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Sample records for rastvorov karbidov ti

  1. PIIID-formed (Ti, O)/Ti, (Ti, N)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti coatings on NiTi shape memory alloy for medical applications.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Lang-Ping; Wang, Min; Tong, Ho-Wang; Lu, William W

    2012-08-01

    (Ti, O)/Ti, (Ti, N)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coatings were fabricated on NiTi shape memory alloy via plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). Surface morphology of samples was investigated using atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). Cross-sectional morphology indicated that the PIIID-formed coatings were dense and uniform. X-ray diffraction (XRD) was used to characterize the phase composition of samples. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results showed that the surface of coated NiTi SMA samples was Ni-free. Nanoindentation measurements and pin-on-disc tests were carried out to evaluate mechanical properties and wear resistance of coated NiTi SMA, respectively. For the in vitro biological assessment of the composite coatings in terms of cell morphology and cell viability, osteoblast-like SaOS-2 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells were cultured on NiTi SMA samples, respectively. SaOS-2 cells attached and spread better on coated NiTi SMA. Viability of MCF-7 cells showed that the PIIID-formed composite coatings were noncytotoxic and coated samples were more biocompatible than uncoated samples.

  2. Dissolution rate measurements of TiN in Ti-6242

    SciTech Connect

    Bewlay, B.P.; Gigliotti, M.F.X.

    1997-01-01

    This paper describes measurements of the dissolution rate of nitrided Ti sponge and monolithic TiN rod in molten Ti-6242. The dissolution rate is described in terms of an interface recession rate that was 2.2 {micro}m/s for a Ti-6242 temperature of 1,725 C and dissolution times between 1 and 100 min. Similar dissolution rates were measured for nitrided sponge and monolithic rod. This report also descries the microstructural and chemical interdiffusion phenomena that occur during dissolution of solid {delta}TiN in molten Ti-6242. There is a N-containing solid {alpha}Ti layer and a N-solidified {beta}Ti layer between the solid {delta}TiN and liquid Ti-6242 during dissolution. Microprobe measurements indicate that diffusion of Al, Zr, Sn and Mo into {delta}TiN did not occur. Steep N concentration profiles were observed in the {alpha}Ti layer. Al, Zr, Sn and Mo were observed in the N-solidified {beta}Ti layer contained <1% N. Similar microstructural and interdiffusional behaviors were observed during dissolution of nitrided sponge and monolithic {delta}TiN rod in molten Ti-6242.

  3. In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite

    SciTech Connect

    Jiang, Daqiang Cui, Lishan; Jiang, Jiang; Zheng, Yanjun

    2013-12-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • In situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites were fabricated. • The transformation temperature was affected by the mixing Ti:Ni atomic ratios. • The NiTi component became micron-scale lamella after forging and rolling. • The composite exhibited high strength and high damping capacity. - Abstract: This paper reports on the creation of a series of in situ NiTi/Nb(Ti) composites with controllable transformation temperatures based on the pseudo-binary hypereutectic transformation of NiTi–Nb system. The composite constituent morphology was controlled by forging and rolling. It is found that the thickness of the NiTi lamella in the composite reached micron level after the hot-forging and cold-rolling. The NiTi/Nb(Ti) composite exhibited high damping capacity as well as high yield strength.

  4. Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient nano-composite film on a biomedical NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Yufeng; Liu, Dong; Liu, Xiliang; Li, Li

    2008-12-01

    Ti-TiC-TiC/diamond-like carbon (DLC) gradient nano-composite films have been prepared on NiTi alloy substrates by the technique of plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) combined with plasma-enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD). The influence of negative bias voltage applied to the substrate (from -100 V to -500 V) on the chemical structure, microstructure, mechanical properties and corrosion resistance was investigated by Raman spectrum, x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), x-ray diffraction (XRD), friction coefficient test, scratch test, nano-indentation test and anodic polarization experiments. The Raman spectrum and XPS results showed that the doped films kept an amorphous DLC structure. TEM observation revealed that nanometer TiC particles were surrounded by the amorphous DLC. With the increase of bias voltage, the ratio of sp(2)/sp(3) first decreased, reaching a minimum value at -200 V, and then increased. The nano-indentation results showed that the hardness of the Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient films reached the maximum value at -200 V when TiC particles reached the maximum content in the films. The friction coefficient test and scratch test indicated that Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient films had a low friction coefficient and high bonding strength with the NiTi substrates. Combined with anodic polarization curves and SEM observation, it was found that the corrosion resistance of the Ti-TiC-TiC/DLC gradient films was much better than that of the bare NiTi alloy.

  5. (Ti, O)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coatings fabricated via PIIID for the medical application of NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Sun, Tao; Wang, Lang-Ping; Wang, Min

    2011-02-01

    In this investigation, the plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) technique was used to fabricate (Ti, O)/Ti or (Ti, O, N)/Ti coatings on a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA, 50.8 at.% Ni) to improve its corrosion, wear resistance, and bioactivity. After coating fabrication, the structure and properties of composite coatings were studied, and the coated and uncoated NiTi SMA samples were compared with each other. Scanning electron microscopic (SEM) examination of coating surfaces and cross-sections showed that (Ti, O)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coatings were dense and uniform, having thickness values of 1.16 ± 0.08 μm and 0.95 ± 0.06 μm, respectively. X-ray diffraction (XRD) results revealed that there were no diffraction peaks corresponding to TiO(2) or TiN for (Ti, O)/Ti and (Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coatings, suggesting that after the PIIID treatment, TiO(2) and TiN were amorphous or nanosized in the coatings. Energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) analysis indicated that the interface between the coating and NiTi SMA substrate was gradual rather than sharp. In addition, EDX elemental mapping of coating cross-sections showed that Ni was depleted from the surface. Differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) curves revealed that the shape memory ability of NiTi SMA was not degraded by the PIIID treatment. The width of wear tracks on (Ti, O, N)/Ti coated NiTi SMA samples was reduced 6.5-fold, in comparison with that on uncoated samples. The corrosion potential (E(corr) ) was improved from -466.20 ± 37.82 mV for uncoated samples to 125.50 ± 21.49 mV and -185.40 ± 37.05 mV for (Ti, O)/Ti coated and (Ti, O, N)/Ti coated samples, respectively. Both types of coatings facilitated bone-like apatite formation on the surface of NiTi SMA in simulated body fluid (SBF), indicating their in vitro bioactivity.

  6. Preparation of overdamped NbTiN Josephson junctions with bilayered Ti-TiN barriers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamamori, Hirotake; Sasaki, Hitoshi; Kohjiro, Satoshi

    2010-12-01

    Overdamped NbTiN Josephson junctions with Ti-TiN bilayered normal-metal barrier are proposed for metrological applications. Binary arrays consisting of 32 768 NbTiN/Ti-TiN/NbTiN junctions were fabricated for quantum voltage standards, and a Shapiro step at 1 V with the step height of about 0.5 mA was generated at around 8 K. The Ti layer was added to protect the base NbTiN electrode from nitrogen plasma during the deposition of the TiN layer. While the critical current Ic and the junction resistance Rn are mainly dominated by the thickness of the TiN barrier, Ic can be also adjusted by changing the thickness of the Ti barrier to maximize the operating margin for voltage standard circuits. An optimization of the NbTiN film in terms of film stress is also described for fabrication of circuits containing such a large number of junctions.

  7. The electronic structure of Ti2 and Ti2+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kalemos, Apostolos; Mavridis, Aristides

    2011-10-01

    The Ti2 and Ti2+ molecular systems have been studied through multireference variational and single reference coupled-cluster methods coupled with large basis sets. Potential energy curves have been constructed for 30 (Ti2) and 2 (Ti2+) states and the usual spectroscopic parameters have been extracted. The main feature of the potential curves is the existence of van der Waals minima (Ti2) around 7 bohr irrespective of the molecular symmetry, and 4s2-4s1 interactions (Ti2+) around 6 bohr. Numerous avoided crossings lead to stronger covalent bonds emanating from 4s1-4s1 atomic distributions. The X-state of the neutral species is formally a 3Δg state with the first excited state lying within 1 kcal/mol. The removal of the symmetry defining e- leads to the X2Σg+ state of Ti2+.

  8. Ti site occupancy in zircon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tailby, N. D.; Walker, A. M.; Berry, A. J.; Hermann, J.; Evans, K. A.; Mavrogenes, J. A.; O'Neill, H. St. C.; Rodina, I. S.; Soldatov, A. V.; Rubatto, D.; Sutton, S. R.

    2011-02-01

    Ti site occupancy in zircon (ZrSiO 4) is fundamental to thermobarometry because substitution mechanisms control Ti content-temperature relations. Here we describe the results of three independent methods used to demonstrate that Ti substitutes for Si and not Zr in zircon. Zircon grains were synthesized from oxide powders held in a Na 2WO 4 flux at 1 bar and 1300 °C. Zircon grains equilibrated with rutile + cristobalite show Ti contents (1201 ppm) nearly half that of zircon grains equilibrated with srilankite ((Ti,Zr)O 2) + tetragonal zirconia (2640 ppm). The lower Ti content of zircon grains produced at silica-saturated conditions indicates that Ti substitution predominately occurs on the Si site. Moreover, the higher Ti contents of silica-saturated experiments at 1 bar (1201 ppm), relative to those at 1 GPa (457 ppm, Ferry and Watson, 2007), indicates a substantial pressure effect on Ti solubility in zircon. Measured Ti K-α edge X-ray Absorption Near Edge Structure (XANES) spectra of synthetic zircon grains show energies and normalized intensities akin to those seen among tetrahedrally coordinated Ti-bearing standard minerals, strongly suggesting that Ti occupies the Si site. Density functional theory (DFT) calculations confirm that Ti substitution is most likely to occur on the Si site and predict a Ti-O bond length of 1.797 Å (compared to an average of 2.160 Å for substitution on the Zr site), in excellent agreement with X-ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS) spectra of experimentally grown zircon grains which indicate a value of 1.76(1) Å. The software FEFF 8.4 was used to simulate XANES spectra from the defect structures determined by DFT for Ti substituting on both the Si and Zr sites. The predicted spectrum for Ti on the Si site reproduces all the key features of the experimental zircon spectra, whereas Ti on the Zr site is markedly different. All applied methods confirm that Ti substitutes for Si in zircon. Consequently, the Ti content of zircon at a

  9. TI-73 Calculator Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Phillips-Bey, Carol K.

    2004-01-01

    This article describes TI-73 calculator activities appropriate for middle school students. It was found that the use of the calculator allowed for higher-level thinking and a richer exploration of mathematical ideas by students. [Included with this article are "Dice Roll Worksheet" and "Transforming Tree Worksheet".] (Contains 9 figures.)

  10. Comparison of the Ti/TiN/AlCu/TiN stack with TiN/AlCu/Ti/TiN stack for application in ULSI metallization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Menon, Satish S.; Choudhury, Ratan K.

    1996-09-01

    The relative advantages and disadvantages of the two ULSI metallization stacks viz., Ti/TiN/AlCu/TiN and TiN/AlCu/Ti/TiN are described. The electromigration and thermal stability characteristics are compared using grain size of the Al metal, the XRD rocking curve peak and FWHM of the Al (111) orientation, SWEAT lifetime and electrical characteristics before and after thermal cycling of the test structures. In the literature, there exists work that report an improvement in the electromigration lifetime in the situation where Ti is in direct contact with Al due to the formation of TiAl3. The results for submicron dimensions presented in this paper clearly point to very important requirements for those results to hold and highlight the danger in assuming its validity for submicron lines. The W- plug via schemes resulting from use of both these metallization stacks will be compared from both the electrical and reliability standpoint. The conflict arising between the functionality and reliability of the vias with the reliability of the metallization lines is discussed.

  11. Electronic Structure of Ti substituted hydroxyapatite: TiHap

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yin, Shuxia; Ellis, Donald

    2009-03-01

    Hydroxyapatite (Hap), with the chemical formula Ca10(PO4)6(OH)2, is the main mineral constituent of mammal tooth enamel and bone and has become an important biomaterial with medical applications. Hap also attracts increasing interest for use in environmental adsorbents and catalysts due to its porous nature and highly active ion-exchange character. Ti-modified Hap (TiHap) has been proved to possess high affinity to organic molecules and bacteria as well as high photocatalytic activity for their oxidative decomposition. The concentration of Ti^4+ is a key factor controlling TiHap crystallinity and catalytic efficiency. Here we studied the sorption mechanism of Ti^4+ on Hap using Density Functional Theory within periodic slab models. Ti^4+ or (Ti(OH)2)^2+, as the most likely ion exchange species with Ca^2+, were first considered in bulk Hap. A second charge compensated model considered includes both surface Ca ion vacancies and substitutional Ti^4+. To obtain insight of the energetic stability and microscopic crystal structure of TiHap, Ti substitution on different Ca sites and distributions at different atomic ratios are investigated in both bulk and surface models.

  12. Characteristics of laser clad α-Ti/TiC+(Ti,W)C1-x/Ti2SC+TiS composite coatings on TA2 titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhai, Yong-Jie; Liu, Xiu-Bo; Qiao, Shi-Jie; Wang, Ming-Di; Lu, Xiao-Long; Wang, Yong-Guang; Chen, Yao; Ying, Li-Xia

    2017-03-01

    TiC reinforced Ti matrix composite coating with Ti2SC/TiS lubricant phases in-situ synthesized were prepared on TA2 titanium alloy by laser cladding with different powder mixtures: 40%Ti-19.5%TiC-40.5%WS2, 40%Ti-25.2%TiC-34.8%WS2, 40%Ti-29.4%TiC-30.6%WS2 (wt%). The phase compositions, microstructure, microhardness and tribological behaviors and wear mechanisms of coatings were investigated systematically. Results indicate that the main phase compositions of three coatings are all continuous matrix α-Ti, reinforced phases of (Ti,W)C1-x and TiC, lubricant phases of Ti2SC and TiS. The microhardness of the three different coatings are 927.1 HV0.5, 1007.5 HV0.5 and 1052.3 HV0.5, respectively. Compared with the TA2 titanium alloy (approximately 180 HV0.5), the microhardness of coatings have been improved dramatically. The coefficients of friction and the wear rates of those coatings are 0.41 and 30.98×10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1, 0.30 and 18.92×10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1, 0.34 and 15.98×10-5 mm3 N-1 m-1, respectively. Comparatively speaking, the coating fabricated with the powder mixtures of 40%Ti-25.2%TiC-34.8%WS2 presents superior friction reduction and anti-wear properties and the main wear mechanisms of that are slight plastic deformation and adhesive wear.

  13. Oxidation of Ti silicide surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cros, A.; Pirri, C.; Derrien, J.

    1985-04-01

    The oxidation of clean Ti suicide surface prepared under ultra high vacuum conditions, has been studied by ultraviolet and X-ray photo-emission spectroscopy techniques. At room temperature, the oxide overlayer is composed of both TiO 2 and SiO 2. An annealing at 400-600°C provokes the reduction of TiO 2 in the form of Ti suboxide while the liberated oxygen atoms bond to Si. This is not due to the presence of Si atoms and is rather an intrinsic property of native TiO 2. The simultaneous presence at high temperature of both SiO 2 and Ti suboxide is attributed to the existence of a rate limiting process due to diffusion barriers.

  14. Reactive Ni/Ti nanolaminates

    SciTech Connect

    Adams, D. P.; Bai, M. M.; Rodriguez, M. A.; McDonald, J. P.; Jones, E. Jr.; Brewer, L.; Moore, J. J.

    2009-11-01

    Nickel/titanium nanolaminates fabricated by sputter deposition exhibited rapid, high-temperature synthesis. When heated locally, self-sustained reactions were produced in freestanding Ni/Ti multilayer foils characterized by average propagation speeds between approx0.1 and 1.4 m/s. The speed of a propagating reaction front was affected by total foil thickness and bilayer thickness (layer periodicity). In contrast to previous work with compacted Ni-Ti powders, no preheating of Ni/Ti foils was required to maintain self-propagating reactions. High-temperature synthesis was also stimulated by rapid global heating demonstrating low ignition temperatures (T{sub ig})approx300-400 deg. C for nanolaminates. Ignition temperature was influenced by bilayer thickness with more coarse laminate designs exhibiting increased T{sub ig}. Foils reacted in a vacuum apparatus developed either as single-phase B2 cubic NiTi (austenite) or as a mixed-phase structure that was composed of monoclinic B19{sup '} NiTi (martensite), hexagonal NiTi{sub 2}, and B2 NiTi. Single-phase, cubic B2 NiTi generally formed when the initial bilayer thickness was made small.

  15. Comparison of mechanical and tribological properties of TiC-NiTi and TiC-TiB2-NiTi coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Javier; Isalgue, Antonio; Cinca, Nuria; Garcia-Cano, I.; Ventayol, Judith

    NiTi can be used as a metallic matrix of a cermet (a composite of ceramic and metallic materials) to increase its durability and resistance. On the other hand, the TiC and TiB2 are hard ceramic materials that can be used to increase the wear resistance of the composite to which they belong. This study compares the mechanical adherence, tribological and corrosion properties of a cermet that has TiC or TiC-TiB2 and NiTi as a matrix. The friction coefficient and the mass loss as a function of time were obtained from the tribological tests and compared for the two types of coatings. The coatings were produced by thermal spraying onto a steel substrate. The coatings containing TiB2 showed lower adhesion and higher wear rates than the TiC coatings. This pattern may be attributable to the degradation of the TiB2 during the thermal spray process.

  16. The Agrobacterium Ti Plasmids.

    PubMed

    Christie, Peter J; Gordon, Jay E

    2014-12-01

    Agrobacterium tumefaciens is a plant pathogen with the capacity to deliver a segment of oncogenic DNA carried on a large plasmid called the tumor-inducing or Ti plasmid to susceptible plant cells. A. tumefaciens belongs to the class Alphaproteobacteria, whose members include other plant pathogens (Agrobacterium rhizogenes), plant and insect symbionts (Rhizobium spp. and Wolbachia spp., respectively), human pathogens (Brucella spp., Bartonella spp., Rickettsia spp.), and nonpathogens (Caulobacter crescentus, Rhodobacter sphaeroides). Many species of Alphaproteobacteria carry large plasmids ranging in size from ∼100 kb to nearly 2 Mb. These large replicons typically code for functions essential for cell physiology, pathogenesis, or symbiosis. Most of these elements rely on a conserved gene cassette termed repABC for replication and partitioning, and maintenance at only one or a few copies per cell. The subject of this review is the ∼200-kb Ti plasmids carried by infectious strains of A. tumefaciens. We will summarize the features of this plasmid as a representative of the repABC family of megaplasmids. We will also describe novel features of this plasmid that enable A. tumefaciens cells to incite tumor formation in plants, sense and respond to an array of plant host and bacterial signal molecules, and maintain and disseminate the plasmid among populations of agrobacteria. At the end of this review, we will describe how this natural genetic engineer has been adapted to spawn an entire industry of plant biotechnology and review its potential for use in future therapeutic applications of plant and nonplant species.

  17. Fabrication of TiCx-TiB₂/Al Composites for Application as a Heat Sink.

    PubMed

    Shu, Shili; Yang, Hongyu; Tong, Cunzhu; Qiu, Feng

    2016-07-29

    Metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have become the most attractive material in the research and development of new materials for thermal management applications. In this work, 40-60 vol. % TiCx-TiB₂/Al composites were successfully fabricated by the method of combustion synthesis and hot press consolidation in an Al-Ti-B₄C system. The effect of the TiCx-TiB₂ content on the microstructure and compression properties of the composites was investigated. Moreover, the abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite were studied and compared with the TiCx/Al composite. The compression properties, abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite are all better than those of the TiCx/Al composite, which confirms that the TiCx-TiB₂/Al composite is more appropriate for application as a heat sink.

  18. Effects of the dissolved oxygen in Ti films on Ti reactions in Cu/Ti/SiO2/Si system upon annealing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hong, S. J.; Lee, S.; Yang, H. J.; Lee, H. M.; Ko, Y. K.; Hong, H. N.; Soh, H. S.; Kim, C. K.; Yoon, C. S.; Ban, K. S.; Lee, J. G.

    2004-11-01

    The reactions of Cu/Ti/SiO2 structures at temperatures ranging from 200 to 700 °C have been studied for various Ti thicknesses. X-ray and Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS) analyses were used to identify the reaction products resulting from Ti reactions in Cu/Ti/SiO2 systems and the oxygen composition in the unreacted Ti, and revealed a correlation between the oxygen concentration in Ti films and the sequences of the Ti reactions. The reaction products initially formed, at around 300 °C, were a series of Cu-Ti intermetallics (Cu3Ti/CuTi) at the Cu-Ti interface with the oxygen dissolved in the Ti moving from the compounds into the remaining unreacted Ti. At 500 °C, the Cu3Ti was converted into Cu-rich intermetallics, Cu4Ti, which grew at the expense of the CuTi due to the increased oxygen content in the Ti. In addition, the outdiffusion of Ti, to the Cu surface, and the Ti-SiO2 reactions caused an abrupt increase in the oxygen content in the Ti layer, which placed thermodynamic restraints on further Ti reactions. Furthermore, thinner Ti layers showed a higher increased rate of oxygen accumulation for the same consumption of Ti, which led to significantly reduced Ti consumption. The diffusion barrier properties of SiO2 for Cu metallization decreased with an increasing Ti thickness.

  19. Wear resistance of TiN(Ti2N)/Ti composite layer formed on C17200 alloy by plasma surface Ti-alloying and nitriding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, L.; Shen, H. H.; Liu, X. Z.; Guo, Q.; Meng, T. X.; Wang, Z. X.; Yang, H. J.; Liu, X. P.

    2016-12-01

    The duplex treatment of plasma Ti-alloying and plasma nitriding was applied on the surface of C17200 alloy to improve its wear resistance. C17200 substrate was alloyed with Ti using double glow plasma alloying to form a Ti-alloyed layer in its surface, and then treated by plasma nitriding to make a TiN(Ti2N) alloying layer based on the Ti-alloyed surface. The microstructure and formation mechanism were studied by using GDOES, XRD and SEM. The hardness, tribological property and electrical conductivity of C17200 alloy after plasma alloying and nitriding were investigated by mean of micro-hardness tester, friction and wear testers as well as impedance analyzers. Modulus of elasticity and the adhesive strength of TiN(Ti2N)/Ti composite layer were evaluated by nano-indenter and scratch tester. The result shows that a TiN(Ti2N)-Ti-Be-Cu composite layer with a thickness of 27 μm is formed in the C17200 surface and is mainly composed of TiN, Ti2N, Cu(Ti) solid solution, etc. The composite alloying surface consists of the hard TiN(Ti2N)-rich layer on the top surface and Ti-Cu-Be diffusion layer, showing a strong adhesive strength with the C17200 substrate and a little decrease in the modulus of elasticity. A certain amount of Cu and Be together with TiN/Ti2N exists in the outmost, resulting in a better combination of wear resistance and conductive performance.

  20. Structural inheritance and difference between Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3 under pressure from first principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gao, Qing-He; Du, An; Yang, Ze-Jin

    2017-01-01

    The structural inheritance and difference between Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3 under pressure from first principles are studied. The results indicate that the lattice parameter a are almost the same within Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3, and the value of c in Ti5Al2C3 is the sum of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 which is revealed by the covalently bonded chain in the electron density difference: Al-Ti-C-Ti-Al for Ti2AlC, Al-Ti2-C-Ti1-C-Ti2-Al for Ti3AlC2 and Al-Ti3-C2-Ti3-Al-Ti2-C1-Ti1-C1-Ti2-Al for Ti5Al2C3. The calculated axial compressibilities, volumetric shrinkage, elastic constant c11, c33/c11 ratio, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus of Ti5Al2C3 are within the range of the end members (Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2) in a wide pressure range of 0-100 GPa. Only Ti2AlC is isotropic crystal at about 50 GPa within the Ti-Al-C compounds. All of the Ti 3d density of states curves of the three compounds move from lower energy to higher energy level with pressure increasing. The similarities of respective bond length, bond overlap population (Ti-C, Ti-Al and Ti-Ti), atom Mulliken charges under pressure as well as the electron density difference for the three compounds are discovered. Among the Ti-Al-C ternary compounds, Ti-Ti bond behaves least compressibility, whereas the Ti-Al bond is softer than that of Ti-C bonds, which can also been confirmed by the density of states and electron density difference. Bond overlap populations of Ti-Ti, Ti-C and Ti-Al indicate that the ionicity interaction becomes more and more stronger in the three structures as the pressure increasing. Mulliken charges of Ti1, Ti2, Ti3, C and Al are 0.65, 0.42, 0.39, -0.73, -0.04 at 0 GPa, respectively, which are consistent with the Pauling scale.

  1. NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites. Part 3: Shape-memory recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Fukami-Ushiro, K.L.; Dunand, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The transformation behavior of near-equiatomic NiTi containing 0, 10, and 20 vol pct TiC particulates is investigated by dilatometry. Undeformed composites exhibit a macroscopic transformation strain larger than predicted when assuming that the elastic transformation mismatch between the matrix and the particulates is unrelaxed, indicating that the mismatch is partially accommodated by matrix twinning during transformation. The thermal recovery behavior of unreinforced NiTi which was deformed primarily by twinning in the martensite phase shows that plastic deformation by slip increases with increasing prestrain, leading to (1) a decrease of the shape-memory strain on heating, (2) an increase of the two-way shape-memory strain on cooling, (3) a widening of the temperature interval over which the strain recovery occurs on heating, and (4) an increase of the transformation temperature hysteresis. For NiTi composites, the recovery behavior indicates that most of the mismatch during mechanical deformation between the TiC particulates and the NiTi matrix is relaxed by matrix twinning. However, some relaxation takes place by matrix slip, resulting in the following trends with increasing TiC content at constant prestrain: (1) decrease of the shape-memory strain on heating, (2) enhancement of the two-way shape-memory strain on cooling, and (3) broadening of the transformation interval on heating.

  2. Optimization of TiNP/Ti Content for Si3N4/42CrMo Joints Brazed With Ag-Cu-Ti+TiNP Composite Filler

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Tianpeng; Zhang, Jie; Liu, Chunfeng

    The Si3N4 ceramic was brazed to 42CrMo steel by using TiN particles modified braze, and the proportion of TiNp reinforcement and active element Ti was optimized to improve the joint strength. The brazed joints were examined by means of SEM. and EDS investigations. Microstructural examination showed that TiN+Ti5Si3 reaction layer was adjacent to Si3N4, whereas TiC was formed in 42CrMo/filler reaction layer. The Ag-Cu-Ti brazing alloy showed intimate bonding with TiNp and Cu-Ti intermetallics precipitated in the joint. The strength tests demonstrated that the mechanical properties of joints increased and then decreased by increasing the TiNp content when a low Ti content (6wt.%) was supplied. When the Ti content (>6wt.%) was offered sufficiently, the joint strength decreased firstly and then stayed stable with increasing the TiNp content. The maximum four-point bending strength (221 MPa) was obtained when the contents of TiNp and Ti were 10vol.% and 6wt.%, respectively.

  3. Microstructure and Properties of (TiB2 + NiTi)/Ti Composite Coating Fabricated by Laser Cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yinghua; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Lin, Jian

    2015-10-01

    Agglomerated TiB2 particle and network-like structure-reinforced titanium matrix composite coatings were prepared by laser cladding of the Ni + TiB2 + Ti preplaced powders on Ti-6Al-4V alloy. The network-like structure mainly consisted of NiTi and Ni3Ti. Through the experiment, it was found that the size of agglomerated particle gradually decreased with the increase of Ti content, but the number of the network-like structure first increased and then disappeared. In-situ reaction competition mechanism and the formation of network-like structure were discussed. The average micro-hardness gradually decreased with the increase of Ti content, but the average fracture toughness gradually increased. Meanwhile, the wear resistance of the coatings is higher than that of the substrate, but the wear loss of the coatings is gradually increased with the increase of Ti content.

  4. Formation Mechanism of Spherical TiC in Ni-Ti-C System during Combustion Synthesis.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Guoliang; Wang, Wei; Wang, Rui; Zhao, Chuanbao; Pan, Weitao; Huang, Haijun; Du, Dafan; Wang, Donghong; Shu, Da; Dong, Anping; Sun, Baode; Jiang, Sheng; Pu, Yilong

    2017-08-29

    The formation mechanism of TiC particles in a Ni-Ti-C system were revealed by using differential thermal analysis (DTA), XRD, and SEM to identify the reaction products in different temperature ranges. The results indicated that the synthesis mechanism of TiC in Ni-Ti-C system was complex; several reactions were involved in the combustion synthesis of TiC-Ni composite. The Ni-Ti intermediate phases play important roles during the formation of TiC. Moreover, the influence of heating rate on the size range of TiC was also discussed.

  5. Brazing of zirconia to Ti and Ti6Al4V

    SciTech Connect

    Agathopoulos, S.; Moretto, P.; Peteves, S.D.

    1997-11-01

    The interface microstructure of tetragonal zirconia (Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}-stab.), (TZP), brazed to itself, Ti and Ti6Al4V with a commercial Ag35Cu1.65Ti filler alloy at 900{degrees}C in vacuum was investigated. TiO formed in the reaction zone in TZP/TZP joints irrespectively the brazing time. In TZP/Ti joints, a complex interface microstructure comprising Ti{sub 2}O, Cu{sub 2}Ti{sub 4}O and Cu-Ti-intermetallics was time dependent. High joint strengths of over 400 MPa were obtained for short brazing times. In TZP/Ti6Al4V joints, the evolution of the microstructure with brazing time depends on diffusion of Ti, Al and V to the interface forming Cu{sub 2}(Ti,A1,V){sub 4}O.

  6. Formation of nanostructured rutile TiO2 synthesized on Ti powder via thermal oxidation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Byun, Jong Min; Choi, Hye Rim; Kim, Se Hoon; Suk, Myung-Jin; Kim, Young Do

    2017-09-01

    The nanostructured rutile TiO2 that have large specific surface area was formed on Ti powder through thermal oxidation. Thermal oxidation of Ti powder by using an external oxygen source was shown to be a simple and facile method to synthesize nanostructured rutile TiO2. Raw Ti powder was etched by using 30% HCl solution to control the surface morphology of Ti and to increase the surface area for effective diffusion of oxygen source. Then, etched powders were thermally oxidized at 750 and 850 °C with ethanol as the oxygen source. Coral-like nanostructured rutile TiO2 of size 500 nm was formed at 850 °C from Ti powder etched for more than 20 min. The specific surface area of the resulting powder, which consisted of intermediate oxide (Ti2O) cores covered with nanostructured rutile TiO2, was 48 times that of the raw Ti powder.

  7. Electronic Conduction in Ti/Poly-TiO2/Ti Structures

    PubMed Central

    Hossein-Babaei, Faramarz; Alaei-Sheini, Navid

    2016-01-01

    Recent intensive investigations on metal/metal oxide/metal structures have targeted nanometric single grain oxides at high electric fields. Similar research on thicker polycrystalline oxide layers can bridge the results to the prior literature on varistors and may uncover novel ionic/electronic features originating from the conduction mechanisms involving grain boundaries. Here, we investigate electronic conduction in Ti/poly-TiO2−x/Ti structures with different oxygen vacancy distributions and describe the observed features based on the motion and rearrangement of the ionized oxygen vacancies (IOVs) on the grain facets rather than the grain interiors. Containing no interface energy barrier, Ti/poly-TiO2/Ti devices demonstrate high resistance ohmic conduction at biasing fields below 5 × 106 V.m−1; higher fields drive the samples to a distinctly nonlinear and hysteretic low resistance status. The observed threshold is two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical resistance switching fields reported for the nanosized single grain memristors. This is consistent with the smaller activation energies reported for the IOV motion on the rutile facets than its interior. The presented model describes the observed dependence of the threshold field on the relative humidity of the surrounding air based on the lower activation energies reported for the hydroxyl-assisted IOV motion on the rutile facets. PMID:27404085

  8. Electronic Conduction in Ti/Poly-TiO2/Ti Structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hossein-Babaei, Faramarz; Alaei-Sheini, Navid

    2016-07-01

    Recent intensive investigations on metal/metal oxide/metal structures have targeted nanometric single grain oxides at high electric fields. Similar research on thicker polycrystalline oxide layers can bridge the results to the prior literature on varistors and may uncover novel ionic/electronic features originating from the conduction mechanisms involving grain boundaries. Here, we investigate electronic conduction in Ti/poly-TiO2-x/Ti structures with different oxygen vacancy distributions and describe the observed features based on the motion and rearrangement of the ionized oxygen vacancies (IOVs) on the grain facets rather than the grain interiors. Containing no interface energy barrier, Ti/poly-TiO2/Ti devices demonstrate high resistance ohmic conduction at biasing fields below 5 × 106 V.m-1 higher fields drive the samples to a distinctly nonlinear and hysteretic low resistance status. The observed threshold is two orders of magnitude smaller than the typical resistance switching fields reported for the nanosized single grain memristors. This is consistent with the smaller activation energies reported for the IOV motion on the rutile facets than its interior. The presented model describes the observed dependence of the threshold field on the relative humidity of the surrounding air based on the lower activation energies reported for the hydroxyl-assisted IOV motion on the rutile facets.

  9. LASE Ti: Sapphire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the photo, Messrs. Leroy F. Matthews (left) and Frank J. Novak (Lockheed Engineering & Sciences Co.) are preparing the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument for integration into a NASA/ER-2 aircraft for a field mission. LASE is the first fully- engineered, autonomous differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor, aerosol and cloud in the troposphere. LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150 mJ/pulse. The laser beam is seeded to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere with accuracy having less than 6% of error. No other instrument can provide the spatial coverage and accuracy of LASE. Water vapor is the most radiative active gas in the troposphere, and the lack of understanding about its distribution provides one of the largest uncertainties in modeling climate change. LASE has demonstrated the necessary potential in providing high resolution water vapor measurements that can advance the studies of tropospheric water vapor distributions. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. A joint international field mission was completed in the summer of 1996; adding 9 more successful flights. The LASE Instrument is being adapted to other aircraft platforms to support planned missions and to increase its utility.

  10. LASE Ti: Sapphire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the photo, Mr. Leroy F. Matthews (Lockheed Engineering & Sciences Co.) is connecting the Thermal Control Unit cables in preparing the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument for integration into a NASA/ER-2 aircraft for a field mission. LASE is the first fully-engineered, autonomous differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor, aerosol and cloud in the troposphere. LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150 mJ/pulse. The laser beam is seeded to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere with accuracy having less than 6% of error. No other instrument can provide the spatial coverage and accuracy of LASE. Water vapor is the most radiative active gas in the troposphere, and the lack of understanding about its distribution provides one of the largest uncertainties in modeling climate change. LASE has demonstrated the necessary potential in providing high resolution water vapor measurements that can advance the studies of tropospheric water vapor distributions. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. A joint international field mission was completed in the summer of 1996; adding 9 more successful flights. The LASE Instument is being adapted to other aircraft platforms to support planned missions and to increase its utility.

  11. In vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility studies of Ti-Nb, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Hf biomedical shape memory alloys.

    PubMed

    Wang, B L; Li, L; Zheng, Y F

    2010-08-01

    The in vitro cytotoxicity and hemocompatibility of the Ti-Nb, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Hf biomedical shape memory alloys (SMAs) were investigated by cell culture (L-929 fibroblast cell), hemolytic test and platelet adhesion test, with CP Ti as a reference material. The cytotoxicity test indicates that all the Ti-Nb, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Hf SMAs show over 94% cell viability for different incubation times (2, 4 and 7 days) in comparison with a negative control and CP Ti. The cell morphology observation shows good polygon-like adherent growth and proliferation of L-929 in the extracts of all the test samples and CP Ti. These results suggest excellent cytocompatibility for the Ti-Nb, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Hf SMAs. The hemolytic test reveals that the hemolysis ratios of the Ti-Nb, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Hf alloys are far less than 5%, so they cannot give rise to acute hemolysis. The platelet morphology observation shows almost the same adhered platelet morphology and activation ratio for the test samples in comparison with CP Ti, except the Ti-22Nb-6Hf alloy, which shows a lower activation ratio of platelets, indicating excellent blood compatibility. Therefore, it is proposed that the Ti-Nb, Ti-Nb-Zr and Ti-Nb-Hf SMAs will be candidates to replace Ti-Ni for biomedical applications.

  12. TiTaN Reconsidered

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Natland, J. H.

    2008-12-01

    Strongly positive TiO2, Ta, and Nb (TiTaN) anomalies (1) in a Samoan ankaramite from Ofu Island have been attributed to the presence of refractory yet titanian eclogite in the mantle source. From chemical compositions, however, the anomalies could instead result from concentration of phenocrysts in magmas produced by mixing between a highly differentiated alkalic basalt and a crystal sludge carrying abundant olivine, clinopyroxene and especially titanomagnetite phenocrysts, the latter producing much of the TiTaN anomalies, and behaving much like rutile in eclogite. This is consistent with petrography. The distinctive effects of addition of each mineral are well illustrated on major-oxide variation diagrams. Separation of these minerals from liquids (to concentrate in ankaramites and dunite-wehrlite-pyroxenite cumulates) beginning at about 0.15 GPa in the mantle produces residual felsic differentiates (hawaiites, mugearites) with low TiTan anomalies (<1), exemplified by samples dredged elsewhere in Samoa from Savai'i (2). The Ofu samples have a low EMII signature (high 3He/4He), whereas the Savai'i samples have a high EMII signature (low 3He/4He), the extremes at Samoa. This gives a coincidental positive correlation at Samoa overall between TiTan anomalies and 3He/4He, TiTan anomalies being accentuated at the two places by the contrasting effects of phenocryst addition and subtraction during differentiation. High 3He/4He beneath several eastern Samoan volcanoes appears to be an attribute of near-FOZO mantle sources with minimal EM2 signature. (1) Jackson, M., et al., 2008. G-Cubed 9: doi:1029/2007GC001876 (2) Jackson, M., et al., 2007, Nature 448: 684-687, doi:10.1038/nature060488

  13. Periodic modeling of zeolite Ti-LTA

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hernandez-Tamargo, Carlos E.; Roldan, Alberto; Ngoepe, Phuti E.; de Leeuw, Nora H.

    2017-08-01

    We have proposed a combination of density functional theory calculations and interatomic potential-based simulations to study the structural, electronic, and mechanical properties of pure-silica zeolite Linde Type A (LTA), as well as two titanium-doped compositions. The energetics of the titanium distribution within the zeolite framework suggest that the inclusion of a second titanium atom with configurations Ti-(Si0)-Ti, Ti-(Si1)-Ti, and Ti-(Si2)-Ti is more energetically favorable than the mono-substitution. Infra-red spectra have been simulated for the pure-silica LTA, the single titanium substitution, and the configurations Ti-(Si0)-Ti and Ti-(Si2)-Ti, comparing against experimental benchmarks where available. The energetics of the direct dissociation of water on these Lewis acid sites indicate that this process is only favored when two titanium atoms form a two-membered ring (2MR) sharing two hydroxy groups, Ti-(OH2)-Ti, which suggests that the presence of water may tune the distribution of titanium atoms within the framework of zeolite LTA. The electronic analysis indicates charge transfer from H2O to the Lewis acid site and hybridization of their electronic states.

  14. Analysis of the Coupling Effects of TiB Whiskers and TiC Particles on the Fracture Toughness of (TiB + TiC)/TC4 Composites: Experiment and Modeling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lu, Weijie; Guo, Xianglong; Meng, Jialin; Wang, Fangqiu; Wang, Liqiang; Zhang, Di

    2015-08-01

    (TiB + TiC)/TC4 composites reinforced with different amounts of TiB whiskers and TiC particles are produced by common casting and hot forging technology. Then the fracture toughness of (TiB + TiC)/TC4 composites is analyzed by experiment and modeling. The experimental results indicate that not only reinforcement volume fraction but also the mole ratio between TiB whiskers and TiC particles can influence the fracture toughness of (TiB + TiC)/TC4 composites. Microstructure observations are carried out to examine the behavior of TiB whiskers and TiC particles in the fracture process. An analytical expression for predicting the fracture toughness of (TiB + TiC)/TC4 composites is built up. In particular, the coupling influences of TiB whiskers and TiC particles on the elastic modulus, yield strength, and fracture strain of TMCs are revealed in the modeling process. The results indicate that when TiB and TiC particles are coexisting in the TMCs, the fracture toughness of (TiB + TiC)/TC4 composites increases with the increase of the TiB whiskers aspect ratio, TiC particles volume fraction and size; however, with the increase of TiB whiskers volume fraction, the fracture toughness decreases. The breakage of TiB whiskers is the main reason for the fracture of TMCs. The acting mechanism of TiC particles on the fracture of TMCs transfers from blocking crack propagation and interfacial debonding to breakage with the increase of size, which can decrease the fracture toughness of (TiB + TiC)/TC4 composites. Considering the broken fraction of TiB whiskers, the fracture toughness of (TiB + TiC)/TC4 composites can be reasonably predicted.

  15. On the Nucleation and Growth of Alpha-Ti Off of TiB Precipitates (PREPRINT)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2010-01-01

    that a dispersion of thermally stable titanium- boride particles, formed by trace boron additions, was effective in restricting the grain growth...reinforced by the TiB phase [6-13]. The boride particles act as the pinning sites for the grain boundaries. In the TiB reinforced Ti-6Al-4V alloy...these titanium- boride particles provide additional nucleation sites for the -Ti precipitates in addition to the -Ti precipitates that form along

  16. Stability of NiTi-Pd and NiTi-Hf high temperature shape memory alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zhu, Y.R.; Pu, Z.J.; Li, C.; Wu, K.H.

    1994-09-28

    The thermal cycling tests and high temperature aging tests were performed to characterize the stability of NiTi-Pd and NiTi-Hf high temperature shape memory alloys. These alloys have better stability than NiTi during thermal cycling. In addition, it also found that the NiTi-Pd and NiTi-Hf alloy have a very good stability in high temperature aging.

  17. Contact resistivities of sputtered TiN and Ti-TiN metallizations on solar-cell-type-silicon

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Maenpaa, M.; Nicolet, M.-A.; Suni, I.; Colgan, E. G.

    1981-01-01

    The resistivities of TiN and Ti-TiN contacts on a shallow junction solar-cell-type silicon substrate have been determined by the method of the transmission line model. The contacts investigated are shown to be suitable for standard solar cells from an electrical point of view. Contact resistivity values of the order of 0.0001 ohm/sq cm as obtained for the n(+)Si-TiSi2-TiN contact system may be acceptable for concentrations up to 100 times, but lower values are necessary beyond this point.

  18. Study of preparation of TiB{sub 2} by TiC in Al melts

    SciTech Connect

    Ding Haimin; Liu Xiangfa; Nie Jinfeng

    2012-01-15

    TiB{sub 2} particles are prepared by TiC in Al melts and the characteristics of them are studied. It is found that TiC particles are unstable when boron exists in Al melts with high temperature and will transform to TiB{sub 2} and Al{sub 4}C{sub 3}. Most of the synthesized TiB{sub 2} particles are regular hexagonal prisms with submicron size. The diameter of the undersurfaces of these prisms is ranging from 200 nm to 1 {mu}m and the height is ranging from 100 nm to 300 nm. It is considered that controlling the transformation from TiC to TiB{sub 2} is an effective method to prepare small and uniform TiB{sub 2} particles. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiC can easily transform into TiB{sub 2} in Al melts. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer TiB{sub 2} formed by TiC will grow into regular hexagonal prisms with submicron size. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Controlling the transformation from TiC to TiB{sub 2} is an effective method to prepare small and uniform TiB{sub 2} particles.

  19. Mechanical and corrosive behavior of Ti/TiN multilayer films with different modulation periods

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Q.; Leng, Y. X.; Qi, F.; Tao, T.; Huang, N.

    2007-04-01

    Ti/TiN multilayer films with different periods Λ (Λ = λTiN + λTi) were synthesized on 17-4PH stainless steel and silicon wafer using unbalanced magnetron sputtering. The microstructure of the films was characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The mechanical properties such as hardness, sliding wear behavior and adhesion were analyzed by means of micro-hardness, ball-on-disc and scratch tests. The anodic polarization characteristics were measured in a 3% NaCl solution at room temperature to examine the corrosion resistance. Moreover, the corrosion resistance in a 350 °C water vapor ambience also was analyzed. XRD revealed a gradual TiNx transition layer between Ti and TiN. The SEM results confirmed the periodicity of the Ti/TiN multilayer films. The hardness and wear resistance of the Ti/TiN multilayer films increased with decrease of the modulation period. The adhesion strength between Ti/TiN multilayer films and 17-4PH substrate was improved with proper modulation period. The Ti/TiN multilayer films can for a corrosion protective coating on 17-4PH stainless steel in 3% NaCl solution, however the corrosion resistance at 350 °C vapor ambience decreased for the period Λ below 200 nm.

  20. Thermal stability and hydrogenation behavior of Zr-1Nb alloy with TiNx and Ti/TiNx coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashkarov, E. B.; Vilkhivskaya, O. V.; Zakharchenko, S. A.

    2016-08-01

    Titanium nitride coatings were deposited by reactive dc magnetron sputtering (dcMS) to protect Zr-1Nb alloys from hydrogen embrittlement. Dense titanium (Ti) interlayer was prepared between TiNx protection film and a Zr substrate to improve thermal stability and adhesion between the TiNx and the substrate at high temperatures. Hydrogen absorption of Zr- 1Nb with TiNx and Ti/TiNx at 623 K was reduced in comparison with uncoated Zr-1Nb. No peeling or cracks of Ti/TiNx coatings is observed after thermal cycling up to 1073 K. The high temperature (1073 K) hydrogenation behaviour differs from the hydrogenation at lower temperature by increasing the amount of dissolved hydrogen in the β-phase of zirconium. The higher rate of hydrogen absorption by Zr-1Nb with TiNx was observed due to the coating delamination as a result of differences in thermal expansion coefficients, while Ti/TiNx demonstrates the lower hydrogen absorption at 1073 K and good adhesion strength.

  1. Elastic moduli of cast Ti-Au, Ti-Ag, and Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okuno, Osamu

    2006-07-01

    This study investigated the effect of alloying titanium with gold, silver, or copper on the elastic properties of the alloys. A series of binary titanium alloys was made with four concentrations of gold, silver, or copper (5, 10, 20, and 30 mass%) in an argon-arc melting furnace. The Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of the alloy castings were determined with an ultrasonic-pulse method. The density of each alloy was previously measured by the Archimedes' principle. Results were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and the Scheffé's test. The densities of Ti-Au, Ti-Ag, and Ti-Cu alloys monotonically increased as the concentration of alloying elements increased. As the concentration of gold or silver increased to 20%, the Young's modulus significantly decreased, followed by a subsequent increase in value. As the concentration of copper increased, the Young's modulus monotonically increased. The Young's moduli of all the Ti-Cu alloys were significantly higher than that of the titanium. The density of all the experimental alloys was virtually independent of the alloy phases, while the Young's moduli and Poisson's ratios of the alloys were dependent. The addition of gold or silver slightly reduced the Young's modulus of the titanium when the alloy phase was single alpha. The increase in the Young's modulus of the Ti-Cu alloys is probably due to the precipitation of intermetallic compound Ti2Cu. Copper turned out to be a moderate stiffener that gains a Young's modulus of titanium up to 20% at the copper concentration of 30 mass%.

  2. Dynamics of Ti, N, and TiNx (x=1-3) admolecule transport on TiN(001) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiovanni, D. G.; Edström, D.; Hultman, L.; Chirita, V.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.

    2012-10-01

    We use classical molecular dynamics and the modified embedded atom method formalism to investigate the dynamics of atomic-scale transport on a low-index model compound surface, TiN(001). Our simulations, totaling 0.25 μs for each case study, follow the pathways and migration kinetics of Ti and N adatoms, as well as TiNx complexes with x=1-3, which are known to contribute to the growth of TiN thin films by reactive deposition from Ti, N2, and N precursors. The simulations are carried out at 1000 K, within the optimal range for TiN(001) epitaxial growth. We find Ti adatoms to be the highest-mobility species on TiN(001), with the primary migration path involving jumps of one nearest-neighbor distance dNN between adjacent fourfold hollow sites along in-plane <100> channels. Long jumps, 2dNN, are also observed, but at much lower frequency. N adatoms, which exhibit significantly lower migration rates than Ti, diffuse along in-plane <110> directions and, when they intersect other N atoms, associatively form N2 molecules, which desorb at kinetic rates. As expected, TiN and TiN3 complexes migrate at even lower rates with complex diffusion pathways involving rotations, translations, and rototranslations. TiN2 trimers, however, are shown to have surprisingly high diffusion rates, above that of N adatoms and almost half that of Ti adatoms. TiN3 motion is dominated by in-place rotation with negligible diffusion.

  3. Fibonacci Meets the TI-82.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Dion, Gloria S.

    1995-01-01

    Presents the Fibonacci sequence in a format that is readily implemented using the table and list features of the Texas Instruments TI-82 graphing calculator or a spreadsheet. Includes questions and investigations that can be explored using these tables and lists. (MKR)

  4. Mapping Stars with TI-83.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Felsager, Bjorn

    2001-01-01

    Describes a mathematics and science project designed to help students gain some familiarity with constellations and trigonometry by using the TI-83 calculator as a tool. Specific constellations such as the Big Dipper (Plough) and other sets of stars are located using stereographic projection and graphed using scatterplots. (MM)

  5. Ti-based glassy alloys in Ti-Cu-Zr-Sn system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, ZengRui; Dong, DanDan; Qiang, JianBing; Wang, Qing; Wang, YingMin; Dong, Chuang

    2013-07-01

    Bulk amorphous formation in Ti-Cu-based multicomponent alloys, free of Ni, Pd and Be elements, were studied using the cluster-plus-glue-atom model. The basic cluster formula was revealed as [Ti9Cu6]Cu3 to explain the best binary glass forming composition Ti50Cu50=Ti9Cu9, where the CN14 rhombi-dodecahedron Ti9Cu6 was the principal cluster in the devitrification phase CuTi. This basic cluster formula was further alloyed with Zr and Sn and a critical glass forming ability was reached at (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.72Sn0.28) and (Ti7.2Zr1.8)(Cu8.45Sn0.55) up to 5 mm in diameter by suction casting, which was the largest in Ti-Cu-based and Ni-, Pd- and Be-free alloys.

  6. One-step synthesis of TiO₂ nanorod arrays on Ti foil for supercapacitor application.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Zhi; Chen, Jiajun; Yoshida, Ryuji; Gao, Xiang; Tarr, Kayla; Ikuhara, Yumi H; Zhou, Weilie

    2014-10-31

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanorod arrays grown directly on Ti metal foil were prepared by a facile one-step hydrothermal method, in which the Ti foil serves as both substrate and precursor. The nanorods are tetragonal rutile single crystal with growth orientation along the [001] direction. The electrochemical properties of the TiO2 nanorod arrays were systematically investigated by cyclic voltammetry, galvanostatic charge/discharge and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy using a three-electrode system. As a result, the TiO2 nanorod arrays exhibit good areal specific capacitance and excellent cyclic stability by retaining more than 98% of the initial specific capacitance after 1000 cycles. In addition, a good flexibility of the Ti foil with TiO2 nanorod arrays was demonstrated by the stable electrochemical performance under different bending angles, which indicates that TiO2 nanorod arrays grown on Ti foil could be a promising electrode material for flexible supercapacitor application.

  7. Synthesis and characterization of TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 nanostructure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gahlot, Swati; Thakur, Amit Kumar; Kulshrestha, Vaibhav; Shahi, V. K.

    2013-02-01

    Single phase anatase TiO2 nanoparticles were prepared using Titanium tertachloride (TiCl4) as precursor through an inexpensive method. Well dispersed nanocomposites of silver at TiO2 were synthesized successfully by photochemical route. Both TiO2 and Ag/TiO2 were characterized using X-Ray Diffraction (XRD) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The particle size of TiO2 is found to be ˜ 11 nm and ˜ 22 nm for Ag/TiO2, by XRD and confirmed by TEM. TEM micrographs also show the single phase crystal of TiO2 and confirm the deposition of silver among TiO2.

  8. Investigation on W/Fe diffusion bonding using Ti foil and Ti powder interlayer by SPS

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Hong-Yu; Luo, Lai-Ma; Zhang, Jun; Zan, Xiang; Zhu, Xiao-Yong; Luo, Guang-Nan; Wu, Yu-Cheng

    2015-12-01

    W/steel composites are being developed for potential application in He gas-cooled divertors and plasma-facing components in fusion reactors. In this study, the dissimilar metal joints between W and Fe were fabricated at 950 °C via spark plasma sintering method with Ti foil (Ti-F) and Ti powder (Ti-P) as the interlayer under Ar atmosphere for 5 min at 57 MPa. Microscopic structures of the W/Fe diffusion joints with Ti-F and Ti-P were investigated and compared via field-emission scanning electron microscopy and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. Thermal cycling tests were employed to measure the thermal stability of different types of W/Ti/Fe samples. The hardness distribution across joining interfaces was also determined. After thermal cycling tests, a crack occurred along the W/Ti-P interface in the W/Ti-P/Fe samples, whereas the W/Ti-F/Fe samples were intact at the interfaces. Results revealed that Ti-F is more suitable as an interlayer than Ti-P, and the interfaces of the W/Ti-F/Fe samples have better thermal stability than those of the W/Ti-P/Fe ones.

  9. Reactive sintering of TiAl–Ti5Si3 in situ composites

    SciTech Connect

    Alman, David E.

    2005-06-01

    TiAl with between 0 and 20 vol%Ti5Si3 was produced by reactive sintering (700 °C for 15 min in vacuum) of cold pressed compacts of elemental Ti, Al and Si powder. The results show that adding Si to Ti and Al reduces the swelling associated with reactive sintering of TiAl, as composites containing more than 5 vol%Ti5Si3 densified during reactive sintering. However, composites containing more than 10 vol%Ti5Si3 did not retain their shape and the TiAl+20 vol%Ti5Si3 composite completely melted during the sintering process. A thermodynamic analysis indicated that the simultaneous formation of TiAl and Ti5Si3 increases the adiabatic flame temperature during the reaction between the powders. In fact, the analysis predicted that the maximum temperature of the reaction associated with the formation TiAl+20 vol%Ti5Si3 should exceed the melting point of TiAl, and this was observed experimentally. Differential thermal analysis (DTA) revealed that an Al–Si eutectic reaction occurred in mixtures of Ti, Al and Si powders prior to the formation of the TiAl and Ti5Si3 phases. There was no such pre-reaction formation of a eutectic liquid in Ti and Al powder mixtures. The formation of the pre-reaction liquid and the increase in adiabatic flame temperature resulted in the melting that occurred and the enhanced densification (minimization of swelling) during reactive sintering of the in situ composites.

  10. Experimental study on the osseointegration of foam TiC/Ti composites.

    PubMed

    Jingyu, Wang; Lin, Wu; Yong, Gao; Jinsong, Zhang; Cuicui, Zhang

    2013-08-01

    Macroporous ceramics have demonstrated osteoconductive properties because of their biocompatibility and 3D macroporous structure, and these materials have recently been widely studied as bone replacement materials. The foam TiC/Ti composites discussed in this study have good mechanical properties, balancing out metallic toughness and ceramic strength. Furthermore, because of the high porosity and pore connectivity of these TiC/Ti composites, they have the potential to be a new bone replacement material. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the osseointegration of foam TiC/Ti composites, preliminarily discuss the TiC/Ti ossification mechanism, and to obtain reliable data on the use of foam TiC/Ti composites as bone replacement materials. The foam TiC/Ti composites were sited in 40 Japanese white rabbits for 4, 8, 12 and 24 weeks. The foam TiC/Ti composites were compared to foam SiC. M-CT (micro-computed tomography) analysis, histological analysis, SEM (scanning electron microscopy) observation and EDS (energy-dispersive x-ray spectrometer) analysis were conducted to estimate the osseointegration of the materials. The histological observations and quantitative analysis exhibited significantly more ossification area (volume), trabeculae maturity, and calcium and phosphorus content in the foam TiC/Ti composites compared to the foam SiC (p < 0.05). The results from this study suggest that the foam TiC/Ti composites possess good osseointegration capacity and have the potential to be a new bone replacement material.

  11. Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coating adhesion mechanism on a Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jianzhong; Zheng, Hua; Sinkovits, Theo; Hee, Ay Ching; Zhao, Yue

    2015-11-01

    Mono- and multiple TiN(/Ti) coatings deposited on Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloy substrates by the filtered arc deposition system were examined using scratch testing and depth-sensing indentation in terms of the relationship between the coating adhesion, deformation mechanism, and microstructure, and mechanical properties at the film/substrate interface. The results show that multilayer TiN/Ti coatings offer a greater resistance to cracking and delamination than monolithic TiN coatings under the same conditions on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates. And increasing the number of layers for TiN multilayer coating improves the coatings adhesion. In contrast, for the coatings on the Ti-13Nb-13Zr alloys substrates that were heat-treated to a higher hardness, the limited deformation in the substrates improved remarkably the coating adhesion indiscriminately. The substrate mechanical properties play the major roles in controlling the coating adhesion, and increasing thickness and layers of the TiN multilayer have a limited improvement to the adhesion of coating.

  12. NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites. Part 2: Compressive mechanical properties

    SciTech Connect

    Fukami-Ushiro, K.L.; Mari, D.; Dunand, D.C.

    1996-01-01

    The deformation behavior under uniaxial compression of NiTi containing 0, 10, and 20 vol pct TiC particulates is investigated both below and above the matrix martensitic transformation temperature: (1) at room temperature, where the martensitic matrix deforms plastically by slip and/or twinning; and (2) at elevated temperature, where plastic deformation of the austenitic matrix takes place by slip and/or formation of stress-induced martensite. The effect of TiC particles on the stress-strain curves of the composites depends upon which of these deformation mechanisms is dominant. First, in the low-strain elastic region, the mismatch between the stiff, elastic particles and the elastic-plastic matrix is relaxed in the composites: (1) by twinning of the martensitic matrix; and (2) by dislocation slip of the austenitic matrix. Second, in the moderate-strain plastic region where nonslip deformation mechanisms are dominant, mismatch dislocations stabilize the matrix for all samples, thus (1) reducing the extent of twinning in the martensitic samples or (2) reducing the formation of stress-induced martensite in the austenitic samples. This leads to a strengthening of the composites, similar to the strain-hardening effect observed in metal matrix composites deforming solely by slip. Third, in the high-strain region controlled by dislocation slip, weakening of the NiTi composites results, because the matrix contains (1) untwinned martensite or (2) retained austenite, which exhibit lower slip yield stress than twinned or stress-induced martensite, respectively.

  13. The Interface of TiB2 and Al3Ti in Molten Aluminum

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaoming; Song, Jie; Vian, Wei; Ma, Haibin; Han, Qingyou

    2016-12-01

    In the grain refinement of aluminum, Al3Ti and TiB2 particles are introduced to reduce the casting grain size down to 200 micrometer level, which makes cold working possible. The particles are brought in by the addition of Al-Ti-B-type master alloys. It is generally believed that TiB2 particles are stable and nucleate α-Al grains in solidification in the presence of titanium in solution from the dissolution of Al3Ti particles in the master alloys. The titanium in solution either forms Al3Ti layers on the surface of TiB2 particles to promote the nucleation of α-Al grains or remains as solute to restrict the growth of α-Al grains in solidification. However, a consensus on a grain refinement mechanism is still to be reached due to the lack of direct observation of the three phases in castings. This paper presents finding of the TiB2/Al3Ti interfaces in an Al-Ti-B master alloy. It demonstrates a strong epitaxial growth of Al3Ti on the surface of TiB2 particles, a sign of the formation of an Al3Ti layer on the surface of TiB2 particles in grain refinement practice. The Al3Ti layer has a crystal coherency with α-Al and hence offers a substrate for heterogeneous nucleation of α-Al grains. However, the layer must be dynamic to avoid the formation of compounded Al3Ti and TiB2 particles leading to the loss of efficiency in grain refinement.

  14. Fabrication of TiCx-TiB2/Al Composites for Application as a Heat Sink

    PubMed Central

    Shu, Shili; Yang, Hongyu; Tong, Cunzhu; Qiu, Feng

    2016-01-01

    Metal matrix composites reinforced with ceramic particles have become the most attractive material in the research and development of new materials for thermal management applications. In this work, 40–60 vol. % TiCx-TiB2/Al composites were successfully fabricated by the method of combustion synthesis and hot press consolidation in an Al-Ti-B4C system. The effect of the TiCx-TiB2 content on the microstructure and compression properties of the composites was investigated. Moreover, the abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite were studied and compared with the TiCx/Al composite. The compression properties, abrasive wear behavior and thermo-physics properties of the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite are all better than those of the TiCx/Al composite, which confirms that the TiCx-TiB2/Al composite is more appropriate for application as a heat sink. PMID:28773765

  15. Study and characterization of the irreversible transformation of electrically stressed planar Ti/TiO{sub x}/Ti junctions

    SciTech Connect

    Guillaume, N.; Puyoo, E. Le Berre, M.; Albertini, D.; Baboux, N.; Chevalier, C.; Ayadi, K.; Grégoire, J.; Gautier, B.; Calmon, F.

    2015-10-14

    We investigate the properties and characteristics of planar Ti/TiO{sub x}/Ti junctions, which consist of transverse TiO{sub x} lines drawn on Ti test patterns. Junctions are elaborated by means of local anodic oxidation using atomic force microscopy. An irreversible morphological transformation occurring in a reproducible manner is observed when these planar junctions are electrically stressed under ambient atmosphere. Structural and chemical analyses based on transmission electron microscopy techniques reveal the extension of the initial amorphous TiO{sub x} into a crystalline rutile phase. This irreversible transformation is proven to vanish completely if the electrical stress occurs under vacuum atmosphere. Finally, we carry out temperature dependent electrical measurements in order to elucidate their conduction mechanism: Schottky emission above an ultra-low potential barrier is assumed to dominate under vacuum atmosphere whereas ionic conduction seems to prevail in air.

  16. B-Ni-Ti (164)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Carow-Watamura, U.; Louzguine, D. V.; Takeuchi, A.

    This document is part of Part 2 http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/97.etType="URL"/> 'Systems from B-Be-Fe to Co-W-Zr' of Subvolume B 'Physical Properties of Ternary Amorphous Alloys' of Volume 37 'Phase Diagrams and Physical Properties of Nonequilibrium Alloys' of Landolt-Börnstein - Group III 'Condensed Matter'. It contains the Chapter 'B-Ni-Ti (164)' with the content:

  17. Influence of TiCl4 precursor in hydrothermal synthesis of TiO2 nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kartikay, Purnendu; Nemala, Siva Sankar; Mallick, Sudhanshu

    2017-05-01

    Rutile TiO2 films were deposited on the FTO substrate by the hydrothermal process using TTIP and TiCl4 as the titania precursor. Our study manifestly exhibits the influence of TiCl4 precursor on the hydrothermal growth of the TiO2 structure. The morphology of prepared film varies from nano-cauliflower to nano-flower to nano-parallelepiped rod-like structure with the addition of TiCl4 as the precursor. When TiCl4 is introduced in the precursor HCl corresponding to four times of the Ti4+ concentration is generated as a by-product during the reaction, these additional HCl promotes the etching of the nanostructure enabling the nanostructure to unfurl. We conclude that the tailoring of the nanostructure can be performed by addition of TiCl4 in the precursor

  18. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis of TiC in Al-Ti-C system.

    PubMed

    Liu, Zhiwei; Rakita, Milan; Xu, Wilson; Wang, Xiaoming; Han, Qingyou

    2015-11-01

    This research investigated the effects of high-intensity ultrasound on the combustion synthesis of TiC particles in Al-Ti-C system. The process involved that high-intensity ultrasound was applied on the surface of a compacted Al-Ti-C pellet directly through a Nb probe during the thermal explosion reaction. By comparing with the sample without ultrasonic treatment, it was found that the thermal explosion reaction for synthesizing TiC phase could take place thoroughly in the ultrasonically treated sample. During the process of synthesizing TiC phase, the dissolution of solid graphite particles into the Al-Ti melt, as well as the nucleation and growth of TiC particles could be promoted effectively due to the effects of ultrasound, leading to an enhancement of the formation of TiC particles. Ultrasound assisted combustion synthesis as a simple and effective approach was proposed for synthesizing materials in this research.

  19. Investigation of TiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and TiN-coated TiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites

    SciTech Connect

    Jow-Lay Huang; Boy-Yuan Shew; Ding-Fwu Lii

    1996-12-31

    Silicon nitride containing various compositions of as received TiC and TiN-coated TiC were hot pressed at 1800{degrees}C for 1 h in a nitrogen atmosphere. In TiN-coated TiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites, TiC reacted firstly with the TiN coating to form a titanium carbonitride interlayer at 1450{degrees}C, which essentially reduced further reactions between TiC and Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} and enhanced densification. TiN-coated TiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} composites exhibited better densification, flexural strength and fracture toughness than those of as received TiC/Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}.

  20. Formation of (Ti,Al)N/Ti{sub 2}AlN multilayers after annealing of TiN/TiAl(N) multilayers deposited by ion beam sputtering

    SciTech Connect

    Dolique, V.; Jaouen, M.; Cabioc'h, T.; Pailloux, F.; Guerin, Ph.; Pelosin, V.

    2008-04-15

    By using ion beam sputtering, TiN/TiAl(N) multilayers of various modulation wavelengths ({lambda}=8, 13, and 32 nm) were deposited onto silicon substrates at room temperature. After annealing at 600 deg. C in vacuum, one obtains for {lambda}=13 nm a (Ti,Al)N/Ti{sub 2}AlN multilayer as it is evidenced from x-ray diffraction, high resolution transmission electron microscopy, and energy filtered electron imaging experiments. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) experiments show that the as-deposited TiAl sublayers contain a noticeable amount of nitrogen atoms which mean concentration varies with the period {lambda}. They also evidenced the diffusion of aluminum into TiN sublayers after annealing. Deduced from these observations, we propose a model to explain why this solid-state phase transformation depends on the period {lambda} of the multilayer.

  1. TiC reinforced cast chromium steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, Omer N.; Rawers, James C.; Hawk, Jeffrey A.; Schrems, Karol K.

    2003-11-01

    A series of new titanium carbide reinforced cast chromium steels were developed for wear applications. Objective of the program was to enhance wear resistant alloys and, if possible, improve mechanical properties. The new steels which were melted in a vacuum induction furnace contained 12 Cr, 3-5 Ti, 1-2 C in weight percent. Alloying with Ti changed the precipitate microstructure from Cr carbide to TiC dispersed in a martensitic matrix. Yield strength and impact resistance improved with Ti alloying. Wear rates of the cast Cr/TiC steels, (determined from high- and low-stress abrasion tests, erosion test, and scratch tests) were generally lower than both the as-cast and heat-treated AISI type 440°C steel and were often further reduced by increasing the Ti alloy concentration. The exceptions were the erosion test for which all materials had similar wear rate.

  2. Toward optimizing dental implant performance: Surface characterization of Ti and TiZr implant materials.

    PubMed

    Murphy, M; Walczak, M S; Thomas, A G; Silikas, N; Berner, S; Lindsay, R

    2017-01-01

    Targeting understanding enhanced osseointegration kinetics, the goal of this study was to characterize the surface morphology and composition of Ti and TiZr dental implant substrates subjected to one of two surface treatments developed by Straumann. These two treatments are typically known as SLA and SLActive, with the latter resulting in more rapid osseointegration. A range of techniques was applied to characterize four different substrate/surface treatment combinations (TiSLA, TiSLActive, TiZrSLA, and TiZrSLActive). Contact angle measurements established their hydrophilic/hydrophobic nature. Surface morphology was probed with scanning electron microscopy. X-ray diffraction, Raman μ-spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy were used to elucidate the composition of the near-surface region. Consistent with previous work, surface morphology was found to differ only at the nanoscale, with both SLActive substrates displaying nano-protrusions. Spectroscopic data indicate that all substrates exhibit surface films of titanium oxide displaying near TiO2 stoichiometry. Raman μ-spectroscopy reveals that amorphous TiO2 is most likely the only phase present on TiSLA, whilst rutile-TiO2 is also evidenced on TiSLActive, TiZrSLA, and TiZrSLActive. For TiZr alloy substrates, there is no evidence of discrete phases of oxidized Zr. X-ray photoelectron spectra demonstrate that all samples are terminated by adventitious carbon, with it being somewhat thicker (∼1nm) on TiSLA and TiZrSLA. Given previous in vivo studies, acquired data suggest that both nanoscale protrusions, and a thinner layer of adventitious carbon contribute to the more rapid osseointegration of SLActive dental implants. Composition of the surface oxide layer is apparently less important in determining osseointegration kinetics. Copyright © 2016 The Academy of Dental Materials. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Oxide Scales Formed on NiTi and NiPtTi Shape Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Smialek, James L.; Garg, Anita; Rogers, Richard B.; Noebe, Ronald D.

