifers were offered concentrate and barley straw for ad libitum consumption. Two protein concentrations (17 vs 14%, DM basis) and two protein sources differing in ruminal degradability (58 vs 42% of CP for soybean meal and treated soybean meal, respectively) were tested. The experiment was divided into four consecutive 28-d periods to evaluate the age (period) effect. Increasing protein concentration and degradability did not improve ADG or intake (P > .05). The increase in urinary N excretion (P < .001) in heifers fed 17% CP suggests that N was in excess of requirements. When the low-degradable protein source was supplemented and(or) CP concentration was low, ruminal NH3 N concentrations fell below 5 mg/100 mL. Urinary excretion of purine derivatives was not affected (P > .05) by protein concentration and degradability, suggesting that in high-concentrate diets NH3 N concentration was not limiting microbial growth. Total VFA concentration decreased (P < .001) and the acetate:propionate ratio increased (P < .01) with advancing period, suggesting an increase in ruminal absorption capacity and an increase in fiber fermentation. The decrease in ruminal NH3 N concentration in the last period suggests a greater use of NH3 N by microorganisms. This hypothesis is supported by the increase (P < .001) in urinary excretion of allantoin and estimated duodenal flows of purine bases and microbial protein with advancing period. Reducing CP concentration and increasing ruminal undegradable protein supply did not affect animal performance or estimated duodenal flow of microbial protein in rapidly growing heifers fed high-concentrate diets.

  10. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  11. How Does Your Garlic Grow?

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Shimabukuro, Mary A.; Fearing, Vickie

    1993-01-01

    Garlic is an ideal plant for the elementary classroom. It grows rapidly in water without aeration for several weeks and remains relatively free of microbial contamination. Simple experiments with garlic purchased at grocery stores can illustrate various aspects of plant growth. (PR)

  12. Rapid Microbiome Changes in Freshly Deposited Cow Feces under Field Conditions

    PubMed Central

    Wong, Kelvin; Shaw, Timothy I.; Oladeinde, Adelumola; Glenn, Travis C.; Oakley, Brian; Molina, Marirosa

    2016-01-01

    Although development of next generation sequencing (NGS) has substantially improved our understanding of the microbial ecology of animal feces, previous studies have mostly focused on freshly excreted feces. There is still limited understanding of the aging process dynamics of fecal microbiomes in intact cowpats exposed to natural environments. Fresh cowpats were sampled at multiple time points for 57 days under field conditions; half the samples were exposed to sunlight (unshaded) while the other half was protected from sunlight (shaded). The 16SRNA hypervariable region 4 was amplified from each sample and sequenced on an Illumina MiSeq Platform. While Clostridia, Bacteroidia, and Sphingobacteria were dominant classes of bacteria in fresh cowpats, Alphaproteobacteria, Betaproteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacilli were the dominant classes by the end of the study, indicating a general shift from anaerobic to aerobic bacterial populations. This change was most likely influenced by the shift from cattle gut (anaerobic) to pasture ground (aerobic). Reduced moisture in cowpats may also contribute to the community shift since air can penetrate the dryer cowpat more easily. Twelve genera consisting pathogenic bacteria were detected, with Mycobacterium, Bacillus, and Clostridium being the most abundant; their combined abundance accounts for 90% of the total pathogenic genera. Taxonomic richness and diversity increased throughout the study for most samples, which could be due to bacteria regrowth and colonization of bacteria from the environment. In contrast to the high taxonomic diversity, the changes of PICRUSt inferred function profile were minimal for all cowpats throughout the study, which suggest that core functions predicted by PICRUSt may be too conserved to distinguish differences between aerobe and anaerobe. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study demonstrating that cowpat exposure to air and sunlight can cause drastic microbiome changes soon

  13. Rapid variations in fluid chemistry constrain hydrothermal phase separation at the Main Endeavour Field

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Love, Brooke; Lilley, Marvin; Butterfield, David; Olson, Eric; Larson, Benjamin

    2017-02-01

    Previous work at the Main Endeavour Field (MEF) has shown that chloride concentration in high-temperature vent fluids has not exceeded 510 mmol/kg (94% of seawater), which is consistent with brine condensation and loss at depth, followed by upward flow of a vapor phase toward the seafloor. Magmatic and seismic events have been shown to affect fluid temperature and composition and these effects help narrow the possibilities for sub-surface processes. However, chloride-temperature data alone are insufficient to determine details of phase separation in the upflow zone. Here we use variation in chloride and gas content in a set of fluid samples collected over several days from one sulfide chimney structure in the MEF to constrain processes of mixing and phase separation. The combination of gas (primarily magmatic CO2 and seawater-derived Ar) and chloride data, indicate that neither variation in the amount of brine lost, nor mixing of the vapor phase produced at depth with variable quantities of (i) brine or (ii) altered gas rich seawater that has not undergone phase separation, can explain the co-variation of gas and chloride content. The gas-chloride data require additional phase separation of the ascending vapor-like fluid. Mixing and gas partitioning calculations show that near-critical temperature and pressure conditions can produce the fluid compositions observed at Sully vent as a vapor-liquid conjugate pair or as vapor-liquid pair with some remixing, and that the gas partition coefficients implied agree with theoretically predicted values.Plain Language SummaryWhen the chemistry of fluids from deep sea hot springs changes over a short time span, it allows us to narrow down the conditions and processes that created those fluids. This gives us a better idea what is happening under the seafloor where the water is interacting with hot rocks and minerals, boiling, and taking on the character it will have when it emerges at</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24642225','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24642225"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> evaluation of a protein-based voltage probe using a <span class="hlt">field</span>-induced membrane potential change.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsutsui, Hidekazu; Jinno, Yuka; Tomita, Akiko; Okamura, Yasushi</p> <p>2014-07-01</p> <p>The development of a high performance protein probe for the measurement of membrane potential will allow elucidation of spatiotemporal regulation of electrical signals within a network of excitable cells. Engineering such a probe requires a functional screen of many candidates. Although the glass-microelectrode technique generally provides an accurate measure of a given test probe, throughputs are limited. In this study, we focused on an approach that uses the membrane potential changes induced by an external electric <span class="hlt">field</span> in a geometrically simple mammalian cell. For quantitative evaluation of membrane voltage probes that rely on the structural transition of the S1-S4 voltage sensor domain and hence have non-linear voltage dependencies, it was crucial to introduce exogenous inwardly rectifying potassium conductance to reduce cell-to-cell variability in resting membrane potentials. Importantly, the addition of the exogenous conductance drastically altered the profile of the <span class="hlt">field</span>-induced potential. Following a site-directed random mutagenesis and the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screen, we identified a mutant of a voltage probe Mermaid, exhibiting positively shifted voltage sensitivity. Due to its simplicity, the current approach will be applicable under a microfluidic configuration to carry out an efficient screen. Additionally, we demonstrate another interesting aspect of the <span class="hlt">field</span>-induced optical signals, ability to visualize electrical couplings between cells.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909360','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21909360"><span>Adult subependymal neural precursors, but not differentiated cells, undergo <span class="hlt">rapid</span> cathodal migration in the presence of direct current electric <span class="hlt">fields</span>.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Babona-Pilipos, Robart; Droujinine, Ilia A; Popovic, Milos R; Morshead, Cindi M</p> <p>2011-01-01</p> <p>The existence of neural stem and progenitor cells (together termed neural precursor cells) in the adult mammalian brain has sparked great interest in utilizing these cells for regenerative medicine strategies. Endogenous neural precursors within the adult forebrain subependyma can be activated following injury, resulting in their proliferation and migration toward lesion sites where they differentiate into neural cells. The administration of growth factors and immunomodulatory agents following injury augments this activation and has been shown to result in behavioural functional recovery following stroke. With the goal of enhancing neural precursor migration to facilitate the repair process we report that externally applied direct current electric <span class="hlt">fields</span> induce <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and directed cathodal migration of pure populations of undifferentiated adult subependyma-derived neural precursors. Using time-lapse imaging microscopy in vitro we performed an extensive single-cell kinematic analysis demonstrating that this galvanotactic phenomenon is a feature of undifferentiated precursors, and not differentiated phenotypes. Moreover, we have shown that the migratory response of the neural precursors is a direct effect of the electric <span class="hlt">field</span> and not due to chemotactic gradients. We also identified that epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) signaling plays a role in the galvanotactic response as blocking EGFR significantly attenuates the migratory behaviour. These findings suggest direct current electric <span class="hlt">fields</span> may be implemented in endogenous repair paradigms to promote migration and tissue repair following neurotrauma.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28510900','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28510900"><span>High frequency microcloning of Aloe vera and their true-to-type conformity by molecular cytogenetic assessment of two years old <span class="hlt">field</span> <span class="hlt">growing</span> regenerated plants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Haque, Sk Moquammel; Ghosh, Biswajit</p> <p>2013-12-01</p> <p>Aloe vera (L.) Burm.f is an important industrial crop, which has enormous application in pharmaceutical, cosmetic and food industries. Thereby, the demand for quality planting material of A. vera is increasing worldwide. Micropropagation is the widely accepted practical application of plant biotechnology that has gained the status of a multibillion-dollar industry throughout the world and this techniques can be used to meet the industrial demand of A. vera. Present studies aim to develop a proficient methods of high-frequency true-to-type plantlet regeneration without intermediate callus phase for A. vera. Nodal portion of rhizomatous stem of A. vera were cultured on Murashige and Skoog (MS) medium (Physiol. Plant. 15:473 - 497, 1962) supplemented with various cytokinin and A. vera leaf gel (AvG) as organic supplement. Number of proliferated shoots per explant was increased along with the regeneration cycles and on MS medium supplemented with 2.5 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine and 10.0% (v/v) AvG, only 17.8 ± 0.35 shoots per explant were induced on 1(st) regeneration cycle whereas on 3(rd) regeneration cycle these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant on the same medium composition. AvG have an encouraging role to increase the proliferation rate and on 3(rd) regeneration cycle 27.6 ± 0.53 shoot per explant induced on 2.5 mg/L BAP, but these number increase to 38.5 ± 0.44 shoots per explant when 10.0% (v/v) AvG was added along with 2.5 mg/L BAP. After transfer of individual excised shoots to a one-third strength MS medium containing 20.0% (v/v) AvG, all the shoots formed whole plantlets with maximum number (9.6 ± 0.29) of roots per shoot. 95.0% of the regenerated plantlets survived on poly-green house. Normal flower appeared in 84.2% <span class="hlt">field</span> <span class="hlt">growing</span> micropropagated plants after 18 to 20 months of <span class="hlt">field</span> transfer. Further, clonal fidelity of the two years old micropropagated plants was established by studying mitotic and meiotic</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Functional+AND+data+AND+structures&id=ED519354','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=Functional+AND+data+AND+structures&id=ED519354"><span><span class="hlt">Growing</span> and <span class="hlt">Growing</span>: Promoting Functional Thinking with Geometric <span class="hlt">Growing</span> Patterns</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Markworth, Kimberly A.</p> <p>2010-01-01</p> <p>Design research methodology is used in this study to develop an empirically-substantiated instruction theory about students' development of functional thinking in the context of geometric <span class="hlt">growing</span> patterns. The two research questions are: (1) How does students' functional thinking develop in the context of geometric <span class="hlt">growing</span> patterns? (2) What are…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16859698','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16859698"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> semi-continuous calibration and <span class="hlt">field</span> test of membrane-enclosed silicone collector as passive water sampler.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Paschke, Albrecht; Schwab, Katrin; Brümmer, Janine; Schüürmann, Gerrit; Paschke, Heidrun; Popp, Peter</p> <p>2006-08-18</p> <p>The new membrane-enclosed silicone collector (MESCO) was, in two different configurations with respect to the thickness of low-density polyethylene membrane used, subject to serial batch extraction tests to obtain (preliminary) sampling rates for estimating water concentrations of selected chlorinated organic compounds and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons. This <span class="hlt">rapid</span> calibration procedure is simple to implement compared to experiments in a flow-through apparatus and yielded reasonable sampling rates in the range of 50 microL-2 mL per hour for the compounds tested. The new MESCO formats were also exposed for 28 days in the polluted creek to test their <span class="hlt">field</span> performance. For priority contaminants of special interest, alpha-hexachlorocyclohexane and hexachlorobenzene, the time-weighted average concentrations derived from the freshly calibrated sampling devices agree well with those obtained by conventional water analysis of spot samples.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4269717','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4269717"><span>Auditory evoked <span class="hlt">fields</span> measured noninvasively with small-animal MEG reveal <span class="hlt">rapid</span> repetition suppression in the guinea pig</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Christianson, G. Björn; Chait, Maria; de Cheveigné, Alain</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>In animal models, single-neuron response properties such as stimulus-specific adaptation have been described as possible precursors to mismatch negativity, a human brain response to stimulus change. In the present study, we attempted to bridge the gap between human and animal studies by characterising responses to changes in the frequency of repeated tone series in the anesthetised guinea pig using small-animal magnetoencephalography (MEG). We showed that 1) auditory evoked <span class="hlt">fields</span> (AEFs) qualitatively similar to those observed in human MEG studies can be detected noninvasively in rodents using small-animal MEG; 2) guinea pig AEF amplitudes reduce <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> with tone repetition, and this AEF reduction is largely complete by the second tone in a repeated series; and 3) differences between responses to the first (deviant) and later (standard) tones after a frequency transition resemble those previously observed in awake humans using a similar stimulus paradigm. PMID:25231619</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325588','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22325588"><span>Assessing the effectiveness of scrub management at the landscape scale using <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> assessment and remote sensing.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Redhead, John; Cuevas-Gonzales, Maria; Smith, Geoffrey; Gerard, France; Pywell, Richard</p> <p>2012-04-30</p> <p>Controlling scrub encroachment is a major challenge for conservation management on chalk grasslands. However, direct comparisons of scrub removal methods have seldom been investigated, particularly at the landscape scale. Effective monitoring of grassland scrub is problematic as it requires simultaneous information on large scale patterns in scrub cover and fine-scale changes in the grassland community. This study addressed this by combining analysis of aerial imagery with <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> surveys in order to compare the effectiveness of four scrub management strategies on Defence Training Estate Salisbury Plain, UK. Study plots were sited within areas undergoing management and in unmanaged controls. Controls showed dramatic increases in scrub cover, with encroachment of a mean 1096 m(2) per hectare over ten years. Whilst all management strategies were effective in reducing scrub encroachment, they differed in their ability to influence regeneration of scrub and grassland quality. There was a general trend, evident in both the floral community and scrub levels, of increased effectiveness with increasing management intensity. The dual methodology proved highly effective, allowing <span class="hlt">rapid</span> collection of data over a range of variables and spatial scales unavailable to each method individually. The methodology thus demonstrates potential for a useful monitoring tool. