Science.gov

Sample records for rare site giant

  1. Soft Tissue Giant Cell Tumour of Low Malignant Potential: A Rare Tumour at a Rare Site

    PubMed Central

    Bhat, Amoolya; V., Geethamani; C., Vijaya

    2013-01-01

    “Soft tissue giant cell tumour of low malignant potential” is considered as the soft tissue counterpart of osteoclastoma of the bone. It is a primary soft tissue tumour which is classified under the category of fibrohistiocytic tumours of intermediate malignancy.Seventy percent of the tumours involve the extremities and only about seven percent of them arise in head and neck region. They are composed of nodules of histiocytes in a vascular stroma, with multinucleated osteoclast-like giant cells positive for vimentin, smooth muscle actin (SMA), CD68 and Tarterate Resistant Acid Phosphatase (TRAP). We are presenting a case of a 75-year-old man who had a nodule on the ala of the nose. Histopathology showed a histiocytic lesion. Benign fibrous histiocytoma, plexiform fibrohistiocytic tumour, solitary reticulohistiocytoma and histioid leprosy were ruled out by using special stains and immunostains. Expression of smooth muscle actin and CD68 confirmed the diagnosis of a soft tissue giant cell tumour with a low malignant potential. PMID:24551690

  2. Rare cause of odynophagia: Giant esophageal ulcer.

    PubMed

    Veroux, Massimiliano; Aprile, Giuseppe; Amore, Francesca F; Corona, Daniela; Giaquinta, Alessia; Veroux, Pierfrancesco

    2016-04-14

    Gastrointestinal complications are a frequent cause of morbidity after transplantation and may affect up to 40% of kidney transplant recipients. Here we report a rare case of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in a kidney transplant recipient. A 37-year-old female presented with a one-week history of odynophagia and weight loss. Upon admission, the patient presented cold sores, and a quantitative cytomegalovirus polymerase chain reaction was positive (10(5) copies/mL). An upper endoscopy demonstrated the presence of a giant ulcer. Serological test and tissue biopsies were unable to demonstrate an infectious origin of the ulcer. Immunosuppression was reduced and everolimus was introduced. An empirical i.v. therapy with acyclovir was started, resulting in a dramatic improvement in symptoms and complete healing of the ulcer. Only two cases of idiopathic giant esophageal ulcer in kidney transplant recipients have been reported in the literature; in both cases, steroid therapy was successful without recurrence of symptoms or endoscopic findings. However, this report suggests that correction of immune imbalance is mandatory to treat such a rare complication.

  3. Giant oral lipoma: a rare entity*

    PubMed Central

    Ponce, José Burgos; Ferreira, Gustavo Zanna; Santos, Paulo Sérgio da Silva; Lara, Vanessa Soares

    2016-01-01

    Lipomas are very common benign slow-growing soft tissue neoplasms composed of mature adipose tissue mostly diagnosed in the fifth decade of life. These tumors rarely present in the oral cavity, representing less than approximately 5% of all benign mouth tumors. They are usually less than 2cm in size and etiology remains unclear. We report a young male patient presenting with a giant lipoma in the buccal mucosa. Histopathology revealed a large area of mature fat cells consistent with conventional lipoma and an area of the mucosal lining of the lesion suggestive of morsicatio buccarum. In the present article, we emphasize the clinicopathological features and differential diagnosis of the disease.

  4. Rare liver tumor: symptomatic giant von Meyenburg complex

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Yardesh; Cawich, Shamir O.; Ramjit, Chunilal; Naraynsingh, Vijay

    2016-01-01

    von Meyenburg complexes are hamartomas that arise from intra-hepatic bile ducts. Symptomatic lesions are uncommon and giant lesions are exceedingly rare. When encountered, they should be excised because there are reports of malignant change in large, symptomatic lesions. We report a case of a symptomatic giant von Meyenburg complex. PMID:28068648

  5. Giant lupus vulgaris: A rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Sacchidanand, S; Sharavana, S; Mallikarjun, M; Nataraja, H V

    2012-01-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis continues to be an important public health problem even with the availability of highly effective anti-tuberculous drugs. It constitutes 0.1% of all cases of extrapulmonary tuberculosis. Lupus vulgaris is the most common form of cutaneous tuberculosis that occurs in previously sensitized individuals with a moderate degree of immunity against tubercle bacilli. The different types of lupus vulgaris include plaque, ulcerative, vegetative, papular and nodular, and tumor forms. A 40-year-old man presented with large multiple plaques over right upper limb, right side of chest and back, and right lower limb for the past 30 years. Histopathology showed numerous noncaseating granulomas with Langhan's type of giant cells. The Mantoux test showed strong positivity and there was excellent response to anti-tuberculous treatment. This case is being reported because of its extreme chronicity of 30 years duration, unusually large size and multiplicity of lesions.

  6. A Rare Case Report on Suboccipital Region Benign Giant Osteoma

    PubMed Central

    Bhattarai, Binod

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report a rare case of a giant suboccipital osteoma in a 55-year-old woman presenting primarily due to cosmetic issue. We discuss the management algorithm taken in the patient, highlighting excision of a potentially curable bony tumor only after ruling out its extension to the ear cavity, mastoid ear cells, transverse sinus, and the intracranial compartment. PMID:27051540

  7. Rare Giant Cell Tumor of Olecranon Bone!!!!

    PubMed Central

    Goyal, Pawan; Gautam, Vishal; Saini, Narender; Sharma, Yogesh

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Giant cell tumor (GCT) is a bone tumor involving epiphyseal area of bone abutting the subchondral bone. Commonly found in long bones such as proximal tibia and distal femur. We report a case of GCT of olecranon bone in a 23-year-old male. Case Report: A 23-year-old patient presented to our outpatient department with pain and mild swelling at the elbow from last 2 to 3 months. On examination, it was seen that there was a moderate swelling at the tip of the olecranon. The magnetic resonance imaging reported a lytic lesion in the olecranon but sparing the coronoid process of the ulna, the biopsy report confirmed that histologically it was a GCT of the bone. Total excision of the tumor was done after lifting the aponeurosis of the triceps muscle. The area remaining after excision of the tumor was phenol cauterized and cleaned with hydrogen peroxide solution. Triceps was reinserted on the remaining ulna. At follow-up the radiographs showed adequate excision of the tumor. The patient gained a full range of movement at the elbow and was functionally restored. There were no signs of any systemic spread of the tumor. Conclusion: GCT though a very common bone tumor could be missed if present in atypical locations. Radiographically soap bubble appearance might not be present in every case, and there could be multiple diagnoses for lytic lesion in bone. Proper investigations and histopathological examination are necessary for accurate diagnosis and further treatment planning. Early treatment helps in complete excision of tumor along with return of adequate function of the patient. PMID:28164048

  8. Giant cell arteritis: a systemic disease with rare cutaneous manifestations.

    PubMed

    Baum, E W; Sams, W M; Payne, R R

    1982-06-01

    Giant cell arteritis is a systemic disease usually occurring in patients in the fifth decade or older, more often in women. Dermatologic manifestations are rare but, when found, are usually expressed as scalp ulcerations or blanching associated with gangrene of the tongue. The dermatologist should be familiar with the entity because it is often more severe when associated with scalp necrosis, and prompt intervention with corticosteroids can prevent catastrophic sequelae.

  9. Giant appendicolith: Rare finding in a common ailment

    PubMed Central

    Singhal, Sanjeev; Singhal, Anu; Mahajan, Harsh; Prakash, Brahm; Kapur, Sunil; Arora, Pankaj K.; Tiwari, Bishwanath; Sethi, Punit

    2016-01-01

    Acute appendicitis is one of the commonest surgical emergencies worldwide. There is considerable variation in prevalence of appendicoliths with appendicitis. Most of the patients with appendicoliths are asymptomatic and they are not pathognomic for acute appendicitis. However, appendicoliths show increased association with perforation and abscess formation. Appendicolith are quite common, being present in 3% of general population and in nearly 10% cases of appendicitis. However, giant appendicoliths measuring over 2 centimeters (cms) are extremely rare. Computed Tomography (CT) has increased their pre-operative diagnosis considerably. Use of spectral analysis can give us the details of composition of the stone pre-operatively. We present a young male diagnosed pre-operatively on Non-Contrast Computed Tomography (NCCT) to have a giant calcium struvite appendicolith. On laparoscopy he had a 3 cm stone and an incidental Meckel's diverticulum and underwent appendectomy. The case is presented for the unique size of the appendicolith alongwith review of literature. PMID:27073312

  10. Giant intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst--a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Rashid, Muddassir; Kirmani, Sanna; Rashid, Mubashir

    2012-01-01

    The hydatidosis, or echinococcosis, has a characteristic geographic distribution, occurring most frequently in sheep-raising regions in Mediterranean, Central Asian, and South American countries and in Australia. Spinal hydatidosis is very rare, and intradural location is a rarer category of spinal hydatidosis. We report a case of intradural extramedullary spinal hydatid cyst in a 9-year-old boy. On magnetic resonance imaging, an intradural extramedullary giant cystic lesion was seen mimicking an arachnoid cyst. However, endemic origin of the patient and positive serology helped to make the diagnosis of hydatid cyst, which was confirmed on postoperative histopathology.

  11. Giant Magellan Telescope site testing: summary

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thomas-Osip, Joanna E.; McCarthy, Patrick; Prieto, Gabriel; Phillips, Mark M.; Johns, Matt

    2010-07-01

    Cerro Las Campanas located at Las Campanas Observatory (LCO) in Chile has been selected as the site for the Giant Magellan Telescope. We report results obtained since the commencement, in 2005, of a systematic site testing survey of potential GMT sites at LCO. Meteorological (cloud cover, temperature, pressure, wind, and humidity) and DIMM seeing data have been obtained at three potential sites, and are compared with identical data taken at the site of the twin Magellan 6.5m telescopes. In addition, measurements of the turbulence profile of the free-atmosphere above LCO have been collected with a MASS/DIMM. Furthermore, we consider photometric quality, light pollution, and precipitable water vapor (PWV). LCO, and Co. Las Campanas in particular, have dark skies, little or no risk of future light pollution, excellent seeing, moderate winds, PWV adequate for mid-IR astronomy during a reasonable fraction of the nights, and a high fraction of clear nights overall. Finally, Co. Las Campanas meets or exceeds all the defined science requirements.

  12. Synchronous Multicentric Giant Cell Tumour (GCT)-A Rare Case Report.

    PubMed

    Shekhar, Anshu; Murgod, Gururaj; Korlhalli, Suresh

    2014-02-01

    Giant Cell Tumours (GCT) of bone account for 5% of all primary bone tumours. Multicentric variety is a rare variant of this condition, accounting for less than 1% of all cases and can occur as synchronous or metachronous lesions. We report a 22-year-old male patient with 18 months history of painful progressive swellings around the right knee. Radiographs revealed expansile lytic lesions in the distal femur, proximal tibia and fibula and core needle biopsy was typical of GCT. Biochemical parameters were normal and radiological investigations did not reveal any metastasis. The patient was treated by above knee amputation due to the extensive nature of the tumours. The excised tissue from all sites had features of giant cell tumor with no atypia or malignant cells seen. The patient is free from recurrence or metastasis at three years follow up.

  13. A Rare Triad of Giant Occipital Encephalocele with Lipomyelomeningocele, Tetralogy of Fallot, and Situs Inversus

    PubMed Central

    Franco, Arie; Jo, Stephanie Y; Mehta, Amar S; Pandya, Dave J; Yang, Carina W

    2016-01-01

    Giant encephalocele is an uncommon congenital anomaly with very few published reports available in the English literature. Tetralogy of Fallot associated with situs inversus is also infrequently reported. To our knowledge there are no published reports of an association between giant encephalocele and Tetralogy of Fallot. The additional finding of situs inversus results in a rare pathologic triad, not heretofore described. PMID:27200165

  14. Giant Perineal Solitary Fibrous Tumor: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Yoshino Bonifaci, Ana Maria; Crochik, Fabio da Silva; Murta, Claudio Bovolenta; Claro, Joaquim Francisco de Almeida; Manzano, Joao Padua

    2017-01-01

    Background. Solitary fibrous tumor (SFT) is a fibroblastic mesenchymal tumor that was initially described from the pleura but currently arises at almost every anatomic site. It is usually benign, and surgical resection is curative. SFT involving the perineum is extremely rare. This is the third case report of a perineal SFT in the literature. Case Presentation. We reported an uncommon case of a 64-year-old man presenting with a huge perineal mass that started growing 3 years before his arrival in our service. He was asymptomatic. A contrast-enhanced CT scan revealed a heterogeneous well-circumscribed perineal mass with soft-tissue density. Invasion of the surrounding organs, distal metastasis, and lymph node swelling were absent. The complete resection of mass was done successfully. The specimen was a 23.0 × 14.0 × 8.0 cm encapsulated tumor. Mass weight was 1,170 g. After pathological analysis, we confirmed that the mass was a solitary fibrous tumor. The diagnosis was based on clinical findings and histological morphology and immunohistochemistry study. Conclusion. SFTs are usually indolent tumors with a favorable prognosis. The perineal location is extremely rare. Complete resection of the mass is the treatment of choice. PMID:28352487

  15. Giant sialoliths of Wharton duct: Report of two rare cases and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Shahoon, Hossein; Farhadi, Sareh; Hamedi, Roya

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is a common disease of the major salivary glands, characterized by the obstruction of a salivary gland or its excretory duct due to the formation of calcareous concretions. Sialoliths usually measure from 1 mm to <10 mm. They rarely measure more than 15 mm, and infrequently giant salivary gland calculi >15 mm have been reported in the literature. The submandibular gland and its duct appear to be the most susceptible sites for this disease. In this article, we report two unique cases, including a giant bilateral case, measuring 50 mm in length and 5 mm in width on the right side and one, 30 mm in length, and 5 mm in width on the left side; and another case, measuring 83 mm in length. The diagnostic and therapeutic approaches consisted of transocclusal radiography with the conservative transoral surgical technique in both cases. The follow-up showed the normal function of the relevant salivary glands. To the best of our knowledge and belief, similar cases have not been reported in the literature. PMID:26604966

  16. Migrating Giant Honey Bees (Apis dorsata) Congregate Annually at Stopover Site in Thailand

    PubMed Central

    Robinson, Willard S.

    2012-01-01

    Giant honey bees (Apis dorsata) of southern Asia are vital honey producers and pollinators of cultivated crops and wild plants. They are known to migrate seasonally up to 200 km. It has been assumed their migrations occur stepwise, with stops for rest and foraging, but bivouacking bees have rarely been seen by scientists. Here I report discovery of a site in northern Thailand where bivouacs appeared in large congregations during the wet seasons of 2009 and 2010. The bivouac congregation stopover site is a small mango orchard along the Pai River. Bivouacs rested in branches of mango and other tree species in the immediate vicinity. Departures were preceded by dances indicating approximate direction and apparently, distance of flights. Such consistent stopover sites likely occur throughout southern Asia and may support critical, vulnerable stages in the life history of giant honey bees that must be conserved for populations of the species to survive. PMID:23028715

  17. Bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas of the breasts—a rare indication for bilateral skin reducing mastectomy

    PubMed Central

    Neto, Francisco Laitano; Zerwes, Felipe Pereira

    2016-01-01

    Fibroadenoma is the most common benign tumor of the breast but giant juvenile fibroadenoma represent only 0.5% of all fibroadenomas and when bilateral are much more rare. We describe the case of a 25 years old girl that presented with bilateral giant juvenile fibroadenomas and was treated by bilateral skin reducing mastectomy using the inferior dermal flap, implant, and free nipple graft. PMID:27563567

  18. Case Report: A giant myopericytoma involving the occipital region of the scalp - a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Chaudhary, Pramod

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report a rare case of a giant myopericytoma presenting in a 16-year-old girl as a slowly progressive swelling involving the scalp in the occipital region. It was managed by complete excision. Histological examination of the lesion revealed  spindle-shaped cells forming characteristic rosettes around the blood vessels, and positive staining with smooth muscle actin.

  19. Giant cystic primary mucoepidermoid carcinoma of mandible: a rare case and literature review.

    PubMed

    Verma, Roshan Kumar; Sunku, Satheesh Kumar; Bal, Amanjeet; Panda, Naresh K

    2014-01-01

    Primary intra-osseous mucoepidermoid carcinoma arising from jaw is an extremely rare condition accounting to less than 2% of all mucoepidermoid carcinomas. In the jaw, it occurs more commonly in mandible than maxilla. They are low-grade cancers and affect jaw as uni- or multi-locular radiographic lesions. Here we discuss a rare case of giant cystic primary intra-cystic mucoepidermoid carcinoma of the mandible which was excised in toto. Here we discuss the clinical features, radiological and histological characteristics of this rare lesion, and review the literature.

  20. Case Report: A giant but silent adrenal pheochromocytoma – a rare entity

    PubMed Central

    Munakomi, Sunil; Rajbanshi, Saroj; Adhikary, Prof Shailesh

    2016-01-01

    Herein we report a rare entity of a giant adrenal pheochromocytoma in a fifty-year-old male presenting with a vague abdominal pain. A computerised tomogram of the abdomen revealed a well-defined  left supraadrenal giant lesion with no evidence of invasion to surrounding structures.The patient underwent surgical excision without any untoward postoperative events. Histopathological study revealed a benign pheochromocytoma. This report highlights the importance of acknowledging the fact that sometimes a giant adrenal pheochromocytoma can present with paucity of clinical  signs and symptoms.Thorough investigations and a multidisciplinary team approach may lead  to a better outcome in these patients. PMID:27785358

  1. Reconstruction Approach to a Rare Case of Acquired Scrotal Giant Muscular Hamartoma

    PubMed Central

    Bogetti, Paolo; Rolle, Luigi; Baglioni, Elisabetta Adelaide; Parisi, Andrea; Spaziante, Luca; Rivarossa, Filippo; Ceruti, Carlo; Preto, Mirko; Bocchiotti, Maria Alessandra

    2016-01-01

    Summary: Acquired scrotal giant muscular hamartoma is an uncommon benign lesion with fewer than 10 documented cases all over the world. It is characterized by a proliferation of dermal smooth muscle bundles of scrotum dartos fascia. The authors report a rare case of acquired scrotal giant muscular hamartoma, which occurred in a 70-year-old severely obese and diabetic man presenting with a progressive scrotal enlargement and swelling in the last year, causing marked reduction in quality of life and cosmetic problems. The patient underwent a wide excision of the hamartomatous lesion, and then, a reductive scrotoplasty and autologous skin grafting of penis were performed. Anatomopathological examination showed an acquired scrotal giant muscular hamartoma arising from muscular fascia of dartos. This surgical technique is a valid, safe, effective, and minimally invasive option to treat this pathology, achieving both excellent functional and aesthetic results, with a marked improvement of the patient’s quality of life. PMID:27757322

  2. Primary cutaneous mucormycosis presenting as a giant plaque: uncommon presentation of a rare mycosis.

    PubMed

    Vinay, Keshavamurthy; Chandrasegaran, Ariganesh; Kanwar, Amrinder J; Saikia, Uma N; Kaur, Harsimran; Shivaprakash, M R; Dogra, Sunil

    2014-08-01

    Mucormycosis is an uncommon systemic mycosis affecting the immunocompromised individuals. It is usually caused by organisms of the genera Rhizopus and Mucor, although rarely other organisms have also been implicated. Mycoses due to these angioinvasive fungi have an acute onset, rapidly progressive course with high mortality rate. A rare and less well known is the chronic subtype of primary cutaneous mucormycosis (PCM). Herein, we report a case of PCM clinically presenting as a chronic, giant destructive plaque in a young immunocompetent male and coin the term chronic granulomatous mucormycosis. A clinicopathological classification for cutaneous mucormycosis is also proposed.

  3. A Rare Cause of Childhood Ileus: Giant Mesenteric Lipoma and a Review of the Literature

    PubMed Central

    Turk, Erdal; Edirne, Yesim; Karaca, Fahri; Memetoglu, Mehmet Erdal; Unal, Emel; Ermumcu, Ozgur

    2013-01-01

    Mesenteric lipomas are benign tumors of mature fat cells. They are usually asymptomatic and create a clinical picture that depends on the localization and size of the lipoma. Although rare, unusually large mesenteric giant lipomas can cause partial or complete bowel obstruction. Lipomas resulting in partial bowel obstruction can present with symptoms such as intermittent abdominal pain and abdominal distention. With complete obstruction, a child can present with an acute abdomen. Treatment is the excision of the mass along with the affected portion of bowel. In this case study, a 2-year-old female presented with a bowel obstruction due to the presence of a giant mesenteric lipoma. Clinical features of 16 cases published in the English literature to date are presented. PMID:25610284

  4. Classic tongue lipoma: a common tumour at a rare site

    PubMed Central

    Magadum, Dilip; Sanadi, Appasab; Agrawal, Jiwanasha Manish; Agrawal, Manish Suresh

    2013-01-01

    Lipoma is the commonest benign tumour occurring at any anatomical site where fat is present, but occurrence in the oral cavity is rare. Tongue which is totally devoid of fat cells is a rare site for lipoma. This is one such rare case of the universal tumour, presenting at the lateral margin of the tongue, for which complete tumour excision was done. Macroscopically the mass had a hard consistency and measured 3.0×2.0 cm. From microscopic examination, diagnosis of lipoma was made. Recurrence of tongue lipoma is rare. PMID:23370950

  5. Surgical treatment of rare giant malignant tumors of the scalp: A report of 3 cases with different tumor types

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xiaoliang; Li, Wenzhong; Yuan, Hepei; Gu, Weihong; Chen, Dawei

    2016-01-01

    The scalp is the most frequent site of occurrence of malignant tumors. As an area that is generally neglected by the patient and not closely monitored during physical examinations, scalp tumors can go unnoticed until they become malignant. The present study reports 3 cases of rare giant malignant tumors of the scalp, namely a peripheral nerve sheath tumor, a fibrous tumor and a malignant proliferating trichilemmal tumor, that were treated at The First Bethune Hospital of Jilin University (Changchun, China). Vascularized free anterolateral thigh flap surgery was performed in 2 of the 3 cases. A local flap repair was applied to the third case. The implanted skin grafts remained viable post-operatively and wound repair was uneventful. No signs of malignancy were detected on the edge of the pathological section upon closer pathological examination. In the follow-up period, no recurrence was detected in any of the cases. PMID:27900013

  6. Galaxy evolution. Quasar quartet embedded in giant nebula reveals rare massive structure in distant universe.

    PubMed

    Hennawi, Joseph F; Prochaska, J Xavier; Cantalupo, Sebastiano; Arrigoni-Battaia, Fabrizio

    2015-05-15

    All galaxies once passed through a hyperluminous quasar phase powered by accretion onto a supermassive black hole. But because these episodes are brief, quasars are rare objects typically separated by cosmological distances. In a survey for Lyman-α emission at redshift z ≈ 2, we discovered a physical association of four quasars embedded in a giant nebula. Located within a substantial overdensity of galaxies, this system is probably the progenitor of a massive galaxy cluster. The chance probability of finding a quadruple quasar is estimated to be ∼10(-7), implying a physical connection between Lyman-α nebulae and the locations of rare protoclusters. Our findings imply that the most massive structures in the distant universe have a tremendous supply (≃10(11) solar masses) of cool dense (volume density ≃ 1 cm(-3)) gas, which is in conflict with current cosmological simulations.

  7. Giant Hernia of Morgagni with Acute Coronary Syndrome: A Rare Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Munir; Al-Arifi, Ahmed; Najm, Hani K

    2015-09-01

    Hernia of Morgagni is a congenital defect of the sternal part of the diaphragm and frequently presents on the right side of the midline. The hernial sac is usually small and can be dealt with through either an abdominal approach or through a lateral thoracotomy incision. Median sternotomy as an approach to repair these defects has very rarely been described in the literature when concomitant cardiac surgical procedures were required. We report the case of a 42 year-old male with Morgagni hernia that was approached through median sternotomy because of concomitant requirement for open heart surgery. The patient presented with acute coronary syndrome necessitating urgent coronary artery bypass surgery and was found to have a giant hernia of Morgagni due to bilateral defects. This entity is very rarely described and may pose difficulty in repair due to excessive adhesions to the surrounding thoracic or mediastinal tissues. Median sternotomy seems to be the ideal approach to deal with these giant lesions. Clinical presentation of Morgagni hernia and different options for surgical repair of the defect are discussed with reference to relevant literature.

  8. Naturally rare versus newly rare: demographic inferences on two timescales inform conservation of Galápagos giant tortoises.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Hyseni, Chaz; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-02-01

    Long-term population history can influence the genetic effects of recent bottlenecks. Therefore, for threatened or endangered species, an understanding of the past is relevant when formulating conservation strategies. Levels of variation at neutral markers have been useful for estimating local effective population sizes (N e ) and inferring whether population sizes increased or decreased over time. Furthermore, analyses of genotypic, allelic frequency, and phylogenetic information can potentially be used to separate historical from recent demographic changes. For 15 populations of Galápagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis sp.), we used 12 microsatellite loci and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial control region and a nuclear intron, to reconstruct demographic history on shallow (past ∽100 generations, ∽2500 years) and deep (pre-Holocene, >10 thousand years ago) timescales. At the deep timescale, three populations showed strong signals of growth, but with different magnitudes and timing, indicating different underlying causes. Furthermore, estimated historical N e of populations across the archipelago showed no correlation with island age or size, underscoring the complexity of predicting demographic history a priori. At the shallow timescale, all populations carried some signature of a genetic bottleneck, and for 12 populations, point estimates of contemporary N e were very small (i.e., < 50). On the basis of the comparison of these genetic estimates with published census size data, N e generally represented ∽0.16 of the census size. However, the variance in this ratio across populations was considerable. Overall, our data suggest that idiosyncratic and geographically localized forces shaped the demographic history of tortoise populations. Furthermore, from a conservation perspective, the separation of demographic events occurring on shallow versus deep timescales permits the identification of naturally rare versus newly rare populations; this distinction

  9. Naturally rare versus newly rare: demographic inferences on two timescales inform conservation of Galápagos giant tortoises

    PubMed Central

    Garrick, Ryan C; Kajdacsi, Brittney; Russello, Michael A; Benavides, Edgar; Hyseni, Chaz; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2015-01-01

    Long-term population history can influence the genetic effects of recent bottlenecks. Therefore, for threatened or endangered species, an understanding of the past is relevant when formulating conservation strategies. Levels of variation at neutral markers have been useful for estimating local effective population sizes (Ne) and inferring whether population sizes increased or decreased over time. Furthermore, analyses of genotypic, allelic frequency, and phylogenetic information can potentially be used to separate historical from recent demographic changes. For 15 populations of Galápagos giant tortoises (Chelonoidis sp.), we used 12 microsatellite loci and DNA sequences from the mitochondrial control region and a nuclear intron, to reconstruct demographic history on shallow (past ∽100 generations, ∽2500 years) and deep (pre-Holocene, >10 thousand years ago) timescales. At the deep timescale, three populations showed strong signals of growth, but with different magnitudes and timing, indicating different underlying causes. Furthermore, estimated historical Ne of populations across the archipelago showed no correlation with island age or size, underscoring the complexity of predicting demographic history a priori. At the shallow timescale, all populations carried some signature of a genetic bottleneck, and for 12 populations, point estimates of contemporary Ne were very small (i.e., < 50). On the basis of the comparison of these genetic estimates with published census size data, Ne generally represented ∽0.16 of the census size. However, the variance in this ratio across populations was considerable. Overall, our data suggest that idiosyncratic and geographically localized forces shaped the demographic history of tortoise populations. Furthermore, from a conservation perspective, the separation of demographic events occurring on shallow versus deep timescales permits the identification of naturally rare versus newly rare populations; this distinction should

  10. Giant Rhinophyma: A Rare Case of Total Nasal Obstruction and Restitutio Ad Integrum.

    PubMed

    Wolter, Andreas; Scholz, Till; Liebau, Jutta

    2017-03-24

    Rhinophyma is considered the end stage in the development of rosacea, accompanied by hypertrophy of the sebaceous glands, which causes an enlargement of the nose. It is an uncommon condition that often results in both functional and cosmetic impairment. A large variety of surgical and nonsurgical treatments have been published to treat it. Closure is usually obtained by wound granulating in by secondary intention, skin grafting or local flaps. Rarely these lesions can attain a giant size and pose a challenge in surgical treatment. We present a 63-year-old male with the necessity for tracheostomy at the ICU due to total nasal obstruction and recurrent episodes of pneumonia caused by a huge giant rhinophyma, which had undergone extreme growth in the last five years. The tumor was removed under general anesthesia by decortication with an electrosurgical wire loop to recreate the aesthetic units of the nose preserving the alar cartilage as well as the pilosebaceous appendages. The wounds healed in by secondary intention with a very pleasant cosmetic and improved functional result. The relevant literature is discussed. Level of Evidence V This journal requires that authors assign a level of evidence to each article. For a full description of these Evidence-Based Medicine ratings, please refer to the Table of Contents or the online Instructions to Authors www.springer.com/00266 .

  11. Giant saccular superior vena cava aneurysm—a rare and difficult clinical case

    PubMed Central

    Janczak, Dariusz; Skiba, Jacek; Gemel, Marek; Mak, Marek; Ziomek, Agnieszka; Malinowski, Maciej; Dorobisz, Tadeusz; Lesniak, Michal; Janczak, Dawid

    2016-01-01

    A superior vena cava (SVC) aneurysm is an extremely rare case of vascular malformation in the chest cavity. This is a report of a case of a 57-year-old woman with a saccular SVC aneurysm which was 8 cm wide. The chest computed tomography (CT) scan confirmed a giant 75 mm × 79 mm × 81 mm mass containing the contrast medium from SVC, constricting the right lung parenchyma, narrowing the right innominate vein, in contact with the anterolateral chest cavity wall, and adjoining the superior mediastinum. Under general anesthesia and employing the median sternotomy approach, using a cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB), the venous aneurysm was successfully resected. The postoperative period was uneventful. Radical surgical resection using a sternotomy and a CPB is recommended. PMID:27076981

  12. A Rare Giant Cell Tumor of the Distal Fibula and its Management.

    PubMed

    Vaishya, Raju; Kapoor, Chirag; Golwala, Paresh; Agarwal, Amit Kumar; Vijay, Vipul

    2016-07-01

    Giant Cell Tumour (GCT) of the distal fibula is extremely rare and poses challenges in the surgical management. Wide excision or intralesional curettage, along with adjuvant chemical cauterisation can prevent the recurrence of GCT. The excised bone gap needs reconstruction using tricortical iliac autograft and supportive plate fixation. In addition to wide excision, preservation of ankle mortise is advisable in locally aggressive and large lesions of the distal fibula. We report a GCT of the distal fibula in a young female patient. As part of the treatment, en bloc resection, chemical cauterisation with phenol, and distal fibula reconstruction with a tricortical iliac crest bone graft was done. Eighteen months after the treatment, the patient has no recurrence and her ankle is stable with full range of movement. We suggest this method to be worthwhile for the treatment of this uncommon lesion in quantifying recurrence and functional outcome.

  13. Finite amplitude method applied to the giant dipole resonance in heavy rare-earth nuclei

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Oishi, Tomohiro; Kortelainen, Markus; Hinohara, Nobuo

    2016-03-01

    Background: The quasiparticle random phase approximation (QRPA), within the framework of nuclear density functional theory (DFT), has been a standard tool to access the collective excitations of atomic nuclei. Recently, the finite amplitude method (FAM) was developed in order to perform the QRPA calculations efficiently without any truncation on the two-quasiparticle model space. Purpose: We discuss the nuclear giant dipole resonance (GDR) in heavy rare-earth isotopes, for which the conventional matrix diagonalization of the QRPA is numerically demanding. A role of the Thomas-Reiche-Kuhn (TRK) sum rule enhancement factor, connected to the isovector effective mass, is also investigated. Methods: The electric dipole photoabsorption cross section was calculated within a parallelized FAM-QRPA scheme. We employed the Skyrme energy density functional self-consistently in the DFT calculation for the ground states and FAM-QRPA calculation for the excitations. Results: The mean GDR frequency and width are mostly reproduced with the FAM-QRPA, when compared to experimental data, although some deficiency is observed with isotopes heavier than erbium. A role of the TRK enhancement factor in actual GDR strength is clearly shown: its increment leads to a shift of the GDR strength to higher-energy region, without a significant change in the transition amplitudes. Conclusions: The newly developed FAM-QRPA scheme shows remarkable efficiency, which enables one to perform systematic analysis of GDR for heavy rare-earth nuclei. The theoretical deficiency of the photoabsorption cross section could not be improved by only adjusting the TRK enhancement factor, suggesting the necessity of an approach beyond self-consistent QRPA and/or a more systematic optimization of the energy density functional (EDF) parameters.

  14. Synovial sarcomna of larynx-a rare site.

    PubMed

    Sridhar Reddy, D; Shobhan Babu, A; Lenin, A

    2007-03-01

    Synovial sarcoma is a soft tissue sarcoma of unknown histiogenesis and occurs predominantly in the lower limbs of young adults and the head and neck is a relatively rare site, there are about 10 cases with laryngeal localization in the world literature. We present a 52 year old male with synovial sarcoma of larynx. Total laryngectomy was done and patient is free from disease till date.

  15. A rare case of giant occipital meningocele with Dandy Walker Syndrome: Can it grow bigger than this?

    PubMed Central

    Mankotia, Dipanker Singh; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Singh, Bhoopendra; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2016-01-01

    Association of Dandy–Walker syndrome with occipital meningocele (OMC) is extremely rare and about thirty cases are reported till date in the Western literature. However, OMC is classified by Talamonti et al. into small, large, and giant categories with respective diameters were upto 5 cm in small, large with 5–9 cm, and giant with >9 cm. Usually the size of OMC progressively increases as raised intracranial pressure leads to compensatory cerebrospinal fluid escape into sac with the growth of children. Authors report an interesting case of an 18-month-old female child with extra-gigantic OMC, whose size was almost same since birth, representing the first case of its kind, who underwent successful surgical repair. Clinical presentation, radiological features, and surgical management options in literature are reviewed briefly for this rare disease association. PMID:28217162

  16. Metastasis at the colostomy site: a rare case report.

    PubMed

    Kuo, Yi-Hung; Chin, Chih-Chien; Lee, Kam-Fai

    2012-08-01

    Metastasis at the colostomy site is rare. Most reported patients with such metastases undergo abdominoperineal resection and this kind of metastases happened after a longer period post-cancer surgery. In our patient, because it happened during a short interval between rectal cancer surgery and stoma closure, colostomy site metastasis probably occurred owing to ablative cancer cell reflux and seeding from the obstruction during decompressive colostomy rather than local, lymphatic or haematogenous spread. Meticulous histologic analyses to rule out undetected, concomitant polyps and metachronous cancer are very important for patients with obstructive colorectal cancer who undergo decompressive colostomy. The potential risk of colostomy site metastasis during staged surgery for obstructive colorectal cancer remains uncertain; however, the result from this case report raises the question of such a risk for further studies in a greater number of patients.

  17. A rare complication of colonic diverticulosis: giant diverticulum. Case report and overview of pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutic options.

    PubMed

    Vanderstappen, J H H; Hoofwijk, A G M; Sikkink, C J J M

    2014-01-01

    A rare complication of diverticulosis of the colon is giant colonic diverticulum, an entity first described by Bonvin in 1946. The experience of any surgeon with this problem is at the most still small and reported management in the literature has been varied. We present the case of a 84-year-old woman presenting with a painless abdominal mass and constipation. A 30 x 10 cm gas-filled cyst was discovered on abdominal X-ray and CT examination. Furthermore, we provide an overview of pathophysiology, diagnosis and therapeutic options.

  18. Hoarseness of voice, respiratory distress and dysphagia due to giant primary posterior mediastinal ectopic goitre: a rare clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Chaudhry, Ikram Ulhaq; Cheema, Ahsan Iqbal; AlShamasi, Zahra; Mutairi, Hadi

    2016-04-25

    Primary posterior mediastinal ectopic goitre is an extremely rare entity; we report a case of a 28-year-old man who presented with dysphagia, respiratory distress and hoarseness of voice, gradually worsening over a period of 3 months. CT scan of the thorax revealed a giant posterior mediastinal ectopic goitre. The mass was removed through a right posterolateral thoracotomy. The patient's symptoms, respiratory distress and dysphagia disappeared immediately after surgery while his voice gradually returned to normal after 6 weeks.

  19. Post Surgical Giant Epidermal Inclusion Cyst of the Lid and Orbit- A Rare Case.

    PubMed

    Mandal, Salil Kumar; Mandal, Aparna; Bandyopadhya, Arghya

    2015-09-01

    Epidermoid cyst within the lid and orbit is extremely rare. Epidermoid tumours are inclusion of ectodermal elements in the site not normally containing these structures. It is of two types; primary type related to implantation of ectoderm at the time of closure of the neural groove and secondary type caused by post traumatic inclusion of the surface epithelium. A 45-year-old male had complaint of swelling on the right upper lid and orbital region. It first appeared two years back. It was painless progressively increased in size and shape. There was difficulty in opening of eye lid due to large swelling, feeling of heaviness in the right upper lid and occasional headache. There was history of right eye ocular infection following vegetative matter injury three years back. Evisceration of right eye was done for aforementioned reason. USG report shows cystic encapsulated mass with calcification foci in right upper lid-orbital region with fat component. MRI right orbit shows fairly large hyperintense cystic lesion seen involving right orbit with posterior extension up to optic canal. No intracranial extension. FNAC confirmed epidermal inclusion cyst. We did upper lid reconstruction with removal of mass. We have successfully removed the mass without any complication and with one year follow-up there is no recurrence.

  20. Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath: a rare periungual location simulating myxoid cyst*

    PubMed Central

    Minotto, Renan; Rodrigues, Camila Britto; Grill, Aline Barcellos; Furian, Roque

    2017-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumor most frequent between the third and fifth decades of life. It can mimic and make differential diagnoses with several hand tumors. Definitive diagnosis and the treatment of choice are reached with complete resection and histopathological examination. Here we describe a case with clinical presentation similar to that of a myxoid cyst. PMID:28225971

  1. Donor-site giant cell reaction following backfill with synthetic bone material during osteochondral plug transfer.

    PubMed

    Fowler, Donald E; Hart, Joseph M; Hart, Jennifer A; Miller, Mark D

    2009-10-01

    Osteochondral defects are common in younger, active patients. Multiple strategies have been used to treat these lesions, including microfracture and osteochondral plug transfer. We describe a patient experiencing chronic knee pain and a full-thickness cartilage defect on the lateral femoral condyle. After failing conservative management and microfracture surgery, the patient underwent osteochondral autograft plug transfer, with backfilling of the donor sites using synthetic bone graft substitute. Initial recovery was uncomplicated until the patient experienced pain following a twist of the knee. Magnetic resonance imaging for the subsequent knee injury revealed poor healing at the donor sites. The donor sites were debrided, and specimens revealed a foreign body giant cell reaction. Donor-site morbidity is of primary concern during osteochondral plug transfer; however, insufficient data exist to support the use of synthetic bone graft material. Our results indicate that off-label use of synthetic bone graft substitute during a primary procedure requires further investigation.

  2. Fatal spontaneous subdural bleeding due to neonatal giant cell hepatitis: a rare differential diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome.

    PubMed

    Guddat, Saskia S; Ehrlich, Edwin; Martin, Hubert; Tsokos, Michael

    2011-09-01

    A 7-week-old girl showed vomiting after feeding, facial pallor, loss of muscle tone and respiratory depression. An emergency doctor performed successful resuscitation and after arrival in hospital, cranial ultrasound showed left-sided subdural hemorrhage, cerebral edema with a shift of the midline, and a decrease in cerebral perfusion. Ophthalmologic examination showed retinal hemorrhage. In view of this, the doctors suspected shaken baby syndrome and approached the parents with their suspicions, but they denied any shaking or trauma. Despite surgery for the subdural hemorrhage the girl died a few hours later with a severe coagulopathy. Autopsy verified subdural hemorrhage, cerebral edema and retinal hemorrhage, but also revealed intact bridging veins and a lack of optic nerve sheath hemorrhage, therefore shaken baby syndrome could not be proven by autopsy. Histological examination showed severe neonatal giant cell hepatitis as the cause of the severe coagulopathy and the associated spontaneous subdural bleeding. Neonatal giant cell hepatitis may be responsible for unexpected deaths in infancy and, although rarely associated with subdural bleeding, must be considered as a potential differential diagnosis of shaken baby syndrome.

  3. Formation of carbonatite-related giant rare-earth-element deposits by the recycling of marine sediments

    PubMed Central

    Hou, Zengqian; Liu, Yan; Tian, Shihong; Yang, Zhiming; Xie, Yuling

    2015-01-01

    Carbonatite-associated rare-earth-element (REE) deposits are the most significant source of the world’s REEs; however, their genesis remains unclear. Here, we present new Sr-Nd-Pb and C-O isotopic data for Cenozoic carbonatite-hosted giant REE deposits in southwest China. These REE deposits are located along the western margin of the Yangtze Craton that experienced Proterozoic lithospheric accretion, and controlled by Cenozoic strike-slip faults related to Indo-Asian continental collision. The Cenozoic carbonatites were emplaced as stocks or dykes with associated syenites, and tend to be extremely enriched in Ba, Sr, and REEs and have high 87Sr/86Sr ratios (>0.7055). These carbonatites were likely formed by melting of the sub-continental lithospheric mantle (SCLM), which had been previously metasomatized by high-flux REE- and CO2-rich fluids derived from subducted marine sediments. The fertility of these carbonatites depends on the release of REEs from recycled marine sediments and on the intensity of metasomatic REE refertilization of the SCLM. We suggest that cratonic edges, particularly along ancient convergent margins, possess the optimal configuration for generating giant REE deposits; therefore, areas of metamorphic basement bounded or cut by translithospheric faults along cratonic edges have a high potential for such deposits. PMID:26035414

  4. Undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells: a rare case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Sah, Shambhu K; Li, Ying; Li, Yongmei

    2015-01-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma of the pancreas with osteoclast-like giant cells (UCPOGC) is an extremely rare non-endocrine pancreatic tumor. To date, some cases have been reported, however, histogenesis and biologic behavior of UCPOGC remain controversial. We report a case of an UCPOGC in a 54-year-old female, who presented with a three-month history of recurrent abdominal pain without any incentive. Abdominal computed tomography (CT) revealed a large cystic mass of 10.5 × 9.3 cm in the body and tail of the pancreas compressing the adjacent bowel loop and stomach. The preliminary diagnosis was considered as a malignant tumor of body and tail of the pancreas. The patient had open distal pancreatic mass resection with splenectomy and according to the results of histopathological and immunohistochemical studies, the diagnosis of an UCPOGC was established.

  5. Rare case of giant cystic adenomyoma mimicking a uterine malformation, diagnosed and treated by hysteroscopy.

    PubMed

    Pontrelli, Giovanni; Bounous, Valentina Elisabetta; Scarperi, Stefano; Minelli, Luca; Di Spiezio Sardo, Attilio; Florio, Pasquale

    2015-08-01

    We describe a case of giant cystic uterine adenomyoma that was diagnosed and treated by hysteroscopy. In a 27-year-old woman with menometrorrhagia, severe dysmenorrhea, and chronic pelvic pain, pelvic ultrasonography revealed an enlarged uterine cavity filled with homogeneous low echogenic fluid content. A large cornual hematometra of 8.0 cm in diameter in a bicornuate uterus was suspected, and this hypothesis was also supported by magnetic resonance imaging findings. On the contrary, hysteroscopy revealed a bilocular huge cystic lesion of the posterior uterine wall that was removed by means of monopolar loop resection. The operative finding and the histopathologic examination confirmed the diagnosis of cystic adenomyoma of the uterus. Hysteroscopy may represent a valid tool for diagnosis and minimally invasive treatment of cystic adenomyoma, including those of large volume. Its use is helpful in differential diagnosis between cystic adenomyoma and uterine malformations as a possible cause of pelvic pain.

  6. A rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialolithiasis: a giant, fistulized calculus on the right and multiple calculi on the left.

    PubMed

    Emir, Hatice; Kaptan, Zeynep Kizilkaya; Uzunkulaoglu, Hakki; Dogan, Sedat

    2010-10-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease of the submandibular gland; sialoliths account for at least 80% of all salivary duct calculi. We present a rare case of asymptomatic bilateral submandibular gland sialoliths. On the right, the patient had a giant (35 × 35 mm) sialolith that had fistulized into the oral cavity. In the left submandibular gland, he had 30 differently sized sialoliths.

  7. Giant pericardial cyst in a 5-year-old child: A rare anomaly

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Sanjay; Jain, Promil; Sen, Rajeev; Rattan, KN; Agarwal, Ruchi; Garg, Shilpa

    2011-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are uncommon congenital abnormalities that occur in the middle mediastinum. Most of these are found incidentally on chest x-rays. The occurrence of pericardial cyst in children is quite rare. It needs to be differentiated from other cystic mediastinal masses. A rare case of pericardial cyst in a 5 year old male child is reported. The child presented with chest pain, cough and fever. The preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst was suggestive on echocardiography and CT scan. It was confirmed on histopathology after successful surgical excision. The rarity of this benign mediastinal lesion in children prompted us to report this case. PMID:21677811

  8. Giant ectopic liver, hepatocellular carcinoma and pachydermia-a rare genetic syndrome?

    PubMed

    Dettmer, Matthias; Itin, Peter; Miny, Peter; Gandhi, Manoj; Cathomas, Gieri; Willi, Niels

    2011-08-10

    Ectopic liver is a very uncommon developmental anomaly that predisposes to the development of hepatocellular carcinoma. We describe the second documented case of a hepatocellular carcinoma developing in the primary liver of a patient with a rare and uncharacterized genetic symptom complex. Also present was the largest ectopic liver ever reported, measuring 12 cm in diameter which contained a solitary focus of metastatic hepatocellular carcinoma. The primary hepatocellular carcinoma is believed to have arisen in the native liver from a hepatic adenoma that was diagnosed 15 years earlier. The patient's uncharacterised condition featured prominent thick, yellow skin over the dorsum of the fingers, and was associated with follicular hyperkeratosis, abnormal plantar creases, digital clubbing, misshaped ears, a lingua plicata and an angioleiomyolipoma of the right kidney. This unique case of hepatocellular carcinoma arising from liver cell adenoma in a patient with an uncharacterised condition featuring a large ectopic liver invites discussion of the role of local factors in carcinogenesis in the parent liver but not the ectopic liver. It also underlines the imperative ongoing need for clinical autopsies.

  9. Orientations and other features of the Neolithic 'giants' churches' of Finland from on-site and lidar observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ridderstad, M. P.

    2015-07-01

    The orientations and placement of 52 Neolithic stone enclosures in Finland known as 'Giants' Churches' were analysed. In addition, other characteristic features, such as cairns and standing stones in or near the Giants' Churches, were investigated. The axis and gate orientations of the structures were measured using both on-site and airborne laser scanning (lidar) observations. The results showed lidar observations to be useful in archaeoastronomical analysis as a complementary tool to be used with on-site measurements and observations. The Giants' Churches were found to be orientations towards certain solar and lunar events that could have acted as 'seasonal pointers'. The orientations of the gates of the GCs were found to replicate the axis orientations to a large degree. The majority (over 90%) of the GCs were positioned on the eastern or southeastern side of the ridge they were built on, indicating the interest of the builders in the eastern horizon and possibly the rising of celestial bodies. The orientations of large (>35-m long) Giants' Churches and small (≤35-m long) ones were compared. The observed differences in the orientations of these two groups suggested that the structures traditionally known as Giants' Churches may be a heterogeneous group consisting of at least two types of structures represented in this study by the two selected size groups. Many large GCs were found to have been oriented towards the solstices, while the smaller ones did not show this feature. It is possible that the smaller Giants' Churches were oriented towards the Moon, while the larger ones were associated to solar events. The smaller Giants' Churches could be the remains of large houses or otherwise belong to a different tradition of construction.

  10. Hanford Site Rare Plant Monitoring Report for Calendar Year 2012

    SciTech Connect

    Salstrom, D; Easterly, R; Lindsey, Cole T.; Nugent, John J.

    2013-03-21

    Two patches of Columbian yellowcress on the Hanford Reach were visited in both 2011 and 2012 to compare ramet counts between years: near Allerd Pumphouse (Rkm 615.4) and near White Bluffs Boat Launch (Rkm 593.3) (Figure 3). In 2012, the population near Allerd Pumphouse had 45 ramets present within a 5x3 m area. At the same population in 2011, there were 60 ramets. In 2012, the population near White Bluffs Boat Launch had 105 ramets in a 2x2 m area. At the same population in 2011, there were 100 ramets. This data shows that while annual variability does exist, ramet counts were relatively similar from 2011 to 2012. This is likely due to the similar flow regimes of 2011 and 2012, which both had above average snowpack, high flows, and extended spring flooding seasons. A total of 19.6 miles (31.5 km) of the Hanford shoreline were surveyed in 2012, with ten patches identified and approximately 1,250 ramets counted. It is not known how many individual plants this count represents due to the rhizomatous nature of the species. Two of these sites were identified previously in the WNHP database, and the remaining eight were newly identified locations. Eleven of the ramets had flowers and/or buds in the patches located during 2012, but no fruits were found

  11. Control of the active site structure of giant bilayer hemoglobin from the Annelid Eisenia foetida using hierarchic assemblies

    SciTech Connect

    Girasole, Marco; Arcovito, Alessandro; Marconi, Augusta; Davoli, Camilla; Congiu-Castellano, Agostina; Bellelli, Andrea; Amiconi, Gino

    2005-12-05

    The active site structure of the oxygenated derivative of the main subassemblies (whole protein, dodecamers, and trimers) of the giant haemoglobin from Eisenia foetida has been characterized by x-ray absorption near edge structure spectroscopy. The data revealed a remarkable effect of the hierarchic assemblies on the active site of the subunit. Specifically, the whole protein has the same site structure of the dodecamer, while a sharp conformational transition occurs when the dodecamer is disassembled into trimers (and monomers) revealing that constraints due to the protein matrix determine the active site geometry and, consequently, the protein function in these large complexes.

  12. Primary Retroperitoneal Melanoma Presented in a Rare Extracutaneous Site for Malignant Melanoma.

    PubMed

    Alsharedi, Mohamed; Zgheib, Nadim Bou; Khelfa, Yousef; Raufi, Ali; Elmsherghi, Nabiha; Lebowicz, Yehuda

    2016-09-05

    Malignant melanoma, as the name implies, is a malignant tumor of melanocytes, found in the skin, eyes, meningeal lining and the mucosal epithelium of the aero-digestive and genitourinary tracts. Malignant melanoma is typically skin malignancy, which rarely presents at extracutaneous site. Here we present a rare case of primary retroperitoneal melanoma and review the findings in comparison with other cases described in literature.

  13. Melanotic neuroectodermal tumor of infancy: Cytology and histopathology of a rare lesion at an uncommon site.

    PubMed

    Batta, Nishant; Narang, Vikram; Kaur, Harpreet; Selhi, Pavneet Kaur; Sood, Neena

    2016-11-07

    Melanotic neuroectodermal tumour of infancy is a rare, pigmented neoplasm generally arising in infants during the first year of life. The cytological features are rarely described in the literature. This case due to its rarity and unusual site emphasising the cytopathological features and the necessity of histology for differentiating it from other round cell tumours has been presented. Diagn. Cytopathol. 2016. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  14. Initial computational fluid dynamics modeling of the Giant Magellan Telescope site and enclosure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Danks, Ryan; Smeaton, William; Bigelow, Bruce; Burgett, William

    2016-08-01

    In the era of extremely large telescopes (ELTs), with telescope apertures growing in size and tighter image quality requirements, maintaining a controlled observation environment is critical. Image quality is directly influenced by thermal gradients, the level of turbulence in the incoming air flow and the wind forces acting on the telescope. Thus any ELT enclosure must be able to modulate the speed and direction of the incoming air and limit the inflow of disturbed ground-layer air. However, gaining an a priori understanding of the wind environment's impacts on a proposed telescope is complicated by the fact that telescopes are usually located in remote, mountainous areas, which often do not have high quality historic records of the wind conditions, and can be subjected to highly complex flow patterns that may not be well represented by the traditional analytic approaches used in typical building design. As part of the design process for the Giant Magellan Telescope at Cerro Las Campanas, Chile; the authors conducted a parametric design study using computational fluid dynamics which assessed how the telescope's position on the mesa, its ventilation configuration and the design of the enclosure and windscreens could be optimized to minimize the infiltration of ground-layer air. These simulations yielded an understanding of how the enclosure and the natural wind flows at the site could best work together to provide a consistent, well controlled observation environment. Future work will seek to quantify the aerothermal environment in terms of image quality.

  15. Satellites of giant planets — possible sites for origin and existence of biospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Simakov, Michael B.

    All giant planets of the Solar system have a big number of satellites (61 of Jupiter, 52 of Saturn, known in 2003). A small part of them consist very large bodies, quite comparable to planets of terrestrial type, but including very significant share of water ice. Some from them have an atmosphere. E.g., the mass of a column of the Titan’s atmosphere exceeds 15 times the mass of the Earth atmosphere column. Formation (or capture) of satellites is a natural phenomenon, and satellite systems definitely should exist at extrasolar planets. As an example, we can see on Titan, the largest satellite of Saturn, which has a dense nitrogen atmosphere and a large quantity of liquid water under ice cover and so has a great exobiological significance. The most recent models of the Titan’s interior lead to the conclusion that a substantial liquid layer exists today under relatively thin ice cover inside Titan. The putative internal water ocean along with complex atmospheric photochemistry provide some exobiological niches on this body: (1) an upper layer of the internal water ocean; (2) pores, veins, channels and pockets filled with brines inside of the lowest part of the icy layer; (3) the places of cryogenic volcanism; (4) set of caves in icy layer connecting with cryovolcanic processes; (5) the brine-filled cracks in icy crust caused by tidal forces; (6) liquid water pools on the surface originated from meteoritic strikes; (7) the sites of hydrothermal activity on the bottom of the ocean. We can see all conditions needed for origin and evolution of biosphere — liquid water, complex organic chemistry and energy sources for support of biological processes — are on the Saturnian moon. Galileo spacecraft has given indications, primarily from magnetometer and gravity data, of the possibility that three of Jupiter’s four large moons, Europa, Ganymede and Callisto have such oceans also. The existing of liquid water ocean within icy world can be consequences of the physical

  16. Non-operative management of a rare diagnosis of splenic torsion in a child with a history of giant omphalocele: a case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Splenic torsion is rare and as a result the appropriate management is unclear. While there has been a shift towards splenectomy and laparoscopic splenopexy, we present a successful case of non-operative management of splenic torsion in a patient with a history of a giant omphalocele. Case presentation A 3 year-old female presented with a three-day history of abdominal pain, fever and non-bloody emesis three and a half years after repair of her giant omphalocele. Abdominal radiographs and ultrasound demonstrated migration of the spleen and a subsequent computerized tomography scan confirmed splenic torsion and an infarcted spleen. Given her late presentation, she was successfully managed with observation, analgesia, immunization against capsulated organisms and daily penicillin prophylaxis with excellent outcome at 19 months follow-up. A review of the literature revealed that splenic torsion is rarely managed non-operatively. Rarer still is the occurrence of splenic torsion following a history of omphalocele. Conclusion Although rare, splenic torsion should be considered in a child with a history of omphalocele presenting with abdominal pain. Non-operative management of an infarcted spleen can be a safe treatment option to avoid surgery in complex patients. PMID:24602190

  17. Slope Failure Hazards at Basalt Geomorphosites: A Comparative Analysis of the Giant's Causeway World Heritage Site, UK and Penghu Marine Geopark, Taiwan.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gruendemann, Ciaran; Chung Lin, Jiun; Smith, Bernard

    2010-05-01

    Columnar basalt landscapes hold a fascination that transcends geographical and cultural boundaries. It is because of this that they feature so prominently on the global register of significant geomorphosites. Arguably the most iconic of these basalt landscapes is the Giant's Causeway in Northern Ireland, a status recognized by its inscription as a World Heritage Site. Recognition at this level invariably brings visitor pressure, and with it concern as to the impact they exert on site integrity. Rarely, however, is the same overt concern expressed for the risks that such sites pose to the visitors - or not at least until disaster strikes. Yet, the very features that make these sites attractive - tall, exposed, largely unconstrained columns - render many of them intrinsically unstable, prone to catastrophic collapse and potentially hazardous to visitors. In this presentation we highlight the nature of these slope instability issues through a comparative analysis of two geographically contrasting basalt geomorphosites. Investigations of slope hazard at the Giant's Causeway have shown that many are linked to the distinctive structural characteristics and weathering patterns of flood basalts. Typically, individual flows comprise a columnar ‘colonnade', topped by a blocky ‘entablature' and separated from the flows above and below it by a structurally weaker, but often less-permeable, palaeosol that formed during periods of volcanic quiescence. The collapse of columns is often facilitated by a combination of weathering along ever-widening joints and wedging outwards by debris that falls into them. This gradual distortion of the colonnade makes columns increasingly susceptible to collapse. Often this is triggered by intense rainfall (perhaps following a dry spell) that rapidly infiltrates joints and is ponded on the underlying palaeosol. The precise nature of the failure (toppling or outwards rotation of the column base) is largely dictated by the nature of the

  18. Recovery of Rare Earths, Niobium, and Thorium from the Tailings of Giant Bayan Obo Ore in China

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Xiu-Lan; Bai, Li; Wang, Qing-Chun; Liu, Jia; Chi, Ming-Yu; Wang, Zhi-Chang

    2012-06-01

    The recovery of rare earths, niobium, and thorium from Bayan Obo's tailings has been investigated because the Bayan Obo ore is rich in rare earths and rich in niobium and thorium, but it is mined mainly as an iron ore and will be used up soon. By carbochlorination between 823 K (550 °C) and 873 K (600 °C) for 2 hours, 76 to 93 pct of rare earths were recovered from the tailings, which were much higher than those from Bayan Obo's rare earth concentrate, together with 65 to 78 pct of niobium, 72 to 92 pct of thorium, 84 to 91 pct of iron, and 81 to 94 pct of fluorine. This suggests a cooperative reaction mechanism that carbochlorination of iron minerals (and carbonates) in the tailings enhances that of rare earth minerals, which is supported by a thermodynamic analysis. Subsequently, niobium separation from the low-volatile, ultrahigh iron chloride mixture was achieved efficiently by selective oxidation with Fe2O3. This process, combined with the best available technologies for separation of rare earths and thorium from the involatile chloride mixture and for comprehensively using other valuable elements, allows the ore to minimize radioactive waste and to use rare metal resources sustainably in the future.

  19. Decline of a Rare Moth at Its Last Known English Site: Causes and Lessons for Conservation

    PubMed Central

    Baker, David; Barrett, Sinead; Beale, Colin M.; Crawford, Terry J.; Ellis, Sam; Gullett, Tallulah; Parsons, Mark S.; Relf, Penny; Robertson, Paul; Small, Julian; Wainwright, Dave

    2016-01-01

    The conditions required by rare species are often only approximately known. Monitoring such species over time can help refine management of their protected areas. We report population trends of a rare moth, the Dark Bordered Beauty Epione vespertaria (Linnaeus, 1767) (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) at its last known English site on a protected lowland heath, and those of its host-plant, Salix repens (L.) (Malpighiales: Salicaceae). Between 2007 and 2014, adult moth density reduced by an average of 30–35% annually over the monitored area, and its range over the monitored area contracted in concert. By comparing data from before this decline (2005) with data taken in 2013, we show that the density of host-plants over the monitored area reduced three-fold overall, and ten-fold in the areas of highest host-plant density. In addition, plants were significantly smaller in 2013. In 2005, moth larvae tended to be found on plants that were significantly larger than average at the time. By 2013, far fewer plants were of an equivalent size. This suggests that the rapid decline of the moth population coincides with, and is likely driven by, changes in the host-plant population. Why the host-plant population has changed remains less certain, but fire, frost damage and grazing damage have probably contributed. It is likely that a reduction in grazing pressure in parts of the site would aid host-plant recovery, although grazing remains an important site management activity. Our work confirms the value of constant monitoring of rare or priority insect species, of the risks posed to species with few populations even when their populations are large, of the potential conflict between bespoke management for species and generic management of habitats, and hence the value of refining our knowledge of rare species’ requirements so that their needs can be incorporated into the management of protected areas. PMID:27333285

  20. Prenatal imaging of a fetus with the rare combination of a right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and a giant omphalocele.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, Ayasa; Hidaka, Nobuhiro; Kido, Saki; Fukushima, Kotaro; Kato, Kiyoko

    2014-11-01

    A co-existing right congenital diaphragmatic hernia and omphalocele is rare. We present images of a fetus diagnosed with this rare combination of anomalies. Early neonatal death occurred immediately after full-term birth due to severe respiratory insufficiency. In this case, disturbance of chest wall development due to the omphalocele rather than the diaphragmatic hernia was considered as the main cause of lung hypoplasia. Our experience suggests that caution should be exercised for severe respiratory insufficiency in a neonate with an omphalocele and diaphragmatic hernia, even in the absence of an intra-thoracic liver, one of the indicators of poor outcome for congenital diaphragmatic hernia.

  1. Endangered, threatened, and rare vascular flora of the Savannah River Site

    SciTech Connect

    Knox, J.N.; Sharitz, R.R.

    1990-01-01

    This report summarizes information on the 30 endangered, threatened, or rare plants found on the Savannah River Site, Aiken, South Carolina. Of these 30 species, eight are under review by the US Fish and Wildlife Service as possible candidates for the proposed threatened and endangered list. Twenty-seven of the species are on the state of South Carolina's list prepared by the South Carolina Advisory Committee on Rare, Threatened, and Endangered Vascular Plants. These 27 plants include regionally threatened species, statewide threatened species, and rare species. Approximately two-thirds of these plants are found in wetland habitats. Also included in this report are summaries of 29 plant species that are likely to occur on the SRS, but have not been found there. Fourteen of these plants are on the federal list and range in status from endangered to possible candidates for deletion from the list. Twenty-eight are on the state of South Carolina list; approximately two-thirds of these also occur in wetland habitats. 31 refs., 45 figs., 2 tabs.

  2. Conservation value of sites of hybridization in peripheral populations of rare plant species.

    PubMed

    Thompson, John D; Gaudeul, Myriam; Debussche, Max

    2010-02-01

    Populations at the periphery of a species' range are of interest to conservation biologists because they can show marked genetic differentiation from populations at the center of a range and because of potential hybridization among rare and common species. We examined two closely related Cyclamen species. One is a narrow endemic, and the other is more geographically widespread (both protected by law in continental southern France). We used floral traits and genetic variability to test for hybridization among the species in peripheral populations of the rare species. The species co-occurred on Corsica in a disjunct, peripheral part of the distribution of the endemic species and in an ecologically marginal area for the widespread species. The two species have hybridized and the endemic species showed high levels of introgression with its widespread congener. Genetic and floral variability in sites with both species was markedly higher than in sites with a single species. Our results highlight the need for a conservation strategy that integrates hybrid populations because they represent a source of novel diversity that may have adaptive potential.

  3. [Inflammatory granuloma of iliac bone harvest site: a rare complication of Horsley bone wax].

