The Kondo temperature of a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling.
Chen, Liang; Sun, Jinhua; Tang, Ho-Kin; Lin, Hai-Qing
2016-10-01
We use the Hirsch-Fye quantum Monte Carlo method to study the single magnetic impurity problem in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. We calculate the spin susceptibility for various values of spin-orbit coupling, Hubbard interaction, and chemical potential. The Kondo temperatures for different parameters are estimated by fitting the universal curves of spin susceptibility. We find that the Kondo temperature is almost a linear function of Rashba spin-orbit energy when the chemical potential is close to the edge of the conduction band. When the chemical potential is far away from the band edge, the Kondo temperature is independent of the spin-orbit coupling. These results demonstrate that, for single impurity problems in this system, the most important reason to change the Kondo temperature is the divergence of density of states near the band edge, and the divergence is induced by the Rashba spin-orbit coupling.
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping
2016-06-15
Semiclassical magnetoelectric and magnetothermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled Rashba two-dimensional electron systems is investigated. In the presence of a perpendicular classically weak magnetic field and short-range impurity scattering, we solve the linearized Boltzmann equation self-consistently. Using the solution, it is found that when Fermi energy E F locates below the band crossing point (BCP), the Hall coefficient is a nonmonotonic function of electron density n e and not inversely proportional to n e. While the magnetoresistance (MR) and Nernst coefficient vanish when E F locates above the BCP, non-zero MR and enhanced Nernst coefficient emerge when E F decreases below the BCP. Both of them are nonmonotonic functions of E F below the BCP. The different semiclassical magnetotransport behaviors between the two sides of the BCP can be helpful to experimental identifications of the band valley regime and topological change of Fermi surface in considered systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping
2016-06-01
Semiclassical magnetoelectric and magnetothermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled Rashba two-dimensional electron systems is investigated. In the presence of a perpendicular classically weak magnetic field and short-range impurity scattering, we solve the linearized Boltzmann equation self-consistently. Using the solution, it is found that when Fermi energy E F locates below the band crossing point (BCP), the Hall coefficient is a nonmonotonic function of electron density n e and not inversely proportional to n e. While the magnetoresistance (MR) and Nernst coefficient vanish when E F locates above the BCP, non-zero MR and enhanced Nernst coefficient emerge when E F decreases below the BCP. Both of them are nonmonotonic functions of E F below the BCP. The different semiclassical magnetotransport behaviors between the two sides of the BCP can be helpful to experimental identifications of the band valley regime and topological change of Fermi surface in considered systems.
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping
2016-06-15
Semiclassical magnetoelectric and magnetothermoelectric transport in strongly spin-orbit coupled Rashba two-dimensional electron systems is investigated. In the presence of a perpendicular classically weak magnetic field and short-range impurity scattering, we solve the linearized Boltzmann equation self-consistently. Using the solution, it is found that when Fermi energy E F locates below the band crossing point (BCP), the Hall coefficient is a nonmonotonic function of electron density n e and not inversely proportional to n e. While the magnetoresistance (MR) and Nernst coefficient vanish when E F locates above the BCP, non-zero MR and enhanced Nernst coefficient emerge when E F decreases below the BCP. Both of them are nonmonotonic functions of E F below the BCP. The different semiclassical magnetotransport behaviors between the two sides of the BCP can be helpful to experimental identifications of the band valley regime and topological change of Fermi surface in considered systems. PMID:27157714
Feng, W.; Tawfiq, Asya; Cao, J. C.; Zhang, C.
2013-02-04
The energy-loss rate (ELR) of a charged particle in a two-dimensional semiconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling is studied. Our model takes into account of the temperature and density dependence of the electronic properties of the Rashba system. The energy and temperature dependence of the ELR are presented. It is found that a finite Rashba spin-orbit coupling offers a mechanism of tuning the mean scattering time in narrow-gap semiconductors. With a change of Rashba parameter of around 3 times, the mean scattering time can change by one to two orders of magnitude.
Eremeev, Sergey V.; Tsirkin, Stepan S.; Nechaev, Ilya A.; Echenique, Pedro M.; Chulkov, Evgueni V.
2015-01-01
Intriguing phenomena and novel physics predicted for two-dimensional (2D) systems formed by electrons in Dirac or Rashba states motivate an active search for new materials or combinations of the already revealed ones. Being very promising ingredients in themselves, interplaying Dirac and Rashba systems can provide a base for next generation of spintronics devices, to a considerable extent, by mixing their striking properties or by improving technically significant characteristics of each other. Here, we demonstrate that in BiTeI@PbSb2Te4 composed of a BiTeI trilayer on top of the topological insulator (TI) PbSb2Te4 weakly- and strongly-coupled Dirac-Rashba hybrid systems are realized. The coupling strength depends on both interface hexagonal stacking and trilayer-stacking order. The weakly-coupled system can serve as a prototype to examine, e.g., plasmonic excitations, frictional drag, spin-polarized transport, and charge-spin separation effect in multilayer helical metals. In the strongly-coupled regime, within ~100 meV energy interval of the bulk TI projected bandgap a helical state substituting for the TI surface state appears. This new state is characterized by a larger momentum, similar velocity, and strong localization within BiTeI. We anticipate that our findings pave the way for designing a new type of spintronics devices based on Rashba-Dirac coupled systems. PMID:26239268
Quantum ratchet in two-dimensional semiconductors with Rashba spin-orbit interaction
Ang, Yee Sin; Ma, Zhongshui; Zhang, Chao
2015-01-01
Ratchet is a device that produces direct current of particles when driven by an unbiased force. We demonstrate a simple scattering quantum ratchet based on an asymmetrical quantum tunneling effect in two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit interaction (R2DEG). We consider the tunneling of electrons across a square potential barrier sandwiched by interface scattering potentials of unequal strengths on its either sides. It is found that while the intra-spin tunneling probabilities remain unchanged, the inter-spin-subband tunneling probabilities of electrons crossing the barrier in one direction is unequal to that of the opposite direction. Hence, when the system is driven by an unbiased periodic force, a directional flow of electron current is generated. The scattering quantum ratchet in R2DEG is conceptually simple and is capable of converting a.c. driving force into a rectified current without the need of additional symmetry breaking mechanism or external magnetic field. PMID:25598490
Weak antilocalization in two-dimensional systems with large Rashba splitting
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golub, L. E.; Gornyi, I. V.; Kachorovskii, V. Yu.
2016-06-01
We develop the theory of quantum transport and magnetoconductivity for two-dimensional electrons with an arbitrarily large (even exceeding the Fermi energy), linear-in-momentum Rashba or Dresselhaus spin-orbit splitting. For short-range disorder potentials, we derive the analytical expression for the quantum conductivity correction, which accounts for interference processes with an arbitrary number of scattering events and is valid beyond the diffusion approximation. We demonstrate that the zero-field conductivity correction is given by the sum of the universal logarithmic "diffusive" term and a "ballistic" term. The latter is temperature independent and encodes information about the spectrum properties. This information can be extracted experimentally by measuring the conductivity correction at different temperatures and electron concentrations. We calculate the quantum correction in the whole range of classically weak magnetic fields and find that the magnetoconductivity is negative both in the diffusive and in the ballistic regimes, for an arbitrary relation between the Fermi energy and the spin-orbit splitting. We also demonstrate that the magnetoconductivity changes with the Fermi energy when the Fermi level is above the "Dirac point" and does not depend on the Fermi energy when it goes below this point.
Enhanced Stability of Skyrmions in Two-Dimensional Chiral Magnets with Rashba Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Banerjee, Sumilan; Rowland, James; Erten, Onur; Randeria, Mohit
2014-07-01
Recent developments have led to an explosion of activity on skyrmions in three-dimensional (3D) chiral magnets. Experiments have directly probed these topological spin textures, revealed their nontrivial properties, and led to suggestions for novel applications. However, in 3D the skyrmion crystal phase is observed only in a narrow region of the temperature-field phase diagram. We show here, using a general analysis based on symmetry, that skyrmions are much more readily stabilized in two-dimensional (2D) systems with Rashba spin-orbit coupling. This enhanced stability arises from the competition between field and easy-plane magnetic anisotropy and results in a nontrivial structure in the topological charge density in the core of the skyrmions. We further show that, in a variety of microscopic models for magnetic exchange, the required easy-plane anisotropy naturally arises from the same spin-orbit coupling that is responsible for the chiral Dzyaloshinskii-Moriya interactions. Our results are of particular interest for 2D materials like thin films, surfaces, and oxide interfaces, where broken surface-inversion symmetry and Rashba spin-orbit coupling naturally lead to chiral exchange and easy-plane compass anisotropy. Our theory gives a clear direction for experimental studies of 2D magnetic materials to stabilize skyrmions over a large range of magnetic fields down to T=0.
Theory of magnetic response in two-dimensional giant Rashba system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuura, Hidekatsu; Ando, Tsuneya
2016-08-01
The magnetic susceptibility of a disordered two-dimensional system with strong Rashba spin-orbit interaction is calculated in a self-consistent Born approximation. In an ideal system, the response exhibits a delta-function singularity toward the diamagnetic direction at the energy where the band crossing takes place in an inner Weyl band. It is essentially paramagnetic below that energy except for the system with a certain value of g factor, while it becomes the same as that in a system free from the spin-orbit interaction above the energy. It turns out that effects of disorder are not sensitive to kinds of scatterers such as short- and long-range. Explicit numerical results are presented in the case of dominant charged-impurity scattering. The delta-function susceptibility is broadened by disorder but remains appreciable in the case of strong disorder.
Theory of Hall effect in two-dimensional giant Rashba systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Suzuura, Hidekatsu; Ando, Tsuneya
2016-07-01
The weak-field Hall conductivity of disordered two-dimensional systems with strong Rashba spin-orbit interaction is studied in a self-consistent Born approximation. Explicit numerical results are obtained for scatterers with a Gaussian potential and for charged impurities. The singular behavior associated with a conelike crossing band appears only in the case of scatterers with a long-range Gaussian potential, which do not cause mixing with the outer band. In the case of more realistic scatterers such as charged impurities, the singularity is completely removed except the presence of a weak steplike feature. The Hall conductivity associated with the spin-Zeeman energy is also strongly reduced by interband mixing and generally remains much smaller than the orbital contribution.
Two-Dimensional Superconductor with a Giant Rashba Effect: One-Atom-Layer Tl-Pb Compound on Si(111).
Matetskiy, A V; Ichinokura, S; Bondarenko, L V; Tupchaya, A Y; Gruznev, D V; Zotov, A V; Saranin, A A; Hobara, R; Takayama, A; Hasegawa, S
2015-10-01
A one-atom-layer compound made of one monolayer of Tl and one-third monolayer of Pb on a Si(111) surface having √3×√3 periodicity was found to exhibit a giant Rashba-type spin splitting of metallic surface-state bands together with two-dimensional superconducting transport properties. Temperature-dependent angle-resolved photoelectron spectroscopy revealed an enhanced electron-phonon coupling for one of the spin-split bands. In situ micro-four-point-probe conductivity measurements with and without magnetic field demonstrated that the (Tl, Pb)/Si(111) system transformed into the superconducting state at 2.25 K, followed by the Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless mechanism. The 2D Tl-Pb compound on Si(111) is believed to be the prototypical object for prospective studies of intriguing properties of the superconducting 2D system with lifted spin degeneracy, bearing in mind that its composition, atomic and electron band structures, and spin texture are already well established.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lake, Ethan; Webb, Caleb; Pesin, D. A.; Starykh, O. A.
2016-06-01
We study how the Rashba spin-orbit interaction influences unconventional superconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas partially spin polarized by a magnetic field. Somewhat surprisingly, we find that for all field orientations, only the larger Fermi surface is superconducting. When the magnetic field is oriented out of plane, the system realizes a topological p +i p pairing state. When the field is rotated in plane, the order parameter develops nodes along the field direction and finite center-of-mass-momentum pairing is realized. We demonstrate that the pairing symmetry of the system can be easily probed experimentally due to the dependence of various thermodynamic quantities on the magnetic field geometry, and calculate the electronic specific heat as an example.
Microscopic theory of the residual surface resistivity of Rashba electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bouaziz, Juba; Lounis, Samir; Blügel, Stefan; Ishida, Hiroshi
2016-07-01
A microscopic expression of the residual electrical resistivity tensor is derived in linear response theory for Rashba electrons scattering at a magnetic impurity with cylindrical or noncylindrical potential. The behavior of the longitudinal and transversal residual resistivity is obtained analytically and computed for an Fe impurity at the Au(111) surface. We studied the evolution of the resistivity tensor elements as a function of the Rashba spin-orbit strength and the magnetization direction of the impurity. We found that the absolute values of longitudinal resistivity reduce with increasing spin-orbit strength of the substrate and that the scattering of the conduction electrons at magnetic impurities with magnetic moments pointing in directions not perpendicular to the surface plane produce a planar Hall effect and an anisotropic magnetoresistance even if the impurity carries no spin-orbit interaction. Functional forms are provided describing the anisotropy of the planar Hall effect and the anisotropic magnetoresistance with respect to the direction of the impurity moment. In the limit of no spin-orbit interaction and a nonmagnetic impurity of cylindrical symmetry, the expression of the residual resistivity of a two-dimensional electron gas has the same simplicity and form as for the three-dimensional electron gas [J. Friedel, J. Nuovo. Cim. 7, 287 (1958), 10.1007/BF02751483] and can also be expressed in terms of scattering phase shifts.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-01
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (νCN) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([FeIII(CN)6]3- dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN)5FeIICNRuIII(NH3)5]- dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific νCN modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a wide range of complex molecular, material, and biological systems.
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic spectroscopy
Courtney, Trevor L.; Fox, Zachary W.; Slenkamp, Karla M.; Khalil, Munira
2015-10-21
Two-dimensional vibrational-electronic (2D VE) spectroscopy is a femtosecond Fourier transform (FT) third-order nonlinear technique that creates a link between existing 2D FT spectroscopies in the vibrational and electronic regions of the spectrum. 2D VE spectroscopy enables a direct measurement of infrared (IR) and electronic dipole moment cross terms by utilizing mid-IR pump and optical probe fields that are resonant with vibrational and electronic transitions, respectively, in a sample of interest. We detail this newly developed 2D VE spectroscopy experiment and outline the information contained in a 2D VE spectrum. We then use this technique and its single-pump counterpart (1D VE) to probe the vibrational-electronic couplings between high frequency cyanide stretching vibrations (ν{sub CN}) and either a ligand-to-metal charge transfer transition ([Fe{sup III}(CN){sub 6}]{sup 3−} dissolved in formamide) or a metal-to-metal charge transfer (MMCT) transition ([(CN){sub 5}Fe{sup II}CNRu{sup III}(NH{sub 3}){sub 5}]{sup −} dissolved in formamide). The 2D VE spectra of both molecules reveal peaks resulting from coupled high- and low-frequency vibrational modes to the charge transfer transition. The time-evolving amplitudes and positions of the peaks in the 2D VE spectra report on coherent and incoherent vibrational energy transfer dynamics among the coupled vibrational modes and the charge transfer transition. The selectivity of 2D VE spectroscopy to vibronic processes is evidenced from the selective coupling of specific ν{sub CN} modes to the MMCT transition in the mixed valence complex. The lineshapes in 2D VE spectra report on the correlation of the frequency fluctuations between the coupled vibrational and electronic frequencies in the mixed valence complex which has a time scale of 1 ps. The details and results of this study confirm the versatility of 2D VE spectroscopy and its applicability to probe how vibrations modulate charge and energy transfer in a
Thermopower in Two-Dimensional Electron Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chickering, William Elbridge
The subject of this thesis is the measurement and interpretation of thermopower in high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). These 2DESs are realized within state-of-the-art GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures that are cooled to temperatures as low as T = 20 mK. Much of this work takes place within strong magnetic fields where the single-particle density of states quantizes into discrete Landau levels (LLs), a regime best known for the quantum Hall effect (QHE). In addition, we review a novel hot-electron technique for measuring thermopower of 2DESs that dramatically reduces the influence of phonon drag. Early chapters concentrate on experimental materials and methods. A brief overview of GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures and device fabrication is followed by details of our cryogenic setup. Next, we provide a primer on thermopower that focuses on 2DESs at low temperatures. We then review our experimental devices, temperature calibration methods, as well as measurement circuits and protocols. Latter chapters focus on the physics and thermopower results in the QHE regime. After reviewing the basic phenomena associated with the QHE, we discuss thermopower in this regime. Emphasis is given to the relationship between diffusion thermopower and entropy. Experimental results demonstrate this relationship persists well into the fractional quantum Hall (FQH) regime. Several experimental results are reviewed. Unprecedented observations of the diffusion thermopower of a high-mobility 2DES at temperatures as high as T = 2 K are achieved using our hot-electron technique. The composite fermion (CF) effective mass is extracted from measurements of thermopower at LL filling factor nu = 3/2. The thermopower versus magnetic field in the FQH regime is shown to be qualitatively consistent with a simple entropic model of CFs. The thermopower at nu = 5/2 is shown to be quantitatively consistent with the presence of non-Abelian anyons. An abrupt collapse of thermopower is observed at
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rossi, Enrico; Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss; Balatsky, Alexander V.
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity-coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling will exhibit odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Work supported by US DOE BES E304, KAW, ACS-PRF-53581-DNI5, and NSF-DMR-1455233.
Triola, Christopher; Badiane, Driss M; Balatsky, Alexander V; Rossi, E
2016-06-24
We obtain the general conditions for the emergence of odd-frequency superconducting pairing in a two-dimensional (2D) electronic system proximity coupled to a superconductor, making minimal assumptions about both the 2D system and the superconductor. Using our general results we show that a simple heterostructure formed by a monolayer of a group VI transition metal dichalcogenide, such as molybdenum disulfide, and an s-wave superconductor with Rashba spin-orbit coupling exhibits odd-frequency superconducting pairing. Our results allow the identification of a new class of systems among van der Waals heterostructures in which odd-frequency superconductivity should be present. PMID:27391743
Rashba Spin-Orbit-Coupled Atomic Fermi Gases in a Two-Dimensional Optical Lattice
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Koinov, Zlatko; Mendoza, Rafael
2015-11-01
The collective-mode excitation energy of a population-imbalanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas loaded in a two-dimensional optical lattice at zero temperature is calculated within the Gaussian approximation, and from the Bethe-Salpeter equation in the generalized random-phase approximation assuming the existence of a Sarma superfluid state. It is found that the Gaussian approximation overestimates the speed of sound of the Goldstone mode. More interestingly, the Gaussian approximation fails to reproduce the roton-like structure of the collective-mode dispersion which appears after the linear part of the dispersion in the Bethe-Salpeter approach. We investigate the speed of sound of a balanced spin-orbit-coupled atomic Fermi gas near the boundary of the topological phase transition driven by an out-of-plane Zeeman field. It is shown that the minimum of the speed of sound is located at the topological phase transition boundary, and this fact can be used to confirm the existence of a topological phase transition.
Onsager relations in a two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling.
Gorini, C; Raimondi, R; Schwab, P
2012-12-14
Theory predicts for the two-dimensional electron gas with only a Rashba spin-orbit interaction a vanishing spin Hall conductivity and at the same time a finite inverse spin Hall effect. We show how these seemingly contradictory results are compatible with the Onsager relations: The latter do hold for spin and particle (charge) currents in the two-dimensional electron gas, although (i) their form depends on the experimental setup and (ii) a vanishing bulk spin Hall conductivity does not necessarily imply a vanishing spin Hall effect. We also discuss the situation in which extrinsic spin orbit from impurities is present and the bulk spin Hall conductivity can be different from zero.
Onsager Relations in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas with Spin-Orbit Coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gorini, C.; Raimondi, R.; Schwab, P.
2012-12-01
Theory predicts for the two-dimensional electron gas with only a Rashba spin-orbit interaction a vanishing spin Hall conductivity and at the same time a finite inverse spin Hall effect. We show how these seemingly contradictory results are compatible with the Onsager relations: The latter do hold for spin and particle (charge) currents in the two-dimensional electron gas, although (i) their form depends on the experimental setup and (ii) a vanishing bulk spin Hall conductivity does not necessarily imply a vanishing spin Hall effect. We also discuss the situation in which extrinsic spin orbit from impurities is present and the bulk spin Hall conductivity can be different from zero.
Herranz, Gervasi; Singh, Gyanendra; Bergeal, Nicolas; Jouan, Alexis; Lesueur, Jérôme; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Sánchez, Florencio; et al
2015-01-13
We find the discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide interfaces—involving electrons in narrow d-bands—has broken new ground, enabling the access to correlated states that are unreachable in conventional semiconductors based on s- and p- electrons. There is a growing consensus that emerging properties at these novel quantum wells—such as 2D superconductivity and magnetism—are intimately connected to specific orbital symmetries in the 2DEG sub-band structure. Here we show that crystal orientation allows selective orbital occupancy, disclosing unprecedented ways to tailor the 2DEG properties. By carrying out electrostatic gating experiments in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 wells of different crystal orientations, we show thatmore » the spatial extension and anisotropy of the 2D superconductivity and the Rashba spin–orbit field can be largely modulated by controlling the 2DEG sub-band filling. Such an orientational tuning expands the possibilities for electronic engineering of 2DEGs at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces.« less
Gavrilenko, V. I.; Krishtopenko, S. S.; Goiran, M.
2011-01-15
The effect of electron-electron interaction on the spectrum of two-dimensional electron states in InAs/AlSb (001) heterostructures with a GaSb cap layer with one filled size-quantization subband. The energy spectrum of two-dimensional electrons is calculated in the Hartree and Hartree-Fock approximations. It is shown that the exchange interaction decreasing the electron energy in subbands increases the energy gap between subbands and the spin-orbit splitting of the spectrum in the entire region of electron concentrations, at which only the lower size-quantization band is filled. The nonlinear dependence of the Rashba splitting constant at the Fermi wave vector on the concentration of two-dimensional electrons is demonstrated.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy using incoherent light: theoretical analysis.
Turner, Daniel B; Howey, Dylan J; Sutor, Erika J; Hendrickson, Rebecca A; Gealy, M W; Ulness, Darin J
2013-07-25
Electronic energy transfer in photosynthesis occurs over a range of time scales and under a variety of intermolecular coupling conditions. Recent work has shown that electronic coupling between chromophores can lead to coherent oscillations in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy measurements of pigment-protein complexes measured with femtosecond laser pulses. A persistent issue in the field is to reconcile the results of measurements performed using femtosecond laser pulses with physiological illumination conditions. Noisy-light spectroscopy can begin to address this question. In this work we present the theoretical analysis of incoherent two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, I((4)) 2D ES. Simulations reveal diagonal peaks, cross peaks, and coherent oscillations similar to those observed in femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy experiments. The results also expose fundamental differences between the femtosecond-pulse and noisy-light techniques; the differences lead to new challenges and new opportunities.
General solution of the Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Eremko, Alexander; Brizhik, Larissa; Loktev, Vadim
2016-06-01
The general solution of the Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons confined in an asymmetric quantum well, is found. The energy spectrum of such a system is exactly calculated using special unitary operator and is shown to depend on the electron spin polarization. This solution contains free parameters, whose variation continuously transforms one known particular solution into another. As an example, two different cases are considered in detail: electron in a deep and in a strongly asymmetric shallow quantum well. The effective mass renormalized by relativistic corrections and Bychkov-Rashba coefficients are analytically obtained for both cases. It is demonstrated that the general solution transforms to the particular solutions, found previously (Eremko et al., 2015) with the use of spin invariants. The general solution allows to establish conditions at which a specific (accompanied or non-accompanied by Rashba splitting) spin state can be realized. These results can prompt the ways to control the spin degree of freedom via the synthesis of spintronic heterostructures with the required properties.
Conduction-electron spin resonance in two-dimensional structures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Edelstein, Victor M.
2016-09-01
The influence of the conduction-electron spin magnetization density, induced in a two-dimensional electron layer by a microwave electromagnetic field, on the reflection and transmission of the field is considered. Because of the induced magnetization and electric current, both the electric and magnetic components of the field should have jumps on the layer. A way to match the waves on two sides of the layer, valid when the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas is in the one-mode state, is proposed. By following this way, the amplitudes of transmitted and reflected waves as well as the absorption coefficient are evaluated.
Two-dimensional optimization of free electron laser designs
Prosnitz, Donald; Haas, Roger A.
1985-01-01
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a "synchronous electron" at an optimal transverse radius r>0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Two-dimensional optimization of free-electron-laser designs
Prosnitz, D.; Haas, R.A.
1982-05-04
Off-axis, two-dimensional designs for free electron lasers are described that maintain correspondence of a light beam with a synchronous electron at an optimal transverse radius r > 0 to achieve increased beam trapping efficiency and enhanced laser beam wavefront control so as to decrease optical beam diffraction and other deleterious effects.
Electronics and optoelectronics of two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides.
Wang, Qing Hua; Kalantar-Zadeh, Kourosh; Kis, Andras; Coleman, Jonathan N; Strano, Michael S
2012-11-01
The remarkable properties of graphene have renewed interest in inorganic, two-dimensional materials with unique electronic and optical attributes. Transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs) are layered materials with strong in-plane bonding and weak out-of-plane interactions enabling exfoliation into two-dimensional layers of single unit cell thickness. Although TMDCs have been studied for decades, recent advances in nanoscale materials characterization and device fabrication have opened up new opportunities for two-dimensional layers of thin TMDCs in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. TMDCs such as MoS(2), MoSe(2), WS(2) and WSe(2) have sizable bandgaps that change from indirect to direct in single layers, allowing applications such as transistors, photodetectors and electroluminescent devices. We review the historical development of TMDCs, methods for preparing atomically thin layers, their electronic and optical properties, and prospects for future advances in electronics and optoelectronics.
Spin-polarized dynamic transport in tubular two-dimensional electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rothstein, E. A.; Horovitz, B.; Entin-Wohlman, O.; Aharony, A.
2014-12-01
The ac conductance of a finite tubular two-dimensional electron gas is studied in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction. When the tube is coupled to two reservoirs, that interaction splits the steps in the dc current, introducing energy ranges with spin-polarized currents. For this setup, we calculate the current-current correlations (the noise spectrum) and show that the existence of these dc spin-polarized currents can be deduced from the shot noise. We also find that the Wigner-Smith time delay is almost unaffected by the spin-orbit interaction. When the tube is coupled to a single reservoir, we calculate the quantum capacitance and the charge-relaxation resistance, and find that they exhibit singularities near the openings of new channels.
Landau level crossing in a spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas
Wu, Xing-Jun; Li, Ting-Xin; Zhang, Chi; Du, Rui-Rui
2015-01-05
We have studied experimentally the Landau level (LL) spectrum of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/InP quantum well structure by means of low-temperature magneto-transport coincidence measurement in vector magnetic fields. It is well known that LL crossing occurs in tilted magnetic fields due to a competition between cyclotron energy and Zeeman effect. Remarkably, here we observe an additional type of level-crossing resulting from a competition between Rashba and Zeeman splitting in a small magnetic field, consistent with the theoretical prediction for strongly spin-orbit coupled 2DEG.
Biswas, Tutul; Ghosh, Tarun Kanti
2013-01-23
We study the interaction between electron and acoustic phonons in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled two-dimensional electron gas using Boltzmann transport theory. Both the deformation potential and piezoelectric scattering mechanisms are considered in the Bloch-Grüneisen (BG) regime as well as in the equipartition (EP) regime. The effect of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction on the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG and EP regimes is discussed. We find that the effective exponent of the temperature dependence of the resistivity in the BG regime decreases due to spin-orbit coupling.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevchenko, O. S.; Kopeliovich, A. I.
2016-03-01
The energy spectrum of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in an in-plane magnetic field is studied using the perturbation theory and quasiclassical approach in the presence of the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coupling. The existence of the intersection of energy sublevels in electron spectrum is demonstrated. The reciprocal mass tensor of electrons is analyzed. The heat capacity of the degenerate electron gas is examined, and its relations with the key features of the spectrum are shown.
Toward the Accurate Simulation of Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectra
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Giussani, Angelo; Nenov, Artur; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Jaiswal, Vishal K.; Rivalta, Ivan; Dumont, Elise; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional pump-probe electronic spectroscopy is a powerful technique able to provide both high spectral and temporal resolution, allowing the analysis of ultrafast complex reactions occurring via complementary pathways by the identification of decay-specific fingerprints. [1-2] The understanding of the origin of the experimentally recorded signals in a two-dimensional electronic spectrum requires the characterization of the electronic states involved in the electronic transitions photoinduced by the pump/probe pulses in the experiment. Such a goal constitutes a considerable computational challenge, since up to 100 states need to be described, for which state-of-the-art methods as RASSCF and RASPT2 have to be wisely employed. [3] With the present contribution, the main features and potentialities of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy are presented, together with the machinery in continuous development in our groups in order to compute two-dimensional electronic spectra. The results obtained using different level of theory and simulations are shown, bringing as examples the computed two-dimensional electronic spectra for some specific cases studied. [2-4] [1] Rivalta I, Nenov A, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Int. J. Quantum Chem., 2014, 114, 85 [2] Nenov A, Segarra-Martí J, Giussani A, Conti I, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Jaiswal V K, Altavilla S, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Faraday Discuss. 2015, DOI: 10.1039/C4FD00175C [3] Nenov A, Giussani A, Segarra-Martí J, Jaiswal V K, Rivalta I, Cerullo G, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, J. Chem. Phys. submitted [4] Nenov A, Giussani A, Fingerhut B P, Rivalta I, Dumont E, Mukamel S, Garavelli M, Phys. Chem. Chem. Phys. Submitted [5] Krebs N, Pugliesi I, Hauer J, Riedle E, New J. Phys., 2013,15, 08501
Viscoelastic effects in a two-dimensional classical electron liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mehrotra, Ravi
1987-08-01
The shear viscosity of a classical two-dimensional (2D) electron liquid is estimated by adapting the theory of Kirkwood, Buff, and Green for three dimensions to two dimensions. It is found to be large enough so that shear modes, if not overdamped by other scattering mechanisms, should be able to propagate through the electron liquid above a minimum temperature-dependent frequency, which is a small fraction of the highest frequency in the corresponding 2D electron solid.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kocharian, Armen N.; Fernando, Gayanath W.; Fang, Kun; Palandage, Kalum; Balatsky, Alexander V.
2016-05-01
Rashba spin-orbit effects and electron correlations in the two-dimensional cylindrical lattices of square geometries are assessed using mesoscopic two-, three- and four-leg ladder structures. Here the electron transport properties are systematically calculated by including the spin-orbit coupling in tight binding and Hubbard models threaded by a magnetic flux. These results highlight important aspects of possible symmetry breaking mechanisms in square ladder geometries driven by the combined effect of a magnetic gauge field spin-orbit interaction and temperature. The observed persistent current, spin and charge polarizations in the presence of spin-orbit coupling are driven by separation of electron and hole charges and opposite spins in real-space. The modeled spin-flip processes on the pairing mechanism induced by the spin-orbit coupling in assembled nanostructures (as arrays of clusters) engineered in various two-dimensional multi-leg structures provide an ideal playground for understanding spatial charge and spin density inhomogeneities leading to electron pairing and spontaneous phase separation instabilities in unconventional superconductors. Such studies also fall under the scope of current challenging problems in superconductivity and magnetism, topological insulators and spin dependent transport associated with numerous interfaces and heterostructures.
Two-dimensional attosecond electron wave-packet interferometry.
Xie, Xinhua
2015-05-01
We propose a two-dimensional interferometry based on the electron wave-packet interference by using a cycle-shaped orthogonally polarized two-color laser field. With such a method, the subcycle and intercycle interferences can be disentangled into different directions in the measured photoelectron momentum spectra. The Coulomb influence can be minimized and the overlapping of interference fringes with the complicated low-energy structures can be avoided as well. The contributions of the excitation effect and the long-range Coulomb potential can be traced in the Fourier domain of the photoelectron distribution. Because of these advantages, precise information on valence electron dynamics of atoms or molecules with attosecond temporal resolution and additional spatial information with angstrom resolution can be obtained with the two-dimensional electron wave-packet interferometry.
Two-Dimensional Attosecond Electron Wave-Packet Interferometry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xie, Xinhua
2015-05-01
We propose a two-dimensional interferometry based on the electron wave-packet interference by using a cycle-shaped orthogonally polarized two-color laser field. With such a method, the subcycle and intercycle interferences can be disentangled into different directions in the measured photoelectron momentum spectra. The Coulomb influence can be minimized and the overlapping of interference fringes with the complicated low-energy structures can be avoided as well. The contributions of the excitation effect and the long-range Coulomb potential can be traced in the Fourier domain of the photoelectron distribution. Because of these advantages, precise information on valence electron dynamics of atoms or molecules with attosecond temporal resolution and additional spatial information with angstrom resolution can be obtained with the two-dimensional electron wave-packet interferometry.
Suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases
Kazazis, D.; Bourhis, E.; Gierak, J.; Gennser, U.; Bourgeois, O.; Antoni, T.
2013-12-04
We report on the fabrication of fully suspended two-dimensional electron and hole gases in III-V heterostructures. Low temperature transport measurements verify that the properties of the suspended gases are only slightly degraded with respect to the non-suspended gases. Focused ion beam technology is used to pattern suspended nanostructures with minimum damage from the ion beam, due to the small width of the suspended membrane.
Ultrafast Charge Transfer Visualized by Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bixner, O.; Christensson, N.; Hauer, J.; Milota, F.; Mančal, T.; Lukeš, V.; Kauffmann, H. F.
2013-03-01
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) is used to investigate ultrafast excited-state dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra. The combination of density matrix propagation and quantum chemical calculations results in a molecular view of the charge transfer dynamics and highlights the role of the counter-ion in providing an energetic perturbation which promotes charge transfer across the complex.
Electron fractionalization in two-dimensional graphenelike structures.
Hou, Chang-Yu; Chamon, Claudio; Mudry, Christopher
2007-05-01
Electron fractionalization is intimately related to topology. In one-dimensional systems, fractionally charged states exist at domain walls between degenerate vacua. In two-dimensional systems, fractionalization exists in quantum Hall fluids, where time-reversal symmetry is broken by a large external magnetic field. Recently, there has been a tremendous effort in the search for examples of fractionalization in two-dimensional systems with time-reversal symmetry. In this Letter, we show that fractionally charged topological excitations exist on graphenelike structures, where quasiparticles are described by two flavors of Dirac fermions and time-reversal symmetry is respected. The topological zero modes are mathematically similar to fractional vortices in p-wave superconductors. They correspond to a twist in the phase in the mass of the Dirac fermions, akin to cosmic strings in particle physics. PMID:17501599
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sakaguchi, Hidetsugu; Sherman, E. Ya.; Malomed, Boris A.
2016-09-01
We present an analysis of two-dimensional (2D) matter-wave solitons, governed by the pseudospinor system of Gross-Pitaevskii equations with self- and cross attraction, which includes the spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in the general Rashba-Dresselhaus form, and, separately, the Rashba coupling and the Zeeman splitting. Families of semivortex (SV) and mixed-mode (MM) solitons are constructed, which exist and are stable in free space, as the SOC terms prevent the onset of the critical collapse and create the otherwise missing ground states in the form of the solitons. The Dresselhaus SOC produces a destructive effect on the vortex solitons, while the Zeeman term tends to convert the MM states into the SV ones, which eventually suffer delocalization. Existence domains and stability boundaries are identified for the soliton families. For physically relevant parameters of the SOC system, the number of atoms in the 2D solitons is limited by ˜1.5 ×104 . The results are obtained by means of combined analytical and numerical methods.
Shi, Hao; Rosenberg, Peter; Chiesa, Simone; Zhang, Shiwei
2016-07-22
The recent experimental realization of spin-orbit coupled Fermi gases provides a unique opportunity to study the interplay between strong interaction and spin-orbit coupling (SOC) in a tunable, disorder-free system. We present here precision ab initio numerical results on the two-dimensional, unpolarized, uniform Fermi gas with attractive interactions and Rashba SOC. Using the auxiliary-field quantum Monte Carlo method and incorporating recent algorithmic advances, we carry out exact calculations on sufficiently large system sizes to provide accurate results systematically as a function of experimental parameters. We obtain the equation of state, the momentum distributions, the pseudospin correlations, and the pair wave functions. Our results help illuminate the rich pairing structure induced by SOC, and provide benchmarks for theory and guidance to future experimental efforts. PMID:27494461
Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide.
Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui
2015-11-09
Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I-V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane.
Anisotropic electronic conduction in stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide
Hu, Tao; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Jiemin; Li, Zhaojin; Hu, Minmin; Tan, Jun; Hou, Pengxiang; Li, Feng; Wang, Xiaohui
2015-01-01
Stacked two-dimensional titanium carbide is an emerging conductive material for electrochemical energy storage which requires an understanding of the intrinsic electronic conduction. Here we report the electronic conduction properties of stacked Ti3C2T2 (T = OH, O, F) with two distinct stacking sequences (Bernal and simple hexagonal). On the basis of first-principles calculations and energy band theory analysis, both stacking sequences give rise to metallic conduction with Ti 3d electrons contributing most to the conduction. The conduction is also significantly anisotropic due to the fact that the effective masses of carriers including electrons and holes are remarkably direction-dependent. Such an anisotropic electronic conduction is evidenced by the I−V curves of an individual Ti3C2T2 particulate, which demonstrates that the in-plane electrical conduction is at least one order of magnitude higher than that vertical to the basal plane. PMID:26548439
Negative Magnetoresistance in Viscous Flow of Two-Dimensional Electrons
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alekseev, P. S.
2016-10-01
At low temperatures, in very clean two-dimensional (2D) samples, the electron mean free path for collisions with static defects and phonons becomes greater than the sample width. Under this condition, the electron transport occurs by formation of a viscous flow of an electron fluid. We study the viscous flow of 2D electrons in a magnetic field perpendicular to the 2D layer. We calculate the viscosity coefficients as the functions of magnetic field and temperature. The off-diagonal viscosity coefficient determines the dispersion of the 2D hydrodynamic waves. The decrease of the diagonal viscosity in magnetic field leads to negative magnetoresistance which is temperature and size dependent. Our analysis demonstrates that this viscous mechanism is responsible for the giant negative magnetoresistance recently observed in the ultrahigh-mobility GaAs quantum wells. We conclude that 2D electrons in those structures in moderate magnetic fields should be treated as a viscous fluid.
Ultrabroadband two-quantum two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gellen, Tobias A.; Bizimana, Laurie A.; Carbery, William P.; Breen, Ilana; Turner, Daniel B.
2016-08-01
A recent theoretical study proposed that two-quantum (2Q) two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy should be a background-free probe of post-Hartree-Fock electronic correlations. Testing this theoretical prediction requires an instrument capable of not only detecting multiple transitions among molecular excited states but also distinguishing molecular 2Q signals from nonresonant response. Herein we describe a 2Q 2D spectrometer with a spectral range of 300 nm that is passively phase stable and uses only beamsplitters and mirrors. We developed and implemented a dual-chopping balanced-detection method to resolve the weak molecular 2Q signals. Experiments performed on cresyl violet perchlorate and rhodamine 6G revealed distinct 2Q signals convolved with nonresonant response. Density functional theory computations helped reveal the molecular origin of these signals. The experimental and computational results demonstrate that 2Q electronic spectra can provide a singular probe of highly excited electronic states.
Disordered two-dimensional electron systems with chiral symmetry
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Markoš, P.; Schweitzer, L.
2012-10-01
We review the results of our recent numerical investigations on the electronic properties of disordered two dimensional systems with chiral unitary, chiral orthogonal, and chiral symplectic symmetry. Of particular interest is the behavior of the density of states and the logarithmic scaling of the smallest Lyapunov exponents in the vicinity of the chiral quantum critical point in the band center at E=0. The observed peaks or depressions in the density of states, the distribution of the critical conductances, and the possible non-universality of the critical exponents for certain chiral unitary models are discussed.
Electron-Spin Filters Based on the Rashba Effect
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Ting, David Z.-Y.; Cartoixa, Xavier; McGill, Thomas C.; Moon, Jeong S.; Chow, David H.; Schulman, Joel N.; Smith, Darryl L.
2004-01-01
Semiconductor electron-spin filters of a proposed type would be based on the Rashba effect, which is described briefly below. Electron-spin filters more precisely, sources of spin-polarized electron currents have been sought for research on, and development of, the emerging technological discipline of spintronics (spin-based electronics). There have been a number of successful demonstrations of injection of spin-polarized electrons from diluted magnetic semiconductors and from ferromagnetic metals into nonmagnetic semiconductors. In contrast, a device according to the proposal would be made from nonmagnetic semiconductor materials and would function without an applied magnetic field. The Rashba effect, named after one of its discoverers, is an energy splitting, of what would otherwise be degenerate quantum states, caused by a spin-orbit interaction in conjunction with a structural-inversion asymmetry in the presence of interfacial electric fields in a semiconductor heterostructure. The magnitude of the energy split is proportional to the electron wave number. The present proposal evolved from recent theoretical studies that suggested the possibility of devices in which electron energy states would be split by the Rashba effect and spin-polarized currents would be extracted by resonant quantum-mechanical tunneling. Accordingly, a device according to the proposal would be denoted an asymmetric resonant interband tunneling diode [a-RITD]. An a-RITD could be implemented in a variety of forms, the form favored in the proposal being a double-barrier heterostructure containing an asymmetric quantum well. It is envisioned that a-RITDs would be designed and fabricated in the InAs/GaSb/AlSb material system for several reasons: Heterostructures in this material system are strong candidates for pronounced Rashba spin splitting because InAs and GaSb exhibit large spin-orbit interactions and because both InAs and GaSb would be available for the construction of highly asymmetric
Dispersion-free continuum two-dimensional electronic spectrometer.
Zheng, Haibin; Caram, Justin R; Dahlberg, Peter D; Rolczynski, Brian S; Viswanathan, Subha; Dolzhnikov, Dmitriy S; Khadivi, Amir; Talapin, Dmitri V; Engel, Gregory S
2014-03-20
Electronic dynamics span broad energy scales with ultrafast time constants in the condensed phase. Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy permits the study of these dynamics with simultaneous resolution in both frequency and time. In practice, this technique is sensitive to changes in nonlinear dispersion in the laser pulses as time delays are varied during the experiment. We have developed a 2D spectrometer that uses broadband continuum generated in argon as the light source. Using this visible light in phase-sensitive optical experiments presents new challenges in implementation. We demonstrate all-reflective interferometric delays using angled stages. Upon selecting an ~180 nm window of the available bandwidth at ~10 fs compression, we probe the nonlinear response of broadly absorbing CdSe quantum dots and electronic transitions of Chlorophyll a.
Theory of the nonlinear Rashba-Edelstein effect: The clean electron gas limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vignale, Giovanni; Tokatly, I. V.
2016-01-01
It is well known that a current driven through a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling induces a spin polarization in the perpendicular direction (Edelstein effect). This phenomenon has been extensively studied in the linear response regime, i.e., when the average drift velocity of the electrons is a small fraction of the Fermi velocity. Here we investigate the phenomenon in the nonlinear regime, meaning that the average drift velocity is comparable to or exceeds the Fermi velocity. This regime is realized when the electric field is very large or when electron-impurity scattering is very weak. We consider the limiting case of a two-dimensional noninteracting electron gas with no impurities. In this case, the quantum kinetic equation for the density matrix is exactly and analytically solvable, reducing to a problem of spin dynamics for "unpaired" electrons near the Fermi surface. The crucial parameter is γ =e E Ls/EF , where E is the electric field, e is the absolute value of the electron charge, EF is the Fermi energy, and Ls=ℏ /(2 m α ) is the spin-precession length in the Rashba spin-orbit field with coupling strength α . If γ ≪1 , the evolution of the spin is adiabatic, resulting in a spin polarization that grows monotonically in time and eventually saturates at the maximum value n (α /vF) , where n is the electron density and vF is the Fermi velocity. If γ ≫1 the evolution of the spin becomes strongly nonadiabatic and the spin polarization is progressively reduced and eventually suppressed for γ →∞ . We also predict an inverse nonlinear Edelstein effect, in which an electric current is driven by a magnetic field that grows linearly in time. The "conductivities" for the direct and the inverse effects satisfy generalized Onsager reciprocity relations, which reduce to the standard ones in the linear response regime.
Microwave Reflection Spectroscopy of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Jie; Liu, Ruiyuan; Du, Lingjie; Du, Rui-Rui; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Ken
Cyclotron resonance (CR) is a standard method to determine the carrier effective mass in two-dimensional electron systems, typically by measuring/analyzing the absorption or transmission signal. Here we report a microwave spectrometer utilizing the reflection signal. In our experiment setup based on a top-loading helium3 cryostat and a superconducting solenoid, the microwave (up to 40GHz) is sent down via a coax cable to the sample surface, and the reflection signal is then collected by the same cable and fed upward to a directional coupler, and being detected. We demonstrate the applicability of the spectrometer by measuring the CR of high-mobility electrons or holes in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells. The construction of spectrometer, preliminary data, and brief discussions will be presented. The work at Rice was supported by Welch Foundation Grant C-1682.
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems
Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.
2015-04-10
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screeningmore » length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.« less
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.
2015-04-01
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.
Electronic transport in two-dimensional high dielectric constant nanosystems
Ortuño, M.; Somoza, A. M.; Vinokur, V. M.; Baturina, T. I.
2015-04-10
There has been remarkable recent progress in engineering high-dielectric constant two dimensional (2D) materials, which are being actively pursued for applications in nanoelectronics in capacitor and memory devices, energy storage, and high-frequency modulation in communication devices. Yet many of the unique properties of these systems are poorly understood and remain unexplored. Here we report a numerical study of hopping conductivity of the lateral network of capacitors, which models two-dimensional insulators, and demonstrate that 2D long-range Coulomb interactions lead to peculiar size effects. We find that the characteristic energy governing electronic transport scales logarithmically with either system size or electrostatic screening length depending on which one is shorter. Our results are relevant well beyond their immediate context, explaining, for example, recent experimental observations of logarithmic size dependence of electric conductivity of thin superconducting films in the critical vicinity of superconductor-insulator transition where a giant dielectric constant develops. Our findings mark a radical departure from the orthodox view of conductivity in 2D systems as a local characteristic of materials and establish its macroscopic global character as a generic property of high-dielectric constant 2D nanomaterials.
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of the 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.
Exploring two-dimensional electron gases with two-dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.
2014-10-07
The dephasing of excitons in a modulation doped single quantum well was carefully measured using time integrated four-wave mixing (FWM) and two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectroscopy. These are the first 2DFT measurements performed on a modulation doped single quantum well. The inhomogeneous and homogeneous excitonic line widths were obtained from the diagonal and cross-diagonal profiles of the 2DFT spectra. The laser excitation density and temperature were varied and 2DFT spectra were collected. A very rapid increase of the dephasing decay, and as a result, an increase in the cross-diagonal 2DFT linewidths with temperature was observed. Furthermore, the lineshapes of themore » 2DFT spectra suggest the presence of excitation induced dephasing and excitation induced shift.« less
Two dimensional electron systems for solid state quantum computation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mondal, Sumit
Two dimensional electron systems based on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are extremely useful in various scientific investigations of recent times including the search for quantum computational schemes. Although significant strides have been made over the past few years to realize solid state qubits on GaAs/AlGaAs 2DEGs, there are numerous factors limiting the progress. We attempt to identify factors that have material and design-specific origin and develop ways to overcome them. The thesis is divided in two broad segments. In the first segment we describe the realization of a new field-effect induced two dimensional electron system on GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the novel device-design is expected to suppress the level of charge noise present in the device. Modulation-doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures are utilized extensively in the study of quantum transport in nanostructures, but charge fluctuations associated with remote ionized dopants often produce deleterious effects. Electric field-induced carrier systems offer an attractive alternative if certain challenges can be overcome. We demonstrate a field-effect transistor in which the active channel is locally devoid of modulation-doping, but silicon dopant atoms are retained in the ohmic contact region to facilitate low-resistance contacts. A high quality two-dimensional electron gas is induced by a field-effect that is tunable over a density range of 6.5x10 10cm-2 to 2.6x1011cm-2 . Device design, fabrication, and low temperature (T=0.3K) characterization results are discussed. The demonstrated device-design overcomes several existing limitations in the fabrication of field-induced 2DEGs and might find utility in hosting nanostructures required for making spin qubits. The second broad segment describes our effort to correlate transport parameters measured at T=0.3K to the strength of the fractional quantum Hall state observed at nu=5/2 in the second Landau level of high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy in the Ultraviolet Wavelength Range.
West, Brantley A; Moran, Andrew M
2012-09-20
Coherent two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopies conducted at visible and infrared wavelengths are having a transformative impact on the understanding of numerous processes in condensed phases. The extension of 2D spectroscopy to the ultraviolet spectral range (2DUV) must contend with several challenges, including the attainment of adequate laser bandwidth, interferometric phase stability, and the suppression of undesired nonlinearities in the sample medium. Solutions to these problems are motivated by the study of a wide range of biological systems whose lowest-frequency electronic resonances are found in the UV. The development of 2DUV spectroscopy also makes possible the attainment of new insights into elementary chemical reaction dynamics (e.g., electrocyclic ring opening in cycloalkenes). Substantial progress has been made in both the implementation and application of 2DUV spectroscopy in the past several years. In this Perspective, we discuss 2DUV methodology, review recent applications, and speculate on what the future will hold.
Extension of the approximate two-dimensional electron gas formulation
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pierret, R. F.
1985-07-01
The functional two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formalism employed in the analysis of modulation-doped field-effect transistors is extended to properly account for the bulk charge and to more accurately model sub- and near-threshold behavior. The implemented changes basically transform the functional formulation from an above-threshold formalism for lightly doped structures to one of additional utility which automatically approaches expected limits under widely divergent conditions. Sample computations of the surface carrier concentration, relevant energy level positionings, and the semiconductor depletion width as a function of surface potential and doping are also presented and examined. These computations exhibit the general utility of the extended theory and provide an indirect evaluation of the standard two-level 2DEG theory.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with birefringent wedges
Réhault, Julien; Maiuri, Margherita; Oriana, Aurelio; Cerullo, Giulio
2014-12-15
We present a simple experimental setup for performing two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy in the partially collinear pump-probe geometry. The setup uses a sequence of birefringent wedges to create and delay a pair of phase-locked, collinear pump pulses, with extremely high phase stability and reproducibility. Continuous delay scanning is possible without any active stabilization or position tracking, and allows to record rapidly and easily 2D spectra. The setup works over a broad spectral range from the ultraviolet to the near-IR, it is compatible with few-optical-cycle pulses and can be easily reconfigured to two-colour operation. A simple method for scattering suppression is also introduced. As a proof of principle, we present degenerate and two-color 2D spectra of the light-harvesting complex 1 of purple bacteria.
Extrinsic spin Nernst effect in two-dimensional electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akera, Hiroshi; Suzuura, Hidekatsu
2013-02-01
The spin accumulation due to the spin current induced by the perpendicular temperature gradient (the spin Nernst effect) is studied in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) with spin-orbit interaction by employing the Boltzmann equation. The considered 2DES is confined within a symmetric quantum well with δ doping at the center of the well. A symmetry consideration leads to the spin-orbit interaction which is diagonal in the spin component perpendicular to the 2DES. As origins of the spin current, the skew scattering and the side jump are considered at each impurity on the center plane of the well. It is shown that, for repulsive impurity potentials, the spin-Nernst coefficient changes its sign at the impurity density where contributions from the skew scattering and the side jump cancel each other out. This is in contrast to the spin Hall effect in which the sign change of the coefficient occurs for attractive impurity potentials.
A ballistic two-dimensional-electron-gas Andreev interferometer
Amado, M. Fornieri, A.; Sorba, L.; Giazotto, F.; Biasiol, G.
2014-06-16
We report the realization and investigation of a ballistic Andreev interferometer based on an InAs two dimensional electron gas coupled to a superconducting Nb loop. We observe strong magnetic modulations in the voltage drop across the device due to quasiparticle interference within the weak-link. The interferometer exhibits flux noise down to ∼80 μΦ{sub 0}/√(Hz) and a robust behavior in temperature with voltage oscillations surviving up to ∼7 K. Besides this remarkable performance, the device represents a crucial first step for the realization of a fully-tunable ballistic superconducting magnetometer and embodies a potential advanced platform for the investigation of Majorana bound states, non-local entanglement of Cooper pairs, as well as the manipulation and control of spin triplet correlations.
Intervalley gap anomaly of two-dimensional electrons in silicon.
Lai, K; Pan, W; Tsui, D C; Lyon, S; Mühlberger, M; Schäffler, F
2006-02-24
We report here a systematic study of the energy gaps at the odd-integer quantum Hall states nu = 3 and 5 under tilted magnetic (B) fields in a high quality Si two-dimensional electron system. Out of the coincidence region, the valley splitting is independent of the in-plane fields. However, the nu = 3 valley gap differs by about a factor of 3 (Deltav approximately 0.4 vs 1.2 K) on different sides of the coincidence. More surprisingly, instead of reducing to zero, the energy gaps at nu = 3 and 5 rise rapidly when approaching the coincidence angles. We believe that such an anomaly is related to strong couplings of the nearly degenerate Landau levels.
Giant spin splitting of the two-dimensional electron gas at the surface of SrTiO3.
Santander-Syro, A F; Fortuna, F; Bareille, C; Rödel, T C; Landolt, G; Plumb, N C; Dil, J H; Radović, M
2014-12-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) forming at the interfaces of transition metal oxides exhibit a range of properties, including tunable insulator-superconductor-metal transitions, large magnetoresistance, coexisting ferromagnetism and superconductivity, and a spin splitting of a few meV (refs 10, 11). Strontium titanate (SrTiO3), the cornerstone of such oxide-based electronics, is a transparent, non-magnetic, wide-bandgap insulator in the bulk, and has recently been found to host a surface 2DEG (refs 12-15). The most strongly confined carriers within this 2DEG comprise two subbands, separated by an energy gap of 90 meV and forming concentric circular Fermi surfaces. Using spin- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (SARPES), we show that the electron spins in these subbands have opposite chiralities. Although the Rashba effect might be expected to give rise to such spin textures, the giant splitting of almost 100 meV at the Fermi level is far larger than anticipated. Moreover, in contrast to a simple Rashba system, the spin-polarized subbands are non-degenerate at the Brillouin zone centre. This degeneracy can be lifted by time-reversal symmetry breaking, implying the possible existence of magnetic order. These results show that confined electronic states at oxide surfaces can be endowed with novel, non-trivial properties that are both theoretically challenging to anticipate and promising for technological applications.