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_18");'>18</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li class="active"><span>20</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_20 --> <div id="page_21" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="401"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3540...66M','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/1999SPIE.3540...66M"><span>FTIR-based instrument employing a coiled hollow waveguide cell for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> analysis of volatile organic compounds</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Micheels, Ronald H.; Richardson, K.; Haan, David J.; Harrington, James A.</p> <p>1999-02-01</p> <p>An instrument has been developed which combines a portable Fourier Transform Infrared spectrometer with a hollow waveguide infrared gas cell. This instrument has been applied to the multi-component analysis of 5 volatile organic compounds (VOCs), that are common contaminants in soil. The instrument is designed for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> screening of the VOC compounds in soil or water. The instrument employs headspace sampling in small sample vials to measure the VOC content of soil or water samples. The instrument employs either a straight or coiled hollow waveguide gas cell to achieve a long infrared absorption pathlength of 1 - 2 m with a very low cell volume in the range of 2 to 5 cc. These cell dimensions permit high detection sensitivity along with a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> system response time. A theoretical model has been developed to predict the infrared light attenuation in the coiled waveguide cell as a function of coil radius and waveguide bore size. Incoherent infrared light transmission losses associated with coiling of waveguides with a 0.197 m coil radius have been found to have an average value of 0.312 dB/m. Calibration experiments have been performed with a series of 5 component VOC gas mixtures with concentrations in the range of 20 - 200 ppm (volume). Measurements of the partitioning of the VOCs between the soil and gas phase have also been conducted.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........71G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015PhDT........71G"><span>A hybrid CFD-DSMC model designed to simulate <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> rarefying flow <span class="hlt">fields</span> and its application to physical vapor deposition</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Gott, Kevin</p> <p></p> <p>This research endeavors to better understand the physical vapor deposition (PVD) vapor transport process by determining the most appropriate fluidic model to design PVD coating manufacturing. An initial analysis was completed based on the calculation of Knudsen number from titanium vapor properties. The results show a dense Navier-Stokes solver best describes flow near the evaporative source, but the material properties suggest expansion into the chamber may result in a strong drop in density and a rarefied flow close to the substrate. A hybrid CFD-DSMC solver is constructed in OpenFOAM for <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> rarefying flow <span class="hlt">fields</span> such as PVD vapor transport. The models are patched together combined using a new patching methodology designed to take advantage of the one-way motion of vapor from the CFD region to the DSMC region. Particles do not return to the dense CFD region, therefore the temperature and velocity can be solved independently in each domain. This novel technique allows a hybrid method to be applied to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> rarefying PVD flow <span class="hlt">fields</span> in a stable manner. Parameter studies are performed on a CFD, Navier-Stokes continuum based compressible solver, a Direct Simulation Monte Carlo (DSMC) rarefied particle solver, a collisionless free molecular solver and the hybrid CFD-DSMC solver. The radial momentum at the inlet and radial diffusion characteristics in the flow <span class="hlt">field</span> are shown to be the most important to achieve an accurate deposition profile. The hybrid model also shows sensitivity to the shape of the CFD region and rarefied regions shows sensitivity to the Knudsen number. The models are also compared to each other and appropriate experimental data to determine which model is most likely to accurately describe PVD coating deposition processes. The Navier-Stokes solvers are expected to yield backflow across the majority of realistic inlet conditions, making their physics unrealistic for PVD flow <span class="hlt">fields</span>. A DSMC with improved collision model may yield an accurate</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324600','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=324600"><span><span class="hlt">Field</span> evaluation of green and red leaf lettuce genotypes in the Imperial, San Joaquin, and Salinas Valleys of California for heat tolerance and extension of the <span class="hlt">growing</span> seasons</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>Global warming poses serious threats and challenges to the production of leafy vegetables. Being a cool-season crop, lettuce is vulnerable to heat-stress. To adapt to climate change, this study was conducted to evaluate the performance of leaf lettuce genotypes for heat tolerance by <span class="hlt">growing</span> them in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fruit&id=EJ1116368','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=fruit&id=EJ1116368"><span>Parents'/Carers' Perceptions and Experiences of <span class="hlt">Growing</span>, Preparing and Eating Their Own Fruit and Vegetables as Part of the "<span class="hlt">Field</span> to Fork" Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burton, Diana M.; May, Stephanie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports research into a project to encourage KS1 and KS2 pupils to eat more healthily by supporting their families to <span class="hlt">grow</span> their own fruit and vegetables at home. Participants were recruited through a Primary School Trust comprising four primary schools in the North West of England. They were given practical support to enable them to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+consumption+AND+students&pg=6&id=EJ1116368','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=food+AND+consumption+AND+students&pg=6&id=EJ1116368"><span>Parents'/Carers' Perceptions and Experiences of <span class="hlt">Growing</span>, Preparing and Eating Their Own Fruit and Vegetables as Part of the "<span class="hlt">Field</span> to Fork" Project</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Burton, Diana M.; May, Stephanie</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>This paper reports research into a project to encourage KS1 and KS2 pupils to eat more healthily by supporting their families to <span class="hlt">grow</span> their own fruit and vegetables at home. Participants were recruited through a Primary School Trust comprising four primary schools in the North West of England. They were given practical support to enable them to…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22555255','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22555255"><span>MO-AB-BRA-08: <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Treatment <span class="hlt">Field</span> Uniformity Optimization for Total Skin Electron Beam Therapy Using Cherenkov Imaging</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Andreozzi, J; Zhang, R; Glaser, A; Pogue, B; Jarvis, L; Williams, B; Gladstone, D</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: To evaluate treatment <span class="hlt">field</span> heterogeneity resulting from gantry angle choice in total skin electron beam therapy (TSEBT) following a modified Stanford dual-<span class="hlt">field</span> technique, and determine a relationship between source to surface distance (SSD) and optimized gantry angle spread. Methods: Cherenkov imaging was used to image 62 treatment <span class="hlt">fields</span> on a sheet of 1.2m x 2.2m x 1.2cm polyethylene following standard TSEBT setup at our institution (6 MeV, 888 MU/min, no spoiler, SSD=441cm), where gantry angles spanned from 239.5° to 300.5° at 1° increments. Average Cherenkov intensity and coefficient of variation in the region of interest were compared for the set of composite Cherenkov images created by summing all unique combinations of angle pairs to simulate dual-<span class="hlt">field</span> treatment. The angle pair which produced the lowest coefficient of variation was further studied using an ionization chamber. The experiment was repeated at SSD=300cm, and SSD=370.5cm. Cherenkov imaging was also implemented during TSEBT of three patients. Results: The most uniform treatment region from a symmetric angle spread was achieved using gantry angles +/−17.5° about the horizontal axis at SSD=441cm, +/−18.5° at SSD=370.5cm, and +/−19.5° at SSD=300cm. Ionization chamber measurements comparing the original treatment spread (+/−14.5°) and the optimized angle pair (+/−17.5°) at SSD=441cm showed no significant deviation (r=0.999) in percent depth dose curves, and chamber measurements from nine locations within the <span class="hlt">field</span> showed an improvement in dose uniformity from 24.41% to 9.75%. Ionization chamber measurements correlated strongly (r=0.981) with Cherenkov intensity measured concurrently on the flat Plastic Water phantom. Patient images and TLD results also showed modest uniformity improvements. Conclusion: A decreasing linear relationship between optimal angle spread and SSD was observed. Cherenkov imaging offers a new method of <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> analyzing and optimizing TSEBT setup</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45055','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/45055"><span>Catalase measurement: A new <span class="hlt">field</span> procedure for <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> estimating microbial loads in fuels and water-bottoms</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Passman, F.J.; Daniels, D.A.; Chesneau, H.F.</p> <p>1995-05-01</p> <p>Low-grade microbial infections of fuel and fuel systems generally go undetected until they cause major operational problems. Three interdependent factors contribute to this: mis-diagnosis, incorrect or inadequate sampling procedures and perceived complexity of microbiological testing procedures. After discussing the first two issues, this paper describes a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> test for estimating microbial loads in fuels and associated water. The test, adapted from a procedure initially developed to measure microbial loads in metalworking fluids, takes advantage of the nearly universal presence of the enzyme catalase in the microbes that contaminated fuel systems. Samples are reacted with a peroxide-based reagent; liberating oxygen gas. The gas generates a pressure-head in a reaction tube. At fifteen minutes, a patented, electronic pressure-sensing device is used to measure that head-space pressure. The authors present both laboratory and <span class="hlt">field</span> data from fuels and water-bottoms, demonstrating the excellent correlation between traditional viable test data (acquired after 48-72 hours incubation) and catalase test data (acquired after 15 min.-4 hours). We conclude by recommending procedures for developing a failure analysis data-base to enhance our industry`s understanding of the relationship between uncontrolled microbial contamination and fuel performance problems.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23912422','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23912422"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and nondestructive measurement of labile Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As in DGT by using <span class="hlt">field</span> portable-XRF.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Zheng; Williams, Paul N; Zhang, Hao</p> <p>2013-09-01</p> <p>The technique of diffusive gradients in thin films (DGT) is often employed to quantify labile metals in situ; however, it is a challenge to perform the measurements in-<span class="hlt">field</span>. This study evaluated the capability of <span class="hlt">field</span>-portable X-ray fluorescence (FP-XRF) to swiftly generate elemental speciation information with DGT. Biologically available metal ions in environmental samples passively preconcentrate in the thin films of DGT devices, providing an ideal and uniform matrix for XRF nondestructive detection. Strong correlation coefficients (r > 0.992 for Mn, Cu, Zn, Pb and As) were obtained for all elements during calibration. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) for the investigated elements of FP-XRF on DGT devices are 2.74 for Mn, 4.89 for Cu, 2.89 for Zn, 2.55 for Pb, and 0.48 for As (unit: μg cm(-2)). When Pb and As co-existed in the solution trials, As did not interfere with Pb detection when using Chelex-DGT. However, there was a significant enhancement of the Pb reading attributed to As when ferrihydrite binding gels were tested, consistent with Fe-oxyhydroxide surfaces absorbing large quantities of As. This study demonstrates the value of the FP-XRF technique to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> and nondestructively detect the metals accumulated in DGT devices, providing a new and simple diagnostic tool for on-site environmental monitoring of labile metals/metalloids.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4735594','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4735594"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and high-throughput microplate spectrophotometric method for <span class="hlt">field</span> measurement of nitrate in seawater and freshwater</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Wu, Jiapeng; Hong, Yiguo; Guan, Fengjie; Wang, Yan; Tan, Yehui; Yue, Weizhong; Wu, Meilin; Bin, Liying; Wang, Jiaping; Wen, Jiali</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>The well-known zinc-cadmium reduction method is frequently used for determination of nitrate. However, this method is seldom to be applied on <span class="hlt">field</span> research of nitrate due to the long time consuming and large sample volume demand. Here, we reported a modified zinc-cadmium reduction method (MZCRM) for measurement of nitrate at natural-abundance level in both seawater and freshwater. The main improvements of MZCRM include using small volume disposable tubes for reaction, a vortex apparatus for shaking to increase reduction rate, and a microplate reader for high-throughput spectrophotometric measurements. Considering salt effect, two salinity sections (5~10 psu and 20~35 psu) were set up for more accurate determination of nitrate in low and high salinity condition respectively. Under optimized experimental conditions, the reduction rates were stabilized on 72% and 63% on the salinity of 5 and 20 psu respectively. The lowest detection limit for nitrate was 0.5 μM and was linear up to 100 μM (RSDs was 4.8%). Environmental samples assay demonstrated that MZCRM was well consistent with conventional zinc-cadmium reduction method. In total, this modified method improved accuracy and efficiency of operations greatly, and would be realized a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and high-throughput determination of nitrate in <span class="hlt">field</span> analysis of nitrate with low cost. PMID:26832984</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832984','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26832984"><span>A <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and high-throughput microplate spectrophotometric method for <span class="hlt">field</span> measurement of nitrate in seawater and freshwater.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Wu, Jiapeng; Hong, Yiguo; Guan, Fengjie; Wang, Yan; Tan, Yehui; Yue, Weizhong; Wu, Meilin; Bin, Liying; Wang, Jiaping; Wen, Jiali</p> <p>2016-02-01</p> <p>The well-known zinc-cadmium reduction method is frequently used for determination of nitrate. However, this method is seldom to be applied on <span class="hlt">field</span> research of nitrate due to the long time consuming and large sample volume demand. Here, we reported a modified zinc-cadmium reduction method (MZCRM) for measurement of nitrate at natural-abundance level in both seawater and freshwater. The main improvements of MZCRM include using small volume disposable tubes for reaction, a vortex apparatus for shaking to increase reduction rate, and a microplate reader for high-throughput spectrophotometric measurements. Considering salt effect, two salinity sections (5~10 psu and 20~35 psu) were set up for more accurate determination of nitrate in low and high salinity condition respectively. Under optimized experimental conditions, the reduction rates were stabilized on 72% and 63% on the salinity of 5 and 20 psu respectively. The lowest detection limit for nitrate was 0.5 μM and was linear up to 100 μM (RSDs was 4.8%). Environmental samples assay demonstrated that MZCRM was well consistent with conventional zinc-cadmium reduction method. In total, this modified method improved accuracy and efficiency of operations greatly, and would be realized a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and high-throughput determination of nitrate in <span class="hlt">field</span> analysis of nitrate with low cost.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V33C2668F','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2011AGUFM.V33C2668F"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> uplift in Laguna del Maule volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span> of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone (Chile) measured by satellite radar interferometry</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Singer, B. S.; Pesicek, J. D.; Thurber, C. H.; Jicha, B. R.; Lara, L. E.; Hildreth, E. W.; Fierstein, J.; Williams-Jones, G.; Unsworth, M. J.; Keranen, K. M.