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Sample records for rare metal deposits

  1. New data on the substantial composition of Kalba rare metal deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oitseva, T. A.; Dyachkov, B. A.; Vladimirov, A. G.; Kuzmina, O. N.; Ageeva, O. V.

    2017-12-01

    Geotectonic position, features of the geological structure and rare metal specialization of the Kalba-Narym granitoid belt formed in the Hercynian cycle in the postcollision (orogenic) geodynamic situation are considered. A geological-genetic model for the formation of the leading type of rare-metal pegmatite deposits (Ta, Nb, Be, Li, etc.) is presented. They are spatially and genetically related mainly to the granitoids of the 1st phase of the Kalba complex, P1 (Bakennoye, Jubilee, Belaya Gora, etc.). The rhythmically pulsating orientation of the process of pegmatite formation with the introduction of ore-bearing fluids (H2O, F, B, Cl, Ta, Nb, Be, etc.) is emphasized from the intracamera focus of a semi-closed magmatic system. The preferred location of ore pegmatite veins in granitoids of moderate basicity occupying an intermediate position in the petrochemical composition between normal granites and granodiorites geochemically specialized in Li, Rb, Cs, Sn, Nb, Ta. The leading ore-controlling role of the latitudinal deep faults of the ancient site in the distribution of rare-metal ore fields and deposits (Ognevsk-Bakennoye, Asubulak, Belogorsk, etc.) is determined. There is a zonal structure of pegmatite veins, a gradual development of mineral complexes from the graphic and oligoclase-microcline (non-ore) to microcline-albite and color albite-spodumene (ore). The mineralization of pegmatite veins is determined by the degree of intensity of the manifestation in them of metasomatic processes (microclinization, alibitization, greisenization, spodumenization, tourmalinization, etc.) and the identification of the main ore minerals (tantalite-columbite, cassiterite, spodumene and beryl). The diversity of the material composition of rare-metal pegmatites containing many unique minerals (cleavelandite, lepidolite, ambligonite, color tourmaline, spodumene, pollucite, etc.) is reflected, which brings them closer to the pegmatite deposits of foreign countries (Koktogai

  2. Marine ferromanganese deposits as a source of rare metals for high- and green-tech applications: Comparison with land-based deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; Conrad, T. A.; Koschinsky, A.

    2011-12-01

    Marine ferromanganese (Fe-Mn) crusts are strongly enriched relative to the lithosphere in many rare and strategic metals, including Te, Co, Mo, Bi, Pt, W, Zr, Nb, Y, and rare-earth elements (REE). Fe-Mn nodules are strongly enriched in Ni, Cu, Co, Mo, Zr, Li, and REY. Relative to Fe-Mn crusts, nodules are more enriched in Ni, Cu, and Li, with subequal amounts of Mo. The metals are sorbed from seawater onto the Fe and Mn phases, and also from sediment pore waters for nodules. An electrochemical model describes a first-order process for acquisition of metals from seawater, with positively charged ions sorbed onto the negative charged surface of MnO2 and negatively charged and neutral ions in seawater sorbed on the slightly positive charged FeO(OH) surface. Second-order processes include surface oxidation (e.g., Co, Pt, Te, Ce, Tl), substitution, and precipitation of discrete phases. The metals most enriched in these marine deposits are essential for a wide variety of high- and green-tech applications. Over the past few years, the global market for many of them has been supplied from one or two major sources. Because of increased competition for resources from rapidly expanding economies (i.e. China, India, Brazil), supplies may not meet demands. Deep-ocean deposits may offer a partial solution to these projected shortages, but marine deposits have not been compared in terms of grade and tonnage with land-based deposits. Here we compare data for the Clarion-Clipperton Fe-Mn Nodule Zone (CCZ) in the NE Pacific and the central Pacific Fe-Mn crust zone (PCZ) with the global land-based reserves. Nodules in the CCZ have 1.1 times more Mn, 1.4 times more Te, 1.85 times more Ni, 3.2 times more Co, and 4 times more Y than the entire global land-based reserves for those metals. Metals in CCZ nodules as a percent of the total global land-based reserves are Cu 22%, Mo 63%, W 21%, Li 19%, Nb 13%, and REE 11%. Fe-Mn crusts in the PCZ have 3.8 times more Co, 3.5 times more Y, and

  3. Alaska's rare earth deposits and resource potential

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Barker, James C.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2012-01-01

    Alaska’s known mineral endowment includes some of the largest and highest grade deposits of various metals, including gold, copper and zinc. Recently, Alaska has also been active in the worldwide search for sources of rare earth elements (REE) to replace exports now being limitedby China. Driven by limited supply of the rare earths, combined with their increasing use in new ‘green’ energy, lighting, transportation, and many other technological applications, the rare earth metals neodymium, europium and, in particular, the heavy rare earth elements terbium, dysprosium and yttrium are forecast to soon be in critical short supply (U.S. Department of Energy, 2010).

  4. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass. CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities or rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  5. Rare-earth metal prices in the USA ca. 1960 to 1994

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, J.B.

    1997-01-01

    Rare-earth metal prices were compiled from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Although commercial demand for rare-earth metals began in 1908, as the alloy mischmetal, commercial quantities of a wide range of individual rare-earth metals were not available until the late 1950s. The discovery of a large, high-grade rare-earth deposit at Mountain Pass, CA, USA, in 1949, was significant because it led to the production of commercial quantities of rare-earth elements that reduced prices and encouraged wider application of the materials. The availability of ore from Mountain Pass, and other large rare-earth deposits, especially those in Australia and China, has provided the world with abundant resources for rare-earth metal production. This availability, coupled with improved technology from Government and private-sector metallurgical research, has resulted in substantial decreases in rare-earth metal prices since the late 1950s and early 1960s. Price series for the individual rare-earth metals (except promethium) are quoted on a kilogram basis from the late 1950s and early 1960s through 1994. Prices are given in US dollars on an actual and constant dollar basis. Industrial and economic factors affecting prices during this time period are examined.

  6. Main types of rare-metal mineralization in Karelia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ivashchenko, V. I.

    2016-03-01

    Rare-metal mineralization in Karelia is represented by V, Be, U deposits and In, Re, Nb, Ta, Li, Ce, La, and Y occurrences, which are combined into 17 types of magmatic, pegmatite, albitite-greisen, hydrothermal-metasomatic, sedimentary, and epigenetic groups. The main vanadium resources are localized in the Onega ore district. These are deposits of the Padma group (556 kt) and the Pudozhgorsky complex (1.5 Mt). The REE occurrences are primarily characterized by Ce-La specialization. The perspective of HREE is related to the Eletozero-Tiksheozero alkaline and Salmi anorthosite-rapakivi granite complexes. Rare-metal pegmatites bear complex mineralization with insignificant low-grade resources. The Lobash and Jalonvaara porphyry Cu-Mo deposits are potential sources of rhenium: Re contents in molybdenite are 20-70 and 50-246 ppm and hypothetical resources are 12 and 7.5 t, respectively. The high-grade (˜100 ppm) and metallogenic potential of indium (˜2400 t) make the deposits of the Pitkäranta ore district leading in the category of Russian ore objects most prospective for indium. Despite the diverse rare-metal mineralization known in Karelia, the current state of this kind of mineral commodities at the world market leaves real metallogenic perspective only for V, U, Re, In, and Nb.

  7. Photochemical metal organic deposition of metal oxides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Law, Wai Lung (Simon)

    This thesis pertains to the study of the deposition of metal oxide thin films via the process of Photochemical Metal Organic Deposition (PMOD). In this process, an amorphous metal organic precursor thin film is subjected to irradiation under ambient conditions. Fragmentation of the metal precursor results from the photoreaction, leading to the formation of metal oxide thin films in the presence of oxygen. The advantage of PMOD lies in its ability to perform lithography of metal oxide thin film without the application of photoresist. The metal organic precursor can be imaged directly by photolysis through a lithography mask under ambient conditions. Thus the PMOD process provides an attractive alternative to the conventional VLSI fabrication process. Metal carboxylates and metal acetylacetonates complexes were used as the precursors for PMOD process in this thesis. Transition metal carboxylate and metal acetylacetonate complexes have shown previously that when deposited as amorphous thin films, they will undergo fragmentation upon photolysis, leading to the formation of metal oxide thin films under ambient conditions. In this thesis, the formation of main group metal oxides of aluminum, indium and tin, as well as the formation of rare-earth metal oxides of cerium and europium by PMOD from its corresponding metal organic precursor will be presented. The nature of the photoreactions as well as the properties of the thin films deposited by PMOD will be investigated. Doped metal oxide thin films can also be prepared using the PMOD process. By mixing the metal precursors prior to deposition in the desired ratio, precursor films containing more than one metal precursor can be obtained. Mixed metal oxide thin films corresponding to the original metal ratio, in the precursor mixture, can be obtained upon photolysis under ambient conditions. In this thesis, the properties of doped metal oxide thin films of europium doped aluminum oxide as well as tin doped indium oxide thin

  8. A miniature single element effusion cell for the vacuum deposition of transition-metal and rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Harris, V. G.; Koon, N. C.

    1997-08-01

    A miniature single element effusion cell has been fabricated and tested that allows for the high-vacuum deposition of a variety of transition-metal and rare-earth elements. The cell is designed to operate under high-vacuum conditions, ≈10-9 Torr, with low power demands, <200 W. The virtues of this evaporator are the simplicity of design and ease of fabrication, assembly, maintenance, and operation.

  9. An overview of the association between lamprophyric intrusions and rare-metal mineralization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Štemprok, Miroslav; Seifert, Thomas

    2011-01-01

    Granite-related rare metal districts in orogenic settings are occasionally associated with lamprophyre dikes. We recorded 63 occurrences of lamprophyres in bimodal dike suites of about 200 granite bodies related to rare metal deposits. Most lamprophyres occur in Paleozoic and Mesozoic metallogenic provinces in the northern hemisphere. Lamprophyres which are associated with rare metal deposits are calc-alkaline (kersantites, minettes, spessartites) or more rarely alkaline lamprophyres (camptonites, monchiquites) which occur in the roof zone of complex granitic bodies as pre-granitic, intra-granitic, intra-ore or post-ore dikes. Most lamprophyres are spatially associated with dominant felsic dikes and/or with mafic dikes represented by diorites or diabases. Diorites and lamprophyres occasionally exhibit transitional compositions from one to another. Lamprophyres share common geochemical characteristics of highly evolved granitoids such as enrichment in K and F, increased abundances of Li, Rb, and Cs and enrichment in some HFSE (e.g. Zr, U, Th, Mo, Sn, W). Lamprophyres in rare metal districts testify to accessibility of the upper crust to mantle products at the time of rare metal mineralization and possible influence of mantle melts or mantle-derived fluids in the differentiation of granitic melts in the lower crust.

  10. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, Timothy W.; Schmidt, Frederick A.

    1995-08-01

    Method of treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation.

  11. Recycling of rare earth metals from rare earth-transition metal alloy scrap by liquid metal extraction

    DOEpatents

    Ellis, T.W.; Schmidt, F.A.

    1995-08-01

    A method is described for treating rare earth metal-bearing scrap, waste or other material (e.g. Nd--Fe--B or Dy--Tb--Fe scrap) to recover the rare earth metal comprising melting the rare earth metal-bearing material, melting a Group IIA metal extractant, such as Mg, Ca, or Ba, in which the rare earth is soluble in the molten state, and contacting the melted material and melted extractant at a temperature and for a time effective to extract the rare earth from the melted material into the melted extractant. The rare earth metal is separated from the extractant metal by vacuum sublimation or distillation. 2 figs.

  12. Environmental Defects And Economic Impact On Global Market Of Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Charalampides, G.; Vatalis, K.; Karayannis, V.; Baklavaridis, A.

    2016-11-01

    Rare earth elements include the 14 lanthanides as well as lanthanium and often yttrium. Actually, most of them are not very rare and occur widely dispersed in a variety of rocks. Rare earth metals are vital to some of the world's faster growing industries: catalysts, Nd-magnets, ceramics, glass, metallurgy, battery alloys, electronics and phosphors. Worldwide, the main countries for distribution of rare earths deposits include China, USA, Russia, Brasil, India, Australia, Greenland and Malaysia. The mining and processing of rare earth metals usually result in significant environmental defects. Many deposits are associated with high concentrations of radioactive elements such as uranium and thorium, which requires separate treatment and disposal. The accumulation of rare earth elements in soils has occurred due to pollution caused by the exploitation of rare earth resources and the wide use of rare earths as fertilizers in agriculture. This accumulation has a toxic effect on the soil microfauna community. However, there are large differences in market prices due to the degree of purity determined by the specifications in the applications. The main focus of this article is to overview Rare Earth Metals’ overall impact on global economy and their environmental defects on soils during processing techniques and as they are used as fertilizers.

  13. A synthesis of mineralization styles and geodynamic settings of the Paleozoic and Mesozoic metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains, NW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Fuquan; Geng, Xinxia; Wang, Rui; Zhang, Zhixin; Guo, Xuji

    2018-06-01

    The Altay Mountains within the Xinjiang region of northwestern China hosts major metallic ore deposits. Here we review the geological characteristics, metallogenic features and tectonic settings of these deposits. The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains occur mainly within four regions: North Altay, Central Altay, South Altay and Erqis. We recognize seven types of metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains: VMS, submarine volcanogenic iron, magmatic, skarn, pegmatite, hydrothermal vein (Cu-Zn, Fe) and orogenic gold. Among these types, the VMS, pegmatite, orogenic gold and skarn deposits are the most common. Most of the rare metal pegmatite deposits are distributed in Central Altay, with only a few in South Altay. The VMS, submarine volcanogenic type iron and skarn-type deposits are distributed in South Altay, whereas the orogenic-type gold deposits are distributed in the Erqis Fault belt. The hydrothermal vein-type deposits occur in the Erqis Fault belt and Chonghu'er Basin in South Altay. Magmatic-type deposits are mostly in the Erqis Fault belt and Central Altay. Based on isotopic age data, the VMS, submarine volcanogenic-type Fe and skarn-type Cu, Pb, Zn, Fe mineralization occurred during Early-Middle Devonian (∼410-377 Ma), orogenic-type Au, magmatic-type Cu-Ni, and a small number of skarn-type Fe, hydrothermal vein-type Cu-Zn, pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Early-Middle Permian (293-261 Ma), pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits, few skarn-type Fe deposit in Early-Middle Triassic (248-232 Ma), and dominantly represented by pegmatite-type rare-metal deposits in Late Triassic-Early Jurassic (223-180 Ma). The metallic ore deposits in the Altay Mountains formed in various tectonic settings, such as the Early-Middle Devonian continental arc and oceanic island arc, Early-Middle Permian post-collisional extensional setting, and Triassic-Early Jurassic intracontinental setting.

  14. Recovering heavy rare earth metals from magnet scrap

    SciTech Connect

    Ott, Ryan T.; McCallum, Ralph W.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    A method of treating rare earth metal-bearing permanent magnet scrap, waste or other material in a manner to recover the heavy rare earth metal content separately from the light rare earth metal content. The heavy rare earth metal content can be recovered either as a heavy rare earth metal-enriched iron based alloy or as a heavy rare earth metal based alloy.

  15. Seamount mineral deposits: A source of rare metals for high technology industries

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, James R.; Conrad, Tracey A.; Staudigel, Hubert

    2010-01-01

    The near exponential growth in Earth’s population and the global economy puts increasing constraints on our planet’s finite supply of natural metal resources, and, consequently, there is an increasing need for new sources to supply high-tech industries. To date, effectively all of our raw-metal resources are produced at land-based sites. Except for nearshore placer deposits, the marine environment has been largely excluded from metal mining due to technological difficulties, even though it covers more than 70% of the planet. The case can be made that deep-water seabed mining is inevitable in the future, owing to the critical and strategic metal needs for human society. In this paper, we evaluate the case that seamounts offer significant potential for mining.

  16. Rare Earth Metals: Resourcefulness and Recovery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Shijie

    2013-10-01

    When we appreciate the digital revolution carried over from the twentieth century with mobile communication and the Internet, and when we enjoy our high-tech lifestyle filled with iDevices, hybrid cars, wind turbines, and solar cells in this new century, we should also appreciate that all of these advanced products depend on rare earth metals to function. Although there are only 136,000 tons of annual worldwide demand, (Cho, Rare Earth Metals, Will We Have Enough?)1 rare earth metals are becoming such hot commodities on international markets, due to not only to their increasing uses, including in most critical military hardware, but also to Chinese growth, which accounts for 95% of global rare earth metal production. Hence, the 2013 technical calendar topic, planned by the TMS/Hydrometallurgy and Electrometallurgy Committee, is particularly relevant, with four articles (including this commentary) contributed to the JOM October Issue discussing rare earth metals' resourcefulness and recovery.

  17. Rare Earth Element Mines, Deposits, and Occurrences

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Orris, Greta J.; Grauch, Richard I.

    2002-01-01

    Data on rare earth (including yttrium) mines, deposits, and occurrences were compiled as part of an effort by the USGS and the University of Arizona Center for Mineral Resources to summarize current knowledge on the supply and demand outlook and related topics for this group of elements. Economic competition and environmental concerns are increasingly constraining the mining and processing of rare earths from the Mountain Pass mine in California. For many years, the deposit at Mountain Pass was the world's dominant source of rare earth elements and the United States was essentially self-sufficient. Starting approximately 10 years ago, the U.S. has become increasingly dependent (> 90 percent of separated rare earths) upon imports from China, now the dominant source of rare earths. A knowledge of the known economic and noneconomic sources of rare earths is basic to evaluating the outlook for rare earth supply and associated issues.

  18. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOEpatents

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1990-01-01

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment wiht the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  19. Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOEpatents

    Buhrmaster, Carol L.; Clark, Denis E.; Smartt, Herschel B.

    1991-01-01

    Apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspenion of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite.

  20. Method for gas-metal arc deposition

    DOEpatents

    Buhrmaster, C.L.; Clark, D.E.; Smartt, H.B.

    1990-11-13

    Method and apparatus for gas-metal arc deposition of metal, metal alloys, and metal matrix composites are disclosed. The apparatus contains an arc chamber for confining a D.C. electrical arc discharge, the arc chamber containing an outlet orifice in fluid communication with a deposition chamber having a deposition opening in alignment with the orifice for depositing metal droplets on a coatable substrate. Metal wire is passed continuously into the arc chamber in alignment with the orifice. Electric arcing between the metal wire anode and the orifice cathode produces droplets of molten metal from the wire which pass through the orifice and into the deposition chamber for coating a substrate exposed at the deposition opening. When producing metal matrix composites, a suspension of particulates in an inert gas enters the deposition chamber via a plurality of feed openings below and around the orifice so that reinforcing particulates join the metal droplets to produce a uniform mixture which then coats the exposed substrate with a uniform metal matrix composite. 1 fig.

  1. Material efficiency: rare and critical metals.

    PubMed

    Ayres, Robert U; Peiró, Laura Talens

    2013-03-13

    In the last few decades, progress in electronics, especially, has resulted in important new uses for a number of geologically rare metals, some of which were mere curiosities in the past. Most of them are not mined for their own sake (gold, the platinum group metals and the rare Earth elements are exceptions) but are found mainly in the ores of the major industrial metals, such as aluminium, copper, zinc and nickel. We call these major metals 'attractors' and the rare accompanying metals 'hitch-hikers'. The key implication is that rising prices do not necessarily call forth greater output because that would normally require greater output of the attractor metal. We trace the geological relationships and the functional uses of these metals. Some of these metals appear to be irreplaceable in the sense that there are no known substitutes for them in their current functional uses. Recycling is going to be increasingly important, notwithstanding a number of barriers.

  2. Critical Metals In Western Arctic Ocean Ferromanganese Mineral Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hein, J. R.; Spinardi, F.; Conrad, T. A.; Conrad, J. E.; Genetti, J.

    2013-12-01

    Little exploration for minerals has occurred in the Arctic Ocean due to ice cover and the remote location. Small deposits of seafloor massive sulfides that are rich in copper and zinc occur on Gakkel Ridge, which extends from Greenland to the Laptev Sea, and on Kolbeinsey and Mohns ridges, both located between Greenland and mainland Europe. However, rocks were recently collected by dredge along the western margin of the Canada Basin as part of the U.S. Extended Continental Shelf (ECS) program north of Alaska. Sample sites include steep escarpments on the Chukchi Borderland, a newly discovered seamount informally named Healy seamount, the southern part of Alpha-Mendeleev Ridge, and several basement outcrops in Nautilus Basin. These dredge hauls yielded three types of metal-rich mineralized deposits: ferromanganese crusts, ferromanganese nodules, and hydrothermal iron and manganese deposits. Chemical analyses of 43 crust and nodule samples show high contents of many critical metals needed for high-technology, green-technology, and energy and military applications, including cobalt (to 0.3 wt.%), vanadium (to 0.12 wt.%), zirconium (to 459 grams/tonne=ppm), molybdenum (to 453 g/t), the rare-earth elements (including scandium and yttrium; yttrium to 229 g/t), lithium (to 205 g/t), tungsten (to 64 g/t), and gallium (to 26 g/t). The metal contents of these Arctic Ocean crusts and nodules are comparable to those found throughout the global ocean, however, these Arctic Ocean samples are the first that have been found to be enriched in rare metal scandium. The metal contents of these samples indicate a diagenetic component. Crusts typically form by precipitation of metal oxides solely from seawater (hydrogenetic) onto rock surfaces producing a pavement, whereas nodules form by accretion of metal oxides, from both seawater and pore waters (diagenetic), around a nucleus on the surface of soft sediment. The best evidence for this diagenetic input to the crusts is that crusts

  3. Plume-related mantle source of super-large rare metal deposits from the Lovozero and Khibina massifs on the Kola Peninsula, Eastern part of Baltic Shield: Sr, Nd and Hf isotope systematics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogarko, L. N.; Lahaye, Y.; Brey, G. P.

    2010-03-01

    The two world’s largest complexes of highly alkaline nepheline syenites and related rare metal loparite and eudialyte deposits, the Khibina and Lovozero massifs, occur in the central part of the Kola Peninsula. We measured for the first time in situ the trace element concentrations and the Sr, Nd and Hf isotope ratios by LA-ICP-MS (laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometer) in loparite, eudialyte an in some other pegmatitic minerals. The results are in aggreement with the whole rock Sr and Nd isotope which suggests the formation of these superlarge rare metal deposits in a magmatic closed system. The initial Hf, Sr, Nd isotope ratios are similar to the isotopic signatures of OIB indicating depleted mantle as a source. This leads to the suggestion that the origin of these gigantic alkaline intrusions is connected to a deep seated mantle source—possibly to a lower mantle plume. The required combination of a depleted mantle and high rare metal enrichment in the source can be explained by the input of incompatible elements by metasomatising melts/fluids into the zones of alkaline magma generation shortly before the partial melting event (to avoid ingrowth of radiogenic isotopes). The minerals belovite and pyrochlore from the pegmatites are abnormally high in 87Sr /86Sr ratios. This may be explained by closed system isotope evolution as a result of a significant increase in Rb/Sr during the evolution of the peralkaline magma.

  4. Rare earth metal-containing ionic liquids

    SciTech Connect

    Prodius, Denis; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    As an innovative tool, ionic liquids (ILs) are widely employed as an alternative, smart, reaction media (vs. traditional solvents) offering interesting technology solutions for dissolving, processing and recycling of metal-containing materials. The costly mining and refining of rare earths (RE), combined with increasing demand for high-tech and energy-related applications around the world, urgently requires effective approaches to improve the efficiency of rare earth separation and recovery. In this context, ionic liquids appear as an attractive technology solution. Finally, this paper addresses the structural and coordination chemistry of ionic liquids comprising rare earth metals with the aim to add to understandingmore » prospects of ionic liquids in the chemistry of rare earths.« less

  5. Rare earth metal-containing ionic liquids

    DOE PAGES

    Prodius, Denis; Mudring, Anja-Verena

    2018-03-07

    As an innovative tool, ionic liquids (ILs) are widely employed as an alternative, smart, reaction media (vs. traditional solvents) offering interesting technology solutions for dissolving, processing and recycling of metal-containing materials. The costly mining and refining of rare earths (RE), combined with increasing demand for high-tech and energy-related applications around the world, urgently requires effective approaches to improve the efficiency of rare earth separation and recovery. In this context, ionic liquids appear as an attractive technology solution. Finally, this paper addresses the structural and coordination chemistry of ionic liquids comprising rare earth metals with the aim to add to understandingmore » prospects of ionic liquids in the chemistry of rare earths.« less

  6. Effects of Rare Earth Metals on Steel Microstructures

    PubMed Central

    Pan, Fei; Zhang, Jian; Chen, Hao-Long; Su, Yen-Hsun; Kuo, Chia-Liang; Su, Yen-Hao; Chen, Shin-Hau; Lin, Kuan-Ju; Hsieh, Ping-Hung; Hwang, Weng-Sing

    2016-01-01

    Rare earth metals are used in semiconductors, solar cells and catalysts. This review focuses on the background of oxide metallurgy technologies, the chemical and physical properties of rare earth (RE) metals, the background of oxide metallurgy, the functions of RE metals in steelmaking, and the influences of RE metals on steel microstructures. Future prospects for RE metal applications in steelmaking are also presented. PMID:28773545

  7. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits–A deposit model

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.

    2011-01-01

    The rare earth elements are not as rare in nature as their name implies, but economic deposits with these elements are not common and few deposits have been large producers. In the past 25 years, demand for rare earth elements has increased dramatically because of their wide and diverse use in high-technology applications. Yet, presently the global production and supply of rare earth elements come from only a few sources. China produces more than 95 percent of the world's supply of rare earth elements. Because of China's decision to restrict exports of these elements, the price of rare earth elements has increased and industrial countries are concerned about supply shortages. As a result, understanding the distribution and origin of rare earth elements deposits, and identifying and quantifying our nation's rare earth elements resources have become priorities. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusive complexes, as well as their weathering products, are the primary sources of rare earth elements. The general mineral deposit model summarized here is part of an effort by the U.S. Geological Survey's Mineral Resources Program to update existing models and develop new descriptive mineral deposit models to supplement previously published models for use in mineral-resource and mineral-environmental assessments. Carbonatite and alkaline intrusion-related REE deposits are discussed together because of their spatial association, common enrichment in incompatible elements, and similarities in genesis. A wide variety of commodities have been exploited from carbonatites and alkaline igneous rocks, such as rare earth elements, niobium, phosphate, titanium, vermiculite, barite, fluorite, copper, calcite, and zirconium. Other enrichments include manganese, strontium, tantalum, thorium, vanadium, and uranium.

  8. Surface Finish after Laser Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rombouts, M.; Maes, G.; Hendrix, W.; Delarbre, E.; Motmans, F.

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) is an additive manufacturing technology for the fabrication of metal parts through layerwise deposition and laser induced melting of metal powder. The poor surface finish presents a major limitation in LMD. This study focuses on the effects of surface inclination angle and strategies to improve the surface finish of LMD components. A substantial improvement in surface quality of both the side and top surfaces has been obtained by laser remelting after powder deposition.

  9. Radioactive rare-earth deposit at Scrub Oaks mine, Morris County, New Jersey

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klemic, Harry; Heyl, A.V.; Taylor, Audrey R.; Stone, Jerome

    1959-01-01

    A deposit of rare-earth minerals in the Scrub Oaks iron mine, Morris County, N. J., was mapped and sampled in 1955. The rare-earth minerals are mainly in coarse-grained magnetite ore and in pegmatite adjacent to it. Discrete bodies of rare-earth-bearing magnetite ore apparently follow the plunge of the main magnetite ore body at the north end of the mine. Radioactivity of the ore containing rare earths is about 0.2 to 0.6 mllliroentgens per hour. The principal minerals of the deposit are quartz, magnetite, hematite, albiteoligoclase, perthite and antiperthite. Xenotime and doverite aggregates and bastnaesite with intermixed leucoxene are the most abundant rare-earth minerals, and zircon, sphene, chevkinite, apatite, and monazite are of minor abundance in the ore. The rare-earth elements are partly differentiated into cerium-rich bastnaesite, chevkinite, and monazite, and yttrium-rich xenotime and doverite. Apatite, zircon, and sphene contain both cerium and yttrium group earths. Eleven samples of radioactive ore and rock average 0.009 percent uranium, 0.062 percent thorium, 1.51 percent combined rare-earth oxides including yttrium oxide and 24.8 percent iron. Scatter diagrams of sample data show a direct correlation between equivalent uranium, uranium, thorium, and combined rare^ earth oxides. Both cerium- and yttrium-group earths are abundant in the rare-earth minerals. Radioactive magnetite ore containing rare-earth minerals probably formed as a variant of the magnetite mineralization that produced the main iron ore of the Scrub Oaks deposit. The rare-earth minerals and the iron ore were deposited contemporaneously. Zircon crystals, probably deposited at the same time, have been determined by the Larsen method to be about 550 to 600 million years old (late Precambrian age). Uranium, thorium, and rare-earth elements are potential byproducts of iron in the coarse-grained magnetite ore.

  10. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a prefused, rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF.sub.2, CaCl.sub.2 or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy.

  11. Method for treating rare earth-transition metal scrap

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.

    1992-12-29

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g., iron) scrap (e.g., Nd-Fe-B scrap) is flux (slag) remelted to reduce tramp non-metallic impurities, such as oxygen and nitrogen, and metallic impurities, such as Li, Na, Al, etc., picked up by the scrap from previous fabrication operations. The tramp impurities are reduced to concentrations acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. The scrap is electroslag or inductoslag melted using a rare earth fluoride-bearing flux of CaF[sub 2], CaCl[sub 2] or mixtures thereof or the slag resulting from practice of the thermite reduction process to make a rare earth-iron alloy. 3 figs.

  12. Programmable nanometer-scale electrolytic metal deposition and depletion

    DOEpatents

    Lee, James Weifu [Oak Ridge, TN; Greenbaum, Elias [Oak Ridge, TN

    2002-09-10

    A method of nanometer-scale deposition of a metal onto a nanostructure includes the steps of: providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart; and depositing metal on at least one of the nanostructures by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal deposition. Moreover, a method of nanometer-scale depletion of a metal from a nanostructure includes the steps of providing a substrate having thereon at least two electrically conductive nanostructures spaced no more than about 50 .mu.m apart, at least one of the nanostructures having a metal disposed thereon; and depleting at least a portion of the metal from the nanostructure by electric field-directed, programmable, pulsed electrolytic metal depletion. A bypass circuit enables ultra-finely controlled deposition.

  13. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Silver, Gary L.; Martin, Frank S.

    1994-12-13

    A method of depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates.

  14. Laminated rare earth structure and method of making

    DOEpatents

    Senor, David J [West Richland, WA; Johnson, Roger N [Richland, WA; Reid, Bruce D [Pasco, WA; Larson, Sandra [Richland, WA

    2002-07-30

    A laminated structure having two or more layers, wherein at least one layer is a metal substrate and at least one other layer is a coating comprising at least one rare earth element. For structures having more than two layers, the coating and metal substrate layers alternate. In one embodiment of the invention, the structure is a two-layer laminate having a rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a metal substrate. In another embodiment of the invention, the structure is a three-layer laminate having the rare earth coating electrospark deposited onto a first metal substrate and the coating subsequently abonded to a second metal substrate. The bonding of the coating to the second metal substrate may be accomplished by hot pressing, hot rolling, high deformation rate processing, or combinations thereof. The laminated structure may be used in nuclear components where reactivity control or neutron absorption is desired and in non-nuclear applications such as magnetic and superconducting films.

  15. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2001-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  16. Semiconductor assisted metal deposition for nanolithography applications

    DOEpatents

    Rajh, Tijana; Meshkov, Natalia; Nedelijkovic, Jovan M.; Skubal, Laura R.; Tiede, David M.; Thurnauer, Marion

    2002-01-01

    An article of manufacture and method of forming nanoparticle sized material components. A semiconductor oxide substrate includes nanoparticles of semiconductor oxide. A modifier is deposited onto the nanoparticles, and a source of metal ions are deposited in association with the semiconductor and the modifier, the modifier enabling electronic hole scavenging and chelation of the metal ions. The metal ions and modifier are illuminated to cause reduction of the metal ions to metal onto the semiconductor nanoparticles.

  17. Fertility of Rare-Metal Peraluminous Granites and Formation Conditions of Tungsten Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Syritso, L. F.; Badanina, E. V.; Abushkevich, V. S.; Volkova, E. V.; Terekhov, A. V.

    2018-01-01

    The tungsten distribution in rocks of the Kukulbei Complex in eastern Transbaikal region results in a high potential of rare-metal peraluminous granites (RPG) for W mineralization and displays a different behavior of W in Li-F and "standard" RPG. These subtypes differ in the behavior of W in melt, spatial localization of mineralization, and the timing of wolframite crystallization relative to the age of the parental granitic rocks. The significant of W concentration is assumed to be due to fractionation of the Li-F melt; however, wolframite mineralization in Li-F enriched granite is not typical in nature. The results of experiments and our calculations of W solubility in granitic melt show that wolframite hardly ever crystallizes directly from melt; it likely migrates in the fluid phase and is then removes from the magma chamber to the host rocks, where secondary concentration takes place in exocontact greisens and quartz-cassiterite-wolframite veins. At the same time, the isotopic age of accessory wolframite (139.5 ± 2.1 Ma) within the Orlovka massif of Li-F granite is close to the formation age of the massif (140.6 ± 2.9 Ma). A different W behavior is recorded in the RPG subtype with a low lithium and fluorine concentration, exemplified by the Spokoininsky massif. There is no significant W gain in the melt. All varieties of wolframite mineralization in the Spokoininsky massif are derived from greisens, veins, and pegmatoids yielding the same crystallization ages (139.5 ± 1.1 Ma), which are 0.9-1.8 Ma later (taking into account the mean-square weighted deviation) than the Spokoininsky granite formation (144.5 ± 1.4 Ma). Perhaps this period corresponds to the time of transition from the magmatic stage to hydrothermal alteration. Comparison of the isotope characteristics (Rb-Sr and Sm-Nd isotope systems) of rocks and the associated ore minerals (wolframite, cassiterite) from all examined deposits shows a depletion in ɛNd values for ore minerals relative to the

  18. Ammonia release method for depositing metal oxides

    DOEpatents

    Silver, G.L.; Martin, F.S.

    1994-12-13

    A method is described for depositing metal oxides on substrates which is indifferent to the electrochemical properties of the substrates and which comprises forming ammine complexes containing metal ions and thereafter effecting removal of ammonia from the ammine complexes so as to permit slow precipitation and deposition of metal oxide on the substrates. 1 figure.

  19. Thermophysical properties of liquid rare earth metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thakor, P. B.; Sonvane, Y. A.; Patel, H. P.; Jani, A. R.

    2013-06-01

    The thermodynamical properties like long wavelength limit S(0), iso-thermal compressibility (χT), thermal expansion coefficient (αV), thermal pressure coefficient (γV), specific heat at constant volume (CV) and specific heat at constant pressure (CP) are calculated for liquid rare earth metals. Our newly constructed parameter free model potential is used to describe the electron ion interaction due to Sarkar et al (S) local field correction function. Lastly, we conclude that our newly constructed model potential is capable to explain the thermophysical properties of liquid rare earth metals.

  20. Metal sulfide and rare-earth phosphate nanostructures and methods of making same

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Stanislaus; Zhang, Fen

    2016-06-28

    The present invention provides a method of producing a crystalline rare earth phosphate nanostructure. The method comprising: providing a rare earth metal precursor solution and providing a phosphate precursor solution; placing a porous membrane between the metal precursor solution and the phosphate precursor solution, wherein metal cations of the metal precursor solution and phosphate ions of the phosphate precursor solution react, thereby producing a crystalline rare earth metal phosphate nanostructure.

  1. Study on electrochemically deposited Mg metal

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsui, Masaki

    An electrodeposition process of magnesium metal from Grignard reagent based electrolyte was studied by comparing with lithium. The electrodeposition of magnesium was performed at various current densities. The obtained magnesium deposits did not show dendritic morphologies while all the lithium deposits showed dendritic products. Two different crystal growth modes in the electrodeposition process of magnesium metal were confirmed by an observation using scanning electron micro scope (SEM) and a crystallographic analysis using X-ray diffraction (XRD). An electrochemical study of the deposition/dissolution process of the magnesium showed a remarkable dependency of the overpotential of magnesium deposition on the electrolyte concentration compared with lithium. This result suggests that the dependency of the overpotential on the electrolyte concentration prevent the locally concentrated current resulting to form very uniform deposits.

  2. Cluster synthesis and direct ordering of rare-earth transition-metal nanomagnets.

    PubMed

    Balasubramanian, Balamurugan; Skomski, Ralph; Li, Xingzhong; Valloppilly, Shah R; Shield, Jeffrey E; Hadjipanayis, George C; Sellmyer, David J

    2011-04-13

    Rare-earth transition-metal (R-TM) alloys show superior permanent magnetic properties in the bulk, but the synthesis and application of R-TM nanoparticles remains a challenge due to the requirement of high-temperature annealing above about 800 °C for alloy formation and subsequent crystalline ordering. Here we report a single-step method to produce highly ordered R-TM nanoparticles such as YCo(5) and Y(2)Co(17), without high-temperature thermal annealing by employing a cluster-deposition system and investigate their structural and magnetic properties. The direct ordering is highly desirable to create and assemble R-TM nanoparticle building blocks for future permanent-magnet and other significant applications.

  3. METHOD OF MAKING ALLOYS OF SECOND RARE EARTH SERIES METALS

    DOEpatents

    Baker, R.D.; Hayward, B.R.

    1963-01-01

    >This invention relates to a process for alloying the second rare earth series metals with Mo, Nb, or Zr. A halide of the rare earth metal is mixed with about 1 to 20 at.% of an oxide of Mo, Nb, or Zr. Iodine and an alkali or alkaline earth metal are added, and the resulting mixture is heated in an inert atmosphere to 350 deg C. (AEC)

  4. Rare earth element and rare metal inventory of central Asia

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Mihalasky, Mark J.; Tucker, Robert D.; Renaud, Karine; Verstraeten, Ingrid M.

    2018-03-06

    Rare earth elements (REE), with their unique physical and chemical properties, are an essential part of modern living. REE have enabled development and manufacture of high-performance materials, processes, and electronic technologies commonly used today in computing and communications, clean energy and transportation, medical treatment and health care, glass and ceramics, aerospace and defense, and metallurgy and chemical refining. Central Asia is an emerging REE and rare metals (RM) producing region. A newly compiled inventory of REE-RM-bearing mineral occurrences and delineation of areas-of-interest indicate this region may have considerable undiscovered resources.

  5. Sputter deposition of a spongelike morphology in metal coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jankowski, A. F.; Hayes, J. P.

    2003-03-01

    Metallic films are grown with a ``spongelike'' morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings are deposited with working gas pressures up to 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1100 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy. The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  6. Rare-Earth Metals and Their Applications in Aviation

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1984-08-01

    metals are not as common as iron and steel which are visible everywhere, yet they are not unfamiliar to us. We often encounter them in everyday life...the flint of a lighter. It is an alloy of rare-earth metal and iron . It contains about 30% iron and the remainder is a composite rare-earth alloy...used to manufacture the detonators of bullets and shells as well as the pyrophoric alloys of firing devices. This type of alloy has a 49.5% content of

  7. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  8. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  9. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  10. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  11. 40 CFR 421.270 - Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-07-01

    ... primary rare earth metals subcategory. 421.270 Section 421.270 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL... CATEGORY Primary Rare Earth Metals Subcategory § 421.270 Applicability: Description of the primary rare earth metals subcategory. The provisions of this subpart are applicable to discharges resulting from the...

  12. A deposit model for carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits: Chapter J in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Verplanck, Philip L.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Seal, Robert R.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2014-01-01

    The greatest environmental challenges associated with carbonatite and peralkaline intrusion-related rare earth element deposits center on the associated uranium and thorium. Considerable uncertainty exists around the toxicity of rare earth elements and warrants further investigation. The acid-generating potential of carbonatites and peralkaline intrusion-related deposits is low due to the dominance of carbonate minerals in carbonatite deposits, the presence of feldspars and minor calcite within the alkaline intrusion deposits, and only minor quantities of potentially acid-generating sulfides. Therefore, acid-drainage issues are not likely to be a major concern associated with these deposits. Uranium has the potential to be recovered as a byproduct, which would mitigate some of its environmental effects. However, thorium will likely remain a waste-stream product that will require management since progress is not being made towards the development of thorium-based nuclear reactors in the United States or other large scale commercial uses. Because some deposits are rich in fluorine and beryllium, these elements may be of environmental concern in certain locations.

  13. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOEpatents

    Erbil, Ahmet

    1989-01-01

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula (I) ##STR1## where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula I is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula I and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  14. Chemical vapor deposition of group IIIB metals

    DOEpatents

    Erbil, A.

    1989-11-21

    Coatings of Group IIIB metals and compounds thereof are formed by chemical vapor deposition, in which a heat decomposable organometallic compound of the formula given in the patent where M is a Group IIIB metal, such as lanthanum or yttrium and R is a lower alkyl or alkenyl radical containing from 2 to about 6 carbon atoms, with a heated substrate which is above the decomposition temperature of the organometallic compound. The pure metal is obtained when the compound of the formula 1 is the sole heat decomposable compound present and deposition is carried out under nonoxidizing conditions. Intermetallic compounds such as lanthanum telluride can be deposited from a lanthanum compound of formula 1 and a heat decomposable tellurium compound under nonoxidizing conditions.

  15. Leach of the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore for low environmental pollution with a combination of (NH4)2SO4 and EDTA.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jie; Qiao, Jiyang; Xue, Qiang; Liu, Fei; Chen, Honghan; Zhang, Guochen

    2018-05-01

    High concentration of ammonium sulfate, a typical leaching agent, was often used in the mining process of the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore. After mining, a lot of ammonia nitrogen and labile heavy metal fractions were residual in tailings, which may result in a huge potential risk to the environment. In this study, in order to achieve the maximum extraction of rare earth elements and reduce the labile heavy metal, extraction effect and fraction changes of lanthanum (La) and lead (Pb) in the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore were studied by using a compound agent of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -EDTA. The extraction efficiency of La was more than 90% by using 0.2% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -0.005 M EDTA, which was almost same with that by using 2.0% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solution. In contrast, the extraction efficiency of Pb was 62.3% when use 0.2% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -0.005 M EDTA, which is much higher than that (16.16%) achieved by using 2.0% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 solution. The released Pb fractions were mainly acid extractable and reducible fractions, and the content of reducible fraction being leached accounted for 70.45% of the total reducible fraction. Therefore, the use of 0.2% (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 -0.005 M EDTA can not only reduce the amount of (NH 4 ) 2 SO 4 , but also decrease the labile heavy metal residues in soil, which provides a new way for efficient La extraction with effective preventing and controlling environmental pollution in the process of mining the weathering crust elution-deposited rare earth ore. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Metal deposition using seed layers

    DOEpatents

    Feng, Hsein-Ping; Chen, Gang; Bo, Yu; Ren, Zhifeng; Chen, Shuo; Poudel, Bed

    2013-11-12

    Methods of forming a conductive metal layers on substrates are disclosed which employ a seed layer to enhance bonding, especially to smooth, low-roughness or hydrophobic substrates. In one aspect of the invention, the seed layer can be formed by applying nanoparticles onto a surface of the substrate; and the metallization is achieved by electroplating an electrically conducting metal onto the seed layer, whereby the nanoparticles serve as nucleation sites for metal deposition. In another approach, the seed layer can be formed by a self-assembling linker material, such as a sulfur-containing silane material.

  17. Fractionation of Zr and Hf during the differentiation of peralkaline magmatic system (Lovozero rare metal deposit, Kola Peninsula)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kogarko, Liya

    2016-04-01

    Zirconium and hafnium are valuable strategic metals. We assessed principal features of the distribution of these elements in peralkaline rocks, ores and rock-forming and accessory minerals of Lovozero complex. The accumulation of these elements during the evolution of alkaline magma of Lovozero deposit up to extremely high concentrations in eudialyte ores (5-8% ZrO2 and 1200-1800 ppm Hf) has been established. These ores represent valuable complex raw material not only for Zr and Hf, but for REE as well. We evaluated partition coefficients of these elements in alkaline pyroxenes (aegirines) from porphyry-like agpaitic lujavrites of Lovozero massif which are 0.40 for zirconium and 0.58 for hafnium. We assessed variations of Zr/Hf ratio for all the rocks of Lovozero alkaline massif. The growth of this ratio in the course of the evolution of alkaline magma has been observed from 38 in the earliest magmatic phase, to 44 in the second phase and to 51-53 in the latest manifestation of alkaline magmatsm. On the basis of the obtained data and equations of equilibrium and fractional crystallization the model of the fractionation of zirconium and hafnium during the evolution of Lovozero intrusion has been constructed. We have demonstrated that the source of strongly enriched magmatic systems similar to Lovozero rare metal deposit is short-lived enriched reservoir - metasomatized and carbonatized mantle substrate. We investigated the fractionation of zirconium and hafnium in carbonatized mantle xenoliths from East Antarctica. The elevated Zr/Hf ratios (up to 125) in metasomatized xenoliths by comparison with the chondritic value have been found. The main reactions of carbonate metasomatism lead to the replacement of primary orthopyroxene by clinopyroxene 2Mg2Si2O6 + CaMg(CO3)2 = 2Mg2SiO4 + CaMgSi2O6 + 2CO2 3CaMg(CO3)2 + CaMgSi2O6 = 4CaCO3 + 2Mg2SiO4 + 2CO2 The substantial expansion of the clinopyroxene crystallization field results in increase of Zr/Hf ratio in equilibrium

  18. Lateritic, supergene rare earth element (REE) deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Cocker, Mark D.

    2014-01-01

    Intensive lateritic weathering of bedrock under tropical or sub-tropical climatic conditions can form a variety of secondary, supergene-type deposits. These secondary deposits may range in composition from aluminous bauxites to iron and niobium, and include rare earth elements (REE). Over 250 lateritic deposits of REE are currently known and many have been important sources of REE. In southeastern China, lateritic REE deposits, known as ion-adsorption type deposits, have been the world’s largest source of heavy REE (HREE). The lateritized upper parts of carbonatite intrusions are being investigated for REE in South America, Africa, Asia and Australia, with the Mt. Weld deposit in Australia being brought into production in late 2012. Lateritic REE deposits may be derived from a wide range of primary host rocks, but all have similar laterite and enrichment profiles, and are probably formed under similar climatic conditions. The weathering profile commonly consists of a depleted zone, an enriched zone, and a partially weathered zone which overlie the protolith. Lateritic weathering may commonly extend to depths of 30 to 60 m. REE are mobilized from the breakdown of primary REE-bearing minerals and redeposited in the enriched zone deeper in the weathering horizon as secondary minerals, as colloids, or adsorbed on other secondary minerals. Enrichment of REE may range from 3 to 10 times that of the source lithology; in some instances, enrichment may range up to 100 times.

  19. Process optimization and kinetics for leaching of rare earth metals from the spent Ni-metal hydride batteries.

    PubMed

    Meshram, Pratima; Pandey, B D; Mankhand, T R

    2016-05-01

    Nickel-metal hydride batteries (Ni-MH) contain not only the base metals, but valuable rare earth metals (REMs) viz. La, Sm, Nd, Pr and Ce as well. In view of the importance of resource recycling and assured supply of the contained metals in such wastes, the present study has focussed on the leaching of the rare earth metals from the spent Ni-MH batteries. The conditions for the leaching of REMs from the spent batteries were optimized as: 2M H2SO4, 348K temperature and 120min of time at a pulp density (PD) of 100g/L. Under this condition, the leaching of 98.1% Nd, 98.4% Sm, 95.5% Pr and 89.4% Ce was achieved. Besides the rare earth metals, more than 90% of base metals (Ni, Co, Mn and Zn) were also leached out in this condition. Kinetic data for the dissolution of all the rare earth metals showed the best fit to the chemical control shrinking core model. The leaching of metals followed the mechanism involving the chemical reaction proceeding on the surface of particles by the lixiviant, which was corroborated by the XRD phase analysis and SEM-EDS studies. The activation energy of 7.6, 6.3, 11.3 and 13.5kJ/mol was acquired for the leaching of neodymium, samarium, praseodymium and cerium, respectively in the temperature range 305-348K. From the leach liquor, the mixed rare earth metals were precipitated at pH∼1.8 and the precipitated REMs was analyzed by XRD and SEM studies to determine the phases and the morphological features. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  20. Photobiomolecular deposition of metallic particles and films

    DOEpatents

    Hu, Zhong-Cheng

    2005-02-08

    The method of the invention is based on the unique electron-carrying function of a photocatalytic unit such as the photosynthesis system I (PSI) reaction center of the protein-chlorophyll complex isolated from chloroplasts. The method employs a photo-biomolecular metal deposition technique for precisely controlled nucleation and growth of metallic clusters/particles, e.g., platinum, palladium, and their alloys, etc., as well as for thin-film formation above the surface of a solid substrate. The photochemically mediated technique offers numerous advantages over traditional deposition methods including quantitative atom deposition control, high energy efficiency, and mild operating condition requirements.

  1. Rare earth element deposits in China

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Xie, Yu-Ling; Hou, Zeng-qian; Goldfarb, Richard J.; Guo, Xiang; Wang, Lei

    2016-01-01

    China is the world’s leading rare earth element (REE) producer and hosts a variety of deposit types. Carbonatite- related REE deposits, the most significant deposit type, include two giant deposits presently being mined in China, Bayan Obo and Maoniuping, the first and third largest deposits of this type in the world, respectively. The carbonatite-related deposits host the majority of China’s REE resource and are the primary supplier of the world’s light REE. The REE-bearing clay deposits, or ion adsorption-type deposits, are second in importance and are the main source in China for heavy REE resources. Other REE resources include those within monazite or xenotime placers, beach placers, alkaline granites, pegmatites, and hydrothermal veins, as well as some additional deposit types in which REE are recovered as by-products. Carbonatite-related REE deposits in China occur along craton margins, both in rifts (e.g., Bayan Obo) and in reactivated transpressional margins (e.g., Maoniuping). They comprise those along the northern, eastern, and southern margins of the North China block, and along the western margin of the Yangtze block. Major structural features along the craton margins provide first-order controls for REE-related Proterozoic to Cenozoic carbonatite alkaline complexes; these are emplaced in continental margin rifts or strike-slip faults. The ion adsorption-type REE deposits, mainly situated in the South China block, are genetically linked to the weathering of granite and, less commonly, volcanic rocks and lamprophyres. Indosinian (early Mesozoic) and Yanshanian (late Mesozoic) granites are the most important parent rocks for these REE deposits, although Caledonian (early Paleozoic) granites are also of local importance. The primary REE enrichment is hosted in various mineral phases in the igneous rocks and, during the weathering process, the REE are released and adsorbed by clay minerals in the weathering profile. Currently, these REE-rich clays are

  2. Carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite by direct metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novichenko, D.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, Ph.; Smurov, I.

    Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an automated 3D laser cladding technology with co-axial powder injection for industrial applications. The actual objective is to demonstrate the possibility to produce metal matrix composite objects in a single-step process. Powders of Fe-based alloy (16NCD13) and titanium carbide (TiC) are premixed before cladding. Volume content of the carbide-reinforced phase is varied. Relationships between the main laser cladding parameters and the geometry of the built-up objects (single track, 2D coating) are discussed. On the base of parametric study, a laser cladding process map for the deposition of individual tracks was established. Microstructure and composition of the laser-fabricated metal matrix composite objects are examined. Two different types of structures: (a) with the presence of undissolved and (b) precipitated titanium carbides are observed. Mechanism of formation of diverse precipitated titanium carbides is studied.

  3. Electron Beam Freeform Fabrication: A Rapid Metal Deposition Process

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Taminger, Karen M. B.; Hafley, Robert A.

    2003-01-01

    Manufacturing of structural metal parts directly from computer aided design (CAD) data has been investigated by numerous researchers over the past decade. Researchers at NASA Langley REsearch Center are developing a new solid freeform fabrication process, electron beam freeform fabrication (EBF), as a rapid metal deposition process that works efficiently with a variety of weldable alloys. The EBF process introduces metal wire feedstock into a molten pool that is created and sustained using a focused electron beam in a vacuum environment. Thus far, this technique has been demonstrated on aluminum and titanium alloys of interest for aerospace structural applications nickel and ferrous based alloys are also planned. Deposits resulting from 2219 aluminum demonstrations have exhibited a range of grain morphologies depending upon the deposition parameters. These materials ave exhibited excellent tensile properties comparable to typical handbook data for wrought plate product after post-processing heat treatments. The EBF process is capable of bulk metal deposition at deposition rated in excess of 2500 cubic centimeters per hour (150 cubic inches per our) or finer detail at lower deposition rates, depending upon the desired application. This process offers the potential for rapidly adding structural details to simpler cast or forged structures rather than the conventional approach of machining large volumes of chips to produce a monolithic metallic structure. Selective addition of metal onto simpler blanks of material can have a significant effect on lead time reduction and lower material and machining costs.

  4. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, Kevin C.; Kodas, Toivo T.

    1994-01-01

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said FIELD OF THE INVENTION The present invention relates to the field of film coating deposition techniques, and more particularly to the deposition of multicomponent metal oxide films by aerosol chemical vapor deposition. This invention is the result of a contract with the Department of Energy (Contract No. W-7405-ENG-36).

  5. Charge-separated and molecular heterobimetallic rare earth-rare earth and alkaline earth-rare earth aryloxo complexes featuring intramolecular metal-pi-arene interactions.

    PubMed

    Deacon, Glen B; Junk, Peter C; Moxey, Graeme J; Ruhlandt-Senge, Karin; St Prix, Courtney; Zuniga, Maria F

    2009-01-01

    Treatment of a rare earth metal (Ln) and a potential divalent rare earth metal (Ln') or an alkaline earth metal (Ae) with 2,6-diphenylphenol (HOdpp) at elevated temperatures (200-250 degrees C) afforded heterobimetallic aryloxo complexes, which were structurally characterised. A charge-separated species [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] was obtained for a range of metals, demonstrating the similarities between the chemistry of the divalent rare earth metals and the alkaline earth metals. The [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)](+) cation in the heterobimetallic structures is unusual in that it consists solely of bridging aryloxide ligands. A molecular heterobimetallic species [AeEu(Odpp)(4)] (Ae = Ca, Sr, Ba) was obtained by treating an alkaline earth metal and Eu metal with HOdpp at elevated temperatures. Similarly, [BaSr(Odpp)(4)] was prepared by treating Ba metal and Sr metal with HOdpp. Treatment of [Ba(2)(Odpp)(4)] with [Mg(Odpp)(2)(thf)(2)] in toluene afforded [Ba(2)(Odpp)(3)][Mg(Odpp)(3)(thf)]. Analogous solution-based syntheses were not possible for [(Ln'/Ae)(2)(Odpp)(3)][Ln(Odpp)(4)] complexes, for which the free-metal route was essential. As a result of the absence of additional donor ligands, the crystal structures of the heterobimetallic complexes feature extensive pi-Ph-metal interactions involving the pendant phenyl groups of the Odpp ligands, thus enabling the large electropositive metal atoms to attain coordination saturation. The charge-separated heterobimetallic species were purified by extraction with toluene/thf mixtures at ambient temperature (Ba-containing compounds) or by extraction with toluene under pressure above the boiling point of the solvent (other products). In donor solvents, heterobimetallic complexes other than those containing barium were found to fragment into homometallic species.

  6. Crystallographic phases in heavy rare earth metals under megabar pressures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, G. K.; Vohra, Y. K.

    2012-07-01

    Experiments aimed at understanding the crystallographic phases of heavy rare earth metals were carried out in a diamond anvil cell at the Advanced Photon Source, Argonne National Laboratory. Heavy rare earth metals dysprosium (Dy), holmium (Ho), erbium (Er) and thulium (Tm) were compressed to multi-megabar pressures. The rare earth crystal sequence hcp→Sm-type→dhcp→distorted-fcc (dfcc) is observed in all four elements. Upon further compression, a structural transformation to a monoclinic C2/m phase has been observed. We summarize the results from these experiments and present Rietveld structural refinements on high pressure phases for the specific case of dysprosium.

  7. UV laser deposition of metal films by photogenerated free radicals

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Montgomery, R. K.; Mantei, T. D.

    1986-01-01

    A novel photochemical method for liquid-phase deposition of metal films is described. In the liquid phase deposition scheme, a metal containing compound and a metal-metal bonded carbonyl complex are dissolved together in a polar solvent and the mixture is irradiated using a UV laser. The optical arrangement consists of a HeCd laser which provides 7 mW of power at a wavelength of 325 nm in the TEM(OO) mode. The beam is attenuated and may be expanded to a diameter of 5-20 mm. Experiments with photochemical deposition of silver films onto glass and quartz substrates are described in detail. Mass spectrometric analysis of deposited silver films indicated a deposition rate of about 1 A/s at incident power levels of 0.01 W/sq cm. UV laser-induced copper and palladium films have also been obtained. A black and white photograph showing the silver Van Der Pauw pattern of a solution-deposited film is provided.

  8. Metal Matrix Composite Material by Direct Metal Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Novichenko, D.; Marants, A.; Thivillon, L.; Bertrand, P. H.; Smurov, I.

    Direct Metal Deposition (DMD) is a laser cladding process for producing a protective coating on the surface of a metallic part or manufacturing layer-by-layer parts in a single-step process. The objective of this work is to demonstrate the possibility to create carbide-reinforced metal matrix composite objects. Powders of steel 16NCD13 with different volume contents of titanium carbide are tested. On the base of statistical analysis, a laser cladding processing map is constructed. Relationships between the different content of titanium carbide in a powder mixture and the material microstructure are found. Mechanism of formation of various precipitated titanium carbides is investigated.

  9. APPARATUS FOR VACUUM DEPOSITION OF METALS

    DOEpatents

    Milleron, N.

    1962-03-13

    An apparatus and a method are described for continuous vacuum deposition of metals for metallic coatings, for ultra-high vacuum work, for purification of metals, for maintaining high-density electron currents, and for other uses. The apparatus comprises an externally cooled feeder tube extending into a container and adapted to feed metal wire or strip so that it emerges in a generally vertical position therein. The tube also provides shielding from the heat produced by an electron beam therein focused to impinge from a vertical direction upon the tip of the emerging wire. By proper control of the wire feed, coolant feed, and electron beam intensity, a molten ball of metal forms upon the emerging tip and remains self-supported thereon by the interaction of various forces. The metal is vaporized and travels in a line of sight direction, while additional wire is fed from the tube, so that the size of the molten ball remains constant. In the preferred embodiments, the wire is selected from a number of gettering metals and is degassed by electrical resistance in an adjacent chamber which is also partially evacuated. The wire is then fed through the feed tube into the electron beam and vaporizes and adsorbs gases to provide pumping action while being continuously deposited upon surfaces within the chamber. Ion pump electrodes may also be provided within line of sight of the vaporizing metal source to enhance the pumping action. (AEC)

  10. Research on laser direct metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Yongzhong; Shi, Likai

    2003-03-01

    Laser direct deposition of metallic parts is a new manufacturing technology, which combines with computer-aided design, laser cladding and rapid prototyping. Fully dense metallic parts can be directly obtained through melting the coaxially fed powders with a high-power laser in a layer-by-layer manner. The process characteristics, system composition as well as some research and advancement on laser direct deposition are presented here. The microstructure and properties observation of laser direct formed 663 copper alloy, 316L stainless steel and Rene'95 nickel super alloy samples indicate that, the as-deposited microstructure is similar to rapidly solidified materials, with homogenous composition and free of defects. Under certain conditions, directionally solidified microstructure can be obtained. The as-formed mechanical properties are equal to or exceed those for casting and wrought annealed materials. At the same time, some sample parts with complicate shape are presented for technology demonstration. The formed parts show good surface quality and dimensional accuracy.

  11. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, Frederick A.; Peterson, David T.; Wheelock, John T.; Jones, Lawrence L.; Lincoln, Lanny P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets.

  12. Rare earth-transition metal scrap treatment method

    DOEpatents

    Schmidt, F.A.; Peterson, D.T.; Wheelock, J.T.; Jones, L.L.; Lincoln, L.P.

    1992-02-11

    Rare earth-transition metal (e.g. iron) scrap (e.g. Nd-Fe-B scrap) is melted to reduce the levels of tramp oxygen and nitrogen impurities therein. The tramp impurities are reduced in the melt by virtue of the reaction of the tramp impurities and the rare earth to form dross on the melt. The purified melt is separated from the dross for reuse. The oxygen and nitrogen of the melt are reduced to levels acceptable for reuse of the treated alloy in the manufacture of end-use articles, such as permanent magnets. 3 figs.

  13. Asymmetric Catalysis with bis(hydroxyphenyl)diamides/rare-earth metal complexes.

    PubMed

    Kumagai, Naoya; Shibasaki, Masakatsu

    2013-01-02

    A series of asymmetric catalysts composed of conformationally flexible amide-based chiral ligands and rare-earth metals was developed for proton-transfer catalysis. These ligands derived from amino acids provide an intriguing chiral platform for the formation of asymmetric catalysts upon complexation with rare-earth metals. The scope of this arsenal of catalysts was further broadened by the development of heterobimetallic catalytic systems. The cooperative function of hydrogen bonding and metal coordination resulted in intriguing substrate specificity and stereocontrol, and the dynamic nature of the catalysts led to a switch of their function. Herein, we summarize our recent exploration of this class of catalysts. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Corrosion processes of physical vapor deposition-coated metallic implants.

    PubMed

    Antunes, Renato Altobelli; de Oliveira, Mara Cristina Lopes

    2009-01-01

    Protecting metallic implants from the harsh environment of physiological fluids is essential to guaranteeing successful long-term use in a patient's body. Chemical degradation may lead to the failure of an implant device in two different ways. First, metal ions may cause inflammatory reactions in the tissues surrounding the implant and, in extreme cases, these reactions may inflict acute pain on the patient and lead to loosening of the device. Therefore, increasing wear strength is beneficial to the performance of the metallic implant. Second, localized corrosion processes contribute to the nucleation of fatigue cracks, and corrosion fatigue is the main reason for the mechanical failure of metallic implants. Common biomedical alloys such as stainless steel, cobalt-chrome alloys, and titanium alloys are prone to at least one of these problems. Vapor-deposited hard coatings act directly to improve corrosion, wear, and fatigue resistances of metallic materials. The effectiveness of the corrosion protection is strongly related to the structure of the physical vapor deposition layer. The aim of this paper is to present a comprehensive review of the correlation between the structure of physical vapor deposition layers and the corrosion properties of metallic implants.

  15. Area-Selective Atomic Layer Deposition of Metal Oxides on Noble Metals through Catalytic Oxygen Activation

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Area-selective atomic layer deposition (ALD) is envisioned to play a key role in next-generation semiconductor processing and can also provide new opportunities in the field of catalysis. In this work, we developed an approach for the area-selective deposition of metal oxides on noble metals. Using O2 gas as co-reactant, area-selective ALD has been achieved by relying on the catalytic dissociation of the oxygen molecules on the noble metal surface, while no deposition takes place on inert surfaces that do not dissociate oxygen (i.e., SiO2, Al2O3, Au). The process is demonstrated for selective deposition of iron oxide and nickel oxide on platinum and iridium substrates. Characterization by in situ spectroscopic ellipsometry, transmission electron microscopy, scanning Auger electron spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy confirms a very high degree of selectivity, with a constant ALD growth rate on the catalytic metal substrates and no deposition on inert substrates, even after 300 ALD cycles. We demonstrate the area-selective ALD approach on planar and patterned substrates and use it to prepare Pt/Fe2O3 core/shell nanoparticles. Finally, the approach is proposed to be extendable beyond the materials presented here, specifically to other metal oxide ALD processes for which the precursor requires a strong oxidizing agent for growth. PMID:29503508

  16. Depositing nanometer-sized particles of metals onto carbon allotropes

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Delozier, Donavon M. (Inventor); Fallbach, Michael J. (Inventor); Smith, Joseph G. (Inventor); Watson, Kent A. (Inventor); Ghose, Sayata (Inventor); Connell, John W. (Inventor)

    2010-01-01

    A process for depositing nanometer-sized metal particles onto a substrate in the absence of aqueous solvents, organic solvents, and reducing agents, and without any required pre-treatment of the substrate, includes preparing an admixture of a metal compound and a substrate by dry mixing a chosen amount of the metal compound with a chosen amount of the substrate; and supplying energy to the admixture in an amount sufficient to deposit zero valance metal particles onto the substrate. This process gives rise to a number of deposited metallic particle sizes which may be controlled. The compositions prepared by this process are used to produce polymer composites by combining them with readily available commodity and engineering plastics. The polymer composites are used as coatings, or they are used to fabricate articles, such as free-standing films, fibers, fabrics, foams, molded and laminated articles, tubes, adhesives, and fiber reinforced articles. These articles are well-suited for many applications requiring thermal conductivity, electrical conductivity, antibacterial activity, catalytic activity, and combinations thereof.

  17. Geology and description of thorium and rare-earth deposits in the southern Bear Lodge Mountains, northeastern Wyoming

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Staatz, M.H.

    1983-01-01

    The Bear Lodge Mountains are a small northerly trending range approximately 16 km northwest of the Black Hills in the northeast corner of Wyoming. Thorium and rare-earth deposits occur over an area of 16 km 2 in the southern part of these mountains. These deposits occur in the core of the Bear Lodge dome in a large multiple intrusive body made up principally of trachyte and phonolite. Two types of deposits are recognized: disseminated deposits and veins. The disseminated deposits are made up of altered igneous rocks cut by numerous crisscrossing veinlets. The disseminated deposits contain thorium and rare-earth minerals in a matrix consisting principally of potassium feldspar, quartz, and iron and manganese oxides. Total rare-earth content of these deposits is about 27 times that of the thorium content. The general size and shape of the disseminated deposits were outlined by making a radiometric map using a scintillation counter of the entire Bear Lodge core, an area of approximately 30 km 2 . The most favorable part of this area, which was outlined by the 40 countJs (count-per-second) isograd on the radiometric map, was sampled in detail. A total of 341 samples were taken over an area of 10.6 km 2 and analyzed for as many as 60 elements. Rare earths and thorium are the principal commodities of interest in these deposits. Total rare-earth content of these samples ranged from 47 to 27,145 ppm (parts per million), and the thorium content from 9.3 to 990 ppm. The amount of total rare earths of individual samples shows little correlation with that of thorium. Contour maps were constructed using the analytical data for total rare earths, thorium, uranium, and potassium. The total rare-earth and thorium maps can be used to define the size of the deposits based on what cut-off grade may be needed during mining. The size is large as the 2,000 ppm total rare-earth isograd encloses several areas that total 3.22 km 2 in size, and the 200 ppm thorium isograd encloses several

  18. Polymer-assisted aqueous deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Li, DeQuan [Los Alamos, NM; Jia, Quanxi [Los Alamos, NM

    2003-07-08

    An organic solvent-free process for deposition of metal oxide thin films is presented. The process includes aqueous solutions of necessary metal precursors and an aqueous solution of a water-soluble polymer. After a coating operation, the resultant coating is fired at high temperatures to yield optical quality metal oxide thin films.