Electronic nanobiosensors based on two-dimensional materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ping, Jinglei
Atomically-thick two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials have tremendous potential to be applied as transduction elements in biosensors and bioelectronics. We developed scalable methods for synthesis and large-area transfer of two-dimensional nanomaterials, particularly graphene and metal dichalcogenides (so called ``MX2'' materials). We also developed versatile fabrication methods for large arrays of field-effect transistors (FETs) and micro-electrodes with these nanomaterials based on either conventional photolithography or innovative approaches that minimize contamination of the 2D layer. By functionalizing the FETs with a computationally redesigned water-soluble mu-opioid receptor, we created selective and sensitive biosensors suitable for detection of the drug target naltrexone and the neuropeptide enkephalin at pg/mL concentrations. We also constructed DNA-functionalized biosensors and nano-particle decorated biosensors by applying related bio-nano integration techniques. Our methodology paves the way for multiplexed nanosensor arrays with all-electronic readout suitable for inexpensive point-of-care diagnostics, drug-development and biomedical research. With graphene field-effect transistors, we investigated the graphene/solution interface and developed a quantitative model for the effect of ionic screening on the graphene carrier density based on theories of the electric double layer. Finally, we have developed a technique for measuring low-level Faradaic charge-transfer current (fA) across the graphene/solution interface via real-time charge monitoring of graphene microelectrodes in ionic solution. This technique enables the development of flexible and transparent pH sensors that are promising for in vivo applications. The author acknowledges the support from the Defense Advanced Research Projects Agency (DARPA) and the U. S. Army Research Office under Grant Number W911NF1010093.
Quantum holographic encoding in a two-dimensional electron gas
Moon, Christopher
2010-05-26
The advent of bottom-up atomic manipulation heralded a new horizon for attainable information density, as it allowed a bit of information to be represented by a single atom. The discrete spacing between atoms in condensed matter has thus set a rigid limit on the maximum possible information density. While modern technologies are still far from this scale, all theoretical downscaling of devices terminates at this spatial limit. Here, however, we break this barrier with electronic quantum encoding scaled to subatomic densities. We use atomic manipulation to first construct open nanostructures - 'molecular holograms' - which in turn concentrate information into a medium free of lattice constraints: the quantum states of a two-dimensional degenerate Fermi gas of electrons. The information embedded in the holograms is transcoded at even smaller length scales into an atomically uniform area of a copper surface, where it is densely projected into both two spatial degrees of freedom and a third holographic dimension mapped to energy. In analogy to optical volume holography, this requires precise amplitude and phase engineering of electron wavefunctions to assemble pages of information volumetrically. This data is read out by mapping the energy-resolved electron density of states with a scanning tunnelling microscope. As the projection and readout are both extremely near-field, and because we use native quantum states rather than an external beam, we are not limited by lensing or collimation and can create electronically projected objects with features as small as {approx}0.3 nm. These techniques reach unprecedented densities exceeding 20 bits/nm{sup 2} and place tens of bits into a single fermionic state.
Two-Dimensional Halide Perovskites: Tuning Electronic Activities of Defects.
Liu, Yuanyue; Xiao, Hai; Goddard, William A
2016-05-11
Two-dimensional (2D) halide perovskites are emerging as promising candidates for nanoelectronics and optoelectronics. To realize their full potential, it is important to understand the role of those defects that can strongly impact material properties. In contrast to other popular 2D semiconductors (e.g., transition metal dichalcogenides MX2) for which defects typically induce harmful traps, we show that the electronic activities of defects in 2D perovskites are significantly tunable. For example, even with a fixed lattice orientation one can change the synthesis conditions to convert a line defect (edge or grain boundary) from electron acceptor to inactive site without deep gap states. We show that this difference originates from the enhanced ionic bonding in these perovskites compared with MX2. The donors tend to have high formation energies and the harmful defects are difficult to form at a low halide chemical potential. Thus, we unveil unique properties of defects in 2D perovskites and suggest practical routes to improve them.
Two-dimensional materials based transparent flexible electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yu, Lili; Ha, Sungjae; El-Damak, Dina; McVay, Elaine; Ling, Xi; Chandrakasan, Anantha; Kong, Jing; Palacios, Tomas
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest recently as a set of tools for electronics, as these materials can push electronics beyond traditional boundaries. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. These thin, lightweight, bendable, highly rugged and low-power devices may bring dramatic changes in information processing, communications and human-electronic interaction. In this report, for the first time, we demonstrate two complex transparent flexible systems based on molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) grown by chemical vapor method: a transparent active-matrix organic light-emitting diode (AMOLED) display and a MoS2 wireless link for sensor nodes. The 1/2 x 1/2 square inch, 4 x 5 pixels AMOLED structures are built on transparent substrates, containing MoS2 back plane circuit and OLEDs integrated on top of it. The back plane circuit turns on and off the individual pixel with two MoS2 transistors and a capacitor. The device is designed and fabricated based on SPICE simulation to achieve desired DC and transient performance. We have also demonstrated a MoS2 wireless self-powered sensor node. The system consists of as energy harvester, rectifier, sensor node and logic units. AC signals from the environment, such as near-field wireless power transfer, piezoelectric film and RF signal, are harvested, then rectified into DC signal by a MoS2 diode. CIQM, CICS, SRC.
Herranz, Gervasi; Singh, Gyanendra; Bergeal, Nicolas; Jouan, Alexis; Lesueur, Jérôme; Gázquez, Jaume; Varela, María; Scigaj, Mateusz; Dix, Nico; Sánchez, Florencio; Fontcuberta, Josep
2015-01-13
We find the discovery of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide interfaces—involving electrons in narrow d-bands—has broken new ground, enabling the access to correlated states that are unreachable in conventional semiconductors based on s- and p- electrons. There is a growing consensus that emerging properties at these novel quantum wells—such as 2D superconductivity and magnetism—are intimately connected to specific orbital symmetries in the 2DEG sub-band structure. Here we show that crystal orientation allows selective orbital occupancy, disclosing unprecedented ways to tailor the 2DEG properties. By carrying out electrostatic gating experiments in LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} wells of different crystal orientations, we show that the spatial extension and anisotropy of the 2D superconductivity and the Rashba spin–orbit field can be largely modulated by controlling the 2DEG sub-band filling. Such an orientational tuning expands the possibilities for electronic engineering of 2DEGs at LaAlO_{3}/SrTiO_{3} interfaces.
Compact design for two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Zheng; Wang, Peng; Shen, Xiong; Yan, Tian-Min; Zhang, Yizhu; Liu, Jun
2016-03-01
We present a passively phase-stabilized two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) with a compact size, and the ease of implementation and maintenance. Our design relies on a mask beam-splitter with four holes to form non-collinear box geometry, and a homebuilt stacked retroreflector, which introduces the phase-locked pulse sequence, remedying the instability of commonly used translation stages. The minimized size of the setup suppresses the influences of optical path-length fluctuations during measurements, improving the phase stability and precise timing of pulse sequences. In our 2DES, only few conventional optical components are used, which make this sophisticated instrumentation convenient to establish and particularly easy to conduct alignment. In data analysis, the self-referencing spectral interferometry (SRSI) method is first introduced to extract the complex-valued signal from spectral interferometry in 2DES. The alternative algorithm achieves the improvement of the signal-to-noise ratio (SNR) and considerable reduction of data acquisition time. The new setup is suitable over a tunable range of spectroscopic wavelength, from ultraviolet (UV) to the near-infrared (NIR) regime, and for ultra-broadband bandwidth, few-cycle laser pulses.
Curved Two-Dimensional Electron Systems in Semiconductor Nanoscrolls
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, Karen; Mendach, Stefan; Hansen, Wolfgang
The perfect control of strain and layer thickness in epitaxial semiconductor bilayers is employed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with precisely adjusted scroll diameter ranging between a few nanometers and several tens of microns. Furthermore, semiconductor heteroepitaxy allows us to incorporate quantum objects such as quantum wells, quantum dots, or modulation doped low-dimensional carrier systems into the nanoscrolls. In this review, we summarize techniques that we have developed to fabricate semiconductor nanoscrolls with well-defined location, orientation, geometry, and winding number. We focus on magneto-transport studies of curved two-dimensional electron systems in such nanoscrolls. An externally applied magnetic field results in a strongly modulated normal-to-surface component leading to magnetic barriers, reflection of edge channels, and local spin currents. The observations are compared to finite-element calculations and discussed on the basis of simple models taking into account the influence of a locally modulated state density on the conductivity. In particular, it is shown that the observations in high magnetic fields can be well described considering the transport in edge channels according to the Landauer-Büttiker model if additional magnetic field induced channels aligned along magnetic barriers are accounted for.
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy signatures of the glass transition
Lewis, K. L. .. M.; Myers, J. A.; Fuller, F.; Tekavec, P. F.; Ogilvie, J. P.
2010-01-01
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy is a sensitive probe of solvation dynamics. Using a pump–probe geometry with a pulse shaper [ Optics Express 15 (2007), 16681-16689; Optics Express 16 (2008), 17420-17428], we present temperature dependent 2D spectra of laser dyes dissolved in glass-forming solvents. At low waiting times, the system has not yet relaxed, resulting in a spectrum that is elongated along the diagonal. At longer times, the system loses its memory of the initial excitation frequency, and the 2D spectrum rounds out. As the temperature is lowered, the time scale of this relaxation grows, and the elongation persists for longermore » waiting times. This can be measured in the ratio of the diagonal width to the anti-diagonal width; the behavior of this ratio is representative of the frequency–frequency correlation function [ Optics Letters 31 (2006), 3354–3356]. Near the glass transition temperature, the relaxation behavior changes. Understanding this change is important for interpreting temperature-dependent dynamics of biological systems.« less
Electronic, Vibrational and Thermoelectric Properties of Two-Dimensional Materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wickramaratne, Darshana
The discovery of graphene's unique electronic and thermal properties has motivated the search for new two-dimensional materials. Examples of these materials include the layered two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDC) and metal mono-chalcogenides. The properties of the TMDCs (eg. MoS 2, WS2, TaS2, TaSe2) and the metal mono-chalcogenides (eg. GaSe, InSe, SnS) are diverse - ranging from semiconducting, semi-metallic and metallic. Many of these materials exhibit strongly correlated phenomena and exotic collective states such as exciton condensates, charge density waves, Lifshitz transitions and superconductivity. These properties change as the film thickness is reduced down to a few monolayers. We use first-principles simulations to discuss changes in the electronic and the vibrational properties of these materials as the film thickness evolves from a single atomic monolayer to the bulk limit. In the semiconducting TMDCs (MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2) and monochalcogenides (GaS, GaSe, InS and InSe) we show confining these materials to their monolayer limit introduces large band degeneracies or non-parabolic features in the electronic structure. These changes in the electronic structure results in increases in the density of states and the number of conducting modes. Our first-principles simulations combined with a Landauer approach show these changes can lead to large enhancements up to an order of magnitude in the thermoelectric performance of these materials when compared to their bulk structure. Few monolayers of the TMDCs can be misoriented with respect to each other due to the weak van-der-Waals (vdW) force at the interface of two monolayers. Misorientation of the bilayer semiconducting TMDCs increases the interlayer van-der-Waals gap distance, reduces the interlayer coupling and leads to an increase in the magnitude of the indirect bandgap by up to 100 meV compared to the registered bilayer. In the semi-metallic and metallic TMDC compounds (TiSe2, Ta
Tunneling spectroscopy of the two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chan, Ho Bun
We measure the single particle density of states (DOS) of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in a GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure. Using a technique that we call ``Time Domain Capacitance Spectroscopy'' (TDCS), we measure the complete current-voltage characteristics for tunneling into the 2DES without making ohmic contacts to it. TDCS detects the tunneling current in regimes difficult to access by conventional methods, such as when the in-plane conductance is low. For the first time we detect the contributions of localized states to the tunneling current. The DOS of an interacting 2DES in the diffusive limit displays logarithmic energy dependence near the Fermi level. Using TDCS, we measure the voltage dependence of the tunneling conductance of a semiconductor 2DES and observe the logarithmic Coulomb anomaly for the first time in 2D systems other than thin metal films. As we increase the density, this suppression in tunneling conductance narrows and recedes. Nevertheless suppression reappears when we apply a magnetic field perpendicular to the 2D plane. We find that the tunneling conductance depends linearly on voltage near zero bias for all magnetic field strengths and electron densities. Moreover, the slopes of this linear gap are strongly field dependent. The data are suggestive of a new model of the tunneling gap in the presence of disorder and screening. We also use TDCS to study the interactions among electronic spins. By applying excitations less than kT, we observe that equilibrium tunneling into spin-polarized quantum Hall states (ν = 1, 3, 1/3) occurs at two distinct tunneling rates for samples of very high mobility. Some electrons tunnel into the 2DES at a fast rate while the rest tunnel at a rate up to 2 orders of magnitude slower. Such novel double- rate tunneling is not observed at even-integer filling fractions where the 2DES is not spin-polarized. The dependence of the two rates on magnetic field, temperature and tunnel barrier thickness suggests
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Jian; Xu, Huai-Zhe
2014-03-01
We study theoretically the plasmon excitations in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with spin-orbit interactions (SOIs) embedded in a (11n) crystallographic plane. We demonstrate that the energy spectra and dielectric functions between the 2DEGs embedded in different crystallographic planes can be related by a unitary transformation. Using the unitary transformation, we find that the anisotropy of plasmon excitations and the directional plasmon filtering (DPF) can be tuned by changing the strengths of SOIs in the high-index planes. There are two advantageous directions [11¯0] and [nn2¯] for plasmon propagation. Moreover, the anisotropy and the DPF can be smeared out by tuning the strength ratio α/β between the Rashba SOI and the Dresselhaus SOI.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McKeown Walker, S.; Riccò, S.; Bruno, F. Y.; de la Torre, A.; Tamai, A.; Golias, E.; Varykhalov, A.; Marchenko, D.; Hoesch, M.; Bahramy, M. S.; King, P. D. C.; Sánchez-Barriga, J.; Baumberger, F.
2016-06-01
We reinvestigate the putative giant spin splitting at the surface of SrTiO3 reported by Santander-Syro et al. [Nat. Mater. 13, 1085 (2014), 10.1038/nmat4107]. Our spin- and angle-resolved photoemission experiments on fractured (001) oriented surfaces supporting a two-dimensional electron liquid with high carrier density show no detectable spin polarization in the photocurrent. We demonstrate that this result excludes a giant spin splitting while it is consistent with the unconventional Rashba-like splitting seen in band structure calculations that reproduce the experimentally observed ladder of quantum confined subbands.
Kondo spin screening cloud in two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit couplings.
Feng, Xiao-Yong; Zhang, Fu-Chun
2011-03-16
A spin-1/2 Anderson impurity in a semiconductor quantum well with Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit couplings is studied by using a variational wavefunction method. The local magnetic moment is found to be quenched at low temperatures. The spin-spin correlations of the impurity and the conduction electron density show anisotropy in both spatial and spin spaces, which interpolates the Kondo spin screenings of a conventional metal and of a surface of three-dimensional topological insulators.
The Dwell Time of Electron Tunneling Through a Double Barrier in the Presence of Rashba SOI
Baltateanu, Doru-Marcel
2011-10-03
Some aspects related to the influence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction (SOI) on the dwell time spent by the electrons in an asymmetric double barrier are analyzed. It is revealed that in the presence of the Rashba SOI, a difference between the dwell times associated to the spin-up and spin-down species can be obtained. This opens the way to a spin filtration in the time domain.
Observation of the surface quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole condensate
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Litovchenko, V. G.; Korbutyak, D. V.
1981-03-01
Quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole condensate has been observed at the surface of semiconductors treated by low dose Ar + ion bombardment. A number of specific surface properties of this electron-hole condensate (EHC) has been studied.
Quasiparticle dynamics and spin-orbital texture of the SrTiO3 two-dimensional electron gas.
King, P D C; McKeown Walker, S; Tamai, A; de la Torre, A; Eknapakul, T; Buaphet, P; Mo, S-K; Meevasana, W; Bahramy, M S; Baumberger, F
2014-02-27
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in SrTiO3 have become model systems for engineering emergent behaviour in complex transition metal oxides. Understanding the collective interactions that enable this, however, has thus far proved elusive. Here we demonstrate that angle-resolved photoemission can directly image the quasiparticle dynamics of the d-electron subband ladder of this complex-oxide 2DEG. Combined with realistic tight-binding supercell calculations, we uncover how quantum confinement and inversion symmetry breaking collectively tune the delicate interplay of charge, spin, orbital and lattice degrees of freedom in this system. We reveal how they lead to pronounced orbital ordering, mediate an orbitally enhanced Rashba splitting with complex subband-dependent spin-orbital textures and markedly change the character of electron-phonon coupling, co-operatively shaping the low-energy electronic structure of the 2DEG. Our results allow for a unified understanding of spectroscopic and transport measurements across different classes of SrTiO3-based 2DEGs, and yield new microscopic insights on their functional properties.
Center Line Slope Analysis in Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
2015-01-01
Center line slope (CLS) analysis in 2D infrared spectroscopy has been extensively used to extract frequency–frequency correlation functions of vibrational transitions. We apply this concept to 2D electronic spectroscopy, where CLS is a measure of electronic gap fluctuations. The two domains, infrared and electronic, possess differences: In the infrared, the frequency fluctuations are classical, often slow and Gaussian. In contrast, electronic spectra are subject to fast spectral diffusion and affected by underdamped vibrational wavepackets in addition to Stokes shift. All these effects result in non-Gaussian peak profiles. Here, we extend CLS-analysis beyond Gaussian line shapes and test the developed methodology on a solvated molecule, zinc phthalocyanine. We find that CLS facilitates the interpretation of 2D electronic spectra by reducing their complexity to one dimension. In this way, CLS provides a highly sensitive measure of model parameters describing electronic–vibrational and electronic–solvent interaction. PMID:26463085
Nonlinear aspects of two-dimensional electron magnetohydrodynamics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Das, Amita
1999-03-01
The propagation and interaction characteristics of nonlinear coherent structures for the electron magnetohydrodynamic (EMHD) model are studied numerically. A point vortex model (PVM) for EMHD is developed which provides a good qualitative understanding of the underlying processes observed numerically. A methodology to extend the PVM for quantitative understanding of the interaction amongst extended structures is also outlined.
Electronic structures of two-dimensional metallic oxides and bronzes
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Guyot, H.; Motta, N.; Marcus, J.; Drouard, S.; Balaska, B.
2001-06-01
The electronic structures of some molybdenum and tungsten oxides or bronzes exhibiting Peierls transitions are investigated at room temperature. The detection of a weak conduction band, well separated from a large valence band, evidences the metallic character of each oxide. The distributions of the valences of the different transition metals are analyzed by XPS. In each oxide, the presence of atleast two contributive components to the main core levels reveals a mixed valence state of the transition metal. But the proportions of the different components do not reflect the distribution of the cationic valences, as expected from the crystallographic structures. To understand this disagreement, we suggest that two alternative ways, including or rejecting a screening effect generated by the conduction electrons contribute to the photoemission processes and alter the real distribution of the cationic charges.
Undamped relativistic magnetoplasmons in lossy two-dimensional electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Volkov, V. A.; Zabolotnykh, A. A.
2016-10-01
We address electrodynamic effects in plasma oscillations of a lossy 2D electron system whose dc 2D conductivity σ0 is comparable to the speed of light c . We argue that the perpendicular constant magnetic field B causes astonishing features of magnetoplasma dynamics. We show that plasmon-polariton spectra can be classified using a "relativistic" phase diagram σ0/c versus B . An extraordinarily low damping branch in magnetoplasmon-polariton spectra emerges at two phases of this diagram. Some magnetoplasmons at these phases are predicted to be undamped waves.
Dipolar quantum electrodynamics of the two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Todorov, Yanko
2015-03-01
Similarly to a previous work on the homogeneous electron gas [Y. Todorov, Phys. Rev. B 89, 075115 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.89.075115], we apply the Power-Zienau-Wooley (PZW) formulation of the quantum electrodynamics to the case of an electron gas quantum confined by one-dimensional potential. We provide a microscopic description of all collective plasmon modes of the gas, oscillating both along and perpendicular to the direction of quantum confinement. Furthermore, we study the interaction of the collective modes with a photonic structure, planar metallic waveguide, by using the full expansion of the electromagnetic field into normal modes. We show how the boundary conditions for the electromagnetic field influence both the transverse light-matter coupling and the longitudinal particle-particle interactions. The PZW descriptions appear thus as a convenient tool to study semiconductor quantum optics in geometries where quantum-confined particles interact with strongly confined electromagnetic fields in microresonators, such as the ones used to achieve the ultrastrong light-matter coupling regime.
Spectroscopy of Two Dimensional Electron Systems Comprising Exotic Quasiparticles
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Rhone, Trevor David Nathaniel
In this dissertation I present inelastic and elastic light scattering studies of collective states emerging from interactions in electron systems confined to two dimensions. These studies span the first, second and third Landau levels. I report for the first time, high energy excitations of composite fermions in the quantum fluid at nu = 1/3. The high energies discovered represent excitations across multiple composite fermion energy levels, demonstrating the topological robustness of the fractional quantum Hall state at nu = 1/3. This study sets the ground work for similar measurements of states in the second Landau level, such as those at nu = 5/2. I present the first light scattering studies of low energy excitations of quantum fluids in the second Landau level. The study of low energy excitations of the quantum fluid at 3 ≥ nu ≥ 5/2 reveals a rapid loss of spin polarization for nu ≲ 3, as monitored by the intensity of the spin wave excitation at the Zeeman energy. The emergence of a continuum of low-lying excitations for nu ≲ 3 reveals competing quantum phases in the second Landau level with intriguing roles of spin degrees of freedom and phase inhomogeneity. The first light scattering studies of the electron systems in the third Landau level are reported here. Measurements of low energy excitations and their spin degrees of freedom reveal contrasting behavior of states in the second and third Landau levels. I discuss these measurements in the context of the charge density wave phases, that are believed, by some, to dominate the third Landau level, and suggest ways of verifying this belief using light scattering. Distinct behavior in the dispersion of the spin wave at nu = 3 is measured for the first time. The study may highlight differences in the first and second Landau levels that are manifested through the electron wavefunctions. In addition to intra-Landau level measurements, inter- Landau level studies are also reported. The results of which reveal
Electronic and magnetic properties of Fe and Mn doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets
Soni, Himadri R. Jha, Prafulla K.
2014-04-24
Using first principles density functional theory calculations, the present paper reports systematic total energy calculations of the electronic properties such as density of states and magnetic moment of pristine and iron and manganese doped two dimensional hexagonal germanium sheets.
Kohda, M.; Altmann, P.; Salis, G.; Schuh, D.; Ganichev, S. D.; Wegscheider, W.
2015-10-26
A method is presented that enables the measurement of spin-orbit coefficients in a diffusive two-dimensional electron gas without the need for processing the sample structure, applying electrical currents or resolving the spatial pattern of the spin mode. It is based on the dependence of the average electron velocity on the spatial distance between local excitation and detection of spin polarization, resulting in a variation of spin precession frequency that in an external magnetic field is linear in the spatial separation. By scanning the relative positions of the exciting and probing spots in a time-resolved Kerr rotation microscope, frequency gradients along the [100] and [010] crystal axes of GaAs/AlGaAs QWs are measured to obtain the Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit coefficients, α and β. This simple method can be applied in a variety of materials with electron diffusion for evaluating spin-orbit coefficients.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-01
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. We also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions.
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this report, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. In conclusion, we also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this report, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate themore » slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. In conclusion, we also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions« less
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H C; Oliver, Thomas A A; Fleming, Graham R
2015-05-01
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. We also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions.
Dong, Hui; Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Changes in the electronic structure of pigments in protein environments and of polar molecules in solution inevitably induce a re-adaption of molecular nuclear structure. Both changes of electronic and vibrational energies can be probed with visible or infrared lasers, such as two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy or vibrational spectroscopy. The extent to which the two changes are correlated remains elusive. The recent demonstration of two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy potentially enables a direct measurement of this correlation experimentally. However, it has hitherto been unclear how to characterize the correlation from the spectra. In this paper, we present a theoretical formalism to demonstrate the slope of the nodal line between the excited state absorption and ground state bleach peaks in the spectra as a characterization of the correlation between electronic and vibrational transition energies. We also show the dynamics of the nodal line slope is correlated to the vibrational spectral dynamics. Additionally, we demonstrate the fundamental 2DEV spectral line-shape of a monomer with newly developed response functions.
Rashba coupling in three-electron-quantum dot under cylindrical symmetry: An exact solution
Hassanabadi, H.; Rahimov, H.; Zarrinkamar, S.
2011-11-15
The application of quantum dots in advanced technology goes beyond doubt. Here, based on an analytical methodology, investigate a three-electron-quantum dot in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction under cylindrical symmetry. Both eigenvalues and eigenfunctions of the system are reported and the problem is numerically discussed. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted Highlights: > We theoretically investigate a three-electron-quantum dot in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit interaction by an exact analytical methodology. > By using the Jacobi transformations as well as the hyperspherical coordinates we calculate the wavefunction and the energy spectra. > Our obtained energy relation reveals that the Rashba interaction appears solely in the center of mass section.
Two-Dimensional Crystallization of the Ca(2+)-ATPase for Electron Crystallography.
Glaves, John Paul; Primeau, Joseph O; Young, Howard S
2016-01-01
Electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystalline arrays is a powerful alternative for the structure determination of membrane proteins. The advantages offered by this technique include a native membrane environment and the ability to closely correlate function and dynamics with crystalline preparations and structural data. Herein, we provide a detailed protocol for the reconstitution and two-dimensional crystallization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (also known as Ca(2+)-ATPase or SERCA) and its regulatory subunits phospholamban and sarcolipin. PMID:26695053
Two-Dimensional Crystallization of the Ca(2+)-ATPase for Electron Crystallography.
Glaves, John Paul; Primeau, Joseph O; Young, Howard S
2016-01-01
Electron crystallography of two-dimensional crystalline arrays is a powerful alternative for the structure determination of membrane proteins. The advantages offered by this technique include a native membrane environment and the ability to closely correlate function and dynamics with crystalline preparations and structural data. Herein, we provide a detailed protocol for the reconstitution and two-dimensional crystallization of the sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium pump (also known as Ca(2+)-ATPase or SERCA) and its regulatory subunits phospholamban and sarcolipin.
Taylor, R J E; Childs, D T D; Ivanov, P; Stevens, B J; Babazadeh, N; Crombie, A J; Ternent, G; Thoms, S; Zhou, H; Hogg, R A
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young's Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621
Taylor, R. J. E.; Childs, D. T. D.; Ivanov, P.; Stevens, B. J.; Babazadeh, N.; Crombie, A. J.; Ternent, G.; Thoms, S.; Zhou, H.; Hogg, R. A.
2015-01-01
We demonstrate a semiconductor PCSEL array that uniquely combines an in-plane waveguide structure with nano-scale patterned PCSEL elements. This novel geometry allows two-dimensional electronically controllable coherent coupling of remote vertically emitting lasers. Mutual coherence of the PCSEL elements is verified through the demonstration of a two-dimensional Young’s Slits experiment. In addition to allowing the all-electronic control of the interference pattern, this type of device offers new routes to power and brightness scaling in semiconductor lasers, and opportunities for all-electronic beam steering. PMID:26289621
The two dimensional electron system as a nanoantenna in the microwave and terahertz bands
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iñarrea, Jesús
2011-12-01
We study the magnetoresistance of two-dimensional electron systems under several radiation sources of different frequencies for moderate power. We use the model of radiation-driven electron orbits extended to this regime. First, we consider the case of two different radiations and we find a regime of superposition or interference of harmonic motions, i.e., a modulated magnetoresistance response with pulses and beats. Finally, we consider a multiple photoexcitation case where we propose the two-dimensional electron system as a potential nanoantenna device or ultrasensitive detector for the microwave and terahertz bands. Thus, these results could be of special interest in nanophotonics and nanoelectronics.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×10^{15} cm^{-2} and 420 cm^{2 }/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, Wei; Dimakis, Emmanouil; Wang, George T.; Moustakas, Theodore D.; Tsui, Daniel C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in monolayer InN quantum wells embedded in GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5×1015 cm-2 and 420 cm2 /Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Spin eigen-states of Dirac equation for quasi-two-dimensional electrons
Eremko, Alexander; Brizhik, Larissa; Loktev, Vadim
2015-10-15
Dirac equation for electrons in a potential created by quantum well is solved and the three sets of the eigen-functions are obtained. In each set the wavefunction is at the same time the eigen-function of one of the three spin operators, which do not commute with each other, but do commute with the Dirac Hamiltonian. This means that the eigen-functions of Dirac equation describe three independent spin eigen-states. The energy spectrum of electrons confined by the rectangular quantum well is calculated for each of these spin states at the values of energies relevant for solid state physics. It is shown that the standard Rashba spin splitting takes place in one of such states only. In another one, 2D electron subbands remain spin degenerate, and for the third one the spin splitting is anisotropic for different directions of 2D wave vector.
Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J; Pfeiffer, Loren N; West, Ken W; Rokhinson, Leonid P
2015-06-11
Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor-superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor-superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields.
Wan, Zhong; Kazakov, Aleksandr; Manfra, Michael J.; Pfeiffer, Loren N.; West, Ken W.; Rokhinson, Leonid P.
2015-01-01
Search for Majorana fermions renewed interest in semiconductor–superconductor interfaces, while a quest for higher-order non-Abelian excitations demands formation of superconducting contacts to materials with fractionalized excitations, such as a two-dimensional electron gas in a fractional quantum Hall regime. Here we report induced superconductivity in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas in gallium arsenide heterostructures and development of highly transparent semiconductor–superconductor ohmic contacts. Supercurrent with characteristic temperature dependence of a ballistic junction has been observed across 0.6 μm, a regime previously achieved only in point contacts but essential to the formation of well separated non-Abelian states. High critical fields (>16 T) in NbN contacts enables investigation of an interplay between superconductivity and strongly correlated states in a two-dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields. PMID:26067452
Quantum dot spectroscopy of proximity-induced superconductivity in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deon, F.; Pellegrini, V.; Giazotto, F.; Biasiol, G.; Sorba, L.; Beltram, F.
2011-03-01
We report the realization of a hybrid superconductor-quantum dot device by means of top-down nanofabrication starting from a two-dimensional electron gas in a InGaAs/InAlAs semiconductor heterostructure. The quantum dot is defined by electrostatic gates placed within the normal region of a planar Nb-InGaAs quantum well-Nb junction. Measurements in the regime of strong Coulomb blockade as well as cotunneling spectroscopy allow to directly probe the proximity-induced energy gap in a ballistic two-dimensional electron gas coupled to superconductors.
Ellguth, Martin; Tusche, Christian; Kirschner, Jürgen
2015-12-31
Linearly polarized light with an energy of 3.1 eV has been used to excite highly spin-polarized electrons in an ultrathin film of face-centered-tetragonal cobalt to majority-spin quantum well states (QWS) derived from an sp band at the border of the Brillouin zone. The spin-selective excitation process has been studied by spin- and momentum-resolved two-photon photoemission. Analyzing the photoemission patterns in two-dimensional momentum planes, we find that the optically driven transition from the valence band to the QWS acts almost exclusively on majority-spin electrons. The mechanism providing the high spin polarization is discussed by the help of a density-functional theory calculation. Additionally, a sizable effect of spin-orbit coupling for the QWS is evidenced.
Optical Generation of Hot Spin-Polarized Electrons from a Ferromagnetic Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ellguth, Martin; Tusche, Christian; Kirschner, Jürgen
2015-12-01
Linearly polarized light with an energy of 3.1 eV has been used to excite highly spin-polarized electrons in an ultrathin film of face-centered-tetragonal cobalt to majority-spin quantum well states (QWS) derived from an s p band at the border of the Brillouin zone. The spin-selective excitation process has been studied by spin- and momentum-resolved two-photon photoemission. Analyzing the photoemission patterns in two-dimensional momentum planes, we find that the optically driven transition from the valence band to the QWS acts almost exclusively on majority-spin electrons. The mechanism providing the high spin polarization is discussed by the help of a density-functional theory calculation. Additionally, a sizable effect of spin-orbit coupling for the QWS is evidenced.
2013-01-01
In J-aggregates of cyanine dyes, closely packed molecules form mesoscopic tubes with nanometer-diameter and micrometer-length. Their efficient energy transfer pathways make them suitable candidates for artificial light harvesting systems. This great potential calls for an in-depth spectroscopic analysis of the underlying energy deactivation network and coherence dynamics. We use two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with sub-10 fs laser pulses in combination with two-dimensional decay-associated spectra analysis to describe the population flow within the aggregate. Based on the analysis of Fourier-transform amplitude maps, we distinguish between vibrational or vibronic coherence dynamics as the origin of pronounced oscillations in our two-dimensional electronic spectra. PMID:23461650
King, P.D.C.
2012-03-01
We demonstrate the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the (100) surface of the 5d transition-metal oxide KTaO{sub 3}. From angle-resolved photoemission, we find that quantum confinement lifts the orbital degeneracy of the bulk band structure and leads to a 2DEG composed of ladders of subband states of both light and heavy carriers. Despite the strong spin-orbit coupling, we find no experimental signatures of a Rashba spin splitting, which has important implications for the interpretation of transport measurements in both KTaO{sub 3}- and SrTiO{sub 3}-based 2DEGs. The polar nature of the KTaO{sub 3}(100) surface appears to help mediate formation of the 2DEG as compared to non-polar SrTiO{sub 3}(100).
Electron interactions in the two-dimensional electron-gas base of a vertical hot-electron transistor
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matthews, P.; Kelly, M. J.; Law, V. J.; Hasko, D. G.; Pepper, M.; Stobbs, W. M.; Ahmed, H.; Peacock, D. C.; Frost, J. E. F.; Ritchie, D. A.; Jones, G. A. C.
1990-12-01
We present results on the interaction of hot and cold electrons in a large-area two-dimensional electron-gas-base hot-electron transistor. Four-terminal magnetoresistance measurements of the cold electrons in the two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) base, as a function of forward-emitter bias, VEB, show significant deviations from the zero-bias condition. We identify two distinct regimes: (i) an enhanced interface scattering as the 2DEG is forced against the collector-barrier heterojunction for low biases before emitter-current injection and (ii) an electron-heating effect in the 2DEG once current injection occurs. We invoke a simple heat-exchange argument to analyze the relaxation of the injected hot carriers.
Numerical Studies of Collective Phenomena in Two-Dimensional Electron and Cold Atom Systems
Rezayi, Edward
2013-07-25
Numerical calculations were carried out to investigate a number of outstanding questions in both two-dimensional electron and cold atom systems. These projects aimed to increase our understanding of the properties of and prospects for non-Abelian states in quantum Hall matter.
Merging of Landau levels in a strongly interacting two-dimensional electron system in silicon.
Shashkin, A A; Dolgopolov, V T; Clark, J W; Shaginyan, V R; Zverev, M V; Khodel, V A
2014-05-01
We show that the merging of the spin- and valley-split Landau levels at the chemical potential is an intrinsic property of a strongly interacting two-dimensional electron system in silicon. Evidence for the level merging is given by available experimental data. PMID:24856708
THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL VALENCE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF A MONOLYAER OF Ag ON Cu(00l)
Tobin, J.G.; Robey, S.W.; Shirley, D.A.
1985-05-01
The metal overlayer system c(10x2)Ag/Cu(001) was studied at coverages near one monolayer with angle-resolved photoemission. The observed spectroscopic features indicate a two-dimensional d-band electronic structure that can be interpreted using a model with planar, hexagonal symmetry in which crystal field effects dominate over spin-orbit effects.
Merging of Landau levels in a strongly interacting two-dimensional electron system in silicon.
Shashkin, A A; Dolgopolov, V T; Clark, J W; Shaginyan, V R; Zverev, M V; Khodel, V A
2014-05-01
We show that the merging of the spin- and valley-split Landau levels at the chemical potential is an intrinsic property of a strongly interacting two-dimensional electron system in silicon. Evidence for the level merging is given by available experimental data.
Electronic structure of disordered CuPd alloys: A two-dimensional positron-annihilation study
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smedskjaer, L. C.; Benedek, R.; Siegel, R. W.; Legnini, D. G.; Stahulak, M. D.; Bansil, A.
1987-11-01
Two-dimensional-angular-correlation experiments using posi- tron-annihilation spectroscopy were performed on a series of disordered Cu-rich CuPd-alloy single crystals. The results are compared with theoretical calculations based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation. Our experiments confirm the theoretically predicted flattening of the alloy Fermi surface near [110] with increasing Pd concentration. The momentum densities and the two-dimensional-angular-correlation spectra around zero momentum exhibit a characteristic signature of the electronic states near the valence-band edge in the alloy.
Electronic structure of disordered CuPd alloys: A two-dimensional positron-annihilation study
Smedskjaer, L.C.; Benedek, R.; Siegel, R.W.; Legnini, D.G.; Stahulak, M.D.; Bansil, A.
1987-11-23
Two-dimensional--angular-correlation experiments using posi- tron-annihilation spectroscopy were performed on a series of disordered Cu-rich CuPd-alloy single crystals. The results are compared with theoretical calculations based on the Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker coherent-potential approximation. Our experiments confirm the theoretically predicted flattening of the alloy Fermi surface near (110) with increasing Pd concentration. The momentum densities and the two-dimensional--angular-correlation spectra around zero momentum exhibit a characteristic signature of the electronic states near the valence-band edge in the alloy.
Two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow
Chen, S. H.; Tai, L. C.; Liu, Y. L.; Ang, L. K.; Koh, W. S.
2011-02-15
Two-dimensional electromagnetic particle-in-cell simulations were performed to study the effect of the displacement current and the self-magnetic field on the space charge limited current density or the Child-Langmuir law of a short-pulse electron flow with a propagation distance of {zeta} and an emitting width of W from the classical regime to the relativistic regime. Numerical scaling of the two-dimensional electromagnetic Child-Langmuir law was constructed and it scales with ({zeta}/W) and ({zeta}/W){sup 2} at the classical and relativistic regimes, respectively. Our findings reveal that the displacement current can considerably enhance the space charge limited current density as compared to the well-known two-dimensional electrostatic Child-Langmuir law even at the classical regime.
Marocchino, A.; Lapenta, G.; Evstatiev, E. G.; Nebel, R. A.; Park, J.
2006-10-15
Theoretical works by Barnes and Nebel [D. C. Barnes and R. A. Nebel, Phys. Plasmas 5, 2498 (1998); R. A. Nebel and D. C. Barnes, Fusion Technol. 38, 28 (1998)] have suggested that a tiny oscillating ion cloud (referred to as the periodically oscillating plasma sphere or POPS) may undergo a self-similar collapse in a harmonic oscillator potential formed by a uniform electron background. A major uncertainty in this oscillating plasma scheme is the stability of the virtual cathode that forms the harmonic oscillator potential. The electron-electron two-stream stability of the virtual cathode has previously been studied with a fluid model, a slab kinetic model, a spherically symmetric kinetic model, and experimentally [R. A. Nebel and J. M. Finn, Phys. Plasmas 8, 1505 (2001); R. A. Nebel et al., Phys. Plasmas 12, 040501 (2005)]. Here the mode is studied with a two-dimensional particle-in-cell code. Results indicate stability limits near those of the previously spherically symmetric case.
Two-dimensional electronic excitations in self-assembled conjugated polymer nanocrystals
Osterbacka; An; Jiang; Vardeny
2000-02-01
Several spectroscopic methods were applied to study the characteristic properties of the electronic excitations in thin films of regioregular and regiorandom polythiophene polymers. In the regioregular polymers, which form two-dimensional lamellar structures, increased interchain coupling strongly influences the traditional one-dimensional electronic properties of the polymer chains. The photogenerated charge excitations (polarons) show two-dimensional delocalization that results in a relatively small polaronic energy, multiple absorption bands in the gap where the lowest energy band becomes dominant, and associated infrared active vibrations with reverse absorption bands caused by electron-vibration interferences. The relatively weak absorption bands of the delocalized polaron in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges may help to achieve laser action in nanocrystalline polymer devices using current injection.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Excitations in Self-Assembled Conjugated Polymer Nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Österbacka, R.; An, C. P.; Jiang, X. M.; Vardeny, Z. V.
2000-02-01
Several spectroscopic methods were applied to study the characteristic properties of the electronic excitations in thin films of regioregular and regiorandom polythiophene polymers. In the regioregular polymers, which form two-dimensional lamellar structures, increased interchain coupling strongly influences the traditional one-dimensional electronic properties of the polymer chains. The photogenerated charge excitations (polarons) show two-dimensional delocalization that results in a relatively small polaronic energy, multiple absorption bands in the gap where the lowest energy band becomes dominant, and associated infrared active vibrations with reverse absorption bands caused by electron-vibration interferences. The relatively weak absorption bands of the delocalized polaron in the visible and near-infrared spectral ranges may help to achieve laser action in nanocrystalline polymer devices using current injection.
Two-dimensional electron gas in monolayer InN quantum wells
Pan, W. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Wang, G. T.; Dimakis, E. E-mail: e.dimakis@hzdr.de; Moustakas, T. D.; Tsui, D. C.
2014-11-24
We report in this letter experimental results that confirm the two-dimensional nature of the electron systems in a superlattice structure of 40 InN quantum wells consisting of one monolayer of InN embedded between 10 nm GaN barriers. The electron density and mobility of the two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in these InN quantum wells are 5 × 10{sup 15 }cm{sup −2} (or 1.25 × 10{sup 14 }cm{sup −2} per InN quantum well, assuming all the quantum wells are connected by diffused indium contacts) and 420 cm{sup 2}/Vs, respectively. Moreover, the diagonal resistance of the 2DES shows virtually no temperature dependence in a wide temperature range, indicating the topological nature of the 2DES.
Finite two-dimensional electron gas in a patterned semiconductor system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion; Livingston, Victoria; Thomas, Elsa; Saganti, Seth
On various occasions, fabrication of a two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dot leads to a small system of electrons confined in a domain that is not circular and may have a pronounced square (or rectangular) shape. In this work we consider a square-shaped semiconductor quantum dot configuration and treat the system of electrons as a finite two-dimensional electron gas. Within this framework, we adopt a Hartree-Fock approach and study the properties of a small two-dimensional system of electrons confined in a finite square region. We calculate the energy for various finite systems of fully spin-polarized (spinless) electrons interacting with a Coulomb potential. The results give a fairly accurate picture of how the energy of the finite system evolves towards the bulk value as the size of the system increases. The calculations for a square domain are challenging since expressions depend in each component of particle's position and not the radial distance from the center of the square-shaped semiconductor quantum dot. Therefore, we also consider a possible circularly symmetric approximation to the problem. We assess the quality of this approximation and discuss instances where its use is not only desirable, but also accurate. This research was supported in part by U.S. Army Research Office (ARO) Grant No. W911NF-13-1-0139 and National Science Foundation (NSF) Grant No. DMR-1410350.
Studies of two-dimensional electron and superconducting vortex systems using hybrid devices
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Farina, Lee Adrienne
Hybrid devices that combine two-dimensional electron systems in GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures with Al thin films or Al/AlOx/Al tunnel junctions can provide unique tools for the study of the collective behavior of electrons. We present the study two aspects of low-dimensional physics using hybrid devices. An Al/AlOx/Al single electron transistor is used to monitor the properties of a two-dimensional electron gas in a high magnetic field (1-11 Tesla) at low temperatures (15 mK--280 mK). The single electron transistor measures properties of the deep insulating regime of the integer quantum Hall liquid (between Landau levels) which cannot be probed via other methods. We monitor in real time the motion of charge carriers in the quantum Hall liquid after small changes in magnetic field or back gate voltage. The behavior after an increase in magnetic field is found to be identical to that after a change in back gate voltage. Systematic study of this effect in the nu = 2 plateau shows that two electrons accumulate in the bulk for each flux quanta added to the system. An etched antidot (< 1 mum) under the single electron transistor has the small but clear effect of additional charging around the antidot after an increase in magnetic field. The slow equilibration (> 1 hour) in the nu = 2 plateau provides a new method of measuring the extremely low conductivity of the bulk (10-19 - 10-18 1/O). We also studied the superconducting transition of an Al thin film at zero magnetic field using a bilayer device consisting of a thin Al film and a two-dimensional electron gas. By modulating the resistance of the two-dimensional electron gas we are able to measurably vary the dissipation in the Al due to eddy current coupling of the superconducting vortices to the two-dimensional electron gas. The temperature dependence of this effect indicates the presence of thermally excited vortices below Tc. Drag measurements are also performed on this device. We find that radio
Orbital dependent Rashba splitting and electron-phonon coupling of 2D Bi phase on Cu(100) surface
Gargiani, Pierluigi; Lisi, Simone; Betti, Maria Grazia; Ibrahimi, Amina Taleb; Bertran, François; Le Fèvre, Patrick; Chiodo, Letizia
2013-11-14
A monolayer of bismuth deposited on the Cu(100) surface forms a highly ordered c(2×2) reconstructed phase. The low energy single particle excitations of the c(2×2) Bi/Cu(100) present Bi-induced states with a parabolic dispersion in the energy region close to the Fermi level, as observed by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. The electronic state dispersion, the charge density localization, and the spin-orbit coupling have been investigated combining photoemission spectroscopy and density functional theory, unraveling a two-dimensional Bi phase with charge density well localized at the interface. The Bi-induced states present a Rashba splitting, when the charge density is strongly localized in the Bi plane. Furthermore, the temperature dependence of the spectral density close to the Fermi level has been evaluated. Dispersive electronic states offer a large number of decay channels for transitions coupled to phonons and the strength of the electron-phonon coupling for the Bi/Cu(100) system is shown to be stronger than for Bi surfaces and to depend on the electronic state symmetry and localization.
Two-Dimensional Crystallization of Integral Membrane Proteins for Electron Crystallography
Stokes, David L.; Rice, William J.; Hu, Minghui; Kim, Changki; Ubarretxena, Iban
2011-01-01
Although membrane proteins make up 30% of the proteome and are a common target for therapeutic drugs, determination of their atomic structure remains a technical challenge. Electron crystallography represents an alternative to the conventional methods of X-ray diffraction and NMR and relies on the formation of two-dimensional crystals. These crystals are produced by reconstituting purified, detergent-solubilized membrane proteins back into the native environment of a lipid bilayer. This chapter reviews methods for producing two-dimensional crystals and for screening them by negative stain electron microscopy. In addition, we show examples of the different morphologies that are commonly obtained and describe basic image analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate their promise for structure determination by cryoelectron microsopy. PMID:20665267
Two-dimensional crystallization of integral membrane proteins for electron crystallography.
Stokes, David L; Rice, William J; Hu, Minghui; Kim, Changki; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban
2010-01-01
Although membrane proteins make up 30% of the proteome and are a common target for therapeutic drugs, determination of their atomic structure remains a technical challenge. Electron crystallography represents an alternative to the conventional methods of X-ray diffraction and NMR and relies on the formation of two-dimensional crystals. These crystals are produced by reconstituting purified, detergent-solubilized membrane proteins back into the native environment of a lipid bilayer. This chapter reviews methods for producing two-dimensional crystals and for screening them by negative stain electron microscopy. In addition, we show examples of the different morphologies that are commonly obtained and describe basic image analysis procedures that can be used to evaluate their promise for structure determination by cryoelectron microscopy.
Thermoelectric properties of a two-dimensional electron gas exhibiting the quantum Hall effect
Davidson, J.S.; Dahlberg, E.D.; Valois, A.J.; Robinson, G.Y.
1986-02-15
This Communication reports studies of the thermoelectric properties of a two-dimensional electron gas in the quantum Hall regime. The data are compared to theoretical predictions for the thermopower when the chemical potential lies either in the middle of a Landau level or midway between two levels. For the comparison a Gaussian broadening is assumed and a good fit to the data can be obtained with the width of the levels as the adjustable parameter.
A study of quantum phase transitions in two dimensional electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wan, Xin
2000-10-01
This thesis discusses possible theoretical explanation of novel phase transitions in two dimensional electron systems, including quantum Hall transition at strong as well as weak magnetic fields, and the zero-magnetic-field metal-insulator transition. For the quantum Hall transitions, studied for non-interacting electrons, a truncation technique is proposed to project the Hilbert space of a tight-binding lattice model to an individual magnetic subband (single Landau level) or multiple subbands (multiple Landau levels). Projection of the Hilbert space to a center subband is also proposed for study of possible quantum Hall transitions with Hall conductance change Deltasigma xy = ne2/h( n ≥ 2), which seem to exist in dirty samples at weak magnetic fields in different experimental systems. Algorithms of calculating Thouless number and Chern number, which relate to the longitudinal conductance and the Hall conductance, respectively, are developed within the truncated Hilbert space. The finite-size scaling theory is employed in analyzing the numerical data to identify phases in the thermodynamic limit. The effect of mass anisotropy on the Wigner crystallization transition in an interacting two-dimensional electron gas (in the absence of disorder) is also explored to test the connection between the zero-field metal-insulator transition and the Wigner crystallization transition. The static and dynamical properties of a two-dimensional Wigner crystal have been calculated for arbitrary two-dimensional Bravais lattices in the presence of anisotropic mass, as may be obtainable in Si MOSFETs with (110) surface. By studying the stability of all possible lattices, we find significant change in the crystal structure and melting density of the electron lattice with the lowest ground state energy.
Interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order in two-dimensional electron gas
Das, Tanmoy
2012-06-05
Decoupling spin and charge transports in solids is among the many prerequisites for realizing spin electronics, spin caloritronics, and spin-Hall effect. Beyond the conventional method of generating and manipulating spin current via magnetic knob, recent advances have expanded the possibility to optical and electrical method which are controllable both internally and externally. Yet, due to the inevitable presence of charge excitations and electrical polarizibility in these methods, the separation between spin and charge degrees of freedom of electrons remains a challenge. Here we propose and formulate an interaction induced staggered spin-orbit order as a new emergent phase of matter. We show that when some form of inherent spin-splitting via Rashba-type spin-orbit coupling renders two helical Fermi surfaces to become significantly nested, a Fermi surface instability arises. To lift this degeneracy, a spontaneous symmetry breaking spin-orbit density wave develops, causing a surprisingly large quasiparticle gapping with chiral electronic states, with no active charge excitations. Since the staggered spin-orbit order is associated with a condensation energy, quantified by the gap value, destroying such spin-orbit interaction costs sufficiently large perturbation field or temperature or de-phasing time. BiAg2 surface state is shown to be a representative system for realizing such novel spin-orbit interaction with tunable and large strength, and the spin-splitting is decoupled from charge excitations.
Disentangling electronic and vibronic coherences in two-dimensional echo spectra.
Kreisbeck, Christoph; Kramer, Tobias; Aspuru-Guzik, Alán
2013-08-15
The prevalence of long-lasting oscillatory signals in two-dimensional (2D) echo spectroscopy of light-harvesting complexes has led to a search for possible mechanisms. We investigate how two causes of oscillatory signals are intertwined: (i) electronic coherences supporting delocalized wavelike motion and (ii) narrow bands in the vibronic spectral density. To disentangle the vibronic and electronic contributions, we introduce a time-windowed Fourier transform of the signal amplitude. We find that 2D spectra can be dominated by excitations of pathways which are absent in excitonic energy transport. This leads to an underestimation of the lifetime of electronic coherences by 2D spectra.
Measurement of cyclotron resonance relaxation time in the two-dimensional electron system
Andreev, I. V. Muravev, V. M.; Kukushkin, I. V.; Belyanin, V. N.
2014-11-17
Dependence of cyclotron magneto-plasma mode relaxation time on electron concentration and temperature in the two-dimensional electron system in GaAs/AlGaAs quantum wells has been studied. Comparative analysis of cyclotron and transport relaxation time has been carried out. It was demonstrated that with the temperature increase transport relaxation time tends to cyclotron relaxation time. It was also shown that cyclotron relaxation time, as opposed to transport relaxation time, has a weak electron density dependence. The cyclotron time can exceed transport relaxation time by an order of magnitude in a low-density range.
Layer-by-layer evolution of a two-dimensional electron gas near an oxide interface.
Chang, Young Jun; Moreschini, Luca; Bostwick, Aaron; Gaines, Geoffrey A; Kim, Yong Su; Walter, Andrew L; Freelon, Byron; Tebano, Antonello; Horn, Karsten; Rotenberg, Eli
2013-09-20
We report the momentum-resolved measurement of a two-dimensional electron gas at the LaTiO(3)/SrTiO(3) interface by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Thanks to an advanced sample preparation technique, the orbital character of the conduction electrons and the electronic correlations can be accessed quantitatively as each unit cell layer is added. We find that all of these quantities change dramatically with distance from the interface. These findings open the way to analogous studies on other heterostructures, which are traditionally a forbidden field for ARPES. PMID:24093281
Layer-by-Layer Evolution of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas Near an Oxide Interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Young Jun; Moreschini, Luca; Bostwick, Aaron; Gaines, Geoffrey A.; Kim, Yong Su; Walter, Andrew L.; Freelon, Byron; Tebano, Antonello; Horn, Karsten; Rotenberg, Eli
2013-09-01
We report the momentum-resolved measurement of a two-dimensional electron gas at the LaTiO3/SrTiO3 interface by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES). Thanks to an advanced sample preparation technique, the orbital character of the conduction electrons and the electronic correlations can be accessed quantitatively as each unit cell layer is added. We find that all of these quantities change dramatically with distance from the interface. These findings open the way to analogous studies on other heterostructures, which are traditionally a forbidden field for ARPES.
Fidler, Andrew F.; Singh, Ved P.; Long, Phillip D.; Dahlberg, Peter D.; Engel, Gregory S.