    2011-01-01

    Ni-49Ti and Ni-30Pt-50Ti (at.%) shape memory alloys were oxidized isothermally in air over the temperature range of 500 to 900 C. The microstructure, composition, and phase content of the scales were studied by SEM, EDS, XRD, and metallography. Extensive plan view SEM/EDS identified various features of intact or spalled scale surfaces. The outer surface of the scale was a relatively pure TiO2 rutile structure, typified by a distinct highly striated and faceted crystal morphology. Crystal size increased significantly with temperature. Spalled regions exhibited some porosity and less distinct features. More detailed information was obtained by correlation of SEM/EDS studies of 700 C/100 hr cross-sections with XRD analyses of serial or taper-polishing of plan surfaces. Overall, multiple layers exhibited graded mixtures of NiO, TiO2, NiTiO3, Ni(Ti) or Pt(Ni,Ti) metal dispersoids, Ni3Ti or Pt3Ti depletion zones, and substrate, in that order. The NiTi alloy contained a 3 at.% Fe impurity that appeared in embedded localized Fe-Ti-rich oxides, while the NiPtTi alloy contained a 2 v/o dispersion of TiC that appeared in lower layers. The oxidation kinetics of both alloys (in a previous report) indicated parabolic growth and an activation energy (250 kJ/mole) near those reported in other Ti and NiTi studies. This is generally consistent with TiO2 existing as the primary scale constituent, as described here.

  4. Point defect study of CuTi and CuTi sub 2

    SciTech Connect

    Shoemaker, J.R.; Lutton, R.T.; Wesley, D.; Wharton, W.R.; Oehrli, M.L.; Herte, M.S.; Sabochick, M.J. ); Lam, N.Q. )

    1991-03-01

    The energies and configurations of interstitials and vacancies in the ordered compounds CuTi and CuTi{sub 2} were determined using atomistic simulation with realistic embedded-atom potentials. The formation energy of an antisite pair was found to be 0.385 and 0.460 eV in CuTi and CuTi{sub 2}, respectively. In both compounds, the creation of a vacancy by the removal of either a Cu or Ti atom resulted in a vacant Cu site, with an adjacent antisite defect in the case of the Ti vacancy. The vacant Cu site in CuTi was found to be very mobile within two adjacent (001) Cu planes, with a migration energy of 0.19 eV, giving rise to two-dimensional migration. The vacancy migration energy across (001) Ti planes, however, was 1.32 eV, which could be lowered to 0.75 or 0.60 eV if one or two Cu antisite defects were initially present in these planes. In CuTi{sub 2}, the vacancy migration energy of 0.92 eV along the (001) Cu plane was significantly higher than in CuTi. The effective vacancy formation energies were calculated to be 1.09 eV and 0.90 eV in CuTi and CuTi{sub 2}, respectively. Interstitials created by inserting either a Cu or Ti atom had complicated configurations in which a Cu {l angle}111{r angle} split interstitial was surrounded by two or three Ti antisite defects. The interstitial formation energy was estimated to be 1.7 eV in CuTi and 1.9 eV in CuTi{sub 2}.

  5. Deformation and fracture of Ti- and Ti3Al-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, J.M.; Jeng, S.M. )

    1992-06-01

    Continuous fiber-reinforced composites having Ti-alloy or Ti aluminide matrices are under consideration for refractory aerospace structural applications. An account is presently given of microscopic damage mechanisms, flaw evolution, and fracture behavior of fiber-reinforced Ti alloy and Ti aluminide matrices under various loading conditions. Attention is given to representative levels of tensile behavior, low-cycle fatigue and fatigue-crack propagation, and creep and environmentally-assisted damage. 40 refs.

  6. CO gas-sensing properties of CuO-TiN and CuO-TiN-TiO2 prepared by controlled oxidation of Cu-TiN composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Park, Je-Shin; Lim, Chae-Hun; Cho, Young-Ki; Yu, Yeon-Tae

    2015-03-01

    P-type Cu-TiN composites sensitive to CO gas, CuO-TiN and CuO-TiN-TiO2, were synthesized by ball milling Cu33Ti67 and Cu15Ti85 alloys for 25 h in a pressurized N2 atmosphere. The sensing materials of CuO-TiN and CuO-TiN-TiO2 were prepared via a two-step oxidation process following an investigation of their CO gas-sensing properties. Their sensing responses for CO gas were compared; typical for p-type semiconductors, the resistances of both sensing materials increased as CO was introduced. The CuO-TiN-TiO2 powder had a greater response than the CuO-TiN powder at all temperatures tested. The highest responses shown by the two materials were to 1000 ppm CO at 250 °C: a response of 5.4 by CuO-TiN-TiO2 and 3.1 by CuO-TiN. During the first oxidation step of CuO-TiN-TiO2, micropores were formed that significantly increased this material's specific surface area. Therefore, we believe that the superior response of the CuO-TiN-TiO2 sensing material was due to this surface area enlargement during the oxidation treatment.

  7. Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photocatalytic Properties of Ti3+-doped TiO2

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Ren; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Hou, Yang; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong

    2015-01-01

    Photocatalysts show great potential in environmental remediation and water splitting using either artificial or natural light. Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts are studied most frequently because they are stable, non-toxic, readily available, and highly efficient. However, the relatively wide band gap of TiO2 significantly limits its use under visible light or solar light. We herein report a facile route for controllable synthesis of Ti3+-doped TiO2 with tunable photocatalytic properties using a hydrothermal method with varying amounts of reductant, i.e., sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The resulting TiO2 showed color changes from light yellow, light grey, to dark grey with the increasing amount of NaBH4. The present method can controllably and effectively reduce Ti4+ on the surface of TiO2 and induce partial transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile TiO2, with the evolution of nanoparticles into hierarchical structures attributable to a high pressure and strong alkali environment in the synthesis atmosphere; in this way, the photocatalytic activity of Ti3+-doped TiO2 under visible-light can be tuned. The as-developed strategy may open up a new avenue for designing and functionalizing TiO2 materials for enhancing visible light absorption, narrowing band gap, and improving photocatalytic activity. PMID:26044406

  8. Controllable Synthesis and Tunable Photocatalytic Properties of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2.

    PubMed

    Ren, Ren; Wen, Zhenhai; Cui, Shumao; Hou, Yang; Guo, Xiaoru; Chen, Junhong

    2015-06-05

    Photocatalysts show great potential in environmental remediation and water splitting using either artificial or natural light. Titanium dioxide (TiO2)-based photocatalysts are studied most frequently because they are stable, non-toxic, readily available, and highly efficient. However, the relatively wide band gap of TiO2 significantly limits its use under visible light or solar light. We herein report a facile route for controllable synthesis of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 with tunable photocatalytic properties using a hydrothermal method with varying amounts of reductant, i.e., sodium borohydride (NaBH4). The resulting TiO2 showed color changes from light yellow, light grey, to dark grey with the increasing amount of NaBH4. The present method can controllably and effectively reduce Ti(4+) on the surface of TiO2 and induce partial transformation of anatase TiO2 to rutile TiO2, with the evolution of nanoparticles into hierarchical structures attributable to a high pressure and strong alkali environment in the synthesis atmosphere; in this way, the photocatalytic activity of Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 under visible-light can be tuned. The as-developed strategy may open up a new avenue for designing and functionalizing TiO2 materials for enhancing visible light absorption, narrowing band gap, and improving photocatalytic activity.

  9. TiCl, TiH and TiH+ Bond Energies, a Test of a Correlation Consistent Ti Basis Set

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, Charles W., Jr.; Arnold, James O. (Technical Monitor)

    1999-01-01

    Correlation consistent basis sets are developed for Ti atom. The polarization functions are optimized for the average of the 3F and 5F states. One series of correlation consistent basis sets is for 3d and 4s correlation, while the second series includes 3s and 3p correlation as well as 3d and 4s correlation. These basis sets are tested using the Ti 3F-5F separation and the dissociation energies of TiCl X4Phi, TiH X4Phi, and TiH(+) X3Phi. The CCSD(T) complete basis set limit values are determined by extrapolation. The Douglas Kroll approach is used to compute the scalar relativistic effect. Spin-orbit effects are taken from experiment and/or computed at the CASSCF level. The Ti 3F-5F separation is in excellent agreement with experiment, while the TiCl, TiH, and TiH(+) bond energies are in good agreement with experiment. Extrapolation with the valence basis set is consistent with other atoms, while including 3s and 3p correlation appears to make extrapolation.

  10. Ti(3+) in meteoritic and synthetic hibonite

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Beckett, John R.; Stolper, Edward; Live, David; Tsay, Fun-Dow; Grossman, Lawrence

    1988-01-01

    This paper describes the first direct determination (performed by electron spin resonance spectroscopy) of Ti(3+) in hibonite from inclusion SH-7 of the Murchison C2 chondrite and in synthetic hibonites of four compositions, three of which corresponded to the compositions of blue hibonites and one to that of an orange hibonite. The Ti(3+) concentration in the hibonite from SH-7 was found to range from 0.35 to 0.44 percent, while the Ti(3+) contents in three synthetic blue hibonites ranged from 0.02 to 0.64 percent. Orange hibonite contained no Ti(3+), supporting an earlier conclusion that the orange-to-blue transition is associated with the presence of Ti(3+). At constant temperature and oxygen fugacity, the Ti(3+)/Ti(4+) ratio in synthetic hibonites was found to increase with decreasing V, but was not strongly dependent on bulk Ti. Fe and Cr contents did not have a significant effect on the amount of Ti(3+).

  11. Understanding the Magnesiothermic Reduction Mechanism of TiO2 to Produce Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyunsuk; Choi, Hanshin; Sohn, Il

    2017-04-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders in the mineral form of rutile were reduced to metallic and an intermediate phase via a magnesiothermic reaction in molten Mg at temperatures between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C) under high-purity Ar atmosphere. The reaction behavior and pathway indicated intermediate phase formation during the magnesiothermic reduction of TiO2 using XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope), and TEM (transmission electron microscope). Mg/TiO2 = 2 resulted in various intermediate phases of oxygen containing titanium, including Ti6O, Ti3O, and Ti2O, with metallic Ti present. MgTi2O4 ternary intermediate phases could also be observed, but they were dependent on the excess Mg present in the sample. Nevertheless, even with excessive amounts of Mg at Mg/TiO2 = 10, complete reduction to metallic Ti could not be obtained and some Ti6O intermediate phases were present. Although thermodynamics do not predict the formation of the MgTi2O4 spinel phase, detailed phase identification through XRD, SEM, and TEM showed significant amounts of this intermediate ternary phase even at excess Mg additions. Considering the stepwise reduction of TiO2 by Mg and the pronounced amounts of MgTi2O4 phase observed, the rate-limiting reaction is likely the reduction of MgTi2O4 to the TitO phase. Thus, an additional reduction step beyond thermodynamic predictions was developed.

  12. Understanding the Magnesiothermic Reduction Mechanism of TiO2 to Produce Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Choi, Kyunsuk; Choi, Hanshin; Sohn, Il

    2017-01-01

    Titanium dioxide (TiO2) powders in the mineral form of rutile were reduced to metallic and an intermediate phase via a magnesiothermic reaction in molten Mg at temperatures between 973 K and 1173 K (700 °C and 900 °C) under high-purity Ar atmosphere. The reaction behavior and pathway indicated intermediate phase formation during the magnesiothermic reduction of TiO2 using XRD (X-ray diffraction), SEM (scanning electron microscope), and TEM (transmission electron microscope). Mg/TiO2 = 2 resulted in various intermediate phases of oxygen containing titanium, including Ti6O, Ti3O, and Ti2O, with metallic Ti present. MgTi2O4 ternary intermediate phases could also be observed, but they were dependent on the excess Mg present in the sample. Nevertheless, even with excessive amounts of Mg at Mg/TiO2 = 10, complete reduction to metallic Ti could not be obtained and some Ti6O intermediate phases were present. Although thermodynamics do not predict the formation of the MgTi2O4 spinel phase, detailed phase identification through XRD, SEM, and TEM showed significant amounts of this intermediate ternary phase even at excess Mg additions. Considering the stepwise reduction of TiO2 by Mg and the pronounced amounts of MgTi2O4 phase observed, the rate-limiting reaction is likely the reduction of MgTi2O4 to the TitO phase. Thus, an additional reduction step beyond thermodynamic predictions was developed.

  13. Biomineralisation with Saos-2 bone cells on TiSiN sputtered Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    V V, Anusha Thampi; Bendavid, Avi; Martin, P J; Vaithilingam, Vijay; Bean, Penelope A; Evans, Margaret D M; Subramanian, B

    2017-07-01

    Surface modifications of metallic implants are important in order to protect the underlying metals from the harsh corrosive environment inside the human body and to minimize the losses caused by wear. Recently, researches are carried out in developing bioactive surfaces on metallic implants, which supports the growth and proliferation of cells on to these surfaces. Titanium silicon nitride (TiSiN) hard nanocomposites thin films were fabricated on Ti alloys (Ti-6Al-4V) by pulsed direct current (DC) reactive magnetron sputtering. The films were characterized for its microstructural and electrochemical behavior. The higher charge transfer resistance (Rct) and positive shift in Ecorr value of TiSiN/Ti alloys than the bare Ti-alloys indicates a better corrosion resistance offered by the TiSiN thin films to the underlying substrates. The biological response to TiSiN/Ti alloys and control bare Ti-alloys was measured in vitro using cell-based assays with two main outcomes. Firstly, neither the Ti alloy nor the TiSiN thin film was cytotoxic to cells. Secondly, the TiSiN thin film promoted differentiation of human bone cells above the bare control Ti alloy as measured by alkaline phosphatase and calcium production. TiSiN thin films provide better corrosion resistance and protect the underlying metal from the corrosive environment. The thin film surface is both biocompatible and bioactive as indicated from the cytotoxicity and biomineralization studies. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  14. Porous NiTi shape memory alloys produced by SHS: microstructure and biocompatibility in comparison with Ti2Ni and TiNi3.

    PubMed

    Bassani, Paola; Panseri, Silvia; Ruffini, Andrea; Montesi, Monica; Ghetti, Martina; Zanotti, Claudio; Tampieri, Anna; Tuissi, Ausonio

    2014-10-01

    Shape memory alloys based on NiTi have found their main applications in manufacturing of new biomedical devices mainly in surgery tools, stents and orthopedics. Porous NiTi can exhibit an engineering elastic modulus comparable to that of cortical bone (12-17 GPa). This condition, combined with proper pore size, allows good osteointegration. Open cells porous NiTi was produced by self propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS), starting from Ni and Ti mixed powders. The main NiTi phase is formed during SHS together with other Ni-Ti compounds. The biocompatibility of such material was investigated by single culture experiment and ionic release on small specimen. In particular, NiTi and porous NiTi were evaluated together with elemental Ti and Ni reference metals and the two intermetallic TiNi3, Ti2Ni phases. This approach permitted to clearly identify the influence of secondary phases in porous NiTi materials and relation with Ni-ion release. The results indicated, apart the well-known high toxicity of Ni, also toxicity of TiNi3, whilst phases with higher Ti content showed high biocompatibility. A slightly reduced biocompatibility of porous NiTi was ascribed to combined effect of TiNi3 presence and topography that requires higher effort for the cells to adapt to the surface.

  15. Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating on Ti-6Al-4V: surface characteristics, corrosion properties and cellular responses.

    PubMed

    Cao, Xiao-Lin; Sun, Tao; Yu, Yonghao

    2015-03-01

    To enhance the corrosion resistance of Ti-6Al-4V and extend its lifetime in medical applications, Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating was synthesized on the surface via plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID). Surface morphology and cross sectional morphology of the composite coating were characterized using atomic force microscopy and scanning electron microscopy, respectively. Although X-ray photoelectron spectroscopic analysis revealed that the Ti-O-N/Ti composite coating was composed of non-stoichiometric titanium oxide, titanium nitride and titanium oxynitride, no obvious characteristic peak corresponding to the crystalline phases of them was detected in the X-ray diffraction pattern. In accordance with Owens-Wendt equation, surface free energy of the uncoated and coated samples was calculated and compared. Moreover, the corrosion behavior of uncoated and coated samples was evaluated by means of electrochemical impedance spectroscopy measurement, and an equivalent circuit deriving from Randles model was used to fit Bode plots and describe the electrochemical processes occurring at the sample/electrolyte interface. On the basis of the equivalent circuit model, the resistance of the composite coating was 4.7 times higher than that of the passive layer on uncoated samples, indicating the enhanced corrosion resistance after PIIID treatment. Compared to uncoated Ti-6Al-V, Ti-O-N/Ti-coated samples facilitated ostoblast proliferation within 7 days of cell culture, while there was no statistically significant difference in alkaline phosphate activity between uncoated and coated samples during 21 days of cell culture.

  16. Phase stability and microstructure of Al-Ti-Fe near Al{sub 3}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.Y.; Goo, E.

    1995-05-01

    The phase stability and microstructure of Al-Ti-Fe near Al{sub 3}Ti at 800 C are studied by using high resolution electron microscopy and backscattered electron imaging. One of the most significant changes resulting from the addition of small amounts of iron in this system is to convert tetragonal Al{sub 3}Ti or Al{sub 2}Ti into cubic Ll{sub 2} structures. In addition, the added iron can change the stacking structure of Al{sub 2}Ti and the domain size of the long-period one-dimensional antiphase domain structures. A partial ternary phase diagram in this region is also determined.

  17. Effects of Ti content on the structural and the magnetic properties of ZnCrO:Ti (Cr: 1 at.%, Ti: 0 - 0.8 at.%) thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lee, Youngmin; Shon, Yoon; Yoon, Im Taek; Kim, Deuk Young; Lee, Sejoon

    2016-12-01

    We investigated the effects of the Ti content on the structural and the magnetic properties of ZnCrO:Ti thin films (Cr: 1.0 at.%, Ti: 0 - 0.8 at.%). The samples were prepared by co-sputtering of ZnCrO and Ti and showed the Ti solution limit to be 0.3 at.%. When the Ti additives were doped with an appropriate concentration less than the solution limit, the magnetic properties of the films were improved due to the increased magnetic moments from Ti2+ ions ( i.e., 3d24s0). For the samples doped with large amounts of Ti dopants over the solution limit, however, the magnetization was gradually degraded due to the formation of metastable TiO2 and ZnCrTiO having no spins ( i.e., 3d04s0).

  18. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching characteristics in TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} multilayer

    SciTech Connect

    Ma, W. J.; Zhang, X. Y.; Wang, Ying; Zheng, Yue E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Lin, S. P.; Luo, J. M.; Wang, B. E-mail: wangbiao@mail.sysu.edu.cn; Li, Z. X.

    2013-12-23

    Nanoscale multilayer structure TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} has been fabricated on Pt/Ti/SiO{sub 2}/Si substrate by chemical solution deposition method. Highly uniform bipolar resistive switching (BRS) characteristics have been observed in Pt/TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2}/Pt cells. Analysis of the current-voltage relationship demonstrates that the space-charge-limited current conduction controlled by the localized oxygen vacancies should be important to the resistive switching behavior. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicated that oxygen vacancies in TiO{sub 2} play a crucial role in the resistive switching phenomenon and the introduced TiO{sub 2}/BaTiO{sub 3} interfaces result in the high uniformity of bipolar resistive switching characteristics.

  19. Creep behavior of alloys based on TiAl containing TiB sub 2 and TiN particulates

    SciTech Connect

    Martin, P.L.; Carter, D.H.; Aikin, R.M. Sr. ); Aikin, R.M. Jr.; Christodoulou, L. )

    1990-01-01

    Ordered alloys based on the L1{sub 0} crystal structure compound TiAl were tested in constant stress creep. The alloys ranged from 45 to 47 at. % Al with and without V substitutions. The ingot processing, utilizing the XD{trademark} technique, incorporated 1 to 5 {mu}m diameter particles of boride or nitride compounds. Emphasis was placed on characterizing the initial stages of creep using digital data acquisition and analysis in the range 70 to 280 MPa stress and 760 to 850{degrees}C temperature. When TiN (converting to Ti{sub 2}AlN in processing) and TiB{sub 2} are both added to the matrix, the creep properties are significantly improved. Fine particles were observed to decorate dislocations and to have nucleated homogeneously within the TiAl grains. 16 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  20. Laser processing of in situ TiN/Ti composite coating on titanium.

    PubMed

    Sahasrabudhe, Himanshu; Soderlind, Julie; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2016-01-01

    Laser remelting of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) surface was done in a nitrogen rich inert atmosphere to form in situ TiN/Ti composite coating. Laser surface remelting was performed at two different laser powers of 425 W and 475 W. At each power, samples were fabricated with one or two laser scans. The resultant material was a nitride rich in situ coating that was created on the surface. The cross sections revealed a graded microstructure. There was presence of nitride rich dendrites dispersed in α-Ti matrix at the uppermost region. The structure gradually changed with lesser dendrites and more heat affected α-Ti phase maintaining a smooth interface. With increasing laser power, the dendrites appeared to be larger in size. Samples with two laser scans showed discontinuous dendrites and more α-Ti phase as compared to the samples with one laser scan. The resultant composite of TiN along with Ti2N in α-Ti showed substantially higher hardness and wear resistance than the untreated CP-Ti substrate. Coefficient of friction was also found to reduce due to surface nitridation. Leaching of Ti(4+) ions during wear test in DI water medium was found to reduce due to laser surface nitriding.

  1. Influence of TiN coating on the biocompatibility of medical NiTi alloy.

    PubMed

    Jin, Shi; Zhang, Yang; Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Dan; Zhang, Song

    2013-01-01

    The biocompatibility of TiN coated nickel-titanium shape memory alloy (NiTi-SMA) was evaluated to compare with that of the uncoated NiTi-SMA. Based on the orthodontic clinical application, the surface properties and biocompatibility were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), wettability test, mechanical test and in vitro tests including MTT, cell apoptosis and cell adhesion tests. It was observed that the bonding between the substrate and TiN coating is excellent. The roughness and wettability increased as for the TiN coating compared with the uncoated NiTi-SMA. MTT test showed no significant difference between the coated and uncoated NiTi-SMA, however the percentage of early cell apoptosis was significantly higher as for the uncoated NiTi alloy. SEM results showed that TiN coating could enhance the cell attachment, spreading and proliferation on NiTi-SMA. The results indicated that TiN coating bonded with the substrate well and could lead to a better biocompatibility.

  2. Low modulus and bioactive Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite prepared by spark plasma sintering.

    PubMed

    Guo, Yu; Tan, Yanni; Liu, Yong; Liu, Shifeng; Zhou, Rui; Tang, Hanchun

    2017-11-01

    A titanium mesh scaffold composite filled with Ti/α-TCP particles was prepared by spark plasma sintering (SPS). The microstructures and interfacial reactions of the composites were investigated by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Energy Dispersive Spectroscopy (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) analyses. The compressive strength and elastic modulus were also measured. In vitro bioactivity and biocompatibility was evaluated by using simulated body fluid and cells culture, respectively. After high temperature sintering, Ti oxides, TixPy and CaTiO3 were formed. The formation of Ti oxides and TixPy were resulted from the diffusion of O and P elements from α-TCP to Ti. CaTiO3 was the reaction product of Ti and α-TCP. The composite of 70Ti/α-TCP incorporated with Ti mesh showed a high compressive strength of 589MPa and a low compressive modulus of 30GPa. The bioactivity test showed the formation of a thick apatite layer on the composite and well-spread cells attachment. A good combination of mechanical properties and bioactivity indicated a high potential application of Ti/α-TCP/Ti-mesh composite for orthopedic implants. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  3. Preparation, characterization and photocatalytic activities of TiO2-SrTiO3 composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Yan; Zhu, Lianjie; Gao, Fubo; Xie, Hanjie

    2017-01-01

    Series of TiO2-SrTiO3 composites were synthesized by hydrothermal method, using TiO2 nanotube array as a precursor and Sr(OH)2 as a Sr source material. TiO2-SrTiO3 products with various composition were obtained by simply changing the reaction time. The as-synthesized products were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The optical properties were studied by means of UV-Vis absorption spectroscopy and photoluminescence (PL) spectra. Their photocatalytic activities were assessed by photodegradation of rhodamine B (RhB) solution and the photocatalytic reaction mechanism was discussed. The TiO2-SrTiO3 composites obtained at 2 h exhibits the highest activity for photodegradation of RhB.

  4. Optical properties of TiAlC/TiAlCN/TiAlSiCN/TiAlSiCO/TiAlSiO tandem absorber coatings by phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jyothi, J.; Biswas, A.; Sarkar, P.; Soum-Glaude, A.; Nagaraja, H. S.; Barshilia, Harish C.

    2017-07-01

    TiAlC, TiAlCN, TiAlSiCN, TiAlSiCO, and TiAlSiO layers of thicknesses 2.2 μm, 755, 491, 393, and 431 nm, respectively, were deposited on stainless steel, silicon, and glass substrates to study their refractive indices and extinction coefficients using the phase-modulated spectroscopic ellipsometry in the wavelength range of 300-1200 nm. Absorption coefficient of each layer was calculated from the extinction coefficient of the layer. The results indicate that the first three layers (i.e., TiAlC, TiAlCN, and TiAlSiCN) are absorbing in nature, while TiAlSiCO and TiAlSiO act as intermediate and antireflection layers. Subsequently, a tandem absorber of TiAlC/TiAlCN/TiAlSiCN/TiAlSiCO/TiAlSiO with layer thicknesses of 62, 20, 18, 16, and 27 nm, respectively, was deposited on stainless steel substrates to fabricate a spectrally selective coating with absorptance of 0.961 and emittance of 0.15 at 82 °C. The obtained refractive indices and extinction coefficients of the tandem absorber were used to simulate the reflectance of the deposited tandem absorber using SCOUT software. Simulated reflectance data of the tandem absorber showed a good agreement with the experimental data measured by UV-Vis-NIR and FTIR spectrophotometry. The angular dependence of the selective properties of the tandem absorber was studied by measuring the reflectance spectra of the tandem absorber at different incident angles.

  5. Controllable hydrothermal synthesis of rutile TiO{sub 2} hollow nanorod arrays on TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil for DSSC application

    SciTech Connect

    Xi, Min; Zhang, Yulan; Long, Lizhen; Li, Xinjun

    2014-11-15

    Rutile TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays (TNRs) were achieved by hydrothermal process on TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil. Subsequently, TNRs were hydrothermally etched in HCl solution to form hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorod arrays (H-TNRs). The TiCl{sub 4} pretreatment plays key roles in enhancement of Ti foil corrosion resistance ability and crystal nucleation introduction for TNRs growth. TNRs with desired morphology can be obtained by controlling TiCl{sub 4} concentration and the amount of tetrabutyl titanate (TTB) accordingly. TNRs with the length of ∼1.5 μm and diameter of ∼200 nm, obtained on 0.15 M TiCl{sub 4} pretreated Ti foil with 0.6 mL TTB, exhibits relatively higher photocurrent. The increased pore volume of the H-TNRs has contributed to the increased surface area which is benefit for Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells (DSSC) application. And the 180 °C-H-TNRs photoanode obtained from the 0.15-TiCl{sub 4}-TNRs sample demonstrated 128.9% enhancement of photoelectric efficiency of DSSC compared to that of the original TNR photoanode. - Graphical abstract: Rutile hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoanode obtained from original TiO{sub 2} nanorod array photoanode by hydrothermal etching demonstrates enhanced photoelectric efficiency of DSSC. - Highlights: • TiO{sub 2} nanorods are prepared via hydrothermal process on TiCl{sub 4}-pretreated Ti foil. • Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorods are obtained by hydrothermal etching of TiO{sub 2} nanorods. • TiCl{sub 4} pretreatment plays a key role in protecting Ti foil from chemical corrosion. • Hollow TiO{sub 2} nanorods photoanode shows enhanced photoelectric efficiency for DSSC.

  6. Microstructure and refinement performance of Al-Ti-C master alloy: Effect of excess Ti on the growth and nucleating ability of TiC particles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Svynarenko, Kateryna; Zhang, Yubo; Jie, Jinchuan; Kutsova, Valentyna; Li, Tingju

    2017-09-01

    Al-5Ti-0.2C, Al-0.8Ti-0.2C, Al-8Ti-2C, and Al-10Ti master alloys were prepared and used to investigate the influence of excess Ti on the growth of TiC particles and its ability to nucleate Al-grains. The results of a microstructure analysis of TiC-containing alloys and refined CPAl were interrelated to the results of a refinement test. It was found that the presence of excess Ti is essential at the stage of master alloy preparation, as it facilitates the growth and uniform distribution of TiC within the structure. In Al-5Ti-0.2C alloy containing excess Ti, carbide particles grow faster and to a higher extent (from 0.29 μm to 0.44 μm) compared to Al-0.8Ti-0.2C alloy produced without excess Ti (from 0.29 μm to 0.32 μm). The results support the "Ti-transition zone theory" as the mechanism of grain refinement by TiC-containing master alloys. The refinement performance of Al-5Ti-0.2C is superior compared to the one achieved by adding Al-8Ti-2C and Al-10Ti master alloys in corresponding concentrations. For the TiC particles to become favourable nucleating sites, they must undergo certain interaction with excess Ti at the stage of master alloy preparation.

  7. Durability Assessment of TiAl Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Draper, Susan L.; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2008-01-01

    The durability of TiAl is a prime concern for the implementation of TiAl into aerospace engines. Two durability issues, the effect of high temperature exposure on mechanical properties and impact resistance, have been investigated and the results are summarized in this paper. Exposure to elevated temperatures has been shown to be detrimental to the room temperature ductility of gamma alloys with the most likely mechanisms being the ingress of interstitials from the surface. Fluorine ion implantation has been shown to improve the oxidation resistance of gamma alloys, and ideally it could also improve the environmental embrittlement of high Nb content TiAl alloys. The effect of F ion implantation on the surface oxidation and embrittlement of a third generation, high Nb content TiAl alloy (Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C) were investigated. Additionally, the ballistic impact resistance of a variety of gamma alloys, including Ti-48Al-2Cr- 2Nb, Ti-47Al-2Cr-2Nb, ABB-2, ABB-23, NCG359E, 95A and Ti-45Al-5Nb-B-C was accessed. Differences in the ballistic impact properties of the various alloys will be discussed, particularly with respect to their manufacturing process, microstructure, and tensile properties.

  8. Characteristics Of Superplastically Formed Ti-6242 Sheet

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Royster, Dick M.; Ossa, William A.

    1992-01-01

    Near-alpha titanium alloy candidate for high-temperature structural airframe applications. Research characterizes selected mechanical properties of Ti-6242 sheets in superplastic forming (SPF) condition, both with and without heat treatment, and compares results with those obtained on as-received material. Information derived from research proves useful to aerospace community for designing and manufacturing Ti-6242 structures and structural components.

  9. Fabrication of Powder Metallurgy Pure Ti Material by Using Thermal Decomposition of TiH2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mimoto, Takanori; Nakanishi, Nozomi; Umeda, Junko; Kondoh, Katsuyoshi

    Titanium (Ti) and titanium alloys have been interested as an engineering material because they are widely used across various industrial applications, for example, motorcycle, automotive and aerospace industries, due to their light weight, high specific strength and superior corrosion resistance. Ti materials are particularly significant for the aircraft using carbon/carbon (C/C) composites, for example, carbon fiber reinforced plastics (CFRP), because Ti materials are free from the problem of contact corrosion between C/C composites. However, the applications of Ti materials are limited because of their high cost. From a viewpoint of cost reduction, cost effective process to fabricate Ti materials is strongly required. In the present study, the direct consolidation of titanium hydride (TiH2) raw powders in solid-state was employed to fabricate pure Ti bulk materials by using thermal decomposition of TiH2. In general, the production cost of Ti components is expensive due to using commercially pure (CP) Ti powders after dehydrogenation. On the other hand, the novel process using TiH2 powders as starting materials is a promising low cost approach for powder metallurgy (P/M) Ti products. Furthermore, this new process is also attractive from a viewpoint of energy saving because the dehydrogenation is integrated into the sintering process. In this study, TiH2 raw powders were directly consolidated by conventional press technique at 600 MPa to prepare TiH2 powder compacted billets. To thermally decompose TiH2 and obtain sintered pure Ti billets, the TiH2 powder billets were heated in the integrated sintering process including dehydrogenation. The hot-extruded pure Ti material, which was heat treated at 1273 K for 180 min in argon gas atmosphere, showed tensile strength of 701.8 MPa and elongation of 27.1%. These tensile properties satisfied the requirements for JIS Ti Grade 4. The relationship between microstructures, mechanical properties response and heat treatment

  10. TiC-reinforced cast Cr steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doğan, Ö. N.; Hawk, J. A.; Schrems, K. K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5-4.5Ti, and 1-1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  11. TiC reinforced cast Cr steels

    SciTech Connect

    Dogan, O.N.; Hawk, J.A.; Schrems, K.K.

    2006-06-01

    A new class of materials, namely TiC-reinforced cast chromium (Cr) steels, was developed for applications requiring high abrasion resistance and good fracture toughness. The research approach was to modify the carbide structure of commercial AISI 440C steel for better fracture resistance while maintaining the already high abrasion resistance. The new alloys contained 12Cr, 2.5–4.5Ti, and 1–1.5C (wt.%) and were melted in a vacuum induction furnace. Their microstructure was composed primarily of a martensitic matrix with a dispersion of TiC precipitates. Modification of TiC morphology was accomplished through changing the cooling rate during solidification. Wear rates of the TiC-reinforced Cr steels were comparable to that of AISI 440C steel, but the impact resistance was much improved.

  12. Plasmadynamic synthesis of Ti-B nanopowders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nikitin, D.; Sivkov, A.; Gerasimov, D.; Evdokimov, A.

    2017-05-01

    Ti-B nanopowders were produced by plasmadynamic synthesis. This method was implemented by the synthesis in an electrodischarge plasma jet generated by a high-current pulsed coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator. Two experiments were carried out using copper and titanium conductors for initiating the plasma jet. The synthesized products were analyzed by several modern techniques including X-ray diffractometry and transmission electron microscopy. The variety of crystalline phases in the products of both Ti-B and Ti-O systems were identified. The most successful results were obtained using titanium conductors. In this case, the product mainly contains titanium boride and titanium diboride. Synthesized powder consists of hexagonal and cubic particles, which were identified as titanium boride and titanium diboride particles, respectively. The method using titanium conductors for initiating the plasma jet is more efficient and simple way for obtaining TiB/TiB2 nanopowders.

  13. Synthesis of plasmonic Ti(3+) doped Au/Cl-TiO2 mesocrystals with enhanced visible light photocatalytic activity.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xin; Fan, Xiaoli; Li, Zhonghua; Liu, Jiawen

    2017-09-12

    We successfully synthesized willow leaf-like plasmonic Ti(3+) doped Au/Cl-TiO2 mesocrystals by facile modified two-phase vapor hydrolysis and photoreduction methods. In this work, the as-prepared Ti(3+) doped TiO2 mesocrystals showed an interesting visible light harvesting capacity and visible light photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production. The plasmonic Ti(3+) doped Au/Cl-TiO2 mesocrystals also showed highly enhanced visible light absorption and visible light photocatalytic activity for hydrogen production, and the highest visible light photocatalytic activity reached 480.1 μmol g(-1) h(-1), which was 208.70 times as high as that of P25 TiO2 and 1.59 times as high as that of Ti(3+) doped TiO2 mesocrystals. Finally, the possible visible light photocatalytic mechanisms of plasmonic Ti(3+) doped Au/Cl-TiO2 mesocrystals for hydrogen production were proposed.

  14. Characteristics of Ti-Nb, Ti-Zr and Ti-Al containing hydrogenated carbon nitride films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Balaceanu, M.; Braic, V.; Braic, M.; Vladescu, A.; Zoita, C. N.; Grigorescu, C. E. A.; Grigore, E.; Ripeanu, R.

    2009-10-01

    Nanocomposite Me-C-N:H coatings (Me is TiNb, TiZr or TiAl), with relatively high non-metal/metal ratios, were prepared by cathodic arc method using TiNb, TiZr and TiAl alloy cathodes in a CH 4 + N 2 atmosphere. For comparison purposes, a-C-N:H films were also produced through evaporating a graphite cathode in a similar atmosphere. The films were characterized in terms of elemental and phase compositions, chemical bonds, texture, hardness, adhesion and friction behavior by GDOES, XPS, Raman spectroscopy and XRD techniques, surface profilometry, hardness and scratch adhesion measurements, and tribological tests. The nanocomposite films consisted of a mixture of crystalline metal carbonitride and amorphous carbon nitride. The non-metal/metal ratio in the films composition was found to range between 1.8 and 1.9. For the metal containing nanocomposites, grain size in the range 7-23 nm, depending on the metal nature, were determined. As compared with the a-C-N:H, the Me-C-N:H films exhibited a much higher hardness (up to about 39 GPa for Ti-Zr-C-N:H) and a better adhesion strength, while the coefficients of friction were somewhat higher (0.2-0.3 for Me-C-N:H and 0.1 for a-C-N:H).

  15. Ti-chabazite as a model system of Ti(IV) in Ti-zeolites: A periodic approach

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Damin, Alessandro; Bordiga, Silvia; Zecchina, Adriano; Doll, Klaus; Lamberti, Carlo

    2003-06-01

    For the first time, full ab initio periodic calculations on a Ti-chabazite with a very low content of Ti (Ti/Si=1/11) were done. The simulated crystal is less computationally demanding and it is similar to the real titanosilicates microporous materials such as TS-1 or Ti-β, where the Ti/Si is lower than 1/30, and hence it can be used as a model system. The geometric and energetic features of the interaction of Ti-CHA with NH3, H2O, H2CO, and CH3CN were studied, principally at the Hartree-Fock level. Bare Ti-CHA and its NH3, H2O, H2CO, and CH3CN complexes were fully optimized at Hartree-Fock level with an upgraded version of the CRYSTAL code [Chem. Phys. Lett. 348, 131 (2001)] and such optimized structures were employed to calculate BEc (binding energy corrected for the basis set superposition error) at the Hartree-Fock and B3-LYP levels.

  16. Deformation twinning in metals and ordered intermetallics-Ti and Ti-aluminides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoo, M. H.; Fu, C. L.; Lee, J. K.

    1991-06-01

    The role of deformation twinning in the strength and ductility of metals and ordered intermetallic alloys is examined on the basis of crystallography, energetics and kinetics of deformation twinning. A systematic analysis is made by taking Ti, Ti3AI, TiAl, and A13Ti as four model systems. In comparison with profuse twinning in Ti, the intrinsic difficulty of twinning in Ti3A1 is rationalized in terms of the interchange shuffling mechanism. A fault (SISF) dragging mechanism based on the interaction torque explains the physical source for the low mobility of screw superdislocations in TiAl, which may lead to (111) [ 11bar{2}] twin nucleation. In TiAl and A13Ti alloys, the twin-slip (ordinary) conjugate relationship makes an important contribution to the strain compatibility for high-temperature plasticity. Potentially beneficial alloying additions to promote twinning are discussed. Les conséquences de la déformation par maclage sur la fracture et la ductilité des métaux et alliages intermétalliques ordonnés sont étudiées en fonction de la cristallographie, de l'énergie et de la cinétique des déformations par maclage. Une analyse systématique a été faite en considérant Ti, Ti3AI, TiAl et A13Ti comme quatre systèmes modèles. En comparaison avec le nombre important de maclages observés dans Ti, la difficulté intrinsèque des maclages dans Ti3AI est rationalisée en terme de mécanisme d'“interchange shuffling”. Un mécanisme de “dragging fault” basé sur l'interaction “torque” explique l'origine physique de la faible mobilité des superdislocations vissées dans TiAl qui peuvent conduire à la nucléation des macles (111) 112. Dans les alliages tels TiAl et A13Ti, la relation conjuguée entre la macle et le glissement (ordinaire) contribue de façon importante à la compatibilité des contraintes lors de la déformation plastique à haute température. Des effets bénéfiques potentiels liés à des éléments d'addition sur le processus

  17. Fabrication and nanoindentation properties of TiN/NiTi thin films and their applications in electrochemical sensing.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Ashvani; Singh, Devendra; Goyal, Rajendra N; Kaur, Davinder

    2009-05-15

    Nanocrystalline TiN/NiTi thin films have been grown on silicon substrate by dc magnetron sputtering to improve the corrosion and mechanical properties of NiTi based shape memory alloys without sacrificing the phase transformation effect. Interestingly, the preferential orientation of the TiN films was observed to change from (1 1 1) to (2 0 0) with change in nature of sputtering gas from 70% Ar+30% N(2) to 100% N(2). In present study the influence of crystallographic orientation of TiN on mechanical and corrosion properties of TiN/NiTi thin films was investigated. TiN (2 0 0)/NiTi films were found to exhibit high hardness, high elastic modulus, and thereby better wear resistance as compared to pure NiTi and TiN (1 1 1)/NiTi films. Electrochemical test revealed that TiN coated NiTi film exhibits better corrosion resistance in 1M NaCl solution as compared to uncoated NiTi film. The application of TiN/NiTi films in the electrochemical sensing of dopamine, which has a critical physiological importance in Parkinson's disease, has been demonstrated. A comparison of voltammetric response of dopamine at silicon based electrodes modified with different nanocrystalline coatings indicated that these films catalyze the oxidation of dopamine.

  18. Calculation of defect properties of NiTi and FeTi

    SciTech Connect

    Lutton, R.T.; Sabochick, M.J. . Dept. of Engineering Physics); Lam, N.Q. )

    1990-12-01

    The energies and configurations of interstitials and vacancies in the B2 ordered compounds NiTi and FeTi were calculated using atomistic simulation. The stable configuration of a vacancy after the removal of an Ni atom was a vacant Ni site; similarly, the removal of an Fe atom in FeTi resulted in a vacant Fe site. Removal of a Ti atom in both compounds, however, resulted in a vacant Ni or Fe site and an adjacent antisite defect. The effective vacancy formation energies in NiTi and FeTi were calculated to be 1.48 and 1.07 eV, respectively. Interstitials in NiTi formed split {l angle}111{r angle} configurations consisting of a Ni-Ni dumbbell oriented in the {l angle}111{r angle} direction with one or two adjacent antisite defects. The Fe interstitial in FeTi had a similar configuration, except the dumbbell contained Fe atoms. The Ti interstitial in FeTi formed an {l angle}110{r angle} Fe-Fe dumbbell. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  19. Hydrolysis of TiCl₄: Initial Steps in the Production of TiO₂

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, Tsang-Hsiu; Navarrete-Lopez, Alejandra M.; Li, Shenggang; Dixon, David A.; Gole, James L.

    2010-06-24

    The hydrolysis of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl{sub 4}) to produce titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2})nanoparticles has been studied to provide insight into the mechanism for forming these nanoparticles. We provide calculations of the potential energy surfaces, the thermochemistry of the intermediates, and the reaction paths for the initial steps in the hydrolysis of TiCl{sub 4}. We assess the role of the titanium oxychlorides (Ti{sub x}O{sub y}Cl{sub z}; x = 2-4, y = 1,3-6, and z = 2, 4, 6) and their viable reaction paths. Using transition-state theory and RRKM theory, we predicted rate constants including the effect of tunneling. Heats of formation at 0 and 298 K are predicted for TiCl{sub 4}, TiCl{sub 3}OH, TiOCl{sub 2}, TiOClOH, TiCl{sub 2}(OH){sub 2}, TiCl(OH){sub 3}, Ti(OH){sub 4}, and TiO{sub 2} using the CCSD(T) method with correlation consistent basis sets extrapolated to the complete basis set limit and compared with the available experimental data. Clustering energies and heats of formation are calculated for neutral clusters. The calculated heats of formation were used to study condensation reactions that eliminate HCl or H{sub 2}O. The reaction energy is substantially endothermic if more than two HCl molecules are eliminated. The results show that the mechanisms leading to formation of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles and larger ones are complicated and will have a strong dependence on the experimental conditions.

  20. Laser-assisted atom probe tomography of Ti/TiN films deposited on Si.

    PubMed

    Sanford, N A; Blanchard, P T; White, R; Vissers, M R; Diercks, D R; Davydov, A V; Pappas, D P

    2017-03-01

    Laser-assisted atom probe tomography (L-APT) was used to examine superconducting TiN/Ti/TiN trilayer films with nominal respective thicknesses of 5/5/5 (nm). Such materials are of interest for applications that require large arrays of microwave kinetic inductance detectors. The trilayers were deposited on Si substrates by reactive sputtering. Electron energy loss microscopy performed in a scanning transmission electron microscope (STEM/EELS) was used to corroborate the L-APT results and establish the overall thicknesses of the trilayers. Three separate batches were studied where the first (bottom) TiN layer was deposited at 500°C (for all batches) and the subsequent TiN/Ti bilayer was deposited at ambient temperature, 250°C, and 500°C, respectively. L-APT rendered an approximately planar TiN/Si interface by making use of plausible mass-spectral assignments to N3(1+), SiN(1+), and SiO(1+). This was necessary since ambiguities associated with the likely simultaneous occurrence of Si(1+) and N2(1+) prevented their use in rendering the TiN/Si interface upon reconstruction. The non-superconducting Ti2N phase was also revealed by L-APT. Neither L-APT nor STEM/EELS rendered sharp Ti/TiN interfaces and the contrast between these layers diminished with increased film deposition temperature. L-APT also revealed that hydrogen was present in varying degrees in all samples including control samples that were composed of single layers of Ti or TiN. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  1. Stress-induced martensitic transformations in NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites investigated by neutron diffraction

    SciTech Connect

    Vaidyanathan, R.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Dunand, D.C.

    1998-12-31

    Superelastic NiTi (51.0 at% Ni) with 0, 10 and 20 vol% TiC particles were deformed under uniaxial compression as neutron diffraction spectra were simultaneously obtained. The experiments yielded in-situ measurements of the thermoelastic stress-induced transformation. A detailed Rietveld determination is made of the phase fractions and the evolving strains in the reinforcing TiC particles and the austenite as it transforms to martensite on loading (and its subsequent back transformation on unloading). These strains are used to shed light on the phenomenon of load transfer in composites where the matrix undergoes a stress-induced phase transformation.

  2. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dental cast Ti-6Nb-4Cu, Ti-18Nb-2Cu, and Ti-24Nb-1Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo

    2016-01-01

    The mechanical properties -tensile strength, yield strength, elongation after fracture, and Vickers hardness- and alloy phases of the dental cast alloys Ti-6%Nb-4%Cu, Ti-18%Nb-2%Cu, and Ti-24%Nb-1%Cu were investigated. Ti-6%Nb-4%Cu consisted of a single α-phase, while Ti-18%Nb-2%Cu and Ti-24%Nb-1%Cu consisted of α- and β-phases. The tensile strengths, yield strengths, and hardnesses of these alloys were higher than those of Ti-5%Cu and Ti-30%Nb; however, their breaking elongations were smaller. These differences in the mechanical properties are attributable to solid-solution strengthening or to precipitation strengthening by the dual-phase (α+β) structure. Thus, Ti-Nb-Cu alloys are suitable for use in high-strength dental prostheses, such as implantretained superstructures and narrow-diameter implants.

  3. The effect of site geometry, Ti content and Ti oxidation state on the Ti K-edge XANES spectrum of synthetic hibonite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Doyle, P. M.; Berry, A. J.; Schofield, P. F.; Mosselmans, J. F. W.

    2016-08-01

    The Al-rich oxide hibonite (CaAl12O19) is modeled to be the second mineral to condense from a gas of solar composition and is found within calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and the matrix of chondritic meteorites. Both Ti3+ and Ti4+ are reported in meteoritic hibonite, so hibonite has been proposed as a single mineral oxybarometer that could be used to elucidate conditions within the first 0.2 Myrs of the Solar System. Synthetic hibonites with Ti3+/(Ti3+ + Ti4+) (hereafter Ti3+/ΣTi) ranging between 0 and 1 were prepared as matrix-matched standards for meteoritic hibonite. The largest yield of both Ti-free and Ti-bearing hibonite at ∼1300 and ∼1400 °C was obtained by a single sinter under reducing conditions. In situ micro-beam Ti K-edge X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectra were recorded from the synthetic hibonites, as well as from terrestrial hibonite. Spectral features in the post-crest region were shown to correlate with the Ti4+ content. Furthermore, Ti4+ on the M2 trigonal bipyramidal and the adjoining M4 octahedral sites appears to cause variability in the post-crest region as a function of orientation. For this suite of synthetic hibonites it was observed that the pre-edge peak region is not influenced by orientation, but is controlled by Ti3+/ΣTi, site geometry and/or Ti concentration. In particular, the pre-edge peak intensities reflect Ti coordination environment and distortion of the M4 octahedral site. Therefore, although pre-edge peak intensities have previously been used to determine Ti3+/ΣTi in meteoritic minerals, we excluded use of the pre-edge peak intensities for quantifying Ti valence states in hibonite. The energy of the absorption edge at a normalized intensity of 0.8 (E0.8) and the energy of the minimum between the pre-edge region and the absorption edge (Em1) were found to vary systematically with Ti3+/ΣTi. Ti3+/ΣTi in hibonite as a function of Em1 was modeled by a quadratic function that may be used to quantify Ti3

  4. Anatase TiO2 sheet-assisted synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 sheet with superior visible-light photocatalytic performance: Roles of anatase TiO2 sheet.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojie; Zuo, Guoqing; Lu, Xin; Tang, Changqing; Cao, Shuo; Yu, Miao

    2017-03-15

    On the basis of measurements, such as field emission scanning electron microscope, UV-Vis diffuse reflectance spectra, X-ray diffraction, electron paramagnetic resonance, photoluminescence spectra, and photocurrent measurements, the roles of anatase TiO2 sheet on synthesizing Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets (doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A))) and on improving the performance for photocatalytic CO2 reduction were explored systematically. High surface area anatase TiO2 nanosheets (TiO2 (A)) as a substrate, structure directing agent, and inhibitor, mediated the synthesis of Ti(3+) self-doped mixed phase TiO2 nanosheets. Addition of TiO2 (A) significantly improved not only visible light absorption of doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)), but also the efficiency of photo-excited charges separations due to the existence of interfacial regions of anatase-rutile TiO2 junctions. Finally, a possible mechanism for interfacial charge transfer at the anatase-rutile TiO2 interface and for photocatalytic CO2 reduction over Pt loaded doped TiO2 (A/R, TiO2 (A)) were proposed.

  5. The permeation behavior of deuterium through 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel with TiN+TiC-TiN multiple films

    SciTech Connect

    Xiong, Y.; Song, J.; Luo, D.; Lei, Q.; Chen, C.

    2015-03-15

    The prevention of tritium losses via permeation through structure components is an important issue in fusion technology. The production of thin layers on materials with low diffusivity and/or low surface recombination constants (so-called permeation barriers) seems to be the most practical method to reduce or hinder the permeation of tritium through materials. TiN+TiC+TiN multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel by ion-beam assisted deposition technology. The characteristics of films are tested by XPS ASEM and XRD, which shows that the film are compact and uniform with a thickness of about 15 μm, and have a good adherence with the substrate below 773 K. The diffraction peaks in the XRD patterns for TiC and TiN are broadened, implying that the multiple films are deposited on the surface of 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel. Meanwhile, the C-H bonded CH{sub 4}-appears in the infrared spectra of multiple films, suggesting that the CH{sub 4}- is in a static state, so hydrogen atom cannot migrate from the site bonded with carbon to a neighboring site. The measured deuterium permeability in 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel coated with multiple films is 2-3 orders of magnitude lower than that of pure 1Cr18Ni9Ti stainless steel substrate from 473 K to 773 K. However, this barrier is partly destroyed above 773 K.

  6. Interstitial Ti for intermediate band formation in Ti-supersaturated silicon

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pastor, D.; Olea, J.; Muñoz-Martín, A.; Climent-Font, A.; Mártil, I.; González-Díaz, G.

    2012-12-01

    We have analyzed by means of Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) the Ti lattice location and the degree of crystalline lattice recovery in heavily Ti implanted silicon layers subsequently pulsed laser melted (PLM). Theoretical studies have predicted that Ti should occupy interstitial sites in silicon for a metallic-intermediate band (IB) formation. The analysis of Ti lattice location after PLM processes is a crucial point to evaluate the IB formation that can be clarifyied by means of RBS measurements. After PLM, time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry measurements show that the Ti concentration in the layers is well above the theoretical limit for IB formation. RBS measurements have shown a significant improvement of the lattice quality at the highest PLM energy density studied. The RBS channeling spectra reveals clearly that after PLM processes Ti impurities are mostly occupying interstitial lattice sites.

  7. Review of the Methods for Production of Spherical Ti and Ti Alloy Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-10-01

    Spherical titanium alloy powder is an important raw material for near-net-shape fabrication via a powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing route, as well as feedstock for powder injection molding, and additive manufacturing (AM). Nevertheless, the cost of Ti powder including spherical Ti alloy has been a major hurdle that prevented PM Ti from being adopted for a wide range of applications. Especially with the increasing importance of powder-bed based AM technologies, the demand for spherical Ti powder has brought renewed attention on properties and cost, as well as on powder-producing processes. The performance of Ti components manufactured from powder has a strong dependence on the quality of powder, and it is therefore crucial to understand the properties and production methods of powder. This article aims to provide a cursory review of the basic techniques of commercial and emerging methods for making spherical Ti powder. The advantages as well as limitations of different methods are discussed.

  8. Review of the Methods for Production of Spherical Ti and Ti Alloy Powder

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Pei; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Zhang, Ying; Xia, Yang

    2017-08-01

    Spherical titanium alloy powder is an important raw material for near-net-shape fabrication via a powder metallurgy (PM) manufacturing route, as well as feedstock for powder injection molding, and additive manufacturing (AM). Nevertheless, the cost of Ti powder including spherical Ti alloy has been a major hurdle that prevented PM Ti from being adopted for a wide range of applications. Especially with the increasing importance of powder-bed based AM technologies, the demand for spherical Ti powder has brought renewed attention on properties and cost, as well as on powder-producing processes. The performance of Ti components manufactured from powder has a strong dependence on the quality of powder, and it is therefore crucial to understand the properties and production methods of powder. This article aims to provide a cursory review of the basic techniques of commercial and emerging methods for making spherical Ti powder. The advantages as well as limitations of different methods are discussed.

  9. In situ synthesis and hardness of TiC/Ti5Si3 composites on Ti-5Al-2.5Sn substrates by gas tungsten arc welding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yan, Wen-qing; Dai, Le; Gui, Chi-bin

    2013-03-01

    TiC/Ti5Si3 composites were fabricated on Ti-5Al-2.5Sn substrates by gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW). Identification of the phases was performed using X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructures were analyzed using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) combined with energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry (EDS) and optical microscopy (OM). The Vickers hardness was measured with a micro-hardness tester. The TiC/Ti5Si3 composites were obtained in a double-layer track, and the Vickers hardness of the track increased by two to three times compared with the Ti-5Al-2.5Sn substrate.

  10. Pulsed Current Activated Synthesis and Consolidation of Nanostructured Ti-TiC Composite and Its Mechanical Properties.

    PubMed

    Kim, Dong-Ki; Park, Na-Ra; Kim, Byung-Su; Yoon, Jin-Kook; Hong, Kyung-Tae; Shon, In-Jin

    2016-02-01

    Ti and CNT powders were milled by high energy ball milling. The milled powders were then simultaneously synthesized and consolidated using pulsed current activated sintering (PCAS) within one minute under the applied pressure of 80 MPa. The advantage of this process is not only rapid densification to near theoretical density but also to prevent grain growth in nano-structured materials The milling did not induce any reaction between the constituent powders. Meanwhile, PCAS of the Ti-CNT mixture produced a Ti-TiC composite according to the reaction (Ti + 0.06CNT --> 0.94Ti+0.06TiC, Ti+0.12CNT --> 0.88Ti+0.12TiC). Highly dense nanocrystalline Ti-TiC compos- ites with a relative density of up to 99.5% were obtained within one minute. The hardness and fracture toughness of the dense Ti-6mole% TiC and Ti-12 mole% TiC produced by PCAS were also investigated.

  11. A study of TiB2/TiB gradient coating by laser cladding on titanium alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yinghua; Lei, Yongping; Li, Xueqiao; Zhi, Xiaohui; Fu, Hanguang

    2016-07-01

    TiB2/TiB gradient coating has been fabricated by a laser cladding technique on the surface of a Ti-6Al-4V substrate using TiB2 powder as the cladding material. The microstructure and mechanical properties of the gradient coating were analyzed by SEM, EPMA, XRD, TEM and an instrument to measure hardness. With the increasing distance from the coating surface, the content of TiB2 particles gradually decreased, but the content of TiB short fibers gradually increased. Meanwhile, the micro-hardness and the elastic modulus of the TiB2/TiB coating showed a gradient decreasing trend, but the fracture toughness showed a gradient increasing trend. The fracture toughness of the TiB2/TiB coating between the center and the bottom was improved, primarily due to the debonding of TiB2 particles and the high fracture of TiB short fibers, and the fracture position of TiB short fiber can be moved to an adjacent position. However, the debonding of TiB2 particles was difficult to achieve at the surface of the TiB2/TiB coating.

  12. Investigation of Phase Equilibria and Some Properties of Alloys of Ti-Al-Fe and Ti-Al-V Systems,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    Some data on the structure and properties of Ti-Al-Fe alloys are presented. The phase equilibria in alloys in the system Ti-Al-V were studies...However, the data available in the literature on phase equilibria in the systems Ti-Al-Fe and Ti-Al-V require refinement, as they are insufficiently

  13. Corrosion behavior and biocompatibility of nanostructured TiO2 film on Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Karpagavalli, Ramji; Zhou, Anhong; Chellamuthu, Prithiviraj; Nguyen, Kytai

    2007-12-15

    The corrosion behavior and cell adhesion property of nanostructured TiO2 films deposited electrolytically on Ti6Al4V were examined in the present in vitro study. The nanostructured TiO2 film deposition on Ti6Al4V was achieved via peroxoprecursors. SEM micrographs exhibit the formation of amorphous and crystallite TiO2 nanoparticles on Ti6Al4V before and after being annealed at 500 degrees C. Corrosion behavior of TiO2-deposited and uncoated Ti6Al4V was evaluated in freely aerated Hank's solution at 37 degrees C by the measurement and analysis of open-circuit potential variation with time, Tafel plots, and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results indicated that nano-TiO2 coated Ti6Al4V showed a better corrosion resistance in simulated biofluid than uncoated Ti6Al4V. Rat bone cells and human aortic smooth muscle cells were grown on these substrates to study the cellular responses in vitro. The SEM images revealed enhanced cell adhesion, cell spreading, and proliferation on nano-TiO2 coated Ti6Al4V compared to those grown on uncoated substrates for both cell lines. These results suggested that nanotopography produced by deposition of nanostructured TiO2 onto Ti alloy surfaces might enhance corrosion resistance, biocompatibility, and cell integration for implants made of Ti alloys.

  14. Crystal structure of TiBi2

    PubMed Central

    Watanabe, Kei; Yamane, Hisanori

    2016-01-01

    Black granular single crystals of monotitanium dibismuth, TiBi2, were synthesized by slow cooling of a mixture of Bi and Ti from 693 K. The title compound is isostructural with CuMg2 (ortho­rhom­bic Fddd symmetry). Ti atoms are located in square anti­prisms of Bi atoms. The network of one type of Bi atom spirals along the a-axis direction while honeycomb layers of the other type of Bi atom spreading in the ab plane inter­lace one another. PMID:27920910

  15. NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites. Part 1: Transformation and thermal cycling behavior

    SciTech Connect

    Mari, D.; Dunand, D.C.

    1995-11-01

    The transformation behavior of titanium-rich NiTi containing 0 vol pct, 10 vol pct equiaxed TiC particles was studied by differential scanning calorimetry. The thermoelastic phase transformation of the unreinforced matrix exhibits multiple steps. Upon multiple transformation cycles, the rhombohedral phase (R phase) appears and all transformation temperatures decrease. The TiC particles inhibit the R phase and also lower some of the transformation temperatures. These effects can be explained by the internal misfit stresses resulting from both thermal expansion and transformation mismatch between matrix and reinforcement. The measured transformation enthalpy of bulk and reinforced NiTi is discussed in light of a thermodynamical model, taking into account the elastic energy stored upon cycling. The model indicates that a significant fraction of the matrix is stabilized and thus does not contribute to the transformation enthalpy.

  16. Two-Phase (TiAl+TiCrAl) Coating Alloys for Titanium Aluminides

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Brady, Michael P. (Inventor); Smialek, James L. (Inventor); Brindley, William J. (Inventor)

    1998-01-01

    A coating for protecting titanium aluminide alloys, including the TiAl gamma + Ti3Al (alpha(sub 2)) class, from oxidative attack and interstitial embrittlement at temperatures up to at least 1000 C. is disclosed. This protective coating consists essentially of titanium, aluminum. and chromium in the following approximate atomic ratio: Ti(41.5-34.5)Al(49-53)Cr(9.5-12.5)

  17. [The electrochemical behavior of TiTa30 and TiNb30 alloys for implantology].

    PubMed

    Hildebrand, H F; Ralison, A; Traisnel, M; Breme, J

    1997-11-01

    The electrochemical behavior in artificial saliva of TiNb30 and TiTa30 alloys were compared with that of commercial pure titanium. The anodic potential, the current density, the passivation potential and the galvanic corrosion vs. Au were determined. Both alloys have a similar behavior to that of pure titanium. Crevace corrosion, which is very weak in pure Ti, is completely inhibited by the addition of Nb or Ta.

  18. LASE Ti:Sapphire Laser

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1995-01-01

    In the photo, Dr. Larry B. Petway (Science Applications International Corp.) is making final adjustments to the Ti:Sapphire Laser in preparing the Lidar Atmospheric Sensing Experiment (LASE) Instrument for intergration into a NASA/ER-2 aircraft. LASE is the first fully- engineered, autonomous differential Absorption Lidar (DIAL) System for the measurement of water vapor, aerosol and cloud in the troposphere. LASE uses a double-pulsed Ti:Sapphire laser for the transmitter with a 30 ns pulse length and 150mJ/pulse. The laser beam is seeded to operate on a selected water vapor absorption line in the 815-nm region using a laser diode and an onboard absorption reference cell. A 40 cm diameter telescope collects the backscattered signals and directs them onto two detectors. LASE collects DIAL data at 5 Hz while flying at altitudes from 16-21 km. LASE was designed to operate autonomously within the environment and physical constraints of the ER-2 aircraft and to make water vapor profile measurements across the troposphere with accuracy having less than 6% of error. No other instrument can provide the spatial coverage and accuracy of LASE.Water vapor is the most radiative active gas in the troposphere, and the lack of understanding about its distribution provides one of the largest uncertainties in modeling climate change. LASE has demonstrated the necessary potential in providing high resolution water vapor measurements that can advance the studies of tropospheric water vapor distributions. LASE has flown 19 times during the development of the instrument and the validation of the science data. A joint international field mission was completed in the summer of 1996; adding 9 more successful flights. The LASE Instument is being adapted to other aircraft platforms to support planned missions and to increase its utility.

  19. Synchrotron diffraction studies of TiC/FeTi cermets obtained by SHS

    SciTech Connect

    Contreras, L.; Turrillas, X.; Mas-Guindal, M.J.; Vaughan, G.B.M.; Kvick, A.; Rodriguez, M.A. . E-mail: mar@icv.csic.es

    2005-05-15

    TiC/FeTi composites have been obtained in situ by Self-propagating High-temperature Synthesis (SHS) of an intimate mixture of compacted powders of elemental carbon, titanium and iron. The reaction has been followed in real time by X-ray diffraction at the ESRF. The mechanism of the reaction is discussed in terms of the formation of a liquid phase corresponding to the eutectic of the Fe/Ti system prior to the TiC synthesis. Temperatures of reaction have been estimated by correlating thermal expansion coefficients with diffraction peaks shifts. The microstructures obtained by this method, suitable for cutting tools and wear resistant applications, are presented.

  20. 40Ca(α,γ)44Ti and the production of 44Ti in supernovae

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vockenhuber, C.; Ouellet, C. O.; The, L.-S.; Buchmann, L.; Caggiano, J.; Chen, A. A.; D'Auria, J. M.; Davids, B.; Fogarty, L.; Frekers, D.; Hussein, A.; Hutcheon, D. A.; Kutschera, W.; Ottewell, D.; Paul, M.; Pavan, M. M.; Pearson, J.; Ruiz, C.; Ruprecht, G.; Trinczek, M.; Wallner, A.

    2008-01-01

    The nuclide 44Ti is predicted to be produced in significant quantities in core-collapse supernovae, and indeed it has been observed in the supernova remnant Cassiopeia-A by space-based γ-ray telescopes. The main production of 44Ti takes place in the α-rich freeze-out phase deep inside the supernova. The key reactions governing the 44Ti abundance have been identified in an earlier sensitivity study. Using the recoil mass spectrometer DRAGON at the TRIUMF-ISAC facility in Vancouver, Canada, we measured the main production reaction 40Ca(α,γ)44Ti, resulting in an increased reaction rate compared to the rate derived from previous prompt γ-ray studies, which is commonly used in supernova models. The uncertainty of the 44Ti production is now dominated by the rate of reactions with short-lived nuclides around 44Ti, namely 45V(p,γ)46Cr, 44Ti(α,p)47V and 44Ti(α,γ)48Cr. The sensitivity of these reactions on the 44Ti production has been revisited.

  1. Electron-induced Ti-rich surface segregation on SrTiO3 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuyuan; Wen, Jianguo; Hu, Linhua; McCarthy, James A; Wang, Shichao; Poeppelmeier, Kenneth R; Marks, Laurence D

    2015-01-01

    Atomic surface structures of nanoparticles are of interest in catalysis and other fields. Aberration-corrected HREM facilitates direct imaging of the surfaces of nanoparticles. A remaining concern of surface imaging arises from beam damage. It is important to identify the intrinsic surface structures and the ones created by electron beam irradiation in TEM. In this study, we performed aberration-corrected HREM and EELS to demonstrate that TiO and bcc type Ti islands form due to intense electron irradiation. The formation of Ti-rich islands is in agreement with previous high temperature annealing experiments on the surfaces of SrTiO3 single crystals.

  2. Structural properties of nanometric and micrometric TiCN/TiNbCN supperlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Caicedo, Julio; Yate, Luis; Ramírez, Juan; Gómez, Maria Elena; Lousa, Arturo; Esteve, Joan; Prieto, Pedro

    2010-03-01

    TiCN and TiNbCN systems have broadly been used as protective hard and anticorrosive coatings. [TiCN/TiNbCN]n multilayers were deposited on silicon substrates by two-target-r.f. magnetron sputtering with alternatively changing the sputtering plasma composition between pure Ti+C and Nb elements under a reactive mixture Ar/N2. TiCN/TiNbCN bilayer period varied from nanometric range (15 nm) to higher micrometric range (1.5 μm) values. Structural, morphological and stoichiometric of the coatings were analyzed by high-angle- and low-angle X-ray diffraction, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM). We determined multilayer period, λ, and individual layer thicknesses. We found a cube-on-cube epitaxial growth structure and with epitaxial relationship between layers inside each columnar crystallite given by (111)[110]TiCN//(111)[110]TiNbCN.