  19. Metal organic chemical vapor deposition of environmental barrier coatings for the inhibition of solid deposit formation from heated jet fuel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohan, Arun Ram

    Solid deposit formation from jet fuel compromises the fuel handling system of an aviation turbine engine and increases the maintenance downtime of an aircraft. The deposit formation process depends upon the composition of the fuel, the nature of metal surfaces that come in contact with the heated fuel and the operating conditions of the engine. The objective of the study is to investigate the effect of substrate surfaces on the amount and nature of solid deposits in the intermediate regime where both autoxidation and pyrolysis play an important role in deposit formation. A particular focus has been directed to examining the effectiveness of barrier coatings produced by metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) on metal surfaces for inhibiting the solid deposit formation from jet fuel degradation. In the first part of the experimental study, a commercial Jet-A sample was stressed in a flow reactor on seven different metal surfaces: AISI316, AISI 321, AISI 304, AISI 347, Inconel 600, Inconel 718, Inconel 750X and FecrAlloy. Examination of deposits by thermal and microscopic analysis shows that the solid deposit formation is influenced by the interaction of organosulfur compounds and autoxidation products with the metal surfaces. The nature of metal sulfides was predicted by Fe-Ni-S ternary phase diagram. Thermal stressing on uncoated surfaces produced coke deposits with varying degree of structural order. They are hydrogen-rich and structurally disordered deposits, spherulitic deposits, small carbon particles with relatively ordered structures and large platelets of ordered carbon structures formed by metal catalysis. In the second part of the study, environmental barrier coatings were deposited on tube surfaces to inhibit solid deposit formation from the heated fuel. A new CVD system was configured by the proper choice of components for mass flow, pressure and temperature control in the reactor. A bubbler was designed to deliver the precursor into the reactor

  20. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-03-01

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm2/Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds.

  1. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor

    PubMed Central

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-01-01

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm2/Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds. PMID:28290547

  2. Rare-metal-free high-performance Ga-Sn-O thin film transistor.

    PubMed

    Matsuda, Tokiyoshi; Umeda, Kenta; Kato, Yuta; Nishimoto, Daiki; Furuta, Mamoru; Kimura, Mutsumi

    2017-03-14

    Oxide semiconductors have been investigated as channel layers for thin film transistors (TFTs) which enable next-generation devices such as high-resolution liquid crystal displays (LCDs), organic light emitting diode (OLED) displays, flexible electronics, and innovative devices. Here, high-performance and stable Ga-Sn-O (GTO) TFTs were demonstrated for the first time without the use of rare metals such as In. The GTO thin films were deposited using radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering. A high field effect mobility of 25.6 cm 2 /Vs was achieved, because the orbital structure of Sn was similar to that of In. The stability of the GTO TFTs was examined under bias, temperature, and light illumination conditions. The electrical behaviour of the GTO TFTs was more stable than that of In-Ga-Zn-O (IGZO) TFTs, which was attributed to the elimination of weak Zn-O bonds.

  3. Petrography and geochemistry of the primary ore zone of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite field, Adola Belt, Southern Ethiopia: Implications for ore genesis and tectonic setting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mohammedyasin, Mohammed Seid; Desta, Zerihun; Getaneh, Worash

    2017-10-01

    The aim of this work is to evaluate the genesis and tectonic setting of the Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit using petrography and whole-rock geochemical analysis. The samples were analysed for major elements, and trace and rare earth elements by ICP-AES and ICP-MS, respectively. The Kenticha rare metal granite-pegmatite deposit is controlled by the N-S deep-seated normal fault that allow the emplacement of the granite-pegmatite in the study area. Six main mineral assemblages have been identified: (a) alaskitic granite (quartz + microcline + albite with subordinate muscovite), (b) aplitic layer (quartz + albite), (c) muscovite-quartz-microcline-albite pegmatite, (d) spodumene-microcline-albite pegmatite, partly albitized or greisenized, (e) microcline-albite-green and pink spodumene pegmatite with quartz-microcline block, which is partly albitized and greisenized, and (f) quartz core. This mineralogical zonation is also accompanied by variation in Ta ore concentration and trace and rare earth elements content. The Kenticha granite-pegmatite is strongly differentiated with high SiO2 (72-84 wt %) and enriched with Rb (∼689 ppm), Be (∼196 ppm), Nb (∼129 ppm), Ta (∼92 ppm) and Cs (∼150 ppm) and depleted in Ba and Sr. The rare earth element (REE) patterns of the primary ore zone (below 60 m depth) shows moderate enrichment in light REE ((La/Yb)N = ∼8, and LREE/HREE = ∼9.96) and negative Eu-anomaly (Eu/Eu* = ∼0.4). The whole-rock geochemical data display the Within Plate Granite (WPG) and syn-Collisional Granite (syn-COLG) suites and interpret as its formation is crustal related melting. The mineralogical assemblage, tectonic setting and geochemical signatures implies that the Kenticha rare metal bearing granite pegmatite is formed by partial melting of metasedimentary rocks during post-Gondwana assembly and further tantalite enrichment through later hydrothermal-metasomatic processes.

  4. Laser controlled deposition of metal microstructures via nondiffracting Bessel beam illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Drampyan, Rafael; Leonov, Nikita; Vartanyan, Tigran

    2016-04-01

    The technique of the laser controlled deposition of sodium and rubidium deposits on the sapphire substrate is presented. The metals were deposited on the clean sapphire substrate from the vapor phase contained in the evacuated and sealed cell. We use an axicon to produce a non-diffracting Bessel beam out of the beam got from the cw diode laser with 200 mW power at the wavelength of 532 nm. After 30 minutes of the laser-controlled deposition the substrates were examined in the optical microscope. The obtained metal deposits form the sharp-cut circles with the pitch of 10 μm, coincident with the tens of dark rings of the Bessel beam. Reduction of the laser power leads to the build up of the continuous metal film over the whole substrate.

  5. Assessment of magmatic vs. metasomatic processes in rare-metal granites: A case study of the Cínovec/Zinnwald Sn-W-Li deposit, Central Europe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Breiter, Karel; Ďurišová, Jana; Hrstka, Tomáš; Korbelová, Zuzana; Hložková Vaňková, Michaela; Vašinová Galiová, Michaela; Kanický, Viktor; Rambousek, Petr; Knésl, Ilja; Dobeš, Petr; Dosbaba, Marek

    2017-11-01

    The Cínovec rare-metal granite in the eastern segment of the Krušné Hory/Erzgebirge (Czech Republic/Germany) formed in the final stage of the magmatic evolution of the late Variscan volcano-plutonic system known as the Teplice caldera. The granite is slightly peraluminous; enriched in F, Li, Rb, Cs, Nb, Ta, Sn, W, Sc and U; and poor in P, Mg, Ti, Sr and Ba. The uppermost part of the granite cupola hosts a greisen-type Sn-W-Li deposit. Borehole CS-1 permits to study vertical evolution of the pluton to a depth of 1597 m. A combination of textural and chemical methods was applied to whole-rock and mineral samples to identify the extent of magmatic and metasomatic processes during the differentiation of the pluton and formation of the deposit. As indicated by textural and chemical data, the Cínovec pluton consists of two cogenetic intrusive bodies: a relatively homogeneous biotite granite at depths greater than 735 m, and a strongly differentiated zinnwaldite granite above this level. The pronounced differentiation of the zinnwaldite granite magma resulted in further increases in F, Li, Rb, Nb and Ta. A high degree of magmatic fractionation is documented by decreases in the K/Rb ratio from 25 to 15 and in the Zr/Hf ratio from 10 to 5. The increasing influence of the fluid is highlighted by a decrease in the Y/Ho ratio from 29 to 17. The following genetic scenario is proposed: the intrusion of the zinnwaldite granite magma reached subvolcanic conditions and a hem of fine-grained porphyritic granite crystallized along the upper contact. Separation of the first portion of fluid from the oversaturated melt promoted explosive degassing and the origin of breccia pipes. Subsequently, the zinnwaldite granite magma crystallized simultaneously from the upper contact and the footwall inwards. The residual melt between the two crystallizing fronts became enriched in water and volatiles to reach second saturation ("second boiling"). Segregated fluids escaped upwards, causing

  6. Low Temperature, Selective Atomic Layer Deposition of Nickel Metal Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Kerrigan, Marissa M; Klesko, Joseph P; Blakeney, Kyle J; Winter, Charles H

    2018-04-25

    We report the growth of nickel metal films by atomic layer deposition (ALD) employing bis(1,4-di- tert-butyl-1,3-diazadienyl)nickel and tert-butylamine as the precursors. A range of metal and insulating substrates were explored. An initial deposition study was carried out on platinum substrates. Deposition temperatures ranged from 160 to 220 °C. Saturation plots demonstrated self-limited growth for both precursors, with a growth rate of 0.60 Å/cycle. A plot of growth rate versus substrate temperature showed an ALD window from 180 to 195 °C. Crystalline nickel metal was observed by X-ray diffraction for a 60 nm thick film deposited at 180 °C. Films with thicknesses of 18 and 60 nm grown at 180 °C showed low root mean square roughnesses (<2.5% of thicknesses) by atomic force microscopy. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopies of 18 and 60 nm thick films deposited on platinum at 180 °C revealed ionizations consistent with nickel metal after sputtering with argon ions. The nickel content in the films was >97%, with low levels of carbon, nitrogen, and oxygen. Films deposited on ruthenium substrates displayed lower growth rates than those observed on platinum substrates. On copper substrates, discontinuous island growth was observed at ≤1000 cycles. Film growth was not observed on insulating substrates under any conditions. The new nickel metal ALD procedure gives inherently selective deposition on ruthenium and platinum from 160 to 220 °C.

  7. Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities of trace metals in the Tokyo metropolitan area measured with a water surface sampler.

    PubMed

    Sakata, Masahiro; Marumoto, Kohji

    2004-04-01

    Dry deposition fluxes and deposition velocities (=deposition flux/atmospheric concentration) for trace metals including Hg, Cd, Cu, Mn, Pb, and Zn in the Tokyo metropolitan area were measured using an improved water surface sampler. Mercury is deposited on the water surface in both gaseous (reactive gaseous mercury, RGM) and particulate (particulate mercury, Hg(p)) forms. The results based on 1 yr observations found that dry deposition plays a significant if not dominant role in trace metal deposition in this urban area, contributing fluxes ranging from 0.46 (Cd) to 3.0 (Zn) times those of concurrent wet deposition fluxes. The deposition velocities were found to be dependent on the deposition of coarse particles larger than approximately 5 microm in diameter on the basis of model calculations. Our analysis suggests that the 84.13% diameter is a more appropriate index for each deposited metal than the 50% diameter in the assumed undersize log-normal distribution, because larger particles are responsible for the flux. The deposition velocities for trace metals other than mercury increased exponentially with an increase in their 84.13% diameters. Using this regression equation, the deposition velocities for Hg(p) were estimated from its 84.13% diameter. The deposition fluxes for Hg(p) calculated from the estimated velocities tended to be close to the mercury fluxes measured with the water surface sampler during the study periods except during summer.

  8. Rhenium: a rare metal critical in modern transportation

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    John, David A.

    2015-01-01

    Rhenium rarely occurs as a native element or as its own sulfide mineral—rheniite (ReS2)—and often occurs as a substitute for molybdenum in molybdenite (MoS2). Most extracted rhenium is a byproduct of copper mining, with about 80 percent recovered from flue dust during the processing of molybdenite concentrates from porphyry copper deposits.

  9. Adsorption of heavy metals by road deposited solids.

    PubMed

    Gunawardana, Chandima; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Egodawatta, Prasanna

    2013-01-01

    The research study discussed in the paper investigated the adsorption/desorption behaviour of heavy metals commonly deposited on urban road surfaces, namely, Zn, Cu, Cr and Pb, for different particle size ranges of solids. The study outcomes, based on field studies and batch experiments, confirmed that road deposited solids particles contain a significantly high amount of vacant charge sites with the potential to adsorb additional heavy metals. Kinetic studies and adsorption experiments indicated that Cr is the most preferred metal element to associate with solids due to the relatively high electronegativity and high charge density of trivalent cation (Cr(3+)). However, the relatively low availability of Cr in the urban road environment could influence this behaviour. Comparing total adsorbed metals present in solids particles, it was found that Zn has the highest capacity for adsorption to solids. Desorption experiments confirmed that a low concentration of Cu, Cr and Pb in solids was present in water-soluble and exchangeable form, whilst a significant fraction of adsorbed Zn has a high likelihood of being released back into solution. Among heavy metals, Zn is considered to be the most commonly available metal among road surface pollutants.

  10. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mullendore, Arthur W.

    1990-01-01

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures or organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides, e.g., transition metal carbonyl such as nickel carbonyl, and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit.

  11. Heavy metals in atmospheric surrogate dry deposition

    PubMed

    Morselli; Cecchini; Grandi; Iannuccilli; Barilli; Olivieri

    1999-02-01

    This paper describes a methodological approach for the assessment of the amount of surrogate dry deposition of several toxic heavy metals (Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb, V, Zn) associated with atmospheric particulate matter at ground level. The objectives of the study were twofold: i) the evaluation of several techniques for the digestion of dry deposition samples for trace metal analysis; ii) the comparison of the results from two samplers with different collecting surfaces. A dry solid surface sampler (DRY sampler, Andersen--USA) and a water layer surface sampler (DAS sampler--MTX Italy) were employed. The samples were collected over a one-year period in an urban site of Bologna (northern Italy). A description is given of the complete procedure, from sampling to data elaboration, including sample storage, digestion and analytical methods. According to the results obtained with three different digestion techniques (Teflon bomb, microwave digester and Teflon flask with vapour cooling system), the highest recovery rate was achieved by the Teflon bomb procedure employing an NBS 1648 Standard Reference Material; 90-95% of the elements considered were recovered by dissolution in a pressurized Teflon bomb with an HNO3-HF mixture. Given these results, the technique was adopted for dry deposition sample digestion. On the basis of the amount of heavy metals measured as monthly deposition fluxes (microg/m2), the collecting efficiency of the DAS sampler for a number of elements was found to be as much as two to three times greater than that of the DRY sampler.

  12. Dedicated Co-deposition System for Metallic Paramagnetic Films

    DOE PAGES

    Jaeckel, F.; Kotsubo, V.; Hall, J. A.; ...

    2012-01-27

    Here, we describe a dedicated co-sputtering/ion-mill system developed to study metallic paramagnetic films for use in magnetic microcalorimetry. Small-diameter sputtering guns allow study of several precious-metal-based paramagnetic alloy systems within a reasonable budget. We demonstrated safe operation of a 1" sputtering gun at >5x the rated maximum power, achieving deposition rates up to ~900 Å/min/gun (Cu) in our co-sputtering geometry. Demonstrated co-sputtering deposition ratios up to 100:1 allow accurate tuning of magnetic dopant concentration and eliminate the difficulty of preparing homogeneous alloy targets of extreme dilution.

  13. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning.

    PubMed

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia; Caggiano, Alessandra

    2018-03-19

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace.

  14. Laser Direct Metal Deposition of 2024 Al Alloy: Trace Geometry Prediction via Machine Learning

    PubMed Central

    2018-01-01

    Laser direct metal deposition is an advanced additive manufacturing technology suitably applicable in maintenance, repair, and overhaul of high-cost products, allowing for minimal distortion of the workpiece, reduced heat affected zones, and superior surface quality. Special interest is growing for the repair and coating of 2024 aluminum alloy parts, extensively utilized for a wide range of applications in the automotive, military, and aerospace sectors due to its excellent plasticity, corrosion resistance, electric conductivity, and strength-to-weight ratio. A critical issue in the laser direct metal deposition process is related to the geometrical parameters of the cross-section of the deposited metal trace that should be controlled to meet the part specifications. In this research, a machine learning approach based on artificial neural networks is developed to find the correlation between the laser metal deposition process parameters and the output geometrical parameters of the deposited metal trace produced by laser direct metal deposition on 5-mm-thick 2024 aluminum alloy plates. The results show that the neural network-based machine learning paradigm is able to accurately estimate the appropriate process parameters required to obtain a specified geometry for the deposited metal trace. PMID:29562682

  15. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hays, Auda K.

    1986-01-01

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  16. Plasma deposition of amorphous metal alloys

    DOEpatents

    Hays, A.K.

    1979-07-18

    Amorphous metal alloy coatings are plasma-deposited by dissociation of vapors of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides in the presence of a reducing gas, using a glow discharge. Tetracarbonylnickel, phosphine, and hydrogen constitute a typical reaction mixture of the invention, yielding a NiPC alloy.

  17. Formation of amorphous metal alloys by chemical vapor deposition

    DOEpatents

    Mullendore, A.W.

    1988-03-18

    Amorphous alloys are deposited by a process of thermal dissociation of mixtures of organometallic compounds and metalloid hydrides,e.g., transition metal carbonyl, such as nickel carbonyl and diborane. Various sizes and shapes of deposits can be achieved, including near-net-shape free standing articles, multilayer deposits, and the like. Manipulation or absence of a magnetic field affects the nature and the structure of the deposit. 1 fig.

  18. A difference in using atomic layer deposition or physical vapour deposition TiN as electrode material in metal-insulator-metal and metal-insulator-silicon capacitors.

    PubMed

    Groenland, A W; Wolters, R A M; Kovalgin, A Y; Schmitz, J

    2011-09-01

    In this work, metal-insulator-metal (MIM) and metal-insulator-silicon (MIS) capacitors are studied using titanium nitride (TiN) as the electrode material. The effect of structural defects on the electrical properties on MIS and MIM capacitors is studied for various electrode configurations. In the MIM capacitors the bottom electrode is a patterned 100 nm TiN layer (called BE type 1), deposited via sputtering, while MIS capacitors have a flat bottom electrode (called BE type 2-silicon substrate). A high quality 50-100 nm thick SiO2 layer, made by inductively-coupled plasma CVD at 150 degrees C, is deposited as a dielectric on top of both types of bottom electrodes. BE type 1 (MIM) capacitors have a varying from low to high concentration of structural defects in the SiO2 layer. BE type 2 (MIS) capacitors have a low concentration of structural defects and are used as a reference. Two sets of each capacitor design are fabricated with the TiN top electrode deposited either via physical vapour deposition (PVD, i.e., sputtering) or atomic layer deposition (ALD). The MIM and MIS capacitors are electrically characterized in terms of the leakage current at an electric field of 0.1 MV/cm (I leak) and for different structural defect concentrations. It is shown that the structural defects only show up in the electrical characteristics of BE type 1 capacitors with an ALD TiN-based top electrode. This is due to the excellent step coverage of the ALD process. This work clearly demonstrates the sensitivity to process-induced structural defects, when ALD is used as a step in process integration of conductors on insulation materials.

  19. Numerical Simulations of Particle Deposition in Metal Foam Heat Exchangers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauret, Emilie; Saha, Suvash C.; Gu, Yuantong

    2013-01-01

    Australia is a high-potential country for geothermal power with reserves currently estimated in the tens of millions of petajoules, enough to power the nation for at least 1000 years at current usage. However, these resources are mainly located in isolated arid regions where water is scarce. Therefore, wet cooling systems for geothermal plants in Australia are the least attractive solution and thus air-cooled heat exchangers are preferred. In order to increase the efficiency of such heat exchangers, metal foams have been used. One issue raised by this solution is the fouling caused by dust deposition. In this case, the heat transfer characteristics of the metal foam heat exchanger can dramatically deteriorate. Exploring the particle deposition property in the metal foam exchanger becomes crucial. This paper is a numerical investigation aimed to address this issue. Two-dimensional (2D) numerical simulations of a standard one-row tube bundle wrapped with metal foam in cross-flow are performed and highlight preferential particle deposition areas.

  20. The principal rare earth elements deposits of the United States-A summary of domestic deposits and a global perspective

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Long, Keith R.; Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Foley, Nora K.; Cordier, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    The rare earth elements (REE) are fifteen elements with atomic numbers 57 through 71, from lanthanum to lutetium ('lanthanides'), plus yttrium (39), which is chemically similar to the lanthanide elements and thus typically included with the rare earth elements. Although industrial demand for these elements is relatively small in tonnage terms, they are essential for a diverse and expanding array of high-technology applications. REE-containing magnets, metal alloys for batteries and light-weight structures, and phosphors are essential for many current and emerging alternative energy technologies, such as electric vehicles, energy-efficient lighting, and wind power. REE are also critical for a number of key defense systems and other advanced materials. Section 843 of the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2010, Public Law 111-84, directs the Comptroller General to complete a report on REE materials in the defense supply chain. The Office of Industrial Policy, in collaboration with other U.S. Government agencies, has initiated (in addition to this report) a detailed study of REE. This latter study will assess the Department of Defense's use of REE, as well as the status and security of domestic and global supply chains. That study will also address vulnerabilities in the supply chain and recommend ways to mitigate any potential risks of supply disruption. To help conduct this study, the Office of Industrial Policy asked the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) to report on domestic REE reserves and resources in a global context. To this end, the enclosed report is the initial USGS contribution to assessing and summarizing the domestic REE resources in a global perspective. In 2009, the Mineral Resources Program of the USGS organized a new project under the title Minerals at Risk and For Emerging Technologies in order to evaluate mineral resource and supply issues of rare metals that are of increasing importance to the national economy. Leaders and members of

  1. ZnO deposition on metal substrates: Relating fabrication, morphology, and wettability

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Beaini, Sara S.; Kronawitter, Coleman X.; Carey, Van P.; Mao, Samuel S.

    2013-05-01

    It is not common practice to deposit thin films on metal substrates, especially copper, which is a common heat exchanger metal and practical engineering material known for its heat transfer properties. While single crystal substrates offer ideal surfaces with uniform structure for compatibility with oxide deposition, metallic surfaces needed for industrial applications exhibit non-idealities that complicate the fabrication of oxide nanostructure arrays. The following study explored different ZnO fabrication techniques to deposit a (super)hydrophobic thin film of ZnO on a metal substrate, specifically copper, in order to explore its feasibility as an enhanced condensing surface. ZnO was selected for its non-toxicity, ability to be made (super)hydrophobic with hierarchical roughness, and its photoinduced hydrophilicity characteristic, which could be utilized to pattern it to have both hydrophobic-hydrophilic regions. We investigated the variation of ZnO's morphology and wetting state, using SEMs and sessile drop contact angle measurements, as a function of different fabrication techniques: sputtering, pulsed laser deposition (PLD), electrodeposition and annealing Zn. We successfully fabricated (super)hydrophobic ZnO on a mirror finish, commercially available copper substrate using the scalable electrodeposition technique. PLD for ZnO deposition did not prove viable, as the ZnO samples on metal substrates were hydrophilic and the process does not lend itself to scalability. The annealed Zn sheets did not exhibit consistent wetting state results.

  2. Leaching characteristics of rare metal elements and chlorine in fly ash from ash melting plants for metal recovery.

    PubMed

    Jung, Chang-Hwan; Osako, Masahiro

    2009-05-01

    In terms of resource recovery and environmental impact, melting furnace fly ash (MFA) is attracting much attention in Japan due to its high metal content. The study aims to obtain fundamental information on using a water extraction method not only to concentrate valuable rare metals but also to remove undesirable substances such as chlorine for their recovery from MFA. The composition and leaching characteristics of MFA was investigated. The results revealed that the metal content in MFA is nearly equal to raw ore quality. The content of Ag, In, Pd, Pb, and Zn is, in fact, higher than the content of raw ore. As for leaching behavior, Ag, Bi, In, Ga, Ge, Sb, Sn, and Te showed the lowest release at a neutral pH range. Pd was leached constantly regardless of pH, but its concentration was quite low. On the other hand, most of the Tl was easily leached, revealing that water extraction is not appropriate for Tl recovery from MFA. Major elements Cl, Ca, Na, and K, occupying about 70% of MFA, were mostly leached regardless of pH. Base metal elements Cu, Pb, and Zn showed minimum solubility at a neutral pH. The leaching ratio of target rare metal elements and base metal elements suggests that the optimal pH for water extraction is 8-10, at which the leaching concentration is minimized. The water extraction process removed most of the Cl, Ca, Na, and K, and the concentration of rare metals and base metals increased by four or five times.

  3. Direct Deposition of Metal (DDM) as a Repair Process for Metallic Military Parts

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-20

    metal powder has properties metallurgically compatible with the substrate material. As the laser beam advances along a predefined tool path in a layer...Methodology Background During the DDM process, the energy of a high power industrial laser beam and a concentric stream of metallic alloy powder ...compatible with the substrate material. As the laser beam advances along a predefined tool path in a layer by layer fashion, metal powder is deposited

  4. Metal dust deposition in a shotgun wound associated with barrel modification.

    PubMed

    Williams, Andrew S; Bowes, Matthew J

    2016-03-01

    Contact-range gunshot wounds commonly demonstrate deposition of black soot in and around the wound. Deposition of other visible pigments originating from the firearm has not been specifically described. In the current case, an adult male was found dead adjacent to a shotgun fixed in a vice grip with a modified, shortened barrel. A handheld, powered, metal grinding wheel was nearby. Autopsy revealed an intraoral gunshot wound, including soot deposition in and around the mouth and within the wound track. In addition, there was a peculiar, gray, lustrous film on the lips, gingiva, and anterior teeth. The material was concentrated around the most severe areas of injury in the anterior mouth and easily rubbed off with a cotton swab. It was not visualized in the rest of the mouth and not present in the larynx, or the esophagus. Overall, our opinion is that this unique, gray, lustrous film represents deposition of fine metallic dust that accumulated in the barrel of the shotgun during its modification with the grinding wheel. This type of unique pigment deposition should be recognized by forensic pathologists as possibly being related to the discharge of a firearm with a recently modified barrel or other cause for fine metallic dust accumulation within the barrel. Depending on the circumstances of the case, collection of samples of such metal dust deposits could be indicated for subsequent analysis.

  5. Surface rejuvenation for multilayer metal deposition on polymer microspheres via self-seeded electroless plating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karagoz, Bunyamin; Sirkecioglu, Okan; Bicak, Niyazi

    2013-11-01

    A surface rejuvenation process was developed for generation variable thickness of metal deposits on polymer microspheres via electroless plating. Thus, Ni(II), Cu(II) and Ag(I) complexes formed on triethylenetetramine (TETA) functional crosslinked poly(glycidyl methacrylate) (PGMA) microspheres were reduced to zero-valent metals. The resulting metals (1.1-1.5 mmol g-1) were employed as seed points for electroless metal plating (self-seeding) without using Pd or tin pre-activating species. Treatment of the metalized surfaces with hydrazine or hydrazinium formate was demonstrated to reactivate (rejuvenate) the surface and allows further metal deposition from electroless plating solutions. Followed repeating of the surface rejuvenation-metalization steps resulted in step wise increasing of the metal deposits (90-290 mg per g in each cycle), as inferred from metal analyses, ESEM and XPS analysis. Experiments showed that, after 6 times of cycling the metal deposits exceed 1 g per g of the microspheres on average. The process seemed to be promising for tuning up of the metal thickness by stepwise electroless plating.

  6. Application of Freeze-Dried Powders of Genetically Engineered Microbial Strains as Adsorbents for Rare Earth Metal Ions.

    PubMed

    Moriwaki, Hiroshi; Masuda, Reiko; Yamazaki, Yuki; Horiuchi, Kaoru; Miyashita, Mari; Kasahara, Jun; Tanaka, Tatsuhito; Yamamoto, Hiroki

    2016-10-12

    The adsorption behaviors of the rare earth metal ions onto freeze-dried powders of genetically engineered microbial strains were compared. Cell powders obtained from four kinds of strains, Bacillus subtilis 168 wild type (WT), lipoteichoic acid-defective (ΔLTA), wall teichoic acid-defective (ΔWTA), and cell wall hydrolases-defective (EFKYOJLp) strains, were used as an adsorbent of the rare earth metal ions at pH 3. The adsorption ability of the rare earth metal ions was in the order of EFKYOJLp > WT > ΔLTA > ΔWTA. The order was the same as the order of the phosphorus quantity of the strains. This result indicates that the main adsorption sites for the ions are the phosphate groups and the teichoic acids, LTA and WTA, that contribute to the adsorption of the rare earth metal ions onto the cell walls. The contribution of WTA was clearly greater than that of LTA. Each microbial powder was added to a solution containing 16 kinds of rare earth metal ions, and the removals (%) of each rare earth metal ion were obtained. The scandium ion showed the highest removal (%), while that of the lanthanum ion was the lowest for all the microbial powders. Differences in the distribution coefficients between the kinds of lanthanide ions by the EFKYOJLp and ΔWTA powders were greater than those of the other strains. Therefore, the EFKYOJLp and ΔWTA powders could be applicable for the selective extraction of the lanthanide ions. The ΔLTA powder coagulated by mixing with a rare earth metal ion, although no sedimentation of the WT or ΔWTA powder with a rare earth metal ion was observed under the same conditions. The EFKYOJLp powder was also coagulated, but its flocculating activity was lower than that of ΔLTA. The ΔLTA and EFKYOJLp powders have a long shape compared to those of the WT or ΔWTA strain. The shapes of the cells will play an important role in the sedimentation of the microbial powders with rare earth metal ions. As the results, three kinds of the genetically

  7. Synthesis and Stabilization of Supported Metal Catalysts by Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lu, Junling; Elam, Jeffrey W.; Stair, Peter C.

    2013-03-12

    Supported metal nanoparticles are among the most important cata-lysts for many practical reactions, including petroleum refining, automobile exhaust treatment, and Fischer–Tropsch synthesis. The catalytic performance strongly depends on the size, composition, and structure of the metal nanoparticles, as well as the underlying support. Scientists have used conventional synthesis methods including impregnation, ion exchange, and deposition–precipitation to control and tune these factors, to establish structure–performance relationships, and to develop better catalysts. Meanwhile, chemists have improved the stability of metal nanoparticles against sintering by the application of protective layers, such as polymers and oxides that encapsulate the metal particle. This often leadsmore » to decreased catalytic activity due to a lack of precise control over the thickness of the protective layer. A promising method of catalyst synthesis is atomic layer deposition (ALD). ALD is a variation on chemical vapor deposition in which metals, oxides, and other materials are deposited on surfaces by a sequence of self-limiting reactions. The self-limiting character of these reactions makes it possible to achieve uniform deposits on high-surface-area porous solids. Therefore, design and synthesis of advanced catalysts on the nanoscale becomes possible through precise control over the structure and composition of the underlying support, the catalytic active sites, and the protective layer. In this Account, we describe our advances in the synthesis and stabilization of supported metal catalysts by ALD. After a short introduction to the technique of ALD, we show several strategies for metal catalyst synthesis by ALD that take advantage of its self-limiting feature. Monometallic and bimetallic catalysts with precise control over the metal particle size, composition, and structure were achieved by combining ALD sequences, surface treatments, and deposition temperature control. Next

  8. An investigation on high temperature fatigue properties of tempered nuclear-grade deposited weld metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, X. Y.; Zhu, P.; Yong, Q.; Liu, T. G.; Lu, Y. H.; Zhao, J. C.; Jiang, Y.; Shoji, T.

    2018-02-01

    Effect of tempering on low cycle fatigue (LCF) behaviors of nuclear-grade deposited weld metal was investigated, and The LCF tests were performed at 350 °C with strain amplitudes ranging from 0.2% to 0.6%. The results showed that at a low strain amplitude, deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h had a high fatigue resistance due to high yield strength, while at a high strain amplitude, the one tempered for 24 h had a superior fatigue resistance due to high ductility. Deposited weld metal tempered for 1 h exhibited cyclic hardening at the tested strain amplitudes. Deposited weld metal tempered for 24 h exhibited cyclic hardening at a low strain amplitude but cyclic softening at a high strain amplitude. Existence and decomposition of martensite-austenite (M-A) islands as well as dislocations activities contributed to fatigue property discrepancy among the two tempered deposited weld metal.

  9. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Xi Chu; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-03-10

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  10. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, M.S.; Li, D.; Chung, Y.W.; Sproul, W.D.; Chu, X.; Barnett, S.A.

    1998-07-07

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN{sub x} where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN{sub x}. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45--55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating. 10 figs.

  11. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride, carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Ming-Show; Li, Dong; Chung, Yip-Wah; Sproul, William D.; Chu, Xi; Barnett, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  12. Superhard composite materials including compounds of carbon and nitrogen deposited on metal and metal nitride carbide and carbonitride

    DOEpatents

    Wong, Ming-Show; Li, Dong; Chung, Yin-Wah; Sproul, William D.; Chu, Xi; Barnett, Scott A.

    1998-01-01

    A composite material having high hardness comprises a carbon nitrogen compound, such as CN.sub.x where x is greater than 0.1 and up to 1.33, deposited on a metal or metal compound selected to promote deposition of substantially crystalline CN.sub.x. The carbon nitrogen compound is deposited on a crystal plane of the metal or metal compound sufficiently lattice-matched with a crystal plane of the carbon nitrogen compound that the carbon nitrogen compound is substantially crystalline. A plurality of layers of the compounds can be formed in alternating sequence to provide a multi-layered, superlattice coating having a coating hardness in the range of 45-55 GPa, which corresponds to the hardness of a BN coating and approaches that of a diamond coating.

  13. Evaluation and development of integrated technology of rare metal concentrate production in high-level ore processing at Zashikhinsk deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khokhulya, MS; Mukhina, TN; Ivanova, V. A.; Mitrofanova, G. V.; Fomin, A. V.; Sokolov, VD

    2017-02-01

    The authors discuss material constitution of columbite ore sample and recommend optimized pretreatment modes to obtain ball milling products at the maximum dissociation of ore minerals in aggregates. A concentration technology is proposed, with division of material into two flows -0.315 mm and -0.2 mm in sizes, generated in the milling and screening cycles and subjected to gravity-magnetic and magnetic-gravity treatment, respectively. It is shown that the technology ensures production of both tantalum-niobium and zircon concentrates. It has become possible to additionally recover rare metal components Nb2O5 and ZrO2 from tailings through flotation.

  14. The deposition and fate of trace metals in our environment.

    Treesearch

    Elon S. Verry; Stephen J. Vermette

    1992-01-01

    This proceedings contains 14 invited papers from Canada and the United States on trace metal emissions, trace metal measurement in precipitation and dry fall, regional deposition, and the fate of trace metals in soils, plants, waters, and fish. A summary paper integrates the major findings of each paper.

  15. Tuning nanoparticle size for enhanced functionality in perovskite thin films deposited by metal organic deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris Alfredo; Sato, Michio; ...

    2017-11-17

    Because of pressing global environmental challenges, focus has been placed on materials for efficient energy use, and this has triggered the search for nanostructural modification methods to improve performance. Achieving a high density of tunable-sized second-phase nanoparticles while ensuring the matrix remains intact is a long-sought goal. In this paper, we present an effective, scalable method to achieve this goal using metal organic deposition in a perovskite system REBa 2Cu 3O 7 (rare earth (RE)) that enhances the superconducting properties to surpass that of previous achievements. We present two industrially compatible routes to tune the nanoparticle size by controlling diffusionmore » during the nanoparticle formation stage by selecting the second-phase material and modulating the precursor composition spatially. Combining these routes leads to an extremely high density (8 × 10 22 m -3) of small nanoparticles (7 nm) that increase critical currents and reduce detrimental effects of thermal fluctuations at all magnetic field strengths and temperatures. This method can be directly applied to other perovskite materials where nanoparticle addition is beneficial.« less

  16. Tuning nanoparticle size for enhanced functionality in perovskite thin films deposited by metal organic deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, Masashi; Maiorov, Boris Alfredo; Sato, Michio

    Because of pressing global environmental challenges, focus has been placed on materials for efficient energy use, and this has triggered the search for nanostructural modification methods to improve performance. Achieving a high density of tunable-sized second-phase nanoparticles while ensuring the matrix remains intact is a long-sought goal. In this paper, we present an effective, scalable method to achieve this goal using metal organic deposition in a perovskite system REBa 2Cu 3O 7 (rare earth (RE)) that enhances the superconducting properties to surpass that of previous achievements. We present two industrially compatible routes to tune the nanoparticle size by controlling diffusionmore » during the nanoparticle formation stage by selecting the second-phase material and modulating the precursor composition spatially. Combining these routes leads to an extremely high density (8 × 10 22 m -3) of small nanoparticles (7 nm) that increase critical currents and reduce detrimental effects of thermal fluctuations at all magnetic field strengths and temperatures. This method can be directly applied to other perovskite materials where nanoparticle addition is beneficial.« less

  17. Application of metallic magnetic calorimeter in rare event search

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, I.; Jo, H. S.; Kang, C. S.; Kim, G. B.; Kim, H. L.; Kim, S. R.; Kim, Y. H.; Lee, H. J.; Lee, J. H.; Lee, M. K.; Oh, S. Y.; So, J. H.

    2017-09-01

    Metallic magnetic calorimeters (MMCs) are highly sensitive temperature sensors that use the paramagnetic nature of erbium in a metallic host and superconducting electronics usually composed of a superconducting niobium coil and a current sensing superconducting quantum interference device. This article discusses the applicability of MMCs in experimental searches for rare events in particle physics. A detector module using two MMCs was built to perform low-temperature measurements of heat and scintillation light generated by particle interaction in a 340 g 40Ca100MoO4 crystal. The energy transfer mechanism, from incident particles to the components of the heat and light sensors, is described through a thermal model. MMCs, with gold films collecting athermal phonons, can be used over wide ranges of operating temperature and crystal volume without a significant change in detector performances. Rare event searches could thus benefit from MMC-based detectors presenting such flexibility as well as excellent energy resolution and particle discrimination power.

  18. Levels of rare earth elements, heavy metals and uranium in a population living in Baiyun Obo, Inner Mongolia, China: a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Hao, Zhe; Li, Yonghua; Li, Hairong; Wei, Binggan; Liao, Xiaoyong; Liang, Tao; Yu, Jiangping

    2015-06-01

    The Baiyun Obo deposit is the world's largest rare earth elements (REE) deposit. We aimed to investigate levels of REE, heavy metals (HMs) and uranium (U) based on morning urine samples in a population in Baiyun Obo and to assess the possible influence of rare earth mining processes on human exposure. In the mining area, elevated levels were found for the sum of the concentrations of light REE (LREE) and heavy REE (HREE) with mean values at 3.453 and 1.151 μg g(-1) creatinine, which were significantly higher than those in the control area. Concentrations of HMs and U in the population increased concomitantly with increasing REE levels. The results revealed that besides REE, HMs and U were produced with REE exploitation. Gender, age, educational level, alcohol and smoking habit were major factors contributing to inter-individual variation. Males were more exposed to these metals than females. Concentrations in people in the senior age group and those with only primary education were low. Drinking and smoking were associated with the levels of LREE, Cr, Cu, Cd and Pb in morning urine. Hence this study provides basic and useful information when addressing public and environmental health challenges in the areas where REE are mined and processed. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Electrical characteristics and step coverage of ZrO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition for through-silicon via and metal-insulator-metal applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyeong-Keun; Park, Chan-Gyung; Kim, Deok-kee

    2016-01-01

    The electrical characteristics and step coverage of ZrO2 films deposited by atomic layer deposition were investigated for through-silicon via (TSV) and metal-insulator-metal applications at temperatures below 300 °C. ZrO2 films were able to be conformally deposited on the scallops of 50-µm-diameter, 100-µm-deep TSV holes. The mean breakdown field of 30-nm-thick ZrO2 films on 30-nm-thick Ta(N) increased about 41% (from 2.7 to 3.8 MV/cm) upon H2 plasma treatment. With the plasma treatment, the breakdown field of the film increased and the temperature coefficient of capacitance decreased significantly, probably as a result of the decreased carbon concentration in the film.

  20. Molten metal containment vessel with rare earth oxysulfide protective coating thereon and method of making same

    DOEpatents

    Krikorian, Oscar H.; Curtis, Paul G.

    1992-01-01

    An improved molten metal containment vessel is disclosed in which wetting of the vessel's inner wall surfaces by molten metal is inhibited by coating at least the inner surfaces of the containment vessel with one or more rare earth oxysulfide or rare earth sulfide compounds to inhibit wetting and or adherence by the molten metal to the surfaces of the containment vessel.

  1. Dialkyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes - a new class of single source precursors for deposition of metal selenide thin films and nanoparticles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Malik, Sajid N.; Akhtar, Masood; Revaprasadu, Neerish; Qadeer Malik, Abdul; Azad Malik, Mohammad

    2014-08-01

    We report here a new synthetic approach for convenient and high yield synthesis of dialkyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes. A number of diphenyldiselenophosphinato-metal as well as diisopropyldiselenophosphinato-metal complexes have been synthesized and used as precursors for deposition of semiconductor thin films and nanoparticles. Cubic Cu2-xSe and tetragonal CuInSe2 thin films have been deposited by AACVD at 400, 450 and 500 °C whereas cubic PbSe and tetragonal CZTSe thin films have been deposited through doctor blade method followed by annealing. SEM investigations revealed significant differences in morphology of the films deposited at different temperatures. Preparation of Cu2-xSe and In2Se3 nanoparticles using diisopropyldiselenophosphinato-metal precursors has been carried out by colloidal method in HDA/TOP system. Cu2-xSe nanoparticles (grown at 250 °C) and In2Se3 nanoparticles (grown at 270 °C) have a mean diameter of 5.0 ± 1.2 nm and 13 ± 2.5 nm, respectively.

  2. Selective extraction and recovery of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps using an ionic liquid system.

    PubMed

    Yang, Fan; Kubota, Fukiko; Baba, Yuzo; Kamiya, Noriho; Goto, Masahiro

    2013-06-15

    The recycling of rare earth metals from phosphor powders in waste fluorescent lamps by solvent extraction using ionic liquids was studied. Acid leaching of rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powder was examined first. Yttrium (Y) and europium (Eu) dissolved readily in the acid solution; however, the leaching of other rare earth metals required substantial energy input. Ionization of target rare earth metals from the waste phosphor powders into the leach solution was critical for their successful recovery. As a high temperature was required for the complete leaching of all rare earth metals, ionic liquids, for which vapor pressure is negligible, were used as an alternative extracting phase to the conventional organic diluent. An extractant, N, N-dioctyldiglycol amic acid (DODGAA), which was recently developed, showed a high affinity for rare earth metal ions in liquid-liquid extraction although a conventional commercial phosphonic extractant did not. An effective recovery of the rare earth metals, Y, Eu, La and Ce, from the metal impurities, Fe, Al and Zn, was achieved from the acidic leach solution of phosphor powders using an ionic liquid containing DODGAA as novel extractant system. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. High Pressure Phase Transformations in Heavy Rare Earth Metals and Connections to Actinide Crystal Structures

    SciTech Connect

    Vohra, Yogesh K.; Sangala, Bagvanth Reddy; Stemshorn, Andrew K.

    2008-07-01

    High-pressure studies have been performed on heavy rare earth metals Terbium (Tb) to 155 GPa and Holmium (Ho) to 134 GPa in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature. The following crystal structure sequence was observed in both metals hcp {yields} Sm-type {yields} dhcp {yields} distorted fcc (hR-24) {yields} monoclinic (C2/m) with increasing pressure. The last transformation to a low symmetry monoclinic phase is accompanied by a volume collapse of 5 % for Tb at 51 GPa and a volume collapse of 3 % for Ho at 103 GPa. This volume collapse under high pressure is reminiscent of f-shell delocalizationmore » in light rare earth metal Cerium (Ce), Praseodymium (Pr), and heavy actinide metals Americium (Am) and Curium (Cm). The orthorhombic Pnma phase that has been reported in Am and Cm after f-shell delocalization is not observed in heavy rare earth metals under high pressures. (authors)« less

  4. Isotope age of the rare metal pegmatite formation in the Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt (Kola region of the Fennoscandian shield): U-Pb (TIMS) microlite and tourmaline dating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kudryashov, Nikolay; Lyalina, Ludmila; Mokrushin, Artem; Zozulya, Dmitry; Groshev, Nikolay; Steshenko, Ekaterina; Kunakkuzin, Evgeniy

    2016-04-01

    The Kolmozero-Voron'ya greenstone belt is located in the central suture zone, which separates the Murmansk block from the Central-Kola and the Keivy blocks. The belt is represented by volcano-sedimentary rocks of Archaean age of 2.9-2.5 Ga. Rare metal pegmatites (Li, Cs with accessory Nb, Ta, and Be) occur among amphibolite and gabbroid intrusions in the northwestern and southeastern parts of the belt. According to the Rb-Sr data, the age of pegmatites was considered to be 2.7 Ga. Until recently there was no generally accepted point of view on the origin of pegmatites. Now we have isotopic data for a range of rock complexes that could pretend to be parental granites for the rare metal pegmatites. These are granodiorites with the zircon age of 2733±Ma, and microcline and tourmaline granites, which Pb-Pb isochronal age on tourmaline from the tourmaline granite located near the deposit is estimated to be 2520±70 Ma. The pegmatite field of the Vasin Myl'k deposit with the lepidolite--albite--microcline--spodumene--pollucite association is located among amphibolites in the northwestern part of the belt. The deposit is represented by subparallel low-angle zoned veins up to 220 m long and 5 m thick dipping in the southeastern direction at an angle of 10° too 30°. The minerals of the columbite--tonalite group from Vasin Myl'k deposit include microlite, simpsonite, and torolite, and are the oldest among different minerals represented by several generations in pegmatites under consideration. Zircons from the pegmatites are mostly represented by crystals with the structure affected by the action of fluids that put certain restrictions on its use as a geochronometer of the crystallization process. Microlite from the pegmatite taken from the dump of a prospecting drill hole was used for U--Pb (TIMS). The mineral is represented by 0.5--1.0 mm long euhedral octahedral crystals. It is brown in color, and transparent. The microlite crystals were preliminarily cleaned from

  5. Assessment of heavy metals in loose deposits in drinking water distribution system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Quanli; Han, Weiqiang; Han, Bingjun; Shu, Min; Shi, Baoyou

    2018-06-09

    Heavy metal accumulation and potential releases from loose deposits in drinking water distribution system (DWDS) can have critical impacts on drinking water safety, but the associated risks have not been sufficiently evaluated. In this work, the potential biological toxicity of heavy metals in loose deposits was calculated based on consensus-based sediment quality guidelines, and the effects of some of the main water quality parameters, such as the pH and bicarbonate and phosphate content, on the release behaviors of pre-accumulated heavy metals were investigated. The results showed that heavy metals (Cu, As, Cr, Pb, and Cd) significantly accumulated in all the samples, but the contents of the heavy metals were multiple magnitudes lower than the Fe and Mn contents. The potential biotoxicity of As and Cu was relatively high, but the biotoxicity of Cd was negligible. The water quality can significantly influence the release of heavy metals from loose deposits. As the pH increased from 7.0 to 9.0, the release of As and Cr obviously increased. The release of As, Cu, Pb, and Cr also accelerated with the addition of phosphate (from 1 to 5 mg/L). In contrast to the trends for the pH and phosphate, variations in the bicarbonate content did not have a significant influence on the release of As and Cr. The release ratios of heavy metals in the samples were very low, and there was not a correlation between the release rate of the heavy metals in the loose deposits and their potential biotoxicity.

  6. Deposition efficiency optimization in cold spraying of metal-ceramic powder mixtures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Klinkov, S. V.; Kosarev, V. F.

    2017-10-01

    In the present paper, results of optimization of the cold spray deposition process of a metal-ceramic powder mixture involving impacts of ceramic particles onto coating surface are reported. In the optimization study, a two-probability model was used to take into account the surface activation induced by the ceramic component of the mixture. The dependence of mixture deposition efficiency on the concentration and size of ceramic particles was analysed to identify the ranges of both parameters in which the effect due to ceramic particles on the mixture deposition efficiency was positive. The dependences of the optimum size and concentration of ceramic particles, and also the maximum gain in deposition efficiency, on the probability of adhesion of metal particles to non-activated coating surface were obtained.

  7. Method of physical vapor deposition of metal oxides on semiconductors

    DOEpatents

    Norton, David P.

    2001-01-01

    A process for growing a metal oxide thin film upon a semiconductor surface with a physical vapor deposition technique in a high-vacuum environment and a structure formed with the process involves the steps of heating the semiconductor surface and introducing hydrogen gas into the high-vacuum environment to develop conditions at the semiconductor surface which are favorable for growing the desired metal oxide upon the semiconductor surface yet is unfavorable for the formation of any native oxides upon the semiconductor. More specifically, the temperature of the semiconductor surface and the ratio of hydrogen partial pressure to water pressure within the vacuum environment are high enough to render the formation of native oxides on the semiconductor surface thermodynamically unstable yet are not so high that the formation of the desired metal oxide on the semiconductor surface is thermodynamically unstable. Having established these conditions, constituent atoms of the metal oxide to be deposited upon the semiconductor surface are directed toward the surface of the semiconductor by a physical vapor deposition technique so that the atoms come to rest upon the semiconductor surface as a thin film of metal oxide with no native oxide at the semiconductor surface/thin film interface. An example of a structure formed by this method includes an epitaxial thin film of (001)-oriented CeO.sub.2 overlying a substrate of (001) Ge.

  8. Electrochemically induced maskless metal deposition on micropore wall.

    PubMed

    Liu, Jie; Hébert, Clément; Pham, Pascale; Sauter-Starace, Fabien; Haguet, Vincent; Livache, Thierry; Mailley, Pascal

    2012-05-07

    By applying an external electric field across a micropore via an electrolyte, metal ions in the electrolyte can be reduced locally onto the inner wall of the micropore, which was fabricated in a silica-covered silicon membrane. This maskless metal deposition on the silica surface is a result of the pore membrane polarization in the electric field. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  9. Structure, age, and ore potential of the Burpala rare-metal alkaline massif, northern Baikal region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vladykin, N. V.; Sotnikova, I. A.; Kotov, A. B.; Yarmolyuk, V. V.; Sal'nikova, E. B.; Yakovleva, S. Z.

    2014-07-01

    The Burpala alkaline massif is a unique geological object. More than 50 Zr, Nb, Ti, Th, Be, and REE minerals have been identified in rare-metal syenite of this massif. Their contents often reach tens of percent, and concentrations of rare elements in rocks are as high as 3.6% REE, 4% Zr, 0.5% Y, 0.5% Nb, 0.5% Th, and 0.1% U. Geological and geochemical data show that all rocks in the Burpala massif are derivatives of alkaline magma initially enriched in rare elements. These rocks vary in composition from shonkinite, melanocratic syenite, nepheline and alkali syenites to alaskite and alkali granite. The extreme products of magma fractionation are rare-metal pegmatites, apatite-fluorite rocks, and carbonatites. The primary melts were related to the enriched EM-2 mantle source. The U-Pb zircon ages of pulaskite (main intrusive phase) and rare-metal syenite (vein phase) are estimated at 294 ± 1 and 283 ± 8 Ma, respectively. The massif was formed as a result of impact of the mantle plume on the active continental margin of the Siberian paleocontinent.

  10. Plasma-Enhanced Deposition and Processing of Transition Metals and Transition Metal Silicides for VLSI.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-20

    molybdenum trifluoride in the deposited material. Titanium silicide films formed from a discharge of titanium tetrachlotide, silane, and hydrogen...displayed resistivities of -150 /4-cm, due to small amounts of oxygen and chlorine incorporated during deposition. Plasma etching studies of tungsten films...material, thereby reducing speed, and aluminum is a low melting material, thereby limiting processing latitude. As a result, mmition metals and

  11. Developing Gradient Metal Alloys through Radial Deposition Additive Manufacturing

    PubMed Central

    Hofmann, Douglas C.; Roberts, Scott; Otis, Richard; Kolodziejska, Joanna; Dillon, R. Peter; Suh, Jong-ook; Shapiro, Andrew A.; Liu, Zi-Kui; Borgonia, John-Paul

    2014-01-01

    Interest in additive manufacturing (AM) has dramatically expanded in the last several years, owing to the paradigm shift that the process provides over conventional manufacturing. Although the vast majority of recent work in AM has focused on three-dimensional printing in polymers, AM techniques for fabricating metal alloys have been available for more than a decade. Here, laser deposition (LD) is used to fabricate multifunctional metal alloys that have a strategically graded composition to alter their mechanical and physical properties. Using the technique in combination with rotational deposition enables fabrication of compositional gradients radially from the center of a sample. A roadmap for developing gradient alloys is presented that uses multi-component phase diagrams as maps for composition selection so as to avoid unwanted phases. Practical applications for the new technology are demonstrated in low-coefficient of thermal expansion radially graded metal inserts for carbon-fiber spacecraft panels. PMID:24942329

  12. Inorganic-Organic Coating via Molecular Layer Deposition Enables Long Life Sodium Metal Anode.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yang; Goncharova, Lyudmila V; Zhang, Qian; Kaghazchi, Payam; Sun, Qian; Lushington, Andrew; Wang, Biqiong; Li, Ruying; Sun, Xueliang

    2017-09-13

    Metallic Na anode is considered as a promising alternative candidate for Na ion batteries (NIBs) and Na metal batteries (NMBs) due to its high specific capacity, and low potential. However, the unstable solid electrolyte interphase layer caused by serious corrosion and reaction in electrolyte will lead to big challenges, including dendrite growth, low Coulombic efficiency and even safety issues. In this paper, we first demonstrate the inorganic-organic coating via advanced molecular layer deposition (alucone) as a protective layer for metallic Na anode. By protecting Na anode with controllable alucone layer, the dendrites and mossy Na formation have been effectively suppressed and the lifetime has been significantly improved. Moreover, the molecular layer deposition alucone coating shows better performances than the atomic layer deposition Al 2 O 3 coating. The novel design of molecular layer deposition protected Na metal anode may bring in new opportunities to the realization of the next-generation high energy-density NIBs and NMBs.

  13. Antiferroelectricity in lanthanum doped zirconia without metallic capping layers and post-deposition/-metallization anneals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Zheng; Gaskell, Anthony Arthur; Dopita, Milan; Kriegner, Dominik; Tasneem, Nujhat; Mack, Jerry; Mukherjee, Niloy; Karim, Zia; Khan, Asif Islam

    2018-05-01

    We report the effects of lanthanum doping/alloying on antiferroelectric (AFE) properties of ZrO2. Starting with pure ZrO2, an increase in La doping leads to the narrowing of the AFE double hysteresis loops and an increase in the critical voltage/electric field for AFE → ferroelectric transition. At higher La contents, the polarization-voltage characteristics of doped/alloyed ZrO2 resemble that of a non-linear dielectric without any discernible AFE-type hysteresis. X-ray diffraction based analysis indicates that the increased La content while preserving the non-polar, parent AFE, tetragonal P42/nmc phase leads to a decrease in tetragonality and the (nano-)crystallite size and an increase in the unit cell volume. Furthermore, antiferroelectric behavior is obtained in the as-deposited thin films without requiring any capping metallic layers and post-deposition/-metallization anneals due to which our specific atomic layer deposition system configuration crystallizes and stabilizes the AFE tetragonal phase during growth.

  14. Process for electroless deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1978-01-01

    A process for the electroless deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electroless plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article upon sufficient contact with the article.

  15. Process for electrolytic deposition of metals on zirconium materials

    DOEpatents

    Donaghy, Robert E.

    1979-01-30

    A process for the electrolytic deposition of a metal layer on an article comprised of zirconium or a zirconium alloy is disclosed. The article is activated in an aged aqueous solution comprising from about 10 to about 20 grams per liter ammonium bifluoride and from about 0.75 to about 2 grams per liter of sulfuric acid. The solution is aged by immersion of pickled zirconium in the solution for at least about 10 minutes. The loosely adhering film formed on the article in the activating step is removed and the article is contacted with an electrolytic plating solution containing the metal to be deposited on the article in the presence of an electrode receiving current.

  16. Adsorption Behavior of Rare Earth Metal Cations in the Interlayer Space of γ-ZrP.

    PubMed

    Takei, Takahiro; Iidzuka, Kiyoaki; Miura, Akira; Yanagida, Sayaka; Kumada, Nobuhiro; Magome, Eisuke; Moriyoshi, Chikako; Kuroiwa, Yoshihiro

    2016-10-04

    Adsorption competencies of rare earth metal cations in γ-zirconium phosphate were examined by ICP, synchrotron X-ray diffraction (SXRD), and ab initio simulation. The adsorption amounts are around 0.06-0.10 per zirconium phosphate. From the SXRD patterns of the adsorbed samples, the basal spacing estimated by c sin β increased linearly with an increasing ionic radius of rare earth metal cation, though a and b lattice constants show no change. These SXRD patterns can be classified into four groups that have different super lattices. The four superlattices have multiplicities of x131, x241, and x221 for the xabc axis, and the location of the rare earth metal cation in the original unit cell changes depending on the superlattice cell. In the x131 superlattice, Yb and Er occupied the site near the zirconium phosphate layer, though La and Ce in the x221 superlattice remained in the center position between the phosphate sheet. For the ab initio simulation of γ-ZrP with the typical rare earth metal cations (Tb, Eu, Dy, and La), the results of simulation show a similar tendency of the position estimated by SXRD refinements.

  17. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa.

    PubMed

    Samudrala, Gopi K; Thomas, Sarah A; Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2011-08-10

    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence hcp → Sm type → dhcp → distorted fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

  18. High pressure phase transitions in the rare earth metal erbium to 151 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Thomas, Sarah A.; Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2011-08-01

    High pressure x-ray diffraction studies have been performed on the heavy rare earth metal erbium (Er) in a diamond anvil cell at room temperature to a pressure of 151 GPa and Er has been compressed to 40% of its initial volume. The rare earth crystal structure sequence {hcp} \\to {Sm}~ {type} \\to {dhcp} \\to {distorted} fcc (hcp: hexagonal close packed; fcc: face centered cubic; dhcp: double hcp) is observed in Er below 58 GPa. We have carried out Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 58 GPa and 151 GPa. We have examined various crystal structures that have been proposed for the distorted fcc (dfcc) phase and the post-dfcc phase in rare earth metals. We find that the hexagonal hR 24 structure is the best fit between 58 and 118 GPa. Above 118 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.9%. We have also established a clear trend for the pressure at which a post-dfcc phase is formed in rare earth metals and show that there is a monotonic increase in this pressure with the filling of 4f shell.

  19. Rare-earth metal oxide doped transparent mesoporous silica plates under non-aqueous condition as a potential UV sensor.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang-Joon; Park, Sung Soo; Lee, Sang Hyun; Hong, Sang-Hyun; Ha, Chang-Sik

    2013-11-01

    Transparent mesoporous silica plates doped with rare-earth metal oxide were prepared using solvent-evaporation method based on the self-organization between structure-directing agent and silicate in a non-aqueous solvent. A triblock copolymer, Pluronic (F127 or P123), was used as the structure-directing agent, while tetraethyl orthosilicate (TEOS) was used as a silica source. The pore diameter and the surface area of the mesoporous silica plate prepared with the optimized conditions were ca 40 A and 600 m2 g(-1), respectively, for both structure-directing agent. Rare-earth metal oxides (Eu, Tb, Tm oxide) in mesochannel were formed via one-step synthetic route based on the preparation method of a silica plate. Optical properties of rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates were investigated by UV irradiation and photoluminescence (PL) spectroscopy. Under the exitation wavelength of 254 nm, the doped mesoporous silica plates emitted red, green and blue for Eu, Tb and Tm oxides, respectively. Rare-earth metal oxide-doped mesoporous silica plates showed enhanced PL intensity compared to that of the bulk rare-earth metal oxide.

  20. Inhibiting Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition: Beyond Zinc Oxide

    DOE PAGES

    Sampson, Matthew D.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Pellin, Michael J.; ...

    2017-04-05

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of several metal oxides is selectivity inhibited on alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au and the eventual nucleation mechanism is investigated. The inhibition ability of the SAM is significantly improved by the in situ H 2-plasma pretreatment of the Au substrate prior to gas-phase deposition of a long-chain alkanethiol, 1-dodecanethiol (DDT). This more rigorous surface preparation inhibits even aggressive oxide ALD precursors, including trimethylaluminum and water, for at least 20 cycles. We study the effect that ALD precursor purge times, growth temperature, alkanethiol chain length, alkanethiol deposition time, and plasma treatment time have on Almore » 2O 3 ALD inhibition. This is the first example of Al 2O 3 ALD inhibition from a vapor-deposited SAM. Inhibition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, and MnO ALD processes are compared, revealing the versatility of this selective surface treatment. As a result, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) further reveals insight into the mechanism by which the well-defined surface chemistry of ALD may eventually be circumvented to allow metal oxide nucleation and growth on SAM-modified surfaces.« less

  1. Inhibiting Metal Oxide Atomic Layer Deposition: Beyond Zinc Oxide

    SciTech Connect

    Sampson, Matthew D.; Emery, Jonathan D.; Pellin, Michael J.

    The atomic layer deposition (ALD) of several metal oxides is selectivity inhibited on alkanethiol self-assembled monolayers (SAMs) on Au and the eventual nucleation mechanism is investigated. The inhibition ability of the SAM is significantly improved by the in situ H 2-plasma pretreatment of the Au substrate prior to gas-phase deposition of a long-chain alkanethiol, 1-dodecanethiol (DDT). This more rigorous surface preparation inhibits even aggressive oxide ALD precursors, including trimethylaluminum and water, for at least 20 cycles. We study the effect that ALD precursor purge times, growth temperature, alkanethiol chain length, alkanethiol deposition time, and plasma treatment time have on Almore » 2O 3 ALD inhibition. This is the first example of Al 2O 3 ALD inhibition from a vapor-deposited SAM. Inhibition of Al 2O 3, ZnO, and MnO ALD processes are compared, revealing the versatility of this selective surface treatment. As a result, atomic force microscopy (AFM) and grazing incidence x-ray fluorescence (GIXRF) further reveals insight into the mechanism by which the well-defined surface chemistry of ALD may eventually be circumvented to allow metal oxide nucleation and growth on SAM-modified surfaces.« less

  2. Pore-Environment Engineering with Multiple Metal Sites in Rare-Earth Porphyrinic Metal-Organic Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Liangliang; Yuan, Shuai; Feng, Liang; Guo, Bingbing; Qin, Jun-Sheng; Xu, Ben; Lollar, Christina; Sun, Daofeng; Zhou, Hong-Cai

    2018-04-23

    Multi-component metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) with precisely controlled pore environments are highly desired owing to their potential applications in gas adsorption, separation, cooperative catalysis, and biomimetics. A series of multi-component MOFs, namely PCN-900(RE), were constructed from a combination of tetratopic porphyrinic linkers, linear linkers, and rare-earth hexanuclear clusters (RE 6 ) under the guidance of thermodynamics. These MOFs exhibit high surface areas (up to 2523 cm 2  g -1 ) and unlimited tunability by modification of metal nodes and/or linker components. Post-synthetic exchange of linear linkers and metalation of two organic linkers were realized, allowing the incorporation of a wide range of functional moieties. Two different metal sites were sequentially placed on the linear linker and the tetratopic porphyrinic linker, respectively, giving rise to an ideal platform for heterogeneous catalysis. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Heavy metals in particulate and colloidal matter from atmospheric deposition of urban Guangzhou, South China.

    PubMed

    Huang, Wen; Duan, Dandan; Zhang, Yulong; Cheng, Hefa; Ran, Yong

    2014-08-30

    Suspended particulate matter (SPM) and colloidal matter (COM) in annual dry and wet deposition samples in urban Guangzhou were for the first time collected, and their trace metals were investigated by using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). The deposition flux of SPM and of metal elements varied largely among the investigated seasons, and reached the maximum in spring. The correlation analysis indicated that significant correlations existed among some of the metal elements in the deposition samples. The enrichment factors (EF) of metals in COM in the deposition ranging from 79.66 to 130,000 were much higher than those of SPM ranging from 1.65 to 286.48, indicating the important role of COM. The factor analysis showed that emissions from street dust, non-ferrous metal production, and heavy fuel oil were major sources of the trace metals. Positive matrix factorization (PMF) model was used to quantitatively estimate anthropogenic source. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Deposition of tungsten metal by an immersion process

    DOE PAGES

    Small, Leo J.; Brumbach, Michael T.; Clem, Paul G.; ...

    2017-03-23

    A new multi-step, solution-phase method for the spontaneous deposition of tungsten from a room temperature ethereal solution is reported. This immersion process relies on the deposition of a sacrificial zinc coating which is galvanically displaced by the ether-mediated reduction of oxophilic WCl 6. Subsequent thermal treatment renders a crystalline, metallic tungsten film. The chemical evolution of the surface and formation of a complex intermediate tungsten species is characterized by X-ray diffraction, infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Efficient metallic tungsten deposition is first characterized on a graphite substrate and then demonstrated on a functional carbon foam electrode. The resulting electrochemicalmore » performance of the modified electrode is interrogated with the canonical aqueous ferricyanide system. A tungsten-coated carbon foam electrode showed that both electrode resistance and overall electrochemical cell resistance were reduced by 50%, resulting in a concomitant decrease in redox peak separation from 1.902 V to 0.783 V. Furthermore, this process promises voltage efficiency gains in electrodes for energy storage technologies and demonstrates the viability of a new route to tungsten coating for technologies and industries where high conductivity and chemical stability are paramount.« less

  5. Multicomponent, Rare-Earth-Doped Thermal-Barrier Coatings

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miller, Robert A.; Zhu, Dongming

    2005-01-01

    Multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type thermal-barrier coating materials have been developed in an effort to obtain lower thermal conductivity, greater phase stability, and greater high-temperature capability, relative to those of the prior thermal-barrier coating material of choice, which is yttria-partially stabilized zirconia. As used here, "thermal-barrier coatings" (TBCs) denotes thin ceramic layers used to insulate air-cooled metallic components of heat engines (e.g., gas turbines) from hot gases. These layers are generally fabricated by plasma spraying or physical vapor deposition of the TBC materials onto the metal components. A TBC as deposited has some porosity, which is desirable in that it reduces the thermal conductivity below the intrinsic thermal conductivity of the fully dense form of the material. Undesirably, the thermal conductivity gradually increases because the porosity gradually decreases as a consequence of sintering during high-temperature service. Because of these and other considerations such as phase transformations, the maximum allowable service temperature for yttria-partially stabilized zirconia TBCs lies in the range of about 1,200 to 1,300 C. In contrast, the present multicomponent, rare-earth-doped, perovskite-type TBCs can withstand higher temperatures.