    PubMed

    Faghahati, S; Gleizal, A; Beziat, J-L

    2013-08-01

    Bone wax or Horsley wax, which is used very frequently in bone surgery, is a non-absorbable mixture of beeswax (70%) and Vaseline. It permits the haemostasis of bone gaps by mechanical obstruction of bone pores containing blood capillaries. Complications due to this product are rare but sometimes quoted in literature. We report the case of a 17-year-old patient who, 10 months after surgery and after an asymptomatic period, presented an inflammatory granuloma at the scar of iliac bone harvest, which had been used as a maxillary graft. This complication necessitated a first exploratory and cleansing surgery, as well as a second surgery, which clarified the origin of the inflammation and made it possible to eliminate the wax remains. We think that bone wax should be used sparingly and with caution, firmly applied to the bleeding site without leaving any free particles.

  4. A Unique Yttrofluorite-Hosted Giant Heavy Rare Earth Deposit: Round Top Mountain, Hudspeth County, Texas, USA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pingitore, N. E.; Clague, J. W.; Gorski, D.

    2013-12-01

    Round Top Mountain is a surface-exposed peraluminous rhyolite laccolith, enriched in heavy rare earth elements, as well as niobium-tantalum, beryllium, lithium, fluorine, tin, rubidium, thorium, and uranium. The extreme extent of the deposit (diameter one mile) makes it a target for recovery of valuable yttrium and HREEs, and possibly other scarce elements. The Texas Bureau of Economic Geology estimated the laccolith mass as at least 1.6 billion tons. A Preliminary Economic Assessment for Texas Rare Earth Resources listed an inferred mineral resource of 430,598,000 kg REOs (rare earth oxides), with over 70% Y+HREEs (YHREE). Put in global perspective, China is thought to produce ~25,000 tons YHREE per year, and exports but a small fraction of that. Because of the extremely fine grain size of the late-phase fluorine-carried critical fluid mineralization, it has not been clear which minerals host the YHREEs. X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy experiments at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Lightsource revealed that virtually all of the YHREE content resides in yttrofluorite, rather than in the other reported REE minerals in the deposit, bastnaesite and xenotime. The extended x-ray absorption fine structure (XAFS) spectra of the sample suite were all quite similar, and proved a close match to known model compound specimens of yttrofluorite from two locations, in Sweden and New Mexico. Small spectral variation between the two model compounds and among the samples is attributable to the variable elemental composition and altervalent substitutional nature of yttrofluorite (Ca [1-x] Y,REE [x])F[2+x]. We found no other reported deposit in the world in which yttrofluorite is the exclusive, or even more than a minor, YHREE host mineral. Leaching experiments show that the YHREEs are easily liberated by dissolution with dilute sulfuric acid, due to the solubility of yttrofluorite. Flotation separation of the yttrofluorite had been demonstrated, but was rendered inefficient by the

  5. Ancient DNA microsatellite analyses of the extinct New Zealand giant moa (Dinornis robustus) identify relatives within a single fossil site

    PubMed Central

    Allentoft, M E; Heller, R; Holdaway, R N; Bunce, M

    2015-01-01

    By analysing ancient DNA (aDNA) from 74 14C-dated individuals of the extinct South Island giant moa (Dinornis robustus) of New Zealand, we identified four dyads of closely related adult females. Although our total sample included bones from four fossil deposits located within a 10 km radius, these eight individuals had all been excavated from the same locality. Indications of kinship were based on high pairwise genetic relatedness (rXY) in six microsatellite markers genotyped from aDNA, coupled with overlapping radiocarbon ages. The observed rXY values in the four dyads exceeded a conservative cutoff value for potential relatives obtained from simulated data. In three of the four dyads, the kinship was further supported by observing shared and rare mitochondrial haplotypes. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of observed dyads above the cutoff value was at least 20 times higher than expected in a randomly mating population with temporal sampling, also when introducing population structure in the simulations. We conclude that the results must reflect social structure in the moa population and we discuss the implications for future aDNA research. PMID:26039408

  6. Ancient DNA microsatellite analyses of the extinct New Zealand giant moa (Dinornis robustus) identify relatives within a single fossil site.

    PubMed

    Allentoft, M E; Heller, R; Holdaway, R N; Bunce, M

    2015-12-01

    By analysing ancient DNA (aDNA) from 74 (14)C-dated individuals of the extinct South Island giant moa (Dinornis robustus) of New Zealand, we identified four dyads of closely related adult females. Although our total sample included bones from four fossil deposits located within a 10 km radius, these eight individuals had all been excavated from the same locality. Indications of kinship were based on high pairwise genetic relatedness (rXY) in six microsatellite markers genotyped from aDNA, coupled with overlapping radiocarbon ages. The observed rXY values in the four dyads exceeded a conservative cutoff value for potential relatives obtained from simulated data. In three of the four dyads, the kinship was further supported by observing shared and rare mitochondrial haplotypes. Simulations demonstrated that the proportion of observed dyads above the cutoff value was at least 20 times higher than expected in a randomly mating population with temporal sampling, also when introducing population structure in the simulations. We conclude that the results must reflect social structure in the moa population and we discuss the implications for future aDNA research.

  7. Testicular Ectopia in the Anterior Abdominal Wall of a Neonate: A Rare Site of Ectopic Testis

    PubMed Central

    Siddiqui, Salman Atiq; Marei, Tamer Ibrahim; Al-Makhaita, Ghada

    2016-01-01

    Patient: Male, 3-day Final Diagnosis: Ectopic right testis in anterior abdominal wall Symptoms: — Medication: — Clinical Procedure: Testicular ultrasound and MRI abdomen Specialty: Radiology Objective: Unusual clinical course Background: Abnormal testicular descent can either be undescended or, less commonly, ectopic. Most undescended testes complete the course of descent by the first year of life only if these remain in the normal path of descent. The deviation of the testis may occur to an ectopic location during the transinguinal phase. Of the known ectopic sites, the anterior abdominal wall is the rarest site of testicular ectopia and to our knowledge only 3 cases of this nature have been reported in the available literature to date. Case Report: This rare case of testicular ectopia occurred in a 3-day-old boy in whom the right scrotal sac was empty; on abdominal ultrasound, the right testis was found in the subcutaneous tissues of the right antero-lateral abdominal wall. These findings were confirmed on abdominal MRI, where the right testis was seen beneath the skin between the subcutaneous tissues and external oblique aponeurosis. No aponeurotic or muscular defect was appreciable under the abdominal wall. The neonate underwent orchiopexy at the age of 6 months and remained uneventful postoperatively. Conclusions: Preoperative imaging is recommended to detect and confirm the ectopic site as well as the morphology of testis, thereby increasing the chance of surveillance and preservation of an ectopic testis. Imaging can serve as preoperative road mapping to localize the exact site for surgical exploration of an ectopic testis if there is no apparent or palpable swelling over the anterior abdominal wall. PMID:27411886

  8. Giant Cell Tumor: A Rare Condition in the Immature Skeleton—A Retrospective Study of Symptoms, Treatment, and Outcome in 16 Children

    PubMed Central

    Skeie, Anette Torød; Lobmaier, Ingvild Koren; Zaikova, Olga

    2016-01-01

    Background. Pediatric giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is rare and the course of the disease in the immature skeleton is sparsely described. We performed a retrospective study addressing symptoms, treatment, and outcome in children with GCT. Methods. Review of medical records and images of patients with GCT. Patients were detected from our hospital prospective database and those with open epiphyseal cartilages were included. Results. 16 children (75% girls) from 6 to 15 years old were identified. Eight lesions (50%) were in long bones and 4 (25%) in flat bones. One lesion appeared to be purely epiphyseal. All patients had pain as the initial symptom. Local recurrence developed in 2 patients. 14 of 16 patients returned to normal activity with no sequelae. One patient developed anisomelia after surgery. Conclusions. The biological tumor behavior in children does not seem to differ from what is reported in adults. Lesions in flat bones are very unusual, but our data alone do not provide enough evidence to conclude that this is more common in the immature skeleton. Literature review showed only one previous case report describing a purely epiphyseal GCT. Intralesional curettage is appropriate treatment and gives good functional results with acceptable recurrence rates. PMID:27999474

  9. Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath with simultaneous two tendon involvement of the foot treated with excision of the tumour and reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum using tibialis posterior tendon in a paediatric patient: A rare case report.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vivek; Ansari, Tahir; Mittal, Samarth; Sharma, Pankaj; Nalwa, Aasma

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumour of tendon sheath is a benign soft tissue tumour arising from the tendon sheath. The involvement of foot and ankle by such tumours is relatively rare. Children are not commonly afflicted by this condition. All such tumours are reported to arise either from a single tendon sheath or one joint. We report a case of giant cell tumour of tendon sheath in a 12-year-old child, arising simultaneously from the tendon sheaths of tibialis posterior and flexor digitorum longus tendons, as well as extending into the ankle joint. It was treated by complete excision of the mass along with the tendon sheaths with reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum. The location of the tumour, age of the patient, diffuse nature of the tumour and novel technique of reconstruction of the flexor retinaculum make this case extremely rare and the first to be reported in literature.

  10. Management of Giant cell tumor occupying the 5th metacarpal bone in 6 years old child.

    PubMed

    Al Lahham, Salim; Al Hetmi, Talal; Sharkawy, Mahmoud

    2013-01-01

    Giant cell tumor of the bone (GCTOB) is a relatively uncommon tumor of the bone. It is characterized by the presence of multinucleated giant cells. Giant-cell tumor of the bone accounts for 4-5% of primary bone tumors and ∼20% of benign bone tumors. Giant cell tumors of the hand are rare, accounting for only 2-4% of all giant cell tumors. Giant cell tumor (GCT) of the bones of the hand has some special features as compared to GCT at other sites. Because of the aggressive nature of this lesion, adequate assessment of the treatment method is required. The aim is to eradicate the disease but preserve as much hand function as possible. Methods of treatment include curettage with or without bone grafts, local resection possibly combined with reconstruction using homologous or autologous bone, amputation, and resection of one or more rays.

  11. Geochemistry of the rare earth elements in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A, northern equatorial Pacific

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Calvert, S.E.; Piper, D.Z.; Baedecker, P.A.

    1987-01-01

    The distribution of rare earth elements (REE) in ferromanganese nodules from DOMES Site A has been determined by instrumental neutron activation methods. The concentrations of the REE vary markedly. Low concentrations characterize samples from a depression (the valley), in which Quaternary sediments are thin or absent; high concentrations are found in samples from the surrounding abyssal hills (the highlands) where the Quaternary sediment section is relatively thick. Moreover, the valley nodules are strongly depleted in the light trivalent REE (LREE) and Ce compared with nodules from the highlands, some of the former showing negative Ce anomalies. The REE abundances in the nodules are strongly influenced by the REE abundances in coexisting bottom water. Some controls on the REE chemistry of bottom waters include: a) the more effective removal of the LREE relative to the HREE from seawater because of the greater degree of complexation of the latter elements with seawater ligands, b) the very efficient oxidative scavenging of Ce on particle surfaces in seawater, and c) the strong depletion of both Ce and the LREE in, or a larger benthic flux of the HREE into, the Antarctic Bottom Water (AABW) which flows through the valley. The distinctive REE chemistry of valley nodules is a function of their growth from geochemically evolved AABW. In contrast, the REE chemistry of highland nodules indicates growth from a local, less evolved seawater source. ?? 1987.

  12. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume I

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    The environmental impacts associated with remedial actions in connection with residual radioactive materials remaining at the inactive uranium processing site located in Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania are evaluated. The Canonsburg site is an 18.5-acre property that was formerly owned by the Vitro Rare Metals Company. The expanded Canonsburg site would be 30-acre property that would include the Canonsburg site (the former Vitro Rare Metals plant), seven adjacent private houses, and the former Georges Pottery property. During the period 1942 through 1957 the Vitro Manufacturing Company and its successor, the Vitro Corporation of America, processed onsite residues and ores, and government-owned ores, concentrates, and scraps to extract uranium and other rare metals. The Canonsburg site is now the Canon Industrial Park. In addition to storing the residual radioactive materials of this process at the Canonsburg site, about 12,000 tons of radioactively contaminated materials were transferred to a railroad landfill in Burrell Township, Indiana County, Pennsylvania. This Canonsburg FEIS evaluates five alternatives for removing the potential public health hazard associated with the radioactively contaminated materials. In addition to no action, these alternatives involve various combinations of stabilization of the radioactively contaminated materials in place or decontamination of the Canonsburg and Burrell sites by removing the radioactively contaminated materials to another location. In addition to the two sites mentioned, a third site located in Hanover Township, Washington County, Pennsylvania has been considered as a disposal site to which the radioactively contaminated materials presently located at either of the other two sites might be moved.

  13. Rare Sites of Metastases in Prostate Cancer Detected on Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT Scan—A Case Series

    PubMed Central

    Dureja, Sugandha; Thakral, Parul; Pant, Vineet; Sen, Ishita

    2017-01-01

    Ga-68 labeled prostate-specific membrane antigen (PSMA) whole body PET/CT scan is a novel upcoming modality for the evaluation of prostate cancer. We present three cases of prostate cancer showing rare sites of metastases like brain, penis, and liver detected on Ga-68 PSMA PET/CT scan thus emphasizing its role in lesion detection and staging. PMID:28242977

  14. The Link between Rare-Earth Peak Formation and the Astrophysical Site of the R Process

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mumpower, Matthew R.; McLaughlin, Gail C.; Surman, Rebecca; Steiner, Andrew W.

    2016-12-01

    The primary astrophysical source of the rare-earth elements is the rapid neutron capture process (r process). The rare-earth peak that is seen in the solar r-process residuals has been proposed to originate as a pile-up of nuclei during the end of the r process. We introduce a new method utilizing Monte Carlo studies of nuclear masses in the rare-earth region, that includes self-consistently adjusting β-decay rates and neutron capture rates, to find the mass surfaces necessary for the formation of the rare-earth peak. We demonstrate our method with two types of astrophysical scenario, one corresponding to conditions typical of hot winds from core-collapse supernovae and stellar-mass accretion disks, and one corresponding to conditions typical of the ejection of the material from the tidal tails of neutron star mergers. In each type of astrophysical condition, this method successfully locates a region of enhanced stability in the mass surface that is responsible for the rare-earth peak. For each scenario, we find that the change in the mass surface has qualitatively different features, thus future measurements can shed light on the type of environment in which the r process occurred.

  15. A preliminary investigation of the variables affecting the distribution of giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Skalos, Shannon M.; Casazza, Michael L.; Wylie, Glenn D.

    2015-09-30

    Giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) comprise a species of rare, semi-aquatic snake precinctive to the Central Valley of California. Because of the loss of more than 90% of their natural habitat, giant gartersnakes are listed as Threatened by the United States and California endangered species acts. Little is known, however, about the distribution of giant gartersnakes in the Sacramento Valley, which is where most extant populations occur. We conducted detection-nondetection surveys for giant gartersnakes throughout the rice-growing regions of the Sacramento Valley, and used occupancy models to examine evidence for the effects of landscape-scale GIS-derived variables, local habitat and vegetation composition, and prey communities on patterns of giant gartersnake occurrence. Although our results are based on a relatively small sample of sites, we found that distance to historic marsh, relative fish count, and an interaction of distance to historic marsh with proportion of habitat composed of submerged vegetation were important variables for explaining occupancy of giant gartersnakes. In particular, giant gartersnakes were more likely to occur closer to historic marsh and where relatively fewer fish were captured in traps. At locations in or near historic marsh, giant gartersnakes were more likely to occur in areas with less submerged vegetation, but this relationship was reversed (and more uncertain) at sites distant from historic marsh. Additional research with a larger sample of sites would further elucidate the distribution of giant gartersnakes in the Sacramento Valley.

  16. Response of rare, common and abundant bacterioplankton to anthropogenic perturbations in a Mediterranean coastal site.

    PubMed

    Baltar, Federico; Palovaara, Joakim; Vila-Costa, Maria; Salazar, Guillem; Calvo, Eva; Pelejero, Carles; Marrasé, Cèlia; Gasol, Josep M; Pinhassi, Jarone

    2015-06-01

    Bacterioplankton communities are made up of a small set of abundant taxa and a large number of low-abundant organisms (i.e. 'rare biosphere'). Despite the critical role played by bacteria in marine ecosystems, it remains unknown how this large diversity of organisms are affected by human-induced perturbations, or what controls the responsiveness of rare compared to abundant bacteria. We studied the response of a Mediterranean bacterioplankton community to two anthropogenic perturbations (i.e. nutrient enrichment and/or acidification) in two mesocosm experiments (in winter and summer). Nutrient enrichment increased the relative abundance of some operational taxonomic units (OTUs), e.g. Polaribacter, Tenacibaculum, Rhodobacteraceae and caused a relative decrease in others (e.g. Croceibacter). Interestingly, a synergistic effect of acidification and nutrient enrichment was observed on specific OTUs (e.g. SAR86). We analyzed the OTUs that became abundant at the end of the experiments and whether they belonged to the rare (<0.1% of relative abundance), the common (0.1-1.0% of relative abundance) or the abundant (>1% relative abundance) fractions. Most of the abundant OTUs at the end of the experiments were abundant, or at least common, in the original community of both experiments, suggesting that ecosystem alterations do not necessarily call for rare members to grow.

  17. A UNIFORM ANALYSIS OF 118 STARS WITH HIGH-CONTRAST IMAGING: LONG-PERIOD EXTRASOLAR GIANT PLANETS ARE RARE AROUND SUN-LIKE STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Nielsen, Eric L.; Close, Laird M.

    2010-07-10

    We expand on the results of Nielsen et al., using the null result for giant extrasolar planets around the 118 target stars from the Very Large Telescope (VLT) NACO H- and Ks-band planet search (conducted by Masciadri and collaborators in 2003 and 2004), the VLT and MMT Simultaneous Differential Imager survey, and the Gemini Deep Planet Survey to set constraints on the population of giant extrasolar planets. Our analysis is extended to include the planet luminosity models of Fortney et al., as well as the correlation between stellar mass and frequency of giant planets found by Johnson et al. Doubling the sample size of FGKM stars strengthens our conclusions: a model for extrasolar giant planets with power laws for mass and semimajor axis as given by Cumming et al. cannot, with 95% confidence, have planets beyond 65 AU, compared to the value of 94 AU reported by Nielsen et al., using the models of Baraffe et al. When the Johnson et al. correction for stellar mass (which gives fewer Jupiter-mass companions to M stars with respect to solar-type stars) is applied, however, this limit moves out to 82 AU. For the relatively new Fortney et al. models, which predict fainter planets across most of parameter space, these upper limits, with and without a correction for stellar mass, are 182 and 234 AU, respectively.

  18. Terrestrial ecology of semi-aquatic giant gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas)

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Skalos, Shannon M.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2015-01-01

    Wetlands are a vital component of habitat for semiaquatic herpetofauna, but for most species adjacent terrestrial habitats are also essential. We examined the use of terrestrial environments by Giant Gartersnakes (Thamnophis gigas) to provide behavioral information relevant to conservation of this state and federally listed threatened species. We used radio telemetry data collected 1995–2011 from adults at several sites throughout the Sacramento Valley, California, USA, to examine Giant Gartersnake use of the terrestrial environment. We found Giant Gartersnakes in terrestrial environments more than half the time during the summer, with the use of terrestrial habitats increasing to nearly 100% during brumation. While in terrestrial habitats, we found Giant Gartersnakes underground more than half the time in the early afternoon during summer, and the probability of being underground increased to nearly 100% of the time at all hours during brumation. Extreme temperatures also increased the probability that we would find Giant Gartersnakes underground. Under most conditions, we found Giant Gartersnakes to be within 10 m of water at 95% of observations. For females during brumation and individuals that we found underground, however, the average individual had a 10% probability of being located > 20 m from water. Individual variation in each of the response variables was extensive; therefore, predicting the behavior of an individual was fraught with uncertainty. Nonetheless, our estimates provide resource managers with valuable information about the importance of protecting and carefully managing terrestrial habitats for conserving a rare semiaquatic snake.

  19. Unusual site and uncommon presentation of epidermoid cyst: a rare case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Sahoo, Manash Ranjan; Gowda, Manoj S; Behera, Syam Sundar

    2013-01-01

    Epidermoid cyst of gastrointestinal tract is very rare, and only a few cases of epidermoid cyst of the caecum have been reported in the literature. We report the first case of epidermoid cyst of the caecum in an elderly man, mimicking mesenteric cyst clinically. It was treated by laparoscopic excision of the cyst. The cyst was spherical, extending from and expanding the serosal surface of the caecum with no communication through the muscularis wall. Histologically, the inner lining of the cyst was composed of benign, mature, keratinised and stratified squamous epithelium with a well-formed granular layer. On opening, the cyst contained pultaceous cheesy material. No calcification, hair, teeth or bone elements were detected. PMID:23302551

  20. Rare Site of Ectopic Pregnancy in a Patient with Bicornuate Uterus

    PubMed Central

    El Namoury, Mohamed; Heider, Mostafa

    2016-01-01

    Ectopic pregnancy occurs in about 1-2% in normal cycles but in IVF cycles the rate jumps to 4%. No definite cause for ectopic pregnancy was detected, but many risk factors were described as abnormal tube, pelvic infection, or surgery. In this case report we found 2 abnormalities in eight-year infertile woman; the first abnormality was bicornuate uterus and the second abnormality was the site of ectopic pregnancy which was in between the two horns of uterus. ‎This is the only case reported with primary abdominal pregnancy with bicornuate uterus and both healthy ovaries and tubes.‎ The case was unstable and managed by laparotomy and repair of ectopic site after enucleation of sac using Vicryl 2/0. The case was discharged 24 hours after operation in good health. PMID:28042488

  1. Local A-Site Layering in Rare-Earth Orthochromite Perovskites by Solution Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Daniels, Luke M; Kashtiban, Reza J; Kepaptsoglou, Demie; Ramasse, Quentin M; Sloan, Jeremy; Walton, Richard I

    2016-12-19

    Cation size effects were examined in the mixed A-site perovskites La0.5 Sm0.5 CrO3 and La0.5 Tb0.5 CrO3 prepared through both hydrothermal and solid-state methods. Atomically resolved electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS) in the transmission electron microscope shows that while the La and Sm cations are randomly distributed, increased cation-radius variance in La0.5 Tb0.5 CrO3 results in regions of localised La and Tb layers, an atomic arrangement exclusive to the hydrothermally prepared material. Solid-state preparation gives lower homogeneity resulting in separate nanoscale regions rich in La(3+) and Tb(3+) . The A-site layering in hydrothermal La0.5 Tb0.5 CrO3 is randomised upon annealing at high temperature, resulting in magnetic behaviour that is dependent on synthesis route.

  2. Primary structure of a constituent polypeptide chain (AIII) of the giant haemoglobin from the deep-sea tube worm Lamellibrachia. A possible H2S-binding site.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, T; Takagi, T; Ohta, S

    1990-02-15

    The deep-sea tube worm Lamellibrachia, belonging to the Phylum Vestimentifera, contains two giant extracellular haemoglobins, a 3000 kDa haemoglobin and a 440 kDa haemoglobin. The former consists of four haem-containing chains (AI-AIV) and two linker chains (AV and AVI) for the assembly of the haem-containing chains [Suzuki, Takagi & Ohta (1988) Biochem. J. 255, 541-545]. The tube-worm haemoglobins are believed to have a function of transporting sulphide (H2S) to internal bacterial symbionts, as well as of facilitating O2 transport [Arp & Childress (1983) Science 219, 295-297]. We have determined the complete amino acid sequence of Lamellibrachia chain AIII by automated or manual Edman sequencing. The chain is composed of 144 amino acid residues, has three cysteine residues at positions 3, 74 and 133, and has a molecular mass of 16,620 Da, including a haem group. The sequence showed significant homology (30-50% identity) with those of haem-containing chains of annelid giant haemoglobins. Two of the three cysteine residues are located at the positions where an intrachain disulphide bridge is formed in all annelid chains, but the remaining one (Cys-74) was located at a unique position, compared with annelid chains. Since the chain AIII was shown to have a reactive thiol group in the intact 3000 kDa molecule by preliminary experiments, the cysteine residue at position 74 appears to be one of the most probable candidates for the sulphide-binding sites. A phylogenetic tree was constructed from nine chains of annelid giant haemoglobins and one chain of vestimentiferan tube-worm haemoglobin now determined. The tree clearly showed that Lamellibrachia chain AIII belongs to the family of strain A of annelid giant haemoglobins, and that the two classes of Annelida, polychaete and oligochaete, and the vestimentiferan tube worm diverged at almost the same time. H.p.l.c. patterns of peptides (Figs. 4-7), amino acid compositions of peptides (Table 2) and amino acid sequences of

  3. A conceptual model for site-level ecology of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley, California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.; Hansen, Eric C.; Scherer, Rick D.; Patterson, Laura C.

    2015-08-14

    Bayesian networks further provide a clear visual display of the model that facilitates understanding among various stakeholders (Marcot and others, 2001; Uusitalo , 2007). Empirical data and expert judgment can be combined, as continuous or categorical variables, to update knowledge about the system (Marcot and others, 2001; Uusitalo , 2007). Importantly, Bayesian network models allow inference from causes to consequences, but also from consequences to causes, so that data can inform the states of nodes (values of different random variables) in either direction (Marcot and others, 2001; Uusitalo , 2007). Because they can incorporate both decision nodes that represent management actions and utility nodes that quantify the costs and benefits of outcomes, Bayesian networks are ideally suited to risk analysis and adaptive management (Nyberg and others, 2006; Howes and others, 2010). Thus, Bayesian network models are useful in situations where empirical data are not available, such as questions concerning the responses of giant gartersnakes to management.

  4. Giant invasive mole presenting as a cause of abdominopelvic mass in a perimenopausal woman: An unusual presentation of a rare pathology

    PubMed Central

    Şimşek, Memet; Üçer, Özlem

    2016-01-01

    Invasive mole is a benign gestational trophoblastic disease that arises from the myometrial invasion of any gestational event via direct extension through tissue or vascular structures. Invasive mole (and other gestational trophoblastic diseases) may present with life-threatening complications including uterine perforation, excessive bleeding, acute hemoperitoneum, and abdominal pain. We report a case of invasive mole presenting as abdominal distention in a 51-year-old perimenopausal woman (gravida 12, para 12, abortion 0). The patient was admitted to the gynecology clinic with a giant uterine mass filling the pelvic and abdominal cavity. To our knowledge, this is the first case in the literature of a gestational trophoblastic neoplasia presenting with uterine mass of 28 weeks' gestational size in this age group. Interestingly, complications such as uterine rupture or invasion of the adjacent structures (such as parametrial tissues or blood vessels) had not developed in our patient despite the considerable enlargement of the uterus. PMID:27896261

  5. Electronic and geometric structure of doped rare-gas clusters: surface, site and size effects studied with luminescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    von Pietrowski, R.; von Haeften, K.; Laarmann, T.; Möller, T.; Museur, L.; Kanaev, A. V.

    2006-05-01

    The electronic and geometric structure of rare gas clusters doped with rare-gas atoms Rg = Xe, Kr or Ar is investigated with fluorescence excitation spectroscopy in the VUV spectral range. Several absorption bands are observed in the region of the first electronic excitations of the impurity atoms, which are related to the lowest spin-orbit split atomic 3P1 and 1P1 states. Due to influence of surrounding atoms of the cluster, the atomic lines are shifted to the blue and broadened (“electronical cage effect”). From the known interaction potentials and the measured spectral shifts the coordination of the impurity atom in ArN, KrN, NeN and HeN could be studied in great detail. In the interior of KrN and ArN the Xe atoms are located in substitutional sites with 12 nearest neighbours and internuclear distances comparable to that of the host matrix. In NeN and HeN the cluster atoms (18 and 22, respectively) arrange themselves around the Xe impurity with a bondlength comparable to that of the heteronuclear dimer. The results confirm that He clusters are liquid while Ne clusters are solid for N≥ 300. Smaller Ne clusters exhibit a liquid like behaviour. When doping is strong, small Rgm-clusters (Rg = Xe, Kr, Ar, m≤10 2) are formed in the interior sites of the host cluster made of Ne or He. Specific electronically excited states, assigned to interface excitons are observed. Their absorption bands appear and shift towards lower energy when the cluster size m increases, according to the Frenkel exciton model. The characteristic bulk excitons appear in the spectra, only when the cluster radius exceeds the penetration depth of the interface exciton, which can be considerably larger than that in free Rgm clusters. This effect is sensitive to electron affinities of the guest and the host cluster.

  6. Lichens On Galapagos Giant Tortoises.

    PubMed

    Hendrickson, J R; Weber, W A

    1964-06-19

    The association of Physcia picta with the giant Galdpagos tortoise is believed to be the first reported occurrence of lichens on land animals. The habitat is restricted to specific sites on the carapace of male tortoises.

  7. A 4-month-old baby presenting with dermal necrotizing granulomatous giant cell reaction at the injection site of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Adjuvants (for example, aluminum salts) are frequently incorporated in licensed vaccines to enhance the host immune response. Such vaccines include the pneumococcal conjugate, combinations of diphtheria–tetanus/acellular pertussis, tetanus– diphtheria/acellular pertussis, hepatitis B, some Haemophilus influenzae type b, hepatitis A, and human papillomavirus. These preparations have been associated with complicated local adverse events, especially if administered subcutaneously or intradermally in comparison to deep intramuscular injection. We describe a severe inflammatory reaction at the site of an injection of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Case presentation A 4-month-old Arab baby boy developed dermal necrotizing granulomatous giant cell reaction at the injection site (right anterior thigh) of the second dose of 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Ziehl–Neelsen and periodic-acid Schiff were negative. This reaction probably resulted from improper intramuscular administration because the first (at 2 months of age) and third (at 10 months of age) doses were uneventful. Conclusions Dermal necrotizing granulomatous reactions are a serious complication of the 13-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine. Health care providers need to administer this preparation deeply into a muscle mass. Completing the vaccine series is an acceptable option. Physicians are encouraged to report their experience with completing vaccine series following adverse events. PMID:25152179

  8. Metamagnetism and giant magnetoresistance of the rare-earth intermetallic compounds R2Ni2Pb (R=Er,Ho,Dy)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chinchure, Aravind D.; Muñoz Sandoval, E.; Mydosh, J. A.

    2002-07-01

    We have measured the magnetization and magnetoresistance for a series of rare-earth (R=Er,Ho,Dy) plumbide intermetallic compounds, R2Ni2Pb. These materials form in an unusual orthorhombic structure with space group Cmmm. After multiple magnetic transitions, the ground state exhibits a steplike series of large-moment metamagnetic transitions in low fields (1-2 T) concomitant with switchinglike properties of the magnetoresistance where sharp changes of up to 30% are found. We relate these properties to the layered magnetic structure of the compound.

  9. Rare earth elements of seep carbonates: Indication for redox variations and microbiological processes at modern seep sites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Feng, Dong; Lin, Zhijia; Bian, Youyan; Chen, Duofu; Peckmann, Jörn; Bohrmann, Gerhard; Roberts, Harry H.

    2013-03-01

    At marine seeps, methane is microbially oxidized resulting in the precipitation of carbonates close to the seafloor. Methane oxidation leads to sulfate depletion in sediment pore water, which induces a change in redox conditions. Rare earth element (REE) patterns of authigenic carbonate phases collected from modern seeps of the Gulf of Mexico, the Black Sea, and the Congo Fan were analyzed. Different carbonate minerals including aragonite and calcite with different crystal habits have been selected for analysis. Total REE content (ΣREE) of seep carbonates varies widely, from 0.1 ppm to 42.5 ppm, but a common trend is that the ΣREE in microcrystalline phases is higher than that of the associated later phases including micospar, sparite and blocky cement, suggesting that ΣREE may be a function of diagenesis. The shale-normalized REE patterns of the seep carbonates often show different Ce anomalies even in samples from a specific site, suggesting that the formation conditions of seep carbonates are variable and complex. Overall, our results show that apart from anoxic, oxic conditions are at least temporarily common in seep environments.

  10. Epithelioid osteoblastoma of maxilla: A rare and aggressive variant of a benign neoplasm at an uncommon site

    PubMed Central

    Rana, Vandana; Saxena, Vivek; Sahai, Kavita; Singh, Giriraj

    2016-01-01

    Osteoblastoma (OB) is an uncommon benign bone-forming tumor accounting for <1% of all bone neoplasms. Unlike conventional OB, its small subset variant “Epithelioid osteoblastoma (EO)” is characterized by its propensity for local invasion and recurrent behavior. This rare variant of an uncommon tumor when occurs in an atypical site can lead to diagnostic problems more so due to ambiguous clinico-radiologic presentation. This was what faced in the present case of 18-year-old female with a swelling in upper jaw. OB is usually more common in males and involves primarily the posterior element of the spine and the sacrum (40–55%). Less frequently, long bones of limbs are involved. Clinical, radiological and histopathological correlation in this case guided us to reach at right diagnosis of EO which helped the patient in getting correct treatment which involves surgical excision over conventional curettage. The purpose behind this case presentation is to improve the awareness about this recurrent tumor variant which has many close differentials including well-differentiated osteoblastic osteosarcoma. PMID:27601840

  11. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE.

    PubMed

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2009-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection.

  12. SYNOVIAL GIANT CELL TUMOR OF THE KNEE

    PubMed Central

    Abdalla, Rene Jorge; Cohen, Moisés; Nóbrega, Jezimar; Forgas, Andrea

    2015-01-01

    Synovial giant cell tumor is a benign neoplasm, rarely reported in the form of malignant metastasis. Synovial giant cell tumor most frequently occurs on the hand, and, most uncommon, on the ankle and knee. In the present study, the authors describe a rare case of synovial giant cell tumor on the knee as well as the treatment approach. Arthroscopy has been shown, in this case, to be the optimal method for treating this kind of lesion, once it allowed a less aggressive approach, while providing good visualization of all compartments of knee joint and full tumor resection. PMID:27004193

  13. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2013-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere {10^20 J}.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  14. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2014-10-01

    The 2009 impact and recent superbolides on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution (enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection) and rapid frame rates (enabling the 2010/2012 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements).We propose a ToO program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere (10^20 J).HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing (not achievable from the ground) is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  15. Giant impacts on giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    de Pater, Imke

    2012-10-01

    The 2009 impact on Jupiter caught the world by surprise and cast doubt on impactor flux estimates for the outer solar system. Enhanced amateur planetary imaging techniques yield both high spatial resolution {enabling the 2009 impact debris field detection} and rapid frame rates {enabling the 2010 impact flash detections and lightcurve measurements}.We propose a Target of Opportunity program to image future impacts on Jupiter and Saturn. To remove the possibility of impact cloud non-detections, the program will be triggered only if an existing impact debris field is seen, an object on a collision course with Jupiter or Saturn is discovered, or an impact light curve is measured with an estimated total energy large enough to generate an impact cloud in a giant planet atmosphere.HST provides the only way to image these events in the ultraviolet, providing information on aerosol altitudes and on smaller particles that are less visible to ground-based infrared observations. High-resolution imaging with proper timing {not achievable from the ground} is required to measure precisely both the velocity fields of impact sites and the optical spectrum of impact debris. HST observations of past impacts on Jupiter have also served both as cornerstones of science investigations at other wavelengths and as vehicles for effective public outreach.Large outer solar system impacts are governed by the same physics as in the terrestrial events that dominate the impact threat to humans. Studying the behavior of impactors of various sizes and compositions, as they enter the atmosphere at varying angles and speeds, will better quantify terrestrial impact hazards.

  16. Evaluation of microorganisms cultured from injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites in endangered giant aquatic Ozark Hellbender salamanders.

    PubMed

    Nickerson, Cheryl A; Ott, C Mark; Castro, Sarah L; Garcia, Veronica M; Molina, Thomas C; Briggler, Jeffrey T; Pitt, Amber L; Tavano, Joseph J; Byram, J Kelly; Barrila, Jennifer; Nickerson, Max A

    2011-01-01

    Investigation into the causes underlying the rapid, global amphibian decline provides critical insight into the effects of changing ecosystems. Hypothesized and confirmed links between amphibian declines, disease, and environmental changes are increasingly represented in published literature. However, there are few long-term amphibian studies that include data on population size, abnormality/injury rates, disease, and habitat variables to adequately assess changes through time. We cultured and identified microorganisms isolated from abnormal/injured and repressed tissue regeneration sites of the endangered Ozark Hellbender, Cryptobranchus alleganiensis bishopi, to discover potential causative agents responsible for their significant decline in health and population. This organism and our study site were chosen because the population and habitat of C. a. bishopi have been intensively studied from 1969-2009, and the abnormality/injury rate and apparent lack of regeneration were established. Although many bacterial and fungal isolates recovered were common environmental organisms, several opportunistic pathogens were identified in association with only the injured tissues of C.a. bishopi. Bacterial isolates included Aeromonas hydrophila, a known amphibian pathogen, Granulicetella adiacens, Gordonai terrae, Stenotrophomonas maltophilia, Aerococcus viridans, Streptococcus pneumoniae and a variety of Pseudomonads, including Pseudomonas aeruginosa, P. stutzeri, and P. alcaligenes. Fungal isolates included species in the genera Penicillium, Acremonium, Cladosporium, Curvularia, Fusarium, Streptomycetes, and the Class Hyphomycetes. Many of the opportunistic pathogens identified are known to form biofilms. Lack of isolation of the same organism from all wounds suggests that the etiological agent responsible for the damage to C. a. bishopi may not be a single organism. To our knowledge, this is the first study to profile the external microbial consortia cultured from a

  17. A Giant Urethral Calculus.

    PubMed

    Sigdel, G; Agarwal, A; Keshaw, B W

    2014-01-01

    Urethral calculi are rare forms of urolithiasis. Majority of the calculi are migratory from urinary bladder or upper urinary tract. Primary urethral calculi usually occur in presence of urethral stricture or diverticulum. In this article we report a case of a giant posterior urethral calculus measuring 7x3x2 cm in a 47 years old male. Patient presented with acute retention of urine which was preceded by burning micturition and dribbling of urine for one week. The calculus was pushed in to the bladder through the cystoscope and was removed by suprapubic cystolithotomy.

  18. Giant left ventricular pseudoaneurysm.

    PubMed

    Prakash, Sumi; Garg, Nadish; Xie, Gong-Yuan; Dellsperger, Kevin C

    2010-01-01

    Left ventricular (LV) pseudoaneurysm (PS) is an uncommon, often fatal complication associated with myocardial infarction, cardiothoracic surgery, trauma, and, rarely, infective endocarditis. A 28-year-old man with prior history of bioprosthetic mitral valve replacement presented with congestive heart failure and bacteremia with Abiotrophia granulitica. Transesophageal echocardiogram showed bioprosthesis dysfunction, large vegetations, mitral regurgitation, and probable PS. Cardiac and chest CT confirmed a PS communicating with the left ventricle Patient had pulseless electrical activity and died. Autopsy showed a giant PS with layered thrombus and pseudo-endothelialized cavity. Our case highlights the importance of multimodality imaging as an important tool in management of PS.

  19. Giant Fecaloma Causing Small Bowel Obstruction: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Mushtaq, Mosin; Shah, Mubashir A; Malik, Aijaz A; Wani, Khurshid A; Thakur, Natasha; Q Parray, Fazl

    2015-04-01

    Fecaloma is a mass of hardened feces being impacted mostly in rectum and sigmoid. The most common sites of the fecaloma is the sigmoid colon and the rectum. There are several causes of fecaloma and have been described in association with Hirschsprung's disease, psychiatric patients, Chagas disease, both inflammatory and neoplastic, and in patients suffering with chronic constipation. Up to now several cases of giant fecaloma has been reported in the literature most of them presenting with megacolon or urinary retention. We herein report a case of giant fecaloma leading to bowel obstruction who was successfully treated by surgery. A 30-yrar-old man presented with sign and symptoms of acute bowel obstruction. He underwent exploratory laparotomy and enterotomy. He was found to have a giant fecaloma causing bowel obstruction in the jejunum. He was discharged after the operation with good condition. Jejunal fecaloma is extremely rare condition.

  20. Multidisciplinary approach to giant paratesticular liposarcoma

    PubMed Central

    Sopeña-Sutil, Raquel; Silan, Francesco; Butron-Vila, Maria Teresa; Guerrero-Ramos, Felix; Lagaron-Comba, Emilio; Passas-Martinez, Juan

    2016-01-01

    Primary paratesticular tumours are very rare and the spermatic cord (SCT) is the most frequent site of origin, with 20% of malignancy. Although liposarcoma is the most frequent histotype (46.6 %), less than 200 cases have been reported in the literature. We report the case of a 56-year-old man who presented a giant scrotal mass of 25 years of evolution and measuring 40 × 40 cm. It could be considered the greatest paratesticular liposarcoma described to date. Computed tomogaphy (CT) revealed mass features consistent with liposarcoma and the simultaneous presence of bilateral inguinal hernia with bladder involvement. A multidisciplinary approach was taken to remove the mass, solve the hernia, and provide functional results. PMID:27695588

  1. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify preferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Van Pelt, R.; Zobeck, T. M.; Barnes, M. A.; Baddock, M.; D'Odorico, P.

    2011-12-01

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. Nutrient islands develop below shrub canopies and in the bases of bunch grasses that enhance plant growth and reinforce the spatial anisotropy. Catastrophic disturbance that removes the vegetation such as fire or drought can result in the release of the trapped sediment which becomes redistributed over the landscape by wind and water. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem at the Sevilleta National Wildlife Refuge in central New Mexico in an effort to study this process. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of desert grassland and three plots of desert grassland-shrubland ecotone. Nitric acid was used to dissolve the REE oxides (Eu2O3, Dy2O3, and Pr6O11) which were then diluted in distilled water to a target concentration of 1 g REE l-1 and applied to the surface at a rate of 4 l m-2. From laboratory column studies using soil collected at the site, we estimated that this would penetrate the surface to a depth of 2.5 cm resulting in a sediment REE concentration of approximately 100 mg kg-1. Eu was applied to bare surfaces between vegetation characterized as sand with a surface covering of gravel, Pr was applied under grass clumps, and Dy was applied under Creosote Bush (Larrea tridentata (DC.). Two replicate 0.25 m2 areas of each surface type were also tagged to obtain a sample of tagged surface sediment for analysis. The area containing the plots was burned by U.S. Fish and Wildlife personnel on April 14, 2010. During the next two days, two grassland plots and two grassland-shrubland ecotone plots were tested by placing a portable boundary layer field wind tunnel over the plots and blowing them with 12 m s-1 wind for 10 minutes during which time a paired set of entrained sediment samples were captured at the outlet of the wind tunnel. This period was followed by a 30 minute test in which clean quartz sand

  2. Giant Intradiverticular Bladder Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Noh, Mohamad Syafeeq Faeez Md; Aziz, Ahmad Fuad Abdul; Ghani, Khairul Asri Mohd; Siang, Christopher Lee Kheng; Yunus, Rosna; Yusof, Mubarak Mohd

    2017-01-01

    Patient: Male, 74 Final Diagnosis: Giant intradiverticular bladder tumor with metastasis Symptoms: Hematuria Medication:— Clinical Procedure: — Specialty: Urology Objective: Rare disease Background: Intradiverticular bladder tumors are rare. This renders diagnosis of an intradiverticular bladder tumor difficult. Imaging plays a vital role in achieving the diagnosis, and subsequently staging of the disease. Case Report: A 74-year-old male presented to our center with a few months history of constitutional symptoms. Upon further history, he reported hematuria two months prior to presentation, which stopped temporarily, only to recur a few days prior to coming to the hospital. The patient admitted to having lower urinary tract symptoms. However, there was no dysuria, no sandy urine, and no fever. Palpation of his abdomen revealed a vague mass at the suprapubic region, which was non tender. In view of his history and the clinical examination findings, an ultrasound of the abdomen and computed tomography (CT) was arranged. These investigations revealed a giant tumor that seemed to be arising from a bladder diverticulum, with a mass effect and hydronephrosis. He later underwent operative intervention. Conclusions: Intradiverticular bladder tumors may present a challenge to the treating physician in an atypical presentation; thus requiring a high index of suspicion and knowledge of tumor pathophysiology. As illustrated in our case, CT with its wide availability and multiplanar imaging capabilities offers a useful means for diagnosis, disease staging, operative planning, and follow-up. PMID:28246375

  3. Using Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to identify perferential micro-sites of post-fire aeolian erosion

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Plant communities in desert environments are spatially anisotropic. We applied Rare Earth Element (REE) tracers to different landscape positions of an anisotropic Northern Chihuahua Desert ecosystem in an effort to study preferential sediment source areas. We delineated three 0.5 m by 6 m plots of...

  4. Spontaneous thrombosis in giant intracranial aneurysms.

    PubMed Central

    Whittle, I R; Dorsch, N W; Besser, M

    1982-01-01

    Twelve patients in a series of 22 with giant intracranial aneurysms demonstrated neuroradiological features of partial or total spontaneous intra-aneurysmal thrombosis. The presence of this intra-aneurysmal clot significantly altered the computed tomographic appearance of the giant aneurysm. Massive intra-aneurysmal thrombosis did not protect against subarachnoid haemorrhage and the likelihood of rupture of a clot containing giant aneurysm was not significantly different from that of a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. Although parent artery occlusion from a thrombosed giant aneurysm, and massive aneurysmal thrombosis leading to the formation of giant serpentine aneurysm were documented, these are rare epiphenomena. The risk of embolisation from a partially thrombosed giant aneurysm, which was documented in one case, would appear to be greater than that from a non-thrombosed giant aneurysm. The findings in this series, and a review of literature, suggest that the presence of intra-aneurysmal clot in giant intracranial aneurysms has little prognostic significance and does not alter the management or outcome after treatment. Images PMID:7175528

  5. Giant Antrochoanal Polyp-A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Siddappa, Shruti Malavalli; Shivakumar, Andanooru Mahalingappa

    2017-01-01

    Antrochoanal polyp (ACP), also called as Killian polyp, is an infrequent, benign lesion of maxillary origin in non-atopic patients. The antrochoanal polyp is shaped according to the anatomical constraints of the lateral nasal wall, particularly the middle meatus and antrum, resembling typically a dumbbell. Here presenting a common problem with unusual presentation.

  6. Wildlife studies of Site 300 emphasizing rare and endangered species: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, San Joaquin County, California

    SciTech Connect

    Orloff, S.

    1986-11-01

    The primary purpose of this project was to determine the presence and status of any endangered, threatened, fully protected, or otherwise sensitive wildlife species on Site 300 that might be affected by Site operations and developments. We directed our studies mainly toward the federally endangered San Joaquin kit fox (Vulpes macrotis mutica), but also toward another 15 special status species that potentially occur on site, including the state threatened Alameda striped racer (Masticophis lateralis euryxanthus).

  7. Active season microhabitat and vegetation selection by giant gartersnakes associated with a restored marsh in California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Valcarcel, Patricia; Wylie, Glenn D.; Coates, Peter S.; Casazza, Michael L.; Rosenberg, Daniel K.

    2016-01-01

    Studies of habitat selection can reveal important patterns to guide habitat restoration and management for species of conservation concern. Giant gartersnakes Thamnophis gigas are endemic to the Central Valley of California, where >90% of their historical wetland habitat has been converted to agricultural and other uses. Information about the selection of habitats by individual giant gartersnakes would guide habitat restoration by indicating which habitat features and vegetation types are likely to be selected by these rare snakes. We examined activity patterns and selection of microhabitats and vegetation types by adult female giant gartersnakes with radiotelemetry at a site composed of rice agriculture and restored wetlands using a paired case-control study design. Adult female giant gartersnakes were 14.7 (95% credible interval [CRI] = 9.4–23.7) times more likely to be active (foraging, mating, or moving) when located in aquatic habitats than when located in terrestrial habitats. Microhabitats associated with cover—particularly emergent vegetation, terrestrial vegetation, and litter—were positively selected by giant gartersnakes. Individual giant gartersnakes varied greatly in their selection of rice and rock habitats, but varied little in their selection of open water. Tules Schoenoplectus acutus were the most strongly selected vegetation type, and duckweed Lemna spp., water-primrose Ludwigia spp., forbs, and grasses also were positively selected at the levels of availability observed at our study site. Management practices that promote the interface of water with emergent aquatic and herbaceous terrestrial vegetation will likely benefit giant gartersnakes. Given their strong selection of tules, restoration of native tule marshes will likely provide the greatest benefit to these threatened aquatic snakes.

  8. Giant cell reparative granuloma of the axis.

    PubMed

    Bayar, Mehmet Akif; Erdem, Yavuz; Gokcek, Cevdet; Koktekir, Ender; Kilic, Celal; Yasitli, Ugur; Tekiner, Ayhan

    2009-10-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is a rare, benign fibroosseous lesion. It typically arises in the mandible and maxilla, and less frequently in the skull bones. We report a case of GCRG of the axis, which is the first to be reported in the literature. A 35-year-old man was admitted to our clinic with the complaint of pain at his neck. There was no neurological deficit. CT and MRI showed a lesion destructing the body of the axis. Biopsy specimens were taken through the transoral-transpharyngeal route. Histopathological diagnosis was GCRG. The lesion was removed subtotally by the same route. We filled the tumor cavity with a bone graft and the patient was discharged with a halo brace without any neurological deficits. The follow-up CT revealed one year after the surgery showed sclerosis at the tumor site. The etiopathogenesis of GCRG is still controversial and the differential diagnosis, especially from giant cell tumor of bone is quite difficult. The treatment of choice for these lesions is complete surgical removal. Some authors recommend radiotherapy if total removal fails.

  9. Idiopathic Giant Cell Myocarditis: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kumari M.K., Kalpana; Mysorekar, Vijaya V.; S., Praveen

    2012-01-01

    Giant-cell myocarditis is a disease of relatively young, predominantly healthy adults. The patients usually die of heart failure and ventricular arrhythmia unless a cardiac transplantation is performed. We are reporting here an autopsy case of idiopathic giant cell myocarditis with no symptoms in a 27-year old -worker who died suddenly. The purpose of this report was to emphasize that idiopathic giant cell myocarditis was a rare disease and that it could exist in the absence of any symptomatic heart disease. PMID:23205365

  10. Urolithiasis with penile erection: a rare presentation.

    PubMed

    Wu, Bing; Xing, Yue

    2012-06-01

    Urinary stones are rarely seen in the urethra and are usually encountered in men with urethral stricture or infection. We describe a unique case of giant impacted stones in a 20-year-old man with unreal penile erection.

  11. Lymphoepithelial carcinoma arising from the maxillary antrum: a clinicopathological report of a rare lesion in an unusual site.

    PubMed

    Muthayam, Santan Reddy; Kaushik, Rachna; Pushpanshu, Kumar; Singh, Kumar Tathagat; Raj, Vineet; Kumar, Bimleshwar

    2014-12-01

    Lymphoepithelial carcinoma (LEC) of the maxillary sinus is an exceedingly rare malignancy. It may be asymptomatic or present with non-specific obstructive nasal symptoms which makes its pre-operative diagnosis very challenging. This report describes our clinical and radiological findings in a 45-year-old Indian female patient with locally-advanced LEC of the right maxillary antrum. Histopathological and immunohistochemical results are also discussed. The case was effectively managed by external beam radiotherapy and the patient has remained disease-free at 20-month follow-up.

  12. The Silent Giant.

    PubMed

    Necek, Magdalena; Biskup, Ewelina

    2015-11-25

    SFT is a rare spindle cell neoplasm arising mostly at pleural and in rare cases at extrapleural sites. Histology and immunohistology are diagnostic tools. It is crucial to consider SFT as differential diagnosis in pulmonary nodules since they often remain clinically silent until they reach large dimension and to proceed with curative resection without delay. It is essential to follow up patients for a long period of time as recurrence may occur.

  13. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M’rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy. PMID:27795755

  14. Metastatic giant basal cell carcinoma: a case report.

    PubMed

    Bellahammou, Khadija; Lakhdissi, Asmaa; Akkar, Othman; Rais, Fadoua; Naoual, Benhmidou; Elghissassi, Ibrahim; M'rabti, Hind; Errihani, Hassan

    2016-01-01

    Basal cell carcinoma is the most common skin cancer, characterised by a slow growing behavior, metastasis are extremely rare, and it occurs in less than 0, 1% of all cases. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a rare form of basal cell carcinoma, more aggressive and defined as a tumor measuring more than 5 cm at its largest diameter. Only 1% of all basal cell carcinoma develops to a giant basal cell carcinoma, resulting of patient's negligence. Giant basal cell carcinoma is associated with higher potential of metastasis and even death, compared to ordinary basal cell carcinoma. We report a case of giant basal cell carcinoma metastaticin lung occurring in a 79 years old male patient, with a fatal evolution after one course of systemic chemotherapy. Giant basal cell carcinoma is a very rare entity, early detection of these tumors could prevent metastasis occurrence and improve the prognosis of this malignancy.

  15. Imaging Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bowler, Brendan P.

    2016-10-01

    High-contrast adaptive optics (AO) imaging is a powerful technique to probe the architectures of planetary systems from the outside-in and survey the atmospheres of self-luminous giant planets. Direct imaging has rapidly matured over the past decade and especially the last few years with the advent of high-order AO systems, dedicated planet-finding instruments with specialized coronagraphs, and innovative observing and post-processing strategies to suppress speckle noise. This review summarizes recent progress in high-contrast imaging with particular emphasis on observational results, discoveries near and below the deuterium-burning limit, and a practical overview of large-scale surveys and dedicated instruments. I conclude with a statistical meta-analysis of deep imaging surveys in the literature. Based on observations of 384 unique and single young (≈5-300 Myr) stars spanning stellar masses between 0.1 and 3.0 M ⊙, the overall occurrence rate of 5-13 M Jup companions at orbital distances of 30-300 au is {0.6}-0.5+0.7 % assuming hot-start evolutionary models. The most massive giant planets regularly accessible to direct imaging are about as rare as hot Jupiters are around Sun-like stars. Dividing this sample into individual stellar mass bins does not reveal any statistically significant trend in planet frequency with host mass: giant planets are found around {2.8}-2.3+3.7 % of BA stars, <4.1% of FGK stars, and <3.9% of M dwarfs. Looking forward, extreme AO systems and the next generation of ground- and space-based telescopes with smaller inner working angles and deeper detection limits will increase the pace of discovery to ultimately map the demographics, composition, evolution, and origin of planets spanning a broad range of masses and ages.

  16. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda’s potentially dangerous behavior. PMID:25550978

  17. Three cases giant panda attack on human at Beijing Zoo.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Peixun; Wang, Tianbing; Xiong, Jian; Xue, Feng; Xu, Hailin; Chen, Jianhai; Zhang, Dianying; Fu, Zhongguo; Jiang, Baoguo

    2014-01-01

    Panda is regarded as Chinese national treasure. Most people always thought they were cute and just ate bamboo and had never imagined a panda could be vicious. Giant panda attacks on human are rare. There, we present three cases of giant panda attacks on humans at the Panda House at Beijing Zoo from September 2006 to June 2009 to warn people of the giant panda's potentially dangerous behavior.

  18. Malignant Eccrine Poroma of the Vulva: An Intriguing Case of a Rare Tumor at an Unusual Site

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Pranshu; Sen, Sumit; Sharma, Neha; Sen, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Malignant eccrine poroma is a rare malignancy of the eccrine sweat glands, occurring most frequently on the lower extremities. It affects both sexes equally usually in the 6th to 7th decade of life. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes may occur in 20% that may be fatal in 60% cases. Its aggressive nature, rarity of occurrence, and unusual presentations make it very important to be evaluated properly by the clinician. We hereby report a case of a 75-year-old female presenting with two exophytic tumors over her vulva with local extension. On histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as malignant eccrine poroma. On magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic region, metastatic extension in regional lymph nodes was found. She was treated by radical vulvectomy with bilateral inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection followed by radiotherapy. PMID:27512190

  19. Malignant Eccrine Poroma of the Vulva: An Intriguing Case of a Rare Tumor at an Unusual Site.

    PubMed

    Mishra, Pranshu; Sen, Sumit; Sharma, Neha; Sen, Debasish

    2016-01-01

    Malignant eccrine poroma is a rare malignancy of the eccrine sweat glands, occurring most frequently on the lower extremities. It affects both sexes equally usually in the 6(th) to 7(th) decade of life. Metastasis to regional lymph nodes may occur in 20% that may be fatal in 60% cases. Its aggressive nature, rarity of occurrence, and unusual presentations make it very important to be evaluated properly by the clinician. We hereby report a case of a 75-year-old female presenting with two exophytic tumors over her vulva with local extension. On histopathological examination, it was diagnosed as malignant eccrine poroma. On magnetic resonance imaging of the pelvic region, metastatic extension in regional lymph nodes was found. She was treated by radical vulvectomy with bilateral inguinal and femoral lymph node dissection followed by radiotherapy.

  20. Rare Site of Parasitic Dermoid Cyst at Uterovesical Fold of Peritoneum with Absent One-Sided Adnexa

    PubMed Central

    Sehgal, Alka; Ballega, Puneeti; Punia, RPS

    2016-01-01

    Teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumour. It can be congenital or acquired and are usually found in gonads (testes and ovaries). Parasitic dermoid cysts are rare and their actual incidence is unknown. We are reporting a case of 25-year-old gravida two, para one and one living child, who underwent emergency cesarean section in view of symptomatic placenta previa. A parasitic dermoid cyst was found incidently in front of uterus which was attached to uterovasical fold of bladder. This cyst did not show any connection to uterus or adnexa. Uterus, uterine cavity, right side tube and ovary were normal. Her left sided fallopian tube and ovary was completely absent. She did not have any symptoms related to the dermoid cyst. Histopathology confirmed parasitic mature dermoid cyst. PMID:28208952

  1. Rare Site of Parasitic Dermoid Cyst at Uterovesical Fold of Peritoneum with Absent One-Sided Adnexa.

    PubMed

    Dubey, Sunita; Sehgal, Alka; Ballega, Puneeti; Punia, Rps

    2016-12-01

    Teratomas are the most common type of germ cell tumour. It can be congenital or acquired and are usually found in gonads (testes and ovaries). Parasitic dermoid cysts are rare and their actual incidence is unknown. We are reporting a case of 25-year-old gravida two, para one and one living child, who underwent emergency cesarean section in view of symptomatic placenta previa. A parasitic dermoid cyst was found incidently in front of uterus which was attached to uterovasical fold of bladder. This cyst did not show any connection to uterus or adnexa. Uterus, uterine cavity, right side tube and ovary were normal. Her left sided fallopian tube and ovary was completely absent. She did not have any symptoms related to the dermoid cyst. Histopathology confirmed parasitic mature dermoid cyst.

  2. Giant extragenital Bowen's disease.

    PubMed

    Bakardzhiev, Ilko; Chokoeva, Anastasiya Atanasova; Tchernev, Georgi

    2015-12-01

    Giant extragenital forms of Morbus Bowen are extremely rare. The already described cases in the word literature are most commonly with periungual localization, as well as located on the foot and neck area. The clinical manifestation is presented most commonly by non-specific erythematous to erythematous-squamous plaques or papules, which is confusing to the clinician. From the pathogenic point of view, it is important to be confirmed or rejected the presence of human papilloma viruses (HPVs) in each case of affected patient, as this information is mandatory in respect to the adequate selection of the subsequent regimen. If HPVs are detected, systemic antiviral therapy could be initiated to reduce the size of the lesions before subsequent surgical eradication. A postoperative prevention through vaccination could be also considered additionally. In cases of HPV-negative giant extragenital forms of Morbus Bowen (as in the described patient), the focus should be on local immunomodulation by substances such as imiquimod, which reduce the size of the lesions, thereby creating optimal opportunities for their future surgical eradication. Other possible options described in the literature include topical application of 5-fluorouracil, photodynamic therapy, cryotherapy, and laser therapy (carbon dioxide laser). The choice of the most appropriate regimen should have been an individual decision of the clinician, considering also the location and the extent of the lesion.

  3. [Giant esophageal fibrovascular polyp].

    PubMed

    Palacios, Fernando; Contardo, Carlos; Guevara, Jorge; Vera, Augusto; Aguilar, Luis; Huamán, Manuel; Palomino, Américo; Yabar, Alejandro

    2003-01-01

    Fibrovascular polyps are extremely rare benign neoplasias of the esophagus, which usually originate in the lower cricoid area. They do not produce any discomfort in the patient for a long time, however it may make itself evident by the patient's regurgitation of the polyp, producing asphyxia or, more frequently, dysphagia. The case of a 58 year old male patient is presented herein, with a 9 month record of dysphagia, weight loss and intermittent melena. The barium x-ray showed a distended esophagus, with a tumor running from the upper esophageal sphincter to the cardia. The endoscopy confirmed the presence of a pediculated tumor, implanted in the cervical esophagus. Surgeons suspected the potential malignancy of the tumor and performed a transhiatal esophagectomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant fibrovascular esophageal polyp.

  4. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices—CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies

    SciTech Connect

    Davis, Barry M.; McCaffrey, John G.

    2016-01-28

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y{sup 1}P←a{sup 1}S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅ RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm{sup −1}). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr{sub 2} while this transition is quenched in Ba{sub 2}. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba{sub 2} indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.

  5. Absorption spectroscopy of heavy alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in rare gas matrices--CCSD(T) calculations and atomic site occupancies.

    PubMed

    Davis, Barry M; McCaffrey, John G

    2016-01-28

    Isolation of the heavier alkaline earth metals Ba and Sr in the solid rare gases (RGs) Ar, Kr, and Xe is analysed with absorption spectroscopy and interpreted partly with the assistance of ab initio calculations of the diatomic M ⋅ RG ground state interaction potentials. The y(1)P ← a(1)S resonance transitions in the visible spectral region are used to compare the isolation conditions of these two metal atom systems and calcium. Complex absorption bands were recorded in all three metal atom systems even after extensive sample annealing. Coupled cluster calculations conducted on the ground states of the nine M ⋅ RG diatomics (M = Ca, Sr, and Ba; RG = Ar, Kr, and Xe) at the coupled cluster single, double, and non-iterative triple level of theory revealed long bond lengths (>5 Å) and shallow bound regions (<130 cm(-1)). All of the M ⋅ RG diatomics have bond lengths considerably longer than those of the rare gas dimers, with the consequence that isolation of these metal atoms in a single substitutional site of the solid rare gas is unlikely, with the possible exception of Ca/Xe. The luminescence of metal dimer bands has been recorded for Ba and Sr revealing very different behaviours. Resonance fluorescence with a lifetime of 15 ns is observed for the lowest energy transition of Sr2 while this transition is quenched in Ba2. This behaviour is consistent with the absence of vibrational structure on the dimer absorption band in Ba2 indicating lifetime broadening arising from efficient relaxation to low-lying molecular states. More extensive 2D excitation-emission data recorded for the complex site structures present on the absorption bands of the atomic Ba and Sr systems will be presented in future publications.

  6. Giant Magnons Meet Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Hofman, Diego M.

    2008-07-28

    We study the worldsheet reflection matrix of a string attached to a D-brane in AdS{sub 5}xS{sup 5}. The D-brane corresponds to a maximal giant graviton that wraps an S{sup 3} inside S{sup 5}. In the gauge theory, the open string is described by a spin chain with boundaries. We focus on open strings with a large SO(6) charge and define an asymptotic boundary reflection matrix. Using the symmetries of the problem, we review the computation of the boundary reflection matrix, up to a phase. We also discuss weak and strong coupling computations where we obtain the overall phase factor and test our exact results.