</p> <p>2011-12-01</p> <p>The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span> of the Andean Southern Volcanic Zone extends over 500 square kilometers and comprises more than 130 individual vents. As described by Hildreth et al. (2010), the history has been defined from sixty-eight Ar/Ar and K-Ar dates. Silicic eruptions have occurred throughout the past 3.7 Ma, including welded ignimbrite associated with caldera formation at 950 ka, small rhyolitic eruptions between 336 and 38 ka, and a culminating ring of 36 post-glacial rhyodacite and rhyolite coulees and domes that encircle the lake. Dating of five post-glacial flows implies that these silicic eruptions occurred within the last 25 kyr. <span class="hlt">Field</span> relations indicate that initial eruptions comprised modest volumes of mafic rhyodacite magma that were followed by larger volumes of high silica rhyolite. The post-glacial flare-up of silicic magmatism from vents distributed around the lake, is unprecedented in the history of this volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span>. Using satellite radar interferometry (InSAR), Fournier et al. (2010) measured uplift at a rate of more than 180 mm/year between 2007 and 2008 in a round pattern centered on the west side of LdM. More recent InSAR observations suggest that <span class="hlt">rapid</span> uplift has continued from 2008 through early 2011. In contrast, Fournier et al. found no measurable deformation in an interferogram spanning 2003 through 2004. In this study, we model the deformation <span class="hlt">field</span> using the General Inversion of Phase Technique (GIPhT), as described by Feigl and Thurber (2009). Two different models fit the data. The first model assumes a sill at ~5 km depth has been inflating at a rate of more than 20 million cubic meters per year since 2007. The second model assumes that the water level in the lake dropped at a rate of 20 m/yr from January 2007 through February 2010, thus reducing the load on an elastic simulation of the crust. The rate of intrusion inferred from InSAR is an order of magnitude higher than the average rate derived from well-dated arc</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022910','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70022910"><span>Herbicides and herbicide degradates in shallow groundwater and the Cedar River near a municipal well <span class="hlt">field</span>, Cedar <span class="hlt">Rapids</span>, Iowa</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Boyd, R.A.</p> <p>2000-01-01</p> <p>Water samples were collected near a Cedar <span class="hlt">Rapids</span>, Iowa municipal well <span class="hlt">field</span> from June 1998 to August 1998 and analyzed for selected triazine and acetanilide herbicides and degradates. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the occurrence of herbicides and herbicide degradates in the well <span class="hlt">field</span> during a period following springtime application of herbicides to upstream cropland. The well <span class="hlt">field</span> is in an alluvial aquifer adjacent to the Cedar River. Parent herbicide concentrations generally were greatest in June, and decreased in July and August. Atrazine was most frequently detected and occurred at the greatest concentrations; acetochlor, cyanazine and metolachlor also were detected, but at lesser concentrations than atrazine. Triazine degradate concentrations were relatively small (<0.50 ??g/l) and generally decreased from June to August. Although the rate of groundwater movement is relatively fast (approx. 1 m per day) in the alluvial aquifer near the Cedar River, deethylatrazine (DEA) to atrazine ratios in groundwater samples collected near the Cedar River indicate that atrazine and DEA probably are gradually transported into the alluvial aquifer from the Cedar River. Deisopropylatrazine (DIA) to DEA ratios in water samples indicate most DIA in the Cedar River and alluvial aquifer is produced by atrazine degradation, although some could be from cyanazine degradation. Acetanilide degradates were detected more frequently and at greater concentrations than their corresponding parent herbicides. Ethanesulfonic-acid (ESA) degradates comprised at least 80% of the total acetanilide-degradate concentrations in samples collected from the Cedar River and alluvial aquifer in June, July and August; oxanilic acid degradates comprised less than 20% of the total concentrations. ESA-degradate concentrations generally were smallest in June and greater in July and August. Acetanilide degradate concentrations in groundwater adjacent to the Cedar River indicate acetanilide</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19334748','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19334748"><span>Use of <span class="hlt">field</span>-portable XRF analyzers for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> screening of toxic elements in FDA-regulated products.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Palmer, Peter T; Jacobs, Richard; Baker, Peter E; Ferguson, Kelly; Webber, Siri</p> <p>2009-04-08</p> <p>Analytical instrumentation continues its amazing evolution, especially in regard to generating ever more sensitive, faster, and reliable measurements. Perhaps the most difficult challenges are making these instruments small enough to use in the <span class="hlt">field</span>, equipping them with well-designed software that facilitates and simplifies their use by nonexperts while preserving enough of their analytical capabilities to render them useful for a wide variety of applications. Perhaps the most impressive and underappreciated example of instruments that meet these criteria are <span class="hlt">field</span>-portable X-ray fluorescence (XRF) analyzers. In the past, these analyzers have been routinely used for environmental applications (lead in paint and soil, metal particulates in air samples collected onto filters), geology studies (ore and soil analysis, precious metal identification), and recycling industries (alloy identification). However, their use in the analysis of toxic elements in food, food ingredients, dietary supplements, and medicinal and herbal products, especially within the FDA and regulatory environments, has been surprisingly limited to date. Although XRF will not replace atomic spectrometry techniques such as ICP-MS for sub-parts per million level analyses, it offers a number of significant advantages including minimal sample preparation, high sample throughputs, <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and definitive identification of many toxic elements, and accurate quantitative results. As should be obvious from many recent news reports on elevated levels of toxic elements in children's lunchboxes, toys, and supplements, <span class="hlt">field</span>-portable XRF analyzers can fill a very important niche and are becoming increasingly popular for a wide variety of elemental analysis applications. This perspective begins with a brief review of the theory of XRF to highlight the underlying principle, instrumentation, and spectra. It includes a discussion of various analytical figures of merit of XRF to illustrate its strengths and limitations</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25605222','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25605222"><span><span class="hlt">Field</span> assessment of dried Plasmodium falciparum samples for malaria <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic test quality control and proficiency testing in Ethiopia.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tamiru, Afework; Boulanger, Lucy; Chang, Michelle A; Malone, Joseph L; Aidoo, Michael</p> <p>2015-01-21</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> diagnostic tests (RDTs) are now widely used for laboratory confirmation of suspected malaria cases to comply with the World Health Organization recommendation for universal testing before treatment. However, many malaria programmes lack quality control (QC) processes to assess RDT use under <span class="hlt">field</span> conditions. Prior research showed the feasibility of using the dried tube specimen (DTS) method for preserving Plasmodium falciparum parasites for use as QC samples for RDTs. This study focused on the use of DTS for RDT QC and proficiency testing under <span class="hlt">field</span> conditions. DTS were prepared using cultured P. falciparum at densities of 500 and 1,000 parasites/μL; 50 μL aliquots of these along with parasite negative human blood controls (0 parasites/μL) were air-dried in specimen tubes and reactivity verified after rehydration. The DTS were used in a <span class="hlt">field</span> study in the Oromia Region of Ethiopia. Replicate DTS samples containing 0, 500 and 1,000 parasites/μL were stored at 4°C at a reference laboratory and at ambient temperatures at two nearby health facilities. At weeks 0, 4, 8, 12, 16, 20, and 24, the DTS were rehydrated and tested on RDTs stored under manufacturer-recommended temperatures at the RL and on RDTs stored under site-specific conditions at the two health facilities. Reactivity of DTS stored at 4°C at the reference laboratory on RDTs stored at the reference laboratory was considered the gold standard for assessing DTS stability. A proficiency-testing panel consisting of one negative and three positive samples, monitored with a checklist was administered at weeks 12 and 24. At all the seven time points, DTS stored at both the reference laboratory and health facility were reactive on RDTs stored under the recommended temperature and under <span class="hlt">field</span> conditions, and the DTS without malaria parasites were negative. At the reference laboratory and one health facility, a 500 parasites/μL DTS from the proficiency panel was falsely reported as negative at week 24</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911704B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017EGUGA..1911704B"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> assessment of multi-directional 3D-flow <span class="hlt">fields</span> using active heat pulse sensing in the streambed</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Banks, Eddie W.; Shanafield, Margaret; McCallum, James; Noorduijn, Saskia; Lewandowski, Jorg; Batelaan, Okke</p> <p>2017-04-01</p> <p>Application of heat as a tracer to hydrological studies has <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> progressed in the last few decades driven by the simplicity of the methodology and low cost of sensor technology. Vertical temperature profiles using the 1D analytical solution are now widely used to determine hyporheic flow patterns and hydraulic dynamics within the shallow streambed sediment. One of the challenges in using a limited number of measurements to characterize processes that are not entirely vertical has been the determination of the horizontal or lateral flow component and how these components vary spatially and also their relative magnitude in 3D space. This study used a homemade portable 56 sensor, 3D temperature array with 3 heat pulse sources (the hot rod) to measure the flow direction and magnitude up to 230 mm below the water-sediment interface at a scale of a few centimetres in a range of sedimentary environments from fine silt to coarse gravels. Short heat pulses, typically 1 minute in duration were injected into the stream sediment and the response was monitored over a period of 20-30 minutes. Breakthrough curves from each of the temperature sensors was analysed using a version of the heat transport equation and a calibration objective function was used to estimate the x, y and z flow vector to determine the dominant direction and magnitude at the point of observation. A GUI in Python was developed to provide a user-friendly interface for processing the <span class="hlt">field</span> data. The robust design of the hot rod and use of short duration heat pulses provides a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> assessment technique for different heterogeneous stream environments and conditions which are crucial to determining dynamic and multi-directional flow patterns and understanding biogeochemical processes at the water-streambed interface.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19171680','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19171680"><span>Using a <span class="hlt">field</span> quantitative real-time PCR test to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> identify highly viremic rift valley fever cases.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Njenga, M Kariuki; Paweska, Janusz; Wanjala, Rose; Rao, Carol Y; Weiner, Matthew; Omballa, Victor; Luman, Elizabeth T; Mutonga, David; Sharif, Shanaaz; Panning, Marcus; Drosten, Christian; Feikin, Daniel R; Breiman, Robert F</p> <p>2009-04-01</p> <p>Approximately 8% of Rift Valley fever (RVF) cases develop severe disease, leading to hemorrhage, hepatitis, and/or encephalitis and resulting in up to 50% of deaths. A major obstacle in the management of RVF and other viral hemorrhagic fever cases in outbreaks that occur in rural settings is the inability to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> identify such cases, with poor prognosis early enough to allow for more-aggressive therapies. During an RVF outbreak in Kenya in 2006 to 2007, we evaluated whether quantitative real-time reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR) could be used in the <span class="hlt">field</span> to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> identify viremic RVF cases with risk of death. In 52 of 430 RVF cases analyzed by qRT-PCR and virus culture, 18 died (case fatality rate [CFR] = 34.6%). Levels of viremia in fatal cases were significantly higher than those in nonfatal cases (mean of 10(5.2) versus 10(2.9) per ml; P < 0.005). A negative correlation between the levels of infectious virus particles and the qRT-PCR crossover threshold (C(T)) values allowed the use of qRT-PCR to assess prognosis. The CFR was 50.0% among cases with C(T) values of <27.0 (corresponding to 2.1 x 10(4) viral RNA particles/ml of serum) and 4.5% among cases with C(T) values of >or=27.0. This cutoff yielded 93.8% sensitivity and a 95.5% negative predictive value; the specificity and positive predictive value were 58% and 50%, respectively. This study shows a correlation between high viremia and fatality and indicates that qRT-PCR testing can identify nearly all fatal RVF cases.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33072','TREESEARCH'); return false;" href="https://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/pubs/33072"><span><span class="hlt">Growing</span> media [Chapter 5</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.fs.usda.gov/treesearch/">Treesearch</a></p> <p>Douglass F. Jacobs; Thomas D. Landis; Tara Luna</p> <p>2009-01-01</p> <p>Selecting the proper <span class="hlt">growing</span> medium is one of the most important considerations in nursery plant production. A <span class="hlt">growing</span> medium can be defined as a substance through which roots <span class="hlt">grow</span> and extract water and nutrients. In native plant nurseries, a <span class="hlt">growing</span> medium can consist of native soil but is more commonly an "artificial soil" composed of materials such as peat...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM13C2529C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015AGUFMSM13C2529C"><span>On the Electrons Dynamics during <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Island Coalescence in Asymmetric Magnetic Reconnection: Case With and With No Guide <span class="hlt">Field</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Cazzola, E.; Innocenti, M. E.; Markidis, S.; Goldman, M. V.; Newman, D. L.; Lapenta, G.</p> <p>2015-12-01</p> <p>We present a set of fully kinetic 2.5D simulations of electron dynamics during <span class="hlt">rapid</span> magnetic islands coalescence in asymmetric conditions. Simulations are performed using the massively parallel fully kinetic implicit moment method code iPIC3D (Markidis et al. 2010). The domain is a double periodic box with two current sheets initially representing two different reconnection conditions with the same asymmetric ratio. In the upper sheet the conventional hyperbolic continuous functions for magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> and density are initialised across the layer (e.g. Pritchett 2008). In the lower layer the same asymmetric conditions are used the presence of an extremely steep gradient describing a pure tangential discontinuity.Cases with and without guide <span class="hlt">field</span> are compared. While the upper layer shows the typical reconnection evolution of an asymmetric configuration, the lower layer very soon develops not-uniformly distributed multiple reconnection points which <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> evolve in a series of magnetic islands. Quick islands coalescence follows. Even though the electrons dynamics during island merging has been studied in both symmetric and asymmetric conditions (e.g. Pritchett 2007, 2008b, Drake et al. 2006, Oka et al. 2010, Huang et al. 2014), these simulations show new interesting features such as the presence of three distinct regions, here named X, M and D, with very different properties. Regions X and M manifest typical signatures of ongoing reconnection, distinguishable thanks to the direct comparison with the outcomes of the upper layer. In particular, M-type regions are different because reconnection occurs between two merging islands in a vertical fashion with respect to the direction of the current sheets initially set. In contrast, regions D present a quite diverse features, not showing the typical signatures of a occurring reconnection. The present work is supported by the NASA MMS Grant NNX08AO84G. Additional support for the KULeuven team is provided by the European</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510231','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23510231"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> diagnostic tests for molecular surveillance of Plasmodium falciparum malaria -assessment of DNA extraction methods and <span class="hlt">field</span> applicability.