  3. Investigations of EPR parameters for the trigonal Ti3+-Ti3+ pair in beryl crystal.

    PubMed

    Wang, Fang; Zheng, Wen-Chen

    2007-08-01

    By using the complete diagonalization of energy matrix of 3d1 ions in trigonal symmetry, the EPR parameters (g factors g( parallel), g( perpendicular) and zero-field splitting D) of the trigonal Ti3+-Ti3+ pair in beryl crystal are calculated. In the calculations, the exchange interaction in the Ti3+-Ti3+ pair is taken as the perturbation and the local trigonal distortion in the defect center is considered. The results (which are in agreement with the experimental values) are discussed.

  4. HYDROGEN ADSORPTION ON β-TiAl (001) AND Ni/TiAl (001) SURFACES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mubarak, A. A. Karim; Alelaimi, Mahmoud

    2014-04-01

    In this paper, we present first principles calculations of the energetic, electronic and magnetic properties of the variant termination of TiAl (001) and Ni/TiAl (001) surfaces with and without hydrogen atoms. The calculations have been performed within the density functional theory using full-potential linearized augmented plane wave method. The generalized gradient approximation (GGA) is utilized as the exchange-correlation energy. The octahedral site is the stable absorption site of H atom in the β-TiAl system. This absorption reduces the cohesive energy of β-TiAl system due to increase in the lattice constant. The surface energy for both TiAl (001) terminations is calculated. The stable adsorption site of H atoms on the variant termination of TiAl (001) surface is performed. The adsorption energy of hydrogen on Ti is more energetic than that on Al. The adsorption of H atom on both terminations of H/Ni/TiAl (001) is more preferable at the bridge site. The adsorption energies are enhanced on Ni atom due to the contraction between d-Ni bands and TiAl substrate band.

  5. Formation of TiO2 layers on commercially pure Ti and Ti-Mo and Ti-Nb alloys by two-step thermal oxidation and their photocatalytic activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sado, Shota; Ueda, Takatoshi; Ueda, Kyosuke; Narushima, Takayuki

    2015-12-01

    Anatase-containing TiO2 layers were formed on commercially pure (CP) Ti and Ti-25mass%Mo (Ti-25Mo) and Ti-25mass%Nb (Ti-25Nb) alloys by two-step thermal oxidation. The first-step treatment was conducted in an Ar-1%CO atmosphere at 1073 K for 3.6 ks, and the second-step treatment was conducted in air at 673-1073 K for 10.8 ks. The second-step temperature range for anatase formation was wider in the Ti alloys than in CP Ti. Photo-induced superhydrophilicity under UV irradiation was observed for the TiO2 layers with anatase fractions ≥0.6 on CP Ti and the Ti-25Mo alloy, and with anatase fractions ≥0.18 on the Ti-25Nb alloy. The TiO2 layers on the Ti-25Nb alloy exhibited excellent photocatalytic activity in the low anatase fraction region, which is considered to be caused by the incorporation of 1-3 at% Nb into the TiO2 layers. The rate constant of methylene blue degradation showed maxima at anatase fractions of 0.6-0.9.

  6. Wear performance of self-mating contact pairs of TiN and TiAlN coatings on orthopedic grade Ti-6Al-4V.

    PubMed

    Kim, H; Kim, C Y; Kim, D W; Lee, I S; Lee, G H; Park, J C; Lee, S J; Lee, K Y

    2010-08-01

    Both titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium aluminum nitride (TiAlN) have shown great wear resistance potential in metallic medical devices as protective, hard thin film coatings. In the present study, the effects of TiN and TiAlN coating layers on the wear performance of Ti-6Al-4V were compared and analyzed. TiN and TiAlN coatings with a thickness of 3 microm were deposited by a cathodic vacuum arc ion plating technique on the surface of Ti-6Al-4V. Wear tests were conducted by using a pin-on-disk-type tribotester with a point contact self-mating pair in a linear reciprocal motion. A sliding distance of 20 mm per cycle at 1 Hz was used under a load of 15 N under ambient conditions with no lubricant. The wear resistance of TiN and TiAlN coatings is superior to that of uncoated Ti-6Al-4V at the early stage of sliding contact. Until a measurable amount of wear was detected, the number of sliding cycles of the TiAlN coating pair was longer than TiN. After the first detection of wear from the coating layers, the rate of wear of the TiN coating pairs was significantly higher than that of TiAlN (p < 0.05), and it was close to that of the uncoated pairs. In conclusion, the TiAlN coating is superior to TiN from the viewpoint of wear resistance under the test conditions used in this study.

  7. Microstructure and corrosion behavior of TiC/Ti(CN)/TiN multilayer CVD coatings on high strength steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Jin; Xue, Qi; Li, Songxia

    2013-09-01

    Titanium carbide/titanium carbonitride/titanium nitride (TiC/Ti(CN)/TiN) multilayer coatings are prepared on the surface of three high-strength steels (35CrMo, 42CrMo, and 40CrNiMo) by chemical vapor deposition method. The fracture morphology, elemental distribution, phase composition, micro-hardness, and adhesion of the multilayer film are analyzed. The hydrogen sulfide stress corrosion resistance of the coating is evaluated by the National Association of Corrosion Engineers saturated hydrogen sulfide solution immersion test. A test simulating the environment of the natural gas wells with high temperature and pressure in Luojiazhai in Sichuan is also performed. The results show that the multilayer coatings have dense structures, ∼11 μm thickness, 24.5 ± 2.0 GPa nano-hardness, and ∼70 N adhesion. The corrosion sample also shows no brittle failure induced by stress corrosion after treatment with the coating. Gravimetric analysis shows that the deposition of TiC/Ti(CN)/TiN multilayer coatings results in a corrosion rate reduction of at least 50 times compared with the high-strength steel substrate. A preliminary analysis on this phenomenon is conducted.

  8. Synthesis of heterostructured Pd@TiO{sub 2}/TiOF{sub 2} nanohybrids with enhanced photocatalytic performance

    SciTech Connect

    Zhao, Xixia; Wei, Guijuan; Liu, Junxue; Wang, Zhaojie; An, Changhua; Zhang, Jun

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • TiO{sub 2}/TiOF{sub 2} nanohybrids was synthesized via a two-step solvothermal method. • TiO{sub 2}/TiOF{sub 2} exhibited superior photoactivity in comparison with TiOF{sub 2} or TiO{sub 2}. • The photocatalytic activity was further improved by loading Pd nanoparticles. • Synergistic effect between TiOF{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} was responsible for the enhanced photocatalytic performance over TiO{sub 2}/TiOF{sub 2}. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2}/TiOF{sub 2} heterostructured nanocomposites has been synthesized through a solvothermal method and characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electronic microscopy, transmission electronic microscopy, nitrogen adsorption–desorption isotherms, UV–vis and photo-luminescent spectroscopy. It was found that, compared with single TiOF{sub 2} or TiO{sub 2}, the as-prepared TiO{sub 2}/TiOF{sub 2} nanocomposites exhibited superior photoactivity towards the degradation of organic pollutants, i.e. rhodamine B and solar hydrogen evolution. The results are in accordance with the prohibition of photogenerated electrons and holes recombination in these two samples under light illumination. The photocatalytic activity can be further boosted by introducing Pd nanoparticles onto the surfaces of TiO{sub 2}/TiOF{sub 2} through a simple deposition method without using any stabilizers, which is probably attributed to the enhanced visible-light absorption as well as the facilitated charge-carrier separation after the introduction of Pd nanoparticles. The synergistic effect between TiOF{sub 2} and TiO{sub 2} was discussed and was responsible for the enhancement of their activity in comparison with single counterpart.

  9. An ab initio study on atomic and electronic structures of two-dimensional Al3Ti at Al/TiB2 interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Men, H.

    2016-09-01

    The atomic and electronic structures of a two-dimentional (2D) Al3Ti layer at Al/TiB2 interface has been investigated using first-principle calculations. The result reveals the 2D-Al3Ti adopts the structure of bulk Al3Ti. There exists a strong Ti(3d)-Al(3p) hybridization between Ti and Al atoms of the 2D-Al3Ti, as well as between surface Ti atoms of TiB2 and Al atoms of 2D-Al3Ti. It leads to a stronger covalent Ti-Al bonding at the Al/2D-Al3Ti/TiB2 interface than at the Al/TiB2 interface, which is responsible for the stability of 2D-Al3Ti.

  10. Electrochemical properties of core-shell TiC-TiO2 nanoparticle films immobilized at ITO electrode surfaces.

    PubMed

    Stott, Susan J; Mortimer, Roger J; Dann, Sandie E; Oyama, Munetaka; Marken, Frank

    2006-12-14

    Titanium carbide (TiC) nanoparticles are readily deposited onto tin-doped indium oxide (ITO) electrodes in the form of thin porous films. The nanoparticle deposits are electrically highly conducting and electrochemically active. In aqueous media (at pH 7) and at applied potentials positive of 0.3 V vs. SCE partial anodic surface oxidation and formation (at least in part) of novel core-shell TiC-TiO2 nanoparticles is observed. Significant thermal oxidation of TiC nanoparticles by heating in air occurs at a temperature of 250 degrees C and leads first to core-shell TiC-TiO2 nanoparticles, next at ca. 350 degrees C to TiO2 (anatase), and finally at temperatures higher than 750 degrees C to TiO2 (rutile). Electrochemically and thermally partially oxidized TiC nanoparticles still remain very active and for some redox systems electrocatalytically active. Scanning and transmission electron microscopy (SEM and TEM), temperature dependent XRD, quartz crystal microbalance, and voltammetric measurements are reported. The electrocatalytic properties of the core-shell TiC-TiO2 nanoparticulate films are surveyed for the oxidation of hydroquinone, ascorbic acid, and dopamine in aqueous buffer media. In TiC-TiO2 core-shell nanoparticle films TiO2 surface reactivity can be combined with TiC conductivity.

  11. Oxidation of TiAl3 and L12 Coatings on Ti-45Al-5Nb Alloy at 1173K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nishimoto, Takumi; Kitajima, Yuri; Hayashi, Shigenari; Narita, Toshio

    Oxidation behavior of TiAl3 and L12 coated Ti-45at%Al-5at%Nb alloys at 1173K in air was investigated using mass gain measurement, field emission scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, electron-probe microanalysis, glow discharge optical electron spectroscopy, and glancing angle X-ray diffraction analysis. The TiAl3 formed meta-stable alumina θ-Al2O3, while the oxide scale on the L12 consisted of a duplex structure with an outer rutile TiO2 and an inner α-Al2O3. During the very initial stages of oxidation both Ti and Al in the L12 coating could be oxidized, and then the faster diffusing Ti goes out to form an outer, continuous Ti-rich oxide which covers the slow growing Al2O3. In case of the TiAl3 an outer, continuous TiO2 layer was not observed because of the smaller amount of Ti in the TiAl3. It could be concluded that the outer, Ti-rich oxide enhanced a phase transformation of Al2O3 from θ to α. To elucidate the Ti effect, Ti-vapor treated TiAl3 and Ni-50at%Al were oxidized at 1173K in air, and showed formation of an α-Al2O3, in contrast to θ-Al2O3 on their bare alloys.

  12. Calculation of the Ti(C y N1- y )-Ti4C2S2-MnS-austenite equilibrium in Ti-bearing steels

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, W. J.; Jonas, J. J.

    1989-08-01

    A thermodynamic model is presented for the equilibria among various precipitates (Ti(C y N1- y ), Ti4C2S2, and MnS) and austenite containing six alloying elements (C, Mn, N, S, Si, and Ti). This model is applied to four microalloyed steels with Ti levels of 0.05, 0.11, 0.18, and 0.25 pct. The calculations show that the Ti in these steels cannot be completely dissolved over the austenite temperature range. However, the compositions of the undissolved Ti carbonitrides differ significantly from pure TiN, as 10 to 40 pct of the nitrogen is replaced by carbon. An expression for the Gibbs energy for the formation of Ti4C2S2 in austenite is estimated. The present predictions are compared with those of the Hudd, Jones, and Kale (HJK) model; considerable differences are observed at temperatures below 1250°C.

  13. Corrosion and tribocorrosion behavior of Ti-TiB-TiNx in-situ hybrid composite synthesized by reactive hot pressing.

    PubMed

    Silva, J I; Alves, A C; Pinto, A M; Toptan, F

    2017-10-01

    Ti and its alloys are attractive materials for variety of fields, including biomedical implants, however, the wear behavior is yet to be improved. In the present work, Ti-TiB-TiNx in-situ metal matrix composites were synthesized by reactive hot pressing using a Ti-BN powder blend. Corrosion behavior was investigated in 9g/L NaCl solution at 37°C by performing potentiodynamic polarization and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Tribocorrosion behavior was investigated using reciprocating tribometer, against an alumina ball, under 1 and 10N normal load, 1 and 2Hz frequency, in 9g/L NaCl solution at 37°C. Results suggested that TiB and TiNx in-situ phases did not deteriorate the corrosion behavior of Ti but significantly improved the tribocorrosion behavior under 1N. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Instability of Hydrogenated TiO2

    SciTech Connect

    Nandasiri, Manjula I.; Shutthanandan, V.; Manandhar, Sandeep; Schwarz, Ashleigh M.; Oxenford, Lucas S.; Kennedy, John V.; Thevuthasan, Suntharampillai; Henderson, Michael A.

    2015-11-06

    Hydrogenated TiO2 (H-TiO2) is toted as a viable visible light photocatalyst. We report a systematic study on the thermal stability of H-implanted TiO2 using X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS), Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and nuclear reaction analysis (NRA). Protons (40 keV) implanted at a ~2 atom % level within a ~120 nm wide profile of rutile TiO2(110) were situated ~300 nm below the surface. NRA revealed that this H-profile broadened preferentially toward the surface after annealing at 373 K, dissipated out of the crystal into vacuum at 473 K, and was absent within the beam sampling depth (~800 nm) at 523 K. Photoemission showed that the surface was reduced in concert with these changes. Similar anneals had no effect on pristine TiO2(110). The facile bulk diffusivity of H in rutile, as well as its activity toward interfacial reduction, significantly limits the utilization of H-TiO2 as a photocatalyst. This work was supported by the US Department of Energy, Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Division of Chemical Sciences, Geosciences & Biosciences. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) is a multiprogram national laboratory operated for DOE by Battelle. The research was performed using the Environmental Molecular Sciences Laboratory (EMSL), a national scientific user facility sponsored by the Department of Energy's Office of Biological and Environmental Research and located at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory.

  15. Synthesis and structural study of Ti-rich Mg-Ti hydrides

    SciTech Connect

    Asano, Kohta; Kim, Hyunjeong; Sakaki, Kouji; Page, Katharine; Hayashi, Shigenobu; Nakamura, Yumiko; Akiba, Etsuo

    2014-02-26

    MgxTi1-x (x = 0.15, 0.25, 0.35) alloys were synthesized by means of ball milling. Under a hydrogen pressure of 8 MPa at 423 K these Mg–Ti alloys formed a hydride phase with a face centered cubic (FCC) structure. The hydride for x = 0.25 consisted of single Mg0.25Ti0.75H1.62 FCC phase but TiH2 and MgH2 phases were also formed in the hydrides for x = 0.15 and 0.35, respectively. X-ray diffraction patterns and the atomic pair distribution function indicated that numbers of stacking faults were introduced. There was no sign of segregation between Mg and Ti in Mg0.25Ti0.75H1.62. Electronic structure of Mg0.25Ti0.75H1.62 was different from those of MgH2 and TiH2, which was demonstrated by 1H nuclear magnetic resonance. This strongly suggested that stable Mg–Ti hydride phase was formed in the metal composition of Mg0.25Ti0.75 without disproportion into MgH2 and TiH2.

  16. Bioactive (Si, O, N)/(Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coating on NiTi shape memory alloy for enhanced wear and corrosion performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Tao; Xue, Ning; Liu, Chao; Wang, Chao; He, Jin

    2015-11-01

    In this investigation, (Si, O, N)/(Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coating was synthesized on a NiTi shape memory alloy (SMA) substrate (50.8 at.% Ni) via plasma immersion ion implantation and deposition (PIIID) followed by magnetron sputtering, with the aim of promoting bioactivity and biocompatibility of NiTi SMAs. Nano featured (Si, O, N)/(Ti, O, N)/Ti coating was approximate 0.84 ± 0.05 μm in thickness, and energy dispersive X-ray (EDX) spectroscopy showed that Ni element was depleted from the surface of coated samples. X-ray diffraction (XRD) did not identify the phase composition of the (Si, O, N)/(Ti, O, N)/Ti coating, probably due to its thin thickness and poor crystalline resulting from low-temperature coating processes (<200 °C). X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analyses confirmed that a Ni-free surface was formed and Si element was incorporated into the composite coating via the magnetron sputtering process. Additionally, phase transformation behaviors of uncoated and coated NiTi SMA samples were characterized using differential scanning calorimetry (DSC). Wear and corrosion resistance of uncoated and coated NiTi SMA samples were evaluated using ball-on-disc tests and potentio-dynamic polarization curves, respectively. The (Si, O, N)/(Ti, O, N)/Ti coated NiTi SMA samples showed enhanced wear and corrosion resistance. Furthermore, the (Si, O, N)/(Ti, O, N)/Ti composite coating facilitated apatite formation in simulated body fluid (SBF) and rendered NiTi SMA bioactivity.

  17. Porous TiO2 Assembled from Monodispersed Nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Liu, Xu; Duan, Weijie; Chen, Yan; Jiao, Shihui; Zhao, Yue; Kang, Yutang; Li, Lu; Fang, Zhenxing; Xu, Wei; Pang, Guangsheng

    2016-12-01

    Porous TiO2 were assembled by evaporating or refluxing TiO2 colloid, which was obtained by dispersing the TiO2 nanoparticles with a crystallite size (d XRD) of 3.2 nm into water or ethanol without any additives. Porous transparent bulk TiO2 was obtained by evaporating the TiO2-C2H5OH colloid at room temperature for 2 weeks, while porous TiO2 nanospheres were assembled by refluxing the TiO2-H2O colloid at 80 °C for 36 h. Both of the porous TiO2 architectures were pore-size-adjustable depending on the further treating temperature. Porous TiO2 nanospheres exhibited enhanced photocatalysis activity compared to the nanoparticles.

  18. The first-principles study for the novel optical properties of LiTi2O4, Li4Ti5O12, Li2Ti2O4 and Li7Ti5O12

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuxiang; Lian, Jie; Sun, Zhaozong; Zhao, Minglin; Shi, Yujun; Song, Haonan

    2017-06-01

    With the first-principles method based on the density functional theory (DFT), we studied novel optical properties of LiTi2O4, Li4Ti5O12, Li2Ti2O4 and Li7Ti5O12, respectively. According to the calculated electronic structures, the electron redistribution upon Li-ion intercalation has an obvious influence on the electronic transitions between O 2p and Ti 3d states, resulting in distinctions of optical properties between LiTi2O4, Li4Ti5O12, Li2Ti2O4 and Li7Ti5O12. These results not only reveal the fundamental origin of optical properties but also provide practical guidance on optical applications for these materials.

  19. Cermet with Slow TiC Coarsening During Sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Chun-Ming; Tsai, Che-Wei; Huang, Sheng-Min; Yang, Chih-Chao; Yeh, Jien-Wei

    2014-10-01

    New TiC/Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 cermet was developed by exploiting the advantages of the high-entropy alloy (HEA) binder. A much finer grain structure and thus improved hardness-toughness combination were obtained as compared with two traditional binders, Ni and Ni13Mo7. From the coarsening behavior of TiC grains, the coarsening process of TiC in these three binders is diffusion-controlled. The activation energy of TiC + 20%Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 is the highest and that of TiC + 20%Ni is the lowest. The high activation energy of the Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 binder was attributable to its high content of carbon-strong-binding elements, Cr and Ti, and cooperative diffusion and higher packing density of multiple different-sized atoms. Low diffusion coefficient, low surface energy of TiC grains, and low solubility of Ti in the HEA liquid explain the slow coarsening of TiC grains. This study demonstrates that Co1.5CrFeNi1.5Ti0.5 is an excellent HEA binder for TiC cermets.

  20. Hierarchical fabrication of heterojunctioned SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotubes on 3D microporous Ti substrate with enhanced photocatalytic activity and adhesive strength

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Jie; Yin, Lu; Zha, Kang; Li, Huirong; Liu, Zhiyuan; Wang, Jianxin; Duan, Ke; Feng, Bo

    2016-03-01

    Recently, construction of three-dimensional (3D) architecture and design of heterostructure have been proved to be two important approaches for improving photocatalytic (PC) properties of TiO2-based catalysts. In this work, a 3D microporous surface on Ti substrate (MPT) was prepared by simple acid etching. Then, heterojunctioned SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotubes with dominant {001} facets of anatase TiO2were successfully fabricated on MPT by combining anodization with hydrothermal treatment. The 3D microporous-patterned SrTiO3/TiO2 nanotubes heterojunction shows significantly enhanced photo-current density and ∼200% improved PC effect in degradation of Rhodamine B owing to its higher specific surface area, stronger light-harvesting ability and positive heterojunction effect in comparison with TiO2 nanotubes formed on flat Ti substrate. Moreover, the 3D microporous structure on Ti substrate improved the adhesive strength between the nanotubes layer and Ti substrate, which can be ascribed to the effective release of internal stress. Therefore, this present strategy is expected to expand the application of TiO2-based catalysts in many fields which require excellent PC properties and mechanical stability.

  1. Piezoelectric and Dielectric Properties of Multilayered BaTiO3/(Ba,Ca)TiO3/CaTiO3 Thin Films.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xiao Na; Gao, Ting Ting; Xu, Xing; Liang, Wei Zheng; Lin, Yuan; Chen, Chonglin; Chen, Xiang Ming

    2016-08-31

    Highly oriented multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films were fabricated on Nb-doped (001) SrTiO3 (Nb:STO) substrates by pulsed laser deposition. The configurations of multilayered BaTiO3-(Ba,Ca)TiO3-CaTiO3 thin films are designed with the thickness ratio of 1:1:1 and 2:1:1 and total thickness ∼300 nm. Microstructural characterization by X-ray diffraction indicates that the as-deposited thin films are highly c-axis oriented and large in-plane strain is determined in BaTiO3 and CaTiO3 layers. Piezoresponse force microscopy (PFM) studies reveal an intense in-plane polarization component, whereas the out-of-plane shows inferior phase contrast. The optimized combination is found to be the BaTiO3-(Ba0.85Ca0.15)TiO3-CaTiO3 structure with combination ratio 2:1:1, which displays the largest domain switching amplitude under DC electric field, the largest room-temperature dielectric constant ∼646, a small dielectric loss of 0.03, and the largest dielectric tunability of ∼50% at 400 kV/cm. These results suggest that the enhanced dielectric and tunability performance are greatly associated with the large in-plane polarization component and domain switching.

  2. Controllable two-scale network architecture and enhanced mechanical properties of (Ti5Si3+TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites

    PubMed Central

    Jiao, Y.; Huang, L. J.; Duan, T. B.; Wei, S. L.; Kaveendran, B.; Geng, L.

    2016-01-01

    Novel Ti6Al4V alloy matrix composites with a controllable two-scale network architecture were successfully fabricated by reaction hot pressing (RHP). TiB whiskers (TiBw) were in-situ synthesized around the Ti6Al4V matrix particles, and formed the first-scale network structure (FSNS). Ti5Si3 needles (Ti5Si3) precipitated in the β phase around the equiaxed α phase, and formed the secondary-scale network structure (SSNS). This resulted in increased deformation compatibility accompanied with enhanced mechanical properties. Apart from the reinforcement distribution and the volume fraction, the ratio between Ti5Si3 and TiBw fraction were controlled. The prepared (Ti5Si3 + TiBw)/Ti6Al4V composites showed higher tensile strength and ductility than the composites with a one-scale microstructure, and superior wear resistance over the Ti6Al4V alloy under dry sliding wear conditions at room temperature. PMID:27622992

  3. Rapid synthesis of TiO2 nanoparticles by electrochemical anodization of a Ti wire.

    PubMed

    Ali, Ghafar; Kim, Hyun Jin; Kum, Jong Min; Cho, Sung Oh

    2013-05-10

    We present a simple and novel strategy to synthesize TiO2 nanoparticles (NPs) based on electrochemical anodization of a Ti wire in an aqueous KCl electrolyte. The Ti wire is very rapidly and directly converted to TiO2 NPs by the anodization process, allowing mass production of TiO2 NPs. The size of the synthesized NPs can be readily tuned by changing the concentration of the electrolyte. We found that the field-assisted etching related to a strong electric field and the rapid etching rate caused by chloride ions play important roles for the formation of TiO2 NPs. This approach can also be applied to the mass production of other semiconducting metal oxide NPs such as tungsten-oxide NPs. TiO2 NPs showed higher photocatalytic activity compared to Degussa (P 25) under the same conditions. The higher photocatalytic activity of TiO2 NPs is attributed to the polymorphism. We believe that our approach can be used in broad areas including biomedical applications, photovoltaics, optics, and electronics.

  4. Influences of Ti film thickness on electrochemical properties of Si/Ti/Cu film electrodes.

    PubMed

    Cho, Gyu-Bong; Lee, Sang-Hun; Sung, Ho-Jin; Noh, Jung-Pil; Ahn, Hyo-Jun; Nam, Tae-Hyun; Kim, Ki-Won

    2012-07-01

    Si and Si/Ti films were fabricated on a Cu current collector (substrate) using the DC sputtering system. The Ti film as a buffer layer was inserted between the Si film and the Cu current collector. Their structural and electrochemical properties were investigated with various Ti film thicknesses of 20-90 nm. The Si and Ti films deposited on a polycrystalline Cu substrate were amorphous. The Si/Ti/Cu film electrode exhibited better electrochemical properties than the Si/Cu electrode in terms of capacity, charge-discharge efficiency, and cycleability. In the Si/Ti/Cu electrode, the film electrode with a 55 nm Ti film thickness showed the best electrochemical properties: 367 microA h/cm2 initial capacity, 91% efficiency, and 50% capacity retention after 100 cycles. These good electrochemical properties are attributed to the enhanced adhesion between the Si and Ti films. Additionally, the modified surface morphology of Si film with a cluster structure could withstand the lateral volume change during the charge-discharge process.

  5. Pure rotational spectra of TiO and TiO2 in VY Canis Majoris

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kamiński, T.; Gottlieb, C. A.; Menten, K. M.; Patel, N. A.; Young, K. H.; Brünken, S.; Müller, H. S. P.; McCarthy, M. C.; Winters, J. M.; Decin, L.

    2013-03-01

    We report the first detection of pure rotational transitions of TiO and TiO2 at (sub-)millimeter wavelengths towards the red supergiant VY CMa. A rotational temperature, Trot, of about 250 K was derived for TiO2. Although Trot was not well constrained for TiO, it is likely somewhat higher than that of TiO2. The detection of the Ti oxides confirms that they are formed in the circumstellar envelopes of cool oxygen-rich stars and may be the "seeds" of inorganic-dust formation, but alternative explanations for our observation of TiO and TiO2 in the cooler regions of the envelope cannot be ruled out at this time. The observations suggest that a significant fraction of the oxides is not converted to dust, but instead remains in the gas phase throughout the outflow. Based on observations carried out with the Submillimeter Array and IRAM Plateau de Bure Interferometer.Plateau de Bure data (FITS file) is only available at the CDS via anonymous ftp to cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr (130.79.128.5) or via http://cdsarc.u-strasbg.fr/viz-bin/qcat?J/A+A/551/A113

  6. Double-Shelled TiO2 Hollow Spheres Assembled with TiO2 Nanosheets.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chao; Zhou, Yuming; Zhang, Yiwei; Zhao, Shuo; Fang, Jiasheng; Sheng, Xiaoli; Zhang, Tao; Zhang, Hongxing

    2017-02-08

    High-quality double-shelled TiO2 hollow spheres (DHS-Ti) assembled with TiO2 nanosheets have been synthesized for the first time through a simple hydrothermal treatment of sSiO2 @TiO2 (TiO2 -coated solid SiO2 spheres). The double-shelled structure shows a high BET surface area up to 417.6 m(2)  g(-1) . Anatase DHS-Ti of high crystallinity can be obtained without structural collapse by calcination treatment. The effects of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) concentration, pH, and hydrothermal reaction temperature have also been investigated with a series of contrast experiments. A formation mechanism involving the in situ growth of amorphous TiO2 nanosheets followed by the redeposition of dissolved silica species is proposed. Lastly, the DHS-Ti forming strategy can be extended as a general strategy to fabricate various morphological hollow nanostructures and double-shelled Pt nanocatalysts by rationally selecting functional sSiO2 nanoparticles as core materials. This work could open up a new strategy for controllable synthesis of complex hollow structures and other functional materials.

  7. A new, energy-efficient chemical pathway for extracting Ti metal from Ti minerals.

    PubMed

    Fang, Zhigang Zak; Middlemas, Scott; Guo, Jun; Fan, Peng

    2013-12-11

    Titanium is the ninth most abundant element, fourth among common metals, in the Earth's crust. Apart from some high-value applications in, e.g., the aerospace, biomedicine, and defense industries, the use of titanium in industrial or civilian applications has been extremely limited because of its high embodied energy and high cost. However, employing titanium would significantly reduce energy consumption of mechanical systems such as civilian transportation vehicles, which would have a profound impact on the sustainability of a global economy and the society of the future. The root cause of the high cost of titanium is its very strong affinity for oxygen. Conventional methods for Ti extraction involve several energy-intensive processes, including upgrading ilmenite ore to Ti-slag and then to synthetic rutile, high-temperature carbo-chlorination to produce TiCl4, and batch reduction of TiCl4 using Mg or Na (Kroll or Hunter process). This Communication describes a novel chemical pathway for extracting titanium metal from the upgraded titanium minerals (Ti-slag) with 60% less energy consumption than conventional methods. The new method involves direct reduction of Ti-slag using magnesium hydride, forming titanium hydride, which is subsequently purified by a series of chemical leaching steps. By directly reducing Ti-slag in the first step, Ti is chemically separated from impurities without using high-temperature processes.

  8. Resistive Switching Memory of TiO2 Nanowire Networks Grown on Ti Foil by a Single Hydrothermal Method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiao, Ming; Musselman, Kevin P.; Duley, Walter W.; Zhou, Norman Y.

    2017-04-01

    The resistive switching characteristics of TiO2 nanowire networks directly grown on Ti foil by a single-step hydrothermal technique are discussed in this paper. The Ti foil serves as the supply of Ti atoms for growth of the TiO2 nanowires, making the preparation straightforward. It also acts as a bottom electrode for the device. A top Al electrode was fabricated by e-beam evaporation process. The Al/TiO2 nanowire networks/Ti device fabricated in this way displayed a highly repeatable and electroforming-free bipolar resistive behavior with retention for more than 104 s and an OFF/ON ratio of approximately 70. The switching mechanism of this Al/TiO2 nanowire networks/Ti device is suggested to arise from the migration of oxygen vacancies under applied electric field. This provides a facile way to obtain metal oxide nanowire-based ReRAM device in the future.

  9. High damping NiTi/Ti3Sn in situ composite with transformation-mediated plasticity

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, Junsong; Liu, Yinong; Huan, Yong; Hao, Shijie; Jiang, Daqiang; Ren, Yang; Shao, Yang; Ru, Yadong; Wang, Zhongqiang; Cui, Lishan

    2014-11-01

    The concept of transformation-induced plasticity effect is introduced in this work to improve the plasticity of brittle intermetallic compound Ti3Sn, which is a potent high damping material. This concept is achieved in an in situ NiTi/Ti3Sn composite. The composite is composed of primary Ti3Sn phase and (NiTi + Ti3Sn) eutectic structure formed via hypereutectic solidification. The composite exhibits a high damping capacity of 0.075 (indexed by tan δ), a high ultimate compressive strength of 1350 MPa, and a large plasticity of 27.5%. In situ synchrotron high-energy X-ray diffraction measurements revealed clear evidence of the stress-induced martensitic transformation (B2 → B19) of the NiTi component during deformation. The strength of the composite mainly stems from the Ti3Sn, whereas the NiTi component is responsible for the excellent plasticity of the composite.

  10. Mechanical and Tribological Properties of Cold-Sprayed Ti Coatings on Ti-6Al-4V Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khun, N. W.; Tan, A. W. Y.; Liu, E.

    2016-04-01

    A cold spray process was used to deposit titanium (Ti) coatings of different thicknesses on commercial Ti-6Al-4V (Ti64) substrates. The hardness of the Ti coatings was measured using a Vickers micro-indenter. It was found that the thicker Ti coatings had higher hardness probably due to the better uniformity and higher density of the coatings. The tribological results showed that the friction and wear of the Ti coatings tested against a steel ball under dry condition became lower with higher thickness probably due to the higher wear resistance of the thicker coatings associated with their higher hardness. The specific wear rates of all the Ti coatings were significantly lower than that of the Ti64 substrate as a result of the higher wear resistance of the Ti coatings associated with their cold-worked microstructures and the formation of high wear resistant oxide layers on their wear tracks during the wear testing.

  11. Surface characterization of Ti and Ti (6 percent, Al-4 percent, V) metal powders and interaction with primer solutions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Siriwardane, R. V.; Wightman, J. P.

    1983-01-01

    The interaction of Ti and Ti 6-4 powders with water and primer solutions was investigated experimentally by measuring the heats of immersion. Similar comparative studies were made on anatase and rutile TiO2 powders. The surface oxide layers of Ti and Ti 6-4 cracked on heating in vacuum between 300 and 400 C as evidenced by high heats of immersion in both water and primer solutions. Polyimide and polyphenylquinoxaline interacted preferentially, compared with the solvents with both metal powders after outgassing at room temperature. The heats of immersion of Ti 6-4 in water, solvents, and primer solutions increased significantly after pretreatment of the powder by an alkaline etch and a phosphate-fluoride process. The TiO2 powders were not satisfactory models for the surface oxide layer on either Ti or Ti 6-4 powder.

  12. Preparation and characterization of sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes and their photoelectrocatalytic performance.

    PubMed

    Sun, Haijian; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Jun; Wang, Xiangyu; Wang, Bin; Han, Lei

    2008-08-15

    Sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes were prepared by anodization and characterized by SEM, AFM, XRD, XPS, UV-vis and SPS. The results of investigation indicated that S(4+) and S(6+) were dispersed on the surface of TiO(2) nanoparticles. The doping with an appropriate amount of sulfur expanded the response range of TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes to visible light, and enhanced the separation of photoinduced electrons from cavities. The photoelectrocatalytic performance test run with sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes under Xenon light indicated that Na(2)SO(3) concentration of 750 mg/L and voltage of 160 V were the optimal conditions for preparation of sulfur-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes.

  13. A facile in-situ hydrothermal synthesis of SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hongxing; Zhao, Wei; Zhang, Yubo; Zhang, Shimeng; Wang, Zihao; Zhao, Dan

    2016-06-01

    TiO2 was successfully used as sacrificed template to synthesise SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere composite via an in-situ hydrothermal process. The diameter of SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere was about 700 nm with the same size of the template, and all of the microspheres were in good dispersity. The optimized reaction parameters for the phase and morphology of the as-synthesized samples were investigated. The results showed the SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere can be synthesized at 170 °C when the concentration of sodium hydroxide was 0.1 M. Lower hydrothermal temperature hampered the formation of the SrTiO3/TiO2 composite, the higher alkali concentration, however, will destroy the morphology of products. The formation mechanism of SrTiO3/TiO2 microsphere composite was proposed and the photocatalytic properties of the samples were characterized using methylene blue solution as the pollutant under the UV light irradiation. The results indicated the proper OH- concentration will provide a channel for Sr2+ to react with Ti4+ located in the template and form the SrTiO3/TiO2 composite, and those with micro-scaled spherical morphology exhibited good photocatalytic activities.

  14. Exploration of the nature of active Ti species in metallic Ti-doped NaAlH4.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ping; Kang, Xiang-Dong; Cheng, Hui-Ming

    2005-11-03

    Clarification of the nature of active Ti species has been a key challenge in developing Ti-doped NaAlH(4) as a potential hydrogen storage medium. Previously, it has been greatly hindered by the invisibility of Ti-containing species in conventional analysis techniques. In the present study, for the first time, the catalytically active Ti-containing species have been definitely identified by X-ray diffraction in the hydrides doped with metallic Ti. It was found that mechanical milling of a NaH/Al mixture or NaAlH(4) with metallic Ti powder resulted in the formation of nanocrystalline Ti hydrides. The variation of the preparation conditions during the doping process leads to a slight composition variation of the Ti hydrides. The catalytic enhancement arising upon doping the hydride with commercial TiH(2) was quite similar to that achieved in the hydrides doped with metallic Ti. Moreover, the cycling stability that was previously established in metallic Ti-doped hydrides was also observed in the hydrides doped with TiH(2). These results clearly demonstrate that the in situ formed Ti hydrides act as active species to catalyze the reversible dehydrogenation of NaAlH(4). The mechanism by which Ti hydrides catalyze the reversible de-/hydrogenation reactions of NaAlH(4) was discussed.

  15. Preparation and solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2 composites: TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Y.; Li, S. G.; Wang, J.; Li, Y.; Ma, C. H.; Zhang, L.

    2014-12-01

    Three TiO2 loaded composites, TiO2/kaolin, TiO2/diatomite, and TiO2/zeolite, were prepared in order to improve the solar-light photocatalytic activity of TiO2. The results showed that the photocatalytic activity could obviously be enhanced by loading appropriate amount of inorganic mineral materials. Meanwhile, TiO2 content, heat-treatment temperature and heat-treatment time on the photocatalytic activity were reviewed. Otherwise, the effect of solar light irradiation time and dye concentration on the photocatalytic degradation of Acid Red B was investigated. Furthermore, the degradation mechanism and adsorption process were also discussed.

  16. Self-doped TiO2-x nanowires with enhanced photocatalytic activity: Facile synthesis and effects of the Ti3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Junpeng; Yang, Ping; Huang, Baibiao

    2015-11-01

    Synthesis of Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 with high stability is very necessary to understand the role of Ti3+ defects in photocatalytic process. In this study, we report a simple strategy for preparing stable Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 nanowires with Ti2O3 as precursors. Raman and XPS spectrum confirmed the existence of Ti3+ and oxygen vacancies. Compared with the pure TiO2, the photocatalytic activity of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2 enhanced under UV light irradiation, however, neither pure TiO2 nor the self-dope TiO2 samples exhibit photocatalytic activity while irradiated under visible light, though the self-doped TiO2 have an enhanced absorption in visible region. On the basis of the experimental results, the possible mechanism of Ti3+ in photocatalytic process is proposed.

  17. Are 44Ti-producing supernovae exceptional?

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    The, L.-S.; Clayton, D. D.; Diehl, R.; Hartmann, D. H.; Iyudin, A. F.; Leising, M. D.; Meyer, B. S.; Motizuki, Y.; Schönfelder, V.

    2006-05-01

    According to standard models supernovae produce radioactive 44Ti, which should be visible in gamma-rays following decay to 44Ca for a few centuries. 44Ti production is believed to be the source of cosmic 44Ca, whose abundance is well established. Yet, gamma-ray telescopes have not seen the expected young remnants of core collapse events. The 44Ti mean life of τ ≃ 89 y and the Galactic supernova rate of ≃3/100 y imply ≃several detectable 44Ti gamma-ray sources, but only one is clearly seen, the 340-year-old Cas A SNR. Furthermore, supernovae which produce much 44Ti are expected to occur primarily in the inner part of the Galaxy, where young massive stars are most abundant. Because the Galaxy is transparent to gamma-rays, this should be the dominant location of expected gamma-ray sources. Yet the Cas A SNR as the only one source is located far from the inner Galaxy (at longitude 112°). We evaluate the surprising absence of detectable supernovae from the past three centuries. We discuss whether our understanding of SN explosions, their 44Ti yields, their spatial distributions, and statistical arguments can be stretched so that this apparent disagreement may be accommodated within reasonable expectations, or if we have to revise some or all of the above aspects to bring expectations in agreement with the observations. We conclude that either core collapse supernovae have been improbably rare in the Galaxy during the past few centuries, or 44Ti-producing supernovae are atypical supernovae. We also present a new argument based on 44Ca/40Ca ratios in mainstream SiC stardust grains that may cast doubt on massive-He-cap type I supernovae as the source of most galactic 44Ca.

  18. Thin carbon layer coated Ti(3+)-TiO2 nanocrystallites for visible-light driven photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Baojiang; Tang, Yunqi; Qu, Yang; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Xie, Ying; Tian, Chungui; Zhou, Wei; Fu, Honggang

    2015-03-21

    Black TiO2 containing Ti(3+) attracts enormous attention due to its excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic activity. Herein, an in situ thermal decomposition approach to synthesize uniform thin carbon coated Ti(3+)-TiO2 nanocrystals is presented. During the oleic acid-assisted solvothermal process, the crystal size and morphology of TiO2 were controlled through oleic acid with carboxylic acid groups. Then the residual small quantities of oleic acid anchored on TiO2 were used as a carbon source, which could be in situ pyrolyzed into a carbon layer on TiO2 at high temperature and under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, Ti(4+) species were partly reduced into Ti(3+) states/oxygen vacancies on the surface of TiO2 due to the carbothermal reduction reaction for the carbon-encapsulated Ti(3+)-TiO2 structure. A series of characterizations indicated that the 20-25 nm TiO2 nanocrystals obtained were wrapped evenly by 1-2 nm carbon layers, which had an important effect on the energy band structure change of TiO2. The presence of the carbon layer also improves the Ti(3+) stability and the conduction behavior of the composites. The Ti(3+) states/oxygen vacancies created on the surface of TiO2 were responsible for the remarkable photogenerated charge separation and extended visible-light absorption range. Furthermore, Ti(3+) states/oxygen vacancies and the carbon layer together could enhance the adsorption ability of O2 so as to promote the photogenerated electrons captured by the adsorbed O2, leading to a great increase in the charge separation. As a result, the composites exhibit high photocatalytic performance for organic pollutants under visible light irradiation. This simple and new method may pave the way to practical applications for efficient photocatalytic degradation under visible light.

  19. Laser Processed TiN Reinforced Ti6Al4V Composite Coatings

    PubMed Central

    Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Bhat, Abhimanyu; Bose, Susmita; Bandyopadhyay, Amit

    2011-01-01

    The purpose of this first generation investigation is to evaluate fabrication, in vitro cytotoxicity, cell-materials interactions and tribological performance of TiN particle reinforced Ti6Al4V composite coatings for potential wear resistant load bearing implant applications. The microstructural analysis of the composites was performed using scanning electron microscope and phase analysis was done with X-ray diffraction. In vitro cell-materials interactions, using human fetal osteoblast cell line, have been assessed on these composite coatings and compared with Ti6Al4V alloy control samples. The tribological performance of the coatings were evaluated, in simulated body fluids, up to 1000 m sliding distance under 10N normal load. The results show that the composite coatings contain distinct TiN particles embedded in α + β phase matrix. The average top surface hardness of Ti6Al4V alloy increased from 394 ± 8 HV to 1138 ± 61 HV with 40 wt.% TiN reinforcement. Among the composite coatings, the coatings reinforced with 40 wt. % TiN exhibited the highest wear resistance of 3.74 × 10-6 mm3/Nm, which is lower than the wear rate, 1.04 × 10-5 mm3/Nm, of laser processed CoCrMo alloy tested under identical experimental conditions. In vitro biocompatibility study showed that these composite coatings were non-toxic and provides superior cell-material interactions compared to Ti6Al4V control, as a result of their high surface energy. In summary, excellent in vitro wear resistance and biocompatibility of present laser processed TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings clearly show their potential as wear resistant contact surfaces for load bearing implant applications. PMID:22301169

  20. Healing of complement activating Ti implants compared with non-activating Ti in rat tibia.

    PubMed

    Harmankaya, N; Igawa, K; Stenlund, P; Palmquist, A; Tengvall, P

    2012-09-01

    Recent studies have revealed that ozone ultraviolet (UVO) illumination of titanium (Ti) implants improves bone-implant anchorage by altering the physico-chemical and immune activating properties of the titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) layer. In the present rat tibia model, the authors compared the early events of inflammation and bone formation around UVO-treated Ti and complement activating immunoglobin g (IgG)-coated Ti. Machined Ti and machined Ti coated with a physical vapour-deposited Ti layer were used as references. Screw-shaped test and reference implants were implanted into rat tibia and harvested after 1, 7 and 28 days. Messenger RNA expression of implant adhered cells and peri-implant tissue ~250 μm from the surface were subsequently analysed with regard to IL-1β, TNF-α, osteocalcin, cathepsin K, BMP-2 and PDGF. Separate implants were retrieved after 7 and 28 days for removal torque measurements, and histological staining and histomorphometric analysis of bone area and bone-to-implant contact. While enhanced expression of inflammatory markers, TNF-α and IL-1β, was observed on IgG-coated surfaces throughout the observation time, UVO-treated surfaces indicated a significantly lower early inflammatory response. In the early phases (1 and 7 days), the UVO-treated surfaces displayed a significantly higher expression of osteoblast markers BMP-2 and osteocalcin. In summary, complement activating Ti implants elicited a stronger inflammatory response than UVO-treated Ti, with low complement activation during the first week of healing. In spite of this, the UVO-treated Ti induced only marginally more bone growth outside the implants.

  1. Investigations on structural, elastic, thermodynamic and electronic properties of TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2 under high pressure by first-principles

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Ruike; Zhu, Chuanshuai; Wei, Qun; Du, Zheng

    2016-11-01

    The lattice parameters, cell volume, elastic constants, bulk modulus, shear modulus, Young's modulus and Poisson's ratio are calculated at zero pressure, and their values are in excellent agreement with the available data, for TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2. By using the elastic stability criteria, it is shown that the three structures are all stable. The brittle/ductile behaviors are assessed in the pressures from 0 GPa to 50 GPa. Our calculations present that the performances for TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2 become from brittle to ductile with pressure rise. The Debye temperature rises as pressure increase. With increasing N content, the enhancement of covalent interactions and decline of metallicity lead to the increase of the micro-hardness. Their constant volume heat capacities increase rapidly in the lower temperature, at a given pressure. At higher temperature, the heat capacities are close to the Dulong-Petit limit, and the heat capacities of TiN and Ti2N are larger than that of c-BN. The thermal expansion coefficients of titanium nitrides are slightly larger than that of c-BN. The band structure and the total Density of States (DOS) are calculated at 0 GPa and 50 GPa. The results show that TiN and Ti2N present metallic character. Ti3N2 present semiconducting character. The band structures have some discrepancies between 0 GPa and 50 GPa. The extent of energy dispersion increases slightly at 50 GPa, which means that the itinerant character of electrons becomes stronger at 50 GPa. The main bonding peaks of TiN, Ti2N and Ti3N2 locate in the range from -10 to 10 eV, which originate from the contribution of valance electron numbers of Ti s, Ti p, Ti d, N s and N p orbits. We can also find that the pressure makes that the total DOS decrease at the Fermi level for Ti2N. The bonding behavior of N-Ti compounds is a combination of covalent and ionic nature. As N content increases, valence band broadens, valence electron concentration increases, and covalent interactions become stronger

  2. Effects of strong interactions between Ti and ceria on the structures of Ti/CeO2.

    PubMed

    Yao, Xiao-Dan; Zhu, Kong-Jie; Teng, Bo-Tao; Yu, Cao-Ming; Zhang, Yun-Lei; Liu, Ya; Fan, Maohong; Wen, Xiao-Dong

    2016-11-30

    The effects of strong interactions between Ti and ceria on the structures of Ti/CeO2(111) are systematically investigated by density functional theory calculation. To our best knowledge, the adsorption energy of a Ti atom at the hollow site of CeO2 is the highest value (-7.99 eV) reported in the literature compared with those of Au (-0.88--1.26 eV), Ag (-1.42 eV), Cu (-2.69 eV), Pd (-1.75 eV), Pt (-2.62 eV) and Sn (-3.68 eV). It is very interesting to find that Ti adatoms disperse at the hollow site of CeO2(111) to form surface TiOx species, instead of aggregating to form Ti metal clusters for the Ti-CeO2 interactions that are much stronger than those of Ti-Ti ones. Ti adatoms are completely oxidized to Ti(4+) ions if they are monatomically dispersed on the next near hollow sites of CeO2(111) (xTi-NN-hollow); while Ti(3+) ions are observed when they locate at the near hollow sites (xTi-N-hollow). Due to the electronic repulsive effects among Ti(3+) ions, the adsorption energies of xTi-N-hollow are slightly weaker than those of xTi-NN-hollow. Simultaneously, the existence of unstable Ti(3+) ions on xTi-N-hollow also leads to the restructuring of xTi-N-hollow by surface O atoms of ceria transferring to the top of Ti(3+) ions, or oxidation by O2 adsorption and dissociation. Both processes improve the stability of the xTi/CeO2 system by Ti(3+) oxidation. Correspondingly, surface TiO2-like species form. This work sheds light into the structures of metal/CeO2 catalysts with strong interactions between the metal and the ceria support.

  3. Microstructure and Wear Resistance of Plasma Jet Clad Ti5Si3/NiTi Composite Coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Yuan-Fu; Han, Jian-Min; Zhang, Gu-Ling; Wang, Jiu-Li; Li, Min; Yang, Wu-Bao; Liu, Chi-Zi; Li, Hui-Qi; Yang, Si-Ze

    2004-07-01

    A wear resistant Ti5Si3/NiTi composite coating was fabricated on a substrate of a titanium alloy by plasma jet cladding using Ni-Ti-Si elemental powder blends. The microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of the coating were evaluated. The result shows that the plasma jet clad composite coating has a rapidly solidified microstructure consisting of blocky primary Ti5Si3 and the inter-blocky Ti5Si3/NiTi eutectics and is metallurgically bonded to the titanium substrate. The composite coating has high hardness and excellent wear resistance under the dry-sliding-wear test condition.

  4. Growth of Nanoscale BaTiO3/SrTiO3 Superlattices by Molecular-Beam Epitaxy

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2008-05-01

    can be achieved for SrTiO3.16 We found this method to also work for BaTiO3. An ex- ample of typical shuttered RHEED oscillations during the growth...to obtain atomically abrupt interfaces. For this reason we have used the method developed by Koster et al.13 to prepare TiO2-terminated (001) SrTiO3...sub- strates. An atomic force microscopy (AFM) image of a typical TiO2-terminated SrTiO3 substrate surface pre- pared by us using this method is shown

  5. Microstructural Evolution of Brazed CP-Ti Using the Clad Ti-20Zr-20Cu-20Ni Foil

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yeh, Tze-Yang; Shiue, Ren-Kae; Chang, Chenchung Steve

    2013-01-01

    Microstructural evolution of the clad Ti-20Zr-20Cu-20Ni foil brazed CP-Ti alloy has been investigated. For the specimen furnace brazed below 1143 K (870 °C), the joint is dominated by coarse eutectic and fine eutectoid structures. Increasing the brazing temperature above 1163 K (890 °C) results in disappearance of coarse eutectic structure, and the joint is mainly comprised of a fine eutectoid of (Ti,Zr)2Ni, Ti2Cu, Ti2Ni, and α-Ti.

  6. Mechanical properties of cast Ti-Hf alloys.

    PubMed

    Sato, Hideki; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Komatsu, Masashi; Okuno, Osamu; Okabe, Toru

    2005-02-15

    This study examined the mechanical properties of a series of Ti-Hf alloys. Titanium alloys with 10 to 40 mass % Hf were made with titanium and hafnium sponge in an argon-arc melting furnace. Specimens cast into magnesia-based investment molds were tested for yield strength, tensile strength, percentage elongation, and modulus of elasticity. Vickers microhardness was determined at 25 to 600 microm from the cast surface. X-ray diffractometry was also performed. Commercially pure Ti (CP Ti) and pure Ti prepared from titanium sponge were used as controls. The data (n = 5) were analyzed with a one-way ANOVA and the Student-Newman-Keuls test (alpha = 0.05). The diffraction peaks of all the metals matched those for alpha Ti; no beta phase peaks were found. Alloys with Hf > or = 25% had significantly (p < 0.05) higher yield and tensile strength compared to the CP Ti and pure Ti. There were no significant differences (p > 0.05) in elongation among all the Ti-Hf alloys and CP Ti, whereas the elongation of alloys with Hf > or = 30% was significantly (p < 0.05) lower than that of the pure Ti. The cast Ti-Hf alloys tested can be considered viable alternatives to CP Ti because they were stronger than CP Ti and had similar elongation.

  7. Microstructure and properties of Cu-Ti-Ni alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Jia; Wang, Xian-hui; Guo, Ting-ting; Zou, Jun-tao; Yang, Xiao-hong

    2015-11-01

    The effects of Ni addition and aging treatments on the microstructure and properties of a Cu-3Ti alloy were investigated. The microstructure and precipitation phases were characterized by X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and transmission electron microscopy; the hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the resulting alloys were also tested. The results show that Ni addition increases the electrical conductivity and elastic modulus, but decreases the hardness of the aged Cu-3Ti alloy. Within the range of the experimentally investigated parameters, the optimal two-stage aging treatment for the Cu-3Ti-1Ni and Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy was 300°C for 2 h and 450°C for 7 h. The hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the Cu-3Ti-1Ni alloy were HV 205, 18.2% IACS, and 146 GPa, respectively, whereas the hardness, electrical conductivity, and elastic modulus of the Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy were HV 187, 31.32% IACS, and 147 GPa, respectively. Microstructural analyses revealed that β'-Ni3Ti and β'-Cu4Ti precipitate from the Cu matrix during aging of the Cu-3Ti-5Ni alloy and that some residual NiTi phase remains. The increased electrical conductivity is ascribed to the formation of NiTi, β'-Ni3Ti, and β'-Cu4Ti phases.

  8. Surface chemistry of TiCl 4 on W(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei; Roberts, Jeffrey T.

    1996-07-01

    The interactions of titanium tetrachloride (TiCl 4) with the W(100) surface are described. Reactions were studied using temperature programmed desorption (TPD), X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), Auger electron spectroscopy (AES), and low energy electron diffraction (LEED). From TPD measurements, it is concluded that TiCl 4 is the sole desorption product below 700 K. Desorption occurs in three temperature regions, near 170 K, in a process assigned to multilayer sublimation, near 225 K, from two states designated α1- and α2-TiCl 4, and near 455 K, from two states designated γ1- and γ2-TiCl 4. The Ti(2p) and Cl(2p) photoelectron spectra imply that TiCl 4 is molecularly adsorbed below 190 K. Between 190 and 275 K, α-TiCl 4 desorption competes with dissociation to TiCl 3(a) and Cl (a). Adsorbed TiCl 3, which has been spectroscopically identified by XPS, self-disproportionates between 300 and 500 K, yielding γ-TiCl 4, as well as adsorbed Ti and Cl. Adsorbed Cl eventually desorbs as a volatile tungsten chloride, and Ti probably evolves into the gas phase as Ti (g).

  9. Increasing in the wear resistance of injection molds made of 1.2343 steel using Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN:a-C/nc-TiC:a-C/a-C nanocomposite coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rupetsov, Velko; Mishev, Georgi; Dishliev, Stefan; Kopanov, Viktor; Chitanov, Vassiliy; Kolaklieva, Lilyana; Pashinski, Chavdar

    2017-02-01

    Injection molds used in production of plastic components are subject of heavy abrasion wear. The increase of their wear resistance significantly reduces the production cost. In the current work are presented research results of the wear resistance of injection molds made of steel 1.2343, coated with Ti/TiN/TiCN/nc-TiCN: a-C/nc-TiC:a -C/a-C. The study of the wear rate was done using the volumetric method and the influence of the trace length was investigated. The coating thickness, nanohardness, elastic modulus and adhesion were also tested. The coating was applied on unhardened ground specimens, hardened ground specimens and hardened polished specimens.

  10. Facile oxidative conversion of TiH2 to high-concentration Ti(3+)-self-doped rutile TiO2 with visible-light photoactivity.

    PubMed

    Grabstanowicz, Lauren R; Gao, Shanmin; Li, Tao; Rickard, Robert M; Rajh, Tijana; Liu, Di-Jia; Xu, Tao

    2013-04-01

    TiO2, in the rutile phase with a high concentration of self-doped Ti(3+), has been synthesized via a facile, all inorganic-based, and scalable method of oxidizing TiH2 in H2O2 followed by calcinations in Ar gas. The material was shown to be photoactive in the visible-region of the electromagnetic spectrum. Powdered X-ray diffraction (PXRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), ultraviolet-visible-near-infrared (UV-vis-NIR), diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS), and Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) methods were used to characterize the crystalline, structural, and optical properties and specific surface area of the as-synthesized Ti(3+)-doped rutile, respectively. The concentration of Ti(3+) was quantitatively studied by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) to be as high as one Ti(3+) per ~4300 Ti(4+). Furthermore, methylene blue (MB) solution and an industry wastewater sample were used to examine the photocatalytic activity of the Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 which was analyzed by UV-vis absorption, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS). In comparison to pristine anatase TiO2, our Ti(3+) self-doped rutile sample exhibited remarkably enhanced visible-light photocatalytic degradation on organic pollutants in water.

  11. Corrosion behavior of TiN, TiAlN, TiAlSiN-coated 316L stainless steel in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nam, Nguyen Dang; Vaka, Mahesh; Tran Hung, Nguyen

    2014-12-01

    To gain high hardness, good thermal stability and corrosion resistance, multicomponent TiAlSiN coating has been developed using different deposition methods. In this study, the influence of Al and Si on the electrochemical properties of TiN-coated 316L stainless steel as bipolar plate (BP) materials has been investigated in simulated proton exchange membrane fuel cell environment. The deposited TiN, TiAlN and TiAlSiN possess high hardness of 23.9, 31.7, 35.0 GPa, respectively. The coating performance of the TiN coating is enhanced by Al and Si addition due to lower corrosion current density and higher Rcoating and Rct values. This result could be attributed to the formation of crystalline-refined TiN(200), which improves the surface roughness, surface resistance, corrosion performance, and decreased passive current density.

  12. Ti-MOFs for Hydrogen Storage

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Q.; Li, S.; Wang, Q.; Jena, P.

    2007-03-01

    Recently, metal-organic frameworks (MOFs) have attracted considerable interest as hydrogen storage materials owing to their unique properties. Among MOFs, MOF-5 (Zn-MOF) is superior because of its high thermal stability, large surface area, and extra high porosity, which is ideal for gas storage applications. Can we improve the hydrogen uptake in MOF-5 by replacing Zn with different metal atoms? Experimentally, Cu-MOFs have already shown higher hydrogen uptake at low pressures compared with Zn-MOFs, which makes Cu-MOFs promising candidates for hydrogen storage. By means of first principles calculations, we have replaced Zn with Cu and Ti. Ti doping has already been introduced in C60 and carbon-nanotubes to improve hydrogen uptake. By comparing Zn, Cu and Ti, we found that Ti substitution presents the highest binding energy to H2 molecule, while Cu and Zn show similar binding energy to H2 molecule. Therefore, Ti-MOFs can be prospective materials for hydrogen storage applications.

  13. Coatings on NiTi Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kei, C. C.; Yu, Y. S.; Racek, J.; Vokoun, D.; Šittner, P.

    2014-07-01

    Atomic layer deposition is introduced as a method suitable for preparation of Al2O3 layers on the surface of NiTi medical devices such as stents because of the excellent thickness control and conformal protective coating on complex structures. The corrosion properties of NiTi plates with Al2O3 coatings of various thicknesses in an environment similar to that occurring in the human body were studied using open circuit potential, potentiostatic electrochemical impedance spectroscopy, and cyclic polarization tests. It shows that the layer thickness plays a key role in the inhibition of corrosion. The thinner layers are more diffuse and make it easier for anodic reaction of passive NiTi with protective TiO2 underneath of Al2O3, while the thicker layers have the barrier effect with local pores initiating pitting corrosion. The results of our electrochemical experiments consistently show that corrosion properties of thick Al2O3 coatings on NiTi plate are inferior compared to the thin layers.

  14. Half-life of {sup 44}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Ahmad, I.; Kutschera, W.; Castagnoli, G.; Paul, M.

    1995-08-01

    The measurement of the {sup 44}Ti half-life, started 3 years ago, is still continuing. The goal of this measurement is to determine the half-life of {sup 44}Ti, which is {approximately}52 y, to a precision of {approximately}5%. An accurate value of this half-life is of interest to cosmologists who need it to determine the production of heavy elements in supernova. Three sets of samples - a pure 200-nCi {sup 44}Ti sample, a pure 300-nCi {sup 60}Co source, and a mixed {sup 44}Ti-{sup 60}Co source of similar strength - were prepared and their spectra are being measured with Ge spectrometers at Argonne, Torino and Jerusalem. Each sample is counted for a period of 2 days, at approximate intervals of 4 months. The room background is also measured for the same length of time. We hope to start data analysis at the end of summer and obtain a value for the {sup 44}Ti half-life.

  15. Preparation and Mechanical Properties of TiC-Fe Cermets and TiC-Fe/Fe Bilayer Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Yong; Zhou, Yang; Li, Runfeng; Wang, Jiaqi; Chen, Lulu; Li, Shibo

    2017-09-01

    TiC-Fe cermets and TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composites consisting of a pure Fe layer and a TiC-Fe cermets layer were fabricated by hot-pressing sintering. The pure Fe layer contributes to the toughness of composites, and the TiC-Fe cermets layer endows the composites with an improved tensile strength and hardness. The effect of TiC contents (30-60 vol.%) on the mechanical properties of TiC-Fe cermets and TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composites was investigated. Among the TiC-Fe cermets, the 40 vol.% TiC-Fe cermets possessed the highest tensile strength of 581 MPa and Vickers hardness of 5.1 GPa. The maximum fracture toughness of 17.0 MPa m1/2 was achieved for the TiC-Fe cermets with 30 vol.% TiC. For the TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composites, the 40 vol.% TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composite owns the maximum tensile strength of 588 MPa, which is higher than that of 40 vol.% TiC-Fe cermets. In addition, the 33.5% increment of tensile strength of 30 vol.% TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composite comparing with the 30 vol.% TiC-Fe cermets, which is attributed to the 30 vol.% TiC-Fe/Fe bilayer composite exhibited the largest interlaminar shear strength of 335 MPa. The bilayer composites are expected to be used as wear resistance components in some heavy wear conditions.

  16. Carbon coating stabilized Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 for photocatalytic hydrogen generation under visible light irradiation.

    PubMed

    Fu, Gao; Zhou, Peng; Zhao, Meiming; Zhu, Weidong; Yan, Shicheng; Yu, Tao; Zou, Zhigang

    2015-07-28

    Self-doping by Ti(3+) is a useful method to expand the light response of TiO2 into the visible light region. However, to obtain a stable Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 seems to be a challenge due to the easy oxidation of Ti(3+) during the heterogeneous reaction. Here, we propose a simple carbon coating route to stabilize the Ti(3+)-doped TiO2, in which both the Ti(3+) and precursor of the carbon coating layer were in situ formed from the hydrothermal hydrolysis of titanium isopropoxide. The carbon coated Ti(3+)-doped TiO2 exhibited excellent stability for photocatalytic hydrogen production. Based on electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis, the proposed stabilizing mechanism is that the conductive carbon coating layer as a barrier layer prevents the H2O and O2 from diffusing into the surface of the photocatalyst, which can oxidize the surface O vacancies and Ti(3+) in TiO2. Our findings offer a simple route to prepare a highly stable TiO2-based photocatalyst with visible light response.

  17. TiC/Ti-Al composite fabricated by SHS/dynamic pseudo isostatic compaction through sand medium

    SciTech Connect

    Ohyanagi, M.; Fukushima, M.; Koizumi, M.

    1996-12-31

    TiC/Ti-Al composite was fabricated by pseudo isostatic compaction (DPIC) just after self-propagating high temperature synthesis (SHS). The pressing of 100 MPa was performed through a sand medium. The process enables to simultaneously synthesize and densify the TiC/Ti-Al composite from Ti/C/Al powders. The sample could be taken out from a reaction vessel within a couple of minutes after ignition. The adiabatic combustion temperatures were also calculated as a function of the mixing ratio of the elemental powders in the reaction system. X-ray diffraction patterns of TiC/Ti-Al produced revealed that the Ti-Al portion consisted of TiAl, Ti{sub 3}Al, TiAl{sub 3} and a slight Ti{sub 4}Al{sub 2}C{sub 2} alloys. The time delay between SHS and DPIC was affected greatly on the product density. The influence of the reactant mixing time on the phase component of the product was also studied. The density and Vickers hardness of the composite were highest in a mixing mole ratio of Ti/C/Al = 2/1/1, 4.2 g/cm{sup 3} and 13 GPa. The Young`s modulus and bending strength were approximately 300 GPa and 500 MPa, respectively.

  18. Microstructural and chemical transformation of thin Ti/Pd and TiDy/Pd bilayer films induced by vacuum annealing.

    PubMed

    Lisowski, W; Keim, E G; Kaszkur, Z; van den Berg, A H J; Smithers, M A

    2007-11-01

    Using a combination of scanning electron microscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), we made a comparative study of the high-temperature annealing impact on thin titanium deuteride (TiD(y)) films covered by an ultrathin Pd layer, and on Ti/Pd bilayer films. The bilayer films were prepared under ultrahigh vacuum conditions and were in situ annealed using the same annealing procedure. It was found that the surface and the bulk morphology of both films undergo different annealing-induced transformations, leading to an extensive intermixing between the Ti and Pd layers and the formation of a new PdTi(2) bimetallic phase. Energy-filtered TEM imaging and energy-dispersive X-ray spectrometry analysis, as well as XPS depth profiling all provided evidence of a different distribution of Pd and Ti in the annealed TiD(y)/Pd film compared with the annealed Ti/Pd film. Our results show that thermal decomposition of TiD(y), as a consequence of annealing the TiD(y)/Pd film, modifies the intermixing process, thereby promoting Ti diffusion into the Pd-rich top layer of the TiD(y) film and thus providing a more likely path for the formation of the PdTi(2) phase than in an annealed Ti/Pd film.

  19. Constant stress of XD trademark TiAl containing nitrogen

    SciTech Connect

    Robertson, E.; Martin, P.L.

    1990-01-01

    Ti-47at%Al+7vol%(TiN+TiB{sub 2}) alloys, produced by the Martin Marietta XD{trademark} process, were subjected to tensile constant stress creep deformation in the range 760--850{degree}C temperature and 138--276 MPa (20--40 ksi) stress. These alloys have a matrix of TiAl and Ti{sub 3}Al initially containing 1 to 10 {mu}m diameter equiaxed particles of TiB{sub 2} and Ti{sub 2}AlN. Microstructures were examined using optical, SEM and TEM methods in an attempt to correlate the substructures with the property data. In particular, fine coherent particles have been observed to decorate dislocations and the interior of TiAl grains. The presence of these particles is thought to explain the creep resistance of this alloy. 14 refs., 5 figs.

  20. Proton and neutron irradiation effect of Ti: Sapphires

    SciTech Connect

    Wang, G.; Zhang, J.; Yang, J.

    1999-07-01

    Various effects of proton and neutron irradiated Ti: sapphires were studied. Proton irradiation induced F, F{sup +} and V center in Ti: sapphires and 3310 cm{sup -1} infrared absorption, and made ultraviolet absorption edge shift to short wave. Neutron irradiation produced a number of F, F{sup +} and F{sub 2} centers and larger defects in Ti: sapphires, and changed Ti{sup 4+}into Ti{sup 3+} ions. Such valence state variation enhanced characteristic luminescence of Ti: sapphires, and no singular variances of intrinsic fluorescence spectra of Ti: sapphires took place with neutron flux of 1 x 10{sup 17}n/cm{sup 2}, but the fluorescence vanished with neutron flux of 1 x 10{sup 18}n/cm{sup 2} which means the threshold for the concentration of improving Ti{sup 3+} ions by neutron irradiation.