  7. Recurrent Giant Cell Tumor of Skull Combined with Multiple Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Dae Hwan

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumors are benign but locally invasive and frequently recur. Giant cell tumors of the skull are extremely rare. A patient underwent a surgery to remove a tumor, but the tumor recurred. Additionally, the patient developed multiple aneurysms. The patient underwent total tumor resection and trapping for the aneurysms, followed by radiotherapy. We report this rare case and suggest some possibilities for treating tumor growth combined with aneurysm development. PMID:27195256

  8. Escape variants of the XPR1 gammaretrovirus receptor are rare due to reliance on a splice donor site and a short hypervariable loop

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Xiaoyu; Martin, Carrie; Bouchard, Christelle; Kozak, Christine A.

    2014-01-01

    Entry determinants in the XPR1 receptor for the xenotropic/polytropic mouse leukemia viruses (XP-MLVs) lie in its third and fourth putative extracellular loops (ECLs). The critical ECL3 receptor determinant overlies a splice donor and is evolutionarily conserved in vertebrate XPR1 genes; 2 of the 3 rare replacement mutations at this site destroy this receptor determinant. The 13 residue ECL4 is hypervariable, and replacement mutations carrying an intact ECL3 site alter but do not abolish receptor activity, including replacement of the entire loop with that of a jellyfish (Cnidaria) XPR1. Because ECL4 deletions are found in all X-MLV-infected Mus subspecies, we deleted each ECL4 residue to determine if deletion-associated restriction is residue-specific or is effected by loop size. All deletions influence receptor function, although different deletions affect different XP-MLVs. Thus, receptor usage of a constrained splice site and a loop that tolerates mutations severely limits the likelihood of host escape mutations. PMID:25151060

  9. Giant Serpentine Aneurysm of the Middle Cerebral Artery

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Seung Joo; Kwun, Byung Duk; Kim, Chang Jin

    2010-01-01

    Giant serpentine aneurysms are rare and have distinct angiographic findings. The rarity, large size, complex anatomy and hemodynamic characteristics of giant serpentine aneurysms make treatment difficult. We report a case of a giant serpentine aneurysm of the right middle cerebral artery (MCA) that presented as headache. Treatment involved a superficial temporal artery (STA)-MCA bypass followed by aneurysm resection. The patient was discharged without neurological deficits, and early and late follow-up angiography disclosed successful removal of the aneurysm and a patent bypass graft. We conclude that STA-MCA bypass and aneurysm excision is a successful treatment method for a giant serpentine aneurysm. PMID:20856671

  10. Giant infantile gliosarcoma: magnetic resonance imaging findings.

    PubMed

    Sanal, Hatice Tuba; Bulakbasi, Nail; Kocaoglu, Murat; Onguru, Onder; Chen, Lina

    2008-08-01

    Gliosarcoma is an uncommon variant of glioblastoma multiforme, which is composed of gliomatous and sarcomatous elements. The tumor is rarely encountered in childhood. This case report presents the magnetic resonance imaging characteristics of a giant gliosarcoma in a 3-year-old girl. Size and location of the tumor are described.

  11. Giant Cavernous Haemangioma of the Anterior Mediastinum

    PubMed Central

    Kaya, Seyda Ors; Samancılar, Ozgur; Usluer, Ozan; Acar, Tuba; Yener, Ali Galip

    2015-01-01

    Cavernous hemangiomas of the anterior mediastinum is rare. We present a case of a 56-year-old male patient with a giant cavernous hemangioma of the anterior mediastinum, 18 cm in diameters, approached by left posterolateral thoracotomy. To the best of our knowledge, such a unique case has not been previously presented in the literature. PMID:26644773

  12. Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma in association with Hashimoto's thyroiditis

    PubMed Central

    Hassan, Rishi; Arunprasath, P.; Padmavathy, L.; Srivenkateswaran, K.

    2016-01-01

    Annular elastolytic giant cell granuloma (AEGCG) is a rare granulomatous skin disease characterized clinically by annular plaques with elevated borders and atrophic centers found mainly on sun-exposed skin and histologically by diffuse granulomatous infiltrates composed of multinucleated giant cells, histiocytes and lymphocytes in the dermis along with phagocytosis of elastic fibers by multinucleated giant cells. We report a case of AEGCG in a 50-year-old woman and is highlighted for the classical clinical and histological findings of the disease and its rare co-existence with Hashimoto's thyroiditis. PMID:27057492

  13. Transforming giants.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Rosabeth Moss

    2008-01-01

    Large corporations have long been seen as lumbering, inflexible, bureaucratic--and clueless about global developments. But recently some multinationals seem to be transforming themselves: They're engaging employees, moving quickly, and introducing innovations that show true connection with the world. Harvard Business School's Kanter ventured with a research team inside a dozen global giants--including IBM, Procter & Gamble, Omron, CEMEX, Cisco, and Banco Real--to discover what has been driving the change. After conducting more than 350 interviews on five continents, she and her colleagues came away with a strong sense that we are witnessing the dawn of a new model of corporate power: The coordination of actions and decisions on the front lines now appears to stem from widely shared values and a sturdy platform of common processes and technology, not from top-down decrees. In particular, the values that engage the passions of far-flung workforces stress openness, inclusion, and making the world a better place. Through this shift in what might be called their guidance systems, the companies have become as creative and nimble as much smaller ones, even while taking on social and environmental challenges of a scale that only large enterprises could attempt. IBM, for instance, has created a nonprofit partnership, World Community Grid, through which any organization or individual can donate unused computing power to research projects and see what is being done with the donation in real time. IBM has gained an inspiring showcase for its new technology, helped business partners connect with the company in a positive way, and offered individuals all over the globe the chance to contribute to something big.

  14. Magnetic hyperfine interactions on Cd sites of the rare-earth cadmium compounds R Cd (R =Ce , Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cavalcante, F. H. M.; Leite Neto, O. F. L. S.; Saitovitch, H.; Cavalcante, J. T. P. D.; Carbonari, A. W.; Saxena, R. N.; Bosch-Santos, B.; Pereira, L. F. D.; Mestnik-Filho, J.; Forker, M.

    2016-08-01

    This paper reports the investigation of the magnetic hyperfine field Bh f in a series of rare-earth (R ) cadmium intermetallic compounds R Cd and GdCd2 measured by perturbed angular correlation (PAC) spectroscopy using 111In/111Cd as probe nuclei at Cd sites as well as first-principles calculations of Bh f at Cd sites in the studied compounds. Vapor-solid state reaction of R metals with Cd vapor and the 111In radioisotope was found to be an appropriate route of doping rare-earth cadmium compounds with the PAC probe 111In/111Cd. The observation that the hyperfine parameters depend on details of the sample preparation provides information on the phase preference of diffusing 111In in the rare-earth cadmium phase system. The 111Cd hyperfine field has been determined in the compounds R Cd for the R constituents Ce, Pr, Nd, Sm, Gd, Tb, Dy, Ho, and Er, in several cases as a function of temperature. For most R constituents, the temperature dependence Bh f(T ) of 111Cd:R Cd is consistent with ferromagnetic order of the compound. DyCd, however, presents a remarkable anomaly: a finite magnetic hyperfine field is observed only in the temperature interval 35 K ≤ T ≤ 80 K which indicates a transition from ferromagnetic order to a spin arrangement where all 4 f -induced contributions to the magnetic hyperfine field at the Cd site cancel. First-principles calculation results for DyCd show that the (π , π , 0) antiferromagnetic configuration is energetically more favorable than the ferromagnetic. The approach used in the calculations to simulate the R Cd system successfully reproduces the experimental values of Bh f at Cd sites and shows that the main contribution to Bh f comes from the valence electron polarization. The de Gennes plot of the hyperfine field Bh f of 111Cd:R Cd vs the 4 f -spin projection (g -1 )J reflects a decrease of the strength of indirect 4 f -4 f exchange across the R series. Possible mechanisms are discussed and the experimental results indicate that

  15. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review.

    PubMed

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male.

  16. Giant Urinary Bladder and Bilateral Giant Hydronephrosis due to Bladder Neck Obstruction: One Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Tazi, Mohammed Fadl; Riyach, Omar; Ahallal, Youness; Mellas, Soufiane; Khallouk, Abdelhak; El Fassi, Mohammed Jamal; Farih, Moulay Hassan

    2012-01-01

    Bilateral hydronephrosis secondary to urinary obstruction leads to a buildup of back pressure in the urinary tract and may lead to impairment of renal function. Cases of giant hydronephrosis are rare and usually contain no more than 1-2 litres of fluid in the collecting system. Here, we report a rarely seen case with giant urinary bladder and bilateral giant hydronephrosis due to bladder neck obstruction which contains 4000 mL fluid in the collecting system of the kidney mimicking an ascites in an adult male. PMID:22606637

  17. Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    Giant cell arteritis is a disorder that causes inflammation of your arteries, usually in the scalp, neck, and arms. ... arteries, which keeps blood from flowing well. Giant cell arteritis often occurs with another disorder called polymyalgia ...

  18. Dust dispersal and Pb enrichment at the rare-metal Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining and ore processing site: insights from REE patterns and elemental ratios.

    PubMed

    Dolgopolova, Alla; Weiss, Dominik J; Seltmann, Reimar; Dulski, Peter

    2006-04-30

    Different geological, technogenic and environmental samples from the Orlovka-Spokoinoe Ta-Nb-Sn-W mining site and ore processing complex in Eastern Transbaikalia (Russia), were analysed for Pb, Y, Zr, Hf and rare earth elements (REE) to assess the effect of dust and metal dispersal on the environment within the Orlovka-Spokoinoe mining site. Potential source material analysed included ore-bearing and barren granites, host rocks, tailing pond sediments, and ore concentrates. Lichens and birch leaves were used as receptor samples. The REE enrichment relative to chondrite, the extent of the Eu anomalies, the enrichments of heavy REE (HREE), and Zr/Hf and Yb/Y ratios suggest that tailings, barren granites, and metasedimentary host rocks are the main sources of dust in the studied mining environment. In addition, calculated lead enrichment (relative to host rocks) suggests that the environment is polluted with Pb. Our results clearly demonstrate the potential of REE patterns and elemental ratios as a reliable technique to trace dust and metals sources and dispersal within a confined mining area offering a new tool for environmental assessment studies.

  19. Partial Breast Reconstruction with Goldilocks Technique After Excision of Giant Fibroadenoma: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ter Louw, Ryan P.; Bruce, Sara B.

    2017-01-01

    Summary: Giant juvenile fibroadenomas are relatively rare, accounting for less than 1% fibroadenomas. Large breast tumors create significant asymmetry and provide unique reconstructive challenges after removal. In this case, we describe a 21-year-old female with delayed presentation of a giant fibroadenoma of the right breast. This represents an unusual presentation of benign breast disease requiring reduction of the skin envelope, extensive glandular resection, lower pole reconstruction, and free nipple grafting to achieve symmetry with the opposite breast. A novel modification of the Goldilocks mastectomy technique is described for partial breast reconstruction. Adaptation of the Goldilocks mastectomy technique provides adequate soft tissue for partial breast reconstruction. Using the lower pole deepithelialization breast skin flap provides autologous vascularized tissue to supplement volume loss after tumor and glandular excision. Benign breast disease can create significant breast deformities. Application and combination of the Goldilocks mastectomy technique allow for partial breast reconstruction without the need for an additional donor site or prosthetic devices. PMID:28203501

  20. Management of giant liver hemangiomas: an update.

    PubMed

    Hoekstra, Lisette T; Bieze, Matthanja; Erdogan, Deha; Roelofs, Joris J T H; Beuers, Ulrich H W; van Gulik, Thomas M

    2013-03-01

    Liver hemangiomas are the most common benign liver tumors and are usually incidental findings. Liver hemangiomas are readily demonstrated by abdominal ultrasonography, computed tomography or magnetic resonance imaging. Giant liver hemangiomas are defined by a diameter larger than 5 cm. In patients with a giant liver hemangioma, observation is justified in the absence of symptoms. Surgical resection is indicated in patients with abdominal (mechanical) complaints or complications, or when diagnosis remains inconclusive. Enucleation is the preferred surgical method, according to existing literature and our own experience. Spontaneous or traumatic rupture of a giant hepatic hemangioma is rare, however, the mortality rate is high (36-39%). An uncommon complication of a giant hemangioma is disseminated intravascular coagulation (Kasabach-Merritt syndrome); intervention is then required. Herein, the authors provide a literature update of the current evidence concerning the management of giant hepatic hemangiomas. In addition, the authors assessed treatment strategies and outcomes in a series of patients with giant liver hemangiomas managed in our department.

  1. KEPLER RAPIDLY ROTATING GIANT STARS

    SciTech Connect

    Costa, A. D.; Martins, B. L. Canto; Bravo, J. P.; Paz-Chinchón, F.; Chagas, M. L. das; Leão, I. C.; Oliveira, G. Pereira de; Silva, R. Rodrigues da; Roque, S.; Oliveira, L. L. A. de; Silva, D. Freire da; De Medeiros, J. R.

    2015-07-10

    Rapidly rotating giant stars are relatively rare and may represent important stages of stellar evolution, resulting from stellar coalescence of close binary systems or accretion of substellar companions by their hosting stars. In the present Letter, we report 17 giant stars observed in the scope of the Kepler space mission exhibiting rapid rotation behavior. For the first time, the abnormal rotational behavior for this puzzling family of stars is revealed by direct measurements of rotation, namely from photometric rotation period, exhibiting a very short rotation period with values ranging from 13 to 55 days. This finding points to remarkable surface rotation rates, up to 18 times the rotation of the Sun. These giants are combined with six others recently listed in the literature for mid-infrared (IR) diagnostics based on Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer information, from which a trend for an IR excess is revealed for at least one-half of the stars, but at a level far lower than the dust excess emission shown by planet-bearing main-sequence stars.

  2. Evaluation of a novel method based on amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting) for typing strains of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium.

    PubMed

    Krawczyk, Beata; Lewandowski, Krzysztof; Bronk, Marek; Samet, Alfred; Myjak, Przemysław; Kur, Józef

    2003-03-01

    In the search for an effective DNA-typing technique for use in hospital epidemiology, the performance and convenience of a novel assay based on the fingerprinting of bacterial genomes by amplification of DNA fragments surrounding rare restriction sites (ADSRRS fingerprinting) was tested. A large number of vancomycin-resistant Enterococcus faecium (VREM) isolates from haematological ward patients of the Clinical Hospital in Gdańsk were examined. We found that ADSRRS fingerprinting analysis is a rapid method that offers good discriminatory power. The method demonstrated also excellent reproducibility. The usefulness of the ADSRRS fingerprinting method for molecular typing was compared with pulsed field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) method, which is currently considered the gold standard for molecular typing of isolates recovered from patients and the environment in the course of investigation and control of nosocomial outbreaks. Clustering of ADSRRS fingerprinting data matched pulsed field gel electrophoresis data. The features of ADSRRS fingerprinting technique is discussed in comparison with conventional methods. Data presented here demonstrate the complexity of the epidemiological situation concerning VREM that may occur in a single medical ward.

  3. Connecting Active-Site Loop Conformations and Catalysis in Triosephosphate Isomerase: Insights from a Rare Variation at Residue 96 in the Plasmodial Enzyme.

    PubMed

    Pareek, Vidhi; Samanta, Moumita; Joshi, Niranjan V; Balaram, Hemalatha; Murthy, Mathur R N; Balaram, Padmanabhan

    2016-04-01

    Despite extensive research into triosephosphate isomerases (TIMs), there exists a gap in understanding of the remarkable conjunction between catalytic loop-6 (residues 166-176) movement and the conformational flip of Glu165 (catalytic base) upon substrate binding that primes the active site for efficient catalysis. The overwhelming occurrence of serine at position 96 (98% of the 6277 unique TIM sequences), spatially proximal to E165 and the loop-6 residues, raises questions about its role in catalysis. Notably, Plasmodium falciparum TIM has an extremely rare residue--phenylalanine--at this position whereas, curiously, the mutant F96S was catalytically defective. We have obtained insights into the influence of residue 96 on the loop-6 conformational flip and E165 positioning by combining kinetic and structural studies on the PfTIM F96 mutants F96Y, F96A, F96S/S73A, and F96S/L167V with sequence conservation analysis and comparative analysis of the available apo and holo structures of the enzyme from diverse organisms.

  4. The Electric Giant Resonances

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Woude, A.

    The following sections are included: * Introduction * Experimental Methods to Study Giant Resonances * Introduction * The Tools * Introduction * Tools for Isoscalar Scattering * INELASTIC α-SCATTERING * INELASTIC PROTON SCATTERING * Tools for Isovector Excitations * γ-ABSORPTION AND PARTICLE CAPTURE REACTIONS * CHARGE EXCHANGE REACTIONS - THE (π+, π0) REACTION * Tools For Isoscalar And Isovector Excitations * INELASTIC ELECTRON SCATTERING * GIANT RESONANCE EXCITATION BY FAST HEAVY IONS * From Multipole Cross Section To Multipole Strength * The Electric Isoscalar Resonances * The Isoscalar Giant Monopole Resonance * Systematics on the GMR * Compressibility and the Giant Monopole Resonance * Introduction * The Compressibility of nuclear matter from the GMR energies * Discussion * The Isoscalar Giant Quadrupole Resonance * General Trends In Medium-Heavy and Heavy Nuclei * The GQR In Light Nuclei * The Isoscalar 3- Strength, LEOR and HEOR * Isoscalar 4+ Strength * Miscellaneous; Isoscalar 1- and L > 4-Strength * The Electric Isovector Giant Resonances * The Isovector Giant Dipole Resonance: GDR * The Isovector Giant Monopole Resonances: IVGMR * The Isovector Quadrupole Resonance: IVGQR * The Effect of Ground State Deformation on the Shape of Giant Resonance: Microscopic Picture * Giant Resonances Built on Excited States * Introduction * Capture Reactions on Light Nuclei * Statistical decay of GDR γ Emission in Heavy Compound Systems * Introduction * Theoretical Predictions * Some Experimental Results * Summary and Outlook * Acknowledgements * General References * References

  5. The influence of A-site rare-earth for barium substitution on the chemical structure and ferroelectric properties of BZT thin films

    SciTech Connect

    Ostos, C.; Martinez-Sarrion, M.L.; Mestres, L.; Prieto, P.

    2009-10-15

    Rare-earth (RE) doped Ba(Zr,Ti)O{sub 3} (BZT) thin films were prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering from a Ba{sub 0.90}Ln{sub 0.067}Zr{sub 0.09}Ti{sub 0.91}O{sub 3} (Ln=La, Nd) target. The films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 600 deg. C in a high oxygen pressure atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of RE-BZT films revealed a <001> epitaxial crystal growth on Nb-doped SrTiO{sub 3}, <001> and <011> growth on single-crystal Si, and a <111>-preferred orientation on Pt-coated Si substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed uniform growth of the films deposited, along with the presence of crystals of about half-micron size on the film's surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evidenced high crystalline films with thicknesses of about 100 nm for 30 min of sputtering. Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) corroborated the growth rate (3.0-3.5 nm/min) of films deposited on Pt-coated Si substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in depth profile mode, showed variations in photoelectron Ti 2p doublet positions at lower energies with spin-orbital distances characteristic of BaTiO{sub 3}-based compounds. The XPS analysis revealed that lanthanide ions positioned onto the A-site of the BZT-perovskite structure increasing the MO{sub 6}-octahedra distortion (M=Ti, Zr) and, thereby, modifying the Ti-O binding length. Polarization-electric field hysteresis loops on Ag/RE-doped BZT/Pt capacitor showed good ferroelectric behavior and higher remanent polarization values than corresponding non-doped system. - Graphical abstract: XPS narrow-scan spectra of Ti 2p doublets of the Nd-doped BZT films deposited on Pt-coated Si substrate.

  6. The influence of A-site rare-earth for barium substitution on the chemical structure and ferroelectric properties of BZT thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ostos, C.; Martínez-Sarrión, M. L.; Mestres, L.; Delgado, E.; Prieto, P.

    2009-10-01

    Rare-earth ( RE) doped Ba(Zr,Ti)O 3 (BZT) thin films were prepared by rf-magnetron sputtering from a Ba 0.90Ln0.067Zr 0.09Ti 0.91O 3 ( Ln=La, Nd) target. The films were deposited at a substrate temperature of 600 °C in a high oxygen pressure atmosphere. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of RE-BZT films revealed a <001> epitaxial crystal growth on Nb-doped SrTiO 3, <001> and <011> growth on single-crystal Si, and a <111>-preferred orientation on Pt-coated Si substrates. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) showed uniform growth of the films deposited, along with the presence of crystals of about half-micron size on the film's surface. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) evidenced high crystalline films with thicknesses of about 100 nm for 30 min of sputtering. Electron-probe microanalysis (EPMA) corroborated the growth rate (3.0-3.5 nm/min) of films deposited on Pt-coated Si substrates. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), in depth profile mode, showed variations in photoelectron Ti 2 p doublet positions at lower energies with spin-orbital distances characteristic of BaTiO 3-based compounds. The XPS analysis revealed that lanthanide ions positioned onto the A-site of the BZT-perovskite structure increasing the MO 6-octahedra distortion ( M=Ti, Zr) and, thereby, modifying the Ti-O binding length. Polarization-electric field hysteresis loops on Ag/ RE-doped BZT/Pt capacitor showed good ferroelectric behavior and higher remanent polarization values than corresponding non-doped system.

  7. β-SiH-containing tris(silazido) rare-earth complexes as homogeneous and grafted single-site catalyst precursors for hydroamination

    DOE PAGES

    Eedugurala, Naresh; Wang, Zhuoran; Yan, KaKing; ...

    2017-01-25

    A series of homoleptic rare-earth silazido compounds and their silica-grafted derivatives were prepared to compare spectroscopic and catalytic features under homogeneous and interfacial conditions. Trivalent tris(silazido) compounds Ln{N(SiHMe2)tBu}3 (Ln = Sc (1), Y (2), Lu (3)) are prepared in high yield by salt metathesis reactions. Solution-phase and solid-state characterization of 1–3 by NMR and IR spectroscopy and X-ray diffraction reveals Ln←H–Si interactions. These features are retained in solvent-coordinated 2·Et2O, 2·THF, and 3·THF. The change in spectroscopic features characterizing the secondary interactions (νSiH, 1JSiH) from the unactivated SiH in the silazane HN(SiHMe2)tBu follows the trend 3 > 2 > 1 ≈more » 2·Et2O > 2·THF ≈ 3·THF. Ligand lability follows the same pattern, with Et2O readily dissociating from 2·Et2O while THF is displaced only during surface grafting reactions. 1 and 2·THF graft onto mesoporous silica nanoparticles (MSN) to give Ln{N(SiHMe2)tBu}n@MSN (Ln = Sc (1@MSN), Y (2@MSN)) along with THF and protonated silazido as HN(SiHMe2)tBu and H2NtBu. The surface species are characterized by multinuclear and multidimensional solid-state (SS) NMR spectroscopic techniques, as well as diffuse reflectance FTIR, elemental analysis, and reaction stoichiometry. A key 1JSiH SSNMR measurement reveals that the grafted sites most closely resemble Ln·THF adducts, suggesting that siloxane coordination occurs in grafted compounds. These species catalyze the hydroamination/bicyclization of aminodialkenes, and both solution-phase and interfacial conditions provide the bicyclized product with equivalent cis:trans ratios. As a result, similar diastereoselectivities mediated by catalytic sites under the two conditions suggest similar effective environments.« less

  8. Atypical giant haemangioma of liver with systemic inflammatory manifestations.

    PubMed

    Khalid, Mohd; Ahmad, Mehtab; Jain, Amit; Rizvi, Imran

    2013-01-25

    Haemangioma is the most common benign tumour of the liver. Most of them are small in size (less than 4 cm) and are often asymptomatic and discovered incidentally on modern diagnostic imaging. Lesions with a diameter larger than 4 cm are called giant haemangiomas, and these are usually located in the right hepatic lobe. Although haemangioma is the most frequent benign tumour of the liver, 'giant' haemangiomas are rare. Such lesions may give rise to symptoms requiring treatment. In this case report, we describe the case of a 50-year-old Indian man who presented with giant liver haemangioma and systemic inflammatory manifestations.

  9. Giant submandibular gland duct sialolith mimicking an impacted canine tooth

    PubMed Central

    Bhullar, Ramandeep Singh; Dhawan, Amit; Bhullar, Kanwalpreet; Malhotra, Sonia

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is the most common disease affecting the salivary glands and accounts for 80% of salivary gland disorders. Chronic sialolithiasis promotes stone formation. Size of the salivary stones may range from 0.1 mm to 30 mm or be even bigger. Those salivary stones, the size of which exceeds 15 mm in any one dimension or 1 g in weight are classified as giant sialoliths. Giant sialoliths of the submandibular gland duct are rarely reported. Here, we report a case of a giant sialolith of the submandibular gland duct mimicking an impacted mandibular canine tooth on routine radiographic examination and its surgical management through an intraoral approach. PMID:26668461

  10. Isolated giant molluscum contagiosum mimicking epidermoid cyst

    PubMed Central

    Uzuncakmak, Tugba K.; Kuru, Burce C.; Zemheri, Ebru I.; Zindanci, Ilkin; Turkoglu, Zafer; Kavala, Mukaddes

    2016-01-01

    Molluscum contagiosum is a benign cutaneous viral infection which is caused by double- stranded DNA poxvirus. It affects mainly children and young adults and usually presents with single or multiple umblicated papules or nodules on face, arms, legs and anogenital regions. It may present in atypical size and clinical appearance in patients with altered or impaired immunity and rarely in immuncompetent patients. Herein we present an immuncompetent young adult patient with isolated giant molluscum contagiosum, which was mimicking epidermoid cyst clinically. PMID:27648389

  11. Giant Pleomorphic Adenoma of the Parotid Gland.

    PubMed

    Sajid, Muhammad; Rehman, Sajid; Misbah, Junaid

    2015-10-01

    Salivary gland tumours are a relatively rare entity. Pleomorphic adenoma is the most common amongst these, comprising 60 - 70% of all parotid tumours. Pleomorphic adenomas are benign and tend to increase in size slowly. Here we are presenting a case of giant pleomorphic adenoma of the parotid, being the largest in size to be excised in Pakistan in recorded literature measuring 24 x 22 x 12 cm and weighing 1.8 kgs. Superficial parotidectomy was done with an excellent cosmetic outcome.

  12. Successful minimally-invasive management of a case of giant prostatic hypertrophy associated with recurrent nephrogenic adenoma of the prostate

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Benign Prostatic Hypertrophy (BPH) is said to affect at least a third of men over 60. However, the literature contains fewer than 200 reports of prostates over 200g in mass - Giant Prostatic Hypertrophy (GPH). Nephrogenic adenomas are benign lesions of the urinary tract that are believed to represent the local proliferation of shed renal tubular cells implanting at sites of urothelial injury. Case presentation We present the first case in the literature of these two rare pathologies co-existing in the same patient and the successful management and 36-month follow-up of the patient’s symptoms with minimally invasive therapy, including the still-uncommon selective prostatic artery embolisation. We also briefly discuss the role of PAX2 in injured renal tissues and nephrogenic adenomas. Conclusions Symptomatic Giant Prostatic Hypertrophy (GPH) can be successfully managed with a combination of serial TURPs, 5 α-reductase inhibition and selective prostatic artery embolisation (SPAE). PMID:23565707

  13. Congenital giant right atrium in an elderly woman.

    PubMed

    Santra, Gouranga; Paul, Rudrajit; Das, Shubhabrata; Datta, Arnab; Pradhan, Sourav; Sarkar, R N

    2014-07-01

    Enlargement of right atrium is usually secondary to pulmonary hypertension due to valvular heart diseases or obstructive pulmonary disorders, atrial septal defect, tricuspid atresia or stenosis, pulmonary stenosis, primary pulmonary hypertension, Ebstein's anomaly. Congenital enlargement of right atrium is rare and it commonly presents in children. Our patient presented with congenital giant right atrium at 65 years of age, other cardiac diseases being excluded. Patient developed tricuspid regurgitation, but pulmonary hypertension was absent till the date. Congenital giant right atrium has rarely been reported from India.

  14. Unstable giant gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Mello Koch, Robert de; Ives, Norman; Smolic, Jelena; Smolic, Milena

    2006-03-15

    We find giant graviton solutions in Frolov's three parameter generalization of the Lunin-Maldacena background. The background we study has {gamma}-tilde{sub 1}=0 and {gamma}-tilde{sub 2}={gamma}-tilde{sub 3}={gamma}-tilde. This class of backgrounds provides a nonsupersymmetric example of the gauge theory/gravity correspondence that can be tested quantitatively, as recently shown by Frolov, Roiban, and Tseytlin. The giant graviton solutions we find have a greater energy than the point gravitons, making them unstable states. Despite this, we find striking quantitative agreement between the gauge theory and gravity descriptions of open strings attached to the giant.

  15. Remission of hypertension after treatment of giant simple renal cyst: a case report

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Renal cysts are common in old patients, and usually remain untreated. Giant renal cysts measuring more than 15 cm in greatest diameter are uncommon and the association with hypertension is very rare. We present a case of a 25-year-old woman with a giant right renal cyst associated with hypertension that was treated by laparoscopic excision, followed by resolution hypertension. PMID:20062669

  16. The Next Giant Step

    NASA Video Gallery

    Artist Robert McCall painted "The Next Giant Step" in 1979 to commemorate the heroism and courage of spaceflight pioneers. Located in the lobby of Johnson's building 2, the mural depicts America's ...

  17. The Giant Cell.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Stockdale, Dennis

    1998-01-01

    Provides directions for the construction of giant plastic cells, including details for building and installing the organelles. Also contains instructions for preparing the ribosomes, nucleolus, nucleus, and mitochondria. (DDR)

  18. Ulcerated Giant Dermatofibroma following Routine Childhood Vaccination in a Young Boy

    PubMed Central

    Ng, Michelle S.Y.; Foong, Alice Y.W.; Koh, Mark J.A.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction The development of cutaneous neoplasms at immunization sites following vaccination is uncommon, and only few have been reported in the literature worldwide. We report an unusual case of an ulcerated giant dermatofibroma that developed as a chronic nonhealing plaque in the immunization scar of a young boy after vaccination. Case Report A 13-month-old Chinese boy presented with an unusual skin reaction on the vaccination site at the right anterolateral thigh following a routine intramuscular injection of ‘5-in-1’ (diphtheria, tetanus, pertussis, polio and Haemophilus influenzae B) vaccine at 4 months of age. The immunization site developed a slightly raised papule with a central punctum that progressively grew in size, ulcerated and showed occasional bleeding over a span of 9 months. On follow-up, the lesion showed a chronic granulomatous reaction with surrounding induration and a central scarring. The right inguinal lymph node was palpable. Ultrasound of the lesion showed only nonspecific focal skin thickening. An incisional skin biopsy with careful histopathological evaluation revealed microscopic features consistent with an ulcerated giant dermatofibroma. Conclusion Neoplastic development in immunization scars following vaccination is a rare occurrence and, hence, makes this case a diagnostic challenge. A high index of suspicion is crucial in atypical presentations of a common skin lesion, as typified by this case. Careful history taking and clinicopathological correlation of clinical findings with gross and microscopic findings along with targeted immunohistological staining is often essential to aid early diagnosis. PMID:27721753

  19. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis in childhood: A case report.

    PubMed

    Pehlivan, Sultan; Akçan, Ramazan; Heybet, Eyup Ruşen; Cavlak, Mehmet; Pehlivan, Ali

    2016-03-01

    Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is a rare entity of unknown origin, which causes sudden death in more than half of the affected patients. It is rarely seen in childhood, and might result in death due to heart failure and ventricular arrhythmias. Idiopathic giant cell myocarditis is mostly diagnosed at autopsy incidentally. Here we present a rare case of childhood idiopathic giant cell myocarditis. A 10-year old boy found dead in his bed in the morning. Interview with family members revealed death the boy was in good health conditions apart from being overweight. At autopsy, external examination was completely normal. Internal examination revealed normal findings; the heart was 297g and macroscopically normal. No traces of any toxic agents detected in complete toxicological analyses. Areas characterized with granulomatous lesions, lymphocytes, histiocytes, and multinucleated giant cells were observed in myocardium at histopathological examination. No necrosis was observed in granulomatous areas. Tuberculosis was negative in the PCR assays. There were no signs indicative of fungal infection, and clinical status of the case was not compatible with the sarcoidosis. In this respect death was attributed to idiopathic giant cell myocarditis.

  20. A giant ancient schwannoma mimicking an adnexal mass

    PubMed Central

    Karaköse, Oktay; Pülat, Hüseyin; Oğuz, Serhat; Zihni, İsmail; Özçelik, Kazım Çağlar; Yalta, Tülin Deniz; Eken, Hüseyin

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: Ancient schwannoma is a rare tumor of the peripheral nerve sheath. As degenerative properties are defined histologically, it can be wrongly interpreted as malignant. Case presentation: The case presented here is of a giant ancient schwannoma with a pelvic retroperitoneal location, which was mimicking an adnexal mass. Conclusion: In the rarely seen cases in the retroperitoneum, it may reach very large dimensions. PMID:27472696

  1. Phase stable rare earth garnets

    DOEpatents

    Kuntz, Joshua D.; Cherepy, Nerine J.; Roberts, Jeffery J.; Payne, Stephen A.

    2013-06-11

    A transparent ceramic according to one embodiment includes a rare earth garnet comprising A.sub.hB.sub.iC.sub.jO.sub.12, where h is 3.+-.10%, i is 2.+-.10%, and j is 3.+-.10%. A includes a rare earth element or a mixture of rare earth elements, B includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, and C includes at least one of aluminum, gallium and scandium, where A is at a dodecahedral site of the garnet, B is at an octahedral site of the garnet, and C is at a tetrahedral site of the garnet. In one embodiment, the rare earth garment has scintillation properties. A radiation detector in one embodiment includes a transparent ceramic as described above and a photo detector optically coupled to the rare earth garnet.

  2. Application of an integrated biomarker response index to assess ground water contamination in the vicinity of a rare earth mine tailings site.

    PubMed

    Si, Wantong; He, Xiaoying; Li, Ailing; Liu, Li; Li, Jisheng; Gong, Donghui; Liu, Juan; Liu, Jumei; Shen, Weishou; Zhang, Xuefeng

    2016-09-01

    We utilized a multi-biomarker approach (Integrated Biomarker Response version 2, IBRv2) to investigate the scope and dispersion of groundwater contamination surrounding a rare earth mine tailings impoundment. Parameters of SD rat included in our IBRv2 analyses were glutathione levels, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase activities, total anti-oxidative capacity, chromosome aberration, and micronucleus formation. The concentration of 20 pollutants including Cl(-), SO4 (2-), Na(+), K(+), Mg(2+), Ca(2+), TH, CODMn, As, Se, TDS, Be, Mn, Co, Ni, Cu, Zn, Mo, Cd, and Pb in the groundwater were also analyzed. The results of this study indicated that groundwater polluted by tailings impoundment leakage exhibited significant ecotoxicological effects. The selected biomarkers responded sensitively to groundwater pollution. Analyses showed a significant relationship between IBRv2 values and the Nemerow composite index. IBRv2 could serve as a sensitive ecotoxicological diagnosis method for assessing groundwater contamination in the vicinity of rare earth mine tailings. According to the trend of IBRv2 value and Nemerow composite index, the maximum diffusion distance of groundwater pollutants from rare earth mine tailings was approximately 5.7 km.

  3. [Giant Meckel's diverticulum in an adult].

    PubMed

    Rivas, Tomas Contreras; Gallardo, Nasser Eluzen; Valenzuela, Sebastian King; Pezoa, María Elena Molina; Zúñiga, José Miguel; Muñoz, Carol Bustamante; Saralic, Biserka Spralja

    2014-10-07

    Meckel's diverticulum results from a partial persistence of the omphalomesenteric duct and is the most common congenital anomaly of the gastrointestinal tract, affecting about 2% of the general population. Its presentation as a giant Meckel's diverticulum (>5 cm) is rare and is associated with major complications. We report a case of a 53 year-old woman with constipation for at least ten years. A colonoscopy from eight years ago suggested megacolon. The patient consults in the last month for abdominal pain associated with anorexia. The computed tomography scan image suggested an ileal megadiverticulum. An exploratory laparotomy revealed a saccular dilatation of the distal ileum of 6 x 15.5 cm, located 20 cm away from the ileocecal valve. We resected the involved segment of distal ileum and performed a manual ileo-ascendo anastomosis. The biopsy showed a saccular dilatation of the wall, lined by small intestinal mucosa with areas of gastric metaplasia, supporting the diagnosis of giant Meckel's diverticulum.

  4. Giant intramuscular haemangioma of the chest wall with osteolytic change.

    PubMed

    Matsuoka, Katsunari; Ueda, Mitsuhiro; Miyamoto, Yoshihiro

    2012-05-01

    Intramuscular haemangioma of the chest wall is very rare, and only few cases associated with rib destruction has been reported. Here, we describe a 37-year old woman with a giant intramuscular haemangioma arising in the left back and associated with rib destruction.

  5. Dispersal and disturbance as factors limiting the distribution of rare plant species at the Savannah River Site and the Carolina Sandhills National Wildlife Refuge.

    SciTech Connect

    Primack, Richard; Walker, Joan.

    2003-12-10

    An experiment was conducted to identify effective methods of creating new populations of herbaceous species in managed upland longleaf pine forest at two locations in the Fall-line Sandhills of South Carolina. We included thirteen species and a variety of site treatments. All sites were burned and lightly raked prior to planting. Sowing seeds on untreated or fertilized treatments resulted in the lowest establishment of all treatments. Digging the planting area to remove belowground plant structures and using hardware cloth cages to exclude potential mammalian seed predators and herbivores led to increased establishment of target species. Establishment was higher using seedling transplants compared to seeds. Success rate was highly variable among sites so population establishment efforts should try to incorporate many sites initially to find the sites that give the greatest chance of success, or increase efforts to carefully identify species, habitat requirements and screen potential sites accordingly. Some species showed very low rates of success despite the variety of methods used; for such species additional work is required on their basic ecology, in particular germination biology and site requirements, as part of a restoration project. The overall low rate of establishment success emphasizes the need to protect and manage existing populations of uncommon Sandhills species, and to recognize that establishing large, long-term, reproducing populations of such species will be difficult.

  6. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus*

    PubMed Central

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion. PMID:24474093

  7. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus.

    PubMed

    Viana, Ana Carolina Leite; Gontijo, Bernardo; Bittencourt, Flávia Vasques

    2013-01-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevus is usually defined as a melanocytic lesion present at birth that will reach a diameter ≥ 20 cm in adulthood. Its incidence is estimated in <1:20,000 newborns. Despite its rarity, this lesion is important because it may associate with severe complications such as malignant melanoma, affect the central nervous system (neurocutaneous melanosis), and have major psychosocial impact on the patient and his family due to its unsightly appearance. Giant congenital melanocytic nevus generally presents as a brown lesion, with flat or mammilated surface, well-demarcated borders and hypertrichosis. Congenital melanocytic nevus is primarily a clinical diagnosis. However, congenital nevi are histologically distinguished from acquired nevi mainly by their larger size, the spread of the nevus cells to the deep layers of the skin and by their more varied architecture and morphology. Although giant congenital melanocytic nevus is recognized as a risk factor for the development of melanoma, the precise magnitude of this risk is still controversial. The estimated lifetime risk of developing melanoma varies from 5 to 10%. On account of these uncertainties and the size of the lesions, the management of giant congenital melanocytic nevus needs individualization. Treatment may include surgical and non-surgical procedures, psychological intervention and/or clinical follow-up, with special attention to changes in color, texture or on the surface of the lesion. The only absolute indication for surgery in giant congenital melanocytic nevus is the development of a malignant neoplasm on the lesion.

  8. LITHIUM-RICH GIANTS IN GLOBULAR CLUSTERS

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Cohen, Judith G.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cunha, Katia

    2016-03-10

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron–Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  9. Lithium-rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia

    2016-03-01

    Although red giants deplete lithium on their surfaces, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval. The data presented herein were obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation.

  10. Important population viability analysis parameters for giant pandas (Aliuropoda melanoleuca).

    PubMed

    Gong, Minghao; Song, Yanling; Yang, Zhisong; Lin, Chen

    2012-06-01

    Population viability analysis (PVA) is a tool to evaluate the risk of extinction for endangered species and aid conservation decision-making. The quality of PVA output is dependent on parameters related to population dynamics and life-history; however, it has been difficult to collect this information for the giant panda (Aliuropoda melanoleuca), a rare and endangered mammal native to China, confined to some 30 fragmented habitat patches. Since giant pandas are long-lived, mature late, have lower reproductive rates, and show little sexual dimorphism, obtaining data to perform adequate PVA has been difficult. Here, we develop a parameter sensitivity index by modeling the dynamics of six giant panda populations in the Minshan Mountains, in order to determine the parameters most influential to giant panda populations. Our data shows that the giant panda populations are most sensitive to changes in four female parameters: initial breeding age, reproductive rate, mortality rate between age 0 and 1, and mortality rate of adults. The parameter sensitivity index strongly correlated with initial population size, as smaller populations were more sensitive to changes in these four variables. This model suggests that demographic parameters of females have more influence on the results of PVA, indicating that females may play a more important role in giant panda population dynamics than males. Consequently, reintroduction of female individuals to a small giant panda population should be a high priority for conservation efforts. Our findings form a technical basis for the coming program of giant panda reintroduction, and inform which parameters are crucial to successfully and feasibly monitoring wild giant panda populations.

  11. Rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Gambogi, J.

    2013-01-01

    Global mine production of rare earths was estimated to have declined slightly in 2012 relative to 2011 (Fig. 1). Production in China was estimated to have decreased to 95 from 105 kt (104,700 from 115,700 st) in 2011, while new mine production in the United States and Australia increased.

  12. Luminescent properties of rare earth fully activated apatites, LiRE9(SiO4)6O2 (RE = Ce, Eu, and Tb): site selective crystal field effect.

    PubMed

    Kim, Donghyeon; Park, Doyoung; Oh, Namgyeong; Kim, Jaegyeom; Jeong, Euh Duck; Kim, Seung-Joo; Kim, Sungyun; Park, Jung-Chul

    2015-02-16

    Novel LiCe9(SiO4)6O2 and LiTb9(SiO4)6O2 compounds have been successfully synthesized, and the site selectivity and occupancy of activator ions have been estimated including LiEu9(SiO4)6O2 compound. The rare earth (RE) fully occupied compounds, as well as the RE partially occupied congeners are required for the assessment of site selectivity of RE (activator) ions in apatite-type compounds. The splitting energies of the 6H and 4F Wycoff positions of LiRE9(SiO4)6O2 (RE = Ce, Eu, and Tb) compounds are calculated based on crystal field theory: ΔECe(6H) = 3849.3 cm(-1), ΔECe(4F) = 4228.1 cm(-1), ΔEEu(6H) = 3870.0 cm(-1), ΔEEu(4F) = 4092.8 cm(-1), ΔETb(6H) = 3637.6 cm(-1), ΔETb(4F) = 4396.1 cm(-1), indicating that the splitting energy for the 4F site is larger than that for the 6H site in all compounds; thus the absorption energy is higher for the 6H site. In apatite-type LiRE9(SiO4)6O2 (RE = Ce, Eu, and Tb) compounds, the Ce(3+) ions predominantly occupy the 4F site associated with the absorption band around 300 nm at lower Ce(3+) concentration, and then enter the 6H site associated the absorption band around 245 nm. For the Eu(3+)-doped compounds, the 4F site and 6H site are mixed within the charge transfer band (CTB) between 220 and 350 nm. Eu(3+) ions initially preferentially occupy the 6H site (around 290 nm) at lower Eu(3+) concentration and subsequently enter the 4F site (around 320 nm) with increasing Eu(3+) concentration. For the Tb(3+)-doped compounds, the absorption due to the two different sites is mixed within f-d absorption band between 200 and 300 nm. At lower Tb(3+) concentration, the Tb(3+) ions enter favorably 6H site around 240 nm and then enter 4F site around 270 nm. These compounds may provide a platform for modeling a new phosphor and application in the solid-state lighting field.

  13. Gauging the flexibility of the active site in soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) through an atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) treatment that facilitates the sampling of rare events.

    PubMed

    Phatak, Prasad; Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S

    2012-08-30

    We present a computational methodology to sample rare events in large biological enzymes that may involve electronically polarizing, reactive processes. The approach includes simultaneous dynamical treatment of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom, where contributions from the electronic portion are computed using hybrid density functional theory and the computational costs are reduced through a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) treatment. Thus, the paper involves a QM/MM dynamical treatment of rare events. The method is applied to probe the effect of the active site elements on the critical hydrogen transfer step in the soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) catalyzed oxidation of linoleic acid. It is found that the dynamical fluctuations and associated flexibility of the active site are critical toward maintaining the electrostatics in the regime where the reactive process can occur smoothly. Physical constraints enforced to limit the active site flexibility are akin to mutations and, in the cases studied, have a detrimental effect on the electrostatic fluctuations, thus adversely affecting the hydrogen transfer process.

  14. Gauging the flexibility of the active site in soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) through an atom-centered density matrix propagation (ADMP) treatment that facilitates the sampling of rare events

    PubMed Central

    Phatak, Prasad; Sumner, Isaiah; Iyengar, Srinivasan S.

    2012-01-01

    We present a computational methodology to sample rare events in large biological enzymes that may involve electronically polarizing, reactive processes. The approach includes simultaneous dynamical treatment of electronic and nuclear degrees of freedom, where contributions from the electronic portion are computed using hybrid density functional theory and the computational costs are reduced through a hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) treatment. Thus, the paper involves a QM/MM dynamical treatment of rare events. The method is applied to probe the effect of the active site elements on the critical hydrogen transfer step in the soybean lipoxygenase-1 (SLO-1) catalyzed oxidation of linoleic acid. It is found that the dynamical fluctuations and associated flexibility of the active site are critical towards maintaining the electrostatics in the regime where the reactive process can occur smoothly. Physical constraints enforced to limit the active site flexibility are akin to mutations and, in the cases studied, have a detrimental effect on the electrostatic fluctuations, thus adversely affecting the hydrogen transfer process. PMID:22838384

  15. Giant Cell Fibroma in Children: Report of Two Cases and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Nikitakis, Nikolaos G.; Emmanouil, Dimitris; Maroulakos, Michail P.

    2013-01-01

    ABSTRACT Background Giant cell fibroma is a type of fibrous tumour of the oral mucosa which rarely affects children under the age of 10. The purpose of this paper was to contribute two clinically and histologically documented cases of giant cell fibroma in the free gingiva of a 7 and 6 year old boys. Methods Both nodules were presented in the mandibular anterior region. In the differential diagnosis several fibrous hyperplastic lesions were considered such as traumatic fibroma, papilloma, peripheral ossifying fibroma, peripheral odontogenic fibroma, giant cell fibroma and odontogenic hamartoma. Results The lesions were removed and the histological examination revealed fibrocollagenous connective tissue with the presence of stellate giant cells which confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell fibroma. Conclusions Dentists should be aware of the existence of giant cell fibroma in children, which must be included in the differential diagnosis of nodular lesions of the gingiva and adequately diagnosed and treated by removal and histopathological examination. PMID:24422028

  16. Painful scoliosis due to superposed giant cell bone tumor and aneurysmal bone cyst in a child.

    PubMed

    Togral, Guray; Arikan, Murat; Hasturk, Askin E; Gungor, Safak

    2014-07-01

    Giant cell bone tumors are the most common precursor lesions of aneurysmal bone cysts (ABCs) developing secondarily. In giant cell bone tumors containing an explicit ABC component, the observation of the solid component of the giant cell bone tumor plays a critical role in the separation of the primary ABC. In general, ABC cases together with giant cell tumors in the bone are diagnosed histopathologically. The combination of giant cell bone tumor with superposed ABC and that of painful scoliosis with backache is rarely seen in children. In this case study, we discussed the diagnosis and the treatment of a giant cell tumor and superposed an ABC present in the fifth lumbar spine in a pediatric patient admitted to our clinic with a complaint of acute scoliotic back pain.

  17. An Innocent Giant

    PubMed Central

    Solanki, Lakhan Singh; Dhingra, Mandeep; Raghubanshi, Gunjan; Thami, Gurvinder Pal

    2014-01-01

    A cutaneous horn (cornu cutaneum) is a protrusion from the skin composed of a cornified material. It may be associated with a benign, premalignant, or malignant lesion at the base, masking numerous dermatoses. In a 24-year-old female, a giant cutaneous horn arising from a seborrheic keratosis located on the leg is presented. This case has been reported to emphasize that a giant cutaneous horn may also occur in young patients, even in photoprotected areas, and are not always associated with malignancy. PMID:25484426

  18. Imaging of giant cell tumor of bone

    PubMed Central

    Purohit, Shaligram; Pardiwala, Dinshaw N

    2007-01-01

    Giant cell tumor (GCT) of bone is a benign but locally aggressive and destructive lesion generally occurring in skeletally mature individuals. Typically involving the epiphysiometaphyseal region of long bones, the most common sites include the distal femur, proximal tibia and distal radius. On radiographs, GCT demonstrates a lytic lesion centered in the epiphysis but involving the metaphysis and extending at least in part to the adjacent articular cortex. Most are eccentric, but become symmetric and centrally located with growth. Most cases show circumscribed borders or so-called geographical destruction with no periosteal reaction unless a pathological fracture is present. There is no mineralized tumor matrix. Giant cell tumor can produce wide-ranging appearances depending on site, complications such as hemorrhage or pathological fracture and after surgical intervention. This review demonstrates a spectrum of these features and describes the imaging characteristics of GCT in conventional radiographs, computerized tomography scans, magnetic resonance imaging, bone scans, positron emission tomography scans and angiography. PMID:21139758

  19. Multifocal Central Giant Cell Granuloma - A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Sandhya, Tamgadge; Avinash, Tamgadge; Snehal, Dhauskar; Neha, Tiwari; Uma, Mudaliar

    2016-01-01

    Central giant cell granuloma is a benign, aggressive neoplasm composed of multinucleated giant cells that almost exclusively occurs in the jaws though extra- gnathic incidence is rare. Multifocal CGCGs of the jaws are very rare and suggestive of systemic diseases such as hyperparathyroidism, an inherited syndrome such as Noonan- like multiple giant cell lesion syndrome or other disorders.Very few cases of multifocal CGCGs in the jaws without any concomitant systemic disease have been reported. This paper describes an unusual case reported to the Oral Surgery Department of Dr. D.Y.Patil Dental College & Hospital, Nerul, Navi-Mumbai in 2014 in a 45-year-old male with multifocal central giant cell granuloma involving maxilla and mandible. The serum alkaline phosphatase, calcium and phosphorus levels were within the normal limits. After complete clinical examination hyperparathyroidism and clinical characteristic of any syndromes such as Noonan-like syndrome and neurofibromatosis were ruled out. Thus this paper reports a non-syndromic multifocal central giant cell granuloma. PMID:27799978

  20. Remedial actions at the former Vitro Rare Metals plant site, Canonsburg, Washington County, Pennsylvania. Final Environmental Impact Statement. Volume II. Appendices

    SciTech Connect

    Not Available

    1983-07-01

    This report provides a summary of the conceptual design and other information necessary to understand the proposed remedial action at the expanded Canonsburg, Pennsylvania site. This design constitutes the current approach to stabilizing the radioactively contaminated materials in place in a manner that would fully protect the public health and environment. This summary is intended to provide sufficient detail for the reader to understand the proposed remedial action and the anticipated environmental impacts. The site conceptual design has been developed using available data. In some cases, elements of the design have not been developed fully and will be made final during the detailed design process.

  1. Giant Malignant Pheochromocytoma with Palpable Rib Metastases

    PubMed Central

    Gokce, Gokhan; Kilicli, Fatih; Elagoz, Sahande; Ayan, Semih; Gultekin, Emin Yener

    2014-01-01

    Pheochromocytoma is a rare and usually benign neuroendocrine neoplasm. Only 10% of all these tumors are malignant and there are no definitive histological or cytological criteria of malignancy. Single malignancy criteria are the presence of advanced locoregional disease or metastases. We report a case, with a giant retroperitoneal tumor having multiple metastases including palpable rib metastases, who was diagnosed as a malignant pheochromocytoma. The patient was treated with surgery. The literature was reviewed to evaluate tumor features and current diagnostic and therapeutic approaches for patients with metastatic or potentially malignant pheochromocytoma. PMID:25152826

  2. Giant velum interpositum meningioma in a child.

    PubMed

    Moiyadi, Aliasgar V; Shetty, Prakash

    2012-07-01

    Intraventricular meningiomas are rare, but are relatively more often seen in children. Large size at presentation often obscures anatomical details. A particular subset of such tumors arising from the velum interpositum pose a significant surgical challenge. Thorough preoperative imaging, especially with respect to the course of the deep venous structures, provides useful evidence as to the origin. Preservation of venous anatomy at surgery is vital. We describe a 3-year-old girl with a giant velum interpositum meningioma that was completely excised with excellent outcome. This is probably the youngest such case reported.

  3. Phenotypic expression and origin of the rare beta-thalassemia splice site mutation HBB:c.315 + 1G>T.

    PubMed

    Broquere, Cédrick; Brudey, Karine; Harteveld, Cornelis L; Saint-Martin, Christian; Elion, Jacques; Giordano, Piero C; Romana, Marc

    2010-06-01

    We present the hematological characteristics of five patients from Surinam and the bordering French Guyana, who are carriers of the rare beta-thalassemia (beta-thal) mutation HBB:c.315+1G>T. Analysis of the phenotype/genotype relationship shows that this allele is a beta(0)-thal variant and illustrates the modulating effect of the alpha-globin gene status on the beta-thal phenotype. The ethnic origin of the five probands, belonging to the so-called Bush Negroes Maroons of Surinam and French Guyana, strongly suggests that this beta-thal mutation has a West African origin and spread in this ethnic group because of a founder effect and/or genetic drift.

  4. Structure of an N276-Dependent HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody Targeting a Rare V5 Glycan Hole Adjacent to the CD4 Binding Site

    SciTech Connect

    Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Gorman, Jason; Anthony, Colin S.; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N.; Druz, Aliaksandr; York, Talita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Labuschagne, Phillip; Louder, Mark K.; Bailer, Robert T.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Mascola, John R.; Williamson, Carolyn; Moore, Penny L.; Kwong, Peter D.; Morris, Lynn; Kirchhoff, F.

    2016-08-31

    ABSTRACT

    All HIV-1-infected individuals develop strain-specific neutralizing antibodies to their infecting virus, which in some cases mature into broadly neutralizing antibodies. Defining the epitopes of strain-specific antibodies that overlap conserved sites of vulnerability might provide mechanistic insights into how broadly neutralizing antibodies arise. We previously described an HIV-1 clade C-infected donor, CAP257, who developed broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies targeting an N276 glycan-dependent epitope in the CD4 binding site. The initial CD4 binding site response potently neutralized the heterologous tier 2 clade B viral strain RHPA, which was used to design resurfaced gp120 antigens for single-B-cell sorting. Here we report the isolation and structural characterization of CAP257-RH1, an N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site antibody representative of the early CD4 binding site plasma response in donor CAP257. The cocrystal structure of CAP257-RH1 bound to RHPA gp120 revealed critical interactions with the N276 glycan, loop D, and V5, but not with aspartic acid 368, similarly to HJ16 and 179NC75. The CAP257-RH1 monoclonal antibody was derived from the immunoglobulin-variable IGHV3-33 and IGLV3-10 genes and neutralized RHPA but not the transmitted/founder virus from donor CAP257. Its narrow neutralization breadth was attributed to a binding angle that was incompatible with glycosylated V5 loops present in almost all HIV-1 strains, including the CAP257 transmitted/founder virus. Deep sequencing of autologous CAP257 viruses, however, revealed minority variants early in infection that lacked V5 glycans. These glycan-free V5 loops are unusual holes in the glycan shield that may have been necessary for initiating this N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site B-cell lineage.

    IMPORTANCEThe conserved CD4 binding site on gp120 is a major target for HIV-1 vaccine design, but key events in the elicitation and maturation of

  5. Structure of an N276-Dependent HIV-1 Neutralizing Antibody Targeting a Rare V5 Glycan Hole Adjacent to the CD4 Binding Site

    PubMed Central

    Wibmer, Constantinos Kurt; Gorman, Jason; Anthony, Colin S.; Mkhize, Nonhlanhla N.; Druz, Aliaksandr; York, Talita; Schmidt, Stephen D.; Labuschagne, Phillip; Louder, Mark K.; Bailer, Robert T.; Abdool Karim, Salim S.; Mascola, John R.; Williamson, Carolyn; Moore, Penny L.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT All HIV-1-infected individuals develop strain-specific neutralizing antibodies to their infecting virus, which in some cases mature into broadly neutralizing antibodies. Defining the epitopes of strain-specific antibodies that overlap conserved sites of vulnerability might provide mechanistic insights into how broadly neutralizing antibodies arise. We previously described an HIV-1 clade C-infected donor, CAP257, who developed broadly neutralizing plasma antibodies targeting an N276 glycan-dependent epitope in the CD4 binding site. The initial CD4 binding site response potently neutralized the heterologous tier 2 clade B viral strain RHPA, which was used to design resurfaced gp120 antigens for single-B-cell sorting. Here we report the isolation and structural characterization of CAP257-RH1, an N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site antibody representative of the early CD4 binding site plasma response in donor CAP257. The cocrystal structure of CAP257-RH1 bound to RHPA gp120 revealed critical interactions with the N276 glycan, loop D, and V5, but not with aspartic acid 368, similarly to HJ16 and 179NC75. The CAP257-RH1 monoclonal antibody was derived from the immunoglobulin-variable IGHV3-33 and IGLV3-10 genes and neutralized RHPA but not the transmitted/founder virus from donor CAP257. Its narrow neutralization breadth was attributed to a binding angle that was incompatible with glycosylated V5 loops present in almost all HIV-1 strains, including the CAP257 transmitted/founder virus. Deep sequencing of autologous CAP257 viruses, however, revealed minority variants early in infection that lacked V5 glycans. These glycan-free V5 loops are unusual holes in the glycan shield that may have been necessary for initiating this N276 glycan-dependent CD4 binding site B-cell lineage. IMPORTANCE The conserved CD4 binding site on gp120 is a major target for HIV-1 vaccine design, but key events in the elicitation and maturation of different antibody lineages to this site

  6. Giant cell tumor of soft tissue arising in breast.

    PubMed

    May, Steve A; Deavers, Michael T; Resetkova, Erika; Johnson, Deborah; Albarracin, Constance T

    2007-10-01

    Primary giant cell tumor of soft tissue (GCT-ST) arising in breast is exceedingly rare. We report a case of a 60-year-old woman with a primary breast giant cell tumor that appeared histologically identical to giant cell tumor of bone and had a clinically malignant course. The patient presented with a cystic mass of the breast, suspected on imaging to be an organizing hematoma, possibly related to previous injury. Histopathological evaluation revealed a neoplasm composed of mononuclear cells admixed with osteoclast-like giant cells resembling giant cell tumor of bone. Immunohistochemical staining was positive for CD68, smooth muscle actin, and vimentin, but was negative for a panel of epithelial and additional muscle markers. These features were most consistent with GCT-ST, an uncommon neoplasm of low malignant potential. Despite aggressive surgical treatment achieving clear surgical margins, the patient expired with pulmonary metastases within a year of her initial presentation. This case demonstrates the difficulty of predicting clinical behavior of GCT-ST of breast on the basis of histological features and depth of tumor alone. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of a GCT-ST arising in the breast associated with a fatal outcome. The distinction of this entity from other more common primary breast tumors with giant cell morphology is also emphasized.

  7. HHV-6A in syncytial giant-cell hepatitis.

    PubMed

    Potenza, Leonardo; Luppi, Mario; Barozzi, Patrizia; Rossi, Giulio; Cocchi, Stefania; Codeluppi, Mauro; Pecorari, Monica; Masetti, Michele; Di Benedetto, Fabrizio; Gennari, William; Portolani, Marinella; Gerunda, Giorgio Enrico; Lazzarotto, Tiziana; Landini, Maria Paola; Schulz, Thomas F; Torelli, Giuseppe; Guaraldi, Giovanni

    2008-08-07

    Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis is a rare but severe form of hepatitis that is associated with autoimmune diseases, drug reactions, and viral infections. We used serologic, molecular, and immunohistochemical methods to search for an infectious cause in a case of syncytial giant-cell hepatitis that developed in a liver-transplant recipient who had latent infection with variant B of human herpesvirus 6 (HHV-6B) and who had received the organ from a donor with variant A latent infection (HHV-6A). At the onset of the disease, the detection of HHV-6A (but not HHV-6B) DNA in plasma, in affected liver tissue, and in single micromanipulated syncytial giant cells with the use of two different polymerase-chain-reaction (PCR) assays indicated the presence of active HHV-6A infection in the patient. Expression of the HHV-6A-specific early protein, p41/38, but not of the HHV-6B-specific late protein, p101, was demonstrated only in liver syncytial giant cells in the absence of other infectious pathogens. The same markers of HHV-6A active infection were documented in serial follow-up samples from the patient and disappeared only at the resolution of syncytial giant-cell hepatitis. Neither HHV-6B DNA nor late protein was identified in the same follow-up samples from the patient. Thus, HHV-6A may be a cause of syncytial giant-cell hepatitis.

  8. Giant scrotal elephantiasis.

    PubMed

    Kuepper, Daniel

    2005-02-01

    How much can a man carry? Penoscrotal elephantiasis is a debilitating syndrome. This is a case report of a patient with giant genital elephantiasis secondary to long-standing lymphogranuloma venereum infection in Ethiopia. Complete surgical resection of the pathologic tissue and penile reconstruction was undertaken with good cosmetic and functional results.

  9. Electroluminescence of Giant Stretchability.

    PubMed

    Yang, Can Hui; Chen, Baohong; Zhou, Jinxiong; Chen, Yong Mei; Suo, Zhigang

    2016-06-01

    A new type of electroluminescent device achieves giant stretchability by integrating electronic and ionic components. The device uses phosphor powders as electroluminescent materials, and hydrogels as stretchable and transparent ionic conductors. Subject to cyclic voltage, the phosphor powders luminesce, but the ionic conductors do not electrolyze. The device produces constant luminance when stretched up to an area strain of 1500%.

  10. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China.

    PubMed

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-06-16

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species.