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Morris, Ulrika; Aydin-Schmidt, Berit; Shakely, Delér; Mårtensson, Andreas; Jörnhagen, Louise; Ali, Abdullah S; Msellem, Mwinyi I; Petzold, Max; Gil, José P; Ferreira, Pedro E; Björkman, Anders</p> <p>2013-03-19</p> <p>The need for new malaria surveillance tools and strategies is critical, given improved global malaria control and regional elimination efforts. High quality Plasmodium falciparum DNA can reliably be extracted from malaria <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic tests (RDTs). Together with highly sensitive molecular assays, wide scale collection of used RDTs may serve as a modern tool for improved malaria case detection and drug resistance surveillance. However, comparative studies of DNA extraction efficiency from RDTs and the <span class="hlt">field</span> applicability are lacking. The aim of this study was to compare and evaluate different methods of DNA extraction from RDTs and to test the <span class="hlt">field</span> applicability for the purpose of molecular epidemiological investigations. DNA was extracted from two RDT devices (Paracheck-Pf® and SD Bioline Malaria Pf/Pan®), seeded in vitro with 10-fold dilutions of cultured 3D7 P. falciparum parasites diluted in malaria negative whole blood. The level of P. falciparum detection was determined for each extraction method and RDT device with multiple nested-PCR and real-time PCR assays. The <span class="hlt">field</span> applicability was tested on 855 paired RDT (Paracheck-Pf) and filter paper (Whatman® 3MM) blood samples (734 RDT negative and 121 RDT positive samples) collected from febrile patients in Zanzibar 2010. RDT positive samples were genotyped at four key single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in pfmdr1 and pfcrt as well as for pfmdr1 copy number, all associated with anti-malarial drug resistance. The P. falciparum DNA detection limit varied with RDT device and extraction method. Chelex-100 extraction performed best for all extraction matrixes. There was no statistically significant difference in PCR detection rates in DNA extracted from RDTs and filter paper <span class="hlt">field</span> samples. Similarly there were no significant differences in the PCR success rates and genotyping outcomes for the respective SNPs in the 121 RDT positive samples. The results support RDTs as a valuable source of parasite DNA and</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V31B2786L','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012AGUFM.V31B2786L"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> uplift during 2007-2012 at Laguna del Maule volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span>, Andean Southern Volcanic Zone, Chile</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Le Mevel, H.; Feigl, K.; Ali, T.; Cordova V., M. L.; DeMets, C.; Singer, B. S.</p> <p>2012-12-01</p> <p>The Laguna del Maule (LdM) volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span> includes an unusual concentration of post-glacial rhyolitic lava coulees and domes, dated between 24 to 2 thousand years old that cover more than 100 square kilometers and erupted from 24 vents that encircle a 20-km-diameter lake basin on the range crest. The recent concentration of rhyolite is unparalleled in the Southern Volcanic Zone of the Andes. Moreover, the western portion of the LdM volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span> has experienced <span class="hlt">rapid</span> uplift since 2007, leading to questions about the current configuration of the magmatic system and processes that drive the ongoing inflation. We aim to quantify the active deformation of the LdM volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span> and its evolution with time. To do so, we use interferometric synthetic aperture radar (InSAR) data acquired by three satellite missions: Envisat in 2003 and 2004, ALOS between 2007 and 2010, and TerraSAR-X in 2012. An interferogram spanning March 2003 to February 2004 "shows no deformation" (Fournier et al., 2010). From 2007 through 2012, however, the shortening of the satellite-to-ground distance revealed a range change rate of greater than 200 mm/yr along the radar line of sight. The deformation includes a circular area 20 km in diameter centered on the western portion of the circle of young rhyolite domes. To analyze the InSAR results, we employ the General Inversion for Phase Technique (GIPhT; Feigl and Thurber, 2009; Ali and Feigl, 2012). We have considered several hypotheses to interpret this deformation. Artefacts such as orbital errors, atmospheric perturbations or topographic contribution cannot account for the observed signal. We also reject the hypothesis of uplift due to gravitational unloading of the crust based on our modeling of independently measured lake level variations over the observed time interval. We thus attribute the deformation to the intrusion of magma into the upper crust below the southwest region of the LdM volcanic <span class="hlt">field</span>. The best fit to the InSAR data is</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_19");'>19</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li class="active"><span>21</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_21 --> <div id="page_22" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="421"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416243','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3416243"><span><span class="hlt">Growing</span> Unculturable Bacteria</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p></p> <p>2012-01-01</p> <p>The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not <span class="hlt">grow</span> on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in <span class="hlt">growing</span> these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the <span class="hlt">field</span>. PMID:22661685</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22661685','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22661685"><span><span class="hlt">Growing</span> unculturable bacteria.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Stewart, Eric J</p> <p>2012-08-01</p> <p>The bacteria that can be grown in the laboratory are only a small fraction of the total diversity that exists in nature. At all levels of bacterial phylogeny, uncultured clades that do not <span class="hlt">grow</span> on standard media are playing critical roles in cycling carbon, nitrogen, and other elements, synthesizing novel natural products, and impacting the surrounding organisms and environment. While molecular techniques, such as metagenomic sequencing, can provide some information independent of our ability to culture these organisms, it is essentially impossible to learn new gene and pathway functions from pure sequence data. A true understanding of the physiology of these bacteria and their roles in ecology, host health, and natural product production requires their cultivation in the laboratory. Recent advances in <span class="hlt">growing</span> these species include coculture with other bacteria, recreating the environment in the laboratory, and combining these approaches with microcultivation technology to increase throughput and access rare species. These studies are unraveling the molecular mechanisms of unculturability and are identifying growth factors that promote the growth of previously unculturable organisms. This minireview summarizes the recent discoveries in this area and discusses the potential future of the <span class="hlt">field</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6282207','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/6282207"><span>Trans<span class="hlt">Rapid</span> TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Groh, K.R.</p> <p>1993-01-01</p> <p>This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the Trans<span class="hlt">Rapid</span> TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10161808','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/10161808"><span>Trans<span class="hlt">Rapid</span> TR-07 maglev-spectrum magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> effects on daily pineal indoleamine metabolic rhythms in rodents</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Groh, K.R.</p> <p>1993-06-01</p> <p>This study examined the effects on pineal function of magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> (MF) exposures (ac and dc components) similar to those produced by the Trans<span class="hlt">Rapid</span> TR-07 and other electromagnetic maglev systems (EMS). Rats were entrained to a light-dark cycle and then exposed to a continuous, or to an inverted, intermittent (on = 45 s, off = 15 s, induced current = 267 G/s) simulated multifrequency ac and dc magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> (MF) at 1 or 7 times the TR-07 maglev vehicle MF intensity for 2 hr. Other groups of rats were exposed to only the ac or the dc-component of the maglev MF. For comparison, one group was exposed to an inverted, intermittent 60-Hz MF. Each group was compared to an unexposed group of rats for changes in pineal melatonin and serotonin-N-acetyltransferase (NAT). MF exposures at an intensity equivalent to that produced by the TR-07 vehicle had no effect on melatonin or NAT compared with sham-exposed animals under any of the conditions examined. However, 7X TR-07-level continuous 2-h MF exposures significantly depressed pineal NAT by 45%. Pineal melatonin was also depressed 33--43% by a continuous 7X TR-07 MF exposure and 28% by an intermittent 60-Hz 850-mG MF, but the results were not statically significant. This study demonstrates that intermittent, combined ac and dc MFs similar to those produced by the TR-07 EMS maglev vehicle alter the normal circadian rhythm of pineal indoleamine metabolism. The pineal regulatory enzyme NAT was more sensitive to MF exposure than melatonin and may be a more desirable measure of the biological effects of MF exposure.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27591631','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27591631"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons in soil using a hand-held mid-infrared <span class="hlt">field</span> instrument.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Webster, Grant T; Soriano-Disla, José M; Kirk, Joel; Janik, Leslie J; Forrester, Sean T; McLaughlin, Mike J; Stewart, Richard J</p> <p>2016-11-01</p> <p>This manuscript reports on the performance of a hand-held diffuse reflectance (mid)-infrared Fourier transform (DRIFT) spectrometer for the prediction of total petroleum hydrocarbons (TPH) in three different diesel-contaminated soils. These soils include: a carbonate dominated clay, a kaolinite dominated clay and a loam from Padova Italy, north Western Australia and southern Nigeria, respectively. Soils were analysed for TPH concentration using a standard laboratory methods and scanned in DRIFT mode with the hand-held spectrometer to determine TPH calibration models. Successful partial least square regression (PLSR) predictions, with coefficient of determination (R(2)) ~0.99 and root mean square error (RMSE) <200mg/kg, were obtained for the low range TPH concentrations of 0 to ~3,000mg/kg. These predictions were carried out using a set of independent samples for each soil type. Prediction models were also tested for the full concentration range (0-60,000mg/kg) for each soil type model with R(2) and RMSE values of ~0.99 and <1,255mg/kg, respectively. Furthermore, a number of intermediate concentration range models were also generated for each soil type with similar R(2) values of ~0.99 and RMSE values <800mg/kg. This study shows the capability of using a portable mid-infrared (MIR) DRIFT spectrometer for predicting TPH in a variety of soil types and the potential for being a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> in-<span class="hlt">field</span> screening method for TPH concentration levels at common regulatory thresholds. A novel hand-held mid-infrared instrument can accurately detect TPH across different soil types and concentrations, which paves the way for a variety of applications in the <span class="hlt">field</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446719','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25446719"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> estimation of biochemical oxygen demand in a subtropical eutrophic urban lake with chlorophyll a fluorescence.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Xu, Zhen; Xu, Y Jun</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Development of a technique for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> estimation of biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) is necessary for cost-effective monitoring and management of urban lakes. While several studies reported the usefulness of laboratory tryptophan-like fluorescence technique in predicting 5-day BOD (BOD₅) of wastewater and leachates, little is known about the predictability of <span class="hlt">field</span> chlorophyll fluorescence measurements for BOD of urban lake waters that are constantly exposed to the mixture of chemical compounds. This study was conducted to develop a numeric relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence and BOD for a eutrophic urban lake that is widely representative of lake water conditions in the subtropical southern USA. From October 2012 to September 2013, in situ measurements at the studied lake were made every 2 weeks on chlorophyll a fluorescence and other water quality parameters including water temperature, pH, dissolved oxygen, and specific conductivity. Water samples were taken for 5-day BOD and 10-day BOD (BOD₁₀) analysis with and without incubation. The results showed a clear seasonal trend of both BOD measurements being high during the summer and low during the winter. There was a linear, positive relationship between chlorophyll a fluorescence and BOD, and the relationship appeared to be stronger with the 10-day BOD (r(2) = 0.83) than with the 5-day BOD (r(2) = 0.76). BOD dropped each day with declining chlorophyll a fluorescence, suggesting that die-off of phytoplankton has been the main consumption of oxygen in the studied lake. Ambient conditions such as rainfall and water temperature may have partially affected BOD variation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JARS....8.3512C','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2014JARS....8.3512C"><span>Classification of small agricultural <span class="hlt">fields</span> using combined Landsat-8 and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Eye imagery: case study of northern Serbia</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Crnojević, Vladimir; Lugonja, Predrag; Brkljač, Branko; Brunet, Borislav</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A pixel-based cropland classification study based on the fusion of data from satellite images with different resolutions is presented. It is based on a time series of multispectral images acquired at different resolutions by different imaging instruments, Landsat-8 and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Eye. The proposed data fusion method capabilities are explored with the aim of overcoming the shortcomings of different instruments in the particular cropland classification scenario characterized by the very small size of crop <span class="hlt">fields</span> over the chosen agricultural region situated in the plains of Vojvodina in northern Serbia. This paper proposes a data fusion method that is successfully utilized in combination with arobust random forest classifier in improving the overall classification performance, as well as in enabling application of satellite imagery with a coarser spatial resolution in the given specific cropland classification task. The developed method effectively exploits available data and provides an improvement over the existing pixel-based classification approaches through the combination of different data sources. Another contribution of this paper is the employment of crowdsourcing in the process of reference data collection via dedicated smartphone application.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530608','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28530608"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span>, accurate, and simultaneous measurement of water and oil contents in the fried starchy system using low-<span class="hlt">field</span> NMR.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Chen, Long; Tian, Yaoqi; Sun, Binghua; Wang, Jinpeng; Tong, Qunyi; Jin, Zhengyu</p> <p>2017-10-15</p> <p>Fried starchy food is rich in oil that may pose a risk to health. For controlling of the oil uptake, a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and accurate method for the determination of oil content in the fried starchy food is important. In this study, low-<span class="hlt">field</span> nuclear magnetic resonance (LF-NMR) was applied to simultaneously determine water and oil contents in the model fried starchy system. The proton signals from oil and water were verified and distinguished by desiccation at 105°C. There was no superposition between oil and water signals in the fried starch, making it possible for quantitative analysis of water and oil in a single test. Compared with Soxhlet extraction, the LF-NMR analysis provided a more accurate result of oil content in the fried starchy system, confirming the practicability of the application of LF-NMR technology as a fast and accurate method for the quantification of water and oil in the fried starchy system. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10064E..4US','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017SPIE10064E..4US"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> computation of photoacoustic <span class="hlt">fields</span> from normal and pathological red blood cells using a Green's function method</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Saha, Ratan K.; Fadhel, Muhannad N.; Lawrence, Aamna; Karmakar, Subhajit; Adhikari, Arunabha; Kolios, Michael C.</p> <p>2017-03-01</p> <p>Photoacoustic (PA) <span class="hlt">field</span> calculations using a Green's function approach is presented. The method has been applied to predict PA spectra generated by normal (discocyte) and pathological (stomatocyte) red blood cells (RBCs). The contours of normal and pathological RBCs were generated by employing a popular parametric model and accordingly, fitted with the Legendre polynomial expansions for surface parametrization. The first frequency minimum of theoretical PA spectrum approximately appears at 607 MHz for a discocyte and 410 MHz for a stomatocyte when computed from the direction of symmetry axis. The same feature occurs nearly at 247 and 331 MHz, respectively, for those particles when measured along the perpendicular direction. The average experimental spectrum for normal RBCs is found to be flat over a bandwidth of 150-500 MHz when measured along the direction of symmetry axis. For spherical RBCs, both the theoretical and experimental spectra demonstrate negative slope over a bandwidth of 250-500 MHz. Using the Green's function method discussed, it may be possible to <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> characterize cellular morphology from single-particle PA spectra.