  6. A review of silver-rich mineral deposits and their metallogeny

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Graybeal, Frederick T.; Vikre, Peter

    2010-01-01

    Mineral deposits with large inventories or high grades of silver are found in four genetic groups: (1) volcanogenic massive sulfide (VMS), (2) sedimentary exhalative (SEDEX), (3) lithogene, and, (4) magmatichydrothermal. Principal differences between the four groups relate to source rocks and regions, metal associations, process and timing of mineralization, and tectonic setting. These four groups may be subdivided into specific metal associations on ternary diagrams based on relative metal contents. The VMS deposits rarely contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz). Grades average 33 g/t Ag. Variable Ag- Pb-Zn-Cu-Au ± Sn concentrations are interpreted as having been derived both from shallow plutons and by leaching of the volcanic rock pile in regions of thin or no continental crust and the mineralization is syngenetic. Higher silver grades are associated with areas of abundant felsic volcanic rocks. The SEDEX deposits rarely contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz). Grades average 46 g/t Ag. Silver, lead, and zinc in relatively consistent proportions are leached from sedimentary rocks filling rift-related basins, where the continental crust is thin, and deposited as syngenetic to diagenetic massive sulfides. Pre-mineral volcanic rocks and their detritus may occur deep within the basin and gold is typically absent. Lithogene silver-rich deposits are epigenetic products of varying combinations of compaction, dewatering, meteoric water recharge, and metamorphism of rift basin-related clastic sedimentary and interbedded volcanic rocks. Individual deposits may contain more than 15,600 t Ag (500 Moz) at high grades. Ores are characterized by four well-defined metal associations, including Ag, Ag-Pb-Zn, Ag-Cu, and Ag-Co-Ni-U. Leaching, transport, and deposition of metals may occur both in specific sedimentary strata and other rock types adjacent to the rift. Multiple mineralizing events lasting 10 to 15 m.y., separated by as much as 1 b.y., may occur in a single basin

  7. Effect of rare earth metal on the spin-orbit torque in magnetic heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Ueda, Kohei; Pai, Chi-Feng; Tan, Aik Jun

    2016-06-06

    We report the effect of the rare earth metal Gd on current-induced spin-orbit torques (SOTs) in perpendicularly magnetized Pt/Co/Gd heterostructures, characterized using harmonic measurements and spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance (ST-FMR). By varying the Gd metal layer thickness from 0 nm to 8 nm, harmonic measurements reveal a significant enhancement of the effective fields generated from the Slonczewski-like and field-like torques. ST-FMR measurements confirm an enhanced effective spin Hall angle and show a corresponding increase in the magnetic damping constant with increasing Gd thickness. These results suggest that Gd plays an active role in generating SOTs in these heterostructures. Our finding may lead tomore » spin-orbitronics device application such as non-volatile magnetic random access memory, based on rare earth metals.« less

  8. Theoretical Study of pKa Values for Trivalent Rare-Earth Metal Cations in Aqueous Solution.

    PubMed

    Yu, Donghai; Du, Ruobing; Xiao, Ji-Chang; Xu, Shengming; Rong, Chunying; Liu, Shubin

    2018-01-18

    Molecular acidity of trivalent rare-earth metal cations in aqueous solution is an important factor dedicated to the efficiency of their extraction and separation processes. In this work, the aqueous acidity of these metal ions has been quantitatively investigated using a few theoretical approaches. Our computational results expressed in terms of pK a values agree well with the tetrad effect of trivalent rare-earth ions extensively reported in the extraction and separation of these elements. Strong linear relationships have been observed between the acidity and quantum electronic descriptors such as the molecular electrostatic potential on the acidic nucleus and the sum of the valence natural atomic orbitals energies of the dissociating proton. Making use of the predicted pK a values, we have also predicted the major ionic forms of these species in the aqueous environment with different pH values, which can be employed to rationalize the behavior difference of different rare-earth metal cations during the extraction process. Our present results should provide needed insights not only for the qualitatively understanding about the extraction and separation between yttrium and lanthanide elements but also for the prediction of novel and more efficient rare-earth metal extractants in the future.

  9. Modeling electrochemical deposition inside nanotubes to obtain metal-semiconductor multiscale nanocables or conical nanopores.

    PubMed

    Lebedev, Konstantin; Mafé, Salvador; Stroeve, Pieter

    2005-08-04

    Nanocables with a radial metal-semiconductor heterostructure have recently been prepared by electrochemical deposition inside metal nanotubes. First, a bare nanoporous polycarbonate track-etched membrane is coated uniformly with a metal film by electroless deposition. The film forms a working electrode for further deposition of a semiconductor layer that grows radially inside the nanopore when the deposition rate is slow. We propose a new physical model for the nanocable synthesis and study the effects of the deposited species concentration, potential-dependent reaction rate, and nanopore dimensions on the electrochemical deposition. The problem involves both axial diffusion through the nanopore and radial transport to the nanopore surface, with a surface reaction rate that depends on the axial position and the time. This is so because the radial potential drop across the deposited semiconductor layer changes with the layer thickness through the nanopore. Since axially uniform nanocables are needed for most applications, we consider the relative role of reaction and axial diffusion rates on the deposition process. However, in those cases where partial, empty-core deposition should be desirable (e.g., for producing conical nanopores to be used in single nanoparticle detection), we give conditions where asymmetric geometries can be experimentally realized.

  10. Self-ordering and complexity in epizonal mineral deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Henley, Richard W.; Berger, Byron R.

    2000-01-01

    Giant deposits are relatively rare and develop where efficient metal deposition is spatially focused by repetitive brittle failure in active fault arrays. Some brief case histories are provided for epithermal, replacement, and porphyry mineralization. These highlight how rock competency contrasts and feedback between processes, rather than any single component of a hydrothermal system, govern the size of individual deposits. In turn, the recognition of the probabilistic nature of mineralization provides a firmer foundation through which exploration investment and risk management decisions can be made.

  11. The interaction of fingermark deposits on metal surfaces and potential ways for visualisation.

    PubMed

    Wightman, G; Emery, F; Austin, C; Andersson, I; Harcus, L; Arju, G; Steven, C

    2015-04-01

    The interaction of fingermark deposits on metals has been examined by a variety of techniques. Visualisation by film growth has been the main area of investigation through: thermal oxidation, anodising, peroxide solution, and the interaction with vapour of iodine and ammonium sulphide. Corrosion of the underlying metal has also been examined as an alternative means of visualisation. Confocal microscopy was used to look at the film thickness and corrosion products around the prints. Scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersion of X-rays (SEM-EDX) examined a number of metal samples to investigate film growth and the elemental distribution. The observations suggest that differential oxidation was occurring as well as corrosion into the metal. Fingermark deposits on metals can corrode into the metal depending on the reactivity of the metal and leave a recoverable mark. However, fingermark deposits can also alter the rate of chemical reaction of the substrate metal by oxidation. In some cases organic matter can inhibit reaction, both when forming an oxide layer and when corroding the metal. However, signs of third level detail from pore contact may also be visible and the monovalent ions from salts could also influence film growth. Whilst further work would need to be carried out to decide whether any of these techniques may have application in fingermark recovery, this study does suggest that fingermarks on metals may be recoverable after incidents such as fires or immersion in water. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Blending Non-Group-3 Transition Metal and Rare-Earth Metal into a C80 Fullerene Cage with D5h Symmetry.

    PubMed

    Wei, Tao; Jin, Fei; Guan, Runnan; Huang, Jing; Chen, Muqing; Li, Qunxiang; Yang, Shangfeng

    2018-02-11

    Rare-earth metals have been mostly entrapped into fullerene cages to form endohedral clusterfullerenes, whereas non-Group-3 transition metals that can form clusterfullerenes are limited to titanium (Ti) and vanadium (V), and both are exclusively entrapped within an I h -C 80 cage. Non-Group-3 transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes based on a C 80 cage with D 5h symmetry, V x Sc 3-x N@D 5h -C 80 (x=1, 2), have now been synthesized, which exhibit two variable cluster compositions. The molecular structure of VSc 2 N@D 5h -C 80 was unambiguously determined by X-ray crystallography. According to a comparative study with the reported Ti- and V-containing clusterfullerenes based on a I h -C 80 cage and the analogous D 5h -C 80 -based metal nitride clusterfullerenes containing rare-earth metals only, the decisive role of the non-Group-3 transition metal on the formation of the corresponding D 5h -C 80 -based clusterfullerenes is unraveled. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  13. Mineral Deposit Data for Epigenetic Base- and Precious-metal and Uranium-thorium Deposits in South-central and Southwestern Montana and Southern and Central Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Klein, T.L.

    2004-01-01

    Metal deposits spatially associated with the Cretaceous Boulder and Idaho batholiths of southwestern Montana and southern and central Idaho have been exploited since the early 1860s. Au was first discovered in placer deposits; exploitation of vein deposits in bedrock soon followed. In 1865, high-grade Ag vein deposits were discovered and remained economically important until the 1890s. Early high-grade deposits of Au, Ag and Pb were found in the weathered portions of the veins systems. As mining progressed to deeper levels, Ag and Pb grades diminished. Exploration for and development of these vein deposits in this area have continued until the present. A majority of these base- and precious-metal vein deposits are classified as polymetallic veins (PMV) and polymetallic carbonate-replacement (PMR) deposits in this compilation. Porphyry Cu and Mo, epithermal (Au, Ag, Hg and Sb), base- and precious-metal and W skarn, W vein, and U and Th vein deposits are also common in this area. The world-class Butte Cu porphyry and the Butte high-sulfidation Cu vein deposits are in this study area. PMV and PMR deposits are the most numerous in the region and constitute about 85% of the deposit records compiled. Several types of syngenetic/diagenetic sulfide mineral deposits in rocks of the Belt Supergroup or their equivalents are common in the region and they have been the source of a substantial metal production over the last century. These syngenetic deposits and their metamorphosed/structurally remobilized equivalents were not included in this database; therefore, deposits in the Idaho portion of the Coeur d'Alene district and the Idaho Cobalt belt, for example, have not been included because many of them are believed to be of this type.

  14. Antimony film sensor for sensitive rare earth metal analysis in environmental samples.

    PubMed

    Makombe, Martin; van der Horst, Charlton; Silwana, Bongiwe; Iwuoha, Emmanuel; Somerset, Vernon

    2016-07-02

    A sensor for the adsorptive stripping voltammetric determination of rare earth elements has been developed. The electrochemical procedure is based on the oxidation of the rare earth elements complexed with alizarin complexone at a glassy carbon electrode that was in situ modified with an antimony film, during an anodic scan from -0.2 V to 1.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) and deposition potential of -0.1 V (vs. Ag/AgCl). The factors influencing the adsorptive stripping capability were optimised, including the complexing agent concentration, plating concentration of antimony and deposition time. The detection of rare earth elements (La, Ce and Pr) were realised in 0.08 M sodium acetate (pH = 5.8) solution as supporting electrolyte, with 2 × 10(-6) M alizarin complexone and 1.0 mg L(-1) antimony solution. Under the optimised conditions, a deposition time of 360 s was obtained and a linear response was observed between 1 and 25 µg L(-1). The reproducibility of the voltammetric measurements was found to be within 5.0% RSD for 12 replicate measurements of cerium(III) concentration of 5 µg L(-1) using the same electrode surface. The detection limits obtained using stripping analysis was 0.06, 0.42 and 0.71 μg L(-1) for Ce(III), La(III) and Pr(III), respectively. The developed sensor has been successfully applied for the determination of cerium, lanthanum and praseodymium in municipal tap water samples.

  15. Structural strengthening of rocket nozzle extension by means of laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Honoré, M.; Brox, L.; Hallberg, M.

    2012-03-01

    Commercial space operations strive to maximize the payload per launch in order to minimize the costs of each kg launched into orbit; this yields demand for ever larger launchers with larger, more powerful rocket engines. Volvo Aero Corporation in collaboration with Snecma and Astrium has designed and tested a new, upgraded Nozzle extension for the Vulcain 2 engine configuration, denoted Vulcain 2+ NE Demonstrator The manufacturing process for the welding of the sandwich wall and the stiffening structure is developed in close cooperation with FORCE Technology. The upgrade is intended to be available for future development programs for the European Space Agency's (ESA) highly successful commercial launch vehicle, the ARIANE 5. The Vulcain 2+ Nozzle Extension Demonstrator [1] features a novel, thin-sheet laser-welded configuration, with laser metal deposition built-up 3D-features for the mounting of stiffening structure, flanges and for structural strengthening, in order to cope with the extreme load- and thermal conditions, to which the rocket nozzle extension is exposed during launch of the 750 ton ARIANE 5 launcher. Several millimeters of material thickness has been deposited by laser metal deposition without disturbing the intricate flow geometry of the nozzle cooling channels. The laser metal deposition process has been applied on a full-scale rocket nozzle demonstrator, and in excess of 15 kilometers of filler wire has been successfully applied to the rocket nozzle. The laser metal deposition has proven successful in two full-throttle, full-scale tests, firing the rocket engine and nozzle in the ESA test facility P5 by DLR in Lampoldshausen, Germany.

  16. Metallic rare-earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces.

    PubMed

    Dähne, Mario; Wanke, Martina

    2013-01-09

    The formation, atomic structure, and electronic properties of self-assembled rare-earth silicide nanowires on silicon surfaces were studied by scanning tunneling microscopy and angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy. Metallic dysprosium and erbium silicide nanowires were observed on both the Si(001) and Si(557) surfaces. It was found that they consist of hexagonal rare-earth disilicides for both surface orientations. On Si(001), the nanowires are characterized by a one-dimensional band structure, while the electronic dispersion is two-dimensional for the nanowires formed on Si(557). This behavior is explained by the different orientations of the hexagonal c axis of the silicide leading to different conditions for the carrier confinement. By considering this carrier confinement it is demonstrated how the one-dimensional band structure of the nanowires on Si(001) can be derived from the two-dimensional one of the silicide monolayer on Si(111).

  17. Effects of intrusions on grades and contents of gold and other metals in volcanogenic massive sulfide deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Singer, Donald A.; Berger, Vladimir; Mosier, Dan L.

    2011-01-01

    The reason some VMS deposits contain more gold or other metals than others might be due to the influence of intrusions. A new approach examining this possibility is based on examining the information about many VMS deposits to test statistically if those with associated intrusions have significantly different grades or amounts of metals. A set of 632 VMS deposits with reported grades, tonnages, and information about the observed presence or absence of subvolcanic or plutonic intrusive bodies emplaced at or after VMS mineralization is statistically analyzed.Deposits with syn-mineralization or post-mineralization intrusions nearby have higher tonnages than deposits without reported intrusions, but the differences are not statistically significant. When both kinds of intrusions are reported, VMS deposit sizes are significantly higher than in the deposits without any intrusions. Gold, silver, zinc, lead, and copper average grades are not significantly different in the VMS deposits with nearby intrusions compared to deposits without regardless of relative age of intrusive. Only zinc and copper contents are significantly higher in VMS deposits with both kinds of intrusive reported. These differences in overall metal content are due to significantly larger deposit sizes of VMS deposits where both intrusive kinds are observed and reported, rather than any difference in metal grades.

  18. Composite nanoparticles containing rare earth metal and methods of preparation thereof

    SciTech Connect

    Kandapallil, Binil Itty Ipe; Krishnan, Lakshmi; Johnson, Francis

    The present invention is directed to composite nanoparticles comprising a metal, a rare earth element, and, optionally, a complexing ligand. The invention is also directed to composite nanoparticles having a core-shell structure and to processes for preparation of composite nanoparticles of the invention.

  19. Growth of polymer-metal nanocomposites by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Röder, Johanna; Faupel, Jörg; Krebs, Hans-Ulrich

    2008-12-01

    Complex polymer-metal nanocomposites have a wide range of applications, e.g. as flexible displays and packaging materials. Pulsed laser deposition was applied to form nanostructured materials consisting of metal clusters (Ag, Au, Pd and Cu) embedded in a polymer (polycarbonate, PC) matrix. The size and amount of the metal clusters are controlled by the number of laser pulses hitting the respective targets. For Cu and Pd, smaller clusters and higher cluster densities are obtained as in the cases of Ag and Au due to a stronger reactivity with the polymers and thus a lower diffusivity. Implantation effects, differences in metal diffusivity and reactivity on the polymer surfaces, and the coalescence properties are discussed with respect to the observed microstructures on PC and compared to the metal growth on poly (methyl methacrylate), PMMA.

  20. Glancing angle deposition of sculptured thin metal films at room temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liedtke, S.; Grüner, Ch; Lotnyk, A.; Rauschenbach, B.

    2017-09-01

    Metallic thin films consisting of separated nanostructures are fabricated by evaporative glancing angle deposition at room temperature. The columnar microstructure of the Ti and Cr columns is investigated by high resolution transmission electron microscopy and selective area electron diffraction. The morphology of the sculptured metallic films is studied by scanning electron microscopy. It is found that tilted Ti and Cr columns grow with a single crystalline morphology, while upright Cr columns are polycrystalline. Further, the influence of continuous substrate rotation on the shaping of Al, Ti, Cr and Mo nanostructures is studied with view to surface diffusion and the shadowing effect. It is observed that sculptured metallic thin films deposited without substrate rotation grow faster compared to those grown with continuous substrate rotation. A theoretical model is provided to describe this effect.

  1. Crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films deposited by PECVD on nickel-metalized porous silicon.

    PubMed

    Ben Slama, Sonia; Hajji, Messaoud; Ezzaouia, Hatem

    2012-08-17

    Porous silicon layers were elaborated by electrochemical etching of heavily doped p-type silicon substrates. Metallization of porous silicon was carried out by immersion of substrates in diluted aqueous solution of nickel. Amorphous silicon thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on metalized porous layers. Deposited amorphous thin films were crystallized under vacuum at 750°C. Obtained results from structural, optical, and electrical characterizations show that thermal annealing of amorphous silicon deposited on Ni-metalized porous silicon leads to an enhancement in the crystalline quality and physical properties of the silicon thin films. The improvement in the quality of the film is due to the crystallization of the amorphous film during annealing. This simple and easy method can be used to produce silicon thin films with high quality suitable for thin film solar cell applications.

  2. Crystallization of amorphous silicon thin films deposited by PECVD on nickel-metalized porous silicon

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Porous silicon layers were elaborated by electrochemical etching of heavily doped p-type silicon substrates. Metallization of porous silicon was carried out by immersion of substrates in diluted aqueous solution of nickel. Amorphous silicon thin films were deposited by plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition on metalized porous layers. Deposited amorphous thin films were crystallized under vacuum at 750°C. Obtained results from structural, optical, and electrical characterizations show that thermal annealing of amorphous silicon deposited on Ni-metalized porous silicon leads to an enhancement in the crystalline quality and physical properties of the silicon thin films. The improvement in the quality of the film is due to the crystallization of the amorphous film during annealing. This simple and easy method can be used to produce silicon thin films with high quality suitable for thin film solar cell applications. PMID:22901341

  3. The organometallic chemical vapor deposition of transition metal carbides: The use of homoleptic alkyls

    SciTech Connect

    Healy, M.D.; Smith, D.C.; Springer, R.W.

    1993-12-31

    The organometallic chemical vapor deposition of transition metal carbides (M = Ti, Zr, Hf, and Cr) from tetraneopentyl-metal precursors has been carried out. Metal carbides can be deposited on Si, Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and stainless steel substrates from M[CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 4} at temperatures in the range of 300 to 750 C and pressures from 10{sup {minus}2} to 10{sup {minus}4} Torr. Thin films have also been grown using a carrier gas (Ar, H{sub 2}). The effects of variation of the metal center, deposition conditions, and reactor design on the resulting material have been examined by SEM, XPS, XRD, ERDmore » and AES. Hydrocarbon fragments generated in the deposition chamber have been studied in by in-situ mass spectrometry. Complementary studies examining the UHV surface decomposition of Zr[CH{sub 2}C(CH{sub 3}){sub 3}]{sub 4} have allowed for a better understanding of the mechanism leading to film growth.« less

  4. Identifying heavy metal levels in historical flood water deposits using sediment cores.

    PubMed

    Lintern, Anna; Leahy, Paul J; Heijnis, Henk; Zawadzki, Atun; Gadd, Patricia; Jacobsen, Geraldine; Deletic, Ana; Mccarthy, David T

    2016-11-15

    When designing mitigation and restoration strategies for aquatic systems affected by heavy metal contamination, we must first understand the sources of these pollutants. In this study, we introduce a methodology that identifies the heavy metal levels in floodplain lake sediments deposited by one source; fluvial floods. This is done by comparing sediment core heavy metal profiles (i.e., historical pollution trends) to physical and chemical properties of sediments in these cores (i.e., historical flooding trends). This methodology is applied to Willsmere and Bolin Billabongs, two urban floodplain lakes (billabongs) of the Yarra River (South-East Australia). Both billabongs are periodically inundated by flooding of the Yarra River and one billabong (Willsmere Billabong) is connected to an urban stormwater drainage network. 1-2-m long sediment cores (containing sediment deposits up to 500 years old) were taken from the billabongs and analysed for heavy metal concentrations (arsenic, chromium, copper, lead, nickel, zinc). In cores from both billabongs, arsenic concentrations are high in the flood-borne sediments. In Bolin Billabong, absolute metal levels are similar in flood and non-flood deposits. In Willsmere Billabong, absolute copper, lead and zinc levels were generally lower in fluvial flood-borne sediments in the core compared to non-fluvial sediments. This suggests that heavy metal concentrations in Bolin Billabong sediments are relatively similar regardless of whether or not fluvial flooding is occurring. However for Willsmere Billabong, heavy metal concentrations are high when overland runoff, direct urban stormwater discharges or atmospheric deposition is occurring. As such, reducing the heavy metal concentrations in these transport pathways will be of great importance when trying to reduce heavy metal concentrations in Willsmere Billabong sediments. This study presents a proof-of-concept that can be applied to other polluted aquatic systems, to understand the

  5. Atmospheric Deposition of Heavy Metals in Soil Affected by Different Soil Uses of Southern Spain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acosta, J. A.; Faz, A.; Martínez-Martínez, S.; Bech, J.

    2009-04-01

    Heavy metals are a natural constituent of rocks, sediments and soils. However, the heavy metal content of top soils is also dependent on other sources than weathering of the indigenous minerals; input from atmospheric deposition seems to be an important pathway. Atmospheric deposition is defined as the process by which atmospheric pollutants are transferred to terrestrial and aquatic surfaces and is commonly classified as either dry or wet. The interest in atmospheric deposition has increased over the past decade due to concerns about the effects of deposited materials on the environment. Dry deposition provides a significant mechanism for the removal of particles from the atmosphere and is an important pathway for the loading of heavy metals into the soil ecosystem. Within the last decade, an intensive effort has been made to determine the atmospheric heavy metal deposition in both urban and rural areas. The main objective of this study was to identification of atmospheric heavy metals deposition in soil affected by different soil uses. Study area is located in Murcia Province (southeast of Spain), in the surroundings of Murcia City. The climate is typically semiarid Mediterranean with an annual average temperature of 18°C and precipitation of 350 mm. In order to determine heavy metals atmospheric deposition a sampling at different depths (0-1 cm, 1-5 cm, 5-15 cm and 15-30 cm) was carried out in 7 sites including agricultural soils, two industrial areas and natural sites. The samples were taken to the laboratory where, dried, passed through a 2 mm sieve, and grinded. For the determination of the moisture the samples were weighed and oven dried at 105 °C for 24 h. The total amounts of metals (Pb, Cu, Pb, Zn, Cd, Mn, Ni and Cr) were determined by digesting the samples with nitric/perchoric acids and measuring with ICP-MS. Results showed that zinc contamination in some samples of industrial areas was detected, even this contamination reaches 30 cm depth; thus it is

  6. Rare earth element recycling from waste nickel-metal hydride batteries.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiuli; Zhang, Junwei; Fang, Xihui

    2014-08-30

    With an increase in number of waste nickel-metal hydride batteries, and because of the importance of rare earth elements, the recycling of rare earth elements is becoming increasingly important. In this paper, we investigate the effects of temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time to optimize leaching conditions and determine leach kinetics. The results indicate that an increase in temperature, hydrochloric acid concentration, and leaching time enhance the leaching rate of rare earth elements. A maximum rare earth elements recovery of 95.16% was achieved at optimal leaching conditions of 70°C, solid/liquid ratio of 1:10, 20% hydrochloric acid concentration, -74μm particle size, and 100min leaching time. The experimental data were best fitted by a chemical reaction-controlled model. The activation energy was 43.98kJ/mol and the reaction order for hydrochloric acid concentration was 0.64. The kinetic equation for the leaching process was found to be: 1-(1-x)(1/3)=A/ρr0[HCl](0.64)exp-439,8008.314Tt. After leaching and filtration, by adding saturated oxalic solution to the filtrate, rare earth element oxalates were obtained. After removing impurities by adding ammonia, filtering, washing with dilute hydrochloric acid, and calcining at 810°C, a final product of 99% pure rare earth oxides was obtained. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Hybrid nanocomposite coatings from metal (Mg alloy)-drug deposited onto medical implant by laser adaptive ablation deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Serbezov, Valery; Sotirov, Sotir; Serbezov, Svetlin

    2013-03-01

    Drug-eluting medical implants are active implants whose function is to create healing effects. The current requirements for active medical coatings for Drug-eluting medical implants are to be biocompatible, biodegradable, polymer free, mechanically stable and enable a controlled release of one or more drugs and defined degradation. This brings hybrid nanocomposite coatings into focus especially in the field of cardiovascular implants. We studied the properties of Metal (Mg alloy)-Paclitaxel coatings obtained by novel Laser Adaptive Ablation Deposition Technique (LAAD) onto cardiovascular stents from 316 LVM stainless steel material. The morphology and topology of coatings were studied by Bright field / Fluorescence optical microscope and Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM). Comparative measurements were made of the morphology and topology of hybrid, polymer free nanocomposite coatings deposited by LAAD and polymerdrug coatings deposited by classical spray technique. The coatings obtained by LAAD are homogeneous without damages and cracks. Metal nanoparticles with sizes from 40 nm to 230 nm were obtained in drug matrixes. Energy Dispersive X-ray Spectroscopy (EDX) was used for identification of metal nanoparticles presence in hybrid nanocomposites coatings. The new technology opens up possibilities to obtain new hybrid nanocomposite coatings with applications in medicine, pharmacy and biochemistry.

  8. Energy Deposition and Condition of the Metal Core in Exploding Wire Experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarkisov, G. S.; Rosenthal, S. E.; Struve, K. W.; McDaniel, D. H.; Waisman, E. M.; Sasorov, P. V.

    2002-11-01

    Measurements of the Joule energy deposition into exploding wire and its relation with condition of the expanding wire core are presented. Wires of nine different metals with diameters of 10-30 microns, have been exploded by fast 150A/ns and slow 20A/ns pulses, in vacuum and in air. It has been shown by interferometry and light emission that expanding wire core has different conditions. The substances with small atomization enthalpy (Ag, Al, Cu, Au) demonstrate full vaporization of the wire core. The refractory metals (Ti, Pt, Mo, W) demonstrates that core consists from vapor and small and hot microparticles. In this case we observe "firework effect" when large radiation from the wire exceed the energy deposition time in a three order of magnitude. For non-refractory metals radiation dropping fast in 100 ns time scale due to effective adiabatic cooling. It is possible if main part of the metal core was vaporized. The interferometrical investigation of the refraction coefficient of expanding metal core is proof this conclusion. It has been shown that energy deposition before surface breakdown dependent strongly from current rate, surface coatings, environment, wire diameter and radial electric field. The regime of wire explosion in vacuum without shunting plasma shell has been realized for fast exploding mode. In this case we observe anomaly high energy deposition in to the wire core exceeding regular value in almost 20 times. The experimental results for Al wire have been compared with ALEGRA 2D MHD simulations. *Sandia is a multi-program laboratory operated by Sandia Corporation, a Lockheed Martin Company, for the United States Department of Energy under Contract DE-AC04-94AL8500.

  9. Proterozoic low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in New York and New Jersey: relation to Fe-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element) deposits and tectonic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foose, M.P.; McLelland, J.M.

    1995-01-01

    Low-Ti iron-oxide deposits in exposed Grenville-age rocks of New York and New Jersey belong to a distinct class of iron-oxide (Cu-U-Au-rare earth element [REE]) deposits that includes similar iron deposits in southeastern Missouri and the Kiruna district of Sweden, the giant Olympic Dam U-Cu-Au-Ag deposit (Australia), and the Bayan Obo REE-Nb deposit (China). Most of the New York-New Jersey deposits exhibit features consistent with a hydrothermal origin and define a regionally significant metallogenic event that provides important clues to the evolution of this part of the Grenville orogen. In the Adirondacks, the tectonic setting of these deposits is consistent with postorogenic uplift and extensive crustal melting at 1070-1050 Ma that was accompanied by late tectonic to posttectonic deposition of iron. -Authors

  10. Trends of metals enrichment in deposited particulate matter at semi-arid area of Iran.

    PubMed

    Fouladi Fard, Reza; Naddafi, Kazem; Hassanvand, Mohammad Sadegh; Khazaei, Mohammad; Rahmani, Farah

    2018-04-30

    The presence and enrichment of heavy metals in dust depositions have been recognized as an emerging environmental health issues in the urban and industrial areas. In this study, the deposition of some metals was found in Qom, a city located in a semi-desert area in Iran that is surrounded by industrial areas. Dust deposition samples were collected using five sampling stations during a year. Dust samples were digested applying acidic condition and then, the metal content was analyzed using inductively coupled plasma technology (ICP-OES). Comparative results showed the following order, from the maximum to the minimum concentration (mg/kg dust) of elements: Ca > Al > Fe > Mg > Ti > Si > K > B > Sr > Mn > P > Ba > Cr > Zn > Ni > Sn > Pb > V > Na > Cu > Co > U > Li > Ce > Ag. The differences among the average concentrations of metals in the five stations were not significant (p value > 0.05). The average concentration of some metals increased significantly during cold seasons. In this study, the cluster analysis (CA) and princicipal component analysis (PCA) were applied, and relationships among some elements in different clusters were found. In addition, the geo-accumulation and enrichment analysis revealed that the following metals had been enriched more than the average values: boron, silver, tin, uranium, lead, zinc, cobalt, chromium, lithium, nickel, strontium, and coper. The presence of thermal power plant, pesticide manufacturing plants, publishing centers, traffic jam, and some industrial areas around the city has resulted in the enrichment of some metals (particularly in cold seasons with atmospheric stable conditions) in dust deposition.

  11. Aerosol chemical vapor deposition of metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Ott, K.C.; Kodas, T.T.

    1994-01-11

    A process of preparing a film of a multicomponent metal oxide including: forming an aerosol from a solution comprised of a suitable solvent and at least two precursor compounds capable of volatilizing at temperatures lower than the decomposition temperature of said precursor compounds; passing said aerosol in combination with a suitable oxygen-containing carrier gas into a heated zone, said heated zone having a temperature sufficient to evaporate the solvent and volatilize said precursor compounds; and passing said volatilized precursor compounds against the surface of a substrate, said substrate having a sufficient temperature to decompose said volatilized precursor compounds whereby metal atoms contained within said volatilized precursor compounds are deposited as a metal oxide film upon the substrate is disclosed. In addition, a coated article comprising a multicomponent metal oxide film conforming to the surface of a substrate selected from the group consisting of silicon, magnesium oxide, yttrium-stabilized zirconium oxide, sapphire, or lanthanum gallate, said multicomponent metal oxide film characterized as having a substantially uniform thickness upon said substrate.

  12. High-pressure phase transitions in rare earth metal thulium to 195 GPa.

    PubMed

    Montgomery, Jeffrey M; Samudrala, Gopi K; Tsoi, Georgiy M; Vohra, Yogesh K

    2011-04-20

    We have performed image plate x-ray diffraction studies on a heavy rare earth metal, thulium (Tm), in a diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 195 GPa and volume compression V/V₀ = 0.38 at room temperature. The rare earth crystal structure sequence, hcp →Sm-type→ dhcp →fcc → distorted fcc, is observed in Tm below 70 GPa with the exception of a pure fcc phase. The focus of our study is on the ultrahigh-pressure phase transition and Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 70 and 195 GPa. The hexagonal hR-24 phase is seen to describe the distorted fcc phase between 70 and 124 GPa. Above 124 ± 4 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of -1.5%. The equation of state data shows rapid stiffening above the phase transition at 124 GPa and is indicative of participation of f-electrons in bonding. We compare the behavior of Tm to other heavy rare-earths and heavy actinide metals under extreme conditions of pressure.

  13. High-pressure phase transitions in rare earth metal thulium to 195 GPa

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Montgomery, Jeffrey M.; Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Vohra, Yogesh K.

    2011-04-01

    We have performed image plate x-ray diffraction studies on a heavy rare earth metal, thulium (Tm), in a diamond anvil cell to a pressure of 195 GPa and volume compression V/Vo = 0.38 at room temperature. The rare earth crystal structure sequence, {hcp}\\to {Sm {-}type} \\to {dhcp} \\to {fcc} \\to distorted fcc, is observed in Tm below 70 GPa with the exception of a pure fcc phase. The focus of our study is on the ultrahigh-pressure phase transition and Rietveld refinement of crystal structures in the pressure range between 70 and 195 GPa. The hexagonal hR- 24 phase is seen to describe the distorted fcc phase between 70 and 124 GPa. Above 124 ± 4 GPa, a structural transformation from hR 24 phase to a monoclinic C 2/m phase is observed with a volume change of - 1.5%. The equation of state data shows rapid stiffening above the phase transition at 124 GPa and is indicative of participation of f-electrons in bonding. We compare the behavior of Tm to other heavy rare-earths and heavy actinide metals under extreme conditions of pressure.

  14. Climax-Type Porphyry Molybdenum Deposits

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ludington, Steve; Plumlee, Geoffrey S.

    2009-01-01

    Climax-type porphyry molybdenum deposits, as defined here, are extremely rare; thirteen deposits are known, all in western North America and ranging in age from Late Cretaceous to mainly Tertiary. They are consistently found in a postsubduction, extensional tectonic setting and are invariably associated with A-type granites that formed after peak activity of a magmatic cycle. The deposits consist of ore shells of quartz-molybdenite stockwork veins that lie above and surrounding the apices of cupola-like, highly evolved, calc-alkaline granite and subvolcanic rhyolite-porphyry bodies. These plutons are invariably enriched in fluorine (commonly >1 percent), rubidium (commonly >500 parts per million), and niobium-tantalum (Nb commonly >50 parts per million). The deposits are relatively high grade (typically 0.1-0.3 percent Mo) and may be very large (typically 100-1,000 million tons). Molybdenum, as MoS2, is the primary commodity in all known deposits. The effect on surface-water quality owing to natural influx of water or sediment from a Climax-type mineralized area can extend many kilometers downstream from the mineralized area. Waste piles composed of quartz-silica-pyrite altered rocks will likely produce acidic drainage waters. The potential exists for concentrations of fluorine or rare metals in surface water and groundwater to exceed recommended limits for human consumption near both mined and unmined Climax-type deposits.

  15. Using Moss to Detect Fine-Scaled Deposition of Heavy Metals in Urban Environments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jovan, S.; Donovan, G.; Demetrios, G.; Monleon, V. J.; Amacher, M. C.

    2017-12-01

    Mosses are commonly used as bio-indicators of heavy metal deposition to forests. Their application in urban airsheds is relatively rare. Our objective was to develop fine-scaled, city-wide maps for heavy metals in Portland, Oregon, to identify pollution "hotspots" and serve as a screening tool for more effective placement of air quality monitoring instruments. In 2013 we measured twenty-two elements in epiphytic moss sampled on a 1km x1km sampling grid (n = 346). We detected large hotspots of cadmium and arsenic in two neighborhoods associated with stained glass manufacturers. Air instruments deployed by local regulators measured cadmium concentrations 49 times and arsenic levels 155 times the state health benchmarks. Moss maps also detected a large nickel hotspot in a neighborhood near a forge where air instruments later measured concentrations 4 times the health benchmark. In response, the facilities implemented new pollution controls, air quality improved in all three affected neighborhoods, revision of regulations for stained glass furnace emissions are underway, and Oregon's governor launched an initiative to develop health-based (vs technology-based) regulations for air toxics in the state. The moss maps also indicated a couple dozen smaller hotspots of heavy metals, including lead, chromium, and cobalt, in Portland neighborhoods. Ongoing follow-up work includes: 1) use of moss sampling by local regulators to investigate source and extent of the smaller hotspots, 2) use of lead isotopes to determine origins of higher lead levels observed in moss collected from the inner city, and 3) co-location of air instruments and moss sampling to determine accuracy, timeframe represented, and seasonality of heavy metals in moss.

  16. Metal transports and enrichments in iron depositions hosted in basaltic rocks. II: Metal rich fluids and Fe origin

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Ronghua; Zhang, Xuetong; Hu, Shumin

    2015-12-01

    This study focuses on revealing the mechanism of metal transport, enrichment and Fe origin of iron deposition during water basalt interactions occurred in basaltic rocks. Observations of the iron deposits (anhydrite-magnetite-pyroxene type deposits) hosted in K-rich basaltic rocks in the Mesozoic volcanic area of the Middle-Lower Yangtze River valley, China, indicate that the mechanism of metal transport and enrichment for those deposits are significant objective to scientists, and the Fe origin problem is not well resolved. Here the metal transport, enrichment and iron origin have been investigated in high temperature experiments of water basaltic interactions. These deposits were accompanying a wide zone with metal alteration. The effects of hydrothermal alteration on major rock-forming element concentrations in basaltic rock were investigated by systematically comparing the chemical compositions of altered rocks with those of fresh rocks. In the deposits, these metals are distributed throughout altered rocks that exhibit vertical zoning from the deeper to the shallow. Then, combined with the investigations of the metal-alterations, we performed kinetic experiments of water-basaltic rock interactions using flow-through reactors in open systems at temperatures from 20 °C to 550 °C, 23-34 MPa. Release rates for the rock-forming elements from the rocks have been measured. Experiments provide the release rates for various elements at a large temperature range, and indicate that the dissolution rates (release rates) for various elements vary with temperature. Si, Al, and K have high release rates at temperatures from 300 °C to 500 °C; the maximum release rates (RMX) for Si are reached at temperatures from 300 °C to 400 °C. The RMXs for Ca, Mg, and Fe are at low temperatures from 20 °C to 300 °C. Results demonstrate that Fe is not released from 400 °C to 550 °C, and indicate that when deep circling fluids passed through basaltic rocks, Fe was not mobile, and

  17. A study of carbon deposition on fuel cell power plants — morphology of deposited carbon and catalytic metal in carbon deposition reactions on stainless steel

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sone, Yuko; Kishida, Haruo; Kobayashi, Makoto; Watanabe, Takao

    Carbon deposited on SUS304 stainless steel (18Cr 8Ni) has been observed by two different methods. One method was Field Emission Transmission Electron Microscopy (FE-TEM), with developed preparation for in situ observation of a cross-section of the deposited carbon from the base (SUS) to the top. The other method was X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), obtaining composition-depth profiles by argon ion sputtering. Carbon was deposited on SUS304, 550°C, 1 atm, H 2/CO/CO 2=75/15/10, after drained the steam-reformed natural gas composition. One result from FE-TEM identified the major form of deposited carbon was tubular in shape with a variety of diameters, ranging from approximately 7 to 100 nm. Some tubes contained metallic particles which were about 20 nm in size at their tips. Therefore, it can be established that the carbon deposition mechanism is similar to that reported for metals such as Fe, Ni, and that the deposited carbon can grow after the SUS surface is covered with deposits under the above conditions. Observations from EDX attached to FE-TEM also determined that most of the particles consisted of Fe and from XPS, that the content of Fe on the surface of the reaction plate was lower than on the unreacted sample. This indicates that carbon deposition on stainless steel was influenced by Fe rather than Ni and Cr.

  18. Preparation and analysis of particulate metal deposits

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Poppa, H.; Moorhead, D.; Heinemann, K.

    1985-01-01

    Small particles and clusters of palladium were grown by deposition from the vapor phase under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. Amorphous and crystalline support films of Al2O3 and ultrathin amorphous carbon films were used as substrate materials. The growth of the metal deposit was monitored in situ by scanning transmission diffraction of energy-filtered 100 kV electrons and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM) analysis was performed in a separate instrument. It was established by in situ TEM, however, that the transfer of specimens in this case did not unduly affect the size and distribution of deposit particles. It was found that the cleanness, stoichiometry, crystallinity and structural perfection of the support surface play an essential role in determining the crystalline perfection and structure of the particles. The smallest palladium clusters reproducibly prepared contained not more than six atoms but size determinations below 1 nm average particle diameter are very problematic with conventional TEM. Palladium particles grown on carbon supports feature an impurity-stabilized mosaic structure.

  19. Solution synthesis of mixed-metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and spray deposition of precursor films

    DOEpatents

    Schulz, Douglas L.; Curtis, Calvin J.; Ginley, David S.

    2000-01-01

    A colloidal suspension comprising metal chalcogenide nanoparticles and a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is made by reacting a metal salt with a chalcogenide salt in an organic solvent to precipitate a metal chalcogenide, recovering the metal chalcogenide, and admixing the metal chalcogenide with a volatile capping agent. The colloidal suspension is spray deposited onto a substrate to produce a semiconductor precursor film which is substantially free of impurities.

  20. Thermodynamic Considerations of Direct Oxygen Removal from Titanium by Utilizing the Deoxidation Capability of Rare Earth Metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Okabe, Toru H.; Zheng, Chenyi; Taninouchi, Yu-ki

    2018-06-01

    Oxygen removal from metallic Ti is extremely difficult and, currently, there is no commercial process for effectively deoxidizing Ti or its alloys. The oxygen concentration in Ti scraps is normally higher than that in virgin metals such as in Ti sponges produced by the Kroll process. When scraps are remelted with virgin metals for producing primary ingots of Ti or its alloys, the amount of scrap that can be used is limited owing to the accumulation of oxygen impurities. Future demands of an increase in Ti production and of mitigating environmental impacts require that the amount of scrap recycled as a feed material of Ti ingots should also increase. Therefore, it is important to develop methods for removing oxygen directly from Ti scraps. In this study, we evaluated the deoxidation limit for β-Ti using Y or light rare earth metals (La, Ce, Pr, or Nd) as a deoxidant. Thermodynamic considerations suggest that extra-low-oxygen Ti, with an oxygen concentration of 100 mass ppm or less can be obtained using a molten salt equilibrating with rare earth metals. The results presented herein also indicate that methods based on molten salt electrolysis for producing rare earth metals can be utilized for effectively and directly deoxidizing Ti scraps.

  1. Voltage Control of Rare-Earth Magnetic Moments at the Magnetic-Insulator-Metal Interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leon, Alejandro O.; Cahaya, Adam B.; Bauer, Gerrit E. W.

    2018-01-01

    The large spin-orbit interaction in the lanthanides implies a strong coupling between their internal charge and spin degrees of freedom. We formulate the coupling between the voltage and the local magnetic moments of rare-earth atoms with a partially filled 4 f shell at the interface between an insulator and a metal. The rare-earth-mediated torques allow the power-efficient control of spintronic devices by electric-field-induced ferromagnetic resonance and magnetization switching.

  2. Textural Evolution During Micro Direct Metal Deposition of NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademzadeh, Saeed; Bariani, Paolo F.; Bruschi, Stefania

    2018-03-01

    In this research, a micro direct metal deposition process, newly developed as a potential method for micro additive manufacturing was used to fabricate NiTi builds. The effect of scanning strategy on grain growth and textural evolution was investigated using scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscattered diffraction detector. Investigations showed that, the angle between the successive single tracks has an important role in grain size distribution and textural evolution of NiTi phase. Unidirectional laser beam scanning pattern developed a fiber texture; conversely, a backward and forward scanning pattern developed a strong < {100} > ‖‖ RD texture on the surface of NiTi cubic samples produced by micro direct metal deposition.

  3. A model of the atmospheric metal deposition by cosmic dust particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McNeil, W. J.

    1993-11-01

    We have developed a model of the deposition of meteoric metals in Earth's atmosphere. The model takes as input the total mass influx of material to the Earth and calculates the deposition rate at all altitudes through solution of the drag and subliminal equations in a Monte Carlo-type computation. The diffusion equation is then solved to give steady state concentration of complexes of specific metal species and kinetics are added to calculate the concentration of individual complexes. Concentrating on sodium, we calculate the Na(D) nightglow predicted by the model, and by introduction of seasonal variations in lower tropospheric ozone based on experimental results, we are able to duplicate the seasonal variation of mid-latitude nightglow data.

  4. Textural Evolution During Micro Direct Metal Deposition of NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khademzadeh, Saeed; Bariani, Paolo F.; Bruschi, Stefania

    2018-07-01

    In this research, a micro direct metal deposition process, newly developed as a potential method for micro additive manufacturing was used to fabricate NiTi builds. The effect of scanning strategy on grain growth and textural evolution was investigated using scanning electron microscope equipped with electron backscattered diffraction detector. Investigations showed that, the angle between the successive single tracks has an important role in grain size distribution and textural evolution of NiTi phase. Unidirectional laser beam scanning pattern developed a fiber texture; conversely, a backward and forward scanning pattern developed a strong < {100} > ‖‖ RD texture on the surface of NiTi cubic samples produced by micro direct metal deposition.

  5. Atomic layer deposition of metal sulfide materials

    DOE PAGES

    Dasgupta, Neil P.; Meng, Xiangbo; Elam, Jeffrey W.; ...

    2015-01-12

    The field of nanoscience is delivering increasingly intricate yet elegant geometric structures incorporating an ever-expanding palette of materials. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is a powerful driver of this field, providing exceptionally conformal coatings spanning the periodic table and atomic-scale precision independent of substrate geometry. This versatility is intrinsic to ALD and results from sequential and self-limiting surface reactions. This characteristic facilitates digital synthesis, in which the film grows linearly with the number of reaction cycles. While the majority of ALD processes identified to date produce metal oxides, novel applications in areas such as energy storage, catalysis, and nanophotonics are motivatingmore » interest in sulfide materials. Recent progress in ALD of sulfides has expanded the diversity of accessible materials as well as a more complete understanding of the unique chalcogenide surface chemistry. ALD of sulfide materials typically uses metalorganic precursors and hydrogen sulfide (H 2S). As in oxide ALD, the precursor chemistry is critical to controlling both the film growth and properties including roughness, crystallinity, and impurity levels. By modification of the precursor sequence, multicomponent sulfides have been deposited, although challenges remain because of the higher propensity for cation exchange reactions, greater diffusion rates, and unintentional annealing of this more labile class of materials. A deeper understanding of these surface chemical reactions has been achieved through a combination of in situ studies and quantum-chemical calculations. As this understanding matures, so does our ability to deterministically tailor film properties to new applications and more sophisticated devices. This Account highlights the attributes of ALD chemistry that are unique to metal sulfides and surveys recent applications of these materials in photovoltaics, energy storage, and photonics. Within each application

  6. Separation of rare earths from transition metals by liquid-liquid extraction from a molten salt hydrate to an ionic liquid phase.

    PubMed

    Rout, Alok; Binnemans, Koen

    2014-02-28

    The solvent extraction of trivalent rare-earth ions and their separation from divalent transition metal ions using molten salt hydrates as the feed phase and an undiluted fluorine-free ionic liquid as the extracting phase were investigated in detail. The extractant was tricaprylmethylammonium nitrate, [A336][NO3], and the hydrated melt was calcium nitrate tetrahydrate, Ca(NO3)2·4H2O. The extraction behavior of rare-earth ions was studied for solutions of individual elements, as well as for mixtures of rare earths in the hydrated melt. The influence of different extraction parameters was investigated: the initial metal loading in the feed phase, percentage of water in the feed solution, equilibration time, and the type of hydrated melt. The extraction of rare earths from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O was compared with extraction from CaCl2·4H2O by [A336][Cl] (Aliquat 336). The nitrate system was found to be the better one. The extraction and separation of rare earths from the transition metals nickel, cobalt and zinc were also investigated. Remarkably high separation factors of rare-earth ions over transition metal ions were observed for extraction from Ca(NO3)2·4H2O by the [A336][NO3] extracting phase. Furthermore, rare-earth ions could be separated efficiently from transition metal ions, even in melts with very high concentrations of transition metal ions. Rare-earth oxides could be directly dissolved in the Ca(NO3)2·4H2O phase in the presence of small amounts of Al(NO3)3·9H2O or concentrated nitric acid. The efficiency of extraction after dissolving the rare-earth oxides in the hydrated nitrate melt was identical to extraction from solutions with rare-earth nitrates dissolved in the molten phase. The stripping of the rare-earth ions from the loaded ionic liquid phase and the reuse of the recycled ionic liquid were also investigated in detail.

  7. [Pollution evaluation and health risk assessment of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou].

    PubMed

    Li, Ping; Xue, Su-Yin; Wang, Sheng-Li; Nan, Zhong-Ren

    2014-03-01

    In order to evaluate the contamination and health risk of heavy metals from atmospheric deposition in Lanzhou, samples of atmospheric deposition were collected from 11 sampling sites respectively and their concentrations of heavy metals were determined. The results showed that the average contents of Cu, Pb, Cd, Cr, Ni, Zn and Mn were 82.22, 130.31, 4.34, 88.73, 40.64, 369.23 and 501.49 mg x kg(-1), respectively. There was great difference among different functional areas for all elements except Mn. According to the results, the enrichment factor score of Mn was close to 1, while the enrichment of Zn, Ni, Cu and Cr was more serious, and Pb and Cd were extremely enriched. The assessment results of geoaccumulation index of potential ecological risk indicated that the pollution of Cd in the atmospheric deposition of Lanzhou should be classified as extreme degree, and that of Cu, Ni, Zn, Pb as between slight and extreme degrees, and Cr as practically uncontaminated. Contaminations of atmospheric dust by heavy metals in October to the next March were more serious than those from April to August. Health risk assessment indicated that the heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were mainly ingested by human bodies through hand-mouth ingestion. The non-cancer risk was higher for children than for adults. The order of non-cancer hazard indexes of heavy metals was Pb > Cr > Cd > Cu > Ni > Zn. The non-cancer hazard indexes and carcinogen risks of heavy metals were both lower than their threshold values, suggesting that they will not harm the health.

  8. Deposition and Characterization of Thin Films on Metallic Substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gatica, Jorge E.

    2005-01-01

    A CVD method was successfully developed to produce conversion coatings on aluminum alloys surfaces with reproducible results with a variety of precursors. A well defined protocol to prepare the precursor solutions formulated in a previous research was extended to other additives. It was demonstrated that solutions prepared following such a protocol could be used to systematically generate protective coatings onto aluminum surfaces. Experiments with a variety of formulations revealed that a refined deposition protocol yields reproducible conversion coatings of controlled composition. A preliminary correlation between solution formulations and successful precursors was derived. Coatings were tested for adhesion properties enhancement for commercial paints. A standard testing method was followed and clear trends were identified. Only one precursors was tested systematically. Anticipated work on other precursors should allow a better characterization of the effect of intermetallics on the production of conversion/protective coatings on metals and ceramics. The significance of this work was the practical demonstration that chemical vapor deposition (CVD) techniques can be used to systematically generate protective/conversion coating on non-ferrous surfaces. In order to become an effective approach to replace chromate-based pre- treatment processes, namely in the aerospace or automobile industry, the process parameters must be defined more precisely. Moreover, the feasibility of scale-up designs necessitates a more comprehensive characterization of the fluid flow, transport phenomena, and chemical kinetics interacting in the process. Kinetic characterization showed a significantly different effect of magnesium-based precursors when compared to iron-based precursors. Future work will concentrate on refining the process through computer simulations and further experimental studies on the effect of other transition metals to induce deposition of conversion/protective films

  9. Genesis of rare-metal pegmatites and alkaline apatite-fluorite rocks of Burpala massi, Northern Baikal folded zone

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sotnikova, Irina; Vladykin, Nikolai

    2015-04-01

    Burpalinsky rare metal alkaline massif in the Northern Baikal folded zone in southern margin of Siberian Platform, is a of intrusion central type, created 287 Ma covering area of about 250 km2. It is composed of nepheline syenites and pulaskites grading to quartz syenites in the contacts. Veines and dykes are represented by shonkinites, sodalite syenite, leucocratic granophyres, alkali granites and numerous rare metal alkaline syenite pegmatites and two dykes of carbonatites. All rocks except for granites are cut by a large apatite-fluorite dyke rocks with mica and magnetite, which in turn is cut by alaskite granites dyke. The massif has been studied by A.M. Portnov, A.A. Ganzeev et al. (1992) Burpalinsky massif is highly enriched with trace elements, which are concentrated in pegmatite dykes. About 70 rare-metal minerals we found in massif. Zr-silicates: zircon, eudialyte, lovenite, Ti-lovenite, velerite, burpalite, seidozerite, Ca- seidozerite, Rosenbuschite, vlasovite, katapleite, Ca-katapleite, elpidite. Ti- minerals:- sphene, astrophyllite, ramsaite, Mn-neptunite bafertisite, chevkinite, Mn-ilmenite, pirofanite, Sr-perrerit, landauite, rutile, anatase, brookite; TR- minerals - loparite, metaloparite, britolite, rinkolite, melanocerite, bastnesite, parisite, ankilite, monazite, fluocerite, TR-apatite; Nb- minerals - pyrochlore, loparite. Other rare minerals leucophanite, hambergite, pyrochlore, betafite, torite, thorianite, tayniolite, brewsterite, cryolite and others. We have proposed a new scheme massif: shonkinites - nepheline syenites - alkaline syenite - quartz syenites - veined rocks: mariupolites, rare-metal pegmatites, apatite, fluorite rock alyaskite and alkaline granites and carbonatites (Sotnikova, 2009). Apatite-fluorite rocks are found in the central part of massif. This is a large vein body of 2 km length and a 20 m width cutting prevailing pulaskites. Previously, these rocks were regarded as hydrothermal low-temperature phase. New geological and

  10. Influence of substrate metal alloy type on the properties of hydroxyapatite coatings deposited using a novel ambient temperature deposition technique.

    PubMed

    Barry, J N; Cowley, A; McNally, P J; Dowling, D P

    2014-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) coatings are applied widely to enhance the level of osteointegration onto orthopedic implants. Atmospheric plasma spray (APS) is typically used for the deposition of these coatings; however, HA crystalline changes regularly occur during this high-thermal process. This article reports on the evaluation of a novel low-temperature (<47°C) HA deposition technique, called CoBlast, for the application of crystalline HA coatings. To-date, reports on the CoBlast technique have been limited to titanium alloy substrates. This study addresses the suitability of the CoBlast technique for the deposition of HA coatings on a number of alternative metal alloys utilized in the fabrication of orthopedic devices. In addition to titanium grade 5, both cobalt chromium and stainless steel 316 were investigated. In this study, HA coatings were deposited using both the CoBlast and the plasma sprayed techniques, and the resultant HA coating and substrate properties were evaluated and compared. The CoBlast-deposited HA coatings were found to present similar surface morphologies, interfacial properties, and composition irrespective of the substrate alloy type. Coating thickness however displayed some variation with the substrate alloy, ranging from 2.0 to 3.0 μm. This perhaps is associated with the electronegativity of the metal alloys. The APS-treated samples exhibited evidence of both coating, and significantly, substrate phase alterations for two metal alloys; titanium grade 5 and cobalt chrome. Conversely, the CoBlast-processed samples exhibited no phase changes in the substrates after depositions. The APS alterations were attributed to the brief, but high-intensity temperatures experienced during processing. Copyright © 2013 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  11. XPS study of thermal and electron-induced decomposition of Ni and Co acetylacetonate thin films for metal deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Weiss, Theodor; Warneke, Jonas; Zielasek, Volkmar, E-mail: zielasek@uni-bremen.de

    2016-07-15

    Optimizing thin metal film deposition techniques from metal-organic precursors such as atomic layer deposition, chemical vapor deposition (CVD), or electron beam-induced deposition (EBID) with the help of surface science analysis tools in ultrahigh vacuum requires a contamination-free precursor delivery technique, especially in the case of the less volatile precursors. For this purpose, the preparation of layers of undecomposed Ni(acac){sub 2} and Co(acac){sub 2} was tried via pulsed spray evaporation of a liquid solution of the precursors in ethanol into a flow of nitrogen on a CVD reactor. Solvent-free layers of intact precursor molecules were obtained when the substrate was heldmore » at a temperature of 115 °C. A qualitative comparison of thermally initiated and electron-induced precursor decomposition and metal center reduction was carried out. All deposited films were analyzed with respect to chemical composition quasi in situ by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. Thermally initiated decomposition yielded higher metal-to-metal oxide ratios in the deposit than the electron-induced process for which ratios of 60:40 and 20:80 were achieved for Ni and Co, resp. Compared to continuous EBID processes, all deposits showed low levels of carbon impurities of ∼10 at. %. Therefore, postdeposition irradiation of metal acetylacetonate layers by a focused electron beam and subsequent removal of intact precursor by dissolution in ethanol or by heating is proposed as electron beam lithography technique on the laboratory scale for the production of the metal nanostructures.« less

  12. Emission FTIR analyses of thin microscopic patches of jet fuel residue deposited on heated metal surface

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lauer, J. L.; Vogel, P.

    1984-01-01

    Deposits laid down in patches on metal strips in a high pressure/high temperature fuel system simulator operated with aerated fuel at varying flow rates were analyzed by emission FTIR in terms of functional groups. Significant differences were found in the spectra and amounts of deposits derived from fuels to which small concentrations of oxygen-, nitrogen-, or sulfur-containing heterocyclics or metal naphthenates were added. The spectra of deposits generated on strips by heating fuels and air in a closed container were very different from those of the flowing fluid deposits. One such closed-container dodecane deposit on silver gave a strong surface-enhanced Raman spectrum.

  13. Geology and market-dependent significance of rare earth element resources

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simandl, G. J.

    2014-12-01

    China started to produce rare earth elements (REEs) in the 1980s, and since the mid-1990s, it has become the dominant producer. Rare earth element export quotas first introduced by the Chinese government in the early 2000s were severely reduced in 2010 and 2011. This led to strong government-created disparity between prices within China and the rest of the world. Industrialized countries identified several REEs as strategic metals. Because of rapid price increases of REE outside of China, we have witnessed a world-scale REE exploration rush. The REE resources are concentrated in carbonatite-related deposits, peralkaline igneous rocks, pegmatites, monazite ± apatite veins, ion adsorption clays, placers, and some deep ocean sediments. REE could also be derived as a by-product of phosphate fertilizer production, U processing, mining of Ti-Zr-bearing placers, and exploitation of Olympic Dam subtype iron oxide copper gold (IOCG) deposits. Currently, REEs are produced mostly from carbonatite-related deposits, but ion adsorption clay deposits are an important source of heavy REE (HREE). Small quantities of REE are derived from placer deposits and one peralkaline intrusion-related deposit. The ideal REE development targets would be located in a politically stable jurisdiction with a pro-mining disposition such as Canada and Australia. REE grade, HREE/light REE (LREE) ratio of the mineralization, tonnage, mineralogy, and permissive metallurgy are some of the key technical factors that could be used to screen potential development projects. As REEs are considered strategic metals from economic, national security, and environmental points of view, technical and economic parameters alone are unlikely to be used in REE project development decision-making. Recycling of REE is in its infancy and unless legislated, in the short term, it is not expected to contribute significantly to the supply of REE.

  14. Topography evolution of rough-surface metallic substrates by solution deposition planarization method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chu, Jingyuan; Zhao, Yue; Liu, Linfei; Wu, Wei; Zhang, Zhiwei; Hong, Zhiyong; Li, Yijie; Jin, Zhijian

    2018-01-01

    As an emerging technique for surface smoothing, solution deposition planarization (SDP) has recently drawn more attention on the fabrication of the second generation high temperature superconducting (2G-HTS) tapes. In our work, a number of amorphous oxide layers were deposited on electro-polished or mirror-rolled metallic substrates by chemical solution route. Topography evolution of surface defects on these two types of metallic substrates was thoroughly investigated by atomic force microscopy (AFM). It was showed that root mean square roughness values (at 50 × 50 μm2 scanning scale) on both rough substrates reduced to ∼5 nm after coating with SDP-layer. The smoothing effect was mainly attributed to decrease of the depth at grain boundary grooving on the electro-polished metallic substrate. On the mirror-rolled metallic substrates, the amplitude and frequency of the height fluctuation perpendicular to the rolling direction were gradually reduced as depositing more numbers of SDP-layer. A high Jc value of 4.17 MA cm-2 (at 77 K, s.f.) was achieved on a full stack of YBCO/CeO2/IBAD-MgO/SDP-layer/C276 sample. This study enhanced understanding of the topography evolution on the surface defects covered by the SDP-layer, and demonstrated a low-cost route for fabricating IBAD-MgO based YBCO templates with a simplified architecture.

  15. Stiffness management of sheet metal parts using laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bambach, Markus; Sviridov, Alexander; Weisheit, Andreas

    2017-10-01

    Tailored blanks are established solutions for the production of load-adapted sheet metal components. In the course of the individualization of production, such semi-finished products are gaining importance. In addition to tailored welded blanks and tailored rolled blanks, patchwork blanks have been developed which allow a local increase in sheet thickness by welding, gluing or soldering patches onto sheet metal blanks. Patchwork blanks, however, have several limitations, on the one hand, the limited freedom of design in the production of patchwork blanks and, on the other hand, the fact that there is no optimum material bonding with the substrate. The increasing production of derivative and special vehicles on the basis of standard vehicles, prototype production and the functionalization of components require solutions with which semi-finished products and sheet metal components can be provided flexibly with local thickenings or functional elements with a firm metallurgical bond to the substrate. An alternative to tailored and patchwork blanks is, therefore, a free-form reinforcement applied by additive manufacturing via laser metal deposition (LMD). By combining metal forming and additive manufacturing, stiffness can be adapted to the loads based on standard components in a material-efficient manner and without the need to redesign the forming tools. This paper details a study of the potential of stiffness management by LMD using a demonstrator part. Sizing optimization is performed and part distortion is taken into account to find an optimal design for the cladding. A maximum stiffness increase of 167% is feasible with only 4.7% additional mass. Avoiding part distortion leads to a pareto-optimal design which achieves 95% more stiffness with 6% added mass.

  16. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Shanthi, M.; Dept. of Mechanical Engineering, National University of Singapore, Singapore 117576; Gupta, M.

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their lowmore » density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.« less

  17. Producing Magnesium Metallic Glass By Disintegrated Melt Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shanthi, M.; Gupta, M.; Jarfors, A. E. W.; Tan, M. J.

    2011-01-01

    Bulk metallic glasses are new class of engineering materials that exhibit high resistance to crystallization in the under cooled liquid state. The development of bulk metallic glasses of thickness 1cm or less has opened new doors for fundamental studies of both liquid state and glass transition previously not feasible in metallic materials. Moreover, bulk metallic glasses exhibit superior hardness, strength, specific strength, and elastic strain limit, along with good corrosion and wear resistance. Thus they are potential candidates in various sports, structural, engineering and medical applications. Among several BMGs investigated, magnesium-based BMGs have attracted considerable attention because of their low density and superior mechanical properties. The major drawback of this magnesium based BMGs is poor ductility. This can be overcome by the addition of ductile particles/reinforcement to the matrix. In this study, a new technique named disintegrated melt deposition technique was used to synthesize magnesium based BMGs. Rods of different sizes are cast using the current method. Mechanical characterization studies revealed that the amorphous rods produced by the current technique showed superior mechanical properties.

  18. Transoceanic transport of metals and deposition in the Southeastern United States

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Holmes, C. W.

    2003-12-01

    Saharan dust is persistently being transported and deposited in ecosystems of the western Atlantic Ocean. Satellite photos reveal that this dust is transported in tropospheric low-pressure waves that cross the central Atlantic Ocean. This dust is an aggregate of clay and quartz particles cemented with iron oxides. Analysis of dust samples collected from Mali (central Africa), the Azores, the Caribbean and the Eastern United States show that metal concentrations are significantly higher than average crustal rocks. Over the past decade, there has been a significant effort to understand the cycling of mercury in south Florida, but other metals has received very little attention. Trace metal measurements on the ombrogeneous sediment formed during the last decade in south Florida indicates that metals can be correlated with aluminum, which is considered a proxy for dust. The largest available aerosol data set is provided by the IMPROVE (Interagency Monitoring of Protected Visual Environments) program. Focusing on arsenic as an example, the average concentration in aerosols collected during this program range from 17 mg/kg in the Virgin Islands to 79 mg/kg at Chassahowitzka, Florida. At Chassahowitzka, most of the arsenic appears to be associated with organic carbon. If it is assumed that the concentrations in Mali dust and in the aerosols in the Virgin Islands are indicative of soil dust, then the higher values at Chassahowitzka are most likely derived from local or regional sources. A simple calculation indicates that African dust supplies about 25 % of the arsenic deposited from aerosols in the southeastern United States. Comparison of the average yearly arsenic concentrations measured in the Virgin Islands and Everglades shows a negative relationship with the North Atlantic Oscillation Index (NAO). This relationship demonstrates the influence of climate on the transport and deposition of aerosols with associated metals to the southeastern United States.

  19. Soluble Nutrient and Trace Metal Fluxes from Aerosol Dry Deposition to Elkhorn Slough, CA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gray, E. T.; Paytan, A.; Haskins, J.

    2009-12-01

    Atmospheric deposition has been widely recognized as a source of pollutants and nutrients to coastal ecosystems. Specifically, deposition includes nitrogen compounds, sulfur compounds, mercury, pesticides, phosphate, trace metals and other toxic compounds that can travel great distances in aerosols. These components can come from both natural (volcanoes, mineral dust, forest fires) and anthropogenic (fossil fuels, chemical byproducts, incineration of waste) sources. These pollutants may affect ecosystem health and water quality with environmental impacts such as eutrophication, contaminated fish and harmful algal blooms. In this study we focus on dry deposition to Elkhorn Slough, California. Size fractionated aerosol samples (PM 2.5 and PM 10) collected continuously over a seven day period using a cascade impactor are used along with a deposition model to determine the soluble nutrient and trace metal fluxes on the Elkhorn Slough ecosystem. Atmospheric deposition inputs will be compared to other sources and their potential impact evaluated.

  20. Ground-state properties of rare-earth metals: an evaluation of density-functional theory.

    PubMed

    Söderlind, Per; Turchi, P E A; Landa, A; Lordi, V

    2014-10-15

    The rare-earth metals have important technological applications due to their magnetic properties, but are scarce and expensive. Development of high-performance magnetic materials with less rare-earth content is desired, but theoretical modeling is hampered by complexities of the rare earths electronic structure. The existence of correlated (atomic-like) 4f electrons in the vicinity of the valence band makes any first-principles theory challenging. Here, we apply and evaluate the efficacy of density-functional theory for the series of lanthanides (rare earths), investigating the influence of the electron exchange and correlation functional, spin-orbit interaction, and orbital polarization. As a reference, the results are compared with those of the so-called 'standard model' of the lanthanides in which electrons are constrained to occupy 4f core states with no hybridization with the valence electrons. Some comparisons are also made with models designed for strong electron correlations. Our results suggest that spin-orbit coupling and orbital polarization are important, particularly for the magnitude of the magnetic moments, and that calculated equilibrium volumes, bulk moduli, and magnetic moments show correct trends overall. However, the precision of the calculated properties is not at the level of that found for simpler metals in the Periodic Table of Elements, and the electronic structures do not accurately reproduce x-ray photoemission spectra.

  1. Thermodynamic Investigation of the Reduction-Distillation Process for Rare Earth Metals Production

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Judge, W. D.; Azimi, G.

    2017-10-01

    Owing to their high vapor pressure, the four rare earth metals samarium, europium, thulium, and ytterbium are produced by reduction-distillation whereby their oxides are reduced with metallic lanthanum in vacuo, and the produced metal is subsequently vaporized off. Here, we performed a thorough thermodynamic investigation to establish a fundamental understanding of the reduction-distillation process. Thermodynamic functions including vapor pressures, Gibbs free energies, and enthalpies of reaction were calculated and compared with available experimental data. Furthermore, the kinetics of the process was explored and theoretical evaporation rates were calculated from thermodynamic data. The thermodynamic model developed in this work can help optimize processing conditions to maximize the yield and improve the overall process.