  11. Fatal canine distemper virus infection of giant pandas in China

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Na; Yu, Yicong; Wang, Tiecheng; Wilker, Peter; Wang, Jianzhong; Li, Yuanguo; Sun, Zhe; Gao, Yuwei; Xia, Xianzhu

    2016-01-01

    We report an outbreak of canine distemper virus (CDV) infection among endangered giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). Five of six CDV infected giant pandas died. The surviving giant panda was previously vaccinated against CDV. Genomic sequencing of CDV isolated from one of the infected pandas (giant panda/SX/2014) suggests it belongs to the Asia-1 cluster. The hemagglutinin protein of the isolated virus and virus sequenced from lung samples originating from deceased giant pandas all possessed the substitutions V26M, T213A, K281R, S300N, P340Q, and Y549H. The presence of the Y549H substitution is notable as it is found at the signaling lymphocytic activation molecule (SLAM) receptor-binding site and has been implicated in the emergence of highly pathogenic CDV and host switching. These findings demonstrate that giant pandas are susceptible to CDV and suggest that surveillance and vaccination among all captive giant pandas are warranted to support conservation efforts for this endangered species. PMID:27310722

  12. Not so Rare, Rare Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Waldman, H. Barry; Perlman, Steven P.; Munter, Beverly L.; Chaudhry, Ramiz A.

    2008-01-01

    A rare disease or condition is defined by federal legislation such that it: (1) affects less than 200,000 persons in the U.S.; or (2) affects more than 200,000 persons in the U.S. but for which there is no reasonable expectation that the cost of developing and making available in the U.S. a drug for such disease or condition will be recovered from…

  13. Management of giant pseudomeningoceles after spinal surgery

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Pseudomeningoceles are a rare complication after spinal surgery, and studies on these complex formations are few. Methods Between October 2000 and March 2008, 11 patients who developed symptomatic pseudomeningoceles after spinal surgery were recruited. In this retrospective study, we reported our experiences in the management of these complex, symptomatic pseudomeningoceles after spinal surgery. A giant pseudomeningocele was defined as a pseudomeningocele >8 cm in length. We also evaluated the risk factors for the formation of giant pseudomeningoceles. Results All patients were treated successfully with a combined treatment protocol of open revision surgery for extirpation of the pseudomeningoceles, repair of dural tears, and implantation of a subarachnoid catheter for drainage. Surgery-related complications were not observed. Recurrence of pseudomeningocele was not observed for any patient at a mean follow-up of 16.5 months. This result was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging. Conclusions We conclude that a combined treatment protocol involving open revision surgery for extirpation of pseudomeningoceles, repair of dural tears, and implantation of a subarachnoid catheter for drainage is safe and effective to treat giant pseudomeningoceles. PMID:20302667

  14. Giant Cell Tumor of Bone - An Overview

    PubMed Central

    Sobti, Anshul; Agrawal, Pranshu; Agarwala, Sanjay; Agarwal, Manish

    2016-01-01

    Giant Cell tumors (GCT) are benign tumors with potential for aggressive behavior and capacity to metastasize. Although rarely lethal, benign bone tumors may be associated with a substantial disturbance of the local bony architecture that can be particularly troublesome in peri-articular locations. Its histogenesis remains unclear. It is characterized by a proliferation of mononuclear stromal cells and the presence of many multi- nucleated giant cells with homogenous distribution. There is no widely held consensus regarding the ideal treatment method selection. There are advocates of varying surgical techniques ranging from intra-lesional curettage to wide resection. As most giant cell tumors are benign and are located near a joint in young adults, several authors favor an intralesional approach that preserves anatomy of bone in lieu of resection. Although GCT is classified as a benign lesion, few patients develop progressive lung metastases with poor outcomes. Treatment is mainly surgical. Options of chemotherapy and radiotherapy are reserved for selected cases. Recent advances in the understanding of pathogenesis are essential to develop new treatments for this locally destructive primary bone tumor. PMID:26894211

  15. Giant thoracic osteophyte: a distinct clinical entity.

    PubMed

    Coumans, Jean-Valery C E; Neal, Jonathan B; Grottkau, Brian E; Nahed, Brian V; Shin, John H; Walcott, Brian P

    2014-09-01

    Calcified lesions described within the neural axis are classified as either an ossification of the posterior longitudinal ligament, diffuse idiopathic skeletal hyperostosis, or ossification of the ligamentum flavum. We aim to describe a unique pathologic entity: the giant thoracic osteophyte. We identified four patients who were surgically treated at the Massachusetts General Hospital from 2006 to 2012 with unusual calcified lesions in the ventral aspect of the spinal canal. In order to differentiate giant thoracic osteophytes from calcified extruded disc material, disc volumetrics were performed on actual and simulated disc spaces. All patients underwent operative resection of the calcific lesion as they had signs and/or symptoms of spinal cord compression. The lesions were found to be isolated, large calcific masses that originated from the posterior aspect of adjacent thoracic vertebral bodies. Pathological examination was negative for tumor. Adjacent disc volumes were not significantly different from the index disc (p=0.91). A simulated calculation hypothesizing that the calcific mass was extruded disc material demonstrated a significant difference (p=0.01), making this scenario unlikely. In conclusion, giant thoracic osteophyte is a unique and rare entity that can be found in the thoracic spine. The central tenant of surgical treatment is resection to relieve spinal cord compression.

  16. Guiding the Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    1998-08-01

    New ESO Survey Provides Targets for the VLT Giant astronomical telescopes like the ESO Very Large Telescope (VLT) must be used efficiently. Observing time is expensive and there are long waiting lines of excellent research programmes. Thus the work at the telescope must be very well prepared and optimized as much as possible - mistakes should be avoided and no time lost! Astronomers working with the new 8-m class optical/infrared telescopes must base their observations on detailed lists of suitable target objects if they want to perform cutting-edge science. This is particularly true for research programmes that depend on observations of large samples of comparatively rare, distant objects. This type of work requires that extensive catalogues of such objects must be prepared in advance. One such major catalogue - that will serve as a very useful basis for future VLT observations - has just become available from the new ESO Imaging Survey (EIS). The Need for Sky Surveys Astronomers have since long recognized the need to carry out preparatory observations with other telescopes in order to "guide" large telescopes. To this end, surveys of smaller or larger parts of the sky have been performed by wide-field telescopes, paving the way for subsequent work at the limits of the largest available ground-based telescopes. For instance, a complete photographic survey of the sourthern sky (declination < -17.5°) was carried out in the 1970's with the ESO 1-metre Schmidt Telescope in support of the work at the 3.6-m telescope at the ESO La Silla observatory. However, while until recently most observational programmes could rely on samples of objects found on photographic plates, this is no longer possible. New image surveys must match the fainter limiting magnitudes reached by the new and larger telescopes. Modern digital, multi-colour, deep imaging surveys have thus become an indispensable complement to the 8-m telescopes. The new generation of imaging surveys will, without

  17. The first-order giant neurons of the giant fiber system in the squid: electrophysiological and ultrastructural observations.

    PubMed

    Pozzo-Miller, L D; Moreira, J E; Llinás, R R

    1998-06-01

    The giant fiber system controlling mantle contraction used for jet propulsion in squid consists of two sets of three giant neurons organized in tandem. The somata of the 1st- and 2nd-order giant cells are located in the brain, while the perikarya of the 3rd-order giant cells are encountered in the stellate ganglia of the mantle. The somata and dendrites of one fused pair of 1st-order giant cells are thought to receive synaptic input from the eye, statocyst, skin proprioceptors, and supraesophageal lobes. To define the cellular properties for integration of such an extensive synaptic load, especially given its diversity, intracellular recordings and electron microscopic observations were performed on 1st-order giant cells in an isolated head preparation. Spontaneous bursts of action potentials and spikes evoked by extracellular stimulation of the brachial lobe were sensitive to the Na+ channel blocker TTX. Action potentials were also abolished by recording with microelectrodes containing the membrane impermeant, use dependent Na+ channel blocker QX-314. The small action potential amplitude and the abundant synaptic input imply that the spike initiation zone is remotely located from the recording site. The high spontaneous activity in the isolated head preparation, as well as the presence of synaptic junctions resembling inhibitory synapses, suggest; that afferent synapses on 1st-order giant neurons might represent the inhibitory control of the giant fiber system. The characterization of the electroresponsive properties of the 1st-order giant neurons will provide a description of the single cell integrative properties that trigger the rapid jet propulsion necessary for escape behavior in squid.

  18. Ice Giant Exploration

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rymer, A. M.; Arridge, C. S.; Masters, A.; Turtle, E. P.; Simon, A. A.; Hofstadter, M. D.; Turrini, D.; Politi, R.

    2015-12-01

    The Ice Giants in our solar system, Uranus and Neptune, are fundamentally different from their Gas Giant siblings Jupiter and Saturn, from the different proportions of rock and ice to the configuration of their planetary magnetic fields. Kepler space telescope discoveries of exo-planets indicate that planets of this type are among the most ubiquitous universally and therefore a future mission to explore the nature of the Ice Giants in our own solar system will provide insights into the nature of extra-solar system objects in general. Uranus has the smallest self- luminosity of all the planets, potentially related to catastrophic events early in the planet's history, which also may explain Uranus' large obliquity. Uranus' atmosphere is subject to extreme seasonal forcing making it unique in the Solar System. Neptune is also unique in a number of ways, notably its large moon Triton which is likely a captured Kuiper Belt Object and one of only two moons in the solar system with a robustly collisional atmosphere. Similar to Uranus, the angle between the solar wind and the magnetic dipole axis is subject to large-amplitude variations on both diurnal and seasonal timescales, but peculiarly it has one of the quietest magnetospheres of the solar system, at least according to Voyager 2, the only spacecraft to encounter Neptune to date. A comprehensive mission, as advocated in the Decadal Survey, would provide enormous science return but is also challenging and expensive. In this presentation we will discuss mission scenarios and suggest how collaboration between disciplines and internationally can help us to pursue a mission that includes Ice Giant exploration.

  19. Giant cell arteritis

    PubMed Central

    Calvo-Romero, J

    2003-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA), temporal arteritis or Horton's arteritis, is a systemic vasculitis which involves large and medium sized vessels, especially the extracranial branches of the carotid arteries, in persons usually older than 50 years. Permanent visual loss, ischaemic strokes, and thoracic and abdominal aortic aneurysms are feared complications of GCA. The treatment consists of high dose steroids. Mortality, with a correct treatment, in patients with GCA seems to be similar that of controls. PMID:13679546

  20. Giant Cell Arteritis.

    PubMed

    Hoffman, Gary S

    2016-11-01

    This issue provides a clinical overview of giant cell arteritis, focusing on diagnosis, treatment, and practice improvement. The content of In the Clinic is drawn from the clinical information and education resources of the American College of Physicians (ACP), including MKSAP (Medical Knowledge and Self-Assessment Program). Annals of Internal Medicine editors develop In the Clinic in collaboration with the ACP's Medical Education and Publishing divisions and with the assistance of additional science writers and physician writers.

  1. The Medich giant platelet syndrome: two new cases.

    PubMed

    Gunning, William; Dole, Mukund; Brecher, Martin; White, James G

    2013-01-01

    Hypogranular platelet disorders in human subjects are relatively rare. They include the gray platelet syndrome, αδ storage pool deficiency, the Hermansky-Pudlak syndrome, and the white platelet syndrome. Perhaps the rarest of them all is the Medich giant platelet disorder. No additional cases of this condition have been reported since description of the first case in 2004. This study describes two children with thrombocytopenia and giant, hypogranular platelets found shortly after birth. Electron microscopic study of their platelets revealed sheets of membrane wrapped into tubes resembling scrolls. The scroll-like structures were open at both ends and often filled with glycogen particles. The abnormal structures are identical to those found in the initial case. As a result, the disorder can now be referred to as the Medich giant platelet syndrome.

  2. Giant sialolith of submandibular gland: report of a case†

    PubMed Central

    Arslan, Selçuk; Vuralkan, Erkan; Çobanog˘lu, Bengü; Arslan, Ahmet; Ural, Ahmet

    2015-01-01

    Sialolithiasis is one of the most common diseases of salivary glands in middle-aged patients. Sialoliths are localized in submandibular glands in nearly 80% of the reported cases and they are classified as ‘giant’ in case any dimension exceeds 15 mm. Giant sialolith in submandibular gland is a rare disorder. Here, an unusual case of giant sialolith in submandibular gland is reported. A 42-year-old man referred with complaints of recurrent pain and swelling in the left submandibular area. Computerized tomography revealed a calcified mass of 42 × 17 mm size within the submandibular gland. Excision was performed in the submandibular gland and a giant sialolith of 35 mm length localized in the body of the gland was detected. The postoperative period was uneventful and the patient fully recovered. PMID:25848088

  3. A class of rare antiferromagnetic metallic oxides: double perovskite AMn3V4O12 (A = Na(+), Ca(2+), and La(3+)) and the site-selective doping effect.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guangbiao; Wang, Yuanxu; Cheng, Zhenxiang; Yan, Yuli; Peng, Chengxiao; Wang, Chao; Dong, Shuai

    2015-05-21

    We have investigated the structural, electronic, and magnetic properties of A-site-ordered double-perovskite-structured oxides, AA'3B4O12 (A = Na, Ca, and La) with Mn and V at A' and B sites, respectively, using first-principle calculations based on the density functional theory. Our calculation results show that the antiferromagnetic phase is the ground state for all the compounds. By changing the A-site ions from Na(+) to Ca(2+) and then to La(3+), the transfer of charge between Mn and O ions was changed from 1.56 to 1.55 and then to 1.50, and that between the V and O ions changed from 2.01 to 1.95 and then to 1.93, revealing the cause for the unusual site-selective doping effect. Mn 3d electrons dominate the magnetic moment and are localized, with an intense hybridization with O 2p orbitals, which indicates that the magnetic exchange interaction between Mn ions is mediated through O and that the super exchange mechanism will take effect. These materials have a large one-electron bandwidth W, and the ratio of the on-site Coulomb repulsion U to W is less than the critical value (U/W)c, which leads to metallic behavior of AMn3V4O12. This is further evidenced by the large number of free electrons contributed by V at the Fermi surface. These calculations, in combination with the reported experimental data, prove that these double perovskites belong to the rare antiferromagnetic metallic oxides.

  4. A giant dumbbell shaped vesico-prostatic urethral calculus: a case report and review of literature.

    PubMed

    Prabhuswamy, Vinod Kumar; Tiwari, Rahul; Krishnamoorthy, Ramakrishnan

    2013-01-01

    Calculi in the urethra are an uncommon entity. Giant calculi in prostatic urethra are extremely rare. The decision about treatment strategy of calculi depends upon the size, shape, and position of the calculus and the status of the urethra. If the stone is large and immovable, it may be extracted via the perineal or the suprapubic approach. In most of the previous reported cases, giant calculi were extracted via the transvesical approach and external urethrotomy. A 38-year-old male patient presented with complaints of lower urinary tract symptoms. Further investigations showed a giant urethral calculus secondary to stricture of bulbo-membranous part of the urethra. Surgical removal of calculus was done via transvesical approach. Two calculi were found and extracted. One was a huge dumbbell calculus and the other was a smaller round calculus. This case was reported because of the rare size and the dumbbell nature of the stone. Giant urethral calculi are better managed by open surgery.

  5. Carnivora from the Kanapoi hominin site, northern Kenya

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Werdelin, Lars; Manthi, Fredrick Kyalo

    2012-02-01

    The assemblage from Kanapoi represents the most diverse early Pliocene carnivore assemblage from sub-Saharan Africa. Carnivora from Kanapoi were originally described by Werdelin (2003a), but continuing field work has brought to light significant new material from the site, shedding new light on the earliest post-Miocene radiation of Carnivora in Africa. Most importantly, a second species of Enhydriodon has been recovered from the site, including the first specimen to include a large part of the neurocranium. This makes Kanapoi the first site to include two species of this genus. This addition to the fauna will be of prime significance to understanding the ecology and evolutionary radiation of these giant, extinct otters. Other significant new finds include additional material of a wildcat-sized felid. Finds of this group are rare, and the new Kanapoi material adds significantly to our knowledge of the stem lineage of the genus Felis, which is widespread in Africa today.

  6. Habitat suitability and conservation of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, Brian J.; Wylie, Glenn D.; Casazza, Michael L.

    2010-01-01

    Resource managers often have little information regarding the habitat requirements and distribution of rare species. Factor analysis-based habitat suitability models describe the ecological niche of a species and identify locations where these conditions occur on the landscape using existing occurrence data.We used factor analyses to assess the suitability of habitats for Thamnophis gigas (Giant Gartersnake), a rare, threatened species endemic to the Central Valley of California, USA, and to map the locations of habitat suitable for T. gigas in the Sacramento Valley. Factor analyses indicated that the niche of T. gigas is composed of sites near rice agriculture with low stream densities. Sites with high canal densities and near wetlands also appeared suitable, but results for these variables were sensitive to potential sampling bias. In the Sacramento Valley, suitable habitats occur primarily in the central portion of the valley floor. Based upon the results of the factor analyses, recovery planning for T. gigas will require an on-the-ground assessment of the current distribution and abundance of T. gigas, maintaining the few remaining natural wetlands and the practice of rice agriculture in the Sacramento Valley, and studying the effects of agricultural practices and land use changes on populations of T. gigas.

  7. Habitat suitability and conservation of the Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento Valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Halstead, B.J.; Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, M.L.

    2010-01-01

    Resource managers often have little information regarding the habitat requirements and distribution of rare species. Factor analysis-based habitat suitability models describe the ecological niche of a species and identify locations where these conditions occur on the landscape using existing occurrence data. We used factor analyses to assess the suitability of habitats for Thamnophis gigas (Giant Gartersnake), a rare, threatened species endemic to the Central Valley of California, USA, and to map the locations of habitat suitable for T. gigas in the Sacramento Valley. Factor analyses indicated that the niche of T. gigas is composed of sites near rice agriculture with low stream densities. Sites with high canal densities and near wetlands also appeared suitable, but results for these variables were sensitive to potential sampling bias. In the Sacramento Valley, suitable habitats occur primarily in the central portion of the valley floor. Based upon the results of the factor analyses, recovery planning for T. gigas will require an on-the-ground assessment of the current distribution and abundance of T. gigas, maintaining the few remaining natural wetlands and the practice of rice agriculture in the Sacramento Valley, and studying the effects of agricultural practices and land use changes on populations of T. gigas. ?? 2010 by the American Society of Ichthyologists and Herpetologists.

  8. The Chemical Composition Contrast between M3 and M13 Revisited: New Abundances for 28 Giant Stars in M3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sneden, Christopher; Kraft, Robert P.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Peterson, Ruth C.; Fulbright, Jon P.

    2004-04-01

    relative contribution of rare to abundant isotopes of Mg. This points to a scenario in which these abundance ratios arose in the ejected material of 3-6 Msolar cluster stars, material that was then used to form the atmospheres of the presently evolving low-mass cluster stars. It also suggests that the low oxygen abundance seen among the most evolved M13 giants arose in hot bottom O-to-N processing in these same intermediate-mass cluster stars. Thus, mixing is required by the dependence of some abundance ratios on luminosity, but an earlier nucleosynthesis process in a hotter environment than giants or main-sequence stars is required by the variations previously seen in stars near the main sequence. The nature and the site of the earlier process is constrained but not pinpointed by the observed Mg isotopic ratio. Based on data obtained at the W. M. Keck Observatory, which is operated as a scientific partnership among the California Institute of Technology, the University of California, and the National Aeronautics and Space Administration. The Observatory was made possible by the generous financial support of the W. M. Keck Foundation. The authors wish to recognize and acknowledge the very significant cultural role and reverence that the summit of Mauna Kea has always had within the indigenous Hawaiian community. We are most fortunate to have the opportunity to conduct observations from this mountain.

  9. Giant cell tumor occurring in familial Paget's disease of bone: report of clinical characteristics and linkage analysis of a large pedigree.

    PubMed

    Gianfrancesco, Fernando; Rendina, Domenico; Merlotti, Daniela; Esposito, Teresa; Amyere, Mustapha; Formicola, Daniela; Muscariello, Riccardo; De Filippo, Gianpaolo; Strazzullo, Pasquale; Nuti, Ranuccio; Vikkula, Mikka; Gennari, Luigi

    2013-02-01

    Neoplastic degeneration represents a rare but serious complication of Paget's disease of bone (PDB). Although osteosarcomas have been described in up to 1% of PDB cases, giant cell tumors are less frequent and mainly occur in patients with polyostotic disease. We recently characterized a large pedigree with 14 affected members of whom four developed giant cell tumors at pagetic sites. The high number of affected subjects across multiple generations allowed us to better characterize the clinical phenotype and look for possible susceptibility loci. Of interest, all the affected members had polyostotic PDB, but subjects developing giant cell tumors showed an increased disease severity with a reduced clinical response to bisphosphonate treatment and an increased prevalence of bone pain, deformities, and fractures. Together with an increased occurrence of common pagetic complications, affected patients of this pedigree also evidenced a fivefold higher prevalence of coronary artery disease with respect to either the unaffected family members or a comparative cohort of 150 unrelated PDB cases from the same geographical area. This association was further enhanced in the four cases with PDB and giant cell tumors, all of them developing coronary artery disease before 60 years of age. Despite the early onset and the severe phenotype, PDB patients from this pedigree were negative for the presence of SQSTM1 or TNFRSF11A mutations, previously associated with enhanced disease severity. Genome-wide linkage analysis identified six possible candidate regions on chromosomes 1, 5, 6, 8, 10, and 20. Because the chromosome 8 and 10 loci were next to the TNFRSF11B and OPTN genes, we extended the genetic screening to these two genes, but we failed to identify any causative mutation at both the genomic and transcription level, suggesting that a different genetic defect is associated with PDB and potentially giant cell tumor of bone in this pedigree.

  10. Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma: A Review of 123 Cases

    PubMed Central

    Shadman, Niloofar; Ebrahimi, Shahram Farzin; Jafari, Shahin; Eslami, Mohammad

    2009-01-01

    Background: Peripheral giant cell granuloma is one of the reactive hyperplastic lesions of the oral cavity, which originates from the periosteum or periodontal membrane following local irritation or chronic trauma. The purpose of this study was to present the clinical characteristics of peripheral giant cell granuloma in a group of Iranian population. Methods: A series of 123 consecutive confirmed cases of peripheral giant cell granuloma after biopsy were evaluated. Age, sex, anatomic location, consistency, etiologic factor, pain and bleeding history, color, surface texture, and pedicle situation were recorded and were analyzed by chi-square test and values were considered to be significant if P < 0.05. Results: Age ranged from 6 to 75 years (mean 33 years). Women affected more than men (M/F 1:1.1). Peripheral giant cell granuloma was seen in the mandible more than in the maxilla and in the anterior region more than in the posterior region. In most cases, lesions were pink, pedunculated and had non-ulcerated surface. In less than half of the cases, there was no history of bleeding and also pain was rarely reported. Calculus was the most common etiologic factor. Conclusion: The results confirmed that the clinical features of peripheral giant cell granuloma in a group of Iranian population are almost similar to those reported by other investigators. PMID:21528029

  11. Complete transthoracic resection of giant posterior mediastinal goiter: case report and review of surgical strategies

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Honglin; Ren, Dian; Liu, Yi; Li, Xin; Wu, Yi; Chen, Gang; Chen, Jun

    2016-01-01

    Intrathoracic goiters generally occupy anterior mediastinum, rarely involving the posterior mediastinal space. Reported herein is a 54-year-old female with a giant posterior mediastinal mass that was successfully resected via right posterolateral thoracotomy. The final pathologic diagnosis was giant posterior mediastinal goiter. This patient has done well postoperatively, with no evidence of local recurrence at 12-month follow-up. Related surgical strategies in past publications are summarized. PMID:27217766

  12. Giant prostatic hyperplasia: report of a previously asymptomatic man presenting with gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock.

    PubMed

    Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes Neto, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery.

  13. Giant prostatic hyperplasia: report of a previously asymptomatic man presenting with gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock

    PubMed Central

    Wroclawski, Marcelo Langer; Carneiro, Ariê; Tristão, Rodrigo Alves; Sakuramoto, Paulo Kouiti; Youssef, Jorg Daoud Merched; Lopes, Antonio Correa; Santiago, Lucila Heloísa Simardi; Pompeo, Antonio Carlos Lima

    2015-01-01

    Giant prostatic hyperplasia is a rare condition characterized by very high volume benign prostatic enlargement (>500g). Few cases have been reported so far and most of them are associated with severe lower urinary symptoms. We report the first case of asymptomatic giant prostatic hyperplasia in an elderly man who had a 720g prostate adenoma, sudden gross hematuria and hypovolemic shock. The patient was successfully treated with open transvesical prostatectomy and had an uneventful postoperative recovery. PMID:26132361

  14. An undiagnosed giant right renal hydatid cyst treated laparoscopically: Case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Osman, Elsawi; Khan, Ziauddin; Abualsel, Abdulmenem; Bhatty, Tanweer

    2016-01-01

    Hydatid disease caused by the tape worm Echinococcus granulosus is a rare occurrence in the urinary system in general. We are hereby presenting a case of a gentleman in his fourth decade with a giant right renal hydatid cyst. The clinical manifestations, radiological features, and serology were all not suggestive of hydatid disease; however, typical Echinococcus scolices were detected histologically following cyst aspiration. The giant cyst was successfully treated laparoscopically. PMID:28057995

  15. Magnetic resonance imaging findings of undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells of pancreas.

    PubMed

    Yang, Kyung Yoon; Choi, Joon-Il; Choi, Moon Hyung; Park, Michael Yong; Rha, Sung Eun; Byun, Jae Young; Jung, Eun Sun; Lall, Chandana

    2016-01-01

    Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells is a rare pancreatic and periampullary neoplasm with less than 50 cases reported in the literature. Pathologically, this tumor mimics a giant cell tumor in bones. We report a case of undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells in a 55-year-old man presenting as a pancreatic mass with associated regional and distant lymphadenopathy. On T1- and T2-weighted images, the mass shows dark signal intensity which was atypical for a pancreatic adenocarcinoma.

  16. Establishment and cryopreservation of a giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line.

    PubMed

    Yu, Fang-Jian; Zeng, Chang-Jun; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Cheng-Dong; Xiong, Tie-Yi; Fang, Sheng-Guo; Zhang, He-Min

    2015-06-01

    The giant panda Ailuropoda melanoleuca is an endangered species and is a symbol for wildlife conservation. Although efforts have been made to protect this rare and endangered species through breeding and conservative biology, the long-term preservation of giant panda genome resources (gametes, tissues, organs, genomic libraries, etc.) is still a practical option. In this study, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line was successfully established via primary explants culture and cryopreservation techniques. The population doubling time of giant panda skeletal cells was approximately 33.8 h, and this population maintained a high cell viability before and after cryopreservation (95.6% and 90.7%, respectively). The two skeletal muscle-specific genes SMYD1 and MYF6 were expressed and detected by RT-PCR in the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line. Karyotyping analysis revealed that the frequencies of giant panda skeletal muscle cells showing a chromosome number of 2n=42 ranged from 90.6∼94.2%. Thus, the giant panda skeletal muscle-derived cell line provides a vital resource and material platform for further studies and is likely to be useful for the protection of this rare and endangered species.

  17. Chylous ascites after resection of giant adrenocortical carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Karakoyun, Rojbin; Demirci, Erkan; Alikanoglu, Arsenal Sezgin

    2016-01-01

    Postoperative chylous ascites (PCA) is a rare clinical state that occurs during abdominal surgery. Despite its rarity, the need to diagnose and treat PCA is increasing in importance with the increased number of wide resections and lymph node dissections being performed and the serious consequences of treatment. Here we describe the PCA complications we observed after resection for treating a case of giant adrenocortical carcinoma and we have the brief review of the PCA complication. PMID:28149812

  18. Brain Herniation into Giant Arachnoid Granulation: An Unusual Case

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Gonçalo Roque

    2017-01-01

    Arachnoid granulations are structures filled with cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) that extend into the venous sinuses through openings in the dura mater and allow the drainage of CSF from subarachnoid space into venous system. Usually they are asymptomatic but can be symptomatic when large enough to cause sinus occlusion. We report a rare case of a brain herniation into a giant arachnoid granulation in an asymptomatic elderly male patient, which was discovered incidentally. PMID:28392955

  19. Central Giant Cell Granuloma: A potential endodontic misdiagnosis.

    PubMed

    Seifi, Safoura; Fouroghi, Ramin

    2009-01-01

    Central Giant Cell Granulomas (CGCGs) may manifest as radiolucencies anywhere in the mandible or maxilla. In rare cases, it can appear as a localized periradicular area and mimic an endodontic lesion. This case report presents an uncommon location of CGCG which was not accurately diagnosed nor timely treated. Periodic follow ups of periapical radiolucencies after RCT are necessary. Dentists should include CGCG in differential diagnosis of lesions that are refractory to endodontic treatment. [Iranian Endodontic Journal 2009;4(4):158-60].

  20. Giant congenital nevus

    MedlinePlus

    ... A congenital pigmented or melanocytic nevus is a dark-colored, often hairy, patch of skin. It is ... rare. Symptoms A nevus will appear as a dark-colored patch with any of the following: Brown ...

  1. Giant papillary conjunctivitis.

    PubMed Central

    Donshik, P C

    1994-01-01

    Giant papillary conjunctivitis is a syndrome found frequently as a complication of contact lenses. Many variables can affect the onset and severity of the presenting signs and symptoms. Rigid gas permeable contact lenses appear to result in less severe signs and symptoms, with a longer time before the development of giant papillary conjunctivitis. Nonionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses tend to produce less severe signs and symptoms than ionic, low-water-content soft contact lenses. Enzymatic treatment appears to lessen the severity of signs and symptoms. The association of an allergy appears to play a role in the onset of the severity of the signs and symptoms but does not appear to affect the final ability of the individual to wear contact lenses. Using multiple treatment options, such as changing the polymer to a glyceryl methyl methacrylate or a rigid lens, or utilizing a soft lens on a frequent-replacement basis, can result in a success rate of over 90%. In individuals who still have a return of symptoms, the use of topical mast cell stabilizers or a nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug as an adjunctive therapy offers the added possibility of keeping these patients in contact lenses. Images FIGURE 1 FIGURE 2 FIGURE 3 FIGURE 4 FIGURE 5 FIGURE 6 FIGURE 7 FIGURE 11 A FIGURE 11 B FIGURE 11 C FIGURE 11 D PMID:7886881

  2. Gas Giants Form Quickly

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2007-01-01

    This is an artist's concept of a hypothetical 10-million-year-old star system. The bright blur at the center is a star much like our sun. The other orb in the image is a gas-giant planet like Jupiter. Wisps of white throughout the image represent traces of gas.

    Astronomers using NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope have found evidence showing that gas-giant planets either form within the first 10 million years of a sun-like star's life, or not at all. The lifespan for sun-like stars is about 10 billion years.

    The scientists came to this conclusion after searching for traces of gas around 15 different sun-like stars, most with ages ranging from 3 million to 30 million years. With the help of Spitzer's Infrared Spectrometer instrument, they were able to search for relatively warm gas in the inner regions of these star systems, an area comparable to the zone between Earth and Jupiter in our own solar system. They also used ground-based radio telescopes to search for cooler gas in the outer regions of these systems, an area comparable to the zone around Saturn and beyond.

  3. Giant Intradural Mucocele in a Patient with Adult Onset Seizures

    PubMed Central

    Kechagias, E.; Georgakoulias, N.; Ioakimidou, C.; Kyriazi, S.; Kontogeorgos, G.; Seretis, A.

    2009-01-01

    A rare case of mucopyocele in a patient who presented with epileptic seizures is reported. The computed tomography scan (CT) and the magnetic resonance (MR) imaging revealed an intradural extension of a giant fronto-ethmoidal mucopyocele, eroding the cribriform plate and compressing both frontal lobes. The lesion was removed by craniotomy with elimination of the mass effect and reconstruction of the anterior skull base. An intracranial-intradural mucopyocele is an extremely rare cause of generalized convulsion as a presenting symptom, with only 6 cases reported in the literature. The total removal of the lesion associated with anterior fossa reconstruction is the treatment of choice. PMID:20847833

  4. Reinflating Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2017-01-01

    Two new, large gas-giant exoplanets have been discovered orbiting close to their host stars. A recent study examining these planets and others like them may help us to better understand what happens to close-in hot Jupiters as their host stars reach the end of their main-sequence lives.OversizedGiantsUnbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-65b. [Adapted from Hartman et al. 2016]The discovery of HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b, two new transiting hot Jupiters, is intriguing. These planets have periods of just under 3 days and masses of roughly 0.5 and 0.8 times that of Jupiter, but their sizes are whats really interesting: they have inflated radii of 1.89 and 1.59 times that of Jupiter.These two planets, discovered using the Hungarian-made Automated Telescope Network (HATNet) in Arizona and Hawaii, mark the latest in an ever-growing sample of gas-giant exoplanets with radii larger than expected based on theoretical planetary structure models.What causes this discrepancy? Did the planets just fail to contract to the expected size when they were initially formed, or were they reinflated later in their lifetimes? If the latter, how? These are questions that scientists are only now starting to be able to address using statistics of the sample of close-in, transiting planets.Unbinned transit light curves for HAT-P-66b. [Hartman et al. 2016]Exploring Other PlanetsLed by Joel Hartman (Princeton University), the team that discovered HAT-P-65b and HAT-P-66b has examined these planets observed parameters and those of dozens of other known close-in, transiting exoplanets discovered with a variety of transiting exoplanet missions: HAT, WASP, Kepler, TrES, and KELT. Hartman and collaborators used this sample to draw conclusions about what causes some of these planets to have such large radii.The team found that there is a statistically significant correlation between the radii of close-in giant planets and the fractional ages of their host stars (i.e., the stars age divided by its full

  5. Allometry indicates giant eyes of giant squid are not exceptional

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background The eyes of giant and colossal squid are among the largest eyes in the history of life. It was recently proposed that sperm whale predation is the main driver of eye size evolution in giant squid, on the basis of an optical model that suggested optimal performance in detecting large luminous visual targets such as whales in the deep sea. However, it is poorly understood how the eye size of giant and colossal squid compares to that of other aquatic organisms when scaling effects are considered. Results We performed a large-scale comparative study that included 87 squid species and 237 species of acanthomorph fish. While squid have larger eyes than most acanthomorphs, a comparison of relative eye size among squid suggests that giant and colossal squid do not have unusually large eyes. After revising constants used in a previous model we found that large eyes perform equally well in detecting point targets and large luminous targets in the deep sea. Conclusions The eyes of giant and colossal squid do not appear exceptionally large when allometric effects are considered. It is probable that the giant eyes of giant squid result from a phylogenetically conserved developmental pattern manifested in very large animals. Whatever the cause of large eyes, they appear to have several advantages for vision in the reduced light of the deep mesopelagic zone. PMID:23418818

  6. Red Giant Plunging Through Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2006-01-01

    [figure removed for brevity, see original site] Poster Version

    This image from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope (left panel) shows the 'bow shock' of a dying star named R Hydrae, or R Hya, in the constellation Hydra.

    Bow shocks are formed where the stellar wind from a star are pushed into a bow shape (illustration, right panel) as the star plunges through the gas and dust between stars. Our own Sun has a bow shock, but prior to this image one had never been observed around this particular class of red giant star.

    R Hya moves through space at approximately 50 kilometers per second. As it does so, it discharges dust and gas into space. Because the star is relatively cool, that ejecta quickly assumes a solid state and collides with the interstellar medium. The resulting dusty nebula is invisible to the naked eye but can be detected using an infrared telescope. This bow shock is 16,295 astronomical units from the star to the apex and 6,188 astronomical units thick (an astronomical unit is the distance between the sun and Earth). The mass of the bow shock is about 400 times the mass of the Earth.

    The false-color Spitzer image shows infrared emissions at 70 microns. Brighter colors represent greater intensities of infrared light at that wavelength. The location of the star itself is drawn onto the picture in the black 'unobserved' region in the center.

  7. Low-temperature formation and stabilization of rare allotropes of cyclooctasulfur (β-S8 and γ-S8) in the presence of organic carbon at a sulfur-rich glacial site in the Canadian High Arctic

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lau, Graham E.; Cosmidis, Julie; Grasby, Stephen E.; Trivedi, Christopher B.; Spear, John R.; Templeton, Alexis S.

    2017-03-01

    Large-scale deposits of elemental sulfur form annually on a glacier's surface at Borup Fiord Pass in the Canadian High Arctic. However, the mechanisms of mineralization and stabilization of elemental sulfur at this site are currently unknown. Here we show that X-ray diffraction (XRD) data for fresh sulfur precipitates collected from the surface of a melt pool over sulfide-rich ice reveal the presence of three sulfur allotropes, α-S8, β-S8, and γ-S8 (the three solid forms of cyclooctasulfur (S8)). The detection of the β-S8 allotrope of elemental sulfur is notable, since β-S8 typically only forms in high temperature environments (>96 °C). The γ-S8 allotrope is also rare in natural settings and has previously been implicated as a signature of microbial sulfur cycling. Using combustion and infrared spectroscopy approaches, organic carbon is also detected within the sample bearing the three allotropes of elemental sulfur. Electron microscopy and scanning transmission X-ray microscopy (STXM) at the C K-edge show that the sulfur precipitates are intimately associated with the organic carbon at the submicron scale. The occurrence of β-S8 and γ-S8 in this low-temperature setting indicates that there are unknown pathways for the formation and stabilization of these rare allotropes of elemental sulfur. In particular, we infer that the occurrence of these allotropes is related to their association with organic carbon. The formation of carbon-associated sulfur globules may not be a direct by-product of microbial activity; however, a potential role of direct or indirect microbial mediation in the formation and stabilization of β-S8 and γ-S8 remains to be assessed.

  8. Giant Impacts on Earth-Like Worlds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-05-01

    examine the collisional histories of Earth-like planets that form. Their goal is to understand if our solar systems formation and evolution is typical or unique.How Common Are Giant Impacts?Histogram of the total number of giant impacts received by the 164 Earth-like worlds produced in the authors fragmentation-inclusive simulations. [Quintana et al. 2016]The authors find that including fragmentation does not affect the final number of planets that are formed in the simulation (an average of 34 in each system, consistent with our solar systems terrestrial planet count). But when fragmentation is included, fewer collisions end in merger which results in typical accretion timescales roughly doubling. So the effects of fragmentation influence the collisional history of the system and the length of time needed for the final system to form.Examining the 164 Earth-analogs produced in the fragmentation-inclusive simulations, Quintana and collaborators find that impacts large enough to completely strip a planets atmosphere are rare; fewer than 1% of the Earth-like worlds experienced this.But giant impacts that are able to strip ~50% of an Earth-analogs atmosphere roughly the energy of the giant impact thought to have formed our Moon are more common. Almost all of the authors Earth-analogs experienced at least 1 giant impact of this size in the 2-Gyr simulation, and the average Earth-like world experienced ~3 such impacts.These results suggest that our planets impact history with the Moon-forming impact likely being the last giant impact Earth experienced is fairly typical for Earth-like worlds. The outcomes also indicate that smaller impacts that are still potentially life-threatening are much more common than bulk atmospheric removal. Higher-resolution simulations could be used to examine such smaller impacts.CitationElisa V. Quintana et al 2016 ApJ 821 126. doi:10.3847/0004-637X/821/2/126

  9. Pediatric giant right atrial aneurysm: a case series and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Harder, Erika E; Ohye, Richard G; Knepp, Marc D; Owens, Sonal T

    2014-01-01

    Giant right atrial aneurysm is a rare form of congenital heart disease with a wide spectrum of clinical presentation varying from asymptomatic patients to those with refractory atrial arrhythmias or severe airway obstruction. Diagnosis is often confused with other causes of right atrial dilation such as Ebstein disease. Because of its rare occurrence and variable clinical presentation, inconsistencies in medical and surgical management strategies exist between centers. We present five cases of giant right atrial aneurysm managed at our institution and discuss the clinical presentation, diagnostic challenges, and medical and surgical management.

  10. Giant Cell Tumour of Proximal Phalanx of Ring Finger: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Soni, Rishit; Shah, Malkesh; Patel, Amit; Golwala, Paresh

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell tumour (GCT) of bone arising from a phalanx of a finger is extremely rare. Only two percent of all reported GCTs are found in the hand, which show a higher rate of recurrence as compared to those occurring at a more proximal location. Here we report a rare case of giant cell tumour of proximal phalanx of the ring finger in a 20-year-old male, which was treated with extended curettage and bone grafting. After two years of follow-up, the patient was asymptomatic with complete functional recovery and no signs of recurrence. PMID:27900230

  11. [Giant viruses: update, enigmas, controversies and perspectives].

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2016-12-01

    Unlike microbes known in his time, the first virus (that of tobacco mosaic disease) was discovered by Ivanoski in 1892 because it was not retained by Chamberland's porcelain candles. For more than a century afterward, viruses were equated with this simple property that is still extensively used today (using modern 0,2 µm pore filters) as a practical criterion to delineate the "viral fraction" from other microbes in medical or environmental samples. The first documented exception to the simplistic criterion of particle size came with the discovery of Mimivirus, the viral nature of which was eventually recognized in 2003, following ten years during which it was mistaken for an obligate intracellular bacterium. Thirteen more years later, we now realize that non-filtering "giant viruses" are not rare, probably ubiquitous, and come in a large variety of virion shapes, genome sizes, gene contents, and replication strategies. Following a quick description of the 4 giant virus families known today, we discuss the enigmas, controversies and perspectives of conceptual revolutions that are brought about by this new and booming area of virology.

  12. Giant intradiploic pseudomeningocele of occipital bone.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Rajinder; Chandra, Sarat P; Sharma, Bhawani Shanker

    2012-01-01

    The management of intradiploic CSF collection is controversial. Although it is a benign lesion, even then delay in diagnosis and treatment may lead to significant morbidity. The authors report a very rare case of giant posttraumatic intradiploic pseudomeningocele involving the occipital bone, occipital condyles, and clivus. The pathogenesis and management of intradiploic CSF collection are discussed. This 16-year-old boy presented with a history of enlarging swelling in the suboccipital region associated with headache, lower cranial nerve palsy, and features of high cervical compressive myelopathy. Investigations revealed a giant intradiploic lesion involving the occipital bone, condyles, and clivus associated with secondary basilar invagination, hydrocephalus, and syringomyelia. Intrathecal contrast administration did not reveal communication of intradiploic space with the subarachnoid space. A large occipital craniotomy was performed. A linear fracture and dural defect in the midline was identified, which was closed with fascial graft after removing the inner table of the skull. Cranioplasty was performed using the expanded calvarial bone. Ventriculoperitoneal shunt insertion was performed for hydrocephalus, and the patient improved remarkably. Posttraumatic intradiploic CSF collection, although a benign condition, may present with severe complications if treatment is delayed. Early diagnosis and treatment is essential. The authors suggest that this condition should be treated early, as for growing skull fractures.

  13. Giant Baker's Cyst Associated with Rheumatoid Arthritis

    PubMed Central

    Bılgın, Emre; Ketencı, İsmail Emre; Ugurlar, Meriç

    2017-01-01

    We report a rare case of a “giant Baker's cyst-related rheumatoid arthritis (RA)” with 95 × 26 mm dimensions originating from the semimembranosus tendon. The patient presented with chronic pain and a palpable mass behind his left calf located between the posteriosuperior aspect of the popliteal fossa and the distal third of the calf. In MRI cystic lesion which was located in soft tissue at the posterior of gastrocnemius, extensive synovial pannus inside and degeneration of medial meniscus posterior horn were observed. Arthroscopic joint debridement and partial excision of the cyst via biomechanical valve excision were performed. The patient continued his follow-up visits at Rheumatology Department and there was no recurrence of cyst-related symptoms in 1-year follow-up. Similar cases were reported in the literature previously. However, as far as we know, a giant Baker's cyst-related RA, which was treated as described, has not yet been presented. PMID:28116197

  14. Giant Solitary Fibrous Tumor of Orbit.

    PubMed

    Tenekeci, Goktekin; Sari, Alper; Vayisoglu, Yusuf; Serin, Onur

    2015-07-01

    Solitary fibrous tumors (SFTs) have been reported in various locations in the body. Solitary fibrous tumors are extremely rare tumors, especially when located in the orbit. Diagnosis of SFT cannot be made based on histopathology only because it exhibits a variable microscopic appearance, and necessitates immunohistochemistry to confirm the diagnosis. A 51-year-old man was admitted to our clinic for the evaluation of a mass bulging in his left eye. Clinical examination revealed a painless mass extruding out of the orbital cavity with dimensions of 8 × 7  cm. Exenteration of the left eye including the upper and lower eyelid and reconstruction of the orbital cavity using a temporoparietal fascia flap and a temporal muscle flap was performed. SFT of orbital region is known as a slow growing and painless tumor. Based on previous studies, increased mitotic rate of the tumor gives the impression that the tumor has a malignant nature. Until now a small number or orbital SFTs were reported and none of them presented with a giant mass protruding out of the orbital cavity. We present a unique case of orbital SFT filling the whole orbital cavity and protruding outward as a giant mass. This case has been reported to expand our knowledge in this debated entity.

  15. Molecular genetic analysis of giant cell glioblastomas.

    PubMed Central

    Meyer-Puttlitz, B.; Hayashi, Y.; Waha, A.; Rollbrocker, B.; Boström, J.; Wiestler, O. D.; Louis, D. N.; Reifenberger, G.; von Deimling, A.

    1997-01-01

    Glioblastomas (GBMs) are a heterogeneous group of tumors. Recently, distinct molecular genetic alterations have been linked to subgroups of patients with GBM. Giant cell (gc)GBMs are a rare variant of GBM characterized by a marked preponderance of multinucleated giant cells. Several reports have associated this entity with a more favorable prognosis than the majority of GBMs. To evaluate whether gcGBM may also represent a genetically defined subgroup of GBM, we analyzed a series of 19 gcGBMs for mutations in the TP53 gene for amplification of the EGFR and CDK4 genes and for homozygous deletions in the CDKN2A (p16/MTS1) gene. Seventeen of nineteen gcGBMs carried TP53 mutations whereas EGFR and CDK4 gene amplification was seen in only one tumor each and homozygous deletion of CDKN2A was not observed at all. The strikingly high incidence of TP53 mutations and the relative absence of other genetic alterations groups gcGBM together with a previously recognized molecular genetic variant of GBM (type 1 GBM). It is tempting to speculate that the better prognosis of gcGBM patients may result from the low incidence of EGFR amplification and CDKN2A deletion, changes known for their growth-promoting potential. Images Figure 1 PMID:9284834

  16. Usefulness of immunosuppression for giant cell myocarditis.

    PubMed

    Cooper, Leslie T; Hare, Joshua M; Tazelaar, Henry D; Edwards, William D; Starling, Randall C; Deng, Mario C; Menon, Santosh; Mullen, G Martin; Jaski, Brian; Bailey, Kent R; Cunningham, Madeleine W; Dec, G William

    2008-12-01

    Giant cell myocarditis (GCM) is a rare and highly lethal disorder. The only multicenter case series with treatment data lacked cardiac function assessments and had a retrospective design. We conducted a prospective, multicenter study of immunosuppression including cyclosporine and steroids for acute, microscopically-confirmed GCM. From June 1999 to June 2005 in a standard protocol, 11 subjects received high dose steroids and cyclosporine, and 9 subjects received muromonab-CD3. In these, 7 of 11 were women, the mean age was 60 +/- 15 years, and the mean time from symptom onset to presentation was 27 +/- 33 days. During 1 year of treatment, 1 subject died of respiratory complications on day 178, and 2 subjects received heart transplantations on days 2 and 27, respectively. Serial endomyocardial biopsies revealed that after 4 weeks of treatment the degree of necrosis, cellular inflammation, and giant cells decreased (p = 0.001). One patient who completed the trial subsequently died of a fatal GCM recurrence after withdrawal of immunosuppression. Her case demonstrates for the first time that there is a risk of recurrent, sometimes fatal, GCM after cessation of immunosuppression. In conclusion, this prospective study of immunosuppression for GCM confirms retrospective case reports that such therapy improves long-term survival. Additionally, withdrawal of immunosuppression can be associated with fatal GCM recurrence.

  17. Mineral resource of the month: rare earths

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Hedrick, James B.

    2004-01-01

    As if classified as a top-secret project, the rare earths have been shrouded in secrecy. The principal ore mineral of the group, bastnäsite, rarely appears in the leading mineralogy texts. The long names of the rare-earth elements and some unusual arrangements of letters, many Scandinavian in origin, may have intimidated even those skilled in phonics. Somewhat obscurely labeled, the rare earths are neither rare nor earths (the historical term for oxides). They are a relatively abundant group of metallic elements that occur in nature as nonmetallic compounds and have hundreds of commercial applications.

  18. Giant complex odontoma in maxillary sinus

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho Visioli, Adriano Rossini; de Oliveira e Silva, Cléverson; Marson, Fabiano Carlos; Takeshita, Wilton Mitsunari

    2015-01-01

    In this manuscript, we present a rare case report of giant complex odontoma in the maxillary sinus, where the applied therapy included complete excision of the lesion with a conservative approach. Odontomas are also called benign growth abnormalities or hamartomas. They represent a more common type of odontogenic tumor and are related to various disorders such as bad dental placements, expansion, increased volumetric bone, and no eruption of permanent teeth. Usually they have an asymptomatic evolutionary course. The etiologic factors, although obscure, are related to local trauma, infection, and genetic factor. The structural composition of an odontoma consists of mature dental tissues. Odontomas can be differentiated according to their anatomical presentations: Compound odontoma-clusters of several denticles and complex odontoma-well defined tumefaction mass. The diagnosis can be performed by radiographic examination. PMID:26389051

  19. [Giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma--case report].

    PubMed

    Bánky, Balázs; Bányász, Zsolt; Mayer, Arpád; Almási, Kálmán; Szucs, Iván

    2005-06-01

    Retroperitoneal liposarcomas are the most frequent soft tissue sarcomas and the second most frequent retroperitoneal tumours. They represent less then 0.1% of all human malignancies. Hereby we describe the treatment of our patient where of a 15-kg giant retroperitoneal liposarcoma was successfully removed and a local recurrence two years later was operated on as well. This was the 3rd largest retroperitoneal malignant tumor that was successfully removed according to the available literature of the last five decades. These typically symptom-free tumors usually grow extreme size before diagnosed. The "gold-standard" of treatment remains surgical total excision, but the high local recurrence rate (50-60%) hopefully can be reduced by adjuvant radio- and chemotherapy. Multidisciplinary treatment and long-time follow-up can provide as high as 40% 5-year survival rate. We summarize the recent clinical, diagnostic and therapeutic methods of this rare condition.

  20. Giant resonances: Progress, new directions, new challenges

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, J.R.; Beene, J.R.

    1989-01-01

    A review of some recent developments in the field of giant multipole resonances is presented. Particular emphasis is placed on directions that the authors feel will be followed in this field during the next several years. In particular, the use of high-energy heavy ions to excite the giant resonances is shown to provide exciting new capabilities for giant resonance studies. Among subjects covered are: Coulomb excitation of giant resonances, photon decay of giant resonances, the recent controversy over the identity of the giant monopole resonance, the most recent value for incompressibility of nuclear matter from analysis of giant monopole data, the isospin character of the 63 A/sup /minus/1/3/ GQR, agreement between (e,e/prime/) and (hadron, hadron/prime/) excitation of the giant quadrupole resonance, prospects for multiphonon giant resonance observation, and isolation of the isovector giant quadrupole resonance. 55 refs., 23 figs., 4 tabs.

  1. Giant Platelets in Platelet Donors – A Blessing in Disguise?

    PubMed Central

    Choudhury, Nabajyoti; Ray, Deepanjan

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Inherited thrombocytopenias, including inherited giant platelet disorders (IGPD) are relatively rare, but their prevalence is probably underestimated. Harris platelet syndrome, the most common IGPD reported from Indian subcontinent, mostly from eastern part, is characterised by a low platelet count, high mean platelet volume (MPV) and absence of bleeding. Aim A short study was conducted to assess the prevalence of giant platelets in voluntary donors of single donor platelets (SDP) and analyse the effect of transfusion of such SDPs in patients. Materials and Methods Voluntary donors of SDPs were screened as per standard guidelines prior to the procedure. A complete blood count (including MPV) along with a peripheral smear was done. A total of 45 donors were screened for plateletpheresis. Following plateletpheresis from these donors, a platelet count from the collection bag was done after one hour. The SDP was transfused as a single unit or divided into two and transfused to the same patient at two different occasions, as per clinical need. Platelet counts on pateints were done after one hour and the platelet recovery was noted. Results Out of the 45 donors who were screened, 30 (66.67%) were found to have giant platelets. It was observed that the pre procedure platelet counts in donors having giant platelets were relatively low (1.5 -1.7 lacs) and so also the platelet yield (2.7-3x1011) compared to donors who did not, but the post transfusion platelet recovery was greater. Conclusion Since presence of giant platelets has been seen to be common in the Eastern part of India, a peripheral smear examination should always be considered during screening of plateletpheresis donors to avoid rejecting donors with giant platelets whose platelet counts are given falsely low by autoanalysers. PMID:26266124

  2. Giant Hedge-Hogs: Spikes on Giant Gravitons

    SciTech Connect

    Sadri, D

    2004-01-28

    We consider giant gravitons on the maximally supersymmetric plane-wave background of type IIB string theory. Fixing the light-cone gauge, we work out the low energy effective light-cone Hamiltonian of the three-sphere giant graviton. At first order, this is a U(1) gauge theory on R x S{sup 3}. We place sources in this effective gauge theory. Although non-vanishing net electric charge configurations are disallowed by Gauss' law, electric dipoles can be formed. From the string theory point of view these dipoles can be understood as open strings piercing the three-sphere, generalizing the usual BIons to the giant gravitons, BIGGons. Our results can be used to give a two dimensional (worldsheet) description of giant gravitons, similar to Polchinski's description for the usual D-branes, in agreement with the discussions of hep-th/0204196.

  3. A giant Ordovician anomalocaridid.

    PubMed

    Van Roy, Peter; Briggs, Derek E G

    2011-05-26

    Anomalocaridids, giant lightly sclerotized invertebrate predators, occur in a number of exceptionally preserved early and middle Cambrian (542-501 million years ago) biotas and have come to symbolize the unfamiliar morphologies displayed by stem organisms in faunas of the Burgess Shale type. They are characterized by a pair of anterior, segmented appendages, a circlet of plates around the mouth, and an elongate segmented trunk lacking true tergites with a pair of flexible lateral lobes per segment. Disarticulated body parts, such as the anterior appendages and oral circlet, had been assigned to a range of taxonomic groups--but the discovery of complete specimens from the middle Cambrian Burgess Shale showed that these disparate elements all belong to a single kind of animal. Phylogenetic analyses support a position of anomalocaridids in the arthropod stem, as a sister group to the euarthropods. The anomalocaridids were the largest animals in Cambrian communities. The youngest unequivocal examples occur in the middle Cambrian Marjum Formation of Utah but an arthropod retaining some anomalocaridid characteristics is present in the Devonian of Germany. Here we report the post-Cambrian occurrence of anomalocaridids, from the Early Ordovician (488-472 million years ago) Fezouata Biota in southeastern Morocco, including specimens larger than any in Cambrian biotas. These giant animals were an important element of some marine communities for about 30 million years longer than previously realized. The Moroccan specimens confirm the presence of a dorsal array of flexible blades attached to a transverse rachis on the trunk segments; these blades probably functioned as gills.

  4. Major histocompatibility complex alleles associated with parasite susceptibility in wild giant pandas

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, L; Wu, Q; Hu, Y; Wu, H; Wei, F

    2015-01-01

    Major histocompatibility complex (MHC) polymorphism is thought to be driven by antagonistic coevolution between pathogens and hosts, mediated through either overdominance or frequency-dependent selection. However, investigations under natural conditions are still rare for endangered mammals which often exhibit depleted variation, and the mechanism of selection underlying the maintenance of characteristics remains a considerable debate. In this study, 87 wild giant pandas were used to investigate MHC variation associated with parasite load. With the knowledge of the MHC profile provided by the genomic data of the giant panda, seven DRB1, seven DQA1 and eight DQA2 alleles were identified at each single locus. Positive selection evidenced by a significantly higher number of non-synonymous substitutions per non-synonymous codon site relative to synonymous substitutions per synonymous codon site could only be detected at the DRB1 locus, which leads to the speculation that DRB1 may have a more important role in dealing with parasite infection for pandas. Coprological analyses revealed that 55.17% of individuals exhibited infection with 1–2 helminthes and 95.3% of infected pandas carried Baylisascaris shroederi. Using a generalized linear model, we found that Aime-DRB1*10 was significantly associated with parasite infection, but no resistant alleles could be detected. MHC heterozygosity of the pandas was found to be uncorrelated with the infection status or the infection intensity. These results suggested that the possible selection mechanisms in extant wild pandas may be frequency dependent rather than being determined by overdominance selection. Our findings could guide the candidate selection for the ongoing reintroduction or translocation of pandas. PMID:25248466

  5. Pharma giants swap research programs.

    PubMed

    2014-07-01

    Pharmaceutical giants Novartis and GlaxoSmithKline (GSK) agreed in late April to swap some assets, with Novartis handing off its vaccine business to GSK and getting most of the British company's cancer portfolio in return.

  6. Theories of Giant Planet Formation

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.; Young, Richard E. (Technical Monitor)

    1998-01-01

    An overview of current theories of planetary formation, with emphasis on giant planets, is presented. The most detailed models are based upon observations of our own Solar System and of young stars and their environments. While these models predict that rocky planets should form around most single stars, the frequency of formation of gas giant planets is more difficult to predict theoretically. Terrestrial planets are believed to grow via pairwise accretion until the spacing of planetary orbits becomes large enough that the configuration is stable for the age of the system. Giant planets begin their growth as do terrestrial planets, but they become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Most models for extrasolar giant planets suggest that they formed as did Jupiter and Saturn (in nearly circular orbits, far enough from the star that ice could), and subsequently migrated to their current positions, although some models suggest in situ formation.

  7. Landscape of the lost giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2013-09-01

    The Pleistocene megafauna extinction erased a group of remarkable animals. Whether humans had a prominent role in the extinction remains controversial, but it is emerging that the disappearance of the giants has markedly affected the environment.

  8. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Marley, Mark

    2006-01-01

    The next decade will almost certainly see the direct imaging of extrasolar giant planets around nearby stars. Unlike purely radial velocity detections, direct imaging will open the door to characterizing the atmosphere and interiors of extrasola planets and ultimately provide clues on their formation and evolution through time. This process has already begun for the transiting planets, placing new constraints on their atmospheric structure, composition, and evolution. Indeed the key to understanding giant planet detectability, interpreting spectra, and constraining effective temperature and hence evolution-is the atmosphere. I will review the universe of extrasolar giant planet models, focusing on what we have already learned from modeling and what we will likely be able to learn from the first generation of direct detection data. In addition to these theoretical considerations, I will review the observations and interpretation of the - transiting hot Jupiters. These objects provide a test of our ability to model exotic atmospheres and challenge our current understanding of giant planet evolution.

  9. The Lushan earthquake and the giant panda: impacts and conservation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zejun; Yuan, Shibin; Qi, Dunwu; Zhang, Mingchun

    2014-06-01

    Earthquakes not only result in a great loss of human life and property, but also have profound effects on the Earth's biodiversity. The Lushan earthquake occurred on 20 Apr 2013, with a magnitude of 7.0 and an intensity of 9.0 degrees. A distance of 17.0 km from its epicenter to the nearest distribution site of giant pandas recorded in the Third National Survey was determined. Making use of research on the Wenchuan earthquake (with a magnitude of 8.0), which occurred approximately 5 years ago, we briefly analyze the impacts of the Lushan earthquake on giant pandas and their habitat. An earthquake may interrupt ongoing behaviors of giant pandas and may also cause injury or death. In addition, an earthquake can damage conservation facilities for pandas, and result in further habitat fragmentation and degradation. However, from a historical point of view, the impacts of human activities on giant pandas and their habitat may, in fact, far outweigh those of natural disasters such as earthquakes. Measures taken to promote habitat restoration and conservation network reconstruction in earthquake-affected areas should be based on requirements of giant pandas, not those of humans.

  10. Giant primary angiosarcoma of the small intestine showing severe sepsis.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Mizuna; Ohara, Masanori; Kimura, Noriko; Domen, Hiromitsu; Yamabuki, Takumi; Komuro, Kazuteru; Tsuchikawa, Takahiro; Hirano, Satoshi; Iwashiro, Nozomu

    2014-11-21

    Primary malignant tumors of the small intestine are rare, comprising less than 2% of all gastrointestinal tumors. An 85-year-old woman was admitted with fever of 40 °C and marked abdominal distension. Her medical history was unremarkable, but blood examination showed elevated inflammatory markers. Abdominal computed tomography showed a giant tumor with central necrosis, extending from the epigastrium to the pelvic cavity. Giant gastrointestinal stromal tumor of the small intestine communicating with the gastrointestinal tract or with superimposed infection was suspected. Because no improvement occurred in response to antibiotics, surgery was performed. Laparotomy revealed giant hemorrhagic tumor adherent to the small intestine and occupying the peritoneal cavity. The giant tumor was a solid tumor weighing 3490 g, measuring 24 cm × 17.5 cm × 18 cm and showing marked necrosis. Histologically, the tumor comprised spindle-shaped cells with anaplastic large nuclei. Immunohistochemical studies showed tumor cells positive for vimentin, CD31, and factor VIII-related antigen, but negative for c-kit and CD34. Angiosarcoma was diagnosed. Although no postoperative complications occurred, the patient experienced enlargement of multiple metastatic tumors in the abdominal cavity and died 42 d postoperatively. The prognosis of small intestinal angiosarcoma is very poor, even after volume-reducing palliative surgery.

  11. A Case of Giant Uterine Lipoleiomyoma Simulating Malignancy.

    PubMed

    Karaman, Erbil; Çim, Numan; Bulut, Gülay; Elçi, Gülhan; Andıç, Esra; Tekin, Mustafa; Kolusarı, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Uterine leiomyoma is the most common benign pathology in women and lipoleiomyoma is an extremely rare and specific type of leiomyoma. Here, we report an unusual case of giant pedunculated subserous lipoleiomyoma misdiagnosed preoperatively as leiomyosarcoma. Case. A 45-year-old woman admitted to our gynecology outpatient clinic for complaints of abdominal distention, tiredness, and pelvic pain for the last 6 months. Sonography and abdominal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showed a giant semisolid mass that filled whole abdominal cavity from pelvis to subdiaphragmatic area. A primary diagnosis of uterine sarcoma or ovarian malignancy was made. On operation, total abdominal hysterectomy with a pedunculated mass of size 30 × 23 × 12 cm and weighing 5.4 kg and bilateral salpingo-oophorectomy were performed. The histopathology revealed a lipoleiomyoma with extensive cystic and fatty degeneration without any malignancy. Discussion. The diagnosis of leiomyoma is done usually with pelvic ultrasound but sometimes it is difficult to reach a correct diagnosis especially in cases of giant and pedunculated lipoleiomyoma that included fatty tissue which may mimick malignancy. Conclusion. Subserous pedunculated giant lipoleiomyoma should be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of leiomyosarcoma or ovarian malignancy.