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853537','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27853537"><span>Global <span class="hlt">field</span> synchronization reveals <span class="hlt">rapid</span> eye movement sleep as most synchronized brain state in the human EEG.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Achermann, Peter; Rusterholz, Thomas; Dürr, Roland; König, Thomas; Tarokh, Leila</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global <span class="hlt">field</span> synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects. EEG was recorded during a baseline night, a recovery night after 40 h of sustained wakefulness and at 3 h intervals during the 40 h of wakefulness. Compared to non-<span class="hlt">rapid</span> eye movement (NREM) sleep, REM sleep showed larger GFS values in all frequencies except in the spindle and theta bands, where NREM sleep showed a peak in GFS. Sleep deprivation did not affect GFS spectra in REM and NREM sleep. Waking GFS values were lower compared with REM and NREM sleep except for the alpha band. Waking alpha GFS decreased following sleep deprivation in the eyes closed condition only. Our surprising finding of higher synchrony during REM sleep challenges the view of REM sleep as a desynchronized brain state and may provide insight into the function of REM sleep.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19492326','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19492326"><span>Enhanced dark <span class="hlt">field</span> microscopy for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> artifact-free detection of nanoparticle binding to Candida albicans cells and hyphae.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Weinkauf, Heidi; Brehm-Stecher, Byron F</p> <p>2009-06-01</p> <p>We surveyed a panel of 13 metal nanoparticle (NP) catalysts for their antifungal activities against Candida albicans ATCC 90028. Initial characterization using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) suggested that our ability to detect NP binding to Candida surfaces with this method was impeded by preparation artifacts. As an alternative method for visualizing NP binding, we used an enhanced dark <span class="hlt">field</span> illumination system (CytoViva) attached to a standard light microscope. When viewed using this system, all NP produced intense optical signals due to resonant light scattering. To assay binding, NP were allowed to interact with C. albicans hyphae and cells in spent RPMI broth for 15 min with gentle inversion, followed by viewing with the CytoViva system. The antifungal efficacy of NP preparations was determined separately using a 24-h broth microdilution test. For single-metal NP, observations of binding at 15 min made via CytoViva corresponded to antifungal efficacy at 24 h, with the most antifungal NP yielding complete coverage of hyphal surfaces. Our work suggests the utility of visual screening using the CytoViva system for <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, simple and artifact-free viewing of NP-cell interactions in support of antimicrobial screening efforts. This approach provides a quick and accessible alternative to SEM for imaging of NP-cell interactions.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020869','USGSPUBS'); return false;" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/publication/70020869"><span>Characterizing ground water flow in the municipal well <span class="hlt">fields</span> of Cedar <span class="hlt">Rapids</span>, Iowa, with selected environmental tracers</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://pubs.er.usgs.gov/pubs/index.jsp?view=adv">USGS Publications Warehouse</a></p> <p>Boyd, R.A.</p> <p>1998-01-01</p> <p>Cedar <span class="hlt">Rapids</span> obtains its municipal water supply from a shallow alluvial aquifer along the Cedar River in east-central Iowa. Water samples were collected and analyzed for selected isotopes and chlorofluorocarbons to characterize the ground-water flow system near the municipal well <span class="hlt">fields</span>. Analyses of deuterium and oxygen-18 indicate that water in the alluvial aquifer and in the underlying carbonate bedrock aquifer was recharged from precipitation during modern climatic conditions. Analyses of tritium indicate modern, post-1952, water in the alluvial aquifer and older, pre-1952, water in the bedrock aquifer. Mixing of the modern and older waters occurs in areas where (1) the confining layer between the two aquifers is discontinuous, (2) the bedrock aquifer is fractured, or (3) pumping of supply wells induces the flow of water between aquifers. Analyses of chlorofluorocarbons were used to determine the date of recharge of water samples. Water in the bedrock aquifer likely was recharged prior to the 1950s. Water in the alluvial aquifer likely was recharged from the 1960s to 1990s. Biodegradation or sorption probably affected some of the ground water analyzed for chlorofluorocarbons. These processes reduce the concentrations of CFCs, which results in older than actual calculated dates of recharge.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24148390','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24148390"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and sensitive determination of tellurium in soil and plant samples by sector-<span class="hlt">field</span> inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Yang, Guosheng; Zheng, Jian; Tagami, Keiko; Uchida, Shigeo</p> <p>2013-11-15</p> <p>In this work, we report a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and highly sensitive analytical method for the determination of tellurium in soil and plant samples using sector <span class="hlt">field</span> inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SF-ICP-MS). Soil and plant samples were digested using Aqua regia. After appropriate dilution, Te in soil and plant samples was directly analyzed without any separation and preconcentration. This simple sample preparation approach avoided to a maximum extent any contamination and loss of Te prior to the analysis. The developed analytical method was validated by the analysis of soil/sediment and plant reference materials. Satisfactory detection limits of 0.17 ng g(-1) for soil and 0.02 ng g(-1) for plant samples were achieved, which meant that the developed method was applicable to studying the soil-to-plant transfer factor of Te. Our work represents for the first time that data on the soil-to-plant transfer factor of Te were obtained for Japanese samples which can be used for the estimation of internal radiation dose of radioactive tellurium due to the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098962','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=5098962"><span>Global <span class="hlt">field</span> synchronization reveals <span class="hlt">rapid</span> eye movement sleep as most synchronized brain state in the human EEG</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Achermann, Peter; Rusterholz, Thomas; Dürr, Roland; König, Thomas</p> <p>2016-01-01</p> <p>Sleep is characterized by a loss of consciousness, which has been attributed to a breakdown of functional connectivity between brain regions. Global <span class="hlt">field</span> synchronization (GFS) can estimate functional connectivity of brain processes. GFS is a frequency-dependent measure of global synchronicity of multi-channel EEG data. Our aim was to explore and extend the hypothesis of disconnection during sleep by comparing GFS spectra of different vigilance states. The analysis was performed on eight healthy adult male subjects. EEG was recorded during a baseline night, a recovery night after 40 h of sustained wakefulness and at 3 h intervals during the 40 h of wakefulness. Compared to non-<span class="hlt">rapid</span> eye movement (NREM) sleep, REM sleep showed larger GFS values in all frequencies except in the spindle and theta bands, where NREM sleep showed a peak in GFS. Sleep deprivation did not affect GFS spectra in REM and NREM sleep. Waking GFS values were lower compared with REM and NREM sleep except for the alpha band. Waking alpha GFS decreased following sleep deprivation in the eyes closed condition only. Our surprising finding of higher synchrony during REM sleep challenges the view of REM sleep as a desynchronized brain state and may provide insight into the function of REM sleep. PMID:27853537</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25784994','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25784994"><span>Microelectrode array measurement of potassium ion channel remodeling on the <span class="hlt">field</span> action potential duration in <span class="hlt">rapid</span> atrial pacing rabbits model.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Sun, Juan; Yan, Huang; Wugeti, Najina; Guo, Yujun; Zhang, Ling; Ma, Mei; Guo, Xingui; Jiao, Changan; Xu, Wenli; Li, Tianqi</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Atrial fibrillation (AF) arises from abnormalities in atrial structure and electrical activity. Microelectrode arrays (MEA) is a real-time, nondestructive measurement of the resting and action potential signal, from myocardial cells, to the peripheral circuit of electrophysiological activity. This study examined the <span class="hlt">field</span> action potential duration (fAPD) of the right atrial appendage (RAA) by MEA in <span class="hlt">rapid</span> atrial pacing (RAP) in the right atrium of rabbits. In addition, this study also investigated the effect of potassium ion channel blockers on fAPD. 40 New Zealand white rabbits of either sex were randomly divided into 3 groups: 1) the control, 2) potassium ion channel blocker (TEA, 4-Ap and BaCl2), and 3) amiodarone groups. The hearts were quickly removed and right atrial appendage sectioned (slice thickness 500 μm). Each slice was perfused with Tyrode's solution and continuously stimulated for 30 minutes. Sections from the control group were superfused with Tyrode's solution for 10 minutes, while the blocker groups and amiodarone were both treated with their respective compounds for 10 minutes each. The fAPD of RAA and action <span class="hlt">field</span> action potential morphology were measured using MEA. In non-pace (control) groups, fAPD was 188.33 ± 18.29 ms after Tyrode's solution superfusion, and 173.91 ± 6.83 ms after RAP. In pace/potassium ion channel groups, TEA and BaCl2 superfusion prolonged atrial <span class="hlt">field</span> action potential (fAPD) (control vs blocker: 176.67 ± 8.66 ms vs 196.11 ± 10.76 ms, 182.22 ± 12.87 ms vs 191.11 ± 13.09 ms with TEA and BaCl2 superfusion, respectively, P < 0.05). 4-AP superfusion significantly prolonged FAPD. In pace/amiodarone groups, 4-Ap superfusion extended fAPD. MEA was a sensitive and stable reporter for the measurement of the tissue action potential in animal heart slices. After superfusing potassium ion channel blockers, fAPD was prolonged. These results suggest that Ito, IKur and IK1 remodel and mediate RAP-induced atrial electrical</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176679','DOE-PATENT-XML'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1176679"><span>Fast-<span class="hlt">growing</span> willow shrub named `Canastota`</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/doepatents">DOEpatents</a></p> <p>Abrahamson, Lawrence P.; Kopp, Richard F.; Smart, Lawrence B.; Volk, Timothy A.</p> <p>2007-05-15</p> <p>A distinct male cultivar of Salix sachalinensis.times.S. miyabeana named `Canastota`, characterized by <span class="hlt">rapid</span> stem growth producing greater than 2.7-fold more woody biomass than its female parent (Salix sachalinensis `SX61`), 28% greater woody biomass yield than its male parent (Salix miyabeana `SX64`), and 20% greater woody biomass yield than a standard production cultivar, Salix dasyclados `SV1` when grown in the same <span class="hlt">field</span> for the same length of time (two <span class="hlt">growing</span> seasons after coppice) in Tully, N.Y. `Canastota` can be planted from dormant stem cuttings, produces multiple stems after coppice, and the stem biomass can be harvested when the plant is dormant. In the spring following harvest, the plant will re-sprout very vigorously, producing new stems that can be harvested after two to four years of growth. This harvest cycle can be repeated several times. `Canastota` displays a low incidence of rust disease or damage by willow sawfly.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3534268','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=3534268"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc radiotherapy for whole pelvic lymph node in cervical cancer with 6 and 15 MV: a treatment planning comparison with fixed <span class="hlt">field</span> IMRT</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Zhai, De-Yin; Yin, Yong; Gong, Guan-Zhong; Liu, Tong-Hai; Chen, Jin-Hu; Ma, Chang-Sheng; Lu, Jie</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>Dosimetric differences were investigated among single and dual arc <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc and fixed-<span class="hlt">field</span> intensity-modulated radiotherapy (f-IMRT) treatment plans for whole pelvic irradiation of lymph nodes. A total of 12 patients who had undergone radical surgery for cervical cancer and who had demonstrated multiple pelvic lymph node metastases were treated with radiotherapy. For all 12 cases, 7-<span class="hlt">field</span> IMRT, single-arc <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc and dual-arc <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc were applied with 6 MV and 15 MV X-ray energies. The radiation dosimetric parameters for the different plans were compared with one another. All the plans met the clinical requirements. The homogeneity, conformity and external volume indices of f-IMRT and dual-arc <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc were better than for single-arc <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc (P < 0.05), while the differences between f-IMRT and dual-arc <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc were not significant. There were no significant differences in the radiation dose to organs at risk, except for the small bowel receiving >40 Gy (f-IMRT and dual-arc < single-arc, P < 0.05). The differences in dose distributions between the two applied X-ray energies for each of the modality plans were not significant. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc plans resulted in fewer monitor units than the corresponding f-IMRT plans. Also, there were no differences between the two photon energies, except for a reduction in the number of MUs for 15 MV (P > 0.05). Compared to f-IMRT, no significant dosimetric benefits were found using <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc for whole pelvic lymph node irradiation. However, <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc has been associated with shorter treatment time and fewer monitor units, supporting the case for its safety and efficacy for pelvic irradiation. PMID:23283869</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162574','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24162574"><span>Primer modification improves <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and sensitive in vitro and <span class="hlt">field</span>-deployable assays for detection of high plains virus variants.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Arif, M; Aguilar-Moreno, G S; Wayadande, A; Fletcher, J; Ochoa-Corona, F M</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>A high consequence pathogen, High plains virus (HPV) causes considerable damage to wheat if the crop is infected during early stages of development. Methods for the early, accurate, and sensitive detection of HPV in plant tissues are needed for the management of disease outbreaks and reservoir hosts. In this study, the effectiveness of five methods-real-time SYBR green and TaqMan reverse transcription-quantitative PCR (RT-qPCR), endpoint RT-PCR, RT-helicase dependent amplification (RT-HDA) and the Razor Ex BioDetection System (Razor Ex)-for the broad-range detection of HPV variants was evaluated. Specific PCR primer sets and probes were designed to target the HPV nucleoprotein gene. Primer set HPV6F and HPV4R, which amplifies a product of 96 bp, was validated in silico against published sequences and in vitro against an inclusivity panel of infected plant samples and an exclusivity panel of near-neighbor viruses. The primers were modified by adding a customized 22 nucleotide long tail at the 5' terminus, raising the primers' melting temperature (Tm; ca. 10°C) to make them compatible with RT-HDA (required optimal Tm = 68°C), in which the use of primers lacking such tails gave no amplification. All of the methods allowed the detection of as little as 1 fg of either plasmid DNA carrying the target gene sequence or of infected plant samples. The described in vitro and in-<span class="hlt">field</span> assays are accurate, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, sensitive, and useful for pathogen detection and disease diagnosis, microbial quantification, and certification and breeding programs, as well as for biosecurity and microbial forensics applications.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20k6010Z','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2015JBO....20k6010Z"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and high-resolution imaging of human liver specimens by full-<span class="hlt">field</span> optical coherence tomography</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Zhu, Yue; Gao, Wanrong; Zhou, Yuan; Guo, Yingcheng; Guo, Feng; He, Yong</p> <p>2015-11-01</p> <p>We report <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and high-resolution tomographic en face imaging of human liver specimens by full-<span class="hlt">field</span> optical coherence tomography (FF-OCT). First, the arrangement of the FF-OCT system was described and the performance of the system was measured. The measured axial and lateral resolutions of the system are 0.8 and 0.9 μm, respectively. The system has a sensitivity of ˜60 dB and can achieve an imaging rate of 7 fps and a penetration depth of ˜80 μm. The histological structures of normal liver can be seen clearly in the en face tomographic images, including central veins, cords of hepatocytes separated by sinusoidal spaces, and portal area (portal vein, the hepatic arteriole, and the bile duct). A wide variety of histological subtypes of hepatocellular carcinoma was observed in en face tomographic images, revealing notable cancerous features, including the nuclear atypia (enlarged convoluted nuclei), the polygonal tumor cells with obvious resemblance to hepatocytes with enlarged nuclei. In addition, thicker fibrous bands, which make the cytoplasmic plump vesicular nuclei indistinct, were also seen in the images. Finally, comparison between the portal vein in a normal specimen versus that seen in the rare type of cholangiocarcinoma was made. The results show that the cholangiocarcinoma presents with a blurred pattern of portal vein in the lateral direction and an aggregated distribution in the axial direction; the surrounding sinusoidal spaces and nuclei of cholangiocarcinoma are absent. The findings in this work may be used as additional signs of liver cancer or cholangiocarcinoma, demonstrating capacity of FF-OCT device for early cancer diagnosis and many other tumor-related studies in biopsy.