  2. Analysis of heavy metals in road-deposited sediments.

    PubMed

    Herngren, Lars; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Ayoko, Godwin A

    2006-07-07

    Road-deposited sediments were analysed for heavy metal concentrations at three different landuses (residential, industrial, commercial) in Queensland State, Australia. The sediments were collected using a domestic vacuum cleaner which was proven to be highly efficient in collecting sub-micron particles. Five particle sizes were analysed separately for eight heavy metal elements (Zn, Fe, Pb, Cd, Cu, Cr, Al and Mn). At all sites, the maximum concentration of the heavy metals occurred in the 0.45-75 microm particle size range, which conventional street cleaning services do not remove efficiently. Multicriteria decision making methods (MCDM), PROMETHEE and GAIA, were employed in the data analysis. PROMETHEE, a non-parametric ranking analysis procedure, was used to rank the metal contents of the sediments sampled at each site. The most polluted site and particle size range were the industrial site and the 0.45-75 microm range, respectively. Although the industrial site displayed the highest metal concentrations, the highest heavy metal loading coincided with the highest sediment load, which occurred at the commercial site. GAIA, a special form of principal component analysis, was applied to determine correlations between the heavy metals and particle size ranges and also to assess possible correlation with total organic carbon (TOC). The GAIA-planes revealed that irrespective of the site, most of the heavy metals are adsorbed to sediments below 150 microm. A weak correlation was found between Zn, Mn and TOC at the commercial site. This could lead to higher bioavailability of these metals through complexation reactions with the organic species in the sediments.

  3. Neutron Diffraction Studies of Some Rare Earth-Transition Metal Deuterides.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1986-05-01

    RD-A168 M NEUTRON DIFFRACTION STUDIES OF SONE RARE EARTH-TRANSITION METAL DEUTERIDES(U) MISSOURI UNIV-ROLLR MATERIALS RESEARCH CENTER N J JAMES MY 86...REPORT William J. James OTtO -il May 1986 ZLECTEJU U. S. Army Research Office DAAG29-83-K-01 59 ".;’ Graduate Center for Materials Research ...9. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME AND ADDRESS 10. PROGRAM ELEMENT, PROJECT. TASK AREA & WORK UNIT NUMBERS 2* Graduate Center for Materials Research

  4. New technology of extracting the amount of rare earth metals from the red mud

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martoyan, G. A.; Karamyan, G. G.; Vardan, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    The paper outlined the environmental and economic problems associated with red mud - the waste generated in processing of bauxite ore for aluminum production. The chemical analysis of red mud has identified a number of useful elements including rare earth metals. The electromembrane technology of red mud processing with extraction of valuable elements is described. A possible scheme of separation of these metals through electrolysis is also given.

  5. The Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Anatase TiO₂ with Rare Earth Metal Dopants from First-Principles Calculations.

    PubMed

    Xie, Kefeng; Jia, Qiangqiang; Wang, Yizhe; Zhang, Wenxue; Xu, Jingcheng

    2018-01-24

    The electronic and optical properties of the rare earth metal atom-doped anatase TiO₂ have been investigated systematically via density functional theory calculations. The results show that TiO₂ doped by Ce or Pr is the optimal choice because of its small band gap and strong optical absorption. Rare earth metal atom doping induces several impurity states that tune the location of valence and conduction bands and an obvious lattice distortion that should reduce the probability of electron-hole recombination. This effect of band change originates from the 4 f electrons of the rare earth metal atoms, which leads to an improved visible light absorption. This finding indicates that the electronic structure of anatase TiO₂ is tuned by the introduction of impurity atoms.

  6. Synthesis and characterization of bulk metallic glasses prepared by laser direct deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ye, Xiaoyang

    Fe-based and Zr-based metallic glasses have attracted extensive interest for structural applications due to their excellent glass forming ability, superior mechanical properties, unique thermal and corrosion properties. In this study, the feasibility of synthesizing metallic glasses with good ductility by laser direct deposition is explored. Both in-situ synthesis with elemental powder mixture and ex-situ synthesis with prealloyed powder are discussed. Microstructure and properties of laser direct deposited metallic glass composites are analyzed. Synthesis of Fe-Cr-Mo-W-Mn-C-Si-B metallic glass composite with a large fraction of amorphous phase was accomplished using laser direct deposition. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy investigations revealed the existence of amorphous structure. Microstructure analyses by optical microscopy and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicated the periodically repeated microstructures of amorphous and crystalline phases. Partially crystallized structure brought by laser reheating and remelting during subsequent laser scans aggregated in the overlapping area between each scan. XRD analysis showed that the crystalline particle embedded in the amorphous matrix was Cr 1.07Fe18.93 phase. No significant microstructural differences were found from the first to the last layer. Microhardness of the amorphous phase (HV0.2 1591) showed a much higher value than that of the crystalline phase (HV0.2 947). Macrohardness of the top layer had a value close to the microhardness of the amorphous region. Wear resistance property of deposited layers showed a significant improvement with the increased fraction of amorphous phase. Zr65Al10Ni10Cu15 amorphous composites with a large fraction of amorphous phase were in-situ synthesized by laser direct deposition. X-ray diffraction confirmed the existence of both amorphous and crystalline phases. Laser parameters were optimized in order to increase the fraction of amorphous phase

  7. Biomagnetic monitoring of heavy metals contamination in deposited atmospheric dust, a case study from Isfahan, Iran.

    PubMed

    Norouzi, Samira; Khademi, Hossein; Cano, Angel Faz; Acosta, Jose A

    2016-05-15

    Tree leaves are considered as one of the best biogenic dust collectors due to their ability to trap and retain particulate matter on their surfaces. In this study, the magnetic susceptibility (MS) and the concentration of selected heavy metals of plane tree (Platanus orientalis L.) leaves and deposited atmospheric dust, sampled by an indirect and a direct method, respectively, were determined to investigate the relationships between leaf magnetic parameters and the concentration of heavy metals in deposited atmospheric dust. The objective was to develop a biomagnetic method as an alternative to the common ones used for determining atmospheric heavy metal contaminations. Plane tree leaves were monthly sampled on the 19th of May to November, 2012 (T1-T7), for seven months from 21 different sites in the city of Isfahan, central Iran. Deposited atmospheric dust samples were also collected using flat glass surfaces from the same sites on the same dates, except for T1. MS (χlf, χhf) values in washed (WL) and unwashed leaves (UL) as well as Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn concentrations in UL and deposited atmospheric dust samples were determined. The results showed that the MS content with a biogenic source was low with almost no significant change during the sampling period, while an increasing trend was observed in the MS content of UL samples due to the deposition of heavy metals and magnetic particles on leaf surfaces throughout the plant growth. The latter type of MS content could be reduced through washing off by rain. Most heavy metals examined, as well as the Tomlinson pollution load index (PLI) in UL, showed statistically significant correlations with MS values. The correlation between heavy metals content in atmospheric dust deposited on glass surfaces and leaf MS values was significant for Cu, Fe, Pb, and Zn. Moreover, the similarity observed between the spatial distribution maps of leaf MS and deposited atmospheric dust PLI provided convincing evidence regarding

  8. Mechanism of deposit formation on fuel-wetted metal surfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Stavinoha, L.L.; Westbrook, S.R.; McInnis, L.A.

    1995-05-01

    Experiments were performed in a Single-Tube Heat Exchanger (STHE) apparatus and a Hot Liquid Process Simulator (HLPS) configured and operated to meet Jet Fuel Thermal Oxidation Tester (JFTOT) ASTM D 3241 requirements. The HLPS-JFTOT heater tubes used were 1018 mild steel, 316 stainless steel (SS), 304 stainless steel (SS), and 304 SS tubes coated with aluminum, magnesium, gold, and copper. A low-sulfur Jet A fuel with a breakpoint temperature of 254{degrees}C was used to create deposits on the heater tubes at temperatures of 300{degrees}C, 340{degrees}C, and 380{degrees}C. Deposit thickness was measured by dielectric breakdown voltage and Auger ion milling. Pronouncedmore » differences between the deposit thickness measuring techniques suggested that both the Auger milling rate and the dielectric strength of the deposit may be affected by deposit morphology/composition (such as metal ions that may have become included in the bulk of the deposit). Carbon burnoff data were obtained as a means of judging the validity of DMD-derived deposit evaluations. ESCA data suggest that the thinnest deposit was on the magnesium-coated test tube. The Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM) photographs showed marked variations in the deposit morphology and the results suggested that surface composition has a significant effect on the mechanism of deposition. The most dramatic effect observed was that the bulk of deposits moved to tube locations of lower temperature as the maximum temperature of the tube was increased from 300{degrees} to 380{degrees}C, also verified in a single-tube heat exchanger. The results indicate that the deposition rate and quantity at elevated temperatures is not completely temperature dependent, but is limited by the concentration of dissolved oxygen and/or reactive components in the fuel over a temperature range.« less

  9. Intrinsic hydrophilic nature of epitaxial thin-film of rare-earth oxide grown by pulsed laser deposition.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Saurav; Ghosh, Siddhartha; Patra, Abhijeet; Annamalai, Meenakshi; Motapothula, Mallikarjuna Rao; Sarkar, Soumya; Tan, Sherman J R; Zhunan, Jia; Loh, Kian Ping; Venkatesan, T

    2018-02-15

    Herein, we report a systematic study of water contact angle (WCA) of rare-earth oxide thin-films. These ultra-smooth and epitaxial thin-films were grown using pulsed laser deposition and then characterized using X-Ray diffraction (XRD), Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), and atomic force microscopy (AFM). Through both the traditional sessile drop and the novel f-d method, we found that the films were intrinsically hydrophilic (WCA < 10°) just after being removed from the growth chamber, but their WCAs evolved with an exposure to the atmosphere with time to reach their eventual saturation values near 90° (but always stay 'technically' hydrophilic). X-Ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis was used to further investigate qualitatively the nature of hydrocarbon contamination on the freshly prepared as well as the environmentally exposed REO thin-film samples as a function of the exposure time after they were removed from the deposition chamber. A clear correlation between the carbon coverage of the surface and the increase in WCA was observed for all of the rare-earth films, indicating the extrinsic nature of the surface wetting properties of these films and having no relation to the electronic configuration of the rare-earth atoms as proposed by Azimi et al.

  10. The Early Jurassic Bokan Mountain peralkaline granitic complex (southeastern Alaska): geochemistry, petrogenesis and rare-metal mineralization

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Dostal, Jaroslav; Kontak, Daniel J.; Karl, Susan M.

    2014-01-01

    The Early Jurassic (ca. 177 Ma) Bokan Mountain granitic complex, located on southern Prince of Wales Island, southernmost Alaska, cross-cuts Paleozoic igneous and metasedimentary rocks of the Alexander terrane of the North American Cordillera and was emplaced during a rifting event. The complex is a circular body (~3 km in diameter) of peralkaline granitic composition that has a core of arfvedsonite granite surrounded by aegirine granite. All the rock-forming minerals typically record a two-stage growth history and aegirine and arfvedsonite were the last major phases to crystalize from the magma. The Bokan granites and related dikes have SiO2 from 72 to 78 wt. %, high iron (FeO (tot) ~3-4.5 wt. %) and alkali (8-10 wt.%) concentrations with high FeO(tot)/(FeO(tot)+MgO) ratios (typically >0.95) and the molar Al2O3/(Na2O+K2O) ratio Nd values which are indicative of a mantle signature. The parent magma is inferred to be derived from an earlier metasomatized lithospheric mantle by low degrees of partial melting and generated the Bokan granitic melt through extensive fractional crystallization. The Bokan complex hosts significant rare-metal (REE, Y, U, Th, Nb) mineralization that is related to the late-stage crystallization history of the complex which involved the overlap of emplacement of felsic dikes, including pegmatite bodies, and generation of orthomagmatic fluids. The abundances of REE, HFSE, U and Th as well as Pb and Nd isotopic values of the pluton and dikes were modified by orthomagmatic hydrothermal fluids highly enriched in the strongly incompatible trace elements, which also escaped along zones of structural weakness to generate rare-metal mineralization. The latter was deposited in two stages: the first relates to the latest stage of magma emplacement and is associated with felsic dikes that intruded along the faults and shear deformations, whereas the second stage involved ingress of hydrothermal fluids that both remobilized and enriched the initial

  11. Effects of specific surface area of metallic nickel particles on carbon deposition kinetics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Zhi-yuan; Bian, Liu-zhen; Yu, Zi-you; Wang, Li-jun; Li, Fu-shen; Chou, Kuo-Chih

    2018-02-01

    Carbon deposition on nickel powders in methane involves three stages in different reaction temperature ranges. Temperature programing oxidation test and Raman spectrum results indicated the formation of complex and ordered carbon structures at high deposition temperatures. The values of I(D)/ I(G) of the deposited carbon reached 1.86, 1.30, and 1.22 in the first, second, and third stages, respectively. The structure of carbon in the second stage was similar to that in the third stage. Carbon deposited in the first stage rarely contained homogeneous pyrolytic deposit layers. A kinetic model was developed to analyze the carbon deposition behavior in the first stage. The rate-determining step of the first stage is supposed to be interfacial reaction. Based on the investigation of carbon deposition kinetics on nickel powders from different resources, carbon deposition rate is suggested to have a linear relation with the square of specific surface area of nickel particles.

  12. Experimental skin deposition of chromium on the hands following handling of samples of leather and metal.

    PubMed

    Bregnbak, David; Thyssen, Jacob P; Jellesen, Morten S; Zachariae, Claus; Johansen, Jeanne D

    2016-08-01

    Chromium is an important skin sensitizer. Exposure to it has been regulated in cement, and recently in leather. Studies on the deposition of chromium ions on the skin as a result of handling different chromium-containing materials are sparse, but could improve the risk assessment of contact sensitization and allergic contact dermatitis caused by chromium. To determine whether the handling of chromium-containing samples of leather and metal results in the deposition of chromium onto the skin. Five healthy volunteers participated. For 30 min, they handled samples of leather and metal known to contain and release chromium. Skin deposition of chromium was assessed with the acid wipe sampling technique. Acid wipe sampling of the participants' fingers showed chromium deposition on the skin in all participants who had been exposed to leather (range 0.01-0.20 µg/cm(2) ) and in 3 of 5 participants after they had manually handled metal discs (range 0.02-0.04 µg/cm(2) ). We found that samples of leather and metal had the ability to deposit chromium on the skin at significant levels, in spite of a short duration of exposure. © 2016 John Wiley & Sons A/S. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  13. Characterization of metal binding sites onto biochar using rare earth elements as a fingerprint.

    PubMed

    Pourret, Olivier; Houben, David

    2018-02-01

    The ability of biochar to immobilize metals relies on the amount of functional groups at its surface but the contribution of each functional groups (e.g. carboxylic, phenolic) to metal bonding is poorly known. Using a new approach based on previous works on rare earth element (REE) interactions with humic substances, we aim at elucidating the relative contribution of these binding sites to metal sorption under various conditions (i.e. pH and ionic strengths, IS). Using batch experiments, REE sorption onto biochar was analyzed from pH 3 to 9 and IS 10 -1 mol/L to 10 -3 mol/L. Rare earth element patterns show a Middle REE (MREE) downward concavity at acidic pH and low ionic strength. These patterns are in good agreement with existing datasets quantifying REE binding with humic substances. Indeed, the MREE downward concavity displayed by REE-biochar complexation pattern compares well with REE patterns with various organic compounds. This similarity in the REE complexation pattern shapes suggests that carboxylic groups are the main binding sites of REE in biochar. Overall, our results indicate that the strength of the metal bonding with biochar increases when pH and IS increase, suggesting that biochar is more efficient for long-term metal immobilization at near neutral pH and high ionic strength.

  14. A Geochemical Analysis of Rare Earth Elements Associated with Significant Phosphate Deposits of West-Central Florida

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, K. M.; Owens, J. D.

    2017-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) such as the lanthanide series as well as yttrium, uranium, and thorium are an important industrial resource for expanding technological sectors; therefore, demand and production will continue to increase. Increased market prices resulting in decreased demand has led to new exploration for REE mineral resources in North America. Phosphorite deposits are being investigated as a possible supply but the overall concentrations, depositional environments, and ages are relatively unexplored. Phosphorite is commonly associated with ocean floor sediment deposition and upwelling; however, it may also form in estuarine and supratidal zones with low wave activity, present along Florida's west coast. Interestingly, it seems that major ancient phosphorite deposits are often, if not always, associated with major icehouse conditions (widespread glaciations) and rarely observed during greenhouse conditions. By analyzing a set of sonic drill cores, spatiotemporal REE concentrations can be better constrained for a wide-age range of the Miocene-Pliocene aged Bone Valley Member of the Peace River Formation, the largest North American phosphate deposit. We present concentrations from a depth-transect of samples collected in West-Central Florida, showing the phosphatic sands and silts of the area are highly enriched sedimentary archives for REE, yielding concentrations up to 200 ppm for some REE. The weathering and transport of igneous and metamorphic minerals from the southern Appalachians to the Florida coast where a series of winnowing events occurred may explain the enrichment seen by our data. Sediment cores showing well-rounded quartz sands, dolomitic silts, teeth, bones, and marine fossils commonly found in a near shore depositional environment support this hypothesis. Previous analysis of phosphate grains, teeth, bones, and bulk sediment indicate REE are not associated with and/or sourcing from biogenic components, but rather entering the lattice

  15. High-temperature corrosion of metals in the salt and metallic melts containing rare earths

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karpov, V. V.; Abramov, A. V.; Zhilyakov, A. Yu.; Belikov, S. V.; Volkovich, V. A.; Polovov, I. B.; Rebrin, O. I.

    2016-09-01

    A complex of independent methods was employed to study the corrosion resistance of molybdenum, zirconium, tantalum and tungsten in chloride, chloride-fluoride and fluoride-oxide melts based on LiCl, CaCl2, NaCl- KCl, LiF, and containing rare earths. Tests were conducted for 30 h at 750-1050 °C. The metals showed excellent corrosion resistance in fused chlorides (the corrosion rates were below 0.0005 g/(m2 h). Despite the presence of chemically active fluoride ions in the chloride-fluoride melts, the metals studied also showed very low corrosion rates, except molybdenum, for which the rate of corrosion was 0,8 g/(m2 h). The corrosion resistance of tantalum was considerably reduced in the fluoride-oxide melts; the corrosion rate was over 1 g/(m2 h) corresponding to the 8-th grade of stability and placing tantalum to the group of "low stability" materials.

  16. Effects of deposition temperature and ammonia flow on metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of hexagonal boron nitride

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rice, Anthony; Allerman, Andrew; Crawford, Mary; Beechem, Thomas; Ohta, Taisuke; Spataru, Catalin; Figiel, Jeffrey; Smith, Michael

    2018-03-01

    The use of metal-organic chemical vapor deposition at high temperature is investigated as a means to produce epitaxial hexagonal boron nitride (hBN) at the wafer scale. Several categories of hBN films were found to exist based upon precursor flows and deposition temperature. Low, intermediate, and high NH3 flow regimes were found to lead to fundamentally different deposition behaviors. The low NH3 flow regimes yielded discolored films of boron sub-nitride. The intermediate NH3 flow regime yielded stoichiometric films that could be deposited as thick films. The high NH3 flow regime yielded self-limited deposition with thicknesses limited to a few mono-layers. A Langmuir-Hinshelwood mechanism is proposed to explain the onset of self-limited behavior for the high NH3 flow regime. Photoluminescence characterization determined that the intermediate and high NH3 flow regimes could be further divided into low and high temperature behaviors with a boundary at 1500 °C. Films deposited with both high NH3 flow and high temperature exhibited room temperature free exciton emission at 210 nm and 215.9 nm.

  17. Nitride passivation reduces interfacial traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al2O3/GaAs (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aoki, T.; Fukuhara, N.; Osada, T.; Sazawa, H.; Hata, M.; Inoue, T.

    2014-07-01

    Using an atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system, we passivated GaAs with AlN prior to atomic layer deposition of Al2O3. This AlN passivation incorporated nitrogen at the Al2O3/GaAs interface, improving the capacitance-voltage (C-V) characteristics of the resultant metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs). The C-V curves of these devices showed a remarkable reduction in the frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Using the conductance method at various temperatures, we extracted the interfacial density of states (Dit). The Dit was reduced over the entire GaAs band gap. In particular, these devices exhibited Dit around the midgap of less than 4 × 1012 cm-2eV-1, showing that AlN passivation effectively reduced interfacial traps in the MOS structure.

  18. A measurement of summertime dry deposition of ambient air particulates and associated metallic pollutants in Central Taiwan.

    PubMed

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chiang, Hung-Che; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Xiao, You-Fu; Wu, Chia-Ming; Kuo, Yu-Chen

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study is to characterize metallic elements associated with atmospheric particulate matter in the dry deposition plate, total suspended particulate, fine particles, and coarse particles at Taichung Harbor and Gong Ming Junior High School (airport) in central Taiwan at a sampling site from June 2013 to August 2013. The results indicated that: (1) the average concentrations of the metallic elements Cr and Cd were highest at the Gong Ming Junior High School (airport), and the average concentrations of the metallic elements Ni, Cu, and Pb were highest at the Taichung Harbor sampling site. (2) The high smelting industry density and export/import rate of heavily loaded cargos were the main reasons leading to these findings. (3) The average metallic element dry deposition and metallic element PM(2.5-10) all followed the order of Pb > Cr > Cu > Ni > Cd at the two sampling sites. However, the average metallic elements Cu and Pb were found to have the highest dry deposition velocities and concentrations in PM(2.5) for the two sampling sites in this study. (4) The correlation coefficients of ambient air particle dry deposition and concentration with wind speed at the airport were higher than those from the harbor sampling site. The wind and broad open spaces at Taichung Airport were the possible reasons for the increasing correlation coefficients for ambient air particle concentration and dry deposition with wind speed at the Taichung Airport sampling site.

  19. The Corrosion Protection of Metals by Ion Vapor Deposited Aluminum

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Danford, M. D.

    1993-01-01

    A study of the corrosion protection of substrate metals by ion vapor deposited aluminum (IVD Al) coats has been carried out. Corrosion protection by both anodized and unanodized IVD Al coats has been investigated. Base metals included in the study were 2219-T87 Al, 7075-T6 Al, Titanium-6 Al-4 Vanadium (Ti-6Al-4V), 4130 steel, D6AC steel, and 4340 steel. Results reveal that the anodized IVD Al coats provide excellent corrosion protection, but good protection is also achieved by IVD Al coats that have not been anodized.

  20. A mini-review on rare earth metal-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic remediation of wastewater.

    PubMed

    Saqib, Najm Us; Adnan, Rohana; Shah, Irfan

    2016-08-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) has been considered a useful material for the treatment of wastewater due to its non-toxic character, chemical stability and excellent electrical and optical properties which contribute in its wide range of applications, particularly in environmental remediation technology. However, the wide band gap of TiO2 photocatalyst (anatase phase, 3.20 eV) limits its photocatalytic activity to the ultraviolet region of light. Besides that, the electron-hole pair recombination has been found to reduce the efficiency of the photocatalyst. To overcome these problems, tailoring of TiO2 surface with rare earth metals to improve its surface, optical and photocatalytic properties has been investigated by many researchers. The surface modifications with rare earth metals proved to enhance the efficiency of TiO2 photocatalyts by way of reducing the band gap by shifting the working wavelength to the visible region and inhibiting the anatase-to-rutile phase transformations. This review paper summarises the attempts on modification of TiO2 using rare earth metals describing their effect on the photocatalytic activities of the modified TiO2 photocatalyst.

  1. Effect of carbon and manganese on the microstructure and mechanical properties of 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jian; Rong, Lijian; Li, Dianzhong; Lu, Shanping

    2017-03-01

    Six 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals with different carbon and manganese contents have been studied to reveal the role of major elements, which guide for the design of welding consumables for reduced activation ferritic/martensitic steel and meet for the requirements of accelerator driven systems-lead fusion reactors. The typical microstructure for the 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals is the lath martensite along with the fine stripe δ-ferrite. The chemical compositions influence the solidification sequence and therefore, change the δ-ferrite content in the deposited metal. The impact toughness for the 9Cr2WVTa deposited metals decreases remarkably when the δ-ferrite content is more than 5.2 vol%, also the impact toughness decreases owing to the high quenching martensite formation. Increasing the level of manganese addition, α phase of each alloy shifts to the bottom right according to the CCT diagram.

  2. Dual Functionalization of White Phosphorus: Formation, Characterization, and Reactivity of Rare-Earth-Metal Cyclo-P3 Complexes.

    PubMed

    Du, Shanshan; Yin, Jianhao; Chi, Yue; Xu, Ling; Zhang, Wen-Xiong

    2017-12-11

    The [3+1] fragmentation reaction of rare-earth metallacyclopentadienes 1 a-c with 0.5 equivalents of P 4 affords a series of rare-earth metal cyclo-P 3 complexes 2 a-c and a phospholyl anion 3. 2 a-c demonstrate an unusual η 3 coordination mode with one P-P bond featuring partial π-bonding character. 2 a-c are the first cyclo-P 3 complexes of rare-earth metals, and also the first organo-substituted polyphosphides in the category of Group 3 and f-block elements. Rare-earth metallacyclopentadienes play a dual role in the combination of aromatization and Diels-Alder reaction. Compounds 2 a-c can coordinate to one or two [W(CO) 5 ] units, yielding 4 a-c or 5 c, respectively. Furthermore, oxidation of 2 a with p-benzoquinone produces its corresponding phospholyllithium and regenerated P 4 . © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  3. Polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD): a full-solution strategy for flexible, stretchable, compressible, and wearable metal conductors.

    PubMed

    Yu, You; Yan, Casey; Zheng, Zijian

    2014-08-20

    Metal interconnects, contacts, and electrodes are indispensable elements for most applications of flexible, stretchable, and wearable electronics. Current fabrication methods for these metal conductors are mainly based on conventional microfabrication procedures that have been migrated from Si semiconductor industries, which face significant challenges for organic-based compliant substrates. This Research News highlights a recently developed full-solution processing strategy, polymer-assisted metal deposition (PAMD), which is particularly suitable for the roll-to-roll, low-cost fabrication of high-performance compliant metal conductors (Cu, Ni, Ag, and Au) on a wide variety of organic substrates including plastics, elastomers, papers, and textiles. This paper presents i) the principles of PAMD, and how to use it for making ii) flexible, stretchable, and wearable conductive metal electrodes, iii) patterned metal interconnects, and d) 3D stretchable and compressible metal sponges. A critical perspective on this emerging strategy is also provided. © 2014 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  4. Metal ions differentially influence the aggregation and deposition of Alzheimer's beta-amyloid on a solid template.

    PubMed

    Ha, Chanki; Ryu, Jungki; Park, Chan Beum

    2007-05-22

    The abnormal deposition and aggregation of beta-amyloid (Abeta) on brain tissues are considered to be one of the characteristic neuropathological features of Alzheimer's disease (AD). Environmental conditions such as metal ions, pH, and cell membranes are associated with Abeta deposition and plaque formation. According to the amyloid cascade hypothesis of AD, the deposition of Abeta42 oligomers as diffuse plaques in vivo is an important earliest event, leading to the formation of fibrillar amyloid plaques by the further accumulation of soluble Abeta under certain environmental conditions. In order to characterize the effect of metal ions on amyloid deposition and plaque growth on a solid surface, we prepared a synthetic template by immobilizing Abeta oligomers onto a N-hydroxysuccinimide ester-activated solid surface. According to our study using ex situ atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and thioflavin T (ThT) fluorescence spectroscopy, Cu2+ and Zn2+ ions accelerated both Abeta40 and Abeta42 deposition but resulted only in the formation of "amorphous" aggregates. In contrast, Fe3+ induced the deposition of "fibrillar" amyloid plaques at neutral pH. Under mildly acidic environments, the formation of fibrillar amyloid plaques was not induced by any metal ion tested in this work. Using secondary ion mass spectroscopy (SIMS) analysis, we found that binding Cu ions to Abeta deposits on a solid template occurred by the possible reduction of Cu ions during the interaction of Abeta with Cu2+. Our results may provide insights into the role of metal ions on the formation of fibrillar or amorphous amyloid plaques in AD.

  5. Heavy metals in bark of Pinus massoniana (Lamb.) as an indicator of atmospheric deposition near a smeltery at Qujiang, China.

    PubMed

    Kuang, Yuan Wen; Zhou, Guo Yi; Da Wen, Zhi; Liu, Shi Zhong

    2007-06-01

    Rapid urbanization and the expansion of industrial activities in the past several decades have led to large increases in emissions of pollutants in the Pearl River Delta of south China. Recent reports have suggested that industrial emission is a major factor contributing to the damages in current natural ecosystem in the Delta area. Tree barks have been used successfully to monitor the levels of atmospheric metal deposition in many areas, but rarely in China. This study aimed at determining whether atmospheric heavy metal deposition from a Pb-Zn smeltery at Qujiang, Guangdong province, could be accurately reflected both in the inner bark and the outer bark of Masson pine (Pinus massoniana L.). The impact of the emission from smeltery on the soils beneath the trees and the relationships of the concentrations between the soils and the barks were also analyzed. Barks around the bole of Pinus massoniana from a pine forest near a Pb-Zn smeltery at Qujiang and a reference forest at Dinghushan natural reserve were sampled with a stainless knife at an average height of 1.5 m above the ground. Mosses and lichens on the surface barks were cleaned prior to sampling. The samples were carefully divided into the inner bark (living part) and the outer bark (dead part) in the laboratory, and dried and ground, respectively. After being dry-ashed, the powder of the barks was dissolved in HNO3. The solutions were analyzed for iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), copper (Cu), zinc (Zn), chromium (Cr), nickel (Ni) and cobalt (Co) by inductively coupled plasmas emission spectrometry (ICP, PS-1000AT, USA) and Cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) by graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (GFAAS, ZEENIT 60, Germany). Surface soils (0-10 cm) beneath the sample trees were also collected and analyzed for the selected metals. Concentrations of the selected metals in soils at Qujiang were far above their environmental background values in the area, except for Fe and Mn, whilst at Dinghushan, they were far

  6. Rare-earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Van Gosen, Bradley S.; Verplanck, Philip L.; Seal, Robert R.; Long, Keith R.; Gambogi, Joseph; Schulz, Klaus J.; DeYoung,, John H.; Seal, Robert R.; Bradley, Dwight C.

    2017-12-19

    The rare-earth elements (REEs) are 15 elements that range in atomic number from 57 (lanthanum) to 71 (lutetium); they are commonly referred to as the “lanthanides.” Yttrium (atomic number 39) is also commonly regarded as an REE because it shares chemical and physical similarities and has affinities with the lanthanides. Although REEs are not rare in terms of average crustal abundance, the concentrated deposits of REEs are limited in number.Because of their unusual physical and chemical properties, the REEs have diverse defense, energy, industrial, and military technology applications. The glass industry is the leading consumer of REE raw materials, which are used for glass polishing and as additives that provide color and special optical properties to the glass. Lanthanum-based catalysts are used in petroleum refining, and cerium-based catalysts are used in automotive catalytic converters. The use of REEs in magnets is a rapidly increasing application. Neodymium-iron-boron magnets, which are the strongest known type of magnets, are used when space and weight are restrictions. Nickel-metal hydride batteries use anodes made of a lanthanum-based alloys.China, which has led the world production of REEs for decades, accounted for more than 90 percent of global production and supply, on average, during the past decade. Citing a need to retain its limited REE resources to meet domestic requirements as well as concerns about the environmental effects of mining, China began placing restrictions on the supply of REEs in 2010 through the imposition of quotas, licenses, and taxes. As a result, the global rare-earth industry has increased its stockpiling of REEs; explored for deposits outside of China; and promoted new efforts to conserve, recycle, and substitute for REEs. New mine production began at Mount Weld in Western Australia, and numerous other exploration and development projects noted in this chapter are ongoing throughout the world.The REE-bearing minerals are

  7. Volatile metal deposits on lunar soils - Relation to volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.; Allen, R. O., Jr.

    1977-01-01

    Parallel leaching and volatilization experiments conducted on lunar samples and similar experiments on sphalerite do not supply the information needed to resolve the question of the chemical nature of Pb-204, Zn, Bi, and Tl deposits on lunar soil surfaces. It is proposed that in Apollo 17 mare and terra soils the fractions of Pb-204, Zn, and Tl that are insoluble under mild, hot pH 5 HNO3, leaching conditions and involatile at 600 C were originally surface deposits which became immobilized by migration into the silicate substrate or by chemisorption. Most of the Bi does not seem to be the result of such a deposit. The implication is also that the soils, over their respective times of evolution, were exposed to heavy metal vapors or that an episodic exposure occurred after they had evolved. A sequence of events is proposed to account for orange 74220 and black 74001 glasses by lava fountaining and for soil 74241 as tephra from an explosive volcanic eruption.

  8. Scavenging of oxygen from SrTiO3 by metals and its implications for oxide thin film deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Posadas, Agham; Kormondy, Kristy; Guo, Wei; Ponath, Patrick; Kremer, Jacqueline; Hadamek, Tobias; Demkov, Alexander

    SrTiO3 is a widely used substrate for the growth of other functional oxide thin films. However, SrTiO3 loses oxygen very easily during oxide thin film deposition even under relatively high oxygen pressures. In some cases, there will be an interfacial layer of oxygen-deficient SrTiO3 formed at the interface with the deposited oxide film, depending on the metals present in the film. By depositing a variety of metals layer by layer and measuring the evolution of the core level spectra of both the deposited metal and SrTiO3 using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, we show that there are three distinct types of behavior that occur for thin metal films on SrTiO3. We discuss the implications of these types of behavior for the growth of complex oxide thin films on SrTiO3, and which oxide thin films are expected to produce an interfacial oxygen-deficient layer depending on their elemental constituents.

  9. Porphyry deposits of the Canadian Cordillera

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McMillan, W.J.; Thompson, J.F.H.; Hart, C.J.R.; Johnston, S.T.

    1996-01-01

    outboard host arc and related terranes accreted to the western margin of North America. These deposits are interpreted to occur in continental arc settings, and individual deposits are hosted by a variety of older country rocks. These younger deposits also show a spectrum of metal associations: Cu-Mo (Huckleberry, Berg), Cu-Au (-Mo) (Bell, Granisle, Fish Lake, Casino), Mo (Endako, Boss Mountain, Kit-sault, Quartz Hill), Mo-W (Logtung), Au-W (Dublin Gulch) and Au (Ft. Knox). There may be a continuum between Mo, Mo-W, Au-Mo-W and Au deposits. The distribution and timing of these post-accretion deposits likely reflect major crustal structures and subduction geometry. Cordilleran porphyry metallic deposits show the full range of morphological and depth relationships found in porphyry deposits worldwide. In addition, the Cordillera contains numerous alkalic suite deposits, which are rare worldwide: the unusual, possibly syntectonic Gibraltar deposit; and end-member gold-rich granite-hosted deposits, such as Ft. Knox (Alaska).

  10. Formation of an integrated holding company to produce rare-earth metal articles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bogdanov, S. V.; Grishaev, S. I.

    2013-12-01

    The possibility of formation of a Russian holding company for the production of rare-earth metal articles under conditions of its increasing demand on the world market is considered. It is reasonable to ensure stable business operation on the market under conditions of state-private partnership after the fraction of soled products is determined and supported by the competitive advantages of Russian products.

  11. Dry atmospheric deposition rates of metals along a coastal transect in southern California

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sabin, Lisa D.; Schiff, Kenneth C.

    While recent studies indicate atmospheric deposition is a significant source of metals to the Santa Monica Bay and coastal river systems of the Los Angeles area, the spatial extent of the atmospheric source along the entire southern California coast has not been measured in 30 years. This study provides measurements of dry atmospheric deposition of chromium, copper, lead, nickel and zinc at eight sites located along the coast between Santa Barbara and San Diego, and compares these data to historic measurements from the 1970s. Median dry deposition fluxes across sites ranged between 0.23 and 3.6 (chromium), 0.21 and 5.4 (nickel), 0.52 and 14 (lead), 0.89 and 29 (copper), and 4.8 and 160 (zinc) μg m -2 day -1. Differences in metal dry deposition rates observed between sites were dominated by proximity to urban areas and/or other nearby sources, with the highest metal fluxes observed near the Los Angeles Harbor (LAH) and San Diego Bay (SDB) sites. Compared with data from the 1970s, lead fluxes were typically one to two orders of magnitude lower in the present study (2006), indicating atmospheric sources of this metal have decreased over the past three decades in southern California. Chromium fluxes were also lower in 2006 compared with the 1970s, although to a lesser extent than for lead. In contrast, copper and zinc fluxes were typically within the same order of magnitude between the two time periods, with some higher measurements observed in 2006 compared with the 1970s at the LAH and SDB sites. This result indicates atmospheric sources of copper and zinc have not decreased over the past three decades in southern California, and have increased near our harbor/urban sites. Differences in sampling conditions (e.g., Santa Ana winds) and measurement techniques may also explain, in part, the differences observed in metal flux rates for these time periods. However, these limitations were most important for those metals with the smallest difference in flux rates measured

  12. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R.W.; Ellis, T.W.; Dennis, K.W.; Hofer, R.J.; Branagan, D.J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g., a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g., a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g., Nd{sub 2}Fe{sub 14}B or LaNi{sub 5}) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  13. Production method for making rare earth compounds

    DOEpatents

    McCallum, R. William; Ellis, Timothy W.; Dennis, Kevin W.; Hofer, Robert J.; Branagan, Daniel J.

    1997-11-25

    A method of making a rare earth compound, such as a earth-transition metal permanent magnet compound, without the need for producing rare earth metal as a process step, comprises carbothermically reacting a rare earth oxide to form a rare earth carbide and heating the rare earth carbide, a compound-forming reactant (e.g. a transition metal and optional boron), and a carbide-forming element (e.g. a refractory metal) that forms a carbide that is more thermodynamically favorable than the rare earth carbide whereby the rare earth compound (e.g. Nd.sub.2 Fe.sub.14 B or LaNi.sub.5) and a carbide of the carbide-forming element are formed.

  14. A Novel Method for Depositing Precious Metal Films on Difficult Surfaces

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Veitch, L. C.; Phillip, W. H.

    1994-01-01

    A guanidine-based vehicle was developed to deposit precious metal coatings on surfaces known to be difficult to coat. To demonstrate this method, a platinum coating was deposited on alumina fibers using a guanidine-platinum solution. X-ray diffraction confirmed that the only species present in the coating was platinum and that all of the carbon species had been removed upon heat treatment. SEM results showed that some porosity was present but that the coatings uniformly covered the fiber surface and adhered well to the finer.

  15. The Electronic Structure and Optical Properties of Anatase TiO2 with Rare Earth Metal Dopants from First-Principles Calculations

    PubMed Central

    Xie, Kefeng; Jia, Qiangqiang; Wang, Yizhe; Zhang, Wenxue; Xu, Jingcheng

    2018-01-01

    The electronic and optical properties of the rare earth metal atom-doped anatase TiO2 have been investigated systematically via density functional theory calculations. The results show that TiO2 doped by Ce or Pr is the optimal choice because of its small band gap and strong optical absorption. Rare earth metal atom doping induces several impurity states that tune the location of valence and conduction bands and an obvious lattice distortion that should reduce the probability of electron–hole recombination. This effect of band change originates from the 4f electrons of the rare earth metal atoms, which leads to an improved visible light absorption. This finding indicates that the electronic structure of anatase TiO2 is tuned by the introduction of impurity atoms. PMID:29364161

  16. Sol-gel deposition of buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substances

    DOEpatents

    Shoup, Shara S.; Paranthamam, Mariappan; Beach, David B.; Kroeger, Donald M.; Goyal, Amit

    2000-01-01

    A method is disclosed for forming a biaxially textured buffer layer on a biaxially oriented metal substrate by using a sol-gel coating technique followed by pyrolyzing/annealing in a reducing atmosphere. This method is advantageous for providing substrates for depositing electronically active materials thereon.

  17. Euhedral metallic-Fe-Ni grains in extraterrestrial samples

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rubin, Alan E.

    1993-01-01

    Metallic Fe-Ni is rare in terrestrial rocks, being largely restricted to serpentinized peridotites and volcanic rocks that assimilated carbonaceous material. In contrast, metallic Fe-Ni is nearly ubiquitous among extraterrestrial samples (i.e., meteorites, lunar rocks, and interplanetary dust particles). Anhedral grains are common. For example, in eucrites and lunar basalts, most of the metallic Fe-Ni occurs interstitially between silicate grains and thus tends to have irregular morphologies. In many porphyritic chondrules, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form rounded blebs in the mesostasis because their precursors were immiscible droplets. In metamorphosed ordinary chondrites, metallic Fe-Ni and troilite form coarse anhedral grains. Some of the metallic Fe-Ni and troilite grains has also been mobilized and injected into fractures in adjacent silicate grains where local shock-reheating temperatures reached the Fe-FeS eutectic (988 C). In interplanetary dust particles metallic Fe-Ni most commonly occurs along with sulfide as spheroids and fragments. Euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains are extremely rare. Several conditions must be met before such grains can form: (1) grain growth must occur at free surfaces, restricting euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains to systems that are igneous or undergoing vapor-deposition; (2) the metal (+/-) sulfide assemblage must have an appropriate bulk composition so that taenite is the liquidus phase in igneous systems or the stable condensate phase in vapor-deposition systems; and (3) metallic Fe-Ni grains must remain underformed during subsequent compaction, thermal metamorphism, and shock. Because of these restrictions, the occurrence of euhedral metallic Fe-Ni grains in an object can potentially provide important petrogenetic information. Despite its rarity, euhedral metallic Fe-Ni occurs in a wide variety of extraterrestrial materials. Some of these materials formed in the solar nebula; others formed on parent body surfaces by meteoroid

  18. Corrosion and wear resistance of titanium- and aluminum-based metal matrix composites fabricated by direct metal laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Waldera, Benjamin L.

    Titanium- and Aluminum-based metal matrix composites (MMC) have shown favorable properties for aerospace applications such as airframes, reinforcement materials and joining elements. In this research, such coatings were developed by direct metal laser deposition with a powder-fed fiber coupled diode laser. The MMC formulations consisted of pure titanium and aluminum matrices with reinforcing powder blends of chromium carbide and tungsten carbide nickel alloy. Two powder formulations were investigated for each matrix material (Ti1, Ti2, Al1 and Al2). Titanium based composites were deposited onto a Ti6Al4V plate while aluminum composites were deposited onto AA 7075 and AA 5083 for Al1 and Al2, respectively. Microstructures of the MMCs were studied by optical and scanning electron microscopy. The hardness and reduced Young's modulus (Er) were assessed through depth-sensing instrumented nanoindentation. microhardness (Vickers) was also analyzed for each composite. The corrosion resistance of the MMCs were compared by monitoring open circuit potential (OCP), polarization resistance (Rp) and potentiodynamic polarization in 0.5 M NaCl to simulate exposure to seawater. The Ti-MMCs demonstrated improvements in hardness between 205% and 350% over Ti6Al4V. Al-MMCs showed improvements between 47% and 79% over AA 7075 and AA 5083. The MMCs showed an increase in anodic current density indicating the formation of a less protective surface oxide than the base metals.

  19. Highly efficient hydrophosphonylation of aldehydes and unactivated ketones catalyzed by methylene-linked pyrrolyl rare earth metal amido complexes.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Shuangliu; Wu, Zhangshuan; Rong, Jiewei; Wang, Shaowu; Yang, Gaosheng; Zhu, Xiancui; Zhang, Lijun

    2012-02-27

    A series of rare earth metal amido complexes bearing methylene-linked pyrrolyl-amido ligands were prepared through silylamine elimination reactions and displayed high catalytic activities in hydrophosphonylations of aldehydes and unactivated ketones under solvent-free conditions for liquid substrates. Treatment of [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)Ln(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with 2-(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3)NHCH(2))C(4)H(3)NH (1, 1 equiv) in toluene afforded the corresponding trivalent rare earth metal amides of formula {(μ-η(5):η(1)):η(1)-2-[(2,6-Me(2)C(6)H(3))NCH(2)](C(4)H(3)N)LnN(SiMe(3))(2)}(2) [Ln=Y (2), Nd (3), Sm (4), Dy (5), Yb (6)] in moderate to good yields. All compounds were fully characterized by spectroscopic methods and elemental analyses. The yttrium complex was also characterized by (1)H NMR spectroscopic analyses. The structures of complexes 2, 3, 4, and 6 were determined by single-crystal X-ray analyses. Study of the catalytic activities of the complexes showed that these rare earth metal amido complexes were excellent catalysts for hydrophosphonylations of aldehydes and unactivated ketones. The catalyzed reactions between diethyl phosphite and aldehydes in the presence of the rare earth metal amido complexes (0.1 mol%) afforded the products in high yields (up to 99%) at room temperature in short times of 5 to 10 min. Furthermore, the catalytic addition of diethyl phosphite to unactivated ketones also afforded the products in high yields of up to 99% with employment of low loadings (0.1 to 0.5 mol%) of the rare earth metal amido complexes at room temperature in short times of 20 min. The system works well for a wide range of unactivated aliphatic, aromatic or heteroaromatic ketones, especially for substituted benzophenones, giving the corresponding α-hydroxy diaryl phosphonates in moderate to high yields. Copyright © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Formation of carbonatite-related giant rare-earth-element deposits by the recycling of marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yan; Tian, Shihong; Yang, Zhiming; Xie, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    Carbonatite-associated rare-earth-element (REE) deposits are the most significant source of the world’s REEs; however, their genesis remains unclear. Here, we present new Sr-Nd-Pb and C-O isotopic data for Cenozoic carbonatite-hosted giant REE deposits in southwest China. These REE deposits are located along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton that experienced Proterozoic lithospheric accretion, and controlled by Cenozoic strike-slip faults related to Indo-Asian continental collision. The Cenozoic carbonatites were emplaced as stocks or dykes with associated syenites, and tend to be extremely enriched in Ba, Sr, and REEs and have high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (>0.7055). These carbonatites were likely formed by melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), which had been previously metasomatized by high-flux REE- and CO2-rich fluids derived from subducted marine sediments. The fertility of these carbonatites depends on the release of REEs from recycled marine sediments and on the intensity of metasomatic REE refertilization of the SCLM. We suggest that cratonic edges, particularly along ancient convergent margins, possess the optimal configuration for generating giant REE deposits; therefore, areas of metamorphic basement bounded or cut by translithospheric faults along cratonic edges have a high potential for such deposits. PMID:26035414

  1. Measuring metallic elements of total suspended particulates (TSPs), dry deposition flux, and dry deposition velocity for seasonal variation in central Taiwan

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fang, Guor-Cheng; Chang, Shyh-Chyi; Chen, Yu-Cheng; Zhuang, Yuan-Jie

    2014-06-01

    The purposes of this study were to investigate and characterize ambient air particulate concentrations and dry deposition fluxes and those metallic elements associated with them in central Taiwan during 2009-2010. At the Bei-Shi (suburban/coastal) sampling site, the average TSP concentrations, flux, and deposition velocity were 92.3 (μg m- 3), 165.92 (μg m- 2 min- 1), and 3 (cm s- 1), respectively. In addition, at the Quan-Xin (industrial) sampling site, the highest average TSP concentrations of As, ambient air particulate bound mercury (Hg(p)), Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb were 3.56, 0.07, 82.21, 2769.82, 109.33, 31.93, 109.76 and 39.15 ng m- 3, respectively. The highest average dry deposition flux of elements As, Hg(p), Mn, Fe, Zn, Cr, Cu and Pb were 2.36, 0.15, 18.11, 303.8, 35.59, 18.66, 45.47 and 42.6 (ng m- 2 min- 1), respectively in Quan-Xin (industrial). The median deposition velocity (Vd) of metallic elements was present at the five characteristic sampling sites, respectively. However, the median dry deposition velocity (Vd) of Hg(p) was 2.73-4.78 cm s- 1, higher than all other elements in the five characteristic sampling sites during 2009-2010. The median dry deposition velocity (Vd) of Fe was 0.17-0.27 cm s- 1, lower than all other elements in the five characteristic sampling sites during 2009-2010.

  2. Mineralogy of the epithermal precious and base metal deposit Banská Hodruša at the Rozália Mine (Slovakia)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kubač, Alexander; Chovan, Martin; Koděra, Peter; Kyle, J. Richard; Žitňan, Peter; Lexa, Jaroslav; Vojtko, Rastislav

    2018-03-01

    The Au-Ag-Pb-Zn-Cu epithermal deposit Banská Hodruša of intermediate-sulphidation type is located in the Middle Miocene Štiavnica stratovolcano on the inner side of the Carpathian arc in Slovakia. This deposit represents an unusual subhorizontal multi-stage vein system, related to processes of underground cauldron subsidence and exhumation of a subvolcanic granodiorite pluton. Veins are developed on a low-angle normal shear zone, possibly representing a detachment zone in andesitic wall rocks that formed during emplacement and exhumation of the granodiorite pluton. The deposit consists of two parts, separated by a thick sill of quartz-diorite porphyry. The eastern part is currently mined, and the western part has already been depleted. The Banská Hodruša mineralization was formed during four stages: (1) low-grade silicified breccia at subhorizontal structures at the base of the deposit; (2) stockwork of steep veins with rhodonite-rhodochrosite, quartz-sulphide-carbonate and quartz-gold assemblages; (3) thin quartz-gold veins with medium dip in tension cracks inside the shear zone and complementary detachment hosted quartz-base metals-gold veins; (4) Post-ore veins. Gold and electrum (920-730) occur as intergrowths with base metal sulphides or hosted in quartz and carbonates, accompanied by Au-Ag tellurides (hessite, petzite). Rare Te-polybasite and Cu-cervelleite result from re-equilibration of early Te-bearing minerals during cooling. Sulphide minerals include low Fe sphalerite ( 1.25 wt%), galena, chalcopyrite, and pyrite. The wall rock alteration is represented mostly by adularia, illite, chlorite, quartz, calcite and pyrite. Precipitation of gold, Au-Ag tellurides, Mn-bearing minerals and adularia resulted from boiling of fluids due to hydraulic fracturing, as well as opening of dilatational structures within the shear zone.

  3. Satellite Investigation of Atmospheric Metal Deposition During Meteor Showers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Correira, J.; Aikin, A. C.; Grebowsky, J. M.

    2008-12-01

    Using the nadir-viewing Global Ozone Measuring Experiment (GOME) UV/VIS spectrometer on the ERS-2 satellite, we investigate short term variations in the magnesium column densities and any connection to possible enhanced mass deposition during a meteor shower. We derive a time dependent mass flux rate due to meteor showers using published estimates of mass density and activity profiles of meteor showers. An average daily mass flux rate is also calculated and used as a baseline against which calculated shower mass flux rates are compared. These theoretical mass flux rates are then compared with GOME derived metal column densities from the years 1996 - 2001.There appears to be little correlation between theoretical mass flux rates and changes in the Mg and Mg+ metal column densities. A possible explanation for the lack of a shower related increase in metal concentrations may be differences in the mass regimes dominating the average background mass flux and shower mass flux.

  4. Metallic particles from the Macha meteorite crater and several placer deposits in Iakutiia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gurov, E. P.; Kolesov, G. M.; Kudinova, L. A.; Rakitskaia, R. B.; Samoilovich, L. G.

    The composition of metallic particles from the Macha crater in Iakutiia is shown to be close to the composition of cosmogenic particles from the region of the Tungusk meteorite as well as Ukrainian placer deposits. A description is given of cosmogenic particles from placer deposits of northern Iakutiia, whose formation may be connected with a large impact event in the northeastern part of the USSR.

  5. Resource potential for commodities in addition to Uranium in sandstone-hosted deposits: Chapter 13

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Breit, George N.

    2016-01-01

    Sandstone-hosted deposits mined primarily for their uranium content also have been a source of vanadium and modest amounts of copper. Processing of these ores has also recovered small amounts of molybdenum, rhenium, rare earth elements, scandium, and selenium. These deposits share a generally common origin, but variations in the source of metals, composition of ore-forming solutions, and geologic history result in complex variability in deposit composition. This heterogeneity is evident regionally within the same host rock, as well as within districts. Future recovery of elements associated with uranium in these deposits will be strongly dependent on mining and ore-processing methods.

  6. Enrichment of rare earth metal ions by the highly selective adsorption of phytate intercalated layered double hydroxide.

    PubMed

    Jin, Cheng; Liu, Huimin; Kong, Xianggui; Yan, Hong; Lei, Xiaodong

    2018-02-27

    Phytate intercalated MgAl layered double hydroxide (MgAl-LDH) was prepared by an anion exchange method with the precursor NO 3 - containing MgAl-LDH. The final as-synthesized product [Mg 0.69 Al 0.31 (OH) 2 ] (phytateNa 6 ) 0.05 (NO 3 ) 0.01 ·mH 2 O (phytate-LDH) has highly selective adsorption ability for some metal ions and can be used to enrich rare earth metal ions in mixed solution, such as Pr 3+ and Ce 3+ from a mixed solution of them with Pb 2+ and Co 2+ . At first, phytate-LDH has good adsorption performance for these ions in single metal ion solutions. At low concentration (below 10 mg L -1 ), all the capture rates of the four metal ions were more than 97%, for highly toxic Pb 2+ it was even up to nearly 100%, and a high capture rate (99.87%) was maintained for Pb 2+ at a high concentration (100 mg L -1 ). When all the four metal ions are co-existing in aqueous solution, the selectivity order is Pb 2+ ≫ Pr 3+ ≈ Ce 3+ > Co 2+ . In a solution containing mixtures of the three metal ions of Pr 3+ , Ce 3+ , and Co 2+ , the selectivity order is Pr 3+ ≈ Ce 3+ ≫ Co 2+ , and in a solution containing mixtures of Pr 3+ with Co 2+ and Ce 3+ with Co 2+ , the selectivity orders are Pr 3+ ≫ Co 2+ and Ce 3+ ≫ Co 2+ , respectively. The high selectivity and adsorption capacities for Pb 2+ , Co 2+ , Pr 3+ , and Ce 3+ result in the efficient removal of Pb 2+ and enrichment of the rare earth metal ions Pr 3+ and Ce 3+ by phytate-LDH. Based on the elemental analysis, it is found that the difference of the adsorption capacities is mainly due to the different coordination number of them with phytate-LDH. With molecular simulation, we believe that the adsorption selectivity is due to the difference of the binding energy between the metal ion and phytate-LDH. Therefore, the phytate-LDH is promising for the enrichment and/or purification of the rare earth metal ions and removal of toxic metal ions from waste water.

  7. Metal contamination status of the soil-plant system and effects on the soil microbial community near a rare metal recycling smelter.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhu; Ma, Tingting; Yuan, Cheng; Hou, Jinyu; Wang, Qingling; Wu, Longhua; Christie, Peter; Luo, Yongming

    2016-09-01

    Four heavy metals (Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn), two metalloids (As and Sb) and two rare metals (In and Tl) were selected as target elements to ascertain their concentrations and accumulation in the soil-plant system and their effects on the structure of the soil microbial community in a typical area of rare metal smelting in south China. Twenty-seven soil samples 100, 500, 1000, 1500 and 3000 m from the smelter and 42 vegetable samples were collected to determine the concentrations of the target elements. Changes in soil micro-organisms were investigated using the Biolog test and 454 pyrosequencing. The concentrations of the eight target elements (especially As and Cd) were especially high in the topsoil 100 m from the smelter and decreased markedly with increasing distance from the smelter and with increasing soil depth. Cadmium bio-concentration factors in the vegetables were the highest followed by Tl, Cu, Zn, In, Sb, Pb, and then As. The concentrations of As, Cd and Pb in vegetables were 86.7, 100 and 80.0 %, respectively, over the permissible limits and possible contamination by Tl may also be of concern. Changes in soil microbial counts and average well colour development were also significantly different at different sampling distances from the smelter. The degree of tolerance to heavy metals appears to be fungi > bacteria > actinomycetes. The 454 pyrosequencing indicates that long-term metal contamination from the smelting activities has resulted in shifts in the composition of the soil bacterial community.

  8. Laser Metal Deposition as Repair Technology for Stainless Steel and Titanium Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Graf, Benjamin; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    In a repair process chain, damaged areas or cracks can be removed by milling and subsequently be reconditioned with new material deposition. The use of laser metal deposition has been investigated for this purpose. The material has been deposited into different groove shapes, using both stainless steel and Ti-6Al-4 V. The influence of welding parameters on the microstructure and the heat affected zone has been studied. The parameters have been modified in order to achieve low heat input and consequently low distortion as well as low metallurgical impact. Finally, an evaluation of the opportunities for an automatized repair process is made.

  9. Atomic layer deposition of ZrO2 on W for metal-insulator-metal capacitor application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Sang-Yun; Kim, Hyoungsub; McIntyre, Paul C.; Saraswat, Krishna C.; Byun, Jeong-Soo

    2003-04-01

    A metal-insulator-metal (MIM) capacitor using ZrO2 on tungsten (W) metal bottom electrode was demonstrated and characterized in this letter. Both ZrO2 and W metal were synthesized by an atomic layer deposition (ALD) method. High-quality 110˜115 Å ZrO2 films were grown uniformly on ALD W using ZrCl4 and H2O precursors at 300 °C, and polycrystalline ZrO2 in the ALD regime could be obtained. A 13˜14-Å-thick interfacial layer between ZrO2 and W was observed after fabrication, and it was identified as WOx through angle-resolved x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis with wet chemical etching. The apparent equivalent oxide thickness was 20˜21 Å. An effective dielectric constant of 22˜25 including an interfacial WOx layer was obtained by measuring capacitance and thickness of MIM capacitors with Pt top electrodes. High capacitance per area (16˜17 fF/μm2) and low leakage current (10-7 A/cm2 at ±1 V) were achieved.

  10. Solidification in direct metal deposition by LENS processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofmeister, William; Griffith, Michelle

    2001-09-01

    Thermal imaging and metallographic analysis were used to study Laser Engineered Net Shaping (LENS™) processing of 316 stainless steel and H13 tool steel. The cooling rates at the solid-liquid interface were measured over a range of conduction conditions. The length scale of the molten zone controls cooling rates during solidification in direct metal deposition. In LENS processing, the molten zone ranges from 0.5 mm in length to 1.5 mm, resulting in cooling rates at the solid-liquid interface ranging from 200 6,000 Ks-1.

  11. Rare earth elements in sedimentary phosphate deposits: Solution to the global REE crisis?

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Emsbo, Poul; McLaughlin, Patrick I.; Breit, George N.; du Bray, Edward A.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2015-01-01

    The critical role of rare earth elements (REEs), particularly heavy REEs (HREEs), in high-tech industries has created a surge in demand that is quickly outstripping known global supply and has triggered a worldwide scramble to discover new sources. The chemical analysis of 23 sedimentary phosphate deposits (phosphorites) in the United States demonstrates that they are significantly enriched in REEs. Leaching experiments using dilute H2SO4 and HCl, extracted nearly 100% of their total REE content and show that the extraction of REEs from phosphorites is not subject to the many technological and environmental challenges that vex the exploitation of many identified REE deposits. Our data suggest that phosphate rock currently mined in the United States has the potential to produce a significant proportion of the world's REE demand as a byproduct. Importantly, the size and concentration of HREEs in some unmined phosphorites dwarf the world's richest REE deposits. Secular variation in phosphate REE contents identifies geologic time periods favorable for the formation of currently unrecognized high-REE phosphates. The extraordinary endowment, combined with the ease of REE extraction, indicates that such phosphorites might be considered as a primary source of REEs with the potential to resolve the global REE (particularly for HREE) supply shortage.

  12. Hydrometallurgical separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from spent nickel-metal-hydride batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rodrigues, Luiz Eduardo Oliveira Carmo; Mansur, Marcelo Borges

    The separation of rare earth elements, cobalt and nickel from NiMH battery residues is evaluated in this paper. Analysis of the internal content of the NiMH batteries shows that nickel is the main metal present in the residue (around 50% in weight), as well as potassium (2.2-10.9%), cobalt (5.1-5.5%), rare earth elements (15.3-29.0%) and cadmium (2.8%). The presence of cadmium reveals that some Ni-Cd batteries are possibly labeled as NiMH ones. The leaching of nickel and cobalt from the NiMH battery powder with sulfuric acid is efficient; operating variables temperature and concentration of H 2O 2 has no significant effect for the conditions studied. A mixture of rare earth elements is separated by precipitation with NaOH. Finally, solvent extraction with D2EHPA (di-2-ethylhexyl phosphoric acid) followed by Cyanex 272 (bis-2,4,4-trimethylpentyl phosphinic acid) can separate cadmium, cobalt and nickel from the leach liquor. The effect of the main operating variables of both leaching and solvent extraction steps are discussed aiming to maximize metal separation for recycling purposes.

  13. Reactive sputter deposition of pyrite structure transition metal disulfide thin films: Microstructure, transport, and magnetism

    SciTech Connect

    Baruth, A.; Manno, M.; Narasimhan, D.

    2012-09-01

    Transition metal disulfides crystallizing in the pyrite structure (e.g., TMS{sub 2}, with TM = Fe, Co, Ni, and Cu) are a class of materials that display a remarkably diverse array of functional properties. These properties include highly spin-polarized ferromagnetism (in Co{sub 1-x}Fe{sub x}S{sub 2}), superconductivity (in CuS{sub 2}), an antiferromagnetic Mott insulating ground state (in NiS{sub 2}), and semiconduction with close to optimal parameters for solar absorber applications (in FeS{sub 2}). Exploitation of these properties in heterostructured devices requires the development of reliable and reproducible methods for the deposition of high quality pyrite structure thin films. In this manuscript, wemore » report on the suitability of reactive sputter deposition from metallic targets in an Ar/H{sub 2}S environment as a method to achieve exactly this. Optimization of deposition temperature, Ar/H{sub 2}S pressure ratio, and total working gas pressure, assisted by plasma optical emission spectroscopy, reveals significant windows over which deposition of single-phase, polycrystalline, low roughness pyrite films can be achieved. This is illustrated for the test cases of the ferromagnetic metal CoS{sub 2} and the diamagnetic semiconductor FeS{sub 2}, for which detailed magnetic and transport characterization are provided. The results indicate significant improvements over alternative deposition techniques such as ex situ sulfidation of metal films, opening up exciting possibilities for all-sulfide heterostructured devices. In particular, in the FeS{sub 2} case it is suggested that fine-tuning of the sputtering conditions provides a potential means to manipulate doping levels and conduction mechanisms, critical issues in solar cell applications. Parenthetically, we note that conditions for synthesis of phase-pure monosulfides and thiospinels are also identified.« less

  14. A geological reconnaissance of electrical and electronic waste as a source for rare earth metals.

    PubMed

    Mueller, Sandra R; Wäger, Patrick A; Widmer, Rolf; Williams, Ian D

    2015-11-01

    The mining of material resources requires knowledge about geogenic and anthropogenic deposits, in particular on the location of the deposits with the comparatively highest concentration of raw materials. In this study, we develop a framework that allows the establishment of analogies between geological and anthropogenic processes. These analogies were applied to three selected products containing rare earth elements (REE) in order to identify the most concentrated deposits in the anthropogenic cycle. The three identified anthropogenic deposits were characterised according to criteria such as "host rock", "REE mineralisation" and "age of mineralisation", i.e. regarding their "geological" setting. The results of this characterisation demonstrated that anthropogenic deposits have both a higher concentration of REE and a longer mine life than the evaluated geogenic deposit (Mount Weld, Australia). The results were further evaluated by comparison with the geological knowledge category of the United Nations Framework Classification for Fossil Energy and Mineral Reserves and Resources 2009 (UNFC-2009) to determine the confidence level in the deposit quantities. The application of our approach to the three selected cases shows a potential for recovery of REE in anthropogenic deposits; however, further exploration of both potential and limitations is required. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  15. Characteristics of some silver-, and base metal-bearing, epithermal deposits of Mexico and Peru

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Foley, Nora K.

    1984-01-01

    Although many characteristics of the geology and geochemistry of this type of deposit were considered, the most important criterion for choosing these deposits was that they have substantial quantities of precious- and base-metal mineralization. Additional criteria for selecting the deposits were that they be hosted primarily by calc-alkaline volcanic rocks of intermediate to silicic composition and that they be younger than Tertiary in age. Many deposits in Mexico and Peru and other parts of Central and South America were excluded because the literature describing the districts is not readily available. Furthermore, many districts have not been examined in detail or the information available is of limited geological scope. The four districts that are compiled in this report were chosen because they are described in abundant literature dating from early mining reports on the general geology and mineralogy to very recent data on detailed geochemical and mineralogical studies. They were chosen as being fairly typical, classic examples of near-surface, low-temperature vein deposits as described by Lindgren (1928) in his treatise on ore deposits (Mineral deposits, McGraw-Hill, 1049 p.). These deposits are similar in aspects of their geology and geochemistry to many of the famous, epithermal silver mining districts in Colorado and Nevada including Creede, Colorado, Tonapah, Nevada, and the Sunnyside Mine of the Eureka district, Colorado, and, in the special case of Julcani, to Summitville, Colorado, and Goldfield, Nevada. The characteristics that distinguish them include overall size, production and alteration assemblage. The information documented in each summary will be used in a forthcoming series of papers on the comparative anatomy of precious and base metal deposits in North and South America.

  16. Fabrication of 100 A class, 1 m long coated conductor tapes by metal organic chemical vapor deposition and pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Selvamanickam, V.; Lee, H. G.; Li, Y.; Xiong, X.; Qiao, Y.; Reeves, J.; Xie, Y.; Knoll, A.; Lenseth, K.

    2003-10-01

    SuperPower has been scaling up YBa 2Cu 3O x-based second-generation superconducting tapes by techniques such as pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using industrial laser and metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). Both techniques offer advantage of high deposition rates, which is important for high throughput. Using highly-polished substrates produced in a reel-to-reel polishing facility and buffer layers deposited in a pilot ion beam assisted deposition facility, meter-long second-generation high temperature superconductor tapes have been produced. 100 A class, meter-long coated conductor tapes have been reproducibly demonstrated in this work by both MOCVD and PLD. The best results to date are 148 A over 1.06 m by MOCVD and 135 A over 1.1 m by PLD using industrial laser.

  17. A Unique Yttrofluorite-Hosted Giant Heavy Rare Earth Deposit: Round Top Mountain, Hudspeth County, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.