  12. Giants in the Local Region

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luck, R. Earle; Heiter, Ulrike

    2007-06-01

    We present parameter and abundance data for a sample of 298 nearby giants. The spectroscopic data for this work have a resolution of R~60,000, S/N>150, and spectral coverage from 475 to 685 nm. Overall trends in the Z>10 abundances are dominated by Galactic chemical evolution, while the light-element abundances are influenced by stellar evolution, as well as Galactic evolution. We find several super-Li stars in our sample and confirm that Li abundances in the first giant branch are related to mixing depths. Once astration of lithium on the main sequence along with the overall range of main-sequence lithium abundances are taken into account, the lithium abundances of the giants are not dramatically at odds with the predictions of standard stellar evolution. We find the giants to be carbon-diluted in accord with standard stellar evolution and that the carbon and oxygen abundances determined for the local giants are consistent with those found in local field dwarfs. We find that there is evidence for systematic carbon variations in the red giant clump in the sense that the blue side of the clump is carbon-poor (more diluted) than the red side.

  13. The Giant Magnetocaloric Effect

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pecharsky, Vitalij K.

    1998-03-01

    Since the discovery of the magnetocaloric effect in pure iron by E.Warburg in 1881, it has been measured experimentally on many magnetic metals and compounds. The majority of the materials studied order magnetically undergoing a second order phase transformation. The magnetocaloric effect, typically peaking near the Curie or the Néel temperature, generally ranges from 0.5 to 2 K (in terms of adiabatic temperature change) or at 1 to 4 J/kg K (in terms of isothermal magnetic entropy change) per 1 T magnetic field change. The giant magnetocaloric effect recently discovered in Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where x <= 0.5, is associated with a first order magnetic phase transition and it reaches values of 3 to 4 K and 6 to 10 J/kg K per 1 T field change, respectively. The refrigerant capacity, which is the measure of how much heat can be transferred from a cold to a hot reservoir in one ideal thermodynamic cycle, is larger than that of the best second order phase transition materials by 25 to 100%. When the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys are compared with other known materials, which show first order magnetic phase transition, such as Dy, Ho, Er, HoCo_2, NdMn_2Si_2, Fe_0.49Rh_0.51, and (Hf_0.83Ta_0.17)Fe_2+x, only Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 has comparable magnetocaloric properties. However, the first order magnetic phase transition in Fe_0.49Rh_0.51 is irreversible, and the magnetocaloric effect disappears after one magnetizing/demagnetizing cycle. A study of the crystal structure, thermodynamics, and magnetism of the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 alloys, where 0 <= x <= 1 allowed us to obtain a qualitative understanding of the basic relations between the composition, the crystal structure, and the change in thermodynamics and magnetocaloric properties, which occur in the Gd_5(Si_xGe_1-x)4 system, and which brings about the giant magnetocaloric effect when x <= 0.5.

  14. ON THE SERENDIPITOUS DISCOVERY OF A Li-RICH GIANT IN THE GLOBULAR CLUSTER NGC 362

    SciTech Connect

    D’Orazi, Valentina; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Lucatello, Sara; Momany, Yazan; Angelou, George C.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Sollima, Antonio; Lattanzio, John C.

    2015-03-10

    We have serendipitously identified the first lithium-rich giant star located close to the red giant branch bump in a globular cluster. Through intermediate-resolution FLAMES spectra we derived a lithium abundance of A(Li) = 2.55 (assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium), which is extremely high considering the star’s evolutionary stage. Kinematic and photometric analysis confirm the object as a member of the globular cluster NGC 362. This is the fourth Li-rich giant discovered in a globular cluster, but is the only one known to exist at a luminosity close to the bump magnitude. The three previous detections are clearly more evolved, located close to, or beyond, the tip of their red giant branch. Our observations are able to discard the accretion of planets/brown dwarfs, as well as an enhanced mass-loss mechanism as a formation channel for this rare object. While the star sits just above the cluster bump luminosity, its temperature places it toward the blue side of the giant branch in the color–magnitude diagram. We require further dedicated observations to unambiguously identify the star as a red giant: we are currently unable to confirm whether Li production has occurred at the bump of the luminosity function or if the star is on the pre-zero-age horizontal branch. The latter scenario provides the opportunity for the star to have synthesized Li rapidly during the core helium flash or gradually during its red giant branch ascent via some extra mixing process.

  15. DISCOVERY OF SUPER-Li-RICH RED GIANTS IN DWARF SPHEROIDAL GALAXIES

    SciTech Connect

    Kirby, Evan N.; Fu, Xiaoting; Deng, Licai; Guhathakurta, Puragra

    2012-06-10

    Stars destroy lithium (Li) in their normal evolution. The convective envelopes of evolved red giants reach temperatures of millions of kelvin, hot enough for the {sup 7}Li(p, {alpha}){sup 4}He reaction to burn Li efficiently. Only about 1% of first-ascent red giants more luminous than the luminosity function bump in the red giant branch exhibit A(Li) > 1.5. Nonetheless, Li-rich red giants do exist. We present 15 Li-rich red giants-14 of which are new discoveries-among a sample of 2054 red giants in Milky Way dwarf satellite galaxies. Our sample more than doubles the number of low-mass, metal-poor ([Fe/H] {approx}< -0.7) Li-rich red giants, and it includes the most-metal-poor Li-enhanced star known ([Fe/H] = -2.82, A(Li){sub NLTE} = 3.15). Because most of the stars have Li abundances larger than the universe's primordial value, the Li in these stars must have been created rather than saved from destruction. These Li-rich stars appear like other stars in the same galaxies in every measurable regard other than Li abundance. We consider the possibility that Li enrichment is a universal phase of evolution that affects all stars, and it seems rare only because it is brief.

  16. Disseminated giant porokeratosis and porokeratosis of Mibelli in Bankura and Bardhaman districts, West Bengal, India.

    PubMed

    Koley, Sankha; Mandal, Rajesh Kumar; Bar, Chittaranjan

    2014-09-01

    Porokeratosis of Mibelli (PM) is a rare genodermatosis. It is caused by proliferation of abnormal clones of epidermal cells in response to several stimuli, the most important of which is sunlight. Giant porokeratosis is thought to be a variant of PM. We report two cases of disseminated PM and one case of disseminated giant porokeratosis from the Bankura and Bardhaman districts of West Bengal in India; presenting to a single observer in the summer of 2012. Interestingly we have noted that the majority of cases of porokeratosis in India have been reported from West Bengal. Few patients with a single lesion of giant porokeratosis have been reported in world literature. As far as we know, this is the first case report of disseminated giant porokeratosis in world literature.

  17. Angiomatous Hamartoma - A Rare Presentation

    PubMed Central

    Wadhera, Raman; Kaintura, Madhuri; Bhukar, Sandeep; Pillai, Dheeraj Shashikumar

    2016-01-01

    Eccrine Angiomatous Hamartoma (EAH) is a benign rare skin neoplasm characterised histologically by abnormal proliferation of sweat glands and surrounding capillaries and other dermal elements like fatty lobules and hair. It usually presents at birth or in early childhood in the form of solitary nodules mostly affecting the extremities. Here, we report a case of angiomatous hamartoma over the face which presented as a cystic swelling in preauricular region in a 55-year-old man. The late onset and a rare site for presentation of EAH prompted us to report the case. There is not even a single case of EAH arising in the “preauricular” region, reported. PMID:27790478

  18. Giant calvarial cavernous hemangioma

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Satish Kumar; Singh, Pankaj Kumar; Garg, Kanwaljeet; Satyarthee, Guru Dutta; Sharma, Mehar C.; Singh, Manmohan; Sharma, Bhawani Shankar

    2015-01-01

    Though hemangiomas of the bone are quite common, calvarial (skull) cavernous hemangiomas are relatively rare pathologies. Calvarial hemangiomas are usually small and asymptomatic. However, they may occasionally grow in size to achieve large sizes and can present as a palpable swelling. We present a child with massive temporo-parieto-occipital calvarial cavernous hemangioma, who was managed with a multimodal approach with excellent cosmetic and neurologic outcome. PMID:25878743

  19. Chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation induced by left atrial thrombus in a patient with giant “normal” heart

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Qianqian; Tian, Ran; Zhang, Xu; Gao, Xin; Lai, Jinzhi; Tian, Zhuang; Yan, Xiaowei; Zhang, Shuyang

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Introduction: We herein describe a patient with chronic disseminated intravascular coagulation (DIC) induced by a giant thrombus in the left atrium. A 63-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital for evaluation of extensive mucocutaneous hemorrhage, especially at the sites of venipuncture, on May 21, 2015. Considering her long history of rheumatic heart disease and atrial fibrillation and her mitral valve replacement performed several years previously, we strongly suspected that the bleeding was closely related to postoperative over-anticoagulation of warfarin. After careful investigation, we found that her coagulopathy was induced by the chronic DIC, which was in turn secondary to a left atrial giant thrombus. This is a rarely reported cause of chronic DIC. Cardiac computed tomography and echocardiography showed apparent biatrial enlargement; the morphology and function of the ventricles were unaffected. After anticoagulant therapy, the bleeding tendency and coagulation index were significantly improved. Conclusion: A left atrial thrombus should be considered as a differential diagnosis of chronic DIC, especially in patients with predisposing heart conditions. Because treatment of the underlying cause is paramount in the management of chronic DIC, this case is of great clinical value. PMID:28002328

  20. A unique advantage for giant eyes in giant squid.

    PubMed

    Nilsson, Dan-Eric; Warrant, Eric J; Johnsen, Sönke; Hanlon, Roger; Shashar, Nadav

    2012-04-24

    Giant and colossal deep-sea squid (Architeuthis and Mesonychoteuthis) have the largest eyes in the animal kingdom [1, 2], but there is no explanation for why they would need eyes that are nearly three times the diameter of those of any other extant animal. Here we develop a theory for visual detection in pelagic habitats, which predicts that such giant eyes are unlikely to evolve for detecting mates or prey at long distance but are instead uniquely suited for detecting very large predators, such as sperm whales. We also provide photographic documentation of an eyeball of about 27 cm with a 9 cm pupil in a giant squid, and we predict that, below 600 m depth, it would allow detection of sperm whales at distances exceeding 120 m. With this long range of vision, giant squid get an early warning of approaching sperm whales. Because the sonar range of sperm whales exceeds 120 m [3-5], we hypothesize that a well-prepared and powerful evasive response to hunting sperm whales may have driven the evolution of huge dimensions in both eyes and bodies of giant and colossal squid. Our theory also provides insights into the vision of Mesozoic ichthyosaurs with unusually large eyes.

  1. Giant cell tumor of the greater wing of the sphenoid: an unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Pelaz, Andrés Coca; Llorente Pendás, José L; Rodrigo Tapia, Juan P; Suárez Nieto, Carlos

    2008-05-01

    We report a very unusual presentation of giant cell tumor probably originated on the greater wing of the sphenoid and show a review about the knowledge and the treatment of the lesion in this rare localization. We treated a 48-year-old man with a giant cell tumor of the infratemporal fossa. He presented with a right-side hearing loss and facial pain. The tumor was resected by means of a subtemporal-preauricular approach, and after 12 months of follow-up, the patient is free of recurrence. Giant cell tumors of the skull base are an extremely rare neoplasm, and there is not much information on the literature about the treatment and the prognostic. Wide resection ought to be made, and at the follow-up, the clinician must try to diagnose not only local recurrence but also the possibility of distant metastases to the lung.

  2. Perianal giant condyloma acuminata [buschke lowenstein tumour] - first case report from the Kashmir valley.

    PubMed

    Chowdri, Nisar A; Gagloo, Mushtaq A; Parray, Fazal Q; Sheikh, Zahoor A; Rouf, A; Wani, A

    2007-10-01

    Buschke Lowenstein tumour or giant condyloma acuminata is a rare entity with only less then 50 cases reported in English literature so far. No such case has been reported from the Kashmir valley. They are considered as intermediate lesions between simple condyloma acuminata and invasive squamous cell carcinoma. A 57-year-old heterosexual male presented with a giant perianal condyloma. The lesion was surgically excised completely. Postoperatively patient was put on topical 5-FU ointment. Patient is recurrence free 6 months after surgery. The giant condyloma acuminate is an aggressive tumour with propensity for recurrance and malignant transformation. Surgical excision is the treatment of choice. One such rare case is discussed with review of literature.

  3. Autoimmune hemolytic anemia and giant cell hepatitis: Report of three infants.

    PubMed

    Ünal, Şule; Kuşkonmaz, Barış; Balamtekin, Necati; Baysoy, Gökhan; Aytaç Elmas, Selin; Orhan, Diclehan; Kale, Gülsev; Yüce, Aysel; Gürakan, Figen; Gümrük, Fatma; Çetin, Mualla

    2010-12-05

    Giant cell hepatitis associated with direct Coombs' test-positive hemolytic anemia is a rare condition of childhood and the pathogenesis remains unclear. An autoimmune activation and loss of self-tolerance in these patients may be the underlying pathology related to the response of some of the patients to immunosuppressive treatment. Herein, we report the clinical presentation and course of three consecutive patients with this rare condition. We conclude that serum ferritin at diagnosis may be used for prediction of the outcome.

  4. Solitary giant neurofibroma of the scalp with calvarial defect in a child.

    PubMed

    Ismail, N J; Shehu, B B; Lasseini, A; Hassan, I; Shilong, D J; Obande, J O; Sahabi, S M

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibroma of the scalp are mostly multiple as part of neurofibromatosis or other phakomatosis. De novo solitary types are less common and rarely erode the skull, unlike the intracranial counterpart. Skull erosion has been reported in adults with longstanding plexiform neurofibromas. We report a giant neurofibroma on the scalp of a five-year-old boy, managed in our center. Although this condition is a rare entity, it should be anticipated and the treatment strategy should include repair of the skull defect.

  5. [Giant negative T waves in idiopathic apical diverticulum of the left ventricle in adults].

    PubMed

    Barboteu, M; Desnos, M; Hagège, A; Dufour, M; Chauvaud, S; Junes, G; Baleynaud, S; Bruneval, P; Guérot, C

    1995-10-01

    Left ventricular diverticula, congenital or acquired, with normal coronary arteries are rare. Apical diverticula are exceptionally rare in the adult. The authors present the clinical, paraclinical, anatomopathological pre- and postoperative data in a case of apical diverticulum of the left ventricle presenting with giant negative T waves. The differential diagnosis of these electrocardiographic changes is discussed, in particular apical cardiomyopathy, especially as the two conditions may be associated.

  6. Formation of the giant planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2006-01-01

    The observed properties of giant planets, models of their evolution and observations of protoplanetary disks provide constraints on the formation of gas giant planets. The four largest planets in our Solar System contain considerable quantities of hydrogen and helium, which could not have condensed into solid planetesimals within the protoplanetary disk. All three (transiting) extrasolar giant planets with well determined masses and radii also must contain substantial amounts of these light gases. Jupiter and Saturn are mostly hydrogen and helium, but have larger abundances of heavier elements than does the Sun. Neptune and Uranus are primarily composed of heavier elements. HD 149026 b, which is slightly more massive than is Saturn, appears to have comparable quantities of light gases and heavy elements. HD 209458 b and TrES-1 are primarily hydrogen and helium, but may contain supersolar abundances of heavy elements. Spacecraft flybys and observations of satellite orbits provide estimates of the gravitational moments of the giant planets in our Solar System, which in turn provide information on the internal distribution of matter within Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus and Neptune. Atmospheric thermal structure and heat flow measurements constrain the interior temperatures of planets. Internal processes may cause giant planets to become more compositionally differentiated or alternatively more homogeneous; high-pressure laboratory .experiments provide data useful for modeling these processes. The preponderance of evidence supports the core nucleated gas accretion model. According to this model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. The primary questions regarding the core nucleated growth model is under what conditions

  7. Clump Giants in the Hyades

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mushotzky, Richard F. (Technical Monitor); Brickhouse, Nancy

    2003-01-01

    The project is entitled 'Clump Giants in the Hyades.' This observation of one of the late-type Hyades giants (Gamma Tau) has implications for understanding the formation of late-type stellar coronae as a function of the evolutionary state of the star. The Hyades giants are interesting because they are all clump giants in the Helium burning phase, similar to the cool primary of Capella. The Hyades giants show significantly more magnetic activity than expected from their state of evolution (and slowed-down rotation). Thus these systems provide an important clue to dynamo action. The data were obtained by the satellite on 13 March 2001 for a total RGS exposure of 58220 seconds. These data were delivered to the PI on 7 August 2001. The data could not be reprocessed until SAS Version 5.3.3 which became available 7 June 2002. Although the guidelines for assessing background rates suggested that half the data were contaminated, it does not appear that the spectral region of the RGS was adversely affected by unusually high background. The spectra show strong lines of Fe XVII and XVIII, O VII and VIII, Ne IX and X, along with numerous weaker lines. The emission measure distribution is highly reminiscent of Capella; if anything, the emission measure distribution is steeper at 6 million K than for Capella. Gamma Tau is the second brightest of the Hyades clump giants. Pallavicini et al. have shown that the luminosity of the brightest Hyades giant (Theta Tau) is remarkably similar to its luminosity as measured by Einstein. Short-term variability is also modest. We are addressing the variability issue now for Gamma Tau. Initial results were reported at the 2003 Seattle AAS meeting. A paper is in preparation for submission to the Astrophysical Journal.

  8. [Giant parathyroid adenoma causing early recurrence of renal stones].

    PubMed

    Traxer, Olivier; Mouton, Albert; Abbecassis, Rémy; Tassard, Marc; Vigneau, Cécile; Gattegno, Bernard; Thibault, Philippe

    2004-06-01

    Primary hyperparathyroidism (PHPT) is not a rare disease. Renal stones are the most frequent complication of PHPT The authors report the case of a patient with giant parathyroid adenoma responsible for early recurrence of renal stones. Ultrasound examination of the neck, parathyroid MRI and Technetium99m-Sestamibi scintigraphy confirmed the parathyroid adenoma. Surgical exploration allowed resection of a giant adenoma (6.5 x 2.5 x 1.5 cm weighing 17 g). In the light of this case, the authors describe the characteristics of HPT define the place of preoperative imaging and emphasize the need for systematic aetiological work-up looking for HPT in all patients with a first episode of renal stones.

  9. Giant, solid, invasive prolactinoma in a prepubescent boy with gynecomastia.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Sunil V; Saikiran, Narayanam A; Ghosal, Nandita; Hegde, Alangar S

    2010-01-01

    Pituitary adenomas are extremely rare in prepubescent children. Most of these tumors are functioning adenomas, but can also present with vision disturbances and changes in body morphology. We discuss the presentation, management, and outcome of a giant, solid, invasive prolactinoma in a 7-year-old boy who presented with visual disturbances and gynecomastia. The child demonstrated significant improvement in vision and a reduction in size of the tumor after subtotal tumor decompression and treatment with oral bromocriptine for 4 months. Tumor decompression and oral dopamine agonist therapy comprise the accepted treatment for pediatric prolactinomas. To our knowledge, only two previous reports described a giant prolactinoma in a prepubescent child. The relevant literature on pediatric pituitary tumours and prolactinoma is reviewed.

  10. Giant lateral left ventricular wall aneurysm sparing the submitral apparatus

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Left ventricular aneurysms are a frequent and serious complication following acute transmural myocardial infarction and are most commonly located at the ventricular apex. The majority of these patients presents with severe mitral insufficiency, congestive heart failure, systemic embolism and sudden cardiac death. Giant aneurysms occurring in a submitral position between anterior and posterior papillary muscles on the lateral ventricular wall constitute a minor entity and those leaving the mitral apparatus intact are extremely rare. Herein, we report the case of a 57 y/o Caucasian male patient with a past medical history of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction with a giant left ventricular aneurysm measuring 15x10x8 cm in diameter. Despite the size of the aneurysm and its close topographical relation to the posterior mitral annulus the mitral apparatus was intact with a competent valve and normal left atrial size. He underwent successful surgical ventricular restoration. PMID:24172071

  11. Giant splenic artery aneurysm associated with arteriovenous malformation.

    PubMed

    Agrawal, Aditya; Whitehouse, Richard; Johnson, Robert W; Augustine, Titus

    2006-12-01

    Giant splenic artery aneurysms are extremely rare entities that have important clinical implications. The size and the natural history pose unique challenges in the management of these lesions. We present one such case that was associated with a primary arteriovenous malformation in the splenic hilum. This is the third largest aneurysm reported in literature so far and the characteristic feature is that this is the first case of a hilar arteriovenous fistula complicated by formation of a giant aneurysm and another smaller aneurysm. In our opinion the hilar malformation was congenital in origin and responsible for the formation of the two aneurysms. We also present an up to date review of literature on this subject.

  12. Giant calvarial intraosseous angiolipoma: a case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Singh, Rahul; Josiah, Darnell T; Turner, Ryan C; Cantu-Durand, David E; Williams, H James; Gyure, Kymberly; Voelker, Joseph L

    2016-04-13

    Intraosseous angiolipomas are very rare tumors occurring most commonly in the ribs and mandible. Only two cases with intracranial involvement have been reported in the literature. We report a case of a giant calvarial angiolipoma and its surgical treatment in a 30-year-old female who presented with a slowly expanding skull mass and discuss relevant radiological, histological and surgical findings.

  13. A Case of Giant Cowper's Gland Syringocele in an Adult Male Patient

    PubMed Central

    Surana, Santosh; Elshazly, Mohamed; Allam, Adel; Jayappa, Sateesh; AlRefai, Deena

    2015-01-01

    Cowper's gland syringocele is an uncommon, underdiagnosed cystic dilatation of Cowper's gland ducts showing various radiological patterns. Herein we report a rare case of giant Cowper's gland syringocele in an adult male patient, with description of MRI findings and management outcome. PMID:26413368

  14. Cardiac failure due to a giant desmoid tumour of the posterior mediastinum.

    PubMed

    Bouchikh, Mohammed; Arame, Alex; Riquet, Marc; Le Pimpec-Barthes, Françoise

    2013-12-01

    We report a rare case of a giant desmoid tumour responsible for cardiac and respiratory failure. Complete removal was decided upon, despite an initial failure in another centre because of symptom severity. In such cases, wide local resection remains the best therapeutic approach, but the risk of local recurrence is high. Literature review confirms the exceptional presentation and the benefit of aggressive surgery.

  15. Primary ciliary dyskinesia: Kartagener syndrome with central giant cell granuloma. A case report.

    PubMed

    Türkoğlu, Kivanç; Orhan, Kaan; Demir, Pinar; Karabulut, Bariş; Can-Karabulut, Deniz C

    2010-10-01

    This paper describes a clinical case of both giant cell granuloma and Kartagener syndrome in a 15-year-old male patient, with emphasis on the radiographic aspects of this extremely unusual pathology. To our knowledge, the presence of these 2 rare clinical conditions in the same patient has not been previously reported.

  16. Open questions about giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Claverie, Jean-Michel; Abergel, Chantal

    2013-01-01

    The recent discovery of giant viruses exhibiting double-stranded DNA genomes larger than a million base pairs, encoding more than a thousand proteins and packed in near micron-sized icosahedral particles, opened a new and unexpected chapter in virology. As of today, these giant viruses and their closest relatives of lesser dimensions infect unicellular eukaryotes found in aquatic environments, but belonging to a wide diversity of early branching phyla. This broad phylogenetic distribution of hosts is consistent with the hypothesis that giant viruses originated prior to the radiation of the eukaryotic domain and/or might have been involved in the partition of nuclear versus cytoplasmic functions in ancestral cells. The distinctive features of the known giant viruses, in particular the recurrent presence of components of the translation apparatus in their proteome, raise a number of fundamental questions about their origin, their mode of evolution, and the relationship they may entertain with other dsDNA viruses, the genome size of which exhibits the widest distribution among all biological entities, from less than 5 kb to more than 1.25 Mb (a ratio of 1:250). At a more conceptual level, the convergence between the discovery of increasingly reduced parasitic cellular organisms and that of giant viruses exhibiting a widening array of cellular-like functions may ultimately abolish the historical discontinuity between the viral and the cellular world.

  17. Giant Magellan Telescope: overview

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Johns, Matt; McCarthy, Patrick; Raybould, Keith; Bouchez, Antonin; Farahani, Arash; Filgueira, Jose; Jacoby, George; Shectman, Steve; Sheehan, Michael

    2012-09-01

    The Giant Magellan Telescope (GMT) is a 25-meter optical/infrared extremely large telescope that is being built by an international consortium of universities and research institutions. It will be located at the Las Campanas Observatory, Chile. The GMT primary mirror consists of seven 8.4-m borosilicate honeycomb mirror segments made at the Steward Observatory Mirror Lab (SOML). Six identical off-axis segments and one on-axis segment are arranged on a single nearly-paraboloidal parent surface having an overall focal ratio of f/0.7. The fabrication, testing and verification procedures required to produce the closely-matched off-axis mirror segments were developed during the production of the first mirror. Production of the second and third off-axis segments is underway. GMT incorporates a seven-segment Gregorian adaptive secondary to implement three modes of adaptive-optics operation: natural-guide star AO, laser-tomography AO, and ground-layer AO. A wide-field corrector/ADC is available for use in seeing-limited mode over a 20-arcmin diameter field of view. Up to seven instruments can be mounted simultaneously on the telescope in a large Gregorian Instrument Rotator. Conceptual design studies were completed for six AO and seeing-limited instruments, plus a multi-object fiber feed, and a roadmap for phased deployment of the GMT instrument suite is being developed. The partner institutions have made firm commitments for approximately 45% of the funds required to build the telescope. Project Office efforts are currently focused on advancing the telescope and enclosure design in preparation for subsystem- and system-level preliminary design reviews which are scheduled to be completed in the first half of 2013.

  18. The Frequency of Lithium-Rich Giants in Globular Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kirby, Evan N.; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Zhang, Andrew J.; Hong, Jerry; Guo, Michelle; Guo, Rachel; Cohen, Judith G.; Cunha, Katia M. L.

    2016-01-01

    Although red giants destroy lithium, some giants are Li-rich. Intermediate-mass asymptotic giant branch (AGB) stars can generate Li through the Cameron-Fowler conveyor, but the existence of Li-rich, low-mass red giant branch (RGB) stars is puzzling. Globular clusters are the best sites to examine this phenomenon because it is straightforward to determine membership in the cluster and to identify the evolutionary state of each star. In 72 hours of Keck/DEIMOS exposures in 25 clusters, we found four Li-rich RGB and two Li-rich AGB stars. There were 1696 RGB and 125 AGB stars with measurements or upper limits consistent with normal abundances of Li. Hence, the frequency of Li-richness in globular clusters is (0.2 ± 0.1)% for the RGB, (1.6 ± 1.1)% for the AGB, and (0.3 ± 0.1)% for all giants. Because the Li-rich RGB stars are on the lower RGB, Li self-generation mechanisms proposed to occur at the luminosity function bump or He core flash cannot explain these four lower RGB stars. We propose the following origin for Li enrichment: (1) All luminous giants experience a brief phase of Li enrichment at the He core flash. (2) All post-RGB stars with binary companions on the lower RGB will engage in mass transfer. This scenario predicts that 0.1% of lower RGB stars will appear Li-rich due to mass transfer from a recently Li-enhanced companion. This frequency is at the lower end of our confidence interval.

  19. Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis

    MedlinePlus

    ... Clinical Trial Journal Articles Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis May 2016 Questions and Answers about Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis This publication contains general information about polymyalgia ...

  20. Giant lobelias exemplify convergent evolution

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Giant lobeliads on tropical mountains in East Africa and Hawaii have highly unusual, giant-rosette growth forms that appear to be convergent on each other and on those of several independently evolved groups of Asteraceae and other families. A recent phylogenetic analysis by Antonelli, based on sequencing the widest selection of lobeliads to date, raises doubts about this paradigmatic example of convergent evolution. Here I address the kinds of evidence needed to test for convergent evolution and argue that the analysis by Antonelli fails on four points. Antonelli's analysis makes several important contributions to our understanding of lobeliad evolution and geographic spread, but his claim regarding convergence appears to be invalid. Giant lobeliads in Hawaii and Africa represent paradigmatic examples of convergent evolution. PMID:20074322

  1. Atmospheres of Extrasolar Giant Planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Marley, M. S.; Fortney, J.; Seager, S.; Barman, T.

    The key to understanding an extrasolar giant planet's spectrum - and hence its detectability and evolution - lies with its atmosphere. Now that direct observations of thermal emission from extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) are in hand, atmosphere models can be used to constrain atmospheric composition, thermal structure, and ultimately the formation and evolution of detected planets. We review the important physical processes that influence the atmospheric structure and evolution of EGPs and consider what has already been learned from the first generation of observations and modeling. We pay particular attention to the roles of cloud structure, metallicity, and atmospheric chemistry in affecting detectable properties through Spitzer Space Telescope observations of the transiting giant planets. Our review stresses the uncertainties that ultimately limit our ability to interpret EGP observations. Finally we will conclude with a look to the future as characterization of multiple individual planets in a single stellar system leads to the study of comparative planetary architectures.

  2. CMB lensing and giant rings

    SciTech Connect

    Rathaus, Ben; Itzhaki, Nissan E-mail: ben.rathaus@gmail.com

    2012-05-01

    We study the CMB lensing signature of a pre-inationary particle (PIP), assuming it is responsible for the giant rings anomaly that was found recently in the WMAP data. Simulating Planck-like data we find that generically the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio associated with such a PIP is quite small and it would be difficult to cross correlate the temperature giant rings with the CMB lensing signal. However, if the pre-inationary particle is also responsible for the bulk flow measured from the local large scale structure, which happens to point roughly at the same direction as the giant rings, then the CMB lensing signal to noise ratio is fairly significant.

  3. Structure of giant muscle proteins

    PubMed Central

    Meyer, Logan C.; Wright, Nathan T.

    2013-01-01

    Giant muscle proteins (e.g., titin, nebulin, and obscurin) play a seminal role in muscle elasticity, stretch response, and sarcomeric organization. Each giant protein consists of multiple tandem structural domains, usually arranged in a modular fashion spanning 500 kDa to 4 MDa. Although many of the domains are similar in structure, subtle differences create a unique function of each domain. Recent high and low resolution structural and dynamic studies now suggest more nuanced overall protein structures than previously realized. These findings show that atomic structure, interactions between tandem domains, and intrasarcomeric environment all influence the shape, motion, and therefore function of giant proteins. In this article we will review the current understanding of titin, obscurin, and nebulin structure, from the atomic level through the molecular level. PMID:24376425

  4. Symplastic/pseudoanaplastic giant cell tumor of the bone

    PubMed Central

    Agaram, Narasimhan; Hwang, Sinchun; Lu, Chao; Wang, Lu; Healey, John; Hameed, Meera

    2016-01-01

    Objective Giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB) is a locally aggressive primary bone tumor. Its malignant counterpart is quite rare. Rarely, a conventional GCTB shows marked nuclear atypia, referred to as symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change, which can mimic sarcomatous transformation. Recently, somatic driver mutations of histone H3.3 exclusively in H3F3A have been described in GCTB. We report a series of 9 cases of GCTB with symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change, along with analysis of H3F3A variants. Materials and methods Nine cases of GCTB with symplastic change were identified. Clinico-radiological features, morphological features, and immunohistochemical stain for Ki-67 stain were reviewed. H3F3A variants were also analyzed using Sanger sequencing. Results Histologically, conventional giant cell tumor areas with scattered foci of markedly atypical cells were seen in all of the cases and all showed rare if any Ki-67 labeling. One patient had received denosumab treatment and another radiation therapy. Radiological features were characteristic of conventional GCTB. Mutation in H3F3A (p.Gly34Trp [G34W]) was found in 6 of the 7 cases. Clinical follow-up ranged from 6 to 208 months. Local recurrences were seen in 4 cases (44 %). Conclusions GCTB with symplastic/pseudoanaplastic change is an uncommon variant of conventional GCTB, which can mimic primary sarcoma or sarcomatous transformation. These tumors possess the same missense mutation in histone H3.3 as conventional GCTB. PMID:27020452

  5. Giant right atrial thrombi treated with thrombolysis.

    PubMed

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; López-Caler, Carmen; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Ramos Cuadra, José Angel; Lara Toral, Juan; Lozano Cabezas, Cristobal; Fernández Guerrero, Juan Carlos

    2008-04-01

    The present report describes giant atrial thrombi that were treated with thrombolysis in a community hospital. Two patients with giant atrial thrombi whose treatment involved complications are presented. Both patients developed cardiogenic shock and were treated unsuccessfully with thrombolysis. Because thrombolysis of giant thrombi may be ineffective, patients in this situation may require surgery.

  6. Giant right atrial thrombi treated with thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Ruiz-Bailén, Manuel; López-Caler, Carmen; Castillo-Rivera, Ana; Rucabado-Aguilar, Luis; Cuadra, José Ángel Ramos; Toral, Juan Lara; Cabezas, Cristobal Lozano; Guerrero, Juan Carlos Fernández

    2008-01-01

    The present report describes giant atrial thrombi that were treated with thrombolysis in a community hospital. Two patients with giant atrial thrombi whose treatment involved complications are presented. Both patients developed cardiogenic shock and were treated unsuccessfully with thrombolysis. Because thrombolysis of giant thrombi may be ineffective, patients in this situation may require surgery. PMID:18401474

  7. Cabergoline treatment in invasive giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically.

  8. Charting the Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2004-06-01

    zero expansion asymptotically after an infinite time and has a flat geometry). All three observational tests by means of supernovae (green), the cosmic microwave background (blue) and galaxy clusters converge at a Universe around Ωm ~ 0.3 and ΩΛ ~ 0.7. The dark red region for the galaxy cluster determination corresponds to 95% certainty (2-sigma statistical deviation) when assuming good knowledge of all other cosmological parameters, and the light red region assumes a minimum knowledge. For the supernovae and WMAP results, the inner and outer regions corespond to 68% (1-sigma) and 95% certainty, respectively. References: Schuecker et al. 2003, A&A, 398, 867 (REFLEX); Tonry et al. 2003, ApJ, 594, 1 (supernovae); Riess et al. 2004, ApJ, 607, 665 (supernovae) Galaxy clusters are far from being evenly distributed in the Universe. Instead, they tend to conglomerate into even larger structures, "super-clusters". Thus, from stars which gather in galaxies, galaxies which congregate in clusters and clusters tying together in super-clusters, the Universe shows structuring on all scales, from the smallest to the largest ones. This is a relict of the very early (formation) epoch of the Universe, the so-called "inflationary" period. At that time, only a minuscule fraction of one second after the Big Bang, the tiny density fluctuations were amplified and over the eons, they gave birth to the much larger structures. Because of the link between the first fluctuations and the giant structures now observed, the unique REFLEX catalogue - the largest of its kind - allows astronomers to put considerable constraints on the content of the Universe, and in particular on the amount of dark matter that is believed to pervade it. Rather interestingly, these constraints are totally independent from all other methods so far used to assert the existence of dark matter, such as the study of very distant supernovae (see e.g. ESO PR 21/98) or the analysis of the Cosmic Microwave background (e

  9. Evaluation of stem injection for managing giant reed (Arundo donax).

    PubMed

    Spencer, David F

    2014-01-01

    Giant reed is an emergent aquatic plant that may be weedy in riparian habitats. Two herbicides approved for controlling giant reed in the US are glyphosate (N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine) and imazapyr (2-[4,5-dihydro-4-methyl-4-(1-methylethyl)-5-oxo-1H-imidazol-2-yl]-3-pyridinecarboxylic acid). Foliar applications of these herbicides may be restricted in some areas, such as those, which are within the range of threatened or endangered species. We conducted two field experiments at sites in northern and central California. The first experiment evaluated the effects of three aquatic herbicides (glyphosate, imazapyr, and triclopyr [(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl)oxy]acetic acid) injected into all of the stems within a giant reed (5 mL stem(-1)). In this experiment, leaf chlorophyll content, the proportion of living stems, and the number of new stems produced during the year after treatment declined (>80%) following injection of either full strength glyphosate or imazapyr. The effects of injecting full strength triclopyr were considerably less. In a second experiment, different proportions (0, 10%, 25%, or 100%) of the stems within a plant were injected with full strength glyphosate. Results indicated that it was necessary to inject all of the stems within a clump to achieve the greatest reduction in the plant growth characteristics measured. These results imply that giant reed may be successfully controlled by injecting full strength glyphosate (5 mL stem(-1)) into all of the stems within a clump. While labor intensive and thus potentially more costly this method, offers a new method for managing giant reed in sensitive sites where foliar spray applications may be restricted.

  10. Excitation and photon decay of giant multipole resonances - the role and future of medium-energy heavy ions

    SciTech Connect

    Bertrand, F.E.; Beene, J.R.; Horen, D.J.

    1988-01-01

    Inelastic scattering of medium energy heavy ions provides very large cross sections and peak-to-continuum ratios for excitation of giant resonances. For energies above about 50 MeV/nucleon, giant resonances are excited primarily through Coulomb excitation, which is indifferent to isospin, thus providing a good probe for the study of isovector giant resonances. The extremely large cross sections available from heavy ion excitation permit the study of rare decay modes of the photon decay of giant resonances following excitation by 22 and 84 MeV/nucleon /sup 17/O projectiles. The singles results at 84 MeV/nucleon yield peak cross sections for the isoscalar giant quadrupole resonance and the isovector giant dipole resonance of approximately 0.8 and 3 barns/sr, respectively. Data on the ground state decay of the isoscalar giant quadrupole and isovector giant dipole resonances are presented and compared with calculations. Decays to low-lying excited states are also discussed. Preliminary results from an experiment to isolate the /sup 208/Pb isovector quadrupole resonance using its gamma decay are presented.

  11. Saturn: A Giant Thrust into Space

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1962-01-01

    Saturn: A Giant Thrust into Space. The film provides an introduction and overview of the Saturn launch vehicle. It is designed with stages to drop off as fuel is spent. There may be two, three, or four stages, depending on the payload. The Saturn rocket will be used to send Apollo missions to the Moon and back. Guidance systems and booster engine rockets are based on proven mechanisms. Scale models are used to test the engines. Hardware, airframes, guidance systems, instrumentation, and the rockets are produced at sites throughout the country. The engines go to Marshall Space Flight Center for further tests. After partial assembly, the vehicle is shipped to Cape Canaveral in large pieces where it is assembled using specially built equipment and structures. Further trials are performed to assure successful launches. [Entire movie available on DVD from CASI as Doc ID 20070030961. Contact help@sti.nasa.gov

  12. [Giant mesenteric lipoma in children: A case-report].

    PubMed

    Hida, M; Azahouani, A; Elazzouzi, D

    2017-03-27

    Mesenteric lipoma is an extremely rare disease in children. Fewer than 50 cases have been reported in the literature. Diagnosis is based on clinical examination, ultrasound, and computed tomography (CT). However, only the histological study of the specimen during laparotomy or laparoscopy can confirm the diagnosis. Thus, surgery, be it by laparotomy or laparoscopic, is both a means of exploration and treatment in mesenteric lipoma. We report on a case of giant lipoma of the mesentery in a 7-year-old girl presenting paroxysmal abdominal pain with a subocclusive syndrome lasting 1 week.

  13. Management considerations for giant congenital melanocytic nevi in adults.

    PubMed

    Green, Margaret C; Mitchum, Marsha D; Marquart, Jason D; Bingham, Jonathan L

    2014-04-01

    Giant congenital melanocytic nevi (GCMN) are a rare type of melanocytic nevus that covers a large body surface, often with satellite nevi scattered on the rest of the skin. There are several complications associated with GCMN, including malignant melanoma and neurocutaneous melanosis. The management of GCMN is very complex because of the cosmetic appearance and the associated psychological distress, the risk of severe complications, and the need for long-term follow-up. We report a case of a 43-year-old active-duty female with a GCMN reporting new and symptomatic satellite lesions with atypical features on dermoscopy.

  14. The formation of giant low surface brightness galaxies

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hoffman, Yehuda; Silk, Joseph; Wyse, Rosemary F. G.

    1992-01-01

    It is demonstrated that the initial structure of galaxies can be strongly affected by their large-scale environments. In particular, rare (about 3 sigma) massive galaxies in voids will have normal bulges, but unevolved, extended disks; it is proposed that the low surface brightness objects Malin I and Malin II are prototypes of this class of object. The model predicts that searches for more examples of 'crouching giants' should be fruitful, but that such galaxies do not provide a substantial fraction of mass in the universe. The identification of dwarf galaxies is relatively unaffected by their environment.

  15. [Intrathoracic giant peripheral nerve sheath tumor during Von Recklinghausen disease].

    PubMed

    Ngabou, U D; Mounguengui, D; Owono Mbouengou, J P; El Wali, A; Nguema Edzang, B; Boguikouma, J B; Tchoua, R; Aziz, N E

    2014-06-01

    We report the case of a patient aged 23, admitted for bilateral intrathoracic tumor, including a giant right. Surgery was performed by right sternothoracotomy. After 7 days, she presented an irreversible cardiac arrest. The malignant peripheral nerve sheath tumors are rare and aggressive. Their incidence is 0.001% in the general population and 0.16% in patients with neurofibromatosis type 1. These tumors are characterized by their risk of recurrence and poor prognosis. The treatment is the surgical resection. We analyze incidence, diagnosis and prognosis of these tumors.

  16. Giant nontraumatic intradiploic arachnoid cyst in a young male*

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Rajesh; Gupta, Puneet; Mahajan, Manik; Sharma, Poonam; Gupta, Anchal; Khurana, Arti

    2016-01-01

    Intradiploic arachnoid cysts have scarcely been reported in the literature, most reported cases being secondary to trauma. Nontraumatic arachnoid cysts are quite rare and have been reported mostly in adults. Here, we report the case of a 16-year-old male presenting with a slowly growing mass in the occipital region and intermittent headaches. On the basis of the findings of X-rays, computed tomography scans, and magnetic resonance imaging scans of the head, the mass was diagnosed as a giant intradiploic arachnoid cyst. PMID:27818549

  17. Tenosynovial Giant Cell Tumor Arising on the Scapular Region

    PubMed Central

    Fukuda, Asako; Ueno, Takashi; Takayama, Ryoko; Ansai, Shin-ichi; Futagami, Ayako; Kawana, Seiji

    2013-01-01

    Tenosynovial giant cell tumor (TSGCT) is a benign soft tissue tumor arising from the synovial membrane that composes the lining of joints, tendons and bursae. TSGCT is a common tumor occurring in the hands and fingers, and also consecutively in the knees, ankles, feet and hips. It is rarely found in the scapular region. To the best of our knowledge, only 2 cases arising on the upper back have been reported. This report presents the case of a 44-year-old Japanese female with a TSGCT arising on her right scapular region. PMID:24403889

  18. Incidental finding of a giant asymptomatic right atrial tumor

    PubMed Central

    Strecker, Thomas; Agaimy, Abbas; Zelzer, Peter; Weyand, Michael; Wachter, David Lukas

    2014-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumors are very rare, atrial myxoma being the most common benign tumor of the heart. They may present with a great variety of incidental asymptomatic masses to severe life-threatening cardiovascular complications necessitating emergency surgery. Here we report the diagnostic evaluation and successful surgical resection of such a giant cardiac tumor which was found on a routine medical check-up in a 62-year-old patient. Histology confirmed diagnosis of unusually huge myxoma. This article demonstrates it’s necessary to include cardiac tumors in the differential diagnosis of subtle and non-specific cardiothoracic symptoms. PMID:25120848

  19. Giant Cervical Osteophyte: An Unusual Cause of Dysphagia

    PubMed Central

    Srivastava, Sudhir Kumar; Bhosale, Sunil Krishna; Aggarwal, Rishi Anil

    2016-01-01

    Dysphagia due to skeletal causes is a rare entity. A large cervical osteophyte can cause mechanical compression of the pharyngo-oesophageal segment leading to dysphagia. Large cervical osteophytes can occur in cervical spondylosis, ankylosing spondylitis or Diffuse Idiopathic Skeletal Hyperostosis (DISH). A 60-year-old female came with progressive dysphagia due to a giant cervical osteophyte anterior to C4 and C5 vertebral bodies causing compression of the pharyngo-oesophageal segment. The patient was treated by surgical excision of the osteophyte by orthopaedic surgeons. The patient had complete relief of dysphagia following excision of the osteophyte. PMID:27891363

  20. Rare Disorders and Diseases

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Umlauf, Mary; Monaco, Jana; FitzZaland, Mary; FitzZaland, Richard; Novitsky, Scott

    2008-01-01

    According to the National Organization for Rare Disorders (NORD), a rare or "orphan" disease affects fewer than 200,000 people in the United States. There are more than 6,000 rare disorders that, taken together, affect approximately 25 million Americans. "Exceptional Parent" ("EP") recognizes that when a disorder affects a child or adult, it…

  1. Polyomavirus (BK)-associated pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder: a case report.

    PubMed

    Alexiev, Borislav A; Papadimitriou, John C; Chai, Toby C; Ramos, Emilio; Staats, Paul N; Drachenberg, Cinthia B

    2013-04-01

    This report describes the morphological features of a pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma with focal trophoblastic differentiation of the urinary bladder in a male, 12 years post living related donor renal transplant. The voided urine cytology demonstrated rare decoy cells admixed with markedly atypical urothelial cell clusters, papillae and giant cells. Cystoprostatectomy demonstrated a nodular mass involving the trigone and right lateral-posterior wall, adjacent to the ureteral orifice. Hematoxylin-eosin stained sections showed two synchronous malignancies: (a) pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma with focal trophoblastic differentiation of the urinary bladder, metastatic to the omentum and (b) prostatic adenocarcinoma, Gleason score 3+4=7, involving the right prostate lobe. Strong diffuse expression of polyomavirus large T antigen was demonstrated in the primary and metastatic pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma, supporting a possible role for polyomavirus (BK) in the oncogenetic pathway. The prostatic adenocarcinoma was negative for polyomavirus large T antigen. Our findings of p63, CK7 and CK903 expression in pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma suggest that the tumor is of urothelial derivation. This is the first report describing the morphological features of urinary bladder pleomorphic giant cell carcinoma with trophoblastic differentiation, positive for polyomavirus large T antigen, arising in the background of BKV reactivation.

  2. Giant Serpentine Aneurysms: Multidisciplinary Management

    PubMed Central

    Anshun, W.; Feng, L.; Daming, W.

    2000-01-01

    Summary Sixty-five cases of intracranial giant serpentine aneurysms (GSΛs), including 61 cases reported in the literature and four additional cases presented in this study were reviewed. The clinical presentation, possible causes, natural history, and especially management of GSAs are discussed with emphasis on the need for aggressive intervention and multidisciplinary management. PMID:20667180

  3. On the Shoulders of Giants...

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-01-01

    REFERENCES 1. Newton I. Turnbull HW, ed. Correspondence of Isaac Newton . Vol I: 1661Y1675. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press; 1959:416...calendar), Sir Isaac Newtonopined to Robert Hooke, ‘‘If I have seen further [than you and Descartes], it is by standing on the shoulders of giants.’’1 That

  4. The giant panda gut microbiome.

    PubMed

    Wei, Fuwen; Wang, Xiao; Wu, Qi

    2015-08-01

    Giant pandas (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) are bamboo specialists that evolved from carnivores. Their gut microbiota probably aids in the digestion of cellulose and this is considered an example of gut microbiota adaptation to a bamboo diet. However, this issue remains unresolved and further functional and compositional studies are needed.

  5. Intraoperative squash cytology and histology of giant cell ependymoma: A diagnostic dilemma

    PubMed Central

    Cakir, Ebru; Kucuk, Ulku; Ersen, Ayca; Pala, Emel E; Senoglu, Mehmet; Binatli, Ali O; Yildirim, Zubeyde

    2017-01-01

    Giant cell ependymomas (GCE) are extremely rare tumors, with 24 cases described in the literature. Squash cytology is a rapid, reliable, simple technique for intraoperative consultation in neurosurgical practice. We describe a rare case of GCE arising at level of L4-L5 in a 66-year-old woman and discuss the cytologic/histologic features. Intraoperative smears were highly cellular with a prominent fibrillary background and exhibited papillary structures and sheets composed of highly atypical and bizarre cells. Some of the cells showed nuclear pseudoinclusions and rarely formed pseudorosette-like arrays. Intraoperative diagnosis was high grade glial tumor. On paraffin sections, besides extensive polymorphism, there were no microvascular proliferation, necrosis, and mitosis and the final diagnosis was WHO grade II GCE. GCE may be a diagnostic challenge on intraoperative smears, frozen, and paraffin sections. It must be kept in mind in the differential diagnosis of giant cell exhibiting benign and malignant tumors of brain. PMID:28182061

  6. Nursery of Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    2004-01-01

    Hidden behind a shroud of dust in the constellation Cygnus is a stellar nursery called DR21, which is giving birth to some of the most massive stars in our galaxy. Visible light images reveal no trace of this interstellar cauldron because of heavy dust obscuration. In fact, visible light is attenuated in DR21 by a factor of more than 10,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000,000 (ten thousand trillion heptillion).

    New images from NASA's Spitzer Space Telescope allow us to peek behind the cosmic veil and pinpoint one of the most massive natal stars yet seen in our Milky Way galaxy. The never-before-seen star is 100,000 times as bright as the Sun. Also revealed for the first time is a powerful outflow of hot gas emanating from this star and bursting through a giant molecular cloud.

    This image is a large-scale mosaic assembled from individual photographs obtained with the InfraRed Array Camera (IRAC) aboard Spitzer. The image covers an area about two times that of a full moon. The mosaic is a composite of images obtained at mid-infrared wavelengths of 3.6 microns (blue), 4.5 microns (green), 5.8 microns (orange) and 8 microns (red). The brightest infrared cloud near the top center corresponds to DR21, which presumably contains a cluster of newly forming stars at a distance of 10,000 light-years.

    Protruding out from DR21 toward the bottom left of the image is a gaseous outflow (green), containing both carbon monoxide and molecular hydrogen. Data from the Spitzer spectrograph, which breaks light into its constituent individual wavelengths, indicate the presence of hot steam formed as the outflow heats the surrounding molecular gas. Outflows are physical signatures of processes that create supersonic beams, or jets, of gas. They are usually accompanied by discs of material around the new star, which likely contain the materials from which future planetary systems are formed. Additional newborn stars, depicted in green, can be seen surrounding the

  7. Giant congenital intercostal arteriovenous malformation with extensive involvement of chest wall and ribs: surgical experience.

    PubMed

    Parashi, Hrishikesh Sukhadeo; Bhosle, Krishnarao Narayan; Thakare, Nitin Dashrath; Sharma, Ajay; Potwar, Sushrut Suhas

    2013-06-01

    Intercostal arteriovenous malformations (AVMs) are rare lesions. Review of literature shows that most reported cases are secondary to trauma or iatrogenic in origin. Congenital intercostal AVMs are extremely rare. We believe that only 1 case report of congenital intercostal arteriovenous malformation has been reported previously in the literature. We present an exceedingly rare case of giant congenital intercostal AVM in a young patient diagnosed on contrast-enhanced computed tomography of the thorax and treated by surgical resection of the involved chest wall and ribs with reconstruction of the surgical defect.

  8. Giant retroperitoneal sarcomas.

    PubMed

    Ianoşi, G; Neagoe, Daniela; Buteică, Elena; Ianoşi, Simona; Drighiciu, Corina; Stănoiu, B; Burada, F; Mercuţ, D

    2007-01-01

    Retroperitoneal sarcomas are rare malignant tumors, which are developing from mesenchymal stem cells residing in muscle, fat, and connective tissues. Underlying the rarity of this kind of tumors in general population, the aim of this paper is to present three cases of retroperitoneal sarcomas operated in Surgical Department of Military Hospital of Craiova (a retroperitoneal liposarcoma, a dedifferentiated liposarcoma and a malignant fibrous histiocytoma). From clinical point of view, we note the poverty of symptoms and non-specificity of these and a great tolerability of retroperitoneal space that offers the possibility for a great development of the tumor. CT-scan and MRI are the best investigations for diagnosis but surgical exploration is the best way for a good evaluation of these tumors. From histological point of view, we try to present new features about these kinds of tumors in order to classify them. Results of surgery correlated with complementary therapies were good without per-operative mortality or postoperative morbidity but we noted a recidive of one tumor (with different histological pattern) 21 months after the surgical intervention. The rarity of retroperitoneal sarcomas, combined with the vast array of histologic subtypes, has complicated our understanding of these tumors and impeded the development of effective therapies.

  9. Cabergoline-related impulse control disorder in an adolescent with a giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Bulwer, C; Conn, R; Shankar, A; Ferrau, F; Kapur, S; Ederies, A; Korbonits, M; Spoudeas, H A

    2017-03-27

    Giant prolactinomas, rare in children, can have devastating endocrine, neurological and visual sequelae. Dopamine agonists (DA) are effective first-line therapy with few side-effects at doses usually used for prolactinoma treatment(1) , but higher-dose therapy for Parkinson's disease has well-recognized associations with impulse control disorders (ICD) including pathological gambling, impulsive eating, compulsive shopping and hypersexuality. Such associations are not well recognized with prolactinomas; to our knowledge this is the first reported case of hypersexuality in an adolescent receiving cabergoline for a giant prolactinoma. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  10. Dedifferentiated Giant-Cell Tumor of Bone with an Undifferentiated Round Cell Mesenchymal Component

    PubMed Central

    Estrada-Villaseñor, Eréndira G.; Cortés-González, Socorro; Linares-González, Luis Miguel; González-Guzmán, Roberto; Rico-Martínez, Genaro

    2014-01-01

    The dedifferentiated giant-cell tumor of the bone is a very rare variant of the giant-cell tumor (GCT). We report the clinical, radiographic and histological findings of a dedifferentiated GCT in which the dedifferentiated component consisted of small round cells. We also comment on previously reported cases of dedifferentiated GCT, discuss the clinical implications of this dual histology, and analyze the information published about the coexistence of similar genetic abnormalities in GCT and small round cell tumors of the bone. PMID:25276319

  11. Giant Angioleiomyoma of Knee Presenting as Painless Ulcer: The First Case Report.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Souradip; Chattopadhyay, Debarati; Dhiman, Pratibha; Gupta, Sandipan

    2015-01-01

    Angioleiomyomas are benign tumors originating in the vascular smooth muscle. The tumor typically presents as painful, solitary, small (<2 cm), slow growing, subcutaneous nodule. Angioleiomyoma of the knee is rare, and only few cases have been reported so far. We have described herein a giant angioleiomyoma of the knee presenting as a painless ulcer in a 22-year-old man. There was no intra-articular extension of the tumor, and total excision was curative. This is the first case report of giant angioleiomyoma of the knee as well as the first case report of angioleiomyoma presenting as a painless ulcerative lesion.

  12. Giant Cell Reparative Granuloma of the Petrous Temporal Bone

    PubMed Central

    Williams, Joy C.; Thorell, William E.; Treves, John S.; Fidler, Mary E.; Moore, Gary F.; Leibrock, Lyal G.

    2000-01-01

    Giant cell reparative granuloma (GCRG) is an unusual, benign bone lesion that most commonly affects the maxilla and mandible; skull involvement is rare. The etiology is uncertain but may be related to trauma. GCRG is difficult to distinguish from giant cell tumor of the bone and has a lower recurrence rate. Thirteen reports of temporal bone GCRG in 11 patients have been reported. One report of a petrous GCRG in a 3-year-old girl has been identified. A 38-year-old male presented with a 2-year history of fullness in his left ear, ipsilateral hearing loss, and intermittent cacosmia. Computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging revealed a large left-sided anterior temporal extradural mass. The patient underwent a left frontotemporal craniotomy and resection of a left temporal fossa tumor that involved the petrous and squamous parts of the temporal bone. The patient's post-operative course was uneventful, except for increased hearing loss secondary to opening of the epitympanum. Follow-up at one month revealed no other problems. Histopathology of the specimen was consistent with a giant cell reparative granuloma. ImagesFigure 1Figure 2p91-aFigure 3 PMID:17171108

  13. Case Study: Giant Cell Arteritis with Vertebral Artery Stenosis

    PubMed Central

    Daniel Chomlak, R.; Ghazanfari, Farshad; Datta, Mineesh

    2016-01-01

    In giant cell arteritis (GCA), involvement of the vertebral arteries is rare with reported rates of 3%–4% for ischemic events secondary to vertebral artery stenosis or occlusion for those patients with GCA. This case study describes a patient who initially presented with acute onset of vertigo but was also found to have transient, side-alternating upper limb neurological findings. While initial imaging showed no vascular abnormalities, it was not until GCA was eventually confirmed with a temporal artery biopsy that the initial scans were shown to have bilateral narrowing of the vertebral arteries. While rare, vertebral artery involvement is an important complication to consider in the setting of GCA due to the high rate of associated mortality, despite immunosuppressive therapy. PMID:27279753

  14. Giant Herbig-Haro Flows

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reipurth, Bo; Bally, John; Devine, David

    1997-12-01

    We present the discovery of a number of Herbig-Haro flows which extend over parsec-scale distances. The largest of these is the well known HH 111 jet complex, which is shown, through CCD images and a proper motion study, to have an angular extent of almost one degree on the sky, corresponding to 7.7 pc, making it the largest known HH flow. In our imaging survey we also found that T Tauri is at the center of a huge bipolar HH flow, HH 355, with a total extent of 38 arcmin, corresponding to 1.55 pc, and aligned with the axis of the tiny HH 255 flow surrounding the infrared companion T Tau S. We additionally have found a number of other giant HH flow candidates, including HH 315 at PV Cep, HH 41/295 at Haro 5a/6a, HH 300 in Bl8w, HH 354 in Li 165, HH 376 in Li 152, and HH 114/115 and HH 243/244/245/179 in the X Orionis molecular ring. It thus appears that it is common for HH flows to attain parsec-scale dimensions. The ubiquity of parsec-scale HH flows profoundly alters our view of the impact of young stars on their environment. Giant flows have dynamical ages comparable to the duration of the accretion phase of the sources, and provide a fossil record of their mass loss and accretion history. Multiple internal working surfaces and their S-shaped point symmetry provide evidence for variability of ejection velocity and orientation of the source jets. Giant HH flows are either longer or comparable in length to associated CO outflows, providing evidence for unified models in which HH flows power CO flows. Many giant flows have burst out of their source cloud cores and are dissociating molecules and injecting momentum and kinetic energy into the interclump medium of the host clouds. They contribute to the UV radiation field, and may produce C I and C ii in cloud interiors. Giant flows may contribute to the chemical rejuvenation of clouds, the generation of turbulent motions, and the self-regulation of star formation. The terminal working surfaces of giant flows may be

  15. Giant cell arteritis: Current treatment and management

    PubMed Central

    Ponte, Cristina; Rodrigues, Ana Filipa; O’Neill, Lorraine; Luqmani, Raashid Ahmed

    2015-01-01

    Glucocorticoids remain the cornerstone of medical therapy in giant cell arteritis (GCA) and should be started immediately to prevent severe consequences of the disease, such as blindness. However, glucocorticoid therapy leads to significant toxicity in over 80% of the patients. Various steroid-sparing agents have been tried, but robust scientific evidence of their efficacy and safety is still lacking. Tocilizumab, a monoclonal IL-6 receptor blocker, has shown promising results in a number of case series and is now being tested in a multi-centre randomized controlled trial. Other targeted treatments, such as the use of abatacept, are also now under investigation in GCA. The need for surgical treatment is rare and should ideally be performed in a quiescent phase of the disease. Not all patients follow the same course, but there are no valid biomarkers to assess therapy response. Monitoring of disease progress still relies on assessing clinical features and measuring inflammatory markers (C-reactive protein and erythrocyte sedimentation rate). Imaging techniques (e.g., ultrasound) are clearly important screening tools for aortic aneurysms and assessing patients with large-vessel involvement, but may also have an important role as biomarkers of disease activity over time or in response to therapy. Although GCA is the most common form of primary vasculitis, the optimal strategies for treatment and monitoring remain uncertain. PMID:26090367

  16. Giant comets and mass extinctions of life

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Napier, W. M.

    2015-03-01

    I find evidence for clustering in age of well-dated impact craters over the last 500 Myr. At least nine impact episodes are identified, with durations whose upper limits are set by the dating accuracy of the craters. Their amplitudes and frequency are inconsistent with an origin in asteroid breakups or Oort cloud disturbances, but are consistent with the arrival and disintegration in near-Earth orbits of rare, giant comets, mainly in transit from the Centaur population into the Jupiter family and Encke regions. About 1 in 10 Centaurs in Chiron-like orbits enter Earth-crossing epochs, usually repeatedly, each such epoch being generally of a few thousand years' duration. On time-scales of geological interest, debris from their breakup may increase the mass of the near-Earth interplanetary environment by two or three orders of magnitude, yielding repeated episodes of bombardment and stratospheric dusting. I find a strong correlation between these bombardment episodes and major biostratigraphic and geological boundaries, and propose that episodes of extinction are most effectively driven by prolonged encounters with meteoroid streams during bombardment episodes. Possible mechanisms are discussed.

  17. The submillimeter giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, D. H.

    1985-08-01

    The construction of new radiotelescopes to study the 0.3-1 mm radio band is being carried out at arid and high altitude sites around the world to avoid absorption of the radiation by atmospheric water vapor. The band offers data on the distribution of astromonical molecules in dark and dust clouds and quasars. A 30-m dish is being built at 9300 ft altitude in southern Spain, a synthesis array at 8400 ft ASL in the French Alps, and a 15-m dish at La Silla. Kitt Peak has received a new 12-m-diameter reflector and three 10.4-m dishes are operating in Owens Valley in California. A 10.4-m submillimeter dish is being constructed on Mauna Kea in Hawaii. The need to protect the devices from distortions due to moisture and vibrations is spurring the use of composite materials to retain accuracies in the tens of microns in focusing.

  18. Magnetic properties of rare-earth-doped La0.7Sr0.3MnO3.

    PubMed

    Veverka, Pavel; Kaman, Ondřej; Knížek, Karel; Novák, Pavel; Maryško, Miroslav; Jirák, Zdeněk

    2017-01-25

    Rare-earth-doped ferromagnetic manganites La0.63RE0.07Sr0.30MnO3 (RE  =  Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho) are synthesized in the form of sintered ceramics and nanocrystalline phases with the mean size of crystallites  ≈30 nm. The electronic states of the dopants are investigated by SQUID magnetometry and theoretically interpreted based on the calculations of the crystal field splitting of rare-earth energy levels. The samples show the orthorhombic perovskite structure of Ibmm symmetry, with a complete FM order of Mn spins in bulk and reduced order in nanoparticles. Non-zero moments are also detected at the perovskite A sites, which can be attributed to magnetic polarization of the rare-earth dopants. The measurements in external field up to 70 kOe show a standard Curie-type contribution of the spin-only moments of Gd(3+) ions, whereas Kramers ions Dy(3+) and non-Kramers ions Ho(3+) contribute by Ising moments due to their doublet ground states. The behaviour of non-Kramers ions Tb(3+) is anomalous, pointing to singlet ground state with giant Van Vleck paramagnetism. The Tb(3+) doping leads also to a notably increased coercivity compared to other La0.63RE0.07Sr0.30MnO3 systems.