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4372373','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4372373"><span><span class="hlt">Field</span> Application of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Diagnostic Test for Malaria in Greece</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Tseroni, Maria; Pervanidou, Danai; Tserkezou, Persefoni; Rachiotis, George; Pinaka, Ourania; Baka, Agoritsa; Georgakopoulou, Theano; Vakali, Annita; Dionysopoulou, Martha; Terzaki, Irene; Marka, Andriani; Detsis, Marios; Evlampidou, Zafiroula; Mpimpa, Anastasia; Vassalou, Evdokia; Tsiodras, Sotirios; Tsakris, Athanasios; Kremastinou, Jenny; Hadjichristodoulou, Christos</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>Greece, a malaria-free country since 1974, has experienced re-emergence of Plasmodium vivax autochthonous malaria cases in some agriculture areas over the last three years. In early 2012, an integrated control programme (MALWEST Project) was launched in order to prevent re-establishment of the disease. In the context of this project, the <span class="hlt">rapid</span> diagnostic tests (RDT) of SD Bioline Malaria Ag Pf/Pan that detects hrp-2 and pan-LDH antigens were used. The aim of this study was to assess the <span class="hlt">field</span> application of the RDT for the P. vivax diagnosis in comparison to light microscopy and polymerase chain reaction (PCR). A total of 955 samples were tested with all three diagnostic tools. Agreement of RDT against microscopy and PCR for the diagnosis of P. vivax was satisfactory (K value: 0.849 and 0.976, respectively). The sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against PCR was 95.6% (95% C.I.: 84.8-99.3), 100% (95% C.I.: 99.6-100.0) and 100% (95% CI: 91.7-100.0) respectively, while the sensitivity, specificity and positive predictive value of RDT against microscopic examination was 97.4% (95% C.I.: 86.1-99.6), 99.4% (95% C.I.: 98.6-99.8) and 86.1% (95% CI: 72.1-94.7), respectively. Our results indicate that RDT performed satisfactory in a non-endemic country and therefore is recommended for malaria diagnosis, especially in areas where health professionals lack experience on light microscopy. PMID:25803815</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_20");'>20</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li class="active"><span>22</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_22 --> <div id="page_23" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="441"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609870','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19609870"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and sensitive determination of strychnine and brucine in human urine by capillary electrophoresis with <span class="hlt">field</span>-amplified sample stacking.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Li, Junmei; Jiang, Ye</p> <p>2010-02-01</p> <p>A simple, <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, sensitive and low-cost method using capillary electrophoresis (CE) coupled with <span class="hlt">field</span>-amplified sample stacking (FASS) has been developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of strychnine and brucine residues in human urine. Before sample loading, a water plug (3.5 kPa, 3 s) was injected to contain sample cations and to permit FASS. Electrokinetic injection at a voltage (20 kV, 25 s) was then used to introduce cations. Separation was performed using 20 mM acetate buffer (pH 3.8) with an applied voltage of 20 kV. The calibration curves were linear over a range of 8.00-2.56 infinity 10(2) ng/mL (r = 0.9995) for strychnine and 10.0-3.20 x 10(2) ng/mL (r = 0.9999) for brucine. Extraction recoveries in urine were greater than 79.6 and 82.8% for strychnine and brucine, respectively, with an RSD of less than 4.9%. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio 3) for strychnine and brucine were 2.00 and 2.50 ng/mL, respectively. A urine sample from one healthy female volunteer (26 years old, 50 kg) was pretreated and analyzed. Strychnine and brucine levels in urine could be detected 24 h after administration. On these grounds, this method was feasible for application to preliminary screening of trace levels of abused drugs for both doping control and forensic analysis. (c) 2009 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=221529','TEKTRAN'); return false;" href="http://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/publication/?seqNo115=221529"><span>Potential of E.coli O157:H7 to <span class="hlt">grow</span> on <span class="hlt">field</span>-cored lettuce as impacted by postharvest storage time and temperature</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ars.usda.gov/research/publications/find-a-publication/">USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>A recent development in iceberg lettuce production is <span class="hlt">field</span> coring where the outer leaves and the cores of the lettuce heads are removed at the time of harvesting in order to reduce shipping waste and maximize production yield. Using a coring knife contaminated with 2 x 105 cells of E. coli O157:H7,...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=262461&keyword=geomorphology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=262461&keyword=geomorphology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50"><span>A validation study of a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span>-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span>-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1997. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=262461&keyword=geomorphology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78683245&CFTOKEN=16050027','EPA-EIMS'); return false;" href="http://cfpub.epa.gov/si/si_public_record_report.cfm?dirEntryId=262461&keyword=geomorphology&actType=&TIMSType=+&TIMSSubTypeID=&DEID=&epaNumber=&ntisID=&archiveStatus=Both&ombCat=Any&dateBeginCreated=&dateEndCreated=&dateBeginPublishedPresented=&dateEndPublishedPresented=&dateBeginUpdated=&dateEndUpdated=&dateBeginCompleted=&dateEndCompleted=&personID=&role=Any&journalID=&publisherID=&sortBy=revisionDate&count=50&CFID=78683245&CFTOKEN=16050027"><span>A validation study of a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span>-based rating system for discriminating among flow permanence classes of headwater streams in South Carolina</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://oaspub.epa.gov/eims/query.page">EPA Science Inventory</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span>-based protocols for classifying flow permanence of headwater streams are needed to inform timely regulatory decisions. Such an existing method was developed for and has been used in North Carolina since 1997. The method uses ordinal scoring of 26 geomorphology, hydr...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26999731','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26999731"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> evolution and gene expression: a <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> evolving Mendelian trait that silences <span class="hlt">field</span> crickets has widespread effects on mRNA and protein expression.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Pascoal, S; Liu, X; Ly, T; Fang, Y; Rockliffe, N; Paterson, S; Shirran, S L; Botting, C H; Bailey, N W</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>A major advance in modern evolutionary biology is the ability to start linking phenotypic evolution in the wild with genomic changes that underlie that evolution. We capitalized on a <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> evolving Hawaiian population of crickets (Teleogryllus oceanicus) to test hypotheses about the genomic consequences of a recent Mendelian mutation of large effect which disrupts the development of sound-producing structures on male forewings. The resulting silent phenotype, flatwing, persists because of natural selection imposed by an acoustically orienting parasitoid, but it interferes with mate attraction. We examined gene expression differences in developing wing buds of wild-type and flatwing male crickets using RNA-seq and quantitative proteomics. Most differentially expressed (DE) transcripts were down-regulated in flatwing males (625 up vs. 1716 down), whereas up- and down-regulated proteins were equally represented (30 up and 34 down). Differences between morphs were clearly not restricted to a single pathway, and we recovered annotations associated with a broad array of functions that would not be predicted a priori. Using a candidate gene detection test based on homology, we identified 30% of putative Drosophila wing development genes in the cricket transcriptome, but only 10% were DE. In addition to wing-related annotations, endocrine pathways and several biological processes such as reproduction, immunity and locomotion were DE in the mutant crickets at both biological levels. Our results illuminate the breadth of genetic pathways that are potentially affected in the early stages of adaptation. © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology. Journal of Evolutionary Biology © 2016 European Society For Evolutionary Biology.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11531571','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11531571"><span><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> large-scale magnetic-<span class="hlt">field</span> dissipation in a collisionless current sheet via coupling between Kelvin-Helmholtz and lower-hybrid drift instabilities.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Shinohara, I; Suzuki, H; Fujimoto, M; Hoshino, M</p> <p>2001-08-27</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span> large-scale magnetic-<span class="hlt">field</span> dissipation is observed in a full kinetic simulation of cross-<span class="hlt">field</span> current instabilities in a current sheet even when the thickness of the current sheet is at ion scale. The Kelvin-Helmholtz instability caused by the velocity shear between the current-carrying ions and the cold background ions excites the lower-hybrid drift instability at the edges of the undulated current sheet. We show that the nonlinear coupling between these two instabilities is responsible for the observed <span class="hlt">rapid</span> dissipation. The simulation result presents a new route for magnetic-<span class="hlt">field</span> dissipation in an ion-scale current sheet and demonstrates the general significance of nonlinear cross-scale coupling in collisionless plasmas.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27494637','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27494637"><span>Nutritional value of raw and micronised <span class="hlt">field</span> beans (Vicia faba L. var. minor) with and without enzyme supplementation containing tannase for <span class="hlt">growing</span> chickens.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Abdulla, Jalil Mahmwd; Rose, Stephen Paul; Mackenzie, Alexander Mackay; Ivanova, Sonya Georgieva; Staykova, Genoveva Petrova; Pirgozliev, Vasil Radoslavov</p> <p>2016-10-01</p> <p>An experiment examined the effects of two <span class="hlt">field</span> bean cultivar samples with different tannin contents, the effect of heat treatment (micronising) and the effect of dietary supplementation of a proprietary enzyme preparation containing tannase, pectinase, and xylanase activities on metabolisable energy (ME), total tract dry matter digestibility (DMD) and ether extract digestibility (EED), nitrogen retention (NR), tannin degradability, gastrointestinal tract (GIT) development, and endogenous mucin losses excretion in broiler chickens. The Control diet contained per kg 221 g crude protein and 12.83 MJ ME. Four additional diets contained 300 g/kg of each of the two untreated or micronised experimental <span class="hlt">field</span> bean cultivar samples. Each diet was then split into two batches and one of them was supplemented with 3400 units tannase per kg diet resulting in 10 diets in total. Each diet was fed to seven pens with two randomly selected male broilers each. Birds fed the high tannin bean sample had a lower weight gain (p < 0.001), and a lower determined apparent ME (p < 0.05), and DMD (p < 0.001) but a higher tannin degradability (p < 0.001). Compared to the Control diet, feeding <span class="hlt">field</span> beans increased (p < 0.001) the weights of the proventriculus and gizzard of the birds, and also increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). Supplementing diets with the tannase-containing enzyme preparation improved dietary ME (p < 0.001), DMD (p < 0.001), NR (p < 0.001) and DEE (p < 0.05), but did not change tannin degradability. Heat treatment of the beans reduced the degradability of condensed tannins and increased endogenous mucin losses (p < 0.05). The differences in the feeding value of the different <span class="hlt">field</span> bean samples were not improved by heat treatment, but enzyme supplementation improved the feeding value of all diets regardless of the bean samples or heat treatment. Further research is warranted to study the effectiveness of tannase supplementation in poultry</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7688D','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2012EGUGA..14.7688D"><span><span class="hlt">Field</span> measurement of erosion rates: time-lapse monitoring of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> stone flaking at Howden Minster, UK</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Doehne, E.; Pinchin, S.</p> <p>2012-04-01</p> <p>The use of a solar-powered, <span class="hlt">field</span> time-lapse camera and environmental monitoring system enabled measurements of the pattern and rate of loss of stone from the surface of Howden Minster, an abandoned monastery in Yorkshire dating to 1380 AD. Acquiring a photograph every 1-3 hours allowed the stone damage to be correlated with local environmental conditions. Image comparison techniques borrowed from observational astronomy, such as blink comparison, were used to determine what elements had changed from image to image. Results indicate that loss is episodic rather than continuous and in several cases is related to specific environmental conditions, such as condensation/dew formation or high winds. Damage was found also to be synchronous, with surface change (flaking, granular disintegration, and loss of flakes) occurring at the same time on different stone blocks. Crystallization pressure from magnesium sulfate phase transitions appear to be the main cause of the loss of stone surfaces. Significant variation in surface loss rates was observed and appears to be related to variations in salt concentration. An examination of stone texture by ESEM/EDS revealed signification variations and suggests that salt concentrations are controlled in part by stone micromorphology. Quantitative data on rates of surface loss are not available from most monuments. Time-lapse methods permit the relatively inexpensive acquisition of this type of data, which is needed to aid conservation decision-making and the evaluation of interventions. Such tools should also prove useful to geomorphologists studying honeycomb weathering, the moving rocks on Death Valley's Racetrack Playa, and other phenomena that are otherwise difficult to study. Context: The <span class="hlt">rapid</span> deterioration of magnesian limestone structures in the north of England has been a serious problem for more than one hundred years. While air quality in England has improved during this period, the rate of stone loss in these carved stone</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4367185','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4367185"><span>Utilizing Biopsychosocial and Strengths-Based Approaches Within the <span class="hlt">Field</span> of Child Health: What We Know and Where We Can <span class="hlt">Grow</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Black, Jessica M.; Hoeft, Fumiko</p> <p>2015-01-01</p> <p>We continue to increase our understanding of the experiences and settings that contribute to positive developmental outcomes in childhood, and those that confer greater risk. Although the mechanisms by which the risk and protective factors affect developmental outcomes need to be further elucidated through research, converging findings from the <span class="hlt">field</span> of child health (spanning both physical and mental health) indicate that a biopsychosocial approach is useful. Here, we examine the evidence that early experiences confer both risk and protective processes on biopsychosocial development in childhood, and touch on some implications for the life course. Although this interdisciplinary <span class="hlt">field</span> of research has already garnered substantial attention, here we aim to highlight the opportunity to use a strengths-based approach with the biopsychosocial model, with particular focus on children who experience prolonged stress. We close with consideration for future directions with an emphasis on policy and practice in clinical and educational settings to improve well-being in these early stages of the life course. PMID:25732011</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286303','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25286303"><span><span class="hlt">Growing</span> for different ends.