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Sample records for rat apres irradiation

  1. Radiosensibilité comparative des cellules épithéliales de trachée de rats après irradiation alpha in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kugel, C.; Bailly-Despiney, I.; Lagroye, I.; Poncy, J. L.

    1998-04-01

    The main risk in nuclear industry is the internal contamination after inhalation of high LET alpha emitters radionuclides. Main targets of pulmonary carcinogenesis are epithelial respiratory tract cells. An in vitro study was performed in order to determine if a difference in the radiosensitivity occured in epithelial cells from the trachea of two rat strains: Sprague Dawley and Wistar Furth-Fischer F344 after alpha exposure. The cells were irradiated after sedimentation in a specific well. The irradiation was performed using 241Am electrodeposited sources. The irradiation dosecloning efficiency relation was evaluated. A kinetic study of the proliferation and the clonal growth has also been investigated. La contamination interne par inhalation de radionucléides émetteurs alpha de haut TEL est le risque majeur de l'industrie nucléaire. Les cibles principales de la cancérogenèse pulmonaire sont les cellules épithéliales de l'appareil respiratoire. Une étude in vitro a été menée pour déterminer s'il existe une différence de radiosensibilité aux rayonnement alpha, des cellules épithéliales trachéales de deux souches de rats : Sprague Dawley et Wistar Furth-Fischer F344. Les cellules sont irradiées sédimentées au fond d'un puit spécifique à l'aide de sources électrodéposées de 241Am. L'évaluation de la survie cellulaire en fonction de la dose d'irradiation est complétée par un suivi cinétique de la formation et de la prolifération des colonies.

  2. Etude de la microstructure d'un acier 316 titane apres vieillissement et apres irradiation aux neutrons

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Brun, G.; Le Naour, J.; Vouillon, M.

    1981-10-01

    La précipitation qui se produit lors de vieillissements de longue durée entre 450 et 700°C dans un acier 316 Ti soit hypertrempé soit écroui, a été étudiée en couplant les techniques de microscopic électronique et de microanalyse X. Pour les cas expérimentaux étudiés, les résultats obtenus montrent que la composition des carbures M 23C 6 et des phases σ, Laves et χ est peu sensible aux conditions de vieillissement et dépend également peu de l'état structural initial. Leur teneur en éléments principaux de l'alliage est d'ailleurs voisine de celle des phases précipitées dans l'acier non stabilisé. Excepté les carbures de type M 6C, toutes ces phases ont une teneur en nickel inférieure à celle de la matrice. Les premiers rérultats obtenus sur des matériaux irradiés aux neutrons montrent que la précipitation sous flux est différente de celle qui se produit dans l'acier vieilli. Les phases γ' et G ainsi que les carbures riches en nickel ont été observés. L'attention a été attirée sur le fait qu'il n'y a pas de corrélation simple entre la vitesse de gonflement et la teneuer résiduelle en nickel de la matrice.

  3. Régulation de la production, par des cellules endothéliales, de cytokines pro-inflammatoires après irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    van der Meeren, A.; Lafont, H.; Mathé, D.

    1998-04-01

    Gamma irradiation leads to an increased production of interleukin- (IL)-6 and IL-8 by human endothelial cells. In order to regulate the radio-induced production of these pro-inflammatory cytokines, we used the immunoregulatory cytokines IL-4 and IL-10. These agents were added either before or after a 10 Gy-irradiation. Our results show that it is possible to decrease the radio-induced production of IL-6 and IL-8 with the use of IL-4 and IL-10. Differences in the intensity of the response have been observed according to the time of treatment. The anti-inflammatory potential of both IL-4 and IL-10 was more pronounced when added after irradiation. Après irradiation gamma, des cellules endothéliales humaines ont une production accrue des interleukines (IL-) -6 et -8. Dans le but de réguler la production de ces cytokines pro-inflammatoires, nous avons utilisé des cytokines dites anti-inflammatoires, l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Ces agents ont été ajoutés soit avant soit après une irradiation de 10Gy. Nos résultats montrent qu'il est possible de diminuer les productions radio-induites d'IL-6 et d'IL-8 par l'IL-4 et l'IL-10. Des différences dans l'intensité de la réponse ont toutefois été observées selon que l'IL-4 ou l'IL-10 ont été ajoutées avant ou après irradiation; leur efficacité anti-inflammatoire étant plus marquée lorsque les cytokines sont ajoutées après l'irradiation.