  19. Magnetic properties of rare-earth-doped La0.7Sr0.3MnO3

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veverka, Pavel; Kaman, Ondřej; Knížek, Karel; Novák, Pavel; Maryško, Miroslav; Jirák, Zdeněk

    2017-01-01

    Rare-earth-doped ferromagnetic manganites La0.63RE0.07Sr0.30MnO3 (RE  =  Gd, Tb, Dy, and Ho) are synthesized in the form of sintered ceramics and nanocrystalline phases with the mean size of crystallites  ≈30 nm. The electronic states of the dopants are investigated by SQUID magnetometry and theoretically interpreted based on the calculations of the crystal field splitting of rare-earth energy levels. The samples show the orthorhombic perovskite structure of Ibmm symmetry, with a complete FM order of Mn spins in bulk and reduced order in nanoparticles. Non-zero moments are also detected at the perovskite A sites, which can be attributed to magnetic polarization of the rare-earth dopants. The measurements in external field up to 70 kOe show a standard Curie-type contribution of the spin-only moments of Gd3+ ions, whereas Kramers ions Dy3+ and non-Kramers ions Ho3+ contribute by Ising moments due to their doublet ground states. The behaviour of non-Kramers ions Tb3+ is anomalous, pointing to singlet ground state with giant Van Vleck paramagnetism. The Tb3+ doping leads also to a notably increased coercivity compared to other La0.63RE0.07Sr0.30MnO3 systems.

  20. A Successful Broadband Survey for Giant Lyα Nebulae. I. Survey Design and Candidate Selection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-04-01

    Giant Lyα nebulae (or Lyα "blobs") are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Lyα nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Lyα nebulae at 2 <~ z <~ 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg2 NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Boötes field. With a total survey comoving volume of ≈108 h -3 70 Mpc3, this is the largest volume survey for Lyα nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Lyα nebula.

  1. A giant ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum in a Niger delta region of Nigeria

    PubMed Central

    Abudu, Emmanuel K.; Umanah, Ivy N.; Ekpo, Memphin D.; Etuk, Emmanuel B.; Onwuezobe, Ifeanyi A.; Obi-Ihesie, Agility

    2011-01-01

    Hidradenoma papilliferum is a known example of adnexal skin tumours with apocrine differentiation. It is a rare benign tumour which tends to arise from areas with rich concentration of aporine glands such as anogenital region, vulval, perineal, axillae, and periumbilical areas. In this report, the tumour was found in the upper outer quadrant of left breast, being one of the ectopic sites for this tumour. Contrary to most reports where male preponderance was popular for ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum, the patient in this report is a 71-year-old female. Considering the location of this tumour in this report, the likely histopathological differential diagnoses such as tubular apocrine adenoma, clear cell (apocrine) adenoma, lipoma, intraductal papilloma and papillary carcinoma of the breast should be considered for exclusion. This is the first reported case of a giant ectopic hidradenoma papilliferum of the breast in a Niger Delta region of Nigeria which also highlights the role of fine needle aspiration and cytology in the diagnosis of breast lesions. PMID:22355505

  2. Design of compensated ferrimagnetic Heusler alloys for giant tunable exchange bias

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nayak, Ajaya K.; Nicklas, Michael; Chadov, Stanislav; Khuntia, Panchanana; Shekhar, Chandra; Kalache, Adel; Baenitz, Michael; Skourski, Yurii; Guduru, Veerendra K.; Puri, Alessandro; Zeitler, Uli; Coey, J. M. D.; Felser, Claudia

    2015-07-01

    Rational material design can accelerate the discovery of materials with improved functionalities. This approach can be implemented in Heusler compounds with tunable magnetic sublattices to demonstrate unprecedented magnetic properties. Here, we have designed a family of Heusler alloys with a compensated ferrimagnetic state. In the vicinity of the compensation composition in Mn-Pt-Ga, a giant exchange bias (EB) of more than 3 T and a large coercivity are established. The large exchange anisotropy originates from the exchange interaction between the compensated host and ferrimagnetic clusters that arise from intrinsic anti-site disorder. Our design approach is also demonstrated on a second material with a magnetic transition above room temperature, Mn-Fe-Ga, exemplifying the universality of the concept and the feasibility of room-temperature applications. These findings may lead to the development of magneto-electronic devices and rare-earth-free exchange-biased hard magnets, where the second quadrant magnetization can be stabilized by the exchange bias.

  3. A SUCCESSFUL BROADBAND SURVEY FOR GIANT Ly{alpha} NEBULAE. I. SURVEY DESIGN AND CANDIDATE SELECTION

    SciTech Connect

    Prescott, Moire K. M.; Dey, Arjun; Jannuzi, Buell T.

    2012-04-01

    Giant Ly{alpha} nebulae (or Ly{alpha} 'blobs') are likely sites of ongoing massive galaxy formation, but the rarity of these powerful sources has made it difficult to form a coherent picture of their properties, ionization mechanisms, and space density. Systematic narrowband Ly{alpha} nebula surveys are ongoing, but the small redshift range covered and the observational expense limit the comoving volume that can be probed by even the largest of these surveys and pose a significant problem when searching for such rare sources. We have developed a systematic search technique designed to find large Ly{alpha} nebulae at 2 {approx}< z {approx}< 3 within deep broadband imaging and have carried out a survey of the 9.4 deg{sup 2} NOAO Deep Wide-Field Survey Booetes field. With a total survey comoving volume of Almost-Equal-To 10{sup 8} h{sup -3}{sub 70} Mpc{sup 3}, this is the largest volume survey for Ly{alpha} nebulae ever undertaken. In this first paper in the series, we present the details of the survey design and a systematically selected sample of 79 candidates, which includes one previously discovered Ly{alpha} nebula.

  4. Clinical characteristics and prognoses of six patients with multicentric giant cell tumor of the bone

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Chenglei; Tang, Yawen; Li, Mei; Jiao, Qiong; Zhang, Huizhen; Yang, Qingcheng; Yao, Weiwu

    2016-01-01

    Multicentric giant cell tumor of the bone (MGCT) is a rare entity whose radiographic, pathological and biological features remain confusing. We retrospectively reviewed six patients (1 male, 5 female; average age, 22.33 years) treated for confirmed MGCT between 2001 and 2015. The patients' clinical information, images from radiographs (n = 14), CT (n = 13), MRI (n = 8), bone scintigraphy (n = 1) and PET-CT (n = 2), as well as histologic features, treatment and prognosis were analyzed. A total of 17 lesions were detected: 4 around the knee joint, 3 in the greater trochanter and head of the femur, 5 in the small bones of the feet, and 2 in flat bones. All these lesions occurred in an ipsilateral extremity. One patient had Paget's disease. On radiographs and CT, 12 lesions exhibited sclerotic margins or patchy sclerosis, 8 showed cortical discontinuity, and 5 showed soft tissue masses. On histopathology, 8 lesions showed signs of sarcomatous transformation and one had transformed into osteosarcoma. Ten lesions in 4 patients were initially treated with surgery, and 3 showed local recurrence. Seven lesions in 3 patients were treated with denosumab. All the patients are currently stable without metastasis. These results suggest MGCT tends to occur in uncommon sites with sclerosis. Because these lesions can be aggressive, patients should be carefully monitored for the recurrence or formation of other lesions, especially in an ipsilateral extremity. PMID:27823978

  5. Diagnosis and management of acromegaly: giant invasive adenoma.

    PubMed

    Cahyanur, Rahmat; Setyawan, Wawan; Sudrajat, Dedy G; Setyowati, Susie; Purnamasari, Dyah; Soewondo, Pradana

    2011-04-01

    Acromegaly is a rare disorder caused by excessive growth hormone. Majority of acromegaly are due to pituitary adenoma. It is estimated that 5% of pituitary adenoma become invasive and may grow to gigantic sizes (>4 cm in diameter). We would like to describe a man with giant invasive adenoma. We describe the case of 52-year-old man with acromegaly. The patient was presented to medical care because of hemichorea. He also had visual field defect, uncontrolled diabetes, and dyslipidemia. Hormonal profile showed increment of GH 2-hour after a standard 75-g oral glucose load and of high IGF-1 level with low level of FSH and LH. The next was performed by pituitary imaging. Magnetic resonance imaging showed a macroadenoma with diameter 2.3x3.5x6.6 cm3 that fills the sella tursica, and enlarges into suprasella, genu of corpus collosum, and invades third ventricle. This report describes a rare case of acromegalic patient with giant invasive adenoma. This could be a demonstrative case and lesson for diagnosis and manage acromegalic patient.

  6. The clinical approach toward giant cell tumor of bone.

    PubMed

    van der Heijden, Lizz; Dijkstra, P D Sander; van de Sande, Michiel A J; Kroep, Judith R; Nout, Remi A; van Rijswijk, Carla S P; Bovée, Judith V M G; Hogendoorn, Pancras C W; Gelderblom, Hans

    2014-05-01

    We provide an overview of imaging, histopathology, genetics, and multidisciplinary treatment of giant cell tumor of bone (GCTB), an intermediate, locally aggressive but rarely metastasizing tumor. Overexpression of receptor activator of nuclear factor κB ligand (RANKL) by mononuclear neoplastic stromal cells promotes recruitment of numerous reactive multinucleated giant cells. Conventional radiographs show a typical eccentric lytic lesion, mostly located in the meta-epiphyseal area of long bones. GCTB may also arise in the axial skeleton and very occasionally in the small bones of hands and feet. Magnetic resonance imaging is necessary to evaluate the extent of GCTB within bone and surrounding soft tissues to plan a surgical approach. Curettage with local adjuvants is the preferred treatment. Recurrence rates after curettage with phenol and polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA; 8%-27%) or cryosurgery and PMMA (0%-20%) are comparable. Resection is indicated when joint salvage is not feasible (e.g., intra-articular fracture with soft tissue component). Denosumab (RANKL inhibitor) blocks and bisphosphonates inhibit GCTB-derived osteoclast resorption. With bisphosphonates, stabilization of local and metastatic disease has been reported, although level of evidence was low. Denosumab has been studied to a larger extent and seems to be effective in facilitating intralesional surgery after therapy. Denosumab was recently registered for unresectable disease. Moderate-dose radiotherapy (40-55 Gy) is restricted to rare cases in which surgery would lead to unacceptable morbidity and RANKL inhibitors are contraindicated or unavailable.

  7. Proteorhodopsin genes in giant viruses.

    PubMed

    Yutin, Natalya; Koonin, Eugene V

    2012-10-04

    Viruses with large genomes encode numerous proteins that do not directly participate in virus biogenesis but rather modify key functional systems of infected cells. We report that a distinct group of giant viruses infecting unicellular eukaryotes that includes Organic Lake Phycodnaviruses and Phaeocystis globosa virus encode predicted proteorhodopsins that have not been previously detected in viruses. Search of metagenomic sequence data shows that putative viral proteorhodopsins are extremely abundant in marine environments. Phylogenetic analysis suggests that giant viruses acquired proteorhodopsins via horizontal gene transfer from proteorhodopsin-encoding protists although the actual donor(s) could not be presently identified. The pattern of conservation of the predicted functionally important amino acid residues suggests that viral proteorhodopsin homologs function as sensory rhodopsins. We hypothesize that viral rhodopsins modulate light-dependent signaling, in particular phototaxis, in infected protists.

  8. Giant viruses come of age.

    PubMed

    Fischer, Matthias G

    2016-06-01

    Viruses with genomes up to a few megabases in length are a common occurrence in nature, even though they have escaped our notice until recently. These giant viruses infect mainly single-celled eukaryotes and isolation efforts concentrating on amoebal hosts alone have spawned hundreds of viral isolates, featuring viruses with previously unseen virion morphologies and the largest known viral genomes and particles. One of the challenges that lie ahead is to analyze and categorize the available data and to establish an approved classification system that reflects the evolutionary relationships and biological properties of these viruses. Extensive sampling of Acanthamoeba-infecting mimiviruses and initial characterization of their virophage parasites have provided a first blueprint of the genetic diversity and composition of a giant virus clade that will facilitate the taxonomic grouping of these fascinating microorganisms.

  9. Giant cell tumor of bone: Multimodal approach

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, AK; Nath, R; Mishra, MP

    2007-01-01

    Background: The clinical behavior and treatment of giant cell tumor of bone is still perplexing. The aim of this study is to clarify the clinico-pathological correlation of tumor and its relevance in treatment and prognosis. Materials and Methods: Ninety -three cases of giant cell tumor were treated during 1980-1990 by different methods. The age of the patients varied from 18-58 yrs with male and female ratio as 5:4. The upper end of the tibia was most commonly involved (n=31), followed by the lower end of the femur(n=21), distal end of radius(n=14), upper end of fibula (n=9), proximal end of femur(n=5), upper end of the humerus(n=3), iliac bone(n=2), phalanx (n=2) and spine(n=1). The tumors were also encountered on uncommon sites like metacarpals (n=4) and metatarsal(n=1). Fifty four cases were treated by curettage and bone grafting. Wide excision and reconstruction was performed in twenty two cases. Nine cases were treated by wide excision while primary amputation was performed in four cases. One case required only curettage. Three inaccessible lesions of ilium and spine were treated by radiotherapy. Results: 19 of 54 treated by curettage and bone grafting showed a recurrence. The repeat curettage and bone grafting was performed in 18 cases while amputation was done in one. One each out of the cases treated by wide excision and reconstruction and wide excision alone recurred. In this study we observed that though curettage and bone grafting is still the most commonly adopted treatment, wide excision of tumor with reconstruction has shown lesser recurrence. Conclusion: For radiologically well-contained and histologically typical tumor, curettage and autogenous bone grafting is the treatment of choice. The typical tumors with radiologically deficient cortex, clinically aggressive tumors and tumors with histological Grade III should be treated by wide excision and reconstruction. PMID:21139762

  10. Giant thermoelectric effect in graphene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dragoman, D.; Dragoman, M.

    2007-11-01

    The paper predicts a giant thermoelectric coefficient in a nanostructure consisting of metallic electrodes periodically patterned over graphene, which is deposited on a silicon dioxide substrate. The Seebeck coefficient in this device attains 30mV/K, this value being among the largest reported ever. The calculations are based on a transfer matrix approach that takes a particular form for graphene-based devices. The results are important for future nanogenerators with applications in the area of sensors, energy harvesting, and scavenging.

  11. Observed Properties of Giant Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hathaway, David H.; Upton, Lisa; Colegrove, Owen

    2014-01-01

    The existence of Giant Cells has been suggested by both theory and observation for over 45 years. We have tracked the motions of supergranules in SDO/HMI Doppler velocity data and find larger (Giant Cell) flows that persist for months. The flows in these cells are clockwise around centers of divergence in the north and counter-clockwise in the south. Equatorward flows are correlated with prograde flows - giving the transport of angular momentum toward the equator that is needed to maintain the Sun's rapid equatorial rotation. The cells are most pronounced at mid- and high-latitudes where they exhibit the rotation rates representative of those latitudes. These are clearly large, long-lived, cellular features, with the dynamical characteristics expected from the effects of the Sun's rotation, but the shapes of the cells are not well represented in numerical models. While the Giant Cell flow velocities are small (<10 m/s), their long lifetimes should nonetheless substantially impact the transport of magnetic flux in the Sun's near surface layers.

  12. Hairpin Furans and Giant Biaryls.

    PubMed

    Geng, Xin; Mague, Joel T; Donahue, James P; Pascal, Robert A

    2016-05-06

    The thermal reaction of two cyclopentadienones with 5,5'-binaphthoquinone or 6,6'-dimethoxy-5,5'-binaphthoquinone in refluxing nitrobenzene (210 °C) gives, in a single synthetic step that includes two Diels-Alder additions, two decarbonylations, and two dehydrogenations, giant biaryl bisquinones (compounds 13, 14, 15, 18, and 21). However, when two cyclopentadienones react with 6,6'-dimethoxy-5,5'-binaphthoquinone in nitrobenzene at higher temperatures (250-260 °C), the resulting products are molecular ribbons composed of two twisted aromatic systems fused to a heteropentahelicene (19, 20, and 22). These molecules are representatives of a new class of chiral polycyclic aromatic compounds, the "hairpin furans". Interestingly, reheating a dimethoxy-substituted giant biaryl (e.g., 21) in nitrobenzene at 260 °C does not yield the corresponding hairpin furan (22), and mechanistic studies indicate that some intermediate or byproduct of the synthesis of the giant biaryls is a reagent or catalyst necessary for the conversion of the dimethoxybiaryl to the furan.

  13. Electrodynamics in Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Koskinen, T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J.

    2014-12-01

    The atmospheres of close-in extrasolar giant planets such as HD209458b are strongly ionized by the UV flux of their host stars. We show that photoionization on such planets creates a dayside ionosphere that extends from the thermosphere to the 100 mbar level. The resulting peak electron density near the 1 mbar level is higher than that encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the model conductivity is in fact comparable to the atmospheres of Sun-like stars. As a result, the momentum and energy balance in the upper atmosphere of HD209458b and similar planets can be strongly affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Despite much weaker ionization, electrodynamics is nevertheless also important on the giant planets of the solar system. We use a generic framework to constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in extrasolar planets, and compare the results with conductivites based on the same approach for Jupiter and Saturn. By using a generalized Ohm's law and assumed magnetic fields, we then demonstrate the basic effects of wind-driven ion drag in giant planet atmospheres. Our results show that ion drag is often significant in the upper atmosphere where it can also substantially alter the energy budget through resistive heating.

  14. Giant Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma: Combined Microscopic Surgery and an Adjuvant Endoscopic Approach.

    PubMed

    Iannella, Giannicola; Savastano, Ersilia; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Re, Massimo; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2016-03-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatomas (PBCs) are epidermoid cysts, which have developed in the petrous portion of the temporal bone and may be congenital or acquired. Cholesteatomas arising in this region have a tendency to invade bone and functional structures and the middle and posterior fossae reaching an extensive size. Traditionally, surgery of a giant PBC contemplates lateral transtemporal or middle fossa microscopic surgery; however, in recent years, endoscopic surgical techniques (primary or complementary endoscopic approach) are starting to receive a greater consensus for middle ear and mastoid surgeries. We report the rare case of an 83-year-old Caucasian male affected by a giant cholesteatoma that eroded the labyrinth and the posterior fossa dura and extended to the infralabyrinthine region, going beyond the theca and reaching the first cervical vertebra. The giant cholesteatoma was managed through a combined approach (microscopic and, subsequently, complementary endoscopic approach). In this case report, we illustrate some advantages of this surgical choice.

  15. Giant Petrous Bone Cholesteatoma: Combined Microscopic Surgery and an Adjuvant Endoscopic Approach

    PubMed Central

    Iannella, Giannicola; Savastano, Ersilia; Pasquariello, Benedetta; Re, Massimo; Magliulo, Giuseppe

    2016-01-01

    Petrous bone cholesteatomas (PBCs) are epidermoid cysts, which have developed in the petrous portion of the temporal bone and may be congenital or acquired. Cholesteatomas arising in this region have a tendency to invade bone and functional structures and the middle and posterior fossae reaching an extensive size. Traditionally, surgery of a giant PBC contemplates lateral transtemporal or middle fossa microscopic surgery; however, in recent years, endoscopic surgical techniques (primary or complementary endoscopic approach) are starting to receive a greater consensus for middle ear and mastoid surgeries. We report the rare case of an 83-year-old Caucasian male affected by a giant cholesteatoma that eroded the labyrinth and the posterior fossa dura and extended to the infralabyrinthine region, going beyond the theca and reaching the first cervical vertebra. The giant cholesteatoma was managed through a combined approach (microscopic and, subsequently, complementary endoscopic approach). In this case report, we illustrate some advantages of this surgical choice. PMID:26937334

  16. Everolimus Treatment for an Early Infantile Subependymal Giant Cell Astrocytoma With Tuberous Sclerosis Complex.

    PubMed

    Fukumura, Shinobu; Watanabe, Toshihide; Takayama, Rumiko; Minagawa, Kimio; Tsutsumi, Hiroyuki

    2015-08-01

    Subependymal giant cell astrocytomas are benign tumors often observed with tuberous sclerosis complex. These tumors are rarely diagnosed during fetal life or early infancy. Until recently, the only available treatment has been surgical resection. Current clinical research has demonstrated that everolimus can induce these tumors' regression. We report a 19-month-old boy with tuberous sclerosis complex. At 2 months of age, he presented with congenital subependymal giant cell astrocytoma that was complicated by refractory epilepsy and severe mental retardation. Treatment with everolimus was started when he was 10 months old. Three months after initiating everolimus, the tumor was significantly reduced in size, and the reduction was subsequently maintained. His seizures decreased and he showed cognitive and developmental improvement. No severe adverse events have been observed to date. Everolimus has promise as an effective alternative to surgery for subependymal giant cell astrocytomas during early infancy.

  17. Giant Cell Lesions in Noonan Syndrome: Case Report and Review of The Literature

    PubMed Central

    Bufalino, Andreia; Carrera, Manoela; Carlos, Roman

    2010-01-01

    Noonan-like/multiple giant cell lesion syndrome (NS/MGCLS) is a rare condition with phenotypic overlap with Noonan syndrome (NS). Once thought to be a specific and separate entity, it is now suggested to be a variant of the NS spectrum. We report a patient with classical cardinal features of NS, including short stature, mild ptosis, hypertelorism, down-slating palpebral fissures, low-set and posteriorly angulated ears, short neck, pectus excavatum, widely spaced nipples and cryptochidism, which were associated with bilateral central giant cell lesions in the mandible and germ-line mutation (C218T, Thr73Ile) in the exon 3 of the PTPN11 gene. The similar clinical and genetic aspects support the observation that NS/MGCLS is a variant of NS and giant cell lesions are an integrant part of this disorder. PMID:20383758

  18. Rapid improvement in visual loss with cabergoline treatment in a giant prolactinoma case: 5 years survey.

    PubMed

    Tasan, Ertugrul; Hanimoglu, Hakan; Turgut, Seda; Ilhan, Mahmut Muzaffer; Evran, Sevket; Kaynar, Mehmet Yasar

    2015-01-01

    Giant prolactinoma is a rare subset of macroadenomas. Limited studies demonstrated which therapy could be successfully used in the first-line therapy of giant prolactinoma. We presented a case with a 54 × 40 × 40 mm pituitary adenoma and optic chiasmatic compression with left sphenoid sinus invasion. The tumor caused a loss of visual field of the right side. Cabergoline treatment was started with dose of 1.5 mg/week. Fifteen days later, the clinical visual acuity examination showed a significant improvement in the patient with visual field defect. After the five years follow-up magnetic resonance imagining showed reduction of the adenoma size (17 × 12 mm) was significant. Our findings suggest that, cabergoline can be used as a first-line therapy in giant prolactinomas because tumoral shrinkage without a surgical procedure and rapid improvement in visual field defect is achieved with this medical treatment.

  19. Microsurgical clipping of a giant vertebrobasilar junction aneurysm under hypothermic circulatory arrest.

    PubMed

    Cıkla, Ulas; Uluç, Kutluay; Baskaya, Mustafa K

    2015-07-01

    Giant posterior circulation aneurysms pose a significant challenge to neurovascular surgeons. Among various treatment methods that have been applied individually or in combination, clipping under hypothermic circulatory arrest (HCA) is rarely used. We present a 62-year-old man who initially underwent coil occlusion of the right vertebral artery (VA) for a 2.5 cm giant vertebrobasilar junction (VBJ) aneurysm. His neurological condition had declined gradually and the aneurysm grew to 4 cm in size. The patient underwent clip reconstruction of giant VBJ aneurysm under HCA. His postoperative course was prolonged due to his preexisting neurological deficits. His preoperative Modified Rankin Score was 5, and improved postoperatively to 3 at three and six months, and to 2 at one year. The video can be found here: http://youtu.be/L53SiLV8eJY.

  20. Giant cell glioblastoma in the cerebrum of a Pembroke Welsh corgi.

    PubMed

    Giri, D K; Aloisio, F; Alosio, F; Ajithdoss, D K; Ambrus, A; Lidbury, J A; Hein, H E; Porter, B F

    2011-05-01

    A 6-year-old, neutered female Pembroke Welsh corgi was presented with a 1-month history of ataxia and panting. The clinical signs progressed until the dog became anorexic, obtunded and exhibited circling to the left. At necropsy examination, a mass was detected in the left forebrain, impinging on the cribriform plate. Microscopically, the mass was composed of sheets of round to pleomorphic neoplastic cells with vacuolated cytoplasm. Nuclear atypia, anisocytosis and anisokaryosis were common. Numerous bizarre, multinucleated giant cells containing 60 or more nuclei and giant mononuclear cells were present. The matrix contained abundant reticulin. Immunohistochemistry revealed the neoplastic cells uniformly to express vimentin, and a small number of neoplastic cells expressed glial fibrillary acid protein. A diagnosis of giant cell glioblastoma was made. Although well recognized in man, this tumour has been documented rarely in the veterinary literature.

  1. Giant perianal condyloma acuminatum: Reconstruction with bilateral gluteal fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flap

    PubMed Central

    Gürbulak, Esin Kabul; Akgün, İsmail Ethem; Ömeroğlu, Sinan; Öz, Ayhan

    2015-01-01

    Condyloma acuminatum caused by human papilloma virus is the most common sexually transmitted infection in the anogenital region. On the other hand, giant condyloma acuminatum that is also known as Buschke-Lowenstein tumor is a rare disease. Its primary treatment is surgical excision. The purpose of this report is to present a case that reached immense dimensions in the perianal region, and to emphasize the importance of wide surgical excision. A 17-year-old woman presented with a giant mass in the perianal region for 2 years, which progressively increased in size. Local examination revealed a large vegetative lesion in the perianal area. Wide surgical excision of the involved skin and lesion was undertaken. The wound was reconstructed by bilateral gluteal fasciocutaneous V-Y advancement flap. Response to various treatments is often poor, with a high recurrence rate. In conclusion, surgical treatment with wide excision and plastic reconstruction is an effective therapy for giant anal condylomas. PMID:26504423

  2. Giant cell granuloma of the maxilla. Global management, review of literature and case report

    PubMed Central

    Manzano-Solo de Zaldívar, Damián; González-García, Raúl; Ruíz-Laza, Luís; Villanueva-Alcojol, Laura; González-Ballester, David; Hernández Vila, Cristina; Monje-Gil, Florencio

    2012-01-01

    Giant cell granuloma is a relatively rare benign entity but can be locally aggressive. Histologically characterized by intense proliferation of multinucleated giant cells and fibroblasts. Affects bone supported tissues. Definitive diagnosis is given by biopsy. Clinically manifest as a mass or nodule of reddish color and fleshy, occasionally ulcerated surface. They can range from asymptomatic to destructive lesions that grow quickly. It is a lesion to be considered in the differential diagnosis of osteolytic lesions affecting the maxilla or jaw. Its management passed from conservative treatment with intralesional infiltration of corticosteroids, calcitonin or interferon, to the surgical resection and reconstruction, for example with microvascular free flaps. Key words:Giant cell granuloma, intralesional injection, microvascular free flap, fibula. PMID:24558538

  3. Giant viruses infecting algae.

    PubMed

    Van Etten, J L; Meints, R H

    1999-01-01

    Paramecium bursaria chlorella virus (PBCV-1) is the prototype of a family of large, icosahedral, plaque-forming, double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that replicate in certain unicellular, eukaryotic chlorella-like green algae. DNA sequence analysis of its 330, 742-bp genome leads to the prediction that this phycodnavirus has 376 protein-encoding genes and 10 transfer RNA genes. The predicted gene products of approximately 40% of these genes resemble proteins of known function. The chlorella viruses have other features that distinguish them from most viruses, in addition to their large genome size. These features include the following: (a) The viruses encode multiple DNA methyltransferases and DNA site-specific endonucleases; (b) PBCV-1 encodes at least part, if not the entire machinery to glycosylate its proteins; (c) PBCV-1 has at least two types of introns--a self-splicing intron in a transcription factor-like gene and a splicesomal processed type of intron in its DNA polymerase gene. Unlike the chlorella viruses, large double-stranded-DNA-containing viruses that infect marine, filamentous brown algae have a circular genome and a lysogenic phase in their life cycle.

  4. Giant-cell granuloma of the axis.

    PubMed

    González-Martínez, Emilio; Santamarta, David; Lomas-García, Jesús; Ibáñez-Plágaro, F Javier; Fernández-Fernández, J Javier; Ariño, Teresa Ribas; García-Cosamalón, José

    2012-02-01

    Giant-cell granuloma is a benign and nonneoplastic lesion with an expansive and locally destructive behavior. It typically involves the mandible and the maxilla. Only 1 case arising from the odontoid process of the axis has been reported previously. The authors report on a 64-year-old man with a giant-cell granuloma of the axis. They review this uncommon entity, emphasizing the complexity of differentiating between this lesion and other giant-cell tumors.

  5. Cabergoline Treatment in Invasive Giant Prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Alsubaie, Sadeem; Almalki, Mussa H

    2014-01-01

    Patients with invasive giant prolactinoma suffer from a constellation of symptoms including headache, blurred vision, lethargy, and sexual dysfunction. Cabergoline, a potent dopamine agonist, is a known medication prescribed for the treatment of invasive giant prolactinoma. Here, we report a case of invasive giant prolactinoma in a 52-year-old Saudi male with dramatic response to cabergoline treatment clinically, biochemically, and radiologically. PMID:25002819

  6. Rare Parotid Gland Diseases.

    PubMed

    Sanan, Akshay; Cognetti, David M

    2016-04-01

    The differential diagnosis for "rare" parotid gland diseases is broad and encompasses infectious, neoplastic, autoimmune, metabolic, and iatrogenic etiologies. The body of knowledge of parotid gland diseases has grown owing to advances in imaging and pathologic analysis and molecular technology. This article reviews rare parotid diseases, discussing the respective disease's clinical presentation, diagnosis, imaging, pathogenesis, treatment, and prognosis.

  7. Red giants: then and now

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Faulkner, John

    Fred Hoyle's work on the structure and evolution of red giants, particularly his pathbreaking contribution with Martin Schwarzschild (Hoyle and Schwarzschild 1955), is both lauded and critically assessed. In his later lectures and work with students in the early 1960s, Hoyle presented more physical ways of understanding some of the approximations used, and results obtained, in that seminal paper. Although later ideas by other investigators will be touched upon, Hoyle's viewpoint - that low-mass red giants are essentially white dwarfs with a serious mass-storage problem - is still extremely fruitful. Over the years, I have further developed his method of attack. Relatively recently, I have been able to deepen and broaden the approach, finally extending the theory to provide a unifying treatment of the structure of low-mass stars from the main sequence though both the red-giant and horizontal-branch phases of evolution. Many aspects of these stars that had remained puzzling, even mysterious, for decades have now fallen into place, and some questions have been answered that were not even posed before. With low-mass red giants as the simplest example, this recent work emphasizes that stars, in general, may have at least two distinct but very important centres: (I) a geometrical centre, and (II) a separate nuclear centre, residing in a shell outside a zero-luminosity dense core for example. This two-centre perspective leads to an explicit, analytical, asymptotic theory of low-mass red-giant structure. It enables one to appreciate that the problem of understanding why such stars become red giants is one of anticipating a remarkable yet natural structural bifurcation that occurs in them. This bifurcation occurs because of a combination of known and understandable facts just summarized namely that, following central hydrogen exhaustion, a thin nuclear-burning shell does develop outside a more-or-less dense core. In the resulting theory, both ρsh/ρolinec and

  8. ORIGIN OF LITHIUM ENRICHMENT IN K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Kumar, Yerra Bharat; Reddy, Bacham E.; Lambert, David L.

    2011-03-20

    In this Letter, we report on a low-resolution spectroscopic survey for Li-rich K giants among 2000 low-mass (M {<=} 3 M{sub sun}) giants spanning the luminosity range from below to above the luminosity of the clump. Fifteen new Li-rich giants including four super Li-rich K giants (log {epsilon}(Li) {>=}3.2) were discovered. A significant finding is that there is a concentration of Li-rich K giants at the luminosity of the clump or red horizontal branch. This new finding is partly a consequence of the fact that our low-resolution survey is the first large survey to include giants well below and above the red giant branch (RGB) bump and clump locations in the H-R diagram. Origin of the lithium enrichment may be plausibly attributed to the conversion of {sup 3}He via {sup 7}Be to {sup 7}Li by the Cameron-Fowler mechanism but the location for the onset of the conversion is uncertain. Two possible opportunities to effect this conversion are discussed: the bump in the first ascent of the RGB and the He-core flash at the tip of the RGB. The finite luminosity spread of the Li-rich giants serves to reject the idea that Li enhancement is, in general, a consequence of a giant swallowing a large planet.

  9. Unusual Severe Complication Following Transarterial Chemoembolization for Metastatic Malignant Melanoma: Giant Intrahepatic Cyst and Fatal Hepatic Failure

    SciTech Connect

    Ataergin, Selmin; Tasar, Mustafa; Solchaga, Luis; Ozet, Ahmet; Arpaci, Fikret

    2009-03-15

    We describe a 45-year-old male patient with malignant melanoma who underwent hepatic arterial chemoembolization due to liver metastases. Four months after the procedure, the patient developed a giant cystic cavity in the liver. Cytologic examination of the cystic fluid retention revealed necrotic tumor material. The fluid was drained by percutaneous catheter, but the patient developed hepatic failure. This case represents another rare complication of transarterial chemoembolization and shows that transarterial chemoembolization may have rare fatal complications.

  10. Determination of the specific site occupation of rare earth additions in Y/sub 1/ /sub 7/SM/sub 0/ /sub 6/Lu/sub 0/ /sub 7/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/ thin films by the orientation dependence of characteristic x-ray emissions

    SciTech Connect

    Krishnan, K.M.; Rez, P.; Mishra, R.; Thomas, G.

    1983-11-01

    The orientation dependence of characteristic x-ray emissions have been used to determine specific site occupations of Rare Earth additions in epitaxially grown films of Y/sub 1/ /sub 7/Sm/sub 0/ /sub 6/Lu/sub 0/ /sub 7/Fe/sub 5/O/sub 12/. A theoretical formulation based on the assumption of highly localized inner shell excitations was used not only to predict specific site sensitive orientations, but also to refine experimentally observed data employing a constrained least squares analysis to give probabilities for the occupation of the RE additions in the different crystallographic sites. Thus, it has been shown that in this compound the preference for the RE additions is a predominantly octahedral occupation with a probability greater than or equal to 95%. Some of the assumptions and limitations of the technique have also been discussed.

  11. Is schizophrenia rare if grain is rare?

    PubMed

    Dohan, F C; Harper, E H; Clark, M H; Rodrigue, R B; Zigas, V

    1984-03-01

    If, as hypothesized, neuroactive peptides from grain glutens are the major agents evoking schizophrenia in those with the genotype(s), it should be rare if grain is rare. To test this, we analyzed the results of our clinical examinations (e.g., kuru) and observations of anthropologists on peoples consuming little or no grain. Only two overtly insane chronic schizophrenics were found among over 65,000 examined or closely observed adults in remote regions of Papua New Guinea (PNG, 1950-1967) and Malaita , Solomon Islands (1980-1981), and on Yap , Micronesia (1947-1948). In preneuroleptic Europe over 130 would have been expected. When these peoples became partially westernized and consumed wheat, barley beer, and rice, the prevalence reached European levels. Our findings agree with previous epidemiologic and experimental results indicating that grain glutens are harmful to schizophrenics.

  12. Giant cyst of the cavum septi pellucidi and cavum Vergae with posterior cranial fossa extension: case report.

    PubMed

    Bayar, M A; Gökçek, C; Gökçek, A; Edebali, N; Buharali, Z

    1996-05-01

    The cavum septi pellucidi (CSP) and cavum Vergae (CV) are frequently seen in premature and term infants. These cavities rarely enlarge and become symptomatic we describe a giant CSP and CV cyst in an 18-month-old boy, extending to the posterior cranial fossa and causing hydrocephalus. The literature is reviewed, and the MRI and CT findings of the case are reported.

  13. Giant Angiokeratoma of Fordyce over the Vulva in a Middle-Aged Woman: Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Kudur, Mohan H; Hulmani, Manjunath

    2013-01-01

    Angiokeratoma of Fordyce occurring over vulva is rare. Angiokeratoma of Fordyce commonly occurs in males over scrotum or penile shaft and presents as multiple verrucous reddish papules. They are usually asymptomatic and noticed accidentally. In the present article, we present and review the literature of giant angiokeratoma of Fordyce in middle-aged women due to its rarity. PMID:23723496

  14. Giant Cell Tumor of the Larynx Treated by Surgery and Adjuvant Denosumab: Case Report and Review of the Literature.

    PubMed

    Yancoskie, Aaron E; Frank, Douglas K; Fantasia, John E; Savona, Steven; Eiseler, Nicole; Reder, Ilan; Kahn, Leonard B

    2015-12-01

    Giant cell tumor of the larynx (GCTL) is a rare entity; only 34 cases have been reported in the literature. We report a case of GCTL in a 46 year-old male presenting clinical, radiographic, histological and therapeutic features. Previously reported cases are also reviewed.

  15. On the Serendipitous Discovery of a Li-rich Giant in the Globular Cluster NGC 362

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    D'Orazi, Valentina; Gratton, Raffaele G.; Angelou, George C.; Bragaglia, Angela; Carretta, Eugenio; Lattanzio, John C.; Lucatello, Sara; Momany, Yazan; Sollima, Antonio

    2015-03-01

    We have serendipitously identified the first lithium-rich giant star located close to the red giant branch bump in a globular cluster. Through intermediate-resolution FLAMES spectra we derived a lithium abundance of A(Li) = 2.55 (assuming local thermodynamical equilibrium), which is extremely high considering the star’s evolutionary stage. Kinematic and photometric analysis confirm the object as a member of the globular cluster NGC 362. This is the fourth Li-rich giant discovered in a globular cluster, but is the only one known to exist at a luminosity close to the bump magnitude. The three previous detections are clearly more evolved, located close to, or beyond, the tip of their red giant branch. Our observations are able to discard the accretion of planets/brown dwarfs, as well as an enhanced mass-loss mechanism as a formation channel for this rare object. While the star sits just above the cluster bump luminosity, its temperature places it toward the blue side of the giant branch in the color-magnitude diagram. We require further dedicated observations to unambiguously identify the star as a red giant: we are currently unable to confirm whether Li production has occurred at the bump of the luminosity function or if the star is on the pre-zero-age horizontal branch. The latter scenario provides the opportunity for the star to have synthesized Li rapidly during the core helium flash or gradually during its red giant branch ascent via some extra mixing process. Based on observations taken with ESO telescopes under program 094.D-0363(A).

  16. Giant Cystic Pheochromocytoma with Low Risk of Malignancy: A Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Maharaj, Ravi; Baijoo, Shanta; Greaves, Wesley; Harnanan, Dave

    2017-01-01

    Giant pheochromocytomas are rare silent entities that do not present with the classical symptoms commonly seen in catecholamine-secreting tumors. In many cases they are accidentally discovered. The algorithm to diagnose a pheochromocytoma consists of biochemical evaluation and imaging of a retroperitoneal mass. The female patient in this case report presented with a palpable abdominal mass and was cured with surgical resection. She suffered no recurrence or complications on follow-up. The left retroperitoneal mass measured 27 × 18 × 12 cm and weighed 3,315 grams. Biochemical, radiological, and pathological examinations confirmed the diagnosis of a pheochromocytoma. In this paper, we report on our experience treating this patient and provide a summary of all giant pheochromocytomas greater than 10 cm reported to date in English language medical journals. Our patient's giant cystic pheochromocytoma was the fourth heaviest and fifth largest maximal diameter identified using our literature search criteria. Additionally, this tumor had the largest maximal diameter of all histologically confirmed benign/low metastatic risk pheochromocytomas. Giant cystic pheochromocytomas are rare entities requiring clinical suspicion coupled with strategic diagnostic evaluation to confirm the diagnosis.

  17. Abundance and sexual size dimorphism of the giant gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) in the Sacramento valley of California

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Wylie, G.D.; Casazza, M.L.; Gregory, C.J.; Halstead, B.J.

    2010-01-01

    The Giant Gartersnake (Thamnophis gigas) is restricted to wetlands of the Central Valley of California. Because of wetland loss in this region, the Giant Gartersnake is both federally and state listed as threatened. We conducted markrecapture studies of four populations of the Giant Gartersnake in the Sacramento Valley (northern Central Valley), California, to obtain baseline data on abundance and density to assist in recovery planning for this species. We sampled habitats that ranged from natural, unmanaged marsh to constructed managed marshes and habitats associated with rice agriculture. Giant Gartersnake density in a natural wetland (1.90 individuals/ha) was an order of magnitude greater than in a managed wetland subject to active season drying (0.17 individuals/ha). Sex ratios at all sites were not different from 1 1, and females were longer and heavier than males. Females had greater body condition than males, and individuals at the least disturbed sites had significantly greater body condition than individuals at the managed wetland. The few remaining natural wetlands in the Central Valley are important, productive habitat for the Giant Gartersnake, and should be conserved and protected. Wetlands constructed and restored for the Giant Gartersnake should be modeled after the permanent, shallow wetlands representative of historic Giant Gartersnake habitat. ?? 2010 Society for the Study of Amphibians and Reptiles.

  18. Reversal of severe cognitive impairment following medical treatment of cystic invasive giant prolactinoma

    PubMed Central

    Lois, K; Mathiopoulou, M; Grossman, A B; James, R A

    2016-01-01

    Summary Giant prolactinomas are rare tumours of the pituitary, which typically exceed 40 mm in their largest dimension. Impairment of higher cognitive function has been noted post-operatively after transcranial surgery and as a long-term consequence of the radiotherapy treatment. However, there has been little that is reported on such disturbances in relation to the tumour per se, and to our knowledge, there has been none in terms of responsivity to dopamine agonist therapy and shrinkage in these tumours. We present a case of successful restoration of severely impaired cognitive functions achieved safely after significant adenoma involution with medical treatment alone. Learning points Giant prolactinomas can be present with profound cognitive defects.Dopamine agonists remain in the mainstay first-line treatment of giant prolactinomas.Mechanisms of the reversible cognitive impairment associated with giant prolactinoma treatment appear to be complex and remain open to further studies.Young patients with giant prolactinomas mandate genetic testing towards familial predisposition. PMID:26904198

  19. Undifferentiated Carcinoma with Osteoclast-Like Giant Cells of the Pancreas in a Patient with New Diagnosis of Follicular Non-Hodgkin's Lymphoma.

    PubMed

    Shah, Apeksha; Khurana, Tanvi; Freid, Lauren; Siddiqui, Ali A

    2014-01-01

    Pancreatic tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells are rare, with only 50 cases published to date. We report a case of a 67-year-old male with a new diagnosis of follicular non-Hodgkin's lymphoma with an incidental pancreatic body mass on abdominal imaging. Cytology from the pancreatic mass obtained via endoscopic ultrasound-directed fine-needle aspiration (EUS-FNA) revealed an undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells.

  20. Rare Diseases Research

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Extensive public-private partnerships, including the National Institutes of Health (NIH) and the rare diseases community, which is seeing a renewed industry interest in smaller niche markets, have resulted in an increase of interventions for rare diseases. Significant collaborative efforts are required among the pharmaceutical industry, foundations, patient-advocacy groups, academic and government investigators and funding programs, regulatory scientists, and reimbursement agencies to meet the unmet diagnostic and treatment needs for approximately 25 million people in the United States with 7,000 rare diseases. The expanding role and outreach activities of patient-advocacy groups have increased public awareness. In the United States, a rare disease is defined as a disorder or condition with a prevalence of < 200,000 people. In 2011, the NIH provided > $3.5 billion for rare diseases research, including $750 million for orphan product development activities, nearly 11.4% of the NIH research budget. Several research institutes and centers of the NIH, including the National Center for Advancing Translational Sciences, have initiated varied translational research efforts to address the absence of preclinical and clinical data required for regulatory review purposes. Clinicians can expect to see significant increases in requests from patients and their families to participate in patient registries and natural history or observational studies to gather specific information from a larger pool of patients on the progression of the disease or response to treatments. An expanding emphasis on rare diseases provides hope for the millions of patients with rare diseases. PMID:23880676

  1. A rare opportunity beckons

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, K

    2011-02-01

    There is a great deal of uncertainty for the future of rare-earth production. Rare-earths are a collection of 17 chemical elements in the periodic table, which include scandium and yttrium as well as the 15 lanthanides, such as dysprosium and ytterbium. China has a stranglehold on today's rare-earth market, which was worth about $3bn in 2010, with the country accounting for about 95% of worldwide production. Yet China's future actions can only be guessed at best. In September it halted shipments of rare-earth elements to Japan over a diplomatic spat concerning the detention of a Chinese trawler captain. Although the ban was later lifted, the episode raised concerns around the world about China's rare-earth monopoly and its use in diplomacy. China has already warned that it will not export any rare-earth material in the coming years as it expects its own consumption of rare-earth metals to increase. The country has introduced export taxes as well as production and export quotas, and also refused to grant any new rare-earth mining licences. Furthermore, because its reserves are limited and China's internal markets are growing so rapidly, the country has suggested it will no longer export products that require rare-earth elements, especially those that need heavy rare-earth elements, such as terbium and dysprosium. China's actions have led to huge rises in the cost of rare-earth materials and products. Dysprosium oxide, for example, has shot up from $36 per kilogram in 2005 to a massive $305 per kilogram by late last year. This could have a huge impact on much of today's electronics industry, given that rare-earth elements are ubiquitous in electric motors, computers, batteries, liquid-crystal displays (LCDs) and mobile phones. Neodymium-iron-boron permanent magnets, for example, are used as computer spindle drives. The question is: what can be done to ensure that China's dominance of the rare-earth industry does not affect the military and energy security of the US

  2. Rare earth gas laser

    DOEpatents

    Krupke, W.F.

    1975-10-31

    A high energy gas laser with light output in the infrared or visible region of the spectrum is described. Laser action is obtained by generating vapors of rare earth halides, particularly neodymium iodide or, to a lesser extent, neodymium bromide, and disposing the rare earth vapor medium in a resonant cavity at elevated temperatures; e.g., approximately 1200/sup 0/ to 1400/sup 0/K. A particularly preferred gaseous medium is one involving a complex of aluminum chloride and neodymium chloride, which exhibits tremendously enhanced vapor pressure compared to the rare earth halides per se, and provides comparable increases in stored energy densities.

  3. Warm Disks from Giant Impacts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2015-10-01

    In the process of searching for exoplanetary systems, weve discovered tens of debris disks close around distant stars that are especially bright in infrared wavelengths. New research suggests that we might be looking at the late stages of terrestrial planet formation in these systems.Forming Terrestrial PlanetsAccording to the widely-accepted formation model for our solar-system, protoplanets the size of Mars formed within a protoplanetary disk around our Sun. Eventually, the depletion of the gas in the disk led the orbits of these protoplanets to become chaotically unstable. Finally, in the giant impact stage, many of the protoplanets collided with each other ultimately leading to the formation of the terrestrial planets and their moons as we know them today.If giant impact stages occur in exoplanetary systems, too leading to the formation of terrestrial exoplanets how would we detect this process? According to a study led by Hidenori Genda of the Tokyo Institute of Technology, we might be already be witnessing this stage in observations of warm debris disks around other stars. To test this, Genda and collaborators model giant impact stages and determine what we would expect to see from a system undergoing this violent evolution.Modeling CollisionsSnapshots of a giant impact in one of the authors simulations. The collision causes roughly 0.05 Earth masses of protoplanetary material to be ejected from the system. Click for a closer look! [Genda et al. 2015]The collaborators run a series of simulations evolving protoplanetary bodies in a solar system. The simulations begin 10 Myr into the lifetime of the solar system, i.e., after the gas from the protoplanetary disk has had time to be cleared and the protoplanetary orbits begin to destabilize. The simulations end when the protoplanets are done smashing into each other and have again settled into stable orbits, typically after ~100 Myr.The authors find that, over an average giant impact stage, the total amount of

  4. On Infrared Excesses Associated with Li-Rich K Giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Black, David V.; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Cashen, Sarah; Clarke, Matthew; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan

    2015-01-01

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant lithium and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched lithium, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and lithium abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be lithium-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by approximately 20 micrometers (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few lithium-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, 12C/13C. IR excesses by 20 micrometers, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of lithium-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported

  5. ON INFRARED EXCESSES ASSOCIATED WITH Li-RICH K GIANTS

    SciTech Connect

    Rebull, Luisa M.; Carlberg, Joleen K.; Gibbs, John C.; Cashen, Sarah; Datta, Ashwin; Hodgson, Emily; Lince, Megan; Deeb, J. Elin; Larsen, Estefania; Altepeter, Shailyn; Bucksbee, Ethan; Clarke, Matthew; Black, David V.

    2015-10-15

    Infrared (IR) excesses around K-type red giants (RGs) have previously been discovered using Infrared Astronomy Satellite (IRAS) data, and past studies have suggested a link between RGs with overabundant Li and IR excesses, implying the ejection of circumstellar shells or disks. We revisit the question of IR excesses around RGs using higher spatial resolution IR data, primarily from the Wide-field Infrared Survey Explorer. Our goal was to elucidate the link between three unusual RG properties: fast rotation, enriched Li, and IR excess. Our sample of RGs includes those with previous IR detections, a sample with well-defined rotation and Li abundance measurements with no previous IR measurements, and a large sample of RGs asserted to be Li-rich in the literature; we have 316 targets thought to be K giants, about 40% of which we take to be Li-rich. In 24 cases with previous detections of IR excess at low spatial resolution, we believe that source confusion is playing a role, in that either (a) the source that is bright in the optical is not responsible for the IR flux, or (b) there is more than one source responsible for the IR flux as measured in IRAS. We looked for IR excesses in the remaining sources, identifying 28 that have significant IR excesses by ∼20 μm (with possible excesses for 2 additional sources). There appears to be an intriguing correlation in that the largest IR excesses are all in Li-rich K giants, though very few Li-rich K giants have IR excesses (large or small). These largest IR excesses also tend to be found in the fastest rotators. There is no correlation of IR excess with the carbon isotopic ratio, {sup 12}C/{sup 13}C. IR excesses by 20 μm, though relatively rare, are at least twice as common among our sample of Li-rich K giants. If dust shell production is a common by-product of Li enrichment mechanisms, these observations suggest that the IR excess stage is very short-lived, which is supported by theoretical calculations. Conversely, the

  6. The Peripheral Giant Cell Granuloma in Edentulous Patients: Report of Three Unique Cases

    PubMed Central

    Etoz, Osman A.; Demirbas, Ahmet Emin; Bulbul, Mehmet; Akay, Ebru

    2010-01-01

    The peripheral giant cell granuloma (PGCG) is a rare reactive exophytic lesion taking place on the gingiva and alveolar ridge usually as a result of local irritating factors such as trauma, tooth extraction, badly finished fillings, unstable dental prosthesis, plaque, calculus, chronic infections, and impacted food. This article presents 3 cases of PGCG that presented at the same location of the edentulous mandible of patients that using complete denture for over ten years. PMID:20613923

  7. Stroke Secondary to Aseptic Meningitis After Endovascular Treatment of a Giant Aneurysm with Parent Artery Occlusion

    SciTech Connect

    Doenmez, Halil Mavili, Ertugrul Ikizceli, Tuerkan; Durak, Ahmet Candan; Kurtsoy, Ali

    2009-07-15

    Aseptic meningitis related to hydrogel-coated coils is a known complication, but it is extremely rare after platinum bare coil aseptic meningitis. Here we report the development of aseptic meningitis causing brain stem and cerebellar infarct in a patient with a giant aneurysm treated with bare platinum coils. We conclude that aneurysm size is an important factor affecting the occurrence of aseptic meningitis associated with stroke.

  8. Primary hyperparathyroidism associated with a giant cell tumor: One case in the distal radius.

    PubMed

    Ouzaa, M R; Bennis, A; Iken, M; Abouzzahir, A; Boussouga, M; Jaafar, A

    2015-10-01

    Hyperparathyroidism can present itself as brown tumors (or osteolytic expansive lesions) that usually disappear after normalization of calcium and phosphate levels. It rarely occurs simultaneously with a giant cell tumor. The authors report one case of a localized form at the distal radius in a patient being followed for primary hyperparathyroidism. The diagnostic challenges related to the clinical and radiological similarities of these two pathological entities are discussed, as they can lead to delays in therapeutic management.

  9. Surgical repair of a giant aneurysm of the right subclavian artery.

    PubMed

    Spinelli, Francesco; Stilo, Francesco; Benedetto, Filippo; Lentini, Salvatore

    2010-05-01

    Giant isolated subclavian aneurysm is a rare disease. We report a case of a 66-year-old lady, with a proximal intrathoracic true aneurysm of the right subclavian artery. Due to the absence of a proximal neck, and for the relevant tortuosity of the vessels, we decided to approach the aneurysm through a median sternotomy. The aneurysm was excluded and opened. Then, we performed a direct subclavian-carotid transposition. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  10. Primary giant cell malignant fibrous histiocytoma-associated with renal calculus

    PubMed Central

    Altunkol, Adem; Savas, Murat; Ciftci, Halil; Gulum, Mehmet; Yagmur, Ismail; Bitiren, Muharrem

    2014-01-01

    Malignant fibrous histiocytomas (MFH) are the most commonly seen soft tissue sarcomas in adults. It is rarely seen in some visceral organs. Kidneys are the parenchymal organs in which MFHs are most frequently seen. More than 50 cases of primary renal MFH have been reported. Among these cases, only 1 was reported as primary giant cell subtype in association with urolithiasis. This case report is the second such case with the these characteristics. PMID:24678364

  11. Mast cell tumour in a giant Galapagos tortoise (Geochelone nigra vicina).

    PubMed

    Santoro, M; Stacy, B A; Morales, J A; Gastezzi-Arias, P; Landazuli, S; Jacobson, E R

    2008-01-01

    A well-differentiated cutaneous mast cell tumour was diagnosed in a subadult female giant Galapagos tortoise. The tumour was a pedunculated, verrucose mass located near the base of the neck. The histological features, which were diagnostic for a mast cell tumour, included abundant intracytoplasmic granules that were stained metachromatically with Giemsa and toluidine blue stains. Mast cell tumours are rare in reptiles, and this is the first description of a mast cell tumour in a chelonian.

  12. Medical rare book provenance.

    PubMed Central

    Overmier, J A; Sentz, L

    1987-01-01

    Provenance is defined as the record of a book's ownership history. Its value and uses are explored. A survey of provenance practices in medical school rare book libraries found that only 21% of the reporting libraries maintain this important file. Examples of the uses and value of a provenance file in a medical rare book collection are presented. Decisions necessary to institute and maintain such a file are outlined and discussed. PMID:3828606

  13. A rare case of paratubal cystadenoma during pregnancy

    PubMed Central

    Gorkem, Umit; Efeturk, Tunay; Sahiner, I. Tayfun; Bas, Yılmaz; Dolapcı, Mete; Gungor, Tayfun

    2016-01-01

    Paratubal cysts (PTCs) are generally incidentally detected in pregnancy. However, paratubal cystadenomas in pregnant women are very rare cases who are reported individually. An unusually giant case of paratubal cystadenoma in a pregnant woman is presented here. A 27-year-old woman presented to our department for a routine pregnancy checkup. A giant cystic mass accompanying a 17-week gestation was detected on examination. During laparotomy, a huge right-sided PTC was resected. Histopathological evaluation revealed a benign cystadenoma originating in the ipsilateral paratubal space. PTCs are often denoted as being benign. Neoplastic transformation or malign potential will change the course of follow-up and the patients' prognosis. Treatment with surgical excision in the second trimester can safely prevent such associated adverse conditions. In conclusion, gynecologists should be careful for causes of adnexal masses in a woman with an intrauterine pregnancy. PTCs also tend to show accelerated growth patterns during pregnancy. PMID:26795915

  14. Sodium in weak G-band giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Drake, Jeremy J.; Lambert, David L.

    1994-01-01

    Sodium abundances have been determined for eight weak G-band giants whose atmospheres are greatly enriched with products of the CN-cycling H-burning reactions. Systematic errors are minimized by comparing the weak G-band giants to a sample of similar but normal giants. If, further, Ca is selected as a reference element, model atmosphere-related errors should largely be removed. For the weak-G-band stars (Na/Ca) = 0.16 +/- 0.01, which is just possibly greater than the result (Na/Ca) = 0.10 /- 0.03 from the normal giants. This result demonstrates that the atmospheres of the weak G-band giants are not seriously contaminated with products of ON cycling.

  15. Sylvian Fissure Dermoid Cyst - A Rare case

    PubMed Central

    Anand, Deepak; Soin, Divya; Garg, Ravinder

    2014-01-01

    Intracranial dermoid cysts are rare tumours which usually occur in the midline. Sylvian fissure is a very unusual site for this lesion. This case presents a patient with unruptured dermoid cyst in the left sylvian fissure who was operated successfully without any residual deficit. PMID:25386502

  16. Giant Planets in Open Clusters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Quinn, S. N.; White, R. J.; Latham, D. W.

    2015-10-01

    Two decades after the discovery of 51 Peg b, more than 200 hot Jupiters have now been confirmed, but the details of their inward migration remain uncertain. While it is widely accepted that short period giant planets could not have formed in situ, several different mechanisms (e.g., Type II migration, planet-planet scattering, Kozai-Lidov cycles) may contribute to shrinking planetary orbits, and the relative importance of each is not well-constrained. Migration through the gas disk is expected to preserve circular, coplanar orbits and must occur quickly (within ˜ 10 Myr), whereas multi-body processes should initially excite eccentricities and inclinations and may take hundreds of millions of years. Subsequent evolution of the system (e.g., orbital circularization and inclination damping via tidal interaction with the host star) may obscure these differences, so observing hot Jupiters soon after migration occurs can constrain the importance of each mechanism. Fortunately, the well-characterized stars in young and adolescent open clusters (with known ages and compositions) provide natural laboratories for such studies, and recent surveys have begun to take advantage of this opportunity. We present a review of the discoveries in this emerging realm of exoplanet science, discuss the constraints they provide for giant planet formation and migration, and reflect on the future direction of the field.

  17. Solitary Giant Neurofibroma of the Scalp with Calvarial Defect in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Ismail, N. J.; Shehu, B. B.; Lasseini, A.; Hassan, I.; Shilong, D. J.; Obande, J. O.; Sahabi, S. M.

    2010-01-01

    Neurofibroma of the scalp are mostly multiple as part of neurofibromatosis or other phakomatosis. De novo solitary types are less common and rarely erode the skull, unlike the intracranial counterpart. Skull erosion has been reported in adults with longstanding plexiform neurofibromas. We report a giant neurofibroma on the scalp of a five-year-old boy, managed in our center. Although this condition is a rare entity, it should be anticipated and the treatment strategy should include repair of the skull defect. PMID:22091326

  18. Radioiodine Accumulation in a Giant Ovarian Cystadenofibroma Detected Incidentally by 131-I Whole Body Scans

    PubMed Central

    Mebarki, Mohammed; Menemani, Abdelghani; Medjahedi, Abdelkader; Boualou, Fouad; Slama, Abdelhak; Ouguirti, Sarah; Kherbouche, Fatima Zahra; Berber, Nécib

    2012-01-01

    Ovarian cystadenofibroma is a relatively rare tumor; it is usually asymptomatic and is found incidentally. We present the case of a 24-year-old female patient, who had undergone total thyroidectomy for thyroid papillary carcinoma, with an asymptomatic giant cystadenofibroma, incidentally discovered by diagnostic 131I-SPECT/CT WBSs. We summarize the clinical history, imaging data, and histopathological study on a rare case of radioiodine accumulation in cystadenofibroma, and we discuss the mechanism of uptake of radioiodine in this case. PMID:23119215

  19. Primary orbital melanoma combined with giant divided nevus of the eyelid.

    PubMed

    Ke, Yifeng; Ren, Xinjun; Zhu, Liming; Hao, Rui; Song, Wenjin; Liu, Xun; He, Yanjin

    2014-01-01

    The authors report a rare case of primary orbital melanoma (POM) combined with giant divided nevus of the eyelid. An 8-year-old Chinese girl is referred for evaluation of 2-month duration of exophthalmos with decreased vision, epiphora, and pain on her right eye. His presentation, imaging, biopsy, histopathology, and management are presented. The possible cellular origin of the POM and the relationship of POM and divided nevus are discussed. We presume that divided nevus may be one of rarely preexisting lesions of POM.

  20. Giant Onychomatricoma of the Great Toenail: Case Report and Review Focusing on Less Common Variants.

    PubMed

    Prevezas, Christos; Triantafyllopoulou, Ioanna; Belyayeva, Helena; Sgouros, Dimitrios; Konstantoudakis, Stephanos; Panayiotides, Ioannis; Rigopoulos, Dimitrios

    2016-05-01

    Onychomatricoma is a rare benign fibroepithelial filamentous tumor originating from the nail matrix. It typically presents with the clinical tetrad of xanthonychia, pachyonychia, proximal splinter hemorrhages and increased transverse overcurvature of the nail plate. The giant variant can easily confuse the clinician due to its extensive nail dystrophy that can mask the characteristic features of this tumor. Benign (fibrokeratoma, ungual fibroma, onycholytic matricoma) and malignant entities (Bowen's disease, squamous cell carcinoma, onycholytic carcinoma) are mimics of the disease. Nail surgery can facilitate the diagnosis, which should always be confirmed by histology, as rare variants do exist.

  1. Using aerial photography and image analysis to measure changes in giant reed populations

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    A study was conducted along the Rio Grande in southwest Texas to evaluate color-infrared aerial photography combined with supervised image analysis to quantify changes in giant reed (Arundo donax L.) populations over a 6-year period. Aerial photographs from 2002 and 2008 of the same seven study site...

  2. Giant melanocytic nevi with neurocutaneous melanosis masquerading as neurofibromas

    PubMed Central

    Gowda, Vykuntaraju K.; Basude, Anita; Srinivas, Sahana M.; Bhat, Maya

    2016-01-01

    Neurocutaneous melanosis is congenital melanocytic nevus with neurological manifestations. We report a 4-year-old female child presenting with hyperpigmented and nodular skin lesion associated with developmental delay and convulsions. The child had multiple brownish-black nevi on the face and chest and giant melanocytic nevi on thoraco-abdomen, back, and gluteal region. Computed tomography scan of the brain showed calcification in the pons, right cerebellar hemisphere, and left medial temporal lobe. Skin biopsy done from nodular hyperpigmented site was suggestive of melanocytic nevi. Electroencephalogram showed multifocal epileptiform discharges. PMID:27857802

  3. ULTRASTRUCTURE OF BARNACLE GIANT MUSCLE FIBERS

    PubMed Central

    Hoyle, Graham; McNeill, Patricia A.; Selverston, Allen I.