    2013-12-01

    Round Top Mountain is a surface-exposed peraluminous rhyolite laccolith, enriched in heavy rare earth elements, as well as niobium-tantalum, beryllium, lithium, fluorine, tin, rubidium, thorium, and uranium. The extreme extent of the deposit (diameter one mile) makes it a target for recovery of valuable yttrium and HREEs, and possibly other scarce elements. The Texas Bureau of Economic Geology estimated the laccolith mass as at least 1.6 billion tons. A Preliminary Economic Assessment for Texas Rare Earth Resources listed an inferred mineral resource of 430,598,000 kg REOs (rare earth oxides), with over 70% Y+HREEs (YHREE). Put in global perspective, China is thought to produce ~25,000 tons YHREE per year, and exports but a small fraction of that. Because of the extremely fine grain size of the late-phase fluorine-carried critical fluid mineralization, it has not been clear which minerals host the YHREEs. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy experiments at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource revealed that virtually all of the YHREE content resides in yttrofluorite, rather than in the other reported REE minerals in the deposit, bastnaesite and xenotime. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of the sample suite were all quite similar, and proved a close match to known model compound specimens of yttrofluorite from two locations, in Sweden and New Mexico. Small spectral variation between the two model compounds and among the samples is attributable to the variable elemental composition and altervalent substitutional nature of yttrofluorite (Ca [1-x] Y,REE [x])F[2+x]. We found no other reported deposit in the world in which yttrofluorite is the exclusive, or even more than a minor, YHREE host mineral. Leaching experiments show that the YHREEs are easily liberated by dissolution with dilute sulfuric acid, due to the solubility of yttrofluorite. Flotation separation of the yttrofluorite had been demonstrated, but was rendered inefficient by the

  18. New precursors and chemistry for the growth of transition metal films by atomic layer deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Knisley, Thomas Joseph

    The advancing complexity of advanced microelectronic devices is placing rigorous demands on currently used PVD and CVD deposition techniques. The ALD deposition method is proposed to meet the film thickness and conformality constraints needed by the semiconductor industry in future manufacturing processes. Unfortunately, there is a limited number of chemical precursors available that have high thermal stability, reactivity, and vapor pressure suitable for ALD film growth to occur. These properties collectively contribute to the lack of suitable transition metal precursors available for use in ALD. In this thesis, we report the discovery of a series of novel transition metal diazadienate precursors that promising properties deemed suitable for ALD. The volatility and thermal stability of the new transition metal diazadienyl compounds were studied by preparative sublimation and capillary tube melting point/decomposition experiments. Thermogravimetric analyses (TGA) demonstrate precursor residues of less than 4% at 500 °C. In addition, sublimation data, melting points, and decomposition temperatures for all complexes are presented. The manganese diazadienyl complex has the highest decomposition temperature of the series of complexes produced (325 °C). During preparative sublimations, the product recoveries of all transition metal diazadienyl complexes were greater than 92.0% with nonvolatile residues of less than 7.0%. This is an excellent indication that these complexes may be suitable candidates as metal precursors for ALD. Nickel nitride (NixN) films have been studied as an intermediate material for the formation of both nickel metal and nickel silicide using chemical vapor deposition. Herein, we describe the ALD growth of nickel nitride thin films from bis(1,4-di-tert-butyl-1,3-diazabutadiene) nickel(II) (Ni(tBu2DAD)2) and 1,1-dimethylhydrazine. An ALD window for the deposition of nickel nitride films on 500 nm thermal SiO2 substrates was observed between 225

  19. [Toxic nephropathy secondary to occupational exposure to metallic mercury].

    PubMed

    Voitzuk, Ana; Greco, Vanina; Caputo, Daniel; Alvarez, Estela

    2014-01-01

    Toxic nephrophaties secondary to occupational exposure to metals have been widely studied, including membranous nephropathy by mercury, which is rare. Occupational poisoning by mercury is frequent, neurological symptoms are the main form of clinical presentation. Secondary renal involvement in chronic exposure to metallic mercury can cause glomerular disease by deposit of immune-complexes. Membranous glomerulopathy and minimal change disease are the most frequently reported forms. Here we describe the case of a patient with occupational exposure to metallic mercury, where nephrotic syndrome due to membranous glomerulonephritis responded favorably to both chelation and immunosuppressive therapy.

  20. Airport metal detector activation is rare after posterior spinal fusion in children with scoliosis.

    PubMed

    Fabricant, Peter D; Robles, Alex; Blanco, John S

    2013-12-01

    Since the September 11, 2001 terrorist attacks on the World Trade Center in New York City, travel security has become an ever-increasing priority in the United States. Frequent parent and patient inquiry and recent literature reports have generated interest in the impact of heightened security measures on patients with orthopaedic implants, and have indicated increasing rates of metal detector triggering. There are no reports to date, however, evaluating children and adolescents who have undergone posterior spinal fusion for scoliosis, so responses to patient and parent inquiries are not data-driven. The purpose of this study is to determine the frequency of airport metal detector triggering by patients who have had posterior-only spinal fusion and to characterise any potential predictors of metal detector activation. A cross-sectional study was performed by interviewing 90 patients who underwent posterior-only spinal fusion for a diagnosis of juvenile or adolescent idiopathic scoliosis and have travelled by air in the past year. Demographic, clinical and surgical instrumentation data were collected and evaluated, along with patients' reports of airport metal detector triggering and subsequent screening procedures. Five patients with stainless steel instrumentation (5.6 % of the cohort) triggered an airport walkthrough metal detector, and an additional five patients who did not trigger an airport detector triggered a handheld detector at a different venue. All patients who triggered an airport metal detector had stainless steel instrumentation implanted prior to 2008, and no patient with titanium instrumentation triggered any detector in any venue. All trigger events required subsequent screening procedures, even when an implant card was presented. In this cohort of children and adolescents with posterior spinal instrumentation, airport walkthrough metal detector triggering was a rare event. Therefore, we advise patients and families with planned posterior

  1. Microorganisms and heavy metals associated with atmospheric deposition in a congested urban environment of a developing country: Sri Lanka.

    PubMed

    Weerasundara, Lakshika; Amarasekara, R W K; Magana-Arachchi, D N; Ziyath, Abdul M; Karunaratne, D G G P; Goonetilleke, Ashantha; Vithanage, Meththika

    2017-04-15

    The presence of bacteria and heavy metals in atmospheric deposition were investigated in Kandy, Sri Lanka, which is a typical city in the developing world with significant traffic congestion. Atmospheric deposition samples were analyzed for Al, Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, Zn, Cd and Pb which are heavy metals common to urban environments. Al and Fe were found in high concentrations due to the presence of natural sources, but may also be re-suspended by vehicular traffic. Relatively high concentrations of toxic metals such as Cr and Pb in dissolved form were also found. High Zn loads can be attributed to vehicular emissions and the wide use of Zn coated roofing materials. The metal loads in wet deposition showed higher concentrations compared to dry deposition. The metal concentrations among the different sampling sites significantly differ from each other depending on the traffic conditions. Industrial activities are not significant in Kandy City. Consequently, the traffic exerts high influence on heavy metal loadings. As part of the bacterial investigations, nine species of culturable bacteria, namely; Sphingomonas sp., Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Pseudomonas monteilii, Klebsiella pneumonia, Ochrobactrum intermedium, Leclercia adecarboxylata, Exiguobacterium sp., Bacillus pumilus and Kocuria kristinae, which are opportunistic pathogens, were identified. This is the first time Pseudomonas monteilii and Ochrobactrum intermedium has been reported from a country in Asia. The culturable fraction constituted ~0.01 to 10%. Pigmented bacteria and endospore forming bacteria were copious in the atmospheric depositions due to their capability to withstand harsh environmental conditions. The presence of pathogenic bacteria and heavy metals creates potential human and ecosystem health risk. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  2. Characteristics of epitaxial garnets grown by CVD using single metal alloy sources. [Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Besser, P. J.; Hamilton, T. N.; Mee, J. E.; Stermer, R. L.

    1974-01-01

    Single metal alloys have been explored as the cation source in the chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of iron garnets. Growth of good quality single crystal garnet films containing as many as five different cations has been achieved over a wide range of deposition conditions. The relationship of film composition to alloy compositions and deposition conditions has been determined for several materials. By proper choice of the alloy composition and the deposition conditions, uncrazed deposits were grown on (111) gadolinium gallium garnet (GGG) substrates. Data on physical, magnetic and optical properties of representative films is presented and discussed.

  3. Occurence of ore metals in some terrestrial geothermal systems

    SciTech Connect

    Browne, P.

    1984-02-01

    Drilling programs and the study of active geothermal systems have shown that the reservoir rocks in many fields contain minor quantities of base and precious metals. Commonly, base-metal sulfides occur in the subsurface but, where present, Au, Ag, Hg, As, Tl and Sb rich precipitates deposit near, or at, the surface. Although in some fields (Geysers, Larderello, Tongonan) some of the ore minerals (and others) are relict, there is evidence that they are now depositing in a few systems. Recent work on active hydrothermal systems in New Zealand shows that: (1) Sphalerite, galena, chalcopyrite (forming veins and disseminated discrete crystals)more » plus rare pentlandite, cobaltite and arsenopyrite, occur at Broadlands, NZ. Rare quantities of base-metal sulfides also occur in cores and cuttings from the geothermal fields of Waiotapu, Kawerau, Tauhara, and Ngawha. Further, Kakimoto (1983) has identified cassiterite, native silver, and trace gold in cores from Tauhara, in the south-eastern part of the Wairakei field. Bore temperatures at the depths from which these minerals were recovered are mostly between 220/sup 0/ and 300/sup 0/C, but at Broadlands are locally as low as 120/sup 0/C. The host rocks are Quaternary calc-alkali, silicic lavas and pyroclastic rocks, andesites, dacite and deep Mesozoic greywackes and argillites; however, there is no obvious relationship between mineralization and stratigraphy, permeability or well output. The deposition of amorphous precious metal precipitates (Au, Ag, Hg, As, Sb, Tl) from hot springs and well discharges has taken place at Broadlands, Waiotapu and Rotokawa; it also occurs at Kawerau. Water discharging from Frying Pan Lake, Waimangu, is presently depositing siliceous sinter containing up to 4.1% tungsten.« less

  4. Strong metal support interaction of Pt on TiO2 grown by atomic layer deposition and physical vapor deposition for fuel cell applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hansen, Robin Paul

    Several roadblocks prevent the large-scale commercialization of hydrogen fuel cells, including the stability of the Pt catalysts and their substrates, as well as the high cost of Pt. This is particularly true for the cathode, which requires a higher Pt loading because of the slow kinetics of the oxygen reduction reaction (ORR). The problem with the stability of the substrate can be solved by replacing the traditional carbon support with a conductive metal oxide such as reduced TiO2, which will not easily corrode and should result in longer lasting fuel cells. In this study, Pt was deposited either by atomic layer deposition (ALD) or physical vapor deposition (PVD). The typical size of the Pt islands that were grown using these deposition techniques was 3-8 nm. One factor that can inhibit the catalytic activity of a metal catalyst on a metal oxide is the strong metal support interaction (SMSI). This is where a metal on a reducible metal oxide can be encapsulated by a layer of the metal oxide support material at elevated temperatures. The processing of materials through atomic layer deposition can exceed this temperature. The TiO2 substrates used in this study were either grown by ALD, which results in a polycrystalline anatase film, or were single-crystal rutile TiO2(110) samples prepared in ultra-high vacuum (UHV). The Pt/TiO2 samples were tested electrochemically using cyclic voltammetry (CV) to determine the level of catalytic activity. To determine the effect of the SMSI interaction on the catalytic activity of the PVD grown samples, CV was performed on samples that were annealed in high vacuum after Pt deposition. Additional characterization was performed with scanning electron microscopy (SEM), x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS), and four point probe analysis. Platinum that was deposited by PVD was used as a standard since it is not affected by the SMSI at the low temperature of the substrate during deposition

  5. Optimizing the vacuum plasma spray deposition of metal, ceramic, and cermet coatings using designed experiments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kingswell, R.; Scott, K. T.; Wassell, L. L.

    1993-06-01

    The vacuum plasma spray (VPS) deposition of metal, ceramic, and cermet coatings has been investigated using designed statistical experiments. Processing conditions that were considered likely to have a significant influence on the melting characteristics of the precursor powders and hence deposition efficiency were incorporated into full and fractional factorial experimental designs. The processing of an alumina powder was very sensitive to variations in the deposition conditions, particularly the injection velocity of the powder into the plasma flame, the plasma gas composition, and the power supplied to the gun. Using a combination of full and fractional factorial experimental designs, it was possible to rapidly identify the important spraying variables and adjust these to produce a deposition efficiency approaching 80 percent. The deposition of a nickel-base alloy metal powder was less sensitive to processing conditions. Generally, however, a high degree of particle melting was achieved for a wide range of spray conditions. Preliminary experiments performed using a tungsten carbide/cobalt cermet powder indicated that spray efficiency was not sensitive to deposition conditions. However, microstructural analysis revealed considerable variations in the degree of tungsten carbide dissolution. The structure and properties of the optimized coatings produced in the factorial experiments are also discussed.

  6. Metallic nanoparticle deposition techniques for enhanced organic photovoltaic cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cacha, Brian Joseph Gonda

    Energy generation via organic photovoltaic (OPV) cells provide many advantages over alternative processes including flexibility and price. However, more efficient OPVs are required in order to be competitive for applications. One way to enhance efficiency is through manipulation of exciton mechanisms within the OPV, for example by inserting a thin film of bathocuproine (BCP) and gold nanoparticles between the C60/Al and ZnPc/ITO interfaces, respectively. We find that BCP increases efficiencies by 330% due to gains of open circuit voltage (Voc) by 160% and short circuit current (Jsc) by 130%. However, these gains are complicated by the anomalous photovoltaic effect and an internal chemical potential. Exploration in the tuning of metallic nanoparticle deposition on ITO was done through four techniques. Drop casting Ag nanoparticle solution showed arduous control on deposited morphology. Spin-coating deposited very low densities of nanoparticles. Drop casting and spin-coating methods showed arduous control on Ag nanoparticle morphology due to clustering and low deposition density, respectively. Sputtered gold on glass was initially created to aid the adherence of Ag nanoparticles but instead showed a quick way to deposit aggregated gold nanoparticles. Electrodeposition of gold nanoparticles (AuNP) proved a quick method to tune nanoparticle morphology on ITO substrates. Control of deposition parameters affected AuNP size and distribution. AFM images of electrodeposited AuNPs showed sizes ranging from 39 to 58 nm. UV-Vis spectroscopy showed the presence of localized plasmon resonance through absorption peaks ranging from 503 to 614 nm. A linear correlation between electrodeposited AuNP size and peak absorbance was seen with a slope of 3.26 wavelength(nm)/diameter(nm).

  7. Metal deposition by electroless plating on polydopamine functionalized micro- and nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Mondin, Giovanni; Wisser, Florian M; Leifert, Annika; Mohamed-Noriega, Nasser; Grothe, Julia; Dörfler, Susanne; Kaskel, Stefan

    2013-12-01

    A novel approach for the fabrication of metal coated micro- and nanoparticles by functionalization with a thin polydopamine layer followed by electroless plating is reported. The particles are initially coated with polydopamine via self-polymerization. The resulting polydopamine coated particles have a surface rich in catechols and amino groups, resulting in a high affinity toward metal ions. Thus, they provide an effective platform for selective electroless metal deposition without further activation and sensitization steps. The combination of a polydopamine-based functionalization with electroless plating ensures a simple, scalable, and cost-effective metal coating strategy. Silver-plated tungsten carbide microparticles, copper-plated tungsten carbide microparticles, and copper-plated alumina nanoparticles were successfully fabricated, showing also the high versatility of the method, since the polymerization of dopamine leads to the formation of an adherent polydopamine layer on the surface of particles of any material and size. The metal coated particles produced with this process are particularly well suited for the production of metal matrix composites, since the metal coating increases the wettability of the particles by the metal, promoting their integration within the matrix. Such composite materials are used in a variety of applications including electrical contacts, components for the automotive industries, magnets, and electromagnetic interference shielding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Processing and characterization of Zr-based metallic glass by laser direct deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bae, Heehun

    Bulk Metallic Glass has become famous for its exceptional mechanical and corrosion properties. Especially, Zirconium has been the prominent constituent in Bulk Metallic Glass due to its superior glass forming ability, the ability to form amorphous phase with low cooling rate, thereby giving advantages in structural applications. In this study, Zirconium powder was alloyed with Aluminum, Nickel and Copper powder at an atomic ratio of 65:10:10:15, respectively. Using the ball milling process to mix the powders, Zr65Al10Ni 10Cu15 amorphous structure was manufactured by laser direct deposition. Laser power and laser scanning speed were optimized to increase the fraction of amorphous phase. X-ray Diffraction confirmed the existence of both amorphous and crystalline phase by having a wide halo peak and sharp intense peak in the spectrum. Differential Scanning Calorimetry proved the presence of amorphous phase and glass transition was observed to be around 655 K. Scanning electron microscopy showed the microstructure of the deposited sample to have repetitive amorphous and crystalline phase as XRD examined. Crystalline phase resulted from the laser reheating and remelting process due to subsequent laser scan. Laser direct deposited amorphous/crystalline composite showed Vickers Hardness of 670 Hv and exhibited improved corrosion resistance in comparison to fully-crystallized sample. The compression test showed that, due to the existence of crystalline phase, fracture strain of Zr65Al10Ni10Cu 15 amorphous composites was enhanced from less than 2% to as high as 5.7%, compared with fully amorphous metallic glass.

  9. Direct Metal Deposition of H13 Tool Steel on Copper Alloy Substrate: Parametric Investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Imran, M. Khalid; Masood, S. H.; Brandt, Milan

    2015-12-01

    Over the past decade, researchers have demonstrated interest in tribology and prototyping by the laser aided material deposition process. Laser aided direct metal deposition (DMD) enables the formation of a uniform clad by melting the powder to form desired component from metal powder materials. In this research H13 tool steel has been used to clad on a copper alloy substrate using DMD. The effects of laser parameters on the quality of DMD deposited clad have been investigated and acceptable processing parameters have been determined largely through trial-and-error approaches. The relationships between DMD process parameters and the product characteristics such as porosity, micro-cracks and microhardness have been analysed using scanning electron microscope (SEM), image analysis software (ImageJ) and microhardness tester. It has been found that DMD parameters such as laser power, powder mass flow rate, feed rate and focus size have an important role in clad quality and crack formation.

  10. X-Ray Diffraction Studies on Metal Deposition in Group D Streptococci

    PubMed Central

    Tucker, Fayne L.; Thomas, John W.; Appleman, Milo D.; Goodman, Stewart H.; Donohue, Jerry

    1966-01-01

    Tucker, Fayne L. (University of Southern California, Los Angeles), John W. Thomas, Milo D. Appleman, Stewart H. Goodman, and Jerry Donohue. X-ray diffraction studies on metal deposition in group D streptococci. J. Bacteriol. 92:1311–1314. 1966.—Streptococcus faecalis N83 and S. faecium K6A reduced several compounds of Group VI elements to the elemental form, but reduced none of several compounds tested containing elements of other groups. The elemental tellurium deposited by S. faecium K6A was in general of a larger particle size than that deposited by S. faecalis N83 as judged from X-ray diffraction analysis. The particle size of the deposited tellurium was correlated with the blackness of the precipitate produced by cells growing in the presence of tellurite. A black and gray variation was observed in S. faecium K6A which was considered to be due to particle size, the amount of tellurium present, and the location of the deposited tellurium. The gray color of S. faecium K6A was not due to the presence of any oxidized tellurium products. PMID:4958879

  11. Extraction of trivalent rare-earth metal nitrates by solutions of tributyl phosphate and diisooctylmethylphosphonate in kerosene

    SciTech Connect

    Pyartman, A.K.; Puzikov, E.A.; Kopyrin, A.A.

    1995-01-01

    Isotherms of extraction of trivalent rare-earth metal nitrates in the series lanthanum-lutetium, yttrium by 0.5-2.5 M solutions of tri-n-buty1 phosphate and diisooctyl methylphosphonate in kerosene at 298.15 K, pH 2 are presented. The influence of the ionic strength of aqueous phase and extractant concentration on the concentration extraction constants in the case of formation of metal(III) trisolvates in organic phase is given by equation.

  12. Localized growth of carbon nanotubes via lithographic fabrication of metallic deposits

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Fan; Drost, Martin; Szenti, Imre; Kiss, Janos; Kónya, Zoltan

    2017-01-01

    We report on the fabrication of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) at predefined positions and controlled morphology, for example, as individual nanotubes or as CNT forests. Electron beam induced deposition (EBID) with subsequent autocatalytic growth (AG) was applied to lithographically produce catalytically active seeds for the localized growth of CNTs via chemical vapor deposition (CVD). With the precursor Fe(CO)5 we were able to fabricate clean iron deposits via EBID and AG. After the proof-of-principle that these Fe deposits indeed act as seeds for the growth of CNTs, the influence of significant EBID/AG parameters on the deposit shape and finally the yield and morphology of the grown CNTs was investigated in detail. Based on these results, the parameters could be optimized such that EBID point matrixes (6 × 6) were fabricated on a silica surface whereby at each predefined site only one CNT was produced. Furthermore, the localized fabrication of CNT forests was targeted and successfully achieved on an Al2O3 layer on a silicon sample. A peculiar lift-up of the Fe seed structures as “flakes” was observed and the mechanism was discussed. Finally, a proof-of-principle was presented showing that EBID deposits from the precursor Co(CO)3NO are also very effective catalysts for the CNT growth. Even though the metal content (Co) of the latter is reduced in comparison to the Fe deposits, effective CNT growth was observed for the Co-containing deposits at lower CVD temperatures than for the corresponding Fe deposits. PMID:29259874

  13. Pulsed laser deposition of YBCO films on ISD MgO buffered metal tapes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, B.; Li, M.; Koritala, R. E.; Fisher, B. L.; Markowitz, A. R.; Erck, R. A.; Baurceanu, R.; Dorris, S. E.; Miller, D. J.; Balachandran, U.

    2003-04-01

    Biaxially textured magnesium oxide (MgO) films deposited by inclined-substrate deposition (ISD) are desirable for rapid production of high-quality template layers for YBCO-coated conductors. High-quality YBCO films were grown on ISD MgO buffered metallic substrates by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). Columnar grains with a roof-tile surface structure were observed in the ISD MgO films. X-ray pole figure analysis revealed that the (002) planes of the ISD MgO films are tilted at an angle from the substrate normal. A small full-width at half maximum (FWHM) of approx9° was observed in the phi-scan for ISD MgO films deposited at an inclination angle of 55°. In-plane texture in the ISD MgO films developed in the first approx0.5 mum from the substrate surface, and then stabilized with further increases in film thickness. Yttria-stabilized zirconia and ceria buffer layers were deposited on the ISD MgO grown on metallic substrates prior to the deposition of YBCO by PLD. YBCO films with the c-axis parallel to the substrate normal have a unique orientation relationship with the ISD MgO films. An orientation relationship of YBCOlangle100rangleparallelMgOlangle111rangle and YBCOlangle010rangleparallelMgOlangle110rangle was measured by x-ray pole figure analyses and confirmed by transmission electron microscopy. A Tc of 91 K with a sharp transition and transport Jc of 5.5 × 105 A cm-2 at 77 K in self-field were measured on a YBCO film that was 0.46 mum thick, 4 mm wide and 10 mm long.

  14. Lattice vibrations and electronic transitions in the rare-earth metals: yttrium, gadolinium and lutetium.

    PubMed

    Olijnyk, Helmut

    2005-01-12

    Lattice vibrations in high-pressure phases of Y, Gd and Lu were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The observed phonon frequencies decrease towards the transitions to the dhcp and fcc phases. There is evidence that the entire structural sequence [Formula: see text] under pressure for the individual regular rare-earth metals and along the lanthanide series at ambient pressure involve softening of certain acoustic and optical phonon modes and of the elastic shear modulus C(44). Comparison is made to transitions between close-packed lattices in other metals, and possible correlations to s-d electron transfer are discussed.

  15. The role of phase separation for self-organized surface pattern formation by ion beam erosion and metal atom co-deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hofsäss, H.; Zhang, K.; Pape, A.; Bobes, O.; Brötzmann, M.

    2013-05-01

    We investigate the ripple pattern formation on Si surfaces at room temperature during normal incidence ion beam erosion under simultaneous deposition of different metallic co-deposited surfactant atoms. The co-deposition of small amounts of metallic atoms, in particular Fe and Mo, is known to have a tremendous impact on the evolution of nanoscale surface patterns on Si. In previous work on ion erosion of Si during co-deposition of Fe atoms, we proposed that chemical interactions between Fe and Si atoms of the steady-state mixed Fe x Si surface layer formed during ion beam erosion is a dominant driving force for self-organized pattern formation. In particular, we provided experimental evidence for the formation of amorphous iron disilicide. To confirm and generalize such chemical effects on the pattern formation, in particular the tendency for phase separation, we have now irradiated Si surfaces with normal incidence 5 keV Xe ions under simultaneous gracing incidence co-deposition of Fe, Ni, Cu, Mo, W, Pt, and Au surfactant atoms. The selected metals in the two groups (Fe, Ni, Cu) and (W, Pt, Au) are very similar regarding their collision cascade behavior, but strongly differ regarding their tendency to silicide formation. We find pronounced ripple pattern formation only for those co deposited metals (Fe, Mo, Ni, W, and Pt), which are prone to the formation of mono and disilicides. In contrast, for Cu and Au co-deposition the surface remains very flat, even after irradiation at high ion fluence. Because of the very different behavior of Cu compared to Fe, Ni and Au compared to W, Pt, phase separation toward amorphous metal silicide phases is seen as the relevant process for the pattern formation on Si in the case of Fe, Mo, Ni, W, and Pt co-deposition.

  16. Simulation of trace metals and PAH atmospheric pollution over Greater Paris: Concentrations and deposition on urban surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thouron, L.; Seigneur, C.; Kim, Y.; Legorgeu, C.; Roustan, Y.; Bruge, B.

    2017-10-01

    Urban areas can be subject not only to poor air quality, but also to contamination of other environmental media by air pollutants. Here, we address the potential transfer of selected air pollutants (two metals and three PAH) to urban surfaces. To that end, we simulate meteorology and air pollution from Europe to a Paris suburban neighborhood, using a four-level one-way nesting approach. The meteorological and air quality simulations use urban canopy sub-models in order to better represent the effect of the urban morphology on the air flow, atmospheric dispersion, and deposition of air pollutants to urban surfaces. This modeling approach allows us to distinguish air pollutant deposition among various urban surfaces (roofs, roads, and walls). Meteorological model performance is satisfactory, showing improved results compared to earlier simulations, although precipitation amounts are underestimated. Concentration simulation results are also satisfactory for both metals, with a fractional bias <0.5. Concentrations of benzo[a]pyrene are overestimated, probably because continental emissions may be overestimated. Concentrations of benzo[b]fluoranthene and indeno[1,2,3,cd]pyrene are underestimated, in part because of null boundary conditions. PAH deposition fluxes are consistent with earlier measurements obtained in the Greater Paris region. The model simulation results suggest that both wet and dry deposition processes need to be considered when estimating the transfer of air pollutants to other environmental media. Dry deposition fluxes to various urban surfaces are mostly uniform for PAH, which are entirely present in fine particles. However, there is significantly less wall deposition compared to deposition to roofs and roads for trace metals, due to their coarse fraction. Meteorology, particle size distribution, and urban morphology are all important factors affecting air pollutant deposition. Future work should focus on the collection of data suitable to evaluate the

  17. Estimation of the mass-balance of selected metals in four sanitary landfills in Western Norway, with emphasis on the heavy metal content of the deposited waste and the leachate.

    PubMed

    Øygard, Joar Karsten; Måge, Amund; Gjengedal, Elin

    2004-07-01

    A worst-case simulation of the mass-balance for metals in the waste deposited during 1 year and the levels of cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), mercury (Hg), chromium (Cr) and iron (Fe) in the leachate was calculated for four sanitary landfills in Western Norway. Estimates of the levels of metal content in mixed municipal solid waste (MSW) were found by using recent literature values calculated in a mass-balance study at a Norwegian waste incinerator plant. Leachate from the landfills were sampled and analyzed monthly during 1 year, and from these measurements the total annual discharge of the selected metals through the leachate was determined. The levels of the measured heavy metals in the leachate were low. For Cd less than 0.06%, for Pb less than 0.01% and for Hg less than 0.02% of the estimated year's deposited mass of metals were leached from the landfills during the year of investigation. The high retention of these metals are most likely due to sulfide precipitation, but also due to the immobile condition of the metals in their original deposited solid state (plastics, ceramics, etc.). The percentage of Cr leached was relatively higher, but less than 1.0% per year. The mass balance of Fe suggests that this element is more mobile under the prevailing conditions. The percentage of Fe leached varied and was estimated to be between 1.9% and 18%. The present study clearly supports the theory that MSW only to a small extent will lead to discharge of metals if deposited at well-constructed sanitary landfills with top layers.

  18. Dehydrogenation of secondary amines: synthesis, and characterization of rare-earth metal complexes incorporating imino- or amido-functionalized pyrrolyl ligands.

    PubMed

    Li, Qinghai; Zhou, Shuangliu; Wang, Shaowu; Zhu, Xiancui; Zhang, Lijun; Feng, Zhijun; Guo, Liping; Wang, Fenhua; Wei, Yun

    2013-02-28

    The dehydrogenation of pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amines initiated by rare-earth metal amides was systematically studied. Reactions of the rare-earth metal amides [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amines 2-(t)BuNHCH(2)-5-R-C(4)H(2)NH (R = H (1), R = (t)Bu (2)) led to dehydrogenation of the secondary amines with isolation of imino-functionalized pyrrolyl rare-earth metal complexes [2-(t)BuN=CH-5-R-C(4)H(2)N](2)REN(SiMe(3))(2) (R = H, RE = Y (3a), Dy (3b), Yb (3c), Eu (3d); R = (t)Bu, RE = Y (4a), Dy (4b), Er (4c)). The mixed ligands erbium complex [2-(t)BuNCH(2)-5-(t)Bu-C(4)H(2)N]Er[2-(t)BuN=CH-5-(t)BuC(4)H(2)N](2)ClLi(2)(THF) (4c') was isolated in a short reaction time for the synthesis of complex 4c. Reaction of the deuterated pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amine 2-((t)BuNHCHD)C(4)H(3)NH with yttrium amide [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)Y(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) further proved that pyrrolyl-amino ligands were transferred to pyrrolyl-imino ligands. Treatment of 2-((t)BuNHCH(2))C(4)H(3)NH (1) with excess (Me(3)Si)(2)NLi gave the only pyrrole deprotonated product {[η(5):η(2):η(1)-2-((t)BuNHCH(2))C(4)H(3)N]Li(2)N(SiMe(3))(2)}(2) (5), indicating that LiN(SiMe(3))(2) could not dehydrogenate the secondary amines to imines and rare-earth metal ions had a decisive effect on the dehydrogenation. The reaction of the rare-earth metal amides [(Me(3)Si)(2)N](3)RE(μ-Cl)Li(THF)(3) with 1 equiv. of more bulky pyrrolyl-functionalized secondary amine 2-[(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))NHCH(2)](C(4)H(3)NH) (6) in toluene afforded the only amine and pyrrole deprotonated dinuclear rare-earth metal amido complexes {(μ-η(5):η(1)):η(1)-2-[(2,6-(i)Pr(2)C(6)H(3))NCH(2)]C(4)H(3)N]LnN(SiMe(3))(2)}(2) (RE = Nd (7a), Sm (7b), Er (7c)), no dehydrogenation of secondary amine to imine products were observed. On the basis of experimental results, a plausible mechanism for the dehydrogenation of secondary amines to imines was proposed.

  19. Cotton fabrics with UV blocking properties through metal salts deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Emam, Hossam E.; Bechtold, Thomas

    2015-12-01

    Exposure to sunlight is important for human health as this increases the resistance to diverse pathogens, but the higher doses cause skin problems and diseases. Hence, wearing of sunlight protective fabrics displays a good solution for people working in open atmosphere. The current study offered quite simple and technically feasible ways to prepare good UV protection fabrics based on cotton. Metal salts including Zn, Cu and Ti were immobilized into cotton and oxidized cotton fabrics by using pad-dry-cure technique. Metal contents on fabrics were determined by AAS; the highest metal content was recorded for Cu-fabric and it was 360.6 mmol/kg after treatment of oxidized cotton with 0.5 M of copper nitrate. Ti contents on fabrics were ranged between 168.0 and 200.8 mmol/kg and it showed the lowest release as only 38.1-46.4% leached out fabrics after five laundry washings. Metal containing deposits were specified by scanning electron microscopy and energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. UV-transmission radiation over treated fabrics was measured and ultraviolet protection factor (UPF) was calculated. UPF was enhanced after treatment with Cu and Ti salts to be 11.6 and 14, respectively. After five washings, the amount of metal (Cu or Ti) retained indicates acceptable laundering durability.

  20. Nitride passivation reduces interfacial traps in atomic-layer-deposited Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs (001) metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors using atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Aoki, T., E-mail: aokit@sc.sumitomo-chem.co.jp; Fukuhara, N.; Osada, T.

    2014-07-21

    Using an atmospheric metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system, we passivated GaAs with AlN prior to atomic layer deposition of Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}. This AlN passivation incorporated nitrogen at the Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}/GaAs interface, improving the capacitance-voltage (C–V) characteristics of the resultant metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors (MOSCAPs). The C–V curves of these devices showed a remarkable reduction in the frequency dispersion of the accumulation capacitance. Using the conductance method at various temperatures, we extracted the interfacial density of states (D{sub it}). The D{sub it} was reduced over the entire GaAs band gap. In particular, these devices exhibited D{sub it} around the midgap ofmore » less than 4 × 10{sup 12} cm{sup −2}eV{sup −1}, showing that AlN passivation effectively reduced interfacial traps in the MOS structure.« less

  1. Evaluation of thermal behavior during laser metal deposition using optical pyrometry and numerical simulation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dubrov, Alexander V.; Zavalov, Yuri N.; Mirzade, Fikret K.; Dubrov, Vladimir D.

    2017-06-01

    3D mathematical model of non-stationary processes of heat and mass transfer was developed for additive manufacturing of materials by direct laser metal deposition. The model takes into account self-consistent dynamics of free surface, temperature fields, and melt flow speeds. Evolution of free surface is modelled using combined Volume of Fluid and Level-Set method. Article presents experimental results of the measurement of temperature distribution in the area of bead formation by direct laser metal deposition, using multi-channel pyrometer, that is based on two-color sensors line. A comparison of experimental data with the results of numerical modeling was carried out. Features of thermal dynamics on the surface of melt pool have been detected, which were caused by thermo-capillary convection.

  2. The growth of the metallic ZrNx thin films on P-GaN substrate by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Chengyan; Sui, Zhanpeng; Li, Yuxiong; Chu, Haoyu; Ding, Sunan; Zhao, Yanfei; Jiang, Chunping

    2018-03-01

    Although metal nitride thin films have attractive prospects in plasmonic applications due to its stable properties in harsh environments containing high temperatures, shock, and contaminants, the effect of deposition parameters on the properties of the metallic ZrN grown on III-N semiconductors by pulse laser deposition still lacks of detailed exploration. Here we have successfully prepared metallic ZrNx films on p-GaN substrate by pulsed laser deposition in N2 ambient of various pressures at a fixed substrate temperature (475 °C). It is found that the films exhibit quite smooth surfaces and (111) preferred orientation. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measurements indicate that carbon contamination can be completely removed and oxygen contamination is significantly reduced on the film surfaces after cleaning using Ar+ sputtering. The N/Zr ratio increases from 0.64 to 0.75 when the N2 pressure increases from 0.5 Pa to 3 Pa. The optical reflectivity spectra measured by the UV-vis-NIR spectrophotometer show that the ZrNx is a typical and good metallic-like material and its metallic properties can be tuned with changing the film compositions.

  3. Redox Deposition of Nanoscale Metal Oxides on Carbon for Next-Generation Electrochemical Capacitors

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    Nanoscale Metal Oxides Sassin et al. Redox Deposition Approaches to Nanoscale Coatings of Metal Oxides Manganese Oxides. Permanganate (MnO4 ) is a versa...scalability of the permanganate carbon redox reaction for generating MnOx coatings that store charge.21 The initial study per- formed on planar graphite...the carbon surface from the aqueous permanganate solu- tion (pH∼5),29,35 evidenced by a sharp increase in solution pH and a decrease in solution

  4. Phytoplankton responses to atmospheric metal deposition in the coastal and open-ocean Sargasso Sea

    PubMed Central

    Mackey, Katherine R. M.; Buck, Kristen N.; Casey, John R.; Cid, Abigail; Lomas, Michael W.; Sohrin, Yoshiki; Paytan, Adina

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the impact of atmospheric metal deposition on natural phytoplankton communities at open-ocean and coastal sites in the Sargasso Sea during the spring bloom. Locally collected aerosols with different metal contents were added to natural phytoplankton assemblages from each site, and changes in nitrate, dissolved metal concentration, and phytoplankton abundance and carbon content were monitored. Addition of aerosol doubled the concentrations of cadmium (Cd), cobalt (Co), copper (Cu), iron (Fe), manganese (Mn), and nickel (Ni) in the incubation water. Over the 3-day experiments, greater drawdown of dissolved metals occurred in the open ocean water, whereas little metal drawdown occurred in the coastal water. Two populations of picoeukaryotic algae and Synechococcus grew in response to aerosol additions in both experiments. Particulate organic carbon increased and was most sensitive to changes in picoeukaryote abundance. Phytoplankton community composition differed depending on the chemistry of the aerosol added. Enrichment with aerosol that had higher metal content led to a 10-fold increase in Synechococcus abundance in the oceanic experiment but not in the coastal experiment. Enrichment of aerosol-derived Co, Mn, and Ni were particularly enhanced in the oceanic experiment, suggesting the Synechococcus population may have been fertilized by these aerosol metals. Cu-binding ligand concentrations were in excess of dissolved Cu in both experiments, and increased with aerosol additions. Bioavailable free hydrated Cu2+ concentrations were below toxicity thresholds throughout both experiments. These experiments show (1) atmospheric deposition contributes biologically important metals to seawater, (2) these metals are consumed over time scales commensurate with cell growth, and (3) growth responses can differ between distinct Synechococcus or eukaryotic algal populations despite their relatively close geographic proximity and taxonomic similarity. PMID

  5. Processing of Phosphorus Slag with Recovery of Rare Earth Metals and Obtaining Silicon Containing Cake

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karshigina, Zaure; Abisheva, Zinesh; Bochevskaya, Yelena; Akcil, Ata; Sharipova, Aynash; Sargelova, Elmira

    2016-10-01

    The present research is devoted to the processing of slag generating during the yellow phosphorus production. In this paper are presented studies on leaching of phosphorus production slag by nitric acid with recovery of rare earth metals (REMs) into solution. REMs recovery into the solution achieved 98 % during the leaching process with using 7.5 mol/L of HNO3, liquid-to-solid ratio is 2.6:1, temperature is 60°C, process duration is 1 hour and stirrer speed is 500 rpm. Behaviour during the leaching of associated components such as calcium, aluminium, and iron was studied. After the leaching cake contains ∼⃒75-85 % of SiO2 and it might be useful for obtaining of precipitated silicon dioxide. With the purpose of separation from the impurities, recovery and concentrating of REMs, the obtained solution after leaching was subjected to extraction processing methods. The influence of ratio of organic and aqueous phases (O: A) on the extraction of rare earth metals by tributyl phosphate (TBP) with concentrations from 20 up to 100 % was studied. The REMs extraction with increasing TBP concentration under changes O:A ratio from 1:20 down to 1:1 into the organic phase from the solutions after nitric acid leaching increased from 22.2 up to 99.3%. The duration effect of REMs extraction process was studied by tributyl phosphate. It is revealed that with increasing of duration of the extraction process from 10 to 30 minutes REMs recovery into the organic phase almost did not changed. The behaviour of iron in the extraction process by TBP was studied. It was found that such accompanying components as calcium and aluminium by tributyl phosphate didn't extracted. To construct isotherm of REMs extraction of by tributyl phosphate was used variable volume method. It was calculated three-step extraction is needed for REMs recovery from the solutions after nitric acid leaching of phosphorus production slag. The process of the three-steps counter current extraction of rare earth

  6. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits.

    PubMed

    Reith, Frank; Zammit, Carla M; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L; Wakelin, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  7. Geogenic Factors as Drivers of Microbial Community Diversity in Soils Overlying Polymetallic Deposits

    PubMed Central

    Zammit, Carla M.; Pohrib, Rebecca; Gregg, Adrienne L.; Wakelin, Steven A.

    2015-01-01

    This study shows that the geogenic factors landform, lithology, and underlying mineral deposits (expressed by elevated metal concentrations in overlying soils) are key drivers of microbial community diversity in naturally metal-rich Australian soils with different land uses, i.e., agriculture versus natural bushland. One hundred sixty-eight soil samples were obtained from two metal-rich provinces in Australia, i.e., the Fifield Au-Pt field (New South Wales) and the Hillside Cu-Au-U rare-earth-element (REE) deposit (South Australia). Soils were analyzed using three-domain multiplex terminal-restriction-fragment-length-polymorphism (M-TRFLP) and PhyloChip microarrays. Geogenic factors were determined using field-mapping techniques and analyses of >50 geochemical parameters. At Fifield, microbial communities differed significantly with geogenic factors and equally with land use (P < 0.05). At Hillside, communities in surface soils (0.03- to 0.2-m depth) differed significantly with landform and land use (P < 0.05). Communities in deeper soils (>0.2 m) differed significantly with lithology and mineral deposit (P < 0.05). Across both sites, elevated metal contents in soils overlying mineral deposits were selective for a range of bacterial taxa, most importantly Acidobacteria, Bacilli, Betaproteobacteria, and Epsilonproteobacteria. In conclusion, long-term geogenic factors can be just as important as land use in determining soil microbial community diversity. PMID:26341204

  8. Method for localized deposition of noble metal catalysts with control of morphology

    DOEpatents

    Ricco, Antonio J.; Manginell, Ronald P.; Huber, Robert J.

    1998-01-01

    A combustible gas sensor that uses a resistively heated, noble metal-coated, micromachined polycrystalline Si filament to calorimetrically detect the presence and concentration of combustible gases. A thin catalytic Pt film was deposited by CVD from the precursor Pt(acac).sub.2 onto microfilaments resistively heated to approximately 500 .degree. C.; Pt deposits only on the hot filament. The filaments tested to date are 2 .mu.m thick .times.10 .mu.m wide .times.100, 250, 500, or 1000 .mu.m-long polycrystalline Si; some are overcoated with a 0.25 .mu.m-thick protective CVD Si.sub.3 N.sub.4 layer.

  9. Rare-earth-doped optical-fiber core deposition using full vapor-phase SPCVD process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Barnini, A.; Robin, T.; Cadier, B.; Aka, G.; Caurant, D.; Gotter, T.; Guyon, C.; Pinsard, E.; Guitton, P.; Laurent, A.; Montron, R.

    2017-02-01

    One key parameter in the race toward ever-higher power fiber lasers remains the rare earth doped optical core quality. Modern Large Mode Area (LMA) fibers require a fine radial control of the core refractive index (RI) close to the silica level. These low RI are achieved with multi-component materials that cannot be readily obtained using conventional solution doping based Modified Chemical Vapor Deposition (MCVD) technology. This paper presents a study of such optical material obtained through a full-vapor phase Surface Plasma Chemical Vapor Deposition (SPCVD). The SPCVD process generates straight glassy films on the inner surface of a thermally regulated synthetic silica tube under vacuum. The first part of the presented results points out the feasibility of ytterbium-doped aluminosilicate fibers by this process. In the second part we describe the challenge controlling the refractive index throughout the core diameter when using volatile fluorine to create efficient LMA fiber profiles. It has been demonstrated that it is possible to counter-act the loss of fluorine at the center of the core by adjusting the core composition locally. Our materials yielded, when used in optical fibers with numerical apertures ranging from 0.07 to 0.09, power conversion efficiency up to 76% and low background losses below 20 dB/km at 1100nm. Photodarkening has been measured to be similar to equivalent MCVD based fibers. The use of cerium as a co-dopant allowed for a complete mitigation of this laser lifetime detrimental effect. The SPCVD process enables high capacity preforms and is particularly versatile when it comes to radial tailoring of both rare earth doping level and RI. Large core diameter preforms - up to 4mm - were successfully produced.

  10. First find of platinum group metals in the ore of Kirganik copper-porphyry deposit (Kamchatka)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sidorov, E. G.; Ignatyev, E. K.; Chubarov, V. M.

    2017-08-01

    The Kirganik copper-porphyry deposit is situated in the central part of the Sredinnyi Mountain Range of Kamchatka and is confined to fields of development of potassic orthoclase metasomatite and hypabyssal intrusions of shonkinite. Platinum group metals (PGMs), such as merenskyite, kotulskite, keithconnite, and temagamite, were discovered in the chalcopyrite-bornite and chalcopyrite-bornite-chalcosine ore of the deposit for the first time.

  11. Use of an intact core and stable-metal isotopes to examine leaching characteristics of a fluvial tailings deposit

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ranville, James F.; Smith, Kathleen S.; Lamothe, Paul J.; Jackson, Brian P.; Walton-Day, Katherine

    2003-01-01

    In this paper, we use Cd as an example of the utility of stable-metal isotopes in geochemical studies. In the case of Cd, after the core was partially saturated, the 111Cd spike was released as evidenced by a change in the Cd isotope ratios in the effluent. This release continued during the fully saturated leaching phase, however, the total Cd concentration did not increase. These results suggest that the 111Cd spike was retained inside the core during the unsaturated leaching phase, and only partially released as reducing conditions developed. Results from this core-leaching experiment indicate there is a large reservoir of water-soluble material within the fluvial tailings deposit, which yields elevated metal concentrations and high acidity, and which may degrade adjacent ground- and surface-water quality. Use of stable metal isotopes in this study facilitated the determination of different metal-retention processes, metal-release processes, and metal sources in the fluvial tailings deposit in response to changing geochemical conditions.

  12. Lattice vibrations and electronic transitions in the rare-earth metals: yttrium, gadolinium and lutetium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Olijnyk, Helmut

    2005-01-01

    Lattice vibrations in high-pressure phases of Y, Gd and Lu were studied by Raman spectroscopy. The observed phonon frequencies decrease towards the transitions to the dhcp and fcc phases. There is evidence that the entire structural sequence {\\mathrm {hcp \\to Sm\\mbox {-}type \\to dhcp \\to fcc}} under pressure for the individual regular rare-earth metals and along the lanthanide series at ambient pressure involve softening of certain acoustic and optical phonon modes and of the elastic shear modulus C44. Comparison is made to transitions between close-packed lattices in other metals, and possible correlations to s-d electron transfer are discussed.

  13. Source and path identification of metals pollution in a mining area by PMF and rare earth element patterns in road dust.

    PubMed

    Tian, Shuhan; Liang, Tao; Li, Kexin; Wang, Lingqing

    2018-08-15

    To better assess pollution and offer efficient protection for local residents, it is necessary to both conduct an exhaustive investigation into pollution levels and quantify its contributing sources and paths. As it is the biggest light rare earth element (REE) reserve in the world, Bayan Obo deposit releases large amounts of heavy metals into the surrounding environment. In this study, road dust from zones located at different distances to the mining area was collected and sieved using seven sizes. This allowed for subsequent analysis of size-dependent influences of mining activities. A receptor model was used to quantitatively assess mine contributions. REE distribution patterns and other REE parameters were compared with those in airborne particulates and the surrounding soil to analyze pollution paths. Results showed that 27 metals were rated as moderately to extremely polluted (2metals in residential area road dust originated directly from the mine. The provenance index (PI) calculated using the REE parameters confirmed this result. While the REE distribution pattern showed that airborne particulates may not be the path for mining-derived particles, they may be one for other sources. Copyright © 2018. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  14. Volatile metal deposits on lunar soils: Relation to volcanism

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Reed, G. W., Jr.; Allen, R. O., Jr.; Jovanovic, S.

    1977-01-01

    Parallel leaching and volatilization experiments conducted on lunar samples and similar experiments on sphalerite do not supply the information needed to resolve the question of the chemical nature of pb 204, Zn, Bi and Tl deposits on lunar soil surfaces. It is proposed that in Apollo 17 mare and terra soils and fractions of pb 204, Zn and Tl that are insoluble under mild, hot pH 5HNO3, leaching conditions and involatile at 600 C were originally surface deposits which became immobilized by migration into the silicate substrate or by chemisorption. Only Bi is predominantly indigenous. The implication is also that the soils over their respective times of evolution were exposed to heavy metal vapors or that an episodic exposure occurred after they had evolved. A sequence of events is proposed to account for orange 74220 and black 74001 glasses by lava fountaining and for soil 74241 as tephra from an explosive volcanic eruption.

  15. Real-Time Observation of Atomic Layer Deposition Inhibition: Metal Oxide Growth on Self-Assembled Alkanethiols

    DOE PAGES

    Avila, Jason R.; DeMarco, Erica J.; Emery, Jonathan D.; ...

    2014-07-21

    Through in-situ quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) monitoring we resolve the growth of a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) and subsequent metal oxide deposition with high resolution. Here, we introduce the fitting of mass deposited during each atomic layer deposition (ALD) cycle to an analytical island-growth model that enables quantification of growth inhibition, nucleation density, and the uninhibited ALD growth rate. A long-chain alkanethiol was self-assembled as a monolayer on gold-coated quartz crystals in order to investigate its effectiveness as a barrier to ALD. Compared to solution-loading, vapor-loading is observed to produce a SAM with equal or greater inhibition-ability in minutes vs. days.more » The metal oxide growth temperature and the choice of precursor also significantly affect the nucleation density, which ranges from 0.001 to 1 sites/nm 2. Finally, we observe a minimum 100 cycle inhibition of an oxide ALD process, ZnO, under moderately optimized conditions.« less

  16. Laser Metal Deposition as Repair Technology for a Gas Turbine Burner Made of Inconel 718

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrat, Torsten; Graf, Benjamin; Gumenyuk, Andrey; Rethmeier, Michael

    Maintenance, repair and overhaul of components are of increasing interest for parts of high complexity and expensive manufacturing costs. In this paper a production process for laser metal deposition is presented, and used to repair a gas turbine burner of Inconel 718. Different parameters for defined track geometries were determined to attain a near net shape deposition with consistent build-up rate for changing wall thicknesses over the manufacturing process. Spot diameter, powder feed rate, welding velocity and laser power were changed as main parameters for a different track size. An optimal overlap rate for a constant layer height was used to calculate the best track size for a fitting layer width similar to the part dimension. Deviations in width and height over the whole build-up process were detected and customized build-up strategies for the 3D sequences were designed. The results show the possibility of a near net shape repair by using different track geometries with laser metal deposition.

  17. Voltage-dependent cluster expansion for electrified solid-liquid interfaces: Application to the electrochemical deposition of transition metals

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weitzner, Stephen E.; Dabo, Ismaila

    2017-11-01

    The detailed atomistic modeling of electrochemically deposited metal monolayers is challenging due to the complex structure of the metal-solution interface and the critical effects of surface electrification during electrode polarization. Accurate models of interfacial electrochemical equilibria are further challenged by the need to include entropic effects to obtain accurate surface chemical potentials. We present an embedded quantum-continuum model of the interfacial environment that addresses each of these challenges and study the underpotential deposition of silver on the gold (100) surface. We leverage these results to parametrize a cluster expansion of the electrified interface and show through grand canonical Monte Carlo calculations the crucial need to account for variations in the interfacial dipole when modeling electrodeposited metals under finite-temperature electrochemical conditions.

  18. Fabrication and characterisation of ligand-functionalised ultrapure monodispersed metal nanoparticle nanoassemblies employing advanced gas deposition technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Geremariam Welearegay, Tesfalem; Cindemir, Umut; Österlund, Lars; Ionescu, Radu

    2018-02-01

    Here, we report for the first time the fabrication of ligand-functionalised ultrapure monodispersed metal nanoparticles (Au, Cu, and Pt) from their pure metal precursors using the advanced gas deposition technique. The experimental conditions during nanoparticle formation were adjusted in order to obtain ultrafine isolated nanoparticles on different substrates. The morphology and surface analysis of the as-deposited metal nanoparticles were investigated using scanning electron microscopy, x-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red spectroscopy, which demonstrated the formation of highly ordered pure crystalline nanoparticles with a relatively uniform size distribution of ∼10 nm (Au), ∼4 nm (Cu) and ∼3 nm (Pt), respectively. A broad range of organic ligands containing thiol or amine functional groups were attached to the nanoparticles to form continuous networks of nanoparticle-ligand nanoassemblies, which were characterised by scanning electron microscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The electrical resistance of the functional nanoassemblies deposited in the gap spacing of two microfabricated parallel Au electrodes patterned on silicon substrates ranged between tens of kΩ and tens of MΩ, which is suitable for use in many applications including (bio)chemical sensors, surface-enhanced Raman spectroscopy and molecular electronic rectifiers.

  19. Enhanced pinning in mixed rare earth-123 films

    DOEpatents

    Driscoll, Judith L [Los Alamos, NM; Foltyn, Stephen R [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-06-16

    An superconductive article and method of forming such an article is disclosed, the article including a substrate and a layer of a rare earth barium cuprate film upon the substrate, the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals capable of yielding a superconductive composition where ion size variance between the two or more rare earth metals is characterized as greater than zero and less than about 10.times.10.sup.-4, and the rare earth barium cuprate film including two or more rare earth metals is further characterized as having an enhanced critical current density in comparison to a standard YBa.sub.2Cu.sub.3O.sub.y composition under identical testing conditions.

  20. (Pre-) historic changes in natural and anthropogenic heavy metals deposition inferred from two contrasting Swiss Alpine lakes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thevenon, Florian; Guédron, Stéphane; Chiaradia, Massimo; Loizeau, Jean-Luc; Poté, John

    2011-01-01

    Continuous high-resolution sedimentary record of heavy metals (chromium (Cr), copper (Cu), lead (Pb), zinc (Zn), manganese (Mn), and mercury (Hg)), from lakes Lucerne and Meidsee (Switzerland), provides pollutant deposition history from two contrasting Alpine environments over the last millennia. The distribution of conservative elements (thorium (Th), scandium (Sc) and titanium (Ti)) shows that in absence of human disturbances, the trace element input is primarily controlled by weathering processes (i.e., runoff and erosion). Nonetheless, the enrichment factor (EF) of Pb and Hg (that are measured by independent methods), and the Pb isotopic composition of sediments from the remote lake Meidsee (which are proportionally more enriched in anthropogenic heavy metals), likely detect early mining activities during the Bronze Age. Meanwhile, the deposition of trace elements remains close to the range of natural variations until the strong impact of Roman activities on atmospheric metal emissions. Both sites display simultaneous increases in anthropogenic trace metal deposition during the Greek and Roman Empires (ca 300 BC to AD 400), the Late Middle Ages (ca AD 1400), and the Early Modern Europe (after ca AD 1600). However, the greatest increases in anthropogenic metal pollution are evidenced after the industrial revolution of ca AD 1850, at low and high altitudes. During the twentieth century, industrial releases multiplied by ca 10 times heavy metal fluxes to hydrological systems located on both sides of the Alps. During the last decades, the recent growing contribution of low radiogenic Pb further highlights the contribution of industrial sources with respect to wood and coal burning emissions.

  1. The effect of grooves in amorphous substrates on the orientation of metal deposits. I - Carbon substrates

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Anton, R.; Poppa, H.; Flanders, D. C.

    1982-01-01

    The graphoepitaxial alignment of vapor-deposited discrete metal crystallites is investigated in the nucleation and growth stages and during annealing by in situ UHV/TEM techniques. Various stages of nucleation, growth and coalescence of vapor deposits of Au, Ag, Pb, Sn, and Bi on amorphous, topographically structured C substrates are analyzed by advanced dark-field techniques to detect preferred local orientations. It is found that the topography-induced orientation of metal crystallites depends strongly on their mobility and their respective tendency to develop pronounced crystallographic shapes. Lowering of the average surface free energies and increasing the crystallographic surface energy anisotropies cause generally improved graphoepitaxial alignments.

  2. Self-Ordering and Complexity in Epizonal Mineral Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Henley, Richard W.; Berger, Byron R.

    -from-equilibrium depositional processes. Since these coupled processes lead to localized transient changes in fluid characteristics, paragenetic, isotope, and fluid inclusion data relate to conditions at the site of deposition and only indirectly to the characteristics of the larger-scale hydrothermal system and its longer-term behavior. The metal concentrations (i.e. grade) of deposits and their internal variation is directly related to the geometry of the fracture array at the deposit scale, whereas finer-scale oscillatory fabrics in ores may be a result of molecular scale processes. Giant deposits are relatively rare and develop where efficient metal deposition is spatially focused by repetitive brittle failure in active fault arrays. Some brief case histories are provided for epithermal, replacement, and porphyry mineralization. These highlight how rock competency contrasts and feedback between processes, rather than any single component of a hydrothermal system, govern the size of individual deposits. In turn, the recognition of the probabilistic nature of mineralization provides a firmer foundation through which exploration investment and risk management decisions can be made.

  3. Metal-organic chemical vapor deposition of aluminum oxide thin films via pyrolysis of dimethylaluminum isopropoxide

    SciTech Connect

    Schmidt, Benjamin W.; Sweet, William J. III; Rogers, Bridget R.

    2010-03-15

    Metal-organic chemical vapor deposited aluminum oxide films were produced via pyrolysis of dimethylaluminum isopropoxide in a high vacuum reaction chamber in the 417-659 deg. C temperature range. Deposited films contained aluminum, oxygen, and carbon, and the carbon-to-aluminum ratio increased with increased deposition temperature. Aluminum-carbon bonding was observed in films deposited at 659 deg. C by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, but not in films deposited at 417 deg. C. The apparent activation energy in the surface reaction controlled regime was 91 kJ/mol. The O/Al and C/Al ratios in the deposited films were greater and less than, respectively, the ratios predicted by themore » stoichiometry of the precursor. Flux analysis of the deposition process suggested that the observed film stoichiometries could be explained by the participation of oxygen-containing background gases present in the reactor at its base pressure.« less

  4. Depositing laser-generated nanoparticles on powders for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersed strengthened alloy parts via laser metal deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Streubel, René; Wilms, Markus B.; Doñate-Buendía, Carlos; Weisheit, Andreas; Barcikowski, Stephan; Henrich Schleifenbaum, Johannes; Gökce, Bilal

    2018-04-01

    We present a novel route for the adsorption of pulsed laser-dispersed nanoparticles onto metal powders in aqueous solution without using any binders or surfactants. By electrostatic interaction, we deposit Y2O3 nanoparticles onto iron-chromium based powders and obtain a high dispersion of nano-sized particles on the metallic powders. Within the additively manufactured component, we show that the particle spacing of the oxide inclusion can be adjusted by the initial mass fraction of the adsorbed Y2O3 particles on the micropowder. Thus, our procedure constitutes a robust route for additive manufacturing of oxide dispersion-strengthened alloys via oxide nanoparticles supported on steel micropowders.

  5. The Genesis of Precious and Base Metal Mineralization at the Miguel Auza Deposit, Zacatecas, Mexico

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Findley, A. A.; Olivo, G. R.; Godin, L.

    2009-05-01

    The Miguel Auza mine located in Zacatecas State, Mexico, is a vein-type polymetallic epithermal deposit hosted in deformed argillite, siltstone and, greywacke of the Cretaceous Caracol Formation. Silver-rich base metal veins (0.2 m to >1.5 m wide) are spatially associated with the NE-striking, steeply SE- dipping (70-80°) Miguel Auza fault over a strike length of 1.6 km and a depth of 460 m. A 2 km2 monzonitic stock located in the proximity of the mineralized zones, has previously been interpreted as the source of the mineralizing fluids. Four distinct structural stages are correlated with hydrothermal mineral deposition: (I) The Pre-ore stage is characterized by normal faulting, fracturing of host rock, and rotation of bedding planes. This stage consists of quartz, illite, chlorite, +/- pyrite alteration of sedimentary wall rocks. (II) The Pyrite-vein stage is associated with reverse-sense reactivation of early normal faults, dilation of bedding planes/fractures, and deposition of generally barren calcite + pyrite veinlets. (III) The Main-ore stage is related to the development of reverse-fault- hosted massive sulphide veins. During this stage three phases of mineral deposition are recorded: early pyrite and arsenopyrite, intermediate chalcopyrite, pyrite, arsenopyrite, and base metals, and late base metals and Ag-bearing minerals. Associated gangue minerals during the main ore stage are quartz, muscovite, calcite and chlorite. (IV) The Post-ore stage involves late NW-SE striking block faulting, brecciation and calcite veining. Later supergene oxidation of veins led to deposition of Fe-oxides and hydroxides, commonly filling fractures or replacing early-formed sulphide assemblages. The various vein types display classic epithermal textures including open space filling, banding, comb quartz and brecciation. The Ag-bearing minerals comprise pyrargyrite [Ag3(Sb,As)S3], argentotennantite [(Cu,Ag)10(Zn,Fe)2(Sn,As)4S13], polybasite-pearceite [(Ag,Cu)16(Sb,As)2S11], and

  6. Recovery of Rare Earths, Precious Metals and Other Critical Materials from Geothermal Waters with Advanced Sorbent Structures

    DOE Data Explorer

    Pamela M. Kinsey

    2015-09-30

    The work evaluates, develops and demonstrates flexible, scalable mineral extraction technology for geothermal brines based upon solid phase sorbent materials with a specific focus upon rare earth elements (REEs). The selected organic and inorganic sorbent materials demonstrated high performance for collection of trace REEs, precious and valuable metals. The nanostructured materials typically performed better than commercially available sorbents. Data contains organic and inorganic sorbent removal efficiency, Sharkey Hot Springs (Idaho) water chemsitry analysis, and rare earth removal efficiency from select sorbents.

  7. Evidence for alkali metal formation at a cathode interface of organic electroluminescent devices by thermal decomposition of alkali metal carboxylates during their vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ganzorig, Chimed; Fujihira, Masamichi

    2004-11-01

    This study examines the possibility of thermal decomposition of Na salts of acetate, benzoate, and fluoride during vacuum vapor deposition using a quartz crystal microbalance to measure negative frequency shift (Δf) caused by increasing mass deposited from the same amount of source materials. Cs acetate is also examined. We compare the negative frequency shift-source current (Δf -I) curves of the Na salts with those of organic materials such as tris(8-hydroxyquinoline)aluminum and N ,N'-diphenyl-N,N'-bis(3-methylphenyl)-1,1'-biphenyl-4,4'-diamine. CH3COONa and C6H5COONa exhibit much lower Δf than the organic materials. CH3COOCs gives much larger Δf than CH3COONa due to the higher atomic weight of Cs. These exhibit clear evidence for alkali metal formation by thermal decomposition during vapor deposition of alkali metal carboxylates.

  8. Ecological and Human Health Risk Assessment of Heavy Metal Content of Atmospheric Dry Deposition, a Case Study: Kermanshah, Iran.

    PubMed

    Sobhanardakani, Soheil

    2018-05-12

    The present study was intended to investigate the ecological and human health risk of cobalt, nickel, and vanadium in the atmospheric dry deposition of the Kermanshah city, Iran, in 2015. Totally 54 samples of atmospheric dry deposition were collected from the three regions of the city with different traffic intensity, and after acid digestion of the samples with ultrapure concentrated HNO 3 , the total contents of the metals were determined using inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometer (ICP-OES). Also, all statistical analyses were performed using the SPSS statistical package. The atmospheric dry deposition element contents increase according to the following descending order for both autumn seasons: Ni > Co > V. The results of potential ecological risk analysis demonstrated that metals in the samples are in low ecological risk levels, whereas the results of human health risk assessment showed that ingestion is the main exposure pathway of heavy metals in the dust to the local residents compared with inhalation and dermal pathways. Also, the upper limit of the 95% confidence interval (95% UCL) of hazard indices for non-carcinogenic risks of all analyzed metals in the dust samples was within the safe level for both children and adults. On the other hand, the carcinogenic risk levels of Co and Ni were all lower than the acceptable range (10 -6 -10 -4 ) to local citizens. Consequently, the results advocate the necessity of understanding the heavy metal content of atmospheric dry deposition and regular monitoring of air pollution.

  9. Humic substances and trace metals associated with Fe and Al oxides deposited in an acidic mountain stream

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    McKnight, Diane M.; Wershaw, R. L.; Bencala, K.E.; Zellweger, G.W.; Feder, G.L.

    1992-01-01

    Hydrous iron and aluminum oxides are deposited on the streambed in the confluence of the Snake River and Deer Creek, two streams in the Colorado Rocky Mountains. The Snake River is acidic and has high concentrations of dissolved Fe and Al. These metals precipitate at the confluence with the pristine, neutral pH, Deer Creek because of the greater pH (4.5-6.0) in the confluence. The composition of the deposited oxides changes consistently with distance downstream, with the most upstream oxide samples having the greatest Fe and organic carbon content. Fulvic acid accounts for most of the organic content of the oxides. Results indicate that streambed oxides in the confluence are not saturated with respect to their capacity to sorb dissolved humic substances from streamwater. The contents of several trace metals (Mn, Zn, Cu, Pb, Ni and Co) also decrease with distance downstream and are correlated with both the Fe and organic carbon contents. Strong metal-binding sites associated with the sorbed fulvic acid are more than sufficient to account for the trace metal content of the oxides. Complexation of trace metals by sorbed fulvic acid may explain the observed downstream decrease in trace metal content.

  10. Reactive sputter deposition of metal oxide nanolaminates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rubin Aita, Carolyn

    2008-07-01

    We discuss the reactive sputter deposition of metal oxide nanolaminates on unheated substrates using four archetypical examples: ZrO2 Al2O3, HfO2 Al2O3, ZrO2 Y2O3, and ZrO2 TiO2. The pseudobinary bulk phase diagrams corresponding to these nanolaminates represent three types of interfaces. I. Complete immiscibility (ZrO2 Al2O3 and HfO2 Al2O3). II. Complete miscibility (ZrO2 Y2O3). III. Limited miscibility without a common end-member lattice (ZrO2 TiO2). We found that, although reactive sputter deposition is a far-from-equilibrium process, thermodynamic considerations strongly influence both phase formation within layers and at interfaces. We show that pseudobinary phase diagrams can be used to predict interfacial cation mixing in the nanolaminates. However, size effects must be considered to predict specific structures. In the absence of pseudoepitaxy, size effects play a significant role in determining the nanocrystalline phases that form within a layer (e.g. tetragonal ZrO2, tetragonal HfO2, and orthorhombic HfO2) and at interfaces (e.g. monoclinic (Zr,Ti)O2). These phases are not bulk standard temperature and pressure phases. Their formation is understood in terms of self-assembly into the lowest energy structure in individual critical nuclei.

  11. Plasma based formation and deposition of metal and metal oxide nanoparticles using a gas aggregation source

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Polonskyi, Oleksandr; Ahadi, Amir Mohammad; Peter, Tilo; Fujioka, Kenji; Abraham, Jan Willem; Vasiliauskaite, Egle; Hinz, Alexander; Strunskus, Thomas; Wolf, Sebastian; Bonitz, Michael; Kersten, Holger; Faupel, Franz

    2018-05-01

    Metal clusters and nanoparticles (NPs) have been studied intensively due to their unique chemical, physical, electrical, and optical properties, resulting from their dimensions, which provided host of applications in nanoscience and nanotechnology. Formation of new materials by embedding NPs into various matrices (i.e. formation of nanocomposites) further expands the horizon of possible application of such nanomaterials. In the last few decades, the focus was put on the formation of metallic and metal oxide NPs via a so-called gas aggregation nanoparticle source employing magnetron sputtering (i.e. Haberland concept). In this paper, an overview is given of the recent progress in formation and deposition of NPs by the gas aggregation method. Examples range from noble metals (Ag, Au) through reactive metals (Al, Ti) to Si and the respective oxides. Emphasis is placed on the mechanism of nanoparticle growth and the resulting properties. Moreover, kinetic Monte Carlo simulations were developed to explain the growth mechanism and dynamics of nanoparticle formation depending on the experimental conditions. In addition, the role of trace amounts of reactive gases and of pulsed operation of the plasma on the nucleation process is addressed. Finally, the treatment of the NPs in the plasma environment resulting in nanoparticle charging, morphological and chemical modifications is discussed. Contribution to the Topical Issue "Fundamentals of Complex Plasmas", edited by Jürgen Meichsner, Michael Bonitz, Holger Fehske, Alexander Piel.