  1. Influence of Ti content on synthesis and characteristics of W-Ti ODS alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chun-Liang; Zeng, Yong

    2016-02-01

    Tungsten-titanium alloys are considered as promising materials for the future fusion devices, in particular for the divertor and other first wall components. The microstructure and the mechanical properties of the material are dependent on the amount of Ti present in the alloy. In this study, W-Ti-Y2O3 alloys with varied Ti contents between 1 wt.% and 10 wt.% fabricated by mechanical alloying were investigated. The effect of Ti on the phase formation and mechanical properties of W-Ti-Y2O3 alloys has been examined. The results suggest that the alloys containing low Ti content exhibit homogeneous microstructure with a uniform distribution of fine titanium oxide particles and tungsten carbides, leading to a significant increase in hardness and elastic modulus of alloys. In addition, high-energy ball milling can facilitate a solid-state reaction between Y2O3 particles and the tungsten-titanium matrix and the subsequent sintering processing promotes the formation of stable nano Ti2Y2O7 oxide particles, which greatly increase the mechanical properties at elevated temperature and enhance irradiation resistance.

  2. Enhancing antimicrobial activity of TiO2/Ti by torularhodin bioinspired surface modification.

    PubMed

    Ungureanu, Camelia; Dumitriu, Cristina; Popescu, Simona; Enculescu, Monica; Tofan, Vlad; Popescu, Marian; Pirvu, Cristian

    2016-02-01

    Implant-associated infections are a major cause of morbidity and mortality. This study was performed using titanium samples coated by anodization with a titanium dioxide (TiO2) shielded nanotube layer. TiO2/Ti surface was modified by simple immersion in torularhodin solution and by using a mussel-inspired method based on polydopamine as bio adhesive for torularhodin immobilization. SEM analysis revealed tubular microstructures of torularhodin and the PDA ability to function as a catchy anchor between torularhodin and TiO2 surface. Corrosion resistance was associated with TiO2 barrier oxide layer and nano-organized oxide layer and the torularhodin surface modification does not bring significant changes in resistance of the oxide layer. Our results demonstrated that the torularhodin modified TiO2/Ti surface could effectively prevent adhesion and proliferation of Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus faecalis, Bacillus subtilis, and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. The new modified titanium surface showed good biocompatibility and well-behaved haemocompatibility. This biomaterial with enhanced antimicrobial activity holds great potential for future biomedical applications. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Strengthening mechanisms in Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta and Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe orthopaedic alloys.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, Rajarshi; Nag, Soumya; Stechschulte, John; Fraser, Hamish L

    2004-08-01

    The microstructural evolution and attendant strengthening mechanisms in two novel orthopaedic alloy systems, Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta and Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe, have been compared and contrasted in this paper. Specifically, the alloy compositions considered are Ti-34Nb-9Zr-8Ta and Ti-13Mo-7Zr-3Fe. In the homogenized condition, both alloys exhibited a microstructure consisting primarily of a beta matrix with grain boundary alpha precipitates and a low-volume fraction of intra-granular alpha precipitates. On ageing the homogenized alloys at 600 degrees C for 4 hr, both alloys exhibited the precipitation of refined scale secondary alpha precipitates homogeneously in the beta matrix. However, while the hardness of the Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe alloy marginally increased, that of the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy decreased substantially as a result of the ageing treatment. In order to understand this difference in the mechanical properties after ageing, TEM studies have been carried out on both alloys prior to and post the ageing treatment. The results indicate the existence of a metastable B2 ordering in the Ti-Nb-Zr-Ta alloy in the homogenized condition which is destroyed by the ageing treatment, consequently leading to a decrease in the hardness.

  4. Electrodischarged Ti-(B, C, Si)-coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivkov, A. A.; Rakhmatullin, I. A.; Gerasimov, D. Yu; Nikitin, D. S.

    2017-05-01

    The possibility of using hyperhigh speed high current electrodischarged Ti-plasma, generated by coaxial magnetoplasma accelerator as a method for Ti-C, Ti-B and Ti-Si coatings is shown. It is estimated that the most ordered microstructure is formed for a sample obtained under W = 46.7 kJ and 2.0 g carbon load. The average level of nanohardness for this sample is 15.3 GPa.

  5. Large-scale molecular dynamics simulations of TiN/TiN(001) epitaxial film growth

    SciTech Connect

    Edström, Daniel Sangiovanni, Davide G.; Hultman, Lars; Chirita, Valeriu; Petrov, Ivan; Greene, J. E.

    2016-07-15

    Large-scale classical molecular dynamics simulations of epitaxial TiN/TiN(001) thin film growth at 1200 K are carried out using incident flux ratios N/Ti = 1, 2, and 4. The films are analyzed as a function of composition, island size distribution, island edge orientation, and vacancy formation. Results show that N/Ti = 1 films are globally understoichiometric with dispersed Ti-rich surface regions which serve as traps to nucleate 111-oriented islands, leading to local epitaxial breakdown. Films grown with N/Ti = 2 are approximately stoichiometric and the growth mode is closer to layer-by-layer, while N/Ti = 4 films are stoichiometric with N-rich surfaces. As N/Ti is increased from 1 to 4, island edges are increasingly polar, i.e., 110-oriented, and N-terminated to accommodate the excess N flux, some of which is lost by reflection of incident N atoms. N vacancies are produced in the surface layer during film deposition with N/Ti = 1 due to the formation and subsequent desorption of N{sub 2} molecules composed of a N adatom and a N surface atom, as well as itinerant Ti adatoms pulling up N surface atoms. The N vacancy concentration is significantly reduced as N/Ti is increased to 2; with N/Ti = 4, Ti vacancies dominate. Overall, our results show that an insufficient N/Ti ratio leads to surface roughening via nucleation of small dispersed 111 islands, whereas high N/Ti ratios result in surface roughening due to more rapid upper-layer nucleation and mound formation. The growth mode of N/Ti = 2 films, which have smoother surfaces, is closer to layer-by-layer.

  6. Tensile deformation of NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Gall, Ken; Tyber, Jeff; Brice, Valerie; Frick, Carl P; Maier, Hans J; Morgan, Neil

    2005-12-15

    We examine the structure and properties of cold drawn Ti-50.1 at % Ni and Ti-50.9 at % Ni shape memory alloy wires. Wires with both compositions possess a strong <111> fiber texture in the wire drawing direction, a grain size on the order of micrometers, and a high dislocation density. The more Ni rich wires contain fine second phase precipitates, while the wires with lower Ni content are relatively free of precipitates. The wire stress-strain response depends strongly on composition through operant deformation mechanisms, and cannot be explained based solely on measured differences in the transformation temperatures. We provide fundamental connections between the material structure, deformation mechanisms, and resulting stress-strain responses. The results help clarify some inconsistencies and common misconceptions in the literature. Ramifications on materials selection and design for emerging biomedical applications of NiTi shape memory alloys are discussed.

  7. Modeling wear of cast Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Chan, Kwai S; Koike, Marie; Okabe, Toru

    2007-05-01

    The wear behavior of Ti-based alloys was analyzed by considering the elastic-plastic fracture of individual alloys in response to the relevant contact stress field. Using the contact stresses as the process driving force, wear was computed as the wear rate or volume loss as a function of hardness and tensile ductility for Ti-based cast alloys containing an alpha, alpha+beta or beta microstructure with or without the intermetallic precipitates. Model predictions indicated that wear of Ti alloys increases with increasing hardness but with decreasing fracture toughness or tensile ductility. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data to elucidate the roles of microstructure in wear and contrasted against those in grindability.

  8. Modeling wear of cast Ti alloys

    PubMed Central

    Chan, Kwai S.; Koike, Marie; Okabe, Toru

    2007-01-01

    The wear behavior of Ti-based alloys was analyzed by considering the elastic–plastic fracture of individual alloys in response to the relevant contact stress field. Using the contact stresses as the process driving force, wear was computed as the wear rate or volume loss as a function of hardness and tensile ductility for Ti-based cast alloys containing an α, α+β or β microstructure with or without the intermetallic precipitates. Model predictions indicated that wear of Ti alloys increases with increasing hardness but with decreasing fracture toughness or tensile ductility. The theoretical results are compared with experimental data to elucidate the roles of microstructure in wear and contrasted against those in grindability. PMID:17224314

  9. Facile method to enhance the adhesion of TiO₂ nanotube arrays to Ti substrate.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dongliang; Zhu, Xufei; Xu, Zhen; Zhong, Xiaomin; Gui, Qunfang; Song, Ye; Zhang, Shaoyu; Chen, Xiaoyuan; Li, Dongdong

    2014-06-11

    The weak adhesion of anodic TiO2 nanotube arrays (TNTAs) to the underlying Ti substrate compromises many promising applications. In this work, a compact oxide layer between TNTAs and Ti substrate is introduced by employing an additional anodization in a fluoride-free electrolyte. The additional anodization results in an about 200 nm thick compact layer near the nanotube bottoms. Scratch test demonstrates that the critical load of TNTAs with the compact oxide layer is a more than threefold increase in comparison with those without the compact layer. Moreover, this facile method can also improve the photoactivity and supercapacitor performances of TNTAs markedly.

  10. Morphology, deformation, and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in Ti-Cr alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Chen, K.C.; Allen, S.M.; Livingston, J.D.

    1992-12-31

    The morphologies and defect structures of TiCr{sub 2} in several Ti-Cr alloys have been examined by optical metallography, x-ray diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy (TEM), in order to explore the room-temperature deformability of the Laves phase TiCr{sub 2}. The morphology of the Laves phase was found to be dependent upon alloy composition and annealing temperature. Samples deformed by compression have also been studied using TEM. Comparisons of microstructures before and after deformation suggest an increase in twin, stacking fault, and dislocation density within the Laves phase, indicating some but not extensive room-temperature deformability.

  11. Enhancement of NiTi superelastic endodontic instruments by TiO2 coating.

    PubMed

    Aun, Diego Pinheiro; Peixoto, Isabella Faria da Cunha; Houmard, Manuel; Buono, Vicente Tadeu Lopes

    2016-11-01

    Rotary nickel-titanium (NiTi) endodontic instruments were coated with a nanometric flexible TiO2 layer through dip-coating sol-gel. Control groups and coated samples of superelastic NiTi instruments model RaCe 25/0.06 (0.25mm tip-diameter, 6% conicity) were comparatively investigated with respect to the cutting efficiency, fatigue life, and corrosion resistance. Results showed an improvement in cutting efficiency for the coated samples and a high resistance to corrosion in NaClO. The coated instruments showed a better performance in fatigue life after corrosion.

  12. Mechanical properties of NiTi-TiC shape-memory composites

    SciTech Connect

    Dunand, D.C.; Fukami-Ushiro, K.L.; Mari, D.; Roberts, J.A.; Bourke, M.A.

    1997-12-31

    This paper reviews recent work on the mechanical behavior of martensitic NiTi composites reinforced with 10--20 vol.% TiC particulates. The behavior of the composites is compared to that of unreinforced NiTi, so as to elucidate the effect of mismatch due to matrix transformation, thermal expansion, twinning or slip, in the presence of purely elastic particles. The twinning and subsequent thermal recovery of deformed composites, measured both macroscopically (by compressive testing and by dilatometry) and microscopically (by neutron diffraction), are summarized.

  13. TiO2 and F-TiO2 photocatalytic deactivation in gas phase

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Alami, W.; Garzón Sousa, D.; Díaz González, J. M.; Fernández Rodríguez, C.; González Díaz, O.; Doña Rodríguez, J. M.; El Azzouzi, M.; Araña, J.

    2017-09-01

    TiO2 deactivation processes during gas-phase degradation of ethanol were studied. To force the deactivation processes, various cycles were performed, avoiding the degradation of acetates. It was observed that acetates adsorbed on the anatase phase of catalysts provoke the transference of electrons to surface traps which modify the electron states of the semiconductor. The same deactivation studies were also performed with fluorinated TiO2. It was noted that the electrons present in the surface traps, as a consequence of the Ti-F interaction, react with the holes during irradiation and provoke a change in the electron states of the semiconductor.

  14. Synthesis of Ti-based electrodes using Ti-salt flocculated sludge and their application in lithium-ion batteries

    SciTech Connect

    Kang, Jungwon; Rai, Alok Kumar; Kim, Sungjin; Choi, Eunseok; Yoo, Insun; Kim, Jongho; Kim, Jaekook

    2012-10-15

    We report a simple strategy to synthesize the nanostructured TiO{sub 2} samples by a solid state reaction using Ti-salt flocculated sludge. The structure and morphology of the Ti-salt flocculated sludge, nanostructured TiO{sub 2} samples and pure commercial Aldrich TiO{sub 2} powder were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM). The electrochemical performances were evaluated in coin type cells. Nanostructured TiO{sub 2} samples, obtained by Ti-salt flocculated sludge shows a higher capacity and better cycling performances than pure commercial Aldrich TiO{sub 2} powder at the cutoff of 1.0–2.5 V especially at high current rate. The enhanced cycling performance can be attributed to the facts that their high crystallinity and uniform nano-sized distribution.

  15. Phase equilibria of the Cu-Sn-Ti ternary system at 823K

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhou, Guo-jun; Zhou, Yong; Luo, Yun

    2017-02-01

    The isothermal section in the Cu-Sn enrich part of the Cu-Sn-Ti ternary system at 823K was determined by using solid-solid-liquid diffusion triple approach. One ternary compound CuSnTi was found, and 12 three-phase fields were detected. The following 10 three-phase regions are well established: CuTi2+CuTi+Sn5Ti6, Sn5Ti6+Sn3Ti2+ CuSnTi, Liquid+Sn3Ti2+CuSnTi, Liquid+CuSnTi+Cu3Sn, CuTi+Cu4Ti3+Sn5Ti6, CuSnTi+Cu4Ti3+Sn5Ti6, CuSnTi+Cu3Sn+Cu41Sn11, CuSnTi+Cu41Sn11+Bcc_a2, CuSnTi+Cu4Ti+Cu, and CuSnTi+Bcc_a2+Cu. Phase relations in the Ti-enrich corner of this system require further investigation.

  16. TiO2 Nanoparticles Are Phototoxic to Marine Phytoplankton

    PubMed Central

    Miller, Robert J.; Bennett, Samuel; Keller, Arturo A.; Pease, Scott; Lenihan, Hunter S.

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO2) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO2. Because TiO2 generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO2 has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO2 is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiments demonstrating cytotoxicity of TiO2 have used exposure to strong artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In vivo tests of TiO2 toxicity with aquatic organisms have typically shown low toxicity, and results across studies have been variable. No work has demonstrated that photoactivity causes environmental toxicity of TiO2 under natural levels of UVR. Here we show that relatively low levels of ultraviolet light, consistent with those found in nature, can induce toxicity of TiO2 nanoparticles to marine phytoplankton, the most important primary producers on Earth. No effect of TiO2 on phytoplankton was found in treatments where UV light was blocked. Under low intensity UVR, ROS in seawater increased with increasing nano-TiO2 concentration. These increases may lead to increased overall oxidative stress in seawater contaminated by TiO2, and cause decreased resiliency of marine ecosystems. Phototoxicity must be considered when evaluating environmental impacts of nanomaterials, many of which are photoactive. PMID:22276179

  17. Carrier-Controlled Ferromagnetism in SrTiO3

    DOE PAGES

    Moetakef, Pouya; Williams, James R.; Ouellette, Daniel G.; ...

    2012-06-27

    Magnetotransport and superconducting properties are investigated for uniformly La-doped SrTiO3 films and GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures, respectively. GdTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces exhibit a high-density 2D electron gas on the SrTiO3 side of the interface, while, for the SrTiO3 films, carriers are provided by the dopant atoms. Both types of samples exhibit ferromagnetism at low temperatures, as evidenced by a hysteresis in the magnetoresistance. For the uniformly doped SrTiO3 films, the Curie temperature is found to increase with doping and to coexist with superconductivity for carrier concentrations on the high-density side of the superconducting dome. The Curie temperature of the GdTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures scales with themore » thickness of the SrTiO3 quantum well. The results are used to construct a stability diagram for the ferromagnetic and superconducting phases of SrTiO3.« less

  18. TiO2 nanoparticles are phototoxic to marine phytoplankton.

    PubMed

    Miller, Robert J; Bennett, Samuel; Keller, Arturo A; Pease, Scott; Lenihan, Hunter S

    2012-01-01

    Nanoparticulate titanium dioxide (TiO(2)) is highly photoactive, and its function as a photocatalyst drives much of the application demand for TiO(2). Because TiO(2) generates reactive oxygen species (ROS) when exposed to ultraviolet radiation (UVR), nanoparticulate TiO(2) has been used in antibacterial coatings and wastewater disinfection, and has been investigated as an anti-cancer agent. Oxidative stress mediated by photoactive TiO(2) is the likely mechanism of its toxicity, and experiments demonstrating cytotoxicity of TiO(2) have used exposure to strong artificial sources of ultraviolet radiation (UVR). In vivo tests of TiO(2) toxicity with aquatic organisms have typically shown low toxicity, and results across studies have been variable. No work has demonstrated that photoactivity causes environmental toxicity of TiO(2) under natural levels of UVR. Here we show that relatively low levels of ultraviolet light, consistent with those found in nature, can induce toxicity of TiO(2) nanoparticles to marine phytoplankton, the most important primary producers on Earth. No effect of TiO(2) on phytoplankton was found in treatments where UV light was blocked. Under low intensity UVR, ROS in seawater increased with increasing nano-TiO(2) concentration. These increases may lead to increased overall oxidative stress in seawater contaminated by TiO(2), and cause decreased resiliency of marine ecosystems. Phototoxicity must be considered when evaluating environmental impacts of nanomaterials, many of which are photoactive.

  19. Photocatalytic activity of polyaniline-TiO2 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sarmah, S.; Kumar, A.

    2011-05-01

    The characteristics of the UV illumination-assisted degradation of Malachite green (MG) on highly active nanostructured-anatase TiO2, bulk Polyaniline (PAni), PAni nanoparticles and PAni-TiO2 nanocomposites have been studied. Dodecylbenzene sulphonic acid doped PAni-TiO2 nanocomposites were synthesized by a water-assisted self-assembly method. Samples were characterized using transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffraction studies, Fourier Transform Infra red spectroscopy and photoluminescence studies. Photoluminescence intensity of TiO2 nanoparticles was found to decrease with the increase of PAni in the nanocomposite which can be attributed to the reduction of electron-hole pair recombination at the interface of PAni and TiO2 due to electron transfer from TiO2 to PAni. Exposure to UV light brought about the photocatalytic oxidation of MG in contact with bulk PAni, PAni and TiO2 nanoparticles, and PAni-TiO2 nanocomposites. The decrease in absorbance was measured, and its kinetics was analyzed using the Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetic model. PAni-TiO2 nanocomposites exhibit higher photocatalytic activity than pure TiO2 nanoparticles, bulk PAni and PAni nanoparticles under the same degradation condition for MG. The enhanced photocatalytic activity of nanocomposites is attributed to the electron transfer from TiO2 to PAni resulting in enhancing the oxidative property of the TiO2 nanoparticles.

  20. TiO2 coating of high surface area silica gel by chemical vapor deposition of TiCl4 in a fluidized-bed reactor.

    PubMed

    Xia, Wei; Mei, Bastian; Sánchez, Miguel D; Strunk, Jennifer; Muhler, Martin

    2011-09-01

    TiO2 was deposited on high surface area porous silica gel (400 m2g(-1)) in a fluidized bed reactor. Chemical vapor deposition was employed for the coating under vacuum conditions with TiCl4 as precursor. Nitrogen physisorption, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and UV-vis spectroscopy were applied to characterize the obtained TiO2-SiO2 composites with different Ti loadings up to 5 wt%. Only a slight decrease in the specific surface area was detected at low Ti loadings. At a Ti loading of 2 wt%, TiO2 was found to be highly dispersed on the SiO2 surface likely in form of a thin film. At higher Ti loadings, two weak reflections corresponding to anatase TiO2 were observed in the diffraction patterns indicating the presence of crystalline bulk TiO2. High resolution XPS clearly distinguished two types of Ti species, i.e., Ti-O-Si at the interface and Ti-O-Ti in bulk TiO2. The presence of polymeric TiOx species at low Ti loadings was confirmed by a blue shift in the UV-vis spectra as compared to bulk TiO2. All these results point to a strong interaction between the TiO2 deposit and the porous SiO2 substrate especially at low Ti loadings.

  1. TiB 2/TiSi 2 bilayer fabrication by various techniques: Structure and contact properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Pelleg, Joshua; Sade, G.

    2006-01-01

    TiB 2/TiSi 2 films were produced by several techniques in an attempt to evaluate the most appropriate method to fabricate this system. Analysis by X-ray diffraction, Auger electron spectroscopy, transmission and high-resolution transmission electron microscopy indicate that the best method to obtain the above system is by sequential cosputtering of the layers without exposure to air between the two cosputtering sequences. Post-deposition annealing was performed to obtain a low resistive bilayer. Schottky diodes fabricated by this method provided an average barrier height of ∼0.68 V with an ideality factor in the range of 1.0-1.04 (excluding the as-deposited specimen). In specimens fabricated by silicidation of TiB 2/Ti films formation of TiSi 2 was Ti thickness dependent [G. Sade, Ph.D. Thesis, Ben Gurion University of the Negev, Beer Sheva, Israel, 1999]. Small amounts of Ti 5Si 3 were observed at 1123 K. The attempts to obtain a TiB 2/TiSi 2 bilayer from (Ti+B) enriched with Ti at 1073 K resulted in the formation of small amounts of Ti 5Si 3, and some crystallization of the amorphous TiB 2 also occurred. Diodes fabricated by this technique showed Ohmic rather than rectifying character. The shift from rectifying to Ohmic behavior is the result of B out-diffusion to the Si and the consequent change of the substrate from an n- to a p-type Si. The results place the Fermi level of TiB 2 about 0.9 eV below the silicon conduction band. A remedy to this problem could result in a challenging method of fabricating a TiB 2/TiSi 2 bilayer structure in a one-step process.

  2. Study on improved tribological properties by alloying copper to CP-Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy.

    PubMed

    Wang, Song; Ma, Zheng; Liao, Zhenhua; Song, Jian; Yang, Ke; Liu, Weiqiang

    2015-12-01

    Copper alloying to titanium and its alloys is believed to show an antibacterial performance. However, the tribological properties of Cu alloyed titanium alloys were seldom studied. Ti-5Cu and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloys were fabricated in the present study in order to further study the friction and wear properties of titanium alloys with Cu additive. The microstructure, composition and hardness were characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscope (TEM) and hardness tester. The tribological behaviors were tested with ZrO2 counterface in 25% bovine serum using a ball-on-disc tribo-tester. The results revealed that precipitations of Ti2Cu intermetallic compounds appeared in both Ti-5Cu and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloys. The tribological results showed an improvement in friction and wear resistance for both Ti-5Cu and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu alloys due to the precipitation of Ti2Cu. The results also indicated that both CP-Ti and Ti-5Cu behaved better wear resistance than Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu due to different wear mechanisms when articulated with hard zirconia. Both CP-Ti and Ti-5Cu revealed dominant adhesive wear with secondary abrasive wear mechanism while both Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-4V-5Cu showed severe abrasive wear and cracks with secondary adhesive wear mechanism due to different surface hardness integrated by their microstructures and material types.

  3. Enhanced photocatalytic degradation of dyes over graphene/Pd/TiO2 nanocomposites: TiO2 nanowires versus TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Safajou, Hamed; Khojasteh, Hossein; Salavati-Niasari, Masoud; Mortazavi-Derazkola, Sobhan

    2017-07-15

    In this study, at first, TiO2 nanowire was prepared by an alkaline hydrothermal process. In the following, Gr/Pd/TiO2-NPs and Gr/Pd/TiO2-NWs were synthesized by a combination of hydrothermal and photodeposition methods. The properties of as prepared products were characterized using XRD, FT-IR, SEM, DRS, TEM, ICP-OES, EDS and TGA analysis. SEM results confirmed nanodimension structure for all samples. Also the band gap values obtained using DRS technique suggests that all the samples have semiconductor behavior. Using TGA analysis, the amount of graphene loaded onto the powders was confirmed. Photocatalytic degradation of rhodamine B by TiO2-NWs, Gr/Pd/TiO2-NPs and Gr/Pd/TiO2-NWs nanocomposites was compared under ultraviolet light irradiation. Results confirmed that the Gr/Pd/TiO2-NWs composite show the highest photocatalytic activity due to much higher available surface area of TiO2 substrate in nanowire structure. It is expected that the synthesis of the high surface area TiO2 nanowires, facile photodeposition of palladium into its texture, and simple conversion of GO to graphene during hydrothermal process without using strong reducing agents, could be a suitable rote for preparing different types of carbon based TiO2 nanocomposite photocatalysts.

  4. Electronic properties of ultrathin GdTiO3 thin films and GdTiO3/SrTiO3 interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Moetakef, Pouya; Jalan, Bharat; Zhang, Jack; Allen, S. James; Stemmer, Susanne

    2011-03-01

    Interfaces between Mott insulators, such as the rare earth titanates, and band insulators, such as SrTiO3, have recently attracted much attention. We report on the transport properties of epitaxial rare earth titanate thin films, GdTiO3, grown by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) and those of heterostructures with SrTiO3 and GdTiO3. Growth of GdTiO3 was performed by shuttered growth of alternating titanium tetra isopropoxide (TTIP) and Gd fluxes, in the absence of any additional oxygen. We show that to stabilize the GdTiO3 perovskite phase, SrTiO3 buffer layers are needed for growth on perovskite substrates, such as LSAT ((LaAlO3)0.3(Sr2AlTaO6)0.7). The contribution of n-type SrTiO3 buffer layers and that of the SrTiO3/GdTiO3 interfaces to the transport properties are determined by measurements of the electrical resistance and Hall coefficient as a function of temperature and magnetic field.

  5. In situ synthesized TiB-TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings: microstructure, tribological and in-vitro biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Das, Mitun; Bhattacharya, Kaushik; Dittrick, Stanley A; Mandal, Chitra; Balla, Vamsi Krishna; Sampath Kumar, T S; Bandyopadhyay, Amit; Manna, Indranil

    2014-01-01

    Wear resistant TiB-TiN reinforced Ti6Al4V alloy composite coatings were deposited on Ti substrate using laser based additive manufacturing technology. Ti6Al4V alloy powder premixed with 5wt% and 15wt% of boron nitride (BN) powder was used to synthesize TiB-TiN reinforcements in situ during laser deposition. Influences of laser power, scanning speed and concentration of BN on the microstructure, mechanical, in vitro tribological and biological properties of the coatings were investigated. Microstructural analysis of the composite coatings showed that the high temperature generated due to laser interaction with Ti6Al4V alloy and BN results in situ formation of TiB and TiN phases. With increasing BN concentration, from 5wt% to 15wt%, the Young's modulus of the composite coatings, measured by nanoindentation, increased from 170±5GPa to 204±14GPa. In vitro tribological tests showed significant increase in the wear resistance with increasing BN concentration. Under identical test conditions TiB-TiN composite coatings with 15wt% BN exhibited an order of magnitude less wear rate than CoCrMo alloy-a common material for articulating surfaces of orthopedic implants. Average top surface hardness of the composite coatings increased from 543±21HV to 877±75HV with increase in the BN concentration. In vitro biocompatibility and flow cytometry study showed that these composite coatings were non-toxic, exhibit similar cell-materials interactions and biocompatibility as that of commercially pure titanium (CP-Ti) samples. In summary, excellent in vitro wear resistance, high stiffness and suitable biocompatibility make these composite coatings as a potential material for load-bearing articulating surfaces towards orthopaedic implants. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Design, Fabrication, and Testing of a TiN/Ti/TiN Trilayer KID Array for 3 mm CMB Observations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lowitz, A. E.; Brown, A. D.; Mikula, V.; Stevenson, T. R.; Timbie, P. T.; Wollack, E. J.

    2016-08-01

    Kinetic inductance detectors (KIDs) are a promising technology for astronomical observations over a wide range of wavelengths in the mm and sub-mm regime. Simple fabrication, in as little as one lithographic layer, and passive frequency-domain multiplexing, with readout of up to ˜ 1000 pixels on a single line with a single cold amplifier, make KIDs an attractive solution for high-pixel-count detector arrays. We are developing an array that optimizes KIDs for optical frequencies near 100 GHz to expand their usefulness in mm-wave applications, with a particular focus on CMB B-mode measurement efforts in association with the QUBIC telescope. We have designed, fabricated, and tested a 20-pixel prototype array using a simple quasi-lumped microstrip design and pulsed DC reactive magnetron-sputtered TiN/Ti/TiN trilayer resonators, optimized for detecting 100 GHz (3 mm) signals. Here we present a discussion of design considerations for the array, as well as preliminary detector characterization measurements and results from a study of TiN trilayer properties.

  7. Linear combination of XANES for quantitative analysis of Ti-Si binary oxides.

    PubMed

    Lee, J S; Kim, W B; Choi, S H

    2001-03-01

    A new method is demonstrated for the quantification of Ti-O-Si and Ti-O-Ti bonds in Ti-Si binary oxides. It is based on the linear combination of two reference X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectra at the Ti K edge. The proper selection of a Ti-O-Si reference material is most important for the successful application of this method. Three Ti-Si binary oxide systems have been analysed by the new method: Ti-Si mixed oxides, titania supported on silica and Ti-substituted MCM-41 (crystalline mesoporous molecular sieve material invented by Mobil) with various Ti contents.

  8. Influence of Au and TiO2 structures on hydrogen dissociation over TiO2/Au(100)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakamura, I.; Mantoku, H.; Furukawa, T.; Takahashi, A.; Fujitani, T.

    2012-11-01

    We performed H2-D2 exchange reactions over TiOx/Au(100) and compared the observed reaction kinetics with those reported for TiOx/Au(111) in order to clarify the influence of the Au and TiO2 structures on dissociation of H2 molecules. Low energy electron diffraction observations showed that the TiO2 produced on Au(100) was disordered, in contrast to the comparatively ordered TiO2 structure formed on Au(111). The activation energies and the turnover frequencies for HD formation over TiO2/Au(100) agreed well with those for TiO2/Au(111), clearly indicating that the hydrogen dissociation sites created over TiO2/Au(100) were the perimeter interface between stoichiometric TiO2 and Au, as was previously concluded for TiO2/Au(111). We concluded that the creation of active sites for hydrogen dissociation was independent of the Au and TiO2 structures consisting perimeter interface, and that local bonds that formed between Au and O atoms of stoichiometric TiO2 were essential for the creation of active sites.

  9. Color tone and interfacial microstructure of white oxide layer on commercially pure Ti and Ti-Nb-Ta-Zr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Miura-Fujiwara, Eri; Mizushima, Keisuke; Watanabe, Yoshimi; Kasuga, Toshihiro; Niinomi, Mitsuo

    2014-11-01

    In this study, the relationships among oxidation condition, color tone, and the cross-sectional microstructure of the oxide layer on commercially pure (CP) Ti and Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O were investigated. “White metals” are ideal metallic materials having a white color with sufficient strength and ductility like a metal. Such materials have long been sought for in dentistry. We have found that the specific biomedical Ti alloys, such as CP Ti, Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O, and Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr, form a bright yellowish-white oxide layer after a particular oxidation heat treatment. The brightness L* and yellowness +b* of the oxide layer on CP Ti and Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O increased with heating time and temperature. Microstructural observations indicated that the oxide layer on Ti-29Nb-13Ta-4.6Zr and Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O was dense and firm, whereas a piecrust-like layer was formed on CP Ti. The results obtained in this study suggest that oxide layer coating on Ti-36Nb-2Ta-3Zr-0.3O is an excellent technique for dental applications.

  10. Giant persistent photoconductivity in BaTiO{sub 3}/TiO{sub 2} heterostructures

    SciTech Connect

    Plodinec, Milivoj; Šantić, Ana; Gajović, Andreja; Zavašnik, Janez; Čeh, Miran

    2014-10-13

    The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect in nanotube arrays of barium titanate and TiO{sub 2} (BTO/TiO{sub 2}NT) was studied at room temperature under daylight illumination. The BTO/TiO{sub 2}NT heterostructures exhibited a giant PPC effect that was six orders of magnitude higher than the dark conductivity, followed by a slow relaxation for 3 h. The PPC in this material was explained by the existence of defects at the surfaces and the interfaces of the investigated heterostructures. The sample was prepared using a two-step synthesis: the anodization of a Ti-foil and a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis. The structural and electrical characteristics were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy.

  11. Synthesis of ultrathin TiO2/Ti films with tunable structural color.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yanlu; Han, Rushuai; Qi, Liqian; Liu, Lihu; Sun, Huiyuan

    2016-12-10

    A series of ultrathin TiO2/Ti films with iridescent structural colors were fabricated on high-purity titanium sheets via a one-step anodization procedure. Tunable color in the films can be obtained by adjusting the anodization time and can be adjusted across the entire visible range. It was found that all the films displayed highly saturated colors. Trichromatic coordinates of color x, y were delineated, and the color was identified by positioning the x and y values in the Commission International de I'Eclairage chromaticity diagram. Theoretical and experimental results of the changes in the structural color according to the principle of complementary colors are consistent with the experimental results. The TiO2/Ti films may have potential in color displays, decoration, and anticounterfeiting technology.

  12. Wear and corrosion of metal-matrix (stainless steel or NiTi)-TiC coatings

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fernandez, Javier; Isalgue, Antonio; Cinca, Nuria; Dosta, Sergi; Ventayol, Judith

    Different spraying technologies (plasma and High Velocity Oxi-Fuel) have been use to obtain TiC - stainless steel or NiTi matrix coatings. The starting feedstock powders have been obtained by SHS technology. After crushing and sieving, the fraction of particles between 20 and 63 μ m, have been selected for thermal spray. The obtained coatings have been characterized by XRD and SEM-EDS to observe the surface and cross section. The coatings adhesion, wear (ball-on-disk and rubber wheel tests) and electrochemical corrosion test have been carried out. Results show that the plasma sprayed coatings with NiTi have better adhesion than the stainless steel matrix coatings. However, the opposite happens for HVOF coatings. NiTi matrix coatings exhibit higher wear resistance both for plasma and HVOF spraying processes.

  13. Giant persistent photoconductivity in BaTiO3/TiO2 heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Plodinec, Milivoj; Šantić, Ana; Zavašnik, Janez; Čeh, Miran; Gajović, Andreja

    2014-10-01

    The persistent photoconductivity (PPC) effect in nanotube arrays of barium titanate and TiO2 (BTO/TiO2NT) was studied at room temperature under daylight illumination. The BTO/TiO2NT heterostructures exhibited a giant PPC effect that was six orders of magnitude higher than the dark conductivity, followed by a slow relaxation for 3 h. The PPC in this material was explained by the existence of defects at the surfaces and the interfaces of the investigated heterostructures. The sample was prepared using a two-step synthesis: the anodization of a Ti-foil and a subsequent hydrothermal synthesis. The structural and electrical characteristics were studied by micro-Raman spectroscopy, field-emission-gun scanning electron microscopy, and impedance spectroscopy.

  14. Effect of site selective Ti substitution on the melting point of CuTi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghosh, Karabi; Ghosh, Manoranjan

    2013-02-01

    In this work, the effect of site-selective substitution of Ti in Cu on the thermal stability of CuTi alloy has been investigated using classical molecular dynamics simulations with Embedded Atom Method potentials. For random substitution, the melting point decreases linearly with increase in Ti concentration. A non monotonous dependence is seen when Cu atoms at selective sites are replaced by Ti. For a particular doping concentration, the melting point shows a wide range of variation depending on the order of atomic arrangement and can be fine tuned by selecting the site of the substitution. The variations in melting point in different cases have been explained in terms of the peak height, width and position of their corresponding radial distribution functions.

  15. Electronic structure study of TiB{sub 2} and Ti{sub 2}B

    SciTech Connect

    Vashistha, M. Vyas, V.; Kabra, K.; Sharma, G.

    2015-06-24

    In this paper, the electronic properties of TiB{sub 2} and Ti{sub 2}B are computed within the framework of Density Functional Theory (DFT) based on Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO) method. In the present calculations, the generalized gradient approximation (GGA) proposed by Perdew-Burke-Erenzerhof (PBE) and Becke’s scheme are considered to treat the correlation and exchange effects respectively. TiB{sub 2} crystallizes in the hexagonal AlB{sub 2} type structure which is designated as C32 with the space group P6/mmm. While the crystal structure of Ti{sub 2}B described in this paper is isomorphous to the body centered tetragonal (Al{sub 2}Cu - type) structure with space group I4/mcm.

  16. Mechanical properties and microstructures of dental cast Ti-Ag and Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takada, Yukyo; Okuno, Osamu

    2002-09-01

    In this study, experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, and 20 mass% Ag) and Ti-Cu alloys (2, 5, and 10 mass% Cu) were made in an argon-arc melting furnace. The alloys were cast into magnesia molds using an argon gas-pressure dental casting machine, and the mechanical properties and microstructures of the castings were investigated. As the concentration of silver or copper in the alloys increased, the tensile strength, yield strength, and hardness of the alloys became higher than those of CP Ti, and the elongation of the alloys became lower than that of CP Ti. Changes in the mechanical properties by alloying were considered to be caused by solid-solution strengthening of the a-phases and by precipitation of intermetallic compounds.

  17. Formation of Ti3+ in sapphire by co-implantation of Ti and O ions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Morpeth, L. D.; McCallum, J. C.

    2000-01-01

    We have demonstrated that co-implantation of Ti and O ions into c-axis oriented α-Al2O3 substrates followed by thermal annealing can substantially increase the fraction of Ti ions present in the optically active 3+ oxidation state. Evidence for the presence of Ti3+ is given by the observation of strong luminescence over the wavelength range ˜600-900 nm under Ar laser excitation and by the presence of the characteristic absorption band at ˜450-550 nm. We have studied the luminescence intensity as a function of implantation and annealing parameters and have found that there is a strong dependence on the ratio of implanted Ti and O and on the annealing temperature.

  18. Pulsed Nd-YAG laser deposition of TiN and TiAlN coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kathuria, Y. P.; Uchida, Yoshiyuki

    This paper demonstrates the feasibility of generating a thin clad coating of TiN and TiAlN on SS304 base material by using the pulsed Nd-YAG laser. In the experiment TiN based coating was created with and without the addition of Al-powder. In the post processing, a precision grinder was employed to smoothen the top surface. SEM, XRD and EDS analysis were employed to study the surface topography etc. Microhardness mapping was performed at various points across the surface. The results show the average microhardness of the coating deposited with TiN is lower (1035 HV) than that of using Al-mixed powder (1264 HV).

  19. Diffusion barrier properties of Ti/TiN investigated by transmission electron microscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mändl, M.; Hoffmann, H.; Kücher, P.

    1990-09-01

    Detailed analytical transmission electron microscopy investigations were performed on a well-known diffusion barrier system for very-large-scale integration metallization. It will be demonstrated that interfacial reactions are of great importance for the barrier mechanism. Both Ti and TiN act as diffusion barrier for the semiconductor and the metallization, respectively. For an aluminum-based metallization, TiN has a ``spongelike'' function due to its ability to absorb several amounts of aluminum at elevated temperatures and therefore inhibits diffusion towards the substrate. Ti acts for silicon as a compound forming barrier according to Nicolet's classification [in Tungsten and Other Refractory Metals for Very Large Scale Integration Applications II, edited by E. K. Broadbent (Materials Research Society, Pittsburgh, 1987); pp. 19-26].

  20. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2017-03-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  1. Diffusion Research in BCC Ti-Al-Mo Ternary Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Yi; Tang, Bin; Xu, Guanglong; Wang, Chuanyun; Kou, Hongchao; Li, Jinshan; Cui, Yuwen

    2014-04-01

    Interdiffusion in Ti-Al-Mo β solid solution was investigated at 1523 K (1250 °C) by analyzing diffusion couples. From the concentration profiles analytically represented by error function expansion (ERFEX), the ternary interdiffusion coefficients and impurity diffusivity were extracted by the Whittle-Green and generalized Hall methods. A comparison of the diffusion in five Ti-Al-X (Co, Cr, Fe, Mo, and V) ternaries reveals Ti-Al-Mo is comparably like Ti-Al-(Cr, V) while Ti-Al-(Co, Fe) are predominantly of interstitial nature.

  2. Spin current transport in ceramic: TiN thin film

    SciTech Connect

    An, Hongyu; Kanno, Yusuke; Tashiro, Takaharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji; Ando, Kazuya

    2016-03-21

    The spin current transport property in a ceramic material TiN has been investigated at room temperature. By attaching TiN thin films on Ni{sub 20}Fe{sub 80} with different thicknesses of TiN, the spin pumping experiment has been conducted, and the spin diffusion length in TiN was measured to be around 43 nm. Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance has also been taken to investigate the spin Hall angle of TiN, which was estimated to be around 0.0052. This study on ceramic material provides a potential selection in emerging materials for spintronics application.

  3. Microstructure and martensitic transformation of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Chunwang; Zhao, Shilei; Jin, Yongjun; Guo, Shaoqiang; Hou, Qingyu

    2017-09-01

    The effect of Pr addition on the microstructure and martensitic transformation behavior of Ni50Ti50- x Pr x ( x = 0, 0.1, 0.3, 0.5, 0.7, 0.9) alloys were investigated experimentally. Results show that the microstructures of Ni-Ti-Pr alloys consist of the NiTi matrix and the NiPr precipitate with the Ti solute. The martensitic transformation start temperature decreases gradually with the increase in Pr fraction. The stress around NiPr precipitates is responsible for the decrease in martensitic transformation temperature with the increase in Pr fraction in Ni-Ti-Pr alloys.

  4. Thin NiTi Films Deposited on Graphene Substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahn, S.; Schulze, A.; Böhme, M.; Hahn, T.; Wagner, M. F.-X.

    2016-12-01

    We present experimental results on the deposition of Nickel Titanium (NiTi) films on graphene substrates using a PVD magnetron sputter process. Characterization of the 2-4 micron thick NiTi films by electron microscopy, electron backscatter diffraction, and transmission electron microscopy shows that grain size and orientation of the thin NiTi films strongly depend on the type of combination of graphene and copper layers below. Our experimental findings are supported by density functional theory calculations: a theoretical estimation of the binding energies of different NiTi-graphene interfaces is in line with the experimentally determined microstructural features of the functional NiTi top layer.

  5. First Ti-XANES analyses of refractory inclusions from Murchison

    SciTech Connect

    Simon, S.B.; Sutton, S.R.; Grossman, L.

    2009-03-23

    Ti valence in refractory phases is an important recorder of redox conditions in the early solar nebula. We report the valence of Ti in pyroxene, spinel and hibonite in spinel-hibonite and spinel-pyroxene inclusions and in a coarse hibonite grain. A system of solar composition is so reducing that Ti{sup 3+} and Ti{sup 4+} can coexist, making the valence of Ti a valuable indicator of f{sub O2} conditions during formation of nebular materials. The Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios observed in the Ti-rich phases fassaite and rhoenite in coarse-grained refractory inclusions from CV3 chondrites have been shown to be quantitatively consistent with formation in a gas of solar composition (log f{sub O2} = IW-6.8), but these are the only objects in chondrites for which this is the case. Here, we report the valence of Ti in various phases in refractory inclusions from the Murchison CM2 chondrite. The second-highest temperature, major-element-bearing phase predicted to condense from a gas of solar composition, hibonite (ideally CaAl{sub 12}O{sub 19}), can contain significant amounts of Ti, but the hibonite structure can have oxygen vacancies, so calculation of Ti valence from stoichiometry of electron probe analyses is not recommended for hibonite. To date, the only reported measurement of Ti valence in meteoritic hibonite was done by electron spin resonance, on coarse crystals from a Murchison hibonite-perovskite-melilite inclusion. Spinel and most of the pyroxene in CM inclusions contain too little Ti for derivation of Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios from electron probe analyses. X-ray absorption near edge spectroscopy (XANES), however, allows determination of Ti valence in relatively Ti-poor phases. In the present work, we apply synchrotron microXANES to a large hibonite grain from Murchison and to spinel-hibonite (sp-hib) and spinel-pyroxene (sp-pyx) inclusions from Murchison, refractory materials whose Ti{sup 3+}/Ti{sup 4+} ratios have not been previously measured. Analysis of

  6. Spin current transport in ceramic: TiN thin film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    An, Hongyu; Kanno, Yusuke; Tashiro, Takaharu; Nakamura, Yoshio; Shi, Ji; Ando, Kazuya

    2016-03-01

    The spin current transport property in a ceramic material TiN has been investigated at room temperature. By attaching TiN thin films on Ni20Fe80 with different thicknesses of TiN, the spin pumping experiment has been conducted, and the spin diffusion length in TiN was measured to be around 43 nm. Spin-torque ferromagnetic resonance has also been taken to investigate the spin Hall angle of TiN, which was estimated to be around 0.0052. This study on ceramic material provides a potential selection in emerging materials for spintronics application.

  7. Effects of boron on the mechanical properties of the TiAl-Ti3Al alloy: A first-principles investigation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Zhong-Zhu; Wei, Ye; Zhou, Hong-Bo; Lu, Guang-Hong

    2017-01-01

    Employing a first-principles method in combination with the empirical criterions, we have investigated the site preference of boron (B) and its effect on the mechanical properties of the binary-phase TiAl-Ti3Al alloy. It is found that B energetically prefers to occupy the Ti-rich octahedral interstitial site, because B is more favorable to bond with Ti in comparison with Al. The occupancy tendency of B in the TiAl-Ti3Al alloy is the TiAl/Ti3Al interface > Ti3Al > TiAl, thus B tends to segregate into the binary-phase interface in the TiAl-Ti3Al alloy. The charge density difference shows that B at the TiAl-Ti3Al interface will form strong B-Ti bonds and weak B-Al bonds, leading to the significant increasing of the cleavage energy (γcl) and the unstable stacking fault energy (γus). This indicates that the presence of B will strengthen the TiAl/Ti3Al interface, but block its mobility. Further, the ratio of γcl/γus of the B-doped system is 4.63%, 8.19% lower than that of the clean system. Based on the empirical criterions, B will have a negative effect on the ductility of the TiAl-Ti3Al alloy.

  8. Superhydrophobic surface of TiO2 hierarchical nanostructures fabricated by Ti anodization.

    PubMed

    Dong, Junye; Ouyang, Xin; Han, Jie; Qiu, Wei; Gao, Wei

    2014-04-15

    A hierarchical structure of TiO2 with disordered nanowires on top of regular nanotubes was fabricated. With organic monolayers, it showed stronger superhydrophobic properties than regular nanotubes. The surface roughness was further enhanced by removing the dense nanowires layer, resulting in 172° water contact angle. The potential application for aquatic devices was explored by the treated Ti mesh which showed striking floating stability.

  9. High-Quality TiS2 For Li/TiS2 Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Shen, David H.; Delgiannis, Fotios; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Modified process for synthesis of battery-grade titanium sulfide (TiS2) yields substantially improved material for Li/TiS2 electrochemical cells. Includes all-vapor-phase reaction between sulfur and titanium. Product less dense and more homogeneous, consists of smaller particles of higher crystalline quality, and purer. Cells have high cathode utilization and long cycle life performance. Expected to find applications in rechargeable lithium batteries for spacecraft, military equipment, telecommunication systems, automobiles, and consumer products.

  10. High-Quality TiS2 For Li/TiS2 Cells

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Huang, Chen-Kuo; Surampudi, Subbarao; Shen, David H.; Delgiannis, Fotios; Halpert, Gerald

    1992-01-01

    Modified process for synthesis of battery-grade titanium sulfide (TiS2) yields substantially improved material for Li/TiS2 electrochemical cells. Includes all-vapor-phase reaction between sulfur and titanium. Product less dense and more homogeneous, consists of smaller particles of higher crystalline quality, and purer. Cells have high cathode utilization and long cycle life performance. Expected to find applications in rechargeable lithium batteries for spacecraft, military equipment, telecommunication systems, automobiles, and consumer products.

  11. TiC growth in C fiber/Ti alloy composites during liquid infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrier, S. G.; Lin, R. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A cylindrical model is developed for predicting the reaction zone thickness of carbon fiber-reinforced Ti-matrix composites, and good agreement is obtained between its predicted values and experimental results. The reaction-rate constant for TiC formation is estimated to be 1.5 x 10 exp -9 sq cm/sec. The model is extended to evaluate the relationship between C-coating thicknesses on SiC fibers and processing times.

  12. TiC growth in C fiber/Ti alloy composites during liquid infiltration

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Warrier, S. G.; Lin, R. Y.

    1993-01-01

    A cylindrical model is developed for predicting the reaction zone thickness of carbon fiber-reinforced Ti-matrix composites, and good agreement is obtained between its predicted values and experimental results. The reaction-rate constant for TiC formation is estimated to be 1.5 x 10 exp -9 sq cm/sec. The model is extended to evaluate the relationship between C-coating thicknesses on SiC fibers and processing times.

  13. Laser polishing of additive manufactured Ti alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, C. P.; Guan, Y. C.; Zhou, W.

    2017-06-01

    Laser-based additive manufacturing has attracted much attention as a promising 3D printing method for metallic components in recent years. However, surface roughness of additive manufactured components has been considered as a challenge to achieve high performance. In this work, we demonstrate the capability of fiber laser in polishing rough surface of additive manufactured Ti-based alloys as Ti-6Al-4V and TC11. Both as-received surface and laser-polished surfaces as well as cross-section subsurfaces were analyzed carefully by White-Light Interference, Confocal Microscope, Focus Ion Beam, Scanning Electron Microscopy, Energy Dispersive Spectrometer, and X-ray Diffraction. Results revealed that as-received Ti-based alloys with surface roughness more than 5 μm could be reduce to less than 1 μm through laser polishing process. Moreover, microstructure, microhardness and wear resistance of laser-polished zone was investigated in order to examine the thermal effect of laser polishing processing on the substrate of additive manufactured Ti alloys. This proof-of-concept process has the potential to effectively improve the surface roughness of additive manufactured metallic alloy by local polishing method without damage to the substrate.

  14. LoTi Turns Up the Heat!

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Moersch, Christopher

    2010-01-01

    When LoTi was first introduced in 1994 as the Levels of Technology Implementation framework, the intent was to create a tool to help district leadership quantify how teachers were using technology in the classroom. After serving the past 15 years as a research framework, self-reporting technology integration survey, and school improvement model,…

  15. Reduction of hydrogen content in pure Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ogiwara, N.; Suganuma, K.; Hikichi, Y.; Kamiya, J.; Kinsho, M.; Sukenobu, S.

    2008-03-01

    Pure Ti is adopted as a material for ducts and bellows at the proton accelerator 3 GeV-RCS in J-PARC project, because of its small residual radioactivity. In the particle accelerator, the H2 outgassing due to ion impact is often the dominant source of gas release. As the reduction of hydrogen content will probably suppress ion induced desorption, we attempted to reduce the hydrogen content in the Ti by in-situ vacuum baking. First, thermal desorption behavior and the change in hydrogen content after the heat treatment were investigated. Vacuum firing at temperatures higher than 550°C was effective in reducing the hydrogen content in the Ti. At the same time, the mechanical properties were monitored because grain growth leads to decrease in mechanical strength. Even after treatment at 750°C for 12 hr, the decreases in tensile and yield strength were so small (~10%) that we have no anxiety about the reduction of mechanical strength. Based upon the results of this study, vacuum firing has been applied to reduce the hydrogen content in the Ti bellows and ducts of the RCS machine.

  16. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-01-01

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19′ martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19′ martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen. PMID:27049025

  17. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of NiTi-Nb eutectic joined NiTi wires.

    PubMed

    Wang, Liqiang; Wang, Cong; Zhang, Lai-Chang; Chen, Liangyu; Lu, Weijie; Zhang, Di

    2016-04-06

    NiTi wires were brazed together via eutectic reaction between NiTi and Nb powder deposited at the wire contact region. Phase transformation and deformation behavior of the NiTi-Nb eutectic microstructure were investigated using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and cyclic loading-unloading tests. Results show that R phase and B19' martensite transformation are induced by plastic deformation. R phase transformation, which significantly contributes to superelasticity, preferentially occurs at the interfaces between NiTi and eutectic region. Round-shaped Nb-rich phase with rod-like and lamellar-type eutectics are observed in eutectic regions. These phases appear to affect the deformation behavior of the brazed NiTi-Nb region via five distinct stages in stress-strain curves: (I) R phase reorientation, (II) R phase transformation from parent phase, (III) elastic deformation of reoriented martensite accompanied by the plastic deformation of Nb-rich phase and lamellar NiTi-Nb eutectic, (IV) B19' martensitic transformation, and (V) plastic deformation of the specimen.

  18. [Cr-Ti-Al-N complex coating on titanium to strengthen Ti/porcelain bonding].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Hui; Guo, Tian-wen; Li, Jun-ming; Pan, Jing-guang; Dang, Yong-gang; Tong, Yu

    2006-02-01

    To study the feasibility of magnetron sputtering Cr-Ti-Al-N complex coating as an interlayer on titanium to enhance the titanium-ceramic binding strength. With a three-point bending test according to ISO 9693, the binding strength of Duceratin (Degussa) to titanium substrate prepared with 4 different surface treatments (polishing, polishing and megnetron sputtering Cr, Ti, Al, and N complex coating, sandblasting, sandblasting and coating) was evaluated. Ti/porcelain interface and fractured Ti surface were examined using scanning electron microscopy with energy-dispersive spectrometry (EDS). The binding strength of polished and coated titanium/Duceratin was significantly higher than polished titanium group (P<0.05). The binding strength of sandblasted and coated titanium/Duceratin did not differ significantly from that of sandblasted titanium group (P>0.05), and the strength in the two sandblasted titanium groups was significantly higher than that in polished and coated titanium group (P<0.05). Megnetron sputtering Cr-Ti-Al-N complex on polished titanium can increase the titanium/porcelain binding strength. Megnetron sputtering coating is a promising Ti/porcelain interlayer.

  19. Ti segregation in regulating the stress and microstructure evolution in W-Ti nanocrystalline films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kaub, Tyler; Thompson, Gregory B.

    2017-08-01

    This paper explores the effect of Ti's segregation and corresponding effect on the intrinsic thin film growth stress and microstructural evolution in a series of W1-x(Ti)x alloys where x is varied from 0 to 20 at. %. We report that the addition of the Ti solute reduces the compressive W growth stress, with further reductions achieved through in-situ annealing during growth. Upon examination of the microstructure, Ti did not appear to have a dramatic effect in altering the film's grain size and distribution, but it did increase the fraction of low angle grain boundaries. We confirmed that the A15 to bcc W phase transformation, which occurs in the early stages of W growth, diminished with increasing Ti content. This has been explained with respect to Ti's preference for gettering residual oxygen, a known stabilizer for the A15 phase. Collectively, this work demonstrates the impact of solute segregation in the control of residual stresses, specific grain boundary formations, and phase transformation control in growing thin films.

  20. TiO2-TiO2 composite resistive humidity sensor: ethanol crosssensitivity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ghalamboran, Milad; Saedi, Yasin

    2016-03-01

    The fabrication method and characterization results of a TiO2-TiO2 composite bead used for humidity sensing along with its negative cross-sensitivity to ethanol vapor are reported. The bead shaped resistive sample sensors are fabricated by the drop-casting of a TiO2 slurry on two Pt wire segments. The dried bead is pre-fired at 750°C and subsequently impregnated with a Ti-based sol. The sample is ready for characterization after a thermal annealing at 600°C in air. Structurally, the bead is a composite of the micron-sized TiO2 crystallites embedded in a matrix of nanometric TiO2 particle aggregates. The performance of the beads as resistive humidity sensors is recorded at room temperature in standard humidity level chambers. Results evince the wide dynamic range of the sensors fabricated in the low relative humidity range. While the sensor conductance is not sensitive to ethanol vapor in dry air, in humid air, sensor's responses are negatively affected by the contaminant.

  1. Redistribution of Ti and Al in deuterium charged TiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legzdina, D.; Robertson, I. M.; Birnbaum, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    The redistribution of titanium and aluminum in a single-phase TiAl alloy that has been exposed to a high pressure of deuterium gas at high temperature is studied. The microstructure in the as-received, uncharged condition consisted of single-phase gamma TiAl grains and a random distribution of precipitates. Precipitates were distributed throughout the matrix and along the grain boundaries. The chemistry of the precipitates varied considerably; some were rich in Al, while other were mostly Ti with some Si and Al. The dislocation density in most grains was low, although in a few grains a high dislocation density was observed. FCC deuterides with a lattice parameter of 0.45 nm form in a Ti-52.1Al-2.1Ta (at. pct) alloy after exposure to 1.38 MPa of deuterium gas at 650 C for 213 hr. The structure and lattice parameter are consistent with the formation of Ti(l)D2. The deuterides that form in this alloy are enriched in Ti and deficient in Al and Ta compared to the deuteride-free matrix. Regions of the matrix contiguous with the deuterides have a correspondingly enhanced aluminum and tantalum concentration.

  2. Multilayer (TiN, TiAlN) ceramic coatings for nuclear fuel cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Alat, Ece; Motta, Arthur T.; Comstock, Robert J.; Partezana, Jonna M.; Wolfe, Douglas E.

    2016-09-01

    In an attempt to develop an accident-tolerant fuel (ATF) that can delay the deleterious consequences of loss-of-coolant-accidents (LOCA), multilayer coatings were deposited onto ZIRLO® coupon substrates by cathodic arc physical vapor deposition (CA-PVD). Coatings were composed of alternating TiN (top) and Ti1-xAlxN (2-layer, 4-layer, 8-layer and 16-layer) layers. The minimum TiN top coating thickness and coating architecture were optimized for good corrosion and oxidation resistance. Corrosion tests were performed in static pure water at 360 °C and 18.7 MPa for up to 90 days. The optimized coatings showed no spallation/delamination and had a maximum of 6 mg/dm2 weight gain, which is 6 times smaller than that of a control sample of uncoated ZIRLO® which showed a weight gain of 40.2 mg/dm2. The optimized architecture features a ∼1 μm TiN top layer to prevent boehmite phase formation during corrosion and a TiN/TiAlN 8-layer architecture which provides the best corrosion performance.

  3. Influence of Fe underlayers on stress evolution of Ti in Ti/Fe multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Wan, Li; Thompson, Gregory

    2016-11-15

    A series of 40–2 nm bilayer spacing Ti/Fe multilayers were sputter-deposited. As the length scale of individual Ti layers equaled to 2 nm, Ti phase transforms from a hexagonal close packed (hcp)-to-body centered cubic (bcc) crystal structures for equal layer thicknesses in Ti/Fe multilayers. Further equal reductions in bilayer spacing to less than 1 nm resulted in an additional transformation from a crystalline to amorphous structure. Atom probe tomography reveals significant intermixing between layers which contributes to the observed phase transformations. Real-time, intrinsic growth stress measurements were also performed to relate the adatom mobility to these phase transformations. For the hcp Ti/bcc Fe multilayers of equivalent volume fractions, the multilayers undergo an overall tensile stress state to a compressive stress state with decreasing bilayer thickness for the multilayers. When the above phase transformations occurred, a modest reduction in the overall compressive stress of the multilayer was noted. Depending on the Fe thickness, the Ti growth was observed to be a tensile to compressive growth change to a purely compressive growth for thinner bilayer spacing. Fe retained a tensile growth stress regardless of the bilayer spacing studied.

  4. Redistribution of Ti and Al in deuterium charged TiAl

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Legzdina, D.; Robertson, I. M.; Birnbaum, H. K.

    1992-01-01

    The redistribution of titanium and aluminum in a single-phase TiAl alloy that has been exposed to a high pressure of deuterium gas at high temperature is studied. The microstructure in the as-received, uncharged condition consisted of single-phase gamma TiAl grains and a random distribution of precipitates. Precipitates were distributed throughout the matrix and along the grain boundaries. The chemistry of the precipitates varied considerably; some were rich in Al, while other were mostly Ti with some Si and Al. The dislocation density in most grains was low, although in a few grains a high dislocation density was observed. FCC deuterides with a lattice parameter of 0.45 nm form in a Ti-52.1Al-2.1Ta (at. pct) alloy after exposure to 1.38 MPa of deuterium gas at 650 C for 213 hr. The structure and lattice parameter are consistent with the formation of Ti(l)D2. The deuterides that form in this alloy are enriched in Ti and deficient in Al and Ta compared to the deuteride-free matrix. Regions of the matrix contiguous with the deuterides have a correspondingly enhanced aluminum and tantalum concentration.

  5. Hydroxyapatite thin films deposited onto uncoated and (Ti,Al, V)N-coated Ti alloys.

    PubMed

    Lo, W J; Grant, D M

    1999-09-05

    Plasma-sputtered hydroxyapatite (HA) thin coatings ( approximately 1 microm) were deposited onto uncoated and (TiAlV)N-coated Ti-6Al-4V-alloy substrates at low temperatures. The (TiAlV)N coating interlayer was deposited by reactive sputtering. Depositions were achieved by utilizing unbalanced and balanced magnetrons in a capacitively coupled RF plasma. Characterization of the thermostability, bioerosion resistance, and chemical composition of the coating layer was examined by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray analysis (EDX), and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The results show that for deposition temperatures as low as 67 degrees C, the crystalline phase of the HA coating still is clearly detectable and that the underlying (TiAlV)N coating can increase the crystallinity and thermostability of the HA coating before and after heat treatment. The thin ( approximately 1 microm) sputtered HA coating shows strong HA characteristic peaks in the FTIR spectra even after a 30-day dissolution test. The experimental results show that a multilayer structure comprised of a bioinert (TiAlV)N and bioactive HA coating has the potential to improve the biocompatibility of implant materials. The bioinert (TiAlV)N coating also may provide a long-term stable interface between bone tissue and an alloy implant after the bioactive HA coating is remodeled by the surrounding tissue. Copyright 1999 John Wiley & Sons, Inc.

  6. Superconductivity in Ti4O7 and γ-Ti3O5 films.

    PubMed

    Yoshimatsu, K; Sakata, O; Ohtomo, A

    2017-10-02

    Titanium dioxide is one of the most popular compounds among simple oxides. Except for the fully oxidized titanate, titanium oxides have partially filled d states and their exotic properties have captured attention. Here, we report on the discovery of superconductivity in Ti4O7 and γ-Ti3O5 in a thin film form. The epitaxial Ti4O7 and γ-Ti3O5 thin films were grown using pulsed-laser deposition on (LaAlO3)0.3-(SrAl0.5Ta0.5O3)0.7 and α-Al2O3 substrates, respectively. The highest superconducting transition temperatures are 3.0 K and 7.1 K for Ti4O7 and γ-Ti3O5, respectively. The mechanism behind the superconductivity is discussed on the basis of electrical measurements and previous theoretical predictions. We conclude that the superconductivity arises from unstabilized bipolaronic insulating states with the assistance of oxygen non-stoichiometry and epitaxial stabilization.

  7. Effect of Ti concentration on the structure and texture of SiTiOC glasses

    SciTech Connect

    Tellez, L.; Rubio, J.; Valenzuela, M.A.; Rubio, F.; Oteo, J.L.

    2009-06-15

    Five different silicon-titanium organic-inorganic hybrid materials were prepared by the reaction of tetraethoxysilane, titanium tetrabutoxide and silanol-terminated polydimethylsiloxane. Si-Ti oxycarbide glasses were prepared by pyrolysis of the hybrid materials in nitrogen atmosphere in the range of 400 to 1500 deg. C. The obtained Si-Ti oxycarbide materials were characterized by Fourier Transform-Infra Red spectroscopy, X-ray-diffraction, mercury porosimetry and SEM. The study indicated that the reactivity towards water increases up to 1000 deg. C, at higher temperatures it decreases for all samples. During the pyrolysis, Ti atoms were incorporated into the silicate network leading to the formation of Si-Ti oxycarbide glasses, except with sample containing 7% of Ti which presented also the formation of {beta}-SiC and TiC crystalline phases. The porosity was increased up to 600 deg. C and then decreased tending to disappear at 1500 deg. C. When the titanium concentration increased from 1 to 3% in the oxycarbide glass, the porosity decreased; for higher concentration, an increase in the porosity was observed.

  8. Hybrid a-CNH+TiO2+TiN-type surface layers produced on NiTi shape memory alloy for cardiovascular applications.

    PubMed

    Witkowska, Justyna; Sowińska, Agnieszka; Czarnowska, Elżbieta; Płociński, Tomasz; Kamiński, Janusz; Wierzchoń, Tadeusz

    2017-09-01

    The goal was to improve the properties of NiTi shape memory alloy to make it suitable for cardiac applications. For this purpose, a hybrid a-CNH+TiO2+TiN-type surface layer was produced on NiTi alloy and characterized. The NiTi alloy subjected to hybrid process combining low-temperature oxynitriding under glow discharge conditions and radio frequency chemical vapor deposition process was examined for microstructure, surface topography, corrosion resistance, wettability and surface-free energy, Ni ion release and platelets adhesion, aggregation and activation. The hybrid surface layers showed slightly increased surface roughness, better corrosion resistance, a more hydrophobic nature, decreased surface free energy, smaller release of nickel ions and reduced platelets activation. The produced layers could expand the range of NiTi medical applications.

  9. Microstructure and wear property of the Ti5Si3/TiC reinforced Co-based coatings fabricated by laser cladding on Ti-6Al-4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Weng, Fei; Yu, Huijun; Liu, Jianli; Chen, Chuanzhong; Dai, Jingjie; Zhao, Zhihuan

    2017-07-01

    Ti5Si3/TiC reinforced Co-based composite coatings were fabricated on Ti-6Al-4V titanium alloy by laser cladding with Co42 and SiC mixture. Microstructure and wear property of the cladding coatings with different content of SiC were investigated. During the cladding process, the original SiC dissolved and reacted with Ti forming Ti5Si3 and TiC. The complex in situ formed phases were found beneficial to the improvement of the coating property. Results indicated that the microhardness of the composite coatings was enhanced to over 3 times the substrate. The wear resistance of the coatings also showed distinct improvement (18.4-57.4 times). More SiC gave rise to better wear resistance within certain limits. However, too much SiC (20 wt%) was not good for the further improvement of the wear property.

  10. Investigation of the Contact Resistance between Ti/TiN and Ru in Metal-1/Plate Contacts of Ruthenium Insulator Silicon Capacitor

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yun, Ju Young; Kim, Byung Hee; Seo, Jung Hun; Lee, Jong Myeong; Kang, Sang Bom; Choi, Gil Heyun; Chung, U In; Moon, Joo Tae

    2003-04-01

    The contact resistance between Ti/TiN and a Ru electrode in metal-1/plate contacts of ruthenium insulator silicon (RIS) capacitor is investigated. When physical vapor deposition (PVD) Ti/TiN was used as a barrier metal for the metal contact process, a high contact resistance of more than 5000 Ω/contact was obtained due to the oxidation of Ti by the residual oxygen in Ru electrode. On the other hand, with a plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) Ti/CVD TiN barrier metal, oxidation of Ti was not observed and subsequently a low contact resistance of 15 Ω/contact was obtained. The absence of Ti oxidation with PECVD Ti/CVD TiN can be explained by the reduction of oxygen in the Ru electrode due to the H2 plasma environment in the PECVD-Ti process.

  11. Ti-O Direct-Current-Sintered Bodies and Their Use for Sputter Deposition of TiO Thin Films: Fabrication and Characterization

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomozawa, Masanari; Ozaki, Kimihiro; Mikami, Masashi; Kobayashi, Keizo

    2010-08-01

    Ti-50at.%O and Ti-40at.%O sintered bodies were fabricated by direct-current sintering using Ti and TiO2 powders as starting materials. Their microstructures were investigated by x-ray diffraction and optical microscopy. Ti-O thin films were deposited on glass substrates by radiofrequency (RF) magnetron sputtering using a Ti-50at.%O or Ti-40at.%O sintered body as a sputtering target. A crystalline TiO thin film was obtained using a Ti-40at.%O sputtering target, while an amorphous or Ti6O11 thin film was obtained using a Ti-50at.%O sputtering target. The electric resistivity of the TiO thin films was 450 μΩ cm to 1000 μΩ cm depending on their thickness.