    1973-01-01

    Increasing use of barnacle giant muscle fibers for physiological research has prompted this investigation of their fine structure. The fibers are invaginated by a multibranched system of clefts connecting to the exterior and filled with material similar to that of the basement material of the sarcolemmal complex. Tubules originate from the surface plasma membrane at irregular sites, and also from the clefts They run transversely, spirally, and longitudinally, making many diadic and some triadic contacts with cisternal sacs of the longitudinal sarcoplasmic reticulum. The contacts are not confined to any particular region of the sarcomere. The tubules are wider and their walls are thicker at points of contact with Z material. Some linking of the Z regions occurs across spaces within the fiber which contain large numbers of glycogen particles. A-band lengths are extremely variable, in the range 2.2 µm–20.3 µm (average 5.2 µm) Individual thick filaments have thin (110 Å) hollow regions alternating with thick (340 Å) solid ones. Bridges between thick filaments occur at random points and are not concentrated into an M band The thin:thick filament ratio is variable in different parts of a fiber, from 3:1 to 6:1. Z bands are basically perforated, but the number of perforations may increase during contraction. PMID:4264604

  4. The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Martineau-Huynh, Olivier; Bustamante, Mauricio; Carvalho, Washington; Charrier, Didier; De Jong, Sijbrand; de Vries, Krijn D.; Fang, Ke; Feng, Zhaoyang; Finley, Chad; Gou, Quanbu; Gu, Junhua; Hu, Hongbo; Kotera, Kumiko; Le Coz, Sandra; Medina, Clementina; Murase, Kohta; Niess, Valentin; Oikonomou, Foteini; Timmermans, Charles; Wang, Zhen; Wu, Xiangping; Zhang, Yi

    2017-03-01

    The Giant Radio Array for Neutrino Detection (GRAND) is a planned array of 2·105 radio antennas deployed over 200 000 km2 in a mountainous site. It aims primarly at detecting high-energy neutrinos via the observation of extensive air showers induced by the decay in the atmosphere of taus produced by the interaction of cosmic neutrinos under the Earth surface. GRAND aims at reaching a neutrino sensitivity of 5 · 10-11 E-2 GeV-1 cm-2 s-1 sr-1 above 3 · 1016 eV. This ensures the detection of cosmogenic neutrinos in the most pessimistic source models, and 50 events per year are expected for the standard models. The instrument will also detect UHECRs and possibly FRBs. Here we show how our preliminary design should enable us to reach our sensitivity goals, and discuss the steps to be taken to achieve GRAND, while the compelling science case for GRAND is discussed in more details in [1].

  5. Separating gas-giant and ice-giant planets by halting pebble accretion

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lambrechts, M.; Johansen, A.; Morbidelli, A.

    2014-12-01

    In the solar system giant planets come in two flavours: gas giants (Jupiter and Saturn) with massive gas envelopes, and ice giants (Uranus and Neptune) with much thinner envelopes around their cores. It is poorly understood how these two classes of planets formed. High solid accretion rates, necessary to form the cores of giant planets within the life-time of protoplanetary discs, heat the envelope and prevent rapid gas contraction onto the core, unless accretion is halted. We find that, in fact, accretion of pebbles (~cm sized particles) is self-limiting: when a core becomes massive enough it carves a gap in the pebble disc. This halt in pebble accretion subsequently triggers the rapid collapse of the super-critical gas envelope. Unlike gas giants, ice giants do not reach this threshold mass and can only bind low-mass envelopes that are highly enriched by water vapour from sublimated icy pebbles. This offers an explanation for the compositional difference between gas giants and ice giants in the solar system. Furthermore, unlike planetesimal-driven accretion scenarios, our model allows core formation and envelope attraction within disc life-times, provided that solids in protoplanetary discs are predominantly made up of pebbles. Our results imply that the outer regions of planetary systems, where the mass required to halt pebble accretion is large, are dominated by ice giants and that gas-giant exoplanets in wide orbits are enriched by more than 50 Earth masses of solids.

  6. Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica: 2016 Update.

    PubMed

    Nesher, Gideon; Breuer, Gabriel S

    2016-10-31

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are both more common among people of North European decent than among Mediterranean people. Women are 2-3 times more commonly affected. Giant cell arteritis and PMR are extremely rare before age 50 years. Polymyalgia rheumatica may be "isolated" or associated with GCA. There is increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in temporal arteries of PMR patients, without overt histological evidence of arteritis. One-third of "isolated" PMR patients have vascular uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, suggesting clinically unrecognized, "hidden" GCA. Typical manifestations of GCA are headache, tenderness over temporal arteries, jaw claudication, PMR, acute vision loss, and low-grade fever. Bilateral aching of the shoulders with morning stiffness is typical for PMR. In both conditions sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are elevated, and anemia and thrombocytosis may occur. Color duplex ultrasonography of the temporal arteries may aid in GCA diagnosis. Temporal artery biopsy showing vasculitis, often with giant cells, confirms GCA diagnosis. In cases with negative biopsy one must rely on the clinical presentation and laboratory abnormalities. The diagnosis of PMR is made primarily on clinical grounds. Other conditions that may mimic GCA or PMR must be excluded. Glucocorticoids are the treatment of choice for both conditions. Prompt treatment is crucial in GCA, to prevent irreversible complications of acute vision loss and stroke. Addition of low-dose aspirin may further prevent these complications. The average duration of treatment is 2-3 years, but some patients require a prolonged course of treatment, and some may develop disease-related or treatment-related complications. No steroid-sparing agent has been proven to be widely effective thus far, but some promising therapeutic agents are currently being studied.

  7. Giant Cell Arteritis and Polymyalgia Rheumatica: 2016 Update

    PubMed Central

    Nesher, Gideon; Breuer, Gabriel S.

    2016-01-01

    Giant cell arteritis (GCA) and polymyalgia rheumatica (PMR) are both more common among people of North European decent than among Mediterranean people. Women are 2–3 times more commonly affected. Giant cell arteritis and PMR are extremely rare before age 50 years. Polymyalgia rheumatica may be “isolated” or associated with GCA. There is increased expression of inflammatory cytokines in temporal arteries of PMR patients, without overt histological evidence of arteritis. One-third of “isolated” PMR patients have vascular uptake in positron emission tomography (PET) scans, suggesting clinically unrecognized, “hidden” GCA. Typical manifestations of GCA are headache, tenderness over temporal arteries, jaw claudication, PMR, acute vision loss, and low-grade fever. Bilateral aching of the shoulders with morning stiffness is typical for PMR. In both conditions sedimentation rate and C-reactive protein are elevated, and anemia and thrombocytosis may occur. Color duplex ultrasonography of the temporal arteries may aid in GCA diagnosis. Temporal artery biopsy showing vasculitis, often with giant cells, confirms GCA diagnosis. In cases with negative biopsy one must rely on the clinical presentation and laboratory abnormalities. The diagnosis of PMR is made primarily on clinical grounds. Other conditions that may mimic GCA or PMR must be excluded. Glucocorticoids are the treatment of choice for both conditions. Prompt treatment is crucial in GCA, to prevent irreversible complications of acute vision loss and stroke. Addition of low-dose aspirin may further prevent these complications. The average duration of treatment is 2–3 years, but some patients require a prolonged course of treatment, and some may develop disease-related or treatment-related complications. No steroid-sparing agent has been proven to be widely effective thus far, but some promising therapeutic agents are currently being studied. PMID:27824543

  8. Association of giant congenital melanocytic nevus, halo nevus and vitiligo in a 75-year-old patient.

    PubMed

    Silveira, Marina Leite da; Ferreira, Flávia Regina; Alvarenga, Marcia Lanzoni; Mandelbaum, Samuel Henrique

    2012-01-01

    A giant congenital melanocytic nevus represents a rare condition. The halo phenomenon may be seen in congenital or acquired melanocytic nevi. In the literature, association of halo nevus and giant congenital melanocytic nevus is rare and the association of both with vitiligo even more rare. A 75-yearold woman at first consultation complained of a hyperchromic bluish-brown hairy macula on the lower back, buttocks and thighs present since birth and an achromic halo of onset three years ago. The histological features were consistent with congenital melanocytic nevus and halo nevus, respectively. After two years the patient developed achromic areas in normal skin, histologically consistent with vitiligo. The authors emphasize the rarity of this triple combination, the patient's age and the absence of malignant degeneration to date.

  9. Structural flexibility in magnetocaloric RE5T4 (RE = rare-earth; T = silicon, germanium, gallium) materials: Effect of chemical substitution on structure, bonding and properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Misra, Sumohan

    The binary, ternary and multicomponent intermetallic compounds of rare-earth metals (RE) with group 14 elements (Tt) at the RE5 Tt4 stoichiometry have been known for over 30 years, but only in the past decade have these materials become a gold mine for solid-state chemistry, materials science and condensed matter physics. It all started with the discovery of a giant magnetocaloric effect in Gd5Si 2Ge2, along with other extraordinary magnetic properties, such as a colossal magnetostriction and giant magnetoresistance. The distinctiveness of this series is in the remarkable flexibility of the chemical bonding between well-defined, subnanometer-thick slabs and the resultant magnetic, transport, and thermodynamic properties of these materials. This can be controlled by varying either or both RE and Tt elements, including mixed rare-earth elements on the RE sites and different group 14 (or T = group 13 or 15) elements occupying the Tt sites. In addition to chemical means, the interslab interactions are also tunable by temperature, pressure, and magnetic field. Thus, this system provides a splendid "playground" to investigate the interrelationships among composition, structure, physical properties, and chemical bonding. The work presented in this dissertation involving RE5T4 materials has resulted in the successful synthesis, characterization, property measurements, and theoretical analyses of various new intermetallic compounds. The results provide significant insight into the fundamental magnetic and structural behavior of these materials and help us better understand the complex link between a compound's composition, its observed structure, and its properties.

  10. Mythology to reality: case report on a giant cutaneous horn of the scalp in an African American female.

    PubMed

    Leppard, William; Loungani, Rahul; Saylors, Bradley; Delaney, Kevin

    2014-01-01

    We present a case study of a patient with a rare and disfiguring dermatologic condition known as cornu cutaneum, or giant cutaneous horn (GCH). While this condition has been well described in people of European and Asian ancestry, its presence in African populations is perceived to be rare and has not been reported in the literature until recently. We present the case of cornu cutaneum in a woman of African descent, contributing to the recent evidence that this condition may not be as rare in African populations as believed. Etiologic factors, epidemiology and management are also reviewed.

  11. Giant gallbladder: A case report and review of literature

    PubMed Central

    Kuznetsov, A.V.; Borodach, A.V.; Fedin, E.N.; Khromova, A.D.

    2014-01-01

    INTRODUCTION Reports of a giant gallbladder are rare. PRESENTATION OF CASE A 77-year-old woman was admitted with complaints of dull pain in the right half of the abdomen and a palpable mass at the same place. A computerized tomography scan revealed an extremely enlarged gallbladder. Open cholecystectomy was performed. The volume of the removed organ was as much as 3.35 L. Follow-up after 18 months showed that the patient was well. Examination revealed no significant acquired or congenital anomalies that might explain the excessive enlargement of the gallbladder. DISCUSSION We define a ‘giant’ gallbladder as an extreme enlargement of the organ with a volume exceeding 1.5 L, so that its weight is comparable to or even exceeds the mean (estimated) weight of the adult liver (1.5 kg). The first clinical presentation of such an enlargement is likely to differ from any other gallbladder disease, but rather to resemble a tumour or cyst of the abdominal cavity. CONCLUSION A giant gallbladder is a special clinical and pathological entity in surgical practice, of unknown origin. It may develop in patients of any age, and mimics a large abdominal tumour or peritoneal cyst. Both the diagnostic process and surgical treatment demand non-routine approaches. Early and late follow-up results seem to be favourable. PMID:25194602

  12. Giant deep-sea protist produces bilaterian-like traces.

    PubMed

    Matz, Mikhail V; Frank, Tamara M; Marshall, N Justin; Widder, Edith A; Johnsen, Sönke

    2008-12-09

    One of the strongest paleontological arguments in favor of the origin of bilaterally symmetrical animals (Bilateria) prior to their obvious and explosive appearance in the fossil record in the early Cambrian, 542 million years ago, is the occurrence of trace fossils shaped like elongated sinuous grooves or furrows in the Precambrian. Being restricted to the seafloor surface, these traces are relatively rare and of limited diversity, and they do not show any evidence of the use of hard appendages. They are commonly attributed to the activity of the early nonskeletonized bilaterians or, alternatively, large cnidarians such as sea anemones or sea pens. Here we describe macroscopic groove-like traces produced by a living giant protist and show that these traces bear a remarkable resemblance to the Precambrian trace fossils, including those as old as 1.8 billion years. This is the first evidence that organisms other than multicellular animals can produce such traces, and it prompts re-evaluation of the significance of Precambrian trace fossils as evidence of the early diversification of Bilateria. Our observations also render indirect support to the highly controversial interpretation of the enigmatic Ediacaran biota of the late Precambrian as giant protists.

  13. The Circumstellar Environments of Born-Again Giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Helton, L. Andrew; Evans, Aneurin; Gehrz, Robert D.; Woodward, Charles; Eyres, Stewart

    2015-08-01

    When a solar-mass star reaches the end of its main sequence life, has shed a planetary nebula or become a proto-planetary nebula, and is heading towards the white dwarf phase of its evolution, the star may reignite residual surface helium and be "reborn". It retraces its path on the HR diagram and once again becomes a giant: it undergoes a Very Late Thermal Pulse (VLTP) and becomes a "Born-Again Giant" (BAG). This alternate scenario for the demise of low mass stars may occur in as many as 20% of cases. During this phase the star may become a prolific dust producer such that the star is completely obscured and the only means of monitoring its evolution is by observing the ejected dust.Over the past 10-20 years we have used ground-based, spaceborne and airborne infrared (IR) facilities to monitor the spectral energy distributions of the dust shells of stars that have recently undergone VLTPs. Covering a time period from ~1996 to the present, and with recent SOFIA observations that extend the spectral coverage from 1 - 38 microns, we have been able to determine mass-loss rates from the stars, and the physical state, nature and extent of their circumstellar dust shells.Our observations throw light on a phase of the evolution of low mass stars that is very rare, poorly observed, and little understood. Understanding these phenomena can potentially give us a glimpse of the ultimate fate of the Sun.

  14. A rare splenic pseudocyst

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Ankit; Yadav, Amit; Sharma, Sourabh; Saini, Devender; Om, Prabha; Khoja, Hanuman; Banerjee, Kinjal; NL, Harish

    2013-01-01

    Pseudocysts of the spleen are very rare, found in <1% of the splenectomies done and usually develop secondary to trauma. Pseudocysts of spleen rarely grow to large size and most of these remain asymptomatic, they require exploration only in symptomatic cases and chances for spleen preservation in these cases are usually less. Here, we present two cases of this rare entity developing secondary to abdominal trauma in the past, both presented with complaints of pain and lump in the abdomen. After thorough investigations, laparotomy was done preserving spleen in one case and doing splenectomy in the other. On histopathological examination, diagnosis of splenic pseudocysts was confirmed by the absence of lining epithelium. We would like to report these two cases because of their rarity and as diagnostic dilemmas. PMID:24963908

  15. Giant primary vaginal calculus secondary to vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction in a 12-year-old girl.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shushang; Ge, Rong; Zhu, Lingfeng; Yang, Shunliang; Wu, Weizhen; Yang, Yin; Tan, Jianming

    2011-10-01

    A vesicovaginal fistula with vagina obstruction associated with vaginal calculi is an extremely rare medical condition. We report a giant primary vaginal calculus resulting from vesicovaginal fistula with partial vaginal outlet obstruction secondary to perineum trauma and surgery in a 12-year-old girl. Episiotomy was performed and the adhesive labia minora was split. After the removal of a giant calculus in the vagina, approximately 8 cm in diameter, the fistula tract was completely excised, followed by the repair of the vesicovagina fistula and the vagina. The patient was symptom-free at 6-month follow-up examination.

  16. Giant tunneling magnetoresistance in silicene

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Yu; Lou, Yiyi

    2013-11-14

    We have theoretically studied ballistic electron transport in silicene under the manipulation of a pair of ferromagnetic gate. Transport properties like transmission and conductance have been calculated by the standard transfer matrix method for parallel and antiparallel magnetization configurations. It is demonstrated here that, due to the stray field-induced wave-vector filtering effect, remarkable difference in configuration-dependent transport gives rise to a giant tunneling magnetoresistance. In combination with the peculiar buckled structure of silicene and its electric tunable energy gap, the receiving magnetoresistance can be efficiently modulated by the externally-tunable stray field, electrostatic potential, and staggered sublattice potential, providing some flexible strategies to construct silicene-based nanoelectronic device.

  17. Giant Nasolabial Cyst Treated Using Neumann Incision: Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Ordones, Alexandre Beraldo; Neri, Larissa; Oliveira, Ingrid Helena Lopes; Tepedino, Miguel Soares; Pinna, Fábio de Rezende; Voegels, Richard Louis

    2013-01-01

    Introduction A nasolabial cyst is an ectodermal development cyst. It presents as a fullness of canine fossa, nasal ala, or vestibule of the nose. It is rare and usually small. Treatment consists of complete surgical excision or transnasal endoscopic marsupialization. Objective To describe a giant nasolabial cyst case treated using Neumann incision. Case Report A 37-year-old man was referred to the otolaryngology department with nasal obstruction and nasal deformity. Computed tomography showed a nasal cystic lesion 4 × 4.5 × 5 cm wide. Surgical excision using Neumann incision was performed. Discussion Neumann incision provides wide access to the nasal cavity and may be useful in nasolabial cyst treatment. PMID:25992051

  18. Scroto-perineal hidradenitis suppurativa complicated by giant scrotal elephantiasis.

    PubMed

    Alharbi, Badr; Shlash, Ahmed; Bedaiwi, Khaled; Hooti, Qais Al; Almohaisen, Abdulrahman; Shlash, Saud; Said, Mohammad

    2015-01-01

    Scrotal elephantiasis has been a recognized complication of inguinal node irradiation, filarial infection, tumor involvement and surgical lymphatic destruction, but has rarely been reported in association with hidradenitis suppurativa (HS). HS, also known as acne inversa, is a chronic and often debilitating disease primarily affecting the axillae, inframammary regions and perineum. The location of the lesions may lead to social embarrassment and failure to seek medical treatment. Scroto-preineal HS complicated by scrotal elephantiasis is a distressing disease. Excisional surgery with reconstruction is the recommended treatment with a high likelihood of good outcome. We present a 38-year-old male patient with long-standing scroto-perineal HS complicated by giant scrotal elephantiasis.

  19. Ten-year follow-up of a giant prolactinoma.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Vera; Santos, Maria Joana; Almeida, Rui; Marques, Olinda

    2015-11-20

    Giant prolactinomas are rare pituitary tumours of which management can be a challenge. A 28-year-old man presented with headaches, visual impairment and behavioural changes. Clinically, the patient was found to have hypogonadism and bitemporal hemianopsia. A MRI demonstrated a pituitary tumour 76 mm in diameter and blood tests revealed a serum prolactin of 158,700 µU/mL (reference range 58-254). Initially, a craniotomy was performed. Immunohistochemistry of the tumour identified a prolactinoma with a high proliferative index and the patient was started on treatment with a dopamine agonist. A year later, neurological symptoms worsened due to regrowth of the lesion's cystic component, and so further surgery was performed. After 10 years of treatment with dopamine agonists, the prolactin levels decreased by 96.8%, there was an effective reduction in tumour size, and the neurological signs and symptoms resolved.

  20. Giant Pericardial Cyst: A Case Report and Review of Literature

    PubMed Central

    Hekmat, Manouchehr; Ghaderi, Hamid; Tatari, Hassan; Arjmand Shabestari, Abbas; Mirjafari, Seyedeh Adeleh

    2016-01-01

    Pericardial cysts are rare lesions. These benign anomalies are located in the middle mediastinum. In this article, we present a 24-year-old man who was referred to the emergency department with dyspnea and persistent cough. In physical exam, no abnormality was found. His past medical history was normal. His trans-thoracic echocardiogram showed an echo-lucent space next to the right atrium at the right cardiophrenic angle. No pericardial effusion was found. The patient underwent surgery. After midsternotomy, a huge cyst measuring approximately 13 × 8 × 5 cm in diameters was found on the right side and outside the pericardium that was totally excised. After 5 days, the patient was discharged and pathologic report confirmed preoperative diagnosis of pericardial cyst. Giant pericardial cysts are not common and in this report, we will review published case reports. PMID:27110336

  1. Technical Considerations of Giant Right Coronary Artery Aneurysm Exclusion

    PubMed Central

    Barr, James; Kourliouros, Antonios

    2016-01-01

    Giant coronary artery aneurysms are rare clinical entities. We report the case of a 49-year-old man who presented with dyspnoea and exertional chest pain. Investigations confirmed an aneurysmal right coronary artery measuring 4 cm with a fistulous communication to the right atrium. Following right atriotomy, the fistula was oversewn and the aneurysmal right coronary artery ligated at its origin and at several points along its course. A saphenous vein graft was anastomosed to the posterior descending artery. Persistent ventricular fibrillation occurred upon chest closure, attributed to ischaemia following ligation of the aneurysmal coronary artery. Emergent resternotomy and internal defibrillation were successfully performed. The sternum was stented open to reduce right ventricular strain and closed the following day. The patient made an unremarkable recovery. We here address the technical challenges associated with surgical repair of right coronary aneurysms and the physiology and management of potential complications. PMID:28018699

  2. A giant prostatic hyperplasia treated by open surgery

    PubMed Central

    Ogawa, Soichiro; Manome, Masahiko; Yabe, Michihiro; Kuma, Yoshinobu; Yamaoka, Masaaki; Sato, Yuichi; Akaihata, Hidenori; Oguro, Toshiki; Kataoka, Masao; Kumagai, Shin; Kojima, Yoshiyuki

    2012-01-01

    We report a rare case of giant prostatic hyperplasia treated by open surgery. A 70-year-old man was suffering from macrohematuria. Computed tomography revealed a markedly enlarged prostate measuring 580 mL. The serum prostate-specific antigen level was 9.430 ng/mL. Prostatic biopsy showed benign prostatic hyperplasia. We perfomed retropubic open prostatectomy, since macrohematuria continued and he was also suffering from lower urinary tract symptoms. The adenoma was completely enucleated in one piece. The removed specimen was 13 × 11 × 6 cm in size and weighed 475 g. Histological examination also demonstrated prostatic fibromuscular hyperplasia. This is the 15th-heaviest adenoma ever reported in English-language journals. Transurethral surgical techniques or other minimally invasive approaches are performed for patients with small to medium-sized prostates. However, open surgery is recommended for markedly enlarged prostatic hyperplasia. PMID:23271919

  3. Case Report: Incidental Finding of a Giant Cardiac Mass

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Coronary artery fistula (CAF) is a rare anomalous connection between a coronary artery and another coronary artery, major vessel, or cardiac chamber. Prevalence of CAF is reportedly 1% to 2% in patients who undergo coronary angiography.1 One of the most common complications of CAF is formation of a coronary artery aneurysm (CAA). A study conducted by Said and colleagues in 1995 found that CAA formation was present in 26% of patients who had proven CAF by way of angiography.2 Although a precise definition of the term “giant” CAA is still lacking, it generally refers to a dilatation that exceeds the reference vessel diameter by four times.3 We report an interesting case of a 38-year-old patient who was incidentally found to have a presumed large right ventricular aneurysm, which after an open-heart surgery was identified as a CAF with formation of an unruptured giant CAA. PMID:25114764

  4. Pili canaliculi as manifestation of giant axonal neuropathy*

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Jr., Hiram Larangeira; Garcias, Gilberto; Silva, Ricardo Marques e; Batista, Stela Laner; Pasetto, Fernanda

    2016-01-01

    Giant axonal neuropathy is a rare autosomal recessive neurodegenerative disease. The condition is characterized by neurons with abnormally large axons due to intracellular filament accumulation. The swollen axons affect both the peripheral and central nervous system. A 6-year old female patient had been referred to a geneticist reporting problems with walking and hypotonia. At the age of 10, she became wheelchair dependent. Scanning electron microscopy of a curly hair classified it as pili canaliculi. GAN gene sequencing demonstrated mutation c.1456G>A (p.GLU486LYS). At the age of 12, the patient died due to respiratory complications. Dermatologists should be aware of this entity since hair changes are considered suggestive of GAN. PMID:28300918

  5. [Endovascular treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms].

    PubMed

    Bracard, S; Derelle, A L; Tonnelet, R; Barbier, C; Proust, F; Anxionnat, R

    2016-02-01

    Giant aneurysms are defined as having a maximal diameter higher than 25mm. The dynamic aspect of giant aneurysms, in particular, is its growth, which was responsible for parenchyma sequellae either due to haemorrhagic complications or a compression of cranial nerves. The treatment of these giant aneurysms was challenging because of its size, the mass effect and the neck diameter. These morphologic conditions required complex endovascular procedures such as remodelling, stenting, using flow diverters. Subsequently, the complex procedures increased the risk of morbidity because of ischemic complications. Despite these procedures, the risk of recurrence was high.

  6. A giant pancreatic pseudocyst treated by cystogastrostomy

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Grace C; Misra, Subhasis

    2015-01-01

    We report a case of a giant pancreatic pseudocyst in a 65-year-old man presenting with abdominal pain, loss of appetite and abdominal distension. CT scans demonstrated a giant pancreatic pseudocyst measuring 25.7 cm×15.3 cm×10.9 cm anteroposteriorly, with significant compression of surrounding organs. An open cystogastrostomy was performed through a midline incision, and 3 L of fluid was drained from the giant pseudocyst. Recovery has been uneventful. PMID:25804943

  7. Rotation and macroturbulence in bright giants

    SciTech Connect

    Gray, D.F.; Toner, C.G.

    1986-11-01

    Spectral line profiles of 35 F, G, and K bright giants were analyzed to obtain rotation rates, v sin i, and macroturbulence dispersion. This sample indicates that rotation rates of cool class II giants is less than 11 km/s, in contrast with some recent periodicity measurements. Macroturbulence dispersion generally increases with effective temperature, but the range of values at a given effective temperature is much larger than seen for lower luminosity classes; this is interpreted in terms of red-giant and blue-loop evolution. No evidence is found for angular momentum dissipation on the first crossing of the H-R diagram. 57 references.

  8. Direct Imaging of Giant Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tamura, Motohide

    Since the first detection of exoplanets around a Sun-like star 51 Peg in 1995, their detection and characterization are mainly led by indirect methods such as radial velocity and transit methods. However, recent progresses of observational techniques have finally enabled the direct imaging observations of giant planets of solar-system-scale orbit (with their semi-major axes less than about 50 AU) around A-type stars (e.g., Marois et al. 2008, 2010) and G-type stars (e.g., Kuzuhara et al. 2013). Direct imaging is useful to obtain the physical and atmospheric parameters of exoplanets. In fact not only colors but also a medium-resolution spectroscopy of such planets has been successfully obtained for their atmospheric characterization (Barman et al. 2013). Their masses are typically a few to ~10 Jupiter masses and they orbit at a Saturn- to-Pluto distance. Therefore, like hot-Jupiters and super-Earths they are unlike any solar-system planets, and called wide-orbit giant planets. A recent large search for planets and disk on the Subaru 8.2-m telescope (SEEDS project) has detected a 3-5 Jupiter-masses planet around a Sun-like star GJ 504 (Kuzuhara et al. 2013). It is the coolest planetary companion so far directly imaged and its near-infrared color is “bluer” than that of other directly imaged planets. In this contribution, I will review the recent progresses on direct imaging of exoplanets, highlight the results of the SEEDS project, and discuss the future developments.

  9. [Idiopathic palmar vein thrombosis of the fingers - rare but relevant].

    PubMed

    Spies, C K; Schwarz-Furlan, S; Hahn, P; Oppermann, J; Unglaub, F

    2013-10-01

    Idiopathic thrombosis of palmar finger veins is rare and women suffer from it almost exclusively. Synovial cysts, epidermoid inclusion cysts, giant cell tumours and haemangiomatous lesions should be considered in the process of diagnosis. We present a 56-year-old woman with idiopathic and symptomatic thrombosis of palmar finger veins. Using the palmar approach the painful veins were identified and excised completely. An uncomplicated wound healing has followed with completely unrestricted and painless range of motion. Surgical excision of the finger vein thrombosis should be considered if there is continuing pain.

  10. Microstructures of Rare Silicate Stardust from Nova and Supernovae

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nguyen, A. N.; Keller, L. P.; Rahman, Z.; Messenger, S

    2011-01-01

    Most silicate stardust analyzed in the laboratory and observed around stellar environments derives from O-rich red giant and AGB stars [1,2]. Supernova (SN) silicates and oxides are comparatively rare, and fewer than 10 grains from no-va or binary star systems have been identified to date. Very little is known about dust formation in these stellar environments. Mineralogical studies of only three O-rich SN [3-5] and no nova grains have been performed. Here we report the microstructure and chemical makeup of two SN silicates and one nova grain.

  11. Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caffee, M.; Elmore, D.; Granger, D.; Muzikar, P.

    2002-12-01

    The Purdue Rare Isotope Measurement Laboratory (PRIME Lab) is a dedicated research and service facility for accelerator mass spectrometry. AMS is an ultra-sensitive analytical technique used to measure low levels of long-lived cosmic-ray-produced and anthropogenic radionuclides, and rare trace elements. We measure 10Be (T1/2 = 1.5 My), 26Al (.702 My), 36Cl (.301 My), and 129I (16 My), in geologic samples. Applications include dating the cosmic-ray-exposure time of rocks on Earth's surface, determining rock and sediment burial ages, measuring the erosion rates of rocks and soils, and tracing and dating ground water. We perform sample preparation and separation chemistries for these radio-nuclides for our internal research activities and for those external researchers not possessing this capability. Our chemical preparation laboratories also serve as training sites for members of the geoscience community developing these techniques at their institutions. Research at Purdue involves collaborators among members of the Purdue Departments of Physics, Earth and Atmospheric Sciences, Chemistry, Agronomy, and Anthropology. We also collaborate and serve numerous scientists from other institutions. We are currently in the process of modernizing the facility with the goals of higher precision for routinely measured radio-nuclides, increased sample throughput, and the development of new measurement capabilities for the geoscience community.

  12. Temporal overlap of humans and giant lizards (Varanidae; Squamata) in Pleistocene Australia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Price, Gilbert J.; Louys, Julien; Cramb, Jonathan; Feng, Yue-xing; Zhao, Jian-xin; Hocknull, Scott A.; Webb, Gregory E.; Nguyen, Ai Duc; Joannes-Boyau, Renaud

    2015-10-01

    An obvious but key prerequisite to testing hypotheses concerning the role of humans in the extinction of late Quaternary 'megafauna' is demonstrating that humans and the extinct taxa overlapped, both temporally and spatially. In many regions, a paucity of reliably dated fossil occurrences of megafauna makes it challenging, if not impossible, to test many of the leading extinction hypotheses. The giant monitor lizards of Australia are a case in point. Despite commonly being argued to have suffered extinction at the hands of the first human colonisers (who arrived by 50 ka), it has never been reliably demonstrated that giant monitors and humans temporally overlapped in Australia. Here we present the results of an integrated U-Th and 14C dating study of a late Pleistocene fossil deposit that has yielded the youngest dated remains of giant monitor lizards in Australia. The site, Colosseum Chamber, is a cave deposit in the Mt Etna region, central eastern Australia. Sixteen new dates were generated and demonstrate that the bulk of the material in the deposit accumulated since ca. 50 ka. The new monitor fossil is, minimally, 30 ky younger than the previous youngest reliably dated record for giant lizards in Australia and for the first time, demonstrates that on a continental scale, humans and giant lizards overlapped in time. The new record brings the existing geochronological dataset for Australian giant monitor lizards to seven dated occurrences. With such sparse data, we are hesitant to argue that our new date represents the time of their extinction from the continent. Rather, we suspect that future fossil collecting will yield new samples both older and younger than 50 ka. Nevertheless, we unequivocally demonstrate that humans and giant monitor lizards overlapped temporally in Australia, and thus, humans can only now be considered potential drivers for their extinction.

  13. A Rare Opportunity.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bennett, Dean B.

    1986-01-01

    Reviews programs in the state of Maine that are designed to inventory the natural heritage of critical areas, rare species, and exemplary natural features. Discusses how the information acquired by these programs is being used for public information efforts and educational programs in the schools. (ML)

  14. Endangered Species: Wild & Rare.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Braus, Judy, Ed.

    1987-01-01

    Ranger Rick's NatureScope is a creative education series dedicated to inspiring in children an understanding and appreciation of the natural world while developing the skills they will need to make responsible decisions about the environment. The topic of this issue is "Endangered Species: Wild and Rare." Contents are organized into the…

  15. Rare Jejunal Diverticular Bleeding

    PubMed Central

    Christman, Emily; Hassell, Lewis A.; Kastens, Donald

    2016-01-01

    Severe gastrointestinal bleeding (GIB) secondary to jejunal diverticulosis (JD) is very rare. Delay in establishing a diagnosis is common and GIB from JD is associated with significant morbidity and mortality. We report an illustrative case diagnosed by push enteroscopy and managed with surgery. PMID:27800518

  16. Rare Copy Number Variants

    PubMed Central

    Grozeva, Detelina; Kirov, George; Ivanov, Dobril; Jones, Ian R.; Jones, Lisa; Green, Elaine K.; St Clair, David M.; Young, Allan H.; Ferrier, Nicol; Farmer, Anne E.; McGuffin, Peter; Holmans, Peter A.; Owen, Michael J.; O’Donovan, Michael C.; Craddock, Nick

    2015-01-01

    Context Recent studies suggest that copy number variation in the human genome is extensive and may play an important role in susceptibility to disease, including neuropsychiatric disorders such as schizophrenia and autism. The possible involvement of copy number variants (CNVs) in bipolar disorder has received little attention to date. Objectives To determine whether large (>100 000 base pairs) and rare (found in <1% of the population) CNVs are associated with susceptibility to bipolar disorder and to compare with findings in schizophrenia. Design A genome-wide survey of large, rare CNVs in a case-control sample using a high-density microarray. Setting The Wellcome Trust Case Control Consortium. Participants There were 1697 cases of bipolar disorder and 2806 nonpsychiatric controls. All participants were white UK residents. Main Outcome Measures Overall load of CNVs and presence of rare CNVs. Results The burden of CNVs in bipolar disorder was not increased compared with controls and was significantly less than in schizophrenia cases. The CNVs previously implicated in the etiology of schizophrenia were not more common in cases with bipolar disorder. Conclusions Schizophrenia and bipolar disorder differ with respect to CNV burden in general and association with specific CNVs in particular. Our data are consistent with the possibility that possession of large, rare deletions may modify the phenotype in those at risk of psychosis: those possessing such events are more likely to be diagnosed as having schizophrenia, and those without them are more likely to be diagnosed as having bipolar disorder. PMID:20368508

  17. Lithium Abundance in M3 Red Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Givens, Rashad; Pilachowski, Catherine A.

    2015-01-01

    We present the abundance of lithium in the red giant star vZ 1050 (SK 291) in the globular cluster M3. A previous survey of giants in the cluster showed that like IV-101, vZ 1050 displays a prominent Li I 6707 Å feature. vZ 1050 lies on the blue side of the red giant branch about 1.3 magnitudes above the level of the horizontal branch, and may be an asymptotic giant branch star. A high resolution spectrum of M3 vZ1050 was obtained with the ARC 3.5m telescope and the ARC Echelle Spectrograph (ARCES). Atmospheric parameters were determined using Fe I and Fe II lines from the spectrum using the MOOG spectral analysis program, and the lithium abundance was determined using spectrum synthesis.

  18. Giant cell arteritis presenting as scalp necrosis.

    PubMed

    Maidana, Daniel E; Muñoz, Silvia; Acebes, Xènia; Llatjós, Roger; Jucglà, Anna; Alvarez, Alba

    2011-07-07

    The differential of scalp ulceration in older patients should include several causes, such as herpes zoster, irritant contact dermatitis, ulcerated skin tumors, postirradiation ulcers, microbial infections, pyoderma gangrenosum, and giant cell arteritis. Scalp necrosis associated with giant cell arteritis was first described in the 1940s. The presence of this dermatological sign within giant cell arteritis represents a severity marker of this disease, with a higher mean age at diagnosis, an elevated risk of vision loss and tongue gangrene, as well as overall higher mortality rates, in comparison to patients not presenting this manifestation. Even though scalp necrosis due to giant cell arteritis is exceptional, a high level of suspicion must be held for this clinical finding, in order to initiate prompt and proper treatment and avoid blindness.

  19. Mass loss in red giants and supergiants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Sanner, F.

    1975-01-01

    The circumstellar envelopes surrounding late-type giants and supergiants were studied using high resolution, photoelectric scans of strong optical resonance lines. A method for extracting the circumstellar from the stellar components of the lines allowed a quantitative determination of the physical conditions in the envelopes and the rates of mass loss at various positions in the red giant region of the HR diagram. The observed strengthening of the circumstellar spectrum with increasing luminosity and later spectral type is probably caused by an increase in the mass of the envelopes. The mass loss rate for individual stars is proportional to the visual luminosity; high rates for the supergiants suggest that mass loss is important in their evolution. The bulk of the mass return to the interstellar medium in the red giant region comes from the normal giants, at a rate comparable to that of planetary nebulae.

  20. "GIANT" Steps to Create Online Orientations

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Bacon, Pamela

    2005-01-01

    Online orientation is provided due to the flexibility of online learning. The online orientation consists of the GIANT steps which stands for Get support, Identify your curriculum, Assemble your program, Navigate students through the pilot project and Test students.

  1. Tests of the Giant Impact Hypothesis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Jones, J. H.

    1998-01-01

    The giant impact hypothesis has gained popularity as a means of explaining a volatile-depleted Moon that still has a chemical affinity to the Earth. As Taylor's Axiom decrees, the best models of lunar origin are testable, but this is difficult with the giant impact model. The energy associated with the impact would be sufficient to totally melt and partially vaporize the Earth. And this means that there should he no geological vestige of Barber times. Accordingly, it is important to devise tests that may be used to evaluate the giant impact hypothesis. Three such tests are discussed here. None of these is supportive of the giant impact model, but neither do they disprove it.

  2. Giant salivary calculi of the submandibular gland

    PubMed Central

    Fowell, C; MacBean, A

    2012-01-01

    Sialolithasis is the most common salivary gland disease. A case of an unusually large sialolith arising in the submandibular gland is presented, along with a review of the management of giant salivary gland calculi. PMID:24960792

  3. Interferon-gamma of the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca): complementary DNA cloning, expression, and phylogenetic analysis.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yaqiong; Zeng, Bo; Xu, Liu; Yue, Bisong; Yang, Dong; Zou, Fangdong

    2010-01-01

    Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma) is the only member of type II IFN and is vital in the regulation of immune and inflammatory responses. Herein we report the cloning, expression, and sequence analysis of IFN-gamma from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca). The open reading frame of this gene is 501 base pair in length and encodes a polypeptide consisting of 166 amino acids. All conserved N-linked glycosylation sites and cysteine residues among carnivores were found in the predicted amino acid sequence of the giant panda. Recombinant giant panda IFN-gamma with a V5 epitope and polyhistidine tag was expressed in HEK293 host cells and confirmed by Western blotting. Phylogenetic analysis of mammalian IFN-gamma-coding sequences indicated that the giant panda IFN-gamma was closest to that of carnivores, then to ungulates and dolphin, and shared a distant relationship with mouse and human. These results represent a first step into the study of IFN-gamma in giant panda.

  4. Arterial Embolization of Giant Hepatic Hemangiomas

    SciTech Connect

    Giavroglou, Constantinos; Economou, Hippolete; Ioannidis, Ioannis

    2003-02-15

    Hepatic cavernous hemangiomas are usually small and asymptomatic. They are usually discovered incidentally and only a few require treatment. However, giant hemangiomas may cause symptoms,which are indications for treatment. We describe four cases of symptomatic giant hepatic hemangiomas successfully treated with transcatheter arterial embolization, performed with polyvinyl alcohol particles. There were no complications. Follow-up with clinical and imaging examinations showed disappearance of symptoms and decrease in size of lesions.

  5. [Giant cell tumor of the C2 colonized by an aneurismal bone cyst. Report of case].

    PubMed

    Cebula, H; Boujan, F; Beaujeux, R; Boyer, P; Froelich, S

    2012-12-01

    Giant cell tumor is colonized by aneurismal bone cyst in only 15% of cases and cervical localisation accounts for less than 1% of giant cell tumors. We are reporting a rare case of a C2 hypervascularized giant cell tumor colonized by an aneurismal bone cyst treated with an effective preoperative Onyx embolization followed by a full tumor resection. The patient experienced a moderate cervical spine injury 2 months prior admission followed by a progressive stiff neck and cervicalgia. CT and MRI identified a lytic lesion of the body and lateral masses of the C2 with encasement of both vertebral arteries. The angiography showed a hypervascularization of the lesion from the vertebral and external carotid arteries as well as a thrombosis of the V3 segment of the right vertebral artery at the C1 level. A posterior occipito-C3/C4 fixation and a tumor biopsy were performed. Histopathological examination concluded to a giant cell tumor colonized by an aneurismal bone cyst. Three weeks later, the patient developed a right upper extremity deficit. The MRI showed an increased C1-C2 stenosis and an increase of the hypervascularization. Three sessions of embolization by the onyx were performed. During surgery a near total tumor devascularisation was observed and a complete resection of the tumor was achieved through an anterolateral approach. Reconstruction consisted of a cementoplasty of the C2 body and odontoïd process with an anterior C3-prosthesis plate. The postoperative course was uneventful.

  6. Perfluorooctanesulfonate and periluorooctanoate in red panda and giant panda from China.

    PubMed

    Dai, Jiayin; Li, Ming; Jin, Yihe; Saito, Norimitsu; Xu, Muqi; Wei, Fuwen

    2006-09-15

    Perfluorooctanesulfonate (PFOS) and perfluorooctanoate (PFOA) are important perfluorochemicals (PFCs) in various applications. Recently, it has been shown that these compounds are widespread in the environment, wildlife, and humans. The giant panda and the red panda belong to the order Carnivora, but are highly specialized as bamboo feeders. Both species are considered rare and endangered. In this study, we report for the first time on levels of PFOS and PFOA in serum of the giant panda and the red panda captured in zoos and animal parks from six provinces in China. PFOS was the predominant compound in all panda samples measured (ranging from 0.80 to 73.80 microg/L for red panda and from 0.76 to 19.00 microg/L for giant panda). The PFOA level ranged from 0.33 to 8.20 microg/L for red panda, and from 0.32 to 1.56 microg/L for giant panda. There was a positive significant correlation between concentrations of PFOS and PFOA in the serum obtained from pandas. No age- or sex- related differences were observed in concentrations of the fluorochemicals in panda sera. Greater concentrations of the fluorochemicals were found for those individuals collected from zoos near urbanized or industrialized areas than for other areas. These data combined with other reported data suggest that there are large differences in distribution of perfluorinated compounds in terrestrial animals.

  7. Suspected Giant cell aortitis : from multiple aortic structural damage to fatal listeria sepsi. A case report.

    PubMed

    Silvestri, Valeria; Isernia, Giacomo

    2017-03-16

    Giant cell arteritis ( GCA) is an inflammatory vasculopathy affecting large and middle-sized vessels , specifically cranial arteries derived from carotid artery. Isolated extracranial vessel involvement can occur. Interest in extravascular manifestations is recently increasing because of diffusion of sensitive and specific imaging tools such as 18FDG PET TC . Patients have an increased relative risk of severe infection. Listeria monocytogenes infection risk is increased, and vascular system involvement and graft infection have been, even though rarely, reported. We report the case of a 72 year old woman with a history of suspected giant cell aortitis , previous surgical treatment of ascendant and descendant thoracic aortic aneurysm, presenting 7 year after TEVAR with thoracic pain , fever, inflammatory indexes increase, leukocytosis, listeria sepsis and rapidly increasing type I proximal endoleak on CT. 18 FDG PET positivity was associated. Endograft listeria infection on aortitis reactivation was suspected but death for multi-organ failure and absence of autopsy data couldn't confirm diagnosis . Listeria vascular graft infection has been reported previously. Giant cell arteritis is a predisposing condition. We report the first case of endograft infection by listeria monocytogenes in a patient with positive history of suspected giant cell aortic aneurysm.

  8. Large/giant meningiomas of posterior third ventricular region: falcotentorial or velum interpositum?

    PubMed

    Behari, Sanjay; Das, Kuntal Kanti; Kumar, Ashish; Mehrotra, Anant; Srivastava, Arun K; Sahu, Rabi N; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K

    2014-01-01

    Surgical excision of rare, large-to-giant posterior third ventricular (PTV) meningiomas [including velum-interpositum meningiomas (VIM; postero-superior venous complex displacement; without falco-tentorial attachment) and falco-tentorial meningiomas (FTM; falco-tentorial attachment; displacing major veins antero-inferiorly)] is extremely challenging. To study the management nuances in the excision of large-to-giant PTV meningiomas. Tertiary care referral center. Four patients with large (>3 cm; n = 2) and giant (>5 cm; n = 2) meningiomas (FTM = 2; VIM = 2, mean tumor size = 4.9 cm) underwent occipital transtentorial approach (OTT) for tumor excision. One also underwent a second-stage supracerebellar infratentorial (SCIT) approach. The side of approach was determined by lateral tumor extension and venous displacement (right = 3, left = 1). Near-total removal or subtotal excision (<10% remaining) with radiotherapy was performed in 2 patients each, respectively. At follow-up (mean: 14.75 months), clinical improvement without tumor recurrence/re-growth was achieved. Extent of excision was determined by position of great vein of Galen; tumor attachment to falco-tentorium or major veins; its consistency; its lateral and inferior extent; and, presence of a good tumor-neuraxial arachnoidal plane. OTT is the preferable approach for large-to-giant meningiomas as it provides a wider corridor and better delineation of tumor-neurovascular arachnoidal interface.

  9. Bayesian Inference of Giant Exoplanet Physics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Thorngren, Daniel; Fortney, Jonathan J.

    2017-01-01

    The physical processes within a giant planet directly set its observed radius for a given mass, age, and insolation. The important aspects are the planet’s bulk composition and its interior thermal evolution. By studying many giant planets as an ensemble, we can gain insight into this physics. We demonstrate two novel examples here. We examine 50 cooler transiting giant planets, whose insolation is sufficiently low (T_eff < 1000 K) that they are not affected by the hot Jupiter radius inflation effect. For these planets, the thermal evolution is relatively well understood, and we show that the bulk planet metallicity increases with the total planet mass, which directly impacts plans for future atmospheric studies. We also examine the relation with stellar metallicity and discuss how these relations place new constraints on the core accretion model of planet formation. Our newest work seeks to quantify the flow of energy into hot Jupiters needed to explain their enlarged radii, in addition to their bulk composition. Because the former is related to stellar insolation and the latter is related to mass, we are able to create a hierarchical Bayesian model to disentangle the two effects in our sample of ~300 transiting giant planets. Our results show conclusively that the inflation power is not a simple fraction of stellar insolation: instead, the power increases with incident flux at a much higher rate. We use these results to test published models of giant planet inflation and to provide accurate empirical mass-radius relations for giant planets.

  10. Formation of Giant Planets and Brown Dwarves

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lissauer, Jack J.

    2003-01-01

    According to the prevailing core instability model, giant planets begin their growth by the accumulation of small solid bodies, as do terrestrial planets. However, unlike terrestrial planets, the growing giant planet cores become massive enough that they are able to accumulate substantial amounts of gas before the protoplanetary disk dissipates. Models predict that rocky planets should form in orbit about most stars. It is uncertain whether or not gas giant planet formation is common, because most protoplanetary disks may dissipate before solid planetary cores can grow large enough to gravitationally trap substantial quantities of gas. Ongoing theoretical modeling of accretion of giant planet atmospheres, as well as observations of protoplanetary disks, will help decide this issue. Observations of extrasolar planets around main sequence stars can only provide a lower limit on giant planet formation frequency . This is because after giant planets form, gravitational interactions with material within the protoplanetary disk may cause them to migrat inwards and be lost to the central star. The core instability model can only produce planets greater than a few jovian masses within protoplanetary disks that are more viscous than most such disks are believed to be. Thus, few brown dwarves (objects massive enough to undergo substantial deuterium fusion, estimated to occur above approximately 13 jovian masses) are likely to be formed in this manner. Most brown dwarves, as well as an unknown number of free-floating objects of planetary mass, are probably formed as are stars, by the collapse of extended gas/dust clouds into more compact objects.

  11. Reconstruction of Elbow by Free Fibular Graft in a Case of Osteoclastoma of Proximal Ulna: A Rare Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Kalaiah, Kiran; Thejaswi, S. G.; Siddappa, Marula

    2015-01-01

    Giant cell tumour is a benign aggressive bone tumour. Most commonly, it is seen in epiphysiometaphyseal region around knee and distal radius. Proximal ulna is a rare location for giant cell tumour. According to reports, only 4 such cases have been reported in English literature. We report one such case of giant cell tumour of proximal ulna. Patient presented with painless, progressive swelling around right elbow since 4 months. Proximal ulna along with tumour was resected and elbow was reconstructed using nonvascularized free fibular graft. At two years of follow-up, patient is tumour-free and has functional range of movement in elbow. We are reporting the case because of its rare location and for the indigenous treatment modality of using free fibular graft for elbow reconstruction. PMID:26347782

  12. Determination of trace elements in the reproduction systems of some rare animals using pixe

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Suqing, Chen; Nengming, Wang; Jianxuan, Chen; Dazhong, Zhang

    In order to search for the significance of artificial feeding, reproduction and heredity, trace elements in the reproductive systems of some rare animals, including giant panda, lesser panda, marmot and river deer, have been determined. Typcial X-ray spectra of various samples are given. The elemental contents in ovary and testis of the giant panda and the lesser panda are calculated by means of yttrium as an internal standard. Elemental relative concentrations are calculated from peak areas in the spectra for thick samples. It is found that for the concentration of the elements Cr, Mn, Fe, Ni, Cu, As in the ovary there exist no significant different between the giant panda and the lesser panda. The concentration of Zn, however, shows a remakable difference. The importance of zinc in biological processes is discussed.

  13. Benefits of immediate dermoglandular preserving reconstruction following giant fibroadenoma excision in two patients.

    PubMed

    Chepla, K J; Armijo, B S; Ponsky, T A; Soltanian, H T

    2011-09-01

    Giant fibroadenoma is a rare, benign stromal tumor that typically occurs in adolescent women. This rapidly-growing tumor can result in a significant aesthetic and psychosocial morbidity due to gross asymmetry changes in the overlying skin envelope and concerns about malignancy. On initial work-up this lesion must be differentiated from other rare primary breast tumors, including phyllodes tumor, or metastatic disease. Appropriate treatment of giant fibroadenoma requires surgical excision; however, many surgeons are reluctant to perform a concomitant mastopexy or reconstruction at the time of tumor extirpation. This conservative approach results in a loose, ptotic, aesthetically displeasing breast postoperatively. While some degree of skin retraction is expected, patients may have to wait for up to a year to see final results, and further surgical correction may still be required. It is unknown whether these surgeons are not familiar with these techniques or hesitate to increase the amount of scarring on the breast mound of a young female. Using an immediate dermoglandular preserving mastopexy after giant fibroadenoma excision, we have decreased postoperative breast ptosis, removed much of the lax, poor-quality skin and achieved stable, long-term results in two patients. This technique improves the immediate aesthetic outcome, reduces the psychosocial comorbidity associated with waiting for skin retraction and decreases the likelihood of a second surgery.

  14. Rare earth thermoelectrics

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, G.D.

    1997-09-01

    The author reviews the thermoelectric properties of metallic compounds which contain rare-earth atoms. They are the group of metals with the largest value ever reported of the Seebeck coefficient. An increase by 50% of the Seebeck would make these compounds useful for thermoelectric devices. The largest Seebeck coefficient is found for compounds of cerium (e.g., CePd{sub 3}) and ytterbium (e.g., YbAl{sub 3}). Theoretical predictions are in agreement with the maximum observed Seebeck. The author discusses the theoretical model which has been used to calculate the Seebeck coefficient. He is solving this model for other configurations (4f){sup n} of rare-earth ground states.

  15. Giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst-like change producing β-human chorionic gonadotropin.

    PubMed

    Fitzhugh, Valerie A; Katava, Gordana; Wenokor, Cornelia; Roche, Natalie; Beebe, Kathleen S

    2014-06-01

    Giant cell tumor of bone is a benign, locally aggressive neoplasm that is composed of sheets of neoplastic mononuclear cells interspersed amongst non-neoplastic, uniformly distributed, osteoclast-like giant cells. They represent approximately 4-5% of primary bone tumors. Rarely, bone tumors have been noted to produce human chorionic gonadotropin, a finding most often reported in osteosarcoma. We present the case of a young woman who presented with a low-level human chorionic gonadotropin level which, after resection of her recurrent giant cell tumor of bone with secondary aneurysmal bone cyst-like change, became undetectable in her blood. Furthermore, cells within the aneurysmal bone cyst component were immunohistochemically positive for β-human chorionic gonadotropin. This is the first report of such a finding in the literature.

  16. Can science save the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca)? Unifying science and policy in an adaptive management paradigm.

    PubMed

    Swaisgood, Ronald R; Wei, Fuwen; McShea, William J; Wildt, David E; Kouba, Andrew J; Zhang, Zejun

    2011-09-01

    The giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca David, 1869) is an iconic species for global conservation, yet field research has only recently advanced to the point where adaptive management is possible. Here, we review recent developments in giant panda conservation science and propose a strategic plan for moving panda conservation forward. Because of scientific, funding, political, and logistical hurdles, few endangered species management programs have embraced adaptive management, wherein management decisions are shaped iteratively by targeted scientific research. Specific threats, such as habitat destruction, anthropogenic disturbance and fragmented nonviable populations, need to be addressed simultaneously by researchers, managers and policy-makers working in concert to understand and overcome these obstacles to species recovery. With the backing of the Chinese Government and the conservation community, the giant panda can become a high-profile test species for this much touted, but rarely implemented, approach to conservation management.

  17. Rare causes of osteoporosis

    PubMed Central

    Marcucci, Gemma; Brandi, Maria Luisa

    2015-01-01

    Summary Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by loss of bone mass and strength, resulting in increased risk of fractures. It is classically divided into primary (post-menopausal or senile), secondary and idiopathic forms. There are many rare diseases, that cause directly or indirectly osteoporosis. The identification and classification of most of these rare causes of osteoporosis is crucial for the specialists in endocrinology and not, in order to prevent this bone complication and to provide for an early therapy. Several pathogenic mechanisms are involved, including various aspects of bone metabolism such as: decreased bone formation, increased bone resorption, altered calcium, phosphorus and/or vitamin D homeostasis, and abnormal collagen synthesis. In this review, less common forms of primary and secondary osteoporosis are described, specifying, if applicable: genetic causes, epidemiology, clinical features, and pathogenic mechanisms causing osteoporosis. A greater awareness of all rare causes of osteoporosis could reduce the number of cases classified as idiopathic osteoporosis and allow the introduction of appropriate and timely treatments. PMID:26604941

  18. Hubble Case Studies of Transiting Giant Exoplanets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wilkins, Ashlee N.; Deming, Drake; Barker, Adrian; Benneke, Björn; Delrez, Laetitia; Gillon, Michaël; Hamilton, Douglas P.; Jehin, Emmanuel; Knutson, Heather; Lewis, Nikole K.; Madhusudhan, Nikku; Mandell, Avi; McCullough, Peter R.; Wakeford, Hannah R.

    2017-01-01

    The study of planets around other stars has entered a science-rich era of characterization, in which detailed information about individual planets can be inferred from observations beyond mere detection, which only yields bulk properties like mass or radius. Characterization probes more revealing quantities such as chemical abundances, albedo, and temperature/pressure profiles, which allow us to address larger questions of planet formation mechanisms, planetary evolution, and, eventually, habitability and presence of biosignature gases. The primary method for characterization of close-in planets is transit spectroscopy. This dissertation talk will focus on transiting exoplanet case studies with the Hubble Space Telescope’ Wide-Field Camera-3 (WFC-3) as a tool of exoplanet characterization in a near-infrared band dominated by strong water features. I will first present a characterization the WFC-3 systematic effects that must be mitigated to extract the incredibly small (tens to 200 parts per million) signals, and then a study of four transiting giant planets (HATS-7b, HAT-p-3b, HD 149026b, and WASP-18b) in transmission, and two (WASP-18b and CoRoT-2b) in eclipse. Finally, I will discuss the role of transit timing monitoring of WASP-18b with HST and other observatories as another clue to its evolution as a close-in, massive planet. The five planets range from Neptune-class to Super-Jupiter-class in size/mass. Though these planets may be relatively rare, their observability represents a unique opportunity to probe planet formation and evolution, as well as atmospheric structures in a high-irradiation environment. These observations also yield insights into aerosols (i.e. clouds/hazes) in the atmosphere; clouds and/or hazes should significantly impact atmospheric chemistry and observational signatures, and we as a community must get a better handle on the phenomenon of aerosols in advance of the next generation of space observatories, including JWST and WFIRST

  19. Ischaemic fasciitis: a very rare entity with unusual presentation.

    PubMed

    Wader, Jyotsna; Gajbi, Neha; Kumbhar, Sujata

    2013-12-01

    We are reporting a case of ischaemic fasciitis which occurred in a 55-year-old female with no debilitating or long bed ridden history. She presented with a large swelling over left gluteal region. On evaluation, swelling was found to be of size, 5x5 cm, slightly tender and with induration. The operative findings led to a probable diagnosis of a calcified lesion, due to its hard consistency. However, the microscopic picture was typical of ischaemic fasciitis, because of its characteristic central necrosis, vascular and atypical fibroblastic proliferations. Also seen was presence of foreign body giant cell reactions, inflammatory cells and extravasated RBCs. Ischaemic fasciitis is a very rare pseudo sarcomatous proliferation of atypical fibroblasts, which has been described to be located over bony protuberances and said to develop most often in immobile elderly or debilitated patients. Recognition of this distinct entity as a reactive process, mostly associated with debilitation is rare in occurrence.

  20. Biomass yield comparisons of giant miscanthus, giant reed, and miscane grown under irrigated and rainfed conditions

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    The U.S. Department of Energy has initiated efforts to decrease the nation’s dependence on imported oil by developing domestic renewable sources of cellulosic-derived bioenergy. In this study, giant miscanthus (Miscanthus x giganteus), sugarcane (complex hybrid of Saccharum spp.), and giant reed (Ar...

  1. Giant Galaxy Messier 87 finally sized up

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    2009-05-01

    Using ESO's Very Large Telescope, astronomers have succeeded in measuring the size of giant galaxy Messier 87 and were surprised to find that its outer parts have been stripped away by still unknown effects. The galaxy also appears to be on a collision course with another giant galaxy in this very dynamic cluster. ESO PR Photo 19a/09 The Intercluster Light ESO PR Photo 19b/09 Intergalactic Planetary Nebulae ESO PR Photo 19c/09 The Virgo Cluster The new observations reveal that Messier 87's halo of stars has been cut short, with a diameter of about a million light-years, significantly smaller than expected, despite being about three times the extent of the halo surrounding our Milky Way [1]. Beyond this zone only few intergalactic stars are seen. "This is an unexpected result," says co-author Ortwin Gerhard. "Numerical models predict that the halo around Messier 87 should be several times larger than our observations have revealed. Clearly, something must have cut the halo off early on." The team used FLAMES, the super-efficient spectrograph at ESO's Very Large Telescope at the Paranal Observatory in Chile, to make ultra-precise measurements of a host of planetary nebulae in the outskirts of Messier 87 and in the intergalactic space within the Virgo Cluster of galaxies, to which Messier 87 belongs. FLAMES can simultaneously take spectra many sources, spread over an area of the sky about the size of the Moon. The new result is quite an achievement. The observed light from a planetary nebula in the Virgo Cluster is as faint as that from a 30-Watt light bulb at a distance of about 6 million kilometres (about 15 times the Earth-Moon distance). Furthermore, planetary nebulae are thinly spread through the cluster, so even FLAMES's wide field of view could only capture a few tens of nebulae at a time. "It is a little bit like looking for a needle in a haystack, but in the dark", says team member Magda Arnaboldi. "The FLAMES spectrograph on the VLT was the best instrument

  2. Migration of accreting giant planets

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Crida, A.; Bitsch, B.; Raibaldi, A.

    2016-12-01

    We present the results of 2D hydro simulations of giant planets in proto-planetary discs, which accrete gas at a more or less high rate. First, starting from a solid core of 20 Earth masses, we show that as soon as the runaway accretion of gas turns on, the planet is saved from type I migration : the gap opening mass is reached before the planet is lost into its host star. Furthermore, gas accretion helps opening the gap in low mass discs. Consequently, if the accretion rate is limited to the disc supply, then the planet is already inside a gap and in type II migration. We further show that the type II migration of a Jupiter mass planet actually depends on its accretion rate. Only when the accretion is high do we retrieve the classical picture where no gas crosses the gap and the planet follows the disc spreading. These results impact our understanding of planet migration and planet population synthesis models. The e-poster presenting these results in French can be found here: L'e-poster présentant ces résultats en français est disponible à cette adresse: http://sf2a.eu/semaine-sf2a/2016/posterpdfs/156_179_49.pdf.

  3. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    McGrath, M. A.

    2014-12-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., Io, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  4. A giant thunderstorm on Saturn.

    PubMed

    Fischer, G; Kurth, W S; Gurnett, D A; Zarka, P; Dyudina, U A; Ingersoll, A P; Ewald, S P; Porco, C C; Wesley, A; Go, C; Delcroix, M

    2011-07-06

    Lightning discharges in Saturn's atmosphere emit radio waves with intensities about 10,000 times stronger than those of their terrestrial counterparts. These radio waves are the characteristic features of lightning from thunderstorms on Saturn, which last for days to months. Convective storms about 2,000 kilometres in size have been observed in recent years at planetocentric latitude 35° south (corresponding to a planetographic latitude of 41° south). Here we report observations of a giant thunderstorm at planetocentric latitude 35° north that reached a latitudinal extension of 10,000 kilometres-comparable in size to a 'Great White Spot'-about three weeks after it started in early December 2010. The visible plume consists of high-altitude clouds that overshoot the outermost ammonia cloud layer owing to strong vertical convection, as is typical for thunderstorms. The flash rates of this storm are about an order of magnitude higher than previous ones, and peak rates larger than ten per second were recorded. This main storm developed an elongated eastward tail with additional but weaker storm cells that wrapped around the whole planet by February 2011. Unlike storms on Earth, the total power of this storm is comparable to Saturn's total emitted power. The appearance of such storms in the northern hemisphere could be related to the change of seasons, given that Saturn experienced vernal equinox in August 2009.

  5. Atmospheres of the Giant Planets

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ingersoll, Andrew P.

    2002-01-01

    The giant planets, Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune, are fluid objects. They have no solid surfaces because the light elements constituting them do not condense at solar-system temperatures. Instead, their deep atmospheres grade downward until the distinction between gas and liquid becomes meaningless. The preceding chapter delved into the hot, dark interiors of the Jovian planets. This one focuses on their atmospheres, especially the observable layers from the base of the clouds to the edge of space. These veneers arc only a few hundred kilometers thick, less than one percent of each planet's radius, but they exhibit an incredible variety of dynamic phenomena. The mixtures of elements in these outer layers resemble a cooled-down piece of the Sun. Clouds precipitate out of this gaseous soup in a variety of colors. The cloud patterns are organized by winds, which are powered by heat derived from sunlight (as on Earth) and by internal heat left over from planetary formation. Thus the atmospheres of the Jovian planets are distinctly different both compositionally and dynamically from those of the terrestrial planets. Such differences make them fascinating objects for study, providing clues about the origin and evolution of the planets and the formation of the solar system.

  6. Treatment of Giant Intracranial Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Lv, X.; Jiang, C.; Li, Y.; Yang, X.; Zhang, J.; Wu, Z.