  12. Comparative study of post-growth annealing of Cu(hfac)2, Co2(CO)8 and Me2Au(acac) metal precursors deposited by FEBID.

    PubMed

    Puydinger Dos Santos, Marcos Vinicius; Szkudlarek, Aleksandra; Rydosz, Artur; Guerra-Nuñez, Carlos; Béron, Fanny; Pirota, Kleber Roberto; Moshkalev, Stanislav; Diniz, José Alexandre; Utke, Ivo

    2018-01-01

    Non-noble metals, such as Cu and Co, as well as noble metals, such as Au, can be used in a number modern technological applications, which include advanced scanning-probe systems, magnetic memory and storage, ferroelectric tunnel junction memristors, metal interconnects for high performance integrated circuits in microelectronics and nano-optics applications, especially in the areas of plasmonics and metamaterials. Focused-electron-beam-induced deposition (FEBID) is a maskless direct-write tool capable of defining 3-dimensional metal deposits at nanometre scale for above applications. However, codeposition of organic ligands when using organometallic precursors is a typical problem that limits FEBID of pure metal nanostructures. In this work, we present a comparative study using a post-growth annealing protocol at 100, 200, and 300 °C under high vacuum on deposits obtained from Co 2 (CO) 8 , Cu(II)(hfac) 2 , and Me 2 Au(acac) to study improvements on composition and electrical conductivity. Although the as-deposited material was similar for all precursors, metal grains embedded in a carbonaceous matrix, the post-growth annealing results differed. Cu-containing deposits showed the formation of pure Cu nanocrystals at the outer surface of the initial deposit for temperatures above 100 °C, due to the migration of Cu atoms from the carbonaceous matrix containing carbon, oxygen, and fluorine atoms. The average size of the Cu crystals doubles between 100 and 300 °C of annealing temperature, while the composition remains constant. In contrast, for Co-containing deposits oxygen release was observed upon annealing, while the carbon content remained approximately constant; the cobalt atoms coalesced to form a metallic film. The as-deposited Au-containing material shows subnanometric grains that coalesce at 100 °C, maintaining the same average size at annealing temperatures up to 300 °C. Raman analysis suggests that the amorphous carbonaceous matrix of the as-written Co

  13. Suitable alkaline for graphene peeling grown on metallic catalysts using chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Karamat, S.; Sonuşen, S.; Çelik, Ü.; Uysallı, Y.; Oral, A.

    2016-04-01

    In chemical vapor deposition, the higher growth temperature roughens the surface of the metal catalyst and a delicate method is necessary for the transfer of graphene from metal catalyst to the desired substrates. In this work, we grow graphene on Pt and Cu foil via ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) method and further alkaline water electrolysis was used to peel off graphene from the metallic catalyst. We used different electrolytes i.e., sodium hydroxide (NaOH), potassium hydroxide (KOH), lithium hydroxide (LiOH) and barium hydroxide Ba(OH)2 for electrolysis, hydrogen bubbles evolved at the Pt cathode (graphene/Pt/PMMA stack) and as a result graphene layer peeled off from the substrate without damage. The peeling time for KOH and LiOH was ∼6 min and for NaOH and Ba(OH)2 it was ∼15 min. KOH and LiOH peeled off graphene very efficiently as compared to NaOH and Ba(OH)2 from the Pt electrode. In case of copper, the peeling time is ∼3-5 min. Different characterizations like optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and atomic force microscopy were done to analyze the as grown and transferred graphene samples.

  14. Derivation of S and Pb in phanerozoic intrusion-related metal deposits from neoproterozoic sedimentary pyrite, Great Basin, United States

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Poulson, S.R.; Koenig, Alan E.

    2011-01-01

    The thick (≤8 km), regionally extensive section of Neoproterozoic siliciclastic strata (terrigenous detrital succession, TDS) in the central and eastern Great Basin contains sedimentary pyrite characterized by mostly high δ34S values (−11.6 to 40.8‰, >70% exceed 10‰; 51 analyses) derived from reduction of seawater sulfate, and by markedly radiogenic Pb isotopes (207Pb/204Pb >19.2; 15 analyses) acquired from clastic detritus eroded from Precambrian cratonal rocks to the east-southeast. In the overlying Paleozoic section, Pb-Zn-Cu-Ag-Au deposits associated with Jurassic, Cretaceous, and Tertiary granitic intrusions (intrusion-related metal deposits) contain galena and other sulfide minerals with S and Pb isotope compositions similar to those of TDS sedimentary pyrite, consistent with derivation of deposit S and Pb from TDS pyrite. Minor element abundances in TDS pyrite (e.g., Pb, Zn, Cu, Ag, and Au) compared to sedimentary and hydrothermal pyrite elsewhere are not noticeably elevated, implying that enrichment in source minerals is not a precondition for intrusion-related metal deposits.Three mechanisms for transferring components of TDS sedimentary pyrite to intrusion-related metal deposits are qualitatively evaluated. One mechanism involves (1) decomposition of TDS pyrite in thermal aureoles of intruding magmas, and (2) aqueous transport and precipitation in thermal or fluid mixing gradients of isotopically heavy S, radiogenic Pb, and possibly other sedimentary pyrite and detrital mineral components, as sulfide minerals in intrusion-related metal deposits. A second mechanism invokes mixing and S isotope exchange in thermal aureoles of Pb and S exsolved from magma and derived from decomposition of sedimentary pyrite. A third mechanism entails melting of TDS strata or assimilation of TDS strata by crustal or mantle magmas. TDS-derived or assimilated magmas ascend, decompress, and exsolve a mixture of TDS volatiles, including isotopically heavy S and

  15. High Throughput Atomic Layer Deposition Processes: High Pressure Operations, New Reactor Designs, and Novel Metal Processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousa, MoatazBellah Mahmoud

    Atomic Layer Deposition (ALD) is a vapor phase nano-coating process that deposits very uniform and conformal thin film materials with sub-angstrom level thickness control on various substrates. These unique properties made ALD a platform technology for numerous products and applications. However, most of these applications are limited to the lab scale due to the low process throughput relative to the other deposition techniques, which hinders its industrial adoption. In addition to the low throughput, the process development for certain applications usually faces other obstacles, such as: a required new processing mode (e.g., batch vs continuous) or process conditions (e.g., low temperature), absence of an appropriate reactor design for a specific substrate and sometimes the lack of a suitable chemistry. This dissertation studies different aspects of ALD process development for prospect applications in the semiconductor, textiles, and battery industries, as well as novel organic-inorganic hybrid materials. The investigation of a high pressure, low temperature ALD process for metal oxides deposition using multiple process chemistry revealed the vital importance of the gas velocity over the substrate to achieve fast depositions at these challenging processing conditions. Also in this work, two unique high throughput ALD reactor designs are reported. The first is a continuous roll-to-roll ALD reactor for ultra-fast coatings on porous, flexible substrates with very high surface area. While the second reactor is an ALD delivery head that allows for in loco ALD coatings that can be executed under ambient conditions (even outdoors) on large surfaces while still maintaining very high deposition rates. As a proof of concept, part of a parked automobile window was coated using the ALD delivery head. Another process development shown herein is the improvement achieved in the selective synthesis of organic-inorganic materials using an ALD based process called sequential vapor

  16. [Effect of vacuum deposition technology on the metal-porcelain bond strength of a new type of CO-CR ceramic and framework dental alloy].

    PubMed

    Wu, Jun-ling; Chao, Yong-lie; Ji, Ping; Gao, Xu

    2007-10-01

    To investigate the effect of a new engineering technique of vacuum deposition-plasma magnetron reactive sputter deposition technique on the metal-porcelain bond strength of a new type of Co-Cr ceramic and framework dental alloy. Before porcelain painted on the specimens, the standardized metal strips made from DA9-4 dental alloy were coated with a thin Al2O3 ceramic film by plasma magnetron reactive sputter deposition technique. The conformation, structure and thickness of the ceramic film were analyzed. The specimens for three-point bending test made from DA9-4 alloy and VMK95 porcelain were used for metal-porcelain bond strength measurement, in the same time the interface of metal-porcelain and element distribution were also observed. The flexural bonding strength of metal-porcelain of sputtering group and control group were (180.55+/-16.45) MPa and (143.80+/-24.49) MPa. The flexural bonding strength of metal-porcelain of sputtering group was higher than control group significantly through statistical analysis (P<0.01). The plasma magnetron reactive sputter deposition technique has a positive effect in improving the bonding strength of DA9-4 dental alloy and ceramic.

  17. Characterization of heavy metal desorption from road-deposited sediment under acid rain scenarios.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Bo; Liu, An; Wu, Guangxue; Li, Dunzhu; Guan, Yuntao

    2017-01-01

    Road-deposited sediments (RDS) on urban impervious surfaces are important carriers of heavy metals. Dissolved heavy metals that come from RDS influenced by acid rain, are more harmful to urban receiving water than particulate parts. RDS and its associated heavy metals were investigated at typical functional areas, including industrial, commercial and residential sites, in Guangdong, Southern China, which was an acid rain sensitive area. Total and dissolved heavy metals in five particle size fractions were analyzed using a shaking method under acid rain scenarios. Investigated heavy metals showed no difference in the proportion of dissolved fraction in the solution under different acid rain pHs above 3.0, regardless of land use. Dissolved loading of heavy metals related to organic carbon content were different in runoff from main traffic roads of three land use types. Coarse particles (>150μm) that could be efficiently removed by conventional street sweepers, accounted for 55.1%-47.1% of the total dissolved metal loading in runoff with pH3.0-5.6. The obtained findings provided a significant scientific basis to understand heavy metal release and influence of RDS grain-size distribution and land use in dissolved heavy metal pollution affected by acid rain. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  18. Atomic layer deposition to prevent metal transfer from implants: An X-ray fluorescence study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bilo, Fabjola; Borgese, Laura; Prost, Josef; Rauwolf, Mirjam; Turyanskaya, Anna; Wobrauschek, Peter; Kregsamer, Peter; Streli, Christina; Pazzaglia, Ugo; Depero, Laura E.

    2015-12-01

    We show that Atomic Layer Deposition is a suitable coating technique to prevent metal diffusion from medical implants. The metal distribution in animal bone tissue with inserted bare and coated Co-Cr alloys was evaluated by means of micro X-ray fluorescence mapping. In the uncoated implant, the migration of Co and Cr particles from the bare alloy in the biological tissues is observed just after one month and the number of particles significantly increases after two months. In contrast, no metal diffusion was detected in the implant coated with TiO2. Instead, a gradient distribution of the metals was found, from the alloy surface going into the tissue. No significant change was detected after two months of aging. As expected, the thicker is the TiO2 layer, the lower is the metal migration.

  19. Geochemistry, Nd-Pb Isotopes, and Pb-Pb Ages of the Mesoproterozoic Pea Ridge Iron Oxide-Apatite–Rare Earth Element Deposit, Southeast Missouri

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Ayuso, Robert A.; Slack, John F.; Day, Warren C.; McCafferty, Anne E.

    2016-01-01

    Iron oxide-apatite and iron oxide-copper-gold deposits occur within ~1.48 to 1.47 Ga volcanic rocks of the St. Francois Mountains terrane near a regional boundary separating crustal blocks having contrasting depleted-mantle Sm-Nd model ages (TDM). Major and trace element analyses and Nd and Pb isotope data were obtained to characterize the Pea Ridge deposit, improve identification of exploration targets, and better understand the regional distribution of mineralization with respect to crustal blocks. The Pea Ridge deposit is spatially associated with felsic volcanic rocks and plutons. Mafic to intermediate-composition rocks are volumetrically minor. Data for major element variations are commonly scattered and strongly suggest element mobility. Ratios of relatively immobile elements indicate that the felsic rocks are evolved subalkaline dacite and rhyolite; the mafic rocks are basalt to basaltic andesite. Granites and rhyolites display geochemical features typical of rocks produced by subduction. Rare earth element (REE) variations for the rhyolites are diagnostic of rocks affected by hydrothermal alteration and associated REE mineralization. The magnetite-rich rocks and REE-rich breccias show similar REE and mantle-normalized trace element patterns.Nd isotope compositions (age corrected) show that: (1) host rhyolites have ɛNd from 3.44 to 4.25 and TDM from 1.51 to 1.59 Ga; (2) magnetite ore and specular hematite rocks display ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.21 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga, and ɛNd from 2.23 to 2.81, respectively; (3) REE-rich breccias have ɛNd from 3.04 to 4.11 and TDM from 1.6 to 1.51 Ga; and (4) mafic to intermediate-composition rocks range in ɛNd from 2.35 to 3.66 and in TDM from 1.66 to 1.56. The ɛNd values of the magnetite and specular hematite samples show that the REE mineralization is magmatic; no evidence exists for major overprinting by younger, crustal meteoric fluids, or by externally derived Nd. Host rocks, breccias, and

  20. Morphologies, microstructures, and mechanical properties of samples produced using laser metal deposition with 316 L stainless steel wire

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Xiang; Mi, Gaoyang; Luo, Yuanqing; Jiang, Ping; Shao, Xinyu; Wang, Chunming

    2017-07-01

    Laser metal deposition (LMD) with a filler has been demonstrated to be an effective method for additive manufacturing because of its high material deposition efficiency, improved surface quality, reduced material wastage, and cleaner process environment without metal dust pollution. In this study, single beads and samples with ten layers were successfully deposited on a 316 L stainless steel surface under optimized conditions using a 4000 W continuous wave fibre laser and an arc welding machine. The results showed that satisfactory layered samples with a large deposition height and smooth side surface could be achieved under appropriate parameters. The uniform structures had fine cellular and network austenite grains with good metallurgical bonding between layers, showing an austenite solidification mode. Precipitated ferrite at the grain boundaries showed a subgrain structure with fine uniform grain size. A higher microhardness (205-226 HV) was detected in the middle of the deposition area, while the tensile strength of the 50 layer sample reached 669 MPa. In addition, ductile fracturing was proven by the emergence of obvious dimples at the fracture surface.

  1. Labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction for prediction of bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants.

    PubMed

    Shan, Xiao-Quan; Wang, Zhongwen; Wang, Weisheng; Zhang, Shuzhen; Wen, Bei

    2003-02-01

    A labile rhizosphere soil solution fraction has been recommended to predict the bioavailability of heavy metals and rare earth elements to plants. This method used moist rhizosphere soil in combination with a mixture of 0.01 mol L(-1) of low-molecular-weight organic acids (LMWOAs) as extractant. The extracted soil solutions were fractionated into two colloidal fractions of <0.45 microm (F(3)) and <0.2 microm (F(2)), and one truly dissolved fraction including free metal ions and inorganic and organic complexes (fractionmetals and rare earth elements in F(2) and F(3) were quite similar. However, the mean concentrations of Cr, Ni, Zn, Cu, Pb, Cd, La, Ce, Pr, and Nd in F(lrss) accounted for 79.9%, 91.3%, 90.8%, 60.1%, 77.5%, 75.3%, 81.2%, 77.2%, 80.3%, and 79.5%, respectively, of their concentrations in F(2). In contrast, there were no differences in the extractable metal concentrations between the three fractions while the first step of the method recommended by the European Community of Reference (BCR), where 0.1 mol L(-1) acetic acid was used as an extractant. The single correlation analysis was made between metal concentrations in the different fractions of soil solutions and their concentrations in wheat. If the first step of BCR method was used there was no good correlation between heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat shoots and roots. When LMWAOs were used a good correlation was obtained between the concentrations of heavy metals in soil pools and that in wheat roots, which followed a general order of r(1 kD, LMWOAs) >r(0.2 microm, LMWOAs) approximately r(0.45 microm, LMWOAs). In the case of rare earth elements the good correlation was obtained for both the wheat roots and shoots. Generally, the correlation coefficients

  2. Processing Parameters Optimization for Material Deposition Efficiency in Laser Metal Deposited Titanium Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.

    2016-03-01

    Ti6Al4V is an important Titanium alloy that is mostly used in many applications such as: aerospace, petrochemical and medicine. The excellent corrosion resistance property, the high strength to weight ratio and the retention of properties at high temperature makes them to be favoured in most applications. The high cost of Titanium and its alloys makes their use to be prohibitive in some applications. Ti6Al4V can be cladded on a less expensive material such as steel, thereby reducing cost and providing excellent properties. Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an additive manufacturing process is capable of producing complex part directly from the 3-D CAD model of the part and it also has the capability of handling multiple materials. Processing parameters play an important role in LMD process and in order to achieve desired results at a minimum cost, then the processing parameters need to be properly controlled. This paper investigates the role of processing parameters: laser power, scanning speed, powder flow rate and gas flow rate, on the material utilization efficiency in laser metal deposited Ti6Al4V. A two-level full factorial design of experiment was used in this investigation, to be able to understand the processing parameters that are most significant as well as the interactions among these processing parameters. Four process parameters were used, each with upper and lower settings which results in a combination of sixteen experiments. The laser power settings used was 1.8 and 3 kW, the scanning speed was 0.05 and 0.1 m/s, the powder flow rate was 2 and 4 g/min and the gas flow rate was 2 and 4 l/min. The experiments were designed and analyzed using Design Expert 8 software. The software was used to generate the optimized process parameters which were found to be laser power of 3.2 kW, scanning speed of 0.06 m/s, powder flow rate of 2 g/min and gas flow rate of 3 l/min.

  3. Asymmetric metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure formed by pulsed Nd:YAG laser deposition with titanium nitride (TiN) and aluminum nitride (AlN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oshikane, Yasushi

    2017-08-01

    A novel nanostructured end cap for a truncated conical apex of optical fiber has been studied experimental and numerically. The peculiar cap is composed of asymmetric metal-insulator-metal (MIM) structure coupled with subwavelength holes. The MIM structure may act as reflective band cut filter or generator of surface plasmon polariton (SPP). And nano holes in the thicker metal layer could extract the SPP from the MIM structure and lead it to outer surface of the metal layer. For the purpose, the author has started to create the asymmetric MIM structure with TiN and AlN by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). The resultant structure was diagnosed by spectroscopic analyses.

  4. 2D modeling of direct laser metal deposition process using a finite particle method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Anedaf, T.; Abbès, B.; Abbès, F.; Li, Y. M.

    2018-05-01

    Direct laser metal deposition is one of the material additive manufacturing processes used to produce complex metallic parts. A thorough understanding of the underlying physical phenomena is required to obtain a high-quality parts. In this work, a mathematical model is presented to simulate the coaxial laser direct deposition process tacking into account of mass addition, heat transfer, and fluid flow with free surface and melting. The fluid flow in the melt pool together with mass and energy balances are solved using the Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) software NOGRID-points, based on the meshless Finite Pointset Method (FPM). The basis of the computations is a point cloud, which represents the continuum fluid domain. Each finite point carries all fluid information (density, velocity, pressure and temperature). The dynamic shape of the molten zone is explicitly described by the point cloud. The proposed model is used to simulate a single layer cladding.

  5. Enhanced Dissolution of Platinum Group Metals Using Electroless Iron Deposition Pretreatment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Taninouchi, Yu-ki; Okabe, Toru H.

    2017-12-01

    In order to develop a new method for efficiently recovering platinum group metals (PGMs) from catalyst scraps, the authors investigated an efficient dissolution process where the material was pretreated by electroless Fe deposition. When Rh-loaded alumina powder was kept in aqua regia at 313 K (40 °C) for 30 to 60 minutes, the Rh hardly dissolved. Meanwhile, after electroless Fe plating using a bath containing sodium borohydride and potassium sodium tartrate as the reducing and complexing agents, respectively, approximately 60 pct of Rh was extracted by aqua regia at 313 K (40 °C) after 30 minutes. Furthermore, when heat treatment was performed at 1200 K (927 °C) for 60 minutes in vacuum after electroless plating, the extraction of Rh approached 100 pct for the same leaching conditions. The authors also confirmed that the Fe deposition pretreatment enhanced the dissolution of Pt and Pd. These results indicate that an effective and environmentally friendly process for the separation and extraction of PGMs from catalyst scraps can be developed utilizing this Fe deposition pretreatment.

  6. Rare earth zirconium oxide buffer layers on metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Williams, Robert K.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas G.; Lee, Dominic F.; Goyal, Amit; Feenstra, Roeland

    2001-01-01

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sub.x A.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.2-(x/2) buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  7. Radiofrequency power deposition near metallic wires during MR imaging: feasibility study using T1-weighted thermal imaging.

    PubMed

    Oulmane, F; Detti, V; Grenier, D; Perrin, E; Saint-Jalmes, H

    2007-01-01

    The presence of metallic conductors (implants, wires or catheters) is prohibited in MR imaging for safety purpose with respect to radiofrequency (RF) power deposition caused by RF excitation B1 field. This work describes the use of T1-weigthed MR imaging for estimating a thermal map around a metallic (copper) wire located in the center of a MR imaging unit during an imaging sequence. The experimental set up and the methodology used for capturing the elevation of temperature created by radiofrequency power deposition around the wire is presented. A proof of its efficiency to followup temperature elevation about 0,5 degrees C in a milimetric region of interest (pixel size: 1 x 1 mm2, slice thickness 5 mm) located around the wire is given, leading to further developments of MR imaging in presence of metallic implants, coils or catheters.

  8. Versatile reactivities of rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes supported by a neutral pyrrolyl-functionalized β-diketiminato ligand.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiancui; Li, Yang; Guo, Dianjun; Wang, Shaowu; Wei, Yun; Zhou, Shuangliu

    2018-03-12

    Herein, rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes supported by a neutral pyrrolyl-functionalized β-diketiminato ligand with the formula LRE(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 (thf) (RE = Y (1a), Dy (1b), Er (1c), Yb (1d); L = MeC(NDipp)CHC(Me)NCH 2 CH 2 NC 4 H 2 -2,5-Me 2 , Dipp = 2,6- i Pr 2 C 6 H 3 ) were synthesized via the reactions of the β-diketimine HL with the rare-earth metal trialkyl complexes RE(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 3 (thf) 2 in high yields. The reactivities of 1 with pyridine derivatives, unsaturated substrates, and elemental sulfur were investigated, and some interesting chemical transformations were observed. Ligand exchange and activation of sp 2 and sp 3 C-H bonds occurred during the reactions with pyridine derivatives to afford different types of mononuclear rare-earth metal pyridyl complexes, namely, LEr(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 (η 1 -NC 5 H 4 ) (2c), LRE(η 3 -CH 2 -2-NC 5 H 2 -4,6-Me 2 ) 2 (RE = Y (3a), Er (3c)), and LRE(CH 2 SiMe 3 )(η 2 -(C,N)-2-(2-C 6 H 4 NC 5 H 4 )) (RE = Er (4c), Yb = (4d)). Similarly, activation of the sp C-H bond occurred during the reaction of phenylacetylene with 1c to produce the dinuclear erbium alkynyl complex [LEr(CH 2 SiMe 3 )(μ-C[triple bond, length as m-dash]CPh)] 2 (5c). The mixed amidinate-β-diketiminato ytterbium complex LYb[(Dipp)NC(CH 2 SiMe 3 )N(Dipp)](CH 2 SiMe 3 ) (6d) was obtained by the insertion of bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)carbodiimide into a Yb-alkyl bond, as well as via the direct alkane elimination of a CH 2 SiMe 3 moiety with bis(2,6-diisopropylphenyl)formamidine to afford the erbium complex LEr(DippNCHNDipp)(CH 2 SiMe 3 ) (7c). A rare sp 2 C-H bond oxidation of the β-diketiminato backbone with elemental sulfur insertion was detected to provide the unprecedented dinuclear rare-earth metal thiolate complexes (LRE) 2 (μ-SCH 2 SiMe 3 ) 2 (μ-SCC(Me)(NDipp)C(Me)NCH 2 CH 2 NC 4 H 2 Me 2 -2,5) (RE = Y (8a), Er (8c)) in the reactions of S 8 with 1a and 1c, respectively. The molecular structures of the complexes 1-8 were determined by

  9. Growth of normally-immiscible materials (NIMs), binary alloys, and metallic fibers by hyperbaric laser chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maxwell, J. L.; Black, M. R.; Chavez, C. A.; Maskaly, K. R.; Espinoza, M.; Boman, M.; Landstrom, L.

    2008-06-01

    This work demonstrates that two or more elements of negligible solubility (and no known phase diagram) can be co-deposited in fiber form by hyperbaric-pressure laser chemical vapor deposition (HP-LCVD). For the first time, Hg-W alloys were grown as fibers from mixtures of tungsten hexafluoride, mercury vapor, and hydrogen. This new class of materials is termed normally-immiscible materials (NIMs), and includes not only immiscible materials, but also those elemental combinations that have liquid states at exclusive temperatures. This work also demonstrates that a wide variety of other binary and ternary alloys, intermetallics, and mixtures can be grown as fibers, e.g. silicon-tungsten, aluminum-silicon, boron-carbon-silicon, and titanium-carbon-nitride. In addition, pure metallic fibers of aluminum, titanium, and tungsten were deposited, demonstrating that materials of high thermal conductivity can indeed be grown in three-dimensions, provided sufficient vapor pressures are employed. A wide variety of fiber properties and microstructures resulted depending on process conditions; for example, single crystals, fine-grained alloys, and glassy metals could be deposited.

  10. The use of ionic liquids based on choline chloride for metal deposition: A green alternative?

    PubMed

    Haerens, Kurt; Matthijs, Edward; Chmielarz, Andrzej; Van der Bruggen, Bart

    2009-08-01

    Ionic liquids are studied intensively for different applications. They tend to be denoted as "green solvents", largely because of their low vapour pressure. In recent years toxicity and biotoxicity of ionic liquids have also been investigated, which proved that not all of these are "green". In this paper the use of ionic liquids based on choline chloride and ethylene glycol in electrochemistry is discussed in the context of their use as green solvents. Due to their low toxicity and ready biodegradability, these deep eutectic solvents are promising for the electrodeposition of metals. The influence of the use of these liquids as metal deposition baths on the waste water is investigated. Drag-out was found to be the most influencing parameter on the environmental impact of the process, as it is three times higher compared to classical solutions due to the higher viscosity of the ionic liquid. There are no major changes needed in the rinsing configuration of classic electroplating plants, and ion exchange to remove the metal out of the waste water was not hindered by the presence of the ionic liquid. The formation of by-products during the deposition of metals has to be further investigated and evaluated in consideration of the environmental impact.

  11. Rare earth element geochemistry of shallow carbonate outcropping strata in Saudi Arabia: Application for depositional environments prediction

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eltom, Hassan A.; Abdullatif, Osman M.; Makkawi, Mohammed H.; Eltoum, Isam-Eldin A.

    2017-03-01

    The interpretation of depositional environments provides important information to understand facies distribution and geometry. The classical approach to interpret depositional environments principally relies on the analysis of lithofacies, biofacies and stratigraphic data, among others. An alternative method, based on geochemical data (chemical element data), is advantageous because it can simply, reproducibly and efficiently interpret and refine the interpretation of the depositional environment of carbonate strata. Here we geochemically analyze and statistically model carbonate samples (n = 156) from seven sections of the Arab-D reservoir outcrop analog of central Saudi Arabia, to determine whether the elemental signatures (major, trace and rare earth elements [REEs]) can be effectively used to predict depositional environments. We find that lithofacies associations of the studied outcrop (peritidal to open marine depositional environments) possess altered REE signatures, and that this trend increases stratigraphically from bottom-to-top, which corresponds to an upward shallowing of depositional environments. The relationship between REEs and major, minor and trace elements indicates that contamination by detrital materials is the principal source of REEs, whereas redox condition, marine and diagenetic processes have minimal impact on the relative distribution of REEs in the lithofacies. In a statistical model (factor analysis and logistic regression), REEs, major and trace elements cluster together and serve as markers to differentiate between peritidal and open marine facies and to differentiate between intertidal and subtidal lithofacies within the peritidal facies. The results indicate that statistical modelling of the elemental composition of carbonate strata can be used as a quantitative method to predict depositional environments and regional paleogeography. The significance of this study lies in offering new assessments of the relationships between

  12. Rare-gas impurities in alkali metals: Relation to optical absorption

    SciTech Connect

    Meltzer, D.E.; Pinski, F.J.; Stocks, G.M.

    1988-04-15

    An investigation of the nature of rare-gas impurity potentials in alkali metals is performed. Results of calculations based on simple models are presented, which suggest the possibility of resonance phenomena. These could lead to widely varying values for the exponents which describe the shape of the optical-absorption spectrum at threshold in the Mahan--Nozieres--de Dominicis theory. Detailed numerical calculations are then performed with the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential-approximation method. The results of these highly realistic calculations show no evidence for the resonance phenomena, and lead to predictions for the shape of the spectra which are in contradiction to observations. Absorption and emission spectramore » are calculated for two of the systems studied, and their relation to experimental data is discussed.« less

  13. IUPAC-NIST Solubility Data Series. 100. Rare Earth Metal Fluorides in Water and Aqueous Systems. Part 1. Scandium Group (Sc, Y, La)

    SciTech Connect

    Mioduski, Tomasz; Gumiński, Cezary, E-mail: cegie@chem.uw.edu.pl; Zeng, Dewen, E-mail: dewen-zeng@hotmail.com

    2014-03-15

    This work presents an assessment of solubility data for rare earth metal fluorides (generally of trivalent metals and of CeF{sub 4}) in water and in aqueous ternary systems. Compilations of all available experimental data are introduced for each rare earth metal fluoride with a corresponding critical evaluation. Every such evaluation contains a collection of all solubility results in water, a selection of suggested solubility data, and a brief discussion of the multicomponent systems. Because the ternary systems were seldom studied more than once, no critical evaluations of such data were possible. Only simple fluorides (no complexes or binary salts) aremore » treated as the input substances in this report. The literature has been covered through the end of 2013.« less

  14. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani

    2006-04-04

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  15. Europium-activated phosphors containing oxides of rare-earth and group-IIIB metals and method of making the same

    DOEpatents

    Comanzo, Holly Ann; Setlur, Anant Achyut; Srivastava, Alok Mani; Manivannan, Venkatesan

    2004-07-13

    Europium-activated phosphors comprise oxides of at least a rare-earth metal selected from the group consisting of gadolinium, yttrium, lanthanum, and combinations thereof and at least a Group-IIIB metal selected from the group consisting of aluminum, gallium, indium, and combinations thereof. A method for making such phosphors comprises adding at least a halide of at least one of the selected Group-IIIB metals in a starting mixture. The method further comprises firing the starting mixture in an oxygen-containing atmosphere. The phosphors produced by such a method exhibit improved absorption in the UV wavelength range and improved quantum efficiency.

  16. Size Distribution and Estimated Respiratory Deposition of Total Chromium, Hexavalent Chromium, Manganese, and Nickel in Gas Metal Arc Welding Fume Aerosols

    PubMed Central

    Cena, Lorenzo G.; Chisholm, William P.; Keane, Michael J.; Cumpston, Amy; Chen, Bean T.

    2016-01-01

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the mass of total Cr, Cr(VI), Mn, and Ni in 15 size fractions for mild and stainless steel gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes. Samples were collected using a nano multi orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) with polyvinyl chloride filters on each stage. The filters were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were experimentally calculated and percent recoveries were measured from spiked metals in solution and dry, certified welding-fume reference material. The fraction of Cr(VI) in total Cr was estimated by calculating the ratio of Cr(VI) to total Cr mass for each particle size range. Expected, regional deposition of each metal was estimated according to respiratory-deposition models. The weight percent (standard deviation) of Mn in mild steel fumes was 9.2% (6.8%). For stainless steel fumes, the weight percentages were 8.4% (5.4%) for total Cr, 12.2% (6.5%) for Mn, 2.1% (1.5%) for Ni and 0.5% (0.4%) for Cr(VI). All metals presented a fraction between 0.04 and 0.6 μm. Total Cr and Ni presented an additional fraction <0.03 μm. On average 6% of the Cr was found in the Cr(VI) valence state. There was no statistical difference between the smallest and largest mean Cr(VI) to total Cr mass ratio (p-value D 0.19), hence our analysis does not show that particle size affects the contribution of Cr(VI) to total Cr. The predicted total respiratory deposition for the metal particles was ∼25%. The sites of principal deposition were the head airways (7–10%) and the alveolar region (11–14%). Estimated Cr(VI) deposition was highest in the alveolar region (14%). PMID:26848207

  17. Size Distribution and Estimated Respiratory Deposition of Total Chromium, Hexavalent Chromium, Manganese, and Nickel in Gas Metal Arc Welding Fume Aerosols.

    PubMed

    Cena, Lorenzo G; Chisholm, William P; Keane, Michael J; Cumpston, Amy; Chen, Bean T

    A laboratory study was conducted to determine the mass of total Cr, Cr(VI), Mn, and Ni in 15 size fractions for mild and stainless steel gas-metal arc welding (GMAW) fumes. Samples were collected using a nano multi orifice uniform deposition impactor (MOUDI) with polyvinyl chloride filters on each stage. The filters were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) and ion chromatography. Limits of detection (LODs) and quantitation (LOQs) were experimentally calculated and percent recoveries were measured from spiked metals in solution and dry, certified welding-fume reference material. The fraction of Cr(VI) in total Cr was estimated by calculating the ratio of Cr(VI) to total Cr mass for each particle size range. Expected, regional deposition of each metal was estimated according to respiratory-deposition models. The weight percent (standard deviation) of Mn in mild steel fumes was 9.2% (6.8%). For stainless steel fumes, the weight percentages were 8.4% (5.4%) for total Cr, 12.2% (6.5%) for Mn, 2.1% (1.5%) for Ni and 0.5% (0.4%) for Cr(VI). All metals presented a fraction between 0.04 and 0.6 μ m. Total Cr and Ni presented an additional fraction <0.03 μ m. On average 6% of the Cr was found in the Cr(VI) valence state. There was no statistical difference between the smallest and largest mean Cr(VI) to total Cr mass ratio ( p -value D 0.19), hence our analysis does not show that particle size affects the contribution of Cr(VI) to total Cr. The predicted total respiratory deposition for the metal particles was ∼25%. The sites of principal deposition were the head airways (7-10%) and the alveolar region (11-14%). Estimated Cr(VI) deposition was highest in the alveolar region (14%).

  18. [Pollution Evaluation and Risk Assessment of Heavy Metals from Atmospheric Deposition in the Parks of Nanjing].

    PubMed

    Wang, Cheng; Qian, Xin; Li, Hui-ming; Sun, Yi-xuan; Wang, Jin-hua

    2016-05-15

    Contents of heavy metals involving As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pb and Zn from atmospheric deposition in 10 parks of Nanjing were analyzed. The pollution level, ecological risk and health risk were evaluated using Geoaccumulation Index, Potential Ecological Risk Index and the US EPA Health Risk Assessment Model, respectively. The results showed that the pollution levels of heavy metals in Swallow Rock Park, Swallow Rock Park and Mochou Lake Park were higher than the others. Compared to other cities such as Changchun, Wuhan and Beijing, the contents of heavy metals in atmospheric deposition of parks in Nanjing were higher. The evaluation results of Geoaccumulation Index showed that Pb was at moderate pollution level, Zn and Cu were between moderate and serious levels, while Cd was between serious and extreme levels. The ecological risk level of Cd was high. The assessment results of Health Risk Assessment Model indicated that there was no non-carcinogenic risk for all the seven heavy metals. For carcinogenic risk, the risks of Cd, Cr and Ni were all negligible (Risk < 1 x 10⁻⁶), whereas As had carcinogenic risk possibility but was considered to be acceptable (10⁻⁶ < Risk < 10⁻⁴).

  19. Salt-Driven Deposition of Thermoresponsive Polymer-Coated Metal Nanoparticles on Solid Substrates.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zhiyue; Maji, Samarendra; da Fonseca Antunes, André B; De Rycke, Riet; Hoogenboom, Richard; De Geest, Bruno G

    2016-06-13

    Here we report on a simple, generally applicable method for depositing metal nanoparticles on a wide variety of solid surfaces under all aqueous conditions. Noble-metal nanoparticles obtained by citrate reduction followed by coating with thermoresponsive polymers spontaneously form a monolayer-like structure on a wide variety of substrates in presence of sodium chloride whereas this phenomenon does not occur in salt-free medium. Interestingly, this phenomenon occurs below the cloud point temperature of the polymers and we hypothesize that salt ion-induced screening of electrostatic charges on the nanoparticle surface entropically favors hydrophobic association between the polymer-coated nanoparticles and a hydrophobic substrate. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. Geochemistry and geochronology of carbonate-hosted base metal deposits in the southern Brooks Range, Alaska: temporal association with VMS deposits and metallogenic implications

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Kelly, Karen; Slack, John; Selby, David

    2009-01-01

    The Brooks Range contains enormous accumulations of zinc and copper, either as VMS or sediment-hosted deposits. The Ruby Creek and Omar deposits are Cu-Co stratabound deposits associated with dolomitic breccias. Numerous volcanogenic Cu-Zn (+/-Ag, Au) deposits are situated ~20 km north of the Ruby Creek deposit. The carbonate-hosted deposits consist of chalcopyrite and bornite that fill open spaces, replace the matrix of the breccias, and occur in later cross-cutting veins. Cobaltiferous pyrite, chalcocite, minor tennantite-tetrahedrite, galena, and sphalerite are also present. At Ruby Creek, phases such as carrollite, renierite, and germanite occur rarely. The deposits have undergone post-depositional metamorphism (Ruby Creek, low greenschist facies; Omar, blueschist facies). The unusual geochemical signature includes Cu-Co +/- Ag, As, Au, Bi, Ge, Hg, Sb, and U with sporadic high Re concentrations (up to 2.7 ppm). New Re-Os data were obtained for chalcopyrite, bornite, and pyrite from the Ruby Creek deposit (analyses of sulfides from Omar are in progress). The data show extremely high Re abundances (hundreds of ppb, low ppm) and contain essentially no common Os. The Re-Os data provide the first absolute ages of ore formation for the Ruby Creek deposit and demonstrate that the Re-Os systematics of pyrite, chalcopyrite, and bornite are unaffected by greenschist metamorphism. The Re-Os data show that the main phase of Cu mineralization occurred at 384 +/-4.2 Ma, which coincides with zircon U-Pb ages from igneous rocks that are spatially and genetically associated with VMS deposits. This suggests a temporal link between regional magmatism and hydrothermal mineralization.

  1. Depositing aluminum as sacrificial metal to reduce metal-graphene contact resistance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Da-cheng, Mao; Zhi, Jin; Shao-qing, Wang; Da-yong, Zhang; Jing-yuan, Shi; Song-ang, Peng; Xuan-yun, Wang

    2016-07-01

    Reducing the contact resistance without degrading the mobility property is crucial to achieve high-performance graphene field effect transistors. Also, the idea of modifying the graphene surface by etching away the deposited metal provides a new angle to achieve this goal. We exploit this idea by providing a new process method which reduces the contact resistance from 597 Ω·μm to sub 200 Ω·μm while no degradation of mobility is observed in the devices. This simple process method avoids the drawbacks of uncontrollability, ineffectiveness, and trade-off with mobility which often exist in the previously proposed methods. Project by the National Science and Technology Major Project, China (Grant No. 2011ZX02707.3), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant No. 61136005), the Chinese Academy of Sciences (Grant No. KGZD-EW-303), and the Project of Beijing Municipal Science and Technology Commission, China (Grant No. Z151100003515003).

  2. Mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V specimens produced by shaped metal deposition

    PubMed Central

    Baufeld, Bernd; van der Biest, Omer

    2009-01-01

    Shaped metal deposition is a novel technique to build near net-shape components layer by layer by tungsten inert gas welding. Especially for complex shapes and small quantities, this technique can significantly lower the production cost of components by reducing the buy-to-fly ratio and lead time for production, diminishing final machining and preventing scrap. Tensile testing of Ti-6Al-4V components fabricated by shaped metal deposition shows that the mechanical properties are competitive to material fabricated by conventional techniques. The ultimate tensile strength is between 936 and 1014 MPa, depending on the orientation and location. Tensile testing vertical to the deposition layers reveals ductility between 14 and 21%, whereas testing parallel to the layers gives a ductility between 6 and 11%. Ultimate tensile strength and ductility are inversely related. Heat treatment within the α+β phase field does not change the mechanical properties, but heat treatment within the β phase field increases the ultimate tensile strength and decreases the ductility. The differences in ultimate tensile strength and ductility can be related to the α lath size and orientation of the elongated, prior β grains. The micro-hardness and Young’s modulus are similar to conventional Ti-6Al-4V with low oxygen content. PMID:27877271

  3. The Darzi-Vali bauxite deposit, West-Azarbaidjan Province, Iran: Critical metals distribution and parental affinities

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khosravi, Maryam; Abedini, Ali; Alipour, Samad; Mongelli, Giovanni

    2017-05-01

    The Darzi-Vali bauxite deposit, located 20 km east of Bukan, in northwestern Iran, occurs as discontinuous layers and lenses within the Upper Permian carbonate rocks of the Ruteh Formation. These layers extend laterally for over ∼1 km and vary in thickness ranging from 2 to 17 m. We studied the chemical variations in a selected stratigraphic section throughout the deposit, focusing in particular on numbers of selected special metals that make the deposit of potential economic importance. The critical elements Co, Ga, Nb, Ta, LREEs, and HREEs, along with transition metal Ni, are variously depleted throughout the deposit with respect to Ti, which is assumed to be a less mobile element. Among the critical elements, Cr has only demonstrated conservative behavior. Factor analysis suggests that the factors controlling the distribution of LREEs and HREEs in the ore, which most likely depend on the local composition of groundwater during weathering, are different from those controlling the distribution of other critical elements. Further, the Darzi-Vali ore has ΣREE contents (773 ppm) much higher with respect to other deposits located in NW of Iran, making this deposit worthy of further investigations. As for parental affinity, the Eu anomalies show negligible fluctuations (0.82-0.94) all along the deposit confirming that bauxitization does not affect the effectiveness of this provenance proxy. The average Eu/Eu* value (0.89) of the ore is relatively far afield from that of the average carbonate bedrock (1.3) and close to that of the average mafic protolith (0.94), and similar results are also obtained using the Sm/Nd and Tb/Tb* proxies. Bivariate plots of Eu anomaly versus Sm/Nd and Tb anomalies further support the idea that mafic rocks are probably related to the volcanic activities. These volcanic activities affected the Iranian platform during the Upper Permian as proposed for other bauxite deposits in northwestern Iran. These mafic rocks were the probable precursor

  4. Heteroepitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor compounds by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition for device applications

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Collis, Ward J.; Abul-Fadl, Ali

    1988-01-01

    The purpose of this research is to design, install and operate a metal-organic chemical vapor deposition system which is to be used for the epitaxial growth of 3-5 semiconductor binary compounds, and ternary and quaternary alloys. The long-term goal is to utilize this vapor phase deposition in conjunction with existing current controlled liquid phase epitaxy facilities to perform hybrid growth sequences for fabricating integrated optoelectronic devices.

  5. Metal-rich fluid inclusions provide new insights into unconformity-related U deposits (Athabasca Basin and Basement, Canada)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Richard, Antonin; Cathelineau, Michel; Boiron, Marie-Christine; Mercadier, Julien; Banks, David A.; Cuney, Michel

    2016-02-01

    -rich alteration. Finally, the metal concentrations in the NaCl-rich and CaCl2-rich brines are among the highest recorded compared to present-day sedimentary formation waters and fluid inclusions from basin-hosted base metal deposits (up to 600 ppm U, 3000 ppm Mn, 4000 ppm Zn, 6000 ppm Cu, 8000 ppm Pb, and 10,000 ppm Fe). The CaCl2-rich brine carries up to one order of magnitude more metal than the NaCl-rich brine. Though the exact origin of major cations and metals of the two brines remains uncertain, their contrasting compositions indicate that the two brines had distinct flow paths and fluid-rock interactions. Large-scale circulation of the brines in the Athabasca Basin and Basement was therefore a key parameter for metal mobility (including U) and formation of unconformity-related U deposits.

  6. Regio- and Stereochemical Control in Ocimene Polymerization by Half-Sandwich Rare-Earth Metal Dialkyl Complexes.

    PubMed

    Peng, Deqian; Du, Gaixia; Zhang, Pengfei; Yao, Bo; Li, Xiaofang; Zhang, Shaowen

    2016-06-01

    The polymerization of ocimene has been first achieved by half-sandwich rare-earth metal dialkyl complexes in combination with activator and Al(i) Bu3 . The regio- and stereoselectivity in the ocimene polymerization can be controlled by tuning the cyclopentadienyl ligand and the central metal of the complex. The chiral cyclopentadienyl-ligated Sc complex 1 prepares syndiotactic cis-1,4-polyocimene (cis-1,4-selectivity up to 100%, rrrr = 100%), while the corresponding Lu, Y, and Dy complexes 2-4 and the achiral pentamethylcyclopentadienyl Sc, Lu, and Y complexes 5-7 afford isotactic trans-1,2-polyocimenes (trans-1,2-selectivity up to 100%, mm = 100%). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  7. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-02-07

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  8. Metallated metal-organic frameworks

    DOEpatents

    Bury, Wojciech; Farha, Omar K.; Hupp, Joseph T.; Mondloch, Joseph E.

    2017-08-22

    Porous metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) and metallated porous MOFs are provided. Also provided are methods of metallating porous MOFs using atomic layer deposition and methods of using the metallated MOFs as catalysts and in remediation applications.

  9. Dual-Layered Film Protected Lithium Metal Anode to Enable Dendrite-Free Lithium Deposition.

    PubMed

    Yan, Chong; Cheng, Xin-Bing; Tian, Yang; Chen, Xiang; Zhang, Xue-Qiang; Li, Wen-Jun; Huang, Jia-Qi; Zhang, Qiang

    2018-06-01

    Lithium metal batteries (such as lithium-sulfur, lithium-air, solid state batteries with lithium metal anode) are highly considered as promising candidates for next-generation energy storage systems. However, the unstable interfaces between lithium anode and electrolyte definitely induce the undesired and uncontrollable growth of lithium dendrites, which results in the short-circuit and thermal runaway of the rechargeable batteries. Herein, a dual-layered film is built on a Li metal anode by the immersion of lithium plates into the fluoroethylene carbonate solvent. The ionic conductive film exhibits a compact dual-layered feature with organic components (ROCO 2 Li and ROLi) on the top and abundant inorganic components (Li 2 CO 3 and LiF) in the bottom. The dual-layered interface can protect the Li metal anode from the corrosion of electrolytes and regulate the uniform deposition of Li to achieve a dendrite-free Li metal anode. This work demonstrates the concept of rational construction of dual-layered structured interfaces for safe rechargeable batteries through facile surface modification of Li metal anodes. This not only is critically helpful to comprehensively understand the functional mechanism of fluoroethylene carbonate but also affords a facile and efficient method to protect Li metal anodes. © 2018 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. Depositional history of core section 74001 - Depth profiles of maturity, FeO, and metal

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Morris, R. V.; Gose, W. A.

    1977-01-01

    Samples from every 0.5-cm interval of soil in core section 74001 have been studied by ferromagnetic resonance (FMR) and magnetic techniques. The values of the FMR maturity index show that the 74001 samples are very immature (the index ranges from 0.14 to 0.29 units) and have not seen appreciable, if any, surface exposure since their deposition. In fact, the small amount of fine-grained metal in the 74001 samples is probably not acquired as a result of their exposure to the micrometeoroid flux at the lunar surface. Thus, the black-glass soil of 74001 was deposited very rapidly, probably in a single episode or several closely spaced episodes of lunar fire fountaining. The average concentration of FeO and its standard deviation for all the 74001 samples are 22.5 + or - 0.3 wt.%. Since the FeO concentration is so uniform, no large variations in the major-element chemistry of 74001 are expected, with the possible exception of the volatile elements. The concentration of coarse-grained metal, which is measured magnetically, and its standard deviation are 0.15 + or - 0.01 wt.%. The coarse-grained metal probably precipitated contemporaneously with the silicate and oxide phases in the black-glass droplets.

  11. First survey of atmospheric heavy metal deposition in Kosovo using moss biomonitoring.

    PubMed

    Maxhuni, Albert; Lazo, Pranvera; Kane, Sonila; Qarri, Flora; Marku, Elda; Harmens, Harry

    2016-01-01

    Bryophytes act as bioindicators and bioaccumulators of metal deposition in the environment. The atmospheric deposition of Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Hg, Ni, Mn, Pb, and Zn in Kosovo was investigated by using carpet-forming moss species (Pseudocleropodium purum and Hypnum cupressiforme) as bioindicators. This research is part of the European moss survey coordinated by the ICP Vegetation, an International Cooperative Programme reporting on the effects of air pollution on vegetation to the UNECE Convention on Long-range Transboundary Air Pollution. Sampling was performed during the summer of 2011 at 25 sampling sites homogenously distributed over Kosovo. Unwashed, dried samples were digested by using wet digestion in Teflon tubes. The concentrations of metal elements were determined by atomic absorption spectrometry (AAS) equipped with flame and/or furnace systems. The heavy metal concentration in mosses reflected local emission sources. The data obtained in this study were compared with those of similar studies in neighboring countries and Europe (2010-2014 survey). The geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. The concentrations of Cr, Ni, Pb, and Zn were higher than the respective median values of Europe, suggesting that the zones with heavy vehicular traffic and industry emission input are important emitters of these elements. Selected zones are highly polluted particularly by Cd, Pb, Hg, and Ni. The statistical analyses revealed that a strong correlation exists between the Pb and Cd content in mosses, and the degree of pollution in the studied sites was assessed.

  12. Metal accumulation strategies in plants spontaneously inhabiting Zn-Pb waste deposits.

    PubMed

    Wójcik, Małgorzata; Sugier, Piotr; Siebielec, Grzegorz

    2014-07-15

    Metal (Zn, Pb, Cd, Cu, Ni, Cr) accumulation in shoots of 38 plant species spontaneously colonizing three Zn-Pb waste deposits in southern Poland was studied in order to find out if the age of the waste (30-130 years) or its type (slag or flotation residues) influence metal content in plants and to identify species potentially suitable for biomonitoring and phytoremediation. The total metal concentrations in the waste upper layers ranged from 7300 to 171,790 mg kg(-1) for Zn, from 1390 to 22,265 mg kg(-1) for Pb, and from 66 to 1,464 mg kg(-1) for Cd, whereas CaCl2-extracted fractions accounted for 0.034-0.11 %, 0.005-0.03 %, and 0.28-0.62 % of total Zn, Pb and Cd concentrations, respectively. The concentrations of Cu, Ni, and Cr in substrates and in plants were low and ranged within the background values. Metal accumulation in plant shoots was poorly correlated with both total and CaCl2-extracted forms of metals in the substrate and was highly variable among species and also specimens of the same species. The highest mean concentrations of Zn, Pb and Cd were found in Anthyllis vulneraria L. (901.5 mg kg(-1)), Echium vulgare L. (116.92 mg kg(-1)), and Hieracium piloselloides Vill. (26.86 mg kg(-1)), respectively. Besides Reseda lutea L., no species appeared to be a good indicator of polymetallic environment pollution based on chemical analysis of shoots; however, metal accumulation in the whole plant communities of a particular contaminated area might be an accurate tool for assessment of metal transfer to vegetation irrespective of the type or age of the waste. All the species studied developed a metal exclusion strategy, thus exhibiting potential for phytostabilization of metalliferous wastelands. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Hybridization wave as the cause of the metal-insulator transition in rare earth nickelates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Hyowon; Marianetti, Chris A.; Millis, Andrew J.

    2012-02-01

    The metal-insulator transition driven by varying rare earth (Re) ion in ReNiO3 has been a longstanding challenge to materials theory. Experimental evidence suggesting charge order is seemingly incompatible with the strong Mott-Hubbard correlations characteristic of transition metals. We present density functional, Hartree-Fock and Dynamical Mean field calculations showing that the origin of the insulating phase is a hybridization wave, in which a two sublattice ordering of the oxygen breathing mode produces two Ni sites with almost identical Ni d-charge densities but very different magnetic moments and other properties. The high temperature crystal structure associated with smaller Re ions such as Lu is shown to be more susceptible to the distortion than the high temperature structure associated with larger Re ions such as La.

  14. Fracture characterization of inhomogeneous wrinkled metallic films deposited on soft substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kishida, Hiroshi; Ishizaka, Satoshi; Nagakura, Takumi; Suzuki, Hiroaki; Yonezu, Akio

    2017-12-01

    This study investigated the fracture properties of wrinkled metallic films on a polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) soft substrate. In particular, the crack density of the wrinkled film during tensile deformation was examined. In order to achieve better deformability of metallic thin films, a method to fabricate a wrinkled thin film on a PDMS soft substrate was first established. The copper (Cu) nano-film fabricated in this study possessed a wrinkled geometry, which plays a critical role in determining the extent of large elastic deformation. To create the wrinkled structure, wet-etching with a polymeric sacrificial layer was used. A sacrificial layer was first deposited onto a silicone rubber sheet. During the curing process of the layer, a compressive strain was applied such that the hardened surface layer buckled, and a wrinkled form was obtained. Subsequently, a PDMS solution was used to cover the layer in order to form a wrinkled PDMS substrate. Finally, the Cu film was deposited onto the wrinkled PDMS, such that the wrinkled Cu film on a soft PDMS substrate was fabricated. The use of uni-axial tensile tests resulted in film crack generation at the stress concentration zone in the wrinkled structure of the films. When the tensile loading was increased, the number of cracks increased. It was found that the increase in crack density was strongly related to the inhomogeneous nature of the wrinkled structure. Such a trend in crack density was investigated using FEM (finite element method) computations, such that this study established a simple mechanical model that may be used to predict the increase in crack density during tensile deformation. This model was verified through several experiments using various wrinkle patterns. The proposed mechanical model may be useful to predict the crack density of a wrinkled metallic film subject to tensile loading.

  15. Magnetic field effects on electrochemical metal depositions.

    PubMed

    Bund, Andreas; Ispas, Adriana; Mutschke, Gerd

    2008-04-01

    This paper discusses recent experimental and numerical results from the authors' labs on the effects of moderate magnetic (B) fields in electrochemical reactions. The probably best understood effect of B fields during electrochemical reactions is the magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) effect. In the majority of cases it manifests itself in increased mass transport rates which are a direct consequence of Lorentz forces in the bulk of the electrolyte. This enhanced mass transport can directly affect the electrocrystallization. The partial currents for the nucleation of nickel in magnetic fields were determined using an in situ micro-gravimetric technique and are discussed on the basis of the nucleation model of Heerman and Tarallo. Another focus of the paper is the numerical simulation of MHD effects on electrochemical metal depositions. A careful analysis of the governing equations shows that many MHD problems must be treated in a 3D geometry. In most cases there is a complex interplay of natural and magnetically driven convection.

  16. Atomic Layer Deposition of the Metal Pyrites FeS2 , CoS2 , and NiS2.

    PubMed

    Guo, Zheng; Wang, Xinwei

    2018-05-14

    Atomic layer deposition (ALD) of the pyrite-type metal disulfides FeS 2 , CoS 2 , and NiS 2 is reported for the first time. The deposition processes use iron, cobalt, and nickel amidinate compounds as the corresponding metal precursors and the H 2 S plasma as the sulfur source. All the processes are demonstrated to follow ideal self-limiting ALD growth behavior to produce fairly pure, smooth, well-crystallized, stoichiometric pyrite FeS 2 , CoS 2 , and NiS 2 films. By these processes, the FeS 2 , CoS 2 , and NiS 2 films can also be uniformly and conformally deposited into deep narrow trenches with aspect ratios as high as 10:1, which thereby highlights the broad and promising applicability of these ALD processes for conformal film coatings on complex high-aspect-ratio 3D architectures in general. © 2018 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  17. A comparison of multi-metal deposition processes utilising gold nanoparticles and an evaluation of their application to 'low yield' surfaces for finger mark development.

    PubMed

    Fairley, C; Bleay, S M; Sears, V G; NicDaeid, N

    2012-04-10

    This paper reports a comparison of the effectiveness and practicality of using different multi-metal deposition processes for finger mark development. The work investigates whether modifications can be made to improve the performance of the existing process published by Schnetz. Secondly, we compare the ability of different multi-metal deposition processes to develop finger marks on a range of surfaces with that of other currently used development processes. All published multi-metal deposition processes utilise an initial stage of colloidal gold deposition followed by enhancement of the marks with using a physical developer. All possible combinations of colloidal gold and physical developer stages were tested. The method proposed by Schnetz was shown to be the most effective process, however a modification which reduced the pH of the enhancement solution was revealed to provide the best combination of effectiveness and practicality. In trials comparing the modified formulation with vacuum metal deposition, superglue and powder suspensions on surfaces which typically give low finger mark yields (cling film, plasticised vinyl, leather and masking tape), the modified method produced significantly better results over existing processes for cling film and plasticised vinyl. The modified formulation was found to be ineffective on both masking tape and leather. It is recommended that further tests be carried out on the modified multi-metal deposition formulation to establish whether it could be introduced for operational work on cling film material in particular. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  18. Synthesis, structure, and catalytic activity of novel trinuclear rare-earth metal amido complexes incorporating μ-η5:η1 bonding indolyl and μ3-oxo groups.

    PubMed

    Yang, Song; Zhu, Xiancui; Zhou, Shuangliu; Wang, Shaowu; Feng, Zhijun; Wei, Yun; Miao, Hui; Guo, Liping; Wang, Fenhua; Zhang, Guangchao; Gu, Xiaoxia; Mu, Xiaolong

    2014-02-14

    The reactions of different pyrrolyl-functionalized indoles with rare-earth metal(III) amides [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(III)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Y) produced different kinds of rare-earth metal amido complexes. Reactions of N-((1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene)-2-(1H-indol-3-yl)ethanamine with rare-earth metal amides [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(III)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Yb, Er, Dy, Eu, Y) in toluene or THF at temperatures of 75-80 °C afforded the novel trinuclear rare-earth metal amido complexes incorporating the indolyl ligand in μ-η(5):η(1) bonding modes and a μ3-O group, which is believed to originate from cleavage of the THF ring based on experimental results. Reactions of 2-(1H-indol-3-yl)-N-((1-methyl-1H-pyrrol-2-yl)methylene)ethanamine with rare-earth metal(III) amides [(Me3Si)2N]3RE(III)(μ-Cl)Li(THF)3 (RE = Yb, Dy) produced mononuclear ytterbium and dysprosium amides having the indolyl ligand in an η(1) bonding fashion. The results indicate that substituents not only have an influence on reactivity, but also have an influence on the bonding of the indolyl ligands with metals. The catalytic activities of the novel lanthanide amido complexes for the hydrophosphonylation of both aromatic and aliphatic aldehydes and ketones were explored. The results indicate that these complexes display a high catalytic activity for the C-P bond formation under mild conditions when using low catalyst loadings (0.1 mol% for aldehydes and ketones). Thus, it provides a potential way to prepare α-hydroxy phosphonates.

  19. Technologies for deposition of transition metal oxide thin films: application as functional layers in “Smart windows” and photocatalytic systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gesheva, K.; Ivanova, T.; Bodurov, G.; Szilágyi, I. M.; Justh, N.; Kéri, O.; Boyadjiev, S.; Nagy, D.; Aleksandrova, M.

    2016-02-01

    “Smart windows” are envisaged for future low-energy, high-efficient architectural buildings, as well as for the car industry. By switching from coloured to fully bleached state, these windows regulate the energy of solar flux entering the interior. Functional layers in these devices are the transition metals oxides. The materials (transitional metal oxides) used in smart windows can be also applied as photoelectrodes in water splitting photocells for hydrogen production or as photocatalytic materials for self-cleaning surfaces, waste water treatment and pollution removal. Solar energy utilization is recently in the main scope of numerous world research laboratories and energy organizations, working on protection against conventional fuel exhaustion. The paper presents results from research on transition metal oxide thin films, fabricated by different methods - atomic layer deposition, atmospheric pressure chemical vapour deposition, physical vapour deposition, and wet chemical methods, suitable for flowthrough production process. The lower price of the chemical deposition processes is especially important when the method is related to large-scale glazing applications. Conclusions are derived about which processes are recently considered as most prospective, related to electrochromic materials and devices manufacturing.

  20. What Drives Metal-Surface Step Bunching in Graphene Chemical Vapor Deposition?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yi, Ding; Luo, Da; Wang, Zhu-Jun; Dong, Jichen; Zhang, Xu; Willinger, Marc-Georg; Ruoff, Rodney S.; Ding, Feng

    2018-06-01

    Compressive strain relaxation of a chemical vapor deposition (CVD) grown graphene overlayer has been considered to be the main driving force behind metal surface step bunching (SB) in CVD graphene growth. Here, by combining theoretical studies with experimental observations, we prove that the SB can occur even in the absence of a compressive strain, is enabled by the rapid diffusion of metal adatoms beneath the graphene and is driven by the release of the bending energy of the graphene overlayer in the vicinity of steps. Based on this new understanding, we explain a number of experimental observations such as the temperature dependence of SB, and how SB depends on the thickness of the graphene film. This study also shows that SB is a general phenomenon that can occur in all substrates covered by films of two-dimensional (2D) materials.

  1. Atmospheric deposition and critical loads for nitrogen and metals in Arctic Alaska: Review and current status

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Linder, Greg L.; Brumbaugh, William G.; Neitlich, Peter; Little, Edward

    2013-01-01

    To protect important resources under their bureau’s purview, the United States National Park Service’s (NPS) Arctic Network (ARCN) has developed a series of “vital signs” that are to be periodically monitored. One of these vital signs focuses on wet and dry deposition of atmospheric chemicals and further, the establishment of critical load (CL) values (thresholds for ecological effects based on cumulative depositional loadings) for nitrogen (N), sulfur, and metals. As part of the ARCN terrestrial monitoring programs, samples of the feather moss Hylocomium splendens are being col- lected and analyzed as a cost-effective means to monitor atmospheric pollutant deposition in this region. Ultimately, moss data combined with refined CL values might be used to help guide future regulation of atmospheric contaminant sources potentially impacting Arctic Alaska. But first, additional long-term studies are needed to determine patterns of contaminant deposition as measured by moss biomonitors and to quantify ecosystem responses at particular loadings/ ranges of contaminants within Arctic Alaska. Herein we briefly summarize 1) current regulatory guidance related to CL values 2) derivation of CL models for N and metals, 3) use of mosses as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition and loadings, 4) preliminary analysis of vulnerabilities and risks associated with CL estimates for N, 5) preliminary analysis of existing data for characterization of CL values for N for interior Alaska and 6) implications for managers and future research needs.

  2. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Liu, David K.

    1992-01-01

    Method and apparatus for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure.

  3. Low temperature photochemical vapor deposition of alloy and mixed metal oxide films

    DOEpatents

    Liu, D.K.

    1992-12-15

    Method and apparatus are described for formation of an alloy thin film, or a mixed metal oxide thin film, on a substrate at relatively low temperatures. Precursor vapor(s) containing the desired thin film constituents is positioned adjacent to the substrate and irradiated by light having wavelengths in a selected wavelength range, to dissociate the gas(es) and provide atoms or molecules containing only the desired constituents. These gases then deposit at relatively low temperatures as a thin film on the substrate. The precursor vapor(s) is formed by vaporization of one or more precursor materials, where the vaporization temperature(s) is selected to control the ratio of concentration of metals present in the precursor vapor(s) and/or the total precursor vapor pressure. 7 figs.

  4. Direct Growth of Graphene on Silicon by Metal-Free Chemical Vapor Deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tai, Lixuan; Zhu, Daming; Liu, Xing; Yang, Tieying; Wang, Lei; Wang, Rui; Jiang, Sheng; Chen, Zhenhua; Xu, Zhongmin; Li, Xiaolong

    2018-06-01

    The metal-free synthesis of graphene on single-crystal silicon substrates, the most common commercial semiconductor, is of paramount significance for many technological applications. In this work, we report the growth of graphene directly on an upside-down placed, single-crystal silicon substrate using metal-free, ambient-pressure chemical vapor deposition. By controlling the growth temperature, in-plane propagation, edge-propagation, and core-propagation, the process of graphene growth on silicon can be identified. This process produces atomically flat monolayer or bilayer graphene domains, concave bilayer graphene domains, and bulging few-layer graphene domains. This work would be a significant step toward the synthesis of large-area and layer-controlled, high-quality graphene on single-crystal silicon substrates. [Figure not available: see fulltext.

  5. Determining metal origins and availability in fluvial deposits by analysis of geochemical baselines and solid-solution partitioning measurements and modelling.

    PubMed

    Vijver, Martina G; Spijker, Job; Vink, Jos P M; Posthuma, Leo

    2008-12-01

    Metals in floodplain soils and sediments (deposits) can originate from lithogenic and anthropogenic sources, and their availability for uptake in biota is hypothesized to depend on both origin and local sediment conditions. In criteria-based environmental risk assessments, these issues are often neglected, implying local risks to be often over-estimated. Current problem definitions in river basin management tend to require a refined, site-specific focus, resulting in a need to address both aspects. This paper focuses on the determination of local environmental availabilities of metals in fluvial deposits by addressing both the origins of the metals and their partitioning over the solid and solution phases. The environmental availability of metals is assumed to be a key force influencing exposure levels in field soils and sediments. Anthropogenic enrichments of Cu, Zn and Pb in top layers could be distinguished from lithogenic background concentrations and described using an aluminium-proxy. Cd in top layers was attributed to anthropogenic enrichment almost fully. Anthropogenic enrichments for Cu and Zn appeared further to be also represented by cold 2M HNO3 extraction of site samples. For Pb the extractions over-estimated the enrichments. Metal partitioning was measured, and measurements were compared to predictions generated by an empirical regression model and by a mechanistic-kinetic model. The partitioning models predicted metal partitioning in floodplain deposits within about one order of magnitude, though a large inter-sample variability was found for Pb.

  6. Effect of hydrogen peroxide pretreatment on ZnO-based metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors deposited using plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, Yu-Chang; Lee, Hsin-Ying, E-mail: hylee@ee.ncku.edu.tw; Lee, Tsung-Hsin

    2016-01-15

    In this study, zinc oxide (ZnO) films were deposited on sapphire substrates using a plasma-enhanced atomic layer deposition system. Prior to deposition, the substrates were treated with hydrogen peroxide (H{sub 2}O{sub 2}) in order to increase nucleation on the initial sapphire surface and, thus, enhance the quality of deposited ZnO films. Furthermore, x-ray diffraction spectroscopy measurements indicated that the crystallinity of ZnO films was considerably enhanced by H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment, with the strongest (002) diffraction peak occurring for the film pretreated with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} for 60 min. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy also was used, and the results indicated that amore » high number of Zn–O bonds was generated in ZnO films pretreated appropriately with H{sub 2}O{sub 2}. The ZnO film deposited on a sapphire substrate with H{sub 2}O{sub 2} pretreatment for 60 min was applied to metal–semiconductor–metal ultraviolet photodetectors (MSM-UPDs) as an active layer. The fabricated ZnO MSM-UPDs showed improvements in dark current and ultraviolet–visible rejection ratios (0.27 μA and 1.06 × 10{sup 3}, respectively) compared to traditional devices.« less

  7. Spatial variability and geochemistry of rare earth elements in soils from the largest uranium-phosphate deposit of Brazil.