2014-01-01
Time-resolved ultrafast optical probes of chiral dynamics provide a new window allowing us to explore how interactions with such structured environments drive electronic dynamics. Incorporating optical activity into time-resolved spectroscopies has proven challenging due to the small signal and large achiral background. Here, we demonstrate that two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can be adapted to detect chiral signals and that these signals reveal how excitations delocalize and contract following excitation. We dynamically probe the evolution of chiral electronic structure in the light harvesting complex 2 of purple bacteria following photoexcitation by creating a chiral two-dimensional mapping. The dynamics of the chiral two-dimensional signal directly reports on changes in the degree of delocalization of the excitonic state following photoexcitation. The mechanism of energy transfer in this system may enhance transfer probability due to the coherent coupling among chromophores while suppressing fluorescence that arises from populating delocalized states. This generally applicable spectroscopy will provide an incisive tool to probe ultrafast transient molecular fluctuations that are obscured in non-chiral experiments. PMID:24504144
Fidler, Andrew F; Singh, Ved P; Long, Phillip D; Dahlberg, Peter D; Engel, Gregory S
2014-01-01
Time-resolved ultrafast optical probes of chiral dynamics provide a new window allowing us to explore how interactions with such structured environments drive electronic dynamics. Incorporating optical activity into time-resolved spectroscopies has proven challenging because of the small signal and large achiral background. Here we demonstrate that two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy can be adapted to detect chiral signals and that these signals reveal how excitations delocalize and contract following excitation. We dynamically probe the evolution of chiral electronic structure in the light-harvesting complex 2 of purple bacteria following photoexcitation by creating a chiral two-dimensional mapping. The dynamics of the chiral two-dimensional signal directly reports on changes in the degree of delocalization of the excitonic states following photoexcitation. The mechanism of energy transfer in this system may enhance transfer probability because of the coherent coupling among chromophores while suppressing fluorescence that arises from populating delocalized states. This generally applicable spectroscopy will provide an incisive tool to probe ultrafast transient molecular fluctuations that are obscured in non-chiral experiments. PMID:24504144
A Study of Two Dimensional Electron Gas Using 2D Fourier Transform Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
McIntyre, Carl; Paul, Jagannath; Karaiskaj, Denis
2015-03-01
The dephasing of FES was measured in a symmetrically modulation doped 12 nm single quantum well GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas system using time integrated four wave mixing (TIFWM) and a two dimensional Fourier transform spectroscopy (2DFTS). At high in-well carrier densities of ~4 x 1011 cm-2, many body effects that are prevalent and measurable with non-linear optical spectroscopy. Effects of exciton-exciton and exciton-phonon scattering events, exciton populations, and biexciton formation are detectable at these carrier concentrations. Homogeneous linewidths obtained from 2DFT and TIFWM yield a zero Kelvin linewidth of 1.42 meV and an acoustic phonon scattering coefficient of 158 μ eV/K. These observations indicate a rapid increase in homogeneous linewidth with increased temperature. NSF REU Grant # DMR-1263066: REU Site in Applied Physics at USF.
Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2016-07-01
The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm2 V-1 s-1. The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime.
Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system.
Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2016-07-01
The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime.
Spin coherence of the two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well
Larionov, A. V.
2015-01-15
The coherent spin dynamics of the quasi-two-dimensional electron gas in a GaAs quantum well is experimentally investigated using the time-resolved spin Kerr effect in an optical cryostat with a split coil inducing magnetic fields of up to 6 T at a temperature of about 2 K. The electron spin dephasing times and degree of anisotropy of the spin relaxation of electrons are measured in zero magnetic field at different electron densities. The dependence of the spin-orbit splitting on the electron-gas density is established. In the integral quantum-Hall-effect mode, the unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time of 2D electrons of the lower Landau spin sublevel near the odd occupation factor ν = 3 is found. The experimentally observed unsteady behavior of the spin dephasing time can be explained in terms of new-type cyclotron modes that occur in a liquid spin texture.
Lyo, Sungkwun K.; Pan, Wei
2014-08-07
In this paper, we study the Bloch oscillations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a strong periodic potential-modulation and miniband transport along the field at low temperatures, assuming a free motion in the transverse direction. The dependence of the current on the field, the electron density, and the temperature is investigated by using a relaxation-time approximation for inelastic scattering. Moreover, for a fixed total scattering rate, the field dependence of the current is sensitive to the ratio of the elastic and inelastic scattering rates in contrast with the recent result of a multiband but otherwise similar model with a weak potential modulation.
Amplification and directional emission of surface acoustic waves by a two-dimensional electron gas
Shao, Lei; Pipe, Kevin P.
2015-01-12
Amplification of surface acoustic waves (SAWs) by electron drift in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is analyzed analytically and confirmed experimentally. Calculations suggest that peak power gain per SAW radian occurs at a more practical carrier density for a 2DEG than for a bulk material. It is also shown that SAW emission with tunable directionality can be achieved by modulating a 2DEG's carrier density (to effect SAW generation) in the presence of an applied DC field that amplifies SAWs propagating in a particular direction while attenuating those propagating in the opposite direction.
Electron- and photon-induced plasmonic excitations in two-dimensional silver nanostructures
Hoang, C. V.; Rana, M.; Nagao, T.
2014-06-23
Plasmons are the quasi particles of collective oscillations of electrons and form the basis of plasmonics and optical metamaterials. We combined electron spectroscopy and optical spectroscopy techniques to study plasmons in atomically smooth Ag films and in epitaxial Ag nanodisks to map the momentum-energy dispersion curves of the two-dimensional (2D) sheet plasmon and the quasi-2D plasmons to clarify the essential differences between them. Our experimental results combined with the results of numerical electromagnetic simulations showed that the bulk-like nature of the silver plasmon starts in layers that are only two atoms thick.
The Instability of Terahertz Plasma Waves in Two Dimensional Gated and Ungated Quantum Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Liping
2016-04-01
The instability of terahertz (THz) plasma waves in two-dimensional (2D) quantum electron gas in a nanometer field effect transistor (FET) with asymmetrical boundary conditions has been investigated. We analyze THz plasma waves of two parts of the 2D quantum electron gas: gated and ungated regions. The results show that the radiation frequency and the increment (radiation power) in 2D ungated quantum electron gas are much higher than that in 2D gated quantum electron gas. The quantum effects always enhance the radiation power and enlarge the region of instability in both cases. This allows us to conclude that 2D quantum electron gas in the transistor channel is important for the emission and detection process and both gated and ungated parts take part in that process. supported by National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 10975114)
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-02-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm-2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm-2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, T. M.; Laroche, D.; Huang, S.-H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J.-Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm−2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm−2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. This result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential. PMID:26865160
Hydrostatic pressure response of an oxide-based two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zabaleta, J.; Borisov, V. S.; Wanke, R.; Jeschke, H. O.; Parks, S. C.; Baum, B.; Teker, A.; Harada, T.; Syassen, K.; Kopp, T.; Pavlenko, N.; Valentí, R.; Mannhart, J.
2016-06-01
Two-dimensional electron systems with fascinating properties exist in multilayers of standard semiconductors, on helium surfaces, and in oxides. Compared to the two-dimensional (2D) electron gases of semiconductors, the 2D electron systems in oxides are typically more strongly correlated and more sensitive to the microscopic structure of the hosting lattice. This sensitivity suggests that the oxide 2D systems are highly tunable by hydrostatic pressure. Here we explore the effects of hydrostatic pressure on the well-characterized 2D electron system formed at LaAlO3-SrTiO3 interfaces [A. Ohtomo and H. Y. Hwang, Nature (London) 427, 423 (2004), 10.1038/nature02308] and measure a pronounced, unexpected response. Pressure of ˜2 GPa reversibly doubles the 2D carrier density ns at 4 K. Along with the increase of ns, the conductivity and mobility are reduced under pressure. First-principles pressure simulations reveal the same behavior of the carrier density and suggest a possible mechanism of the mobility reduction, based on the dielectric properties of both materials and their variation under external pressure.
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned overmore » a wide range, from 4.4 × 1010 cm–2 to 1.8 × 1011 cm–2, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 105 cm2/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.« less
High-mobility capacitively-induced two-dimensional electrons in a lateral superlattice potential
Lu, Tzu -Ming; Laroche, Dominique; Huang, S. -H.; Chuang, Y.; Li, J. -Y.; Liu, C. W.
2016-01-01
In the presence of a lateral periodic potential modulation, two-dimensional electrons may exhibit interesting phenomena, such as a graphene-like energy-momentum dispersion, Bloch oscillations, or the Hofstadter butterfly band structure. To create a sufficiently strong potential modulation using conventional semiconductor heterostructures, aggressive device processing is often required, unfortunately resulting in strong disorder that masks the sought-after effects. Here, we report a novel fabrication process flow for imposing a strong lateral potential modulation onto a capacitively induced two-dimensional electron system, while preserving the host material quality. Using this process flow, the electron density in a patterned Si/SiGe heterostructure can be tuned over a wide range, from 4.4 × 10^{10} cm^{–2} to 1.8 × 10^{11} cm^{–2}, with a peak mobility of 6.4 × 10^{5} cm^{2}/V·s. The wide density tunability and high electron mobility allow us to observe sequential emergence of commensurability oscillations as the density, the mobility, and in turn the mean free path, increase. Magnetic-field-periodic quantum oscillations associated with various closed orbits also emerge sequentially with increasing density. We show that, from the density dependence of the quantum oscillations, one can directly extract the steepness of the imposed superlattice potential. Lastly, this result is then compared to a conventional lateral superlattice model potential.
Electronic structures and optical properties of two-dimensional ScN and YN nanosheets
Liu, Jian; Li, Xi-Bo; Zhang, Hui; Yin, Wen-Jin; Liu, Li-Min E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn; Zhang, Hai-Bin; Peng, Ping E-mail: limin.liu@csrc.ac.cn
2014-03-07
Two-dimensional (2D) materials exhibit different electronic properties than their bulk materials. Here, we present a systematic study of 2D tetragonal materials of ScN and YN using density functional theory calculations. Several thermodynamically stable 2D tetragonal structures were determined, and such novel tetragonal structures have good electronic and optical properties. Both bulk ScN and YN are indirect band gap semiconductors while the electronic structures of 2D ScN and YN are indirect gap semiconductors, with band gaps of 0.62–2.21 eV. The calculated optical spectra suggest that 2D tetragonal ScN and YN nanosheets have high visible light absorption efficiency. These electronic properties indicate that 2D ScN and YN have great potential for applications in photovoltaics and photocatalysis.
Islam, Mohammad A; Saldana-Greco, Diomedes; Gu, Zongquan; Wang, Fenggong; Breckenfeld, Eric; Lei, Qingyu; Xu, Ruijuan; Hawley, Christopher J; Xi, X X; Martin, Lane W; Rappe, Andrew M; Spanier, Jonathan E
2016-01-13
We report intense, narrow line-width, surface chemisorption-activated and reversible ultraviolet (UV) photoluminescence from radiative recombination of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with photoexcited holes at LaAlO3/SrTiO3. The switchable luminescence arises from an electron transfer-driven modification of the electronic structure via H-chemisorption onto the AlO2-terminated surface of LaAlO3, at least 2 nm away from the interface. The control of the onset of emission and its intensity are functionalities that go beyond the luminescence of compound semiconductor quantum wells. Connections between reversible chemisorption, fast electron transfer, and quantum-well luminescence suggest a new model for surface chemically reconfigurable solid-state UV optoelectronics and molecular sensing. PMID:26675987
Superradiant decay of cyclotron resonance of two-dimensional electron gases.
Zhang, Qi; Arikawa, Takashi; Kato, Eiji; Reno, John L; Pan, Wei; Watson, John D; Manfra, Michael J; Zudov, Michael A; Tokman, Mikhail; Erukhimova, Maria; Belyanin, Alexey; Kono, Junichiro
2014-07-25
We report on the observation of collective radiative decay, or superradiance, of cyclotron resonance (CR) in high-mobility two-dimensional electron gases in GaAs quantum wells using time-domain terahertz magnetospectroscopy. The decay rate of coherent CR oscillations increases linearly with the electron density in a wide range, which is a hallmark of superradiant damping. Our fully quantum mechanical theory provides a universal formula for the decay rate, which reproduces our experimental data without any adjustable parameter. These results firmly establish the many-body nature of CR decoherence in this system, despite the fact that the CR frequency is immune to electron-electron interactions due to Kohn's theorem. PMID:25105654
Zhang, Yizhu; Yan, T-M; Jiang, Y H
2016-09-01
A new method determining the precise phase of pulse sequences in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is proposed merely using the already built-in spectral interferometry. The approach is easily implemented without the supplementary instrumental construction, only at the expense of a few additional scanning and data-fitting processes. This method is executed with the sample in place, effectively avoiding the phase ambiguities of the beam propagation in samples, thus calibrating the absolute phase at the exact interaction region. The new proposed method is expected to improve the phasing procedure in 2DES in a more convenient way. PMID:27607991
Hilton, David J
2012-12-31
We develop a new characteristic matrix-based method to analyze cyclotron resonance experiments in high mobility two-dimensional electron gas samples where direct interference between primary and satellite reflections has previously limited the frequency resolution. This model is used to simulate experimental data taken using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy that show multiple pulses from the substrate with a separation of 15 ps that directly interfere in the time-domain. We determine a cyclotron dephasing lifetime of 15.1 ± 0.5 ps at 1.5 K and 5.0 ± 0.5 ps at 75 K.
Co-axial Ka-band Free Electron Maser Using Two-dimensional Feedback
Phelps, A. D. R.; Konoplev, I. V.; McGrane, P.; Cross, A. W.; He, W.; Whyte, C. G.; Ronald, K.; Thumm, M. K.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.
2006-01-03
The first successful experimental studies of microwave radiation from a co-axial Free-Electron Maser (FEM) based on two-dimensional (2D) distributed feedback have been recently conducted. This paper contains a description of the experimental set-up and the results obtained. The high-power pulsed power supply and high-current accelerator (HCA) developed and used to drive the FEM are discussed. The results of the experimental study of the FEM operating in the Ka frequency band are presented and compared with theoretical predictions.
Non-diffusive spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electron gas
Weber, C.P.
2010-04-28
We describe measurements of spin dynamics in the two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/GaAlAs quantum wells. Optical techniques, including transient spin-grating spectroscopy, are used to probe the relaxation rates of spin polarization waves in the wavevector range from zero to 6 x 10{sup 4} cm{sup -1}. We find that the spin polarization lifetime is maximal at nonzero wavevector, in contrast with expectation based on ordinary spin diffusion, but in quantitative agreement with recent theories that treat diffusion in the presence of spin-orbit coupling.
Shevyrin, A A; Pogosov, A G; Bakarov, A K; Shklyaev, A A
2016-07-01
The electrical response of a two-dimensional electron gas to vibrations of a nanomechanical cantilever containing it is studied. Vibrations of perpendicularly oriented cantilevers are experimentally shown to oppositely change the conductivity near their bases. This indicates the piezoelectric nature of electromechanical coupling. A physical model is developed, which quantitatively explains the experiment. It shows that the main origin of the conductivity change is a rapid change in the mechanical stress on the boundary between suspended and nonsuspended areas, rather than the stress itself. PMID:27419592
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shevyrin, A. A.; Pogosov, A. G.; Bakarov, A. K.; Shklyaev, A. A.
2016-07-01
The electrical response of a two-dimensional electron gas to vibrations of a nanomechanical cantilever containing it is studied. Vibrations of perpendicularly oriented cantilevers are experimentally shown to oppositely change the conductivity near their bases. This indicates the piezoelectric nature of electromechanical coupling. A physical model is developed, which quantitatively explains the experiment. It shows that the main origin of the conductivity change is a rapid change in the mechanical stress on the boundary between suspended and nonsuspended areas, rather than the stress itself.
Ultra-low-temperature cooling of two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xia, J. S.; Adams, E. D.; Shvarts, V.; Pan, W.; Stormer, H. L.; Tsui, D. C.
2000-05-01
A new design has been used for cooling GaAs/Al xGa 1- xAs sample to ultra-low-temperatures. The sample, with electrical contacts directly soldered to the sintered silver powder heat exchangers, was immersed in liquid 3He, which was cooled by a PrNI 5 nuclear refrigerator. The data analysis shows that the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) was cooled to 4.0 mK at the refrigerator base temperature Tb of 2.0 mK. The design with heat exchanger cooling is applicable to any ultra-low-temperature transport measurements of 2DEG system.
Zhang, Ding; Huang, Xuting; Dietsche, Werner; von Klitzing, Klaus; Smet, Jurgen H
2014-08-15
We investigate the evolution of the chemical potential of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) as a function of density at a fixed magnetic field. By using a bilayer system, changes in the chemical potential of one 2DES are determined from the density variation induced in the second, nearby 2DES. At high magnetic fields around a filling factor of ν=1 or ν=2, the chemical potential jump associated with the condensation in a quantum Hall state exhibits two anomalies symmetrically located around these integer filling factors. They are attributed to the formation of a 2D Wigner crystal of quasiparticles. PMID:25170727
Hilton, David J
2012-12-31
We develop a new characteristic matrix-based method to analyze cyclotron resonance experiments in high mobility two-dimensional electron gas samples where direct interference between primary and satellite reflections has previously limited the frequency resolution. This model is used to simulate experimental data taken using terahertz time-domain spectroscopy that show multiple pulses from the substrate with a separation of 15 ps that directly interfere in the time-domain. We determine a cyclotron dephasing lifetime of 15.1 ± 0.5 ps at 1.5 K and 5.0 ± 0.5 ps at 75 K. PMID:23388799
Hybrid two-dimensional electronic systems and other applications of sp-2 bonded light elements
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kessler, Brian Maxwell
The field-effect is a cornerstone of modern technology lying at the heart of transistors in consumer electronics. Experimentally, it allows one to continuously vary the carrier concentration in a material while studying its properties. The recent isolation of graphene, the first truly two-dimensional crystal, allows application of the field effect to a much wider range of physical situations. In the first part of the thesis, we investigate hybrid materials formed by coupling metals to the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in graphene. We couple superconducting materials to the graphene sheet by cluster deposition. This material displays a superconducting phase whose properties are tuned by the carrier density via the field effect. The transition temperature is well-described by Berezinskii-Kosterlitz-Thouless vortex unbinding. The ground state properties show interesting effects due to the distribution of cluster spacings. Observations related to other hybrid electronic systems including ferromagnets and normal metals are presented. The second part of this thesis involves energy applications of light element materials. The mechanisms affecting coating of carbon nanotubes using atomic layer deposition is developed and applied to photovoltaic systems. The gas adsorption properties of activated boron nitride are investigated and the relative influence of surface area and hydrogen binding affinity is elaborated. The third part of this thesis explores electromechanical properties of suspended graphene membranes. We investigate buckling and strain in exfoliated graphene membranes as well as their deformation under an applied gate potential.
Resistance asymmetry of a two-dimensional electron gas caused by an effective spin injection
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Golosov, D. I.; Shlimak, I.; Butenko, A.; Friedland, K.-J.; Kravchenko, S. V.
2013-10-01
We have performed conductivity measurements on a Si-MOSFET sample with a slot in the upper gate, allowing for different electron densities n1 and n2 across the slot. Dynamic longitudinal resistance was measured by a standard lock-in technique, while maintaining a large dc current through the source-drain channel. We find that in a parallel magnetic field, the resistance of the sample R(Idc) is asymmetric with respect to the direction of the dc current. The asymmetry becomes stronger with an increase of either the magnetic field or the difference between n1 and n2. These observations are interpreted in terms of the effective spin injection: the degree of spin polarization is different in the two parts of the sample, implying different magnitudes of spin current away from the slot. The carriers thus leave the excess spin (of the appropriate sign) in the region around the slot, leading to spin accumulation (or depletion) and to the spin-drift-diffusion phenomena. Due to the positive magnetoresistance of the two-dimensional electron gas, this change in a local magnetization affects the resistivity near the slot and the measured net resistance, giving rise to an asymmetric contribution. We further observe that the value of R(Idc) saturates at large Idc; we suggest that this is due to electron tunneling from the two-dimensional n-type layer into the p-type silicon (or into another “spin reservoir”) at the slot.
Camargo, Franco V A; Anderson, Harry L; Meech, Stephen R; Heisler, Ismael A
2015-01-01
In this work we present experimental and calculated two-dimensional electronic spectra for a 5,15-bisalkynyl porphyrin chromophore. The lowest energy electronic Qy transition couples mainly to a single 380 cm(-1) vibrational mode. The two-dimensional electronic spectra reveal diagonal and cross peaks which oscillate as a function of population time. We analyze both the amplitude and phase distribution of this main vibronic transition as a function of excitation and detection frequencies. Even though Feynman diagrams provide a good indication of where the amplitude of the oscillating components are located in the excitation-detection plane, other factors also affect this distribution. Specifically, the oscillation corresponding to each Feynman diagram is expected to have a phase that is a function of excitation and detection frequencies. Therefore, the overall phase of the experimentally observed oscillation will reflect this phase dependence. Another consequence is that the overall oscillation amplitude can show interference patterns resulting from overlapping contributions from neighboring Feynman diagrams. These observations are consistently reproduced through simulations based on third order perturbation theory coupled to a spectral density described by a Brownian oscillator model.
Camargo, Franco V A; Anderson, Harry L; Meech, Stephen R; Heisler, Ismael A
2015-01-01
In this work we present experimental and calculated two-dimensional electronic spectra for a 5,15-bisalkynyl porphyrin chromophore. The lowest energy electronic Qy transition couples mainly to a single 380 cm(-1) vibrational mode. The two-dimensional electronic spectra reveal diagonal and cross peaks which oscillate as a function of population time. We analyze both the amplitude and phase distribution of this main vibronic transition as a function of excitation and detection frequencies. Even though Feynman diagrams provide a good indication of where the amplitude of the oscillating components are located in the excitation-detection plane, other factors also affect this distribution. Specifically, the oscillation corresponding to each Feynman diagram is expected to have a phase that is a function of excitation and detection frequencies. Therefore, the overall phase of the experimentally observed oscillation will reflect this phase dependence. Another consequence is that the overall oscillation amplitude can show interference patterns resulting from overlapping contributions from neighboring Feynman diagrams. These observations are consistently reproduced through simulations based on third order perturbation theory coupled to a spectral density described by a Brownian oscillator model. PMID:25469716
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Inotani, Daisuke; Ohashi, Yoji; Okada, Susumu
2014-03-01
Recently, the possibility of the superconductivity in graphene are attracting a lot of attention because of its novel properties associated with the pure two-dimensionality, as well as the Dirac fermion nature of the electrons. In this work, we investigate the collective properties of the superconducting graphene. Including the attractive s-wave pairing interaction, as well as the long range Coulomb interaction between the electrons in the tight-binding model for the honeycomb lattice, we calculate the generalized density-density correlation function within the random phase approximation in both normal and superconducting state at T=0. In normal state, we find that a stable collective excitation associated with the superconducting pairing fluctuations appears due to the linear dispersion relation of the electrons. On the other hand, in superconducting state, the phase mode remains stable even at T=0, although the dispersion relation of the phase mode is strongly modified by the Coulomb interaction in the long wave-length region. This result is in contrast to the conventional superconductors in which the phase mode disappears at T=0 by the so-called Anderson-Higgs mechanism. We show that this novel property of the phase mode arises from the pure two-dimensionality of the system.
Observation of Spin Coulomb Drag in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
Weber, C.P.
2011-08-19
An electron propagating through a solid carries spin angular momentum in addition to its mass and charge. Of late there has been considerable interest in developing electronic devices based on the transport of spin, which offer potential advantages in dissipation, size, and speed over charge-based devices. However, these advantages bring with them additional complexity. Because each electron carries a single, fixed value (-e) of charge, the electrical current carried by a gas of electrons is simply proportional to its total momentum. A fundamental consequence is that the charge current is not affected by interactions that conserve total momentum, notably collisions among the electrons themselves. In contrast, the electron's spin along a given spatial direction can take on two values, {+-} {h_bar}/2 (conventionally {up_arrow}, {down_arrow}), so that the spin current and momentum need not be proportional. Although the transport of spin polarization is not protected by momentum conservation, it has been widely assumed that, like the charge current, spin current is unaffected by electron-electron (e-e) interactions. Here we demonstrate experimentally not only that this assumption is invalid, but that over a broad range of temperature and electron density, the flow of spin polarization in a two-dimensional gas of electrons is controlled by the rate of e-e collisions.
Gate Tuning of Electronic Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional NbSe_{2}.
Xi, Xiaoxiang; Berger, Helmuth; Forró, László; Shan, Jie; Mak, Kin Fai
2016-09-01
Recent experimental advances in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) metals have unveiled a range of interesting phenomena including the coexistence of charge-density-wave (CDW) order and superconductivity down to the monolayer limit. The atomic thickness of two-dimensional (2D) TMD metals also opens up the possibility for control of these electronic phase transitions by electrostatic gating. Here, we demonstrate reversible tuning of superconductivity and CDW order in model 2D TMD metal NbSe_{2} by an ionic liquid gate. A variation up to ∼50% in the superconducting transition temperature has been observed. Both superconductivity and CDW order can be strengthened (weakened) by increasing (reducing) the carrier density in 2D NbSe_{2}. The doping dependence of these phase transitions can be understood as driven by a varying electron-phonon coupling strength induced by the gate-modulated carrier density and the electronic density of states near the Fermi surface. PMID:27636485
Rajan, Arunkumar Chitteth; Rezapour, Mohammad Reza; Yun, Jeonghun; Cho, Yeonchoo; Cho, Woo Jong; Min, Seung Kyu; Lee, Geunsik; Kim, Kwang S
2014-02-25
Laser-driven molecular spectroscopy of low spatial resolution is widely used, while electronic current-driven molecular spectroscopy of atomic scale resolution has been limited because currents provide only minimal information. However, electron transmission of a graphene nanoribbon on which a molecule is adsorbed shows molecular fingerprints of Fano resonances, i.e., characteristic features of frontier orbitals and conformations of physisorbed molecules. Utilizing these resonance profiles, here we demonstrate two-dimensional molecular electronics spectroscopy (2D MES). The differential conductance with respect to bias and gate voltages not only distinguishes different types of nucleobases for DNA sequencing but also recognizes methylated nucleobases which could be related to cancerous cell growth. This 2D MES could open an exciting field to recognize single molecule signatures at atomic resolution. The advantages of the 2D MES over the one-dimensional (1D) current analysis can be comparable to those of 2D NMR over 1D NMR analysis.
Two-dimensional electron gas in GaAs/SrHfO3 heterostructure
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Jianli; Yuan, Mengqi; Tang, Gang; Li, Huichao; Zhang, Junting; Guo, Sandong
2016-06-01
The III-V/perovskite-oxide system can potentially create new material properties and new device applications by combining the rich properties of perovskite-oxides together with the superior optical and electronic properties of III-Vs. The structural and electronic properties of the surface and interface are studied using first-principles calculations for the GaAs/SrHfO3 heterostructure. We investigate the specific adsorption sites and the atomic structure at the initial growth stage of GaAs on the SrHfO3 (001) substrate. Ga and As adsorption atoms preferentially adsorb at the top sites of oxygen atoms under different coverage. The energetically favorable interfaces are presented among the atomic arrangements of the GaAs/SrHfO3 interfaces. Our calculations predict the existing of the two-dimensional electron gas in the GaAs/SrHfO3 heterostructure.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R.; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker
2015-07-01
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker
2015-07-28
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Gate Tuning of Electronic Phase Transitions in Two-Dimensional NbSe2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xi, Xiaoxiang; Berger, Helmuth; Forró, László; Shan, Jie; Mak, Kin Fai
2016-09-01
Recent experimental advances in atomically thin transition metal dichalcogenide (TMD) metals have unveiled a range of interesting phenomena including the coexistence of charge-density-wave (CDW) order and superconductivity down to the monolayer limit. The atomic thickness of two-dimensional (2D) TMD metals also opens up the possibility for control of these electronic phase transitions by electrostatic gating. Here, we demonstrate reversible tuning of superconductivity and CDW order in model 2D TMD metal NbSe2 by an ionic liquid gate. A variation up to ˜50 % in the superconducting transition temperature has been observed. Both superconductivity and CDW order can be strengthened (weakened) by increasing (reducing) the carrier density in 2D NbSe2 . The doping dependence of these phase transitions can be understood as driven by a varying electron-phonon coupling strength induced by the gate-modulated carrier density and the electronic density of states near the Fermi surface.
Prediction of a switchable two-dimensional electron gas at ferroelectric oxide interfaces.
Niranjan, Manish K; Wang, Yong; Jaswal, Sitaram S; Tsymbal, Evgeny Y
2009-07-01
The demonstration of a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in LaAlO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures has stimulated intense research activity in recent years. The 2DEG has unique properties that are promising for applications in all-oxide electronic devices. For such applications it is desirable to have the ability to control 2DEG properties by external stimulus. Here, based on first-principles calculations we predict that all-oxide heterostructures incorporating ferroelectric constituents, such as KNbO3/ATiO3 (A=Sr, Ba, Pb), allow creating a 2DEG switchable between two conduction states by ferroelectric polarization reversal. The effect occurs due to the screening charge at the interface that counteracts the depolarizing electric field and depends on polarization orientation. The proposed concept of ferroelectrically controlled interface conductivity offers the possibility to design novel electronic devices. PMID:19659167
Tuning the spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Raimondi, R.; Schwab, P.
2009-08-01
We provide a theoretical framework for the electric field control of the electron spin in systems with diffusive electron motion. The approach is valid in the experimentally important case where both intrinsic and extrinsic spin-orbit interaction in a two-dimensional electron gas are present simultaneously. Surprisingly, even when the extrinsic mechanism is the dominant driving force for spin Hall currents, the amplitude of the spin Hall conductivity may be considerably tuned by varying the intrinsic spin-orbit coupling via a gate voltage. Furthermore we provide an explanation for the mechanism giving rise to the experimentally observed out-of-plane spin polarization in a (110) GaAs quantum well.
Edge-induced spin polarization in two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bokes, P.; Horváth, F.
2010-03-01
We characterize the role of the spin-orbit coupling between electrons and the confining potential of the edge in nonequilibrium two-dimensional homogeneous electronic gas. We derive a simple analytical result for the magnitude of the current-induced spin polarization at the edge and prove that it is independent of the details of the confinement edge potential and the electronic density within realistic values of the parameters of the considered models. While the amplitude of the spin accumulation is comparable to the experimental values of extrinsic spin-Hall effect in similar samples, the spatial extent of edge-induced effect is restricted to the distances on the order of Fermi wavelength (˜10nm) .
Coulomb corrections to the extrinsic spin-Hall effect of a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hankiewicz, E. M.; Vignale, G.
2006-03-01
We develop the microscopic theory of the extrinsic spin-Hall conductivity of a two-dimensional electron gas, including skew-scattering, side-jump, and Coulomb interaction effects. We find that while the spin-Hall conductivity connected with the side jump is independent of the strength of electron-electron interactions, the skew-scattering term is reduced by the spin-Coulomb drag, so the total spin current and the total spin-Hall conductivity are reduced for typical experimental mobilities. Further, we predict that in paramagnetic systems the spin-Coulomb drag reduces the spin accumulations in two different ways: (i) directly through the reduction of the skew-scattering contribution, and (ii) indirectly through the reduction of the spin diffusion length. Explicit expressions for the various contributions to the spin-Hall conductivity are obtained using an exactly solvable model of the skew scattering.
Dynamical correlation effects on structure factor of spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas
Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.; Kumar, Krishan; Garg, Vinayak
2015-06-24
We report a theoretical study on static density structure factor S(q) of a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas over a wide range of electron number density r{sub s}. The electron correlations are treated within the dynamical version of the self-consistent mean-field theory of Singwi, Tosi, Land, and Sjolander, the so-called qSTLS approach. The calculated S(q) exhibits almost perfect agreement with the quantum Monte Carlo simulation data at r{sub s}=1. However, the extent of agreement somewhat diminishes with increasing r{sub s}, particularly for q around 2k{sub F}. Seen in conjunction with the success of qSTLS theory in dealing with correlations in the unpolarized phase, our study suggests that the otherwise celebrated qSTLS theory is not that good in treating the like-spin correlations.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ogilvie, Jennifer
2010-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) Fourier transform electronic spectroscopy has recently emerged as a powerful tool for the study of energy transfer in complex condensed-phase systems. Its experimental implementation is challenging but can be greatly simplified by implementing a pump-probe geometry, where the two phase-stable collinear pump pulses are created with an acousto-optic pulse-shaper. This approach also allows the use of a continuum probe pulse, expanding the available frequency range of the detection axis and allowing studies of energy transfer and electronic coupling over a broad range of frequencies. We discuss several benefits of 2D electronic spectroscopy and present 2D data on the D1-D2 reaction center complex of Photosystem II from spinach. We discuss the ability of 2D spectroscopy to distinguish between current models of energy and charge transfer in this system.
Albert, Julian; Falge, Mirjam; Hildenbrand, Heiko; Engel, Volker; Gomez, Sandra; Sola, Ignacio R.
2015-07-28
We theoretically investigate the photon-echo spectroscopy of coupled electron-nuclear quantum dynamics. Two situations are treated. In the first case, the Born-Oppenheimer (adiabatic) approximation holds. It is then possible to interpret the two-dimensional (2D) spectra in terms of vibrational motion taking place in different electronic states. In particular, pure vibrational coherences which are related to oscillations in the time-dependent third-order polarization can be identified. This concept fails in the second case, where strong non-adiabatic coupling leads to the breakdown of the Born-Oppenheimer-approximation. Then, the 2D-spectra reveal a complicated vibronic structure and vibrational coherences cannot be disentangled from the electronic motion.
Anisotropic two-dimensional electron gas at SrTiO3(110)
Wang, Zhiming; Zhong, Zhicheng; Hao, Xianfeng; Gerhold, Stefan; Stöger, Bernhard; Schmid, Michael; Sánchez-Barriga, Jaime; Varykhalov, Andrei; Franchini, Cesare; Held, Karsten; Diebold, Ulrike
2014-01-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) at oxide heterostructures are attracting considerable attention, as these might one day substitute conventional semiconductors at least for some functionalities. Here we present a minimal setup for such a 2DEG––the SrTiO3(110)-(4 × 1) surface, natively terminated with one monolayer of tetrahedrally coordinated titania. Oxygen vacancies induced by synchrotron radiation migrate underneath this overlayer; this leads to a confining potential and electron doping such that a 2DEG develops. Our angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy and theoretical results show that confinement along (110) is strikingly different from the (001) crystal orientation. In particular, the quantized subbands show a surprising “semiheavy” band, in contrast with the analog in the bulk, and a high electronic anisotropy. This anisotropy and even the effective mass of the (110) 2DEG is tunable by doping, offering a high flexibility to engineer the properties of this system. PMID:24591596
Ho Park, Youn; Kim, Hyung-jun; Chang, Joonyeon; Hee Han, Suk; Eom, Jonghwa; Choi, Heon-Jin; Cheol Koo, Hyun
2013-12-16
The Rashba spin-orbit interaction effective field is always in the plane of the two-dimensional electron gas and perpendicular to the carrier wavevector but the direction of the Dresselhaus field depends on the crystal orientation. These two spin-orbit interaction parameters can be determined separately by measuring and analyzing the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations for various crystal directions. In the InAs quantum well system investigated, the Dresselhaus term is just 5% of the Rashba term. The gate dependence of the oscillation patterns clearly shows that only the Rashba term is modulated by an external electric field.
Single-electron tunneling by using a two-dimensional Corbino nano-scale disk
Taira, H.; Suzuki, A.
2015-09-15
We investigate a single-electron tunneling effect of two-dimensional electron systems formed in the Corbino nano-scale disk. By controlling bias and gate voltages, the transistor using this effect is able to control electrons one by one. The present study focuses on the electronic transmission probability affected by the charging energy in the Corbino-type single-electron transistor. We reformulated the Schrödinger equation for an electron in the Corbino disk in order to consider the effect of the curvature of the disk, taking into account the charging effect on the performance of the Corbino-type single-electron transistor. We formulated the transmission probability of the electron by applying the Wentzel-Kramers-Brillouin (WKB) method. The electron’s energy in the formula of the transmission probability is then associated to the energy eigenvalue of the Schrödinger equation for an electron in an effective confining potential. We numerically solved the Schrödinger equation to evaluate the transmission probability. Our results show that the transmission probability strongly depends on the charging energy stored in the Corbino disk depending on its size.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
González, David G.; Sols, Fernando; Guinea, Francisco; Zapata, Ivar
2016-08-01
We investigate the interaction between the electrons of a two-dimensional metal and the acoustic phonons of an underlying piezoelectric substrate. Fundamental inequalities can be obtained from general energy arguments. As a result, phonon mediated attraction can be proven to never overcome electron Coulomb repulsion, at least for long phonon wavelengths. We study the influence of these phonons on the possible pairing instabilities of a two-dimensional electron gas such as graphene.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iñarrea, Jesús
2011-04-01
We analyze theoretically magnetoresistance of high-mobility two-dimensional electron systems being illuminated by multiple radiation sources. In particular, we study the influence on the striking effect of microwave-induced resistance oscillations. We consider moderate radiation intensities without reaching the zero-resistance states regime. We use the model of radiation-driven Larmor orbits extended to several light sources. First, we study the case of two different radiations polarized in the same direction with different or equal frequencies. For both cases, we find a regime of superposition or interference of harmonic motions. When the frequencies are different, we obtain a modulated magnetoresistance response with pulses and beats. On the other hand, when the frequencies are the same, we find that the final result will depend on the phase difference between both radiation fields going from an enhanced response to a total collapse of oscillations, reaching an outcome similar to darkness. Finally, we consider a multiple photoexcitation case (three different frequencies) in which we propose the two-dimensional electron system as a potential nanoantenna device for microwaves.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Mahtab; Erementchouk, Mikhail; Leuenberger, Michael
Defects play an important role in tailoring electronic and optical properties of two-dimensional monolayer transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDCs). Recently it has been shown that the presence of vacancy defects (VDs) in two-dimensional monolayer MoS_2 induces localized states which give rise to extra resonance peaks in both in-plane χ∥ and out-of-plane χ⊥ susceptibilities.1 In-plane χ∥ and out-of-plane χ⊥ susceptibilities are related to the presence of even and odd states with respect to the Mo plane, respectively1. Moreover, monolayer TMDCs have a large spin orbit coupling (SOC), originating from d-orbitals of heavy transition metals and being of the order of a few 100 meV. We present a more general picture of the electronic and optical properties of defected monolayer TMDCs. In particular, we consider MoS2, MoSe2, WS2 and WSe2 with three types of VDs (i) Mo, W vacancy, (ii) S2, Se2 vacancy, and (iii) S, Se vacancy. In addition, we investigate the effects of SOC on the band structures and the optical susceptibilities of VDs in TMDCs. 1. Mikhail Erementchouk, M. A. Khan, and Michael N. Leuenberger, Phys. Rev. B 92, 121401(R) (2015).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Moskalenko, S. A.; Liberman, M. A.; Moskalenko, E. S.; Dumanov, E. V.; Podlesny, I. V.
2013-08-01
The spontaneous breaking of the continuous symmetries of a two-dimensional electron-hole system in a strong magnetic field perpendicular to the plane leads to the formation of new ground states and determines the energy spectrum of collective elementary excitations that appear above these new ground states. In this review, the main attention is paid to the electron-hole system formed from coplanar magnetoexcitons under conditions of Bose-Einstein condensation in the ground state with the wave vector k = 0 taking into account the influence of excited Landau levels, when exciton-type elementary excitations coexist with plasmon-type oscillations. At the same time, the properties of a two-component system consisting of a two-dimensional electron gas and a two-dimensional hole gas spatially separated in a double quantum well under conditions of the fractional quantum Hall effect are of great interest, because these properties can affect the quantum states of magnetic excitons that are formed when the distance between the layers tends to zero. Bilayer electron systems are also considered under conditions of the fractional quantum Hall effect with the one-half filling factor for each layer and the total filling factor equal to unity for both layers. The coherence between the electron states in the two layers is equivalent to the formation of excitons in a macroscopic coherent state. This makes it possible to compare the energy spectrum of collective elementary excitations of Bose-Einstein condensed excitons under conditions of the quantum Hall effect and coplanar magnetoexcitons. The breaking of the global gauge symmetry or of the continuous rotational symmetry leads to the formation of a gapless spectrum of the Nambu-Goldstone type, whereas the breaking of the local gauge symmetry is accompanied by the appearance of a gap in the energy spectrum (Higgs phenomenon). These phenomena are equivalent to the formation of massless and massive particles in the relativistic
Terahertz time-domain spectroscopy of two-dimensional electron gasses at high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Curtis, Jeremy A.
This dissertation covers two projects that were in the logical path to studying decoherence in a high mobility GaAs two--dimensional electron gas at high magnetic fields. The first project is the ultrafast non--degenerate pump--probe spectroscopic study of bulk GaAs in the Split Florida Helix at the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory at Florida State University. This project was undertaken as a proof of concept that ultrafast optics could be done in the Split Florida Helix so that we might study a high mobility two dimensional electron gas using THz time--domain spectroscopy at high magnetic fields, which is a much more complicated measurement than the pump--probe discussed here. This demonstration was a success. We completed the first ultrafast optical study of any kind in the Florida Split Helix. We collected differential reflection data from this bulk sample that exhibited electronic and oscillatory components. These components were treated independently in the analysis by treating the electronic dynamics with a four level approximation. The electronic transition rates were extracted and agreed well with published values. This agreement is a demonstration that the spectrometer functioned as desired. The oscillatory response was found to be a result of the emission of coherent phonons upon electronic transition between the four levels. The frequency of the oscillatory response was extracted and agreed well with the theoretical value. The second project is the study of the temperature dependence of the cyclotron decay lifetimes in a Landau quantized GaAs high mobility two dimensional electron gas using THz time--domain spectroscopy at relatively low magnetic field (1.25 T). We find that the cyclotron decay lifetimes decrease monotonically with increasing temperature from 0.4 K to 100 K and that the primary pulse amplitudes increase from 0.4 K to 1.2 K, saturates above 1.2 K up to 50 K, and decreases rapidly above 50 K. We attribute this rapid drop in
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hernandez, F. G. G.; Ullah, S.; Ferreira, G. J.; Kawahala, N. M.; Gusev, G. M.; Bakarov, A. K.
2016-07-01
We imaged the transport of current-induced spin coherence in a two-dimensional electron gas confined in a triple quantum well. Nonlocal Kerr rotation measurements, based on the optical resonant amplification of the electrically-induced polarization, revealed a large spatial variation of the electron g factor and the efficient generation of a current-controlled spin-orbit field in a macroscopic Hall bar device. We observed coherence times in the nanoseconds range transported beyond half-millimeter distances in a direction transverse to the applied electric field. The measured long spin transport length can be explained by two material properties: large mean free path for charge diffusion in clean systems and enhanced spin-orbit coefficients in the triple well.
Lyo, Sungkwun K.; Pan, Wei
2014-08-07
In this paper, we study the Bloch oscillations of a two-dimensional electron gas with a strong periodic potential-modulation and miniband transport along the field at low temperatures, assuming a free motion in the transverse direction. The dependence of the current on the field, the electron density, and the temperature is investigated by using a relaxation-time approximation for inelastic scattering. Moreover, for a fixed total scattering rate, the field dependence of the current is sensitive to the ratio of the elastic and inelastic scattering rates in contrast with the recent result of a multiband but otherwise similar model with a weakmore » potential modulation.« less
Two-Dimensional Transition Metal Dichalcogenide Alloys: Stability and Electronic Properties.
Komsa, Hannu-Pekka; Krasheninnikov, Arkady V
2012-12-01
Using density-functional theory calculations, we study the stability and electronic properties of single layers of mixed transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as MoS2xSe2(1-x), which can be referred to as two-dimensional (2D) random alloys. We demonstrate that mixed MoS2/MoSe2/MoTe2 compounds are thermodynamically stable at room temperature, so that such materials can be manufactured using chemical-vapor deposition technique or exfoliated from the bulk mixed materials. By applying the effective band structure approach, we further study the electronic structure of the mixed 2D compounds and show that general features of the band structures are similar to those of their binary constituents. The direct gap in these materials can continuously be tuned, pointing toward possible applications of 2D TMD alloys in photonics. PMID:26291001
Huard; Cox; Saminadayar; Arnoult; Tatarenko
2000-01-01
The dependence of the optical absorption spectrum of a semiconductor quantum well on two-dimensional electron concentration n(e) is studied using CdTe samples. The trion peak (X-) seen at low n(e) evolves smoothly into the Fermi edge singularity at high n(e). The exciton peak (X) moves off to high energy, weakens, and disappears. The X,X- splitting is linear in n(e) and closely equal to the Fermi energy plus the trion binding energy. For Cd0.998Mn0.002Te quantum wells in a magnetic field, the X,X- splitting reflects unequal Fermi energies for M = +/-1/2 electrons. The data are explained by Hawrylak's theory of the many-body optical response including spin effects.
Terahertz Radiation Heterodyne Detector Using Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a GaN Heterostructure
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Karasik, Boris S.; Gill, John J.; Mehdi, Imran; Crawford, Timothy J.; Sergeev, Andrei V.; Mitin, Vladimir V.
2012-01-01
High-resolution submillimeter/terahertz spectroscopy is important for studying atmospheric and interstellar molecular gaseous species. It typically uses heterodyne receivers where an unknown (weak) signal is mixed with a strong signal from the local oscillator (LO) operating at a slightly different frequency. The non-linear mixer devices for this frequency range are unique and are not off-the-shelf commercial products. Three types of THz mixers are commonly used: Schottky diode, superconducting hot-electron bolometer (HEB), and superconductor-insulation-superconductor (SIS) junction. A HEB mixer based on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface of two slightly dissimilar semiconductors was developed. This mixer can operate at temperatures between 100 and 300 K, and thus can be used with just passive radiative cooling available even on small spacecraft.
Goldman, R.S.; Kavanagh, K.L.; Wieder, H.H.; Robbins, V.M.; Ehrlich, S.N.; Feenstra, R.M.
1996-12-01
We have investigated the effects of buffer strain relaxation on the transport properties of two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs). The 2DEGs consist of modulation-doped In{sub 0.53}Ga{sub 0.47}As/In{sub 0.52}Al{sub 0.48}As heterostructures grown lattice-mismatched to GaAs via compositionally step-graded In{sub {ital x}}Ga{sub 1{minus}{ital x}}As buffers, with different composition gradients, or lattice-matched to InP. We find a variation in 2DEG electronic properties which occurs simultaneously with large differences in epilayer tilt and mosaic spread in the step-graded buffers. This indicates a correlation between the {ital mechanism} of buffer strain relaxation and the 2DEG transport properties. {copyright} {ital 1996 American Institute of Physics.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kumar, Krishan; Garg, Vinayak; Moudgil, R. K.
2013-06-01
We report a theoretical study on the spin-resolved pair-correlation functions gσσ'(r) of a two-dimensional electron gas having arbitrary spin polarization ζ by including the dynamics of exchange-correlations within the dynamical self-consistent mean-field theory of Hasegawa and Shimizu. The calculated g↑↑(r), g↓↓(r) and g↑↓(r) exhibit a nice agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo simulation data of Gori-Giorgi et al. However, the agreement for the minority spin correlation function g↓↓(r) decreases with increase in ζ and/or decrease in electron density. Nevertheless, the spin-summed correlation function remains close to the simulation data.
Denteneer, P J H; Scalettar, R T
2003-06-20
The effect of a Zeeman magnetic field coupled to the spin of the electrons on the conducting properties of the disordered Hubbard model is studied. Using the determinant quantum Monte Carlo method, the temperature- and magnetic-field-dependent conductivity is calculated, as well as the degree of spin polarization. We find that the Zeeman magnetic field suppresses the metallic behavior present for certain values of interaction and disorder strength and is able to induce a metal-insulator transition at a critical field strength. It is argued that the qualitative features of magnetoconductance in this microscopic model containing both repulsive interactions and disorder are in agreement with experimental findings in two-dimensional electron and hole gases in semiconductor structures.
Bizimana, Laurie A.; Brazard, Johanna; Carbery, William P.; Gellen, Tobias; Turner, Daniel B.
2015-10-28
Coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy is an emerging technique for resolving structure and ultrafast dynamics of molecules, proteins, semiconductors, and other materials. A current challenge is the quality of kinetics that are examined as a function of waiting time. Inspired by noise-suppression methods of transient absorption, here we incorporate shot-by-shot acquisitions and balanced detection into coherent multidimensional optical spectroscopy. We demonstrate that implementing noise-suppression methods in two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy not only improves the quality of features in individual spectra but also increases the sensitivity to ultrafast time-dependent changes in the spectral features. Measurements on cresyl violet perchlorate are consistent with the vibronic pattern predicted by theoretical models of a highly displaced harmonic oscillator. The noise-suppression methods should benefit research into coherent electronic dynamics, and they can be adapted to multidimensional spectroscopies across the infrared and ultraviolet frequency ranges.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas.
Smolka, Stephan; Wuester, Wolf; Haupt, Florian; Faelt, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Imamoglu, Ataç
2014-10-17
Light-matter interaction has played a central role in understanding as well as engineering new states of matter. Reversible coupling of excitons and photons enabled groundbreaking results in condensation and superfluidity of nonequilibrium quasiparticles with a photonic component. We investigated such cavity-polaritons in the presence of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, exhibiting strongly correlated phases. When the cavity was on resonance with the Fermi level, we observed previously unknown many-body physics associated with a dynamical hole-scattering potential. In finite magnetic fields, polaritons show distinct signatures of integer and fractional quantum Hall ground states. Our results lay the groundwork for probing nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum Hall states and exploiting the electron density dependence of polariton splitting so as to obtain ultrastrong optical nonlinearities.
Light adatoms influences on electronic structures of the two-dimensional arsenene nanosheets
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Yang; Xia, Congxin; Wang, Tianxing; Tan, Xiaoming; Zhao, Xu; Wei, Shuyi
2016-03-01
Gray arsenic monolayer named as arsenene is a new kind of two-dimensional (2D) semiconductor material. Herein, we focus on the electronic structures of the light atoms (such as B, C, N, O, F) adsorbed arsenene nanosheets by using first-principles calculations. The results show that most adatoms prefer to occupy the bridge site on the arsenene nanosheets except for the C adatom which prefer to valley site. The defect states can be found in the middle gap of the F adsorbed arsenene nanosheets, and N adatom can induce the n-type doping in the system. Moreover, O adatom has negligible effects on its electronic structures. In addition, B, C, N and F adatoms can induce the magnetism in the arsenene nanosheets.
Cavity quantum electrodynamics with many-body states of a two-dimensional electron gas.
Smolka, Stephan; Wuester, Wolf; Haupt, Florian; Faelt, Stefan; Wegscheider, Werner; Imamoglu, Ataç
2014-10-17
Light-matter interaction has played a central role in understanding as well as engineering new states of matter. Reversible coupling of excitons and photons enabled groundbreaking results in condensation and superfluidity of nonequilibrium quasiparticles with a photonic component. We investigated such cavity-polaritons in the presence of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron gas, exhibiting strongly correlated phases. When the cavity was on resonance with the Fermi level, we observed previously unknown many-body physics associated with a dynamical hole-scattering potential. In finite magnetic fields, polaritons show distinct signatures of integer and fractional quantum Hall ground states. Our results lay the groundwork for probing nonequilibrium dynamics of quantum Hall states and exploiting the electron density dependence of polariton splitting so as to obtain ultrastrong optical nonlinearities. PMID:25278508
Jiang Chongyun; Chen Yonghai; Ma Hui; Yu Jinling; Liu Yu
2011-06-06
In this letter we investigated the InAs/InAlAs quantum wires (QWRs) superlattice by optically exciting the structure with near-infrared radiation. By varying the helicity of the radiation at room temperature we observed the circular photogalvanic effect related to the C{sub 2v} symmetry of the structure, which could be attributed to the formation of a quasi-two-dimensional system underlying in the vicinity of the QWRs pattern. The ratio of Rashba and Dresselhaus terms shows an evolution of the spin-orbit interaction in quasi-two-dimensional structure with the QWR layer deposition thickness.
Quantum Hall effect in black phosphorus two-dimensional electron system.
Li, Likai; Yang, Fangyuan; Ye, Guo Jun; Zhang, Zuocheng; Zhu, Zengwei; Lou, Wenkai; Zhou, Xiaoying; Li, Liang; Watanabe, Kenji; Taniguchi, Takashi; Chang, Kai; Wang, Yayu; Chen, Xian Hui; Zhang, Yuanbo
2016-07-01
The development of new, high-quality functional materials has been at the forefront of condensed-matter research. The recent advent of two-dimensional black phosphorus has greatly enriched the materials base of two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs). Here, we report the observation of the integer quantum Hall effect in a high-quality black phosphorus 2DES. The high quality is achieved by embedding the black phosphorus 2DES in a van der Waals heterostructure close to a graphite back gate; the graphite gate screens the impurity potential in the 2DES and brings the carrier Hall mobility up to 6,000 cm(2) V(-1) s(-1). The exceptional mobility enabled us to observe the quantum Hall effect and to gain important information on the energetics of the spin-split Landau levels in black phosphorus. Our results set the stage for further study on quantum transport and device application in the ultrahigh mobility regime. PMID:27018659
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Araki, Yasufumi; Khalsa, Guru; MacDonald, Allan H.
2014-03-01
We investigate the quantum interference corrections to transport which lead to weak localization (WL) or weak anti-localization (WAL) for the case of spin-independent disorder scattering in two-dimensional electron gases with spin-orbit interactions of arbitrary strength. We formulate our theory in terms of microscopic linear response including multiple scattering by the disorder potential to derive the current-current response function when Rashba (or Dresselhaus) spin-orbit coupling is included in the electronic band structure. We analyze the crossover from the weak spin-orbit coupling limit in which spin-splitting of the bands is not resolved, to the strong spin-orbit coupling limit of clearly spin-split bands. In the weak and strong spin-orbit coupling limits we generally recover the well-known WL and WAL behavior first predicted by Hikami, Larkin and Nagaoka, although the degeneracy of spin triplet channels is lifted leading to a more complex crossover between the traditional WL and WAL limits. Our results can be summarized by a phase diagram in spin-orbit coupling strength and temperature (or the coherence length from inelastic scattering), with several regions separated by different crossover lines. Y. A. is supported by JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship for Research Abroad (No.25-56).
High-Current Gain Two-Dimensional MoS₂-Base Hot-Electron Transistors.