  12. Heteroepitaxial structures of SrTiO3/TiN on Si(100) by in situ pulsed laser deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vispute, R. D.; Narayan, J.; Dovidenko, K.; Jagannadham, K.; Parikh, N.; Suvkhanov, A.; Budai, J. D.

    1996-12-01

    High-quality ceramics based heteroepitaxial structures of oxide-nitride-semiconductors, i.e., SrTiO3/TiN/Si(100) have been fabricated by in situ pulsed laser deposition. The dependence of substrate temperature and oxygen partial pressure on the crystalline quality of the SrTiO3 films on Si with epitaxial TiN template has been examined. We found that epitaxial growth occurs on TiN/Si(100) above 500 °C, initially at a reduced O2 pressure (10-6 Torr), and followed by a deposition in the range of 5-10×10-4 Torr. X-ray diffraction (Θ, ω, and Φ scans) and transmission electron microscope (TEM) results revealed an excellent alignment of SrTiO3 and TiN films on Si(100) with a cube-on-cube epitaxy. Rutherford backscattering and ion channeling results show a channeling minimum yield (χmin) of ˜13% for the SrTiO3 films. High-resolution TEM results on the SrTiO3/TiN interface show that the epitaxial SrTiO3 film is separated from the TiN by an uniform 80-90 Å crystalline interposing layer presumably of TiNxO1-x (oxy-nitride). The SrTiO3 film fabricated at 700 °C showed a high relative dielectric constant of 312 at the frequency of 1 MHz. The electrical resistivity and the breakdown field of the SrTiO3 films were more than 5×1012 Ω cm and 6×105 V cm-1, respectively. An estimated leakage current density measured at an electric field of 5×105 V/cm-1 was less than 10-7 A/cm2.

  13. Photoreduction of CO2 on TiO2/SrTiO3 Heterojunction Network Film

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bi, Yongsheng; Zong, Lanlan; Li, Chen; Li, Qiuye; Yang, Jianjun

    2015-08-01

    Nanotube titanic acid (NTA) network film has a porous structure and large BET surface area, which lead them to possessing high utilization of the incident light and strong adsorption ability. We used NTA as the precursor to fabricate a TiO2/ SrTiO3 heterojunction film by the hydrothermal method. In the process of the reaction, part of NTA reacted with SrCl2 to form SrTiO3 nanocubes, and the remainder dehydrated to transform to the rutile TiO2. The ratio of TiO2 and SrTiO3 varied with the hydrothermal reaction time. SEM and TEM images indicated that SrTiO3 nanocubes dispersed uniformly on TiO2 film, and the particle size and crystallinity of SrTiO3 nanocubes increased with the reaction time prolonging. The TiO2/SrTiO3 heterojunction obtained by 1 h showed the best activity for CO2 photoreduction, where the mole ratio of TiO2 and SrTiO3 was 4:1. And the photo-conversion efficiency of CO2 to CH4 improved remarkably after the foreign electron traps of Pt and Pd nanoparticles were loaded. The highest photocatalytic production rate of CH4 reached 20.83 ppm/h cm2. In addition, the selectivity of photoreduction product of CO2 was also increased apparently when Pd acted as the cocatalyst on TiO2/SrTiO3 heterojunction film.

  14. Damping capacity of TiNi-based shape memory alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rong, L. J.; Jiang, H. C.; Liu, S. W.; Zhao, X. Q.

    2007-07-01

    Damping capacity is another primary characteristic of shape memory alloys (SMA) besides shape memory effect and superelasticity. Damping behavior of Ti-riched TiNi SMA, porous TiNi SMA and a novel TiNi/AlSi composite have been investigated using dynamic mechanical analyzer (DMA) in this investigation. All these alloys are in martensitic state at room temperature and thus possess the high potential application value. Ti 50.2Ni 49.8 SMA has better damping capacity in pure martensitic state and phase transformation region due to the motion of martensite twin interface. As a kind of promising material for effective dampers and shock absorbing devices, porous TiNi SMA can exhibit higher damping capacity than the dense one due to the existence of the three-dimensioned connecting pore structure. It is found that the internal friction of porous TiNi SMA mainly originates from microplastic deformation and mobility of martensite interface and increases with the increase of the porosity. A novel TiNi/AlSi composite has been developed successfully by infiltrating AlSi alloy into the open pores of porous TiNi alloy with 60% porosity through compression casting. It shows the same phase transformation characteristics as the porous TiNi alloy. The damping capacity of the composite has been increased and the compressive strength has been also promoted remarkably. Suggestions for developing higher damping alloys based on TiNi shape memory alloy are proposed in this paper.

  15. Control of interface reactions in SIC/TI composites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Houska, C. R.; Rao, V.

    1982-01-01

    The reaction between a 0.5 to 1.0 Al film and a thick Ti substrate to form TiAl3 occurs very rapidly on heating to 635 C and causes the Al to be confined to the surface region. After heating to 900 C Ti3Al is formed with little release of Al into alpha Ti. Further annealing at 900 C eventually causes the Ti3Al phase to decompose and a substantial amount of Al is released into alpha Ti. The interdiffusion coefficient for Al in alpha Ti at 900 C increases by less than one order of magnitude as Al is varied from 0 to 20 at %. These data were obtained from the (101) X-ray diffraction intensity band using polycrystalline samples. Improvements in the analysis of X-ray diffraction data for the determination of composition profiles are discussed.

  16. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    DOE PAGES

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; ...

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide filmmore » was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.« less

  17. The corrosivity and passivity of sputtered Mg-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Song, Guang -Ling; Unocic, Kinga A.; Meyer, III, Harry M.; Cakmak, Ercan; Brady, Michael P.; Gannon, Paul E.; Himmer, Phil; Andrews, Quinn

    2015-11-30

    Our study explored the possibility of forming a “stainless” Mg–Ti alloy. The electrochemical behavior of magnetron-sputtered Mg–Ti alloys was measured in a NaCl solution, and the surface films on the alloys were examined by XPS, SEM and TEM. Increased corrosion resistance was observed with increased Ti content in the sputtered Mg–Ti alloys, but passive-like behavior was not reached until the Ti level (atomic %) was higher than the Mg level. Moreover, the surface film that formed on sputtered Mg–Ti based alloys in NaCl solution was thick, discontinuous and non-protective, whereas a thin, continuous and protective Mg and Ti oxide film was formed on a sputtered Ti–Mg based alloy.

  18. Corrosion resistance tests on NiTi shape memory alloy.

    PubMed

    Rondelli, G

    1996-10-01

    The corrosion performances of NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) in human body simulating fluids were evaluated in comparison with other implant materials. As for the passivity current in potentiostatic conditions, taken as an index of ion release, the values are about three times higher for NiTi than for Ti6Al4V and austenitic stainless steels. Regarding the localized corrosion, while plain potentiodynamic scans indicated for NiTi alloy good resistance to pitting attack similar to Ti6Al4V, tests in which the passive film is abruptly damaged (i.e. potentiostatic scratch test and modified ASTM F746) pointed out that the characteristics of the passive film formed on NiTi alloy (whose strength can be related to the alloy's biocompatibility) are not as good as those on Ti6Al4V but are comparable or inferior to those on austenitic stainless steels.

  19. Biocompatibility of nanotube formed Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloys.

    PubMed

    Kim, Eun-Sil; Choe, Han-Cheol

    2014-11-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the biocompatibility of Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy surface decorated with TiO2 nanotubes by anodization in an electrolyte containing 1 M H3PO4 and 0.8 wt.% NaF with an applied voltage of 10 V for 2 h. The anodization was carried out using a scanning potentiostat. The microstructures of alloys and morphology of the nanotubes were investigated by optical microscopy, field emission scanning electron microscopy, and X-ray diffractometry. In comparison to the Ti-30Nb-3Ta alloy, the Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy contained a lower amount of α" phase, while the β phase was higher. In this study, we observed the formation of a spongy porous layer on the Ti-30Nb-7Ta alloy, while the Ti-30Nb and Ti-30Nb-3Ta alloys showed an absence of such a spongy layer.

  20. Ideally Hexagonally Ordered TiO2 Nanotube Arrays

    PubMed Central

    Sopha, Hanna; Samoril, Tomas; Palesch, Erik; Hromadko, Ludek; Zazpe, Raul; Skoda, David; Urbanek, Michal; Ng, Siowwoon; Prikryl, Jan

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Ideally hexagonally ordered TiO2 nanotube layers were produced through the optimized anodization of Ti substrates. The Ti substrates were firstly covered with a TiN protecting layer prepared through atomic layer deposition (ALD). Pre‐texturing of the TiN‐protected Ti substrate on an area of 20×20 μm2 was carried out by focused ion beam (FIB) milling, yielding uniform nanoholes with a hexagonal arrangement throughout the TiN layer with three different interpore distances. The subsequent anodic nanotube growth using ethylene‐glycol‐based electrolyte followed the pre‐textured nanoholes, resulting in perfectly ordered nanotube layers (resembling honeycomb porous anodic alumina) without any point defects and with a thickness of approximately 2 μm over the whole area of the pattern. PMID:28794939

  1. The corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr in protein solutions.

    PubMed

    Khan, M A; Williams, R L; Williams, D F

    1999-04-01

    Ti alloys are used in orthopaedic applications owing to their appropriate mechanical properties and their excellent corrosion resistance. The release of titanium and the other alloying elements into the surrounding tissue has been reported due either to passive corrosion or accelerating processes such as wear. Since the passive layer can be broken down in certain circumstances by wear it is important to study the ability of these alloys to repassivate in biological environments, in particular in the presence of proteins, and evaluate how the repassivated surface may vary from the original surface. In this study we investigated the ability of Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-6Al-7Nb and Ti-13Nb-13Zr to repassivate in phosphate buffered saline (PBS), bovine albumin solutions in PBS and 10% foetal calf serum in PBS at different pH values and at different albumin concentrations. It was found that an increase in pH had a greater effect on the corrosion behaviour of Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb than on Ti-13Nb-13Zr in PBS and that the addition of protein to the PBS reduced the influence of pH on the corrosion behaviour of all the alloys. The effect of the corrosion and repassivation was investigated by measuring changes in the surface hardness of the alloys and it was found that corrosion reduced the hardness of the surface oxides of all the alloys. In PBS the reduction was smallest for Ti-6Al-4V and largest for Ti-13Nb- 3Zr and that corrosion in protein solutions further reduced the hardness of the surface oxides. This effect was greater for Ti-6Al-4V and Ti-6Al-7Nb than for Ti-13Nb-13Zr. In conclusion, proteins in the environment appear to interact with the repassivation process at the surface of these alloys and influence the resulting surface properties.

  2. TiCl4 as a source of TiO2 particles for laser anemometry measurements in hot gas

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Weikle, Donald H.; Seasholtz, Richard G.; Oberle, Lawrence G.

    1990-01-01

    A method of reacting TiCl4 with water saturated gaseous nitrogen (GN2) at the entrance into a high temperature gas flow is described. The TiO2 particles formed are then entrained in the gas flow and used as seed particles for making laser anemometry (LA) measurements of the flow velocity distribution in the hot gas. Scanning electron microscope photographs of the TiO2 particles are shown. Data rate of the LA processor was measured to determine the amount of TiO2 formed. The TiCl4 and mixing gas flow diagram is shown. This work was performed in an open jet burner.

  3. Procurement of V-Cr-Ti alloys to study minor variations on V-4Cr-4Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Grossbeck, M.L.

    1998-03-01

    The alloys V-6Cr-3Ti, V-4Cr-4Ti-Si, V-6Cr-6Ti, and V-3Cr-3Ti, were prepared by Teledyne Wah Chang Albany Corp. in 1994. Plate and sheet ranging from 0.76 mm to 6.25 mm with residual material being left in 12--20 mm thick bar were fabricated. Although the heats were prepared on a pilot plant scale using different equipment, an effort was made to keep the processing as close to Wah Chang Heat 832665, the reference fusion heat of V-4Cr-4Ti, as possible.

  4. The influence of Ti doping and annealing on Ce2Ti2O7 flash memory devices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kao, Chyuan Haur; Chen, Su Zhien; Luo, Yang; Chiu, Wang Ting; Chiu, Shih Wei; Chen, I. Chien; Lin, Chan-Yu; Chen, Hsiang

    2017-02-01

    In this research, a CeO2 film with Ti doping was used as a trapping layer in metal oxide high-K-oxide-Si (MOHOS)-type memory devices. Since incorporation of Ti atoms into the film could fix dangling bonds and defects, the Ce2Ti2O7 trapping layer with annealing treatment could have a larger memory window and a faster programming/erasing speed. To confirm the origin, multiple material analyses indicate that annealing at an appropriate temperature and Ti doping could enhance crystallization. The Ce2Ti2O7-based memory device is promising for future industrial flash memory applications.

  5. Structural inheritance and difference between Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2  and Ti5Al2C3 under pressure from first principles

    DOE PAGES

    Gao, Qing -He; Du, An; Yang, Ze -Jin

    2017-02-08

    The structural inheritance and difference between Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3 under pressure from first principles are studied. The results indicate that the lattice parameter a are almost the same within Ti2AlC, Ti3AlC2 and Ti5Al2C3, and the value of c in Ti5Al2C3 is the sum of Ti2AlC and Ti3AlC2 which is revealed by the covalently bonded chain in the electron density difference: Al–Ti–C–Ti–Al for Ti2AlC, Al–Ti2–C–Ti1–C–Ti2–Al for Ti3AlC2 and Al–Ti3–C2–Ti3–Al–Ti2–C1–Ti1–C1–Ti2–Al for Ti5Al2C3. The calculated axial compressibilities, volumetric shrinkage, elastic constant c11, c33/c11 ratio, bulk modulus, shear modulus, and Young’s modulus of Ti5Al2C3 are within the range of the end members (Ti2AlCmore » and Ti3AlC2) in a wide pressure range of 0–100 GPa. Only Ti2AlC is isotropic crystal at about 50 GPa within the Ti–Al–C compounds. All of the Ti 3d density of states curves of the three compounds move from lower energy to higher energy level with pressure increasing. The similarities of respective bond length, bond overlap population (Ti–C, Ti–Al and Ti–Ti), atom Mulliken charges under pressure as well as the electron density difference for the three compounds are discovered. Among the Ti–Al–C ternary compounds, Ti–Ti bond behaves least compressibility, whereas the Ti–Al bond is softer than that of Ti–C bonds, which can also been confirmed by the density of states and electron density difference. Bond overlap populations of Ti–Ti, Ti–C and Ti–Al indicate that the ionicity interaction becomes more and more stronger in the three structures as the pressure increasing. Lastly, Mulliken charges of Ti1, Ti2, Ti3, C and Al are 0.65, 0.42, 0.39, –0.73, –0.04 at 0 GPa, respectively, which are consistent with the Pauling scale.« less

  6. Cytocompatibility and early osseointegration of nanoTiO2-modified Ti-24 Nb-4 Zr-7.9 Sn surfaces.

    PubMed

    Liu, X H; Wu, L; Ai, H J; Han, Y; Hu, Y

    2015-03-01

    This study aimed to evaluate the cytocompatibility and early osseointegration of Ti-24 Nb-4 Zr-7.9 Sn (Ti-2448) surfaces that were modified with a nanoscale TiO2 coating. The coating was fabricated using a hydrothermal synthesis method to generate nanoTiO2/Ti-2448. The surface characteristics of the samples were evaluated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy dispersive spectrometry (EDS) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The cytotoxicity of the fabricated nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 was determined using MTT assays. The proliferation and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of MC3T3-E1 osteoblasts cultured on nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 were compared with those cultured on Ti-2448. Disk-shaped implants were placed in Wistar rats. The histological sections were stained with haematoxylin and eosin (HE), and the histocompatibility was analysed at 4 and 12weeks post-implantation. Cylindrical implants were embedded in Japanese white rabbits, and the histological sections were stained with HE and anti-TGF-β1 to evaluate the histocompatibility and early osseointegration at 4, 12 and 26weeks post-implantation. NanoTiO2/Ti-2448 exhibited a rougher surface than did Ti-2448. NanoTiO2/Ti-2448 was determined to be non-cytotoxic. More osteoblasts and higher ALP activity were observed for nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 than Ti-2448 (p<0.05). Few inflammatory cells were detected around nanoTiO2/Ti-2448, and the expression of TGF-β1 on nanoTiO2/Ti-2448 peaked at earlier time than that on Ti-2448. The results indicate that the cytocompatibility and early osseointegration were enhanced by the nanoTiO2 coating.

  7. Charge Transport at Ti-Doped Hematite (001)/Aqueous Interfaces

    SciTech Connect

    Chatman, Shawn ME; Pearce, Carolyn I.; Rosso, Kevin M.

    2015-03-10

    Solid-state transport and electrochemical properties of Ti-doped hematite (001) epitaxial thin films (6.0, 8.3, and 16.6 at% Ti) were probed to achieve a better understanding of doped hematite for photoelectrochemical (PEC) applications. Room temperature resistivity measurements predict a resistivity minimum near 10 at% Ti doping, which can be rationalized as maximizing charge compensating Fe2+ concentration and Fe3+ electron accepting percolation pathways simultaneously. Temperature dependent resistivity data are consistent with small polaron hopping, revealing an activation energy that is Ti concentration dependent and commensurate with previously reported values (≈ 0.11 eV). In contact with inert electrolyte, linear Mott-Schottky data at various pH values indicate that there is predominantly a single donor for Ti-doped hematite at 6.0 at% Ti and 16.6 at% Ti concentrations. Two slope Mott-Schottky data at pH extremes indicate the presence of a second donor or surface state in the 8.3 at% Ti-doped film, with an energy level ≈ 0.7 eV below the Fermi level. Mott-Schottky plots indicate pH and Ti concentration dependent flatband potentials of -0.4 to -1.1 V vs. Ag/AgCl, commensurate with previously reported data. Flatband potentials exhibited super-Nernstian pH dependence ranging from -69.1 to -101.0 mV/pH. Carrier concentration data indicate that the Fermi energy of the Ti-doped system is Ti concentration dependent, with a minimum of 0.15 eV near 10 at% Ti. These energy level data allow us to construct an energy band diagram for Ti-doped hematite electrode/electrolyte interfaces, and to determine a Ti-doping concentration t

  8. SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 Heterojunctions: Promising TiO2-based Photocatalysts under Visible Light

    PubMed Central

    Niu, Mang; Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2014-01-01

    We use hybrid density functional calculations to find that the monolayer silicane (SiH) and the anatase TiO2(101) composite (i.e. the SiH/TiO2 heterojunction) is a promising TiO2-based photocatalyst under visible light. The band gap of the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction is 2.082 eV, which is an ideal material for the visible-light photoexcitation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has a favorable type-II band alignment and thus the photoexcited electron can be injected to the conduction band of anatase TiO2 from that of silicane. Finally, the proper interface charge distribution facilitates the carrier separation in the SiH/TiO2(101) interface region. The electron injection and carrier separation can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Our calculation results suggest that such electronic structure of SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has significant advantages over these of doped TiO2 systems for visible-light photocatalysis. PMID:24787027

  9. SiH/TiO2 and GeH/TiO2 heterojunctions: promising TiO2-based photocatalysts under visible light.

    PubMed

    Niu, Mang; Cheng, Daojian; Cao, Dapeng

    2014-05-02

    We use hybrid density functional calculations to find that the monolayer silicane (SiH) and the anatase TiO2(101) composite (i.e. the SiH/TiO2 heterojunction) is a promising TiO2-based photocatalyst under visible light. The band gap of the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction is 2.082 eV, which is an ideal material for the visible-light photoexcitation of electron-hole pairs. Furthermore, the SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has a favorable type-II band alignment and thus the photoexcited electron can be injected to the conduction band of anatase TiO2 from that of silicane. Finally, the proper interface charge distribution facilitates the carrier separation in the SiH/TiO2(101) interface region. The electron injection and carrier separation can prevent the recombination of electron-hole pairs. Our calculation results suggest that such electronic structure of SiH/TiO2(101) heterojunction has significant advantages over these of doped TiO2 systems for visible-light photocatalysis.

  10. Fabrication of High Efficiency Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Based on TiO2 Nanoparticles Embedded in Ti Substrate.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Lee, Sang-Ju; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Kim, Dae-Hwan; Heo, Young-Woo

    2015-01-01

    We have embedded a TiO2 nanoparticle (NP) photoelectrode in a Ti substrate to improve the cell efficiency of conventional TiO2 NP based dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) using Ti substrate. Compared to the conventional standing-type (TiO2 NPs on Ti substrate) DSSCs, the embedded-type (TiO2 NPs embedded in Ti substrate) DSSCs have shown an approximately 35% improvement in power conversion efficiency due to the improvement of J(sc). The embedded-type DSSCs have more charge transport paths than do standing-type DSSCs due to the increase of contact area between the TiO2 NP sidewall and the Ti substrate. This increased contact area decreases the electrical resistance and increases the charge collection efficiency, which leads to the improvement of J(sc). The embedded-type NP-DSSCs are very effective DSSC structures for enhancing the power conversion efficiency of Ti substrate based DSSCs.

  11. Fabrication of the Ti5Si3/Ti composite inoculants and its refining mechanism on pure titanium

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Nuo; Cui, Chunxiang; Liu, Shaungjin; Zhao, Long; Liu, Shuiqing

    2017-03-01

    The in situ Ti5Si3/Ti inoculants were successfully prepared by vacuum arc-melting and melt-spinning method. An efficient route by adding a small quantity of Ti5Si3/Ti inoculants to Ti melt has been first proposed to modify the coarse grains of as cast microstructure of pure titanium in this paper. It was found that the microstructure of ribbon inoculants was cellular structure that composed of Ti5Si3 and α-Ti phases. The grain refining effect of the inoculants was significantly improved with the adding ratio range from 0.2% to 0.5% in weight. With the increase of addition amount of inoculants on Ti melt, the tensile strength, yield strength and microhardness of pure titanium are significantly improved except elongation. The excellent grain refining effect can be attributed to the heterogeneous nucleation of the titanium grain on the precipitated Ti5Si3 phases in the Si-rich regions and the constitutional supercooling of Si in the Si-poverty regions. It is suggested that the in situ Ti5Si3/Ti inoculants is a promising inoculants for titanium alloys.

  12. Efficient photodegradation of methyl violet dye using TiO2/Pt and TiO2/Pd photocatalysts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Saeed, Khalid; Khan, Idrees; Gul, Tamanna; Sadiq, Mohammad

    2017-02-01

    Titanium oxide supported palladium (TiO2/Pd) and titanium oxide supported platinum (TiO2/Pt) nanoparticles were prepared from their precursors through the incipient wetness method. The TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and energy dispersive X-rays (EDX), while the photodegradation study of methyl violet was performed by UV/VIS spectrophotometry. The morphological study shows that the Pd and Pt were well deposited on the surface of TiO2, which was confirmed by EDX. Both TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles were used as photocatalysts for the photodegradation of methyl violet in aqueous media under UV-light irradiation. The photodegradation study revealed that the TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles degraded about 95 and 78% of dye within 20 min, respectively. The effect of various parameters such as catalyst dosage, concentration of dye, and medium on the photocatalytic degradation was examined. The activity of recovered TiO2/Pd and TiO2/Pt nanoparticles was studied.

  13. Osteoconductivity and Hydrophilicity of TiO(2) Coatings on Ti Substrates Prepared by Different Oxidizing Processes.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Dai; Kawai, Ikki; Kuroda, Kensuke; Ichino, Ryoichi; Okido, Masazumi; Seki, Azusa

    2012-01-01

    Various techniques for forming TiO(2) coatings on Ti have been investigated for the improvement of the osteoconductivity of Ti implants. However, it is not clear how the oxidizing process affects this osteoconductivity. In this study, TiO(2) coatings were prepared using the following three processes: anodizing in 0.1 M H(3)PO(4) or 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution; thermal oxidation at 673 K for 2 h in air; and a two-step process of anodizing followed by thermal oxidation. The oxide coatings were evaluated using SEM, XRD, and XPS. The water contact angle on the TiO(2) coatings was measured as a surface property. The osteoconductivity of these samples was evaluated by measuring the contact ratio of formed hard tissue on the implanted samples (defined as the R(B-I) value) after 14 d implantation in rats' tibias. Anatase was formed by anodizing and rutile by thermal oxidation, but the difference in the TiO(2) crystal structure did not influence the osteoconductivity. Anodized TiO(2) coatings were hydrophilic, but thermally oxidized TiO(2) coatings were less hydrophilic than anodized TiO(2) coatings because they lacked in surface OH groups. The TiO(2) coating process using anodizing without thermal oxidation gave effective improvement of the osteoconductivity of Ti samples.

  14. Osteoconductivity and Hydrophilicity of TiO2 Coatings on Ti Substrates Prepared by Different Oxidizing Processes

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Dai; Kawai, Ikki; Kuroda, Kensuke; Ichino, Ryoichi; Okido, Masazumi; Seki, Azusa

    2012-01-01

    Various techniques for forming TiO2 coatings on Ti have been investigated for the improvement of the osteoconductivity of Ti implants. However, it is not clear how the oxidizing process affects this osteoconductivity. In this study, TiO2 coatings were prepared using the following three processes: anodizing in 0.1 M H3PO4 or 0.1 M NaOH aqueous solution; thermal oxidation at 673 K for 2 h in air; and a two-step process of anodizing followed by thermal oxidation. The oxide coatings were evaluated using SEM, XRD, and XPS. The water contact angle on the TiO2 coatings was measured as a surface property. The osteoconductivity of these samples was evaluated by measuring the contact ratio of formed hard tissue on the implanted samples (defined as the RB-I value) after 14 d implantation in rats' tibias. Anatase was formed by anodizing and rutile by thermal oxidation, but the difference in the TiO2 crystal structure did not influence the osteoconductivity. Anodized TiO2 coatings were hydrophilic, but thermally oxidized TiO2 coatings were less hydrophilic than anodized TiO2 coatings because they lacked in surface OH groups. The TiO2 coating process using anodizing without thermal oxidation gave effective improvement of the osteoconductivity of Ti samples. PMID:23316128

  15. [Study of blood compatibility on TiO2 coated biomedical Ni-Ti shape memory alloy].

    PubMed

    Gao, Shuchun; Zhai, Yuchun; Hu, Jinling

    2011-10-01

    We coated a thin TiO2 film on the surface of Ni-Ti shape memory alloy by activated sputter method in the present work. The blood platelet adherence and antithrombogenicity of the TiO2-coated Ni-Ti alloy were evaluated. The results showed that the platelets on the TiO2-coated Ni-Ti alloy were fewer than those on 316L stainless steel, and no agglomeration or distortion for the platelets on the coated alloy was found, which means less probability of blood coagulation for the alloy. The coagulation time on the coated Ni-Ti shape memory alloy was longer than that on the 316L. Compared with that on the 316L stainless steel, the TiO2 coated Ni-Ti shape memory alloy showed better blood compatibility, indicating that the Ni-Ti alloy with TiO2 coating is a kind of ideal biomedical materials with high clinical value.

  16. Thermal stability study of TiN/TiSi2 diffusion barrier between Cu and n + Si

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chang, Tzong-Sheng; Wang, Wen-Chun; Wang, Lih-Ping; Hwang, Jenn-Chang; Huang, Fon-Shan

    1994-06-01

    The failure mechanism of the TiN/TiSi2 bilayers as diffusion barriers between Cu and n+Si was investigated. The TiN/TiSi2 bilayers were formed by either annealing Ti (50 nm)/n+Si via various rapid thermal processes or reactively sputtering TiN (50 nm) on TiSi2. The degradation study of the Cu/TiN/TiSi2/n+Si contact system was undertaken by scanning electron microscopy, cross-section transmission electron microscopy (XTEM), secondary-ion-mass spectrometry (SIMS), and diode leakage current and contact resistance measurements. Leakage current measurements indicated no deterioration of n+-p diode junctions up to 475 °C for 30 min in a N2 ambient. For the sintering temperature at 500 °C, the leakage current increased abruptly and SIMS profiles revealed a large amount of Cu atoms diffusing into the junctions of n+-p diodes. XTEM showed that the small pyramidal-shaped Cu3Si crystallite (with a size 0.25 μm) precipitated in the n+Si substrate. The formation of Cu3Si increased the occupied volume, then generated the gap between TiSi2 and n+Si, and gradually increased the specific contact resistance. The diffusion resistance, depending on the thickness of TiN film, was also observed.

  17. Au-free ohmic Ti/Al/TiN contacts to UID n-GaN fabricated by sputter deposition

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Garbe, V.; Weise, J.; Motylenko, M.; Münchgesang, W.; Schmid, A.; Rafaja, D.; Abendroth, B.; Meyer, D. C.

    2017-02-01

    The fabrication and characterization of an Au-free Ti/Al/TiN (20/100/100 nm) contact stack to unintentionally doped n-GaN with TiN serving as the diffusion barrier is presented. Sputter deposition and lift-off in combination with post deposition annealing at 850 °C are used for contact formation. After annealing, contact shows ohmic behavior to n-GaN and a specific contact resistivity of 1.60 × 10-3 Ω cm2. To understand the contact formation on the microscopic scale, the contact was characterized by current-voltage measurements, linear transmission line method, X-ray diffraction, transmission electron microscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The results show the formation of Ti-N bonds at the GaN/Ti interface in the as-deposited stack. Annealing leads to diffusion of Ti, Al, Ga, and N, and the remaining metallic Ti is fully consumed by the formation of the intermetallic tetragonal Al3Ti phase. Native oxide from the GaN surface is trapped during annealing and accumulated in the Al interlayer. The TiN capping layer, however, was chemically stable during annealing. It prevented oxidation of the Ti/Al contact bilayer successfully and thus proved to be a well suitable diffusion barrier with ideal compatibility to the Ti/Al contact metallization.

  18. Effect of Al on the Wetting Behavior Between TiC x and Molten Ti-Al Alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Liu, Xuyang; Lv, Xuewei; Dong, Hongbiao; Li, Chunxin; Bai, Chenguang

    2015-10-01

    The wetting behavior and the interfacial reactions between TiC x substrate and molten Ti-Al alloys with different Al contents were studied using the Sessile Drop method at 1758 K (1485 °C) in argon atmosphere. It is found that the wettability and interface reaction products depend on Al content in the molten alloy. The initial contact angles between the molten Ti-Al alloy and TiC0.78 surface reduces from 110 to 80 deg when Al content in the alloy changes from 40 to 80 wt pct. The reduction in the initial contact angle is due to the decrease of surface tension of the molten Ti-Al alloys with increasing Al contents. The segregation of Al atoms to the surface occurred at all bulk concentrations of Ti-Al alloys. Al with lower surface tension tends to segregate on the surface of liquid Ti-Al alloy. In the spreading stage, the interfacial reaction led to the decrease in the contact angle. The adhesion in Ti-Al/TiC x system can be interpreted in terms of strong chemical interactions, which is greatly affected by the diffusion of C. The equilibrium contact angle was measured less than 10 deg. Finally, the reaction sequence at the Ti-Al melt and TiC x substrate interface is proposed.

  19. Microstructure and properties of TiB2-TiB reinforced titanium matrix composite coating by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yinghua; Yao, Jianhua; Lei, Yongping; Fu, Hanguang; Wang, Liang

    2016-11-01

    TiB2 particle and TiB short fiber reinforced titanium matrix composite coatings were prepared utilizing in situ synthesized technique by laser cladding on the surface of Ti6Al4V alloy. Through the experiment, it was found that the surface of the single-track coatings appeared in the depression, but it can be improved by laser track overlapping. With the increase of laser power density, the amount of TiB short fiber was increased, and the distribution of TiB2 and TiB became more uniform from the top to bottom. The micro-hardness of TiB2/TiB coating showed a gradient decreasing trend, and the average micro-hardness of the coatings was two-fold higher than that of the substrate. Due to the strengthening effect of TiB2 particle and TiB short fiber, the wear volume loss of the center of the coating was approximately 30% less than that of the Ti-6Al-4V substrate, and the wear mechanism of the coating was mild fatigue particle detachment.

  20. Synthesis and characterization of sodium titanates Na 2Ti 3O 7 and Na 2Ti 6O 13

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sauvet, A.-L.; Baliteau, S.; Lopez, C.; Fabry, P.

    2004-12-01

    Na 2Ti 3O 7 and Na 2Ti 6O 13 were synthesized by sol-gel method in order to obtain pure phases. Different heat-treatments were applied on powders and pellets of these materials. The effects were studied by XRD, dilatometry, TGA-DTA, SEM and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. Pure Na 2Ti 3O 7 was obtained at 973 K. Sintering at 1373 K caused a partial decomposition into Na 2Ti 6O 13. The Na 2Ti 3O 7 powder sintered at 1273 K showed polygonal microstructure. Na 2Ti 3O 7 pellets sintered at 1323 K for 10 h exhibited large structures. This latter microstructure decreased the electrical conductivity of Na 2Ti 3O 7. Pure Na 2Ti 6O 13 was obtained at 873 K. Sintering at 1073 K caused a partial decomposition into TiO 2 (rutile). Na 2Ti 6O 13 pellets sintered at 1323 K for 10 h exhibited common shrinkage behavior. This shrinkage process increased the electrical conductivity of this material. The presence of TiO 2 resulted in a oxygen partial pressure dependence of the electrical conductivity.

  1. In situ synthesis of Fe-based alloy clad coatings containing TiB2-TiN-(h-BN)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Shao-qun; Wang, Gang; Ren, Qing-wen; Yang, Chuan-duo; Wang, Ze-hua; Zhou, Ze-hua

    2015-06-01

    Fe-based alloy coatings containing TiB2-TiN-(h-BN) were synthesized in situ on Q235 steel substrates by a plasma cladding process using the powders of Fe901 alloy, Ti, and h-BN as raw materials. The effects of Ti/h-BN mass ratio on interfacial bonds between the coating and substrate along with the microstructures and microhardnesses of the coatings were investigated. The results show that the Ti/h-BN mass ratio is a vital factor in the formation of the coatings. Free h-BN can be introduced into the coatings by adding an excess amount of h-BN into the precursor. Decreases in the Ti/h-BN mass ratio improve the microstructural uniformity and compactness and enhance the interfacial bonds of the coatings. At a Ti/h-BN mass ratio of 10/20, the coating is free of cracks and micropores, and mainly consists of Fe-Cr, Fe3B, TiB2, TiN, Ti2N, TiB, FeN, FeB, Fe2B, and h-BN phases. Its average microhardness in the zone between 0.1-2.8 mm from the coating surface is about Hv0.2 551.5.

  2. Selective conditions for the fabrication of a flexible dye-sensitized solar cell with Ti/TiO 2 photoanode

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Lu-Yin; Lee, Chuan-Pei; Vittal, R.; Ho, Kuo-Chuan

    The effects of four factors, i.e., (i) sputter-deposition time of platinum (Pt) film, (ii) sintering temperature of TiO 2-coated Ti foil (Ti/TiO 2), (iii) thickness of Ti foil, and (iv) concentration of iodine are reported for the photovoltaic performance of a back-illuminated flexible dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) with Ti foil substrate for the TiO 2 layer. Optimization of these four factors yields a solar-to-electricity conversion efficiency (η) of 5.95%. Transmittance spectra, cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS), X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron micrographs (SEM), and laser-induced photovoltage transient technique are used to substantiate the explanations.

  3. EFFECTS OF TiOx INTERLAYER ON RESISTANCE SWITCHING OF Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si STRUCTURES

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Hongxia; Lv, Xiaojun; Xi, Junhua; Wu, Xin; Mao, Qinan; Liu, Qingmin; Ji, Zhenguo

    2014-08-01

    In this paper, we fabricated Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures by inserting TiOx interlayer between Pt top electrode (TE) and ZnO thin film for non-volatile resistive random access memory (ReRAM) applications. Effects of TiOx interlayer with different thickness on the resistance switching of Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures were investigated. Conduction behaviors in high and low resistance state (HRS and LRS) fit well with the trap-controlled space-charge-limited conduction (SCLC) and Ohmic behavior, respectively. Variations of set and reset voltages and HRS and LRS resistances of Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures were investigated as a function of TiOx thickness. Switching cycling tests were attempted to evaluate the endurance reliability of Pt/TiOx/ZnO/n+-Si structures. Additionally, the switching mechanism was analyzed by the filament model.

  4. Anodic polarization behavior of Ti-Ni and Ti-6A1-4V in simulated physiological solutions.

    PubMed

    Speck, K M; Fraker, A C

    1980-10-01

    Anodic polarization measurements made in Hanks' physiological solution at 37 degrees C and a pH of 7.4 show titanium materials to be the most passive of the following metals: titanium, Ti-6A1-4V, Ti-Ni (memory alloy), MP35N (Co-Ni-Cr-Mo), Co-Cr-Mo, 316L stainless steel, and nickel. The influence of the amino acids, cysteine, and tryptophan on the corrosion behavior of Ti-Ni and Ti-6A1-4V was studied. Cysteine caused a lower breakdown potential for Ti-Ni, but it did not affect the breakdown of Ti-6A1-4V, although an increase in current density for Ti-6A1-4V was observed. Tryptophan produced no significant effects.

  5. Effect of TiO2 nano fillers on the electrical conductivity of PSAN/TiO2 polymer nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ningaraju, S.; Munirathnamma, L. M.; Kumar, K. V. Aneesh; Ravikumar, H. B.

    2016-05-01

    The microstructural characterization of Polystyrene co-acrylonitrile and Titanium dioxide (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites has been performed by Positron Annihilation Lifetime Spectroscopy. The decrease of positron lifetime parameters viz. o-Ps lifetime (τ3) and free volume size (Vf) up to 0.6 wt% of TiO2 is attributed to the filling of free volume holes by TiO2 nanoparticles. The increased free volume size (Vf) after 0.6 wt% of TiO2 indicates the formation of interface due to TiO2 nanoclusters. The variation of electrical conductivity at the lower and higher concentration of TiO2 in (PSAN/TiO2) nanocomposites is attributed to the blocking effect and space charge effect respectively.

  6. Electrorheological effect of Ti-bearing blast furnace slag with different TiC contents at 1500°C

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yue, Hong-rui; Jiang, Tao; Zhang, Qiao-yi; Duan, Pei-ning; Xue, Xiang-xin

    2017-07-01

    The electrorheological properties of CaO-SiO2-Al2O3-MgO-TiO2-TiC slags were investigated to enhance understanding of the effect of TiC addition on the viscosity, yield stress, and fluid pattern of Ti-bearing slags in a direct-current electric field. The viscosities and shear stresses of 4wt% and 8wt% TiC slags were found to increase substantially with increasing electric field intensity, whereas virtually no rheological changes were observed in the 0wt% TiC slag. The Herschel-Bulkley model was applied to demonstrate that the fluid pattern of the 4wt% TiC slag was converted from that of a Newtonian fluid to that of a Bingham fluid in response to the applied electric field; and the static yield stress increased linearly with the square of the electric field intensity.

  7. Enhanced hydrogen storage properties of Pd/Ti/Mg/Ti multilayer films using the catalytic effects of Pd

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jung, Hwaebong; Cho, Sungmee; Lee, Wooyoung

    2015-05-01

    Here, we report the microstructural and hydrogen storage properties of a 40-layer film of Pd (x nm)/Ti (40 nm)/Mg (360 nm)/Ti (40 nm) (x = 0, 5, 10, and 20) fabricated using an ultra-high vacuum DC magnetron sputtering system. The superior hydrogen uptake of the Pd/Ti/Mg/Ti films was 6.42 wt. % for x = 10 at 150 °C. The hydrogen absorption time is strongly dependent on the Pd film thickness (0-40 nm). As a result, the Pd/Ti/Mg/Ti multilayer film with the Pd interlayer can be attributed to offer the further diffusion channels and the controlled growth rate of hydride formation at the Pd/Ti/Mg interfaces, which provides an overall enhancement of the hydrogen storage properties.

  8. Formation of Equiaxed Alpha and Titanium Nitride Precipitates in Spark Plasma Sintered TiB/Ti-6Al-4V Composites (Preprint)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-08-01

    AFRL-RX-WP-TP-2012-0372 FORMATION OF EQUIAXED ALPHA AND TITANIUM NITRIDE PRECIPITATES IN SPARK PLASMA SINTERED TiB/Ti-6Al-4V COMPOSITES...ALPHA AND TITANIUM NITRIDE PRECIPITATES IN SPARK PLASMA SINTERED TiB/Ti-6Al-4V COMPOSITES (PREPRINT) 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER FA8650-08-C-5226 5b...distribution of TiN precipitates, as revealed by TEM studies. 15. SUBJECT TERMS Ti-6Al-4V; TiB; TiN; Spark Plasma Sintering ; Composite; α/β phase

  9. The underlying biological mechanisms of biocompatibility differences between bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys.

    PubMed

    Lifeng, Zhao; Yan, Hong; Dayun, Yang; Xiaoying, Lü; Tingfei, Xi; Deyuan, Zhang; Ying, Hong; Jinfeng, Yuan

    2011-04-01

    TiN coating has been demonstrated to improve the biocompatibility of bare NiTi alloys; however, essential biocompatibility differences between NiTi alloys before and after TiN coating are not known so far. In this study, to explore the underlying biological mechanisms of biocompatibility differences between them, the changes of bare and TiN-coated NiTi alloys in surface chemical composition, morphology, hydrophilicity, Ni ions release, cytotoxicity, apoptosis, and gene expression profiles were compared using energy-dispersive spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, contact angle, surface energy, Ni ions release analysis, the methylthiazoltetrazolium (MTT) method, flow cytometry and microarray methods, respectively. Pathways binding to networks and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) were employed to analyze and validate the microarray data, respectively. It was found that, compared with the bare NiTi alloys, TiN coating significantly decreased Ni ions content on the surfaces of the NiTi alloys and reduced the release of Ni ions from the alloys, attenuated the inhibition of Ni ions to the expression of genes associated with anti-inflammatory, and also suppressed the promotion of Ni ions to the expression of apoptosis-related genes. Moreover, TiN coating distinctly improved the hydrophilicity and uniformity of the surfaces of the NiTi alloys, and contributed to the expression of genes participating in cell adhesion and other physiological activities. These results indicate that the TiN-coated NiTi alloys will help overcome the shortcomings of NiTi alloys used in clinical application currently, and can be expected to be a replacement of biomaterials for a medical device field.

  10. Effect of neutron irradiation on defect evolution in Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC

    DOE PAGES

    Tallman, Darin J.; He, Lingfeng; Garcia-Diaz, Brenda L.; ...

    2015-10-23

    Here, we report on the characterization of defects formed in polycrystalline Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples exposed to neutron irradiation – up to 0.1 displacements per atom (dpa) at 350 ± 40 °C or 695 ± 25 °C, and up to 0.4 dpa at 350 ± 40 °C. Black spots are observed in both Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC after irradiation to both 0.1 and 0.4 dpa at 350 °C. After irradiation to 0.1 dpa at 695 °C, small basal dislocation loops, with a Burgers vector of b = 1/2 [0001] are observed in both materials. At 9 ± 3 and 10 ±more » 5 nm, the loop diameters in the Ti3SiC2 and Ti2AlC samples, respectively, were comparable. At 1 × 1023 loops/m3, the dislocation loop density in Ti2AlC was ≈1.5 orders of magnitude greater than in Ti3SiC2, at 3 x 1021 loops/m3. After irradiation at 350 °C, extensive microcracking was observed in Ti2AlC, but not in Ti3SiC2. The room temperature electrical resistivities increased as a function of neutron dose for all samples tested, and appear to saturate in the case of Ti3SiC2. The MAX phases are unequivocally more neutron radiation tolerant than the impurity phases TiC and Al2O3. Based on these results, Ti3SiC2 appears to be a more promising MAX phase candidate for high temperature nuclear applications than Ti2AlC.« less

  11. The Ti environment in natural hibonite: XANES spectroscopy and computer modelling

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kravtsova, Antonina N.; Soldatov, Alexander V.; Walker, Andrew M.; Berry, Andrew J.

    2016-05-01

    The local atomic structure around Ti in Ti-bearing hibonite (CaAl12O19) was studied using X-ray absorption near-edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy and computer modelling. Structural models of the direct substitution of Al by Ti3+, Al by Ti4+ charge balanced by the coupled substitution of Mg2+ for Al, and small Ti clusters were considered. The Ti K-XANES spectra of natural hibonite with different Ti concentration were recorded. Theoretical Ti K- XANES spectra for structural models of hibonite were calculated. It was shown that the theoretical Ti K-XANES spectra for a model with Ti at the five-coordinated M2 site are in agreement with the experimental XANES spectra of hibonite with low concentrations of Ti, while the theoretical spectra for a structural model of clustered Ti are in agreement with the experimental spectra of hibonite with higher Ti contents.

  12. Gas nitriding and subsequent oxidation of Ti-6Al-4V alloys

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Ti-6Al-4V alloys consisting of α-Ti grains and intergranular β-Ti islands were nitrided at 850°C for 1 to 12 h under a nitrogen pressure of 1 Pa. With increasing nitriding time, the Ti-N compound layer became thicker, and the α-Ti diffusion zone containing dissolved nitrogen became wider. In the Ti-N compound layer, the initially formed Ti2N became TiN as the nitriding progressed. The nitride layers were oxidized to rutile-TiO2 after oxidation at 700°C for 10 h in air. PMID:22221679

  13. Mechanical properties and biocompatibility of the sputtered Ti doped hydroxyapatite.

    PubMed

    Vladescu, A; Padmanabhan, S C; Ak Azem, F; Braic, M; Titorencu, I; Birlik, I; Morris, M A; Braic, V

    2016-10-01

    The hydroxyapatite enriched with Ti were prepared as possible candidates for biomedical applications especially for implantable devices that are in direct contact to the bone. The hydroxyapatites with different Ti content were prepared by RF magnetron sputtering on Ti-6Al-4V alloy using pure hydroxyapatite and TiO2 targets. The content of Ti was modified by changing the RF power fed on TiO2 target. The XPS and FTIR analyses revealed the presence of hydroxyapatite structure. The hardness and elastic modulus of the hydroxyapatite were increased by Ti addition. After 5 days of culture, the cell viability of the Ti-6Al-4V was enhanced by depositing with undoped or doped hydroxyapatite. The Ti additions led to an increase in cell viability of hydroxyapatite, after 5 days of culture. The electron microscopy showed the presence of more cells on the surface of Ti-enriched hydroxyapatite than those observed on the surface of the uncoated alloys or undoped hydroxyapatite.

  14. New Developments of Ti-Based Alloys for Biomedical Applications

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yuhua; Yang, Chao; Zhao, Haidong; Qu, Shengguan; Li, Xiaoqiang; Li, Yuanyuan

    2014-01-01

    Ti-based alloys are finding ever-increasing applications in biomaterials due to their excellent mechanical, physical and biological performance. Nowdays, low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys are still being developed. Meanwhile, porous Ti-based alloys are being developed as an alternative orthopedic implant material, as they can provide good biological fixation through bone tissue ingrowth into the porous network. This paper focuses on recent developments of biomedical Ti-based alloys. It can be divided into four main sections. The first section focuses on the fundamental requirements titanium biomaterial should fulfill and its market and application prospects. This section is followed by discussing basic phases, alloying elements and mechanical properties of low modulus β-type Ti-based alloys. Thermal treatment, grain size, texture and properties in Ti-based alloys and their limitations are dicussed in the third section. Finally, the fourth section reviews the influence of microstructural configurations on mechanical properties of porous Ti-based alloys and all known methods for fabricating porous Ti-based alloys. This section also reviews prospects and challenges of porous Ti-based alloys, emphasizing their current status, future opportunities and obstacles for expanded applications. Overall, efforts have been made to reveal the latest scenario of bulk and porous Ti-based materials for biomedical applications. PMID:28788539

  15. Direct Extraction of Ti and Ti Alloy from Ti-Bearing Dust Slag in Molten CaCl2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Chaoyi; Zhao, Chong; Li, Junqi; Yang, Shufeng

    2016-06-01

    Using process of solid oxygen-ion conducting membrane (SOM), titanium metal and its alloy can be prepared directly from Ti-bearing dust slag by immersing it in the molten CaCl2 at 1,100℃, which has been proposed by constant voltage of 3.5 V for 2-6 h. The dust slag was ball-milled and pressed into pellets, then employed as the cathode, while the liquid copper, which was saturated with graphite powder and encased in yttria-stabilized zirconia (YSZ) tube, acted as the anode. The effect of forming pressure and electrolytic time on products was analyzed. The results show that the content of titanium increased with electrolytic time and the characteristic morphology presents as granule. Ti-Fe alloy can be obtained from Ti-Fe residue by 6 h electrolysis. For titanium-rich residue, when the forming pressure of pellets decreased from 6 to 3 MPa, only electrolysis for more than 4 h can completely remove the oxygen, and pure titanium is obtained by 6 h electrolysis. Besides, there is an unprecedented finding that the porous cathode is conducive to the removal of impurity elements.

  16. Preparation of directionally solidified BaTi2O5-Ba6Ti17O40 eutectic by the floating zone method

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shiga, K.; Katsui, H.; Goto, T.

    2017-02-01

    The BaTi2O5-Ba6Ti17O40 eutectic (BaO-68.7 mol% TiO2) was directionally solidified by the floating zone (FZ) method and crystalline phases, microstructures and orientation were investigated. Ba6Ti17O40 with faceted rod-like shape was dispersed in the BaTi2O5 matrix. The growth directions of BaTi2O5 and Ba6Ti17O40 were parallel to the b and a axis, respectively, and the orientation relations were BaTi2O5 (010)//Ba6Ti17O40(60 2 ̅) and BaTi2O5 (001)//Ba6Ti17O40 (001).

  17. One-step electrospinning route of SrTiO3-modified Rutile TiO2nanofibers and its photocatalytic properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhao, Weijie; Zhang, Jing; Pan, Jiaqi; Qiu, Jianfeng; Niu, Jiantao; Li, Chaorong

    2017-05-01

    The SrTiO3 modified rutile TiO2 composite nanofibers were synthesized by a simple electrospinning technique. The result of XRD, SEM and TEM indicate that the SrTiO3/TiO2 heterojuction has been prepared successfully. Compared with the TiO2 and SrTiO3, the photocatalytic activity of the SrTiO3/TiO2 (rutile) for the degradation of methyl orange exhibits an obvious enhancement under UV illumination. which is almost 2 times than that of bare TiO2 (rutile) nanofiber. Further, the high crystallinity and photon-generated carrier separation of the SrTiO3/TiO2 heterojuction are considered as the main reason for this enhancement.

  18. Wear Behavior of Low-Cost, Lightweight TiC/Ti-6Al-4V Composite Under Fretting: Effectiveness of Solid-Film Lubricant Counterparts

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Miyoshi, Kazuhisa; Street, Kenneth W., Jr.; Sanders, Jeffrey H.; Hager, Carl H., Jr.; Zabinski, Jeffrey S.; VanderWal, Randall L.; Andrews, Rodney; Lerch, Bradley A.

    2007-01-01

    The wear behavior of low-cost, lightweight 10-wt% TiC-particulate-reinforced Ti-6Al-4V matrix composite (TiC/Ti- 6Al-4V) was examined under fretting at 296, 423, and 523 K in air. Bare 10-wt% TiC/Ti-6Al-4V hemispherical pins were used in contact with dispersed multiwalled carbon nanotubes (MWNTs), magnetron-sputtered diamondlike carbon/chromium (DLC/Cr), magnetron-sputtered graphite-like carbon/chromium (GLC/Cr), and magnetron-sputtered molybdenum disulphide/titanium (MoS2/Ti) deposited on Ti-6Al-4V, Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, and nickel-based superalloy 718. When TiC/Ti-6Al-4V was brought into contact with bare Ti-6Al-4V, bare Ti-48Al-2Cr-2Nb, and bare nickel-based superalloy 718, strong adhesion, severe galling, and severe wear occurred. However, when TiC/Ti-6Al-4V was brought into contact with MWNT, DLC/Cr, GLC/Cr, and MoS2/Ti coatings, no galling occurred in the contact, and relatively minor wear was observed regardless of the coating. All the solid-film lubricants were effective from 296 to 523 K, but the effectiveness of the MWNT, DLC/Cr, GLC/Cr, and MoS2/Ti coatings decreased as temperature increased.

  19. Realization of improved metallization-Ti/Al/Ti/W/Au ohmic contacts to n-GaN for high temperature application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Motayed, A.; Davydov, A. V.; Boettinger, W. J.; Josell, D.; Shapiro, A. J.; Levin, I.; Zheleva, T.; Harris, G. L.

    2005-05-01

    Tungsten metal layer was used for the first time as an effective diffusion barrier for the standard Ti/Al/Ti/Au ohmic metallization scheme to obtain thermally stable ohmic contact suitable for high temperature applications. Comparative studies were performed on three distinct metallization schemes: 1) standard GaN/Ti/Al/Ti/Au, 2) GaN/Ti/Al/W/Au, and 3) GaN/Ti/Al/Ti/W/Au. For the GaN with doping level of 5 × 1017 cm-3, the lowest specific contact resistance for the Ti/Al/Ti/W/Au metallization scheme annealed in argon at 750 °C for 30 sec was 5 × 10-6 .cm2, which is comparable to the standard Ti/Al/Ti/Au scheme. X-ray diffractions (XRD), auger electron spectroscopy (AES) depth profiling, field-emission scanning electron microscopy (FE-SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy (TEM) revealed that the Ti/Al/Ti/W/Au metallization has superior morphology and microstructural properties compared to standard Ti/Al/Ti/Au metallizations. Remarkably, this metallization was able to withstand thermal aging at 500 °C for 50 hrs with only marginal morphological and electrical deterioration. These studies revealed that the utilization of a compound diffusion barrier stack, as in the Ti/Al/Ti/W/Au metallization, yields electrically, structurally, and morphologically superior metallizations with exceptional thermal stability.

  20. Interface enhanced functionalities in BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wu, Xifan

    2014-03-01

    Interface engineering of oxide thin films has led to the development of many intriguing physical properties and new functionalities, in which the oxygen rotation and tilting take an crucial role. The oxygen octahedral tilt has been considered to be a coherent motion in the oxide thin-films, based on which the tilt is often neglected in the modeling of ABO3 superlattices. However, combined with state-of-art experimental high-resolution electron microscopic image, our first-principles results clearly show that oxygen octahedral tilt should be more appropriately defined by the tilting angles of two individual pyramids. Each pyramid will tilt rather independently as a function of its local chemical environment. Considering the oxygen octahedral rotation at the same time, the new picture of oxygen octahedral tilting will induce a novel interface effect, in which an unstable structure in bulk CaTiO3 will be stabilized at the interface in BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattice. This novel interface effect induces large polarizations both in-plane and out-of-plane with a corresponding enhanced piezoelectricity. The above scenario successfully explains the recent experimental discoveries in BaTiO3/CaTiO3 superlattices by H. Lee's and P. Evan's groups respectively.

  1. Comparison of microstructural evolution in Ti-Mo-Zr-Fe and Ti-15Mo biocompatible alloys.

    PubMed

    Nag, S; Banerjee, R; Stechschulte, J; Fraser, H L

    2005-07-01

    The microstructural evolution and attendant strengthening mechanisms in two biocompatible alloy systems, the binary Ti-15Mo and the quaternary Ti-13Mo-7Zr-3Fe (TMZF), have been compared and contrasted in this paper. In the homogenized condition, while the Ti-15Mo alloy exhibited a single phase microstructure consisting of large beta grains, the TMZF alloy exhibited a microstructure consisting primarily of a beta matrix with grain boundary alpha precipitates and a low volume fraction of intra-granular alpha precipitates. On ageing the homogenized alloys at 600 degrees C for 4 h, both alloys exhibited the precipitation of refined scale secondary alpha precipitates homogeneously in the beta matrix. However, while the hardness of the TMZF alloy marginally increased, that of the Ti-15Mo alloy decreased substantially as a result of the ageing treatment. In order to understand this difference in the mechanical properties after ageing, TEM studies have been carried out on both alloys in the homogenized and homogenized plus aged conditions. The results indicate that the omega precipitates dissolve on ageing in case of the Ti-15Mo alloy, consequently leading to a substantial decrease in the hardness. In contrast, the omega precipitates do not dissolve on ageing in the TMZF alloy and the precipitation of the fine scale secondary alpha leads to increased hardness.

  2. N and Ti adatom dynamics on stoichiometric polar TiN(111) surfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sangiovanni, D. G.; Tasnádi, F.; Hultman, L.; Petrov, I.; Greene, J. E.; Chirita, V.

    2016-07-01

    We use molecular dynamics (MD) based on the modified embedded atom method (MEAM) to determine diffusion coefficients and migration pathways for Ti and N adatoms (Tiad and Nad) on TiN(111). The reliability of the classical model-potential is verified by comparison with density functional theory (DFT) results at 0 K. MD simulations carried out at temperatures between 600 and 1800 K show that both Tiad and Nad favor fcc surface sites and migrate among them by passing through metastable hcp positions. We find that Nad species are considerably more mobile than Tiad on TiN(111); contrary to our previous results on TiN(001). In addition, we show that lattice vibrations at finite temperatures strongly modify the potential energy landscape and result in smaller adatom migration energies, Ea = 1.03 for Tiad and 0.61 eV for Nad, compared to 0 K values Ea0K = 1.55 (Tiad) and 0.79 eV (Nad). We also demonstrate that the inclusion of dipole corrections, neglected in previous DFT calculations, is necessary in order to obtain the correct formation energies for polar surfaces such as TiN(111).

  3. Fracture analysis of cast pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy for dental use.

    PubMed

    Kim, K H; Choi, M Y; Kishi, T

    1997-01-01

    The fracture behavior of cast two types of pure Ti and Ti-6Al-4V alloy was understood by acoustic emission (AE) analysis during a fracture toughness test. Specimens for test were cast by the lost wax method using a specially designed Ti casting machine of pressure-different method for dental use. A fatigue crack was inserted from the machined notch tip into the body of a specimen in the range of 0.45-0.55 a/W. Acoustic emission signals released during the fracture toughness test were detected by two sensors attached to both ends of the specimen. Then the signals were recorded and analysed by the PAC 3000/3104 system. From the early stage of the fracture toughness test, AE signals started to be released in all types of specimens tested. A reaction layer with the investment materials of about 50-100 microns was thought to be the result of the AE release from an early stage of the fracture toughness test. A microfracture behavior of the cast pure Ti and Ti alloys was proposed based on the results obtained from the AE releasing pattern and fracture surface findings.

  4. BaTiO3/SrTiO3 heterostructures for ferroelectric field effect transistors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shoron, Omor F.; Raghavan, Santosh; Freeze, Christopher R.; Stemmer, Susanne

    2017-06-01

    Integration of ultrathin ferroelectric thin films with semiconductors is of interest for negative capacitance transistors that exhibit internal voltage gain, which may allow for scaling the supply voltage of low power circuits. In this study, BaTiO3 thin films were grown on doped SrTiO3 channels using molecular beam epitaxy. The BaTiO3 films are ferroelectric despite their low thickness (˜10 nm). Parallel plate capacitor devices exhibit anti-clockwise hysteresis, and a comparison with reference structures without BaTiO3 shows that the polarization in the BaTiO3 thin films is switchable and controls the charge density in the channel. Field effect transistors were fabricated to study the effect of ferroelectricity on the transistor characteristics. Anti-clockwise hysteresis and a shift in threshold-voltage are observed in the output characteristics of the transistors. These properties make these heterostructures a suitable system for studying negative capacitance effects.

  5. Minimum ignition energy of nano and micro Ti powder in the presence of inert nano TiO₂ powder.

    PubMed

    Chunmiao, Yuan; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

    2014-06-15

    The inerting effect of nano-sized TiO2 powder on ignition sensitivity of nano and micro Ti powders was investigated with a Mike 3 apparatus. "A little is not good enough" is also suitable for micro Ti powders mixed with nano-sized solid inertants. MIE of the mixtures did not significantly increase until the TiO2 percentage exceeded 50%. Nano-sized TiO2 powders were ineffective as an inertant when mixed with nano Ti powders, especially at higher dust loadings. Even with 90% nano TiO2 powder, mixtures still showed high ignition sensitivity because the statistic energy was as low as 2.1 mJ. Layer fires induced by ignited but unburned metal particles may occur for micro Ti powders mixed with nano TiO2 powders following a low level dust explosion. Such layer fires could lead to a violent dust explosion after a second dispersion. Thus, additional attention is needed to prevent metallic layer fires even where electric spark potential is low. In the case of nano Ti powder, no layer fires were observed because of less flammable material involved in the mixtures investigated, and faster flame propagation in nanoparticle clouds.

  6. TiSi2/TiN-A Stable Multilayered Contact Structure for Shallow Implanted Junctions in VLSI Technology

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Norström, H.; Donchev, T.; Östling, M.; Petersson, C. S.

    1983-12-01

    A low resistive, electrically and mechanically stable three level metallization scheme has been developed TiSi2 was adopted as a low contact resistance material to silicon, and TiN was selected as a diffusion barrier between the silicide and the A1 interconnect layer. The Ti/TiN bilayer was deposited by magnetron sputtering. It is shown, using RBS and X-ray diffraction that the deposited Ti reacts to form TiSi2, and the upper titanium nitride layer transforms to a stoichiometric compound TiN. Furthermore, it is demonstrated that TiN acts as a diffusion barrier between TiSi2 and aluminium up to 550°C and that the onset for interdiffusion occurs at 600°C. Finally, the interposition of a third sacrificial Ti layer between the nitride film and the aluminium top layer is shown to prevent intermixing between the A1 layer and Si even after a prolonged heat treatment at 600°C.

  7. Enhanced thermal stability of Ti/TiO2/n-Ge contacts through plasma nitridation of TiO2 interfacial layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Biswas, Dipankar; Biswas, Jayeeta; Ghosh, Sayantan; Wood, Bingxi; Lodha, Saurabh

    2017-01-01

    This work demonstrates a solution to the problem of increase in Schottky barrier height ( ϕ B ) with thermal annealing (thermal instability) in unpinned (low ϕ B ) Ti/Ti O 2 /n-Ge metal-interfacial layer (IL)-semiconductor (MIS) contacts through plasma nitridation of the Ti O 2 layer. Unlike TiO2, unpinned ( ϕ B = 0.09 eV) Ti O x N y contacts are thermally stable for anneals up to 30 min at 400 °C. The thermal stability improves with increasing nitrogen concentration ([N], 2.5-9.5%) and is independent of thickness (2-5 nm) for [N] = 9.5%. Additionally, the plasma nitridation process is shown to increase the oxygen vacancy concentration (n-type doping) and reduce the ϕ B dependence on Ti O x N y thickness in unannealed Ti O x N y contacts. Enhanced thermal stability is attributed to the incorporated nitrogen acting as a diffusion barrier that prevents contact pinning through reduction of the TiO2 layer by contact metal during the anneal, as well as preserves the amorphous nature of the IL along with its fixed charge and interfacial dipoles that contribute to ϕ B reduction.

  8. Structure and ductility of TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Imayev, R.; Salishchev, G.; Imayev, V.; Shagiev, M.; Kuznetzov, A.

    1995-12-31

    The effect of structural factors (grain size and grain boundary structure) and strain rate on the deformation mechanism and ductility of TiAl in the temperature range of brittle-to-ductile transition and at room temperature was systematically investigated. It has been established that it is possible to substantially affect the deformation mechanism and ductility of this intermetallic by controlling structural factors, particularly the grain size, and varying the strain rate.

  9. Adhesion and Corrosion Behavior of Al-Zn and TiN/Ti/TiN Coatings on a DU-0.75 WT% Ti Alloy,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1992-08-01

    LAViLAJTINIOU X z JAM ILC IN LAI a LAS LAS F,, NOWL LORA0 F, , Norma Lo#AN (a) (hI Fig 2. AE signal inensit%. frictional ICorcc /-, and friction coeflicient I...reported that the DU-0.75Ti behaved as the .4STY Spe(.. Publ. 640. 1978, p. 134 ( ASTM Philadelphia. PA). anode during the initial immersion for 72 h but

  10. Release of TiO2 from paints containing pigment-TiO2 or nano-TiO2 by weathering.

    PubMed

    Al-Kattan, Ahmed; Wichser, Adrian; Vonbank, Roger; Brunner, Samuel; Ulrich, Andrea; Zuin, Stefano; Nowack, Bernd

    2013-12-01

    The release of nanomaterials from products and applications that are used by industry and consumers has only been studied to a very limited extent. The amount and the characteristics of the released particles determine the potential environmental exposure. In this work we investigated the release of Ti from paints containing pigment-TiO2 and nano-TiO2. Panels covered with paint with and without nano-TiO2 were exposed to simulated weathering by sunlight and rain in climate chambers. The same paints were also studied in small-scale leaching tests to elucidate the influence of various parameters on the release such as composition of water, type of support and UV-light. Under all conditions we only observed a very low release close to background values, less than 1.5 μg l(-1) in the climate chamber over 113 irrigations per drying cycle and between 0.5 and 14 μg l(-1) in the leaching tests, with the highest concentrations observed after prolonged UV-exposure. The actual release of Ti over the 113 weathering cycles was only 0.007% of the total Ti, indicating that TiO2 was strongly bound in the paint. Extraction of UV-exposed and then milled paint resulted in about 100-times larger release of Ti from the nano-TiO2 containing paint whereas the paint with only pigment-TiO2 did not show this increase. This indicated that the release of Ti from the paints is an effect of the addition of nano-TiO2, either by photocatalytic degradation of the organic paint matrix (observed by electron microscopic imaging of the paint surface) or by direct release of nano-TiO2. Our work suggests that paints containing nano-TiO2 may release only very limited amounts of materials into the environment, at least over the time-scales investigated in this work.

  11. ENDL Ti and V evaluation updates

    SciTech Connect

    Brown, D; Hoffman, R; Kelley, K; Beck, B

    2005-09-06

    We need ''full'' evaluations for the isotopes of Ti and V found naturally. We mean ''full'' in the sense that we wish to have data suitable for transporting neutrons through the material. In particular, we focus on: (1) {sigma}(E) for largest cross sections (n,elas), (n,n'), (n,2n), etc.; and (2) d{sigma}(E)/d{Omega} for (n,elas), (n,n'[i]). For the data to be useful, we want the cross section sets and outgoing particle distributions to form a self-consistent set and to have good agreement with experimental data where possible. Also, if possible, we wish: P(E,E') for all outgoing particles; P(E, {mu}) for all outgoing particles; and adequate resonance region. In this note, we will summarize existing evaluations for Ti and V and present several strategies for updating all Ti and V isotopes for immediate insertion in ENDL and for eventual submission to ENDF/B-VII. We adopt one of these strategies and describe where the data is posted for customer use.

  12. NiTi superelasticity via atomistic simulations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Piyas; Ren, Guowu; Sehitoglu, Huseyin

    2015-12-01

    The NiTi shape memory alloys (SMAs) are promising candidates for the next-generation multifunctional materials. These materials are superelastic i.e. they can fully recover their original shape even after fairly large inelastic deformations once the mechanical forces are removed. The superelasticity reportedly stems from atomic scale crystal transformations. However, very few computer simulations have emerged, elucidating the transformation mechanisms at the discrete lattice level, which underlie the extraordinary strain recoverability. Here, we conduct breakthrough molecular dynamics modelling on the superelastic behaviour of the NiTi single crystals, and unravel the atomistic genesis thereof. The deformation recovery is clearly traced to the reversible transformation between austenite and martensite crystals through simulations. We examine the mechanistic origin of the tension-compression asymmetries and the effects of pressure/temperature/strain rate variation isolatedly. Hence, this work essentially brings a new dimension to probing the NiTi performance based on the mesoscale physics under more complicated thermo-mechanical loading scenarios.

  13. Electron Impact Excitation Of Ti XIX

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aggarwal, Kanti M.; Keenan, F. P.