    PubMed

    Cunha, Cleyton Saialy Medeiros; da Silva, Ygor Jacques Agra Bezerra; Escobar, Maria Eugenia Ortiz; do Nascimento, Clístenes Williams Araújo

    2018-02-22

    The Itataia uranium-phosphate deposit is the largest uranium reserve in Brazil. Rare earth elements (REEs) are commonly associated with phosphate deposits; however, there are no studies on the concentrations of REEs in soils of the Itataia deposit region. Thus, the objective of the research was to evaluate the concentration and spatial variability of REEs in topsoils of Itataia phosphate deposit region. In addition, the influence of soil properties on the geochemistry of REEs was investigated. Results showed that relatively high mean concentrations (mg kg -1 ) of heavy REEs (Gd 6.01; Tb 1.25; Ho 1.15; Er 4.05; Tm 0.64; Yb 4.61; Lu 0.65) were found in surface soils samples. Soil properties showed weak influence on the geochemical behavior of REEs in soils, except for the clay content. On the other hand, parent material characteristics, such as P and U, had strong influence on REEs concentrations. Spatial distribution patterns of REEs in soils are clearly associated with P and U contents. Therefore, geochemical surveys aiming at the delineation of ore-bearing zones in the region can benefit from our data. The results of this work reinforce the perspective for co-mining of P, U and REEs in this important P-U reserve.

  8. Growth and dielectric properties of ZnO nanoparticles deposited by using electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chung, Yoonsung; Park, Hyejin; Kim, Dong-Joo; Cho, Sung Baek; Yoon, Young Soo

    2015-05-01

    The deposition behavior of ZnO nanoparticles on metal plates and conductive fabrics was investigated using electrophoretic deposition (EPD). The deposition kinetics on both metal plates and fabrics were examined using the Hamaker equation. Fabric substrates give more deposited weight than flat substrates due to their rougher shape and higher surface area. The morphologies and the structures of the deposited ZnO layers showed uniform deposition without any preferred orientation on both substrates. The dielectric properties of the ZnO layers formed by using EPD showed values that were reduced, but comparable to those of bulk ZnO. This result suggests that EPD is a convenient method to deposit functional oxides on flexible substrates.

  9. Conducting nanowires built by controlled self-assembly of amyloid fibers and selective metal deposition.

    PubMed

    Scheibel, Thomas; Parthasarathy, Raghuveer; Sawicki, George; Lin, Xiao-Min; Jaeger, Heinrich; Lindquist, Susan L

    2003-04-15

    Recent research in the field of nanometer-scale electronics has focused on the operating principles of small-scale devices and schemes to realize useful circuits. In contrast to established "top-down" fabrication techniques, molecular self-assembly is emerging as a "bottom-up" approach for fabricating nanostructured materials. Biological macromolecules, especially proteins, provide many valuable properties, but poor physical stability and poor electrical characteristics have prevented their direct use in electrical circuits. Here we describe the use of self-assembling amyloid protein fibers to construct nanowire elements. Self-assembly of a prion determinant from Saccharomyces cerevisiae, the N-terminal and middle region (NM) of Sup35p, produced 10-nm-wide protein fibers that were stable under a wide variety of harsh physical conditions. Their lengths could be roughly controlled by assembly conditions in the range of 60 nm to several hundred micrometers. A genetically modified NM variant that presents reactive, surface-accessible cysteine residues was used to covalently link NM fibers to colloidal gold particles. These fibers were placed across gold electrodes, and additional metal was deposited by highly specific chemical enhancement of the colloidal gold by reductive deposition of metallic silver and gold from salts. The resulting silver and gold wires were approximately 100 nm wide. These biotemplated metal wires demonstrated the conductive properties of a solid metal wire, such as low resistance and ohmic behavior. With such materials it should be possible to harness the extraordinary diversity and specificity of protein functions to nanoscale electrical circuitry.

  10. Anomalous positive flatband voltage shifts in metal gate stacks containing rare-earth oxide capping layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caraveo-Frescas, J. A.; Hedhili, M. N.; Wang, H.; Schwingenschlögl, U.; Alshareef, H. N.

    2012-03-01

    It is shown that the well-known negative flatband voltage (VFB) shift, induced by rare-earth oxide capping in metal gate stacks, can be completely reversed in the absence of the silicon overlayer. Using TaN metal gates and Gd2O3-doped dielectric, we measure a ˜350 mV negative shift with the Si overlayer present and a ˜110 mV positive shift with the Si overlayer removed. This effect is correlated to a positive change in the average electrostatic potential at the TaN/dielectric interface which originates from an interfacial dipole. The dipole is created by the replacement of interfacial oxygen atoms in the HfO2 lattice with nitrogen atoms from TaN.

  11. Medium-induced change of the optical response of metal clusters in rare-gas matrices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xuan, Fengyuan; Guet, Claude

    2017-10-01

    Interaction with the surrounding medium modifies the optical response of embedded metal clusters. For clusters from about ten to a few hundreds of silver atoms, embedded in rare-gas matrices, we study the environment effect within the matrix random phase approximation with exact exchange (RPAE) quantum approach, which has proved successful for free silver clusters. The polarizable surrounding medium screens the residual two-body RPAE interaction, adds a polarization term to the one-body potential, and shifts the vacuum energy of the active delocalized valence electrons. Within this model, we calculate the dipole oscillator strength distribution for Ag clusters embedded in helium droplets, neon, argon, krypton, and xenon matrices. The main contribution to the dipole surface plasmon red shift originates from the rare-gas polarization screening of the two-body interaction. The large size limit of the dipole surface plasmon agrees well with the classical prediction.

  12. Rare earth elements and critical metal content of extracted landfilled material and potential recovery opportunities.

    PubMed

    Gutiérrez-Gutiérrez, Silvia C; Coulon, Frédéric; Jiang, Ying; Wagland, Stuart

    2015-08-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs), Platinum group metals (PGMs) and other critical metals currently attract significant interest due to the high risks of supply shortage and substantial impact on the economy. Their uses in many applications have made them present in municipal solid waste (MSW) and in commercial and industrial waste (C&I), since several industrial processes produce by-products with high content of these metals. With over 4000 landfills in the UK alone, the aim of this study was to assess the existence of these critical metals within landfills. Samples collected from four closed landfills in UK were subjected to a two-step acid digestion to extract 27 metals of interest. Concentrations across the four landfill sites were 58±6mgkg(-1) for REEs comprising 44±8mgkg(-1) for light REEs, 11±2mgkg(-1) for heavy REEs and 3±1mgkg(-1) for Scandium (Sc) and 3±1.0mgkg(-1) of PGMs. Compared to the typical concentration in ores, these concentrations are too low to achieve a commercially viable extraction. However, content of other highly valuable metals (Al and Cu) was found in concentrations equating to a combined value across the four landfills of around $400 million, which increases the economic viability of landfill mining. Presence of critical metals will mainly depend on the type of waste that was buried but the recovery of these metals through landfill mining is possible and is economically feasible only if additional materials (plastics, paper, metallic items and other) are also recovered for reprocessing. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Calculating the Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare-Earth-Transition-Metal Ferrimagnets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Patrick, Christopher E.; Kumar, Santosh; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Edwards, Rachel S.; Lees, Martin R.; Petit, Leon; Staunton, Julie B.

    2018-03-01

    Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo5 gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy. We pair our calculations with measurements on a recently grown single crystal of GdCo5 , and find excellent agreement. The FPMVB approach demonstrates a new level of sophistication in the use of first-principles calculations to understand RE-TM magnets.

  14. Calculating the Magnetic Anisotropy of Rare-Earth-Transition-Metal Ferrimagnets.

    PubMed

    Patrick, Christopher E; Kumar, Santosh; Balakrishnan, Geetha; Edwards, Rachel S; Lees, Martin R; Petit, Leon; Staunton, Julie B

    2018-03-02

    Magnetocrystalline anisotropy, the microscopic origin of permanent magnetism, is often explained in terms of ferromagnets. However, the best performing permanent magnets based on rare earths and transition metals (RE-TM) are in fact ferrimagnets, consisting of a number of magnetic sublattices. Here we show how a naive calculation of the magnetocrystalline anisotropy of the classic RE-TM ferrimagnet GdCo_{5} gives numbers that are too large at 0 K and exhibit the wrong temperature dependence. We solve this problem by introducing a first-principles approach to calculate temperature-dependent magnetization versus field (FPMVB) curves, mirroring the experiments actually used to determine the anisotropy. We pair our calculations with measurements on a recently grown single crystal of GdCo_{5}, and find excellent agreement. The FPMVB approach demonstrates a new level of sophistication in the use of first-principles calculations to understand RE-TM magnets.

  15. Distributing Characteristics of Heavy Metal Elements in A Tributary of Zhedong River in Laowangzhai Gold Deposit, Yunnan (China): An Implication to Environmentology from Sediments

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Shuran; Danĕk, Tomáš; Yang, Xiaofeng; Cheng, Xianfeng

    2016-10-01

    Five heavy metal contents from five sediments and seven sediment profiles in an upstream reach of Zhedong river in Laowangzhai gold deposit were investigated in this research, along with analysis of the horizontal distribution, the surface distribution, the vertical distribution and the interlayer distribution of five heavy metal contents: arsenic (As), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), lead (Pb) and zinc (Zn). The potential ecological risk of five heavy metals was evaluated to help understanding pollution control of Laowangzhai deposit.

  16. Surface Preparation and Deposited Gate Oxides for Gallium Nitride Based Metal Oxide Semiconductor Devices

    PubMed Central

    Long, Rathnait D.; McIntyre, Paul C.

    2012-01-01

    The literature on polar Gallium Nitride (GaN) surfaces, surface treatments and gate dielectrics relevant to metal oxide semiconductor devices is reviewed. The significance of the GaN growth technique and growth parameters on the properties of GaN epilayers, the ability to modify GaN surface properties using in situ and ex situ processes and progress on the understanding and performance of GaN metal oxide semiconductor (MOS) devices are presented and discussed. Although a reasonably consistent picture is emerging from focused studies on issues covered in each of these topics, future research can achieve a better understanding of the critical oxide-semiconductor interface by probing the connections between these topics. The challenges in analyzing defect concentrations and energies in GaN MOS gate stacks are discussed. Promising gate dielectric deposition techniques such as atomic layer deposition, which is already accepted by the semiconductor industry for silicon CMOS device fabrication, coupled with more advanced physical and electrical characterization methods will likely accelerate the pace of learning required to develop future GaN-based MOS technology.

  17. Metallic nanomesh

    SciTech Connect

    Ren, Zhifeng; Sun, Tianyi; Guo, Chuanfei

    2018-02-20

    A transparent flexible nanomesh having at least one conductive element and sheet resistance less than 300.OMEGA./.quadrature. when stretched to a strain of 200% in at least one direction. The nanomesh is formed by depositing a sacrificial film, depositing, etching, and oxidizing a first metal layer on the film, etching the sacrificial film, depositing a second metal layer, and removing the first metal layer to form a nanomesh on the substrate.

  18. In Situ Synthesis and Characterization of Fe-Based Metallic Glass Coatings by Electrospark Deposition Technique

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Burkov, Alexander A.; Pyachin, S. A.; Ermakov, M. A.; Syuy, A. V.

    2017-02-01

    Crystalline FeWMoCrBC electrode materials were prepared by conventional powder metallurgy. Metallic glass (MG) coatings were produced by electrospark deposition onto AISI 1035 steel in argon atmosphere. X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy verified the amorphous structure of the as-deposited coatings. The coatings have a thickness of about 40 microns and a uniform structure. The results of dry sliding wear tests against high-speed steel demonstrated that Fe-based MG coatings had a lower friction coefficient and more than twice the wear resistance for 20 km sliding distance with respect to AISI 1035 steel. High-temperature oxidation treatment of the metal glass coatings at 1073 K in air for 12 h revealed that the oxidation resistance of the best coating was 36 times higher than that for bare AISI 1035 steel. These findings are expected to broaden the applications of electrospark Fe-based MG as highly protective and anticorrosive coatings for mild steel.

  19. Volcanic gas composition, metal dispersion and deposition during explosive volcanic eruptions on the Moon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Renggli, C. J.; King, P. L.; Henley, R. W.; Norman, M. D.

    2017-06-01

    The transport of metals in volcanic gases on the Moon differs greatly from their transport on the Earth because metal speciation depends largely on gas composition, temperature, pressure and oxidation state. We present a new thermochemical model for the major and trace element composition of lunar volcanic gas during pyroclastic eruptions of picritic magmas calculated at 200-1500 °C and over 10-9-103 bar. Using published volatile component concentrations in picritic lunar glasses, we have calculated the speciation of major elements (H, O, C, Cl, S and F) in the coexisting volcanic gas as the eruption proceeds. The most abundant gases are CO, H2, H2S, COS and S2, with a transition from predominantly triatomic gases to diatomic gases with increasing temperatures and decreasing pressures. Hydrogen occurs as H2, H2S, H2S2, HCl, and HF, with H2 making up 0.5-0.8 mol fractions of the total H. Water (H2O) concentrations are at trace levels, which implies that H-species other than H2O need to be considered in lunar melts and estimates of the bulk lunar composition. The Cl and S contents of the gas control metal chloride gas species, and sulfide gas and precipitated solid species. We calculate the speciation of trace metals (Zn, Ga, Cu, Pb, Ni, Fe) in the gas phase, and also the pressure and temperature conditions at which solids form from the gas. During initial stages of the eruption, elemental gases are the dominant metal species. As the gas loses heat, chloride and sulfide species become more abundant. Our chemical speciation model is applied to a lunar pyroclastic eruption model with isentropic gas decompression. The relative abundances of the deposited metal-bearing solids with distance from the vent are predicted for slow cooling rates (<5 °C/s). Close to a volcanic vent we predict native metals are deposited, whereas metal sulfides dominate with increasing distance from the vent. Finally, the lunar gas speciation model is compared with the speciation of a H2O-, CO

  20. Improved method for preparing rare earth sesquichalcogenides

    DOEpatents

    Takeshita, T.; Beaudry, B.J.; Gschneidner, K.A. Jr.

    1982-04-14

    An improved method for the preparation of high purity rare earth sesquichalcogenides is described. The rare earth, as one or more pieces of the metal, is sealed under a vacuum with a stoichiometric amount of sulfur or selenium and a small amount of iodine into a quartz reaction vessel. The sealed vessel is then heated to above the vaporization temperature of the chalcogen and below the melting temperature of the rare earth metal and maintained until the product has been formed. The iodine is then vaporized off leaving a pure product. The rare earth sulfides and selenides thus formed are useful as semiconductors and as thermoelectric generators. 3 tables.

  1. Laser-aided Directed Metal Deposition of Ni-based superalloy powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caiazzo, Fabrizia

    2018-07-01

    The subject of repairing Ni-based parts with state-of-the-art technologies is increasingly addressed both for research and industrial purposes, aiming to cost saving mainly in aerospace and automotive. In this frame, laser-aided Directed Metal Deposition (DMD) with injection of powder is investigated in this paper since minimal distortion of the work-piece, reduced heat-affected zones and better surface quality are benefited in comparison with conventional techniques. Actual application to overhaul Ni-based components is aimed, therefore homologous powder is fed by means of a 3-way feeding nozzle over the substrate; a disc laser is used as heat source. The chemical composition of both the substrate and the powder is preliminarily investigated via areal and punctual EDS inspections. A 2-factor, 2-level experimental plan is drawn to discuss the main effects of the processing variables laser power and processing speed. Namely, the resulting trends are given and compared with similar findings in the literature. Interestingly, dilution as a measure of metal affection is found to be lower than 25%, hence the operating window is deemed to be suitable for both repairing and fabrication of parts. Eventually, repairing by means of side overlapping and multi-level deposition traces on artificial square-shaped grooves is performed: indeed, similar slots are made before DMD to preliminarily remove any local imperfection upon improper casting of the part in the actual industrial process. Although a number of micropores are found, the process is deemed to comply with usual referred standards; in particular, a proper processing window has been found to prevent the occurrence of hot cracking which usually affects the compliance to stress.

  2. [Climatic analysis of heavy metal concentration associated with urban road-deposited sediment].

    PubMed

    Zafra-Mejía, Carlos; Santamaría-Galindo, Diana M; Torres-Galindo, Cristian D

    2015-05-01

    Objective To climatically assess (daily) the concentration of heavy metals (Pb and Cu) in sediment deposited on road surfaces of the localities of Kennedy and Puente Aranda (Bogota, D.C., Colombia). Additionally, the detected concentrations are to be evaluated with respect to the legislation chosen as reference point for the protection of human health in urban areas. Methods The concentration was determined by flame atomic absorption spectrometry. The samples were previously digested in a mixture of hydrochloric and nitric acid (3:1; aqua regia). Results The results show, with respect to road sediment closest to the size that could be potentially inhaled from the point of view of public health (≤ 10 µm), that the metal concentrations on average tend to increase in dry weather (29 %). In this regard, the concentrations during these time periods are on average 1.69 times higher than the lowest limit value set by the reference legislation. However, it is suggested that the metal concentrations are mostly due to the use of the land rather than weather conditions. Conclusions The findings are a reference point in Colombia for the discussion and publication of environmental regulations associated with the protection of human health from heavy metals and for visualizing future lines of research about the effect of climate change on metal concentrations in urban environments.

  3. Laser assisted deposition

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dutta, S.

    1983-01-01

    Applications of laser-based processing techniques to solar cell metallization are discussed. Laser-assisted thermal or photolytic maskless deposition from organometallic vapors or solutions may provide a viable alternative to photovoltaic metallization systems currently in use. High power, defocused excimer lasers may be used in conjunction with masks as an alternative to direct laser writing to provide higher throughput. Repeated pulsing with excimer lasers may eliminate the need for secondary plating techniques for metal film buildup. A comparison between the thermal and photochemical deposition processes is made.

  4. Biological low pH Mn(II) oxidation in a manganese deposit influenced by metal-rich groundwater

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bohu, Tsing; Akob, Denise M.; Abratis, Michael; Lazar, Cassandre S.; Küsel, Kirsten

    2016-01-01

    The mechanisms, key organisms, and geochemical significance of biological low-pH Mn(II) oxidation are largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the structure of indigenous Mn(II)-oxidizing microbial communities in a secondary subsurface Mn oxide deposit influenced by acidic (pH 4.8) metal-rich groundwater in a former uranium mining area. Microbial diversity was highest in the Mn deposit compared to the adjacent soil layers and included the majority of known Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and two genera of known Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (MOF). Electron X-ray microanalysis showed that romanechite [(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10] was conspicuously enriched in the deposit. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that certain fungal, bacterial, and archaeal groups were firmly associated with the autochthonous Mn oxides. Eight MOB within the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and one MOF strain belonging to Ascomycota were isolated at pH 5.5 or 7.2 from the acidic Mn deposit. Soil-groundwater microcosms demonstrated 2.5-fold-faster Mn(II) depletion in the Mn deposit than adjacent soil layers. No depletion was observed in the abiotic controls, suggesting that biological contribution is the main driver for Mn(II) oxidation at low pH. The composition and species specificity of the native low-pH Mn(II) oxidizers were highly adapted to in situ conditions, and these organisms may play a central role in the fundamental biogeochemical processes (e.g., metal natural attenuation) occurring in the acidic, oligotrophic, and metalliferous subsoil ecosystems.

  5. Formation of multicomponent matrix metal oxide films in anodic alumina matrixes by chemical deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gorokh, G. G.; Zakhlebayeva, A. I.; Metla, A. I.; Zhilinskiy, V. V.; Murashkevich, A. N.; Bogomazova, N. V.

    2017-11-01

    The metal oxide films of SnxZnyOz and SnxMoyOz systems deposited onto anodic alumina matrixes by chemical and ion layering from an aqueous solutions were characterized by scanning electron microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, electron probe X-ray microanalysis and IR spectroscopy. The obtained matrix films had reproducible composition and structure and possessed certain morphological characteristics and properties.

  6. Metal copper films deposited on cenosphere particles by magnetron sputtering method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiaozheng; Xu, Zheng; Shen, Zhigang

    2007-05-01

    Metal copper films with thicknesses from several nanometres to several micrometres were deposited on the surface of cenosphere particles by the magnetron sputtering method under different working conditions. An ultrasonic vibrating generator equipped with a conventional magnetron sputtering apparatus was used to prevent the cenosphere substrates from accumulating during film growth. The surface morphology, the chemical composition, the average grain size and the crystallization of cenosphere particles were characterized by field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), inductively coupled plasma-atom emission spectrometer, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and x-ray diffraction (XRD) analysis, respectively, before and after the plating process. The results indicate that the copper films were successfully deposited on cenosphere particles. It was found from the FE-SEM results that the films were well compacted and highly uniform in thickness. The XRD results show that the copper film coated on cenospheres has a face centred cubic structure and the crystallization of the film sample increases with increasing sputtering power.

  7. Impact of acid and trace metals deposition on freshwater invertebrates in north-eastern Fennoscandia and Kola Peninsula

    SciTech Connect

    Yakovlev, V.

    1996-12-31

    Freshwater invertebrate communities in a total 400 lakes and streams in northeastern Norway, Finnish Lapland and the Kola Peninsula, subjected to the atmospheric deposition were studied. The severe influence of toxic heavy metals, dusts from smelters and mineral enrichment factories were found in the Kola Peninsula. The negative acidification effects on benthic communities were found in the Jarfjord (Norway), Enontekio, Ranua-Posio and Kittila-Kolari (Finnish Lapland) areas and in the Kola Peninsula (Russia). Taxa groups, known to be sensitive to acidification, such as gammarids, snails, mayflies, stone flies, were represented with few species and in a low abundance. Heavy metals accumulationmore » in biota is recorded in areas surrounding nickel smelters in the Kola Peninsula. The metal concentration invertebrates in remote areas is rather wide and depend on an air deposition, characteristics of lake catchment areas, as well as water acidity. The environmental variables, such as lake hydrological type, altitude of lakes, dominant substratum type, abundance of macrophytes and mosses in sampling area, content of pollutants in water also show significant relationships with metal concentration in invertebrates. The most severe negative effects on biota were found in waters with low pH and simultaneously contaminated by heavy metals. The biological method for estimation of simultaneously water acidification and contamination is suggested.« less

  8. Incorporation of precious metal nanoparticles into various aerogels by different supercritical deposition methods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saquing, Carl D.

    2005-11-01

    One major hurdle in nanoparticle fabrication is the difficulty in controlling size, distribution and concentration. Conventional methods in nanoparticle formation require high temperatures which lead to particle agglomeration and size broadening, or involve substantial amount of organic solvents. A clean route to supported-nanoparticles fabrication was investigated using various supercritical (SC) based deposition methods. The SC deposition involves the organometallic precursor (OP) (dimethyl(1,5-cyclooctadiene)platinum(II)[CODPtMe 2] or bis(2,2,6,6-tetramethyl-3,5-heptanedionato) (1,5-cyclooctadiene) ruthenium(II)) dissolution in SC fluid and contacting this solution with a substrate. The OP is adsorbed and subsequent reduction of the OP-impregnated substrate produces metal/substrate composites. The various methods were: (1) thermal reduction at atmospheric pressure in an inert atmosphere; (2) thermal reduction in SC carbon dioxide (scCO2); (3) chemical reduction in scCO2 with H2; and (4) chemical reduction at atmospheric pressure with H2. The synthesis of resorcinol-formaldehyde aerogels (RFAs) and carbon aerogels (CAs) was also studied and used as substrates (along with commercial silica aerogels (SAs)) in the SC deposition. The surface area, pore properties, and density of these aerogels were evaluated and the effects of reactant concentration, pyrolysis and SC deposition on these properties were determined. Using a static method, the adsorption isotherms of CODPtMe2 in scCO2 on two CAs with different pore sizes were measured at 28 MPa and 80°C to determine the maximum metal loading and the effect of pore properties on adsorption and to examine the interactions between the three components. The isotherms could be represented by the Langmuir model and the adsorption data indicated a strong CODPtMe2-CA interaction and that almost all the preexistent micropore area was covered with CODPtMe 2 molecules even at adsorption lower than the maximum capacity. The

  9. Electron microscopy study of gold nanoparticles deposited on transition metal oxides.

    PubMed

    Akita, Tomoki; Kohyama, Masanori; Haruta, Masatake

    2013-08-20

    Many researchers have investigated the catalytic performance of gold nanoparticles (GNPs) supported on metal oxides for various catalytic reactions of industrial importance. These studies have consistently shown that the catalytic activity and selectivity depend on the size of GNPs, the kind of metal oxide supports, and the gold/metal oxide interface structure. Although researchers have proposed several structural models for the catalytically active sites and have identified the specific electronic structures of GNPs induced by the quantum effect, recent experimental and theoretical studies indicate that the perimeter around GNPs in contact with the metal oxide supports acts as an active site in many reactions. Thus, it is of immense importance to investigate the detailed structures of the perimeters and the contact interfaces of gold/metal oxide systems by using electron microscopy at an atomic scale. This Account describes our investigation, at the atomic scale using electron microscopy, of GNPs deposited on metal oxides. In particular, high-resolution transmission electron microscopy (HRTEM) and high-angle annular dark-field scanning transmission electron microscopy (HAADF-STEM) are valuable tools to observe local atomic structures, as has been successfully demonstrated for various nanoparticles, surfaces, and material interfaces. TEM can be applied to real powder catalysts as received without making special specimens, in contrast to what is typically necessary to observe bulk materials. For precise structure analyses at an atomic scale, model catalysts prepared by using well-defined single-crystalline substrates are also adopted for TEM observations. Moreover, aberration-corrected TEM, which has high spatial resolution under 0.1 nm, is a promising tool to observe the interface structure between GNPs and metal oxide supports including oxygen atoms at the interfaces. The oxygen atoms in particular play an important role in the behavior of gold/metal oxide

  10. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G., E-mail: john.mccaffrey@nuim.ie

    2016-01-28

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y{sup 1}P←a{sup 1}S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅more » RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm{sup −1}). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr{sub 2} while this transition is quenched in Ba{sub 2}. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba{sub 2} indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.« less

  11. Heavy metals in the finest size fractions of road-deposited sediments.

    PubMed

    Lanzerstorfer, Christof

    2018-08-01

    The concentration of heavy metals in urban road-deposited sediments (RDS) can be used as an indicator for environmental pollution. Thus, their occurrence has been studied in whole road dust samples as well as in size fractions obtained by sieving. Because of the limitations of size separation by sieving little information is available about heavy metal concentrations in the road dust size fractions <20 μm. In this study air classification was applied for separation of dust size fractions smaller than 20 μm from RDS collected at different times during the year. The results showed only small seasonal variations in the heavy metals concentrations and size distribution. According to the Geoaccumulation Index the pollution of the road dust samples deceased in the following order: Sb » As > Cu ≈ Zn > Cr > Cd ≈ Pb ≈ Mn > Ni > Co ≈ V. For all heavy metals the concentration was higher in the fine size fractions compared to the coarse size fractions, while the concentration of Sr was size-independent. The enrichment of the heavy metals in the finest size fraction compared to the whole RDS <200 μm was up to 4.5-fold. The size dependence of the concentration decreased in the following order: Co ≈ Cd > Sb > (Cu) ≈ Zn ≈ Pb > As ≈ V » Mn. The approximation of the size dependence of the concentration as a function of the particle size by power functions worked very well. The correlation between particle size and concentration was high for all heavy metals. The increased heavy metals concentrations in the finest size fractions should be considered in the evaluation of the contribution of road dust re-suspension to the heavy metal contamination of atmospheric dust. Thereby, power functions can be used to describe the size dependence of the concentration. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Hydrothermal transport and deposition of the rare earth elements by fluorine-bearing aqueous liquids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Migdisov, Art A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    2014-12-01

    New technologies, particularly those designed to address environmental concerns, have created a great demand for the rare earth elements (REE), and focused considerable attention on the processes by which they are concentrated to economically exploitable levels in the Earth's crust. There is widespread agreement that hydrothermal fluids played an important role in the formation of the world's largest economic REE deposit, i.e. Bayan Obo, China. Until recently, many researchers have assumed that hydrothermal transport of the REE in fluorine-bearing ore-forming systems occurs mainly due to the formation of REE-fluoride complexes. Consequently, hydrothermal models for REE concentration have commonly involved depositional mechanisms based on saturation of the fluid with REE minerals due to destabilization of REE-fluoride complexes. Here, we demonstrate that these complexes are insignificant in REE transport, and that the above models are therefore flawed. The strong association of H+ and F- as HF° and low solubility of REE-F solids greatly limit transport of the REE as fluoride complexes. However, this limitation does not apply to REE-chloride complexes. Because of this, the high concentration of Cl- in the ore fluids, and the relatively high stability of REE-chloride complexes, the latter can transport appreciable concentrations of REE at low pH. The limitation also does not apply to sulphate complexes and in some fluids, the concentration of sulphate may be sufficient to transport significant concentrations of REE as sulphate complexes, particularly at weakly acidic pH. This article proposes new models for hydrothermal REE deposition based on the transport of the REE as chloride and sulphate complexes.

  13. Analysis on Heavy Metal Distribution in Overlying Deposit and Pollution Characteristics in Drainage Basin of Xiaojiang River in Dongchuan District, China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huang, Qianrui; Cheng, Xianfeng; Xu, Jun; Qi, Wufu; Yang, Shuran; Dong, Tao; Zhang, Xiangqun

    2017-12-01

    The distribution characteristics of heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River is analyzed in this thesis, and potential ecological risk index is adopted to evaluate the potential ecological risk of heavy metal pollution in the overlying deposit. Results indicate that the heavy metal (Cu, Zn, As, Pb and Cd) content in overlying deposit in Xiaojiang River all has exceeded standard, especially the content near diggings which is much higher than the national first standard value. And this will affect the bottom mud and river system of Jinsha River to some extent. Cu and Cd are the key pollutants and should be taken as the key object of study. It can be seen from comparison between samples in wet season and that in dry season that pollutants in bottom mud will be released due to the effect of pH value, and secondary pollution of the river will be caused.

  14. Geology of an Ordovician stratiform base-metal deposit in the Long Canyon Area, Blaine County, Idaho

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Otto, B.R.; Zieg, G.A.

    2003-01-01

    In the Long Canyon area, Blaine County, Idaho, a strati-form base-metal-bearing gossan is exposed within a complexly folded and faulted sequence of Ordovician strata. The gossan horizon in graptolitic mudrock suggests preservation of bedded sulfides that were deposited by an Ordovician subaqueous hydrothermal system. Abrupt thickness changes and geochemi-cal zoning in the metal-bearing strata suggest that the gossan is near the source of the hydrothermal system. Ordovician sedimentary rocks at Long Canyon represent a coarsening-upward section that was deposited below wave base in a submarine depositional environment. The lowest exposed rocks represent deposition in a starved, euxinic basin and over-lying strata represent a prograding clastic wedge of terrigenous and calcareous detritus. The metalliferous strata are between these two types of strata. Strata at Long Canyon have been deformed by two periods of thrust faulting, at least three periods of normal faulting, and two periods of folding. Tertiary extensional faulting formed five subhorizontal structural plates. These low-angle fault-bounded plates truncate Sevier-age and possibly Antler-age thrust faults. The presence of gossan-bearing strata in the four upper plates suggests that there was only minor, although locally complex, stratigraphic displacement and rotation. The lack of correlative strata in the lowest plate suggests the displacement was greater than 2000 ft. The metalliferous strata were exposed to surface weathering, oxidation, and erosion prior to and during deposition of the Eocene Challis Volcanic Group. The orientations of erosional canyons formed during this early period of exposure were related to the orientations of Sevier-age thrust faults, and stream-channel gravel was deposited in the canyons. During this and subsequent intervals of exposure, sulfidic strata were oxi-dized to a minimum depth of 700 ft.

  15. Assessment of atmospheric trace metal deposition in urban environments using direct and indirect measurement methodology and contributions from wet and dry depositions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Omrani, Mehrazin; Ruban, Véronique; Ruban, Gwenaël; Lamprea, Katerine

    2017-11-01

    Bulk Atmospheric Deposition (BAD), Wet Atmospheric Deposition (WAD) and Dry Atmospheric Deposition (DAD) were all measured within an urban residential area in Nantes (France) over a 9-month period (27 February - 10 December 2014). The objectives of this study were to compare 2 methods for measuring dry and wet atmospheric depositions in the urban environment (DAD and WAD: direct method; BAD and WAD: indirect one), and to characterize as well the variations and relative contributions of these depositions. Trace metals (As, Cd, Cr, Cu, Ni, Pt and V) were used to carry out these comparison and quantification. BAD was collected with two open polyethylene containers (72 × 54 × 21 cm), while WAD was collected by means of an automated rainwater collector and DAD was determined from both air measurements (recorded by an air sampler) and 7Be deposition velocities. The comparison based on a detailed evaluation of uncertainties showed a significant difference between the direct and indirect methods. Dry and wet depositions varied widely from one month to the next. Zn and Cu were the most abundant elements in both dry and wet depositions. The mean contribution of DAD to the bulk atmospheric deposition during this 9-month study was significant for Zn, Cu and V (about 25%) as well as for Pb (approx. 60%). For this relatively unpolluted urban residential catchment, the contribution of atmospheric deposition to global load at the catchment outlet was low, between 10% and 20% for Zn, Cu, V and Pb, 25% for Cr and about 30% for Ni. For other urban sites exhibiting high atmospheric pollution however, the atmospheric contribution to the global pollution load could be much greater. An accurate and representative estimation of DAD thus proves critical.

  16. Identification of source locations for atmospheric dry deposition of heavy metals during yellow-sand events in Seoul, Korea in 1998 using hybrid receptor models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Han, Young-Ji; Holsen, Thomas M.; Hopke, Philip K.; Cheong, Jang-Pyo; Kim, Ho; Yi, Seung-Muk

    2004-10-01

    Elemental dry deposition fluxes were measured using dry deposition plates from March to June 1998 in Seoul, Korea. During this spring sampling period several yellow-sand events characterized by long-range transport from China and Mongolia impacted the area. Understanding the impact of yellow-sand events on atmospheric dry deposition is critical to managing the heavy metal levels in the environment in Korea. In this study, the measured flux of a primarily crustal metal, Al and an anthropogenic metal, Pb was used with two hybrid receptor models, potential source contribution function (PSCF) and residence time weighted concentration (RTWC) for locating sources of heavy metals associated with atmospheric dry deposition fluxes during the yellow-sand events in Seoul, Korea. The PSCF using a criterion value of the 75th percentile of the measured dry deposition fluxes and RTWC results using the measured elemental dry deposition fluxes agreed well and consistently showed that there were large potential source areas in the Gobi Desert in China and Mongolia and industrial areas near Tianjin, Tangshan, and Shenyang in China. Major industrial areas of Shenyang, Fushun, and Anshan, the Central China loess plateau, the Gobi Desert, and the Alashan semi-desert in China were identified to be major source areas for the measured Pb flux in Seoul, Korea. For Al, the main industrial areas of Tangshan, Tianjin and Beijing, the Gobi Desert, the Alashan semi-desert, and the Central China loess plateau were found to be the major source areas. These results indicate that both anthropogenic sources such as industrial areas and natural sources such as deserts contribute to the high dry deposition fluxes of both Pb and Al in Seoul, Korea during yellow-sand events. RTWC resolved several high potential source areas. Modeling results indicated that the long-range transport of Al and Pb from China during yellow-sand events as well as non-yellow-sand spring daytimes increased atmospheric dry

  17. Rare Earth Polyoxometalates.

    PubMed

    Boskovic, Colette

    2017-09-19

    Longstanding and important applications make use of the chemical and physical properties of both rare earth metals and polyoxometalates of early transition metals. The catalytic, optical, and magnetic features of rare earth metal ions are well-known, as are the reversible multielectron redox and photoredox capabilities of polyoxomolybdates and polyoxotungstates. The combination of rare earth ions and polyoxometalates in discrete molecules and coordination polymers is of interest for the unique combination of chemical and physical properties that can arise. This Account surveys our efforts to synthesize and investigate compounds with rare earth ions and polyoxometalates (RE-POMs), sometimes with carboxylate-based organic coligands. Our general synthetic approach is "bottom-up", which affords well-defined nanoscale molecules, typically in crystalline form and amenable to single-crystal X-ray diffraction for structure determination. Our particular focus is on elucidation of the physical properties conferred by the different structural components with a view to ultimately being able to tune these properties chemically. For this purpose, we employ a variety of spectroscopic, magnetochemical, electrochemical, and scattering techniques in concert with theoretical modeling and computation. Studies of RE-POM single-molecule magnets (SMMs) have utilized magnetic susceptibility, inelastic neutron scattering, and ab initio calculations. These investigations have allowed characterization of the crystal field splitting of the rare earth(III) ions that is responsible for the SMM properties of slow magnetic relaxation and magnetization quantum tunneling. Such SMMs are promising for applications in quantum computing and molecular spintronics. Photophysical measurements of a family of hybrid RE-POMs with organic ligands have afforded insights into sensitization of Tb(III) and Eu(III) emission through both organic and polyoxometalate chromophores in the same molecule. Detailed

  18. Direct metal laser deposition of titanium powder Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bykovskiy, D. P.; Petrovskiy, V. N.; Sergeev, K. L.; Osintsev, A. V.; Dzhumaev, P. S.; Polskiy, V. I.

    2017-12-01

    The paper presents the results of mechanical properties study of the material produced by direct metal laser deposition of VT6 titanium powder. The properties were determined by the results of stretching at tensile testing machine, as well as compared with the properties of the same rolled material. These results show that obtained samples have properties on the level or even higher than that ones of the samples obtained from the rolled material in a certain range of technological regimes.

  19. D2O clusters isolated in rare-gas solids: Dependence of infrared spectrum on concentration, deposition rate, heating temperature, and matrix material

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shimazaki, Yoichi; Arakawa, Ichiro; Yamakawa, Koichiro

    2018-04-01

    The infrared absorption spectra of D2O monomers and clusters isolated in rare-gas matrices were systematically reinvestigated under the control of the following factors: the D2O concentration, deposition rate, heating temperature, and rare-gas species. We clearly show that the cluster-size distribution is dependent on not only the D2O concentration but also the deposition rate of a sample; as the rate got higher, smaller clusters were preferentially formed. Under the heating procedures at different temperatures, the cluster-size growth was successfully observed. Since the monomer diffusion was not enough to balance the changes in the column densities of the clusters, the dimer diffusion was likely to contribute the cluster growth. The frequencies of the bonded-OD stretches of (D2O)k with k = 2-6 were almost linearly correlated with the square root of the critical temperature of the matrix material. Additional absorption peaks of (D2O)2 and (D2O)3 in a Xe matrix were assigned to the species trapped in tight accommodation sites.

  20. Half-sandwich rare-earth-catalyzed olefin polymerization, carbometalation, and hydroarylation.

    PubMed

    Nishiura, Masayoshi; Guo, Fang; Hou, Zhaomin

    2015-08-18

    The search for new catalysts for more efficient, selective chemical transformations and for the synthesis of new functional materials has been a long-standing research subject in both academia and industry. To develop new generations of catalysts that are superior or complementary to the existing ones, exploring the potential of untapped elements is an important strategy. Rare-earth elements, including scandium, yttrium, and the lanthanides (La-Lu), constitute one important frontier in the periodic table. Rare-earth elements possess unique chemical and physical properties that are different from those of main-group and late-transition metals. The development of rare-earth-based catalysts by taking the advantage of these unique properties is of great interest and importance. The most stable oxidation state of rare-earth metals is 3+, which is difficult to change under many reaction conditions. The oxidative addition and reductive elimination processes often observed in catalytic cycles involving late transition metals are generally difficult in the case of rare-earth complexes. The 18-electron rule that is applicable to late-transition-metal complexes does not fit rare-earth complexes, whose structures are mainly governed by the sterics (rather than the electron numbers) of the ligands. In the lanthanide series (La-Lu), the ionic radius gradually decreases with increasing atomic number because of the influence of the 4f electrons, which show poor shielding of nuclear charge. Rare-earth metal ions generally show strong Lewis acidity and oxophilicity. Rare-earth metal alkyl and hydride species are highly reactive, showing both nucleophilicity and basicity. The combination of these features, such as the strong nucleophilicity and moderate basicity of the alkyl and hydride species and the high stability, strong Lewis acidity, and unsaturated C-C bond affinity of the 3+ metal ions, can make rare-earth metals unique candidates for the formation of excellent single

  1. Direct Metal Deposition of Refractory High Entropy Alloy MoNbTaW

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dobbelstein, Henrik; Thiele, Magnus; Gurevich, Evgeny L.; George, Easo P.; Ostendorf, Andreas

    Alloying of refractory high entropy alloys (HEAs) such as MoNbTaW is usually done by vacuum arc melting (VAM) or powder metallurgy (PM) due to the high melting points of the elements. Machining to produce the final shape of parts is often needed after the PM process. Casting processes, which are often used for aerospace components (turbine blades, vanes), are not possible. Direct metal deposition (DMD) is an additive manufacturing technique used for the refurbishment of superalloy components, but generating these components from the bottom up is also of current research interest. MoNbTaW possesses high yield strength at high temperatures and could be an alternative to state-of-the-art materials. In this study, DMD of an equimolar mixture of elemental powders was performed with a pulsed Nd:YAG laser. Single wall structures were built, deposition strategies developed and the microstructure of MoNbTaW was analyzed by back scattered electrons (BSE) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy in a scanning electron microscope. DMD enables the generation of composition gradients by using dynamic powder mixing instead of pre-alloyed powders. However, the simultaneous handling of several elemental or pre-alloyed powders brings new challenges to the deposition process. The influence of thermal properties, melting point and vapor pressure on the deposition process and chemical composition will be discussed.

  2. Hydrazine-Free Solution-Deposited CuIn(S,Se)2 Solar Cells by Spray Deposition of Metal Chalcogenides.

    PubMed

    Arnou, Panagiota; van Hest, Maikel F A M; Cooper, Carl S; Malkov, Andrei V; Walls, John M; Bowers, Jake W

    2016-05-18

    Solution processing of semiconductors, such as CuInSe2 and its alloys (CIGS), can significantly reduce the manufacturing costs of thin film solar cells. Despite the recent success of solution deposition approaches for CIGS, toxic reagents such as hydrazine are usually involved, which introduce health and safety concerns. Here, we present a simple and safer methodology for the preparation of high-quality CuIn(S, Se)2 absorbers from metal sulfide solutions in a diamine/dithiol mixture. The solutions are sprayed in air, using a chromatography atomizer, followed by a postdeposition selenization step. Two different selenization methods are explored resulting in power conversion efficiencies of up to 8%.

  3. Targeted Single-Site MOF Node Modification: Trivalent Metal Loading via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, In Soo; Borycz, Joshua; Platero-Prats, Ana E.

    Postsynthetic functionalization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) enables the controlled, high-density incorporation of new atoms on a crystallographically precise framework. Leveraging the broad palette of known atomic layer deposition (ALD) chemistries, ALD in MOFs (AIM) is one such targeted approach to construct diverse, highly functional, few-atom clusters. We here demonstrate the saturating reaction of trimethylindium (InMe3) with the node hydroxyls and ligated water of NU-1000, which takes place without significant loss of MOF crystallinity or internal surface area. We computationally identify the elementary steps by which trimethylated trivalent metal compounds (ALD precursors) react with this Zr-based MOF node to generatemore » a uniform and well characterized new surface layer on the node itself, and we predict a final structure that is fully consistent with experimental X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. We further demonstrate tunable metal loading through controlled number density of the reactive handles (-OH and -OH2) achieved through node dehydration at elevated temperatures.« less

  4. Risk assessment of metals in road-deposited sediment along an urban-rural gradient.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Hongtao; Li, Xuyong

    2013-03-01

    We applied the traditional risk assessment methods originally designed for soils and river sediments to evaluation of risk associated with metals in road-deposited sediment (RDS) along an urban-rural gradient that included central urban (UCA), urban village (UVA), central suburban county (CSA), rural town (RTA), and rural village (RVA) areas in the Beijing metropolitan region. A new indicator RI(RDS) was developed which integrated the RDS characteristics of mobility, grain size and amount with the potential ecological risk index. The risk associated with metals in RDS in urban areas was generally higher than that in rural areas based on the assessment using traditional methods, but the risk was higher in urban and rural village areas than the areas with higher administration units based on the indicator RI(RDS). These findings implied that RDS characteristics variation with the urban-rural gradient must be considered in metal risk assessment and RDS washoff pollution control. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Copper Benzenetricarboxylate Metal-Organic Framework Nucleation Mechanisms on Metal Oxide Powders and Thin Films formed by Atomic Layer Deposition.

    PubMed

    Lemaire, Paul C; Zhao, Junjie; Williams, Philip S; Walls, Howard J; Shepherd, Sarah D; Losego, Mark D; Peterson, Gregory W; Parsons, Gregory N

    2016-04-13

    Chemically functional microporous metal-organic framework (MOF) crystals are attractive for filtration and gas storage applications, and recent results show that they can be immobilized on high surface area substrates, such as fiber mats. However, fundamental knowledge is still lacking regarding initial key reaction steps in thin film MOF nucleation and growth. We find that thin inorganic nucleation layers formed by atomic layer deposition (ALD) can promote solvothermal growth of copper benzenetricarboxylate MOF (Cu-BTC) on various substrate surfaces. The nature of the ALD material affects the MOF nucleation time, crystal size and morphology, and the resulting MOF surface area per unit mass. To understand MOF nucleation mechanisms, we investigate detailed Cu-BTC MOF nucleation behavior on metal oxide powders and Al2O3, ZnO, and TiO2 layers formed by ALD on polypropylene substrates. Studying both combined and sequential MOF reactant exposure conditions, we find that during solvothermal synthesis ALD metal oxides can react with the MOF metal precursor to form double hydroxy salts that can further convert to Cu-BTC MOF. The acidic organic linker can also etch or react with the surface to form MOF from an oxide metal source, which can also function as a nucleation agent for Cu-BTC in the mixed solvothermal solution. We discuss the implications of these results for better controlled thin film MOF nucleation and growth.

  6. Conifer needles as biomonitors of atmospheric heavy metal deposition: comparison with mosses and precipitation, role of the canopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Čeburnis, D.; Steinnes, E.

    Concentrations of seven elements (As, Cd, Cr, Mn, Pb, V, Zn) in mosses ( Hylocomium splendens, Pleurozium schreberi, Eurhynchium angustirete) and needles of Norway spruce ( Picea abies) and juniper ( Juniperus communis) were determined at 48 sites in Lithuania. Conifer needles consistently showed many times lower concentrations than mosses collected at the same site. Correlations between heavy-metal concentrations in needles and mosses indicated that accumulation processes may be similar, but mosses appear to be clearly preferable as biomonitors of atmospheric deposition because of their higher elemental concentrations and more quantitative reflection of deposition rates. Precipitation in the open field and under the canopy was investigated at two stations with respect to the same metals. The canopy was shown to retain a considerable part of lead, whereas elements such as Zn and Mn were enriched in precipitation under the canopy. Study of metal concentrations in moss growing, respectively, below and outside the canopy showed that none of so studied elements was significantly retained by the canopy. Most of the metals (Cu, Fe, Zn, Cr, Ni, V) were leached from the canopy to a smaller or greater extent.

  7. Formation of Deep Sea Umber Deposits Linked to Microbial Metal Oxidation at the South Atlantic Ridge

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peng, Xiaotong; Ta, Kaiwen; Chen, Shun; Zhang, Lijuan; Xu, Hengchao

    2015-04-01

    Umber deposits are important metalliferous deposits, which occur in off-axis half-graben structures at ancient and modern ocean floor. The genesis of umber deposits has remained controversial for several decades. Recently, microbial Fe(II) oxidation associated with low-temperature diffuse venting has been identified as a key process for the formation of umber deposits, but the exact biochemical mechanisms involved to the precipitation of Mn oxides and co-precipitation of Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides in umber deposits still remain unknown. Here, we used nano secondary ion mass spectrometer, synchrotron-based X-ray absorption spectroscopy, electron microscopy, and molecular techniques to demonstrate the coexistence of two types of metal-oxidizing bacteria within deep-sea hydrothermal umber deposits at the South Atlantic Ridge, where we found unique spheroids composed of biogenic Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides in the deposits. Our data suggest that Fe oxyhydroxides and Mn oxides are metabolic by-products of lithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria and heterotrophic Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria, respectively. The hydrothermal vents fuel lithotrophic Fe(II)-oxidizing bacteria, which constitute a trophic base that may support the activities of heterotrophic Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria. The biological origin of umber deposits underscore the importance of geomicrobiologcial interaction in triggering the formation of deep-sea deposits, with important implications for the generation of submarine Mn deposits and crusts.

  8. Preparation of well-adhered γ-Al 2O 3 washcoat on metallic wire mesh monoliths by electrophoretic deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Hong; Quan, Xie; Chen, Shuo; Zhao, Huimin; Zhao, Yazhi

    2007-01-01

    Washcoat deposited on metallic wire mesh monoliths was prepared using γ-alumina powders by electrophoretic deposition under a relatively low electric voltage. The microstructure, phase structure and adhesion of washcoat were investigated by SEM, XRD, ultrasonic vibration and thermal shock. The results showed that the loading and adhesion of washcoat were affected obviously by the properties of suspension, such as the zeta potential and the amount of adding binders. A small quantity of aluminum isopropoxide could promote the cohesive affinity of washcoat in thermal shock. The adhesion of washcoat in ultrasonic vibration could be reinforced by increasing calcined temperature and adding a certain aluminum particles. It was also found that the washcoat immersed metal nitrate has excellent vibration-resistant ability.

  9. Coordination Polymerization of Renewable 3-Methylenecyclopentene with Rare-Earth-Metal Precursors.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bo; Li, Shihui; Wang, Meiyan; Cui, Dongmei

    2017-04-10

    Coordination polymerization of renewable 3-methylenecyclopentene has been investigated for the first time using rare-earth metal-based precursors bearing various bulky ligands. All the prepared complexes catalyze controllable polymerization of 3-methylenecyclopentene into high molecular weight polymers, of which the NPN- and NSN-tridentate non-Cp ligated lutetium-based catalytic systems exhibited extremely high activities up to 11 520 kg/(mol Lu ⋅h) in a dilute toluene solution (3.2 g/100 mL) at room temperature. The resultant polymers have pure 1,4-regioregularity (>99 %) and tailorable number average molecular weights (1-20×10 4 ) with narrow molecular weight distributions (polydispersity index (PDI)=1.45-1.79). DFT simulations were employed to study the polymerization mechanism and stereoregularity control. © 2017 Wiley-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  10. ATMOSPHERIC DRY PARTICLE DEPOSITION OF POPS AND TRACE METALS IN AN URBAN- AND INDUSTRIALLY-IMPACTED MID-ATLANTIC ESTUARY (AEOLOS B MID-ATLANTIC)

    EPA Science Inventory

    Emissions of hazardous air pollutants into the coastal urban-industrial atmosphere increase atmospheric depositional fluxes to proximate water bodies. Dry deposition of large particles containing persistent organic pollutants (POPs) and trace metals were a major contribu...

  11. Vapor-deposited porous films for energy conversion

    DOEpatents

    Jankowski, Alan F.; Hayes, Jeffrey P.; Morse, Jeffrey D.

    2005-07-05

    Metallic films are grown with a "spongelike" morphology in the as-deposited condition using planar magnetron sputtering. The morphology of the deposit is characterized by metallic continuity in three dimensions with continuous and open porosity on the submicron scale. The stabilization of the spongelike morphology is found over a limited range of the sputter deposition parameters, that is, of working gas pressure and substrate temperature. This spongelike morphology is an extension of the features as generally represented in the classic zone models of growth for physical vapor deposits. Nickel coatings were deposited with working gas pressures up 4 Pa and for substrate temperatures up to 1000 K. The morphology of the deposits is examined in plan and in cross section views with scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The parametric range of gas pressure and substrate temperature (relative to absolute melt point) under which the spongelike metal deposits are produced appear universal for other metals including gold, silver, and aluminum.

  12. Analysis and assessment on heavy metal sources in the coastal soils developed from alluvial deposits using multivariate statistical methods.

    PubMed

    Li, Jinling; He, Ming; Han, Wei; Gu, Yifan

    2009-05-30

    An investigation on heavy metal sources, i.e., Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb, Cr, and Cd in the coastal soils of Shanghai, China, was conducted using multivariate statistical methods (principal component analysis, clustering analysis, and correlation analysis). All the results of the multivariate analysis showed that: (i) Cu, Ni, Pb, and Cd had anthropogenic sources (e.g., overuse of chemical fertilizers and pesticides, industrial and municipal discharges, animal wastes, sewage irrigation, etc.); (ii) Zn and Cr were associated with parent materials and therefore had natural sources (e.g., the weathering process of parent materials and subsequent pedo-genesis due to the alluvial deposits). The effect of heavy metals in the soils was greatly affected by soil formation, atmospheric deposition, and human activities. These findings provided essential information on the possible sources of heavy metals, which would contribute to the monitoring and assessment process of agricultural soils in worldwide regions.

  13. The Rare Earth Magnet Industry and Rare Earth Price in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ding, Kaihong

    2014-07-01

    In the past four years, the price of rare earth metal fluctuates sharply for many reasons. Currently, it has become more stable and more reasonable. This presentation is focused on the effect about the rare earth metal price. Some motor manufacturers have shifted from rare earth permanent magnet to ferrite magnet. Many motor manufacturers changed the design for the motor cooling system to make the motor function at a lower temperature. Thus the consumption of Dy can be markedly reduced. As for manufacturer of NdFeB magnet, we are also trying to optimize our process to reduce to dependence of HREE such as Dy and Tb. HS process have been introduced to solve the problem. With more and more people focusing and engaging on the REE industry, the price of REE will be more transparent without too many fluctuations. China is considering the problems of balancing the environment, energy sources, and labor sources. The application field about NdFeB such as wind turbine generator, HEV/EV, FA /OA is flourishing.

  14. Robust Hydrophobic Surfaces from Suspension HVOF Thermal Sprayed Rare-Earth Oxide Ceramics Coatings.

    PubMed

    Bai, M; Kazi, H; Zhang, X; Liu, J; Hussain, T

    2018-05-03

    This study has presented an efficient coating method, namely suspension high velocity oxy-fuel (SHVOF) thermal spraying, to produce large super-hydrophobic ceramic surfaces with a unique micro- and nano-scale hierarchical structures to mimic natural super-hydrophobic surfaces. CeO 2 was selected as coatings material, one of a group of rare-earth oxide (REO) ceramics that have recently been found to exhibit intrinsic hydrophobicity, even after exposure to high temperatures and abrasive wear. Robust hydrophobic REO ceramic surfaces were obtained from the deposition of thin CeO 2 coatings (3-5 μm) using an aqueous suspension with a solid concentration of 30 wt.% sub-micron CeO 2 particles (50-200 nm) on a selection of metallic substrates. It was found that the coatings' hydrophobicity, microstructure, surface morphology, and deposition efficiency were all determined by the metallic substrates underneath. More importantly, it was demonstrated that the near super-hydrophobicity of SHVOF sprayed CeO 2 coatings was achieved not only by the intrinsic hydrophobicity of REO but also their unique hierarchically structure. In addition, the coatings' surface hydrophobicity was sensitive to the O/Ce ratio, which could explain the 'delayed' hydrophobicity of REO coatings.

  15. Rare Earths; The Fraternal Fifteen (Rev.)

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Jr., Karl A.

    1966-01-01

    Rare earths are a set of 15 elements: lanthanum, cerium, praseodymium, neodymium, promethium, samarium, europium, gadolinium, terbium, dysprosium, holmium, erbium, thulium, ytterbium and lutetium. They are not rare and not earths; they are metals and quite abundant. They are studied to develop commercial products which are beneficial to mankind, and because some rare earths are important to fission products.

  16. Non-rare earth magnetic nanoparticles

    DOEpatents

    Carpenter, Everett E.; Huba, Zachary J.; Carroll, Kyler J.; Farghaly, Ahmed; Khanna, Shiv N.; Qian, Meichun; Bertino, Massimo

    2017-09-26

    Continuous flow synthetic methods are used to make single phase magnetic metal alloy nanoparticles that do not contain rare earth metals. Soft and hard magnets made from the magnetic nanoparticles are used for a variety of purposes, e.g. in electric motors, communication devices, etc.

  17. Laser power and Scanning Speed Influence on the Mechanical Property of Laser Metal Deposited Titanium-Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahamood, Rasheedat M.; Akinlabi, Esther T.; Akinlabi, Stephen

    2015-03-01

    The influence of the laser power and the scanning speed on the microhardness of the Laser Metal Deposited Ti6Al4V, an aerospace Titanium-alloy, was studied. Ti6Al4V powder was deposited on the Ti6Al4V substrate using the Laser Metal Deposition (LMD) process, an Additive Manufacturing (AM) manufacturing technology. The laser power was varied between 1.8 kW 3 kW and the scanning speed was varied between 0.05 m/s and 0.1 m/s. The powder flow rate and the gas flow rate were kept at constant values of 2 g/min and 2 l/min respectively. The full factorial design of experiment was used to design the experiment and to also analyze the results in the Design Expert 9 software environment. The microhardness profiling was studied using Microhardness indenter performed at a load of 500 g and at a dwelling time of 15 s. The distance between indentations was maintained at a distance of 15 μm. The study revealed that as the laser power was increased, the microhardness was found to decrease and as the scanning speed was increased, the microhardness was found to also increase. The results are presented and fully discussed.

  18. Metal-boride phase formation on tungsten carbide (WC-Co) during microwave plasma chemical vapor deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johnston, Jamin M.; Catledge, Shane A.

    2016-02-01

    Strengthening of cemented tungsten carbide by boriding is used to improve the wear resistance and lifetime of carbide tools; however, many conventional boriding techniques render the bulk carbide too brittle for extreme conditions, such as hard rock drilling. This research explored the variation in metal-boride phase formation during the microwave plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition process at surface temperatures from 700 to 1100 °C. We showed several well-adhered metal-boride surface layers consisting of WCoB, CoB and/or W2CoB2 with average hardness from 23 to 27 GPa and average elastic modulus of 600-730 GPa. The metal-boride interlayer was shown to be an effective diffusion barrier against elemental cobalt; migration of elemental cobalt to the surface of the interlayer was significantly reduced. A combination of glancing angle X-ray diffraction, electron dispersive spectroscopy, nanoindentation and scratch testing was used to evaluate the surface composition and material properties. An evaluation of the material properties shows that plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposited borides formed at substrate temperatures of 800 °C, 850 °C, 900 °C and 1000 °C strengthen the material by increasing the hardness and elastic modulus of cemented tungsten carbide. Additionally, these boride surface layers may offer potential for adhesion of ultra-hard carbon coatings.

  19. Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits: Chapter P in Mineral deposit models for resource assessment

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Taylor, Ryan D.; Anderson, Eric D.

    2018-05-17

    Quartz-pebble-conglomerate gold deposits represent the largest repository of gold on Earth, largely due to the deposits of the Witwatersrand Basin, which account for nearly 40 percent of the total gold produced throughout Earth’s history. This deposit type has had a controversial history in regards to genetic models. However, most researchers conclude that they are paleoplacer deposits that have been modified by metamorphism and hydrothermal fluid flow subsequent to initial sedimentation.The deposits are found exclusively within fault-bounded depositional basins. The periphery of these basins commonly consists of granite-greenstone terranes, classic hosts for lode gold that source the detrital material infilling the basin. The gold reefs are typically located along unconformities or, less commonly, at the top of sedimentary beds. Large quartz pebbles and heavy-mineral concentrates are found associated with the gold. Deposits that formed prior to the Great Oxidation Event (circa 2.4 giga-annum [Ga]) contain pyrite, whereas younger deposits contain iron oxides. Uranium minerals and hydrocarbons are also notable features of some deposits.Much of the gold in these types of deposits forms crystalline features that are the product of local remobilization. However, some gold grains preserve textures that are undoubtedly of detrital origin. Other heavy minerals, such as pyrite, contain growth banding that is truncated along broken margins, which indicates that they were transported into place as opposed to forming by in situ growth in a hydrothermal setting.The ore tailings associated with these deposits commonly contain uranium-rich minerals and sulfides. Oxidation of the sulfides releases sulfuric acid and mobilizes various metals into the environment. The neutralizing potential of the tailings is minimal, since carbonate minerals are rare. The continuity of the tabular ore bodies, such as those of the Witwatersrand Basin, has allowed these mines to be the deepest in

  20. Distribution of rare-earth (Y, La, Ce) and other heavy metals in the profiles of the podzolic soil group

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vodyanitskii, Yu. N.; Goryachkin, S. V.; Savichev, A. T.

    2011-05-01

    Along with Fe and Al, many heavy metals (Mn, Cr, Zn, Cu, and Ni) show a markedly pronounced eluvial-illuvial redistribution in the profiles of soils of the podzolic group. The intensity of the redistribution of the bulk forms of these metals is comparable with that of Fe and exceeds that of Al. Although the podzolic soils are depleted of rare-earth metals, the latter respond readily to soil podzolization. The inactive participation of Al is explained by an insignificant portion of the active reaction-capable fraction. Podzolization does not influence the profile distribution of Sr and Ba. The leaching degree of heavy metals such as Mn, Cr, Zn, Ni, and Zr is noticeably higher in the sandy podzols than in the loamy podzolic soils. Leaching of heavy metals from the podzolic horizons is of geochemical importance, whereas the depletion of metals participating in plant nutrition and biota development is of ecological importance. The leaching of heavy metals is related to the destruction of clay particles in the heavy-textured podzolic soils; the effect of the soil acidity on the leaching of heavy metals is less significant.

  1. Tunable magnetic and magnetocaloric properties in heavy rare-earth based metallic glasses through the substitution of similar elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Huiyan; Li, Ran; Zhang, Leilei; Zhang, Tao

    2014-04-01

    The influence of interchangeable substitution of similar heavy rare-earth-elements (HRE), i.e., Gd-Ho, Gd-Er, and Ho-Er, on the magnetic and magnetocaloric properties of HRE55Al27.5Co17.5 metallic glasses was evaluated. The magnetic transition temperature (TC) can be tuned in a wide temperature range from 8 K to 93 K by adjusting the substitutional concentration in the resulting metallic glasses. A roughly linear correlation between peak value of magnetic entropy change (|ΔSMpk|) and TC-2/3 was obtained in the three systems. This kind of substitutional adjustment provides a useful method for designing desirable candidates in metallic glasses with high magnetic entropy change, large magnetic cooling efficiency, and tunable TC for magnetic refrigerant in nitrogen and hydrogen liquefaction temperature ranges.

  2. Metabasalts as sources of metals in orogenic gold deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pitcairn, Iain K.; Craw, Dave; Teagle, Damon A. H.

    2015-03-01

    Although metabasaltic rocks have been suggested to be important source rocks for orogenic gold deposits, the mobility of Au and related elements (As, Sb, Se, and Hg) from these rocks during alteration and metamorphism is poorly constrained. We investigate the effects of increasing metamorphic grade on the concentrations of Au and related elements in a suite of metabasaltic rocks from the Otago and Alpine Schists, New Zealand. The metabasaltic rocks in the Otago and Alpine Schists are of MORB and WPB affinity and are interpreted to be fragments accreted from subducting oceanic crust. Gold concentrations are systematically lower in the higher metamorphic grade rocks. Average Au concentrations vary little between sub-greenschist (0.9 ± 0.5 ppb) and upper greenschist facies (1.0 ± 0.5 ppb), but decrease significantly in amphibolite facies samples (0.21 ± 0.07 ppb). The amount of Au depleted from metabasaltic rocks during metamorphism is on a similar scale to that removed from metasedimentary rocks in Otago. Arsenic concentrations increase with metamorphic grade with the metabasaltic rocks acting as a sink rather than a source of this element. The concentrations of Sb and Hg decrease between sub-greenschist and amphibolite facies but concentration in amphibolite facies rocks are similar to those in unaltered MORB protoliths and therefore unaltered oceanic crust cannot be a net source of Sb and Hg in a metamorphic environment. The concentrations of Au, As, Sb, and Hg in oceanic basalts that have become integrated into the metamorphic environment may be heavily influenced by the degree of seafloor alteration that occurred prior to metamorphism. We suggest that metasedimentary rocks are much more suitable source rocks for fluids and metals in orogenic gold deposits than metabasaltic rocks as they show mobility during metamorphism of all elements commonly enriched in this style of deposit.

  3. Effect of Energy Input on the Characteristic of AISI H13 and D2 Tool Steels Deposited by a Directed Energy Deposition Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Jun Seok; Park, Joo Hyun; Lee, Min-Gyu; Sung, Ji Hyun; Cha, Kyoung Je; Kim, Da Hye

    2016-05-01

    Among the many additive manufacturing technologies, the directed energy deposition (DED) process has attracted significant attention because of the application of metal products. Metal deposited by the DED process has different properties than wrought metal because of the rapid solidification rate, the high thermal gradient between the deposited metal and substrate, etc. Additionally, many operating parameters, such as laser power, beam diameter, traverse speed, and powder mass flow rate, must be considered since the characteristics of the deposited metal are affected by the operating parameters. In the present study, the effect of energy input on the characteristics of H13 and D2 steels deposited by a direct metal tooling process based on the DED process was investigated. In particular, we report that the hardness of the deposited H13 and D2 steels decreased with increasing energy input, which we discuss by considering microstructural observations and thermodynamics.

  4. Production of biologically inert Teflon thin layers on the surface of allergenic metal objects by pulsed laser deposition technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hopp, B.; Smausz, T.; Kresz, N.; Nagy, P. M.; Juhász, A.; Ignácz, F.; Márton, Z.

    Allergic-type diseases are current nowadays, and they are frequently caused by certain metals. We demonstrated that the metal objects can be covered by Teflon protective thin layers using a pulsed laser deposition procedure. An ArF excimer laser beam was focused onto the surface of pressed PTFE powder pellets; the applied fluences were 7.5-7.7 J/cm2. Teflon films were deposited on fourteen-carat gold, silver and titanium plates. The number of ablating pulses was 10000. Post-annealing of the films was carried out in atmospheric air at oven temperatures between 320 and 500 °C. The thickness of the thin layers was around 5 μm. The prepared films were granular without heat treatment or after annealing at a temperature below 340 °C. At 360 °C a crystalline, contiguous, smooth, very compact and pinhole-free thin layer was produced; a melted and re-solidified morphology was observed above 420 °C. The adhesion strength between the Teflon films and the metal substrates was determined. This could exceed 1-4 MPa depending on the treatment temperature. It was proved that the prepared Teflon layers can be suitable for prevention of contact between the human body and allergen metals and so for avoidance of metal allergy.