  4. Calcul par simulation des paramètres dosimétriques pour le noyau cellulaire après irradiation α in vitro

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Le Foll, L.; Bailly, I.; Fritsch, P.

    1998-04-01

    Determination of absorbed dose in biological targets after high LET α particules irradiation needs heavy calculations. A softwave has been developed in order to allow everyone to calculate hit probability and absorbed dose. It is particularly adapted to the study of cell cultures irradiated with electrodeposited source or α-beam accelerator. It is based first, on a random generator of α-track homogeneously distributed in 4π, second, on the evaluation of energy loss in the different media along the track and then on a statistical analysis of the results. This method is accurate and low time consuming. The target is either modelised by an ellipsoid or represented by its 3D shape recorded using confocal microscopy. Des calculs dosimétriques complexes sont nécessaires pour l'évaluation des doses délivrées dans des cibles biologiques après irradiation par des particules α de haut TEL. Un logiciel a été développé pour rendre facilement accessible le calcul de la probabilité pour atteindre la cible et de la dose absorbée. il est particulièrement adapté à l'étude des cultures cellulaires irradiées par des sources électrodéposées de radionucléides ou des accélérateurs de particules. Il repose sur un générateur de traces aléatoires, sur une approximation de la perte d'énergie dans les différents milieux traversés et sur une exploitation statistique des résultats obtenus. Cette méthode s'avère précise et rapide. La cible est modélisée par un ellipsoïde ou représentée par son image 3D obtenue en microscopie confocale.

  5. Blood lipid fractions of rats after cumulative gamma irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    El-Salam, Soad Abd; Yousri, R. M.; Sallam, T.

    1994-07-01

    Triglycerides, cholesterol, total lipids and phospholipids levels were investigated in the serum of rats after cumulative whole body γ irradiation at doses from 2.5 to 10 Gy.Hyperlipidemia was observed after irradiation doses of 7.5 and 10 Gy. Different mechanisms were postulated for the radiation induced changes in the levels of serum lipid.

  6. Physiologic consequences of local heart irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Geist, B.J.; Lauk, S.; Bornhausen, M.; Trott, K.R. )

    1990-05-01

    Noninvasive methods have been used to study the long-term cardiovascular and pulmonary functional changes at rest and after exercise in adult rats following local heart irradiation with single x-ray doses of 15, 17.5 or 20 Gy, and in non-irradiated control animals. Rats that had undergone a chronic exercise program were compared with untrained cohorts. The earliest dysfunction detected was an increased respiratory rate (f) at 10 weeks after irradiation in the highest dose group. In contrast, both telemetric heart-rate (HR) and rhythm and indirect systolic blood pressure measurements performed at rest only revealed changes starting at 43 weeks after irradiation with 20 Gy, up to which point the rats showed no clinical signs of heart failure. However, the number of minutes required for the recovery of the HR to pre-exercise levels following the implementation of a standardized exercise challenge was elevated in untrained rats compared with their trained cohorts at 18 weeks after irradiation with 20 Gy. Increases in recovery times were required in the two lowest dose groups, starting at 26 weeks after irradiation. It was concluded that the reserve capacity of the cardiopulmonary system masks functional decrements at rest for many months following local heart irradiation, necessitating the use of techniques which reveal reductions in reserve capacities. Further, the influence of local irradiation to the heart and lungs deserves closer scrutiny due to mutual interactions.

  7. Hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats

    SciTech Connect

    Jongejan, H.T.; van der Kogel, A.J.; Provoost, A.P.; Molenaar, J.C.