    2012-05-01

    Emission lines of Ti XIX are important for the modeling and diagnostics of lasing, fusion and astrophysical plasmas, for which atomic data are required for a variety of parameters, such as energy levels, radiative rates (A- values), and excitation rates or equivalently the effective collision strengths (Υ), which are obtained from the electron impact collision strengths (Ω). Experimentally, energy levels are available for Ti XIX on the NIST website, but there is paucity for accurate collisional atomic data. Therefore, here we report a complete set of results (namely energy levels, radiative rates, and effective collision strengths) for all transitions among the lowest 98 levels of Ti XIX. These levels belong to the (1s2) 2s2, 2s2p, 2p2, 2s3l, 2p3l, 2s4l, and 2p4l configurations. Finally, we also report the A- values for four types of transitions, namely electric dipole (E1), electric quadrupole (E2), magnetic dipole (M1), and magnetic quadrupole (M2), because these are also required for plasma modeling. For our calculations of wavefunctions, we have adopted the fully relativistic GRASP code, and for the calculations of Ω, the Dirac atomic R-matrix code (DARC) of PH Norrington and IP Grant. Additionally, parallel calculations have also been performed with the Flexible Atomic Code (FAC) of Gu, so that all atomic parameters can be rigorously assessed for accuracy.

  14. Microstructure and composition of annealed Al/Ti-metallization layers.

    PubMed

    Hofmann, M; Gemming, T; Wetzig, K

    2004-06-01

    Al/Ti multilayers with columnar grains were deposited by electron-beam evaporation on piezoelectric LiNbO(3) substrates. After annealing in air and under vacuum conditions dissolution of the Ti interlayer was observed for all samples. The original Ti interlayer dissolved completely and globular Al(3)Ti grains were formed within an Al matrix. All samples had an oxidized adhesive Ti bottom layer and a 10 nm thin Al layer below this adhesive Ti bottom layer, which remains intact after the applied heat treatment. This resistance against dissolution by interdiffusion could be caused by the oxidation. These changes in the microstructure and in the chemical composition were investigated by conventional and analytical TEM.

  15. Mechanical properties and grindability of experimental Ti-Au alloys.

    PubMed

    Takahashi, Masatoshi; Kikuchi, Masafumi; Okuno, Osamu

    2004-06-01

    Experimental Ti-Au alloys (5, 10, 20 and 40 mass% Au) were made. Mechanical properties and grindability of the castings of the Ti-Au alloys were examined. As the concentration of gold increased to 20%, the yield strength and the tensile strength of the Ti-Au alloys became higher without markedly deteriorating their ductility. This higher strength can be explained by the solid-solution strengthening of the a titanium. The Ti-40%Au alloy became brittle because the intermetallic compound Ti3Au precipitated intensively near the grain boundaries. There was no significant difference in the grinding rate and grinding ratio among all the Ti-Au alloys and the pure titanium at any speed.

  16. Cost-Effective TiAl based Materials

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Moxson, V. S.; Sun, Fusheng; Draper, Susan L.; Froes, F. H.; Duz, V.

    2003-01-01

    Because of their inherent low ductility, TiAl-based materials are difficult to fabricate, especially thin gage titanium gamma aluminide (TiAl) sheet and foil. In this paper, an innovative powder metallurgy approach for producing cost-effective thin gage TiAl sheets (with 356 mm long and 235 mm wide, and a thickness of 0.74, 1.09, 1.55, and 2.34 mm, respectively) is presented. The microstructures and tensile properties at room and elevated temperatures of the thin gage TiAl are studied. Results show that these TiAl sheets have a relatively homogenous chemistry, uniform microstructure, and acceptable mechanical properties. This work demonstrates a cost-effective method for producing both flat products (sheet/foil) and complex chunky parts of TiAl for various advanced applications including aerospace and automotive industries.

  17. Atomistic Modeling of Pd Site Preference in NiTi

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bozzolo, Guillermo; Noebe, Ronald D.; Mosca, Hugo O.

    2004-01-01

    An analysis of the site subsitution behavior of Pd in NiTi was performed using the BFS method for alloys. Through a combination of Monte Carlo simulations and detailed atom-by-atom energetic analyses of various computational cells, representing compositions of NiTi with up to 10 at% Pd, a detailed understanding of site occupancy of Pd in NiTi was revealed. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ni in a NiTi alloy will prefer the Ni-sites. Pd subsituted at the expense of Ti shows a very weak preference for Ti-sites that diminishes as the amount of Pd in the alloy increases and as the temperature increases.

  18. Superelastic properties of biomedical (Ti-Zr)-Mo-Sn alloys.

    PubMed

    Ijaz, Muhammad Farzik; Kim, Hee Young; Hosoda, Hideki; Miyazaki, Shuichi

    2015-03-01

    A new class of Ti-50Zr base biomedical superelastic alloys was developed in this study. The (Ti-Zr)-Mo-Sn alloys exhibited a shape memory effect and superelastic property by adjusting Mo and Sn contents. The (Ti-Zr)-1.5Mo-3Sn alloy revealed the most stable superelasticity among (Ti-Zr)-(1-2)Mo-(2-4)Sn alloys. The superelastic recovery strain showed a strong dependence on heat treatment temperature after cold working in the (Ti-Zr)-1.5Mo-3Sn alloy. The superelastic recovery strain increased as the heat treatment temperature increased although the critical stress for slip decreased. The (Ti-Zr)-1.5Mo-3Sn alloy heat treated at 1073K exhibited excellent superelastic properties with a large recovery strain as large as 7% which is due to the strong {001}β<110>β recrystallization texture.

  19. Metallic biomaterials TiN-coated: corrosion analysis and biocompatibility.

    PubMed

    Paschoal, André Luís; Vanâncio, Everaldo Carlos; Canale, Lauralice de Campos Franceschini; da Silva, Orivaldo Lopes; Huerta-Vilca, Domingos; Motheo, Artur de Jesus

    2003-05-01

    Corrosion processes due to contact with the physiological environment should be avoided or minimized in orthopedic implants. Four metallic substrates frequently used as biomaterials: pure Ti, Ti-6Al-4V alloy, ASTM F138 stainless steel, and Co-Cr-Mo alloy, were coated with TiN using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) technique. These coatings have been screened by polarization curves in physiological solutions. TiN prepared by PVD is efficient as coating for stainless steel. On titanium and alloy there are no benefits concerning the corrosion resistance compared to the bare Ti-materials. TiN coatings have been screened according to ISO 10993 standard tests for biocompatibility and exhibited no cytotoxicity, dermal irritation, or acute systemic toxicity response.

  20. Giant resonances in {sup 46,48}Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Tokimoto, Y.; Lui, Y.-W.; Clark, H. L.; John, B.; Chen, X.; Youngblood, D. H.

    2006-10-15

    The giant resonance region from 9 MeV Ti and {sup 48}Ti has been studied with inelastic scattering of 240 MeV {alpha} particles at small angles including 0 deg. Isoscalar monopole strength in {sup 46}Ti ({sup 48}Ti) was found corresponding to have 71+15/-12% (96+14/-12%) of the E0 energy weighted sum rule (EWSR) with a centroid of 18.66+0.65/-0.25% MeV (18.80+0.45/-0.18% MeV), respectively. In {sup 46}Ti ({sup 48}Ti), 46{+-}12% (56{+-}12%) of the E1, and 60{+-}11% (87{+-}11%) of the E2 EWSR were identified.

  1. Deposition of a thin film of TiOx from a titanium metal target as novel blocking layers at conducting glass/TiO2 interfaces in ionic liquid mesoscopic TiO2 dye-sensitized solar cells.

    PubMed

    Xia, Jiangbin; Masaki, Naruhiko; Jiang, Kejian; Yanagida, Shozo

    2006-12-21

    In dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells, charge recombination processes at interfaces between fluorine-doped tin oxide (FTO), TiO2, dye, and electrolyte play an important role in limiting the photon-to-electron conversion efficiency. From this point of view, a high work function material such as titanium deposited by sputtering on FTO has been investigated as an effective blocking layer for preventing electron leakage from FTO without influencing electron injection. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analysis indicates that different species of Ti (Ti4+, Ti3+, Ti2+, and a small amount of Ti0) exist on FTO. Electrochemical and photoelectrochemical measurements reveal that thin films of titanium species, expressed as TiOx, work as a compact blocking layer between FTO and TiO2 nanocrystaline film, improving Voc and the fill factor, finally giving a better conversion efficiency for dye-sensitized TiO2 solar cells with ionic liquid electrolytes.

  2. Localized TiSi and TiN phases in Si/Ti/Al/Cu Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yoon, Seonno; Song, Yunwon; Lee, Seung Min; Lee, Hi-Deok; Oh, Jungwoo

    2016-05-01

    Microstructural changes in Si/Ti/Al/Cu (10/40/60/50 nm) Ohmic contacts to AlGaN/GaN heterostructure were investigated for complementary metal-oxide semiconductor compatible processes. Si/Ti/Al/Cu metallization exhibited a low specific contact resistance of 3.6 × 10-6 Ω-cm2 and contact resistance of 0.46 Ω-mm when a Si interfacial layer was used. Without a designated barrier metal, TiSix alloys that formed in the metallic region effectively suppressed Cu diffusion. The shallow TiN junction in AlGaN/GaN was attributed to TiSix in the metallic regions. Microstructural changes were detected by systematic physical characterization.

  3. A Review Corrosion of TI Grade 7 and Other TI Alloys in Nuclear Waste Repository Environments

    SciTech Connect

    F. Hua; K. Mon; P. Pasupathi; G. Gordon

    2004-05-11

    Titanium alloy degradation modes are reviewed in relation to their performance in repository environments. General corrosion, localized corrosion, stress corrosion cracking, hydrogen induced cracking, microbially influenced corrosion, and radiation-assisted corrosion of Ti alloys are considered. With respect to the Ti Grade 7 drip shields selected for emplacement in the repository at Yucca Mountain, general corrosion, hydrogen induced cracking, and radiation-assisted corrosion will not lead to failure within the 10,000 year regulatory period; stress corrosion cracking (in the absence of disruptive events) is of no consequence to barrier performance; and localized corrosion and microbially influenced corrosion are not expected to occur. To facilitate the discussion, Ti Grades 2, 5, 7, 9, 11, 12, 16, 17, 18, and 24 are included in this review.

  4. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  5. Evaluation of the Comparative Corrosion Resistance Between AKOT Ti Alloy and Ti Gr 7 Alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Lian, T

    2005-08-01

    In its current design, the drip shields for the high-level nuclear waste containers for the Yucca Mountain repository will be mainly made using Ti Gr 7 (R52400). Ti Gr 7 is a highly corrosion resistant alloy, especially because it contains 0.15% palladium (Pd). The goal of this study was to determine whether an AKOT low-Pd (0.01%) titanium alloy would have a similar corrosion resistance than the more expensive Ti Gr 7 in environments that could be related to the performance of the drip shield. The focus of this testing program was on the susceptibility of the alloys to localized corrosion. Therefore, only artificially creviced specimens were used.

  6. Thermomechanical response of NiTi shape-memory nanoprecipitates in TiV alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Maisel, S. B.; Ko, W.-S.; Zhang, J.-L.; Grabowski, B.; Neugebauer, J.

    2017-08-01

    We study the properties of NiTi shape-memory nanoparticles coherently embedded in TiV matrices using three-dimensional atomistic simulations based on the modified embedded-atom method. To this end, we develop and present a suitable NiTiV potential for our simulations. Employing this potential, we identify the conditions under which the martensitic phase transformation of such a nanoparticle is triggered—specifically, how these conditions can be tuned by modifying the size of the particle, the composition of the surrounding matrix, or the temperature and strain state of the system. Using these insights, we establish how the transformation temperature of such particles can be influenced and discuss the practical implications in the context of shape-memory strengthened alloys.

  7. Structural and electrical characteristics of Sr/Ti nonstoichiometric SrTiO3 ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Xiaofei; Hu, Qiubo; Zang, Guozhong; Zhang, Chao; Li, Liben

    2017-10-01

    The structural, dielectric, leakage current and ferroelectric properties of the SrTi1+xO3 (x = -0.06, -0.03, 0, 0.03 and 0.06) ceramics have been investigated. X-ray diffraction and Scanning electron microscope reveal the microstructure of the samples. The Sr/Ti ratio in STO ceramics effectively adjusts their dielectric and the dc leakage behavior. In addition, the room temperature ferroelectricity of the nonstoichiometric STO ceramics is successfully realized by P-E hysteresis loop measurement. It is found that the origins of ferroelectricity for the Ti-rich and Sr-rich STO ceramics are different and may be related to the lattice distortions, the polar nanoregions and antisite-like defects with net local dipoles.

  8. Effects of TiCl4 Purity on the Sinterability of Armstrong-Processed Ti Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Weil, K. Scott; Hovanski, Yuri; Lavender, Curt A.

    2009-04-03

    A series of high purity and low purity powders were synthesized from TiCl4 by the Armstrong process. While both powders displayed swelling when consolidated and sintered, the lower purity powder exhibited this phenomenon in significantly lower degree. The improvement is attributed to the increase in the onset of sintering temperature, which mitigates the entrapment of volatile impurities that would otherwise lead to pore formation and growth. The net effect is that the use of a lower purity TiCl4 may beneficial in two ways: (1) it is a potentially lower cost precursor to Ti powder production and (2) the trace impurities allow higher density components to be fabricated via a typical low-cost press and sinter approach.

  9. Spray Forming of NiTi and NiTiPd Shape-Memory Alloys

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mabe, James; Ruggeri, Robert; Noebe, Ronald

    2008-01-01

    In the work to be presented, vacuum plasma spray forming has been used as a process to deposit and consolidate prealloyed NiTi and NiTiPd powders into near net shape actuators. Testing showed that excellent shape memory behavior could be developed in the deposited materials and the investigation proved that VPS forming could be a means to directly form a wide range of shape memory alloy components. The results of DSC characterization and actual actuation test results will be presented demonstrating the behavior of a Nitinol 55 alloy and a higher transition temperature NiTiPd alloy in the form of torque tube actuators that could be used in aircraft and aerospace controls.

  10. Communication: Uncovering molecule-TiO₂ interactions with nonlinear spectroscopy

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, Stephen A.; West, Brantley A.; Curtis, Anna C.; Papanikolas, John M.; Moran, Andrew M.

    2011-08-28

    Femtosecond transient grating tests are used to investigate electronic structures and transport mediums in dye-sensitized nanocrystalline TiO₂ films. This experiment examines two molecular sensitizers bridging the weak (a phosphonated Ruthenium complex) and strong (catechol) molecule TiO₂ joining systems. It is shown that strong molecule-TiO₂ exchanges give rise to light-induced pulsation coherences at the boundaries between species.

  11. (29)Si, (47)Ti, (49)Ti and (195)Pt solid state MAS NMR spectroscopic investigations of ternary silicides TPtSi, germanides TPtGe (T = Ti, Zr, Hf) and stannide TiPtSn.

    PubMed

    Benndorf, Christopher; Eckert, Hellmut; Pöttgen, Rainer

    2016-05-10

    Eight ternary tetrelides TPtX (T = Ti, Zr, Hf; X = Si, Ge, Sn) were synthesized from the elements by arc-melting and subsequent annealing. TiPtSi, ZrPtSi, ZrPtGe, HfPtSi and HfPtGe crystallize with the orthorhombic TiNiSi type structure, in the space group Pnma. The structures of HfPtSi (a = 654.44(9), b = 387.97(6), c = 750.0(1) pm, wR2 = 0.0592, 411 F(2) values, 20 variables) and HfPtGe (a = 660.36(7), b = 395.18(4), c = 763.05(8) pm, wR2 = 0.0495, 430 F(2) values, 20 variables) were refined from single crystal X-ray diffractometer data. TiPtSn adopts the cubic MgAgAs type. TiPtGe is dimorphic with a TiNiSi type high-temperature modification which transforms to cubic LT-TiPtGe (MgAgAs type). All phases were investigated by high resolution (29)Si, (47)Ti, (49)Ti and (195)Pt solid state MAS NMR spectroscopy. In the cubic compounds, the (47/49)Ti NMR signals are easily detected owing to the absence of quadrupolar broadening effects. The (195)Pt resonances of the orthorhombic compounds are characterized by strongly negative isotropic Knight shifts and large Knight shift anisotropies, whereas positive isotropic Knight shifts and no anisotropies are observed for the cubic compounds. These results indicate that the phase transition in TiPtGe is associated with dramatic changes in the electronic properties. Within each group of isotypic compounds the isotropic (29)Si, (47/49)Ti and (195)Pt Knight shifts show systematic dependences on the transition metal or tetrel atomic number, suggesting that the numerical values are influenced by the electronegativities of the metallic (or metalloid) neighbours.

  12. Electrical resistivity of V-Cr-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Zinkle, S.J.; Gubbi, A.N.; Eatherly, W.S.

    1997-04-01

    Room temperature electrical resistivity measurements have been performed on vanadium alloys containing 3-6%Cr and 3-6%Ti in order to evaluate the microstructural stability of these alloys. A nonlinear dependence on Cr and Ti concentration was observed, which suggests that either short range ordering or solute precipitation (perhaps in concert with interstitial solute clustering) has occurred in V-6Cr-6Ti.

  13. Ab initio Study of He Stability in hcp-Ti

    SciTech Connect

    Dai, Yunya; Yang, Li; Peng, SM; Long, XG; Gao, Fei; Zu, Xiaotao T.

    2010-12-20

    The stability of He in hcp-Ti was studied using ab initio method based on density functional theory. The results indicate that a single He atom prefers to occupy the tetrahedral site rather than the octahedral site. The interaction of He defects with Ti atoms has been used to explain the relative stabilities of He point defects in hcp-Ti. The relative stability of He defects in hcp-Ti is useful for He clustering and bubble nucleation in metal tritides, which provides the basis for development of improved atomistic models.

  14. thermodynamics of nitrogen in BaO-TiOx melts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tomioka, Katsutomo; Suito, Hideaki

    1993-02-01

    Using a gas-slag-metal equilibration technique, nitrogen contents in BaO-TiO^ slags and nitrogen and titanium contents in liquid Cu were measured at 1823, 1873, and 1923 K under controlled partial pressures of oxygen (@#@ PO 2 = 10-11.5 ≈ 10-13.7 atm) and nitrogen (@#@ PN 2 = 0.9 atm). The nitride capacity, C(N) [=(mass pct N) · PO2/3/4, (mass pct Ti3+)/(mass pct Ti4+) ratio, and solubility of TiN in BaO-TiO2-TiO1.5 slags were obtained as a function of slag com-position (@#@ XBaO = 0.20 = 0.43) and temperature. Activity coefficients of TiN were estimated, using the values for activity coefficients of Ti in liquid Cu which were calculated from the results of a TiN saturation experiment. Free energy of dissolution of nitrogen into liquid Cu was derived as °GGN o = 32,400 + 46.17 ± 1400 (J/g · atom).

  15. Dual laser deposition of Ti:DLC composite for implants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jelínek, Miroslav; Zemek, Josef; Kocourek, Tomáš; Remsa, Jan; Mikšovský, Jan; Písařík, Petr; Jurek, Karel; Tolde, Zdeněk; Trávníčková, Martina; Vandrovcová, Marta; Filová, Elena

    2016-10-01

    Ti-doped hydrogen free diamond-like carbon (DLC) layers of dopation up to ~25 at.% were prepared by dual beam pulsed laser deposition (PLD) using two excimer lasers. The arrangement allows continuous fine tuning of dopant concentration on a large scale and deposition flexibility. The layers were prepared on Si(1 0 0) and Ti6Al4V substrates at room temperature. The surface morphology, mechanical properties, bonds, composition, morphology of human osteoblast-like Saos-2 cells, their metabolic activity and production of osteocalcin, a marker of osteogenic cells’ differentiation were tested. The films’ composition changed after x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) surface cleaning by argon clusters. Adhesion moved with Ti dopation from 4 N (DLC film) to 11 N (25 at.% of Ti in DLC). Creation of TiC was observed for higher Ti dopation. The contact angle and surface free energy stayed unchanged for higher Ti dopation. Saos-2 cells had the highest metabolic activity/viability on DLC with 10 at.% of Ti and on control polystyrene dishes on days 1 and 3. The Ti dopation improved the formation of vinculin-containing focal adhesion plaques in Saos-2 cells. Immunofluorescence staining revealed similar production of osteocalcin in cells on all tested samples.

  16. Transformation behavior of sintered porous NiTi alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Li, B.Y.; Rong, L.J.; Luo, X.H.; Li, Y.Y.

    1999-11-01

    TiH{sub 2} powder is added as a reactant and pore-forming agent to produce porous NiTi shape-memory alloys (SMAs). The transformation behavior of porous NiTi alloys is investigated because it is relevant to the engineering and medical applications of SMAs. It is found that the transformation behavior of porous NiTi alloys is different from that of cast NiTi alloys. It is demonstrated for the first time, by in situ X-ray diffraction (XRD), that there is no R-phase transformation in porous NiTi alloys, and a broadened, two-peak phenomenon observed with a differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) is not associated with R-phase transformation. The characteristic transformation temperatures of porous NiTi alloys are independent of sintering temperature, sintering time, TiH{sub 2} content, and the heating/cooling rate during thermal cycling between +123 and +423 K. Further, the latent heats of transformation are associated with the TiH{sub 2} content and the sintering conditions.

  17. High Precision Ti stable Isotope Measurement of Terrestrial Rocks

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Millet, M. A.; Dauphas, N.; Williams, H. M.; Burton, K. W.; Nowell, G. M.

    2014-12-01

    Advances in multi-collection plasma source mass spectrometry have allowed the determination of stable isotope composition of transition metals to address questions relevant to both high and low temperature geochemistry. However, titanium has received only very limited attention. Here we present a new technique allowing the determination of the stable isotope composition of titanium in geological samples (d49Ti or deviation of the 49Ti/47Ti ratio from the OL-Ti in-house standard of reference) using double-spike methodology and high-resolution MC-ICP-MS. We have carried out a range analytical tests for a wide spectrum of samples matrices to demonstrate a external reproducibility of ±0.02‰ on the d49Ti while using as little as 150ng of natural Ti for a single analysis. We have analysed a comprehensive selection of mantle-derived samples covering a range of geodynamic contexts (MORB, IAB, OIB, adakites, eclogites, serpentines) and geographical distribution (MORB: Mid-Atlantic Ridge, Southwest Indian Ridge and Eastern Pacific Ridge; IAB: New Britain reference suite and Marianas Arc). The samples show a very limited range from -0.06‰ to +0.04‰ with a main mode at +0.004‰ relative to the OL-Ti standard. Average values for MORB, IAB and eclogites are similar within uncertainty and thus argue for limited mobility of Ti during subduction zone processes and homogeneity of the Ti stable isotope composition of the upper mantle. However, preliminary data for more evolved igneous rocks suggest that they display heavier Ti stable isotope compositions, which may reflect the removal of isotopically light Ti as a function of Fe-Ti oxide crystallisation. This is in good agreement with Ti being present in 5-fold and 6-fold coordination in basaltic melts and preferential uptake of 6-folded Ti by Ti-bearing oxides [1]. This dataset will be complemented by analysis of abyssal peridotites to confirm the homogeneity of the mantle as well as data for a range of ferromanganese crusts

  18. Photoluminescence properties of TiO2 nanofibers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chetibi, Loubna; Busko, Tetiana; Kulish, Nikolay Polikarpovich; Hamana, Djamel; Chaieb, Sahraoui; Achour, Slimane

    2017-04-01

    Multi-walled carbon nanotube (MWCNT)-TiO2 nanofiber (NF) composites forming a layered nanostructure (MWCNTs/TiO2 NFs/Ti) were prepared by impregnation at low temperature. Room temperature photoluminescence (PL) of these nanostructures shows a broad intense band in the visible light range (˜450-600 nm). The origin of the PL emission which, mainly, resulted from surface oxygen vacancies and other defects was investigated. We studied the effect of MWCNT deposition on the PL of TiO2 NFs where the MWCNTs can act as an electron reservoir of electrons emitted from TiO2 nanofibers when irradiated with UV light. The combination of MWCNTs and TiO2 results in quenching of TiO2 luminescence in the visible range. In addition, the prepared surface of MWCNTs-TiO2 was irradiated with Ti+ ions using irradiation energy of 140 keV and doses of 1013 ions/cm2. Also, this treatment induced the PL intensity quenching due to the generation of non-radiative additional levels inside the band gap.

  19. Nanostructured diamond-TiC composites with high fracture toughness

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Haikuo; He, Duanwei; Xu, Chao; Tang, Mingjun; Li, Yu; Dong, Haini; Meng, Chuanmin; Wang, Zhigang; Zhu, Wenjun

    2013-01-01

    We report the preparation of nanostructured diamond-TiC composites with high fracture toughness and high hardness starting from a ball-milled mixture of nano-sized Ti3SiC2 and submicron-sized diamond by simultaneously tuning the pressure-temperature conditions. The phase segregation of Ti3SiC2 at pressure of 5.5 GPa were investigated by X-ray diffraction and high resolution transmission electron microscopy, we found that the Ti3SiC2 could decompose into nanosized TiC and amorphous Ti-Si at 600-700 °C. The subsequent reaction between diamond and Ti-Si led to an amorphous Ti-Si-C matrix in which diamond and TiC crystals are embedded. With a loading force of 98 N, the measured fracture toughness KIC and Vicker's hardness HV of the synthesized composites reach up to 14 MPa m1/2 and 45.5 GPa, respectively. Our results demonstrate that the nanocrystalline/amorphous bonding matrix could largely enhance the toughness of the brittle composites.

  20. Ab Initio Study of Phase Equilibria in TiCx

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Korzhavyi, P. A.; Pourovskii, L. V.; Hugosson, H. W.; Ruban, A. V.; Johansson, B.

    2002-01-01

    The phase diagram for the vacancy-ordered structures in the substoichiometric TiCx ( x = 0.5-1.0) has been established from Monte Carlo simulations with the long-range pair and multisite effective interactions obtained from ab initio calculations. Three ordered superstructures of vacancies ( Ti2C, Ti3C2, and Ti6C5) are found to be ground state configurations. Their stability has been verified by full-potential total energy calculations of the fully relaxed structures.

  1. Synthesis and properties of Ti-substituted goethites and hematites

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Vempati, R. K.; Morris, R. V.; Lauer, H. V., Jr.; Dehart, J.

    1991-01-01

    The objective was to synthesize Ti-substituted goethites and hematites and to characterize them using x-ray diffraction, thermogravimetric analysis, coulimetry, optical and Mossbauer spectroscopies, and magnetic data in order to determine the evidence of Ti substitution for Martian spectral data. Evidence is provided that up to 4 mole percent can be incorporated into the goethite structure during the low temperature synthesis. Because the spectral data in the visible and near-IR are not sensitive to the degree of Ti-substitution in goethites and hematites, such data cannot be used to infer the presence or absence of Ti substitution in Martian hematites and goethites.

  2. Photoinduced underwater superoleophobicity of TiO2 thin films.

    PubMed

    Sawai, Yusuke; Nishimoto, Shunsuke; Kameshima, Yoshikazu; Fujii, Eiji; Miyake, Michihiro

    2013-06-11

    The photoinduced wettabilities of water, n-hexadecane, dodecane, and n-heptane on a flat TiO2 surface prepared by a sol-gel method-based coating were investigated. An amphiphilic surface produced by UV irradiation exhibited underwater superoleophobicity with an extremely high static oil contact angle (CA) of over 160°. The TiO2 surface almost completely repelled the oil droplet in water. A robust TiO2 surface with no fragile nanomicrostructure was fabricated on a Ti mesh with a pore size of approximately 150 μm. The fabricated mesh was found to be applicable as an oil/water separation filter.

  3. Superconductivity of TiNCl intercalated with diamines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamanaka, Shoji; Umemoto, Keita

    2010-12-01

    Intercalation compounds of TiNCl with ethylenediamine (EDA) and hexamethylenediamine (HDA) were prepared. The basal spacing of TiNCl increased by 3.3-3.9 Å upon intercalation, implying that the molecules are lying with the alkyl chains parallel to the TiNCl layers in both compounds. The intercalated compounds showed superconductivity with transition temperatures (Tcs) of 10.5 and 15.5 K for EDA and HDA, respectively, which are higher than 8.6 K of pyridine (Py) intercalated compound, Py0.25TiNCl.

  4. Antibacterial activity and cytocompatibility of Cu-Ti-O nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Hang, Ruiqiang; Gao, Ang; Huang, Xiaobo; Wang, Xiaoguang; Zhang, Xiangyu; Qin, Lin; Tang, Bin

    2014-06-01

    TiO2 nanotubes (NTs) have favorable biological properties, but the poor antibacterial activity limits their application especially in orthopedics fields. In this article, Cu-Ti-O nanotubes with different Cu contents are fabricated on sputtered TiCu films. Scanning electron microscopy reveals the NTs can be formed on sputtered TiCu films when the Cu content is less than 14.6 at %. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy results indicate the NTs are consist of CuO mixed with TiO2 and the Cu content in NTs decreases dramatically compared with that in TiCu films. Biological experiments show that although these NTs have poor release antibacterial activity, their contact antibacterial activity has proven to be excellent, indicating the NT surface can effectively inhibit biomaterial-associated infections. The cytocompatibility of the NTs is closely related to the Cu content and when its content is relatively low (1.01 at %), there is no appreciable cytotoxicity. So Cu-Ti-O NTs with 1 at % Cu may be suitable to achieve proper antibacterial activity and desired cytocompatibility. The Cu-Ti-O NTs integrate the favorable antibacterial activity of Cu and excellent biological properties of TiO2 NTs therefore have potential applications in orthopedics, dentistry, and other biomedical fields.

  5. Reactive plasma spraying of Al-Ti alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Entezarian, M.; Shanker, K.; Tsantrizos, P.G.; Allaire, F.; Immarigeon, J.P.; Drew, R.A.L.

    1995-12-31

    Reactive plasma spraying was used to synthesize Al alloys containing a dispersion of TiAl{sub 3} intermetallics. Either Al powder or Al wire and TiCl{sub 4} were the raw materials used. The size, distribution, and morphology of the intermetallic phase were a function of the injection manner of the starting materials, the plasma process parameters, and the molar ratio of the reactants (TiCl{sub 4}/Al). Under optimum conditions, a fine dispersion of micron sized intermetallics was obtained. Investigation of the reaction mechanism showed that the particle`s temperature was a critical factor in producing a fine dispersion of TiAl{sub 3} phase in an Al matrix. Materials produced at temperatures below the melting point of TiAl{sub 3} resulted in a microstructure containing an Al core with a TiAl{sub 3} shell. In contrast, materials produced at higher temperatures resulted in a fine TiAl{sub 3} phase precipitating from the Al-Ti melt during the solidification process. Products were collected as porous deposited layers whose surface was contaminated with chlorides. The products were subjected to purification followed by hot rolling for further consolidation. The effectiveness of vacuum thermal treatment on the removal of Cl was investigated. Al chlorides could be removed by thermal treatments at temperatures below the melting point of Al, while some of the Ti subchlorides required higher temperatures. The mechanical properties of the consolidated materials were also determined and are reported.

  6. Interaction of gas molecules with Ti-benzene complexes.

    PubMed

    Chen, G; Jena, P; Kawazoe, Y

    2008-08-21

    Using first-principles calculations based on gradient corrected density functional theory, we have studied the interaction of NH(3), H(2), and O(2) with Ti-benzene complexes [Ti(Bz)(2) and Ti(2)(Bz)(2)]. The energy barriers as the gas molecules approach the Ti-benzene complexes as well as the geometries of the ground state of these interacting complexes were obtained by starting with several initial configurations. While NH(3) and H(2) were found to physisorb on the Ti(Bz)(2) complex, the O(2) reacts with it strongly leading to dissociative chemisorption of the oxygen molecule. In contrast all the gas molecules react with the Ti(2)(Bz)(2) complex. These studies indicate that the reaction of certain, but not all, gas molecules can be used to probe the equilibrium geometries of organometallic complexes. Under special conditions, such as high pressure, the Ti atom intercalated between benzene molecules in Ti(Bz)(2) and the Ti(2)(Bz)(2) complexes could store hydrogen in chemisorbed states. The results are compared to available experimental data.

  7. Preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gu, Quanchao; Peng, Jinghui; Xu, Lei; Srinivasakannan, C.; Zhang, Libo; Xia, Yi; Wu, Qingtian; Xia, Hongying

    2016-12-01

    Depositing strong carbide-forming elements on diamond surface can dramatically improve the interfacial bonding strength between diamond grits and metal matrix. In the present work, investigation on the preparation of Ti-coated diamond particles by microwave heating has been conducted. The morphology, microstructure, and the chemical composition of Ti-coated diamond particles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), and energy dispersive x-ray spectrometer (EDX). The thickness of Ti coating was measured and the interfacial binding strength between Ti coating and diamond was analyzed. The results show that the surface of the diamond particles could be successfully coated with Ti, forming a uniform and continuous Ti-coated layer. The TiC was found to form between the surface of diamond particles and Ti-coated layer. The amount of TiC as well as the thickness of coating increased with increasing coating temperature, furthermore, the grain size of the coating also grew gradually. The interfacial bonding strength between coating and diamond was found to be best at the temperature of 760 °C.

  8. Thermoelastic Analysis of a Vibrating TiB/Ti Cantilever Beam Using Differential Thermography

    SciTech Connect

    Byrd, Larry; Wyen, Travis; Byrd, Alex

    2008-02-15

    Differential thermography has been used to detect the fluctuating temperatures due the thermoelastic effect for a number of years. This paper examines functionally graded TiB/Ti cantilever beams excited on an electromechanical shaker in fully reversed bending. Finite difference analysis of specimens was used to look at the effect of heat conduction, convection and the fundamental frequency on the surface temperature distribution and compared to experimental data. The thermoelastic effect was also used to detect cracking and the stress field at the tip of the fixture during fatigue.

  9. Microstructure and Creep Properties of TiAl-Ti3Al In-Situ Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Hodge, A M; Hsiung, L L

    2004-02-18

    Objectives: {lg_bullet} Exploit thermomechanical-processing techniques to fabricate TiAl/Ti3Al in-situ laminate composites with the size of lamella width down to submicron or nanometer length-scales. {lg_bullet} Characterize microstructure and elevated-temperature creep resistance of the in-situ composites. {lg_bullet} Investigate the fundamental interrelationships among microstructures, alloying additions, and mechanical properties of the in-situ composites so as to achieve the desired properties of the in-situ composites for high-temperature structural applications.

  10. CermeTi® discontinuously reinforced Ti-matrix composites: Manufacturing, properties, and applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abkowitz, Stanley; Abkowitz, Susan M.; Fisher, Harvey; Schwartz, Patricia J.

    2004-05-01

    Advanced powder-metallurgy technology has led to the development of the CermeTi® family of titanium metalmatrix composites. Reinforcing the titanium alloy matrix with titanium carbide or titanium boride particles results in superior properties. These discontinuously reinforced titanium composites have excellent room- and elevated-temperature properties and are exceptionally wear resistant. High quality, near-net shape CermeTi composite components are being produced commercially and are being evaluated for potential applications in military vehicles, commercial automotive engines, sporting goods, industrial tooling, and biomedical devices.

  11. Local resilience of the 1 T -TiSe2 charge density wave to Ti self-doping

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hildebrand, B.; Jaouen, T.; Didiot, C.; Razzoli, E.; Monney, G.; Mottas, M.-L.; Vanini, F.; Barreteau, C.; Ubaldini, A.; Giannini, E.; Berger, H.; Bowler, D. R.; Aebi, P.

    2017-02-01

    In Ti-intercalated self-doped 1 T -TiSe2 crystals, the charge density wave (CDW) superstructure induces two nonequivalent sites for Ti dopants. Recently, it has been shown that increasing Ti doping dramatically influences the CDW by breaking it into phase-shifted domains. Here, we report scanning tunneling microscopy and spectroscopy experiments that reveal a dopant-site dependence of the CDW gap. Supported by density functional theory, we demonstrate that the loss of the long-range phase coherence introduces an imbalance in the intercalated-Ti site distribution and restrains the CDW gap closure. This local resilient behavior of the 1 T -TiSe2 CDW reveals an entangled mechanism between CDW, periodic lattice distortion, and induced nonequivalent defects.

  12. Structure and enhancement of negative thermal expansion in the PbTiO3-CdTiO3 system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, J.; Xing, X. R.; Yu, R. B.; Liu, G. R.

    2005-12-01

    The structures of Pb1-xCdxTiO3 (x =0.03 and 0.06) were investigated by the x-ray Rietveld method at room temperature. It is surprising to find that the spontaneous polarization displacements of Pb /Cd and Ti atoms according to the oxygen polyhedron decrease, although the c /a ratio increases with doping-cadmium content. Cadmium substitution plays a unique role of enhancement of the negative thermal expansion in PbTiO3. The average bulk thermal expansion coefficient decreases from a¯=-1.99×10-5/°C for pure PbTiO3 to a¯=-2.40×10-5/°C for Pb0.94Cd0.06TiO3. The negative thermal expansion of PbTiO3 might be a consequence of hybridization between Pb and O atoms.

  13. Correlation between dispersion properties of TiO2 colloidal sols and photoelectric characteristics of TiO2 films.

    PubMed

    Jung, Hyun Suk; Lee, Sang-Wook; Kim, Jin Young; Hong, Kug Sun; Lee, Young Cheol; Ko, Kyung Hyun

    2004-11-15

    TiO2 film for use as dye-sensitized solar cell was prepared using the TiO2 colloidal sols (unpeptized sol and peptized sol). The optical properties and photocurrent-voltage characteristics of the resultant films were investigated. The optical transmittance of TiO2 thin film prepared from the peptized colloidal sol was over 90%, while that of TiO2 film from the unpeptized sol was under 80%. The TiO2 photoelectrode prepared from the peptized colloidal sol showed low photoelectric conversion efficiency (eta), 1.30%, whereas the efficiency of photoelectrode from the unpeptized sol was 2.21%. The high optical transmittance and low conversion efficiency of TiO2 film from the peptized sol are discussed in terms of dense microstructure due to the drying nature of well-dispersed colloidal sol.

  14. Cathodic cage plasma deposition of TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films on silicon substrates

    SciTech Connect

    Sousa, Romulo R. M. de; Sato, Patricia S.; Nascente, Pedro A. P.; Viana, Bartolomeu C.; Alves, Clodomiro; Nishimoto, Akio

    2015-07-15

    Cathodic cage plasma deposition (CCPD) was used for growing titanium nitride (TiN) and titanium dioxide (TiO{sub 2}) thin films on silicon substrates. The main advantages of the CCPD technique are the uniformity, tridimensionality, and high rate of the film deposition that occurs at higher pressures, lower temperatures, and lower treatment times than those used in conventional nitriding treatments. In this work, the influence of the temperature and gas atmosphere upon the characteristics of the deposited films was investigated. The TiN and TiO{sub 2} thin films were characterized by x-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy, and Raman spectroscopy to analyze their chemical, structural, and morphological characteristics, and the combination of these results indicates that the low-cost CCPD technique can be used to produce even and highly crystalline TiN and TiO{sub 2} films.

  15. Dye-sensitized solar cells with modified TiO2 surface chemical states: The role of Ti3+

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yu, Yang; Wu, Kunjie; Wang, Deliang

    2011-11-01

    Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) with TiO2 electrodes, which were modified to have different surface chemical states, were fabricated. The DSSCs had an ultra-flat TiO2 electrode, on which only a mono-layer dye was attached. The cell I-V measurement showed that Ti3+ ion had a dramatic effect on cell performance. The efficiency of a DSSC was shown to have a strong correlation with the concentration of the Ti3+ surface state, it decreased almost linearly with increased Ti3+ concentration. The oxygen vacancy-Ti3+ defect served as electron recombination center and decreased both the open-circuit voltage and the fill factor.

  16. Electrochemical Corrosion Behavior of TiN-Coated Biomedical Ti-Cu Alloy Foam in Fluoride Containing Artificial Saliva

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mutlu, Ilven

    2014-07-01

    Highly porous Ti-Cu alloy foams were produced by powder metallurgy method for implant applications. Ti-Cu alloys were prepared with 3, 5, 7, and 10 wt pct Cu contents in order to determine optimum Cu addition. Cu addition enhances sinterability, and the Ti-Cu compacts were sintered at lower temperatures and times than pure Ti. Specimens were coated with a TiN film to enhance wear and corrosion resistance. Sintered specimens were precipitation hardened (aged) in order to increase mechanical properties. Corrosion properties of foams were examined by electrochemical techniques, such as potentiodynamic polarization, cyclic polarization, Tafel extrapolation, linear polarization resistance, and open-circuit potential measurement. Effect of Cu content, TiN coating, pH, and fluoride content of artificial saliva on electrochemical corrosion behavior of specimens was investigated.

  17. Al[sub 2]Ti precipitation in Al[sub 64]Fe[sub 8]Ti[sub 28] alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, T.Y.; Goo, E. . Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering)

    1994-04-01

    Precipitates of Al[sub 2]Ti with three different stacking sequences have been observed in Fe-modified L1[sub 2]-type ordered Al[sub 3]Ti specimens. Two of the stacking sequences have been observed previously. The third type of Al[sub 2]Ti, Al[sub 2]Ti[sup III], is identified in this study using conventional and high resolution transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The Al[sub 2]Ti precipitates form as plates along [l brace]100[r brace] planes and compression tests performed at liquid N temperature show microcracks occurring along those [l brace]100[r brace] planes. The Al[sub 2]Ti phase is believed to be responsible for the low cleavage strength that is observed.

  18. Effect of TiCl4 Post-Treatment on the Embedded-Type TiO2 Nanotubes Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells.

    PubMed

    Kim, Kang-Pil; Kim, Jeong-Hwa; Hwang, Dae-Kue; Sung, Shi-Joon; Heo, Young-Woo

    2015-10-01

    We have studied the effect of TiCl4 post-treatment on the embedded-type TiO2 nanotubes (NT)-dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). The TiO2 nanoparticles layer formed on TiO2 NTs surface by TiCl4 post-treatment showed different morphologies depending on TiCl4 treatment temperature. These different morphologies influenced the cell efficiency of TiO2 NT-DSSCs. The TiO2 NT treated with TiCl4 at 50 °C exhibited a rougher surface than that treated at 70 °C. The rough surface of the TiO2 NT improved the charge exchange between the dye and electrolyte. The TiO2 NT treated with TiCl4 at 50 °C showed better fill factor and cell efficiency than that treated at 70 °C. The TiCl4 post-treatment of TiO2 NT was effective at conditions of low temperature and long times. The TiO2 NT-DSSCs with TiCl4 post-treatment at 50 °C for 1.5 h showed an efficiency of 6.52%.

  19. Cu-TiO2/Ti dual rotating disk photocatalytic (PC) reactor: dual electrode degradation facilitated by spontaneous electron transfer.

    PubMed

    Xu, Yunlan; He, Yi; Jia, Jinping; Zhong, Dengjie; Wang, Yalin

    2009-08-15

    A Cu-TiO2/Ti dual rotating disk photocatalytic (PC) reactor has been developed based on our single rotating disk photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) reactor (Y. Xu, et al, Environ. Sci. Technol. 2008, 42, 2612-2617), and successfully applied to the treatment of laboratory and industrial dye wastewater. Round TiO2/Ti and Cu disks of the same size are connected by a Cu wire and fixed parallel on an axis continually rotating at 90 rpm. High treatment efficiency is obtained due to direct photooxidation on the TiO2/Ti photoanode as well as additional degradation on the Cu cathode, which is speculated via indirect hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) oxidation and direct electro-reduction of dye on cathode. The mechanism of the Cu-TiO2/Ti dual rotating disk PC reactor was investigated. In a 20 mg L(-1) Rhodamine B (RB) solution, approximately 100 mV of potential and 10 microA of current were measured between the Cu and TiO2/Ti electrode during PC treatment. Such phenomenon was explained by spontaneous electron transfer based on the same principle of establishing a Schottky barrier. On the Cu electrode surface, the photoelectrons either reduced dye molecules directly or reacted with dissolved oxygen (DO) to form H2O2. Rotation of electrodes out of the solution enhanced the mass transfer of target compound and kept the aqueous film fresh. The Cu-TiO2/ Ti dual rotating disk PC reactor is a simple and effective device for the treatment of RB dye wastewater.

  20. Microstructure and optical properties of TiO2 nanocrystallites-CaTiO3:Pr3+ hybrid thick films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xia, Chang-Kui; Gao, Xiang-Dong; Yu, Changjiang; Yu, Aimin; Li, Xiaomin; Gao, Dongsheng; Shi, Ying

    Long afterglow CaTiO3:Pr3+ ceramic powders were integrated with hydrothermal TiO2 nanocrystallites via “doctor-blade” and TiO2-CaTiO3:Pr3+ hybrid thick films on FTO substrate were fabricated. Effects of the Pr3+ doping level (0.06%, 0.3%) and the CaTiO3:Pr3+/TiO2 weight ratio (0.23, 0.92) on the crystallinity, morphologies, optical transmittance and photoluminescence (PL) properties were investigated. Results showed that the crystallinity of the hybrid films originated from both TiO2 nanocrystallites and CaTiO3:Pr3+ ceramic particles, affected little by the integrating process. The film surface became denser and coarser due to the incorporation of CaTiO3:Pr3+ micron/submicron particles, and the film thickness varied little (˜2.2μm). The optical transmittance of the hybrid film decreased sharply (<20% for 0.92 incorporation level) due to the scattering effects of the CaTiO3:Pr3+ micron/submicron particles to the incident light. All the hybrid films exhibited strong PL at ˜613nm when excited with 332-335nm, and the film with the Ca0.997TiO3:Pr0.0033+/TiO2 weight ratio of 0.23 showed the highest emission. In addition, the film exhibited a photoresponce to a broad ultraviolet excitation ranging from 288-369nm and a long emission decay time up to 30min at 613nm, possible for use in the ultraviolet detectors, solar cells and other photoelectrical devices.

  1. Localized Excitation of Ti(3+) Ions in the Photoabsorption and Photocatalytic Activity of Reduced Rutile TiO2.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhiqiang; Wen, Bo; Hao, Qunqing; Liu, Li-Min; Zhou, Chuanyao; Mao, Xinchun; Lang, Xiufeng; Yin, Wen-Jin; Dai, Dongxu; Selloni, Annabella; Yang, Xueming

    2015-07-22

    In reduced TiO2, electronic transitions originating from the Ti(3+)-induced states in the band gap are known to contribute to the photoabsorption, being in fact responsible for the material's blue color, but the excited states accessed by these transitions have not been characterized in detail. In this work we investigate the excited state electronic structure of the prototypical rutile TiO2(110) surface using two-photon photoemission spectroscopy (2PPE) and density functional theory (DFT) calculations. Using 2PPE, an excited resonant state derived from Ti(3+) species is identified at 2.5 ± 0.2 eV above the Fermi level (EF) on both the reduced and hydroxylated surfaces. DFT calculations reveal that this excited state is closely related to the gap state at ∼1.0 eV below EF, as they both result from the Jahn-Teller induced splitting of the 3d orbitals of Ti(3+) ions in reduced TiO2. Localized excitation of Ti(3+) ions via 3d → 3d transitions from the gap state to this empty resonant state significantly increases the TiO2 photoabsorption and extends the absorbance to the visible region, consistent with the observed enhancement of the visible light induced photocatalytic activity of TiO2 through Ti(3+) self-doping. Our work reveals the physical origin of the Ti(3+) related photoabsorption and visible light photocatalytic activity in prototypical TiO2 and also paves the way for the investigation of the electronic structure and photoabsorption of other metal oxides.

  2. Effect of TiN coating on microstructure of Tif/Al composite.

    PubMed

    Xiu, Z Y; Chen, G Q; Wang, M; Hussain, Murid

    2013-02-01

    In the present work, Ti fibre reinforced Al matrix composites (Ti(f)/Al) were fabricated by pressure infiltration method. In order to suppress the severe Ti-Al reaction and reduce the formation of brittle TiAl(3) phase, a TiN layer was coated on Ti fibres by an arc ion plating method before composite preparation. A thin TiN layer was coated on the Ti fibre surface, and the maximum and minimum thickness values of layer were about 3.5 and 1μm, respectively. Prefer orientation of TiN on (111) and (200) was found by XRD analysis. A thin and uniform TiAl(3) layer was observed in Ti(f)/Al composite. However, after coated with TiN layer, no significant reaction layer was found in (Ti(f)+TiN)/Al composite. Segregation of Mg element was found in Ti(f)/Al composite, and the presence of TiN layer showed little effect on this behaviour. Due to the large CTE difference between Ti fibre and Al matrix, high density dislocations were observed in the Al matrix. Meanwhile, fine dispersed Mg(2)Al(3) phases were also found in Al matrix. Ti fibre is mainly composed of α- and β-Ti. Small discontinuous needle-like TiAl(3) phases were detected at TiN/Al interface, which implies that the presence of TiN layer between the Ti fibre and Al matrix could effectively hinder the formation of TiAl(3) phases. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis of CdSe -- TiO2 Nanocomposites and Their Applications to TiO2 Sensitized Solar Cells

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, J. Y.; Choi, S. B.; Noh, J. H.; HunYoon, S.; Lee, S.; Noh, T. H.; Frank, A. J.; Hong, K. S.

    2009-01-01

    CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites were synthesized via aminolysis of Ti-oleate complexes in the presence of CdSe nanocrystals, and their application as sensitizers for TiO{sub 2} solar cells was investigated. The formation of CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites was confirmed using transmission electron microscopy and Raman spectroscopy. The emission spectrum of CdSe-TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites revealed photoinduced charge separation at the CdSe-TiO{sub 2} interface of the composite. The photocurrent-voltage properties of CdSe-TiO{sub 2}-sensitized TiO{sub 2} particle films compared favorably with those of CdSe-sensitized TiO{sub 2} films. Evidence was also found indicating that the TiO{sub 2} component of the composite protects CdSe against degradation during film annealing.

  4. Assessment of refining effectiveness of self-prepared nano-(TiNb)C/(NbTi)/Al complex powder inoculation on A356 alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiao, Gui-ying; Wu, Da-yong; Wei, Teng-fei; Liao, Bo; Xiao, Fu-ren

    2017-07-01

    Inoculation plays an effective role to refine the microstructure of as-cast aluminium alloys, which strongly depend on the effectiveness of the inoculants. In this work, a new concept of nano-(TiNb)C/(NbTi)/Al complex powder as an inoculant for refining the as-cast aluminium alloys was proposed, and the nano-(TiNb)C/(NbTi)/Al complex powder was prepared by mechanical alloying (MA) method, furthermore, the refining effectiveness of inoculation on A356 alloy was investigated. Results show that the nano-(TiNb)C/(NbTi)/Al complex powder consists of three phases of α-Al, nano-(TiNb)C and (NbTi) solid solution. The nano-(TiNb)C/(NbTi)/Al complex powder as an inoculant have higher refining effectiveness as well as good recyclability on the microstructure of cast A356 alloy, and improve the mechanical properties, especially the ductility.

  5. Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks via wet corrosion of Ti thin films for dye-sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shin, Eunhye; Jin, Saera; Hong, Jongin

    2017-09-01

    Transparent TiO2 nanowire networks were prepared by corrosion of Ti thin films on F-doped SnO2 glass substrates in an alkaline (potassium hydroxide: KOH) solution. The formation of the porous TiO2 nanostructures from the Ti thin films was thoroughly investigated. Dye-sensitized solar cells with a photoanode of 1.2-μm-thick nanowire networks exhibit an average optical transmittance of 40% in the visible light region and a power conversion efficiency of 1.0% under one sun illumination.

  6. Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al-4Ti Master Alloy.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Fu, Lu; He, Jiansheng

    2017-02-27

    The Al-4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al-4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al-4Ti master alloy.

  7. Novel stable hard transparent conductors in TiO2-TiC system: Design materials from scratch

    PubMed Central

    Meng, Xiangying; Liu, Dongyan; Dai, Xuefeng; Pan, Haijun; Wen, Xiaohong; Zuo, Liang; Qin, Gaowu

    2014-01-01

    Two new ternary compounds in the TiO2-TiC system, Ti5C2O6 and Ti3C2O2, are reported for the first time based on ab initio evolutionary algorithm. Ti5C2O6 has a tube-structure in which sp1 hybridized carbon chains run through the lattice along the b-axis; while in the Ti3C2O2 lattice, double TiO6 polyhedral are separated by the non-coplanar sp2 hybridized hexagon graphite layers along the c-axis, forming a sandwich-like structure. At ambient conditions, the two compounds are found to be mechanically and dynamically stable and intrinsic transparent conductors with high hardness (about twice harder than the conventional transparent conducting oxides). These mechanical, electronic, and optical properties make Ti5C2O6 and Ti3C2O2 ternary compounds be promising robust, hard, transparent, and conductive materials. PMID:25511583

  8. Effect of Cooling Rate on Morphology of TiAl3 Particles in Al–4Ti Master Alloy

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianhua; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing; Fu, Lu; He, Jiansheng

    2017-01-01

    The Al–4Ti master alloy was fabricated by aluminum (Al) and sponge titanium particle in a resistance furnace at different cooling rates. This work aims to investigate the relationship between the cooling rate and morphology of TiAl3. The microstructure and composition of master alloys at different cooling rates were characterized and analyzed by optical microscopy (OM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC), and SEM with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The results showed that various morphologies of TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy could be acquired at different cooling rates. Petal-like, blocky, and flake-like TiAl3 particles in the Al–4Ti master alloy were respectively acquired at the cooling rates of 3.36 K/s, 2.57 K/s, and 0.31 K/s. It was also found that the morphology of TiAl3 particles in the prepared master alloy changed from petal-like to blocky, then finally to flake-like, with the decrease of cooling rate. In addition, the morphology of the TiAl3 particles has no effect on the phase inversion temperature of Al–4Ti master alloy. PMID:28772598

  9. Identification of Ti clusters during nucleation and growth of sol-gel-derived TiO2 nanoparticles.

    PubMed

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    2013-01-01

    In the present work, electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI-MS) was used to investigate the titanium clusters present during nucleation and growth of sol-gel derived TiO2 nanoparticles. Depending on the alkoxide precursor used, Ti clusters of different sizes were identified [titanium isopropoxide (TTIP)-11-12 Ti atoms, titanium butoxide (TTB)-10-11 Ti atoms and titanium tetraethoxide (TTE)-5-7 Ti atoms]. The Ti-O-Ti backbone/core of the titanium clusters were found to be quite stable after formation and do not easily break up into smaller clusters. The results of this investigation suggest that these clusters are used as building blocks in the growth during the induction period. The h-ratio (n H2O/n alcoxide) and the pH were not found to influence the identity of the Ti clusters present during nucleation of the growth of sol-gel derived TiO2 nano-particles, although the induction period was greatly influenced. The reactivity of the alkoxy group are OEt > OPri > OBu. The difference in reactivity of the alkoxides is generally believed to be due to the increasing size of the alkoxy group which causes sterical hindrance during the nucleophilic substitution reaction.

  10. Energy dependence on formation of TiO{sub 2} nanofilms by Ti ion implantation and annealing

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Yichao; Ren, Feng Cai, Guangxu; Zhou, Xiaodong; Hong, Mengqing; Li, Wenqing; Xiao, Xiangheng; Wu, Wei; Jiang, Changzhong

    2014-03-01

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} films by ion implantation and annealing strongly depends on ion energy. • Best photocatalytic activity is achieved in the TiO{sub 2} nanofilm annealed at 1000 °C. • Phase transformation of TiO{sub 2} appears under annealing temperature of 900 °C. - Abstract: TiO{sub 2} nanofilms were fabricated by a solid-phase-growth progress. The silica glass slides were implanted with Ti ions to the fluence of 1.84 × 10{sup 17} ions/cm{sup 2} at accelerate voltages of 20, 50, and 80 kV, respectively. The samples were annealed in oxygen atmosphere at 700, 800, 900, and 1000 °C for 4 h, respectively. The influence of the ion energy and the annealing temperature on the formation and phase transformation of the TiO{sub 2} films was studied. It was found that anatase TiO{sub 2} nanofilms instead of embedded rutile TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles on the substrate surfaces when the energy of implanted Ti atoms was 20 kV.

  11. Characteristics of the Dye-Sensitized Solar Cells Using TiO2 Nanotubes Treated with TiCl4

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Jun Hyuk; Bark, Chung Wung; Kim, Kyung Hwan; Choi, Hyung Wook

    2014-01-01

    The replacement of oxide semiconducting TiO2 nano particles with one dimensional TiO2 nanotubes (TNTs) has been used for improving the electron transport in the dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs). Although use of one dimensional structure provides the enhanced photoelectrical performance, it tends to reduce the adsorption of dye on the TiO2 surface due to decrease of surface area. To overcome this problem, we investigate the effects of TiCl4 treatment on DSSCs which were constructed with composite films made of TiO2 nanoparticles and TNTs. To find optimum condition of TNTs concentration in TiO2 composites film, series of DSSCs with different TNTs concentration were made. In this optimum condition (DSSCs with 10 wt% of TNT), the effects of post treatment are compared for different TiCl4 concentrations. The results show that the DSSCs using a TiCl4 (90 mM) post treatment shows a maximum conversion efficiency of 7.83% due to effective electron transport and enhanced adsorption of dye on TiO2 surface. PMID:28788633

  12. Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, TiO2 and Si using medium energy ion scattering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brocklebank, Mitchell; Dedyulin, Sergey N.; Goncharova, Lyudmila V.

    2016-11-01

    Stopping cross sections of protons in Ti, Si, and TiO2 films in the energy range 50-170 keV were determined from medium energy ion scattering (MEIS) spectra by an iterative procedure. The energy loss of protons was investigated for pure Ti and Si films, deposited by molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) onto n-Si(100) and diamond-like carbon (DLC) substrates respectively. Consecutive annealing of Ti at 200 °C in O2 resulted in stoichiometric TiO2 thin-films. Thickness and composition of the films and the interfacial properties were determined using Rutherford backscattering spectroscopy (RBS), MEIS, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Calculated stopping cross sections of Ti, Si, and TiO2 in the range of energies were compared with the commonly used SRIM2003 values. For Ti and Si, SRIM2003 values appear to be overestimated over the entire energy range. The new stopping cross sections explain deviations from previously reported values for SrTiO3. We note that the stopping cross sections of O in a gaseous phase, used in Bragg's rule calculations, cannot be applied for accurate quantitative ion beam analysis in solid compounds in the medium ion energy range.

  13. Phase stability of U-Mo-Ti alloys and interdiffusion behaviors of U-Mo-Ti/Al-Si

    SciTech Connect

    Park, Jong Man; Ryu, Ho Jin; Park, Jae Soon; Oh, Seok Jin; Kim, Chang Kyu; Kim, Yeon Soo; Hofman, Gerard L.

    2008-07-15

    As a remedy for reducing reaction between U-Mo and Al in U-Mo/Al dispersion fuel, adding an alloying element such as Zr and Ti in U-Mo has been proposed at ANL. Although ANL's work showed the potential effectiveness of these elements based on thermodynamic and metallurgical analyses, the effect of a Ti addition in U-Mo remains unproven. The out-of-pile tests of U-Mo-Ti alloys, which focused on phase stability and interdiffusion behavior against Al, are meaningful to predict their efficacy during an irradiation. At the 2006 RERTR conference, we presented our work on the interdiffusion behaviors of U-Mo-Zr/Al-Si. In this paper, we will present the results for substituting U-Mo-Zr with U-Mo-Ti. Unlike U-Mo-Zr alloys, the gamma-heat-treated U-7Mo-xTi (x=1{approx}3 wt%) exhibited a metastable {gamma}-U phase, regardless of the Ti content. In these samples, however, a small amount of second-phase precipitates with a high Ti concentration was observed. The gamma phase stability of the U-Mo-Ti alloys at 500 deg C was similar to that of the U-Mo-Zr alloys. Interdiffusion test results between U-Mo-Ti alloys and Al-Si alloys will also be presented and a comparison with the previous results with U- Mo-Zr/Al-Si will also be included. (author)

  14. Calculated Point Defect Properties of the Intermetallic Compounds Nickel Titanium (NiTi) and Iron Titanium (FeTi)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-03-01

    barriers of 1.272 eV for NiTi and 1.737 eV fcy FzTi. 7, ., .vi ng a Ti atom resulted in a neighboring antisite defect caused by migrating Ni or Fe atoms...antisite pair formation energy a is calculated by adding the individual antisite defect ener- gies E N ’ and ETi N = E ,i + ETi (3) C1I ~ a a The equations...FeTi (see Appendix D for computer output plots) 16 1.6 Fe Yigrcti:rn N ~ IMgroticri1 .2

  15. Thin carbon layer coated Ti3+-TiO2 nanocrystallites for visible-light driven photocatalysis

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jiang, Baojiang; Tang, Yunqi; Qu, Yang; Wang, Jian-Qiang; Xie, Ying; Tian, Chungui; Zhou, Wei; Fu, Honggang

    2015-03-01

    Black TiO2 containing Ti3+ attracts enormous attention due to its excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic activity. Herein, an in situ thermal decomposition approach to synthesize uniform thin carbon coated Ti3+-TiO2 nanocrystals is presented. During the oleic acid-assisted solvothermal process, the crystal size and morphology of TiO2 were controlled through oleic acid with carboxylic acid groups. Then the residual small quantities of oleic acid anchored on TiO2 were used as a carbon source, which could be in situ pyrolyzed into a carbon layer on TiO2 at high temperature and under an inert atmosphere. Meanwhile, Ti4+ species were partly reduced into Ti3+ states/oxygen vacancies on the surface of TiO2 due to the carbothermal reduction reaction for the carbon-encapsulated Ti3+-TiO2 structure. A series of characterizations indicated that the 20-25 nm TiO2 nanocrystals obtained were wrapped evenly by 1-2 nm carbon layers, which had an important effect on the energy band structure change of TiO2. The presence of the carbon layer also improves the Ti3+ stability and the conduction behavior of the composites. The Ti3+ states/oxygen vacancies created on the surface of TiO2 were responsible for the remarkable photogenerated charge separation and extended visible-light absorption range. Furthermore, Ti3+ states/oxygen vacancies and the carbon layer together could enhance the adsorption ability of O2 so as to promote the photogenerated electrons captured by the adsorbed O2, leading to a great increase in the charge separation. As a result, the composites exhibit high photocatalytic performance for organic pollutants under visible light irradiation. This simple and new method may pave the way to practical applications for efficient photocatalytic degradation under visible light.Black TiO2 containing Ti3+ attracts enormous attention due to its excellent visible-light driven photocatalytic activity. Herein, an in situ thermal decomposition approach to synthesize uniform

  16. Growth of YBCO Thin Films on TiN(001) and CeO2-Coated TiN Surfaces

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-02-01

    substrates. Thin CeO2 (~200 nm thick) and YBCO (~300 nm thick) layers were grown on TiN-coated MgO substrates, using pulsed laser deposition. While YBCO ...and YBCO (300 nm thick) layers were grown on TiN-coated MgO substrates, using pulsed laser deposition. While YBCO grown directly on TiN was of poor...grown on the TiN-coated MgO and then an 300 nm thick YBCO layers was subsequently depos- ited. For other samples, YBCO deposition directly on the

  17. Elastic recoil detection using time-of-flight for analysis of TiN/AlSiCu/TiN/Ti contact metallization structures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gujrathi, S. C.; Gagnon, G.; Fortin, V.; Caron, M.; Currie, J. F.; Ouellet, L.; Tremblay, Y.

    1998-03-01

    The ability of elastic recoil detection (ERD) with time-of-flight (TOF) to quantify multilayer TiN/AlSiCu/TiN/Ti contact metallization structures on Si and SiO 2 has been demonstrated. In the technique a single microchannel plate (MCP) detector assembly and a silicon surface barrier detector (SSBD) were used. Technically high quality multilayer structures that have important applications in VLSI/ULSI devices were produced in a commercial Varian M2000 cluster tool by sputtering techniques. Several device process parameters such as annealing temperature (450°C, 500°C and 550°C), TiN oxidation, TiN ARC layer, TiN diffusion barrier thickness (50 and 90 nm) and types of substrate (Si and SiO 2) have important consequences on the performance of the product. The effect of changes in the above mentioned parameters on the elemental composition have been reliably studied by ERD. All the elements from H to Cu including substrate Si of a contact structure have been quantitatively and simultaneously profiled in a single experiment. The reproducibility of the major concentrations (N, O, Al, Si and Ti) in a multilayer test sample in every batch was within ±5%. Grazing angle X-ray diffraction (XRD) and the analyses of the ternary and quaternary phase diagrams complemented by the ERD investigations have been used to identify various phases in the layers. These results were then correlated with the measured electrical properties.

  18. Characteristics of Ti(C, N)/TiB composite layer on Ti-6Al-4V alloy produced by laser surface melting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Xian; Yamaguchi, Tomiko; Nishio, Kazumasa

    2016-06-01

    A Ti(C, N)/TiB reinforced titanium matrix composite layer was successfully in-situ synthesized by laser melting on Ti-6Al-4V alloy surface with Ti-BN-C mixed powder, aiming at improving the wear resistance. The microstructure, chemical composition, hardness and wear behavior were analyzed. The results showed that, the cross sectional microstructure can be clearly divided into three parts, which were the laser melted layer, heat affected zone and non-affected zone. The reinforcements in laser melted layer consisted of dendritic TiC0.3N0.7 phases and fine-structure TiB phases. The matrix in laser melted layer was in a two-phase structure, being composed of platelet α titanium and intergranular β titanium. The hardness was increased from 320 HV in the substrate to 450-550 HV in the modified layer. The wear resistance was improved that, the wear volume loss of the laser treated sample was approximately half of the as received Ti-6Al-4V alloy after 8 h wear test.

  19. The Formation Time of Ti-O(•) and Ti-O(•)-Ti Radicals at the n-SrTiO3/Aqueous Interface during Photocatalytic Water Oxidation.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xihan; Choing, Stephanie N; Aschaffenburg, Daniel J; Pemmaraju, C D; Prendergast, David; Cuk, Tanja

    2017-02-08

    The initial step of photocatalytic water oxidation reaction at the metal oxide/aqueous interface involves intermediates formed by trapping photogenerated, valence band holes on different reactive sites of the oxide surface. In SrTiO3, these one-electron intermediates are radicals located in Ti-O(•) (oxyl) and Ti-O(•)-Ti (bridge) groups arranged perpendicular and parallel to the surface respectively, and form electronic states in the band gap of SrTiO3. Using an ultrafast sub band gap probe of 400 nm and white light, we excited transitions between these radical states and the conduction band. By measuring the time evolution of surface reflectivity following the pump pulse of 266 nm light, we determined an initial radical formation time of 1.3 ± 0.2 ps, which is identical to the time to populate the surface with titanium oxyl (Ti-O(•)) radicals. The oxyl was separately observed by a subsurface vibration near 800 cm(-1) from Ti-O located in the plane right below Ti-O(•). Second, a polarized transition optical dipole allows us to assign the 1.3 ps time constant to the production of both O-site radicals. After a 4.5 ps delay, another distinct surface species forms with a time constant of 36 ± 10 ps with a yet undetermined structure. As would be expected, the radicals' decay, specifically probed by the oxyl's subsurface vibration, parallels that of the photocurrent. Our results led us to propose a nonadiabatic kinetic mechanism for generating radicals of the type Ti-O(•) and Ti-O(•)-Ti from valence band holes based on their solvation at aqueous interfaces.

  20. A new approach to fabricate superconducting NbTi alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mousavi, Tayebeh; Hong, Zuliang; Morrison, Alasdair; London, Andrew; Grant, Patrick S.; Grovenor, Chris; Speller, Susannah C.