Torres, Carlos M; Lan, Yann-Wen; Zeng, Caifu; Chen, Jyun-Hong; Kou, Xufeng; Navabi, Aryan; Tang, Jianshi; Montazeri, Mohammad; Adleman, James R; Lerner, Mitchell B; Zhong, Yuan-Liang; Li, Lain-Jong; Chen, Chii-Dong; Wang, Kang L
2015-12-01
The vertical transport of nonequilibrium charge carriers through semiconductor heterostructures has led to milestones in electronics with the development of the hot-electron transistor. Recently, significant advances have been made with atomically sharp heterostructures implementing various two-dimensional materials. Although graphene-base hot-electron transistors show great promise for electronic switching at high frequencies, they are limited by their low current gain. Here we show that, by choosing MoS2 and HfO2 for the filter barrier interface and using a noncrystalline semiconductor such as ITO for the collector, we can achieve an unprecedentedly high-current gain (α ∼ 0.95) in our hot-electron transistors operating at room temperature. Furthermore, the current gain can be tuned over 2 orders of magnitude with the collector-base voltage albeit this feature currently presents a drawback in the transistor performance metrics such as poor output resistance and poor intrinsic voltage gain. We anticipate our transistors will pave the way toward the realization of novel flexible 2D material-based high-density, low-energy, and high-frequency hot-carrier electronic applications. PMID:26524388
Quantum well states in Rashba semiconductor BiTeI
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
He, Yang; Zhu, Zhihuai; Hamidian, Mohammad; Chen, Pengcheng; Yam, Yau Chuen; Hoffman, Jennifer
BiTeI displays large Rashba-type spin splitting in both valence and conduction bands. In this work, we use scanning tunneling microscopy to reveal the bipolar nature of BiTeI, confirming the previously observed p-n junction electronic structure. We also discover two-dimensional quantum well states both below and above the semiconducting gap on the Te-terminated surface. This work sheds light on the origin of the giant Rashba splitting in the system. This effort is funded by the NSF Grant DMR-1410480.
Automated Electron Microscopy for Evaluating Two-dimensional Crystallization of Membrane Proteins
Hu, Minghui; Vink, Martin; Kim, Changki; Derr, KD; Koss, John; D'Amico, Kevin; Cheng, Anchi; Pulokas, James; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Stokes, David
2010-01-01
Membrane proteins fulfill many important roles in the cell and represent the target for a large number of therapeutic drugs. Although structure determination of membrane proteins has become a major priority, it has proven to be technically challenging. Electron microscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has the advantage of visualizing membrane proteins in their natural lipidic environment, but has been underutilized in recent structural genomics efforts. To improve the general applicability of electron crystallography, high-throughput methods are needed for screening large numbers of conditions for 2D crystallization, thereby increasing the chances of obtaining well ordered crystals and thus achieving atomic resolution. Previous reports describe devices for growing 2D crystals on a 96-well format. The current report describes a system for automated imaging of these screens with an electron microscope. Samples are inserted with a two-part robot: a SCARA robot for loading samples into the microscope holder, and a Cartesian robot for placing the holder into the electron microscope. A standard JEOL 1230 electron microscope was used, though a new tip was designed for the holder and a toggle switch controlling the airlock was rewired to allow robot control. A computer program for controlling the robots was integrated with the Leginon program, which provides a module for automated imaging of individual samples. The resulting images are uploaded into the Sesame laboratory information management system database where they are associated with other data relevant to the crystallization screen. PMID:20197095
Bulk and shear viscosities of the two-dimensional electron liquid in a doped graphene sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Principi, Alessandro; Vignale, Giovanni; Carrega, Matteo; Polini, Marco
2016-03-01
Hydrodynamic flow occurs in an electron liquid when the mean free path for electron-electron collisions is the shortest length scale in the problem. In this regime, transport is described by the Navier-Stokes equation, which contains two fundamental parameters, the bulk and shear viscosities. In this paper, we present extensive results for these transport coefficients in the case of the two-dimensional massless Dirac fermion liquid in a doped graphene sheet. Our approach relies on microscopic calculations of the viscosities up to second order in the strength of electron-electron interactions and in the high-frequency limit, where perturbation theory is applicable. We then use simple interpolation formulas that allow to reach the low-frequency hydrodynamic regime where perturbation theory is no longer directly applicable. The key ingredient for the interpolation formulas is the "viscosity transport time" τv, which we calculate in this paper. The transverse nature of the excitations contributing to τv leads to the suppression of scattering events with small momentum transfer, which are inherently longitudinal. Therefore, contrary to the quasiparticle lifetime, which goes as -1 /[T2ln(T /TF) ] , in the low-temperature limit we find τv˜1 /T2 .
Ultrafast photo-induced charge transfer unveiled by two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Bixner, Oliver; Lukeš, Vladimír; Mančal, Tomáš; Hauer, Jürgen; Milota, Franz; Fischer, Michael; Pugliesi, Igor; Bradler, Maximilian; Schmid, Walther; Riedle, Eberhard; Kauffmann, Harald F.; Christensson, Niklas
2012-05-01
The interaction of exciton and charge transfer (CT) states plays a central role in photo-induced CT processes in chemistry, biology, and physics. In this work, we use a combination of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES), pump-probe measurements, and quantum chemistry to investigate the ultrafast CT dynamics in a lutetium bisphthalocyanine dimer in different oxidation states. It is found that in the anionic form, the combination of strong CT-exciton interaction and electronic asymmetry induced by a counter-ion enables CT between the two macrocycles of the complex on a 30 fs timescale. Following optical excitation, a chain of electron and hole transfer steps gives rise to characteristic cross-peak dynamics in the electronic 2D spectra, and we monitor how the excited state charge density ultimately localizes on the macrocycle closest to the counter-ion within 100 fs. A comparison with the dynamics in the radical species further elucidates how CT states modulate the electronic structure and tune fs-reaction dynamics. Our experiments demonstrate the unique capability of 2D-ES in combination with other methods to decipher ultrafast CT dynamics.
Automated electron microscopy for evaluating two-dimensional crystallization of membrane proteins.
Hu, Minghui; Vink, Martin; Kim, Changki; Derr, Kd; Koss, John; D'Amico, Kevin; Cheng, Anchi; Pulokas, James; Ubarretxena-Belandia, Iban; Stokes, David
2010-07-01
Membrane proteins fulfill many important roles in the cell and represent the target for a large number of therapeutic drugs. Although structure determination of membrane proteins has become a major priority, it has proven to be technically challenging. Electron microscopy of two-dimensional (2D) crystals has the advantage of visualizing membrane proteins in their natural lipidic environment, but has been underutilized in recent structural genomics efforts. To improve the general applicability of electron crystallography, high-throughput methods are needed for screening large numbers of conditions for 2D crystallization, thereby increasing the chances of obtaining well ordered crystals and thus achieving atomic resolution. Previous reports describe devices for growing 2D crystals on a 96-well format. The current report describes a system for automated imaging of these screens with an electron microscope. Samples are inserted with a two-part robot: a SCARA robot for loading samples into the microscope holder, and a Cartesian robot for placing the holder into the electron microscope. A standard JEOL 1230 electron microscope was used, though a new tip was designed for the holder and a toggle switch controlling the airlock was rewired to allow robot control. A computer program for controlling the robots was integrated with the Leginon program, which provides a module for automated imaging of individual samples. The resulting images are uploaded into the Sesame laboratory information management system database where they are associated with other data relevant to the crystallization screen.
Stability of two-dimensional PN monolayer sheets and their electronic properties.
Ma, ShuangYing; He, Chaoyu; Sun, L Z; Lin, Haiping; Li, Youyong; Zhang, K W
2015-12-21
Three two-dimensional phosphorus nitride (PN) monolayer sheets (named as α-, β-, and γ-PN, respectively) with fantastic structures and properties are predicted based on first-principles calculations. The α-PN and γ-PN have a buckled structure, whereas β-PN shows puckered characteristics. Their unique structures endow these atomic PN sheets with high dynamic stabilities and anisotropic mechanical properties. They are all indirect semiconductors and their band gap sensitively depends on the in-plane strain. Moreover, the nanoribbons patterned from these three PN monolayers demonstrate a remarkable quantum size effect. In particular, the zigzag α-PN nanoribbon shows size-dependent ferromagnetism. Their significant properties show potential in nano-electronics. The synthesis of the three phases of the PN monolayer sheet is proposed theoretically, which is deserving of further study in experiments.
Imaginary time density-density correlations for two-dimensional electron gases at high density
Motta, M.; Galli, D. E.; Moroni, S.; Vitali, E.
2015-10-28
We evaluate imaginary time density-density correlation functions for two-dimensional homogeneous electron gases of up to 42 particles in the continuum using the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method. We use periodic boundary conditions and up to 300 plane waves as basis set elements. We show that such methodology, once equipped with suitable numerical stabilization techniques necessary to deal with exponentials, products, and inversions of large matrices, gives access to the calculation of imaginary time correlation functions for medium-sized systems. We discuss the numerical stabilization techniques and the computational complexity of the methodology and we present the limitations related to the size of the systems on a quantitative basis. We perform the inverse Laplace transform of the obtained density-density correlation functions, assessing the ability of the phaseless auxiliary field quantum Monte Carlo method to evaluate dynamical properties of medium-sized homogeneous fermion systems.
Nonlinear transport in two-dimensional electron systems with separated Landau levels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khodas, Maxim; Zudov, Michael; Pfeiffer, Loren; West, Kenneth
2013-03-01
The resistivity of a high mobility two-dimensional electron gas subject to a weak perpendicular magnetic field and low temperatures is strongly non-linear. This nonlinearity becomes more pronounced when the Landau level width becomes smaller than the cyclotron energy; at very small dc electric fields the differential resistivity becomes strongly suppressed and can even approach zero. Using the quantum kinetics approach we calculate the characteristic current responsible for the suppression and compare the results to the experimental data obtained in a high mobility 2DES at low temperatures. The work at Minnesota is supported by DOE DE-SC0002567. The work at Princeton was partially funded by the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation and by the NSF MRSEC Program through the Princeton Center for Complex Materials (DMR-0819860).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Berl, M.; Tiemann, L.; Dietsche, W.; Karl, H.; Wegscheider, W.
2016-03-01
We present a reliable method to obtain patterned back gates compatible with high mobility molecular beam epitaxy via local oxygen ion implantation that suppresses the conductivity of an 80 nm thick silicon doped GaAs epilayer. Our technique was optimized to circumvent several constraints of other gating and implantation methods. The ion-implanted surface remains atomically flat which allows unperturbed epitaxial overgrowth. We demonstrate the practical application of this gating technique by using magneto-transport spectroscopy on a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) with a mobility exceeding 20 × 106 cm2/V s. The back gate was spatially separated from the Ohmic contacts of the 2DES, thus minimizing the probability for electrical shorts or leakage and permitting simple contacting schemes.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyong; Tan, Liang Z.; Wang, Weihua; Louie, Steven G.; Lin, Nian
2014-11-01
We demonstrate that Dirac fermions can be created and manipulated in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using a cryogenic scanning tunneling microscope, we arranged coronene molecules one by one on a Cu(111) surface to construct artificial graphene nanoribbons with perfect zigzag (ZGNRs) or arm-chairedges and confirmed that new states localized along the edges emerge only in the ZGNRs. We further made and studied several typical defects, such as single vacancies, Stone-Wales defects, and dislocation lines, and found that all these defects introduce localized states at or near the Dirac point in the quasiparticle spectra. Our results confirm that artificial systems built on a 2DEG provide rigorous experimental verifications for several long-sought theoretical predications of aperiodic graphene structures.
Dielectric response of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/two-dimensional electron liquid heterostructures
Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne
2015-08-17
Maximizing the effective dielectric constant of the gate dielectric stack is important for electrostatically controlling high carrier densities inherent to strongly correlated materials. SrTiO{sub 3} is uniquely suited for this purpose, given its extremely high dielectric constant, which can reach 10{sup 4}. Here, we present a systematic study of the thickness dependence of the dielectric response and leakage of SrTiO{sub 3} that is incorporated into a vertical structure on a high-carrier-density two-dimensional electron liquid (2DEL). A simple model can be used to interpret the data. The results show a need for improved interface control in the design of metal/SrTiO{sub 3}/2DEL devices.
Two dimensional electromagnetic shock structures in dense electron-positron-ion magnetoplasmas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Masood, W.; Rizvi, H.; Hussain, S.
2011-04-01
Linear and nonlinear analysis of low frequency magnetoacoustic waves propagating at an angle θ with the ambient magnetic field are investigated in dense electron-positron-ion (e-p-i) plasmas using the quantum magnetohydrodynamic (QMHD) model. In this regard, a quantum Kadomtsev-Petviashvili-Burgers (KPB) equation is derived in the small amplitude limit. The stability of KPB equation is also presented. The variation of the nonlinear fast and slow magnetoacoustic shock waves with the positron concentration, kinematic viscosity, obliqueness parameter θ, and the magnetic field, are also investigated. It is observed that the aforementioned plasma parameters significantly modify the propagation characteristics of two dimensional nonlinear magnetoacoustic shock waves in dissipative quantum magnetoplasmas. The relevance of the present investigation with regard to dense astrophysical environments is also pointed out.
Effect of valley degeneracy on spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid
Kumar, Krishan Singh, Gurvinder; Moudgil, R. K.
2014-04-24
We investigate theoretically the effect of valley degeneracy on the spin susceptibility of a two-dimensional quantum electron liquid by determining the spin-polarization dependence of the ground-state energy within the selfconsistent mean-field approximation of Singwi et al. Specifically, we have studied a two valley system as realized in the Si (100) inversion layer. In qualitative agreement with the recent quantum Monte Carlo study by Marchi et al., we find that the valley degeneracy results in suppression of spin susceptibility over the single valley case. However, the quality of agreement diminishes with increasing value of the coupling parameter r{sub s}. This indicates the limitation of mean-field theory to deal with the exchange-correlation effects in the strong coupling region. But, our results show considerable improvement over the random-phase approximation which ignores these correlations completely.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Heisler, Ismael A.; Moca, Roberta; Camargo, Franco V. A.; Meech, Stephen R.
2014-06-01
We report an improved experimental scheme for two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) based solely on conventional optical components and fast data acquisition. This is accomplished by working with two choppers synchronized to a 10 kHz repetition rate amplified laser system. We demonstrate how scattering and pump-probe contributions can be removed during 2D measurements and how the pump probe and local oscillator spectra can be generated and saved simultaneously with each population time measurement. As an example the 2D-ES spectra for cresyl violet were obtained. The resulting 2D spectra show a significant oscillating signal during population evolution time which can be assigned to an intramolecular vibrational mode.
Kim, Young-Cheol; Jang, Sung-Ho; Oh, Se-Jin; Lee, Hyo-Chang; Chung, Chin-Wook
2013-05-15
A real-time measurement method for two-dimensional (2D) spatial distribution of the electron temperature and plasma density was developed. The method is based on the floating harmonic method and the real time measurement is achieved with little plasma perturbation. 2D arrays of the sensors on a 300 mm diameter wafer-shaped printed circuit board with a high speed multiplexer circuit were used. Experiments were performed in an inductive discharge under various external conditions, such as powers, gas pressures, and different gas mixing ratios. The results are consistent with theoretical prediction. Our method can measure the 2D spatial distribution of plasma parameters on a wafer-level in real-time. This method can be applied to plasma diagnostics to improve the plasma uniformity of plasma reactors for plasma processing.
A conceptual design study for a two-dimensional, electronically scanned thinned array radiometer
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Mutton, Philip; Chromik, Christopher C.; Dixon, Iain; Statham, Richard B.; Stillwagen, Frederic H.; Vontheumer, Alfred E.; Sasamoto, Washito A.; Garn, Paul A.; Cosgrove, Patrick A.; Ganoe, George G.
1993-01-01
A conceptual design for the Two-Dimensional, Electronically Steered Thinned Array Radiometer (ESTAR) is described. This instrument is a synthetic aperture microwave radiometer that operates in the L-band frequency range for the measurement of soil moisture and ocean salinity. Two auxiliary instruments, an 8-12 micron, scanning infrared radiometer and a 0.4-1.0 micron, charge coupled device (CCD) video camera, are included to provided data for sea surface temperature measurements and spatial registration of targets respectively. The science requirements were defined by Goddard Space Flight Center. Instrument and the spacecraft configurations are described for missions using the Pegasus and Taurus launch vehicles. The analyses and design trades described include: estimations of size, mass and power, instrument viewing coverage, mechanical design trades, structural and thermal analyses, data and communications performance assessments, and cost estimation.
Spin-dependent transport in a magnetic two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Smorchkova, I. P.; Kikkawa, J. M.; Samarth, N.; Awschalom, D. D.
1998-07-01
Magneto-transport and magneto-optical probes are used to interrogate spin-dependent transport in magnetic heterostructures wherein a two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is exchange-coupled to local moments. At low temperatures, the significant s-d exchange-enhanced spin splitting in these “magnetic” 2DEGs is responsible for the observation of unusual transport properties such as a complete spin polarization of the gas at large Landau level filling factors and a pronounced, non-monotonic background magneto-resistance. Magneto-transport measurements of gated samples performed in a parallel field geometry are used to systematically study the variation of the magneto-resistance with sheet concentration, yielding new insights into the dependence of spin transport on the Fermi energy of the majority spin carriers.
Heisler, Ismael A. Moca, Roberta; Meech, Stephen R.; Camargo, Franco V. A.
2014-06-15
We report an improved experimental scheme for two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2D-ES) based solely on conventional optical components and fast data acquisition. This is accomplished by working with two choppers synchronized to a 10 kHz repetition rate amplified laser system. We demonstrate how scattering and pump-probe contributions can be removed during 2D measurements and how the pump probe and local oscillator spectra can be generated and saved simultaneously with each population time measurement. As an example the 2D-ES spectra for cresyl violet were obtained. The resulting 2D spectra show a significant oscillating signal during population evolution time which can be assigned to an intramolecular vibrational mode.
Simulation of femtosecond two-dimensional electronic spectra of conical intersections
Krčmář, Jindřich; Gelin, Maxim F.; Domcke, Wolfgang
2015-08-21
We have simulated femtosecond two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra for an excited-state conical intersection using the wave-function version of the equation-of-motion phase-matching approach. We show that 2D spectra at fixed values of the waiting time provide information on the structure of the vibronic eigenstates of the conical intersection, while the evolution of the spectra with the waiting time reveals predominantly ground-state wave-packet dynamics. The results show that 2D spectra of conical intersection systems differ significantly from those obtained for chromophores with well separated excited-state potential-energy surfaces. The spectral signatures which can be attributed to conical intersections are discussed.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Torres, Manuel; Kunold, Alejandro
2006-04-01
In this work we study the microwave photoconductivity of a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) in the presence of a magnetic field and a two-dimensional modulation (2D). The model includes the microwave and Landau contributions in a non-perturbative exact way; the periodic potential is treated perturbatively. The Landau-Floquet states provide a convenient base with respect to which the lattice potential becomes time dependent, inducing transitions between the Landau-Floquet levels. Based on this formalism, we provide a Kubo-like formula that takes into account the oscillatory Floquet structure of the problem. The total longitudinal conductivity and resistivity exhibit strong oscillations, determined by epsi = ω/ωc, with ω the radiation frequency and ωc the cyclotron frequency. The oscillations follow a pattern with minima centred at \\omega /\\omega_{\\mathrm {c}}=j+\\frac {1}{2} (l-1)+\\delta , and maxima centred at \\omega /\\omega_{\\mathrm {c}}=j+\\frac {1}{2} (l-1)-\\delta , where j = 1,2,3..., δ~1/5 is a constant shift and l is the dominant multipole contribution. Negative resistance states (NRSs) develop as the electron mobility and the intensity of the microwave power are increased. These NRSs appear in a narrow window region of values of the lattice parameter (a), around a~lB, where lB is the magnetic length. It is proposed that these phenomena may be observed in artificially fabricated arrays of periodic scatterers at the interface of ultraclean GaAs /AlxGa1-xAs heterostructures.
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.
2015-01-01
Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs. PMID:26373989
Long-lived spin plasmons in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Agarwal, Amit; Polini, Marco; Vignale, Giovanni; Flatté, Michael E.
2014-10-01
Collective charge-density modes (plasmons) of the clean two-dimensional unpolarized electron gas are stable, for momentum conservation prevents them from decaying into single-particle excitations. Collective spin-density modes (spin plasmons) possess no similar protection and rapidly decay by production of electron-hole pairs. Nevertheless, if the electron gas has a sufficiently high degree of spin polarization (P >1/7, where P is the ratio of the equilibrium spin density and the total electron density, for a parabolic single-particle spectrum) we find that a long-lived spin plasmon—a collective mode in which the densities of up and down spins oscillate with opposite phases—can exist within a "pseudogap" of the single-particle excitation spectrum. The ensuing collectivization of the spin excitation spectrum is quite remarkable and should be directly visible in Raman-scattering experiments. The predicted mode could dramatically improve the efficiency of coupling between spin-wave-generating devices, such as spin-torque oscillators.
Electronic and magnetism properties of two-dimensional stacked nickel hydroxides and nitrides.
Wei, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Zhen-Kun; Guo, Gen-Cai; Ma, Shangyi; Liu, Li-Min
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials receive a lot of attention because of their outstanding intrinsic properties and wide applications. In this work, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH)2) and nitrides XN (X = B, Al, and Ga) heterostructures are studied by first-principles calculations. The results show that the pristine monolayer Ni(OH)2 owns no macro magnetism with antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling between two nearest Ni atoms, the electronic structure can be modulated through the heterostructures. The Ni(OH)2-GaN and Ni(OH)2-AlN heterostructures retain the AFM coupling, while Ni(OH)2-BN heterostructure have a larger magnetic moment with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. The complete electron-hole separation is found in the Ni(OH)2-GaN heterostructure. The tunable electronic and magnetic properties of the Ni(OH)2-XN heterostructures open a new door to design the spintronic devices in the 2D stacked nanostructures.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of Chlorophyll a: Solvent Dependent Spectral Evolution.
Moca, Roberta; Meech, Stephen R; Heisler, Ismael A
2015-07-01
The interaction of the monomeric chlorophyll Q-band electronic transition with solvents of differing physical-chemical properties is investigated through two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES). Chlorophyll constitutes the key chromophore molecule in light harvesting complexes. It is well-known that the surrounding protein in the light harvesting complex fine-tunes chlorophyll electronic transitions to optimize energy transfer. Therefore, an understanding of the influence of the environment on the monomeric chlorophyll electronic transitions is important. The Q-band 2DES is inhomogeneous at early times, particularly in hydrogen bonding polar solvents, but also in nonpolar solvents like cyclohexane. Interestingly this inhomogeneity persists for long times, even up to the nanosecond time scale in some solvents. The reshaping of the 2DES occurs over multiple time scales and was assigned mainly to spectral diffusion. At early times the reshaping is Gaussian-like, hinting at a strong solvent reorganization effect. The temporal evolution of the 2DES response was analyzed in terms of a Brownian oscillator model. The spectral densities underpinning the Brownian oscillator fitting were recovered for the different solvents. The absorption spectra and Stokes shift were also properly described by this model. The extent and nature of inhomogeneous broadening was a strong function of solvent, being larger in H-bonding and viscous media and smaller in nonpolar solvents. The fastest spectral reshaping components were assigned to solvent dynamics, modified by interactions with the solute.
Graphene/MoS2 hybrid technology for large-scale two-dimensional electronics.
Yu, Lili; Lee, Yi-Hsien; Ling, Xi; Santos, Elton J G; Shin, Yong Cheol; Lin, Yuxuan; Dubey, Madan; Kaxiras, Efthimios; Kong, Jing; Wang, Han; Palacios, Tomás
2014-06-11
Two-dimensional (2D) materials have generated great interest in the past few years as a new toolbox for electronics. This family of materials includes, among others, metallic graphene, semiconducting transition metal dichalcogenides (such as MoS2), and insulating boron nitride. These materials and their heterostructures offer excellent mechanical flexibility, optical transparency, and favorable transport properties for realizing electronic, sensing, and optical systems on arbitrary surfaces. In this paper, we demonstrate a novel technology for constructing large-scale electronic systems based on graphene/molybdenum disulfide (MoS2) heterostructures grown by chemical vapor deposition. We have fabricated high-performance devices and circuits based on this heterostructure, where MoS2 is used as the transistor channel and graphene as contact electrodes and circuit interconnects. We provide a systematic comparison of the graphene/MoS2 heterojunction contact to more traditional MoS2-metal junctions, as well as a theoretical investigation, using density functional theory, of the origin of the Schottky barrier height. The tunability of the graphene work function with electrostatic doping significantly improves the ohmic contact to MoS2. These high-performance large-scale devices and circuits based on this 2D heterostructure pave the way for practical flexible transparent electronics.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.
2015-09-01
Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850∗ states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ˜40-60 fs.
Spin current swapping and Hanle spin Hall effect in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shen, Ka; Raimondi, R.; Vignale, G.
2015-07-01
We analyze the effect known as "spin current swapping" (SCS) due to electron-impurity scattering in a uniform spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas. In this effect a primary spin current Jia (lower index for spatial direction, upper index for spin direction) generates a secondary spin current Jai if i ≠a , or Jjj, with j ≠i , if i =a . Contrary to naive expectation, the homogeneous spin current associated with the uniform drift of the spin polarization in the electron gas does not generate a swapped spin current by the SCS mechanism. Nevertheless, a swapped spin current will be generated, if a magnetic field is present, by a completely different mechanism, namely, the precession of the spin Hall spin current in the magnetic field. We refer to this second mechanism as Hanle spin Hall effect, and we notice that it can be observed in an experiment in which a homogeneous drift current is passed through a uniformly magnetized electron gas. In contrast to this, we show that an unambiguous observation of SCS requires inhomogeneous spin currents, such as those that are associated with spin diffusion in a metal, and no magnetic field. An experimental setup for the observation of the SCS is therefore proposed.
Dahlberg, Peter D.; Norris, Graham J.; Wang, Cheng; Viswanathan, Subha; Singh, Ved P.; Engel, Gregory S.
2015-09-14
Energy transfer through large disordered antenna networks in photosynthetic organisms can occur with a quantum efficiency of nearly 100%. This energy transfer is facilitated by the electronic structure of the photosynthetic antennae as well as interactions between electronic states and the surrounding environment. Coherences in time-domain spectroscopy provide a fine probe of how a system interacts with its surroundings. In two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy, coherences can appear on both the ground and excited state surfaces revealing detailed information regarding electronic structure, system-bath coupling, energy transfer, and energetic coupling in complex chemical systems. Numerous studies have revealed coherences in isolated photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, but these coherences have not been observed in vivo due to the small amplitude of these signals and the intense scatter from whole cells. Here, we present data acquired using ultrafast video-acquisition gradient-assisted photon echo spectroscopy to observe quantum beating signals from coherences in vivo. Experiments were conducted on isolated light harvesting complex II (LH2) from Rhodobacter sphaeroides, whole cells of R. sphaeroides, and whole cells of R. sphaeroides grown in 30% deuterated media. A vibronic coherence was observed following laser excitation at ambient temperature between the B850 and the B850{sup ∗} states of LH2 in each of the 3 samples with a lifetime of ∼40-60 fs.
Electronic Hong-Ou-Mandel interferometry in two-dimensional topological insulators
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferraro, D.; Wahl, C.; Rech, J.; Jonckheere, T.; Martin, T.
2014-02-01
The edge states of a two-dimensional topological insulator are characterized by their helicity, a very remarkable property which is related to the time-reversal symmetry and the topology of the underlying system. We theoretically investigate a Hong-Ou-Mandel-type setup as a tool to probe it. Collisions of two electrons with the same spin show a Pauli dip, analogous to the one obtained in the integer quantum Hall case. Moreover, the collisions between electrons of opposite spin also lead to a dip, known as Z2 dip, which is a direct consequence of the constraints imposed by time-reversal symmetry. In contrast to the integer quantum Hall case, the visibility of these dips is reduced by the presence of the additional edge channels, and crucially depends on the properties of the quantum point contact. As a unique feature of this system, we show the possibility of three-electron interference, which leads to a total suppression of the noise independently of the point contact configuration. This is assured by the peculiar interplay between Fermi statistics and topology. This work intends to extend the domain of applicability of electron quantum optics.
Electric instability in a two-dimensional electron gas system under high magnetic fields
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ching-Ping; Chi, C. C.; Chen, Jeng-Chung
2015-11-01
We present a study of electric instability in a two-dimensional electron gas system under high magnetic fields. As the applied dc electric current exceeds a threshold value It h, we find that the longitudinal magnetoresistance Rx x fluctuates and exhibits negative differential resistivity (NDR). The observed instability occurs only in well-separated low-lying Landau levels (LLs) with a filling factor ν ≤2 , and the onset of NDR can be described by the theory of Andreev et al. We find that It h increases with increasing magnetic field B and the lattice temperature TL. In contrast, NDR becomes more pronounced at higher B , but gradually diminishes with increasing TL. Data analysis suggests that NDR is actuated by the suppression of Rx x with increasing electric field, which can be understood in terms of the capability of the spectral diffusion of electrons and of electron transfer to higher levels via inelastic inter-LLs scattering in the limit of one-occupied LL.
Two-dimensional GeS with tunable electronic properties via external electric field and strain.
Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shangguo; Huang, Shiping; Zhou, Wenhan; Cai, Bo; Xie, Meiqiu; Yang, Qun; Chen, Xianping; Zeng, Haibo
2016-07-01
Experimentally, GeS nanosheets have been successfully synthesized using vapor deposition processes and the one-pot strategy. Quite recently, GeS monolayer, the isoelectronic counterpart of phosphorene, has attracted much attention due to promising properties. By means of comprehensive first-principles calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of GeS monolayer. Especially, electric field and in-plane strain were used to tailor its electronic band gap. Upon applying electric field, the band gap of GeS monolayer greatly reduces and a semiconductor-metal transition happens under the application of a certain external electric field. Our calculations reveal that the band gaps of GeS monolayer are rather sensitive to the external electric field. On the other hand, for GeS under external strain, quite interestingly, we found that the band gap presents an approximately linear increase not only under compression strain but also under tensile strain from -10% to 10%. For biaxial compressive and tensile strains, the band gap follows the same trend as that of the uniaxial in the zigzag x direction. The present results provide a simple and effective route to tune the electronic properties of GeS monolayer over a wide range and also facilitate the design of GeS-based two-dimensional devices. PMID:27232104
High Pressure Studies of the Second Landau Level Region of a Two-Dimensional Electron System
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schreiber, Katherine; Samkharadze, Nodar; Gardner, Geoffrey; Fradkin, Eduardo; Manfra, Michael; Csathy, Gabor
Hydrostatic pressure has become a prevalent tool in condensed matter systems because the application of pressure to crystalline structures results in the shrinking of the lattice constant. This allows one to tune the Bloch wavefunction of the electrons and therefore all band parameters such as effective carrier mass, carrier density, and effective g-factor. In this manner, pressure acts as a probe into various strongly interacting electronic states. Motivated in particular by the capability to discern the spin polarization of quantum Hall states, we apply hydrostatic pressure up to 10 kbar to a two dimensional electron system (2DES) in a high-mobility GaAs/AlGaAs quantum well. This 2DES is subjected to milliKelvin temperatures and strong magnetic fields to observe the effect of pressure on fractional quantum Hall states, especially those in higher Landau levels, a regime not previously studied under pressure. We report our findings, focusing on the observation of a pressure-driven transition from a fractional quantum Hall state to the quantum Hall nematic phase in the second Landau level. Grants: Researchers at Purdue and N. Samkharadze: US DOE, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Materials Sciences and Engineering, DE-SC0006671. E. Fradkin: US NSF, DMR 1408713.
Two-dimensional GeS with tunable electronic properties via external electric field and strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shangguo; Huang, Shiping; Zhou, Wenhan; Cai, Bo; Xie, Meiqiu; Yang, Qun; Chen, Xianping; Zeng, Haibo
2016-07-01
Experimentally, GeS nanosheets have been successfully synthesized using vapor deposition processes and the one-pot strategy. Quite recently, GeS monolayer, the isoelectronic counterpart of phosphorene, has attracted much attention due to promising properties. By means of comprehensive first-principles calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of GeS monolayer. Especially, electric field and in-plane strain were used to tailor its electronic band gap. Upon applying electric field, the band gap of GeS monolayer greatly reduces and a semiconductor–metal transition happens under the application of a certain external electric field. Our calculations reveal that the band gaps of GeS monolayer are rather sensitive to the external electric field. On the other hand, for GeS under external strain, quite interestingly, we found that the band gap presents an approximately linear increase not only under compression strain but also under tensile strain from ‑10% to 10%. For biaxial compressive and tensile strains, the band gap follows the same trend as that of the uniaxial in the zigzag x direction. The present results provide a simple and effective route to tune the electronic properties of GeS monolayer over a wide range and also facilitate the design of GeS-based two-dimensional devices.
Two-dimensional GeS with tunable electronic properties via external electric field and strain
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Shengli; Wang, Ning; Liu, Shangguo; Huang, Shiping; Zhou, Wenhan; Cai, Bo; Xie, Meiqiu; Yang, Qun; Chen, Xianping; Zeng, Haibo
2016-07-01
Experimentally, GeS nanosheets have been successfully synthesized using vapor deposition processes and the one-pot strategy. Quite recently, GeS monolayer, the isoelectronic counterpart of phosphorene, has attracted much attention due to promising properties. By means of comprehensive first-principles calculations, we studied the stability and electronic properties of GeS monolayer. Especially, electric field and in-plane strain were used to tailor its electronic band gap. Upon applying electric field, the band gap of GeS monolayer greatly reduces and a semiconductor-metal transition happens under the application of a certain external electric field. Our calculations reveal that the band gaps of GeS monolayer are rather sensitive to the external electric field. On the other hand, for GeS under external strain, quite interestingly, we found that the band gap presents an approximately linear increase not only under compression strain but also under tensile strain from -10% to 10%. For biaxial compressive and tensile strains, the band gap follows the same trend as that of the uniaxial in the zigzag x direction. The present results provide a simple and effective route to tune the electronic properties of GeS monolayer over a wide range and also facilitate the design of GeS-based two-dimensional devices.
Yang, Ji-Hui; Zhang, Yueyu; Yin, Wan-Jian; Gong, X G; Yakobson, Boris I; Wei, Su-Huai
2016-02-10
Two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors can be very useful for novel electronic and optoelectronic applications because of their good material properties. However, all current 2D materials have shortcomings that limit their performance. As a result, new 2D materials are highly desirable. Using atomic transmutation and differential evolution global optimization methods, we identified two group IV-VI 2D materials, Pma2-SiS and silicene sulfide. Pma2-SiS is found to be both chemically, energetically, and thermally stable. Most importantly, Pma2-SiS has shown good electronic and optoelectronic properties, including direct bandgaps suitable for solar cells, good mobility for nanoelectronics, good flexibility of property tuning by layer control and applied strain, and good air stability as well. Therefore, Pma2-SiS is expected to be a promising 2D material in the field of 2D electronics and optoelectronics. The designing principles demonstrated in identifying these two tantalizing examples have great potential to accelerate the finding of new functional 2D materials.
Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg; Rubinstein, John L.
2010-01-01
Membrane protein structure and function can be studied by two powerful and highly complementary electron cryomicroscopy (cryo-EM) methods: electron crystallography of two-dimensional (2D) crystals and single particle analysis of detergent-solubilized protein complexes. To obtain the highest-possible resolution data from membrane proteins, whether prepared as 2D crystals or single particles, cryo-EM samples must be vitrified with great care. Grid preparation for cryo-EM of 2D crystals is possible by back-injection, the carbon sandwich technique, drying in sugars before cooling in the electron microscope, or plunge-freezing. Specimen grids for single particle cryo-EM studies of membrane proteins are usually produced by plunge-freezing protein solutions, supported either by perforated or a continuous carbon film substrate. This review outlines the different techniques available and the suitability of each method for particular samples and studies. Experimental considerations in sample preparation and preservation include the protein itself and the presence of lipid or detergent. The appearance of cryo-EM samples in different conditions is also discussed. PMID:20678942
Electronic and magnetism properties of two-dimensional stacked nickel hydroxides and nitrides
Wei, Xiao-Lin; Tang, Zhen-Kun; Guo, Gen-Cai; Ma, Shangyi; Liu, Li-Min
2015-01-01
Two-dimensional (2D) layered materials receive a lot of attention because of their outstanding intrinsic properties and wide applications. In this work, the structural, electronic and magnetic properties of nickel hydroxides (Ni(OH)2) and nitrides XN (X = B, Al, and Ga) heterostructures are studied by first-principles calculations. The results show that the pristine monolayer Ni(OH)2 owns no macro magnetism with antiferromagnetic (AFM) coupling between two nearest Ni atoms, the electronic structure can be modulated through the heterostructures. The Ni(OH)2-GaN and Ni(OH)2-AlN heterostructures retain the AFM coupling, while Ni(OH)2-BN heterostructure have a larger magnetic moment with ferromagnetic (FM) coupling. The complete electron–hole separation is found in the Ni(OH)2-GaN heterostructure. The tunable electronic and magnetic properties of the Ni(OH)2-XN heterostructures open a new door to design the spintronic devices in the 2D stacked nanostructures. PMID:26111476
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sadeghi, S. S.; Phirouznia, A.; Fallahi, V.
2015-06-01
In this study, the optical conductivity of substitutionary doped graphene is investigated in the presence of the Rashba spin orbit coupling (RSOC). Calculations have been performed within the coherent potential approximation (CPA) beyond the Dirac cone approximation. Results of the current study demonstrate that the optical conductivity is increased by increasing the RSOC strength. Meanwhile it was observed that the anisotropy of the band energy results in a considerable anisotropic optical conductivity (AOC) in monolayer graphene. The sign and magnitude of this anisotropic conductivity was shown to be controlled by the external field frequency. It was also shown that the Rashba interaction results in electron-hole asymmetry in monolayer graphene.
Designing electronic properties of two-dimensional crystals through optimization of deformations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Jones, Gareth W.; Pereira, Vitor M.
2014-09-01
One of the enticing features common to most of the two-dimensional (2D) electronic systems that, in the wake of (and in parallel with) graphene, are currently at the forefront of materials science research is the ability to easily introduce a combination of planar deformations and bending in the system. Since the electronic properties are ultimately determined by the details of atomic orbital overlap, such mechanical manipulations translate into modified (or, at least, perturbed) electronic properties. Here, we present a general-purpose optimization framework for tailoring physical properties of 2D electronic systems by manipulating the state of local strain, allowing a one-step route from their design to experimental implementation. A definite example, chosen for its relevance in light of current experiments in graphene nanostructures, is the optimization of the experimental parameters that generate a prescribed spatial profile of pseudomagnetic fields (PMFs) in graphene. But the method is general enough to accommodate a multitude of possible experimental parameters and conditions whereby deformations can be imparted to the graphene lattice, and complies, by design, with graphene's elastic equilibrium and elastic compatibility constraints. As a result, it efficiently answers the inverse problem of determining the optimal values of a set of external or control parameters (such as substrate topography, sample shape, load distribution, etc) that result in a graphene deformation whose associated PMF profile best matches a prescribed target. The ability to address this inverse problem in an expedited way is one key step for practical implementations of the concept of 2D systems with electronic properties strain-engineered to order. The general-purpose nature of this calculation strategy means that it can be easily applied to the optimization of other relevant physical quantities which directly depend on the local strain field, not just in graphene but in other 2D
High-k Dielectric Nanosheets for Two-Dimensional material Electronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hao, Yufeng; Cui, Xu; Yin, Jun; Lee, Gwan-Hyoung; Arefe, Ghidewon; Osada, Minoru; Sasaki, Takayoshi; Hone, James
2015-03-01
Two-dimensional (2D) materials, such as graphene, hexagonal boron nitride (hBN), transition metal dichalcogenides, have shown great potential in nano-electronics because of their unique and superior physical properties. Among them, hBN has been known as an alternative dielectric that is atomically flat and free of trapped charges, which drastically enhance the mobility of graphene or MoS2. However, low dielectric constant (k ~ 3.5) of hBN limits its use in transistors as gate lengths are scaled down to tens of nanometers. Here we demonstrate high performance graphene and MoS2 field effect transistors by using ultrathin Ca2NaNb4O13 nanosheet as a dielectric and mechanically stacking 2D materials. We developed a facile transfer strategy to build 2D materials devices based on the Ca2NaNb4O13 nanosheets. We measured and found that the oxide nanosheet has high dielectric strength, along with high dielectric constant at thickness of a few tens of nanometer. Therefore, multiple-stacked heterostructure of 2D materials shows high mobility at small operating voltage. This study shows possibility of high-k dielectric nanosheets for 2D electronics.
Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Yang, Kesong
2015-03-21
We explore the possibility of achieving highly confined two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) within one single atomic layer through a comprehensive comparison study on three prototypical perovskite heterostructures, LaAlO{sub 3}/ATiO{sub 3} (A = Ca, Sr, and Ba), using first-principles electronic structure calculations. We predict that the heterostructure LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} has a highly confined 2DEG within a single atomic layer of the substrate BaTiO{sub 3}, and exhibits relatively higher interfacial charge carrier density and larger magnetic moments than the well-known LaAlO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} system. The long Ti-O bond length in the ab-plane of the LaAlO{sub 3}/BaTiO{sub 3} heterostructure is responsible for the superior charge confinement. We propose BaTiO{sub 3} as an exceptional substrate material for 2DEG systems with potentially superior properties.
Yang, Fan; Abe, Kazuhiro; Tani, Kazutoshi; Fujiyoshi, Yoshinori
2013-12-01
Electron crystallography is an important method for determining the structure of membrane proteins. In this paper, we show the impact of a carbon sandwich preparation on the preservation of crystalline sample quality, using characteristic examples of two-dimensional (2D) crystals from gastric H(+),K(+)-ATPase and their analyzed images. Compared with the ordinary single carbon support film preparation, the carbon sandwich preparation dramatically enhanced the resolution of images from flat sheet 2D crystals. As water evaporation is restricted in the carbon-sandwiched specimen, the improvement could be due to the strong protective effect of the retained water against drastic changes in the environment surrounding the specimen, such as dehydration and increased salt concentrations. This protective effect by the carbon sandwich technique helped to maintain the inherent and therefore best crystal conditions for analysis. Together with its strong compensation effect for the image shift due to beam-induced specimen charging, the carbon sandwich technique is a powerful method for preserving crystals of membrane proteins with larger hydrophilic regions, such as H(+),K(+)-ATPase, and thus constitutes an efficient and high-quality method for collecting data for the structural analysis of these types of membrane proteins by electron crystallography. PMID:23883606
Intersubband scattering in modulation-doped Si two-dimensional electron gases
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Yi-Hsin; Li, Jiun-Yun; Rokhinson, Leonid; Sturm, James
A bilayer of modulation doped two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) is of great interest to probe Coulomb drag. For bottom-doped Si 2DEGs, impurity scattering due to poor phosphorus (P) turn-off results in low carrier mobility. Here we demonstrate a record-high electron mobility of 470,000 cm2/V-s at 0.3 K in a bottom-doped 2DEG, comparable to that in top-doped structures. The power-law exponent of mobility vs. density was also evaluated for different P turn-off slopes. With fast turn-off, the power is 1.5, indicative of dominant remote doping scattering. The power decreases with slower P turn-off due to the enhanced scattering from the segregated P atoms. Further, for the first time, we report the second subband occupancy and intersubband scattering in a single Si quantum well, supported by the Shubnikov-de Haas oscillation data.
Pelliccione, M.; Bartel, J.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.; Sciambi, A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2014-11-03
Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called “virtual scanning tunneling microscopy” that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250 nm resolution.
Two dimensional valley electrons and excitons in the noncentrosymmetric 3R MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akashi, Ryosuke; Ochi, Masayuki; Bordacs, Sandor; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Arita, Ryotaro
2015-03-01
Possible control of the valley-dependent spin polarization in transition-metal dichalcogenides has been a hot topic as the valleytronics. Through the recent great progress based on the monolayer systems, people's interest is shifting to multilayered polytypes. The centrosymmetric 2H-stacked systems have been much studied for switching of the valley-dependent spin polarization. On the other hand, some of the authors [Suzuki et al., Nat. Nanotechnol. 9, 611 (2014)] have successfully fabricated the noncentrosymmetric 3R-stacked MoS2 multilayer and demonstrated the valley polarization independent of the number of layers. On the basis of this success, we further examined the valley electronic states in the 3R-MoS2 and found their novel two-dimensional properties utilizable for the valleytronics [Akashi et al., submitted.]. Namely, interlayer hopping of the valley electrons was proved to be zero as a consequence of a quantum-interference effect caused by the 3R-stacking geometry. In the talk, we report the results of the reflectivity measurement and analysis with an anisotropic hydrogen atomic model and show that the zero hopping causes 2D-hydrogen-like spectral series and confinement of the wave function within a single layer of the valley exciton. Present address: The University of Tokyo.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Guoxiong; De, Debtanu; Hadjiev, Viktor G.; Peng, Haibing
2014-06-01
Layered two-dimensional (2D) semiconductors beyond graphene have been emerging as potential building blocks for the next-generation electronic/photonic applications. Representative metal chalcogenides, including the widely studied MoS2, possess similar layered crystal structures with weak interaction between adjacent layers, thus allowing the formation of stable thin-layer crystals with thickness down to a few or even single atomic layer. Other important chalcogenides, involving earth-abundant and environment-friendly materials desirable for sustainable applications, include SnS2 (band gap: 2.1 eV) and SnS (band gap: 1.1 eV). So far, commonly adopted for research purpose are mechanical and liquid exfoliation methods for creating thin layers of such 2D semiconductors. Most recently, chemical vapor deposition (CVD) was attracting significant attention as a practical method for producing thin films or crystal grains of MoS2. However, critical yet still absent is an effective experimental approach for controlling the positions of thin crystal grains of layered 2D semiconductors during the CVD process. Here we report the controlled CVD synthesis of thin crystal arrays of representative layered semiconductors (including SnS2 and SnS) at designed locations on chip, promising large-scale optoelectronic applications. Our work opens a window for future practical applications of layered 2D semiconductors in integrated nano-electronic/photonic systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pelliccione, M.; Bartel, J.; Sciambi, A.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.; Goldhaber-Gordon, D.
2014-11-01
Correlated electron states in high mobility two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs), including charge density waves and microemulsion phases intermediate between a Fermi liquid and Wigner crystal, are predicted to exhibit complex local charge order. Existing experimental studies, however, have mainly probed these systems at micron to millimeter scales rather than directly mapping spatial organization. Scanning probes should be well-suited to study the spatial structure of these states, but high mobility 2DESs are found at buried semiconductor interfaces, beyond the reach of conventional scanning tunneling microscopy. Scanning techniques based on electrostatic coupling to the 2DES deliver important insights, but generally with resolution limited by the depth of the 2DES. In this letter, we present our progress in developing a technique called "virtual scanning tunneling microscopy" that allows local tunneling into a high mobility 2DES. Using a specially designed bilayer GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructure where the tunnel coupling between two separate 2DESs is tunable via electrostatic gating, combined with a scanning gate, we show that the local tunneling can be controlled with sub-250 nm resolution.
Low Temperature Force Microscopy on a Deeply Embedded Two Dimensional Electron Gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hedberg, James Augustin
2011-12-01
Experimental physics in the low temperature limit has consistently produced major advances for condensed matter research. Likewise, scanning probe microscopy offers a unique view of the nanometer scale features that populate the quantum landscape. This work discusses the merger of the two disciplines via the development of the Ultra Low Temperature Scanning Probe Microscope, the ULT-SPM. We focus on the novel characterization of an exotic condensed matter system: a deeply buried two dimensional electron gas with a cleaved edge overgrowth geometry. By coupling the dynamics of the force sensing probe microscope to the electrostatics of the electron gas, we can remotely and non-invasively measure charge transport features which are normally only observable using physically contacted electrodes. Focusing on the quantum Hall regime, we can exploit the high sensitivity of the local force sensor to study spatially dependent phenomena associated with electronic potential distributions. The instrument shows promise for many exciting experiments in which low temperatures, high magnetic fields, and local measurements are critical. Designed for operation at 50 mK, in magnetic fields reaching 16 T, many components of the instrument are not commercially available and were therefore designed and constructed in- house. As such, the intricate details of its design, construction and operation are documented thoroughly. This includes: the microscope assembly, the modular components such as the scan head and coarse motors, the electronics developed for controlling the instrument, and the general integration into the low temperature infrastructure. A quartz tuning fork is used as the force sensor in this instrument, enabling a wide selection between different modes of operation, the most relevant being electrostatic force microscopy. Noise limits are investigated and matched sources of experimental noise are identified. Detailed schematics of the instrument are also included.
Reservoir Approach to Two-Dimensional Electron Gas in a Magnetic Field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zawadzki, W.; Raymond, A.; Kubisa, M.
We consider works which treat two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) in quantum wells (QWs, mostly in GaAs/GaAlAs heterostructures) in the presence of quantizing magnetic fields as open systems in contact with outside reservoirs. If a reservoir is sufficiently large, it pins the Fermi level to a certain energy. As a result, in a varying external magnetic field the thermodynamic equilibrium will force oscillations of the electron density in and out of the QW. This leads to a number of physical phenomena in magneto-transport, interband and intraband magneto-optics, magnetization, magneto-plasma dispersion, etc. In particular, as first proposed by Baraff and Tsui, the density oscillations in and out of QW lead to plateaus in the integer Quantum Hall Effect at values observed in experiments. The gathered evidence, especially from magneto-optical investigations, allows one to conclude that, indeed, in most GaAs/GaAlAs hetrostructures one deals with open systems in which the electron density in QWs oscillates as the magnetic field varies. Relation of the density oscillations to other factors, such as electron localization, and their combined influence on the quantum transport in 2DEGs, is discussed. In particular, a validity of the classical formula for the Hall resistivity ρxy = B/Nec is considered. It is concluded that the density oscillations are not sufficient to be regarded as the only source of plateaus in the Quantum Hall Effect. Still, the general conclusion is that the reservoir approach should be included in various descriptions of 2DEGs in the presence of a magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Wood, Christopher D.; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C.; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Cunningham, John E.
2015-10-01
Terahertz frequency time-domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit, however, prevents its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally-defined nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~ 400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined electron transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures.
Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S; Wood, Christopher D; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H; Davies, A Giles; Cunningham, John E
2015-01-01
Terahertz frequency time-domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit, however, prevents its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally-defined nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~ 400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined electron transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures. PMID:26487263
Wu, Jingbo; Mayorov, Alexander S.; Wood, Christopher D.; Mistry, Divyang; Li, Lianhe; Muchenje, Wilson; Rosamond, Mark C.; Chen, Li; Linfield, Edmund H.; Davies, A. Giles; Cunningham, John E.
2015-01-01
Terahertz frequency time-domain spectroscopy employing free-space radiation has frequently been used to probe the elementary excitations of low-dimensional systems. The diffraction limit, however, prevents its use for the in-plane study of individual laterally-defined nanostructures. Here, we demonstrate a planar terahertz frequency plasmonic circuit in which photoconductive material is monolithically integrated with a two-dimensional electron system. Plasmons with a broad spectral range (up to ~ 400 GHz) are excited by injecting picosecond-duration pulses, generated and detected by a photoconductive semiconductor, into a high mobility two-dimensional electron system. Using voltage modulation of a Schottky gate overlying the two-dimensional electron system, we form a tuneable plasmonic cavity, and observe electrostatic manipulation of the plasmon resonances. Our technique offers a direct route to access the picosecond dynamics of confined electron transport in a broad range of lateral nanostructures. PMID:26487263
Doppler Velocimetry of Current Driven Spin Helices in a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas
Yang, Luyi
2013-05-17
Spins in semiconductors provide a pathway towards the development of spin-based electronics. The appeal of spin logic devices lies in the fact that the spin current is even under time reversal symmetry, yielding non-dissipative coupling to the electric field. To exploit the energy-saving potential of spin current it is essential to be able to control it. While recent demonstrations of electrical-gate control in spin-transistor configurations show great promise, operation at room temperature remains elusive. Further progress requires a deeper understanding of the propagation of spin polarization, particularly in the high mobility semiconductors used for devices. This dissertation presents the demonstration and application of a powerful new optical technique, Doppler spin velocimetry, for probing the motion of spin polarization at the level of 1 nm on a picosecond time scale. We discuss experiments in which this technique is used to measure the motion of spin helices in high mobility n-GaAs quantum wells as a function of temperature, in-plane electric field, and photoinduced spin polarization amplitude. We find that the spin helix velocity changes sign as a function of wave vector and is zero at the wave vector that yields the largest spin lifetime. This observation is quite striking, but can be explained by the random walk model that we have developed. We discover that coherent spin precession within a propagating spin density wave is lost at temperatures near 150 K. This finding is critical to understanding why room temperature operation of devices based on electrical gate control of spin current has so far remained elusive. We report that, at all temperatures, electron spin polarization co-propagates with the high-mobility electron sea, even when this requires an unusual form of separation of spin density from photoinjected electron density. Furthermore, although the spin packet co-propagates with the two-dimensional electron gas, spin diffusion is strongly
Two-dimensional materials as a new platform for atomically thin electronics and optoelectronics
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Rui
The discovery of graphene, made of single-layer carbon atoms, defines the starting point in the research and development of stable two-dimensional layer materials (2DLMs). Graphene has been one of the most extensively studied materials due to its unique band structure, the linear dispersion at the K point. It gives rise to novel phenomena, such as the anomalous quantum Hall effect, and has opened up a new category of "Fermi-Dirac" physics. Graphene has also attracted enormous attention for future electronics because of its exceptional high carrier mobility, high carrier saturation velocity, and large critical current density. Graphene's success has shown that other 2D materials beyond graphene may also exhibit fascinating properties and be used for accelerate the development of technology. Two-dimensional transition metal dichalcogenides (TMDs), such as molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), are emerging as an exciting material system for future electronics due to their unique electronic properties and atomically thin geometry. In this dissertation, I will firstly present my research studies on the first experimental observation of a dramatic enhancement of the conductance in a GNR field-effect transistor by a perpendicular magnetic field. Very large negative MR of nearly 100% with conductance enhanced over 10,000 times was observed at low temperatures; and more than 50% remained at room temperature. Then I will show a new approach for the scalable fabrication of high performance graphene transistors with transferred gate stacks. This unique device structure enables scalable fabrication of self-aligned graphene transistors with unprecedented performance including a record high cut-off frequency up to 427 GHz. Taking a step further, I will demonstrate the best performed MoS2 transistors with an on-off ratio exceeding 107, excellent current saturation and a highest intrinsic gain over 30. On-chip microwave measurements demonstrate a highest intrinsic cut-off frequency fT of 42
Fateev, D. V. Mashinsky, K. V.; Bagaeva, T. Yu.; Popov, V. V.
2015-01-15
The problem of the rectification of terahertz radiation due to plasmonic nonlinearities in a periodic two-dimensional electron system upon the excitation of plasma oscillations by the attenuated total reflection method is solved. This model allows the independent study of different plasmonic rectification mechanisms, i.e., plasmonic electron drag and plasmonic ratchet effects.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-02-01
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.