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Catts, Oron; Zurr, Ionat</p> <p>2014-11-01</p> <p>Tissue engineering and regenerative biology are usually discussed in relation to biomedical research and applications. However, hand in hand with developments of this <span class="hlt">field</span> in the biomedical context, other approaches and uses for non-medical ends have been explored. There is a <span class="hlt">growing</span> interest in exploring spin off tissue engineering and regenerative biology technologies in areas such as consumer products, art and design. This paper outlines developments regarding in vitro meat and leather, actuators and bio-mechanic interfaces, speculative design and contemporary artistic practices. The authors draw on their extensive experience of using tissue engineering for non-medical ends to speculate about what lead to these applications and their possible future development and uses. Avoiding utopian and dystopian postures and using the notion of the contestable, this paper also mentions some philosophical and ethical consideration stemming from the use of non-medical approaches to tissue constructs. This article is part of a directed issue entitled: Regenerative Medicine: the challenge of translation.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21839679','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/21839679"><span>Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae in subarctic bogs are more sensitive to soil warming in the <span class="hlt">growing</span> season than in winter: the results of eight-year <span class="hlt">field</span> climate manipulations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tsyganov, Andrey N; Aerts, Rien; Nijs, Ivan; Cornelissen, Johannes H C; Beyens, Louis</p> <p>2012-05-01</p> <p>Sphagnum-dwelling testate amoebae are widely used in paleoclimate reconstructions as a proxy for climate-induced changes in bogs. However, the sensitivity of proxies to seasonal climate components is an important issue when interpreting proxy records. Here, we studied the effects of summer warming, winter snow addition solely and winter snow addition together with spring warming on testate amoeba assemblages after eight years of experimental <span class="hlt">field</span> climate manipulations. All manipulations were accomplished using open top chambers in a dry blanket bog located in the sub-Arctic (Abisko, Sweden). We estimated sensitivity of abundance, diversity and assemblage structure of living and empty shell assemblages of testate amoebae in the living and decaying layers of Sphagnum. Our results show that, in a sub-arctic climate, testate amoebae are more sensitive to climate changes in the <span class="hlt">growing</span> season than in winter. Summer warming reduced species richness and shifted assemblage composition towards predominance of xerophilous species for the living and empty shell assemblages in both layers. The higher soil temperatures during the <span class="hlt">growing</span> season also decreased abundance of empty shells in both layers hinting at a possible increase in their decomposition rates. Thus, although possible effects of climate changes on preservation of empty shells should always be taken into account, species diversity and structure of testate amoeba assemblages in dry subarctic bogs are sensitive proxies for climatic changes during the <span class="hlt">growing</span> season. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6945E..0DL','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2008SPIE.6945E..0DL"><span>Utility of point of care test devices for infectious disease testing of blood and oral fluid and application to <span class="hlt">rapid</span> testing in the <span class="hlt">field</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Lee, Stephen R.; Kardos, Keith W.; Yearwood, Graham D.; Guillon, Geraldine B.; Kurtz, Lisa A.; Mokkapati, Vijaya K.</p> <p>2008-04-01</p> <p><span class="hlt">Rapid</span>, point of care (POC) testing has been increasingly deployed as an aid in the diagnosis of infectious disease, due to its ability to deliver <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, actionable results. In the case of HIV, a number of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test devices have been FDA approved and CLIA-waived in order to enable diagnosis of HIV infection outside of traditional laboratory settings. These settings include STD clinics, community outreach centers and mobile testing units, as well as identifying HIV infection among pregnant women and managing occupational exposure to infection. The OraQuick ® <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test platform has been widely used to identify HIV in POC settings, due to its simplicity, ease of use and the ability to utilize oral fluid as an alternative specimen to blood. More recently, a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> test for antibodies to hepatitis C virus (HCV) has been developed on the same test platform which uses serum, plasma, finger-stick blood, venous blood and oral fluid. Clinical testing using this POC test device has shown that performance is equivalent to state of the art, laboratory based tests. These devices may be suitable for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> testing of blood and other body fluids for the presence of infectious agents.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APR.S4009B','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2017APS..APR.S4009B"><span>First Results from the 7 Ms Chandra Deep <span class="hlt">Field</span>-South Survey: A Good Hard Look at <span class="hlt">Growing</span> Supermassive Black Holes in the Distant Universe</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Brandt, William; Chandra Deep Fields Team</p> <p>2017-01-01</p> <p>Sensitive cosmic X-ray surveys with the Chandra, XMM-Newton, and now NuSTAR observatories have revolutionized our ability to find and study distant active galactic nuclei (AGNs), the main sites of supermassive black hole growth in the Universe. I will describe some recent discoveries about the demographics, physics, and ecology of distant AGNs coming from the deepest Chandra survey to date, the 7 Ms Chandra Deep <span class="hlt">Field</span>-South. Some specific topics covered will include (1) robust X-ray spectral and variability characterization of the AGNs producing most of cosmic accretion power; (2) the demographics of AGNs in the first galaxies as revealed by direct detection and stacking; and (3) AGN/galaxy interactions as investigated via the host properties of X-ray AGNs. I will also briefly describe other remarkable discoveries coming from this survey; e.g., measurements of the evolving X-ray binary populations of normal and starburst galaxies.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2423','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/2423"><span>Electric and Magnetic <span class="hlt">Fields</span> (EMF) <span class="hlt">RAPID</span> Program Engineering Project 8: FINAL REPORT, Evaluation of <span class="hlt">Field</span> Reduction Technologies, Volume 1 (Report) and Volume 2 (Appendices)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Commonwealth Associates, Inc.; IIT Research Institute</p> <p>1997-08-01</p> <p>This draft report consists of two volumes. Volume 1, the main body, contains an introducto~ sectionj an overview of magnetic <span class="hlt">fields</span> sectio~ and <span class="hlt">field</span> reduction technology evaluation section. Magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> reduction methods are evalpated for transmission lines, distribution Iines,sulxtations, building wiring applkmd machinery, and transportation systems. The evaluation considers effectiveness, co% and other ftiors. Volume 2 contains five appendices, Append~ A presents magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> shielding information. Appendices B and C present design assumptions and magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> plots for transmission and distribution lines, respectively. Appendices D and E present cost estimate details for transmission and distribution limes, respectively.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/growing-pains.html','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="https://kidshealth.org/en/parents/growing-pains.html"><span><span class="hlt">Growing</span> Pains (For Parents)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Lessons? Visit KidsHealth in the Classroom What Other Parents Are Reading Your Child's Development (Birth to 3 Years) Feeding Your 1- to 3-Month-Old Feeding Your 4- to 7-Month-Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old <span class="hlt">Growing</span> ... > For Parents > <span class="hlt">Growing</span> Pains Print A A A What's in ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22548442','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="https://www.osti.gov/scitech/biblio/22548442"><span>SU-E-T-393: Evaluation of Large <span class="hlt">Field</span> IMRT Versus <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc Planning for Carcinoma Cervix with Para-Aotic Node Irradiation</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Raman, S Kothanda; Girigesh, Y; MISHRA, M; Lalit, K</p> <p>2015-06-15</p> <p>Purpose: The objective of this work is to evaluate and compare Large <span class="hlt">field</span> IMRT and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc planning for Carcinoma Cervix and Para-aotic node irradiation. Methods: In this study, ten patients of Cervix with para-aotic node have been selected with PTV length 35+2cm. All plans were generated in Eclipse TPS V10.0 with Dynamic IMRT and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc technique using 6MV photon energy. In IMRT planning, 7 <span class="hlt">fields</span> were chosen to get optimal plan and in <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc, double Full arc clockwise and counter clockwise were used for planning. All the plans were generated with single isocenter and calculated using AAA dose algorithm. For all the cases the prescribed dose to PTV was same and the plan acceptance criteria is; 95% of the PTV volume should receive 100% prescribed dose. The tolerance doses for the OAR’s is also taken in to account. The evaluation criteria used for analysis are; 1) Homogeneity Index, 2) Conformity Index, 3) Mean Dose to OAR’s, 4)Total monitor units delivered. Results: DVH analysis were performed for both IMRT and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc planning. In both the plans, 95% of PTV volume receives prescribed dose and maximum dose are less than 107%. The conformity index are same in both the techniques. The mean Homogeneity index are 1.036 and 1.053 for IMRT and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc plan. The mean (mean + SD) dose of bladder and rectum in IMRT is 44.2+1.55, 42.05+2.52 and <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc is 46.66+1.6, 44.2+2.75 respectively. There is no significant difference found in Right Femoral head, Left Femoral head and Kidney doses. It is found that total MU’s are more in IMRT compared with <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc planning. Conclusion: In the case of cervix with Para-arotic node single isocenter irradiation, IMRT planning in large-<span class="hlt">field</span> is better compared to <span class="hlt">Rapid</span>Arc planning in terms of Homogeneity Index and mean dose of Bladder and Rectum.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81d2111T','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2010PhRvA..81d2111T"><span>Interference fringes of m=0 spin states under the Majorana transition caused by <span class="hlt">rapid</span> half-rotation of a magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Takahashi, Atsushi; Morinaga, Atsuo</p> <p>2010-04-01</p> <p>The phase shift and visibility of fringes in the Ramsey atom interferometer composed of the |F=1,mF=0> and |F=2,mF=0> states were examined systematically for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> half-rotation of the magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span>. It was verified that the phase shifts by π rad in the adiabatic regime, but it does not shift from the original one in the nonadiabatic regime. These results support Robbins and Berry’s claim [J. M. Robbins and M. V. Berry, J. Phys. A 27, L435 (1994)]. The fact that the interference fringes disappear in the intermediate regime and reappear in the nonadiabatic regime can be explained by the Majorana transition caused by a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> reverse of the magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span>.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870043722&hterms=magnetic+cooling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bcooling','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=19870043722&hterms=magnetic+cooling&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D80%26Ntt%3Dmagnetic%2Bcooling"><span>The cooling time scales of <span class="hlt">growing</span> sunspots</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Chou, Dean-Yi</p> <p>1987-01-01</p> <p>The evolution of brightness and magnetic <span class="hlt">fields</span> of <span class="hlt">growing</span> sunspots is studied. <span class="hlt">Growing</span> sunspots are found to be brighter (or less dark) than stable sunspots with the same magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> strength. From comparison of brightness and magnetic <span class="hlt">fields</span> of a <span class="hlt">growing</span> sunspot with those of stable sunspots, a dynamical parameter, the cooling time, of the <span class="hlt">growing</span> sunspot is obtained. Ten <span class="hlt">growing</span> sunspots are studied, and cooling times of 0.5 to 9 hr are found. Two models, the inhibition model and the Alfven wave model, give cooling times of about 0.05 hr, based on linear theory. The discrepancy between theory and observation may be due to the fact that the observed sunspots are in the nonlinear regime.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA476317','DTIC-ST'); return false;" href="http://www.dtic.mil/docs/citations/ADA476317"><span>Deployable, <span class="hlt">Field</span>-Sustainable, Reverse Transcription-Polymerase Chain Reaction Assays for <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Screening and Serotype Identification of Dengue Virus in Mosquitoes</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.dtic.mil/">DTIC Science & Technology</a></p> <p></p> <p>2007-03-01</p> <p>thermally stable, hydrolytic enzyme-resistant format and deployed for testing in a dengue fever-endemic region of Thailand. The study site presented...collected, A. aegypti, A. albopictus, and Culex tritaeniorhynchus mosquitoes were used for RT-PCR assay evaluations. For dengue virus-inoculated A...template for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> dengue virus screening and serotype identification in mosquitoes under austere <span class="hlt">field</span> conditions. Methods Study Site The study was</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825158','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/825158"><span>Development of a Multiplexed, Bead-Based Assessment Tool for <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in <span class="hlt">Field</span> Samples. Final Report</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p>Lowe, M.; Halden, R.</p> <p>2002-10-09</p> <p>This was the final report for DOE NABIR grant DE-FG02-01ER63264 (PI Mary Lowe). The grant was entitled ''Development of a Multiplexed Bead-Based Assessment Tool for <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Identification and Quantitation of Microorganisms in <span class="hlt">Field</span> Samples.'' The grant duration was one year. The purpose was to develop a bead-based assay for measuring analyte DNAs in environmental PCR products and to apply the method to a <span class="hlt">field</span> experiment. The primary experiment was located at the UMTRA Old Rifle site.</p> </li> </ol> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li class="active"><span>23</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_24");'>24</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div><!-- col-sm-12 --> </div><!-- row --> </div><!-- page_23 --> <div id="page_24" class="hiddenDiv"> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <div class="pull-right"> <ul class="pagination"> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_1");'>«</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_21");'>21</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_22");'>22</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_23");'>23</a></li> <li class="active"><span>24</span></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>25</a></li> <li><a href="#" onclick='return showDiv("page_25");'>»</a></li> </ul> </div> </div> </div> <div class="row"> <div class="col-sm-12"> <ol class="result-class" start="461"> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15352721','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15352721"><span>Dynamic solid phase microextraction for sampling of airborne sarin with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> <span class="hlt">field</span> detection and quantification.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hook, Gary L; Jackson Lepage, Carmela; Miller, Stephen I; Smith, Philip A</p> <p>2004-08-01</p> <p>A portable dynamic air sampler and solid phase microextraction were used to simultaneously detect, identify, and quantify airborne sarin with immediate analysis of samples using a <span class="hlt">field</span> portable gas chromatography-mass spectrometry system. A mathematical model was used with knowledge of the mass of sarin trapped, linear air velocity past the exposed sampling fiber, and sample duration allowing calculation of concentration estimates. For organizations with suitable <span class="hlt">field</span> portable instrumentation, these methods are potentially useful for <span class="hlt">rapid</span> onsite detection and quantification of high concern analytes, either through direct environmental sampling or through sampling of air collected in bags.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4110188','PMC'); return false;" href="https://www.pubmedcentral.nih.gov/articlerender.fcgi?tool=pmcentrez&artid=4110188"><span>Arterial Spin Labeling - Fast Imaging with Steady-State Free Precession (ASL-FISP): A <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> and Quantitative Perfusion Technique for High <span class="hlt">Field</span> MRI</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pmc">PubMed Central</a></p> <p>Gao, Ying; Goodnough, Candida L.; Erokwu, Bernadette O.; Farr, George W.; Darrah, Rebecca; Lu, Lan; Dell, Katherine M.; Yu, Xin; Flask, Chris A.