    2017-09-01

    Superconducting NbTi alloys have been successfully fabricated by a simple powder processing route involving ball-milling, pressing and annealing. The microstructure and superconducting properties of the NbTi alloys after each processing step have been characterised and compared to the microstructure and performance of NbTi wire manufactured by a conventional thermomechanical process. At the early stages of milling, a lamellar structure of pure Nb and Ti regions is formed, which is gradually refined by further milling leading to the introduction of a high density of microstructural defects. After 20 h milling, diffusion of Ti into the Nb generates a matrix of β-Nb-50 wt%Ti alloy, with a small grain size (50 nm) and high strain (1.8%), containing an even distribution of thin Ti flakes (10-40 nm). In some regions, these Ti flakes contain a supersaturation of Nb as a result of the energetic ball-milling process. The T c (8.1 K) and B c2 (9.8 T at 4.2 K) values of this as-milled material are slightly lower than those reported for Nb-47 wt%Ti due to the impurity content and lattice disorder. Sintering at 400 ^\\circ C leads to well consolidated, high density bulk samples, but annealing at temperatures above 600 ^\\circ C decreases J c values due to excessive grain growth and strain release. Annealing at lower temperatures results in higher J c values, a shift of the pinning force density peak towards higher fields and the presence of thermodynamically stable α-Ti precipitates which are effective pinning sites leading to critical current density values comparable with those of commercial NbTi wires.

  1. Electron channeling in TiO2 coated Cu layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zheng, Pengyuan; Zhou, Tianji; Gall, Daniel

    2016-05-01

    Electron transport in metal conductors with ˜5-30 nm width is dominated by surface scattering. In situ transport measurements as a function of surface chemistry demonstrate that the primary parameter determining the surface scattering specularity is the localized surface density of states at the Fermi level N(E f ). In particular, the measured sheet resistance of epitaxial Cu(001) layers with thickness d Cu = 9-25 nm increases when coated with d Ti = 0.1-4.0 monolayers (MLs) of Ti, but decreases again during exposure to 37 Pa of O2. These resistivity changes are a function of d Cu and d Ti and are due to a transition from partially specular electron scattering at the Cu surface to completely diffuse scattering at the Cu-Ti interface, and the recovery of surface specularity as the Ti is oxidized. X-ray reflectivity and photoelectron spectroscopy indicate the formation of a 0.47 ± 0.03 nm thick Cu2O surface layer on top of the TiO2-Cu2O during air exposure, while density functional calculations of TiO x cap layers as a function of x = 0-2 and d Ti = 0.25-1.0 ML show a reduction of N(E f ) by up to a factor of four. This reduction is proposed to be the key cause for the recovery of surface specularity and results in electron confinement and channeling in the Cu layer upon Ti oxidation. Transport measurements at 293 and 77 K confirm the channeling and demonstrate the potential for high-conductivity metal nanowires by quantifying the surface specularity parameter p = 0.67 ± 0.05, 0.00 ± 0.05, and 0.35 ± 0.05 at the Cu-vacuum, Cu-Ti, and Cu-TiO2 interfaces.

  2. Ternary Phases (Heusler) in the System Ti-Co-Sn

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kosinskiy, Andrey; Karlsen, Ole Bjørn; Sørby, Magnus H.; Prytz, Øystein

    2016-12-01

    Some of the Heusler-phases ( XY 2 Z and XYZ) are known to have large homogeneity ranges which can be useful for tuning material properties. In this work, we have revised the isothermal section of the Ti-Co-Sn system at 973 K (700 °C). A total of 29 ternary compositions, mostly in the regions TiCo2- x Sn for 0 ≤ x ≤ 1 and Ti1+ y Co2Sn1- y for 0 ≤ y ≤ 1, were prepared by arc-melting, then ball-milled and annealed. The resulting annealed powder samples were studied by applying the Rietveld method to X-ray and neutron powder diffraction data. Half-Heusler TiCoSn was not observed. The Heusler phase observed in TiCo2- x Sn has compositions ranging from TiCo1.52Sn to TiCo2Sn and has the half-Heusler structure where the excess of Co is located on the semi-filled tetrahedral site 4 d (¾, ¾, ¾) in the space group F-43 m. At 1273 K (1000 °C), this solid solubility is expanded from TiCo2Sn to TiCo with full solid solubility where Ti is gradually replacing Sn (Ti1+ y Co2Sn1- y for 0 ≤ y ≤ 1), while at 973 K (700 °C) there is a small solubility gap for 0.0 ≤ y ≤ 0.2.

  3. Photocatalytic TiO2 nanoparticles enhanced polymer antimicrobial coating

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Xiaojin; Yang, Zhendi; Tay, See Leng; Gao, Wei

    2014-01-01

    Copper (Cu) containing coatings can provide sustainable protection against microbial contamination. However, metallic Cu coatings have not been widely used due to the relatively high cost, poor corrosion resistance, and low compatibility with non-metal substrates. Titanium dioxide (TiO2) possesses antibacterial functions by its photocatalytic properties which can destroy bacteria or suppress their reproduction. TiO2 also has the function of improving the mechanical properties through particle dispersion strengthening. We have recently developed an innovative polymer based coating system containing fine particles of Cu and TiO2 nanoparticles. These polymer based coatings simultaneously display excellent antimicrobial and good mechanical properties. The results showed that the addition of TiO2 has improved the antimicrobial property under sunlight, which provides extended applications in outdoor environment. The elimination of 106 bacterial by contacting the coatings without TiO2 needs 5 h, while contacting with the Cu/TiO2- 1 wt.% TiO2 took only 2 h to kill the same amount of bacteria. The coatings also presented enhanced hardness and wear resistance after adding TiO2. The width of wear track decreased from 270 μm of the Cu-polymer coating to 206 μm of Cu/TiO2-polymer coatings with 10 wt.% TiO2. Synchrotron Infrared Microscopy was used to in-situ and in-vivo study the bacteria killing process at the molecular level. The real-time chemical images of bacterial activities showed that the bacterial cell membranes were damaged by the Cu and TiO2 containing coatings

  4. Mechanical Property Enhancement of Ti-6Al-4V by Multilayer Thin Solid Film Ti/TiO2 Nanotubular Array Coating for Biomedical Application

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zalnezhad, Erfan; Baradaran, Saeid; Bushroa, A. R.; Sarhan, Ahmed A. D.

    2014-02-01

    With the intention of improving the mechanical properties of Ti-6Al-4V, samples were first coated with pure titanium using the physical vapor deposition (PVD) magnetron sputtering technique. The Taguchi optimization method was used to attain a higher coating on substrate adhesion. Second, pure titanium-coated samples with higher adhesion were anodized to generate TiO2 nanotubes. Next, the TiO2-coated specimens were heat treated at annealing temperatures of 753.15 K and 923.15 K (480 °C and 650 °C). The XRD results indicate that the varying heat treatment temperatures produced different phases, namely, anatase [753.15 K (480 °C)] and rutile [923.15 K (650 °C)]. Finally, the coated samples' mechanical properties (surface hardness, adhesion, and fretting fatigue life) were investigated. The fretting fatigue lives of TiO2-coated specimens at 753.15 K and 923.15 K (480 °C and 650 °C) annealing temperatures were significantly enhanced compared to uncoated samples at low and high cyclic fatigue. The results also indicate that TiO2-coated samples heat treated at an annealing temperature of 753.15 K (480 °C) (anatase phase) are more suitable for increasing fretting fatigue life at high cyclic fatigue (HCF), while at low cyclic fatigue, the annealing temperature of 923.15 K (650 °C) seemed to be more appropriate. The fretting fatigue life enhancement of thin-film TiO2 nanotubular array-coated Ti-6Al-4V is due to the ceramic nature of TiO2 which produces a hard surface as well as a lower coefficient of friction of the TiO2 nanotube surface that decreases the fretting between contacting components, namely, the sample and friction pad surfaces.

  5. Fabrication of TiN/AlN/TiN tunnel junctions

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakayama, Takeru; Naruse, Masato; Myoren, Hiroaki; Taino, Tohru

    2016-11-01

    We have fabricated TiN/AlN/TiN tunnel junctions with an epitaxial layer. The critical temperature of TiN can be changed in the range from 0.5 to 5.0 K. Therefore, it is easy to set 5.0 K as the target critical temperature. When a Superconducting Tunnel Junction (STJ) is operated as a photon detector, it is necessary to cool it to within 0.1 K of the critical temperature in consideration of the noise of the thermally stimulated currents. Because 0.3 K was desirable, as for the manufacture of general purpose photon detectors, the critical temperature 5.0 K. TiN and AlN films were deposited by dc and rf magnetron sputtering in a load-lock sputtering system at ambient substrate temperatures. The junctions have a gap voltage of Vg = 1.1 mV, and critical current density of Jc = 0.24 A/cm2, and Rsg/Rn of 7.2, and low subgap leakage current (Isub@ 500 μV = 180 nA). We report our experiment system, the manufacture method and the junction properties in this paper.

  6. Quantum Oscillations at LaTiO3/SrTiO3 Interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Veit, Michael; Suzuki, Yuri

    Emergent metallic behavior at the interface of the Mott insulator LaTiO3 and the band insulator SrTiO3 was observed for the first time more than a decade ago. Since then the metallicity has been explained in terms of charge redistribution at the interface combined with lattice relaxation. However to date, Shubnikov de Haas oscillations have not been reported in this two dimensional metallic system. For ultrathin (3-4 unit cells) LaTiO3 thin films on SrTiO3, we report the observation of Shubnikov-de Haas oscillations whose frequency corresponds to a small Fermi pocket. Surprisingly the oscillation are only observed between 1 and 4 T. Above this range, the quantum limit is reached for this pocket so no more oscillations are observed. A Berry's phase of π is also detected in these oscillations. Additionally a strong in-plane anisotropic magnetoresistance was measured in the heterostructures which, along with the Berry's phase, is attributed to a giant Rashba coupling at the interface. This work is funded by a National Security Science Engineering Faculty Fellowship of the Department of Defense under N00014-15-1-0045.

  7. Metal-insulator transitions in LaTiO3 / CaTiO3 superlattices

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seo, Sung Seok A.; Lee, Ho Nyung

    2010-03-01

    Strongly correlated electrons at an interface of complex oxide heterostructures often show interesting behaviors that require an introduction of new physical concepts. For example, the metallic transport behavior found in the superlattices of a Mott insulator LaTiO3 and a band insulator SrTiO3 (STO) has established the concept of interfacial electronic reconstruction. In this work, we have studied the transport property of a new type of Mott/band insulator LaTiO3/CaTiO3 (LTO/CTO) superlattices grown by pulsed laser deposition (PLD). In order to rule out concerns about the PLD plume-triggered oxygen vacancies generated in STO substrates, which might influence transport measurement, and to investigate the effect of epitaxial strain, we have used insulating NdGaO3 substrates. While both LTO and CTO single films are highly insulating, we have observed intriguing metal-insulator transitions (MIT) in the LTO/CTO superlattices depending on the global LTO/CTO thickness ratio and temperature. (Note that LTO/STO superlattices are metallic at all temperatures (2-300 K)). In this talk, we will discuss the origin of the MIT in the scheme of self compensation mechanism of d-electrons at the hetero-interface between LTO and CTO.

  8. Fabrication of Anti-Aging TiO2 Nanotubes on Biomedical Ti Alloys

    PubMed Central

    Hamlekhan, Azhang; Butt, Arman; Patel, Sweetu; Royhman, Dmitry; Takoudis, Christos; Sukotjo, Cortino; Yuan, Judy; Jursich, Gregory; Mathew, Mathew T.; Hendrickson, William; Virdi, Amarjit; Shokuhfar, Tolou

    2014-01-01

    The primary objective of this study was to fabricate a TiO2 nanotubular surface, which could maintain hydrophilicity over time (resist aging). In order to achieve non-aging hydrophilic surfaces, anodization and annealing conditions were optimized. This is the first study to show that anodization and annealing condition affect the stability of surface hydrophilicity. Our results indicate that maintenance of hydrophilicity of the obtained TiO2 nanotubes was affected by anodization voltage and annealing temperature. Annealing sharply decreased the water contact angle (WCA) of the as-synthesized TiO2 nanotubular surface, which was correlated to improved hydrophilicity. TiO2 nanotubular surfaces are transformed to hydrophilic surfaces after annealing, regardless of annealing and anodization conditions; however, WCA measurements during aging demonstrate that surface hydrophilicity of non-anodized and 20 V anodized samples decreased after only 11 days of aging, while the 60 V anodized samples maintained their hydrophilicity over the same time period. The nanotubes obtained by 60 V anodization followed by 600 °C annealing maintained their hydrophilicity significantly longer than nanotubes which were obtained by 60 V anodization followed by 300 °C annealing. PMID:24788345

  9. 1020 steel coated with Ti/TiN by Cathodic Arc and Ion Implantation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bermeo, F.; Quintana, J. P.; Kleiman, A.; Sequeda, F.; Márquez, A.

    2017-01-01

    TiN coatings have been widely studied in order to improve mechanical properties of steels. In this work, thin Ti/TiN films were prepared by plasma based immersion ion implantation and deposition (PBII&D) with a cathodic arc on AISI 1020 steel substrates. Substrates were exposed to the discharge during 1 min in vacuum for the deposition of a Tiunderlayer with the aim of improving the adhesion to the substrate. Then, a TiN layer was deposited during 6 min in a nitrogen environment at a pressure of 3xl0-4 mbar. Samples were obtained at room temperature and at 300 °C, and with or without ion implantation in order to analyze differences between the effects of each treatment on the tribological properties. The mechanical and tribological properties of the films were characterized. The coatings deposited by PBII&D at 300 °C presented the highest hardness and young modulus, the best wear resistance and corrosion performance.

  10. Equation of State Model Quality Study for Ti and Ti64.

    SciTech Connect

    Wills, Ann Elisabet; Sanchez, Jason James

    2015-02-01

    Titanium and the titanium alloy Ti64 (6% aluminum, 4% vanadium and the balance ti- tanium) are materials used in many technologically important applications. To be able to computationally investigate and design these applications, accurate Equations of State (EOS) are needed and in many cases also additional constitutive relations. This report describes what data is available for constructing EOS for these two materials, and also describes some references giving data for stress-strain constitutive models. We also give some suggestions for projects to achieve improved EOS and constitutive models. In an appendix, we present a study of the 'cloud formation' issue observed in the ALEGRA code. This issue was one of the motivating factors for this literature search of available data for constructing improved EOS for Ti and Ti64. However, the study shows that the cloud formation issue is only marginally connected to the quality of the EOS, and, in fact, is a physical behavior of the system in question. We give some suggestions for settings in, and improvements of, the ALEGRA code to address this computational di culty.

  11. Ab initio calculation of Ti NMR shieldings for titanium oxides and halides

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tossell, J. A.

    Titanium NMR shielding constants have been calculated using ab initio coupled Hartree-Fock perturbation theory and polarized double-zeta basis sets for TiF 4, TiF 62-, TiCI 4, Ti(OH) 4, Ti(OH 2) 64+, Ti(OH) 4O, and Ti(OH) 3O -. In all cases the calculations were performed at Hartree-Fuck energy-optimized geometries. For Ti(OH) 4 a S4-symmetry geometry with nonlinear ∠ TiOH was employed. Relative shieldings are in reasonable agreement with experiment for TiF 62-, TiCI 4, and Ti(OR) 4, where R = H or alkyl. Ti(OH 2) 64+ is predicted to be more highly shielded than Ti(OH) 4 by about 340 ppm. The five-coordinate complex Ti(OH) 4O, whose calculated structure matches well that measured by extended X-ray absorption fine structure in K 2O · TiO 2 · SiO 2 glass, is actually deshielded compared to Ti(OH) 4 by about 40 ppm. X-ray absorption-near-edge spectral energies have also been calculated for TiF 4, TiCI 4, Ti(OH) 4, and Ti(OH) 4O using an equivalent ionic core virtual-orbital method and the observed reduction in term energy for the five-coordinate species compared to Ti(OH) 4 has been reproduced. Replacement of the H atoms in Ti(OH) 4 by point charges has only a slight effect upon σTi, suggesting a possible means of incorporating second-neighbor effects in NMR calculations for condensed phases.

  12. Minimum ignition temperature of nano and micro Ti powder clouds in the presence of inert nano TiO2 powder.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Chunmiao; Amyotte, Paul R; Hossain, Md Nur; Li, Chang

    2014-06-30

    Minimum ignition temperature (MIT) of micro Ti powder increased gradually with increases in nano-sized TiO2 employed as an inertant. Solid TiO2 inertant significantly reduced ignition hazard of micro Ti powder in contact with hot surfaces. The MIT of nano Ti powder remained low (583 K), however, even with 90% TiO2. The MIT of micro Ti powder, when mixed with nano Ti powder at concentrations as low as 10%, decreased so dramatically that its application as a solid fuel may be possible. A simple MIT model was proposed for aggregate particle size estimation and better understanding of the inerting effect of nano TiO2 on MIT. Estimated particle size was 1.46-1.51 μm larger than that in the 20-L sphere due to poor dispersion in the BAM oven. Calculated MITs were lower than corresponding empirically determined values for micro Ti powder because nano-sized TiO2 coated the micro Ti powder, thereby decreasing its reaction kinetics. In the case of nano Ti powder, nano-sized TiO2 facilitated dispersion of nano Ti powder which resulted in a calculated MIT that was greater than the experimentally determined value.

  13. Phase equilibria, formation, crystal and electronic structure of ternary compounds in Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Romaka, V. V.; Rogl, P.; Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Melnychenko, N.; Grytsiv, A.; Falmbigl, M.; Skryabina, N.

    2013-01-01

    The phase equilibria of the Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems have been studied in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray and EPM analyses at 1073 K and 873 K, respectively. Four ternary intermetallic compounds TiNiSn (MgAgAs-type), TiNi2-xSn (MnCu2Al-type), Ti2Ni2Sn (U2Pt2Sn-type), and Ti5NiSn3 (Hf5CuSn3-type) are formed in Ti-Ni-Sn system at 1073 K. The TiNi2Sn stannide is characterized by homogeneity in the range of 50-47 at% of Ni. The Ti-Ni-Sb ternary system at 873 K is characterized by formation of three ternary intermetallic compounds, Ti0.8NiSb (MgAgAs-type), Ti5Ni0.45Sb2.55 (W5Si3-type), and Ti5NiSb3 (Hf5CuSn3-type). The solubility of Ni in Ti0.8NiSb decreases number of vacancies in Ti site up to Ti0.91Ni1.1Sb composition.

  14. Synthesis of a Bulk Ti4SiC3 MAX Phase by Reduction of TiO2 with SiC.

    PubMed

    Istomin, Pavel; Istomina, Elena; Nadutkin, Aleksandr; Grass, Vladislav; Presniakov, Mikhail

    2016-11-07

    The bulk MAX phase Ti4SiC3 was first synthesized with a yield of 86% by a long-time thermal treatment of TiO2 and SiC powder mixture with a molar ratio of 2:3 at 1600 °C under vacuum conditions. It was found that the appearance of Ti4SiC3 was preceded by the formation of TiC and Ti3SiC2 as a result of the following reactions: (1) combined carbothermic and silicothermic reduction of TiO2 to TiC accompanied by evolution of SiO and CO gases; (2) silicidation of TiC with gaseous SiO, leading to the growth of Ti3SiC2. It was suggested that, apart from TiC and Ti3SiC2 solids, sublimed gaseous species such as Ti, Si, Si2C, SiC2, etc., could take part in the Ti4SiC3 formation that occurred in the next stage. The crystal structure of synthesized Ti4SiC3 was refined by X-ray diffraction Rietveld analysis and confirmed by high-resolution scanning transmission electron microscopy. The measured structural characteristics of bulk Ti4SiC3 are in good agreement with those predicted by ab initio calculations reported in the literature.

  15. Influence of substrate structure on adhesion behavior of TiN and TiAl3/TiAlN coatings deposited by vacuum arc plasma

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vardanyan, E.; Ramazanov, K.; Yagafarov, I.; Budilov, V.; Agzamov, R.

    2017-05-01

    This paper presents the study of the influence of a substrate structure on the adhesion behavior of monolayer coatings TiN and multilayer coatings TiAl3 / TiAlN deposited by vacuum arc plasma. Martensitic steel with a coarse-grained (CG) and ultrafine-grained (UFG) structure was used for samples. The samples were subjected to ion nitriding in a glow discharge before coating deposition. Adhesion of the coatings was examined with CSM ScratchTEST. For samples with different structures, critical load was defined at which microcracks are formed in the coatings.

  16. Comparative study of conduction-band and valence-band edges of TiO2, SrTiO3, and BaTiO3 by ionization potential measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujisawa, Jun-ichi; Eda, Takumi; Hanaya, Minoru

    2017-10-01

    Here, we report the energy positions of the conduction-band and valence-band edges of anatase titanium dioxide (TiO2), strontium titanate (SrTiO3), and barium titanate (BaTiO3). From the photoelectron yield spectra, the ionization potentials of anatase TiO2, SrTiO3, and BaTiO3 were estimated to be ca. 7.25, 6.90, 7.05 eV, respectively, which correspond to the top of the valence band of each titanium oxide. From these data and their band gaps, it was found that the bottoms of the conduction bands of SrTiO3 and BaTiO3 are positioned above that of anatase TiO2 by 0.40 and 0.23 eV, respectively.

  17. The influence of FeTi and NiTi intermetallide additions on high-temperature oxidation of permalloy alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Klimenko, V.N.; Lavrenko, V.A.; Panasyuk, O.A.; Blasova, O.V.; Protsenko, T.G.

    1995-11-01

    As a rule powder metallurgy Permalloy alloys are used in production of parts for electronic instruments. For the purpose of controlling the magnetic and electrical properties and also the wear (in the case of production of magnetic heads) and corrosion resistance appropriate additions of metals or such compounds as carbides and oxides are added to the alloy. In this work use of FeTi and NiTi intermetallides produced by reaction sintering of powders of pure metals in a protective atmosphere as alloying additions to Permalloy is recommended. The size of the original powders is less than 100 {mu}m. For reaction sintering at temperature 50{degrees}C above the eutectic temperature in the Ti-TiFe and TiNi-Ni systems was selected. The contents of titanium, iron, and oxygen in the FeTi alloy is 51.9, 45.7, and 2.4 wt.%, respectively, and of titanium, nickel, and oxygen in the NiTi alloy 59.6, 31.9, and 4.6 wt.%. High-temperature oxidation in air up to 1300{degrees}C with a rate of change in temperature of 15{degrees}C of type 78N Permalloy with additions of FeTi and NiTi alloys was investigated with use of methods of differential thermal and differential thermogravimetric analyses on an OD-103 derivatograph under nonisothermal conditions. The reaction products were studied by x-ray diffraction phase analysis on a DRON-3 instrument in CoK{sub {alpha}}-radiation. Pure 78N alloy powder with a composition of 78.1% Ni + 19.3% Fe (specimen 1) and also with additions of 1% FeTi (specimen 2) and 1% NiTi (specimen 3) were subjected to oxidation.

  18. Precipitation evolution in a Ti-free and Ti-containing stainless maraging steel.

    PubMed

    Schober, M; Schnitzer, R; Leitner, H

    2009-04-01

    Stainless maraging steels have a Cr content higher than 12wt% and show a excellent combination of high strength and ductility, which make them attractive for use in machinery fields and aircraft applications. The massive increase of strength during ageing treatment of maraging steels is related to a precipitation sequence of various nm-scaled intermetallic phases. The peak hardness especially in Ti-containing maraging steels can be reached after short-time ageing at temperatures around 500 degrees C. However, precipitation reactions in different stainless maraging steels are not fully understood, especially the evolution from clustering over growing to coarsening. In the present work a commercial maraging steel and a Ti-containing model alloy are investigated and compared to each other. The steels were isothermally heat treated at 525 degrees C for a range of times. Special emphasis was laid on the correlation of hardness to the formation and presence of different kinds of precipitates. The isothermal aged samples were investigated by using two advanced three-dimensional energy compensated atom probes (LEAP and 3DAP) both in voltage mode and in laser mode. The atom probe data were correlated to standard hardness measurements. The results show that the partial substitution of Al by Ti results in a different precipitation behaviour. While the Ti-free maraging steel exhibit only one type of precipitate, the Ti-containing grade shows a change in the type of precipitates during ageing. However, this change leads to an accelerated coarsening and thus to a faster drop in hardness.

  19. On the low-lying states of TiN

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Bauschlicher, C. W., Jr.

    1983-01-01

    A series of CAS SCF and multi-reference CI calculations are used to describe the lowest states of TiN. The bonding in all states is described as a triple bond involving the Ti 3d orbitals. The system has some ionic character as seen from both population analysis and dipole moment. The origins of the excited states are discussed.

  20. Mg/Ti multilayers: Structural and hydrogen absorption properties

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baldi, A.; Pálsson, G. K.; Gonzalez-Silveira, M.; Schreuders, H.; Slaman, M.; Rector, J. H.; Krishnan, G.; Kooi, B. J.; Walker, G. S.; Fay, M. W.; Hjörvarsson, B.; Wijngaarden, R. J.; Dam, B.; Griessen, R.

    2010-06-01

    Mg-Ti alloys have uncommon optical and hydrogen absorbing properties, originating from a “spinodal-like” microstructure with a small degree of chemical short-range order in the atomic distribution. In the present study we artificially engineer short-range order by depositing Pd-capped Mg/Ti multilayers with different periodicities. Notwithstanding the large lattice mismatch between Mg and Ti, the as-deposited metallic multilayers show good structural coherence. On exposure to H2 gas a two-step hydrogenation process occurs with the Ti layers forming the hydride before Mg. From in situ measurements of the bilayer thickness Λ at different hydrogen pressures, we observe large out-of-plane expansions of Mg and Ti layers on hydrogenation, indicating strong plastic deformations in the films and a consequent shortening of the coherence length. On unloading at room temperature in air, hydrogen atoms remain trapped in the Ti layers due to kinetic constraints. Such loading/unloading sequence can be explained in terms of the different thermodynamic properties of hydrogen in Mg and Ti, as shown by diffusion calculations on a model multilayered systems. Absorption isotherms measured by hydrogenography can be interpreted as a result of the elastic clamping arising from strongly bonded Mg/Pd and broken Mg/Ti interfaces.

  1. Titanium germanium anti­monide, TiGeSb

    PubMed Central

    Lam, Robert; Mar, Arthur

    2009-01-01

    TiGeSb adopts the PbFCl- or ZrSiS-type structure, with Ti atoms (4mm symmetry) centred within monocapped square anti­prisms generated by the stacking of denser square nets of Ge atoms ( m2 symmetry) alternating with less dense square nets of Sb atoms (4mm symmetry). PMID:21577387

  2. Experimental Micromechanics Study of Lamellar TiA1

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-02-15

    of the 2005 SEM Annual Conference & Exposition, Portland, OR USA, June 7-9, 2005 "Brazilian Tests in Lamellar TiAr ", F.P. Chiang, Y. Ding, A.Ho, A.H...Experimental Mechanics, July 1-6, Alexandroupolis, Greece, 2007 "Experimental Micromechanics Study of Lamellar TiAr ", Fu-pen Chiang, Gunes Uzer, Andrew H

  3. Tensile creep of single phase gamma TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Hayes, R.W.; Martin, P.L.

    1995-12-31

    The uniaxial tension creep behavior of two single phase gamma TiAl alloys having the nominal compositions Ti-53Al-1Nb and Ti-51Al-2Mn (at. pct.) was studied over the temperature range 760 C to 900 C at initial applied stress levels ranging from 20.6 MPa to 345 MPa. For the Ti-53Al-1Nb alloy, two regions of creep deformation identified as either dislocation motion controlled or diffusional were found depending on the temperature and stress level. For the Ti-51Al-2Mn alloy only power law creep was observed. The tertiary creep behavior is also examined for each of these gamma TiAl alloys. Tertiary creep is evaluated using a two state-variable approach to describe the damage processes leading to an acceleration of strain rate in tertiary creep. Metallographic evaluation of failed creep specimens revealed the presence of dynamic recrystallization in the Ti-51Al-2Mn alloy. No evidence of dynamic recrystallization was found under any conditions for the Ti-53Al-1Nb alloy. These observations are related to the differences in composition and the compositional dependence of the fundamental deformation processes occurring within the minimum strain rate and tertiary creep regimens.

  4. Biocompatilibity-related surface characteristics of oxidized NiTi.

    PubMed

    Danilov, Anatoli; Tuukkanen, Tuomas; Tuukkanen, Juha; Jämsä, Timo

    2007-09-15

    In the present study, we examined the effect of NiTi oxidation on material surface characteristics related to biocompatibility. Correspondence between electron work function (EWF) and adhesive force predicted by electron theory of adsorption as well as the effect of surface mechanical stress on the adhesive force were studied on the nonoxidized and oxidized at 350, 450, and 600 degrees C NiTi alloy for medical application. The adhesive force generated by the material surface towards the drops of alpha-minimal essential medium (alpha-MEM) was used as a characteristic of NiTi adsorption properties. The study showed that variations in EWF and mechanical stress caused by surface treatment were accompanied by variations in adhesive force. NiTi oxidation at all temperatures used gave rise to decrease in adhesive force and surface stress values in comparison to the nonoxidized state. In contrary, the EWF value revealed increase under the same condition. Variations in surface oxide layer thickness and its phase composition were also followed. The important role of oxide crystallite size in EWF values within the range of crystallite dimensions typical for NiTi surface oxide as an instrument for the fine regulation of NiTi adsorption properties was demonstrated. The comparative oxidation of pure titanium and NiTi showed that the effect of Ni on the EWF value of NiTi surface oxide is negligible.

  5. Corrosion of NiTi Wires with Cracked Oxide Layer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Racek, Jan; Šittner, Petr; Heller, Luděk; Pilch, Jan; Petrenec, Martin; Sedlák, Petr

    2014-07-01

    Corrosion behavior of superelastic NiTi shape memory alloy wires with cracked TiO2 surface oxide layers was investigated by electrochemical corrosion tests (Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy, Open Circuit Potential, and Potentiodynamic Polarization) on wires bent into U-shapes of various bending radii. Cracks within the oxide on the surface of the bent wires were observed by FIB-SEM and TEM methods. The density and width of the surface oxide cracks dramatically increase with decreasing bending radius. The results of electrochemical experiments consistently show that corrosion properties of NiTi wires with cracked oxide layers (static load keeps the cracks opened) are inferior compared to the corrosion properties of the straight NiTi wires covered by virgin uncracked oxides. Out of the three methods employed, the Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy seems to be the most appropriate test for the electrochemical characterization of the cracked oxide layers, since the impedance curves (Nyquist plot) of differently bent NiTi wires can be associated with increasing state of the surface cracking and since the NiTi wires are exposed to similar conditions as the surfaces of NiTi implants in human body. On the other hand, the potentiodynamic polarization test accelerates the corrosion processes and provides clear evidence that the corrosion resistance of bent superelastic NiTi wires degrades with oxide cracking.

  6. Oxidation studies on small atom doped TI*5*SI*3*

    SciTech Connect

    Thom, Andrew

    1995-09-26

    This report described the oxidation and oxidation resistance of Ti5Si3, along with a discussion on general material properties. Single crystal studies of Ti5Si3Zx are included.

  7. Dielectrical properties of PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chaturmukha, V. S.; Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Avinash, B. S.; Jayanna, H. S.; Lamani, Ashok R.

    2016-05-01

    Conducting polyaniline/titanium dioxide (PANI/TiO2) composites have been succesfully synthesized by insitu polymerization technique. The PANI/TiO2 nanocomposites of different compositions were prepared by varying weight percentage of TiO2 nanoparticles such as 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt% into the fixed amount of the aniline monomer. The prepared powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The intensity of diffraction peaks for PANI/TiO2 composites is lower than that for TiO2. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite were prepared in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO2 nanoparticles. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity were studied in the frequency range1K Hz-10M Hz. At higher frequencies, the composites exhibit almost zero dielectric loss and maximum value of σac is found for a concentration of 20 wt% TiO2 in polyaniline. The interface between polyaniline and TiO2 plays an important role in yielding a large dielectric constant in nanocomposites.

  8. Dielectrical properties of PANI/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites

    SciTech Connect

    Chaturmukha, V. S.; Naveen, C. S.; Rajeeva, M. P.; Avinash, B. S.; Jayanna, H. S.; Lamani, Ashok R.

    2016-05-23

    Conducting polyaniline/titanium dioxide (PANI/TiO{sub 2}) composites have been succesfully synthesized by insitu polymerization technique. The PANI/TiO{sub 2} nanocomposites of different compositions were prepared by varying weight percentage of TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles such as 10 wt%, 20 wt%, 30 wt%, 40 wt% and 50 wt% into the fixed amount of the aniline monomer. The prepared powder samples were characterized by X-ray diffractometer (XRD) and Scanning electron microscope (SEM). The intensity of diffraction peaks for PANI/TiO{sub 2} composites is lower than that for TiO{sub 2}. SEM pictures show that the nanocomposite were prepared in the form of long PANi chains decorated with TiO{sub 2} nanoparticles. The dielectric properties and AC conductivity were studied in the frequency range1K Hz–10M Hz. At higher frequencies, the composites exhibit almost zero dielectric loss and maximum value of σ{sub ac} is found for a concentration of 20 wt% TiO{sub 2} in polyaniline. The interface between polyaniline and TiO{sub 2} plays an important role in yielding a large dielectric constant in nanocomposites.

  9. Energetics of point defects in {gamma}-TiAl

    SciTech Connect

    Raju, S.; Mohandas, E.; Raghunathan, V.S.

    1996-02-15

    {gamma}TiAl has been receiving a great deal of attention in recent times owing to its industrial importance. This structural intermetallic is a candidate material for high temperature aerospace applications. Therefore, a study of point defect properties is useful in elucidating its physical metallurgy. In this brief communication, the authors discuss the vacancy and antisite defect properties of {gamma}-TiAl.

  10. Fatigue Crack Growth in Friction Stir Welded Ti-5111

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2009-02-01

    systematically investigated. In this paper , the microstructures, microhardness, and fatigue crack growth kinetics through FSW Ti-5111 weld region...free, radiographic examinations indicated the presence of wormholes in the 12.7 mm thick Ti-5111 Weld 1. Most of these wormholes were located near the

  11. Phase transformation of NiTi alloys during vacuum sintering

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Jun; Hu, Kuang

    2017-05-01

    The aim of this study is to ascertain the Phase transformation of NiTi alloys during vacuum sintering. NiTi shape memory alloys (SMA) of atomic ratio 1:1 were prepared through press forming and vacuum sintering with the mixture of Ni and Ti powders. Different samples were prepared by changing the sintering time and the sintering temperature. Phase and porosity of the samples were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The results show that in the process of sintering NiTi2 and Ni3Ti phases are formed firstly and then transform into NiTi phase. The quantity of NiTi2 and Ni3Ti phases gradually decreased but not eliminate completely with increase of sintering time. The porosity of specimen sintering at 900°C decreases slightly with increase of sintering time. With increase of sintering time the porosity of specimen sintering at 1050°C decreased firstly and then increased because of generation rich titanium liquid in the process of sintering.

  12. -Ti-Based Homogeneous and Bi-layered Composites

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gupta, Neha; Parameswaran, Venkitanarayanan; Basu, Bikramjit

    2014-09-01

    The growing threats due to increased use of small-caliber armor piercing projectiles demand the development of new light-weight body armor materials. In this context, TiB2 appears to be a promising ceramic material. However, poor sinterability and low fracture toughness remain two major issues for TiB2. In order to address these issues together, Ti as a sinter-aid is used to develop TiB2-( x wt pct Ti), ( x = 10, 20) homogeneous composites and a bi-layered composite (BLC) with each layer having Ti content of 10 and 20 wt pct. The present study uniquely demonstrates the efficacy of two-stage spark plasma sintering route to develop dense TiB2-Ti composites with an excellent combination of nanoscale hardness (~36 GPa) and indentation fracture toughness (~12 MPa m1/2). In case of BLC, these properties are not compromised w.r.t. homogeneous composites, suggesting the retention of baseline material properties even in the bi-layer design due to optimal relief of residual stresses. The better indentation toughness of TiB2-(10 wt pct Ti) and TiB2-(20 wt pct Ti) composites can be attributed to the observed crack deflection/arrest, indicating better damage tolerance. Transmission electron microscope investigation reveals the presence of dense dislocation networks and deformation twins in α-Ti at the grain boundaries and triple pockets, surrounded by TiB2 grains. The dynamic strength of around 4 GPa has been measured using Split Hopkinson Pressure Bar tests in a reproducible manner at strain rates of the order of 600 s-1. The damage progression under high strain rate has been investigated by acquiring real time images for the entire test duration using ultra-high speed imaging. An attempt has been made to establish microstructure-property correlation and a simple analysis based on Mohr-Coulomb theory is used to rationalize the measured strength properties.

  13. Ubiquitous isotopic anomalies in Ti from normal Allende inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A novel technique for the high-precision isotopic analysis of titanium was applied to three terrestrial rocks and coarse- and fine-grained Allende inclusions. Repeated analyses of the three terrestrial rocks gave excellent agreement with a Ti metal standard. All seven Allende inclusions were previously determined to contain isotopically normal Nd and/or Sm, indicating that none belongs to a small group of peculiar intrusions. The discovery of widespread Ti isotopic anomalies in normal Allende inclusions establishes Ti as the first non-noble gas element studied since oxygen to show such isotopic heterogeneity. A survey of nucleosynthetic origins of Ti isotopes suggests that the dominant Ti-50 excesses in these inclusions are due to the relative enrichment of isotopes synthesized during hydrostatic burning in, or near, the core of a massive star.

  14. Antiferromagnetic Stabilization in the Ti8O12 Cluster.

    PubMed

    Yu, Xiaohu; Oganov, Artem R; Popov, Ivan A; Qian, Guangrui; Boldyrev, Alexander I

    2016-01-26

    Using the evolutionary algorithm USPEX and DFT+U calculations, we predicted a high-symmetry geometric structure of the bare Ti8 O12 cluster composed of 8 Ti atoms forming a cube, in which O atoms are at midpoints of all of its edges, in excellent agreement with experimental results. Using natural bond orbital analysis, adaptive natural density partitioning algorithm, electron localization function, and partial charge plots, we find the origin of the particular stability of bare Ti8 O12 cluster: unique chemical bonding where eight electrons of Ti atoms interacting with each other in antiferromagnetic fashion to lower the total energy of the system. The bare Ti8 O12 is thus an unusual molecule stabilized by d-orbital antiferromagnetic coupling. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  15. Ellipsoidal TiO2 hierarchitectures with enhanced photovoltaic performance.

    PubMed

    Peng, Wenqin; Yanagida, Masatoshi; Chen, Han; Han, Liyuan

    2012-04-23

    Hierarchical TiO(2) ellipsoids 250-500 nm in size have been synthesized on a large scale by a template-free hydrothermal route. The submicrometer-sized hierarchitectures are assembled from highly crystallized anatase nanorods about 17 nm in diameter with macroporous cavities on the outer shells. Based on the time-dependent morphological evolution under hydrothermal conditions, an oriented attachment process is proposed to explain formation of the hierarchical structures. Such hierarchical TiO(2) not only adsorbs large amounts of dye molecules due to high surface area, but also shows good light scattering caused by the submicrometer size. The TiO(2) hierarchitectures were deposited on top of a transparent TiO(2) nanocrystalline main layer to construct a double-layered photoanode for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSC) application, exhibiting enhanced light harvesting and power-conversion efficiency compared to a commercial TiO(2)-based electrode.

  16. Ti/Al Design/Cost Trade-Off Analysis

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1978-10-01

    4099 5705 41 6388 9304 (44/Rev) 46 8258 9761 Speed - 13, 533 rpm (100% N) 31 10,000 2T I42/Rev Material Clamped atI a goo - Rene ’ 80 DovetailI 0TiAl...as the F1O1 Stage 4 Blade Materiel. 41 9. Maximum Blade and Dovetail Stresses for Ti-36-5Nb F1O0 Fourth-Stage Compressor Blade. 42 10. Strain Range of...Tensile Properties. 92 A-4. Ti-36A1-5Nb rreep and Stress Rupture Results. 93 A-5. Ti-36AI-5Nb Strain Control LCF Results. 93 A-6. HCF Results on Ti

  17. Structure of Al-Ti-C master alloys

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Popova, E. A.; Brodova, I. G.; Yablonskikh, T. I.; Shirinkina, I. G.; Barbin, N. M.; Bodrova, L. E.; Dolmatov, A. V.; Pastukhov, E. A.; Vatolin, N. A.; Chebykin, V. V.; Chernov, Ya. B.

    2011-06-01

    A binary Al-Ti master alloy of hyperperitectic composition, whose structural characteristics ensure high modifying efficiency, has been prepared by the aluminothermy method. The treatment of the alloy by low-frequency vibrations (LFVs) and its interaction with the carbon emitter of LFVs in the process of crystallization lead to the formation of a ternary Al-Ti-C alloy containing titanium aluminide Al3Ti and titanium carbide TiC. The presence of these phases creates favorable conditions for the formation of solidification nuclei in the aluminum melt when using a ternary master alloy as a modifier. A comparison of the efficiency of the structure refinement when using experimental master alloys and the standard Al-Ti master alloy poured into a metallic chill mold has been performed.

  18. Ubiquitous isotopic anomalies in Ti from normal Allende inclusions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Niemeyer, S.; Lugmair, G. W.

    1981-01-01

    A novel technique for the high-precision isotopic analysis of titanium was applied to three terrestrial rocks and coarse- and fine-grained Allende inclusions. Repeated analyses of the three terrestrial rocks gave excellent agreement with a Ti metal standard. All seven Allende inclusions were previously determined to contain isotopically normal Nd and/or Sm, indicating that none belongs to a small group of peculiar intrusions. The discovery of widespread Ti isotopic anomalies in normal Allende inclusions establishes Ti as the first non-noble gas element studied since oxygen to show such isotopic heterogeneity. A survey of nucleosynthetic origins of Ti isotopes suggests that the dominant Ti-50 excesses in these inclusions are due to the relative enrichment of isotopes synthesized during hydrostatic burning in, or near, the core of a massive star.

  19. Crystallography of Martensite in TiAu Shape Memory Alloy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Inamura, T.; Hosoda, H.

    2011-01-01

    The twin structure, habit plane orientation, and morphology of B19 martensite in TiAu, which is a candidate shape memory alloy (SMA) for high-temperature and biomedical applications, were investigated by conventional transmission electron microscopy. Almost all internal twins were {111} type I twins as lattice-invariant deformation (LID). The <211> type II twin was scarcely observed in TiAu, unlike in TiPd and TiPt SMAs. The habit plane roughly corresponded to the twinning plane ( K 1 plane) of the <211> type II twin because of the superb lattice parameter ratio of TiAu. As a result, an energy-minimizing microstructure referred to as "twins within twins" appears as the major microstructure. The selection rules for the twinning of LID are also discussed considering the results of extensive studies on LID in SMAs.

  20. Atomic-scale investigation of a new phase transformation process in TiO2 nanofibers.

    PubMed

    Lei, Yimin; Li, Jian; Wang, Zhan; Sun, Jun; Chen, Fuyi; Liu, Hongwei; Ma, Xiaohua; Liu, Zongwen

    2017-03-30

    Crystallography of phase transformation combining transmission electron microscopy (TEM) with in situ heating techniques and X-ray diffraction (XRD) can provide critical information regarding solid-state phase transitions and the transition-induced interfaces in TiO2 nanomaterials theoretically and experimentally. Two types of reduced titanium oxides (Ti3O5, Ti6O11) are found during ex situ and in situ heating of TiO2 (B) nanofibers with a specific morphology of the {100} single form (SF) in air and vacuum. The results indicate that the phase transformation process from TiO2 (B) follows the TiO2 (B) → Ti3O5 → Ti6O11 → anatase sequence for the nanofibers with the {100} SF. The occurrence of such a phase transition is selective to the morphology of TiO2 (B) nanofibers. The corresponding orientation relationships (COR) between the four phases are revealed according to the TEM characterization. Four types of coherent interfaces, following the CORs are also found. They are TiO2 (B)/Ti3O5, TiO2 (B)/Ti6O11, Ti6O11/anatase and TiO2 (B)/anatase respectively. The habit plane for the TiO2 (B) to Ti3O5 transition is calculated as the {100}TB by using the invariant line model. The detailed atomic transformation mechanism is elucidated based on the crystallographic features of the four phases.

  1. Structural and magnetic properties of Ti12M clusters (M=Sc to Zn)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sun, Houqian; Xu, Ning

    2016-12-01

    The geometries, electronic, and magnetic properties of the 3d atom doped icosahedron (ICO) Ti12M (M=Sc to Zn), where a dopant atom replaces either the centra l(Ti12Mc) or surface (Ti12Ms) Ti atom in ICO Ti13 cluster, have been systematically investigated by using the density functional theory. The structures of all the optimized Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms clusters are distorted ICO. Sc, Ni, Cu, and Zn atoms prefer to displace surface Ti atom, V, Cr, Mn, and Fe atoms prefer to displace central Ti atom. The position of impurity atom depends on the strength of the interaction between the central atom and the surface atoms. As compared to the pure Ti13 cluster, Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms (M=V, Fe, Co, and Ni) clusters are more stable, Ti12Mc and Ti12Ms (M=Sc, Cr, Mn, Cu, and Zn) are less stable. Both Ti12Nis and Ti12Nic are magic clusters, which originate from their electronic as well as geometric closed shells. Because the exchange interaction prevails over the crystal field in Ti12M clusters, the valence electrons fill molecular orbitals in terms of Hund's rule of maximum spin.

  2. Constructing bulk defective perovskite SrTiO3 nanocubes for high performance photocatalysts.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Guoqiang; Jiang, Wenshuai; Hua, Shixin; Zhao, Haifeng; Zhang, Ligong; Sun, Zaicheng

    2016-09-29

    Defects (Ti(3+) or oxygen vacancies) have been demonstrated to promote the charge separation process in TiO2 based photocatalysts. Particularly, the bulk defects within a certain concentration can give a great enhancement for both light absorption and charge separation efficiency. In this report, we explored a one-step molten salts route to synthesize SrTiO3 nanocubes with bulk defects (Ti(3+) doped) by using SrCO3 as a Sr source, and TiO2 and Ti powder as Ti sources. The amount of defects can be tuned by changing the molar ratio of Ti/TiO2. The corresponding bandgap of SrTiO3 can be changed from 3.29 to 2.73 eV with the increase of defects. X-ray diffraction and electron microscopy disclose that SrTiO3 is highly crystalline and has a cubic morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy and electron paramagnetic resonance indicate that the as-prepared SrTiO3 is close to the Ti(3+) doped SrTiO3. Surface photovoltage spectroscopy (SPS) and field-induced SPS confirm that Ti(3+) doping in the SrTiO3 turns it from an n-type semiconductor to p-type. The SrTiO3 with an optimal amount of defects exhibits highly enhanced photocatalytic performance. An excess amount of defects results in a weak SPS response and photocatalytic performance.

  3. Facile synthesis of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene nanosheet composites with enhanced photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Bocheng; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Xiaolong; Sheng, Weiqin; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-02-26

    This study developed a facile approach for preparing Ti(3+) self-doped TiO2-graphene photocatalyst by a one-step vacuum activation technology involved a relative lower temperature, which could be activated by the visible light owing to the synergistic effect among Ti(3+) doping, some new intersurface bonds generation and graphene oxide reduction. Compared with the traditional methods, the vacuum activation involves a low temperature and low-costing, which can achieve the reduction of GO, the self doping of Ti(3+) in TiO2 and the loading of TiO2 nanoparticles on GR surface at the same time. These resulting TiO2-graphene composites show the high photodegradation rate of MO, high hydrogen evolution activity and excellent IPCE in the visible light irradiation. The facile vacuum activation method can provide an effective and practical approach to improve the performance of TiO2-graphene and other metal oxides-graphene towards their practical photocatalytic applications.

  4. Photoelectrocatalytic treatment of pentachlorophenol in aqueous solution using a rutile nanotube-like TiO2/Ti electrode.

    PubMed

    Yang, Shaogui; Quan, Xie; Li, Xinyong; Sun, Cheng

    2006-09-01

    Taking pentachlorophenol (PCP) as a reference, we investigated the photoelectrocatalytic degradation of organic pollutants using a rutile nanotube-like TiO(2)/Ti film electrode. The nanotube-like TiO2 electrode was prepared by first oxidizing the surface of a titanium sheet to form rutile TiO2 and then treating it to form the tubular structure in NaOH aqueous solution. The occurrence of PCP degradation was indicated by the decrease in pH, concentration of PCP and TOC, and by the formation of chloride ions. The photoelectrochemical (PEC) efficiency of the nanotube-like TiO2/Ti electrode has been determined in terms of degradation of PCP and the incident photo-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE). The experimental results showed that PCP could be degraded more efficiently by a photoelectrocatalytic process than by a photocatalytic or electrochemical oxidation alone. A significant photoelectrochemical synergetic effect was observed. The kinetic constant of PEC degradation of PCP using a nanotube-like TiO2 electrode was over 60% higher than that using a TiO2 film electrode. It is noted that chloride ion and hydrogen ion concentration increased with irradiation time in the PEC degradation of PCP; PCP was gradually mineralized and the complete minimization of PCP took more time than its degradation.

  5. Ti/Si/Ti sandwich-like thin film as the anode of lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guo, Shuang; Li, Haixia; Bai, Hongmei; Tao, Zhanliang; Chen, Jun

    2014-02-01

    Ti/Si/Ti sandwich-like thin film, which has been fabricated on copper foam by magnetron sputtering, has been studied as anode material for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries. Instrumental analyses of Raman spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) have been employed to characterize the structure, morphology, composition and valence of the as-deposited films. Charge/discharge tests, cyclic voltammetry (CV) and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS) have been performed to investigate the electrochemical performance of Ti/Si/Ti thin film. It is found that Ti/Si/Ti thin film delivered an initial discharge capacity of 2656 mAh g-1 and a reversible capacity of 1071 mAh g-1 after 100 cycles at 0.5C. When the discharge rate is increased to 10C, the discharge capacity is 950 mAh g-1. The enhanced electrochemical performance is mainly attributed to Ti/Si/Ti sandwich-like structure, which benefits the electrode stability and the electrode process kinetics. The results indicate that the sandwich-like structure is promising in the development of Si-based anode for rechargeable lithium-ion batteries.

  6. Fundamental properties of Ti6Si2B—a new ternary phase in the Ti-Si-B system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wdowik, Urszula D.; Jagło, Grzegorz

    2017-07-01

    Density functional theory studies combined with the method of quasi-harmonic phonons have been undertaken to describe structural, bonding, elastic, vibrational and thermal properties of Ti6Si2B, which is a new ternary phase in the Ti-Si-B system. Analysis of the results is performed in relation to selected compounds from the Ti-Si and Ti-B systems as well as available experimental data. Titanium borosilicide exhibits covalent-type bonds of different strength as indicated by the calculated electron localization functions and the Bader charges. Its elastic and thermal properties are anisotropic due to higher out-of-plane than in-plane lattice compressibility and thermal expansivity. Polycrystalline Ti6Si2B is predicted to be a brittle material with quite high Vicker’s hardness. It is shown that on one hand Ti6Si2B shares many common features with titanium silicides and borides, but on the other hand its mechanical, vibrational and thermal properties are distinct from those of compounds forming the Ti-Si and Ti-B systems. Theoretical phonon and Raman spectra, which are simulated at conditions close to experimental ones, may serve as a guide for interpretation and refinement of experimental spectra as well as symmetry mode assignment. The present work can be considered as a prediction study, still awaiting an experimental verification.

  7. Proton induced production and radiochemical isolation of 44Ti from scandium metal targets for 44Ti/44Sc generator development

    DOE PAGES

    Radchenko, Valery; Engle, Jonathan Ward; Medvedev, Dmitri G.; ...

    2017-04-07

    Scandium-44 g (half-life 3.97 h) shows promise for application in positron emission tomography (PET), due to favorable decay parameters. One of the sources of 44gSc is the 44Ti/44gSc generator, which can conveniently provide this radioisotope on a daily basis at a diagnostic facility. Titanium-44 (half-life 60.0 a), in turn, can be obtained via proton irradiation of scandium metal targets. A substantial 44Ti product batch, however, requires high beam currents, long irradiation times and an elaborate chemical procedure for 44Ti isolation and purification. This study describes the production of a combined 175 MBq (4.7 mCi) batch yield of 44Ti in weekmore » long proton irradiations at the Los Alamos Isotope Production Facility (LANL-IPF) and the Brookhaven Linac Isotope Producer (BNL-BLIP). A two-step ion exchange chromatography based chemical separation method is introduced: first, a coarse separation of 44Ti via anion exchange sorption in concentrated HCl results in a 44Tc/Sc separation factor of 102–103. A second, cation exchange based step in HCl media is then applied for 44Ti fine purification from residual Sc mass. In conclusion, this method yields a 90–97% 44Ti recovery with an overall Ti/Sc separation factor of ≥106.« less

  8. Brazing microstructure of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn with Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni filler metal

    SciTech Connect

    Hsieh, K.C.; Kao, P.W.; Shu, M.F.

    1994-12-31

    Titanium and its alloys have been widely used in the aerospace industry since they have high specific strength and high corrosion resistance. The brazing of titanium is beneficial to join many contact areas simultaneously without severe distortion. The purpose of this study is to investigate the brazing microstructures under different brazing conditions with several Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni filler alloys. In our previous studies, the brazing microstructure of Ti-6Al-4V with Ti-Cu-Ni filler metal have been reported. Since Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn alloy has lower b-transus, the Ti-Cu-Ni filler alloy cannot successfully apply the brazing work. Several Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni alloys were prepared in powder form and pre-alloy form to perform the brazing of Ti-6Al-6V-2Sn at 870{degrees}C. The brazing microstructures are examined under optical metallograph, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), and X-ray analysis. The contents of this report include (1) DTA and phase analysis of Ti-Zr-Cu-Ni filler metals, (2) the brazing microstructure, and (3) the shear test result.

  9. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mahdipoor, M. S.; Kirols, H. S.; Kevorkov, D.; Jedrzejowski, P.; Medraj, M.

    2015-09-01

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ Vn, where the speed exponent is 7-9 for Ti6Al4V and 11-13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl.

  10. Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films synthesized by annealing of (Ti+Al)/AlN multilayers

    SciTech Connect

    Cabioch, Thierry; Alkazaz, Malaz; Beaufort, Marie-France; Nicolai, Julien; Eyidi, Dominique; Eklund, Per

    2016-08-15

    Highlights: • Epitaxial thin films of the MAX phase Ti{sub 2}AlN are obtained by thermal annealing. • A new metastable (Ti,Al,N) solid solution with the structure of α-T is evidenced. • The formation of the MAX phase occurs at low temperature (600 °C). - Abstract: Single-phase Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films were obtained by annealing in vacuum of (Ti + Al)/AlN multilayers deposited at room temperature by magnetron sputtering onto single-crystalline (0001) 4H-SiC and (0001) Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} substrates. In-situ X-ray diffraction experiments combined with ex-situ cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy observations reveal that interdiffusion processes occur in the multilayer at a temperature of ∼400 °C leading to the formation of a (Ti, Al, N) solid solution, having the hexagonal structure of α-Ti, whereas the formation of Ti{sub 2}AlN occurs at 550–600 °C. Highly oriented (0002) Ti{sub 2}AlN thin films can be obtained after an annealing at 750 °C.

  11. Effective nitrogen doping into TiO2 (N-TiO2) for visible light response photocatalysis.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Tomoko; Niimi, Satoshi; Yamamoto, Muneaki; Nomoto, Toyokazu; Yagi, Shinya

    2015-06-01

    The thickness-controlled TiO2 thin films are fabricated by the pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. These samples function as photocatalysts under UV light irradiation and the reaction rate depends on the TiO2 thickness, i.e., with an increase of thickness, it increases to the maximum, followed by decreasing to be constant. Such variation of the reaction rate is fundamentally explained by the competitive production and annihilation processes of photogenerated electrons and holes in TiO2 films, and the optimum TiO2 thickness is estimated to be ca. 10nm. We also tried to dope nitrogen into the effective depth region (ca. 10nm) of TiO2 by an ion implantation technique. The nitrogen doped TiO2 enhanced photocatalytic activity under visible-light irradiation. XANES and XPS analyses indicated two types of chemical state of nitrogen, one photo-catalytically active N substituting the O sites and the other inactive NOx (1⩽x⩽2) species. In the valence band XPS spectrum of the high active sample, the additional electronic states were observed just above the valence band edge of a TiO2. The electronic state would be originated from the substituting nitrogen and be responsible for the band gap narrowing, i.e., visible light response of TiO2 photocatalysts. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effect of frequency on fretting wear behavior of Ti/TiN multilayer film on depleted uranium.

    PubMed

    Wu, Yan-Ping; Li, Zheng-Yang; Zhu, Sheng-Fa; Lu, Lei; Cai, Zhen-Bing

    2017-01-01

    The Ti/TiN multi-layer film was prepared on the depleted uranium (DU) substrate by cathodic arc ion plating equipment. The character of multi-layer film was studied by SEM, XRD and AES, revealed that the surface was composed of small compact particle and the cross-section had a multi-layer structure. The fretting wear performance under different frequencies was performed by a MFT-6000 machine with a ball-on-plate configuration. The wear morphology was analyzed by white light interferometer, OM and SEM with an EDX. The result shows the Ti/TiN multi-layer film could greatly improve the fretting wear performance compared to the DU substrate. The fretting wear running and damaged behavior are strongly dependent on the film and test frequency. The fretting region of DU substrate and Ti/TiN multi-layer under low test frequency is gross slip. With the increase of test frequency, the fretting region of Ti/TiN multi-layer change from gross slip to mixed fretting, then to partial slip.

  13. Effect of frequency on fretting wear behavior of Ti/TiN multilayer film on depleted uranium

    PubMed Central

    Zhu, Sheng-Fa; Lu, Lei; Cai, Zhen-Bing

    2017-01-01

    The Ti/TiN multi-layer film was prepared on the depleted uranium (DU) substrate by cathodic arc ion plating equipment. The character of multi-layer film was studied by SEM, XRD and AES, revealed that the surface was composed of small compact particle and the cross-section had a multi-layer structure. The fretting wear performance under different frequencies was performed by a MFT-6000 machine with a ball-on-plate configuration. The wear morphology was analyzed by white light interferometer, OM and SEM with an EDX. The result shows the Ti/TiN multi-layer film could greatly improve the fretting wear performance compared to the DU substrate. The fretting wear running and damaged behavior are strongly dependent on the film and test frequency. The fretting region of DU substrate and Ti/TiN multi-layer under low test frequency is gross slip. With the increase of test frequency, the fretting region of Ti/TiN multi-layer change from gross slip to mixed fretting, then to partial slip. PMID:28384200

  14. Mechanism of TiC formation in Al/TiC in situ metal-matrix composites

    SciTech Connect

    Chu, M.G.; Premkumar, M.K.

    1993-12-01

    In recent years, metal-matrix composite (MMC) processing techniques have evolved, whereby the reinforcing particulates are formed in situ in a molten alloy, and the melt containing the dispersions is cast into an ingot for subsequent fabrication into wrought products. One such approach involves the formation of TiC particulates in aluminum alloy matrices via a gas-molten metal reaction. In this approach, a carbon-bearing gas is introduced into a molten Al-Ti alloy, allowing Ti in the melt to react with the carbon released from the injected gas to form TiC. The volume fraction and the size of TiC particles are important parameters which influence the mechanical properties of these composites. Although it is reasonably clear that the volume fraction of the TiC particles is basically determined by the initial content of the Ti content of the melt, given a continuous supply of carbon during processing, the mechanisms responsible for controlling the TiC particle size are unclear. This communication is intended to present some recent results which provide some insight into the formation mechanisms.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic properties of nitrogen doped TiO2/Ti photoelectrode prepared by plasma based ion implantation under visible light.

    PubMed

    Han, Lei; Xin, Yanjun; Liu, Huiling; Ma, Xinxin; Tang, Guangze

    2010-03-15

    Nitrogen doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes were prepared by a sequence of anodization and plasma based ion implantation (PBII). The properties of this photoelectrode were characterized by scanning electronic microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), X-ray photoelectron spectrometry (XPS), Ultra violet/visible light diffuse reflectance spectra (UV/vis/DRS), surface photovoltage (SPV), etc. Photoelectrocatalytic (PEC) performance of N-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrode was tested under visible light irradiation. Their photocatalytic activity was evaluated by degradation of Rhodamine B (Rh.B). The results of XPS showed that nitrogen element was in form of three species, i.e. beta-N, molecular gamma-N and O-Ti-N, which existed in the lattices of TiO(2) and gaps between molecules. The results of UV/vis/DRS spectra and SPV revealed that proper doping of nitrogen could expand the response of photoelectrodes towards visible light and diminish the recombination of photo-generated holes and electrons, respectively. The photoelectrocatalytic activity of N-doped TiO(2)/Ti photoelectrodes was superior to those of undoped one under visible light region irradiation.

  16. Design of Heusler Precipitation Strengthened NiTi- and PdTi-Base SMAs for Cyclic Performance

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frankel, Dana J.; Olson, Gregory B.

    2015-06-01

    For a wide range of actuation applications, the performance of NiTi-based shape memory alloys is limited by cyclic instability associated with accommodation slip. For medical applications, low-Ni compositions are also desirable. Increasing yield strength via precipitation of a coherent nanoscale Ni2TiAl-type Heusler phase from a supersaturated B2 matrix is an effective approach for eliminating slip in order to improve the stability of the functional response and increase the structural fatigue life. Quaternary additions that partition into the L21 Heusler phase, such as Zr or Pd, are favorable for reducing interphase misfit and maintaining coherency during aging. Phase relations and precipitation kinetics in quaternary Ni(TiZrAl), low-Ni (PdNi)(TiAl), and Ni-free (PdFe)(TiAl) systems are summarized from TEM and atom probe tomography data in the literature. Strengthening behavior during isothermal aging is compared in the NiTiZrAl and PdNiTiAl systems, and recent work characterizing a high-strength, low-Ni "Hybrid" (PdNi)(TiZrAl) alloy is presented. A systems design approach is taken in which an optimal microstructure for peak strengthening is identified while other property objectives such as transformation temperature, misfit, radiopacity, and biocompatibility are satisfied.

  17. Facile synthesis of the Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene nanosheet composites with enhanced photocatalysis

    PubMed Central

    Qiu, Bocheng; Zhou, Yi; Ma, Yunfei; Yang, Xiaolong; Sheng, Weiqin; Xing, Mingyang; Zhang, Jinlong

    2015-01-01

    This study developed a facile approach for preparing Ti3+ self-doped TiO2-graphene photocatalyst by a one-step vacuum activation technology involved a relative lower temperature, which could be activated by the visible light owing to the synergistic effect among Ti3+ doping, some new intersurface bonds generation and graphene oxide reduction. Compared with the traditional methods, the vacuum activation involves a low temperature and low-costing, which can achieve the reduction of GO, the self doping of Ti3+ in TiO2 and the loading of TiO2 nanoparticles on GR surface at the same time. These resulting TiO2-graphene composites show the high photodegradation rate of MO, high hydrogen evolution activity and excellent IPCE in the visible light irradiation. The facile vacuum activation method can provide an effective and practical approach to improve the performance of TiO2-graphene and other metal oxides-graphene towards their practical photocatalytic applications. PMID:25716132

  18. Tribological Properties of TiO2/SiO2 Double Layer Coatings Deposited on CP-Ti

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Çomakli, O.; Yazici, M.; Yetim, T.; Yetim, A. F.; Çelik, A.

    In the present paper, the influences of different double layer on wear and scratch performances of commercially pure Titanium (CP-Ti) were investigated. TiO2/SiO2 and SiO2/TiO2 double layer coatings were deposited on CP-Ti by sol-gel dip coating process and calcined at 750∘C. The phase structure, cross-sectional morphology, composition, wear track morphologies, adhesion properties, hardness and roughness of uncoated and coated samples were characterized with X-ray diffraction, scanning electron microscopy (SEM), nano-indentation technique, scratch tester and 3D profilometer. Also, the tribological performances of all samples were investigated by a pin-on-disc tribo-tester against Al2O3 ball. Results showed that hardness, elastic modulus and adhesion resistance of double layer coated samples were higher than untreated CP-Ti. It was found that these properties of TiO2/SiO2 double layer coatings have higher than SiO2/TiO2 double layer coating. Additionally, the lowest friction coefficient and wear rates were obtained from TiO2/SiO2 double layer coatings. Therefore, it was seen that phase structure, hardness and film adhesion are important factors on the tribological properties of double layer coatings.

  19. Fabrication of TiO{sub 2} Thick Film for Photocatalyst from Commercial TiO{sub 2} Powder

    SciTech Connect

    Asteti, S. Fuji; Syarif, D. Gustaman

    2008-03-17

    Photocatalytic activity of TiO{sub 2} thick film ceramics made of commercial TiO{sub 2} powder has been studied. The TiO{sub 2} powder was nano sized one that was derived from dried TiO{sub 2} suspension. The TiO{sub 2} suspension was made by pouring some blended commercial TiO{sub 2} powder into some amount of water. The paste of TiO{sub 2} was made by mixing the nano sized TiO{sub 2} powder with organic vehicle and glass frit. The paste was spread on a glass substrate. The paste was dried at 100 deg. C and heated at different temperatures (400 deg. C and 500 deg. C) for 60 minutes to produce thick film ceramics. The photocatalytic activity of these films was evaluated by measuring the concentration of a solution of methylene blue where the thick films were inside after being illuminated by UV light at various periods of times. The initial concentration of the methylene blue solution was 5 ppm. Structural analyses were carried out by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The XRD analyses showed that the produced thick film ceramic had mainly crystal structure of anatase. According to the photocatalytical data, it was known that the produced thick film ceramics were photocatalyst which were capable of decomposing an organic compound such as the methylene blue.

  20. Novel synthesis and electrophoretic response of low density TiO-TiO 2-carbon black composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tan, Tingfeng; Wang, Shirong; Bian, Shuguang; Li, Xianggao; An, Yong; Liu, Zhaojun

    2010-09-01

    Novel low density TiO-TiO 2-carbon black composite was synthesized, which involved the deposition of inorganic coating on the surface of core-shell latex particles and subsequent removal of latex particles by calcination in high-purity nitrogen. The morphology and interior structure were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The images exhibited the composite had spherical shape and smooth surface, and the interior structure was hollow or porous. X-ray diffraction peaks (XRD) were mostly in agreement with the standard diffraction patterns of rutile TiO 2. In addition, the observed peaks at 2 θ of 43.5°, 50.6° and 74.4° can be indexed to (1 1 1), (2 0 0) and (2 2 0) planes of cubic phase TiO. The X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) results indicated that composite consisted of carbon black, TiO and TiO 2. The apparent density of the composite was suitable to 1.62 g cm -3, due to density matching with suspending media. Glutin-arabic gum microcapsules containing TiO-TiO 2-carbon black composite electrophoretic liquid were prepared via complex coacervation. The particles in the microcapsules showed excellent electrophoretic mobility under a DC field.

  1. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V.

    PubMed

    Mahdipoor, M S; Kirols, H S; Kevorkov, D; Jedrzejowski, P; Medraj, M

    2015-09-22

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ V(n), where the speed exponent is 7-9 for Ti6Al4V and 11-13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl.

  2. Influence of impact speed on water droplet erosion of TiAl compared with Ti6Al4V

    PubMed Central

    Mahdipoor, M.S.; Kirols, H.S.; Kevorkov, D.; Jedrzejowski, P.; Medraj, M.

    2015-01-01

    Water Droplet Erosion (WDE) as a material degradation phenomenon has been a concern in power generation industries for decades. Steam turbine blades and the compressor blades of gas turbines that use water injection usually suffer from WDE. The present work focuses on studying erosion resistance of TiAl as a potential alloy for turbine blades compared to Ti6Al4V, a frequently used blade alloy. Their erosion behaviour is investigated at different droplet impact speeds to determine the relation between erosion performance and impact speed. It is found that the relationship is governed by a power law equation, ER ~ Vn, where the speed exponent is 7–9 for Ti6Al4V and 11–13 for TiAl. There is a contrast between the observed speed exponent in this work and the ones reported in the literature for Ti6Al4V. It is attributed to the different erosion setups and impingement conditions such as different droplet sizes. To verify this, the erosion experiments were performed at two different droplet sizes, 464 and 603 μm. TiAl showed superior erosion resistance in all erosion conditions; however, its erosion performance exhibits higher sensitivity to the impact speed compared to Ti6Al4V. It means that aggressive erosion conditions decrease the WDE resistance superiority of TiAl. PMID:26391370

  3. Ti K-edge X-ray absorption spectra of spray pyrolysis synthesized TiO2-x and TiO2-x Nx thin films

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sahoo, Madhusmita; Yadav, Ashok Kumar; Jha, S. N.; Bhattacharyya, Dibyendu; Mathews, Tom; Dash, S.