Kuehn, W; Reimann, K; Woerner, M; Elsaesser, T; Hey, R
2011-05-12
We discuss a novel approach for nonlinear two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy in the terahertz (THz) frequency range which is based on a collinear interaction geometry of a sequence of THz pulses with the sample. The nonlinear polarization is determined by a phase-resolved measurement of the electric field transmitted through the sample as a function of the delay τ between two phase-locked pulses and the "real" time t. The information provided by a single 2D scan along the τ and t axes is equivalent to that from a noncollinear photon-echo setup equipped with four local oscillators, each interacting with a different diffracted order. We address basic concepts of collinear 2D THz spectroscopy, in particular data analysis and phasing issues. Different rephasing and nonrephasing contributions to the third-order response are separated and 2D correlation spectra derived. As a prototype application, 2D correlation spectra of intersubband excitations of electrons in semiconductor quantum wells are presented.
Excitations in a spin-polarized two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kreil, Dominik; Hobbiger, Raphael; Drachta, Jürgen T.; Böhm, Helga M.
2015-11-01
A remarkably long-lived spin plasmon may exist in two-dimensional electron liquids with imbalanced spin-up and spin-down population. The predictions for this interesting mode by Agarwal et al. [Phys. Rev. B 90, 155409 (2014), 10.1103/PhysRevB.90.155409] are based on the random phase approximation. Here, we show how to account for spin-dependent correlations from known ground-state pair correlation functions and study the consequences on the various spin-dependent longitudinal response functions. The spin-plasmon dispersion relation and its critical wave vector for Landau damping by minority spins turn out to be significantly lower. We further demonstrate that spin-dependent effective interactions imply a rich structure in the excitation spectrum of the partially spin-polarized system. Most notably, we find a "magnetic antiresonance," where the imaginary part of both, the spin-spin as well as the density-spin response function vanish. The resulting minimum in the double-differential cross section is awaiting experimental confirmation.
Huang, Bing; Zhuang, Houlong L.; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Wei, Su-Huai
2015-03-03
We report that the discovery of stable two-dimensional, earth-abundant, semiconducting materials is of great interest and may impact future electronic technologies. By combining global structural prediction and first-principles calculations, we have theoretically discovered several previously unknown semiconducting silicon phosphides (Si_{x}P_{y}) monolayers, which could be formed stably at the stoichiometries of y/x ≥1. Unexpectedly, some of these compounds, i.e., P-6m2 Si_{1}P_{1} and Pm Si_{1}P_{2}, have comparable or even lower formation enthalpies than their previously known bulk allotropes. The band gaps (Eg) of Si_{x}P_{y} compounds can be dramatically tuned in an extremely wide range (0< E_{g} < 3 eV) by simply changing the number of layers or applying an in-plane strain. Furthermore, we find that carrier doping can drive the ground state of C2/m Si_{1}P_{3} from a nonmagnetic state into a robust half-metallic spin-polarized state, originating from its unique valence band structure, which can extend the use of Si-related compounds for spintronics.
Stability and electronic structure of two-dimensional allotropes of group-IV materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Matusalem, Filipe; Marques, Marcelo; Teles, Lara K.; Bechstedt, Friedhelm
2015-07-01
We study six different two-dimensional (2D) allotropes of carbon, silicon, germanium, and tin by means of the ab initio density functional theory for the ground state and approximate methods to calculate their electronic structures, including quasiparticle effects. Four of the investigated allotropes are based on dumbbell geometries, one on a kagome lattice, and one on the graphenelike hexagonal structure for comparison. Concerning carbon, our calculations of the cohesive energies clearly show that the hexagonal structure (graphene) is most stable. However, in the case of Si and Ge, the dumbbell structures, particularly the large honeycomb dumbbell (LHD) geometries, are energetically favored compared to the s p2/s p3 -bonded hexagonal lattice (i.e., silicene and germanene). The main reason for this is the opening of a band gap in the honeycomb dumbbell arrangements. The LHD sheet crystals represent indirect semiconductors with a K →Γ gap of about 0.5 eV. In the Sn case we predict the MoS2-like symmetry to be more stable, in contrast to the stanene and LHD geometries predicted in literature. Our results for freestanding group-IV layers shine new light on recent experimental studies of group-IV overlayers on various substrates.
Two-Dimensional Fourier Transform Electronic Spectroscopy of Peridinin and Peridinin Analogs
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khosravi, Soroush; Bishop, Michael; Obaid, Razib; Whitelock, Hope; Carroll, Ann Marie; Lafountain, Amy; Frank, Harry; Beck, Warren; Gibson, George; Berrah, Nora
2016-05-01
The peridinin chlorophyll- a protein (PCP) is a light harvesting complex in dinoflagellates that exhibits a carotenoid-to-chlorophyll (Chl) a excitation energy transfer (EET) efficiency of 85-95%. Unlike most light harvesting complexes, where the number of carotenoids is less than Chl, each subunit of PCP contains eight tightly-packed peridinins surrounding two Chl a molecules. The unusual solvent polarity dependence of the lowest excited S1 state of peridinin suggests the presence of an intramolecular charge-transfer (ICT) state. The nature of the ICT state, its coupling to the S1 of peridinin, and whether it enables the high EET efficiency is still unclear. Two-dimensional electronic Fourier transform spectroscopy (2DES) is a powerful method capable of examining these issues. The present work examines the ICT state of peridinin and peridinin analogs that have diminished ICT character. 2DES data adding new insight into the spectral signatures and nature of the ICT state in peridinin will be presented. Funded by the DoE-BES, Grant No. DE-SC0012376.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wiebe, Jens
2011-03-01
Magnetic atoms doped into a semiconductor are the building blocks for bottom up spintronic and quantum logic devices. They also provide model systems for the investigation of fundamental effects. In order to correlate the dopant's atomic structure with its magnetism magnetically sensitive techniques with atomic resolution are a prerequisite. Here, I show electrical excitation and read-out [ 1 ] of single magnetic dopant associated spins in a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined to a semiconductor surface [ 2 ] using spin-resolved scanning tunneling spectroscopy [ 3 ] . I will review our real-space study of the quantum Hall transition in the 2DEG [ 2 ] and of the magnetic properties of the dopants [ 1 ] . Finally, I will demonstrate that the dopant serves as an atomic scale probe for local magnetometry of the 2DEG. This work was done in collaboration with A. A. Khajetoorians, B. Chillian, S. Schuwalow, F. Lechermann, K. Hashimoto, C. Sohrmann, T. Inaoka, F. Meier, Y. Hirayama, R. A. Römer, M. Morgenstern, and R. Wiesendanger. [ 1 ] A. A. Khajetoorians et al., Nature 467, 1084 (2010). [ 2 ] K. Hashimoto et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 101, 256802 (2008). [ 3 ] J. Wiebe et al., Rev. Sci. Instrum. 75, 4871 (2004). We acknowledge financial support from ERC Advanced Grant ``FURORE'', by the DFG via SFB668 and GrK1286, and by the city of Hamburg via the cluster of excellence ``Nanospintronics''.
Two-Dimensional Valley Electrons and Excitons in Noncentrosymmetric 3 R -MoS2
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akashi, Ryosuke; Ochi, Masayuki; Bordács, Sándor; Suzuki, Ryuji; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro; Arita, Ryotaro
2015-07-01
We find that the motion of the valley electrons—electronic states close to the K and K' points of the Brillouin zone—is confined into two dimensions when the layers of MoS2 form the 3 R stacking, while in the 2 H polytype, the bands have dispersion in all three dimensions. According to our first-principles band-structure calculations, the valley states have no interlayer hopping in 3 R -MoS2 , which is proven to be the consequence of the rotational symmetry of the Bloch functions. By measuring the reflectivity spectra and analyzing an anisotropic hydrogen-atom model, we confirm that the valley excitons in 3 R -MoS2 have two-dimensional hydrogenlike spectral series, and the spreads of the wave function are smaller than the interlayer distance. In contrast, the valley excitons in 2 H -MoS2 are well described by the three-dimensional model and, thus, not confined in a single layer. Our results indicate that the dimensionality of the valley degree of freedom can be controlled simply by the stacking geometry, which can be utilized in future valleytronics.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy.
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I; Scholes, Gregory D; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-02-09
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-01-01
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines the selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. We suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy. PMID:26857477
Simulated two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy of the eight-bacteriochlorophyll FMO complex
Yeh, Shu-Hao; Kais, Sabre
2014-12-21
The Fenna-Matthews-Olson (FMO) protein-pigment complex acts as a molecular wire conducting energy between the outer antenna system and the reaction center; it is an important photosynthetic system to study the transfer of excitonic energy. Recent crystallographic studies report the existence of an additional (eighth) bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a) in some of the FMO monomers. To understand the functionality of this eighth BChl, we simulated the two-dimensional electronic spectra of both the 7-site (apo form) and the 8-site (holo form) variant of the FMO complex from green sulfur bacteria, Prosthecochloris aestuarii. By comparing the spectrum, it was found that the eighth BChl can affect two different excitonic energy transfer pathways: (1) it is directly involved in the first apo form pathway (6 → 3 → 1) by passing the excitonic energy to exciton 6; and (2) it facilitates an increase in the excitonic wave function overlap between excitons 4 and 5 in the second pathway (7 → 4,5 → 2 → 1) and thus increases the possible downward sampling routes across the BChls.
Dark States in the Light-Harvesting complex 2 Revealed by Two-dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy
Ferretti, Marco; Hendrikx, Ruud; Romero, Elisabet; Southall, June; Cogdell, Richard J.; Novoderezhkin, Vladimir I.; Scholes, Gregory D.; van Grondelle, Rienk
2016-02-09
Energy transfer and trapping in the light harvesting antennae of purple photosynthetic bacteria is an ultrafast process, which occurs with a quantum efficiency close to unity. However the mechanisms behind this process have not yet been fully understood. Recently it was proposed that low-lying energy dark states, such as charge transfer states and polaron pairs, play an important role in the dynamics and directionality of energy transfer. However, it is difficult to directly detect those states because of their small transition dipole moment and overlap with the B850/B870 exciton bands. Here we present a new experimental approach, which combines themore » selectivity of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy with the availability of genetically modified light harvesting complexes, to reveal the presence of those dark states in both the genetically modified and the wild-type light harvesting 2 complexes of Rhodopseudomonas palustris. In conclusion, we suggest that Nature has used the unavoidable charge transfer processes that occur when LH pigments are concentrated to enhance and direct the flow of energy.« less
Huang, Bing; Zhuang, Houlong L.; Yoon, Mina; Sumpter, Bobby G.; Wei, Su-Huai
2015-03-03
We report that the discovery of stable two-dimensional, earth-abundant, semiconducting materials is of great interest and may impact future electronic technologies. By combining global structural prediction and first-principles calculations, we have theoretically discovered several previously unknown semiconducting silicon phosphides (SixPy) monolayers, which could be formed stably at the stoichiometries of y/x ≥1. Unexpectedly, some of these compounds, i.e., P-6m2 Si1P1 and Pm Si1P2, have comparable or even lower formation enthalpies than their previously known bulk allotropes. The band gaps (Eg) of SixPy compounds can be dramatically tuned in an extremely wide range (0< Eg < 3 eV) by simply changingmore » the number of layers or applying an in-plane strain. Furthermore, we find that carrier doping can drive the ground state of C2/m Si1P3 from a nonmagnetic state into a robust half-metallic spin-polarized state, originating from its unique valence band structure, which can extend the use of Si-related compounds for spintronics.« less
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin-orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L.
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin–orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and {τ }{{s}}=16 {{ns}} at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices.
Towards molecular doping effect on the electronic properties of two-dimensional layered materials
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arramel; Wang, Q.; Zheng, Y.; Zhang, W.; Wee, A. T. S.
2016-08-01
In recent advancements of an atomically-thick, flat, and flexible two-dimensional (2D) material has attracted tremendous interest. Graphene and 2D layered semiconductors such as transition-metal dichalcogenides (TMDs) pave the way on the exploration of their unique layer-number dependent electronic and optical properties. The latter have a promising future on the microelectronics due to their sizeable bandgaps, i.e., the crossover from indirect-direct bandgap transition occurs as the thickness of TMDs is decreased to a monolayer. In this work, we systematically investigated the optimum growth parameter of chemical vapor deposition of MoS2 and WSe2, respectively. It turns out that the temperature and the duration growth plays role to produce a large area of TMDs monolayers. Our studies suggest that a well-controlled high quality of TMDs could serves as template and interlayer in the TMD-organic heterointerfaces. Thus it is potentially an attractive approach towards a wide-ranging application in optoelectronics, nanoelectronics and energy-harvesting applications.
Electrical detection of spin transport in Si two-dimensional electron gas systems.
Chang, Li-Te; Fischer, Inga Anita; Tang, Jianshi; Wang, Chiu-Yen; Yu, Guoqiang; Fan, Yabin; Murata, Koichi; Nie, Tianxiao; Oehme, Michael; Schulze, Jörg; Wang, Kang L
2016-09-01
Spin transport in a semiconductor-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) system has been attractive in spintronics for more than ten years. The inherent advantages of high-mobility channel and enhanced spin-orbital interaction promise a long spin diffusion length and efficient spin manipulation, which are essential for the application of spintronics devices. However, the difficulty of making high-quality ferromagnetic (FM) contacts to the buried 2DEG channel in the heterostructure systems limits the potential developments in functional devices. In this paper, we experimentally demonstrate electrical detection of spin transport in a high-mobility 2DEG system using FM Mn-germanosilicide (Mn(Si0.7Ge0.3)x) end contacts, which is the first report of spin injection and detection in a 2DEG confined in a Si/SiGe modulation doped quantum well structure (MODQW). The extracted spin diffusion length and lifetime are l sf = 4.5 μm and [Formula: see text] at 1.9 K respectively. Our results provide a promising approach for spin injection into 2DEG system in the Si-based MODQW, which may lead to innovative spintronic applications such as spin-based transistor, logic, and memory devices. PMID:27479155
Yu, P.N.; Ginzburg, N.S.; Sergeev, A.S.
1995-12-31
In the report we present a time domain approach to the theory of FELs with one and two dimensional Bragg resonators. It is demonstrated that traditional 1-D Bragg resonators provide possibilities for effective longitudinal mode control. In particular, simulation of the FEL realized in the joint experiment of JINR (Dybna) and IAP (N. Novgord) confirms achievement of the single mode operating regime with high efficiency of about 20%. However, 1-D Bragg resonators lose their selectivity as the transverse size of the system is increased. We simulate mode competition in FELs with coaxial 1-D Bragg resonators and observe a progressively more complicated azimuthal mode competition pattern as the perimeter of the resonator is increased. At the same time, using 2-D Bragg resonators for the same electron beam and microwave system perimeter gives very fast establishment of the single frequency regime with an azimuthally symmetric operating mode. Therefore, FELs utilising 2-D Bragg resonators with coaxial and planar geometry may be considered as attractive sources of high power spatially coherent radiation in the mm and sub-mm wave bands.
Ramanayaka, A. N.; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.
2013-12-04
We extract the electron temperature in the microwave photo-excited high mobility GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron system (2DES) by studying the influence of microwave radiation on the amplitude of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations (SdHOs) in a regime where the cyclotron frequency, ω{sub c}, and the microwave angular frequency, ω, satisfy 2ω ≤ ω{sub c} ≤ 3.5ω The results indicate that increasing the incident microwave power has a weak effect on the amplitude of the SdHOs and therefore the electron temperature, in comparison to the influence of modest temperature changes on the dark-specimen SdH effect. The results indicate negligible electron heating under modest microwave photo-excitation, in good agreement with theoretical predictions.
Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming
2016-07-01
Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth’s crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654-60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor-metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices.
Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica.
Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming
2016-07-01
Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth's crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654-60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor-metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices. PMID:27199352
Strain-modulated electronic and thermal transport properties of two-dimensional O-silica
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Han, Yang; Qin, Guangzhao; Jungemann, Christoph; Hu, Ming
2016-07-01
Silica is one of the most abundant materials in the Earth’s crust and is a remarkably versatile and important engineering material in various modern science and technology. Recently, freestanding and well-ordered two-dimensional (2D) silica monolayers with octahedral (O-silica) building blocks were found to be theoretically stable by (Wang G et al 2015 J. Phys. Chem. C 119 15654–60). In this paper, by performing first-principles calculations, we systematically investigated the electronic and thermal transport properties of 2D O-silica and also studied how these properties can be tuned by simple mechanical stretching. Unstrained 2D O-silica is an insulator with an indirect band gap of 6.536 eV. The band gap decreases considerably with bilateral strain up to 29%, at which point a semiconductor–metal transition occurs. More importantly, the in-plane thermal conductivity of freestanding 2D O-silica is found to be unusually high, which is around 40 to 50 times higher than that of bulk α-quartz and more than two orders of magnitude higher than that of amorphous silica. The thermal conductivity of O-silica decreases by almost two orders of magnitude when the bilateral stretching strain reaches 10%. By analyzing the mode-dependent phonon properties and phonon-scattering channel, the phonon lifetime is found to be the dominant factor that leads to the dramatic decrease of the lattice thermal conductivity under strain. The very sensitive response of both band gap and phonon transport properties to the external mechanical strain will enable 2D O-silica to easily adapt to the different environment of realistic applications. Our study is expected to stimulate experimental exploration of further physical and chemical properties of 2D silica systems, and offers perspectives on modulating the electronic and thermal properties of related low-dimensional structures for applications such as thermoelectric, photovoltaic, and optoelectronic devices.
Transition to zero resistance in a two-dimensional electron gas driven with microwaves
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alicea, Jason; Balents, Leon; Fisher, Matthew P. A.; Paramekanti, Arun; Radzihovsky, Leo
2005-06-01
High-mobility two-dimensional electron systems in a perpendicular magnetic field exhibit zero-resistance states (ZRSs) when driven with microwave radiation. We study the nonequilibrium phase transition into the ZRS using phenomenological equations of motion to describe the electron current and density fluctuations in the presence of a magnetic field. We focus on two models to describe the transition into a time-independent steady state. In model I the equations of motion are invariant under a global uniform change in the density. This model is argued to describe physics on small length scales where the density does not vary appreciably from its mean. The ordered state that arises in this case spontaneously breaks rotational invariance in the plane and consists of a uniform current and a transverse Hall field. We discuss some properties of this state, such as stability to fluctuations and the appearance of a Goldstone mode associated with the continuous symmetry breaking. Using dynamical renormalization group techniques, we find that with short-range interactions this model can admit a continuous transition described by mean-field theory, whereas with long-range interactions the transition is driven first order. In model II, we relax the invariance under global density shifts as appropriate for describing the system on longer length scales, and in this case we predict a first-order transition with either short- or long-range interactions. We discuss implications for experiments, including a possible way to detect the Goldstone mode in the ZRS, scaling relations expected to hold in the case of an apparent continuous transition into the ZRS, and a possible signature of a first-order transition in larger samples. Our framework for describing the phase transition into the ZRS also highlights the connection of this problem to the well-studied phenomenon of “bird flocking.”
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Bihe
An innovative plasma diagnostic technique, electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI), was successfully developed and implemented on the TEXT-U and RTP tokamaks for the study of plasma electron temperature profiles and fluctuations. Due to the high spatial and temporal resolution of this new diagnostic, plasma filamentation was observed during high power electron cyclotron resonance heating (ECRH) in TEXT-U, and was identified as multiple rotating magnetic islands. In RTP, under special plasma conditions, evidence for magnetic bubbling was first observed, which is characterized by the flattening of the electron temperature and pressure profiles over a small annular region of about 1-2 cm extent near the q = 2 surface. More important results arose from the detailed study of the broadband plasma turbulence in TEXT-U and RTP. With the first measurements of poloidal wavenumbers and dispersion relations, turbulent Te fluctuations in the confinement region of TEXT-U plasmas were identified as electron drift wave turbulence. The fluctuation amplitude is found to follow the mixing length scaling, and the fluctuation-induced conducted- heat flux can account for the observed anomalous energy transport in TEXT-U. In RTP, detailed ECEI study of broadband Te fluctuations has shown that many characteristics of the observed fluctuations are consistent with the predictions of toroidal ηi mode theory. These include the global dependence of the fluctuation frequency and amplitude on the plasma density and current. The measured isotope and impurity scalings quantitatively match the predictions of toroidal ηi mode theory. The ECEI measurements in combination with ECRH modification of T e profiles argue against the Te gradients serving as the driving force of the turbulence. With the detailed 2- D measurements of the fluctuation distribution over the plasma minor cross-section, large scale, coherent structures similar to the eigenmode structures predicted by toroidal ηi mode theory
Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational spectra: modeling correlated electronic and nuclear motion.
Terenziani, F; Painelli, A
2015-05-21
We calculate 2D electronic-vibrational (2D-EV) spectra of solvated organic dyes modeled in terms of a reduced set of electronic diabatic states (the essential states) non-adiabatically coupled to molecular vibrations. An effective overdamped coordinate, whose dynamics is described by the Smoluchowski diffusion equation, accounts for polar solvation. Results are discussed for two dyes with distinctively different spectroscopic behavior: 4-(dicyanomethylene)-2-methyl-6-(4-dimethylaminostyryl)-4H-pyran (DCM) and 8-(N,N-dibutylamino)-2-azachrysene (AAC). Linear absorption and fluorescence spectra of DCM are well reproduced based on a minimal two-state model. The same model leads to 2D-EV spectra in good agreement with the recent experimental data reported by Oliver and coworkers for DCM in DMSO. In contrast, linear spectra of AAC show a subtle interplay between a locally-excited (LE) and a charge-transfer (CT) excitation, calling for a three-state model. Calculated 2D-EV spectra for AAC show a qualitatively different behavior, demonstrating that the experimental data for DCM do not support a LE/CT interplay. This resolves the long-lasting discussion about the nature of low-lying excitations of DCM in favor of the simplest picture. PMID:25912698
Griffin, M.S.
1992-01-01
A review of the theoretical framework necessary for the description and calculation of electronic transport characteristics in two dimensional Bismuth Tellurium Sulfide (BTS) is given. The processes for preparing and cooling one quintuple layer BTS samples to temperatures of approximately one Kelvin are described. BTS samples with a conductance greater than e[sup 2]/h are shown to demonstrate weak antilocalization effects and magnetoconductance that are dependent upon the sample temperature and the applied electric field. BTS samples with a conductance much less than e[sup 2]/h are shown to demonstrate strong localization and variable range hopping (VRH) effects and magnetoconductance that are dependent upon the sample temperature and the applied electric field in a manner similar to that in the weak localization regime. In both the weak and strong localization regimes it is shown that the temperature dependence of the magnetoconductance can be suppressed by a strong electric field. The characteristic magnetic field values for the dominant scattering processes in both weak and strong localization regimes are found by fitting digamma functions to experimental data. The absence of h/e periodicity in VRH is observed. A dominant linear magnetic field dependence of the magnetoconductance for low applied magnetic fields in the VRH regime is shown. The mixing of weak and strong localization mechanisms in the moderately localized regime is reported. Evidence for the Coulomb blockade in tunneling processes for very high resistance BTS samples is presented. The Coulomb blockade is used to partially explain the inability to fit BTS magnetoconductance curves to the present theories for the dependence of the magnetoconductance on temperature and electric field.
Charge imbalance and bilayer two-dimensional electron systems at νT=1
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Champagne, A. R.; Finck, A. D. K.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfeiffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2008-11-01
We use interlayer tunneling to study bilayer two-dimensional electron systems at νT=1 over a wide range of charge-density imbalance Δν=ν1-ν2 between the two layers. We find that the strongly enhanced tunneling associated with the coherent excitonic νT=1 phase at small layer separation can survive at least up to an imbalance of Δν=0.5 , i.e., (ν1,ν2)=(3/4,1/4) . Phase transitions between the excitonic νT=1 state and bilayer states which lack significant interlayer correlations can be induced in three different ways: by increasing the effective interlayer spacing d/ℓ , the temperature T , or the charge imbalance Δν . We observe that close to the phase boundary the coherent νT=1 phase can be absent at Δν=0 , present at intermediate Δν , and then absent again at large Δν , thus indicating an intricate phase competition between it and incoherent quasi-independent layer states. At zero imbalance, the critical d/ℓ shifts linearly with temperature, while at Δν=1/3 the critical d/ℓ is only weakly dependent on T . At Δν=1/3 we report on an observation of a direct phase transition between the coherent excitonic νT=1 bilayer integer quantum Hall phase and the pair of single-layer fractional quantized Hall states at ν1=2/3 and ν2=1/3 .
Fermi surface distortion induced by interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects
Choi, Won Young; Koo, Hyun Cheol; Chang, Joonyeon; Kim, Hyung-jun; Lee, Kyung-Jin
2015-05-07
To evaluate Fermi surface distortion induced by interaction between Rashba and Zeeman effects, the channel resistance in an InAs quantum well layer is investigated with an in-plane magnetic field transverse to the current direction. In the magnetoresistance curve, the critical point occurs at ∼3.5 T, which is approximately half of the independently measured Rashba field. To get an insight into the correlation between the critical point in magnetoresistance curve and the Rashba strength, the channel conductivity is calculated using a two-dimensional free-electron model with relaxation time approximation. The critical point obtained from the model calculation is in agreement with the experiment, suggesting that the observation of critical point can be an alternative method to experimentally determine the Rashba parameter.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lue, N.-Y.; Wu, G. Y.
2010-04-01
We investigate theoretically the spin-filtering effect in a quasi-one-dimensional (Q1D) electron liquid with spin-orbit interaction. The Q1D system considered is formed from a two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) subject to both a lateral confining potential and an interface potential perpendicular to the 2DEG. Spin and charge degrees of freedom in the system are mixed by the interface potential through the Rashba mechanism of spin-orbit interaction [A. V. Moroz and C. H. W. Barnes, Phys. Rev. B 60, 14272 (1999)] and we show that when a spin-dependent δ potential is further introduced into the system, for example, via implantation of magnetic/ferromagnetic impurities, the mixing leads to the spin-filtering effect which favors electrons with a certain spin orientation to transport through the δ potential. In particular, we calculate the scaling dimension of electron scattering both by spin-flip and by spin-independent δ potentials when the temperature is varied and show that, in the spin-flip case, the scaling of electron scattering with temperature varies with spin orientation. Conductance is calculated for both spin and charge transport, and the spin-filtering effect is discussed quantitatively in terms of the conductance.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-01
Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy is an experimental technique that shows great promise in its ability to provide detailed information concerning the interactions between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in molecular systems. The physical quantities 2DEV is particularly suited for measuring have not yet been fully determined, nor how these effects manifest in the spectra. In this work, we investigate the use of the center line slope of a peak in a 2DEV spectrum as a measure of both the dynamic and static correlations between the electronic and vibrational states of a dye molecule in solution. We show how this center line slope is directly related to the solvation correlation function for the vibrational degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate how the strength with which the vibration on the electronic excited state couples to its bath can be extracted from a set of 2DEV spectra. These analytical techniques are then applied to experimental data from the laser dye 3,3'-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide in deuterated chloroform, where we determine the lifetime of the correlation between the electronic transition frequency and the transition frequency for the backbone C = C stretch mode to be ˜1.7 ps. Furthermore, we find that on the electronic excited state, this mode couples to the bath ˜1.5 times more strongly than on the electronic ground state.
Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-05-07
Two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy is an experimental technique that shows great promise in its ability to provide detailed information concerning the interactions between the electronic and vibrational degrees of freedom in molecular systems. The physical quantities 2DEV is particularly suited for measuring have not yet been fully determined, nor how these effects manifest in the spectra. In this work, we investigate the use of the center line slope of a peak in a 2DEV spectrum as a measure of both the dynamic and static correlations between the electronic and vibrational states of a dye molecule in solution. We show how this center line slope is directly related to the solvation correlation function for the vibrational degrees of freedom. We also demonstrate how the strength with which the vibration on the electronic excited state couples to its bath can be extracted from a set of 2DEV spectra. These analytical techniques are then applied to experimental data from the laser dye 3,3′-diethylthiatricarbocyanine iodide in deuterated chloroform, where we determine the lifetime of the correlation between the electronic transition frequency and the transition frequency for the backbone C = C stretch mode to be ∼1.7 ps. Furthermore, we find that on the electronic excited state, this mode couples to the bath ∼1.5 times more strongly than on the electronic ground state.
Study of two-dimensional device-error-redundant single-electron oscillator system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Murakami, Yoshisato; Oya, Takahide
2012-10-01
This paper reports the study of a two-dimensional device-error-redundant single-electron (SE) circuit. The circuit is an SE reaction-diffusion (RD) circuit that imitates the unique behavior of the chemical RD system and is expected to be a new information processing system. The original RD system is a complex chemical system that is said to express selforganizing dynamics in nature. It can also be assumed to operate as parallel information processing systems. Therefore, by imitating the original RD system for SE circuits, this SE-RD circuit can perform parallel information processing that is based on a natural phenomenon. However, the circuit is very sensitive to noise because it is controlled by a very small amount of energy. It is also sensitive to device errors (e.g., circuit parameter fluctuations in the fabrication process). Generally, fluctuations caused by errors introduced in manufacturing the circuit components trigger incorrect circuit operations, including noises. To overcome such noises, the circuit requires redundant properties for noise. To address this issue, we consider mimicking the information processing method of the natural world for the circuit to obtain noise redundancy. Actually, we previously proposed a unique method based on a model of neural networks with a stochastic resonance (SR) for the circuit. The SR phenomenon, which was discovered in studies of living things (e.g., insects), can be considered a type of noise-energy-harnessing system. Many researchers have proposed SR-based applications for novel electronic devices or systems. In networks where SR exists, signals can generally be distinguished from noise by harnessing noise energy. We previously designed SE-SR systems and succeeded in making an architecture for an SE circuit that has thermal noise redundancy. At the time, we applied an SR model proposed by Collins to our circuit. Prior to our current study, however, it had not yet been confirmed whether SE circuits have device
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Avetisyan, Siranush; Chakraborty, Tapash; Pietiläinen, Pekka
2016-07-01
Magnetization of anisotropic quantum dots in the presence of the Rashba spin-orbit interaction has been studied for three and four interacting electrons in the dot for non-zero values of the applied magnetic field. We observe unique behaviors of magnetization that are direct reflections of the anisotropy and the spin-orbit interaction parameters independently or concurrently. In particular, there are saw-tooth structures in the magnetic field dependence of the magnetization, as caused by the electron-electron interaction, that are strongly modified in the presence of large anisotropy and high strength of the spin-orbit interactions. We also report the temperature dependence of magnetization that indicates the temperature beyond which these structures due to the interactions disappear. Additionally, we found the emergence of a weak sawtooth structure in magnetization for three electrons in the high anisotropy and large spin-orbit interaction limit that was explained as a result of merging of two low-energy curves when the level spacings evolve with increasing values of the anisotropy and the spin-orbit interaction strength.
Magnetoabsorption and radiation-induced resistance oscillations in two-dimensional electron systems
Inarrea, J.; Platero, G.
2011-12-23
Magnetoabsorption and resistance oscillations in two-dimensional systems are calculated in the framework of the same theory: the microwave driven Larmor orbit model. On the one hand, this theory allows to obtain resistance oscillations with multiple peaks, depending on the microwave frequency. On the other hand, it permits also to calculate the microwave magnetoabsorption..
New quantum oscillations in magneto transport of a high-mobility two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Changli
Quantum transport in two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) has been one of the major topics in condensed matter physics for many years. Although extensive studies have been performed in the regime of the quantum Hall effect (QHE) where a high magnetic field (typical B ˜ 10 T) is required, much less attention has been paid to the lower magnetic field regime where the Landau quantization of the 2DES is important but the QHE are absent (typical B ≲ 0.5 T). The 2D transport at the lower B regime was thought to be well understood and no surprise was expected. Contrary to this belief, three new classes of quantum oscillations have been discovered recently by our group (Quantum transport group of the University of Utah, led by Prof. RuiRui Du) in high-mobility 2DES at low magnetic fields. These new quantum oscillations are (1) the magneto-acoustic-phonon resonance (MAPR) involving acoustic phonons (in contrast with the well-known magneto-phonon resonance involving optical phonons), (2) the magneto-Zener-tunneling resonance (MZTR), induced by a relatively large dc current, and (3) the microwave-induced photo-conductivity resonance (MIPCR). In ultra-high-mobility samples, the minima of the MIPCR oscillations further develop into the so-called "zero resistance state" (ZRS). All these phenomena are manifested in magnetoresistance by periodic (in 1/B) oscillations. It is now clear that an important selection rule in 2D transport, namely q = 2 kF in momentum space or DeltaY = 2 Rc in real space, is underlying the MAPR and the MZTR, where q is the electron momentum transferred to a scatterer, kF is the Fermi wavevector of the 2DES, Delta Y is the guiding center shift of a scattered electron, and Rc is the cyclotron radius. This selection rule is not directly related to a conservation law but due to the very sharp cutoff at Delta Y = 2Rc for the overlap integral between displaced Landau orbits in the vicinity of the Fermi level. On the other hand, the origin of the MIPCR
Kammerlander, David; Marques, Miguel A. L.; Castro, Alberto
2011-04-15
Quantum optimal control theory is a powerful tool for engineering quantum systems subject to external fields such as the ones created by intense lasers. The formulation relies on a suitable definition for a target functional, that translates the intended physical objective to a mathematical form. We propose the use of target functionals defined in terms of the one-particle density and its current. A strong motivation for this is the possibility of using time-dependent density-functional theory for the description of the system dynamics. We exemplify this idea by defining an objective functional that on one hand attempts a large overlap with a target density and on the other hand minimizes the current. The latter requirement leads to optimized states with increased stability, which we prove with a few examples of one- and two-dimensional one-electron systems.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wu, Haiping; Qian, Yan; Lu, Ruifeng; Tan, Weishi
2016-02-01
Motivated by the recent synthesis of bulk MoN2 which exhibits the layered structure just like the bulk MoS2, the monolayered MoN2 exfoliated from the bulk counterpart is investigated systematically by using density-functional calculations in this work. The result shows that the ground-state two-dimensional monolayered MoN2 behaves as an indirect band gap semiconductor with the energy gap of ∼0.12 eV. Subsequently, the external strain from -6% to 6% is employed to engineer the band structure, and the energy gap can be efficiently tuned from 0 to 0.70 eV. Notably, when the strain is beyond 5% or -3%, the two-dimensional monolayered MoN2 would transfer from an indirect band gap to a direct band gap semiconductor. This work introduces a new member of two-dimensional transition-metal family, which is important for industry applications, especially for the utilization in the long-wavelength infrared field.
Bian, Guang; Wang, Zhengfei; Wang, Xiao-Xiong; Xu, Caizhi; Xu, SuYang; Miller, Thomas; Hasan, M Zahid; Liu, Feng; Chiang, Tai-Chang
2016-03-22
We report on the fabrication of a two-dimensional topological insulator Bi(111) bilayer on Sb nanofilms via a sequential molecular beam epitaxy growth technique. Our angle-resolved photoemission measurements demonstrate the evolution of the electronic band structure of the heterostructure as a function of the film thickness and reveal the existence of a two-dimensional spinful massless electron gas within the top Bi bilayer. Interestingly, our first-principles calculation extrapolating the observed band structure shows that, by tuning down the thickness of the supporting Sb films into the quantum dimension regime, a pair of isolated topological edge states emerges in a partial energy gap at 0.32 eV above the Fermi level as a consequence of quantum confinement effect. Our results and methodology of fabricating nanoscale heterostructures establish the Bi bilayer/Sb heterostructure as a platform of great potential for both ultra-low-energy-cost electronics and surface-based spintronics. PMID:26932368
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Deng, Nianpei
The two dimensional electron gas subjected to a magnetic field has been a model system in contemporary condensed matter physics which generated many beautiful experiments as well as novel fundamental concepts. These novel concepts are of broad interests and have benefited other fields of research. For example, the observations of conventional odd-denominator fractional quantum Hall states have enriched many-body physics with important concepts such as fractional statistics and composite fermions. The subsequent discovery of the enigmatic even-denominator nu=5/2 fractional quantum Hall state has led to more interesting concepts such as non-Abelian statistics and pairing of composite fermions which can be intimately connected to the electron pairing in superconductivity. Moreover, the observations of stripe phases and reentrant integer quantum Hall states have stimulated research on exotic electron solids which have more intricate structures than the Wigner Crystal. In contrast to fractional quantum Hall states and stripes phases, the reentrant integer quantum Hall states are very little studied and their ground states are the least understood. There is a lack of basic information such as exact filling factors, temperature dependence and energy scales for the reentrant integer quantum Hall states. A critical experimental condition in acquiring this information is a stable ultra-low temperature environment. In the first part of this dissertation, I will discuss our unique setup of 3He immersion cell in a state-of-art dilution refrigerator which achieves the required stability of ultra-low temperature. With this experimental setup, we are able to observe for the first time very sharp magnetotransport features of reentrant integer quantum Hall states across many Landau levels for the first time. I will firstly present our results in the second Landau level. The temperature dependence measurements reveal a surprisingly sharp peak signature that is unique to the reentrant
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Romero Kalmanovitz, Natalia
2009-12-01
The nonlinear behavior of low-dimensional electron systems has attracted a great deal of attention for its fundamental interest as well as for potentially important applications in nanoelectronics. This work focuses on experimental results related to the nonlinear behavior of two dimensional electron systems. We first observed the non-linear zero-differential resistance state (ZDRS) that occurs for highly mobile two dimensional electron systems in response to a dc bias in the presence of a strong magnetic field applied perpendicular to the electron plane is suppressed. We found that it disappears gradually as the magnetic field is tilted away from the perpendicular at fixed filling factor. Good agreement is found with a model that considers the effect of the Zeeman splitting of Landau levels enhanced by the in-plane component of the magnetic field. Furthermore, we observed that when an electric field is applied to conductors, it heats electric charge carriers. It is demonstrated that an electric field applied to a conductor with a discrete electron spectrum produces a non-equilibrium electron distribution, which cannot be described by temperature. Such electron distribution changes significantly the conductivity of the electrons in a magnetic field, and forces them into a state with a zero differential resistance. Most importantly, the results demonstrate that in general, the effective overheating in the systems with discrete spectrum is significantly stronger than the one in systems with continuous and homogeneous distribution of the energy levels at the same input power. In the last part we observed non-linear behavior in a silicon MOSFET. Measurements of the rectification of microwave radiation at the boundary between two-dimensional electron systems separated by a narrow gap on a silicon surface for different temperatures, electron densities and microwave power, were performed. A theory is proposed that attributes the rectification to the thermoelectric
Shamim, S; Mahapatra, S; Scappucci, G; Klesse, W M; Simmons, M Y; Ghosh, A
2014-06-13
We report experimental evidence of a remarkable spontaneous time-reversal symmetry breaking in two-dimensional electron systems formed by atomically confined doping of phosphorus (P) atoms inside bulk crystalline silicon (Si) and germanium (Ge). Weak localization corrections to the conductivity and the universal conductance fluctuations were both found to decrease rapidly with decreasing doping in the Si:P and Ge:P delta layers, suggesting an effect driven by Coulomb interactions. In-plane magnetotransport measurements indicate the presence of intrinsic local spin fluctuations at low doping, providing a microscopic mechanism for spontaneous lifting of the time-reversal symmetry. Our experiments suggest the emergence of a new many-body quantum state when two-dimensional electrons are confined to narrow half-filled impurity bands.
Yeager, Mark; Dryden, Kelly A; Ganser-Pornillos, Barbie K
2013-01-01
Electron microscopy provides an efficient method for rapidly assessing whether a solution of macromolecules is homogeneous and monodisperse. If the macromolecules can be induced to form two-dimensional crystals that are a single layer in thickness, then electron crystallography of frozen-hydrated crystals has the potential of achieving three-dimensional density maps at sub-nanometer or even atomic resolution. Here we describe the lipid monolayer and sparse matrix screening methods for growing two-dimensional crystals and present successful applications to soluble macromolecular complexes: carboxysome shell proteins and HIV CA, respectively. Since it is common to express recombinant proteins with poly-His tags for purification by metal affinity chromatography, the monolayer technique using bulk lipids doped with Ni(2+) lipids has the potential for broad application. Likewise, the sparse matrix method uses screening conditions for three-dimensional crystallization and is therefore of broad applicability.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Politano, A.; Chiarello, G.; Cupolillo, A.
2015-08-01
The discovery of quasi-two-dimensional (Q2D) crystals has started a new era of materials science. Novel materials, atomically thin and mechanically, thermally and chemically stable, with a large variety of electronic properties are available and they can be assembled in ultrathin flexible devices. Understanding collective electronic excitations (plasmons) in Q2D systems is mandatory for engineering applications in plasmonics. In view of recent developments in the emerging field of graphene-based plasmonics, the correspondence between the theoretically calculated quantities and the observables experimentally measured in Q2D crystals is still unsatisfactory. Motivated by recent Nazarov’s findings (Nazarov 2015 New J. Phys. 17 073018), here we discuss some crucial issues of current theoretical approaches as well as the computational methods applied to two-dimensional materials with special emphasis to cover their peculiarities, range of application and pitfalls.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abanov, Alexander G.; Gromov, Andrey
2014-07-01
We compute electromagnetic, gravitational, and mixed linear response functions of two-dimensional free fermions in an external quantizing magnetic field at an integer filling factor. The results are presented in the form of the effective action and as an expansion of currents and stresses in wave vectors and frequencies of the probing electromagnetic and metric fields. In addition to the well-studied U (1) Chern-Simons and Wen-Zee terms we find a gravitational Chern-Simons term that controls the correction to the Hall viscosity due to the background curvature. We relate the coefficient in front of the term with the chiral central charge.
Ultrafast electronic photoinduced phase transition in a two-dimensional charge-ordering system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Iwano, K.
2015-03-01
We investigate the ground- and excited-state properties of a two-dimensional charge-ordering system, and theoretically demonstrate that multielectron excitations by one photon occur substantially as a result of frustration effects. These multielectron excitations are naturally regarded as domain excitations, which involve a simultaneous excitation of a part of the system lattice. Furthermore, we show that such domain excitations not only suppress the original charge-ordering phase strongly but also enhance another phase of charge ordering. As a result of such a global change, the overall photoinduced optical conductivity spectra are also modified drastically from the original spectrum, with the modified spectra exhibiting midgap and gapless features.
Zhu, Guomin; Jiang, Yingying; Lin, Fang; Zhang, Hui; Jin, Chuanhong; Yuan, Jun; Yang, Deren; Zhang, Ze
2014-08-28
We investigated the growth of two-dimensional (2D) palladium dendritic nanostructures (DNSs) using in situ liquid-cell transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Detailed in situ and ex situ high-resolution scanning TEM (S/TEM) characterization and fractal dimension analyses reveal that the diffusion-limited aggregation and direct atomic deposition are responsible for the growth of palladium dendritic nanostructures. PMID:24938863
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.
2012-05-01
We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated.
Yu, Chao; Wei, Hui; Wang, Xu; Le, Anh -Thu; Lu, Ruifeng; Lin, C. D.
2015-10-27
Imaging the transient process of molecules has been a basic way to investigate photochemical reactions and dynamics. Based on laser-induced electron diffraction and partial one-dimensional molecular alignment, here we provide two effective methods for reconstructing two-dimensional structure of polyatomic molecules. We demonstrate that electron diffraction images in both scattering angles and broadband energy can be utilized to retrieve complementary structure information, including positions of light atoms. Lastly, with picometre spatial resolution and the inherent femtosecond temporal resolution of lasers, laser-induced electron diffraction method offers significant opportunities for probing atomic motion in a large molecule in a typical pump-probe measurement.
Lo, Shun-Tsung; Hsu, Chang-Shun; Lin, Y. M.; Lin, S.-D.; Lee, C. P.; Ho, Sheng-Han; Chuang, Chiashain; Wang, Yi-Ting; Liang, C.-T.
2014-07-07
We study interference and interactions in an InAs/InAsSb two-dimensional electron system. In such a system, spin-orbit interactions are shown to be strong, which result in weak antilocalization (WAL) and thereby positive magnetoresistance around zero magnetic field. After suppressing WAL by the magnetic field, we demonstrate that classical positive magnetoresistance due to spin-orbit coupling plays a role. With further increasing the magnetic field, the system undergoes a direct insulator-quantum Hall transition. By analyzing the magnetotransport behavior in different field regions, we show that both electron-electron interactions and spin-related effects are essential in understanding the observed direct transition.
Spin Hall Current Induced Edge-Spin Accumulation in Two-Dimensional Electron and Hole Systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nomura, Kentaro; Sinova, Jairo; Sinitsyn, Nikolai; Jungwirth, Tomas; Wunderlich, Joerg; Kaetsner, Bernd; MacDonald, Allan
2006-03-01
In spintronic devices, spin densities have traditionally been generated by external magnetic fields, circularly polarized light sources, or by spin injection from ferromagnets. Recently there has been considerable interest in a new strategy in which edge spin densities are generated electrically via the spin Hall effect. We have performed numerical studies on spin transport in two-dimensional systems with various spin-orbit interactions including both intrinsic and extrinsic effects. We find that the spin Hall current strongly depends on the character of the spin-orbit interactions. We address the relation between bulk spin currents and edge spin accumulations, and compare our results with recent experimental observations. K. Nomura, J. Sinova, N. A. Sinitsyn, A. H. MacDonald, Phys. Rev. B 72 165316 (2005). K. Nomura, J. Wunderlich, J. Sinova, B. Kaetsner, A. H. MacDonald, T. Jungwirth, to appear in Phys. Rev. B 72. J. Wunderlich, B. Kaetsner, J. Sinova, T. Jungwirth, Phys. Rev. Lett. 94, 047204 (2005).
Vostokov, N. V. Shashkin, V. I.
2015-11-28
We consider the problem of non-resonant detection of terahertz signals in a short gate length field-effect transistor having a two-dimensional electron channel with zero external bias between the source and the drain. The channel resistance, gate-channel capacitance, and quadratic nonlinearity parameter of the transistor during detection as a function of the gate bias voltage are studied. Characteristics of detection of the transistor connected in an antenna with real impedance are analyzed. The consideration is based on both a simple one-dimensional model of the transistor and allowance for the two-dimensional distribution of the electric field in the transistor structure. The results given by the different models are discussed.
Popov, V. G. Dubrovskii, Yu. V.; Portal, J.-C.
2006-04-15
The results of experimental investigation of the vertical electron transport in a GaAs/Al{sub 0.3}Ga{sub 0.7}As/GaAs single-barrier tunneling heterostructure with a doped barrier are presented. Two-dimensional accumulation layers appear on different sides of the barrier as a result of the ionization of Si donors in the barrier layer. The nonmonotonic shift of the current peak is found in the I-V curve of the tunneling diode in a magnetic field perpendicular to the planes of two-dimensional layers. Such a behavior is shown to be successfully explained in the model of appearing the Coulomb pseudogap and the pinning of the spin-split Landau levels at the Fermi levels of the contacts. In this explanation, it is necessary to assume that the Lande factor is independent of the filling factors of the Landau levels and is g* = 7.5 for both layers.
Remotely sensed transport in microwave photoexcited GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron system
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ye, Tianyu; Mani, R. G.; Wegscheider, W.
2013-06-01
We demonstrate a strong correlation between the magnetoresistive response and the concurrent microwave reflection from the microwave photo-excited GaAs/AlGaAs two-dimensional electron system (2DES). These correlations are followed as a function of the microwave power, the microwave frequency, and the applied current. Notably, the character of the reflection signal remains unchanged even when the current is switched off in the GaAs/AlGaAs Hall bar specimen. The results suggest a perceptible microwave-induced change in the electronic properties of the 2DES, even in the absence of an applied current.
Control of a two-dimensional electron gas on SrTiO₃(111) by atomic oxygen.
Walker, S McKeown; de la Torre, A; Bruno, F Y; Tamai, A; Kim, T K; Hoesch, M; Shi, M; Bahramy, M S; King, P D C; Baumberger, F
2014-10-24
We report on the formation of a two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at the bare surface of (111) oriented SrTiO3. Angle resolved photoemission experiments reveal highly itinerant carriers with a sixfold symmetric Fermi surface and strongly anisotropic effective masses. The electronic structure of the 2DEG is in good agreement with self-consistent tight-binding supercell calculations that incorporate a confinement potential due to surface band bending. We further demonstrate that alternate exposure of the surface to ultraviolet light and atomic oxygen allows tuning of the carrier density and the complete suppression of the 2DEG. PMID:25379937
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kang, Sungmu
In this thesis, devices using the ballistic transport of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in GaAs High Electron Mobility Transistor(HEMT) structure is fabricated and their dc and ac properties are characterized. This study gives insight on operation and applications of modern submicron devices with ever reduced gate length comparable to electron mean free path. The ballistic transport is achieved using both temporal and spatial limits in this thesis. In temporal limit, when frequency is higher than the scattering frequency (1/(2pitau)), ballistic transport can be achieved. At room temperature, generally the scattering frequency is around 500 GHz but at cryogenic temperature (≤4K) with high mobility GaAs HEMT structure, the frequency is much lower than 2 GHz. On this temporal ballistic transport regime, effect of contact impedance and different dc mobility on device operation is characterized with the ungated 2DEG of HEMT structure. In this ballistic regime, impedance and responsivity of plasma wave detector are investigated using the gated 2DEG of HEMT at different ac boundary conditions. Plasma wave is generated at asymmetric ac boundary conditions of HEMTs, where source is short to ground and drain is open while rf power is applied to gate. The wave velocity can be tuned by gate bias voltage and induced drain to source voltage(Vds ) shows the resonant peak at odd number of fundamental frequency. Quantitative power coupling to plasma wave detector leads to experimental characterization of resonant response of plasma wave detector as a function of frequency. Because plasma wave resonance is not limited by transit time, the physics learned in this study can be directly converted to room temperature terahertz detection by simply reducing gate length(Lgate) to submicron for the terahertz application such as non destructive test, bio medical analysis, homeland security, defense and space. In same HEMT structure, the dc and rf characterization on device is also
Two-dimensional plasma expansion in a magnetic nozzle: Separation due to electron inertia
Ahedo, Eduardo; Merino, Mario
2012-08-15
A previous axisymmetric model of the supersonic expansion of a collisionless, hot plasma in a divergent magnetic nozzle is extended here in order to include electron-inertia effects. Up to dominant order on all components of the electron velocity, electron momentum equations still reduce to three conservation laws. Electron inertia leads to outward electron separation from the magnetic streamtubes. The progressive plasma filling of the adjacent vacuum region is consistent with electron-inertia being part of finite electron Larmor radius effects, which increase downstream and eventually demagnetize the plasma. Current ambipolarity is not fulfilled and ion separation can be either outwards or inwards of magnetic streamtubes, depending on their magnetization. Electron separation penalizes slightly the plume efficiency and is larger for plasma beams injected with large pressure gradients. An alternative nonzero electron-inertia model [E. Hooper, J. Propul. Power 9, 757 (1993)] based on cold plasmas and current ambipolarity, which predicts inwards electron separation, is discussed critically. A possible competition of the gyroviscous force with electron-inertia effects is commented briefly.
Spectroscopy and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on Ultrathin Helium Films on Cu(111).
Armbrust, N; Güdde, J; Höfer, U; Kossler, S; Feulner, P
2016-06-24
Electrons in image-potential states on the surface of bulk helium represent a unique model system of a two-dimensional electron gas. Here, we investigate their properties in the extreme case of reduced film thickness: a monolayer of helium physisorbed on a single-crystalline (111)-oriented Cu surface. For this purpose we have utilized a customized setup for time-resolved two-photon photoemission at very low temperatures under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We demonstrate that the highly polarizable metal substrate increases the binding energy of the first (n=1) image-potential state by more than 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the surface of liquid helium. An electron in this state is still strongly decoupled from the metal surface due to the large negative electron affinity of helium and we find that even 1 monolayer of helium increases its lifetime by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bare Cu(111) surface. PMID:27391738
Pugachev, L. P. Andreev, N. E. Levashov, P. R.; Malkov, Yu. A. Stepanov, A. N. Yashunin, D. A.
2015-07-15
The electron acceleration mechanism associated with the generation of a plasma wave due to self-modulation instability of laser radiation in a subcritical plasma produced by a laser prepulse coming 10 ns before the arrival of the main intense femtosecond pulse is considered. Three-dimensional particle-in-cell simulations of the interaction of laser radiation with two-dimensionally inhomogeneous subcritical plasma have shown that, for a sufficiently strong plasma inhomogeneity and a sharp front of the laser pulse, efficient plasma wave excitation, electron trapping, and generation of collimated electron beams with energies on the order of 0.2–0.5 MeV can occur. The simulation results agree with experiments on the generation of collimated beams of accelerated electrons from metal targets irradiated by intense femtosecond laser pulses.
Lightcap, Ian V; Kosel, Thomas H; Kamat, Prashant V
2010-02-10
Using reduced graphene oxide (RGO) as a two-dimensional support, we have succeeded in selective anchoring of semiconductor and metal nanoparticles at separate sites. Photogenerated electrons from UV-irradiated TiO(2) are transported across RGO to reduce silver ions into silver nanoparticles at a location distinct from the TiO(2) anchored site. The ability of RGO to store and shuttle electrons, as visualized via a stepwise electron transfer process, demonstrates its capability to serve as a catalyst nanomat and transfer electrons on demand to adsorbed species. These findings pave the way for the development of next generation catalyst systems and can spur advancements in graphene-based composites for chemical and biological sensors.
Spectroscopy and Dynamics of a Two-Dimensional Electron Gas on Ultrathin Helium Films on Cu(111).
Armbrust, N; Güdde, J; Höfer, U; Kossler, S; Feulner, P
2016-06-24
Electrons in image-potential states on the surface of bulk helium represent a unique model system of a two-dimensional electron gas. Here, we investigate their properties in the extreme case of reduced film thickness: a monolayer of helium physisorbed on a single-crystalline (111)-oriented Cu surface. For this purpose we have utilized a customized setup for time-resolved two-photon photoemission at very low temperatures under ultrahigh vacuum conditions. We demonstrate that the highly polarizable metal substrate increases the binding energy of the first (n=1) image-potential state by more than 2 orders of magnitude as compared to the surface of liquid helium. An electron in this state is still strongly decoupled from the metal surface due to the large negative electron affinity of helium and we find that even 1 monolayer of helium increases its lifetime by 1 order of magnitude compared to the bare Cu(111) surface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui
2015-01-01
Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.
Cai, Libing; Wang, Jianguo; Zhu, Xiangqin; Wang, Yue; Zhang, Dianhui
2015-01-15
Based on the secondary electron emission avalanche (SEEA) model, the SEEA discharge on the vacuum insulator surface is simulated by using a 2D PIC-MCC code developed by ourselves. The evolutions of the number of discharge electrons, insulator surface charge, current, and 2D particle distribution are obtained. The effects of the strength of the applied electric field, secondary electron yield coefficient, rise time of the pulse, length of the insulator on the discharge are investigated. The results show that the number of the SEEA electrons presents a quadratic dependence upon the applied field strength. The SEEA current, which is on the order of Ampere, is directly proportional to the field strength and secondary electron yield coefficient. Finally, the electron-stimulated outgassing is included in the simulation code, and a three-phase discharge curve is presented by the simulation, which agrees with the experimental data.