</p> <p>2014-01-01</p> <p>Arterial Spin Labeling (ASL) is a valuable non-contrast perfusion MRI technique with numerous clinical applications. Many previous ASL MRI studies have utilized either Echo-Planar Imaging (EPI) or True Fast Imaging with Steady-State Free Precession (True FISP) readouts that are prone to off-resonance artifacts on high <span class="hlt">field</span> MRI scanners. We have developed a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> ASL-FISP MRI acquisition for high <span class="hlt">field</span> preclinical MRI scanners providing perfusion-weighted images with little or no artifacts in less than 2 seconds. In this initial implementation, a FAIR (Flow-Sensitive Alternating Inversion Recovery) ASL preparation was combined with a <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, centrically-encoded FISP readout. Validation studies on healthy C57/BL6 mice provided consistent estimation of in vivo mouse brain perfusion at 7 T and 9.4 T (249±38 ml/min/100g and 241±17 ml/min/100g, respectively). The utility of this method was further demonstrated in detecting significant perfusion deficits in a C57/BL6 mouse model of ischemic stroke. Reasonable kidney perfusion estimates were also obtained for a healthy C57/BL6 mouse exhibiting differential perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla. Overall, the ASL-FISP technique provides a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and quantitative in vivo assessment of tissue perfusion for high <span class="hlt">field</span> MRI scanners with minimal image artifacts. PMID:24891124</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24891124','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24891124"><span>Arterial spin labeling-fast imaging with steady-state free precession (ASL-FISP): a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and quantitative perfusion technique for high-<span class="hlt">field</span> MRI.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Gao, Ying; Goodnough, Candida L; Erokwu, Bernadette O; Farr, George W; Darrah, Rebecca; Lu, Lan; Dell, Katherine M; Yu, Xin; Flask, Chris A</p> <p>2014-08-01</p> <p>Arterial spin labeling (ASL) is a valuable non-contrast perfusion MRI technique with numerous clinical applications. Many previous ASL MRI studies have utilized either echo-planar imaging (EPI) or true fast imaging with steady-state free precession (true FISP) readouts, which are prone to off-resonance artifacts on high-<span class="hlt">field</span> MRI scanners. We have developed a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> ASL-FISP MRI acquisition for high-<span class="hlt">field</span> preclinical MRI scanners providing perfusion-weighted images with little or no artifacts in less than 2 s. In this initial implementation, a flow-sensitive alternating inversion recovery (FAIR) ASL preparation was combined with a <span class="hlt">rapid</span>, centrically encoded FISP readout. Validation studies on healthy C57/BL6 mice provided consistent estimation of in vivo mouse brain perfusion at 7 and 9.4 T (249 ± 38 and 241 ± 17 mL/min/100 g, respectively). The utility of this method was further demonstrated in the detection of significant perfusion deficits in a C57/BL6 mouse model of ischemic stroke. Reasonable kidney perfusion estimates were also obtained for a healthy C57/BL6 mouse exhibiting differential perfusion in the renal cortex and medulla. Overall, the ASL-FISP technique provides a <span class="hlt">rapid</span> and quantitative in vivo assessment of tissue perfusion for high-<span class="hlt">field</span> MRI scanners with minimal image artifacts. Copyright © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.428.1686G','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2013MNRAS.428.1686G"><span>Discovery of a magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> in the <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> rotating O-type secondary of the colliding-wind binary HD 47129 (Plaskett's star)</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Grunhut, J. H.; Wade, G. A.; Leutenegger, M.; Petit, V.; Rauw, G.; Neiner, C.; Martins, F.; Cohen, D. H.; Gagné, M.; Ignace, R.; Mathis, S.; de Mink, S. E.; Moffat, A. F. J.; Owocki, S.; Shultz, M.; Sundqvist, J.; MiMeS Collaboration</p> <p>2013-01-01</p> <p>We report the detection of a strong, organized magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> in the secondary component of the massive O8III/I+O7.5V/III double-lined spectroscopic binary system HD 47129 (Plaskett's star) in the context of the Magnetism in Massive Stars survey. Eight independent Stokes V observations were acquired using the Echelle SpectroPolarimetric Device for the Observations of Stars (ESPaDOnS) spectropolarimeter at the Canada-France-Hawaii Telescope and the Narval spectropolarimeter at the Télescope Bernard Lyot. Using least-squares deconvolution we obtain definite detections of signal in Stokes V in three observations. No significant signal is detected in the diagnostic null (N) spectra. The Zeeman signatures are broad and track the radial velocity of the secondary component; we therefore conclude that the <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> rotating secondary component is the magnetized star. Correcting the polarized spectra for the line and continuum of the (sharp-lined) primary, we measured the longitudinal magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> from each observation. The longitudinal <span class="hlt">field</span> of the secondary is variable and exhibits extreme values of -810 ± 150 and +680 ± 190 G, implying a minimum surface dipole polar strength of 2850 ± 500 G. In contrast, we derive an upper limit (3σ) to the primary's surface magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> of 230 G. The combination of a strong magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> and <span class="hlt">rapid</span> rotation leads us to conclude that the secondary hosts a centrifugal magnetosphere fed through a magnetically confined wind. We revisit the properties of the optical line profiles and X-ray emission - previously interpreted as a consequence of colliding stellar winds - in this context. We conclude that HD 47129 represents a heretofore unique stellar system - a close, massive binary with a <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> rotating, magnetized component - that will be a rich target for further study.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+population&pg=3&id=EJ398243','ERIC'); return false;" href="http://eric.ed.gov/?q=human+AND+population&pg=3&id=EJ398243"><span>The <span class="hlt">Growing</span> Human Population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keyfitz, Nathan</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the <span class="hlt">growing</span> human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008238','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/20080008238"><span>Apparatus for <span class="hlt">growing</span> crystals</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Jasinski, Thomas J. (Inventor); Witt, August F. (Inventor)</p> <p>1986-01-01</p> <p>An improved apparatus and method for <span class="hlt">growing</span> crystals from a melt employing a heat pipe, consisting of one or more sections, each section serving to control temperature and thermal gradients in the crystal as it forms inside the pipe.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/how-your-baby-grows.aspx','NIH-MEDLINEPLUS'); return false;" href="http://www.marchofdimes.org/pregnancy/how-your-baby-grows.aspx"><span>How Your Baby <span class="hlt">Grows</span></span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://medlineplus.gov/">MedlinePlus</a></p> <p></p> <p></p> <p>... Pregnancy > Prenatal care > Pregnancy week by week Pregnancy week by week Week by week Videos Swipe to advance Learn ... <span class="hlt">grows</span> each week during pregnancy. Pick your week. Weeks 1-2 Conception (also called fertilization) usually happens ...</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+population&pg=4&id=EJ398243','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=Human+AND+population&pg=4&id=EJ398243"><span>The <span class="hlt">Growing</span> Human Population.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Keyfitz, Nathan</p> <p>1989-01-01</p> <p>Discusses the issue of human population. Illustrates the projections of the <span class="hlt">growing</span> human population in terms of developed and less developed countries. Describes the family planning programs in several countries. Lists three references for further reading. (YP)</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1271648','SCIGOV-STC'); return false;" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech/servlets/purl/1271648"><span><span class="hlt">Growing</span> America's Energy Future</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.osti.gov/scitech">SciTech Connect</a></p> <p></p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>The emerging U.S. bioenergy industry provides a secure and <span class="hlt">growing</span> supply of transportation fuels, biopower, and bioproducts produced from a range of abundant, renewable biomass resources. Bioenergy can help ensure a secure, sustainable, and economically sound future by reducing U.S. dependence on foreign oil, developing domestic clean energy sources, and generating domestic green jobs. Bioenergy can also help address <span class="hlt">growing</span> concerns about climate change by reducing greenhouse gas emissions to create a healthier environment for current and future generations.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016csss.confE.118S','NASAADS'); return false;" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abs/2016csss.confE.118S"><span>Hunting For Strong Magnetic <span class="hlt">Fields</span> In <span class="hlt">Rapidly</span> Rotating Sun-Like Stars With Stokes-I Observations</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://adsabs.harvard.edu/abstract_service.html">NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)</a></p> <p>Shulyak, Denis; Malo, Lison; Reiners, Ansgar; Kochukhov, Oleg; Jeffers, Sandra; Piskunov, Nikolai</p> <p>2016-06-01</p> <p>Stars with convective envelopes can generate strong magnetic <span class="hlt">fields</span> through rotationally driven dynamos. Theory suggests that the maximum magnetic <span class="hlt">field</span> strength depends on the energy budget stored in the stellar convective shell and can reach values of several kilogauss in fastest rotating stars. We test this predictions by measuring total magnetic flux and polarization in a sample of sun-like stars that rotate close to the activity saturation limit. We detect average magnetic flux densities of several hundred G in several of our targets,with the strongest <span class="hlt">field</span> of about 1 kG in a K type star V383 Lac showing that young sun-like starscan produce average <span class="hlt">fields</span> on the kG level.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539774','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11539774"><span>Cultural systems for <span class="hlt">growing</span> potatoes in space.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T; Bula, R; Corey, R; Morrow, R</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive <span class="hlt">growing</span> systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from <span class="hlt">field</span> plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of <span class="hlt">growing</span> the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the <span class="hlt">growing</span> system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for <span class="hlt">growing</span> potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089584&hterms=potato+starch&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpotato%2Bstarch','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089584&hterms=potato+starch&qs=N%3D0%26Ntk%3DAll%26Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntt%3Dpotato%2Bstarch"><span>Cultural systems for <span class="hlt">growing</span> potatoes in space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive <span class="hlt">growing</span> systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from <span class="hlt">field</span> plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of <span class="hlt">growing</span> the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the <span class="hlt">growing</span> system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for <span class="hlt">growing</span> potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089584&hterms=space+plant+culture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bplant%2Bculture','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="https://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp?R=20040089584&hterms=space+plant+culture&qs=Ntx%3Dmode%2Bmatchall%26Ntk%3DAll%26N%3D0%26No%3D20%26Ntt%3Dspace%2Bplant%2Bculture"><span>Cultural systems for <span class="hlt">growing</span> potatoes in space</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Tibbitts, T.; Bula, R.; Corey, R.; Morrow, R.</p> <p>1988-01-01</p> <p>Higher plants are being evaluated for life support to provide needed food, oxygen and water as well as removal of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The successful utilization of plants in space will require the development of not only highly productive <span class="hlt">growing</span> systems but also highly efficient bioregenerative systems. It will be necessary to recycle all inedible plant parts and all human wastes so that the entire complement of elemental compounds can be reused. Potatoes have been proposed as one of the desirable crops because they are 1) extremely productive, yielding more than 100 metric tons per hectare from <span class="hlt">field</span> plantings, 2) the edible tubers are high in digestible starch (70%) and protein (10%) on a dry weight basis, 3) up to 80% of the total plant production is in tubers and thus edible, 4) the plants are easily propagated either from tubers or from tissue culture plantlets, 5) the tubers can be utilized with a minimum of processing, and 6) potatoes can be prepared in a variety of different forms for the human diet (Tibbitts et al., 1982). However potatoes have a growth pattern that complicates the development of <span class="hlt">growing</span> the plants in controlled systems. Tubers are borne on underground stems that are botanically termed 'rhizomes', but in common usage termed 'stolons'. The stolons must be maintained in a dark, moist area with sufficient provision for enlargement of tubers. Stems <span class="hlt">rapidly</span> terminate in flowers forcing extensive branching and spreading of plants so that individual plants will cover 0.2 m2 or more area. Thus the <span class="hlt">growing</span> system must be developed to provide an area that is darkened for tuber and root growth and of sufficient size for plant spread. A system developed for <span class="hlt">growing</span> potatoes, or any plants, in space will have certain requirements that must be met to make them a useful part of a life support system. The system must 1) be constructed of materials, and involve media, that can be reused for many successive cycles of plant growth, 2</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28635260','PUBMED'); return false;" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28635260"><span>Development, Validation, and Interlaboratory Evaluation of a Quantitative Multiplexing Method To Assess Levels of Ten Endogenous Allergens in Soybean Seed and Its Application to <span class="hlt">Field</span> Trials Spanning Three <span class="hlt">Growing</span> Seasons.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?DB=pubmed">PubMed</a></p> <p>Hill, Ryan C; Oman, Trent J; Wang, Xiujuan; Shan, Guomin; Schafer, Barry; Herman, Rod A; Tobias, Rowel; Shippar, Jeff; Malayappan, Bhaskar; Sheng, Li; Xu, Austin; Bradshaw, Jason</p> <p>2017-07-12</p> <p>As part of the regulatory approval process in Europe, comparison of endogenous soybean allergen levels between genetically engineered (GE) and non-GE plants has been requested. A quantitative multiplex analytical method using tandem mass spectrometry was developed and validated to measure 10 potential soybean allergens from soybean seed. The analytical method was implemented at six laboratories to demonstrate the robustness of the method and further applied to three soybean <span class="hlt">field</span> studies across multiple <span class="hlt">growing</span> seasons (including 21 non-GE soybean varieties) to assess the natural variation of allergen levels. The results show environmental factors contribute more than genetic factors to the large variation in allergen abundance (2- to 50-fold between environmental replicates) as well as a large contribution of Gly m 5 and Gly m 6 to the total allergen profile, calling into question the scientific rational for measurement of endogenous allergen levels between GE and non-GE varieties in the safety assessment.</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('https://eric.ed.gov/?q=population+AND+paris&pg=4&id=ED223520','ERIC'); return false;" href="https://eric.ed.gov/?q=population+AND+paris&pg=4&id=ED223520"><span>Planning for <span class="hlt">Growing</span> Populations.</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://www.eric.ed.gov/ERICWebPortal/search/extended.jsp?_pageLabel=advanced">ERIC Educational Resources Information Center</a></p> <p>Cassen, Robert, Ed.; Wolfson, Margaret, Ed.</p> <p></p> <p>The basic needs and services that the vast masses of the population in developing countries must have to improve their quality of life are examined. Chapter 1 of nine chapters discusses implications of <span class="hlt">rapid</span> population growth for social and economic planning. <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> population growth in the developing countries is discussed in chapter 2. Food…</p> </li> <li> <p><a target="_blank" onclick="trackOutboundLink('http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850004021','NASA-TRS'); return false;" href="http://hdl.handle.net/2060/19850004021"><span>A Sphere-Scanning Radiometer for <span class="hlt">Rapid</span> Directional Measurements of Sky and Ground Radiance: the PARABOLA <span class="hlt">Field</span> Instrument</span></a></p> <p><a target="_blank" href="http://ntrs.nasa.gov/search.jsp">NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)</a></p> <p>Deering, D. W.; Leone, P.</p> <p>1984-01-01</p> <p>A unique <span class="hlt">field</span> instrument, called the PARABOLA, a collapsable support boom,