    2009-01-01

    Summary We report on report the clinical outcome obtained in treatment of giant intracranial aneurysms (GAs). Between 2005 and 2007, 51 patients with 51 GAs presented at our hospital. Twentynine were treated with primary parent vessel occlusion without distal bypass and ten underwent treatment preserving the parent artery. Twelve patients could not be treated endovascularly. Selective embolization (including two remodeling techniques and two stent-coil embolizations) resulted in only one cure. Two patients died as a result of subarachnoid hemorrhage periprocedurely. Twenty-nine patients treated primarily with parent vessel occlusion and three patients treated with covered stent were considered cured after their treatments. Only one patient treated with parent vessel occlusion experienced ischemia during follow-up, which resulted in a mild neurological deficit. Of the twelve patients who could not be treated endovascularly, one succumbed to surgery, four died while being treated conservatively, and three were lost to follow-up. Parent artery occlusion, covered stent and coil occlusion provide effective protection against bleeding. In treatment of paraclinoid GAs of the internal carotid artery, the use of a stent, and stent-assisted coil embolization may be a pitfall. PMID:20465907

  7. Giant electrocaloric effect around Tc.

    PubMed

    Rose, Maimon C; Cohen, R E

    2012-11-02

    We use molecular dynamics with a first-principles-based shell model potential to study the electrocaloric effect (ECE) in lithium niobate, LiNbO(3), and find a giant electrocaloric effect along a line passing through the ferroelectric transition. With an applied electric field, a line of maximum ECE passes through the zero field ferroelectric transition, continuing along a Widom line at high temperatures with increasing fields, and along the instability that leads to homogeneous ferroelectric switching below T(c) with an applied field antiparallel to the spontaneous polarization. This line is defined as the minimum in the inverse capacitance under an applied electric field. We investigate the effects of pressure, temperature and an applied electric field on the ECE. The behavior we observe in LiNbO(3) should generally apply to ferroelectrics; we therefore suggest that the operating temperature for refrigeration and energy scavenging applications should be above the ferroelectric transition region to obtain a large electrocaloric response. The relationship between T(c), the Widom line, and homogeneous switching should be universal among ferroelectrics, relaxors, multiferroics, and the same behavior should be found under applied magnetic fields in ferromagnets.

  8. The Giant Planet Satellite Exospheres

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    McGrath, Melissa A.

    2014-01-01

    Exospheres are relatively common in the outer solar system among the moons of the gas giant planets. They span the range from very tenuous, surface-bounded exospheres (e.g., Rhea, Dione) to quite robust exospheres with exobase above the surface (e.g., lo, Triton), and include many intermediate cases (e.g., Europa, Ganymede, Enceladus). The exospheres of these moons exhibit an interesting variety of sources, from surface sputtering, to frost sublimation, to active plumes, and also well illustrate another common characteristic of the outer planet satellite exospheres, namely, that the primary species often exists both as a gas in atmosphere, and a condensate (frost or ice) on the surface. As described by Yelle et al. (1995) for Triton, "The interchange of matter between gas and solid phases on these bodies has profound effects on the physical state of the surface and the structure of the atmosphere." A brief overview of the exospheres of the outer planet satellites will be presented, including an inter-comparison of these satellites exospheres with each other, and with the exospheres of the Moon and Mercury.

  9. Giant resonances of endohedral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, A. S.; Chernysheva, L. V.

    2008-04-01

    It is demonstrated for the first time that the effect of a fullerene shell on the photoionization of a “caged” atom in an endohedral can result in the formation of giant endohedral resonances or GER. This is illustrated by the concrete case of the Xe@C60 photoionization cross section that, at 17 eV, exhibits a powerful resonance with total oscillator strengths of about 25. The prominent modification of the 5 p 6 electron photoionization cross section of Xe@C60 takes place due to the strong fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and the oscillation of this cross section due to the reflection of the photoelectron from Xe by the C60. These two factors transform the smoothly decreasing 5 p 6 cross section of Xe into a rather complex curve with a powerful maximum for Xe@C60, with the oscillator strength of it being equal to 25. We also present the results for the dipole angular anisotropy parameter that is strongly affected by the reflection of the photoelectron waves, but not modified by C60 polarization.

  10. Giant resonances of endohedral atoms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amusia, M. Ya.; Baltenkov, Arkadiy; Chernysheva, Larissa

    2008-05-01

    We demonstrate for that the effect of fullerene shell upon photoionization of the ``caged'' atom in an endohedral can result in formation of Giant Endohedral Resonances or GER. This is illustrated by the concrete case of Xe@C60 photoionization cross-section that exhibits at 17 eV a powerful resonance with total oscillator strengths of about 25. The prominent modification of the 5p^6 electron photoionization cross-section of Xe@C60 takes place due to strong fullerene shell polarization under the action of the incoming electromagnetic wave and oscillation of this cross-section due to the reflection of the photoelectron from Xe by the C60. These two factors transform the smoothly decreasing 5p^6 cross-section of Xe into a rather complex curve with a powerful maximum for Xe@C60, with the oscillator strength of it being equal to 25! We present also the results for the dipole angular anisotropy parameter that is strongly affected by the reflection of the photoelectron waves but not modified by C60 polarization.

  11. The "Giant Virus Finder" discovers an abundance of giant viruses in the Antarctic dry valleys.

    PubMed

    Kerepesi, Csaba; Grolmusz, Vince

    2017-02-28

    Mimivirus was identified in 2003 from a biofilm of an industrial water-cooling tower in England. Later, numerous new giant viruses were found in oceans and freshwater habitats, some of them having 2,500 genes. We have demonstrated their likely presence in four soil samples taken from the Kutch Desert (Gujarat, India). Here we describe a bioinformatics work-flow, called the "Giant Virus Finder" that is capable of discovering the likely presence of the genomes of giant viruses in metagenomic shotgun-sequenced datasets. The new workflow is applied to numerous hot and cold desert soil samples as well as some tundra- and forest soils. We show that most of these samples contain giant viruses, especially in the Antarctic dry valleys. The results imply that giant viruses could be frequent not only in aqueous habitats, but in a wide spectrum of soils on our planet.

  12. Lupus vulgaris developing at the site of misdiagnosed scrofuloderma.

    PubMed

    Motta, A; Feliciani, C; Toto, P; De Benedetto, A; Morelli, F; Tulli, A

    2003-05-01

    Cutaneous tuberculosis is a rare form of extrapulmonary tuberculosis primarily occurring in developing countries. The recent increase in the incidence of tuberculosis, especially due to human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) infections, has led to a resurgence of extrapulmonary forms of this disease. We describe a case of lupus vulgaris in a 33-year-old woman who had a 5-year history of a slowly growing plaque on her neck. The lesion was located at the site of surgery repairing the scar resulting from the incision of a subcutaneous abscess during childhood. This lesion was misdiagnosed as bacterial abscess. Histopathologic examination of the plaque revealed non-caseating tuberculoid granulomas consisting of lymphocytes, epithelioid and giant cells. Staining for acid-fast bacilli and culture from biopsied tissue was negative. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for detection of Mycobacterium tuberculosis DNA, performed on a skin biopsy specimen, was positive. A diagnosis of lupus vulgaris developing at the site of a previous misdiagnosed scrofuloderma was made. Conventional antitubercular therapy with rifampicin, isoniazid and ethambutol was administered for 6 months, resulting in resolution of the lesion.

  13. Giant elves: Lightning-generated electromagnetic pulses in giant planets.

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Luque Estepa, Alejandro; Dubrovin, Daria; José Gordillo-Vázquez, Francisco; Ebert, Ute; Parra-Rojas, Francisco Carlos; Yair, Yoav; Price, Colin

    2015-04-01

    We currently have direct optical observations of atmospheric electricity in the two giant gaseous planets of our Solar System [1-5] as well as radio signatures that are possibly generated by lightning from the two icy planets Uranus and Neptune [6,7]. On Earth, the electrical activity of the troposphere is associated with secondary electrical phenomena called Transient Luminous Events (TLEs) that occur in the mesosphere and lower ionosphere. This led some researchers to ask if similar processes may also exist in other planets, focusing first on the quasi-static coupling mechanism [8], which on Earth is responsible for halos and sprites and then including also the induction field, which is negligible in our planet but dominant in Saturn [9]. However, one can show that, according to the best available estimation for lightning parameters, in giant planets such as Saturn and Jupiter the effect of the electromagnetic pulse (EMP) dominates the effect that a lightning discharge has on the lower ionosphere above it. Using a Finite-Differences, Time-Domain (FDTD) solver for the EMP we found [10] that electrically active storms may create a localized but long-lasting layer of enhanced ionization of up to 103 cm-3 free electrons below the ionosphere, thus extending the ionosphere downward. We also estimate that the electromagnetic pulse transports 107 J to 1010 J toward the ionosphere. There emissions of light of up to 108 J would create a transient luminous event analogous to a terrestrial elve. Although these emissions are about 10 times fainter than the emissions coming from the lightning itself, it may be possible to target them for detection by filtering the appropiate wavelengths. [1] Cook, A. F., II, T. C. Duxbury, and G. E. Hunt (1979), First results on Jovian lightning, Nature, 280, 794, doi:10.1038/280794a0. [2] Little, B., C. D. Anger, A. P. Ingersoll, A. R. Vasavada, D. A. Senske, H. H. Breneman, W. J. Borucki, and The Galileo SSI Team (1999), Galileo images of

  14. YOUNG SOLAR SYSTEM's FIFTH GIANT PLANET?

    SciTech Connect

    Nesvorny, David

    2011-12-15

    Studies of solar system formation suggest that the solar system's giant planets formed and migrated in the protoplanetary disk to reach the resonant orbits with all planets inside {approx}15 AU from the Sun. After the gas disk's dispersal, Uranus and Neptune were likely scattered by the gas giants, and approached their current orbits while dispersing the transplanetary disk of planetesimals, whose remains survived to this time in the region known as the Kuiper Belt. Here we performed N-body integrations of the scattering phase between giant planets in an attempt to determine which initial states are plausible. We found that the dynamical simulations starting with a resonant system of four giant planets have a low success rate in matching the present orbits of giant planets and various other constraints (e.g., survival of the terrestrial planets). The dynamical evolution is typically too violent, if Jupiter and Saturn start in the 3:2 resonance, and leads to final systems with fewer than four planets. Several initial states stand out in that they show a relatively large likelihood of success in matching the constraints. Some of the statistically best results were obtained when assuming that the solar system initially had five giant planets and one ice giant, with the mass comparable to that of Uranus and Neptune, and which was ejected to interstellar space by Jupiter. This possibility appears to be conceivable in view of the recent discovery of a large number of free-floating planets in interstellar space, which indicates that planet ejection should be common.

  15. Primary cryptococcal prostatitis--rare occurrence.

    PubMed

    Shah, Vinaya B; Patil, Pallavi A; Agrawa, Vipul; Kaswan, Harish K

    2012-05-01

    Cryptococcosis is a well recognized infection in immunocompromised patients. Cryptococcal infection primarily involves the lung and is hematogeneously spread to other organs. Sometimes it might affect the genitourinary tract. The prostate gland is a rare site of primary infection due to cryptococcus neoformans. We report a case of granulomatous inflammation in the prostate as a result of crypyococcus neoformans infection in a 70 year old immunocompetent patient, a non diabetic, which was diagnosed by transrectal ultrasound guided biopsy.

  16. Unusually Giant Sublingual Epidermoid Cyst: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    Nishar, Chintan-C; Ambulgekar, Vijayalaxmi-K.; Gujrathi, Atish-B.; Chavan, Pravin-T.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Epidermoid cysts are rare, slow‑growing, benign, developmental cysts, which are derived from abnormally situated ectodermal tissue. Epidermoid cysts of the floor of the mouth represent <0.01% of all oral cysts. So far, only a few cases have been reported. Case Report: Hereby, we present a case of a giant sublingual epidermoid cyst, which was completely asymptomatic upon presentation. However, due to its large size, it pushed the epiglottis posteriorly and created difficulty during intubation. The patient developed respiratory distress after its surgical excision and extubation, requiring tracheostomy post operatively. The patient recovered well and a successful weaning of tracheostomy was performed, giving the patient a healthy life. Conclusion: Epidermoid cyst is a rare differential diagnosis of sublingual swelling that should be kept in mind for large asymptomatic swellings in this region. The only symptom it can cause might be respiratory distress due to its large size. This can happen not only pre-operatively but also post-operatively and the surgeon should be ready for immediate tracheostomy. PMID:27602342

  17. Multidisciplinary Approach to Management of Temporal Bone Giant Cell Tumor

    PubMed Central

    Nicoli, Taija K.; Saat, Riste; Kontio, Risto; Piippo, Anna; Tarkkanen, Maija; Tarkkanen, Jussi; Jero, Jussi

    2016-01-01

    Background Giant cell tumors (GCTs) are rare osseous tumors that rarely appear in the skull. Methods We review the clinical course of a 28-year-old previously healthy woman with a complicated GCT. Results The reviewed patient presented with a middle cranial fossa tumor acutely complicated by reactive mastoiditis. Left tympanomastoidectomy was performed for drainage of the mastoiditis and for biopsies of the tumor. Due to the challenging tumor location, the patient was treated with denosumab, a fully humanized monoclonal antibody against receptor activator of nuclear factor kappa-B ligand, for 7 months, which resulted in significant preoperative tumor shrinkage. Extensive temporal craniotomy and resection of the tumor followed utilizing a temporomandibular joint total endoprosthesis for reconstruction. A recurrence of the tumor was detected on computed tomography at 19 months after surgery and treated with transtemporal tumor resection, parotidectomy, and mandible re-reconstruction. Conclusion A multidisciplinary approach resulted in a good functional result and, finally, an eradication of the challengingly located middle cranial fossa tumor. PMID:28078198

  18. Peno-scrotal limphedema with giant hydrocele - surgical treatment particularities

    PubMed Central

    Mischianu, Dan; Florescu, Ioan; Madan, Victor; Iatagan, Cristian; Bratu, Ovidiu; Oporan, Anca; Giublea, C

    2009-01-01

    Introduction: The necessity for complex and multidisciplinary approach of “border” surgical pathology has unanimously been agreed upon for such a long period of time, its advantages becoming even more obvious in rare, particular cases. Patients and methods: We report the case of a 39 year-old man diagnosed with lymphangiomatosis back in his childhood. He is admitted with a giant pseudotumoral scrotal mass presenting an important scrotal enlargement (40/35 cm). Physical examination, blood tests, ultrasound, IVP, abdominal and chest CT, psychiatric and plastic surgery evaluation established the diagnosis: peno-scrotal lymphedema with gigantic hydrocele and depressive disorder. Taking into account the important enlargement of the scrotum associated with the alteration of the local skin, we decided to form a mixed surgical team: urology - plastic and reconstructive surgery. We performed bilateral surgical therapy of hydrocele with partial excision and eversion of sac edges, excision of peno-scrotal skin and subcutaneous tissue surplus. At the end we made a reconstruction by using a partial-thickness graft from the normal skin of the left thigh. Results: Spinal anaesthesia was sufficient in order to perform a qualitative complex surgery. Intra and postoperative course was uneventful with minimal blood loss. Conclusion: Rare cases like this one clearly reveal the advantages of a multidisciplinary surgical team by combining usual surgical procedures from different specialities that could lead to spectacular results. PMID:20108494

  19. Lineage fusion in Galápagos giant tortoises.

    PubMed

    Garrick, Ryan C; Benavides, Edgar; Russello, Michael A; Hyseni, Chaz; Edwards, Danielle L; Gibbs, James P; Tapia, Washington; Ciofi, Claudio; Caccone, Adalgisa

    2014-11-01

    Although many classic radiations on islands are thought to be the result of repeated lineage splitting, the role of past fusion is rarely known because during these events, purebreds are rapidly replaced by a swarm of admixed individuals. Here, we capture lineage fusion in action in a Galápagos giant tortoise species, Chelonoidis becki, from Wolf Volcano (Isabela Island). The long generation time of Galápagos tortoises and dense sampling (841 individuals) of genetic and demographic data were integral in detecting and characterizing this phenomenon. In C. becki, we identified two genetically distinct, morphologically cryptic lineages. Historical reconstructions show that they colonized Wolf Volcano from Santiago Island in two temporally separated events, the first estimated to have occurred ~199 000 years ago. Following arrival of the second wave of colonists, both lineages coexisted for approximately ~53 000 years. Within that time, they began fusing back together, as microsatellite data reveal widespread introgressive hybridization. Interestingly, greater mate selectivity seems to be exhibited by purebred females of one of the lineages. Forward-in-time simulations predict rapid extinction of the early arriving lineage. This study provides a rare example of reticulate evolution in action and underscores the power of population genetics for understanding the past, present and future consequences of evolutionary phenomena associated with lineage fusion.

  20. Determination of the HNC to HCN abundance ratio in giant molecular clouds

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Goldsmith, P. F.; Langer, W. D.; Ellder, J.; Kollberg, E.; Irvine, W.

    1981-10-01

    The lines of the rare isotopes (H-13)CN, H(C-15)N, H(N-13)C, and (H-15)NC, which are sufficiently weak to be little affected by saturation, are used to measure the relative abundance of the isomers HCN and HNC in four giant molecular clouds. The low values of the HNC/HCN abundance ratio, which range from 0.015 to 0.40, are (1) similar to those found in warm sources from the common isotopes by Wootten et al. (1978), (2) not consistent with HNC and HCN production solely from various sources of the precursor ion H2CN(+), and (3) indicate that another source of HCN is required in warm, giant molecular clouds. It is suggested that neutral atom-molecule reactions may be an important contribution to the HCN production rate in such regions.

  1. Giant hypothalamic hamartoma associated with an intracranial cyst in a newborn

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We report the case of a giant hypothalamic hamartoma with a large intracranial cyst in a neonate. On ultrasonography, the lesion presented as a lobulated, mass-like lesion with similar echogenicity to the adjacent brain parenchyma, located anterior to the underdeveloped and compressed left temporal lobe, and presenting as an intracranial cyst in the left cerebral convexity without definite internal echogenicity or septa. The presence of a hypothalamic hamartoma and intracranial neurenteric cyst were confirmed by surgical biopsy. The association of a giant hypothalamic hamartoma and a neurenteric cyst is rare. Due to the rarity of this association, the large size of the intracranial cyst, and the resulting distortion in the regional anatomy, the diagnosis of the solid mass was not made correctly on prenatal high-resolution ultrasonography. PMID:27101982

  2. Heterogeneous vesicles in mucous epithelial cells of posterior esophagus of Chinese giant salamander (Andrias davidianus).

    PubMed

    Zhang, H; Guo, X; Zhong, S; Ge, T; Peng, S; Yu, P; Zhou, Z

    2015-08-25

    The Chinese giant salamander belongs to an old lineage of salamanders and endangered species. Many studies of breeding and disease regarding this amphibian had been implemented. However, the studies on the ultrastructure of this amphibian are rare. In this work, we provide a histological and ultrastructural investigation on posterior esophagus of Chinese giant salamander. The sections of amphibian esophagus were stained by hematoxylin & eosin (H&E). Moreover, the esophageal epithelium was observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The results showed that esophageal epithelium was a single layer epithelium, which consisted of mucous cells and columnar cells. The esophageal glands were present in submucosa. The columnar cells were ciliated. According to the diverging ultrastructure of mucous vesicles, three types of mucous cells could be identified in the esophageal mucosa: i) electron-lucent vesicles mucous cell (ELV-MC); ii) electron-dense vesicles mucous cell (EDV-MC); and iii) mixed vesicles mucous cell (MV-MC).

  3. Jejunal intussusception caused by metastasis of a giant cell carcinoma of the lung

    PubMed Central

    Fujii, Yuki; Homma, Shigenori; Yoshida, Tadashi; Taketomi, Akinobu

    2016-01-01

    A 55-year-old woman was admitted to our hospital reporting of nausea, vomiting and anorexia. One month before admission, she had been diagnosed with lung cancer with intestinal metastasis. A CT scan confirmed intussusception due to intestinal metastasis and she underwent emergency laparoscopic surgery followed by resection of the primary lung cancer. Histopathological findings of the intestinal specimen suggested the metastasis was from a giant cell carcinoma of the lung, which had extensive necrosis. She was still alive without recurrence 11 months after the first surgery. Giant cell carcinoma of the lung is a rare type of non-small cell carcinoma and intestinal metastasis is one of the unique features. This type of tumour has such aggressive characteristics that oncological prognosis is reported to be extremely poor. In our case, however, complete surgical resection of both primary and metastatic tumours might result in a better outcome than has been reported. PMID:27485876

  4. Giant Lymph Node Hyperplasia of the Mediastinum (Castleman's Disease): Case Report and Review

    PubMed Central

    Bhatti, Muhammad A.K.; Ferrante, John W.; Gielchinsky, Isaac; Norman, John C.

    1984-01-01

    Giant lymph node hyperplasia is a rare, benign disease involving lymph nodes in various locations, predominantly in the mediastinum. There are two variants: plasma cell (earlier and/or acute) and hyaline-vascular, more chronic with an intermediate transitional type. The usual presentation is a solitary well-circumscribed asymptomatic mass lesion, often attaining large size, with infrequent associated hematologic manifestations. A case of giant lymph node hyperplasia involving the paravertebral superior mediastinum is reported. Surgical excision was the treatment of choice in a 65-year-old man, and at thoractomy, an encapsulated mass was excised from the posterior superior mediastinum. The patient had an uneventful postoperative course and was discharged on the tenth postoperative day. Three years later, he is well and employed as a carpenter. Images PMID:15226878

  5. [Giant cell tumor of the lumbar spine. Case report and review of the literature].

    PubMed

    Zabalo, Gorka; Ortega, Rodrigo; Vázquez, Alfonso; Carballares, Ianire; Díaz, Jorge; Portillo, Eduardo

    2015-01-01

    We report the case of a 32-year-old patient complaining of chronic low back pain radiating to his left thigh. His MRI showed a lytic L1 vertebral body injury. A transpedicular biopsy confirmed the diagnosis of giant cell tumor. He underwent a L1 vertebrectomy and vertebral body replacement with a titanium cylinder using anterior approach, followed by the removal of the L1 posterior arch and the placement of pedicle screws through a posterior approach. The giant cell tumor is a rare benign primary bone tumor that can be locally aggressive and can potentially spread to other areas, usually to the lungs. Although it most frequently affects long bones, approximately 10% of tumors are located in the spine. To minimise the risk of recurrence, the elective management option is surgery.

  6. Successful Management of a Giant Pituitary Lactosomatotroph Adenoma Only with Cabergoline

    PubMed Central

    Bozkirli, Emre; Bakiner, Okan; Ersozlu Bozkirli, Emine Duygu; Ertorer, Eda; Bascil Tutuncu, Neslihan; Guvener Demirag, Nilgun

    2013-01-01

    Although advances in endocrinologic and neuroradiologic research allow easier recognition of pituitary adenomas, giant pituitary tumours are relatively rare. In the literature, the term “giant” is generally used when a pituitary tumour becomes larger than 4 cm in diameter. Cabergoline is a potent and long-acting inhibitor of prolactin secretion, which exhibits high specificity and affinity for dopamine D2 receptor. Herein, we report a 46-year-old woman with a giant lactosomatotroph pituitary adenoma, sized 6 × 5 × 5.5 cm, who is treated successfully only with cabergoline. The patient showed dramatic response to cabergoline treatment by means of clinical, biochemical and radiological imaging findings. Cabergoline seems to be safe and effective in the treatment of prolactin and growth hormone cosecreting pituitary adenomas as well as prolactinomas. However, surgical or more aggressive approach must be considered where indicated. PMID:23762662

  7. The ecological consequences of megafaunal loss: giant tortoises and wetland biodiversity.

    PubMed

    Froyd, Cynthia A; Coffey, Emily E D; van der Knaap, Willem O; van Leeuwen, Jacqueline F N; Tye, Alan; Willis, Katherine J

    2014-02-01

    The giant tortoises of the Galápagos have become greatly depleted since European discovery of the islands in the 16th Century, with populations declining from an estimated 250 000 to between 8000 and 14 000 in the 1970s. Successful tortoise conservation efforts have focused on species recovery, but ecosystem conservation and restoration requires a better understanding of the wider ecological consequences of this drastic reduction in the archipelago's only large native herbivore. We report the first evidence from palaeoecological records of coprophilous fungal spores of the formerly more extensive geographical range of giant tortoises in the highlands of Santa Cruz Island. Upland tortoise populations on Santa Cruz declined 500-700 years ago, likely the result of human impact or possible climatic change. Former freshwater wetlands, a now limited habitat-type, were found to have converted to Sphagnum bogs concomitant with tortoise loss, subsequently leading to the decline of several now-rare or extinct plant species.

  8. Insight into evolution of a giant congenital nevomelanocytic nevus over 14 years.

    PubMed

    Sathyanarayana, B D; Basavaraj, H B; Nischal, K C; Swaroop, M R; Lavanya, M S; Okram, Sarda

    2014-01-01

    Giant congenital nevomelanocytic nevus (GCNN) is a rare variant of congenital melanocytic nevus measuring >20 cm in size that often has a garment-like distribution. Regular follow up is recommended because of a risk of melanoma transformation of 4.6%. We report a 14-year-old boy with gradual regression of giant congenital melanocytic nevus over the left upper limb, chest, back and axilla, whom we have followed-up since birth. At birth, a hyperpigmented jet-black patch without hair was present over the left side of torso and upper limb including palms and nails. Follow up at the ages of 1, 5, 11 and 14 years showed progressive spontaneous regression of the nevus resulting in shiny atrophic skin, diffuse hypopigmentation, lentigo-like macules, nodules and arthrogryphosis of affected areas. Histopathology of the lesions on follow-up revealed absence of pigmented nevus cells in the regressing areas and thickened sclerotic collagen bundles.

  9. Giant-cell arteritis without cranial manifestations

    PubMed Central

    de Boysson, Hubert; Lambert, Marc; Liozon, Eric; Boutemy, Jonathan; Maigné, Gwénola; Ollivier, Yann; Ly, Kim; Manrique, Alain; Bienvenu, Boris; Aouba, Achille

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Diagnosis of giant-cell arteritis (GCA) is challenging in the absence of cardinal cranial symptoms/signs. We aimed to describe the clinical presentation, diagnostic process, and disease course of GCA patients without cranial symptoms, and to compare them to those of patients with typical cranial presentation. In this retrospective multicenter study, we enrolled patients with GCA who satisfied at least 3 of the 5 American College of Rheumatology criteria for GCA, or 2 criteria associated with contributory vascular biopsy other than temporal artery biopsy or with demonstration of large-vessel involvement; underwent iconographic evaluation of large arterial vessels (aortic CT scan or a positron emission tomography with 18F-fluorodeoxyglucose combined with computed tomography (FDG-PET/CT) scan or cardiac echography combined with a large-vessel Doppler) at diagnosis. We divided the cohort into 2 groups, distinguishing between patients without cranial symptoms/signs (i.e., headaches, clinical temporal artery anomaly, jaw claudication, ophthalmologic symptoms) and those with cranial symptoms/signs. In the entire cohort of 143 patients, all of whom underwent vascular biopsy and vascular imaging, we detected 31 (22%) patients with no cranial symptoms/signs. In the latter, diagnosis was biopsy proven in an arterial sample in 23 cases (74% of patients, on a temporal site in 20 cases and on an extratemporal site in 3). One-third of these 31 patients displayed extracranial symptoms/signs whereas the remaining two-thirds presented only with constitutional symptoms and/or inflammatory laboratory test results. Compared to the 112 patients with cardinal cranial clinical symptoms/signs, patients without cranial manifestations displayed lower levels of inflammatory laboratory parameters (C-reactive level: 68 [9–250] mg/L vs 120 [3–120] mg/L; P < 0.01), highest rate of aorta and aortic branch involvement identified (19/31 (61%) vs 42/112 (38%); P = 0.02) and also

  10. Giant cell interstitial pneumonia in patients without hard metal exposure: analysis of 3 cases and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Khoor, Andras; Roden, Anja C; Colby, Thomas V; Roggli, Victor L; Elrefaei, Mohamed; Alvarez, Francisco; Erasmus, David B; Mallea, Jorge M; Murray, David L; Keller, Cesar A

    2016-04-01

    Giant cell interstitial pneumonia is a rare lung disease and is considered pathognomonic for hard metal lung disease, although some cases with no apparent hard metal (tungsten carbide cobalt) exposure have been reported. We aimed to explore the association between giant cell interstitial pneumonia and hard metal exposure. Surgical pathology files from 2001 to 2004 were searched for explanted lungs with the histopathologic diagnosis of giant cell interstitial pneumonia, and we reviewed the associated clinical histories. Mass spectrometry, energy-dispersive x-ray analysis, and human leukocyte antigen typing data were evaluated. Of the 455 lung transplants, 3 met the histologic criteria for giant cell interstitial pneumonia. Patient 1 was a 36-year-old firefighter, patient 2 was a 58-year-old welder, and patient 3 was a 45-year-old environmental inspector. None reported exposure to hard metal or cobalt dust. Patients 1 and 2 received double lung transplants; patient 3 received a left single-lung transplant. Histologically, giant cell interstitial pneumonia presented as chronic interstitial pneumonia with fibrosis, alveolar macrophage accumulation, and multinucleated giant cells of both alveolar macrophage and type 2 cell origin. Energy-dispersive x-ray analysis revealed no cobalt or tungsten particles in samples from the explanted lungs. None of the samples had detectable tungsten levels, and only patient 2 had elevated cobalt levels. The lack of appropriate inhalation history and negative analytical findings in the tissue from 2 of the 3 patients suggests that giant cell interstitial pneumonia is not limited to individuals with hard metal exposure, and other environmental factors may elicit the same histologic reaction.

  11. Embolization of a True Giant Splenic Artery Aneurysm Using NBCA Glue – Case Report and Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Guziński, Maciej; Kurcz, Jacek; Kukulska, Monika; Neska, Małgorzata; Garcarek, Jerzy

    2015-01-01

    Summary Background Although splenic artery aneurysms (SAAs) are common, their giant forms (more than 10 cm in diameter) are rare. Because of the variety of forms and locations of these aneurysms, there are a lot of therapeutic methods to choose. In our case of a giant true aneurysm we performed an endovascular embolization with N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA) glue. To our knowledge it is the first reported case of this method of treatment of true giant SAA. Case Report A 74-year-old male patient with symptomatic giant SAA (13 cm) was urgently admitted to our hospital for the diagnostic and therapeutic procedures. Due to the general health condition, advanced age and the large size of the aneurysm we decided to perform an endovascular treatment with N-butyl-cyano-acrylate (NBCA) glue. Conclusions The preaneurysmal part of splenic artery was occluded completely with exclusion of the aneurysm. No splenectomy was needed. The patient was discharged in good general condition Embolization with NBCA can be an efficient method to treat the giant SAA. PMID:25848440

  12. Sunspots and Giant-Cell Convection

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moore, Ron L.; Hathaway, David H.; Reichmann, Ed J.

    2000-01-01

    From analysis of Doppler velocity images from SOHO/MDI, Hathaway et al (2000, Solar Phys., in press) have found clear evidence for giant convection cells that fill the solar surface, have diameters 3 - 10 times that typical of supergranules, and have lifetimes approx. greater than 10 days. Analogous to the superposition of the granular convection on the supergranular convection, the approx. 30,000 km diameter supergranules are superposed on these still larger giant cells. Because the giant cells make up the large-scale end of a continuous power spectrum that peaks at the size scale of supergranules, it appears that the giant cells are made by the same mode of convection as the supergranules. This suggests that the giant cells are similar to supergranules, just longer-lived, larger in diameter, and deeper. Here we point out that the range of lengths of large bipolar sunspot groups is similar to the size range of giant cells. This, along with the long lives (weeks) of large sunspots, suggests that large sunspots sit in long-lived, deep downflows at the corners of giant cells, and that the distance from leader to follower sunspots in large bipolar groups is the distance from one giant-cell corner to the next. By this line of reasoning, an unusually large and strong downdraft might pull in both legs of a rising spot-group magnetic flux loop, resulting in the formation of a delta sunspot. This leads us to suggest that a large, strong giant-cell corner downdraft should be present at the birthplaces of large delta sunspots for some time (days to weeks) before the birth. Thus, early detection of such downdrafts by local helioscismology might provide an early warning for the formation of those active regions (large delta sunspot groups) that produce the Sun's most violent flares and coronal mass ejections. This work is supported by NASA's Office of Space Science through the Solar Physics Branch of its Sun-Earth Connection Program.

  13. Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars Spectropolarimetry of Giant stars: Probing the influence of magnetic field on evolved stars

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    da Costa, Jefferson; Castro, Matthieu; Petit, Pascal; do Nascimento, José-Dias, Jr.

    2015-08-01

    It is know that lithium is element easily destroyed in stellar interior, the existence of lithium rich stars means a great challenge in stellar evolution. In this context our observations ravels the serendipitous discovery of an unusually high lithium abundance star. This is a K0III HD 150050, which has strong deepening on lithium line (6707.8 Å) this means lithium abundance of 2.81 0.2 dex, therefore this star belong a rare group called super Li-Rich stars. A possible source of the non-standard episodes required to produce Li-rich stars were identified in magneto-thermohaline mixing accounted by models of extra-mixing induced by magnetic buoyancy. However to better understand this is necessary more observational data. In last three decades several studies has showed that late type red giant stars presents a remarkable modifications in these outer atmosphere layers when they become late type star in HR diagram. These changes are founded through X-ray, Ultraviolet, and Chromospheric activity analyses, and then we can establish the called “Dividing lines”. We made spectropalarimetric observations with ESPaDOnS@CFHT to achieve two main objectives: analyze the influence of magnetic field in the Li-rich giant stars, and understand how works the magnetic field in late type giants and supergiants across the “dividing line”.

  14. Rare B Decays

    SciTech Connect

    Jackson, P.D.; /Victoria U.

    2006-02-24

    Recent results from Belle and BaBar on rare B decays involving flavor-changing neutral currents or purely leptonic final states are presented. Measurements of the CP asymmetries in B {yields} K*{gamma} and b {yields} s{gamma} are reported. Also reported are updated limits on B{sup +} {yields} K{sup +}{nu}{bar {nu}}, B{sup +} {yields} {tau}{sup +}{nu}, B{sup +} {yields} {mu}{sup +}{nu} and the recent measurement of B {yields} X{sub s}{ell}{sup +}{ell}{sup -}.

  15. [Rarely seen fractures].

    PubMed

    Subaşi, M; Kapukaya, A; Kesemenli, C; Coban, V

    2001-10-01

    Rarely seen fractures are presented in this study. One case was a calcaneal spur, 2 cases osteochondroma pedicule fractures and talus posteromedial tubercle fracture due to direct trauma. Calcaneal spur and osteochondromas were removed surgically and posteromedial tubercle was treated by short-leg cast immobilization. In conclusion, we think that fractures of osteochondroma and calcaneal spur may be treated by surgical removal which do not cause any functional disorders after this operation, but fractures like the talus posteromedial tubercle should be treated conservatively by short-leg immobilization in the early period.

  16. An MHD model for magnetar giant flares

    SciTech Connect

    Meng, Y.; Lin, J.; Zhang, Q. S.; Zhang, L.; Reeves, K. K.; Yuan, F. E-mail: jlin@ynao.ac.cn

    2014-04-10

    Giant flares on soft gamma-ray repeaters that are thought to take place on magnetars release enormous energy in a short time interval. Their power can be explained by catastrophic instabilities occurring in the magnetic field configuration and the subsequent magnetic reconnection. By analogy with the coronal mass ejection events on the Sun, we develop a theoretical model via an analytic approach for magnetar giant flares. In this model, the rotation and/or displacement of the crust causes the field to twist and deform, leading to flux rope formation in the magnetosphere and energy accumulation in the related configuration. When the energy and helicity stored in the configuration reach a threshold, the system loses its equilibrium, the flux rope is ejected outward in a catastrophic way, and magnetic reconnection helps the catastrophe develop to a plausible eruption. By taking SGR 1806–20 as an example, we calculate the free magnetic energy released in such an eruptive process and find that it is more than 10{sup 47} erg, which is enough to power a giant flare. The released free magnetic energy is converted into radiative energy, kinetic energy, and gravitational energy of the flux rope. We calculated the light curves of the eruptive processes for the giant flares of SGR 1806–20, SGR 0526–66, and SGR 1900+14, and compared them with the observational data. The calculated light curves are in good agreement with the observed light curves of giant flares.

  17. Giant cell tumor in adipose package Hoffa

    PubMed Central

    Etcheto, H. Rivarola; Escobar, G.; Blanchod, C. Collazo; Palanconi, M.; Zordan, J.; Salinas, E. Alvarez; Autorino₁, Carlos

    2017-01-01

    Tumors of adipose Hoffa package are very uncommon, with isolated cases reported in the literature. His presentation in pediatric patients knee is exceptional. The most frequently described tumors are benign including vellonodular synovitis. The extra-articular localized variant there of is known as giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath. It is characterized by locally aggressive nature, and has been described in reports of isolated cases. Objective: A case of giant cell tumor of the tendon sheath in adipose presentation package Hoffa in pediatric patients is presented in this paper. Methods: male patient eleven years with right knee pain after sports practice was evaluated. Physical examination, showed limited extension -30º, joint effusion, stable negative Lachman maneuver without peripheral knee laxity. MRI hyperintense on tumor is observed in T2 and hypointense on T1 homogeneous and defined edges content displayed prior to LCA related to adipose Hoffa package. Results: The tumor specimen was obtained and histopathology is defined as densely cellular tissue accumulation of xantomisados fibrocollagenous with histiocytes and multinucleated giant cells, compatible with giant cell tumor of tendon sheath. Conclusion: The presentation of giant cell tumors of the tendon sheath in Hoffa fat pad is exceptional. However, his suspicion allows adequate preoperative surgical planning, as a whole resection is the only procedure that has been shown to decrease the rate of recurrence of this disease.

  18. Electrodynamics on extrasolar giant planets

    SciTech Connect

    Koskinen, T. T.; Yelle, R. V.; Lavvas, P.; Cho, J. Y-K.

    2014-11-20

    Strong ionization on close-in extrasolar giant planets (EGPs) suggests that their atmospheres may be affected by ion drag and resistive heating arising from wind-driven electrodynamics. Recent models of ion drag on these planets, however, are based on thermal ionization only and do not include the upper atmosphere above the 1 mbar level. These models are also based on simplified equations of resistive magnetohydrodynamics that are not always valid in extrasolar planet atmospheres. We show that photoionization dominates over thermal ionization over much of the dayside atmosphere above the 100 mbar level, creating an upper ionosphere dominated by ionization of H and He and a lower ionosphere dominated by ionization of metals such as Na, K, and Mg. The resulting dayside electron densities on close-in exoplanets are higher than those encountered in any planetary ionosphere of the solar system, and the conductivities are comparable to the chromosphere of the Sun. Based on these results and assumed magnetic fields, we constrain the conductivity regimes on close-in EGPs and use a generalized Ohm's law to study the basic effects of electrodynamics in their atmospheres. We find that ion drag is important above the 10 mbar level where it can also significantly alter the energy balance through resistive heating. Due to frequent collisions of the electrons and ions with the neutral atmosphere, however, ion drag is largely negligible in the lower atmosphere below the 10 mbar level for a reasonable range of planetary magnetic moments. We find that the atmospheric conductivity decreases by several orders of magnitude in the night side of tidally locked planets, leading to a potentially interesting large-scale dichotomy in electrodynamics between the day and night sides. A combined approach that relies on UV observations of the upper atmosphere, phase curve and Doppler measurements of global dynamics, and visual transit observations to probe the alkali metals can potentially be

  19. Anaplastic giant cell thyroid carcinoma.

    PubMed

    Wallin, G; Lundell, G; Tennvall, J

    2004-01-01

    Anaplastic (giant cell) thyroid carcinoma (ATC), is one of the most aggressive malignancies in humans with a median survival time after diagnosis of 3-6 months. Death from ATC was earlier seen because of local growth and suffocation. ATC is uncommon, accounting for less than 5 % of all thyroid carcinomas. The diagnosis can be established by means of multiple fine needle aspiration biopsies, which are neither harmful nor troublesome for the patient. The cytological diagnosis of this high-grade malignant tumour is usually not difficult for a well trained cytologist. The intention to treat patients with ATC is cure, although only few of them survive. The majority of the patients are older than 60 years and treatment must be influenced by their high age. We have by using a combined modality regimen succeeded in achieving local control in most patients. Every effort should be made to control the primary tumour and thereby improve the quality of remaining life and it is important for patients, relatives and the personnel to know that cure is not impossible. Different treatment combinations have been used since 30 years including radiotherapy, cytostatic drugs and surgery, when feasible. In our latest combined regimen, 22 patients were treated with hyper fractionated radiotherapy 1.6Gy x 2 to a total target dose of 46 Gy given preoperatively, 20 mg doxorubicin was administered intravenously once weekly and surgery was carried out 2-3 weeks after the radiotherapy. 17 of these 22 patients were operated upon and none of these 17 patients got a local recurrence. In the future we are awaiting the development of new therapeutic approaches to this aggressive type of carcinoma. Inhibitors of angiogenesis might be useful. Combretastatin has displayed cytotoxicity against ATC cell lines and has had a positive effect on ATC in a patient. Sodium iodide symporter (NIS) genetherapy is also being currently considered for dedifferentiated thyroid carcinomas with the ultimate aim of

  20. [Isolated giant hydatid in kidney].

    PubMed

    Ozgör, Faruk; Erbin, Akif; Berberoğlu, Ahmet Yalçın; Binbay, Murat; Sarılar, Omer; Müslümanoğlu, Ahmet Yaser

    2014-06-01

    Cyst hydatid of the kidney is parasitic condition caused by Echinococcus granulosus and identified in many countries, especially associated with sheep farming. Echinococcal larvae enter the bloodstream using the digestive system and invade any organs in the human body. The urinary system is the third most common area affected by parasitic infection after liver and lungs, but isolated renal involvement is a very rare situation, even in endemic areas. İn our case, we aimed to report a 57-year-old female patient with an 18-centimeter isolated renal cyst hydatid treated by retroperitoneal nephrectomy. The diagnosis was based on imaging findings and confirmed by histopathologically.

  1. Giant saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm to right posterior descending artery presenting with superior vena cava syndrome.

    PubMed

    Vargas-Estrada, Andres; Edwards, Dianna; Bashir, Mohammad; Rossen, James; Zahr, Firas

    2015-06-26

    Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) pseudoaneurysms, especially giant ones, are rare and occur as a late complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. This condition affects both genders and typically occurs within the sixth decade of life. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic incidental finding on imaging studies to new onset angina, dyspnea, myocardial infarction or symptoms related to compression of neighboring structures. An 82-year-old woman presented with acute onset back pain, dyspnea and was noted to have significantly engorged neck veins. In the emergency department, a chest computed tomographic angiogram with intravenous contrast revealed a ruptured giant bilobed SVG pseudoaneurysm to the right posterior descending artery (RPDA). This imaging modality also demonstrated compression of the superior vena cava (SVC) by the SVG pseudoaneurysm. Coronary angiogram with bypass study was performed to establish the patency of this graft. Endovascular coiling and embolization of the SVG to RPDA was initially considered but disfavored after the coronary angiogram revealed preserved flow from the graft to this arterial branch. After reviewing the angiogram films, a surgical strategy was favored over a percutaneous intervention with a Nitinol self-expanding stent since the latter would have not addressed the superior vena cava compression caused by the giant pseudoaneurysm. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated SVC compression by the giant pseudoaneurysm cranial lobe. Our patient underwent surgical ligation and excision of the giant pseudoaneurysm and the RPDA was regrafted successfully. In summary, saphenous vein grafts pseudoaneurysms can be life-threatening and its therapy should be guided based on the presence of mechanical complications, the patency of the affected vein graft and the involved myocardial territory viability.

  2. Giant saphenous vein graft pseudoaneurysm to right posterior descending artery presenting with superior vena cava syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Vargas-Estrada, Andres; Edwards, Dianna; Bashir, Mohammad; Rossen, James; Zahr, Firas

    2015-01-01

    Saphenous vein grafts (SVG) pseudoaneurysms, especially giant ones, are rare and occur as a late complication of coronary artery bypass grafting. This condition affects both genders and typically occurs within the sixth decade of life. The clinical presentation ranges from an asymptomatic incidental finding on imaging studies to new onset angina, dyspnea, myocardial infarction or symptoms related to compression of neighboring structures. An 82-year-old woman presented with acute onset back pain, dyspnea and was noted to have significantly engorged neck veins. In the emergency department, a chest computed tomographic angiogram with intravenous contrast revealed a ruptured giant bilobed SVG pseudoaneurysm to the right posterior descending artery (RPDA). This imaging modality also demonstrated compression of the superior vena cava (SVC) by the SVG pseudoaneurysm. Coronary angiogram with bypass study was performed to establish the patency of this graft. Endovascular coiling and embolization of the SVG to RPDA was initially considered but disfavored after the coronary angiogram revealed preserved flow from the graft to this arterial branch. After reviewing the angiogram films, a surgical strategy was favored over a percutaneous intervention with a Nitinol self-expanding stent since the latter would have not addressed the superior vena cava compression caused by the giant pseudoaneurysm. Intraoperative transesophageal echocardiogram demonstrated SVC compression by the giant pseudoaneurysm cranial lobe. Our patient underwent surgical ligation and excision of the giant pseudoaneurysm and the RPDA was regrafted successfully. In summary, saphenous vein grafts pseudoaneurysms can be life-threatening and its therapy should be guided based on the presence of mechanical complications, the patency of the affected vein graft and the involved myocardial territory viability. PMID:26131340

  3. Highway increases concentrations of toxic metals in giant panda habitat.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Ying-Juan; Chen, Yi-Ping; Maltby, Lorraine; Jin, Xue-Lin

    2016-11-01

    The Qinling panda subspecies (Ailuropoda melanoleuca qinlingensis) is highly endangered with fewer than 350 individuals inhabiting the Qinling Mountains. Previous studies have indicated that giant pandas are exposed to heavy metals, and a possible source is vehicle emission. The concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, Cr, Ni, Cd, Hg, and As in soil samples collected from sites along a major highway bisecting the panda's habitat were analyzed to investigate whether the highway was an important source of metal contamination. There were 11 sites along a 30-km stretch of the 108th National Highway, and at each site, soil samples were taken at four distances from the highway (0, 50, 100, and 300 m) and at three soil depths (0, 5, 10 cm). Concentrations of all metals except As exceeded background levels, and concentrations of Cu, Zn, Mn, Pb, and Cd decreased significantly with increasing distance from the highway. Geo-accumulation index indicated that topsoil next to the highway was moderately contaminated with Pb and Zn, whereas topsoil up to 300 m away from the highway was extremely contaminated with Cd. The potential ecological risk index demonstrated that this area was in a high degree of ecological hazards, which were also due to serious Cd contamination. And, the hazard quotient indicated that Cd, Pb, and Mn especially Cd could pose the health risk to giant pandas. Multivariate analyses demonstrated that the highway was the main source of Cd, Pb, and Zn and also put some influence on Mn. The study has confirmed that traffic does contaminate roadside soils and poses a potential threat to the health of pandas. This should not be ignored when the conservation and management of pandas is considered.

  4. Giant Hollow Heterometallic Polyoxoniobates with Sodalite-Type Lanthanide-Tungsten-Oxide Cages: Discrete Nanoclusters and Extended Frameworks.

    PubMed

    Jin, Lu; Li, Xin-Xiong; Qi, Yan-Jie; Niu, Ping-Ping; Zheng, Shou-Tian

    2016-10-24

    The first series of niobium-tungsten-lanthanide (Nb-W-Ln) heterometallic polyoxometalates {Ln12 W12 O36 (H2 O)24 (Nb6 O19 )12 } (Ln=Y, La, Sm, Eu, Yb) have been obtained, which are comprised of giant cluster-in-cluster-like ({Ln12 W12 }-in-{Nb72 }) structures built from 12 hexaniobate {Nb6 O19 } clusters gathered together by a rare 24-nuclearity sodalite-type heterometal-oxide cage {Ln12 W12 O36 (H2 O)24 }. The Nb-W-Ln clusters present the largest multi-metal polyoxoniobates and a series of rare high-nuclearity 4d-5d-4f multicomponent clusters. Furthermore, the giant Nb-W-Ln clusters may be isolated as discrete inorganic alkali salts and can be used as building blocks to form high-dimensional inorganic-organic hybrid frameworks.

  5. Giant panda ribosomal protein S14: cDNA, genomic sequence cloning, sequence analysis, and overexpression.

    PubMed

    Wu, G-F; Hou, Y-L; Hou, W-R; Song, Y; Zhang, T

    2010-10-13

    RPS14 is a component of the 40S ribosomal subunit encoded by the RPS14 gene and is required for its maturation. The cDNA and the genomic sequence of RPS14 were cloned successfully from the giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) using RT-PCR technology and touchdown-PCR, respectively; they were both sequenced and analyzed. The length of the cloned cDNA fragment was 492 bp; it contained an open-reading frame of 456 bp, encoding 151 amino acids. The length of the genomic sequence is 3421 bp; it contains four exons and three introns. Alignment analysis indicates that the nucleotide sequence shares a high degree of homology with those of Homo sapiens, Bos taurus, Mus musculus, Rattus norvegicus, Gallus gallus, Xenopus laevis, and Danio rerio (93.64, 83.37, 92.54, 91.89, 87.28, 84.21, and 84.87%, respectively). Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequences of the giant panda with those of these other species revealed that the RPS14 of giant panda is highly homologous with those of B. taurus, R. norvegicus and D. rerio (85.99, 99.34 and 99.34%, respectively), and is 100% identical with the others. This degree of conservation of RPS14 suggests evolutionary selection. Topology prediction shows that there are two N-glycosylation sites, three protein kinase C phosphorylation sites, two casein kinase II phosphorylation sites, four N-myristoylation sites, two amidation sites, and one ribosomal protein S11 signature in the RPS14 protein of the giant panda. The RPS14 gene can be readily expressed in Escherichia coli. When it was fused with the N-terminally His-tagged protein, it gave rise to accumulation of an expected 22-kDa polypeptide, in good agreement with the predicted molecular weight. The expression product obtained can be purified for studies of its function.

  6. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    ScienceCinema

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2016-07-12

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  7. Ames Lab 101: Rare Earths

    SciTech Connect

    Gschneidner, Karl

    2010-01-01

    "Mr. Rare Earth," Ames Laboratory scientist Karl Gschneidner Jr., explains the importance of rare-earth materials in many of the technologies we use today -- ranging from computers to hybrid cars to wind turbines. Gschneidner is a world renowned rare-earths expert at the U.S. Department of Energy's Ames Laboratory.

  8. A GIANT SAMPLE OF GIANT PULSES FROM THE CRAB PULSAR

    SciTech Connect

    Mickaliger, M. B.; McLaughlin, M. A.; Lorimer, D. R.; Palliyaguru, N.; Langston, G. I.; Bilous, A. V.; Kondratiev, V. I.; Lyutikov, M.; Ransom, S. M.

    2012-11-20

    We observed the Crab pulsar with the 43 m telescope in Green Bank, WV over a timespan of 15 months. In total we obtained 100 hr of data at 1.2 GHz and seven hours at 330 MHz, resulting in a sample of about 95,000 giant pulses (GPs). This is the largest sample, to date, of GPs from the Crab pulsar taken with the same telescope and backend and analyzed as one data set. We calculated power-law fits to amplitude distributions for main pulse (MP) and interpulse (IP) GPs, resulting in indices in the range of 2.1-3.1 for MP GPs at 1.2 GHz and in the range of 2.5-3.0 and 2.4-3.1 for MP and IP GPs at 330 MHz. We also correlated the GPs at 1.2 GHz with GPs from the Robert C. Byrd Green Bank Telescope (GBT), which were obtained simultaneously at a higher frequency (8.9 GHz) over a span of 26 hr. In total, 7933 GPs from the 43 m telescope at 1.2 GHz and 39,900 GPs from the GBT were recorded during these contemporaneous observations. At 1.2 GHz, 236 (3%) MP GPs and 23 (5%) IP GPs were detected at 8.9 GHz, both with zero chance probability. Another 15 (4%) low-frequency IP GPs were detected within one spin period of high-frequency IP GPs, with a chance probability of 9%. This indicates that the emission processes at high and low radio frequencies are related, despite significant pulse profile shape differences. The 43 m GPs were also correlated with Fermi {gamma}-ray photons to see if increased pair production in the magnetosphere is the mechanism responsible for GP emission. A total of 92,022 GPs and 393 {gamma}-ray photons were used in this correlation analysis. No significant correlations were found between GPs and {gamma}-ray photons. This indicates that increased pair production in the magnetosphere is likely not the dominant cause of GPs. Possible methods of GP production may be increased coherence of synchrotron emission or changes in beaming direction.

  9. Electrical Relaxation in Rare Earth Doped Cubic Lead Fluoride.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1982-11-01

    PAGE (W v,. Data Fleted ) READ INSTRUCTIONSREPORT DOCUMENTATION PAGE BEFRE CMPETINGFORSORE OMPLETIN FO M 1. REPORT NUMBER j2. GOVT ACCESSION NO. 3...For the smallest rare earths, however, at least nine .* relaxations are found. The concentration studies indicate multiple relaxations for certain...relaxations are found. The concentration studies indicate multiple relaxations for certain sites. Both simple sites and clusters are observed for

  10. a Survey of Giant Resonance Excitations with 200 Mev Protons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tinsley, James Royce

    The giant resonance region in ('60)Ni, ('90)Zr, ('120)Sn, and ('208)Pb has been studied using inelastic scattering of 200 MeV protons. Angular distributions were obtained for the giant quadrupole resonance, giant octupole resonance, and for the combined giant dipole and giant monopole resonance between 4 and 20 degrees. The 2(H/2PI)(omega) component of the giant hexadecapole resonance has been directly observed for the first time in ('208)Pb. In the other nuclei, upper limits on the amount of hexadecapole strength contained within the giant quadrupole resonance have been obtained. Peaks are observed in ('60)Ni and ('90)Zr that are consistent with recently reported M1 states. Discrepancies between sum rules extracted from this data and from previous work are discussed. Possible explanations include DWBA breakdown or difficulties in estimating the magnitude of the continuum. Systematics obtained for the giant resonances are compared to earlier work.

  11. What Are Polymyalgia Rheumatica and Giant Cell Arteritis?

    MedlinePlus

    ... permanently damaged. There is also a risk of blindness or stroke. Early symptoms of giant cell arteritis ... giant cell arteritis are more likely to develop blindness. The likelihood of getting these conditions peaks between ...

  12. Giant serous microcystic pancreas adenoma.

    PubMed

    Dikmen, Kursat; Bostanci, Hasan; Yildirim, Ali Cihat; Sakrak, Omer; Kerem, Mustafa

    2012-10-10

    Serous cystadenomas are rare tumors comprising 1-2% of exocrine pancreas tumors. They are mostly known as benign conditions but malign transformation as serous cystadenocarcinoma is also reported. It is usually seen in females. Non-specific symptoms, such as abdominal pain or symptoms due to mass affect, are usually seen. A 64-year old female patient was investigated for abdominal pain. Physical and laboratory findings were normal. Abdomen ultrasonography confirmed an 11×9.5 cm solid cystic lesion and abdomen computed tomography scan confirmed a 12×11 cm lobulated cystic solid lesion which had central cystic necrotic areas extending from liver hilus inferiorly. Fine needle biopsy confirmed benign cytology and trucut biopsy of the pancreatic mass reported chronic inflamation. Nevertheless, this mass could have malignant contents and transformation potential. A laparatomy was decided due to patient's symptoms and mass effect. Due to vascular invasion of the tumor, Whipple procedure was performed. The pathology report confirmed serous microcystic adenoma. These rare tumors are usually benign but pre-operative malignity criterias are not identified. There are few differential diagnostic tools for excluding malignity. We suggest surgical resection as best treatment approach for selected cases.

  13. Lithium and chromospherically active single giants

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fekel, Francis C.

    1988-01-01

    Nine chromospherically active single K giants were identified from surveys of chromospherically active stars. The stars have v sin i's ranging from 6 to 46 km/sec. Such large velocities are not explained by scenarios of main sequence to giant star evolution. Fluxes of the ultraviolet emission lines of these stars are substantially less than those of FK Comae. Many of these giants have a moderate or strong lithium line strongly suggesting that these stars recently evolved from rapidly rotating A or early F stars as is suggested by their space motions. Thus, they are not spun down FK Com stars. The characteristics of these stars are such that they may be confused with pre-main sequence stars. The primary difference may be that the post main sequence stars have strong H alpha absorption lines while the pre-main sequence stars appear to have a weak H alpha absorption line or possibly H alpha in emission above the continuum.

  14. Heavy elements and mixing in red giants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Smith, Verne V.

    A brief overview of the s-process in red giants is presented, followed by discussions of three specific topics involving heavy-element s-process nucleosynthesis and mixing in red giants: (1) a comparison of neutron densities derived from observations and from the most recent stellar models, (2) how observations of technetium in S stars have led to a natural division of these stars into two separate groups, one of which is the result of single-star stellar evolution while the other is the result of mass transfer in a binary system, (3) a brief discussion of the recent speculative suggestion that gamma-ray induced photofission of heavy elements (Th and U) might be a source of the Tc observed in certain types of red giants.

  15. Trace Molecules in Giant Planet Atmospheres

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huestis, D. L.; Smith, G. P.

    2010-12-01

    Chemical kinetics matters in the upper atmospheres of giant planets in our solar system and in extrasolar systems. The composition of a volume of gas depends not only on where it is, but also on how it got there. The giant planets in our own solar system still have much to teach us about what we will be observing on extrasolar giant planets and how to interpret what we observe. Some molecules, such as CO, C2H2, C2H6, PH3, and NH3, which we call tracer molecules, provide remotely observable signatures of vertical transport. PH3 and NH3 especially have complicated thermochemistry and chemical kinetics that, until recently, have been poorly understood. Based on analysis of recent literature, we have identified new chemical mechanisms for interconverting NH3 and N2 and for interconverting PH3 and NH4-H2PO4.

  16. Compositional constraints on giant planet formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Owen, Tobias; Encrenaz, Therese

    2006-10-01

    Using Ockham's razor as a guide, we have tried to find the simplest model for the formation of giant planets that can explain current observations of atmospheric composition. While this "top-down" approach is far from sufficient to define such models, it establishes a set of boundary conditions whose satisfaction is necessary. Using Jupiter as the prototype, we find that a simple model for giant planet formation that begins with a solar nebula of uniform composition and relies on accretion of low temperature icy planetesimals plus collapse of surrounding solar nebula gas supplies that satisfaction. We compare the resulting predictions of elemental abundances and isotope ratios in the atmospheres of the other giants with those from contrasting models and suggest some key measurements to make further progress.

  17. ɛ Ophiuchi: Revisiting a Red Giant

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kallinger, T.; Matthews, J. M.; Guenther, D. B.; Gruberbauer, M.; Kuschnig, R.; Weiss, W. W.; MOST Team

    2012-09-01

    In only a decade, seismology of red-giant stars has grown from infancy to adulthood in the study of stellar structure and evolution. The stimulants for this accelerated growth have been space observations, first provided by the WIRE star-tracker and MOST, and continuing with CoRoT and Kepler, having detected oscillations in thousands of cool giants. However, almost all of the stars in this impressive sample are faint, with little known about their basic properties. Even reliable spectral classifications are lacking for many of them. MOST is the only space-based photometer capable of continuous observations of bright red giants for which we have independent constraints (e.g., spectroscopy) essential to extract the internal structure from the stars' p-modes.

  18. On the shape of giant soap bubbles.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Caroline; Darbois Texier, Baptiste; Reyssat, Etienne; Snoeijer, Jacco H; Quéré, David; Clanet, Christophe

    2017-03-07

    We study the effect of gravity on giant soap bubbles and show that it becomes dominant above the critical size [Formula: see text], where [Formula: see text] is the mean thickness of the soap film and [Formula: see text] is the capillary length ([Formula: see text] stands for vapor-liquid surface tension, and [Formula: see text] stands for the liquid density). We first show experimentally that large soap bubbles do not retain a spherical shape but flatten when increasing their size. A theoretical model is then developed to account for this effect, predicting the shape based on mechanical equilibrium. In stark contrast to liquid drops, we show that there is no mechanical limit of the height of giant bubble shapes. In practice, the physicochemical constraints imposed by surfactant molecules limit the access to this large asymptotic domain. However, by an exact analogy, it is shown how the giant bubble shapes can be realized by large inflatable structures.

  19. Asymptomatic post-rheumatic giant left atrium

    PubMed Central

    Özkartal, Tardu; Tanner, Felix C; Niemann, Markus

    2016-01-01

    A 78-year-old asymptomatic woman was referred to our clinic for a second opinion regarding indication for mitral valve surgery. An echocardiogram showed a moderate mitral stenosis with a concomitant severe regurgitation. The most striking feature, however, was a giant left atrium with a parasternal anteroposterior diameter of 79 mm and a left atrial volume index of 364 mL/m². There are various echocardiographic definitions of a giant left atrium, which are mainly based on measurements of the anteroposterior diameter of the left atrium using M-mode in the parasternal long axis view. Since the commonly accepted method for echocardiographic evaluation of left atrial size is left atrial volume index, we propose a cut-off value of 140 mL/m2 for the definition of a “giant left atrium”. PMID:27354895

  20. Giant Panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca) Buccal Mucosa Tissue as a Source of Multipotent Progenitor Cells

    PubMed Central

    Prescott, Hilary M. A.; Manning, Craig; Gardner, Aaron; Ritchie, William A.; Pizzi, Romain; Girling, Simon; Valentine, Iain; Wang, Chengdong; Jahoda, Colin A. B.

    2015-01-01

    Since the first mammal was cloned, the idea of using this technique to help endangered species has aroused considerable interest. However, several issues limit this possibility, including the relatively low success rate at every stage of the cloning process, and the dearth of usable tissues from these rare animals. iPS cells have been produced from cells from a number of rare mammalian species and this is the method of choice for strategies to improve cloning efficiency and create new gametes by directed differentiation. Nevertheless information about other stem cell/progenitor capabilities of cells from endangered species could prove important for future conservation approaches and adds to the knowledge base about cellular material that can be extremely limited. Multipotent progenitor cells, termed skin-derived precursor (SKP) cells, can be isolated directly from mammalian skin dermis, and human cheek tissue has also been shown to be a good source of SKP-like cells. Recently we showed that structures identical to SKPs termed m-SKPs could be obtained from monolayer/ two dimensional (2D) skin fibroblast cultures. Here we aimed to isolate m-SKPs from cultured cells of three endangered species; giant panda (Ailuropoda melanoleuca); red panda (Ailurus fulgens); and Asiatic lion (Panthera leo persica). m-SKP-like spheres were formed from the giant panda buccal mucosa fibroblasts; whereas dermal fibroblast (DF) cells cultured from abdominal skin of the other two species were unable to generate spheres. Under specific differentiation culture conditions giant panda spheres expressed neural, Schwann, adipogenic and osteogenic cell markers. Furthermore, these buccal mucosa derived spheres were shown to maintain expression of SKP markers: nestin, versican, fibronectin, and P75 and switch on expression of the stem cell marker ABCG2. These results demonstrate that giant panda cheek skin can be a useful source of m-SKP multipotent progenitors. At present lack of sample numbers