Lutgen, S.; Kaindl, R.A.; Woerner, M.; Elsaesser, T.; Hase, A.; Kuenzel, H.; Gulia, M.; Meglio, D.; Lugli, P.
1996-10-01
The dynamics of electrons in GaInAs/AlInAs quantum wells is studied after excitation from the {ital n}=1 to the {ital n}=2 conduction subband. Femtosecond pump-probe experiments demonstrate for the first time athermal distributions of {ital n}=1 electrons on a surprisingly long time scale of 2ps. Thermalization involves intersubband scattering of excited electrons via optical phonon emission with a time constant of 1ps and intrasubband Coulomb and phonon scattering. Ensemble Monte Carlo simulations show that the slow electron equilibration results from Pauli blocking and screening of carrier-carrier scattering. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tang, Jau; Norris, James R.
1994-10-01
A stochastic Liouville theory is presented for the superexchange electron-transfer reactions involving three paraboloidal potential surfaces in a two-dimensional reaction coordinate. Its close relationship with the spin-boson model for photosynthesis is discussed. A triangle representation is used to explain the relationship between the reorganization energy and the degree of correlation for the solvent fluctuations experienced by the donor, the intermediate, and the acceptor. Explanations for a small reorganization energy for an efficient superexchange mechanism in natural photosynthesis are offered.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chakraborty, S.; Hatke, A. T.; Engel, L. W.; Watson, J. D.; Manfra, M. J.
2014-11-01
We investigate a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) under microwave illumination at cyclotron resonance subharmonics. The 2DES carries sufficient direct current, I , that the differential resistivity oscillates as I is swept. At magnetic fields sufficient to resolve individual Landau levels, we find the number of oscillations within an I range systematically changes with increasing microwave power. Microwave absorption and emission of N photons, where N is controlled by the microwave power, describes our observations in the framework of the displacement mechanism of impurity scattering between Hall-field tilted Landau levels.
Roslyak, O.; Gumbs, Godfrey; Mukamel, S.
2012-01-01
We study the localization of dressed Dirac electrons in a cylindrical quantum dot (QD) formed on monolayer and bilayer graphene by spatially different potential profiles. Short lived excitonic states which are too broad to be resolved in linear spectroscopy are revealed by cross peaks in the photon-echo nonlinear technique. Signatures of the dynamic gap in the two-dimensional spectra are discussed. The effect of the Coulomb induced exciton-exciton scattering and the formation of biexciton molecules are demonstrated. PMID:22612079
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Wang, Shiyong; Wang, Weihua; Tan, Liang Z.; Li, Xing Guang; Shi, Zilang; Kuang, Guowen; Liu, Pei Nian; Louie, Steven G.; Lin, Nian
2013-12-01
We report on the modulation of two-dimensional (2D) bands of Cu(111) surface-state electrons by three isostructural supramolecular honeycomb architectures with different periodicity or constituent molecules. Using Fourier-transformed scanning tunneling spectroscopy and model calculations, we resolved the 2D band structures and found that the intrinsic surface-state band is split into discrete bands. The band characteristics including band gap, band bottom, and bandwidth are controlled by the network unit cell size and the nature of the molecule-surface interaction. In particular, Dirac cones emerge where the second and third bands meet at the K points of the Brillouin zone of the supramolecular lattice.
den Hartog, S.G.; van Wees, B.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.
1997-10-01
We have investigated the superconducting-phase-modulated reduction in the resistance of a ballistic quantum point contact (QPC) connected via a disordered two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) to superconductors. We show that this reduction is caused by coherent Andreev backscattering of holes through the QPC, which increases monotonically by reducing the bias voltage to zero. In contrast, the magnitude of the phase-dependent resistance of the disordered 2DEG displays a nonmonotonic reentrant behavior versus bias voltage. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
den Hartog, S.G.; van Wees, B.J.; Klapwijk, T.M.; Nazarov, Y.V.; Borghs, G.
1997-12-01
We have investigated the bias-voltage dependence of the phase-dependent differential resistance of a disordered T-shaped two-dimensional electron gas coupled to two superconducting terminals. The resistance oscillations first increase upon lowering the energy. For bias voltages below the Thouless energy, the resistance oscillations are suppressed and disappear almost completely at zero bias voltage. We find a qualitative agreement with the calculated reentrant behavior of the resistance and discuss quantitative deviations. {copyright} {ital 1997} {ital The American Physical Society}
Gaynor, James D; Courtney, Trevor L; Balasubramanian, Madhumitha; Khalil, Munira
2016-06-15
The development of coherent Fourier transform two-dimensional electronic-vibrational (2D EV) spectroscopy with acousto-optic pulse-shaper-generated near-UV pump pulses and an octave-spanning broadband mid-IR probe pulse is detailed. A 2D EV spectrum of a silicon wafer demonstrates the full experimental capability of this experiment, and a 2D EV spectrum of dissolved hexacyanoferrate establishes the viability of our 2D EV experiment for studying condensed phase molecular ensembles. PMID:27304316
The electronic properties of bare and alkali metal adsorbed two-dimensional GeSi alloy sheet
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Qiu, Wenhao; Ye, Han; Yu, Zhongyuan; Liu, Yumin
2016-09-01
In this paper, the structural and electronic properties of both bare and alkali metal (AM) atoms adsorbed two-dimensional GeSi alloy sheet (GeSiAS) are investigated by means of first-principles calculations. The band gaps of bare GeSiAS are shown slightly opened at Dirac point with the energy dispersion remain linear due to the spin-orbit coupling effect at all concentrations of Ge atoms. For metal adsorption, AM atoms (including Li, Na and K) prefer to occupy the hexagonal hollow site of GeSiAS and the primary chemical bond between AM adatom and GeSiAS is ionic. The adsorption energy has an increase tendency with the increase of the Ge concentration in supercell. Besides, single-side adsorption of AM atoms introduces band gap at Dirac point, which can be tuned by the Ge concentration and the species of AM atoms. The strong relation between the band gaps and the distribution of Si and Ge atoms inside GeSiAS are also demonstrated. The opened band gaps of AM covered GeSiAS range from 14.8 to 269.1 meV along with the effective masses of electrons ranging from 0.013 to 0.109 me, indicating the high tunability of band gap as well as high mobility of carriers. These results provide a development in two-dimensional alloys and show potential applications in novel micro/nano-electronic devices.
Electronic, Mechanical, and Dielectric Properties of Two-Dimensional Atomic Layers of Noble Metals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapoor, Pooja; Kumar, Jagdish; Kumar, Arun; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K.
2016-08-01
We present density functional theory-based electronic, mechanical, and dielectric properties of monolayers and bilayers of noble metals (Au, Ag, Cu, and Pt) taken with graphene-like hexagonal structure. The Au, Ag, and Pt bilayers stabilize in AA-stacked configuration, while the Cu bilayer favors the AB stacking pattern. The quantum ballistic conductance of the noble-metal mono- and bilayers is remarkably increased compared with their bulk counterparts. Among the studied systems, the tensile strength is found to be highest for the Pt monolayer and bilayer. The noble metals in mono- and bilayer form show distinctly different electron energy loss spectra and reflectance spectra due to the quantum confinement effect on going from bulk to the monolayer limit. Such tunability of the electronic and dielectric properties of noble metals by reducing the degrees of freedom of electrons offers promise for their use in nanoelectronics and optoelectronics applications.
Two-dimensional single-stream electron motion in a coaxial diode with magnetic insulation
Fuks, Mikhail I.; Schamiloglu, Edl
2014-05-15
One of the most widespread models of electrons drifting around the cathode in magnetrons is the single-stream state, which is the Brillouin stream with purely azimuthal motion. We describe a single-stream state in which electrons not only move in the azimuthal direction, but also along the axial direction, which is useful for consideration, for example, of relativistic magnetrons, MILOs, and coaxial transmission lines. Relations are given for the conditions of magnetic insulation for 2D electron motion, for 1D azimuthal and axial motion, and for synchronism of these streams with the operating waves of M-type microwave sources. Relations are also provided for the threshold of generation in magnetrons with 2D electron motion.
Shi, Likun; Lou, Wenkai; Cheng, F.; Zou, Y. L.; Yang, Wen; Chang, Kai
2015-01-01
Based on the Born-Oppemheimer approximation, we divide the total electron Hamiltonian in a spin-orbit coupled system into the slow orbital motion and the fast interband transition processes. We find that the fast motion induces a gauge field on the slow orbital motion, perpendicular to the electron momentum, inducing a topological phase. From this general designing principle, we present a theory for generating artificial gauge field and topological phase in a conventional two-dimensional electron gas embedded in parabolically graded GaAs/InxGa1−xAs/GaAs quantum wells with antidot lattices. By tuning the etching depth and period of the antidot lattices, the band folding caused by the antidot potential leads to the formation of minibands and band inversions between neighboring subbands. The intersubband spin-orbit interaction opens considerably large nontrivial minigaps and leads to many pairs of helical edge states in these gaps. PMID:26471126
Goswami, Srijit; Aamir, Mohammed Ali; Shamim, Saquib; Ghosh, Arindam; Siegert, Christoph; Farrer, Ian; Ritchie, David A.; Pepper, Michael
2013-12-04
We use a dual gated device structure to introduce a gate-tuneable periodic potential in a GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas (2DEG). Using only a suitable choice of gate voltages we can controllably alter the potential landscape of the bare 2DEG, inducing either a periodic array of antidots or quantum dots. Antidots are artificial scattering centers, and therefore allow for a study of electron dynamics. In particular, we show that the thermovoltage of an antidot lattice is particularly sensitive to the relative positions of the Fermi level and the antidot potential. A quantum dot lattice, on the other hand, provides the opportunity to study correlated electron physics. We find that its current-voltage characteristics display a voltage threshold, as well as a power law scaling, indicative of collective Coulomb blockade in a disordered background.
Hartree-Fock energy of a finite two-dimensional electron gas system in a jellium background
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion
2015-02-01
We adopt a Hartree-Fock approach and calculate the energy of a finite two-dimensional electron gas system confined to a region that is treated as a positive jellium background. The electrons are considered fully spin-polarized (spinless) and interact with a Coulomb potential. The calculation of the exact potential energy of electrons in a finite square jellium domain is very challenging since the mathematical expressions depend on each component of particle's position and not the radial distance from the center of the domain. In order to address this issue we introduce an approximation to the problem. We assess the quality of this approximation and discuss instances where its use is not only desirable, but also fairly accurate. The results give a correct picture of how the energy of the finite system evolves towards the bulk value as the size of the system increases.
Studies of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb two dimensional electron gases
Shojaei, B.; McFadden, A.; Schultz, B. D.; Shabani, J.; Palmstrøm, C. J.
2015-06-01
A study of scattering mechanisms in gate tunable two dimensional electron gases confined to InAs/(Al,Ga)Sb heterostructures with varying interface roughness and dislocation density is presented. By integrating an insulated gate structure the evolution of the low temperature electron mobility and single-particle lifetime was determined for a previously unexplored density regime, 10{sup 11}–10{sup 12 }cm{sup −2}, in this system. Existing theoretical models were used to analyze the density dependence of the electron mobility and single particle lifetime in InAs quantum wells. Scattering was found to be dominated by charged dislocations and interface roughness. It was demonstrated that the growth of InAs quantum wells on nearly lattice matched GaSb substrate results in fewer dislocations, lower interface roughness, and improved low temperature transport properties compared to growth on lattice mismatched GaAs substrates.
Betbeder-Matibet, O.; Combescot, M.
1996-10-01
We calculate the {ital T}=0 total Coulomb energy of a quasi-two-dimensional electron-hole plasma in a quantum well, taking into account the finite width of the well. We consider 2D plasma densities low enough to have electrons and holes in their lowest subband only, but large enough to ensure the validity of the usual perturbative expansion in Coulomb interaction. We derive explicit expressions of the Hartree, exchange, and correlation energies in terms of the {ital exact} free-electron and hole wave functions in the well, in order to allow calculations of these energies for finite barrier heights. In a last part, we recover the intuitive Schr{umlt o}dinger equation for excitons in a quantum well, using the ladder diagram approach. {copyright} {ital 1996 The American Physical Society.}
Two-dimensional model of resonant electron collisions with diatomic molecules and molecular cations
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Vana, Martin; Hvizdos, David; Houfek, Karel; Curik, Roman; Greene, Chris H.; Rescigno, Thomas N.; McCurdy, C. William
2016-05-01
A simple model for resonant collisions of electrons with diatomic molecules with one electronic and one nuclear degree of freedom (2D model) which was solved numerically exactly within the time-independent approach was used to probe the local complex potential approximation and nonlocal approximation to nuclear dynamics of these collisions. This model was reformulated in the time-dependent picture and extended to model also electron collisions with molecular cations, especially with H2+.This model enables an assessment of approximate methods, such as the boomerang model or the frame transformation theory. We will present both time-dependent and time-independent results and show how we can use the model to extract deeper insight into the dynamics of the resonant collisions.
LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system
Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.
2015-03-01
We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobility in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.
LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces: A new two-dimensional electron gas system
Zou, K.; Ismail-Beigi, Sohrab; Kisslinger, Kim; Shen, Xuan; Su, Dong; Walker, F. J.; Ahn, C. H.
2015-03-01
We report a new 2D electron gas (2DEG) system at the interface between a Mott insulator, LaTiO₃, and a band insulator, KTaO₃. For LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces, we observe metallic conduction from 2 K to 300 K. One serious technological limitation of SrTiO₃-based conducting oxide interfaces for electronics applications is the relatively low carrier mobility (0.5-10 cm²/V s) of SrTiO₃ at room temperature. By using KTaO₃, we achieve mobilities in LaTiO₃/KTaO₃ interfaces as high as 21 cm²/V s at room temperature, over a factor of 3 higher than observed in doped bulk SrTiO₃. By density functional theory, we attribute the higher mobilitymore » in KTaO₃ 2DEGs to the smaller effective mass for electrons in KTaO₃.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Warshel, A.; Chu, Z. T.; Parson, W. W.
1997-01-01
Fushiki and Tachiya [Chem. Phys. Lett. 255 (1996) 83] recently analyzed the free energy surfaces of the initial electron-transfer processes in photosynthetic bacterial reaction centers. The authors state that when the results from simulations described by Warshel, Chu and Parson [Photochem. Photobiol. A: Chem. 82 (1994) 123] are analyzed using their formulation, the calculated energy of a key ion-pair state is inconsistent with experiment. They also state that previous analyses of the photosynthetic electron-transfer reactions had been limited to one-dimensional free energy surfaces. We show here that both these assertions are incorrect.
Franck, John M; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R; Freed, Jack H
2015-06-01
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.
2015-06-01
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
Franck, John M.; Chandrasekaran, Siddarth; Dzikovski, Boris; Dunnam, Curt R.; Freed, Jack H.
2015-06-07
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
Franck, John M.; Dzikovski, Boris; Freed, Jack H.
2015-01-01
The development, applications, and current challenges of the pulsed ESR technique of two-dimensional Electron-Electron Double Resonance (2D ELDOR) are described. This is a three-pulse technique akin to 2D Exchange Nuclear Magnetic Resonance, but involving electron spins, usually in the form of spin-probes or spin-labels. As a result, it required the extension to much higher frequencies, i.e., microwaves, and much faster time scales, with π/2 pulses in the 2-3 ns range. It has proven very useful for studying molecular dynamics in complex fluids, and spectral results can be explained by fitting theoretical models (also described) that provide a detailed analysis of the molecular dynamics and structure. We discuss concepts that also appear in other forms of 2D spectroscopy but emphasize the unique advantages and difficulties that are intrinsic to ESR. Advantages include the ability to tune the resonance frequency, in order to probe different motional ranges, while challenges include the high ratio of the detection dead time vs. the relaxation times. We review several important 2D ELDOR studies of molecular dynamics. (1) The results from a spin probe dissolved in a liquid crystal are followed throughout the isotropic → nematic → liquid-like smectic → solid-like smectic → crystalline phases as the temperature is reduced and are interpreted in terms of the slowly relaxing local structure model. Here, the labeled molecule is undergoing overall motion in the macroscopically aligned sample, as well as responding to local site fluctuations. (2) Several examples involving model phospholipid membranes are provided, including the dynamic structural characterization of the boundary lipid that coats a transmembrane peptide dimer. Additionally, subtle differences can be elicited for the phospholipid membrane phases: liquid disordered, liquid ordered, and gel, and the subtle effects upon the membrane, of antigen cross-linking of receptors on the surface of plasma membrane
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.
Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong
2015-08-01
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution. PMID:26329206
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khan, Shahab Ullah; Adnan, Muhammad; Qamar, Anisa; Mahmood, Shahzad
2016-07-01
The propagation of linear and nonlinear electrostatic waves is investigated in magnetized dusty plasma with stationary negatively or positively charged dust, cold mobile ions and non-extensive electrons. Two normal modes are predicted in the linear regime, whose characteristics are investigated parametrically, focusing on the effect of electrons non-extensivity, dust charge polarity, concentration of dust and magnetic field strength. Using the reductive perturbation technique, a Zakharov-Kuznetsov (ZK) type equation is derived which governs the dynamics of small-amplitude solitary waves in magnetized dusty plasma. The properties of the solitary wave structures are analyzed numerically with the system parameters i.e. electrons non-extensivity, concentration of dust, polarity of dust and magnetic field strength. Following Allen and Rowlands (J. Plasma Phys. 53:63, 1995), we have shown that the pulse soliton solution of the ZK equation is unstable, and have analytically traced the dependence of the instability growth rate on the nonextensive parameter q for electrons, dust charge polarity and magnetic field strength. The results should be useful for understanding the nonlinear propagation of DIA solitary waves in laboratory and space plasmas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Otsuka, Yuichi; Yunoki, Seiji; Sorella, Sandro
2016-01-01
The metal-insulator transition has been a subject of intense research since Mott first proposed that the metallic behavior of interacting electrons could turn to an insulating one as electron correlations increase. Here, we consider electrons with massless Dirac-like dispersion in two spatial dimensions, described by the Hubbard models on two geometrically different lattices, and perform numerically exact calculations on unprecedentedly large systems that, combined with a careful finite-size scaling analysis, allow us to explore the quantum critical behavior in the vicinity of the interaction-driven metal-insulator transition. Thereby, we find that the transition is continuous, and we determine the quantum criticality for the corresponding universality class, which is described in the continuous limit by the Gross-Neveu model, a model extensively studied in quantum field theory. Furthermore, we discuss a fluctuation-driven scenario for the metal-insulator transition in the interacting Dirac electrons: The metal-insulator transition is triggered only by the vanishing of the quasiparticle weight, not by the Dirac Fermi velocity, which instead remains finite near the transition. This important feature cannot be captured by a simple mean-field or Gutzwiller-type approximate picture but is rather consistent with the low-energy behavior of the Gross-Neveu model.
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong
2015-08-01
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O8+δ. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping.
Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E W; Guo, Jiandong
2015-08-01
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi2Sr2CaCu2O(8+δ). The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy with two-dimensional energy and momentum mapping
Zhu, Xuetao; Cao, Yanwei; Zhang, Shuyuan; Jia, Xun; Guo, Qinlin; Yang, Fang; Zhu, Linfan; Zhang, Jiandi; Plummer, E. W.; Guo, Jiandong
2015-08-15
High resolution electron energy loss spectroscopy (HREELS) is a powerful technique to probe vibrational and electronic excitations at surfaces. The dispersion relation of surface excitations, i.e., energy as a function of momentum, has in the past, been obtained by measuring the energy loss at a fixed angle (momentum) and then rotating sample, monochromator, or analyzer. Here, we introduce a new strategy for HREELS, utilizing a specially designed lens system with a double-cylindrical Ibach-type monochromator combined with a commercial VG Scienta hemispherical electron energy analyzer, which can simultaneously measure the energy and momentum of the scattered electrons. The new system possesses high angular resolution (<0.1°), detecting efficiency and sampling density. The capabilities of this system are demonstrated using Bi{sub 2}Sr{sub 2}CaCu{sub 2}O{sub 8+δ}. The time required to obtain a complete dispersion spectrum is at least one order of magnitude shorter than conventional spectrometers, with improved momentum resolution and no loss in energy resolution.
Regeta, K. Allan, M.
2015-05-14
Detailed experimental information on the motion of a nuclear packet on a complex (resonant) anion potential surface is obtained by measuring 2-dimensional (2D) electron energy loss spectra. The cross section is plotted as a function of incident electron energy, which determines which resonant anion state is populated, i.e., along which normal coordinate the wave packet is launched, and of the electron energy loss, which reveals into which final states each specific resonant state decays. The 2D spectra are presented for acrylonitrile and methacrylonitrile, at the incident energy range 0.095-1.0 eV, where the incoming electron is temporarily captured in the lowest π{sup ∗} orbital. The 2D spectra reveal selectivity patterns with respect to which vibrations are excited in the attachment and de-excited in the detachment. Further insight is gained by recording 1D spectra measured along horizontal, vertical, and diagonal cuts of the 2D spectrum. The methyl group in methacrylonitrile increases the resonance width 7 times. This converts the sharp resonances of acrylonitrile into boomerang structures but preserves the essence of the selectivity patterns. Selectivity of vibrational excitation by higher-lying shape resonances up to 8 eV is also reported.
Tur, A.; Fruit, G.; Louarn, P.
2014-03-15
In the general context of understanding the possible destabilization of a current sheet with applications to magnetospheric substorms or solar flares, a kinetic model is proposed for studying the resonant interaction between electromagnetic fluctuations and trapped bouncing electrons in a 2D current sheet. Tur et al. [A. Tur et al., Phys. Plasmas 17, 102905 (2010)] and Fruit et al. [G. Fruit et al., Phys. Plasmas 20, 022113 (2013)] already used this model to investigate the possibilities of electrostatic instabilities. Here, the model is completed for full electromagnetic perturbations. Starting with a modified Harris sheet as equilibrium state, the linearized gyrokinetic Vlasov equation is solved for electromagnetic fluctuations with period of the order of the electron bounce period. The particle motion is restricted to its first Fourier component along the magnetic field and this allows the complete time integration of the non local perturbed distribution functions. The dispersion relation for electromagnetic modes is finally obtained through the quasineutrality condition and the Ampere's law for the current density. It is found that for mildly strechted current, undamped modes oscillate at typical electron bounce frequency with wavelength of the order of the plasma sheet half thickness. As the stretching of the plasma sheet becomes more intense, the frequency of these normal modes decreases and beyond a certain threshold in ε = B{sub z}/B{sub lobes}, the mode becomes explosive with typical growth rate of a few tens of seconds. The free energy contained in the bouncing motion of the electrons may trigger an electromagnetic instability able to disrupt the cross-tail current in a few seconds. This new instability–electromagnetic electron-bounce instability–may explain fast and global scale destabilization of current sheets as required to describe substorm phenomena.
Lateral quantization of two-dimensional electron states by embedded Ag nanocrystals.
Schouteden, K; Van Haesendonck, C
2012-02-17
We show that quantization of image-potential state (IS) electrons above the surface of nanostructures can be experimentally achieved by Ag nanocrystals that appear as stacking-fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) at Ag(111) surfaces. By means of cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy, the n=1 IS of the Ag(111) surface is revealed to split up in discrete energy levels, which is accompanied by the formation of pronounced standing wave patterns that directly reflect the eigenstates of the SFT surface. The IS confinement behavior is compared to that of the surface state electrons in the SFT surface and can be directly linked to the particle-in-a-box model. ISs provide a novel playground for investigating quantum size effects and defect-induced scattering above nanostructured surfaces.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tizei, Luiz H. G.; Lin, Yung-Chang; Lu, Ang-Yu; Li, Lain-Jong; Suenaga, Kazu
2016-04-01
We have explored the benefits of performing monochromated Electron Energy Loss Spectroscopy (EELS) in samples at cryogenic temperatures. As an example, we have observed the excitonic absorption peaks in single layer Transition Metal Dichalcogenides. These peaks appear separated by small energies due to spin orbit coupling. We have been able to distinguish the split for MoS2 below 300 K and for MoSe2 below 220 K. However, the distinction between peaks is only clear at 150 K. We have measured the change in absorption threshold between 150 K and 770 K for MoS2 and MoSe2. We discuss the effect of carbon and ice contamination in EELS spectra. The increased spectral resolution available made possible with modern monochromators in electron microscopes will require the development of stable sample holders which reaches temperatures far below that of liquid nitrogen.
Lateral quantization of two-dimensional electron states by embedded Ag nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Van Haesendonck, Chris; Schouteden, Koen
2013-03-01
We show that quantization of image-potential state (IS)electrons above the surface of nanostructures can be experimentally achieved by Ag nanocrystals that appear as stacking fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) at Ag(111) surfaces. By means of cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy the n = 1 IS of the Ag(111) surface is revealed to split up in discrete energy levels, which is accompanied by the formation of pronounced standing wave patterns that directly reflect the eigenstates of the SFT surface. The IS confinement behavior is compared to that of the surface state electrons in the SFT surface and can be directly linked to the particle-in-a-box model. ISs provide a novel playground for investigating quantum size effects and defect induced scattering above nanostructured surfaces. This work has been supported by the Research Foundation - Flanders (FWO, Belgium). K.S. is a postdoctoral researcher of the FWO.
Lateral Quantization of Two-Dimensional Electron States by Embedded Ag Nanocrystals
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Schouteden, K.; Van Haesendonck, C.
2012-02-01
We show that quantization of image-potential state (IS) electrons above the surface of nanostructures can be experimentally achieved by Ag nanocrystals that appear as stacking-fault tetrahedrons (SFTs) at Ag(111) surfaces. By means of cryogenic scanning tunneling spectroscopy, the n=1 IS of the Ag(111) surface is revealed to split up in discrete energy levels, which is accompanied by the formation of pronounced standing wave patterns that directly reflect the eigenstates of the SFT surface. The IS confinement behavior is compared to that of the surface state electrons in the SFT surface and can be directly linked to the particle-in-a-box model. ISs provide a novel playground for investigating quantum size effects and defect-induced scattering above nanostructured surfaces.
Design of transparent conductors and periodic two-dimensional electron gases without doping
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhang, Xiuwen; Zhang, Lijun; Zunger, Alex; Perkins, John; Materials by Design Team; John D. Perkins Collaboration
The functionality of transparency plus conductivity plays an important role in renewable energy and information technologies, including applications such as solar cells, touch-screen sensors, and flat panel display. However, materials with such seemingly contraindicated properties are difficult to come by. The traditional strategy for designing bulk transparent conductors (TCs) starts from a wide-gap insulator and finds ways to make it conductive by extensive doping. We propose a different strategy for TC design--starting with a metallic conductor and designing transparency by control of intrinsic interband transitions and intraband plasmonic frequency. We identified specific design principles for prototypical intrinsic TC classes and searched computationally for materials that satisfy them. The electron gases in the 3D intrinsic TCs demonstrate intriguing properties, such as periodic 2D electron gas regions with very high carrier density. We will discuss a more extended search of these functionalities, in parallel with stability and growability calculations
One or two dimensional electronic states in gold nanowires on germanium?
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
de Jong, Nick; Frantzeskakis, Emmanouil; Heimbuch, René; Varkhalov, Andrei; Zandvliet, Harold; Golden, Mark
2015-03-01
Inspired by the formulation of Tomonaga-luttinger liquid (TLL) theory in the 1960's and its prediction of a spectacular breakdown of Fermi liquid theory in 1D, people have been searching for one dimensional electronic systems. With experimental developments like the advent of scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and the manipulation of matter on the nanometer and sub nanometer scale, this field has become increasingly accessible for the experimentalist. Self-organised metallic chains on semiconductor surfaces are a class of systems which could harbor 1D behavior. In this field, Au nanowires on the Ge(100) surface have been the subject of debate, with reports of 1D bands from both ARPES and STM (1) and 2D bands in the same system displaying no Luttinger like behavior (2). Here we present high resolution ARPES data from both the Au/Ge(100) system and a new nanowire system: Au/Ge(110). By comparing these different systems with each other an with the electronic structure of the bare Ge(110) surface, we try to give a definitive answer on the question of the dimensionality of the electronic structure of Au nanowires on germanium. Support from FOM and the EU is gratefully acknowledged.
Enhanced thermopower in ZnO two-dimensional electron gas.
Shimizu, Sunao; Bahramy, Mohammad Saeed; Iizuka, Takahiko; Ono, Shimpei; Miwa, Kazumoto; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2016-06-01
Control of dimensionality has proven to be an effective way to manipulate the electronic properties of materials, thereby enabling exotic quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, quantum Hall effects, and valleytronic effects. Another example is thermoelectricity, which has been theoretically proposed to be favorably controllable by reducing the dimensionality. Here, we verify this proposal by performing a systematic study on a gate-tuned 2D electron gas (2DEG) system formed at the surface of ZnO. Combining state-of-the-art electric-double-layer transistor experiments and realistic tight-binding calculations, we show that, for a wide range of carrier densities, the 2DEG channel comprises a single subband, and its effective thickness can be reduced to [Formula: see text] 1 nm at sufficiently high gate biases. We also demonstrate that the thermoelectric performance of the 2DEG region is significantly higher than that of bulk ZnO. Our approach opens up a route to exploit the peculiar behavior of 2DEG electronic states and realize thermoelectric devices with advanced functionalities. PMID:27222585
Enhanced thermopower in ZnO two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Shimizu, Sunao; Saeed Bahramy, Mohammad; Iizuka, Takahiko; Ono, Shimpei; Miwa, Kazumoto; Tokura, Yoshinori; Iwasa, Yoshihiro
2016-06-01
Control of dimensionality has proven to be an effective way to manipulate the electronic properties of materials, thereby enabling exotic quantum phenomena, such as superconductivity, quantum Hall effects, and valleytronic effects. Another example is thermoelectricity, which has been theoretically proposed to be favorably controllable by reducing the dimensionality. Here, we verify this proposal by performing a systematic study on a gate-tuned 2D electron gas (2DEG) system formed at the surface of ZnO. Combining state-of-the-art electric-double-layer transistor experiments and realistic tight-binding calculations, we show that, for a wide range of carrier densities, the 2DEG channel comprises a single subband, and its effective thickness can be reduced to ˜ 1 nm at sufficiently high gate biases. We also demonstrate that the thermoelectric performance of the 2DEG region is significantly higher than that of bulk ZnO. Our approach opens up a route to exploit the peculiar behavior of 2DEG electronic states and realize thermoelectric devices with advanced functionalities.
Shukla, Chandrasekhar; Das, Amita; Patel, Kartik
2015-11-15
Relativistic electron beam propagation in plasma is fraught with several micro instabilities like two stream, filamentation, etc., in plasma. This results in severe limitation of the electron transport through a plasma medium. Recently, however, there has been an experimental demonstration of improved transport of Mega Ampere of electron currents (generated by the interaction of intense laser with solid target) in a carbon nanotube structured solid target [G. Chatterjee et al., Phys. Rev. Lett. 108, 235005 (2012)]. This then suggests that the inhomogeneous plasma (created by the ionization of carbon nanotube structured target) helps in containing the growth of the beam plasma instabilities. This manuscript addresses this issue with the help of a detailed analytical study and 2-D Particle-In-Cell simulations. The study conclusively demonstrates that the growth rate of the dominant instability in the 2-D geometry decreases when the plasma density is chosen to be inhomogeneous, provided the scale length 1/k{sub s} of the inhomogeneous plasma is less than the typical plasma skin depth (c/ω{sub 0}) scale. At such small scale lengths channelization of currents is also observed in simulation.
Direct observation of many-body charge density oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas.
Sessi, Paolo; Silkin, Vyacheslav M; Nechaev, Ilya A; Bathon, Thomas; El-Kareh, Lydia; Chulkov, Evgueni V; Echenique, Pedro M; Bode, Matthias
2015-01-01
Quantum interference is a striking manifestation of one of the basic concepts of quantum mechanics: the particle-wave duality. A spectacular visualization of this effect is the standing wave pattern produced by elastic scattering of surface electrons around defects, which corresponds to a modulation of the electronic local density of states and can be imaged using a scanning tunnelling microscope. To date, quantum-interference measurements were mainly interpreted in terms of interfering electrons or holes of the underlying band-structure description. Here, by imaging energy-dependent standing-wave patterns at noble metal surfaces, we reveal, in addition to the conventional surface-state band, the existence of an 'anomalous' energy band with a well-defined dispersion. Its origin is explained by the presence of a satellite in the structure of the many-body spectral function, which is related to the acoustic surface plasmon. Visualizing the corresponding charge oscillations provides thus direct access to many-body interactions at the atomic scale. PMID:26498368
Direct observation of many-body charge density oscillations in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Sessi, Paolo; Silkin, Vyacheslav M.; Nechaev, Ilya A.; Bathon, Thomas; El-Kareh, Lydia; Chulkov, Evgueni V.; Echenique, Pedro M.; Bode, Matthias
2015-10-01
Quantum interference is a striking manifestation of one of the basic concepts of quantum mechanics: the particle-wave duality. A spectacular visualization of this effect is the standing wave pattern produced by elastic scattering of surface electrons around defects, which corresponds to a modulation of the electronic local density of states and can be imaged using a scanning tunnelling microscope. To date, quantum-interference measurements were mainly interpreted in terms of interfering electrons or holes of the underlying band-structure description. Here, by imaging energy-dependent standing-wave patterns at noble metal surfaces, we reveal, in addition to the conventional surface-state band, the existence of an `anomalous' energy band with a well-defined dispersion. Its origin is explained by the presence of a satellite in the structure of the many-body spectral function, which is related to the acoustic surface plasmon. Visualizing the corresponding charge oscillations provides thus direct access to many-body interactions at the atomic scale.
Shangina, E. L. Smirnov, K. V.; Morozov, D. V.; Kovalyuk, V. V.; Gol'tsman, G. N.; Verevkin, A. A.; Toropov, A. I.
2010-11-15
The temperature and concentration dependences of the frequency bandwidth of terahertz heterodyne AlGaAs/GaAs detectors based on hot electron phenomena with phonon cooling of two-dimensional electrons have been measured by submillimeter spectroscopy with a high time resolution. At a temperature of 4.2 K, the frequency bandwidth at a level of 3 dB (f{sub 3dB}) is varied from 150 to 250 MHz with a change in the concentration n{sub s} according to the power law f{sub 3dB} {proportional_to} n{sub s}{sup -0.5} due to the dominant contribution of piezoelectric phonon scattering. The minimum conversion loss of the semiconductor heterodyne detector is obtained in structures with a high carrier mobility ({mu} > 3 x 10{sup 5} cm{sup 2} V{sup -1} s{sup -1} at 4.2 K).
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Bickers, N. E.; Scalapino, D. J.; White, S. R.
1989-01-01
A semianalytical approach is described for strongly correlated electronic systems which satisfies microscopic conservation laws, treats strong frequency and momentum dependences, and provides information on both static and dynamic properties. This approach may be used to treat large systems and temperatures lower than those currently accessible to finite-temperature quantum Monte Carlo techniques. Examples of such systems include heavy-electron compounds, organic Bechegaard salts, bis-(ethylenedithiolo)-TTF superconductors, and the oxide superconductors. The technique is based on the derivation and self-consistent solution of infinite-order conserving approximations. The technique is used to derive a low-temperature phase diagram and dynamic correlation functions for the two-dimensional Hubbard lattice model.
Rancova, Olga; Jankowiak, Ryszard; Abramavicius, Darius
2015-06-01
Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy at cryogenic and room temperatures reveals excitation energy relaxation and transport, as well as vibrational dynamics, in molecular systems. These phenomena are related to the spectral densities of nuclear degrees of freedom, which are directly accessible by means of hole burning and fluorescence line narrowing approaches at low temperatures (few K). The 2D spectroscopy, in principle, should reveal more details about the fluctuating environment than the 1D approaches due to peak extension into extra dimension. By studying the spectral line shapes of a dimeric aggregate at low temperature, we demonstrate that 2D spectra have the potential to reveal the fluctuation spectral densities for different electronic states, the interstate correlation of static disorder and, finally, the time scales of spectral diffusion with high resolution.
Giant capacitance of a plane capacitor with a two-dimensional electron gas in a magnetic field
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Skinner, Brian; Shklovskii, B. I.
2013-01-01
If a clean two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) with a low concentration n comprises one electrode of a plane capacitor, the resulting capacitance C can be higher than the “geometric capacitance” Cg determined by the physical separation d between electrodes. A recent paper [B. Skinner and B. I. Shklovskii, Phys. Rev. BPRBMDO1098-012110.1103/PhysRevB.82.155111 82, 155111 (2010)] argued that when the effective Bohr radius aB of the 2DEG satisfies aB≪d, one can achieve C≫Cg at a low concentration nd2≪1. Here we show that even for devices with aB>d, including graphene, for which aB is effectively infinite, one also arrives at C≫Cg at low electron concentrations if there is a strong perpendicular magnetic field.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huxter, V. M.; Oliver, T. A. A.; Budker, D.; Fleming, G. R.
2013-11-01
The optical and material properties of negatively charged nitrogen-vacancy (NV) centres in diamond make them attractive for applications ranging from quantum information to electromagnetic sensing. These properties are strongly dependent on the vibrational manifold associated with the centre, which determines phenomena associated with decoherence, relaxation and spin-orbit coupling. Despite its paramount importance in tuning these properties, the role of the vibrational bath and its effect on the electronic-state dynamics of NV centres in diamond is not fully understood. To elucidate the role of the bath, we present two-dimensional electronic spectroscopic studies of ensembles of negatively charged NV defect centres in diamond (NVD). We observe picosecond non-radiative relaxation within the phonon sideband and find that strongly coupled local modes dominate the vibrational bath. These findings provide a starting point for new insights into dephasing, spin addressing and relaxation in NVD with broad implications for magnetometry, quantum information, nanophotonics, sensing and ultrafast spectroscopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, Yuan-Ming; Lin, Che-Yi; Lin, Yen-Fu; Tsukagoshi, Kazuhito
2016-11-01
We present a review of recent developments in the synthesis, thickness identification, electronic properties, and possible applications of layered MoTe2 flakes. Special emphasis is made on two-dimensional (2D) MoTe2 semiconductors and the extensive research in recent years on their applications in electronics. Layered MoTe2 flakes have been the focus of substantial interest in the research community because of their fascinating characteristics, including an appropriate band gap and a simple fabrication method (exfoliation) to form layered nanomaterials. Our aim is to provide the readers an overview of layered MoTe2 flakes and to understand their properties, which may lead to their applications in micro- and nanoelectronics.
Zhukov, Alexander V. Bouffanais, Roland; Fedorov, E. G.; Belonenko, Mikhail B.
2014-05-28
Propagation of ultrashort laser pulses through various nano-objects has recently became an attractive topic for both theoretical and experimental studies due to its promising perspectives in a variety of problems of modern nanoelectronics. Here, we study the propagation of extremely short two-dimensional bipolar electromagnetic pulses in a heterogeneous array of semiconductor carbon nanotubes. Heterogeneity is defined as a region of enhanced electron density. The electromagnetic field in an array of nanotubes is described by Maxwell's equations, reduced to a multidimensional wave equation. Our numerical analysis shows the possibility of stable propagation of an electromagnetic pulse in a heterogeneous array of nanotubes. Furthermore, we establish that, depending on its speed of propagation, the pulse can pass through the area of increased electron concentration or be reflected therefrom.
Rancova, Olga; Abramavicius, Darius; Jankowiak, Ryszard
2015-06-07
Two-dimensional (2D) electronic spectroscopy at cryogenic and room temperatures reveals excitation energy relaxation and transport, as well as vibrational dynamics, in molecular systems. These phenomena are related to the spectral densities of nuclear degrees of freedom, which are directly accessible by means of hole burning and fluorescence line narrowing approaches at low temperatures (few K). The 2D spectroscopy, in principle, should reveal more details about the fluctuating environment than the 1D approaches due to peak extension into extra dimension. By studying the spectral line shapes of a dimeric aggregate at low temperature, we demonstrate that 2D spectra have the potential to reveal the fluctuation spectral densities for different electronic states, the interstate correlation of static disorder and, finally, the time scales of spectral diffusion with high resolution.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Clapp, L. H.; Twiss, R. G.; Cattolica, R. J.
Experimental results are presented related to the radial spread of fluorescence excited by 10 and 20 KeV electron beams passing through nonflowing rarefied nitrogen at 293 K. An imaging technique for obtaining species distributions from measured beam-excited fluorescence is described, based on a signal inversion scheme mathematically equivalent to the inversion of the Abel integral equation. From fluorescence image data, measurements of beam radius, integrated signal intensity, and spatially resolved distributions of N2(+) first-negative-band fluorescence-emitting species have been made. Data are compared with earlier measurements and with an heuristic beam spread model.
Measurement of electronic splitting in PbS quantum dots by two-dimensional nonlinear spectroscopy
Harel, E.; Rupich, S. M.; Schaller, R. D.; Talapin, D. V.; Engel, G. S.
2012-01-01
Quantum dots exhibit rich and complex electronic structure that makes them ideal for studying the basic physics of semiconductors in the intermediate regime between bulk materials and single atoms. The remarkable nonlinear optical properties of these nanostructures make them strong candidates for photonics applications. Here, we experimentally probe changes in the fine structure on ultrafast timescales of a colloidal solution of PbS quantum dots through their nonlinear optical response despite extensive inhomogeneous spectral broadening. Using continuum excitation and detection, we observe electronic coupling between nearly degenerate exciton states split by intervalley scattering at low exciton occupancy and a sub-100 fs frequency shift presumably due to phonon-assisted transitions. At high excitation intensities, we observe multi-exciton effects and sharp absorbance bands indicative of exciton-exciton coupling. Our experiments directly probe the nonlinear optical response of nearly degenerate quantum confined nanostructures with femtosecond temporal resolution despite extensive line broadening caused by the finite size distribution found in colloidal solutions.
Real-time two-dimensional electronic image filtering and live TV restoration
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Likhterov, Boris; Kopeika, Norman S.
1997-10-01
We describe novel architecture for a real-time image restoration system of live TV signals. No DSP is involved. The spatial filtering is obtained from two electronic analog filters, one for the raster lines and one for the columns. The very fast response of analog filters is the key for truly real-time video frame rate performance. The digital part of the system serves the purpose of pipe-lined parallel data conversion and flow, but not that of image processing at all. Despite the lack of DSP, this architecture exhibits some very important advantages. It does not need any computational source, it is very fast, and it is much cheaper. Also our 'parallel analog computer' can be easily incorporated in any complex system with video signal data as a simple 'plug-in' between the camera and monitor. An important aspect is that the system carries lower digitalization noise than DSP, thus yielding better SNR characteristics at a lower price. The system is not bound to nay specific kind of spatial frequency filtering and can be electronically tuned to obtain exact performance parameters. Because of these advantages, this architecture is promising for a wide variety of system such as supermarket multicamera security, military and aerospace vision systems, and medical diagnostics.
Two-dimensional boron based nanomaterials: electronic, vibrational, Raman, and STM signatures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Massote, Daniel V. P.; Liang, Liangbo; Kharche, Neerav; Meunier, Vincent
Because boron has only three electrons on its outer shell, planar mono-elemental boron nanostructures are expected to be much more challenging to assemble than their carbon counterparts. Several studies proposed schemes in which boron is stabilized to form flat semiconducting sheets consisting of a hexagonal lattice of boron atoms with partial hexagon filling (PRL 99 115501, ACSNano 6 7443-7453) . Other structures were proposed based on results from an evolutionary algorithm (PRL 112 085502). These structures are metallic and one even features a distorted Dirac cone near the Fermi level. Experimental evidence for 2D boron is still lacking but the recently proposed molecular synthesis of a flat all-boron molecule is a promising route to achieve this goal (Nat.Comms. 5 3113). Our research aims at providing a first-principles based description of these materials' properties to help in their identification. DFT is used to calculate phonon dispersion and associated Raman scattering spectra. We report some marked discrepancy between our findings and results from the recent literature and address the deviation using two methods for phonon dispersion. We also simulated STM images at various bias potentials to reveal the electronic symmetry of each material.
Seibt, Joachim; Pullerits, Tõnu
2014-09-21
While the theoretical description of population transfer subsequent to electronic excitation in combination with a line shape function description of vibrational dynamics in the context of 2D-spectroscopy is well-developed under the assumption of different timescales of population transfer and fluctuation dynamics, the treatment of the interplay between both kinds of processes lacks a comprehensive description. To bridge this gap, we use the cumulant expansion approach to derive response functions, which account for fluctuation dynamics and population transfer simultaneously. We compare 2D-spectra of a model system under different assumptions about correlations between fluctuations and point out under which conditions a simplified treatment is justified. Our study shows that population transfer and dissipative fluctuation dynamics cannot be described independent of each other in general. Advantages and limitations of the proposed calculation method and its compatibility with the modified Redfield description are discussed.
Two-dimensional misorientation mapping by rocking dark-field transmission electron microscopy.
Tyutyunnikov, Dmitry; Mitsuhara, Masatoshi; Koch, Christoph T
2015-12-01
In this paper we introduce an approach for precise orientation mapping of crystalline specimens by means of transmission electron microscopy. We show that local orientation values can be reconstructed from experimental dark-field image data acquired at different specimen tilts and multiple Bragg reflections. By using the suggested method it is also possible to determine the orientation of the tilt axis with respect to the image or diffraction pattern. The method has been implemented to automatically acquire the necessary data and then map crystal orientation for a given region of interest. We have applied this technique to a specimen prepared from a Ni-based super-alloy CMSX-4. The functionality and limitations of our method are discussed and compared to those of other techniques available. PMID:26255118
Kishimoto, Naoki; Kimura, Miku; Ohno, Koichi
2013-04-11
In order to investigate outer valence ionic states of open-shell metallocenes, we have applied two-dimensional collision-energy/electron-energy-resolved Penning ionization electron spectroscopy (2D-PIES) upon collision with metastable He*(2(3)S) excited atoms as well as a high level ab initio molecular orbital calculation (the partial third-order quasiparticle theory of the electron propagator (P3)) to ionization from neutral ground states of vanadocene ((4)A2g) and nickelocene ((3)A2g). Assignments of observed Penning ionization electron/He I ultraviolet photoelectron spectra were consistent with the P3 calculation results for ionization of α and β spin electrons except for electron correlation bands observed by PIES. Negative collision energy dependence of partial Penning ionization cross-sections (CEDPICS) indicate attractive interaction with He*(2(3)S) around the molecule. Results by model potential calculation utilizing Li(2(2)S) instead of He*(2(3)S) for interaction between He*(2(3)S) and open-shell metallocenes do not explain the strong negative CEDPICS of the bands observed in PIES.
Ma, H. J. Harsan E-mail: ariando@nus.edu.sg; Zeng, S. W.; Annadi, A.; Ariando E-mail: ariando@nus.edu.sg; Huang, Z.; Venkatesan, T.
2015-08-15
The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the perovskite oxides heterostructures is of great interest because of its potential applications in oxides electronics and nanoscale multifunctional devices. A canonical example is the 2DEG at the interface between a polar oxide LaAlO{sub 3} (LAO) and non-polar SrTiO{sub 3} (STO). Here, the LAO polar oxide can be regarded as the modulating or doping layer and is expected to define the electronic properties of 2DEG at the LAO/STO interface. However, to practically implement the 2DEG in electronics and device design, desired properties such as tunable 2D carrier density are necessary. Here, we report the tuning of conductivity threshold, carrier density and electronic properties of 2DEG in LAO/STO heterostructures by insertion of a La{sub 0.5}Sr{sub 0.5}TiO{sub 3} (LSTO) layer of varying thicknesses, and thus modulating the amount of polarization of the oxide over layers. Our experimental result shows an enhancement of carrier density up to a value of about five times higher than that observed at the LAO/STO interface. A complete thickness dependent metal-insulator phase diagram is obtained by varying the thickness of LAO and LSTO providing an estimate for the critical thickness needed for the metallic phase. The observations are discussed in terms of electronic reconstruction induced by polar oxides.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Y. Z.; Trier, F.; Wijnands, T.; Green, R. J.; Gauquelin, N.; Egoavil, R.; Christensen, D. V.; Koster, G.; Huijben, M.; Bovet, N.; Macke, S.; He, F.; Sutarto, R.; Andersen, N. H.; Sulpizio, J. A.; Honig, M.; Prawiroatmodjo, G. E. D. K.; Jespersen, T. S.; Linderoth, S.; Ilani, S.; Verbeeck, J.; van Tendeloo, G.; Rijnders, G.; Sawatzky, G. A.; Pryds, N.
2015-08-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed at the interface of insulating complex oxides promise the development of all-oxide electronic devices. These 2DEGs involve many-body interactions that give rise to a variety of physical phenomena such as superconductivity, magnetism, tunable metal-insulator transitions and phase separation. Increasing the mobility of the 2DEG, however, remains a major challenge. Here, we show that the electron mobility is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude by inserting a single-unit-cell insulating layer of polar La1-xSrxMnO3 (x = 0, 1/8, and 1/3) at the interface between disordered LaAlO3 and crystalline SrTiO3 produced at room temperature. Resonant X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that the manganite layer undergoes unambiguous electronic reconstruction, leading to modulation doping of such atomically engineered complex oxide heterointerfaces. At low temperatures, the modulation-doped 2DEG exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and fingerprints of the quantum Hall effect, demonstrating unprecedented high mobility and low electron density.
Chen, Y Z; Trier, F; Wijnands, T; Green, R J; Gauquelin, N; Egoavil, R; Christensen, D V; Koster, G; Huijben, M; Bovet, N; Macke, S; He, F; Sutarto, R; Andersen, N H; Sulpizio, J A; Honig, M; Prawiroatmodjo, G E D K; Jespersen, T S; Linderoth, S; Ilani, S; Verbeeck, J; Van Tendeloo, G; Rijnders, G; Sawatzky, G A; Pryds, N
2015-08-01
Two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs) formed at the interface of insulating complex oxides promise the development of all-oxide electronic devices. These 2DEGs involve many-body interactions that give rise to a variety of physical phenomena such as superconductivity, magnetism, tunable metal-insulator transitions and phase separation. Increasing the mobility of the 2DEG, however, remains a major challenge. Here, we show that the electron mobility is enhanced by more than two orders of magnitude by inserting a single-unit-cell insulating layer of polar La(1-x)Sr(x)MnO3 (x = 0, 1/8, and 1/3) at the interface between disordered LaAlO3 and crystalline SrTiO3 produced at room temperature. Resonant X-ray spectroscopy and transmission electron microscopy show that the manganite layer undergoes unambiguous electronic reconstruction, leading to modulation doping of such atomically engineered complex oxide heterointerfaces. At low temperatures, the modulation-doped 2DEG exhibits Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations and fingerprints of the quantum Hall effect, demonstrating unprecedented high mobility and low electron density. PMID:26030303
Magnetic quantum phase diagram of magnetic impurities in two-dimensional disordered electron systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Hyun Yong; Kettemann, Stefan
2014-04-01
The quantum phase diagram of disordered electron systems as a function of the concentration of magnetic impurities nm and the local exchange coupling J is studied in the dilute limit. We take into account the Anderson localization of the electrons by a nonperturbative numerical treatment of the disorder potential. The competition between Ruderman-Kittel-Kasuya-Yosida (RKKY) interaction JRKKY and the Kondo effect, as governed by the temperature scale TK, is known to give rise to a rich magnetic quantum phase diagram, the Doniach diagram. Our numerical calculations show that in a disordered system both the Kondo temperature TK and JRKKY as well as their ratio JRKKY/TK is widely distributed. However, we find a sharp cutoff of that distribution, which allows us to define a critical density of magnetic impurities nc below which Kondo screening wins at all sites of the system above a critical coupling Jc, forming the Kondo phase [see Fig. 3(b)]. As disorder is increased, Jc increases and a spin coupled phase is found to grow at the expense of the Kondo phase. From these distribution functions we derive the magnetic susceptibility which show anomalous power-law behavior. In the Kondo phase that power is determined by the wide distribution of the Kondo temperature, while in the spin coupled phase it is governed by the distribution of JRKKY. At low densities and small J
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Du, Xiang
As the sizes of individual components in electronic and optoelectronic devices approach nano scale, the performance of the devices is often determined by surface properties due to their large surface-to-volume ratio. Surface phenomena have become one of the cornerstones in nanoelectronic industry. For this reason, research on the surface functionalization has been tremendous amount of growth over the past decades, and promises to be an increasingly important field in the future. Surface functionalization, as an effective technique to modify the surface properties of a material through a physical or chemical approach, exhibits great potential to solve the problems and challenges, and modulate the performance of nanomaterials based functional devices. Surface functionalization drives the developments and applications of modern electronic and optoelectronic devices fabricated by nanomaterials. In this thesis, I demonstrate two surface functionalization approaches, namely, surface transfer doping and H2 annealing, to effectively solve the problems and significantly enhance the performance of 2D (single structure black phosphorus (BP) and heterostructure graphene/Si Schottky junction), and quasi-1D (molybdenum trioxide (MoO 3) nanobelt) nanomaterials based functional devices, respectively. In situ photoelectron spectroscopy (PES) measurements were also carried out to explore the interfacial charge transfer occurring at the interface between the nanostructures and doping layers, and the gap states in MoO 3 thin films, which provides the underlying mechanism to understand and support our device measurement results. In the first part of this thesis, I will discuss the first surface functionalization approach, namely, surface transfer doping, to effectively modulate the ambipolar characteristics of 2D few-layer BP flakes based FETs. The ambipolar characteristics of BP transistors were effectively modulated through in situ surface functionalization with cesium carbonate (Cs2
Phosphorene oxide: stability and electronic properties of a novel two-dimensional material.
Wang, Gaoxue; Pandey, Ravindra; Karna, Shashi P
2015-01-14
Phosphorene, the monolayer form of (black) phosphorus, was recently exfoliated from its bulk counterpart. Phosphorene oxide, by analogy to graphene oxide, is expected to have novel chemical and electronic properties, and may provide an alternative route to the synthesis of phosphorene. In this research, the physical and chemical properties of phosphorene oxide including its formation by oxygen adsorption on the bare phosphorene was investigated. Analysis of the phonon dispersion curves finds stoichiometric and non-stoichiometric oxide configurations to be stable at ambient conditions, thus suggesting that the oxygen adsorption may not degrade the phosphorene. The nature of the band gap of the oxides depends on the degree of functionalization of phosphorene; an indirect gap is predicted for the non-stoichiometric configurations, whereas a direct gap is predicted for the stoichiometric oxide. Application of mechanical strain or an external electric field leads to tunability of the band gap of the phosphorene oxide. In contrast to the case of the bare phosphorene, dependence of the diode-like asymmetric current-voltage response on the degree of stoichiometry is predicted for the phosphorene oxide.