  5. Behavior and Distribution of Heavy Metals Including Rare Earth Elements, Thorium, and Uranium in Sludge from Industry Water Treatment Plant and Recovery Method of Metals by Biosurfactants Application

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Lidi; Kano, Naoki; Sato, Yuichi; Li, Chong; Zhang, Shuang; Imaizumi, Hiroshi

    2012-01-01

    In order to investigate the behavior, distribution, and characteristics of heavy metals including rare earth elements (REEs), thorium (Th), and uranium (U) in sludge, the total and fractional concentrations of these elements in sludge collected from an industry water treatment plant were determined and compared with those in natural soil. In addition, the removal/recovery process of heavy metals (Pb, Cr, and Ni) from the polluted sludge was studied with biosurfactant (saponin and sophorolipid) elution by batch and column experiments to evaluate the efficiency of biosurfactant for the removal of heavy metals. Consequently, the following matters have been largely clarified. (1) Heavy metallic elements in sludge have generally larger concentrations and exist as more unstable fraction than those in natural soil. (2) Nonionic saponin including carboxyl group is more efficient than sophorolipid for the removal of heavy metals in polluted sludge. Saponin has selectivity for the mobilization of heavy metals and mainly reacts with heavy metals in F3 (the fraction bound to carbonates) and F5 (the fraction bound to Fe-Mn oxides). (3) The recovery efficiency of heavy metals (Pb, Ni, and Cr) reached about 90–100% using a precipitation method with alkaline solution. PMID:22693485

  6. Rare intracranial cholesterol deposition and a homozygous mutation of LDLR in a familial hypercholesterolemia patient.

    PubMed

    Li, Haoxian; Zhang, Yanghui; Wei, Xianda; Peng, Ying; Yang, Pu; Tan, Hu; Chen, Chen; Pan, Qian; Liang, Desheng; Wu, Lingqian

    2015-09-15

    Familial hypercholesterolemia (FH MIM# 143890) is one of the most common autosomal inherited diseases. FH is characterized by elevated plasma levels of total cholesterol and low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol. Mutation in the LDLR gene, which encodes the LDL receptor protein, is responsible for most of the morbidity of FH. The incidence of heterozygous FH is about 1/500, whereas the incidence of homozygous FH is only 1/1,000,000 in Caucasian population. In this study, we report a homozygous LDLR mutation (c.298G>A) in a familial hypercholesterolemia patient, who exhibited intracranial cholesterol deposition, which is a rare addition to the common FH phenotypes. The proband's consanguineous parents have the same heterozygous mutation with elevated concentrations of LDL-C but no xanthoma. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Byproduct metals and rare-earth elements used in the production of light-emitting diodes—Overview of principal sources of supply and material requirements for selected markets

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wilburn, David R.

    2012-01-01

    The use of light-emitting diodes (LEDs) is expanding because of environmental issues and the efficiency and cost savings achieved compared with use of traditional incandescent lighting. The longer life and reduced power consumption of some LEDs have led to annual energy savings, reduced maintenance costs, and lower emissions of carbon dioxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen oxides from powerplants because of the resulting decrease in energy consumption required for lighting applications when LEDs are used to replace less-energy-efficient sources. Metals such as arsenic, gallium, indium, and the rare-earth elements (REEs) cerium, europium, gadolinium, lanthanum, terbium, and yttrium are important mineral materials used in LED semiconductor technology. Most of the world's supply of these materials is produced as byproducts from the production of aluminum, copper, lead, and zinc. Most of the rare earths required for LED production in 2011 came from China, and most LED production facilities were located in Asia. The LED manufacturing process is complex and is undergoing much change with the growth of the industry and the changes in demand patterns of associated commodities. In many respects, the continued growth of the LED industry, particularly in the general lighting sector, is tied to its ability to increase LED efficiency and color uniformity while decreasing the costs of producing, purchasing, and operating LEDs. Research is supported by governments of China, the European Union, Japan, the Republic of Korea, and the United States. Because of the volume of ongoing research in this sector, it is likely that the material requirements of future LEDs may be quite different than LEDs currently (2011) in use as industry attempts to cut costs by reducing material requirements of expensive heavy rare-earth phosphors and increasing the sizes of wafers for economies of scale. Improved LED performance will allow customers to reduce the number of LEDs in automotive, electronic

  8. Trace metal depositional patterns from an open pit mining activity as revealed by archived avian gizzard contents.

    PubMed

    Bendell, L I

    2011-02-15

    Archived samples of blue grouse (Dendragapus obscurus) gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, collected yearly between 1959 and 1970 were analyzed for cadmium, lead, zinc, and copper content. Approximately halfway through the 12-year sampling period, an open-pit copper mine began activities, then ceased operations 2 years later. Thus the archived samples provided a unique opportunity to determine if avian gizzard contents, inclusive of grit, could reveal patterns in the anthropogenic deposition of trace metals associated with mining activities. Gizzard concentrations of cadmium and copper strongly coincided with the onset of opening and the closing of the pit mining activity. Gizzard zinc and lead demonstrated significant among year variation; however, maximum concentrations did not correlate to mining activity. The archived gizzard contents did provide a useful tool for documenting trends in metal depositional patterns related to an anthropogenic activity. Further, blue grouse ingesting grit particles during the time of active mining activity would have been exposed to toxicologically significant levels of cadmium. Gizzard lead concentrations were also of toxicological significance but not related to mining activity. This type of "pulse" toxic metal exposure as a consequence of open-pit mining activity would not necessarily have been revealed through a "snap-shot" of soil, plant or avian tissue trace metal analysis post-mining activity. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. SEDIMENT-HOSTED PRECIOUS METAL DEPOSITS.

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Bagby, W.C.; Pickthorn, W.J.; Goldfarb, R.; Hill, R.A.

    1984-01-01

    The Dee mine is a sediment-hosted, disseminated gold deposit in the Roberts Mountains allochthon of north central Nevada. Soil samples were collected from the C-horizon in undisturbed areas over the deposit in order to investigate the usefulness of soil geochemistry in identifying this type of deposit. Each sample was sieved to minus 80 mesh and analyzed quantitatively for Au, Ag, As, Sb, Hg, Tl and semi-quantitative data for an additional 31 elements. Rank sum analysis is successful for the Au, Ag, As, Sb, Hg, Tl suite, even though bedrock geology is disregarded. This method involves data transformation into a total element signature by ranking the data in ascending order and summing the element ranks for each sample. The rank sums are then divided into percentile groups and plotted. The rank sum plot for the Dee soils unequivocally identifies three of four known ore zones.

  10. Atmospherically deposited trace metals from bulk mineral concentrate port operations.

    PubMed

    Taylor, Mark Patrick

    2015-05-15

    Although metal exposures in the environment have declined over the last two decades, certain activities and locations still present a risk of harm to human health. This study examines environmental dust metal and metalloid hazards (arsenic, cadmium, lead and nickel) associated with bulk mineral transport, loading and unloading port operations in public locations and children's playgrounds in the inner city of Townsville, northern Queensland. The mean increase in lead on post-play hand wipes (965 μg/m(2)/day) across all sites was more than 10-times the mean pre-play loadings (95 μg/m(2)/day). Maximum loading values after a 10-minute play period were 3012 μg/m(2), more than seven times the goal of 400 μg/m(2) used by the Government of Western Australia (2011). Maximum daily nickel post-play hand loadings (404 μg/m(2)) were more than 26 times above the German Federal Immission Control Act 2002 annual benchmark of 15 μg/m(2)/day. Repeat sampling over the 5-day study period showed that hands and surfaces were re-contaminated daily from the deposition of metal-rich atmospheric dusts. Lead isotopic composition analysis of dust wipes ((208)Pb/(207)Pb and (206)Pb/(207)Pb) showed that surface dust lead was similar to Mount Isa type ores, which are exported through the Port of Townsville. While dust metal contaminant loadings are lower than other mining and smelting towns in Australia, they exceeded national and international benchmarks for environmental quality. The lessons from this study are clear - even where operations are considered acceptable by managing authorities, targeted assessment and monitoring can be used to evaluate whether current management practices are truly best practice. Reassessment can identify opportunities for improvement and maximum environmental and human health protection. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Biological Low-pH Mn(II) Oxidation in a Manganese Deposit Influenced by Metal-Rich Groundwater

    PubMed Central

    Bohu, Tsing; Akob, Denise M.; Abratis, Michael; Lazar, Cassandre S.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT The mechanisms, key organisms, and geochemical significance of biological low-pH Mn(II) oxidation are largely unexplored. Here, we investigated the structure of indigenous Mn(II)-oxidizing microbial communities in a secondary subsurface Mn oxide deposit influenced by acidic (pH 4.8) metal-rich groundwater in a former uranium mining area. Microbial diversity was highest in the Mn deposit compared to the adjacent soil layers and included the majority of known Mn(II)-oxidizing bacteria (MOB) and two genera of known Mn(II)-oxidizing fungi (MOF). Electron X-ray microanalysis showed that romanechite [(Ba,H2O)2(Mn4+,Mn3+)5O10] was conspicuously enriched in the deposit. Canonical correspondence analysis revealed that certain fungal, bacterial, and archaeal groups were firmly associated with the autochthonous Mn oxides. Eight MOB within the Proteobacteria, Actinobacteria, and Bacteroidetes and one MOF strain belonging to Ascomycota were isolated at pH 5.5 or 7.2 from the acidic Mn deposit. Soil-groundwater microcosms demonstrated 2.5-fold-faster Mn(II) depletion in the Mn deposit than adjacent soil layers. No depletion was observed in the abiotic controls, suggesting that biological contribution is the main driver for Mn(II) oxidation at low pH. The composition and species specificity of the native low-pH Mn(II) oxidizers were highly adapted to in situ conditions, and these organisms may play a central role in the fundamental biogeochemical processes (e.g., metal natural attenuation) occurring in the acidic, oligotrophic, and metalliferous subsoil ecosystems. IMPORTANCE This study provides multiple lines of evidence to show that microbes are the main drivers of Mn(II) oxidation even at acidic pH, offering new insights into Mn biogeochemical cycling. A distinct, highly adapted microbial community inhabits acidic, oligotrophic Mn deposits and mediates biological Mn oxidation. These data highlight the importance of biological processes for Mn biogeochemical cycling

  12. Ages and sources of components of Zn-Pb, Cu, precious metal, and platinum group element deposits in the goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Vikre, Peter G.; Browne, Quentin J.; Fleck, Robert J.; Hofstra, Albert H.; Wooden, Joseph L.

    2011-01-01

    The Goodsprings district, Clark County, Nevada, includes zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits of probable late Paleozoic age, and lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits, copper ± precious metal-platinum group element (PGE) deposits, and gold ± silver deposits that are spatially associated with Late Triassic porphyritic intrusions. The district encompasses ~500 km2 although the distribution of all deposits has been laterally condensed by late Mesozoic crustal contraction. Zinc, Pb, and Cu production from about 90 deposits was ~160,000 metric tons (t) (Zn > Pb >> Cu), 2.1 million ounces (Moz) Ag, 0.09 Moz Au, and small amounts of PGEs—Co, V, Hg, Sb, Ni, Mo, Mn, Ir, and U—were also recovered.Zinc-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Zn > Pb; Ag ± Cu) resemble Mississippi Valley Type (MVT) Zn-Pb deposits in that they occur in karst and fault breccias in Mississippian limestone where the southern margin of the regional late Paleozoic foreland basin adjoins Proterozoic crystalline rocks of the craton. They consist of calcite, dolomite, sphalerite, and galena with variably positive S isotope compositions (δ34S values range from 2.5–13‰), and highly radiogenic Pb isotope compositions (206Pb/204Pb >19), typical of MVT deposits above crystalline Precambrian basement. These deposits may have formed when southward flow of saline fluids, derived from basinal and older sedimentary rocks, encountered thinner strata and pinch-outs against the craton, forcing fluid mixing and mineral precipitation in karst and fault breccias. Lead-dominant carbonate replacement deposits (Pb > Zn, Ag ± Cu ± Au) occur among other deposit types, often near porphyritic intrusions. They generally contain higher concentrations of precious metals than zinc-dominant deposits and relatively abundant iron oxides after pyrite. They share characteristics with copper ± precious metal-PGE and gold ± silver deposits including fine-grained quartz replacement of carbonate minerals

  13. Targeted Single-Site MOF Node Modification: Trivalent Metal Loading via Atomic Layer Deposition

    DOE PAGES

    Kim, In Soo; Borycz, Joshua; Platero-Prats, Ana E.; ...

    2015-07-02

    Postsynthetic functionalization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) enables the controlled, high-density incorporation of new atoms on a crystallographically precise framework. Leveraging the broad palette of known atomic layer deposition (ALD) chemistries, ALD in MOFs (AIM) is one such targeted approach to construct diverse, highly functional, few-atom clusters. In this paper, we demonstrate the saturating reaction of trimethylindium (InMe 3) with the node hydroxyls and ligated water of NU-1000, which takes place without significant loss of MOF crystallinity or internal surface area. We computationally identify the elementary steps by which trimethylated trivalent metal compounds (ALD precursors) react with this Zr-based MOFmore » node to generate a uniform and well characterized new surface layer on the node itself, and we predict a final structure that is fully consistent with experimental X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Finally, we further demonstrate tunable metal loading through controlled number density of the reactive handles (–OH and –OH 2) achieved through node dehydration at elevated temperatures.« less

  14. Targeted Single-Site MOF Node Modification: Trivalent Metal Loading via Atomic Layer Deposition

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, In Soo; Borycz, Joshua; Platero-Prats, Ana E.

    Postsynthetic functionalization of metal organic frameworks (MOFs) enables the controlled, high-density incorporation of new atoms on a crystallographically precise framework. Leveraging the broad palette of known atomic layer deposition (ALD) chemistries, ALD in MOFs (AIM) is one such targeted approach to construct diverse, highly functional, few-atom clusters. In this paper, we demonstrate the saturating reaction of trimethylindium (InMe 3) with the node hydroxyls and ligated water of NU-1000, which takes place without significant loss of MOF crystallinity or internal surface area. We computationally identify the elementary steps by which trimethylated trivalent metal compounds (ALD precursors) react with this Zr-based MOFmore » node to generate a uniform and well characterized new surface layer on the node itself, and we predict a final structure that is fully consistent with experimental X-ray pair distribution function (PDF) analysis. Finally, we further demonstrate tunable metal loading through controlled number density of the reactive handles (–OH and –OH 2) achieved through node dehydration at elevated temperatures.« less

  15. Extraction of heavy metals characteristics of the 2011 Tohoku tsunami deposits using multiple classification analysis.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Kengo; Kuwatani, Tatsu; Kawabe, Yoshishige; Komai, Takeshi

    2016-02-01

    Tsunami deposits accumulated on the Tohoku coastal area in Japan due to the impact of the Tohoku-oki earthquake. In the study reported in this paper, we applied principal component analysis (PCA) and cluster analysis (CA) to determine the concentrations of heavy metals in tsunami deposits that had been diluted with water or digested using 1 M HCl. The results suggest that the environmental risk is relatively low, evidenced by the following geometric mean concentrations: Pb, 16 mg kg(-1) and 0.003 ml L(-1); As, 1.8 mg kg(-1) and 0.004 ml L(-1); and Cd, 0.17 mg kg(-1) and 0.0001 ml L(-1). CA was performed after outliers were excluded using PCA. The analysis grouped the concentrations of heavy metals for leaching in water and acid. For the acid case, the first cluster contained Ni, Fe, Cd, Cu, Al, Cr, Zn, and Mn; while the second contained Pb, Sb, As, and Mo. For water, the first cluster contained Ni, Fe, Al, and Cr; and the second cluster contained Mo, Sb, As, Cu, Zn, Pb, and Mn. Statistical analysis revealed that the typical toxic elements, As, Pb, and Cd have steady correlations for acid leaching but are relatively sparse for water leaching. Pb and As from the tsunami deposits seemed to reveal a kind of redox elution mechanism using 1 M HCl. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  16. Trace metal-rich Quaternary hydrothermal manganese oxide and barite deposit, Milos Island, Greece

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hein, J.R.; Stamatakis, G.; Dowling, J.S.

    2000-01-01

    The Cape Vani Mn oxide and barite deposit on Milos Island offers an excellent opportunity to study the three-dimensional characteristics of a shallow-water hydrothermal system. Milos Island is part of the active Aegean volcanic arc. A 1 km long basin located between two dacitic domes in northwest Milos is filled with a 35-50 m thick section of Quaternary volcaniclastic and pyroclastic rocks capped by reef limestone that were hydrothermally mineralized by Mn oxides and barite. Manganese occurs as thin layers, as cement of sandstone and as metasomatic replacement of the limestone, including abundant fossil shells. Manganese minerals include chiefly δ-MnO2, pyrolusite and ramsdellite. The MnO contents for single beds range up to 60%. The Mn oxide deposits are rich in Pb (to 3.4%), BaO (to 3.1%), Zn (to 0.8%), As (to 0.3%), Sb (to 0.2%) and Ag (to 10 ppm). Strontium isotopic compositions of the Mn oxide deposits and sulphur isotopic compositions of the associated barite show that the mineralizing fluids were predominantly sea water. The Mn oxide deposit formed in close geographical proximity to sulphide-sulphate-Au-Ag deposits and the two deposit types probably formed from the same hydrothermal system. Precipitation of Mn oxide took place at shallow burial depths and was promoted by the mixing of modified sea water (hydrothermal fluid) from which the sulphides precipitated at depth and sea water that penetrated along faults and fractures in the Cape Vani volcaniclastic and tuff deposits. The hydrothermal fluid was formed from predominantly sea water that was enriched in metals leached from the basement and overlying volcanogenic rocks. The hydrothermal fluids were driven by convection sustained by heat from cooling magma chambers. Barite was deposited throughout the time of Mn oxide mineralization, which occurred in at least two episodes. Manganese mineralization occurred by both focused and diffuse flow, the fluids mineralizing the beds of greatest porosity and

  17. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling.

    PubMed

    Fafenrot, Susanna; Grimmelsmann, Nils; Wortmann, Martin; Ehrmann, Andrea

    2017-10-19

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength.

  18. Mechanical characteristics of a tool steel layer deposited by using direct energy deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baek, Gyeong Yun; Shin, Gwang Yong; Lee, Eun Mi; Shim, Do Sik; Lee, Ki Yong; Yoon, Hi-Seak; Kim, Myoung Ho

    2017-07-01

    This study focuses on the mechanical characteristics of layered tool steel deposited using direct energy deposition (DED) technology. In the DED technique, a laser beam bonds injected metal powder and a thin layer of substrate via melting. In this study, AISI D2 substrate was hardfaced with AISI H13 and M2 metal powders for mechanical testing. The mechanical and metallurgical characteristics of each specimen were investigated via microstructure observation and hardness, wear, and impact tests. The obtained characteristics were compared with those of heat-treated tool steel. The microstructures of the H13- and M2-deposited specimens show fine cellular-dendrite solidification structures due to melting and subsequent rapid cooling. Moreover, the cellular grains of the deposited M2 layer were smaller than those of the H13 structure. The hardness and wear resistance were most improved in the M2-deposited specimen, yet the H13-deposited specimen had higher fracture toughness than the M2-deposited specimen and heat-treated D2.

  19. Magnetocaloric effect in heavy rare-earth elements doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses with tunable Curie temperature

    SciTech Connect

    Li, Jiawei; Huo, Juntao; Chang, Chuntao, E-mail: ctchang@nimte.ac.cn, E-mail: dujun@nimte.ac.cn

    2014-08-14

    The effects of heavy rare earth (RE) additions on the Curie temperature (T{sub C}) and magnetocaloric effect of the Fe-RE-B-Nb (RE = Gd, Dy and Ho) bulk metallic glasses were studied. The type of dopping RE element and its concentration can easily tune T{sub C} in a large temperature range of 120 K without significantly decreasing the magnetic entropy change (ΔS{sub M}) and refrigerant capacity (RC) of the alloys. The observed values of ΔS{sub M} and RC of these alloys compare favorably with those of recently reported Fe-based metallic glasses with enhanced RC compared to Gd{sub 5}Ge{sub 1.9}Si{sub 2}Fe{sub 0.1}. The tunable T{submore » C} and large glass-forming ability of these RE doped Fe-based bulk metallic glasses can be used in a wide temperature range with the final required shapes.« less

  20. Mineral resource of the month: rare earth elements

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    ,

    2011-01-01

    The article provides information on rare earth elements, which are group of 17 natural metallic elements. The rare earth elements are scandium, yttrium and lanthanides and classified into light rare earth elements (LREE) and heavy rate earth elements (HREE). The principal ores of the rare earth elements are identified. An overview of China's production of 97 percent of the rare earths in the world is provided. Commercial applications of rare earths are described.

  1. Mineralogic sources of metals in leachates from the weathering of sedex, massive sulfide, and vein deposit mining wastes

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Diehl, S.F.; Hageman, P.L.; Seal, R.R.; Piatak, N.M.; Lowers, H.

    2011-01-01

    Weathered mine waste consists of oxidized primary minerals and chemically unstable secondary phases that can be sources of readily soluble metals and acid rock drainage. Elevated concentrations of metals such as Cd, Cu, Fe, Mn, Ni, Pb, and Zn are observed in deionized water-based leachate solutions derived from complex sedex and Cu-Pb-Zn mine wastes. Leachate (USGS FLT) from the Elizabeth mine, a massive sulfide deposit, has a pH of 3.4 and high concentrations of Al (16700 ug/L), Cu (440 ug/L), and Zn (8620 ug/L). Leachate from the sedex Faro mine has a pH of 3.5 and high concentrations of Al (2040 ug/L), Cu (1930 ug/L), Pb (2080 ug/L), and Zn (52900 ug/L). In contrast, higher-pH leachates produced from tailings of polymetallic vein deposits have order of magnitude lower metal concentrations. These data indicate that highly soluble secondary mineral phases exist at the surface of waste material where the samples were collected. Sulfide minerals from all sites exhibit differential degrees of weathering, from dissolution etched grain rims, to rinds of secondary minerals, to skeletal remnants. These microscale mineral-dissolution textures enhance weathering and metal teachability of waste material. Besides the formation of secondary minerals, sulfide grains from dried tailings samples may be coated by amorphous Fe-Al-Si minerals that also adsorb metals such as Cu, Ni, and Zn.

  2. Atmospheric deposition of rare earth elements in Albania studied by the moss biomonitoring technique, neutron activation analysis and GIS technology.

    PubMed

    Allajbeu, Sh; Yushin, N S; Qarri, F; Duliu, O G; Lazo, P; Frontasyeva, M V

    2016-07-01

    Rare earth elements (REEs) are typically conservative elements that are scarcely derived from anthropogenic sources. The mobilization of REEs in the environment requires the monitoring of these elements in environmental matrices, in which they are present at trace level. The determination of 11 REEs in carpet-forming moss species (Hypnum cupressiforme) collected from 44 sampling sites over the whole territory of the country were done by using epithermal neutron activation analysis (ENAA) at IBR-2 fast pulsed reactor in Dubna. This paper is focused on REEs (lanthanides) and Sc. Fe as typical consistent element and Th that appeared good correlations between the elements of lanthanides are included in this paper. Th, Sc, and REEs were never previously determined in the air deposition of Albania. Descriptive statistics were used for data treatment using MINITAB 17 software package. The median values of the elements under investigation were compared with those of the neighboring countries such as Bulgaria, Macedonia, Romania, and Serbia, as well as Norway which is selected as a clean area. Geographical distribution maps of the elements over the sampled territory were constructed using geographic information system (GIS) technology. Geochemical behavior of REEs in moss samples has been studied by using the ternary diagram of Sc-La-Th, Spider diagrams and multivariate analysis. It was revealed that the accumulation of REEs in current mosses is associated with the wind-blowing metal-enriched soils that is pointed out as the main emitting factor of the elements under investigation.

  3. In0.15Ga0.85N visible-light metal-semiconductor-metal photodetector with GaN interlayers deposited by pulsed NH3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongxia; Zhang, Xiaohan; Wang, Hailong; Lv, Zesheng; Li, Yongxian; Li, Bin; Yan, Huan; Qiu, Xinjia; Jiang, Hao

    2018-05-01

    InGaN visible-light metal-semiconductor-metal photodetectors with GaN interlayers deposited by pulsed NH3 were fabricated and characterized. By periodically inserting the GaN thin interlayers, the surface morphology of InGaN active layer is improved and the phase separation is suppressed. At 5 V bias, the dark current reduced from 7.0 × 10-11 A to 7.0 × 10-13 A by inserting the interlayers. A peak responsivity of 85.0 mA/W was measured at 420 nm and 5 V bias, corresponding to an external quantum efficiency of 25.1%. The insertion of GaN interlayers also lead to a sharper spectral response cutoff.

  4. SU-E-T-329: Dosimetric Impact of Implementing Metal Artifact Reduction Methods and Metal Energy Deposition Kernels for Photon Dose Calculations

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, J; Followill, D; Howell, R

    2015-06-15

    Purpose: To investigate two strategies for reducing dose calculation errors near metal implants: use of CT metal artifact reduction methods and implementation of metal-based energy deposition kernels in the convolution/superposition (C/S) method. Methods: Radiochromic film was used to measure the dose upstream and downstream of titanium and Cerrobend implants. To assess the dosimetric impact of metal artifact reduction methods, dose calculations were performed using baseline, uncorrected images and metal artifact reduction Methods: Philips O-MAR, GE’s monochromatic gemstone spectral imaging (GSI) using dual-energy CT, and GSI imaging with metal artifact reduction software applied (MARs).To assess the impact of metal kernels, titaniummore » and silver kernels were implemented into a commercial collapsed cone C/S algorithm. Results: The CT artifact reduction methods were more successful for titanium than Cerrobend. Interestingly, for beams traversing the metal implant, we found that errors in the dimensions of the metal in the CT images were more important for dose calculation accuracy than reduction of imaging artifacts. The MARs algorithm caused a distortion in the shape of the titanium implant that substantially worsened the calculation accuracy. In comparison to water kernel dose calculations, metal kernels resulted in better modeling of the increased backscatter dose at the upstream interface but decreased accuracy directly downstream of the metal. We also found that the success of metal kernels was dependent on dose grid size, with smaller calculation voxels giving better accuracy. Conclusion: Our study yielded mixed results, with neither the metal artifact reduction methods nor the metal kernels being globally effective at improving dose calculation accuracy. However, some successes were observed. The MARs algorithm decreased errors downstream of Cerrobend by a factor of two, and metal kernels resulted in more accurate backscatter dose upstream of metals

  5. Morphological evolution of nanocrystal metal-on-insulator films grown by pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Warrender, Jeffrey Michael

    Pulsed laser deposition (PLD) film growth differs from conventional thermal deposition in two essential ways: the depositing species arrive in short bursts of 10--100mus, and with 10--100 eV of kinetic energy. This thesis presents a comprehensive study of the influence of these separate characteristics of the PLD flux on film growth, with the goal of understanding what mechanisms and processes govern PLD morphology evolution. A theoretical description of the early stages of pulsed, non-energetic growth is presented, with the principal results being a discussion of the dimensionless parameters that must be controlled to achieve data collapse for a variety of conditions; the identification of at least four different island size distribution shapes, which characterize the growth mode being observed; and a rate equation formalism for pulsed deposition that gives excellent agreement with results from kinetic Monte Carlo (KMC) simulations. The model system of metal-on-insulator film growth has been studied extensively for thermal deposition, and is known to exhibit a characteristic morphological progression beginning with isolated three-dimensional islands and ending with a percolating, continuous film that conducts electrically. Two separate experimental investigations are reported for PLD growth of this system. In the fast, the details of the PLD pulse are held constant and the pulse frequency is varied; this amounts to varying the time-averaged deposition flux. Non-energetic KMC simulations, which take into account only the pulsed nature of the flux, predicted that, for the case where surface diffusion is very fast compared to the pulse frequency and the deposition rate, percolation thickness would scale with pulse frequency with an exponent of -0.34. Experiments performed at 93°C and 135°C gave scaling exponents of -0.31 and -0.34 respectively, in good agreement with the KMC prediction. The experiments also showed good data collapse when maintaining a constant

  6. Role of calcium-depositing bacteria Agrobacterium tumefaciens and its influence on corrosion of different engineering metals used in cooling water system.

    PubMed

    Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Selvi, Adikesavan; Gobinath, Rajagopalan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2017-12-01

    The present investigation deals with the role of calcium-depositing bacterial community on corrosion of various engineering metals, namely, brass alloy (BS), copper (Cu), stainless steel (SS) and mild steel (MS). Based on the corrosion behavior, Agrobacterium tumefaciens EN13, an aerobic bacterium is identified as calcium-depositing bacteria on engineering metals. The results of the study are supported with biochemical characterization, 16S rRNA gene sequencing, calcium quantification, weight loss, electrochemical (impedance and polarization) and surface analysis (XRD and FTIR) studies. The calcium quantification study showed carbonate precipitation in abiotic system/biotic system as 50 and 700 ppm, respectively. FTIR results too confirmed the accumulation of calcium deposits from the environment on the metal surface by EN13. Electrochemical studies too supported the corrosion mechanism by showing a significant increase in the charge transfer resistance ( R ct ) of abiotic system (44, 33.6, 45, 29.6 Ω cm 2 ) than compared to biotic system (41, 10.1 29 and 25 Ω cm 2 ). Hence, the outcome of the present study confirmed the enhanced bioaccumulation behavior of calcium by the strain, EN13.

  7. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    SciTech Connect

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  8. Magnetic ordering temperatures in rare earth metal dysprosium under ultrahigh pressures

    DOE PAGES

    Samudrala, Gopi K.; Tsoi, Georgiy M.; Weir, Samuel T.; ...

    2014-04-03

    Magnetic ordering temperatures in heavy rare earth metal Dysprosium (Dy) have been studied using an ultrasensitive electrical transport measurement technique in a designer diamond anvil cell to extreme conditions of pressure to 69 GPa and temperature to 10 K. Previous studies using magnetic susceptibility measurements at high pressures were only able to track magnetic ordering temperature till 7 GPa in the hexagonal close packed ( hcp) phase of Dy. Our studies indicate that the magnetic ordering temperature shows an abrupt drop of 80 K at the hcp-Sm phase transition followed by a gradual decrease that continues till 17 GPa. Thismore » is followed by a rapid increase in the magnetic ordering temperatures in the double hexagonal close packed phase and finally leveling off in the distorted face centered cubic phase of Dy. Lastly, our studies reaffirm that 4f-shell remain localized in Dy and there is no loss of magnetic moment or 4f-shell delocalization for pressures up to 69 GPa.« less

  9. Carbon-oxygen isotopes and rare earth elements as an exploration vector for Carlin-type gold deposits: A case study of the Shuiyindong gold deposit, Guizhou Province, SW China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Qin-Ping; Xia, Yong; Wang, Xueqiu; Xie, Zhuo-Jun; Wei, Dong-Tian

    2017-10-01

    The Shuiyindong gold deposit is a deeply concealed strata-bound Carlin-type deposit in southwestern Guizhou Province, China. The deposit lies on the eastern limb of the Huijiabao anticline with ores mainly along the anticline axis and hosted in bioclastic limestone, containing calcite veins, of the Permian Longtan Formation units. In this study, we measured carbon and oxygen isotopic ratios and rare earth element (REE) concentrations of the host rocks and calcite veins along a profile across the Shuiyindong deposit. Orebodies in the upper unit of the Longtan Formation have higher δ18O values (20.6-22.4‰) and lower δ13C values (-3.7 to -0.5‰) than the country rocks (δ18O: 18.8-21.4‰; δ13C: -0.7 to 0.8‰). However, there are no obvious trends of δ18O and δ13C values from the country rocks to the orebodies in the middle unit of the Longtan Formation. The spatial distribution of the calcite veins displays distinct halos of δ13C and δ18O values and REE concentrations. Calcite veins along the anticlinal axis and major reverse fault are enriched in Middle REE (Sm, Eu, Gd, and Tb) and 18O and depleted in 13C. Surficial veining calcite-filled fractures/faults that connect to deep concealed strata-bound gold mineralization systems can be vectors toward deep ores in southwestern Guizhou Province, China.

  10. Metallic coatings on silicon substrates, and methods of forming metallic coatings on silicon substrates

    DOEpatents

    Branagan, Daniel J [Idaho Falls, ID; Hyde, Timothy A [Idaho Falls, ID; Fincke, James R [Los Alamos, NM

    2008-03-11

    The invention includes methods of forming a metallic coating on a substrate which contains silicon. A metallic glass layer is formed over a silicon surface of the substrate. The invention includes methods of protecting a silicon substrate. The substrate is provided within a deposition chamber along with a deposition target. Material from the deposition target is deposited over at least a portion of the silicon substrate to form a protective layer or structure which contains metallic glass. The metallic glass comprises iron and one or more of B, Si, P and C. The invention includes structures which have a substrate containing silicon and a metallic layer over the substrate. The metallic layer contains less than or equal to about 2 weight % carbon and has a hardness of at least 9.2 GPa. The metallic layer can have an amorphous microstructure or can be devitrified to have a nanocrystalline microstructure.

  11. Effect of Material of Metal Sublayer and Deposition Configuration on the Texture Formation in the Piezoactive ZnO Films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veselov, A. G.; Elmanov, V. I.; Kiryasova, O. A.; Nikulin, Yu. V.

    2018-01-01

    Effect of material of metal sublayer (aluminum, vanadium, chromium, iron, cobalt, nickel, and copper) and deposition configuration on the formation of the oblique and straight texture in the ZnO films is studied. The films that are synthesized in a dc magnetron sputtering system. It is shown that the piezoactive ZnO films with oblique texture that can generate shear waves are formed on the Cr and V metal sublayers in the shifted deposition configuration when the substrate is shifted relative to the magnetron axis toward the region of the target erosion. The piezoactive ZnO films with the straight structure that can generate longitudinal waves are formed on a chemically pure Al sublayer in the symmetric deposition configuration when the substrate is centered with respect to the target. Changes of the sublayer material in both deposition configurations or preliminary oxidation of the sublayer lead to the formation of the piezoactive ZnO films with mixed texture that excite shear and longitudinal waves. Chemical etching is used to show that the ZnO films with the oblique and straight textures exhibit piezoactive properties and can generate hypersound at thicknesses of no less than about 0.3 and about 0.9 μm, respectively.

  12. Rare Earth Elements | Alaska Division of Geological & Geophysical Surveys

    Science.gov Websites

    - Mineral Resources main content Rare Earth Elements Rare earth elements and the supply and demand of these deposits containing rare earth elements to meet the perceived future demand. High prices for rare earth earth element occurrences in the DGGS publications catalog. Department of Natural Resources, Division of

  13. Critical Zone Weathering and Your Smartphone: Understanding How Mineral Decomposition and Colloid Redistribution Can Generate Rare Earth Element Deposits

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bern, C.; Foley, N.

    2014-12-01

    Rare earth elements (REE's) are crucial in the manufacture of smartphones and many other high tech devices. Increasing global demand and relatively narrow geographic sourcing have promoted interest in understanding REE deposit genesis and distribution. Highly weathered, clay-hosted, ion-exchange type deposits in southern China are the source of much of the world's production of the more valuable heavy REEs. Such deposits form as REE-bearing minerals weather and REEs released to solution in ionic form are retained by negatively charged exchange sites on clay minerals. We are investigating the potential for ion-exchange REE deposits in the Piedmont of the southeastern United States, where slow erosion rates have preserved thick (up to 20 m) regolith, as required for such deposits. The Liberty Hill pluton outcrops as coarse-grained biotite-amphibole granite and quartz monzonite over nearly 400 km2 in South Carolina, and has an age of 305 Ma (new SHRIMP ion microprobe zircon age). In weathered profiles over the pluton, ion-exchangeable REE content ranges from 8 to 580 ppm and accounts for 2 to 80% of bulk REE content. Elemental and heavy mineral distributions suggest the wide ranging differences in leachability may be attributable to the amount and distribution of resistant REE-bearing phases (e.g., monazite) relative to more easily weathered phases (e.g., allanite) in the parent granite. The REEs show little mobility within the regolith, indicating the effectiveness of the ion-exchange retention mechanism. In contrast, vertical redistribution of colloidal material shows maximum accumulations at ~1 m depth, as traced by the newly developed dual-phase (colloids vs. solution) mass balance model. The contrast suggests redistributed colloidal material has minimal influence on REE mobilization or retention. Conditions and processes necessary for ion-exchange REE deposit development exist in the Piedmont, but their presence will depend upon favorable parent rock mineralogy.

  14. Lithium and Beryllium By-product Recovery from the Round Top Mountain, Texas, Peraluminous Rhyolite Heavy Rare Earth Deposit

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E., Jr.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.

    2016-12-01

    The technology metals Li and Be combine low mass and unique properties. Li batteries are critical in applications at scales from micro-electronics to automotive and grid storage. Low mass Be structural components are essential in aerospace/defense applications and in non-sparking BeCu alloy oilfield tools. Most Li is sourced from desert salarsin the "Lithium Triangle" of Argentina—Bolivia—Chile. In contrast, Materion Corp mines >80% of global Be at Spor Mountain, UT. The massive peraluminous rhyolite heavy rare earth deposit at Round Top Mountain, TX is also enriched in Li, 500 ppm, and Be, 50 ppm. 2016 prices of 7000/tonne Li2CO3 (19% Li) and 1000/kg Be metal suggest favorable economics to extract Li and Be as by-products of HREE mining. Li and some Be are hosted in annite biotite that comprises up to 5% of the rhyolite. Texas Mineral Resources Corp proposes to heap leach crushed rhyolite with dilute H2SO4to release the yttrofluorite-hosted HREEs. At bench scale the annite biotite dissolves, but not quartz and feldspars (>90% of the rock). A series of 40 high-yield laboratory tests at various acid strength, particle size, and exposure time released up to 350 ppm (70%) of the Li and 14 ppm (30%) of the Be. For a 20,000 tonne/day operation, these recoveries correspond to daily production of >3 tonnes Li and 250 kg Be. Higher Li and Be recoveries also increased yields of gangue elements, Fe & Al, into solution. This complicates subsequent separation of Li, Be, and HREEs from the pregnant leach solution. Recovery of target HREEs did not increase beyond 200 ppm Li and 8 ppm Be recovery. Greater Li and Be recoveries increased acid consumption. Thus the "sweet spot" economics for heap leach is likely under conditions of acid strength, grain size, and exposure time that do not maximize by-product Li and Be recoveries. Evolving market prices for the full target element suite and additional costs to recover and purify the Li and Be must also be considered.

  15. An Operationally Simple Method for Separating the Rare-Earth Elements Neodymium and Dysprosium.

    PubMed

    Bogart, Justin A; Lippincott, Connor A; Carroll, Patrick J; Schelter, Eric J

    2015-07-06

    Rare-earth metals are critical components of electronic materials and permanent magnets. Recycling of consumer materials is a promising new source of rare earths. To incentivize recycling there is a clear need for simple methods for targeted separations of mixtures of rare-earth metal salts. Metal complexes of a tripodal nitroxide ligand [{(2-(t) BuNO)C6 H4 CH2 }3 N](3-) (TriNOx(3-) ), feature a size-sensitive aperture formed of its three η(2) -(N,O) ligand arms. Exposure of metal cations in the aperture induces a self-associative equilibrium comprising [M(TriNOx)thf]/ [M(TriNOx)]2 (M=rare-earth metal). Differences in the equilibrium constants (Keq ) for early and late metals enables simple Nd/Dy separations through leaching with a separation ratio SNd/Dy =359. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  16. Method of making AlInSb by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition

    DOEpatents

    Biefeld, Robert M.; Allerman, Andrew A.; Baucom, Kevin C.

    2000-01-01

    A method for producing aluminum-indium-antimony materials by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD). This invention provides a method of producing Al.sub.X In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials by MOCVD wherein an Al source material, an In source material and an Sb source material are supplied as a gas to a heated substrate in a chamber, said Al source material, In source material, and Sb source material decomposing at least partially below 525.degree. C. to produce Al.sub.x In.sub.1-x Sb crystalline materials wherein x is greater than 0.002 and less than one.

  17. Binary rare earth element-Ni/Co metallic glasses with distinct β-relaxation behaviors

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Z. G.; Wang, Z.; Wang, W. H., E-mail: whw@iphy.ac.cn

    2015-10-21

    We report the formation of a series of rare earth element (RE)-Ni/Co binary metallic glasses (MGs) with unusual distinct β-relaxation peak compared with that of most of the reported MGs which usually exhibit as an excess wing or a shoulder. The β-relaxation behavior of RE-Ni/Co MGs is sensitive to the composition and the atomic radii of the RE and can be tuned through changing the fraction of RE-Ni (or Co) atomic pairs. The novel RE-Ni/Co MGs with distinct β-relaxation can serve as model system to investigate the nature of the β-relaxation as well as its relations with other physical andmore » mechanical properties of MGs.« less

  18. Method of depositing buffer layers on biaxially textured metal substrates

    DOEpatents

    Beach, David B.; Morrell, Jonathan S.; Paranthaman, Mariappan; Chirayil, Thomas; Specht, Eliot D.; Goyal, Amit

    2002-08-27

    A laminate article comprises a substrate and a biaxially textured (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer over the substrate, wherein 0deposited using sol-gel or metal-organic decomposition. The laminate article can include a layer of YBCO over the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer. A layer of CeO.sub.2 between the YBCO layer and the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer can also be include. Further included can be a layer of YSZ between the CeO.sub.2 layer and the (RE.sup.1.sub.x RE.sup.2.sub.(1-x)).sub.2 O.sub.3 buffer layer. The substrate can be a biaxially textured metal, such as nickel. A method of forming the laminate article is also disclosed.

  19. Control of artificial pinning centers in REBCO coated conductors derived from the trifluoroacetate metal-organic deposition process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Izumi, T.; Nakaoka, K.

    2018-07-01

    The metal-organic deposition (MOD) process using metal trifluoroacetate salts (TFA) has the advantages of low-cost and high-scalability for the fabrication of REBa2Cu3O y (REBCO, RE: rare earth elements) superconducting coated conductors (CCs) with high critical current density, in principle, because of its non-vacuum process. For the magnetic applications of CCs such as motors, magnetic resonance imaging and superconducting magnetic energy storage, further improvement of superconducting performance under magnetic fields is required. However, the in-field superconducting performance of REBCO CCs derived from the TFA-MOD process had been inferior to those derived from the vapor-phase process. In order to improve the in-field performance, the size control of the artificial pinning centers has been known as an effective way. In the early stage, the BaZrO3 (BZO) material, which was one of the effective materials in the CCs by the vapor-phase process, was also introduced in the TFA-MOD-derived CCs. The unique feature of the BZO material in the TFA-MOD process is the shape. The BZO in the TFA-MOD process formed the particle shape, although in the vapor-phase process it has a rod shape with a long axis elongating along the thickness direction. In addition, a special heat treatment for refining the BZO particles was developed, which is called the ‘interim heat treatment’. This heating profile made the in-field characteristics higher, although they were still lower than those of the vapor-phase process. Then, the new MOD process including ‘ultra-thin once coating’ was recently developed for further refinement of the BZO particles. The characteristics of the new TFA-MOD-derived CCs in magnetic fields have become compatible with those of the CCs derived from the vapor-phase process.

  20. Deep-sea mud in the Pacific Ocean as a potential resource for rare-earth elements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kato, Yasuhiro; Fujinaga, Koichiro; Nakamura, Kentaro; Takaya, Yutaro; Kitamura, Kenichi; Ohta, Junichiro; Toda, Ryuichi; Nakashima, Takuya; Iwamori, Hikaru

    2011-08-01

    World demand for rare-earth elements and the metal yttrium--which are crucial for novel electronic equipment and green-energy technologies--is increasing rapidly. Several types of seafloor sediment harbour high concentrations of these elements. However, seafloor sediments have not been regarded as a rare-earth element and yttrium resource, because data on the spatial distribution of these deposits are insufficient. Here, we report measurements of the elemental composition of over 2,000 seafloor sediments, sampled at depth intervals of around one metre, at 78 sites that cover a large part of the Pacific Ocean. We show that deep-sea mud contains high concentrations of rare-earth elements and yttrium at numerous sites throughout the eastern South and central North Pacific. We estimate that an area of just one square kilometre, surrounding one of the sampling sites, could provide one-fifth of the current annual world consumption of these elements. Uptake of rare-earth elements and yttrium by mineral phases such as hydrothermal iron-oxyhydroxides and phillipsite seems to be responsible for their high concentration. We show that rare-earth elements and yttrium are readily recovered from the mud by simple acid leaching, and suggest that deep-sea mud constitutes a highly promising huge resource for these elements.

  1. Alkali metal for ultraviolet band-pass filter

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mardesich, Nick (Inventor); Fraschetti, George A. (Inventor); Mccann, Timothy A. (Inventor); Mayall, Sherwood D. (Inventor); Dunn, Donald E. (Inventor); Trauger, John T. (Inventor)

    1993-01-01

    An alkali metal filter having a layer of metallic bismuth deposited onto the alkali metal is provided. The metallic bismuth acts to stabilize the surface of the alkali metal to prevent substantial surface migration from occurring on the alkali metal, which may degrade optical characteristics of the filter. To this end, a layer of metallic bismuth is deposited by vapor deposition over the alkali metal to a depth of approximately 5 to 10 A. A complete alkali metal filter is described along with a method for fabricating the alkali metal filter.

  2. Effect of deposition temperature on thermal stabilities of copper-carbon films in barrier-less Cu metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Huan; Fu, Zhiqiang; Xie, Qi; Yue, Wen; Wang, Chengbiao; Kang, Jiajie; Zhu, Lina

    2018-01-01

    Copper-carbon alloy films have been applied in barrier-less Cu metallization as seed layers for improving the thermal stabilities. The effect of the deposition temperature on the microstructure and properties of C-doped Cu films on Si substrates was investigated. The films were prepared by ion beam-assisted deposition at various deposition temperatures by co-sputtering of Cu and graphite targets. No inter-diffusion between Cu and Si was observed in Cu(C) films throughout this experiment, because XRD patterns corresponding to their deep-level reaction product, namely, Cu3Si, were not observed in XRD patterns and EDS results of Cu(C) films. Amorphous carbon layer and SiC layer were found in the interface of Cu(C) as-deposited films when deposition temperature rose to 100 °C by TEM, high-resolution image and Fourier transformation pattern. The Cu(C) films deposited at 100 °C had the best thermal stabilities and the lowest electrical resistivity of 4.44 μW cm after annealing at 400 °C for 1 h. Cu agglomeration was observed in Cu(C) alloy films with deposition temperatures of 200, 300 and 400 °C, and the most serious agglomeration occurred in Cu(C) films deposited at 200 °C. Undesired Cu agglomeration resulted in a sharp increase in the resistivity after annealing at 300 °C for 1 h. The deposition temperature of 100 °C reflected the superior thermal stabilities of Cu(C) seed layers compared with those of other layers.

  3. Maps showing mineral resource assessment for vein and replacement deposits of base and precious metals, barite, and fluorspar, Dillon 1 degree by 2 degrees Quadrangle, Idaho and Montana

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Pearson, R.C.; Trautwein, C.M.; Berger, B.R.; Hanna, W.F.; Jenson, S.K.; Loen, J.S.; Moll, S.H.; Purdy, T.L.; Rowan, L.C.; Ruppel, E.T.; Segal, D.B.

    1992-01-01

    This report is one of several that assess the mineral resources in the Dillon quadrangle. For the purpose of the assessment, the deposits that are known in the quadrangle, or suspected to be present from a knowledge of the geologic setting, have been grouped into 30 deposit types on the basis of the mineralogy or commodity in the ore and the structural or depositional setting of the deposit. The emphasis in these assessment reports is on metallic minerals, but some important nonmetallic minerals are also considered. Fossil fuels are beyond the scope of this investigation, phosphate and uranium have been investigated previously (Swanson, 1970; Wodzicki and Krason, 1981 ), and certain nonmetallic minerals, including bulk commodities such as sand and gravel, are in large supply and thus are not considered. The mineral resource assessment discussed in this report concentrates on a single deposit type (of the total of 30 types) that we call "vein and replacement deposits of base and precious metals." Base and precious metals produced from such deposits are copper, lead, zinc, gold, and silver. Vein deposits of barite and fluorspar are also discussed, but because they seem to be of minor importance, they are treated briefly. Vein and replacement deposits of base and precious metals are classified as a single deposit type rather than as numerous possible subordinate types that might be distinguished on the basis of mineralogy, metal content, or other factors, because the characteristics of the ore, the ore bodies, and the structural setting are not sufficiently well known to yield a consistent detailed classification for the entire quadrangle. Furthermore, the criteria used here to explain the localization of deposits are too general to allow discrimination among subordinate types at a scale of 1 :250,000 or smaller. In assessing mineral resources, we have adopted a general philosophy similar to that of Harrison and others ( 1986). We attempt to identify parts of the

  4. Effect of temperature on the visualization by digital color mapping of latent fingerprint deposits on metal.

    PubMed

    Peel, Alicia; Bond, John W

    2014-03-01

    Visualization of fingerprint deposits by digital color mapping of light reflected from the surface of heated brass, copper, aluminum, and tin has been investigated using Adobe® Photoshop®. Metals were heated to a range of temperatures (T) between 50°C and 500°C in 50°C intervals with enhancement being optimal when the metals are heated to 250°C, 350°C, 50°C, and 300°C, respectively, and the hue values adjusted to 247°, 245°, 5°, and 34°, respectively. Fingerprint visualization after color mapping was not degraded by subsequent washing of the metals and color mapping did not compromise the visibility of the fingerprint for all values of T. The optimum value of T for fingerprint visibility is significantly dependent of the standard reduction potential of the metal with Kendall’s Tau (τ) = 0.953 (p < 0.001). For brass, this correlation is obtained when considering the standard reduction potential of zinc rather than copper.

  5. Quantifying Grain-Size Variability of Metal Pollutants in Road-Deposited Sediments Using the Coefficient of Variation

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiaoxue; Li, Xuyong

    2017-01-01

    Particle grain size is an important indicator for the variability in physical characteristics and pollutants composition of road-deposited sediments (RDS). Quantitative assessment of the grain-size variability in RDS amount, metal concentration, metal load and GSFLoad is essential to elimination of the uncertainty it causes in estimation of RDS emission load and formulation of control strategies. In this study, grain-size variability was explored and quantified using the coefficient of variation (Cv) of the particle size compositions, metal concentrations, metal loads, and GSFLoad values in RDS. Several trends in grain-size variability of RDS were identified: (i) the medium class (105–450 µm) variability in terms of particle size composition, metal loads, and GSFLoad values in RDS was smaller than the fine (<105 µm) and coarse (450–2000 µm) class; (ii) The grain-size variability in terms of metal concentrations increased as the particle size increased, while the metal concentrations decreased; (iii) When compared to the Lorenz coefficient (Lc), the Cv was similarly effective at describing the grain-size variability, whereas it is simpler to calculate because it did not require the data to be pre-processed. The results of this study will facilitate identification of the uncertainty in modelling RDS caused by grain-size class variability. PMID:28788078

  6. Field-assisted nanopatterning of metals, metal oxides and metal salts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jun-Fu; Miller, Glen P.

    2009-02-01

    The tip-based nanofabrication method called field-assisted nanopatterning or FAN has now been extended to the transfer of metals, metal oxides and metal salts onto various receiving substrates including highly ordered pyrolytic graphite, passivated gold and indium-tin oxide. Standard atomic force microscope tips were first dip-coated using suspensions of inorganic compounds in solvent. The films prepared in this manner were non-uniform and contained inorganic nanoparticles. Tip-based nanopatterning on chosen substrates was conducted under high electric field conditions. The same tip was used for both nanofabrication and imaging. Arbitrary patterns were formed with dimensions that ranged from tens of microns to sub-20 nm and were controlled by tuning the tip bias during fabrication. Most tip-based nanopatterning techniques are limited in terms of the type of species that can be deposited and the type of substrates onto which the deposition occurs. With the successful deposition of inorganic species reported here, FAN is demonstrated to be a truly versatile tip-based nanofabrication technique that is useful for the deposition of a wide variety of both organic and inorganic species including small molecules, large molecules and polymers.

  7. Atomic layer deposition of quaternary chalcogenides

    DOEpatents

    Thimsen, Elijah J; Riha, Shannon C; Martinson, Alex B.F.; Elam, Jeffrey W; Pellin, Michael J

    2014-06-03

    Methods and systems are provided for synthesis and deposition of chalcogenides (including Cu.sub.2ZnSnS.sub.4). Binary compounds, such as metal sulfides, can be deposited by alternating exposures of the substrate to a metal cation precursor and a chalcogen anion precursor with purge steps between.

  8. Deposition and solubility of airborne metals to four plant species grown at varying distances from two heavily trafficked roads in London.

    PubMed

    Peachey, C J; Sinnett, D; Wilkinson, M; Morgan, G W; Freer-Smith, P H; Hutchings, T R

    2009-01-01

    In urban areas, a highly variable mixture of pollutants is deposited as particulate matter. The concentration and bioavailability of individual pollutants within particles need to be characterised to ascertain the risks to ecological receptors. This study, carried out at two urban parks, measured the deposition and water-solubility of metals to four species common to UK urban areas. Foliar Cd, Cr, Cu, Fe, Ni, Pb and Zn concentrations were elevated in at least one species compared with those from a rural control site. Concentrations were, however, only affected by distance to road in nettle and, to a lesser extent, birch leaves. Greater concentrations of metal were observed in these species compared to cypress and maple possibly due to differences in plant morphology and leaf surfaces. Solubility appeared to be linked to the size fraction and, therefore, origin of the metal with those present predominantly in the coarse fraction exhibiting low solubility.

  9. Tutorial on the Role of Cyclopentadienyl Ligands in the Discovery of Molecular Complexes of the Rare-Earth and Actinide Metals in New Oxidation States

    DOE PAGES

    Evans, William J.

    2016-09-15

    A fundamental aspect of any element is the range of oxidation states accessible for useful chemistry. This tutorial describes the recent expansion of the number of oxidation states available to the rare-earth and actinide metals in molecular complexes that has resulted through organometallic chemistry involving the cyclopentadienyl ligand. These discoveries demonstrate that the cyclopentadienyl ligand, which has been a key component in the development of organometallic chemistry since the seminal discovery of ferrocene in the 1950s, continues to contribute to the advancement of science. Lastly, we present background information on the rare-earth and actinide elements, as well as the sequencemore » of events that led to these unexpected developments in the oxidation state chemistry of these metals.« less

  10. Tutorial on the Role of Cyclopentadienyl Ligands in the Discovery of Molecular Complexes of the Rare-Earth and Actinide Metals in New Oxidation States

    SciTech Connect

    Evans, William J.

    A fundamental aspect of any element is the range of oxidation states accessible for useful chemistry. This tutorial describes the recent expansion of the number of oxidation states available to the rare-earth and actinide metals in molecular complexes that has resulted through organometallic chemistry involving the cyclopentadienyl ligand. These discoveries demonstrate that the cyclopentadienyl ligand, which has been a key component in the development of organometallic chemistry since the seminal discovery of ferrocene in the 1950s, continues to contribute to the advancement of science. Lastly, we present background information on the rare-earth and actinide elements, as well as the sequencemore » of events that led to these unexpected developments in the oxidation state chemistry of these metals.« less

  11. Mineral resources of Novokuznetsk administrative district of Kemerovo region (metallic and non-metallic minerals)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gutak, Ja M.

    2017-09-01

    The article summarizes data on metallic and non-metallic minerals of Novokuznetsk district of Kemerovo region. Consistently reviewed are iron deposits (Tersinskaya group of deposits), gold deposits (placer accumulations and vein gold deposits), mineral water deposits (Tersinskoe deposit), deposit of refractory clay (Barkinskoe) and wide spread mineral deposits such as brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel, building stones, ornamental stones, facing stones, peat, materials for lime production. It is indicated that resource base of metallic and nonmetallic minerals is inferior to that of mineral coal. At the same time it can be of considerable interest to small and medium-size businesses as objects with quick return of investment (facing and ornamental stones). For a number of wide spread mineral resources (brick clay, keramzite materials, sand and gravel) it is an important component of local industry.

  12. Crystalline rare-earth activated oxyorthosilicate phosphor

    DOEpatents

    McClellan, Kenneth J.; Cooke, D. Wayne

    2004-02-10

    Crystalline, transparent, rare-earth activated lutetium oxyorthosilicate phosphor. The phosphor consists essentially of lutetium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of lutetium gadolinium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Lu(.sub.2-x-z)Gd.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor also consists essentially of gadolinium yttrium oxyorthosilicate activated with a rare-earth metal dopant M and having the general formula Gd(.sub.2-x-z)Y.sub.x M.sub.z SiO.sub.5, wherein 0.00.ltoreq.x.ltoreq.1.95, wherein 0.001.ltoreq.z.ltoreq.0.02, and wherein M is selected from Sm, Tb, Tm, Eu, Yb, and Pr. The phosphor may be optically coupled to a photodetector to provide a radiation detector.

  13. Atomic and Molecular Layer Deposition for Enhanced Lithium Ion Battery Electrodes and Development of Conductive Metal Oxide/Carbon Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Travis, Jonathan

    The performance and safety of lithium-ion batteries (LIBs) are dependent on interfacial processes at the positive and negative electrodes. For example, the surface layers that form on cathodes and anodes are known to affect the kinetics and capacity of LIBs. Interfacial reactions between the electrolyte and the electrodes are also known to initiate electrolyte combustion during thermal runaway events that compromise battery safety. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) and molecular layer deposition (MLD) are thin film deposition techniques based on sequential, self-limiting surface reactions. ALD and MLD can deposit ultrathin and conformal films on high aspect ratio and porous substrates such as composite particulate electrodes in lithium-ion batteries. The effects of electrode surface modification via ALD and MLD are studied using a variety of techniques. It was found that sub-nm thick coatings of Al2O 3 deposited via ALD have beneficial effects on the stability of LIB anodes and cathodes. These same Al2O3 ALD films were found to improve the safety of graphite based anodes through prevention of exothermic solid electrolyte interface (SEI) degradation at elevated temperatures. Ultrathin and conformal metal alkoxide polymer films known as "metalcones" were grown utilizing MLD techniques with trimethylaluminum (TMA) or titanium tetrachloride (TiCl4) and organic diols or triols, such as ethylene glycol (EG), glycerol (GL) or hydroquinone (HQ), as the reactants. Pyrolysis of these metalcone films under inert gas conditions led to the development of conductive metal oxide/carbon composites. The composites were found to contain sp2 carbon using micro-Raman spectroscopy in the pyrolyzed films with pyrolysis temperatures ≥ 600°C. Four point probe measurements demonstrated that the graphitic sp2 carbon domains in the metalcone films grown using GL and HQ led to significant conductivity. The pyrolysis of conformal MLD films to obtain conductive metal oxide/carbon composite films

  14. Self-organized synthesis of silver dendritic nanostructures via an electroless metal deposition method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, T.; Wu, X. L.; Mei, Y. F.; Chu, P. K.; Siu, G. G.

    2005-09-01

    Unique silver dendritic nanostructures, with stems, branches, and leaves, were synthesized with self-organization via a simple electroless metal deposition method in a conventional autoclave containing aqueous HF and AgNO3 solution. Their growth mechanisms are discussed in detail on the basis of a self-assembled localized microscopic electrochemical cell model. A process of diffusion-limited aggregation is suggested for the formation of the silver dendritic nanostructures. This nanostructured material is of great potential to be building blocks for assembling mini-functional devices of the next generation.

  15. The Nolans Bore rare-earth element-phosphorus-uranium mineral system: geology, origin and post-depositional modifications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huston, David L.; Maas, Roland; Cross, Andrew; Hussey, Kelvin J.; Mernagh, Terrence P.; Fraser, Geoff; Champion, David C.

    2016-08-01

    Nolans Bore is a rare-earth element (REE)-U-P fluorapatite vein deposit hosted mostly by the ~1805 Ma Boothby Orthogneiss in the Aileron Province, Northern Territory, Australia. The fluorapatite veins are complex, with two stages: (1) massive to granular fluorapatite with inclusions of REE silicates, phosphates and (fluoro)carbonates, and (2) calcite-allanite with accessory REE-bearing phosphate and (fluoro)carbonate minerals that vein and brecciate the earlier stage. The veins are locally accompanied by narrow skarn-like (garnet-diopside-amphibole) wall rock alteration zones. SHRIMP Th-Pb analyses of allanite yielded an age of 1525 ± 18 Ma, interpreted as the minimum age of mineralisation. The maximum age is provided by a ~1550 Ma SHRIMP U-Pb age for a pegmatite that predates the fluorapatite veins. Other isotopic systems yielded ages from ~1443 to ~345 Ma, implying significant post-depositional isotopic disturbance. Calculation of initial ɛNd and 87Sr/86Sr at 1525 Ma and stable isotope data are consistent with an enriched mantle or lower crust source, although post-depositional disturbance is likely. Processes leading to formation of Nolans Bore began with north-dipping subduction along the south margin of the Aileron Province at 1820-1750 Ma, producing a metasomatised, volatile-rich, lithospheric mantle wedge. About 200 million years later, near the end of the Chewings Orogeny, this reservoir and/or the lower crust sourced alkaline low-degree partial melts which passed into the mid- and upper-crust. Fluids derived from these melts, which may have included phosphatic melts, eventually deposited the Nolans Bore fluorapatite veins due to fluid-rock interaction, cooling, depressurisation and/or fluid mixing. Owing to its size and high concentration of Th (2500 ppm), in situ radiogenic heating caused significant recrystallisation and isotopic resetting. The system finally cooled below 300 °C at ~370 Ma, possibly in response to unroofing during the Alice Springs

  16. Characterization of Rare Earth Elements in in Clay Deposits Associated with Central Appalachian Coal Seams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Scott, M.; Verba, C.; Falcon, A.; Poston, J.; McKoy, M.

    2017-12-01

    Because of their multiple uses in clean energy technologies, rare earth elements (REE) are critical for national economic and energy security. With no current domestic source, supply remains a major concern for domestic security. Underclay - specifically the layer of stratum beneath a coal bed - is a potentially rich source of REE. This study focuses on the characterization and ion exchange recovery of REE from underclay samples from the Lower Freeport, Middle Kittanning, and Pittsburgh coal seams in West Virginia. Multimodal techniques provided quantitative assessments of REE-bearing mineral phases in select underclays and the influence of organic acid rock treatment on the recovery of REE from both exchangeable and crystalline mineral phases present. All samples are from extensively weathered horizons that contain abundant kaolinite and illite. Total REE concentrations range from 250-450 ppm and all samples have a HREE/LEEE ratio >20%. Rare earth element bearing minerals identified in the clay are monazite, xenotime, florencite, and crandallite. Our selective recovery approach is designed to isolate and recover REE through partial dissolution of the clay matrix and ion exchange rather than dissolution/recovery of phosphate or aluminosilicate bound REE. These results provide a better understanding of coal seam underclay, the affinity of REEs for specific ligands and colloids, and how the rock and ligands respond to different chemical treatments. These processes are important to the development and commercialization of efficient and cost effective methods to extract REE from domestic geologic deposits and recover into salable forms.

  17. Three-Dimensional (3D) Printing of Polymer-Metal Hybrid Materials by Fused Deposition Modeling

    PubMed Central

    Fafenrot, Susanna; Grimmelsmann, Nils; Wortmann, Martin

    2017-01-01

    Fused deposition modeling (FDM) is a three-dimensional (3D) printing technology that is usually performed with polymers that are molten in a printer nozzle and placed line by line on the printing bed or the previous layer, respectively. Nowadays, hybrid materials combining polymers with functional materials are also commercially available. Especially combinations of polymers with metal particles result in printed objects with interesting optical and mechanical properties. The mechanical properties of objects printed with two of these metal-polymer blends were compared to common poly (lactide acid) (PLA) printed objects. Tensile tests and bending tests show that hybrid materials mostly containing bronze have significantly reduced mechanical properties. Tensile strengths of the 3D-printed objects were unexpectedly nearly identical with those of the original filaments, indicating sufficient quality of the printing process. Our investigations show that while FDM printing allows for producing objects with mechanical properties similar to the original materials, metal-polymer blends cannot be used for the rapid manufacturing of objects necessitating mechanical strength. PMID:29048347

  18. High rate DC-reactive sputter deposition of Y 2O 3 film on the textured metal substrate for the superconducting coated conductor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kim, Ho-Sup; Park, Chan; Ko, Rock-Kil; Shi, Dongqui; Chung, Jun-Ki; Ha, Hong-Soo; Park, Yu-Mi; Song, Kyu-Jeong; Youm, Do-Jun

    2005-10-01

    Y2O3 film was directly deposited on Ni-3at%W substrate by DC reactive sputtering. DC reactive sputtering was carried out using metallic Y target and water vapor for oxidizing the elements of metallic target on the substrate. The detailed conditions of DC reactive sputtering for depositions of Y2O3 films were investigated. The window of water vapor for proper growth of Y2O3 films was determined by sufficient oxidations of the Y2O3 films and the non-oxidation of the target surface, which was required for high rate sputtering. The window turned out to be fairly wide in the chamber used. As the sputtering power was raised, the deposition rate increased without narrowing the window. The fabricated Y2O3 films showed good texture qualities and surface morphologies. The YBCO film deposited directly on the Y2O3 buffered Ni-3at%W substrate showed Tc, Ic (77 K, self field), and Jc (77 K, self field) of 89 K, 64 A/cm and 1.1 MA/cm2, respectively.

  19. Trace metal inventories and lead isotopic composition chronicle a forest fire's remobilization of industrial contaminants deposited in the angeles national forest.

    PubMed

    Odigie, Kingsley O; Flegal, A Russell

    2014-01-01

    The amounts of labile trace metals: [Co] (3 to 11 µg g-1), [Cu] (15 to 69 µg g-1), [Ni] (6 to 15 µg g-1), [Pb] (7 to 42 µg g-1), and [Zn] (65 to 500 µg g-1) in ash collected from the 2012 Williams Fire in Los Angeles, California attest to the role of fires in remobilizing industrial metals deposited in forests. These remobilized trace metals may be dispersed by winds, increasing human exposures, and they may be deposited in water bodies, increasing exposures in aquatic ecosystems. Correlations between the concentrations of these trace metals, normalized to Fe, in ash from the fire suggest that Co, Cu, and Ni in most of those samples were predominantly from natural sources, whereas Pb and Zn were enriched in some ash samples. The predominantly anthropogenic source of excess Pb in the ash was further demonstrated by its isotopic ratios (208Pb/207Pb: 206Pb/207Pb) that fell between those of natural Pb and leaded gasoline sold in California during the previous century. These analyses substantiate current human and environmental health concerns with the pyrogenic remobilization of toxic metals, which are compounded by projections of increases in the intensity and frequency of wildfires associated with climate change.

  20. FAST TRACK COMMUNICATION: Poly(methyl methacrylate)-palladium clusters nanocomposite formation by supersonic cluster beam deposition: a method for microstructured metallization of polymer surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ravagnan, Luca; Divitini, Giorgio; Rebasti, Sara; Marelli, Mattia; Piseri, Paolo; Milani, Paolo

    2009-04-01

    Nanocomposite films were fabricated by supersonic cluster beam deposition (SCBD) of palladium clusters on poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) surfaces. The evolution of the electrical conductance with cluster coverage and microscopy analysis show that Pd clusters are implanted in the polymer and form a continuous layer extending for several tens of nanometres beneath the polymer surface. This allows the deposition, using stencil masks, of cluster-assembled Pd microstructures on PMMA showing a remarkably high adhesion compared with metallic films obtained by thermal evaporation. These results suggest that SCBD is a promising tool for the fabrication of metallic microstructures on flexible polymeric substrates.