    2017-05-01

    Oxygen deficient TiO2 and N-TiO2 anatase thin films were synthesized by employing a two step process. First TiO2 and N-TiO2 films were synthesized by using a cost effective spray pyrolysis method. Subsequently, these films were reduced under H2 to create oxygen vacancies. Formation of oxygen vacancies was confirmed by using synchrotron source X-ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS). Effect of oxygen vacancies on electronic and structural properties were deduced from the near edge and extended region analysis of the X-ray absorption spectra. It is inferred that reduction time plays a crucial role in creating oxygen vacancies and number of oxygen vacancies increases with increase in reduction time. Substrate effect was delineated by using Si and FTO (Fluorine doped tin oxide coated glass) as substrates for film deposition.

  4. Hyaluronic acid immobilization on the poly-allylamine coated nano-network TiO2 surface.

    PubMed

    Shim, Jae-Won; Lee, Kang; Jeong, Moon-Jin; Jung, Sang-Chul; Kim, Byung-Hoon

    2011-08-01

    Recently, biocompatibility report revealed that the TiO2 nano-network (TiO2 NT) structure has much higher cells colonization than the native TiO2 on Ti surface. In this study, we prepared the hyaluronic acid (HA) immobilized TiO2 NT layer by plasma surface modification and then evaluated biological behavior of MC3T3-E1 on the Ti, TiO2 NT and TiO2 NT/NH2/HA surface. The cell viability tests revealed slightly enhanced viability on the TiO2 NT/NH2/HA surfaces than on the untreated Ti surfaces.

  5. WO x , SiO2, TiO2/Ti composites, fabricated by means of plasma electrolytic oxidation, as catalysts of ethanol dehydration into ethylene

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vasilyeva, M. S.; Rudnev, V. S.; Tulush, A. I.; Nedozorov, P. M.; Ustinov, A. Yu.

    2015-06-01

    WO3, SiO2, TiO2/Ti composites are fabricated and studied by means of X-ray diffraction analysis and X-ray photoelectron and IR spectroscopy. It is established that the surface of an oxide coating contains up to 2% of tungsten in the composition of WO3, SiO2, and TiO2, along with carbon compounds. Data on the catalytic activity of SiO2, TiO2/Ti and WO3, SiO2, TiO2/Ti composites in ethanol dehydration are obtained. In the case of WO3, SiO2, TiO2/Ti composites, the degree of conversion and the selectivity of ethanol transformation into ethylene at 480°C reaches 97%.

  6. Improved performance of dye-sensitized solar cell based on TiO2 photoanode with FTO glass and film both treated by TiCl4

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Li, Jinlun; Zhang, Haiyan; Wang, Wenguang; Qian, Yannan; Li, Zhenghui

    2016-11-01

    The dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC) based on TiO2 photoanode with FTO glass and TiO2 film co-treated by TiCl4 were fabricated. The effects of TiCl4 treatment on the photovoltaic performance of the DSSCs were investigated. TiCl4 treatment of the FTO glass resulted in the formation of a compact TiO2 thin layer on its surface, which could increase the electron collection efficiency. Meanwhile, TiCl4 treatment of the TiO2 film could fill gaps between nanoparticles in the TiO2 film, leading to better electron transfer. These advantages make the DSSC exhibit a highest conversion efficiency of 3.34% under a simulated solar irradiation with an intensity of 100 mW/cm2 (1 sun), increased by 38% compared with that of the untreated DSSC.

  7. Dual phase Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 hierarchical hollow microspheres as anode materials for high rate lithium-ion batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhu, Kunxu; Hu, Guoxin

    2017-01-01

    Dual phase Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 hierarchical hollow microspheres composed of nanosheets are successfully fabricated by the calcination of hydrothermal product obtained from lithium peroxotitanate complex solution. Low-cost industrial H2TiO3 particles are chosen as titanium sources, which is significant for the inexpensive and large-scale production of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 composite material. The Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 electrode yields excellent rate capability (151, 139 and 134 mA h g-1 at 10, 20 and 25 C, respectively) and good cycling stability (96% capacity retention after 500 cycles at 10 C). The mesoporous hierarchical morphology and high grain boundary density are likely the contributing factors to the excellent electrochemical performance of Li4Ti5O12-TiO2 composite.

  8. XANES and micro-Raman spectroscopy study of the barium titanosilicates BaTiSi2O7 and BaTiSi4O11

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Viani, A.; Pollastri, S.; Macova, P.; Palermo, A.; Peréz-Estébanez, M.; Gualtieri, A. F.

    2016-04-01

    The coordination environment around Ti4+ in the photoluminescent compound BaTiSi2O7 and in BaTiSi4O11 was investigated with X-ray absorption near-edge structure spectroscopy and micro-Raman spectroscopy. The presence of VTi in TiO5 pyramidal units with one short Ti-O bond involving the apical oxygen was detected in both compounds. Interpretation of the vibrational signal from the silicate framework suggested that BaTiSi4O11 is a metasilicate containing building units of SiO4 tetrahedra, which are larger than in other barium titanosilicates. These results confirmed the same structural environment of Ti4+ as recently disclosed by structure refinement of BaTiSi2O7 and provided new insights into the unknown structure of BaTiSi4O11 in the light of the study of its physical properties as potential functional material.

  9. Synthesis of TiN-BaTiO3 core-shell structured ceramics: A new approach to ferroelectric thin-film formation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fujimoto, Masayuki; Cheng, Ikung; Kao, Yuju; Kuwabara, Satoshi; Sano, Tatsuo; Matsumoto, Hiroaki

    2015-01-01

    This is the first report of the topotaxial growth of perovskite BaTiO3 on TiN by a solid-state reaction between BaCO3 and TiN. The sintering of the BaTiO3 powder in a conventional controlled-atmosphere continuous furnace is also quite unique in the sense that it mainly involves the mass transfer of BaTiO3 shell layers by diffusion. Consequently, the TiN core does not actually contribute to the sintering process, as its diffusion activity is very low. Thus, the obtained core-shell structured TiN-BaTiO3 ceramic is rather unique in having a retained TiN core that can act as a noncontact metallic electrode.

  10. Role of interfacial layer on complementary resistive switching in the TiN/HfO{sub x}/TiN resistive memory device

    SciTech Connect

    Zhang, H. Z.; Ang, D. S. Gu, C. J.; Yew, K. S.; Wang, X. P.; Lo, G. Q.

    2014-12-01

    The role of the bottom interfacial layer (IL) in enabling stable complementary resistive switching (CRS) in the TiN/HfO{sub x}/IL/TiN resistive memory device is revealed. Stable CRS is obtained for the TiN/HfO{sub x}/IL/TiN device, where a bottom IL comprising Hf and Ti sub-oxides resulted from the oxidation of TiN during the initial stages of atomic-layer deposition of HfO{sub x} layer. In the TiN/HfO{sub x}/Pt device, where formation of the bottom IL is suppressed by the inert Pt metal, no CRS is observed. Oxygen-ion exchange between IL and the conductive path in HfO{sub x} layer is proposed to have caused the complementary bipolar switching behavior observed in the TiN/HfO{sub x}/IL/TiN device.

  11. Structural evidence for enhanced polarization in a commensurate short-period BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattice

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tian, W.; Jiang, J. C.; Pan, X. Q.; Haeni, J. H.; Li, Y. L.; Chen, L. Q.; Schlom, D. G.; Neaton, J. B.; Rabe, K. M.; Jia, Q. X.

    2006-08-01

    A short-period (BaTiO3)6/(SrTiO3)5 superlattice was characterized by x-ray diffraction and transmission electron microscopy. The superlattice is epitaxially oriented with the c axes of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 normal to the (001) surface of the SrTiO3 substrate. Despite the large in-plane lattice mismatch between BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 (˜2.2%), the superlattice interfaces were found to be nearly commensurate. The crystallographic c /a ratio of the superlattice was measured and the results agree quantitatively with first-principles calculations and phase-field modeling. The agreement supports the validity of the enhanced spontaneous polarization predicted for short-period BaTiO3/SrTiO3 superlattices.

  12. Crystalline structure of TiC ultrathin layers formed on highly oriented pyrolytic graphite by chemical reaction from Ti/graphite system

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nakatsuka, Osamu; Hisada, Kenji; Oida, Satoshi; Sakai, Akira; Zaima, Shigeaki

    2016-06-01

    We have investigated the atomic-scale reaction between a Ti thin layer and highly oriented pyrolytic graphite (HOPG) mainly by scanning tunneling microscopy. A deposited Ti layer shows an epitaxial orientation structure on a HOPG substrate even in room-temperature deposition, while the bonding between Ti and HOPG is very weak. The chemical reaction between Ti and HOPG takes place, and epitaxial TiC domains on HOPG are formed for annealing at above 600 °C. The TiC domains shows a smooth surface corresponding to the TiC(111) plane after annealing at 700 °C. The formation of TiC(001) facets and significant surface roughening of not only TiC but also HOPG substrates are observed for annealing at as high as 900 °C.

  13. NiTi and NiTi-TiC composites. Part 4: Neutron diffraction study of twinning and shape-memory recovery

    SciTech Connect

    Dunand, D.C.; Mari, D.; Bourke, M.A.M.; Roberts, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    Neutron diffraction measurements of internal elastic strains and crystallographic orientation were performed during compressive deformation of martensitic NiTi containing 0 vol pct and 20 vol pct TiC particles. For bulk NiTi, some twinning takes place upon initial loading below the apparent yield stress, resulting in a low apparent Young`s modulus; for reinforced NiTi, the elastic mismatch from the stiff particles enhances this effect. However, elastic load transfer between matrix and reinforcement takes place above and below the composite apparent yield stress, in good agreement with continuum mechanics predictions. Macroscopic plastic deformation occurs by matrix twinning, whereby (1 0 0) planes tend to align perpendicular to the stress axis. The elastic TiC particles do not alter the overall twinning behavior, indicating that the mismatch stresses associated with NiTi plastic deformation are fully relaxed by localized twinning at the interface between the matrix and the reinforcement. For both bulk and reinforced NiTi, partial reverse twinning takes place upon unloading, as indicated by a Bauschinger effect followed by rubberlike behavior, resulting in very low residual stresses in the unloaded condition. Shape-memory heat treatment leads to further recovery of the preferred orientation and very low residual stresses, as a result of self-accommodation during the phase transformations. It is concluded that, except for elastic load transfer, the thermal, transformation, and plastic mismatches resulting from the TiC particles are efficiently canceled by matrix twinning, in contrast to metal matrix composites deforming by slip.

  14. Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) versus titanium alloy (Ti6Al4V) materials as bone anchored implants - Is one truly better than the other?

    PubMed

    Shah, Furqan A; Trobos, Margarita; Thomsen, Peter; Palmquist, Anders

    2016-05-01

    Commercially pure titanium (cp-Ti) and titanium alloys (typically Ti6Al4V) display excellent corrosion resistance and biocompatibility. Although the chemical composition and topography are considered important, the mechanical properties of the material and the loading conditions in the host have, conventionally, influenced material selection for different clinical applications: predominantly Ti6Al4V in orthopaedics while cp-Ti in dentistry. This paper attempts to address three important questions: (i) To what extent do the surface properties differ when cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V materials are manufactured with the same processing technique?, (ii) Does bone tissue respond differently to the two materials, and (iii) Do bacteria responsible for causing biomaterial-associated infections respond differently to the two materials? It is concluded that: (i) Machined cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V exhibit similar surface morphology, topography, phase composition and chemistry, (ii) Under experimental conditions, cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V demonstrate similar osseointegration and biomechanical anchorage, and (iii) Experiments in vitro fail to disclose differences between cp-Ti and Ti6Al4V to harbour Staphylococcus epidermidis growth. No clinical comparative studies exist which could determine if long-term, clinical differences exist between the two types of bulk materials. It is debatable whether cp-Ti or Ti6Al4V exhibit superiority over the other, and further comparative studies, particularly in a clinical setting, are required. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Investigations on Li4Ti5O12/Ti3O5 Composite as an Anode Material for Lithium-Ion Batteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Yuanhua; Xu, Wen; Zhang, Xiaoyan; Wang, Lijun; Liu, Wanying

    2017-09-01

    The Ti3O5 powder with uniform morphology has been successfully obtained and used to synthesize Li4Ti5O12/Ti3O5 composite material by ball milling for modifying Li4Ti5O12-based, lithium-ion battery anodes. Moreover, according to the relative performance investigations, the synthesized Li4Ti5O12/Ti3O5 composite shows better electrochemical properties than that of the Li4Ti5O12. At a high rate (10 C), the capacity of the Li4Ti5O12/Ti3O5 composite electrode is 139.8 mAhg-1, whereas the value of Li4Ti5O12 is 121.6 mAhg-1, showing a capacity enhanced about 14.97%. After 100 cycles at 0.2 C, the discharge capacity of Li4Ti5O12/Ti3O5 remains at 160 mAhg-1 with a capacity loss of 2.6%. The results indicate that the Li4Ti5O12/Ti3O5 composite electrode can be used as anode material with a relatively higher rate capability and excellent cycle performance in lithium-ion batteries.

  16. Grain Refinement Efficiency in Commercial-Purity Aluminum Influenced by the Addition of Al-4Ti Master Alloys with Varying TiAl₃ Particles.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Jianhua; He, Jiansheng; Tang, Qi; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing

    2016-10-26

    A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl₃ particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K₂TiF₆ or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl₃ particles were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructure of TiAl₃ particles in Al-4Ti master alloys and their grain refinement efficiency in commercial-purity aluminum were investigated in this study. Results show that there were three different morphologies of TiAl₃ particles in Al-4Ti master alloys: petal-like structures, blocky structures, and flaky structures. The Al-4Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl₃ particles had better and more stable grain refinement efficiency than the master alloys with petal-like and flaky TiAl₃ particles. The average grain size of the refined commercial-purity aluminum always hereditarily followed the size of the original TiAl₃ particles. In addition, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-4Ti master alloys with the same morphology, size, and distribution of TiAl₃ particles prepared through different processes was almost identical.

  17. Grain Refinement Efficiency in Commercial-Purity Aluminum Influenced by the Addition of Al-4Ti Master Alloys with Varying TiAl3 Particles

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Jianhua; He, Jiansheng; Tang, Qi; Wang, Tao; Chen, Jing

    2016-01-01

    A series of Al-4Ti master alloys with various TiAl3 particles were prepared via pouring the pure aluminum added with K2TiF6 or sponge titanium into three different molds made of graphite, copper, and sand. The microstructure and morphology of TiAl3 particles were characterized and analyzed by scanning electron microscope (SEM) with energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). The microstructure of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys and their grain refinement efficiency in commercial-purity aluminum were investigated in this study. Results show that there were three different morphologies of TiAl3 particles in Al-4Ti master alloys: petal-like structures, blocky structures, and flaky structures. The Al-4Ti master alloy with blocky TiAl3 particles had better and more stable grain refinement efficiency than the master alloys with petal-like and flaky TiAl3 particles. The average grain size of the refined commercial-purity aluminum always hereditarily followed the size of the original TiAl3 particles. In addition, the grain refinement efficiency of Al-4Ti master alloys with the same morphology, size, and distribution of TiAl3 particles prepared through different processes was almost identical. PMID:28773987

  18. Growth mechanism of atomic-layer-deposited TiAlC metal gate based on TiCl4 and TMA precursors

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jinjuan, Xiang; Yuqiang, Ding; Liyong, Du; Junfeng, Li; Wenwu, Wang; Chao, Zhao

    2016-03-01

    TiAlC metal gate for the metal-oxide-semiconductor field-effect-transistor (MOSFET) is grown by the atomic layer deposition method using TiCl4 and Al(CH3)3(TMA) as precursors. It is found that the major product of the TiCl4 and TMA reaction is TiAlC, and the components of C and Al are found to increase with higher growth temperature. The reaction mechanism is investigated by using x-ray photoemission spectroscopy (XPS), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), and scanning electron microscope (SEM). The reaction mechanism is as follows. Ti is generated through the reduction of TiCl4 by TMA. The reductive behavior of TMA involves the formation of ethane. The Ti from the reduction of TiCl4 by TMA reacts with ethane easily forming heterogenetic TiCH2, TiCH=CH2 and TiC fragments. In addition, TMA thermally decomposes, driving Al into the TiC film and leading to TiAlC formation. With the growth temperature increasing, TMA decomposes more severely, resulting in more C and Al in the TiAlC film. Thus, the film composition can be controlled by the growth temperature to a certain extent. Project supported by the Key Technology Study for 16/14 nm Program of the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (Grant No. 2013ZX02303).

  19. Degradation of TiB2/TiC Composites in Liquid Nd and Molten NdF3-LiF-Nd2O3 System

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Huihua; Su, Lijuan; Wang, Deyong; Qu, Tianpeng; Tu, Ganfeng

    2016-11-01

    The degradation of titanium diboride (TiB2)/titanium carbide (TiC) composites in the liquid Nd and molten NdF3-Nd2O3-LiF salts is investigated at 1,060 °C, respectively. The penetration of TiB2/TiC composites by liquid Nd mainly depended on the grain boundaries and residual pores, even if the coherent interface is formed between TiB2 and TiC. The oxidation of TiB2 led to further interfacial chemistry reactions, which speeded up the degradation of TiB2/TiC composites at the initial stage in NdF3 -LiF-Nd2O3 system. After that, the degradation was slowed because of the formation of diffusion boundary layer, and then chemical penetration was replaced gradually by the physical penetration. The dissolved Ti in liquid Nd and NdF3-LiF-Nd2O3 melts are used to evaluate the corrosion rate of TiB2/TiC composites, and the calculated values were about 0.56 and 7.8 mm/year, respectively. After the penetration by liquid Nd and NdF3-LiF-Nd2O3 melts, the bending strengths of TiB2/TiC composites decreased and the fracture mode changed from transgranular to intergranular due to the decreased grain boundary force.

  20. Effect of TiO2 blocking layer on TiO2 nanorod arrays based dye sensitized solar cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sivakumar, R.; Paulraj, M.

    2016-05-01

    Highly ordered rutile titanium dioxide nanorod (TNR) arrays (1.2 to 6.2 μm thickness) were grown on TiO2 blocking layer chemically deposited on fluorine doped tin oxide (FTO) substrate and were used as photo-electrodes to fabricate dye sensitized solar cells (DSSC's). Homogeneous layer of TiO2 on FTO was achieved by using aqueous peroxo- titanium complex (PTC) solutions via chemical bath deposition. Structural and morphological properties of the prepared samples were investigated using X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) measurements. TNR arrays (6.2 μm) with TiO2 blocking layer showed higher energy conversion efficiency (1.46%) than that without TiO2 blocking layer. The reason can be ascertained to the suppression of electron-hole recombination at the semiconductor/electrolyte interface by the effect of TiO2 blocking layer.

  1. Biocorrosion studies of TiO2 nanoparticle-coated Ti-6Al-4V implant in simulated biofluids

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zaveri, Nikita; McEwen, Gerald D.; Karpagavalli, Ramji; Zhou, Anhong

    2010-06-01

    The corrosion behaviors of the TiO2 nanoparticles coated bioimplant Ti-6Al-4V exposed to three different simulated biofluids (SBF), namely, (1) NaCl solution, (2) Hank's solution, and (3) Cigada solution, were studied by using micro-Raman spectroscopy, electrochemical techniques, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS). The different electrochemical impedance spectroscopy models were applied to fit the data obtained from the implants before and after the coating of TiO2 nanoparticles (50-100 nm). It was found that the TiO2 nanoparticle coatings increased the thickness of the pre-existing oxide layer on the Ti-6Al-4V surface, serving to improve the bioimplant corrosion resistance.

  2. Photocatalysis effect of nanometer TiO2 and TiO2-coated ceramic plate on Hepatitis B virus.

    PubMed

    Zan, Ling; Fa, Wenjun; Peng, Tianyou; Gong, Zhen-Kui

    2007-02-01

    The photocatalysis effect of nanometer TiO2 particles and TiO2-coated ceramic plate on Hepatitis B virus surface antigen (HBsAg) was investigated. The ELISA (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay) standard method was used to assess the efficiency of TiO2 material to destroy the HBsAg. The research has shown that the suspension of TiO2 (0.5g/L) can destroy most of the HBsAg under the irradiation of mercury lamp, with the light intensity of 0.6mW/cm(2) at 365nm wavelength, or under the sunlight irradiation for a few hours. TiO2-coated ceramic plates can also destroy the HBsAg under the irradiation of mercury lamp, with the light intensity of 0.05mW/cm(2) at 365nm wavelength or under the room daylight for a few hours.

  3. Study of the microstructure evolution of heat treated Ti-rich NiTi shape memory alloy

    SciTech Connect

    Tadayyon, Ghazal; Mazinani, Mohammad; Guo, Yina; Zebarjad, Seyed Mojtaba; Tofail, Syed A.M.; Biggs, Manus J.P.

    2016-02-15

    Martensitic evolution in Ti-rich NiTi alloy, Ti50.5Ni49.5, has been investigated as a function of annealing, solution treatment and a combination thereof and a detailed electron microscopic investigation carried out. Self-accommodated martensite plates resulted in all heat treated samples. Martensitic < 011 > type II twins, which are common in NiTi shape memory alloys, was found in both as-received and heat-treated samples. Solution treated samples, additionally, showed {11-1} type I twinning was also found in samples that have been annealed after solution-treatment. Another common feature of the microstructure in both as-received and heat treated samples is the formation of Ti{sub 2}Ni precipitates. The size, number and dispersions of these precipitates can be controlled by resorting to a suitable heat treatment e.g. solution treatment.

  4. Investigation of Ti2AlC and TiC by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Magnuson, Martin

    2007-04-01

    The electronic structure of the MAX-phase Ti2AlC was investigated by soft x-ray emission spectroscopy. This nanolaminated carbide compound represents a class of layered materials with a combination of properties from both metals and ceramics. The bulk-sensitive soft x-ray emission technique is shown to be particularly useful for detecting detailed electronic structure information about internal monolayers and interfaces. The Ti-Al bonding is manifested by a pronounced peak in the Ti L-emission of Ti2AlC, which is not present in the binary TiC system. The spectral shape of Al L-emission in the MAX-phase is strongly modified in comparison to metallic Al. By replacing the constituting elements, a change of the electron population can be achieved causing a change of covalent bonding between the laminated layers, which enables control of the macroscopic properties of the material.

  5. Synthesis and deformation of a Ti doped quartz aggregate

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nachlas, William O.; Hirth, Greg; Teyssier, Christian; Whitney, Donna L.; Zimmerman, Mark

    2013-04-01

    A primary advantage of studying mylonites for thermobarometric reconstructions of tectonic events is that it enables direct comparison of P-T estimates with the mechanics of quartz deformation. Quartz is a common phase in crustal mylonites and is a particularly sensitive recorder of metamorphic and rheologic conditions in shear zones, owing to its responsiveness to dynamic recrystallization, involvement in metamorphic reaction, and propensity for dissolution and precipitation. The signature of its trace element chemistry, particularly Ti, can reflect involvement from each of these processes. The concentration of Ti in mylonites is typically heterogeneous at the thin section scale, providing a rich record of the different factors that influence the incorporation of Ti in quartz. Observations of quartz in deformed mylonite and undeformed protolith from an extensional shear zone in the North American Cordillera (Shuswap Complex, Canada) show that an originally uniform Ti distribution was modified during deformation to form zoned crystals in which the core preserves a higher Ti concentration than the rim. The zoned Ti concentration likely records a continuum of deformation conditions during extension-related exhumation, and this presents a challenge in resolving the effect of deformation on the equilibrium solubility of Ti in quartz in natural settings. By conducting deformation experiments on synthetic quartz aggregates with known Ti concentration at a constant, elevated temperature and pressure under high strain conditions, we investigate the influence of progressive dynamic recrystallization on Ti solubility in quartz. This study applies a novel doping technique that enables the synthesis of a large population of quartz crystals with a precisely controlled Ti concentration and distribution. This produces a sample that most closely replicates the protolith of extensional shear zones that typically develop under retrograde conditions. This strategy can be used to

  6. Microstructure and high-temperature oxidation resistance of TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coatings on Ti6Al4V alloy surface by laser cladding

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zhang, Xiaowei; Liu, Hongxi; Wang, Chuanqi; Zeng, Weihua; Jiang, Yehua

    2010-11-01

    A high-temperature oxidation resistant TiN embedded in Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating was fabricated on titanium alloy Ti6Al4V surface by 6kW transverse-flow CO2 laser apparatus. The composition, morphology and microstructure of the laser clad TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating were characterized by optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and energy dispersive spectrometer (EDS). In order to evaluate the high-temperature oxidation resistance of the composite coatings and the titanium alloy substrate, isothermal oxidation test was performed in a conventional high-temperature resistance furnace at 600°C and 800°C respectively. The result shows that the laser clad intermetallic composite coating has a rapidly solidified fine microstructure consisting of TiN primary phase (granular-like, flake-like, and dendrites), and uniformly distributed in the Ti3Al matrix. It indicates that a physical and chemical reaction between the Ti powder and AlN powder occurred completely under the laser irradiation. In addition, the microhardness of the TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is 844HV0.2, 3.4 times higher than that of the titanium alloy substrate. The high-temperature oxidation resistance test reveals that TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating results in the better modification of high-temperature oxidation behavior than the titanium substrate. The excellent high-temperature oxidation resistance of the laser cladding layer is attributed to the formation of the reinforced phase TiN and Al2O3, TiO2 hybrid oxide. Therefore, the laser cladding TiN/Ti3Al intermetallic matrix composite coating is anticipated to be a promising oxidation resistance surface modification technique for Ti6Al4V alloy.

  7. Antifungal activity of Ag:hydroxyapatite thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on Ti and Ti modified by TiO2 nanotubes substrates

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Eraković, S.; Janković, A.; Ristoscu, C.; Duta, L.; Serban, N.; Visan, A.; Mihailescu, I. N.; Stan, G. E.; Socol, M.; Iordache, O.; Dumitrescu, I.; Luculescu, C. R.; Janaćković, Dj.; Miškovic-Stanković, V.

    2014-02-01

    Hydroxyapatite (HA) is a widely used biomaterial for implant thin films, largely recognized for its excellent capability to chemically bond to hard tissue inducing the osteogenesis without immune response from human tissues. Nowadays, intense research efforts are focused on development of antimicrobial HA doped thin films. In particular, HA doped with Ag (Ag:HA) is expected to inhibit the attachment of microbes and contamination of metallic implant surface. We herewith report on nano-sized HA and Ag:HA thin films synthesized by pulsed laser deposition on pure Ti and Ti modified with 100 nm diameter TiO2 nanotubes (fabricated by anodization of Ti plates) substrates. The HA-based thin films were characterized by SEM, AFM, EDS, FTIR, and XRD. The cytotoxic activity was tested with HEp2 cells against controls. The antifungal efficiency of the deposited layers was tested against the Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger strains. The Ti substrates modified with TiO2 nanotubes covered with Ag:HA thin films showed the highest antifungal activity.

  8. Effects of Ti and TiC ceramic powder on laser-cladded Ti-6Al-4V in situ intermetallic composite

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ochonogor, O. F.; Meacock, C.; Abdulwahab, M.; Pityana, S.; Popoola, A. P. I.

    2012-12-01

    Titanium metal matrix composite (MMCs) was developed on titanium alloy (Ti-6Al-4V) substrate with the aim of improving the hardness and wear properties by laser cladding technique using a Rofin Sinar 4 kW Nd: YAG laser. Wear investigations were carried out with the aid of three body abrasion tester. The resultant microstructure show homogeneous distribution of TiC particles free from cracks and pores. Multiple track deposited systems with 50% overlap revealed micro-hardness increase from 357.3 HV0.1for the substrate reaching a peak as high as 922.2 HV0.1 for 60%Ti + 40%TiC and the least 665.3 HV0.1 for 80%Ti + 20%TiC MMCs. The wear resistance of the materials improved significantly, indicating a fifteen-fold wear rate reduction due to the proper distribution of ceramic particles thereby forming interstitial carbides as revealed by the X-ray diffraction spectrum.

  9. In vivo testing of canine prosthetic femoral components with HA-Ti ladder-type coating on vacuum plasma-sprayed Ti substrate.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Xian-lin; Li, Jing-feng; Yang, Shu-hua; Zheng, Qi-xin; Zou, Zhen-wei

    2013-08-01

    The purpose of the present study was to observe the structure and functional change of the bone-coating-prosthesis interface in vivo and to evaluate the histocompatibility of self-made prosthetic femoral components in the body and the degree of their bonding with the surrounding bone tissues as well as their stability. Six mature beagle dogs underwent bilateral hip replacement with prosthetic femur components. Three groups were established in terms of different coating of prothesis (four joints in each group): atmosphere (A) plasma-sprayed pure titanium (Ti) prosthetic joint with hydroxyapatite (HA) coating (HA+Ti+A group); vacuum (V) plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with HA coating (HA+Ti+V group); vacuum plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with Ti-HA stepped coating (Ti+HAG+Ti+V group). The hip joints were functionally evaluated, and subjected to X-ray examination, biomechanics inspection, and histological examination. As a result, X-ray imaging revealed all prosthetic joints were in a good location and no dislocation of joint was found. Shear strength of interface was significantly higher in Ti+HAG+Ti+V group than in HA+Ti+V group (P<0.05) and HA+Ti+A group (P<0.05) at 28th week. Histological examination showed the amount of newborn bone in Ti+HAG+Ti+V group was more than in HA+Ti+V group and HA+Ti+A group after 28 weeks. It was suggested that vacuum plasma-sprayed pure Ti prosthetic joint with TI-HA stepped coating could improve the bonding capacity of bone-prosthesis, enhance the stability of prosthesis, and increase the fixion of prosthetic femoral components because of better bone growth. This new type of biological material in prosthetic femoral components holds promises for application in clinical practice.

  10. Reactive magnetron cosputtering of hard and conductive ternary nitride thin films: Ti-Zr-N and Ti-Ta-N

    SciTech Connect

    Abadias, G.; Koutsokeras, L. E.; Dub, S. N.; Tolmachova, G. N.; Debelle, A.; Sauvage, T.; Villechaise, P.

    2010-07-15

    Ternary transition metal nitride thin films, with thickness up to 300 nm, were deposited by dc reactive magnetron cosputtering in Ar-N{sub 2} plasma discharges at 300 deg. C on Si substrates. Two systems were comparatively studied, Ti-Zr-N and Ti-Ta-N, as representative of isostructural and nonisostructural prototypes, with the aim of characterizing their structural, mechanical, and electrical properties. While phase-separated TiN-ZrN and TiN-TaN are the bulk equilibrium states, Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N and Ti{sub 1-y}Ta{sub y}N solid solutions with the Na-Cl (B1-type) structure could be stabilized in a large compositional range (up to x=1 and y=0.75, respectively). Substituting Ti atoms by either Zr or Ta atoms led to significant changes in film texture, microstructure, grain size, and surface morphology, as evidenced by x-ray diffraction, x-ray reflectivity, and scanning electron and atomic force microscopies. The ternary Ti{sub 1-y}Ta{sub y}N films exhibited superior mechanical properties to Ti{sub 1-x}Zr{sub x}N films as well as binary compounds, with hardness as high as 42 GPa for y=0.69. All films were metallic, the lowest electrical resistivity {rho}{approx}65 {mu}{Omega} cm being obtained for pure ZrN, while for Ti{sub 1-y}Ta{sub y}N films a minimum was observed at y{approx}0.3. The evolution of the different film properties is discussed based on microstructrural investigations.

  11. Thermodynamic Destabilization of Ti-O Solid Solution by H2 and Deoxygenation of Ti Using Mg.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Fang, Zhigang Zak; Sun, Pei; Zhang, Tuoyang; Xia, Yang; Zhou, Chengshang; Huang, Zhe

    2016-06-08

    Reactive metals including Ti, Zr, Hf, and V, among others, have a strong chemical affinity to oxygen, which makes them difficult to produce and costly to use. It is especially challenging to produce pure or metal alloy powders of these elements when extremely low oxygen content is required, because they have high solubility for oxygen, and the solid solution of these metals with oxygen is often more stable thermodynamically than their oxides. We report a novel thermochemical approach to destabilize Ti(O) solid solutions using hydrogen, thus enabling deoxygenation of Ti powder using Mg, which has not been possible before because of the thermodynamic stability of Ti(O) solid solutions relative to MgO. The work on Ti serves as an example for other reactive metals. Both analytical modeling and experimental results show that hydrogen can indeed increase the oxygen potential of Ti-O solid solution alloys; in other words, the stability of Ti-O solid solutions is effectively decreased, thus increasing the thermodynamic driving force for Mg to react with oxygen in Ti. Because hydrogen can be easily removed from Ti by a simple heat treatment, it is used only as a temporary alloying element to destabilize the Ti-O systems. The thermodynamic approach described here is a breakthrough and is applicable to a range of different materials. This work is expected to provide an enabling solution to overcome one of the key scientific and technological hurdles to the additive manufacturing of metals, which is emerging rapidly as the future of the manufacturing industry.

  12. Structural Transformation of Hexagonal (0001)BaTiO3 Ceramics to Tetragonal (111)BaTiO3 Ceramics

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Takayuki; Shimada, Mikio; Aiba, Toshiaki; Yabuta, Hisato; Miura, Kaoru; Oka, Kengo; Azuma, Masaki; Wada, Satoshi; Kumada, Nobuhiro

    2011-09-01

    A ceramic slurry that contains a 6H-type Ba(Ti0.95Mn0.05)O3 powder was casted into a plaster mold under 10 T magnetic field to form a green compact of (0001)-oriented Ba(Ti0.95Mn0.05)O3. After sintering the green compact at 1300 °C in air, it was confirmed that the (0001)-oriented 6H-type perovskite structure transformed to a (111)-oriented 3C-type perovskite structure. The structural transformation was again examined using hexagonal BaTiO3 prepared by reducing pseudo-cubic BaTiO3 powder in H2 atmosphere. In this case, the preferred (0001) orientation was not confirmed for the green compacts. After sintering the green compacts at 1300 °C in air, mixed crystal orientations of (100)/(001) and (111) were observed for the resultant tetragonal BaTiO3 ceramics. This (100)/(001) orientation was suppressed by annealing the hexagonal BaTiO3 powder at 1000 °C before slip-casting, leading to highly (111)-oriented ceramics. It was found that the green compacts of (0001)-oriented hexagonal BaTiO3 can transform into (111)-oriented tetragonal BaTiO3 ceramics, maintaining the macroscopic crystal orientations due to a similar atomic stacking along [0001] of 6H-type BaTiO3 and [111] of 3C-type BaTiO3.

  13. Effect of Al{sub 2}Ti phase on plastic behavior in Ti-62.5 at% Al single crystals

    SciTech Connect

    Nakano, Takayoshi; Hayashi, Koutarou; Ashida, Keishi; Umakoshi, Yukichi

    1999-07-01

    The microstructure and plastic deformation behavior in Ti-62.5at.%Al single crystals were investigated focusing on effect of the formation of h- and r-Al{sub 2}Ti precipitates. Crystal structure, morphology and volume fraction of the precipitates depended strongly on the annealing temperature. The r-Al{sub 2}Ti phase precipitated as a plate in the L1{sub 0} matrix containing Al{sub 5}Ti{sub 3} superstructure below 1,200 C, while the h-Al{sub 2}Ti phase appeared at the higher temperature. The r-Al{sub 2}Ti had six-fold periodicity along the c-axis of the L1{sub 0} structure and formed a semi-coherent boundary with the matrix maintaining an orientation relationship with ({l{underscore}brace}101){sub r-Al2Ti}//({l{underscore}brace}101){sub L10}. In contrast, small particles of h-Al{sub 2}Ti with three-fold periodicity along the b-axis were homogeneously distributed in the matrix forming an obscure coherent phase boundary. Yield stress for specimens with a [201] loading axis anomaly increased showing a maximum peak around 800 C and then rapidly decreased. {l{underscore}brace}111{r{underscore}brace}[{l{underscore}angle}110] slip was dominant in the L1{sub 0} matrix and r-Al{sub 2}Ti precipitates at temperatures below the peak, while slip occurred on (001) above the peak temperature. The anomalous strengthening and the change in operative slip system were discussed focusing on the effect of anisotropy of APB energy and formation of Al{sub 2}Ti precipitates.

  14. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium–Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes—Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80 and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the TiIV/TiIII Redox Potentials

    PubMed Central

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B.; Samoylova, Nataliya A.; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M.; Balch, Alan L.; Popov, Alexey A.

    2016-01-01

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc–Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4C2@C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3C2@C80, isomers of Sc2C2@C82, and the family Sc2C2n (2n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3CH@C80. The Sc–Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2TiC@C2n (2n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2TiC2@C2n (2n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2TiC@Ih-C80, Sc2TiC@D5h-C80, and Sc2TiC2@Ih-C80, were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2TiC@Ih-C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2TiC- and Sc2TiC2-containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster–cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements. PMID:27459520

  15. Synthesis and Isolation of the Titanium-Scandium Endohedral Fullerenes-Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 : Metal Size Tuning of the Ti(IV) /Ti(III) Redox Potentials.

    PubMed

    Junghans, Katrin; Ghiassi, Kamran B; Samoylova, Nataliya A; Deng, Qingming; Rosenkranz, Marco; Olmstead, Marilyn M; Balch, Alan L; Popov, Alexey A

    2016-09-05

    The formation of endohedral metallofullerenes (EMFs) in an electric arc is reported for the mixed-metal Sc-Ti system utilizing methane as a reactive gas. Comparison of these results with those from the Sc/CH4 and Ti/CH4 systems as well as syntheses without methane revealed a strong mutual influence of all key components on the product distribution. Whereas a methane atmosphere alone suppresses the formation of empty cage fullerenes, the Ti/CH4 system forms mainly empty cage fullerenes. In contrast, the main fullerene products in the Sc/CH4 system are Sc4 C2 @C80 (the most abundant EMF from this synthesis), Sc3 C2 @C80 , isomers of Sc2 C2 @C82 , and the family Sc2 C2 n (2 n=74, 76, 82, 86, 90, etc.), as well as Sc3 CH@C80 . The Sc-Ti/CH4 system produces the mixed-metal Sc2 TiC@C2 n (2 n=68, 78, 80) and Sc2 TiC2 @C2 n (2 n=80) clusterfullerene families. The molecular structures of the new, transition-metal-containing endohedral fullerenes, Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 , Sc2 TiC@D5h -C80 , and Sc2 TiC2 @Ih -C80 , were characterized by NMR spectroscopy. The structure of Sc2 TiC@Ih -C80 was also determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, which demonstrated the presence of a short Ti=C double bond. Both Sc2 TiC- and Sc2 TiC2 -containing clusterfullerenes have Ti-localized LUMOs. Encapsulation of the redox-active Ti ion inside the fullerene cage enables analysis of the cluster-cage strain in the endohedral fullerenes through electrochemical measurements.

  16. Mixed Ti-O-Si oxide films formation by oxidation of titanium-silicon interfaces

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Benito, N.; Palacio, C.

    2014-05-01

    The reaction of oxygen with titanium deposited on Si (1 0 0) surfaces has been studied at room temperature and low oxygen pressures, using XPS and ARXPS. The experimental results for Ti growth on Si can be explained using a model involving a two stage mechanism. The first stage is characterized by the formation of a uniform TiSix layer ˜4 ML thick and the second one by the formation of metallic titanium that grows following a Stranki-Krastanov mechanism, that is, the formation of a Ti monolayer followed by the growth of Ti islands (7 ML thick) over the TiSix layer previously formed. The oxidation of Ti/Si interfaces strongly depends on the interface that is oxidized. For an interface corresponding to the first stage of deposition a Ti-O-Si mixed oxide layer is formed on the near surface. This layer is on top of a multilayer structure which is composed of TiO2 (Ti4+), titanium suboxides along with TiSi (TiSi + Ti1+ + Ti2+ + Ti3+), and substrate when going from the outer surface to the substrate whereas for an interface corresponding to the second stage no Ti-O-Si mixed oxide is detected and a Ti0 rich layer is observed between the titanium suboxides and the Si substrate.

  17. Fabrication of Highly Ordered and Well-Aligned PbTiO3/TiN Core–Shell Nanotube Arrays

    DOE PAGES

    Yoon, Jaesung; Kim, Sangjoon; Kim, Dongjin; ...

    2015-04-30

    Highly ordered and well-aligned PbTiO3/TiN core–shell nanotubes are fabricated in this paper via an anodic aluminum oxide templating route followed by TiN and TiO2 atomic layer deposition deposition and a subsequent PbO vapor reaction. Finally, PbTiO3/TiN nanotubes keep their original shape after the vapor phase reaction, and they display well-defined piezoresponse hysteresis curves with remnant piezoresponse of 38 pm V-1.

  18. Dye-sensitized TiO2 nanotube solar cells: rational structural and surface engineering on TiO2 nanotubes.

    PubMed

    Wang, Jun; Lin, Zhiqun

    2012-12-01

    Owing to well-defined structural parameters and enhanced electronic properties, highly ordered TiO(2) nanotube arrays have been employed to substitute TiO(2) nanoparticles for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. To further improve the performance of dye-sensitized TiO(2) nanotube solar cells, efforts have been directed toward the optimization of TiO(2) photoanodes, dyes, electrolytes, and counter electrodes. Herein, we highlight recent progress in rational structural and surface engineering on anodic TiO(2) nanotube arrays and their effects on improving the power conversion efficiency of dye-sensitized TiO(2) nanotube solar cells.

  19. Ab initio study of the atomic level structure of the rutile TiO2 (110) - titanium nitride (TiN) interface.

    PubMed

    Gutierrez Moreno, Jose Julio; Nolan, Michael

    2017-09-22

    Titanium nitride (TiN) is widely used in industry as a protective coating due to its hardness and resistance to corrosion and can spontaneously form a thin oxide layer when it is exposed to air, which could modify the properties of the coating. With limited understanding of the TiO2 - TiN interfacial system at present, this work aims to describe the structural and electronic properties of oxidized TiN based on a density functional theory (DFT) study of the rutile TiO2 (110) - TiN (100) interface model system, also including Hubbard +U correction on Ti 3d states. The small lattice mismatch gives a good stability to the TiO2 - TiN interface after depositing the oxide onto TiN through the formation of interfacial Ti - O bonds. Our DFT+U study shows the presence of Ti(3+) cations in the TiO2 region, which are preferentially located next to the interface region as well as the rotation of the rutile TiO2 octahedra in the interface structure. Although the vacancy formation energies for Ti in TiN (Evac (Ti) ≥ 4.03 eV) or O in the oxide (Evac (O) ≥ 3.40 eV) are quite high relative to perfect TiO2 - TiN, defects are known to form during the oxide growth and can therefore be present after TiO2 formation. Our results show that a structure with exchanged O and N can lie 0.82 eV higher in energy than the perfect system, suggesting the stability of structures with interdiffused O and N anions at ambient conditions. The presence of N in TiO2 introduces N 2p states localized between the top edge of the O 2p valence states and the mid-gap Ti(3+) 3d states, thus reducing the bandgap in the TiO2 region for the exchanged O/N interface EDOS. The outcomes of these simulations give us a most comprehensive insight on the atomic level structure and the electronic properties of oxidised TiN surfaces.

  20. Phase equilibria, formation, crystal and electronic structure of ternary compounds in Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems

    SciTech Connect

    Romaka, V.V.; Rogl, P.; Romaka, L.; Stadnyk, Yu.; Melnychenko, N.; Grytsiv, A.; Falmbigl, M.; Skryabina, N.

    2013-01-15

    The phase equilibria of the Ti-Ni-Sn and Ti-Ni-Sb ternary systems have been studied in the whole concentration range by means of X-ray and EPM analyses at 1073 K and 873 K, respectively. Four ternary intermetallic compounds TiNiSn (MgAgAs-type), TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn (MnCu{sub 2}Al-type), Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn (U{sub 2}Pt{sub 2}Sn-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type) are formed in Ti-Ni-Sn system at 1073 K. The TiNi{sub 2}Sn stannide is characterized by homogeneity in the range of 50-47 at% of Ni. The Ti-Ni-Sb ternary system at 873 K is characterized by formation of three ternary intermetallic compounds, Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb (MgAgAs-type), Ti{sub 5}Ni{sub 0.45}Sb{sub 2.55} (W{sub 5}Si{sub 3}-type), and Ti{sub 5}NiSb{sub 3} (Hf{sub 5}CuSn{sub 3}-type). The solubility of Ni in Ti{sub 0.8}NiSb decreases number of vacancies in Ti site up to Ti{sub 0.91}Ni{sub 1.1}Sb composition. - Graphical abstract: Isothermal section of the Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram and DOS distribution in hypothetical TiNi{sub 1+x}Sn solid solution. Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Ti-Ni-Sn phase diagram was constructed at 1073 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Four ternary compounds are formed: TiNiSn, TiNi{sub 2-x}Sn, Ti{sub 2}Ni{sub 2}Sn, and Ti{sub 5}NiSn{sub 3}. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Three ternary compounds exist in Ti-Ni-Sb system at 873 K. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The TiNi{sub 2}Sb compound is absent.

  1. Fabrication of Highly Ordered and Well-Aligned PbTiO3/TiN Core–Shell Nanotube Arrays

    SciTech Connect

    Yoon, Jaesung; Kim, Sangjoon; Kim, Dongjin; Kim, Il-Doo; Hong, Seungbum; No, Kwangsoo

    2015-04-30

    Highly ordered and well-aligned PbTiO3/TiN core–shell nanotubes are fabricated in this paper via an anodic aluminum oxide templating route followed by TiN and TiO2 atomic layer deposition deposition and a subsequent PbO vapor reaction. Finally, PbTiO3/TiN nanotubes keep their original shape after the vapor phase reaction, and they display well-defined piezoresponse hysteresis curves with remnant piezoresponse of 38 pm V-1.

  2. Valence state of Ti in conductive nanowires in sapphire

    SciTech Connect

    Mizoguchi, Teruyasu; Nakamura, Atsutomo; Matsunaga, Katsuyuki; Ikuhara, Yuichi; Sakurai, Masaki; Tanaka, Isao; Yamamoto, Takahisa

    2004-10-15

    In order to reveal the valence state of Ti in conductive nanowires in sapphire, near-edge x-ray-absorption fine structures (NEXAFS) were observed. From experimental and theoretical studies on NEXAFS of reference compounds including rutile, anatase, and Ti{sub 2}O{sub 3}, it was found that the valence state of Ti can be identified by regarding the positions of the spectral onset and the shoulder in the main peak of Ti-K NEXAFS. The valence states of Ti doped Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystalline specimens which were annealed at oxidized and reduced atmospheres were determined to be +4 and +3, respectively. The solubility limit of Ti in Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} polycrystal was found to be between 1000 ppm to 1.0% at the both atmospheres. The spectrum from Ti nanowires in sapphire has a lot of similarities to the reduced specimen, the valence state was therefore concluded to be +3.

  3. Porous NiTi surfaces for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Huan, Z.; Fratila-Apachitei, L. E.; Apachitei, I.; Duszczyk, J.

    2012-04-01

    In this study, the NiTi shape memory alloy was surface modified by plasma electrolytic oxidation (PEO) in Na3PO4 with the aim to produce porous NiTi surfaces for biomedical applications. The oxidation was performed potentiostatically and the characteristics of the resultant surfaces were compared with those obtained in NaAlO2/NaPO2H2 under similar conditions. Surfaces with sub-micron sized pores could be produced in Na3PO4 electrolyte at 300 V. The process was accompanied by intense gas evolution and enhanced thermal effects relative to the NaAlO2/NaPO2H2 electrolyte. The EDS analyses revealed the presence of O, Ti, P, Ni, and a Ni/Ti atomic ratio of 0.4 suggesting preferential oxidation of titanium during the process and depletion of Ni from the surface. No crystalline oxide phases were detected by X-ray diffraction (XRD). By comparison, the layers formed in NaAlO2/NaPO2H2 consisted of crystalline Al2O3 and the Ni/Ti atomic ratio was 0.74. Following oxidation, the wettability and surface free energy of NiTi increased significantly. The findings of this study indicate that the PEO process shows potential for expanding the biofunctionality of NiTi.

  4. Electronic band structure of TiN/MgO nanostructures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kobayashi, Kazuaki; Takaki, Hirokazu; Shimono, Masato; Kobayashi, Nobuhiko; Hirose, Kenji

    2017-04-01

    Various nanostructured TiN(001)/MgO(001) superlattices based on a repeated slab model with a vacuum region have been investigated by the total energy pseudopotential method. They are rectangular and rectangular parallelepiped TiN(001) dot structures on MgO(001)-2×2 and 3×3 substrates. A rectangular TiN(001) structure on a MgO(001)-2×1 substrate has also been calculated. Their detailed electronic and internal lattice properties were investigated systematically. The internal atomic coordinates in a unit cell were fully relaxed. The rectangular TiN(001) structure on the MgO(001)-2×1 superlattice, which is not a dot owing to its periodicity, corresponds to metallicity. The electronic states of relaxed rectangular TiN(001) dot/MgO(001)-2×2 and MgO(001)-3×3 superlattices are semiconducting. All relaxed rectangular parallelepiped TiN(001) dot/MgO(001)-2×2 and MgO(001)-3×3 superlattices correspond to metallicity. The electronic properties depend on the shape of the TiN dot and the size of the MgO substrate.

  5. Diffusion between Nb and Ti related to superconductor wire processing

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bormio-Nunes, Cristina; Nunes, Carlos A.; Porto, Fernando S. A.; de Souza, Vanessa S.; Tirelli, Marcelo A.; Edwards, Elilton R.

    2003-04-01

    Quantitative data on the diffusion between Nb and Ti are important for the processing of Nb-Ti superconductor wires through the 'artificial pinning centre-diffusion process'. In the literature, most of the Nb-Ti diffusion studies are focused on the 1173-1973 K temperature range which is inappropriate for this application. The objective of this study was to evaluate the diffusion between Nb and Ti at 1023 K and 1073 K, from a Nb-Ti cylindrical composite that has been mechanically deformed by swaging. It has been found that at both temperatures most of the diffusion layer is formed through the diffusion of Nb into Ti. A plot of diffusion layer thickness versus t1/2 (t is the time) showed a linear behaviour for both temperatures with angular coefficients of 0.0867 mum s-1/2 (1023 K) and 0.253 mum s-1/2 (1073 K). Longer heat treatment and higher temperature leads to a Ti-rich diffusion layer, which is not interesting in terms of superconducting properties. After heat treatment at 1023 K for 150 h, the monofilament wire (0.610 mm) presented a critical temperature of 10 K and an upper critical field close to 6 T.

  6. Oriented epitaxial TiO2 nanowires for water splitting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hou, Wenting; Cortez, Pablo; Wuhrer, Richard; Macartney, Sam; Bozhilov, Krassimir N.; Liu, Rong; Sheppard, Leigh R.; Kisailus, David

    2017-06-01

    Highly oriented epitaxial rutile titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanowire arrays have been hydrothermally grown on polycrystalline TiO2 templates with their orientation dependent on the underlying TiO2 grain. Both the diameter and areal density of the nanowires were tuned by controlling the precursor concentration, and the template surface energy and roughness. Nanowire tip sharpness was influenced by precursor solubility and diffusivity. A new secondary ion mass spectrometer technique has been developed to install additional nucleation sites in single crystal TiO2 templates and the effect on nanowire growth was probed. Using the acquired TiO2 nanowire synthesis knowhow, an assortment of nanowire arrays were installed upon the surface of undoped TiO2 photo-electrodes and assessed for their photo-electrochemical water splitting performance. The key result obtained was that the presence of short and dispersed nanowire arrays significantly improved the photocurrent when the illumination intensity was increased from 100 to 200 mW cm-2. This is attributed to the alignment of the homoepitaxially grown nanowires to the [001] direction, which provides the fastest charge transport in TiO2 and an improved pathway for photo-holes to find water molecules and undertake oxidation. This result lays a foundation for achieving efficient water splitting under conditions of concentrated solar illumination.

  7. Centerless grinding of TiAl using conventional grinding wheels

    SciTech Connect

    Jones, P.E.; Smits, D.; Eylon, D.; Smits, C.

    1995-12-31

    Ordered gamma titanium aluminide (TiAl) based alloys are now under consideration for automotive valves because of their light weight and high strength at temperatures up to 850 C. Finishing comprises as much as 70% of the cost of an automotive valve, therefore the grindability of TiAl valves will influence their commercial viability. This study compared the grindability of the TiAl alloy Ti-47Al-2Nb-1.75Cr (at%) to standard valve steels, nickel base superalloys, and conventional titanium alloys using the centerless grinding process. Three grinding conditions simulating stem grinding were selected. The power requirements, grinding time, and grinding wheel consumption were used to estimate the cost to grind TiAl on conventional centerless grinding equipment using vitrified bonded silicon carbide wheels. The metallurgical effects of rough and finish stem grinding cycles on the surface were determined. The grindability factor of TiAl, a measure of grinding cost, was slightly inferior to conventional valve steels, but much better than conventional titanium alloys. The high work hardening rate of the TiAl resulted in much better surface finish at high metal removal rates than that achieved in steels. No grinding cracks were observed, even under the rough grinding conditions. Microhardness profiles indicated significant work hardening of the surface under all three grinding conditions.

  8. Electrochemical stability of binary TiNb for biomedical applications

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Reyes, K. M.; Kuromoto, N. K.; Alves Claro, A. P. R.; Marino, C. E. B.

    2017-07-01

    The Ti-Nb alloy binary system has been widely studied with regard to biomedical applications due to the high biocompatibility and excellent mechanical properties of the alloys. Regarding physical-chemical stability, Ti-Nb alloys maintain the properties of Ti metal, which is highly resistant to corrosion in aggressive media due to a spontaneous stable oxide layer (TiO2) formed on its surface. The objective of this study was to evaluate the corrosion resistance of the Ti-40Nb alloy in artificial blood. The thermodynamic stability was studied using the open circuit potential technique and the corrosion resistance was assessed by potentiodynamic measurements and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy. The electrochemical results indicated that the Ti-40Nb alloy has high corrosion resistance and good thermodynamic stability, with an OCP of around  -485 mV, and the alloy remained electrochemically stable in potentiodynamic conditions with initial and final potentials of  -1.0 V to  +2.0 Vsce, respectively, in low current densities (~µA cm-2) with an absence of hysteresis, aspure Ti. The results obtained showed that this specific alloy has the potential to be used in biomedical applications.

  9. Conversion of Nanocellulose Aerogel into TiO2 and TiO2@C Nano-thorns by Direct Anhydrous Mineralization with TiCl4. Evaluation of Electrochemical Properties in Li Batteries.

    PubMed

    Henry, Aurélien; Plumejeau, Sandrine; Heux, Laurent; Louvain, Nicolas; Monconduit, Laure; Stievano, Lorenzo; Boury, Bruno

    2015-07-15

    Nanostructured TiO2 and TiO2@C nanocomposites were prepared by an original process combining biotemplating and mineralization of aerogels of nanofibrillated cellulose (NFC). A direct one step treatment of NFC with TiCl4 in strictly anhydrous conditions allows TiO2 formation at the outermost part of the nanofibrils while preserving their shape and size. Such TiO2@cellulose composites can be transformed into TiO2 nanotubes (TiO2-NT) by calcination in air at 600 and 900 °C, or into TiO2@C nanocomposites by pyrolysis in argon at 600 and 900 °C. Detailed characterization of these materials is reported here, along with an assessment of their performance as negative electrode materials for Li-ion batteries.

  10. Controlled orientation of molecular-beam-epitaxial BaTiO3 on Si(001) using thickness engineering of BaTiO3 and SrTiO3 buffer layers

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hsu, Min-Hsiang Mark; Van Thourhout, Dries; Pantouvaki, Marianna; Meersschaut, Johan; Conard, Thierry; Richard, Olivier; Bender, Hugo; Favia, Paola; Vila, Maria; Cid, Rosalia; Rubio-Zuazo, Juan; Castro, German R.; Van Campenhout, Joris; Absil, Philippe; Merckling, Clement

    2017-06-01

    Monolithically integrating BaTiO3 on silicon substrates has attracted attention because of the wide spectrum of potential novel applications ranging from electronics to photonics. For optimal device performance, it is important to control the BaTiO3 domain orientation during thin film preparation. Here, we use molecular beam epitaxy to prepare crystalline BaTiO3 on Si(001) substrates using a SrTiO3 buffer layer. A systematic investigation is performed to understand how to control the BaTiO3 domain orientation through the thickness engineering of the SrTiO3 buffer layer and the BaTiO3 layer itself. This provides different possibilities for obtaining a given BaTiO3 orientation as desired for a specific device application.

  11. Cold Sprayability of Mixed Commercial Purity Ti Plus Ti6Al4V Metal Powders

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Aydin, Huseyin; Alomair, Mashael; Wong, Wilson; Vo, Phuong; Yue, Stephen

    2017-02-01

    In the present work, metallic composite coatings of commercial purity Ti plus Ti6Al4V were produced by cold spraying to explore the effect of mixing on porosity and mechanical properties of the coatings. The coatings were deposited using N2 gas at 800 °C and 4 MPa pressure on 1020 steel substrate. Coating characteristics were studied by examining porosity percentages and Vickers's hardness. The microstructure was examined using optical and electron microscopy techniques. It was observed that mixing metal powders can lead to improvements in cold sprayability, specifically decreases in the porosity of the `matrix' powder. It is shown that a critical addition can significantly influence porosity, but above this critical level, there is a little change in porosity. Hardness differences between the two powders are considered to be the first-order influence, but differences in particle sizes and morphology may also be contributing factors.

  12. Characterization and Modeling of Nonfilamentary Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti Analog Synaptic Device

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yu-Fen; Lin, Yen-Chuan; Wang, I-Ting; Lin, Tzu-Ping; Hou, Tuo-Hung

    2015-01-01

    A two-terminal analog synaptic device that precisely emulates biological synaptic features is expected to be a critical component for future hardware-based neuromorphic computing. Typical synaptic devices based on filamentary resistive switching face severe limitations on the implementation of concurrent inhibitory and excitatory synapses with low conductance and state fluctuation. For overcoming these limitations, we propose a Ta/TaOx/TiO2/Ti device with superior analog synaptic features. A physical simulation based on the homogeneous (nonfilamentary) barrier modulation induced by oxygen ion migration accurately reproduces various DC and AC evolutions of synaptic states, including the spike-timing-dependent plasticity and paired-pulse facilitation. Furthermore, a physics-based compact model for facilitating circuit-level design is proposed on the basis of the general definition of memristor devices. This comprehensive experimental and theoretical study of the promising electronic synapse can facilitate realizing large-scale neuromorphic systems. PMID:25955658

  13. Solute partitioning in TiAl/Ti{sub 3}Al alloys

    SciTech Connect

    Munroe, P.R.; Baker, I.

    1999-11-19

    Over the last few years there have been intense research and development efforts on two-phase alloys based on ({gamma}) TiAl + ({alpha}{sub 2}) Ti{sub 3}Al; the goal being to develop alloys for aerospace and, possibly, automotive applications. Two-phase alloys have been studied which contain numerous elemental additions, the more common ones of which are W, Mo, Nb, Cr, W, V, Si, Mn, Ta, C and B. These have been studied both for their phase stability and to determine their monotonic and cycling loading response both at low and high temperature. Although the mechanical properties and physical behavior of these alloys have been studied in detail, there is surprisingly little published information on the distribution of these alloying additions between the two phases. Here the authors report a short study on two recently developed alloys concerning how some of these elemental additions partition between the two phases.

  14. Micromechanics of Transformation Superplasticity in Ti-6Al-4V/TiBw Composites

    SciTech Connect

    Schuh, C; Dunand, D C

    2001-10-16

    Transformation superplasticity is a deformation mechanism induced by thermally-cycling a polymorphic material through the phase transformation range while simultaneously applying an external biasing stress. Unlike microstructural superplasticity, which requires a fine, equiaxed grain structure, this mechanism can be applied to coarse-grained alloys and composites. In this article, we review our research on transformation superplasticity of Ti-6Al-4V/TiB-whisker reinforced composites, during thermal cycling through the titanium {alpha}/{beta} transformation range. The composites exhibit Newtonian flow and superplastic extension under these conditions. We describe the constitutive behavior of composites containing 0, 5 and 10 vol% reinforcing whiskers, and consider the effects of load transfer from matrix to whisker on superplastic deformation using existing rheological models. Additionally, strain hardening due to gradual whisker alignment is observed, and rationalized in terms of increased load transfer for aligned whiskers.

  15. Grindability of dental cast Ti-Ag and Ti-Cu alloys.

    PubMed

    Kikuchi, Masafumi; Takahashi, Masatoshi; Okabe, Toru; Okuno, Osamu

    2003-06-01

    Experimental Ti-Ag alloys (5, 10, and 20 mass% Ag) and Ti-Cu alloys (2, 5, and 10 mass% Cu) were cast into magnesia molds using a dental casting machine, and their grindability was investigated. At the lowest grinding speed (500 m min(-1)), there were no statistical differences among the grindability values of the titanium and titanium alloys. The grindability of the alloys increased as the grinding speed increased. At the highest grinding speed (1500 m x min(-1)), the grindability of the 20% Ag, 5% Cu, and 10% Cu alloys was significantly higher than that of titanium. It was found that alloying with silver or copper improved the grindability of titanium, particularly at a high speed. It appeared that the decrease in elongation caused by the precipitation of small amounts of intermetallic compounds primarily contributed to the favorable grindability of the experimental alloys.

  16. Isotope Shifts in the TiO B- X (1-0) Band

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Amiot, C.; Luc, P.; Vetter, R.

    2002-08-01

    The absorption spectrum of the B3Π- X3Δ (1-0) band of the TiO molecule has been studied at sub-Doppler resolution by crossing an effusive beam of TiO with a cw tunable laser beam and by collecting the induced fluorescence light. The five bands involving the 46Ti, 47Ti, 48Ti, 49Ti, and 50Ti isotopic species have been observed and interpreted. A simultaneous analysis of the five isotopic data leads to accurate molecular constants and energy levels for the B3Π electronic state.

  17. Microstructure of TiC-Based Coatings on Cemented Carbide Derived by Sol-Gel Routes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Mei; Guo, Zhixing; Qi, Kaifeng; Huang, Kun; Deng, Jianxiong; Liu, Jia

    2017-02-01

    TiC-based coating is prepared by depositing TiO2 sol on cemented carbide compact and liquid phase sintering. TiC forms due to carbothermal reduction reaction of TiO2 and then reacts with WC and transforms to TiC-based solid solution. Ti content changes the WC growth mechanism and results in the multi-stepped morphology. When sintered cemented carbide is used as substrate, WC keeps the equilibrium truncated triangle prism morphology due to the relatively weak diffusion among Ti, WC, and Co.

  18. Highly active nanocrystalline TiO(2) photoelectrodes.

    PubMed

    Paronyan, Tereza M; Kechiantz, A M; Lin, M C

    2008-03-19

    A simple method for the fabrication of highly photoactive nanocrystalline two-layer TiO(2) electrodes for solar cell applications is presented. Diluted titanium acetylacetonate has been used as a precursor for covering SnO(2):F (FTO) films with dense packed TiO(2) nanocrystallites. The nanoporous thick TiO(2) film follows the dense packed thin TiO(2) film as a second layer. For the latter, amorphous TiO(2) nanoparticles have been successfully synthesized by a sol-gel technique in an acidic environment with pH<1 and hydrothermal growth at a temperature of 200 °C. The acidic nanoparticle gel was neutralized by basic ammonia and a TiO(2) gel of pH 5 was obtained; this pH value is higher than the recently reported value of 3.1 (Park et al 2005 Adv. Mater. 17 2349-53). Highly interconnected, nanoporous, transparent and active TiO(2) films have been fabricated from the pH 5 gel. SEM, AFM and XRD analyses have been carried out for investigation of the crystal structure and the size of nanoparticles as well as the surface morphology of the films. Investigation of the photocurrent-voltage characteristics has shown improvement in cell performance along with the modification of the surface morphology, depending on pH of the TiO(2) gel. Increasing the pH of the gel from 2.1 to 5 enhanced the overall conversion efficiency of the dye-sensitized solar cells by approximately 30%. An energy conversion efficiency of 8.83% has been achieved for the cell (AM1.5, 100  mWcm(-2) simulated sunlight) compared to 6.61% efficiency in the absence of ammonia in the TiO(2) gel.

  19. Structural and electronic defects in SrTiO3 and TiO2

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Janotti, Anderson

    2015-03-01

    Control of defects and charge carriers is key to the development of metal oxide semiconductors as electronic materials. As in any semiconductor, one of the main challenges is to control the conductivity by doping as well as to reduce the concentration of native defects and unintentional impurities that act as compensation centers or sources of deep level luminescence, thus minimizing their deleterious effects. Experiments indicate that defects such as oxygen vacancies easily form and strongly affect the electronic properties of many oxide semiconductors. In SrTiO3, it has been proposed that oxygen vacancies simultaneously act as a shallow donor that contribute to n-type conductivity, and as a deep center that causes luminescence well below the band-gap energy. This seemingly paradoxical behavior has remained unresolved. In rutile TiO2, it has been proposed that excess electrons, either from oxygen vacancies or donor impurities, form small polarons. Although the formation of small polarons explains prominent features observed in the optical absorption spectra, charge localization seem incompatible with the high electron mobilities determined in Hall measurements of single crystals. In this talk we will discuss results of first-principles calculations for native point defects and impurities in SrTiO3 and TiO2, as they are prototypes of a large class of transition-metal oxide semiconductors. We will address the impact of defects and small-polaron formation on the electrical and optical properties in each material, providing a framework for interpreting similar phenomena in other complex oxides. This work was performed in collaboration with J. B. Varley, M. Choi, N. Umezawa, P. Rinke, C. Franchini, G. Kresse, and C. G. Van de Walle. We acknowledge support from the Army Research Office under Grant Number W911-NF-11-1-0232.

  20. TiO₂ beads and TiO₂-chitosan beads for urease immobilization.

    PubMed

    Ispirli Doğaç, Yasemin; Deveci, Ilyas; Teke, Mustafa; Mercimek, Bedrettin

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to synthesize TiO2 beads for urease immobilization. Two different strategies were used to immobilize the urease on TiO2 beads. In the first method (A), urease enzyme was immobilized onto TiO2 beads by adsorption and then crosslinking. In the second method (B), TiO2 beads were coated with chitosan-urease mixture. To determine optimum conditions of immobilization, different parameters were investigated. The parameters of optimization were initial enzyme concentration (0.5; 1; 1.5; 2mg/ml), alginate concentration (1; 2; 3%), glutaraldehyde concentration (1; 2; 3% v/v) and chitosan concentration (2; 3; 4 mg/ml). The optimum enzyme concentrations were determined as 1.5mg/ml for A and 1.0mg/ml for B. The other optimum conditions were found 2.0% (w/v) for alginate concentration (both A and B); 3.0mg/ml for chitosan concentration (B) and 2.0% (v/v) for glutaraldehyde concentration (A). The optimum temperature (20-60°C), optimum pH (3.0-10.0), kinetic parameters, thermal stability (4-70°C), pH stability (4.0-9.0), operational stability (0-230 min) and reusability (20 times) were investigated for characterization. The optimum temperatures were 30°C (A), 40°C (B) and 35°C (soluble). The temperature profiles of the immobilized ureases were spread over a large area. The optimum pH values for the soluble urease and immobilized urease prepared by using methods (A) and (B) were found to be 7.5, 7.0, 7.0, respectively. The thermal stabilities of immobilized enzyme sets were studied and they maintained 50% activity at 65°C. However, at this temperature free urease protected only 15% activity.