Electronic structures and magnetic properties in Cu-doped two-dimensional dichalcogenides
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Ai-Ming; Wang, Ling-ling; Xiao, Wen-Zhi; Meng, Bo
2015-09-01
We explore the electronic structures and magnetic properties in Cu-doped MX2 (=MoS2, MoSe2, MoTe2, and WS2) based on density functional theory. A Cu dopant leads to a net moment of 5.0 or 1.0 μB in MX2, which mainly depend on the size of crystal-field splitting relative to that of the spin splitting. No magnetism is observed in Cu-doped MoTe2. The local distortion around the Cu atom reduces the total magnetic moment in two-Cu-doped MX2. The magnetic coupling between the nearest neighboring Cu atoms is ferromagnetic for all the cases, but they demonstrate various magnetic ground states with the increasing distance between Cu atoms: the Cu-doped MoS2 and WS2 exhibit anti-ferromagnetic and nonmagnetic ground state, respectively. A long-range ferromagnetic or ferrimagnetic coupling is attributed to double-exchange interaction in Cu-doped MoSe2. Half-metallic ferromagnetism with Curie temperature above room temperature in Cu-doped MoSe2 provides a useful guidance to engineer the magnetic properties of MoSe2 in experiments.
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-15
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cao, Duc; Moses, Gregory; Delettrez, Jacques
2015-08-01
An implicit, non-local thermal conduction algorithm based on the algorithm developed by Schurtz, Nicolai, and Busquet (SNB) [Schurtz et al., Phys. Plasmas 7, 4238 (2000)] for non-local electron transport is presented and has been implemented in the radiation-hydrodynamics code DRACO. To study the model's effect on DRACO's predictive capability, simulations of shot 60 303 from OMEGA are completed using the iSNB model, and the computed shock speed vs. time is compared to experiment. Temperature outputs from the iSNB model are compared with the non-local transport model of Goncharov et al. [Phys. Plasmas 13, 012702 (2006)]. Effects on adiabat are also examined in a polar drive surrogate simulation. Results show that the iSNB model is not only capable of flux-limitation but also preheat prediction while remaining numerically robust and sacrificing little computational speed. Additionally, the results provide strong incentive to further modify key parameters within the SNB theory, namely, the newly introduced non-local mean free path. This research was supported by the Laboratory for Laser Energetics of the University of Rochester.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua
2016-06-01
Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system.
Li, Shuai; Qiu, Wen-Xuan; Gao, Jin-Hua
2016-07-01
Recently, a new kind of artificial two dimensional (2D) electron lattice on the nanoscale, i.e. molecular graphene, has drawn a lot of interest, where the metal surface electrons are transformed into a honeycomb lattice via absorbing a molecular lattice on the metal surface [Gomes et al., Nature, 2012, 438, 306; Wang et al., Phys. Rev. Lett., 2014, 113, 196803]. In this work, we theoretically demonstrate that this technique can be readily used to build other complex 2D electron lattices on a metal surface, which are of high interest in the field of condensed matter physics. The main challenge to build a complex 2D electron lattice is that this is a quantum antidot system, where the absorbed molecule normally exerts a repulsive potential on the surface electrons. Thus, there is no straightforward corresponding relation between the molecular lattice pattern and the desired 2D lattice of surface electrons. Here, we give an interesting example about the Kagome lattice, which has exotic correlated electronic states. We design a special molecular pattern and show that this molecular lattice can transform the surface electrons into a Kagome-like lattice. The numerical simulation is conducted using a Cu(111) surface and CO molecules. We first estimate the effective parameters of the Cu/CO system by fitting experimental data of the molecular graphene. Then, we calculate the corresponding energy bands and LDOS of the surface electrons in the presence of the proposed molecular lattice. Finally, we interpret the numerical results by the tight binding model of the Kagome lattice. We hope that our work can stimulate further theoretical and experimental interest in this novel artificial 2D electron lattice system. PMID:27279292
Nenov, Artur; Segarra-Martí, Javier; Giussani, Angelo; Conti, Irene; Rivalta, Ivan; Dumont, Elise; Jaiswal, Vishal K; Altavilla, Salvatore Flavio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2015-01-01
The SOS//QM/MM [Rivalta et al., Int. J. Quant. Chem., 2014, 114, 85] method consists of an arsenal of computational tools allowing accurate simulation of one-dimensional (1D) and bi-dimensional (2D) electronic spectra of monomeric and dimeric systems with unprecedented details and accuracy. Prominent features like doubly excited local and excimer states, accessible in multi-photon processes, as well as charge-transfer states arise naturally through the fully quantum-mechanical description of the aggregates. In this contribution the SOS//QM/MM approach is extended to simulate time-resolved 2D spectra that can be used to characterize ultrafast excited state relaxation dynamics with atomistic details. We demonstrate how critical structures on the excited state potential energy surface, obtained through state-of-the-art quantum chemical computations, can be used as snapshots of the excited state relaxation dynamics to generate spectral fingerprints for different de-excitation channels. The approach is based on high-level multi-configurational wavefunction methods combined with non-linear response theory and incorporates the effects of the solvent/environment through hybrid quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics (QM/MM) techniques. Specifically, the protocol makes use of the second-order Perturbation Theory (CASPT2) on top of Complete Active Space Self Consistent Field (CASSCF) strategy to compute the high-lying excited states that can be accessed in different 2D experimental setups. As an example, the photophysics of the stacked adenine-adenine dimer in a double-stranded DNA is modeled through 2D near-ultraviolet (NUV) spectroscopy.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hu, Binhui; Kott, Tomasz M.; Kane, B. E.
2013-03-01
Two-dimensional electron systems (2DESs) on hydrogen-terminated Si(111) surfaces show very high quality. The peak electron mobility of 325,000 cm2/Vs can be reached at T =90 mK and 2D electron density n2 d = 4 . 15 ×1011 cm-2, and the device shows the fractional quantum hall effect[1]. 2DESs on H-Si(111) at lower densities may exhibit new physics, because both valley degeneracy and effective mass lead to a large Wigner-Seitz radius rs at accessible densities. In these devices, phosphorus ion implantation is used to defined the contacts to the 2DESs[2]. The contacts themselves work at low temperature. However, at lower 2D electron density (< 2 ×1011 cm-2) and low temperature (<1 K), the contact resistance to the 2DESs shows strong temperature dependence. This makes accurate Hall measurements difficult in this region. We have systematically investigated the contact resistance at different electron densities and temperatures. Different ion implantation annealing parameters are adjusted to mitigate the issue. Possible measurement technique is also explored to overcome the problem.
Luo, Xiaoguang Long, Kailin; Wang, Jun; Qiu, Teng; He, Jizhou; Liu, Nian
2014-06-28
Theoretical thermoelectric nanophysics models of low-dimensional electronic heat engine and refrigerator devices, comprising two-dimensional hot and cold reservoirs and an interconnecting filtered electron transport mechanism have been established. The models were used to numerically simulate and evaluate the thermoelectric performance and energy conversion efficiencies of these low-dimensional devices, based on three different types of electron transport momentum-dependent filters, referred to herein as k{sub x}, k{sub y}, and k{sub r} filters. Assuming the Fermi-Dirac distribution of electrons, expressions for key thermoelectric performance parameters were derived for the resonant transport processes, in which the transmission of electrons has been approximated as a Lorentzian resonance function. Optimizations were carried out and the corresponding optimized design parameters have been determined, including but not limited to the universal theoretical upper bound of the efficiency at maximum power for heat engines, and the maximum coefficient of performance for refrigerators. From the results, it was determined that k{sub r} filter delivers the best thermoelectric performance, followed by the k{sub x} filter, and then the k{sub y} filter. For refrigerators with any one of three filters, an optimum range for the full width at half maximum of the transport resonance was found to be <2k{sub B}T.
Two dimensional, electronic particle tracking in liquids with a graphene-based magnetic sensor array
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Neumann, Rodrigo F.; Engel, Michael; Steiner, Mathias
2016-07-01
nanoparticles in the liquid with high accuracy and (b) the reconstruction of a particle's flow-driven trajectory across the integrated sensor array with sub-pixel precision as a function of time, in what we call the ``Magnetic nanoparticle velocimetry'' technique. Since the method does not rely on optical detection, potential lab-on-chip applications include particle tracking and flow analysis in opaque media at the sub-micron scale. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Movie that illustrates the reconstruction of particle trajectories and additional results to be used as a guideline for the choice of operational parameters such as nanoparticle diameter, nanoparticle concentration and magnetic field components. See DOI: 10.1039/C6NR03434A
Pseudogaps and Emergence of Coherence in Two-Dimensional Electron Liquids in SrTiO3
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Marshall, Patrick B.; Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne
2016-07-01
Using tunneling spectroscopy, we show that pseudogaps emerge in strongly correlated, two-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO3 quantum wells that are tuned near a quantum critical point. Coherence peaks emerge at low temperatures in quantum wells embedded in antiferromagnetic SmTiO3 that remain itinerant to the lowest thickness. Quantum wells embedded in ferrimagnetic GdTiO3 that become ferromagnetic at low temperatures show no indication of quasiparticle coherence. They undergo a symmetry-lowering metal-to-insulator transition at the lowest thicknesses that coincides with a vanishing single-particle density of states (DOS) around the Fermi level. Both types of quantum wells show a power-law depletion of the DOS at high energies. The results show that the different pseudogap behaviors are closely correlated with the type of magnetism in the proximity of the quantum wells and thus provide insights into the microscopic mechanisms.
Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Xiong, Wenqi; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Jia, Yu
2016-08-10
Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic structures and magnetism are investigated in 3d transition metal (TM)-embedded porous two-dimensional (2D) C2N monolayers. Numerical results indicate that except Mn and Co atoms, other TM atoms can be embedded stably in the 2D C2N monolayer. Moreover, the magnetic moments of the TM-embedded C2N monolayer depend highly on the atomic number of the TM atoms. The Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni atom-embedded C2N monolayers possess a ferromagnetic ground state, while embedding Cu can induce paramagnetic characteristics in the 2D C2N monolayer. Meanwhile, the Zn-embedded C2N monolayer exhibits a nonmagnetic ground state. These results indicate that the magnetism of 2D C2N monolayers can be tuned via embedding TM atoms. PMID:27476579
Pseudogaps and Emergence of Coherence in Two-Dimensional Electron Liquids in SrTiO_{3}.
Marshall, Patrick B; Mikheev, Evgeny; Raghavan, Santosh; Stemmer, Susanne
2016-07-22
Using tunneling spectroscopy, we show that pseudogaps emerge in strongly correlated, two-dimensional electron liquids in SrTiO_{3} quantum wells that are tuned near a quantum critical point. Coherence peaks emerge at low temperatures in quantum wells embedded in antiferromagnetic SmTiO_{3} that remain itinerant to the lowest thickness. Quantum wells embedded in ferrimagnetic GdTiO_{3} that become ferromagnetic at low temperatures show no indication of quasiparticle coherence. They undergo a symmetry-lowering metal-to-insulator transition at the lowest thicknesses that coincides with a vanishing single-particle density of states (DOS) around the Fermi level. Both types of quantum wells show a power-law depletion of the DOS at high energies. The results show that the different pseudogap behaviors are closely correlated with the type of magnetism in the proximity of the quantum wells and thus provide insights into the microscopic mechanisms. PMID:27494486
Many-body local fields and Fermi-liquid parameters in a quasi-two-dimensional electron liquid
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yarlagadda, Sudhakar; Giuliani, Gabriele F.
1994-05-01
We present a quantitative theory of the quasiparticle properties in a Fermi liquid. Our approach uses as an input our previous result for the quasiparticle energy which incorporates the vertex corrections associated with charge and spin-density fluctuations through suitably defined many-body local fields. The method is explicitly applied to the case of the quasi-two-dimensional electron liquid occurring in silicon inversion layers. In particular, we discuss results for the effective mass m* and the modified Landé factor g* (Wilson ratio) that are in reasonable agreement with reported findings. Our calculations are performed by making use of a self-consistent static model for the many-body local fields and are consequently free of arbitrary parameters.
Du, Juan; Xia, Congxin; Xiong, Wenqi; Zhao, Xu; Wang, Tianxing; Jia, Yu
2016-08-10
Based on first-principles calculations, the electronic structures and magnetism are investigated in 3d transition metal (TM)-embedded porous two-dimensional (2D) C2N monolayers. Numerical results indicate that except Mn and Co atoms, other TM atoms can be embedded stably in the 2D C2N monolayer. Moreover, the magnetic moments of the TM-embedded C2N monolayer depend highly on the atomic number of the TM atoms. The Sc, Ti, V, Cr, Mn, Fe, Co and Ni atom-embedded C2N monolayers possess a ferromagnetic ground state, while embedding Cu can induce paramagnetic characteristics in the 2D C2N monolayer. Meanwhile, the Zn-embedded C2N monolayer exhibits a nonmagnetic ground state. These results indicate that the magnetism of 2D C2N monolayers can be tuned via embedding TM atoms.
Muller, J.; Brandenburg, J.; Schweitzer, D.; Schlueter, J. A.
2012-05-01
We study the low-frequency dynamical properties of correlated charge carriers in various of the quasi-two-dimensional organic charge-transfer salts {kappa}-(BEDT-TTF){sub 2}X by means of fluctuation (noise) spectroscopy. Close to the critical endpoint of the Mott metal-insulator transition, a pronounced increase of the 1/f-noise level accompanied by a substantial shift of spectral weight to low frequencies indicates a sudden increase of the time scale of the charge fluctuations. For the less correlated, more metallic materials, we find a crossover/transition from hopping transport of more-or-less localized carriers at elevated temperatures to a low-temperature regime, where a metallic coupling of the layers allows for coherent interlayer transport of delocalized electrons.
Joe, Yong S; Lee, Sun H; Hedin, Eric R; Kim, Young D
2013-06-01
We utilize a two-dimensional four-channel DNA model, with a tight-binding (TB) Hamiltonian, and investigate the temperature and the magnetic field dependence of the transport behavior of a short DNA molecule. Random variation of the hopping integrals due to the thermal structural disorder, which partially destroy phase coherence of electrons and reduce quantum interference, leads to a reduction of the localization length and causes suppressed overall transmission. We also incorporate a variation of magnetic field flux density into the hopping integrals as a phase factor and observe Aharonov-Bohm (AB) oscillations in the transmission. It is shown that for non-zero magnetic flux, the transmission zero leaves the real-energy axis and moves up into the complex-energy plane. We also point out that the hydrogen bonds between the base pair with flux variations play a role to determine the periodicity of AB oscillations in the transmission.
Electric field controlled spin interference in a system with Rashba spin-orbit coupling
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ciftja, Orion
2016-05-01
There have been intense research efforts over the last years focused on understanding the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect from the perspective of possible spintronics applications. An important component of this line of research is aimed at control and manipulation of electron's spin degrees of freedom in semiconductor quantum dot devices. A promising way to achieve this goal is to make use of the tunable Rashba effect that relies on the spin-orbit interaction in a two-dimensional electron system embedded in a host semiconducting material that lacks inversion-symmetry. This way, the Rashba spin-orbit coupling effect may potentially lead to fabrication of a new generation of spintronic devices where control of spin, thus magnetic properties, is achieved via an electric field and not a magnetic field. In this work we investigate theoretically the electron's spin interference and accumulation process in a Rashba spin-orbit coupled system consisting of a pair of two-dimensional semiconductor quantum dots connected to each other via two conducting semi-circular channels. The strength of the confinement energy on the quantum dots is tuned by gate potentials that allow "leakage" of electrons from one dot to another. While going through the conducting channels, the electrons are spin-orbit coupled to a microscopically generated electric field applied perpendicular to the two-dimensional system. We show that interference of spin wave functions of electrons travelling through the two channels gives rise to interference/conductance patterns that lead to the observation of the geometric Berry's phase. Achieving a predictable and measurable observation of Berry's phase allows one to control the spin dynamics of the electrons. It is demonstrated that this system allows use of a microscopically generated electric field to control Berry's phase, thus, enables one to tune the spin-dependent interference pattern and spintronic properties with no need for injection of spin
Arzhannikov, A V; Ginzburg, N S; Kalinin, P V; Kuznetsov, S A; Malkin, A M; Peskov, N Yu; Sergeev, A S; Sinitsky, S L; Stepanov, V D; Thumm, M; Zaslavsky, V Yu
2016-09-01
A spatially extended planar 75 GHz free-electron maser with a hybrid two-mirror resonator consisting of two-dimensional upstream and traditional one-dimensional downstream Bragg reflectors and driven by two parallel-sheet electron beams 0.8 MeV/1 kA has been elaborated. For the highly oversized interaction space (cross section 45×2.5 vacuum wavelengths), the two-dimensional distributed feedback allowed realization of stable narrow-band generation that includes synchronization of emission from both electron beams. As a result, spatially coherent radiation with the output power of 30-50 MW and a pulse duration of ∼100 ns was obtained in each channel. PMID:27661696
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Arzhannikov, A. V.; Ginzburg, N. S.; Kalinin, P. V.; Kuznetsov, S. A.; Malkin, A. M.; Peskov, N. Yu.; Sergeev, A. S.; Sinitsky, S. L.; Stepanov, V. D.; Thumm, M.; Zaslavsky, V. Yu.
2016-09-01
A spatially extended planar 75 GHz free-electron maser with a hybrid two-mirror resonator consisting of two-dimensional upstream and traditional one-dimensional downstream Bragg reflectors and driven by two parallel-sheet electron beams 0.8 MeV /1 kA has been elaborated. For the highly oversized interaction space (cross section 45 ×2.5 vacuum wavelengths), the two-dimensional distributed feedback allowed realization of stable narrow-band generation that includes synchronization of emission from both electron beams. As a result, spatially coherent radiation with the output power of 30-50 MW and a pulse duration of ˜100 ns was obtained in each channel.
Arzhannikov, A V; Ginzburg, N S; Kalinin, P V; Kuznetsov, S A; Malkin, A M; Peskov, N Yu; Sergeev, A S; Sinitsky, S L; Stepanov, V D; Thumm, M; Zaslavsky, V Yu
2016-09-01
A spatially extended planar 75 GHz free-electron maser with a hybrid two-mirror resonator consisting of two-dimensional upstream and traditional one-dimensional downstream Bragg reflectors and driven by two parallel-sheet electron beams 0.8 MeV/1 kA has been elaborated. For the highly oversized interaction space (cross section 45×2.5 vacuum wavelengths), the two-dimensional distributed feedback allowed realization of stable narrow-band generation that includes synchronization of emission from both electron beams. As a result, spatially coherent radiation with the output power of 30-50 MW and a pulse duration of ∼100 ns was obtained in each channel.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tolsma, John; Larentis, Stefano; Tutuc, Emanuel; MacDonald, Allan
2014-03-01
Electron-electron interactions often have opposite influences on thermodynamic properties of electrons in graphene compared to conventional two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), for example by lowering charge and spin-susceptibilities in the graphene case and enhancing them in the ordinary 2DEG case. In ordinary 2DEGs the charge susceptibility diverges at a finite carrier density, below which the compressibility becomes negative. We theoretically explore the influence of this qualitative difference on how charge is partitioned between a MoS2 and a graphene sheet 2DEG when they act as a compound capacitor electrode. Our theory is based on a random phase approximation for charge fluctuations in the 2DEGS and the coupling constant formulation for the ground state energy. We find that in the ideal case the MoS2 2DEG carrier density jumps immediately to a finite value when it is initially populated and discuss how this effect is moderated by disorder. Work supported by the Welch Foundation grant TBF1473 and the DOE Division of Materials Sciences Engineering grant DE-FG03-02ER45958.
Threshold field for soft damage and electron drift velocity in InGaN two-dimensional channels
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Ardaravičius, L.; Kiprijanovič, O.; Liberis, J.; Šermukšnis, E.; Matulionis, A.; Ferreyra, R. A.; Avrutin, V.; Özgür, Ü.; Morkoç, H.
2015-10-01
Experimental investigation of electron transport along a two-dimensional channel confined in an InGaN alloy of Al{}0.82In{}0.18N/AlN/In{}0.1Ga{}0.9N/GaN structure was performed at room temperature under near-equilibrium thermal-bath temperature. A soft damage was observed at a threshold electric field applied in the channel plane. The threshold current for soft damage and the supplied electric power were lower in the channels with a higher electron density. The results are interpreted in terms of plasmon-assisted heat dissipation. In agreement with ultra-fast decay of hot phonons in the vicinity of the resonance with plasmons, the electron drift velocity acquires a highest value of ˜2 × 107 cm s-1 at 180 kV cm-1 in channels with 1 × 1013 cm-2 and decreases as the electron density increases. No negative differential resistance is observed. The effective hot-phonon lifetime is estimated as ˜ 2 ps at 1.6 × 1013 cm-2 at low electric fields and is found to decrease as the field increases.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yamanaka, Shuji; Arai, Toshikazu; Sawada, Anju; Fukuda, Akira; Yayama, Hideki
2013-10-01
We measured the resonance spectra of edge magnetoplasmon (EMP) oscillations in a two-dimensional (2D) electron system located on a liquid-helium surface below 1.1 K. Systematic measurements of the resonance frequency and the damping rate as a function of the lateral confinement electric field strength shows clear evidence of the oscillation mode transformation. A pronounced change corresponding to the mode transformation was observed in the damping rate. When 2D electrons are confined in a strong lateral electric field, the damping is weak. As the lateral confinement electric field is reduced below a certain threshold value, an abrupt enhancement of the damping rate is observed. We hypothesize that the weak damping mode in the strong lateral confinement electric field is the compressive density oscillation of the electrons near the edge (conventional EMP) and the strong damping mode in the weak confinement field is the coupled mode of conventional EMP and the boundary displacement wave (BDW). The observation of the strong damping in the BDW-EMP coupled mode is a manifestation of the nearly incompressible feature of strongly interacting classical electrons, which agrees with earlier theoretical predictions.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Zhongxin, Zheng; Jiandong, Sun; Yu, Zhou; Zhipeng, Zhang; Hua, Qin
2015-10-01
The broadband terahertz (THz) emission from drifting two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in an AlGaN/GaN heterostructure at 6 K is reported. The devices are designed as THz plasmon emitters according to the Smith-Purcell effect and the ‘shallow water’ plasma instability mechanism in 2DEG. Plasmon excitation is excluded since no signature of electron-density dependent plasmon mode is observed. Instead, the observed THz emission is found to come from the heated lattice and/or the hot electrons. Simulated emission spectra of hot electrons taking into account the THz absorption in air and Fabry-Pérot interference agree well with the experiment. It is confirmed that a blackbody-like THz emission will inevitably be encountered in similar devices driven by a strong in-plane electric field. A conclusion is drawn that a more elaborate device design is required to achieve efficient plasmon excitation and THz emission. Project supported by the National Basic Research Program of China (No. G2009CB929303), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (No. 61271157), the China Postdoctoral Science Foundation (No. 2014M551678), and the Jiangsu Planned Projects for Postdoctoral Research Funds (No. 1301054B).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Korolev, A. M.; Shulga, V. M.; Turutanov, O. G.; Shnyrkov, V. I.
2016-07-01
A technically simple and physically clear method is suggested for direct measurement of the brightness temperature of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) in the channel of a high electron mobility transistor (HEMT). The usage of the method was demonstrated with the pseudomorphic HEMT as a specimen. The optimal HEMT dc regime, from the point of view of the "back action" problem, was found to belong to the unsaturated area of the static characteristics possibly corresponding to the ballistic electron transport mode. The proposed method is believed to be a convenient tool to explore the ballistic transport, electron diffusion, 2DEG properties and other electrophysical processes in heterostructures.
Chakrabarti, S; Chatterjee, B; Debbarma, S; Ghatak, K P
2015-09-01
In this paper we study the influence of strong electric field on the two dimensional (2D)effective electron mass (EEM) at the Fermi level in quantum wells of III-V, ternary and quaternary semiconductors within the framework of k x p formalism by formulating a new 2D electron energy spectrum. It appears taking quantum wells of InSb, InAs, Hg(1-x)Cd(x)Te and In(1-x)Ga(x)As(1-y)P(y) lattice matched to InP as examples that the EEM increases with decreasing film thickness, increasing electric field and increases with increasing surface electron concentration exhibiting spikey oscillations because of the crossing over of the Fermi level by the quantized level in quantum wells and the quantized oscillation occurs when the Fermi energy touches the sub-band energy. The electric field makes the mass quantum number dependent and the oscillatory mass introduces quantum number dependent mass anisotropy in addition to energy. The EEM increases with decreasing alloy composition where the variations are totally band structure dependent. Under certain limiting conditions all the results for all the cases get simplified into the well-known parabolic energy bands and thus confirming the compatibility test. The content of this paper finds three applications in the fields of nano-science and technology.
Peelaers, H.; Gordon, L.; Steiauf, D.; Janotti, A.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Krishnaswamy, K.; Sarwe, A.
2015-11-02
High-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) can be formed at complex oxide interfaces such as SrTiO{sub 3}/GdTiO{sub 3} and SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3}. The electric field in the vicinity of the interface depends on the dielectric properties of the material as well as on the electron distribution. However, it is known that electric fields can strongly modify the dielectric constant of SrTiO{sub 3} as well as other complex oxides. Solving the electrostatic problem thus requires a self-consistent approach in which the dielectric constant varies according to the local magnitude of the field. We have implemented the field dependence of the dielectric constant in a Schrödinger-Poisson solver in order to study its effect on the electron distribution in a 2DEG. Using the SrTiO{sub 3}/GdTiO{sub 3} interface as an example, we demonstrate that including the field dependence results in the 2DEG being confined closer to the interface compared to assuming a single field-independent value for the dielectric constant. Our conclusions also apply to SrTiO{sub 3}/LaAlO{sub 3} as well as other similar interfaces.
Sang, Ling; Yang, Xuelin Cheng, Jianpeng; Guo, Lei; Hu, Anqi; Xiang, Yong; Yu, Tongjun; Xu, Fujun; Tang, Ning; Jia, Lifang; He, Zhi; Wang, Maojun; Wang, Xinqiang; Shen, Bo; Ge, Weikun
2015-08-03
High-temperature transport properties in high-mobility lattice-matched InAlN/GaN heterostructures have been investigated. An interesting hysteresis phenomenon of the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) density is observed in the temperature-dependent Hall measurements. After high-temperature thermal cycles treatment, the reduction of the 2DEG density is observed, which is more serious in thinner InAlN barrier samples. This reduction can then be recovered by light illumination. We attribute these behaviors to the shallow trap states with energy level above the Fermi level in the GaN buffer layer. The electrons in the 2DEG are thermal-excited when temperature is increased and then trapped by these shallow trap states in the buffer layer, resulting in the reduction and hysteresis phenomenon of their density. Three trap states are observed in the GaN buffer layer and C{sub Ga} may be one of the candidates responsible for the observed behaviors. Our results provide an alternative approach to assess the quality of InAlN/GaN heterostructures for applications in high-temperature electronic devices.
Borisov, A. G.; Juaristi, J. I.
2006-01-15
Time-dependent density-functional theory is used to calculate quantum-size effects in the energy loss of antiprotons interacting with a confined two-dimensional electron gas. The antiprotons follow a trajectory normal to jellium circular clusters of variable size, crossing every cluster at its geometrical center. Analysis of the characteristic time scales that define the process is made. For high-enough velocities, the interaction time between the projectile and the target electrons is shorter than the time needed for the density excitation to travel along the cluster. The finite-size object then behaves as an infinite system, and no quantum-size effects appear in the energy loss. For small velocities, the discretization of levels in the cluster plays a role and the energy loss does depend on the system size. A comparison to results obtained using linear theory of screening is made, and the relative contributions of electron-hole pair and plasmon excitations to the total energy loss are analyzed. This comparison also allows us to show the importance of a nonlinear treatment of the screening in the interaction process.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Müller-Caspary, Knut; Oelsner, Andreas; Potapov, Pavel
2015-08-01
A delay-line detector is established for electron detection in the field of scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) and applied to two-dimensional strain mapping in Si-based field effect transistors. We initially outline the functional principle of position-sensitive delay-line detection, based on highly accurate time measurements for electronic pulses travelling in meandering wires. In particular, the detector is a single-counting device essentially providing an infinite time stream of position-resolved events so that acquisition speed is not hindered by detector read-outs occurring in conventional charge-coupled devices. By scanning the STEM probe over stressor- and gate regions of a field effect transistor on a 100 × 100 raster, 10 000 diffraction patterns have been acquired within 3-6.5 min, depending on the scan speed. Evaluation of the 004 and 220 reflections yields lateral and vertical strain at a spatial resolution of 1.6 nm. Dose-dependent strain precisions of 1.2 -1.8 ×10-3 could be achieved for frame times of 40 and 20 ms, respectively. Finally, the detector is characterised as to quantum efficiency and further scopes of application are outlined.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Côté, R.; Simoneau, Alexandre M.
2016-02-01
Transport experiments on the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined into a semiconductor quantum well and subjected to a quantizing magnetic field have uncovered a rich variety of uniform and nonuniform phases such as the Laughlin liquids, the Wigner, bubble, and Skyrme crystals, and the quantum Hall stripe state. Optically pumped nuclear magnetic resonance (OP-NMR) has also been extremely useful in studying the magnetization and dynamics of electron solids with exotic spin textures such as the Skyrme crystal. Recently, it has been demonstrated that a related technique, resistively-detected nuclear magnetic resonance (RD-NMR), could be a good tool to study the topography of the electron solids in the fractional and integer quantum Hall regimes. In this work, we compute theoretically the RD-NMR line shapes of various crystal phases of the 2DEG and study the relation between their spin density and texture and their NMR spectra. This allows us to evaluate the ability of the RD-NMR to discriminate between the various types of crystal states.
Formation of Ideal Rashba States on Layered Semiconductor Surfaces Steered by Strain Engineering
Ming, Wenmei; Wang, Z. F.; Zhou, Miao; Yoon, Mina; Liu, Feng
2015-12-10
Spin splitting of Rashba states in two-dimensional electron system provides a mechanism of spin manipulation for spintronics applications. However, Rashba states realized experimentally to date are often outnumbered by spin-degenerated substrate states at the same energy range, hindering their practical applications. Here, by density functional theory calculation, we show that Au one monolayer film deposition on a layered semiconductor surface β-InSe(0001) can possess “ideal” Rashba states with large spin splitting, which are completely situated inside the large band gap of the substrate. The position of the Rashba bands can be tuned over a wide range with respect to the substrate band edges by experimentally accessible strain. Furthermore, our nonequilibrium Green’s function transport calculation shows that this system may give rise to the long-sought strong current modulation when made into a device of Datta-Das transistor. Similar systems may be identified with other metal ultrathin films and layered semiconductor substrates to realize ideal Rashba states.
Formation of Ideal Rashba States on Layered Semiconductor Surfaces Steered by Strain Engineering
Ming, Wenmei; Wang, Z. F.; Zhou, Miao; Yoon, Mina; Liu, Feng
2015-12-10
Spin splitting of Rashba states in two-dimensional electron system provides a mechanism of spin manipulation for spintronics applications. However, Rashba states realized experimentally to date are often outnumbered by spin-degenerated substrate states at the same energy range, hindering their practical applications. Here, by density functional theory calculation, we show that Au one monolayer film deposition on a layered semiconductor surface β-InSe(0001) can possess “ideal” Rashba states with large spin splitting, which are completely situated inside the large band gap of the substrate. The position of the Rashba bands can be tuned over a wide range with respect to the substratemore » band edges by experimentally accessible strain. Furthermore, our nonequilibrium Green’s function transport calculation shows that this system may give rise to the long-sought strong current modulation when made into a device of Datta-Das transistor. Similar systems may be identified with other metal ultrathin films and layered semiconductor substrates to realize ideal Rashba states.« less
Sharma, Munish E-mail: pk-ahluwalia7@yahoo.com; Kumar, Ashok; Ahluwalia, P. K. E-mail: pk-ahluwalia7@yahoo.com; Pandey, Ravindra
2014-08-14
Tunability of the electronic properties of two-dimensional bilayer hetero structures of transition-metal dichalcogenides (i.e., MX{sub 2}-M′X′{sub 2} with (M, M′ = Mo, W; X, X′ = S, Se) is investigated. Application of both strain and electric field is found to modify the band gap and carrier effective mass in the hybrid bilayers considered. The calculated results based on density functional theory suggest that the tensile strain considerably changes the band gap of semiconducting bilayers; it makes the band gap to be indirect, and later initiates the semiconductor-to-metal transition. Application of the external electric fields, on the other hand, shows asymmetric variation in the band gap leading to the closure of the gap at about 0.5–1.0 V/Å. Tuning of the band gap and carrier effective mass in such a controlled manner makes the hybrid bilayers of transition metal dichalcogenides to be promising candidates for application in electronic devices at nanoscale.
Nenov, Artur; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco; Rivalta, Ivan
2015-08-11
First-principles simulations of two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy in the ultraviolet region (2DUV) require computationally demanding multiconfigurational approaches that can resolve doubly excited and charge transfer states, the spectroscopic fingerprints of coupled UV-active chromophores. Here, we propose an efficient approach to reduce the computational cost of accurate simulations of 2DUV spectra of benzene, phenol, and their dimer (i.e., the minimal models for studying electronic coupling of UV-chromophores in proteins). We first establish the multiconfigurational recipe with the highest accuracy by comparison with experimental data, providing reference gas-phase transition energies and dipole moments that can be used to construct exciton Hamiltonians involving high-lying excited states. We show that by reducing the active spaces and the number of configuration state functions within restricted active space schemes, the computational cost can be significantly decreased without loss of accuracy in predicting 2DUV spectra. The proposed recipe has been successfully tested on a realistic model proteic system in water. Accounting for line broadening due to thermal and solvent-induced fluctuations allows for direct comparison with experiments.
Nenov, Artur; Rivalta, Ivan; Cerullo, Giulio; Mukamel, Shaul; Garavelli, Marco
2014-02-20
Two-dimensional (2D) optical spectroscopy techniques based on ultrashort laser pulses have been recently extended to the optical domain in the ultraviolet (UV) spectral region. UV-active aromatic side chains can thus be used as local highly specific markers for tracking dynamics and structural rearrangements of proteins. Here we demonstrate that 2D electronic spectra of a model proteic system, a tetrapeptide with two aromatic side chains, contain enough structural information to distinguish between two different configurations with distant and vicinal side chains. For accurate simulations of the 2DUV spectra in solution, we combine a quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics approach based on wave function methods, accounting for interchromophores coupling and environmental effects, with nonlinear response theory. The proposed methodology reveals effects, such as charge transfer between vicinal aromatic residues that remain concealed in conventional exciton Hamiltonian approaches. Possible experimental setups are discussed, including multicolor experiments and signal manipulation techniques for limiting undesired background contributions and enhancing 2DUV signatures of specific electronic couplings.
Berman, Oleg L.; Kezerashvili, Roman Ya.; Lozovik, Yurii E.
2009-09-15
The Bose-Einstein condensation (BEC) of magnetoexcitonic polaritons (magnetopolaritons) in two-dimensional (2D) electron-hole system embedded in a semiconductor microcavity in a high magnetic field B is predicted. There are two physical realizations of 2D electron-hole system under consideration: a graphene layer and quantum well (QW). A 2D gas of magnetopolaritons is considered in a planar harmonic potential trap. Two possible physical realizations of this trapping potential are assumed: inhomogeneous local stress or harmonic electric field potential applied to excitons and a parabolic shape of the semiconductor cavity causing the trapping of microcavity photons. The effective Hamiltonian of the ideal gas of cavity polaritons in a QW and graphene in a high magnetic field and the BEC temperature as functions of magnetic field are obtained. It is shown that the effective polariton mass M{sub eff} increases with magnetic field as B{sup 1/2}. The BEC critical temperature T{sub c}{sup (0)} decreases as B{sup -1/4} and increases with the spring constant of the parabolic trap. The Rabi splitting related to the creation of a magnetoexciton in a high magnetic field in graphene and QW is obtained. It is shown that Rabi splitting in graphene can be controlled by the external magnetic field since it is proportional to B{sup -1/4} while in a QW the Rabi splitting does not depend on the magnetic field when it is strong.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Kesong; Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Cheng, Jianli
2016-10-01
The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface between two insulating oxides such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (STO) is of fundamental and practical interest because of its novel interfacial conductivity and its promising applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. Here we show that a group of combinatorial descriptors that characterize the polar character, lattice mismatch, band gap, and the band alignment between the perovskite-oxide-based band insulators and the STO substrate, can be introduced to realize a high-throughput (HT) design of SrTiO3-based 2DEG systems from perovskite oxide quantum database. Equipped with these combinatorial descriptors, we have carried out a HT screening of all the polar perovskite compounds, uncovering 42 compounds of potential interests. Of these, Al-, Ga-, Sc-, and Ta-based compounds can form a 2DEG with STO, while In-based compounds exhibit a strain-induced strong polarization when deposited on STO substrate. In particular, the Ta-based compounds can form 2DEG with potentially high electron mobility at (TaO2)+/(SrO)0 interface. Our approach, by defining materials descriptors solely based on the bulk materials properties, and by relying on the perovskite-oriented quantum materials repository, opens new avenues for the discovery of perovskite-oxide-based functional interface materials in a HT fashion.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Irie, Hiroshi; Todt, Clemens; Kumada, Norio; Harada, Yuichi; Sugiyama, Hiroki; Akazaki, Tatsushi; Muraki, Koji
2016-10-01
We study coherent transport and bound state formation of Bogoliubov quasiparticles in a high-mobility I n0.75G a0.25As two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) coupled to a superconducting Nb electrode by means of a quantum point contact (QPC) as a tunable single-mode probe. Below the superconducting critical temperature of Nb, the QPC shows a single-channel conductance greater than the conductance quantum 2 e2/h at zero bias, which indicates the presence of Andreev-reflected quasiparticles, time-reversed states of the injected electron, returning back through the QPC. The marked sensitivity of the conductance enhancement to voltage bias and perpendicular magnetic field suggests a mechanism analogous to reflectionless tunneling—a hallmark of phase-coherent transport, with the boundary of the 2DEG cavity playing the role of scatterers. When the QPC transmission is reduced to the tunneling regime, the differential conductance vs bias voltage probes the single-particle density of states in the proximity area. Measured conductance spectra show a double peak within the superconducting gap of Nb, demonstrating the formation of Andreev bound states in the 2DEG. Both of these results, obtained in the open and closed geometries, underpin the coherent nature of quasiparticles, i.e., phase-coherent Andreev reflection at the InGaAs/Nb interface and coherent propagation in the ballistic 2DEG.
Cresti, Alessandro . E-mail: cresti@df.unipi.it; Grosso, Giuseppe . E-mail: grosso@df.unipi.it; Parravicini, Giuseppe Pastori . E-mail: pastori@fisicavolta.unipv.it
2006-05-15
We have derived closed analytic expressions for the Green's function of an electron in a two-dimensional electron gas threaded by a uniform perpendicular magnetic field, also in the presence of a uniform electric field and of a parabolic spatial confinement. A workable and powerful numerical procedure for the calculation of the Green's functions for a large infinitely extended quantum wire is considered exploiting a lattice model for the wire, the tight-binding representation for the corresponding matrix Green's function, and the Peierls phase factor in the Hamiltonian hopping matrix element to account for the magnetic field. The numerical evaluation of the Green's function has been performed by means of the decimation-renormalization method, and quite satisfactorily compared with the analytic results worked out in this paper. As an example of the versatility of the numerical and analytic tools here presented, the peculiar semilocal character of the magnetic Green's function is studied in detail because of its basic importance in determining magneto-transport properties in mesoscopic systems.
Yang, Kesong; Nazir, Safdar; Behtash, Maziar; Cheng, Jianli
2016-01-01
The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at the interface between two insulating oxides such as LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 (STO) is of fundamental and practical interest because of its novel interfacial conductivity and its promising applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. Here we show that a group of combinatorial descriptors that characterize the polar character, lattice mismatch, band gap, and the band alignment between the perovskite-oxide-based band insulators and the STO substrate, can be introduced to realize a high-throughput (HT) design of SrTiO3-based 2DEG systems from perovskite oxide quantum database. Equipped with these combinatorial descriptors, we have carried out a HT screening of all the polar perovskite compounds, uncovering 42 compounds of potential interests. Of these, Al-, Ga-, Sc-, and Ta-based compounds can form a 2DEG with STO, while In-based compounds exhibit a strain-induced strong polarization when deposited on STO substrate. In particular, the Ta-based compounds can form 2DEG with potentially high electron mobility at (TaO2)+/(SrO)0 interface. Our approach, by defining materials descriptors solely based on the bulk materials properties, and by relying on the perovskite-oriented quantum materials repository, opens new avenues for the discovery of perovskite-oxide-based functional interface materials in a HT fashion. PMID:27708415
Liboiron, Barry D.; Thompson, Katherine H.; Vera, Erika; Yuen, Violet G.; McNeill, John H.
2003-01-01
The biological fate of a chelated vanadium source is investigated by/n vivo spectroscopic methods to elucidate the chemical form in which the metal ion is accumulated. A pulsed electron paramagnetic resonance study of vanadyl ions in kidney tissue, taken from rats previously treated with bis(ethylmaltolato)oxovanadium(IV) (BEOV) in drinking water, is presented. A combined approach using stimulated echo (3-pulse) electron spin echo envelope modulation (ESEEM) and the two dimensional 4-pulse hyperfine sublevel correlation (HYSCORE) spectroscopies has shown that at least some of the VO2+ ions are involved in the coordination with nitrogen-containing ligands. From the experimental spectra, a 4N hyperfine coupling constant of 4.9 MHz and a quadrupole coupling constant of 0.6 + 0.04 MHz were determined, consistent with amine coordination of the vanadyl ions. Study of VO-histidine model complexes allowed for a determination of the percentage of nitrogen-coordinated VO2+ ions in the tissue sample that is found nitrogen-coordinated. By taking into account the bidentate nature of histidine coordination to VO2+ ions, a more accurate determination of this value is reported. The biological fate of chelated versus free (i.e. salts) vanadyl ion sources has been deduced by comparison to earlier reports. In contrast to its superior pharmacological efficacy over VOSO4, BEOV shares a remarkably similar biological fate after uptake into kidney tissue. PMID:18365044
Egorova, Dassia
2015-06-07
Several recent experiments report on possibility of dark-state detection by means of so called beating maps of two-dimensional photon-echo spectroscopy [Ostroumov et al., Science 340, 52 (2013); Bakulin et al., Ultrafast Phenomena XIX (Springer International Publishing, 2015)]. The main idea of this detection scheme is to use coherence induced upon the laser excitation as a very sensitive probe. In this study, we investigate the performance of ground-state coherence in the detection of dark electronic states. For this purpose, we simulate beating maps of several models where the excited-state coherence can be hardly detected and is assumed not to contribute to the beating maps. The models represent strongly coupled electron-nuclear dynamics involving avoided crossings and conical intersections. In all the models, the initially populated optically accessible excited state decays to a lower-lying dark state within few hundreds femtoseconds. We address the role of Raman modes and of interstate-coupling nature. Our findings suggest that the presence of low-frequency Raman active modes significantly increases the chances for detection of dark states populated via avoided crossings, whereas conical intersections represent a more challenging task.
Thermopower enhancement in quantum wells with the Rashba effect
Wu, Lihua; Yang, Jiong; Wang, Shanyu; Wei, Ping; Yang, Jihui E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn; Zhang, Wenqing E-mail: wqzhang@mail.sic.ac.cn; Chen, Lidong
2014-11-17
We theoretically demonstrate that the thermopower in two-dimensional quantum wells (QWs) can be significantly enhanced by its Rashba spin-splitting effect, governed by the one-dimensional density of states in the low Fermi energy region. The thermopower enhancement is due to the lower Fermi level for a given carrier concentration in Rashba QWs, as compared with that in normal two-dimensional systems without the spin-splitting effect. The degenerate approximation directly shows that larger strength of Rashba effect leads to higher thermopower and consequently better thermoelectric performance in QWs.
Huang, Chiao-Ti Li, Jiun-Yun; Chou, Kevin S.; Sturm, James C.
2014-06-16
We report the strong screening of the remote charge scattering sites from the oxide/semiconductor interface of buried enhancement-mode undoped Si two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), by introducing a tunable shielding electron layer between the 2DEG and the scattering sites. When a high density of electrons in the buried silicon quantum well exists, the tunneling of electrons from the buried layer to the surface quantum well can lead to the formation of a nearly immobile surface electron layer. The screening of the remote charges at the interface by this newly formed surface electron layer results in an increase in the mobility of the buried 2DEG. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the minimum mobile electron density of the 2DEG occurs as well. Together, these effects can reduce the increased detrimental effect of interface charges as the setback distance for the 2DEG to the surface is reduced for improved lateral confinement by top gates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Huang, Chiao-Ti; Li, Jiun-Yun; Chou, Kevin S.; Sturm, James C.
2014-06-01
We report the strong screening of the remote charge scattering sites from the oxide/semiconductor interface of buried enhancement-mode undoped Si two-dimensional electron gases (2DEGs), by introducing a tunable shielding electron layer between the 2DEG and the scattering sites. When a high density of electrons in the buried silicon quantum well exists, the tunneling of electrons from the buried layer to the surface quantum well can lead to the formation of a nearly immobile surface electron layer. The screening of the remote charges at the interface by this newly formed surface electron layer results in an increase in the mobility of the buried 2DEG. Furthermore, a significant decrease in the minimum mobile electron density of the 2DEG occurs as well. Together, these effects can reduce the increased detrimental effect of interface charges as the setback distance for the 2DEG to the surface is reduced for improved lateral confinement by top gates.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Satpathy, Sashi; Shanavas, Kavungal Veedu
2015-09-01
The Rashba effect [1] describes the momentum-dependent spin splitting of the electron states at a surface or interface. It is the combined result of the relativistic spin-orbit interaction (SOI) and the inversion-symmetry breaking. The control of the Rashba effect by an applied electric field is at the heart of the proposed Rashba-effect-based spintronics devices for manipulating the electron spinfor ma- nipulating the electron spin in the semiconductors. The effect is expected to be much stronger in the perovskite oxides owing to the presence of high-Z elements. In this talk, I will introduce the Rashba effect and discuss how the Rashba SOI at the surfaces and interfaces can be tuned by manipulating the two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) by an applied electric field. The effect can be understood in terms of a tight-binding model Hamiltonian for the d orbitals incorporating the effect of electric field in terms of effective orbital overlap parameters [3]. From first principles calculations we see that the Rashba SOI originates from the first few layers near the surface and it therefore can be altered by drawing the 2DEG to the surface or by pushing the 2DEG deeper into the bulk with an applied elec- tric field. These ideas will be illustrated by a comprehensive density-functional study of polar perovskite systems [4]. References [1] E. I. Rashba, Sov. Phys. Solid State 2, 1109 (1960) [2] A. Ohtomo and H. Hwang, Nature 427, 423 (2004); Z. Popovic, S. Satpathy, and R. Martin, Phys. Rev. Letts. 101, 256801 (2008) [3] K. V. Shanavas and S. Satpathy, Phys. Rev. Lett. 112, 086802 (2014); K. V. Shanavas, Z. S. Popovic, and S. Satpathy, Phys. Rev. B 90, 165108 (2014) [4] K. V. Shanavas, J. Electron Spectrosc., In press (2015)
NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)
Yngvesson, K. Sigfrid; Lau, Kei-May
1992-01-01
This final report describes a three-year research effort, aimed at developing new types of THz low noise receivers, based on bulk effect ('hot electron') nonlinearities in the Two-Dimensional Electron Gas (2DEG) Medium, and the inclusion of such receivers in focal plane arrays. 2DEG hot electron mixers have been demonstrated at 35 and 94 GHz with three orders of magnitude wider bandwidth than previous hot electron mixers, which use bulk InSb. The 2DEG mixers employ a new mode of operation, which was invented during this program. Only moderate cooling is required for this mode, to temperatures in the range 20-77 K. Based on the results of this research, it is now possible to design a hot electron mixer focal plane array for the THz range, which is anticipated to have a DSB receiver noise temperature of 500-1000K. In our work on this grant, we have found similar results the the Cronin group (resident at the University of Bath, UK). Neither group has so far demonstrated heterodyne detection in this mode, however. We discovered and explored some new effects in the magnetic field mode, and these are described in the report. In particular, detection of 94 GHz and 238 GHz, respectively, by a new effect, 'Shubnikov de Haas detection', was found to be considerably stronger in our materials than the cyclotron resonance detection. All experiments utilized devices with an active 2DEG region of size of the order of 10-40 micrometers long, and 20-200 micrometers wide, formed at the heterojunction between AlGaAs and GaAs. All device fabrication was performed in-house. The materials for the devices were also grown in-house, utilizing OMCVD (Organo Metallic Chemical Vapor Deposition). In the course of this grant, we developed new techniques for growing AlGaAs/GaAs with mobilities equalling the highest values published by any laboratory. We believe that the field of hot electron mixers and detectors will grow substantially in importance in the next few years, partly as a result of
Lei, X. L.; Liu, S. Y.
2014-06-21
We analyze a phase-sensitive contribution to the oscillating magnetoresistance induced by the combined driving of two microwave fields having commensurate frequencies ω{sub 1} and ω{sub 2} (m{sub 1}ω{sub 1} + m{sub 2}ω{sub 2} = 0 for at least a set of nonzero integers m{sub 1} and m{sub 2}), based on the balance-equation approach to magnetotransport for high-density two-dimensional electron systems. This commensurate oscillating photoresistance not only depends on the frequencies and polarizations of both microwaves, but varies drastically when changing the relative phases of two incident radiation fields. It shows up most significantly in the case of ω{sub 2}/ω{sub 1} = 3 and may lead to a phase-controllable change of more than a factor of two in the total magnetoresistivity in the vicinity of ω{sub 1}/ω{sub c} = 1.5 and 2.5 (ω{sub c} is the cyclotron frequency), when both radiation fields are linearly x-direction polarized.
Giant thermoelectric Seebeck coefficient of a two-dimensional electron gas in SrTiO3.
Ohta, Hiromichi; Kim, Sungwng; Mune, Yoriko; Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Nomura, Kenji; Ohta, Shingo; Nomura, Takashi; Nakanishi, Yuki; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Hirano, Masahiro; Hosono, Hideo; Koumoto, Kunihito
2007-02-01
Enhancement of the Seebeck coefficient (S ) without reducing the electrical conductivity (sigma) is essential to realize practical thermoelectric materials exhibiting a dimensionless figure of merit (ZT=S2 x sigma x T x kappa-1) exceeding 2, where T is the absolute temperature and kappa is the thermal conductivity. Here, we demonstrate that a high-density two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined within a unit cell layer thickness in SrTiO(3) yields unusually large |S|, approximately five times larger than that of SrTiO(3) bulks, while maintaining a high sigma2DEG. In the best case, we observe |S|=850 microV K-1 and sigma2DEG=1.4 x 10(3) S cm-1. In addition, by using the kappa of bulk single-crystal SrTiO(3) at room temperature, we estimate ZT approximately 2.4 for the 2DEG, corresponding to ZT approximately 0.24 for a complete device having the 2DEG as the active region. The present approach using a 2DEG provides a new route to realize practical thermoelectric materials without the use of toxic heavy elements.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kah, Cherno Baba; Yu, M.; Jayanthi, C. S.; Wu, S. Y.
2014-03-01
Our previous study on one-dimensional icosahedral B12 cluster (α-B12) based chain [Bulletin of APS Annual Meeting, p265 (2013)] and ring structures has prompted us to study the two-dimensional (2D) α-B12 based structures. Recently, we have carried out a systematic molecular dynamics study on the structural stabilities and electronic properties of the 2D α-B12 based structures using the SCED-LCAO method [PRB 74, 15540 (2006)]. We have considered several types of symmetry for these 2D structures such as δ3, δ4, δ6 (flat triangular), and α' types. We have found that the optimized structures are energetically in the order of δ6 < α' < δ3 < δ4 which is different from the energy order of α'< δ6 < δ4 < δ3 found in the 2D boron monolayer sheets [ACS Nano 6, 7443 (2012)]. A detailed discussion of this study will be presented. The first author acknowledges the McSweeny Fellowship for supporting his research in this work.
Blomberg, Jan; Riemersma, Toby; van Zuijlen, Manfred; Chaabani, Hassan
2004-09-24
Within the petrochemical industry, there has been a growing interest in methods capable of providing detailed information on the distribution of sulphur-containing compounds in various product streams, going down to the level of separating and quantifying individual sulphur species. Since no single capillary gas chromatographic column is able to perform this separation, a refuge to multi-dimensional separation techniques has to be taken. In this respect, comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography (GC x GC) coupled with sulphur chemiluminescence detection (SCD) has shown to be highly promising. It has been suggested, however, that the detector volume of an SCD restricts its potential to keep up with the fast second-dimension separations of contemporary GC x GC. In this paper, we will demonstrate that the lack of speed of the SCD does not originate from its physical dimensions, but is largely determined by the speed of the electronics used. Additionally, some typical examples will be presented to illustrate the potential of GC x GC coupled with fast SCD.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Brandsen, S.; Pollanen, J.; Eisenstein, J. P.; Pfieffer, L. N.; West, K. W.
2015-03-01
At high magnetic field, Coulomb interactions in a two-dimensional electron system (2DES) lead to a wide variety of collective phases, including the fractional quantum Hall fluids and the nematic liquid crystals found at high Landau level occupancy. In order to examine the density dependence of these quantum states, we have developed a new sample architecture consisting of a highly doped, yet transparent, conducting cap layer grown atop a conventional modulation-doped heterojunction where the 2DES resides. Separate contacts to the 2DES and the cap layer allow the latter to function as a gate for tuning the 2DES density both before and after low temperature illumination. After illustrating the basic functioning of this structure, we will report results on the density dependence of various quantum Hall and nematic liquid crystal phases of the 2DES. This work was supported by the Institute for Quantum Information and Matter, an NSF Physics Frontiers Center with support of the Gordon and Betty Moore Foundation through Grant GBMF1250.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Mathias, S.; Miaja-Avila, L.; Murnane, M. M.; Kapteyn, H.; Aeschlimann, M.; Bauer, M.
2007-08-01
An experimental setup for time- and angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy using a femtosecond 1kHz high harmonic light source and a two-dimensional electron analyzer for parallel energy and momentum detection is presented. A selection of the 27th harmonic (41.85eV) from the harmonic spectrum of the light source is achieved with a multilayer Mo /Si double mirror monochromator. The extinction efficiency of the monochromator in selecting this harmonic is shown to be better than 7:1, while the transmitted bandwidth of the selected harmonic is capable of supporting temporal pulse widths as short as 3fs. The recorded E(k ) photoelectron spectrum from a Cu(111) surface demonstrates an angular resolution of better than 0.6° (=0.03Å-1 at Ekin ,e=36eV). Used in a pump-probe configuration, the described experimental setup represents a powerful experimental tool for studying the femtosecond dynamics of ultrafast surface processes in real time.
Das, Amit K. Misra, P.; Ajimsha, R. S.; Joshi, M. P.; Kukreja, L. M.
2015-09-07
We report the effects of electron interference on temperature dependent transport properties of two dimensional electron gas (2DEG) confined at the interface in polycrystalline MgZnO/ZnO heterostructures grown by pulsed laser deposition on c-alumina substrates. On increasing Mg concentration in the MgZnO layer, the sheet electron concentration was found to increase and the sheet resistance was found to decrease. In addition, the electron concentration and mobility were almost temperature independent in the range from 4.2 to 300 K, indicating the formation of 2DEG at the interface. The temperature dependent resistivity measurements showed a negative temperature coefficient of resistivity at low temperatures together with negative magnetoresistance. These were found to be caused by electron interference effects, and the experimental data could be explained using the models of quantum corrections to conductivity.
Johnson, Matthew C; Rudolph, Frederik; Dreaden, Tina M; Zhao, Gengxiang; Barry, Bridgette A; Schmidt-Krey, Ingeborg
2010-10-29
Electron crystallography has evolved as a method that can be used either alternatively or in combination with three-dimensional crystallization and X-ray crystallography to study structure-function questions of membrane proteins, as well as soluble proteins. Screening for two-dimensional (2D) crystals by transmission electron microscopy (EM) is the critical step in finding, optimizing, and selecting samples for high-resolution data collection by cryo-EM. Here we describe the fundamental steps in identifying both large and ordered, as well as small 2D arrays, that can potentially supply critical information for optimization of crystallization conditions. By working with different magnifications at the EM, data on a range of critical parameters is obtained. Lower magnification supplies valuable data on the morphology and membrane size. At higher magnifications, possible order and 2D crystal dimensions are determined. In this context, it is described how CCD cameras and online-Fourier Transforms are used at higher magnifications to assess proteoliposomes for order and size. While 2D crystals of membrane proteins are most commonly grown by reconstitution by dialysis, the screening technique is equally applicable for crystals produced with the help of monolayers, native 2D crystals, and ordered arrays of soluble proteins. In addition, the methods described here are applicable to the screening for 2D crystals of even smaller as well as larger membrane proteins, where smaller proteins require the same amount of care in identification as our examples and the lattice of larger proteins might be more easily identifiable at earlier stages of the screening.
Two-Dimensional Electronic Spectroscopy of the Photosystem II D1D2-cyt.b559 Reaction Center Complex
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Myers, Jeffrey Allen
Two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy (2DES) is a powerful new technique for examining the electronic and vibronic couplings and dynamics of chemical, semiconductor, and biological samples. We present several technical innovations in the implementation of 2DES. We have performed two-color 2DES experiments, extending the technique's ability to study energy transfer to states at frequencies far from the initial absorption. We have demonstrated 2DES in the pump-probe geometry using a pulse-shaper. This method eliminates many technical challenges inherent to previous implementations of 2DES, making it a more widely accessible technique. To broaden the available frequency information, we have demonstrated 2DES with a continuum probe pulse. We have utilized this method to observe vibrational wavepacket dynamics in a laser dye, demonstrating that these dynamics modulate 2D lineshapes and must be accounted for in modelling 2DES data. We perform 2DES studies on the Qy band of the D1D2-cyt.b559 reaction center of plant photosystem II. This reaction center is the core oxygen-evolving complex in plant photosynthesis, taking in light energy and forming a charge separated state capable of splitting water. Understanding the relationship between the structure and function has both fundamental importance and applications to improving artificial light-harvesting. Traditional spectroscopy methods have been unable to completely resolve the time-ordering of energy and charge transfer events or the degree of electronic coupling between chromophores due to severe spectral congestion in the Q y band. 2DES extends previous methods by frequency-resolving an additional dimension to reveal the degree of static disorder and electronic coupling, as well as a detailed picture of energy and charge transfer dynamics that will allow tests of excitonic models of the reaction center. Our data show direct evidence of electronic coupling and rapid sub-ps energy transfer between "blue" and "red
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Choi, M. J.; Park, H. K.; Yun, G. S.; Nam, Y. B.; Choe, G. H.; Lee, W.; Jardin, S.
2016-01-01
The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.
Choi, M J; Park, H K; Yun, G S; Nam, Y B; Choe, G H; Lee, W; Jardin, S
2016-01-01
The electron cyclotron emission imaging (ECEI) instrument is widely used to study the local electron temperature (Te) fluctuations by measuring the ECE intensity IECE ∝ Te in tokamak plasmas. The ECEI measurement is often processed in a normalized fluctuation quantity against the time averaged value due to complication in absolute calibration. In this paper, the ECEI channels are relatively calibrated using the flat Te assumption of the sawtooth crash or the tearing mode island and a proper extrapolation. The 2-D relatively calibrated electron temperature (Te,rel) images are reconstructed and the displacement amplitude of the magnetohydrodynamic modes can be measured for the accurate quantitative growth analysis.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Andreev, Pavel A.; Kuz'menkov, L. S.
2016-01-01
Applying the separated spin evolution quantum hydrodynamics to the two-dimensional electron gas in plane samples and nanotubes located in external magnetic fields we have found a novel type of waves in the electron gas which is called spin-electron acoustic wave. A separate spin-up and spin-down electrons' evolution reveals the replacement of the Langmuir wave by a pair of hybrid waves. One of the two hybrid waves is a modified Langmuir wave. Another hybrid wave is a spin-electron acoustic wave. We studied the dispersion of these waves in two-dimensional structures of electrons. We also considered the dependence of dispersion properties on spin polarization of electrons in an external magnetic field.
Seebeck effects in two-dimensional spin transistors
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Alomar, M. I.; Serra, Llorenç; Sánchez, David
2015-02-01
We consider a spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional electron system under the influence of a thermal gradient externally applied to two attached reservoirs. We discuss the generated voltage bias (charge Seebeck effect), spin bias (spin Seebeck effect), and magnetization-dependent thermopower (magneto-Seebeck effect) in the ballistic regime of transport at linear response. We find that the charge thermopower is an oscillating function of both the spin-orbit strength and the quantum well width. We also observe that it is always negative for normal leads. We carefully compare the exact results for the linear response coefficients and a Sommerfeld approximation. When the contacts are ferromagnetic, we calculate the spin-resolved Seebeck coefficient for parallel and antiparallel magnetization configuration. Remarkably, the thermopower can change its sign by tuning the Fermi energy. This effect disappears when the Rashba coupling is absent. Additionally, we determine the magneto-Seebeck ratio, which shows dramatic changes in the presence of a the Rashba potential.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Cheng, Qiang; Jin, Biao; Ma, Hongyang
2015-12-01
We study the conductance of two-dimensional electron gas/spin-triplet superconductor junctions in the presence of Rashba spin-orbit coupling. The conductance shows anisotropic dependence on the orientation of the d-vector in the superconductor and is simultaneously symmetric about the vector reversal. The properties are distinct from those for ferromagnet/spin-triplet superconductor or/and two-dimensional electron gas/spin-singlet superconductor junctions. The effects of the strength of the spin-orbit coupling and the height of the interfacial barrier are also investigated.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Yang, Kesong
As a rapidly growing area of materials science, high-throughput (HT) computational materials design is playing a crucial role in accelerating the discovery and development of novel functional materials. In this presentation, I will first introduce the strategy of HT computational materials design, and take the HT discovery of topological insulators (TIs) as a practical example to show the usage of such an approach. Topological insulators are one of the most studied classes of novel materials because of their great potential for applications ranging from spintronics to quantum computers. Here I will show that, by defining a reliable and accessible descriptor, which represents the topological robustness or feasibility of the candidate, and by searching the quantum materials repository aflowlib.org, we have automatically discovered 28 TIs (some of them already known) in five different symmetry families. Next, I will talk about our recent research work on the HT computational design of the perovskite-based two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) systems. The 2DEG formed on the perovskite oxide heterostructure (HS) has potential applications in next-generation nanoelectronic devices. In order to achieve practical implementation of the 2DEG in the device design, desired physical properties such as high charge carrier density and mobility are necessary. Here I show that, using the same strategy with the HT discovery of TIs, by introducing a series of combinatorial descriptors, we have successfully identified a series of candidate 2DEG systems based on the perovskite oxides. This work provides another exemplar of applying HT computational design approach for the discovery of advanced functional materials.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lee, Ching-Ping; Komiyama, Susumu; Chen, Jeng-Chung
2015-03-01
High mobility two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in the interface of a GaAs/AlGaAs hetero-structure in high magnetic field (B) exhibits interring nonlinear response either under microwave radiation or to a dc electric field (E). It is general believed that this kind nonlinear behavior is closely related to the occurrence of negative-differential conductance (NDC) in the presence of strong B and E. We observe a new type NDC state driven by a direct current above a threshold value (Ith) applied to a 2DEG as a function of B at relatively high temperatures (T). A current instability is observed in 2DEG system at high B ~6-8 T and at high T ~ 20- 30 K while the applied current is over Ith. The longitudinal voltage Vxx shows sub-linear behavior with the increase of
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Khalaf, E.; Skvortsov, M. A.; Ostrovsky, P. M.
2016-03-01
We study electron transport at the edge of a generic disordered two-dimensional topological insulator, where some channels are topologically protected from backscattering. Assuming the total number of channels is large, we consider the edge as a quasi-one-dimensional quantum wire and describe it in terms of a nonlinear sigma model with a topological term. Neglecting localization effects, we calculate the average distribution function of transmission probabilities as a function of the sample length. We mainly focus on the two experimentally relevant cases: a junction between two quantum Hall (QH) states with different filling factors (unitary class) and a relatively thick quantum well exhibiting quantum spin Hall (QSH) effect (symplectic class). In a QH sample, the presence of topologically protected modes leads to a strong suppression of diffusion in the other channels already at scales much shorter than the localization length. On the semiclassical level, this is accompanied by the formation of a gap in the spectrum of transmission probabilities close to unit transmission, thereby suppressing shot noise and conductance fluctuations. In the case of a QSH system, there is at most one topologically protected edge channel leading to weaker transport effects. In order to describe `topological' suppression of nearly perfect transparencies, we develop an exact mapping of the semiclassical limit of the one-dimensional sigma model onto a zero-dimensional sigma model of a different symmetry class, allowing us to identify the distribution of transmission probabilities with the average spectral density of a certain random-matrix ensemble. We extend our results to other symmetry classes with topologically protected edges in two dimensions.
Random walk approach to spin dynamics in a two-dimensional electron gas with spin-orbit coupling
Yang, Luyi; Orenstein, J.; Lee, Dung-Hai
2010-09-27
We introduce and solve a semiclassical random walk (RW) model that describes the dynamics of spin polarization waves in zinc-blende semiconductor quantum wells. We derive the dispersion relations for these waves, including the Rashba, linear and cubic Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions, as well as the effects of an electric field applied parallel to the spin polarization wave vector. In agreement with calculations based on quantum kinetic theory [P. Kleinert and V. V. Bryksin, Phys. Rev. B 76, 205326 (2007)], the RW approach predicts that spin waves acquire a phase velocity in the presence of the field that crosses zero at a nonzero wave vector, q{sub 0}. In addition, we show that the spin-wave decay rate is independent of field at q{sub 0} but increases as (q-q{sub 0}){sup 2} for q {ne} q{sub 0}. These predictions can be tested experimentally by suitable transient spin grating experiments.
Ye, Tianyu; Mani, Ramesh G.; Wegscheider, Werner
2013-12-04
We present the results of a concurrent experimental study of microwave reflection and transport in the GaAs/AlGaAs two dimensional electron gas system and correlate observed features in the reflection with the observed transport features. The experimental results are compared with expectations based on theory.
Shibata, Y; Manabe, T; Kajita, S; Ohno, N; Takagi, M; Tsuchiya, H; Morisaki, T
2014-09-01
A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ~4 × 10(19) m(-2) s(-1) when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.
Two-dimensional electron gas at the Ti-diffused BiFeO3/SrTiO3 interface
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chen, Chunlin; Lv, Shuhui; Li, Junjie; Wang, Zhongchang; Liang, Xiaobin; Li, Yanxi; Viehland, Dwight; Nakajima, Ken; Ikuhara, Yuichi
2015-07-01
Oxide heterostructures with the broken translational symmetry often trigger a two-dimensional quantum confinement and associated unique electronic properties that cannot be observed in bulk constituents. Particular interest is devoted to the formation of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at heterointerfaces between two insulators, which offers a fertile ground for fabricating advanced electronic devices. Here, we combine atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomistic first-principles calculations to demonstrate that the (100) BiFeO3/SrTiO3 interface takes on a metallic nature and a 2DEG is generated at this interface. Our findings also reveal that the electronic reconstruction due to the polar discontinuity and the variation in valence state of Ti arising from diffusion of Ti cations in SrTiO3 to Fe sites of BiFeO3 are critical to the formation of 2DEG at the heterointerface.
Shibata, Y. Manabe, T.; Ohno, N.; Takagi, M.; Kajita, S.; Tsuchiya, H.; Morisaki, T.
2014-09-15
A compact and high-particle-flux thermal-lithium-beam source for two-dimensional measurement of electron density profiles has been developed. The thermal-lithium-beam oven is heated by a carbon heater. In this system, the maximum particle flux of the thermal lithium beam was ∼4 × 10{sup 19} m{sup −2} s{sup −1} when the temperature of the thermal-lithium-beam oven was 900 K. The electron density profile was evaluated in the small tokamak device HYBTOK-II. The electron density profile was reconstructed using the thermal-lithium-beam probe data and this profile was consistent with the electron density profile measured with a Langmuir electrostatic probe. We confirm that the developed thermal-lithium-beam probe can be used to measure the two-dimensional electron density profile with high time and spatial resolutions.
Two-dimensional electron gas at the Ti-diffused BiFeO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface
Chen, Chunlin; Li, Junjie; Wang, Zhongchang Liang, Xiaobin; Nakajima, Ken; Lv, Shuhui; Li, Yanxi; Viehland, Dwight; Ikuhara, Yuichi
2015-07-20
Oxide heterostructures with the broken translational symmetry often trigger a two-dimensional quantum confinement and associated unique electronic properties that cannot be observed in bulk constituents. Particular interest is devoted to the formation of two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at heterointerfaces between two insulators, which offers a fertile ground for fabricating advanced electronic devices. Here, we combine atomic force microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, and atomistic first-principles calculations to demonstrate that the (100) BiFeO{sub 3}/SrTiO{sub 3} interface takes on a metallic nature and a 2DEG is generated at this interface. Our findings also reveal that the electronic reconstruction due to the polar discontinuity and the variation in valence state of Ti arising from diffusion of Ti cations in SrTiO{sub 3} to Fe sites of BiFeO{sub 3} are critical to the formation of 2DEG at the heterointerface.
Lewis, Nicholas H. C.; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A. A.; Fleming, Graham R.
2015-09-28
Two dimensional electronic spectroscopy has proved to be a valuable experimental technique to reveal electronic excitation dynamics in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, nanoscale semiconductors, organic photovoltaic materials, and many other types of systems. It does not, however, provide direct information concerning the spatial structure and dynamics of excitons. 2D infrared spectroscopy has become a widely used tool for studying structural dynamics but is incapable of directly providing information concerning electronic excited states. 2D electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy provides a link between these domains, directly connecting the electronic excitation with the vibrational structure of the system under study. In this work, we derive response functions for the 2DEV spectrum of a molecular dimer and propose a method by which 2DEV spectra could be used to directly measure the electronic site populations as a function of time following the initial electronic excitation. We present results from the response function simulations which show that our proposed approach is substantially valid. This method provides, to our knowledge, the first direct experimental method for measuring the electronic excited state dynamics in the spatial domain, on the molecular scale.
Lewis, Nicholas H C; Dong, Hui; Oliver, Thomas A A; Fleming, Graham R
2015-09-28
Two dimensional electronic spectroscopy has proved to be a valuable experimental technique to reveal electronic excitation dynamics in photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes, nanoscale semiconductors, organic photovoltaic materials, and many other types of systems. It does not, however, provide direct information concerning the spatial structure and dynamics of excitons. 2D infrared spectroscopy has become a widely used tool for studying structural dynamics but is incapable of directly providing information concerning electronic excited states. 2D electronic-vibrational (2DEV) spectroscopy provides a link between these domains, directly connecting the electronic excitation with the vibrational structure of the system under study. In this work, we derive response functions for the 2DEV spectrum of a molecular dimer and propose a method by which 2DEV spectra could be used to directly measure the electronic site populations as a function of time following the initial electronic excitation. We present results from the response function simulations which show that our proposed approach is substantially valid. This method provides, to our knowledge, the first direct experimental method for measuring the electronic excited state dynamics in the spatial domain, on the molecular scale.
Baumann, Frieder H.
2014-06-30
A classical method used to characterize the strain in modern semiconductor devices is nanobeam diffraction (NBD) in the transmission electron microscope. One challenge for this method lies in the fact that the smaller the beam becomes, the more difficult it becomes to analyze the resulting diffraction spot pattern. We show that a carefully designed fitting algorithm enables us to reduce the sampling area for the diffraction patterns on the camera chip dramatically (∼1/16) compared to traditional settings without significant loss of precision. The resulting lower magnification of the spot pattern permits the presence of an annular dark field detector, which in turn makes the recording of images for drift correction during NBD acquisition possible. Thus, the reduced sampling size allows acquisition of drift corrected NBD 2D strain maps of up to 3000 pixels while maintaining a precision of better than 0.07%. As an example, we show NBD strain maps of a modern field effect transistor (FET) device. A special filtering feature used in the analysis makes it is possible to measure strain in silicon devices even in the presence of other crystalline materials covering the probed area, which is important for the characterization of the next generation of devices (Fin-FETs).
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Gascooke, Jason R.; Alexander, Ula N.; Lawrance, Warren D.
2011-05-01
We demonstrate the power of high resolution, two dimensional laser induced fluorescence (2D-LIF) spectroscopy for observing rovibronic transitions of polyatomic molecules. The technique involves scanning a tunable laser over absorption features in the electronic spectrum while monitoring a segment, in our case 100 cm-1 wide, of the dispersed fluorescence spectrum. 2D-LIF images separate features that overlap in the usual laser induced fluorescence spectrum. The technique is illustrated by application to the S1-S0 transition in fluorobenzene. Images of room temperature samples show that overlap of rotational contours by sequence band structure is minimized with 2D-LIF allowing a much larger range of rotational transitions to be observed and high precision rotational constants to be extracted. A significant advantage of 2D-LIF imaging is that the rotational contours separate into their constituent branches and these can be targeted to determine the three rotational constants individually. The rotational constants determined are an order of magnitude more precise than those extracted from the analysis of the rotational contour and we find the previously determined values to be in error by as much as 5% [G. H. Kirby, Mol. Phys. 19, 289 (1970), 10.1080/00268977000101291]. Comparison with earlier ab initio calculations of the S0 and S1 geometries [I. Pugliesi, N. M. Tonge, and M. C. R. Cockett, J. Chem. Phys. 129, 104303 (2008), 10.1063/1.2970092] reveals that the CCSD/6-311G** and RI-CC2/def2-TZVPP levels of theory predict the rotational constants, and hence geometries, with comparable accuracy. Two ground state Fermi resonances were identified by the distinctive patterns that such resonances produce in the images. 2D-LIF imaging is demonstrated to be a sensitive method capable of detecting weak spectral features, particularly those that are otherwise hidden beneath stronger bands. The sensitivity is demonstrated by observation of the three isotopomers of fluorobenzene
A Study of Electron and Phonon Dynamics by Broadband Two-Dimensional THz Time-Domain Spectroscopy
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Fu, Zhengping
Terahertz (THz) wave interacts with semiconductors in many ways, such as resonant excitation of lattice vibration, intraband transition and polaron formation. Different from the optical waves, THz wave has lower photon energy (1 THz = 4.14 meV) and is suitable for studying dynamics of low-energy excitations. Recently the studies of the interaction of THz wave and semiconductors have been extending from the linear regime to the nonlinear regime, owing to the advance of the high-intensity THz generation and detection methods. Two-dimensional (2D) spectroscopy, as a useful tool to unravel the nonlinearity of materials, has been well developed in nuclear magnetic resonance and infrared region. However, the counterpart in THz region has not been well developed and was only demonstrated at frequency around 20 THz due to the lack of intense broadband THz sources. Using laser-induced plasma as the THz source, we developed collinear broadband 2D THz time-domain spectroscopy covering from 0.5 THz to 20 THz. Broadband intense THz pulses emitted from laser-induced plasma provide access to a variety of nonlinear properties of materials. Ultrafast optical and THz pulses make it possible to resolve the transient change of the material properties with temporal resolution of tens of femtoseconds. This thesis focuses on the linear and nonlinear interaction of the THz wave with semiconductors. Since a great many physical processes, including vibrational motion of lattice and plasma oscillation, has resonant frequency in the THz range, rich physics can be studies in our experiment. The thesis starts from the linear interaction of the THz wave with semiconductors. In the narrow band gap semiconductor InSb, the plasma absorption edge, Restrahlen band and dispersion of polaritons are observed. The nonlinear response of InSb in high THz field is verified in the frequency-resolved THz Z-scan experiment. The third harmonic generations due to the anharmonicity of plasma oscillation and the
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chang, C.-P.; Chu, M.-W.; Jeng, H. T.; Cheng, S.-L.; Lin, J. G.; Yang, J.-R.; Chen, C. H.
2014-03-01
The success of semiconductor technology is largely ascribed to controlled impacts of strains and defects on the two-dimensional interfacial charges. Interfacial charges also appear in oxide heterojunctions such as LaAlO3/SrTiO3 and (Nd0.35Sr0.65)MnO3/SrTiO3. How the localized strain field of one-dimensional misfit dislocations, defects resulting from the intrinsic misfit strains, would affect the extended oxide-interfacial charges is intriguing and remains unresolved. Here we show the atomic-scale observation of one-dimensional electron chains formed in (Nd0.35Sr0.65)MnO3/SrTiO3 by the condensation of characteristic two-dimensional interfacial charges into the strain field of periodically arrayed misfit dislocations, using chemical mapping and quantification by scanning transmission electron microscopy. The strain-relaxed inter-dislocation regions are readily charge depleted, otherwise decorated by the pristine charges, and the corresponding total-energy calculations unravel the undocumented charge-reservoir role played by the dislocation-strain field. This two-dimensional-to-one-dimensional electronic condensation represents a novel electronic-inhomogeneity mechanism at oxide interfaces and could stimulate further studies of one-dimensional electron density in oxide heterostructures.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Tseng, M. Z.; Jiang, W. N.; Hu, E. L.
1994-09-01
A direct integration of YBa2Cu3O(7 - x) and a two dimensional electron gas Hall probe was made possible through the use of a MgO buffer layer. We demonstrate the use of this structure for the measurements of the magnetization hysteresis of a superconducting YBa2Cu3O(7 - x) thin film, and we make an estimate of the sensitivity and resolution that can be achieved with this probe structure. The close proximity of the YBa2Cu3O(7 - x) to the two dimensional electron gas (approximately 1700 A) allows sensitive measurements of interactions between the two; more importantly, closer superconductor-semiconductor spacing can be achieved without severe compromise of the component material quality.
Li, Zhaoguo; Chen, Taishi; Pan, Haiyang; Song, Fengqi; Wang, Baigeng; Han, Junhao; Qin, Yuyuan; Wang, Xuefeng; Zhang, Rong; Wan, Jianguo; Xing, Dingyu; Wang, Guanghou
2012-01-01
The universal conductance fluctuations (UCFs), one of the most important manifestations of mesoscopic electronic interference, have not yet been demonstrated for the two-dimensional surface state of topological insulators (TIs). Even if one delicately suppresses the bulk conductance by improving the quality of TI crystals, the fluctuation of the bulk conductance still keeps competitive and difficult to be separated from the desired UCFs of surface carriers. Here we report on the experimental evidence of the UCFs of the two-dimensional surface state in the bulk insulating Bi2Te2Se microflakes. The solely-B⊥-dependent UCF is achieved and its temperature dependence is investigated. The surface transport is further revealed by weak antilocalizations. Such survived UCFs of the surface states result from the limited dephasing length of the bulk carriers in ternary crystals. The electron-phonon interaction is addressed as a secondary source of the surface state dephasing based on the temperature-dependent scaling behavior. PMID:22916331
Bhadauria, P. P. S.; Gupta, Anurag; Kumar, Pramod; Dogra, Anjana; Budhani, R. C.
2015-05-15
A fiber optic based probe is designed and developed for electrical transport measurements in presence of quasi-monochromatic (360–800 nm) light, varying temperature (T = 1.8–300 K), and magnetic field (B = 0–7 T). The probe is tested for the resistivity and Hall measurements performed on a LaAlO{sub 3}–SrTiO{sub 3} heterointerface system with a conducting two dimensional electron gas.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Akahane, T.; Hoffmann, K. R.; Chiba, T.; Berko, S.
1985-06-01
Two-dimensional angular correlation of positron annihilation radiation (2-D ACAR) form a Na 0.64WO 3 single crystal has been measured with a 64 detector 2-D ACAR apparatus. The results show that the Fermi surface of this compound has a jungle-gym like structure similar to that of ReO 3 and that the conduction electrons have strong t2g character.
Valley spin polarization by using the extraordinary Rashba effect on silicon.
Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Ohtaka, Minoru; Osiecki, Jacek R; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Stolwijk, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Anke B; Fujii, Jun; Uhrberg, R I G; Donath, Markus; Yeom, Han Woong; Oda, Tatsuki
2013-01-01
The addition of the valley degree of freedom to a two-dimensional spin-polarized electronic system provides the opportunity to multiply the functionality of next-generation devices. So far, however, such devices have not been realized due to the difficulty to polarize the valleys, which is an indispensable step to activate this degree of freedom. Here we show the formation of 100% spin-polarized valleys by a simple and easy way using the Rashba effect on a system with C3 symmetry. This polarization, which is much higher than those in ordinary Rashba systems, results in the valleys acting as filters that can suppress the backscattering of spin-charge. The present system is formed on a silicon substrate, and therefore opens a new avenue towards the realization of silicon spintronic devices with high efficiency. PMID:23811797
Valley spin polarization by using the extraordinary Rashba effect on silicon.
Sakamoto, Kazuyuki; Kim, Tae-Hwan; Kuzumaki, Takuya; Müller, Beate; Yamamoto, Yuta; Ohtaka, Minoru; Osiecki, Jacek R; Miyamoto, Koji; Takeichi, Yasuo; Harasawa, Ayumi; Stolwijk, Sebastian D; Schmidt, Anke B; Fujii, Jun; Uhrberg, R I G; Donath, Markus; Yeom, Han Woong; Oda, Tatsuki
2013-01-01
The addition of the valley degree of freedom to a two-dimensional spin-polarized electronic system provides the opportunity to multiply the functionality of next-generation devices. So far, however, such devices have not been realized due to the difficulty to polarize the valleys, which is an indispensable step to activate this degree of freedom. Here we show the formation of 100% spin-polarized valleys by a simple and easy way using the Rashba effect on a system with C3 symmetry. This polarization, which is much higher than those in ordinary Rashba systems, results in the valleys acting as filters that can suppress the backscattering of spin-charge. The present system is formed on a silicon substrate, and therefore opens a new avenue towards the realization of silicon spintronic devices with high efficiency.
Rashba scattering in the low-energy limit
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Hutchinson, Joel; Maciejko, Joseph
2016-06-01
We study potential scattering in a two-dimensional electron gas with Rashba spin-orbit coupling in the limit that the energy of the scattering electron approaches the bottom of the lower spin-split band. Focusing on two spin-independent circularly symmetric potentials, an infinite barrier and a delta-function shell, we show that scattering in this limit is qualitatively different from both scattering in the higher spin-split band and scattering of electrons without spin-orbit coupling. The scattering matrix is purely off-diagonal with both off-diagonal elements equal to one, and all angular momentum channels contribute equally; the differential cross section becomes increasingly peaked in the forward and backward scattering directions; the total cross section exhibits quantized plateaus. These features are independent of the details of the scattering potentials, and we conjecture them to be universal. Our results suggest that Rashba scattering in the low-energy limit becomes effectively one-dimensional.
Correlation between heavy-hole and light-hole Mahan Excitons in a two-dimensional electron gas
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Paul, J.; Dey, P.; Stevens, C. E.; Tokumoto, T.; Reno, J. L.; Hilton, D. J.; Karaiskaj, D.; D. J. Hilton Collaboration; J. L. Reno Collaboration
2015-03-01
We present the coherent two-dimensional Fourier transform (2DFT) spectra of Mahan Excitons associated with the heavy-hole and light-hole resonances observed in a modulation doped GaAs/AlGaAs single quantum well. These resonances are observed to be strongly coupled through many-body interactions. The 2DFT spectra were measured using co-linear, cross-linear, and co-circular polarizations and reveal striking differences. This work was performed, in part, at the Center for Integrated Nanotechnologies, a U.S. Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences user facility. Sandia National Laboratories is a multi-program laboratory managed and operated by Sandia Corporation, a wholly owned subsidiary of Lockheed Martin Corporation, for the U.S. Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration under Contract No. DE-AC04-94AL85000. NSF, Division of Materials Research under Grant Number: DMR-1409473.
Charge-density oscillations on Be(10{bar 1}0): Screening in a non-free two-dimensional electron gas
Briner, B.G.; Hofmann, P. ||; Doering, M.; Rust, H.; Plummer, E.W. |; Bradshaw, A.M.
1998-11-01
The surface state on Be(10{bar 1}0) has been investigated using a low-temperature scanning tunneling microscope (STM). The Fermi contour of this surface state is located at one boundary of the surface Brillouin zone, and surface-state electrons provide the main part of the charge density near the Fermi energy. Be(10{bar 1}0), therefore, corresponds closely to a non-free two-dimensional electron gas. We have observed standing waves of the surface charge density on Be(10{bar 1}0) near step edges and point defects. Such wave patterns derive from the interference of incoming and scattered electrons; they demonstrate the screening characteristics of the surface state. On Be(10{bar 1}0) these waves were found to be highly anisotropic. It is shown that calculating the Fourier transforms of topographic STM images is a powerful method for determining the Fermi contour of the surface state. This method could even be applied to images that display a complex wave pattern arising from a random distribution of point scatterers. Fourier analysis also revealed that the charge density oscillations on Be(10{bar 1}0) contain multiple periods that differ by reciprocal lattice vectors. These multiperiodic oscillations relate to the non-free character of the surface-state electrons and constitute an interference pattern of Bloch states. Fourier filtering was used to separate the charge-density oscillations from the topographic corrugation and to visualize their shape and spatial range. The experimental data are qualitatively discussed using a model calculation based on the scattering of Bloch electrons from planar obstacles in a two-dimensional conductor. Experimental results and model calculations highlight how the screening characteristics on Be(10{bar 1}0) significantly deviate from the behavior expected for a free two-dimensional electron gas. {copyright} {ital 1998} {ital The American Physical Society}
Dorozhkin, S. I. Sychev, D. V.; Kapustin, A. A.
2014-11-28
We have implemented a new bolometric method to detect resonances in magneto-absorption of microwave radiation by two-dimensional electron systems (2DES) in selectively doped GaAs/AlGaAs heterostructures. Radiation is absorbed by the 2DES and the thermally activated conductivity of the doping layer supplying electrons to the 2DES serves as a thermometer. The resonant absorption brought about by excitation of the confined magnetoplasma modes appears as peaks in the magnetic field dependence of the low-frequency impedance measured between the Schottky gate and 2DES.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Lischner, Johannes; Vigil-Fowler, Derek; Louie, Steven G.
2014-03-01
We present theoretical calculations for the spectral functions and single-particle densities of states of the two-dimensional electron gas in semiconductor quantum wells at different electron densities using the GW plus cumulant method. We compare our results to GW only calculations and find significant differences in the description of the satellites between the two theories: While GW theory predicts the existence of a plasmaron excitation, no such excitation is found in GW plus cumulant theory. We compare our results to experimental tunneling spectra from semiconductor quantum wells and find good agreement for the satellite properties.
Liu, Chang; Kondo, Takeshi; Ni, Ni; Palczewski, A D; Bostwick, A; Samolyuk, G D; Khasanov, R; Shi, M; Rotenberg, E; Bud'ko, S L; Canfield, P C; Kaminski, A
2009-04-24
We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) to study the electronic properties of CaFe2As2-parent compound of a pnictide superconductor. We find that the structural and magnetic transition is accompanied by a three- to two-dimensional (3D-2D) crossover in the electronic structure. Above the transition temperature (T_{s}) Fermi surfaces around Gamma and X points are cylindrical and quasi 2D. Below T_{s}, the Gamma pocket forms a 3D ellipsoid, while the X pocket remains quasi 2D. This finding strongly suggests that low dimensionality plays an important role in understanding the superconducting mechanism in pnictides. PMID:19518747
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Peters, S.; Tiemann, L.; Reichl, C.; Wegscheider, W.
2016-07-01
We present an experimental study of the scattering mechanisms in a two-dimensional electron system which is either fully induced by the field effect or resulting from remote doping. The quality criteria—the electron mobility, the quantum scattering time, and the number and development of certain fractional quantum Hall states—are analyzed and compared. By eliminating the scattering off remote ionized impurities (RI) in undoped systems, we can identify the density regimes most susceptible to RI scattering and their impact on the formation of fractional quantum Hall states.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Chetverikov, A. P.; Ebeling, W.; Velarde, M. G.
2016-09-01
We present computational evidence of the possibility of fast, supersonic or subsonic, nearly loss-free ballistic-like transport of electrons bound to lattice solitons (a form of electron surfing on acoustic waves) along crystallographic axes in two-dimensional anharmonic crystal lattices. First we study the structural changes a soliton creates in the lattice and the time lapse of recovery of the lattice. Then we study the behavior of one electron in the polarization field of one and two solitons with crossing pathways with suitably monitored delay. We show how an electron surfing on a lattice soliton may switch to surf on the second soliton and hence changing accordingly the direction of its path. Finally we discuss the possibility to control the way an excess electron proceeds from a source at a border of the lattice to a selected drain at another border by following appropriate straight pathways on crystallographic axes.
Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.
2016-01-01
The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical. PMID:27628694
Su, Ying; Wang, C; Avishai, Y; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X R
2016-01-01
The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.
Su, Ying; Wang, C; Avishai, Y; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X R
2016-01-01
The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical. PMID:27628694
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Su, Ying; Wang, C.; Avishai, Y.; Meir, Yigal; Wang, X. R.
2016-09-01
The one-parameter scaling theory of localization predicts that all states in a disordered two-dimensional system with broken time reversal symmetry are localized even in the presence of strong spin-orbit coupling. While at constant strong magnetic fields this paradigm fails (recall the quantum Hall effect), it is believed to hold at weak magnetic fields. Here we explore the nature of quantum states at weak magnetic field and strongly fluctuating spin-orbit coupling, employing highly accurate numerical procedure based on level spacing distribution and transfer matrix technique combined with one parameter finite-size scaling hypothesis. Remarkably, the metallic phase, (known to exist at zero magnetic field), persists also at finite (albeit weak) magnetic fields, and eventually crosses over into a critical phase, which has already been confirmed at high magnetic fields. A schematic phase diagram drawn in the energy-magnetic field plane elucidates the occurrence of localized, metallic and critical phases. In addition, it is shown that nearest-level statistics is determined solely by the symmetry parameter β and follows the Wigner surmise irrespective of whether states are metallic or critical.
Quantum nature of two-dimensional electron gas confinement at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Janicka, Karolina; Velev, Julian; Tsymbal, Evgeny
2009-03-01
Replace this text with your abstract body. The discovery of highly conducting interface between two insulating oxides LaAlO3 and SrTiO3 has attracted significant interest due to possible applications in all-oxide electronic devices. The two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces exhibits extremely high mobility and high density of carriers. Stimulated by this discovery we perform density functional calculations to understand the mechanism controlling the confinement width of the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) at LaAlO3/SrTiO3 interfaces. We find that the 2DEG confinement can be explained by the formation of metal induced gap states (MIGS) in the band gap of SrTiO3. These states are formed as the result of quantum-mechanical tunneling of the charge created at the interface due to electronic reconstruction. The penetration depth of the MIGS into the insulator is controlled by the lowest-decay-rate evanescent states of SrTiO3, as determined by its complex band structure. Our calculations predict that the 2DEG is confined in SrTiO3 within about 1 nm at the interface.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Pamuk, Betül; Baima, Jacopo; Dovesi, Roberto; Calandra, Matteo; Mauri, Francesco
2016-07-01
We investigate the capability of density functional theory (DFT) to appropriately describe the spin susceptibility, χs, and the intervalley electron-phonon coupling in LixZrNCl . At low doping, LixZrNCl behaves as a two-dimensional two-valley electron gas, with parabolic bands. In such a system, χs increases with decreasing doping because of the electron-electron interaction. We show that DFT with local functionals (LDA/GGA) is not capable of reproducing this behavior. The use of exact exchange in Hartree-Fock (HF) or in DFT hybrid functionals enhances χs. HF, B3LYP, and PBE0 approaches overestimate χs, whereas the range-separated HSE06 functional leads to results similar to those obtained in the random phase approximation (RPA) applied to a two-valley two-spin electron gas. Within HF, LixZrNCl is even unstable towards a ferromagnetic state for x <0.16 . The intervalley phonons induce an imbalance in the valley occupation that can be viewed as the effect of a pseudomagnetic field. Thus, similarly to what happens for χs, the electron-phonon coupling of intervalley phonons is enhanced by the electron-electron interaction. Only hybrid DFT functionals capture such an enhancement and the HSE06 functional reproduces the RPA results presented in M. Calandra et al. [Phys. Rev. Lett. 114, 077001 (2015), 10.1103/PhysRevLett.114.077001]. These results imply that the description of the susceptibility and electron-phonon coupling with a range-separated hybrid functional would be important also in other two-dimensional weakly doped semiconductors, such as transition-metal dichalcogenides and graphene.
Theoretical studies on the two-dimensional electron-gas properties of MgZnO/MgO/ZnO heterostructures
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Park, Seoung-Hwan; Hong, Woo-Pyo; Kim, Jong-Jae
2016-07-01
The polarization effects on the two-dimensional electron-gas (2DEG) of the ZnO/MgO/MgZnO heterostructure were theoretically investigated. The carrier confinement in the MgZnO/MgO/ZnO high-electron-mobility transistor (HEMT) structure is shown to be superior to that in the conventional MgZnO/ZnO HEMT structure. The electron density is shown to be very sensitive to the layer thickness and to become a maximum at a layer thickness of 2 nm. Also, the MgZnO/MgO/ZnO HEMT structure shows a larger saturation drain current than the conventional MgZnO/ZnO HEMT structure does. This is mainly due to the increased channel electron density induced by the enhanced polarization charge with the inclusion of the MgO layer.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Muraguchi, Masakazu; Takeda, Kyozaburo
2007-03-01
We theoretically study the dynamical properties of an electron confined in a two-dimensional (2D) quantum dot (QD) under photon illumination, by solving the time-dependent (TD) Schrödinger equation numerically by the finite difference method in both real space and actual time. To deepen our understanding of the TD features of photon-assisted tunneling (PAT), we employ projection analysis, in which the TD wave function at a QD is decomposed into (static) resonant states by calculating the inner products among them. This analysis further enables the deduction of effective lifetime, by which one can infer the actual period of the electron confined in the QD. The wave number distribution for the transmitted electron is also discussed to examine the propagation of the electron through the system.
Kozuka, Y.; Tsukazaki, A.; Maryenko, D.; Falson, J.; Bell, C.; Kim, M.; Hikita, Y.; Hwang, H. Y.; Kawasaki, M.
2012-02-03
We investigate the spin susceptibility (g*m*) of dilute two-dimensional (2D) electrons confined at the MgxZn1-xO/ZnO heterointerface. Magnetotransport measurements show a four-fold enhancement of g*m*, dominated by the increase in the Landé g-factor. The g-factor enhancement leads to a ferromagnetic instability of the electron gas as evidenced by sharp resistance spikes. At high magnetic field, the large g*m* leads to full spin polarization, where we found sudden increase in resistance around the filling factors of half-integer, accompanied by complete disappearance of fractional quantum Hall (QH) states. Along with its large effective mass and the high electron mobility, our result indicates thatmore » the ZnO 2D system is ideal for investigating the effect of electron correlations in the QH regime.« less
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Nemšák, S.; Conti, G.; Gray, A. X.; Palsson, G. K.; Conlon, C.; Eiteneer, D.; Keqi, A.; Rattanachata, A.; Saw, A. Y.; Bostwick, A.; Moreschini, L.; Rotenberg, E.; Strocov, V. N.; Kobayashi, M.; Schmitt, T.; Stolte, W.; Ueda, S.; Kobayashi, K.; Gloskovskii, A.; Drube, W.; Jackson, C. A.; Moetakef, P.; Janotti, A.; Bjaalie, L.; Himmetoglu, B.; Van de Walle, C. G.; Borek, S.; Minar, J.; Braun, J.; Ebert, H.; Plucinski, L.; Kortright, J. B.; Schneider, C. M.; Balents, L.; de Groot, F. M. F.; Stemmer, S.; Fadley, C. S.
2016-06-01
The interfaces between two condensed phases often exhibit emergent physical properties that can lead to new physics and novel device applications and are the subject of intense study in many disciplines. We here apply experimental and theoretical techniques to the characterization of one such interesting interface system: the two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) formed in multilayers consisting of SrTi O3 (STO) and GdTi O3 (GTO). This system has been the subject of multiple studies recently and shown to exhibit very high carrier charge densities and ferromagnetic effects, among other intriguing properties. We have studied a 2DEG-forming multilayer of the form [6unit cells (u .c .) STO /3 u .c .of GTO ] 20 using a unique array of photoemission techniques including soft and hard x-ray excitation, soft x-ray angle-resolved photoemission, core-level spectroscopy, resonant excitation, and standing-wave effects, as well as theoretical calculations of the electronic structure at several levels and of the actual photoemission process. Standing-wave measurements below and above a strong resonance have been exploited as a powerful method for studying the 2DEG depth distribution. We have thus characterized the spatial and momentum properties of this 2DEG in detail, determining via depth-distribution measurements that it is spread throughout the 6 u.c. layer of STO and measuring the momentum dispersion of its states. The experimental results are supported in several ways by theory, leading to a much more complete picture of the nature of this 2DEG and suggesting that oxygen vacancies are not the origin of it. Similar multitechnique photoemission studies of such states at buried interfaces, combined with comparable theory, will be a very fruitful future approach for exploring and modifying the fascinating world of buried-interface physics and chemistry.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Abuali, Z.; Golshan, M. M.; Davatolhagh, S.
2016-09-01
The present work is concerned with a report on the effects of Pauli, Rashba and Dresselhaus spin-orbit interactions (SOI) on the energy levels of a 2D circular hydrogenic quantum anti-dot(QAD). To pursue this aim, we first present a brief review on the analytical solutions to the Schrödinger equation of electronic states in a quantum anti-dot when a hydrogenic donor is placed at the center, revealing the degeneracies involved in the ground, first and second excited states. We then proceed by adding the aforementioned spin-orbit interactions to the Hamiltonian and treat them as perturbation, thereby, calculating the energy shifts to the first three states. As we show, the Rashba spin-orbit interaction gives rise to a shift in the energies of the ground and second excited states, while it partially lifts the degeneracy of the first excited state. Our calculations also indicate that the Dresselhaus effect, while keeping the degeneracy of the ground and second excited states intact, removes the degeneracy of the first excited state in the opposite sense. The Pauli spin-orbit interaction, on the other hand, is diagonal in the appropriate bases, and thus its effect is readily calculated. The results show that degeneracy of ℓ = 0 (prevailing in the ground and second excited state) remains but the degeneracy of ℓ = 1 (prevailing in the first excited state) is again partially lifted. Moreover, we present the energy corrections due to the three spin-orbit interactions as functions of anti-dot's radius, Rashba and Dresselhaus strengths discussing how they affect the corresponding states. The material presented in the article conceives the possibility of generating spin currents in the hydrogenic circular anti-dots.
Chan, Ngai Yui; Zhao, Meng; Wang, Ning; Au, Kit; Wang, Juan; Chan, Lai Wa Helen; Dai, Jiyan
2013-10-22
With LaAlO3 surface modification by Pd nanoparticles, LaAlO3/SrTiO3 (LAO/STO) interfacial two-dimensional electron gas presents a giant optical switching effect with a photoconductivity on/off ratio as high as 750% under UV light irradiation. Pd nanoparticles with a size around 2 nm are deposited on top of the LAO surface, and the LAO/STO interface exhibits a giant response to UV light with a wavelength shorter than 400 nm. This giant optical switching behavior has been explained by the Pd nanoparticle's catalytic effect and surface/interface charge coupling.
Levin, A D; Momtaz, Z S; Gusev, G M; Raichev, O E; Bakarov, A K
2015-11-13
We observe the phonon-drag voltage oscillations correlating with the resistance oscillations under microwave irradiation in a two-dimensional electron gas in perpendicular magnetic field. This phenomenon is explained by the influence of dissipative resistivity modified by microwaves on the phonon-drag voltage perpendicular to the phonon flux. When the lowest-order resistance minima evolve into zero-resistance states, the phonon-drag voltage demonstrates sharp features suggesting that current domains associated with these states can exist in the absence of external dc driving.
Hutson, William O; Spencer, Austin P; Harel, Elad
2016-09-15
Vibrations play a critical role in many photochemical and photophysical processes in which excitations reside on the electronically excited state. However, difficulty in assigning signals from spectroscopic measurements uniquely to a specific electronic state, ground or otherwise, has exposed limitations to their physical interpretation. Here, we demonstrate the selective excitation of vibrational coherences on the ground electronic state through impulsive Raman scattering, whose weak fifth-order signal is resonantly enhanced by coupling to strong electronic transitions. The six-wave mixing signals measured using this technique are free of lower-order cascades and represent correlations between zero-quantum vibrational coherences in the ground state and single-quantum coherences between the ground and electronic states. We believe that this technique has the potential to shed much-needed insight onto some of the mysteries regarding the origin of long-lived coherences observed in photosynthetic and other coupled chromophore systems. PMID:27574915
Exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in a two-dimensional semimetal in HgTe quantum wells
Bovkun, L. S. Krishtopenko, S. S.; Zholudev, M. S.; Ikonnikov, A. V.; Spirin, K. E.; Dvoretsky, S. A.; Mikhailov, N. N.; Teppe, F.; Knap, W.; Gavrilenko, V. I.
2015-12-15
The exchange enhancement of the electron g-factor in perpendicular magnetic fields to 12 T in HgTe/CdHgTe quantum wells 20 nm wide with a semimetal band structure is studied. The electron effective mass and g-factor at the Fermi level are determined by analyzing the temperature dependence of the amplitude of Shubnikov–de Haas oscillation in weak fields and near odd Landau-level filling factors ν ≤ 9. The experimental values are compared with theoretical calculations performed in the one-electron approximation using the eight-band kp Hamiltonian. The found dependence of g-factor enhancement on the electron concentration is explained by changes in the contributions of hole- and electron-like states to exchange corrections to the Landau-level energies in the conduction band.
Korovin, L.I.; Lang, I.G.; Pavlov, S.T.
1995-09-01
The spatial correlation of an electron and a hole generated by light in a quasi-two-dimensional electron gas is investigated in the linear approximation with respect to the intensity of the exciting light. The correlation is determined by the interaction of electrons and holes with LO phonons. The theory makes it possible to calculate the distribution function F{sub N}(r) (r is the two-dimensional vector of the relative motion of an electron and a hole, and N is the number of LO phonons emitted), as well as the function F {sub N}(r,K) (K is the wave vector of the motion of the center of mass of the respective electron-hole pair), which is related to the fourth-rank scattering tensor in multiphonon resonant Raman scattering. A calculation of F{sub N}(r) is performed for a quantum well of rectangular shape with infinitely high potential barriers in the approximation of a model interaction, which presumes the absence of a dependence of the interaction between the electron and an LO phonon on the wave vector of the phonon. Exact expressions are obtained for F {sub N}(r) within this approximation and in the heavy-hole approximation over a broad range of variation of the frequency of the exciting light, which includes both the resonant case, in which the electron drops to the minimum of the size-quantization band after the emission of an LO phonon, and the nonresonant case. 16 refs., 6 figs.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Kapetanakis, Myron; Oxley, Mark; Zhou, Wu; Idrobo, Juan-Carlos; Pantelides, Sokrates
The local atomic configurations and electronic states of impurities in 2D materials can be probed directly by several microscopy techniques. Probes of electronic excitations, however, lack spatial resolution. Here we demonstrate that valence-electron energy-loss spectroscopy in an aberration-corrected scanning transmission electron microscope yields atomic-resolution maps of electronic excitations that provide unique signatures of distinct bonding configuration impurities in 2D materials. We report simulations of the maps based on density functional theory and dynamical scattering theory, which agree with and provide direct interpretation of the observed features. The maps differentiate between different bonding configurations of impurities in graphene and hexagonal boron nitride. The theoretical analysis yields information on local electronic excitations, corresponding to impurity-induced bound, resonant and antiresonant states. The method stands to benefit from new monochromators and detectors that enhance spatial and energy resolution and constitutes a powerful alternative to optical spectroscopies for probing electronic and magnetic signatures related with impurities and defects. Supported by DOE Grant DE-FG02-0946554 and by DOE BES MSED.
Bowers, C.R.; Reno, J.L.; Simmons, J.A.; Vitkalov, S.A.
1998-11-06
Enhancement of the Zeeman energy of 2D conduction electrons near v = 1 by optical dynamic nuclear polarization (lINP), as observed by the Overhauser shift of the transport detected electron spin resonance, is measured quantitatively for the first time in GaAs/AIGaAs mukiquantum wells. The NMR signal enhancement is obtained under similar conditions in the same sample, allowing the hyperke coupling constant of 3.7T between between the nuclei and 2D conduction electrons to be measured for the first time. The potential to suppress the Zeeman energy by optical DNP is discussed in the context of its potential influence on Skyrmion formation.
Borovskiy, A. V.; Galkin, A. L.; Kalashnikov, M. P.
2015-04-15
The new method of calculating energy spectra of accelerated electrons, based on the parameterization by their initial coordinates, is proposed. The energy spectra of electrons accelerated by Gaussian ultra-short relativistic laser pulse at a selected angle to the axis of the optical system focusing the laser pulse in a low density gas are theoretically calculated. The two-peak structure of the electron energy spectrum is obtained. Discussed are the reasons for its appearance as well as an applicability of other models of the laser field.
Thermoelectric response of spin polarization in Rashba spintronic systems
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Xiao, Cong; Li, Dingping; Ma, Zhongshui
2016-06-01
Motivated by the recent discovery of a strongly spin-orbit-coupled two-dimensional (2D) electron gas near the surface of Rashba semiconductors BiTeX (X = Cl, Br, I), we calculate the thermoelectric responses of spin polarization in a 2D Rashba model. By self-consistently determining the energyand band-dependent transport time, we present an exact solution of the linearized Boltzmann equation for elastic scattering. Using this solution, we find a non-Edelstein electric-field-induced spin polarization that is linear in the Fermi energy E F when E F lies below the band crossing point. The spin polarization efficiency, which is the electric-field-induced spin polarization divided by the driven electric current, increases for smaller E F . We show that, as a function of E F , the temperature-gradient-induced spin polarization increases continuously to a saturation value when E F decreases below the band crossing point. As the temperature tends to zero, the temperature-gradient-induced spin polarization vanishes.
Donor-Like Surface Traps on Two-Dimensional Electron Gas and Current Collapse of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs
Yu, Chen-hui; Luo, Qing-zhou; Luo, Xiang-dong; Liu, Pei-sheng
2013-01-01
The effect of donor-like surface traps on two-dimensional electron gas (2DEG) and drain current collapse of AlGaN/GaN high electron mobility transistors (HEMTs) has been investigated in detail. The depletion of 2DEG by the donor-like surface states is shown. The drain current collapse is found to be more sensitive to the addition of positive surface charges. Surface trap states with higher energy levels result in weaker current collapse and faster collapse process. By adopting an optimized backside doping scheme, the electron density of 2DEG has been improved greatly and the current collapse has been greatly eliminated. These results give reference to the improvement in device performance of AlGaN/GaN HEMTs. PMID:24348195
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Falson, Joseph; Maryenko, Denis; Kozuka, Yusuke; Tsukazaki, Atsushi; Kawasaki, Masashi
2011-09-01
The magnesium content in MgxZn1-xO/ZnO heterostructures grown by molecular beam epitaxy enables the careful control of the carrier density of the two-dimensional electron system down to 5.6×1010 cm-2 while retaining a mobility of 200,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 when pursuing magnesium concentrations as low as x = 0.0038. By selecting an optimum magnesium content (x˜0.01), the mobility is enhanced to over 700,000 cm2 V-1 s-1 due to reduced impurity levels associated with the use of pure distilled ozone and avoiding interface roughness scattering. This control technique allows access to the coherent transport region with strong electron-electron interaction.
NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)
Anghel, Sergiu; Singh, Akshay; Passmann, Felix; Iwata, Hikaru; Moore, John N.; Yusa, Go; Li, Xiaoqin; Betz, Markus
2016-07-01
Exciton, trion, and electron spin dynamics in a 20-nm-wide modulation-doped GaAs single quantum well are investigated using resonant ultrafast two-color Kerr rotation spectroscopy. Excitons and trions are selectively detected by resonant probe pulses while their relative spectral weight is controlled by adjusting the gate voltage which tunes the carrier density. Tuning the carrier density markedly influences the spin decay time of the two-dimensional electron gas. The spin decay time can be enhanced by a factor of 3 at an intermediate carrier concentration in the quantum well where excitons and trions coexist in the system. In addition, we explore the capability to tune the g factor of the electron gas via the carrier density.