    1987-09-01

    The mechanism of a rise in blood pressure after kidney irradiation is unclear but most likely of renal origin. We have investigated the role of the renin-angiotensin system and dietary salt restriction in the development of systolic hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation in young and adult rats. Three to 12 months after a single X-ray dose of 7.5 or 12.5 Gy to both kidneys of young and adult rats, the systolic blood pressure (SBP) and plasma renin concentration (PRC) were measured regularly. A single X-ray dose of 12.5 Gy caused a moderate rise in SBP and a slight reduction in PRC in both young and adult rats. A dose of 7.5 Gy did not significantly alter the SBP or PRC during the follow-up period of 1 year. In a second experiment, the kidneys of young rats received an X-ray dose of 20 Gy. Subsequently, rats were kept on a standard diet (110 mmol sodium/kg) or a sodium-poor diet (10 mmol sodium/kg). On both diets, SBP started to rise rapidly 3 months after kidney irradiation. Sodium balance studies carried out at that time revealed an increased sodium retention in the irradiated rats compared to controls on the same diet. In rats on a low sodium intake, there was neither a delay nor an alleviation in the development of hypertension. Compared to controls, the PRC tended to be lower in irradiated rats up to 4 months after irradiation. Subsequently, malignant hypertension developed in all 20 Gy rats, resulting in pressure natriuresis, stimulating the renin-angiotensin system. Our findings indicated that hypertension after bilateral kidney irradiation was not primarily the result of an activation of the renin-angiotensin system. Although there were some indications that sodium retention played a role, dietary sodium restriction did not influence the development of hypertension.

  8. Altered ovarian responsiveness to gonadotropins in neonatally irradiated immature rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freud, A.; Sod-Moriah, U.A.

    1988-01-01

    Female rats which were exposed to a single low dose of gamma irradiation (6R or 15R) at the age of 8 days produce smaller litters when mature than untreated controls. In order to study the possibility that such an impaired reproductive performance could result from a reduced ovulation rate, neonatally irradiated females were treated with PMSG (12 iu/rat) at the age of 26 days. Another group of rats, similarly treated, was further injected with hCG (5 iu/rat) 48 hours later. Animals were killed 48, 55, 60 and 72 hours after PMSG treatment or 72 and 120 after hCG injection. The results indicated that PMSG treatment increased the ovarian weight of non-irradiated controls as well as of irradiated rats and in all animals induced a proestrus like profile of LH. Only a combined treatment of PMSG and hCG resulted in ovulation and corpora lutea formation with significantly increased numbers of corpora lutea in the ovaries of the irradiated rats. The latter was associated with higher progesterone plasma levels not correlated to the number of corpora lutea. The gradual decrease in the number of ovarian binding sites for hCG with increased radiation dose and the increased association constant in the 15R group could not explain the increased sensitivity of the ovary to exogenous gonadotropins which results from neonatal exposure to low doses of gamma irradiation.

  9. [Lipogenesis and gluconeogenesis in the liver of irradiated rats].

    PubMed

    Sedlakova, A; Paulikova, E; Diatelinka, I

    1984-01-01

    The incorporation of 14C from [U-14C] glucose and 3H from 3H2O into the total lipids fatty acids and glycogen of the liver incorporation of 3H from 3H2O into blood glucose was studied in rats totally irradiated in a dose of 14.4 Gy. It is shown that in the liver of irradiated rats glucose is accumulated in considerable amounts as glycogen but it is slightly used as a source of carbon for lipid synthesis. The study of 3H incorporation shows that irradiation stimulates glucogenesis, glyconeogenesis and lipogenesis in the liver.

  10. Growth hormone reduces mortality and bacterial translocation in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Gómez-de-Segura, I A; Prieto, I; Grande, A G; García, P; Guerra, A; Mendez, J; De Miguel, E

    1998-01-01

    Growth hormone stimulates the growth of intestinal mucosa and may reduce the severity of injury caused by radiation. Male Wistar rats underwent abdominal irradiation (12 Gy) and were treated with either human growth hormone (hGH) or saline, and sacrificed at day 4 or 7 post-irradiation. Bacterial translocation, and the ileal mucosal thickness, proliferation, and disaccharidase activity were assessed. Mortality was 65% in irradiated animals, whereas hGH caused a decrement (29%, p < 0.05). Bacterial translocation was also reduced by hGH (p < 0.05). Treating irradiated rats with hGH prevented body weight loss (p < 0.05). Mucosal thickness increased faster in irradiated hGH-treated animals. The proliferative index showed an increment in hGH-treated animals (p < 0.05). Giving hGH to irradiated rats prevented decrease in sucrose activity, and increment in lactase activity. In conclusion, giving hGH to irradiated rats promotes the adaptative process of the intestine and acute radiation-related negative effects, including mortality, bacterial translocation, and weight loss.

  11. Whole-body γ-irradiation decelerates rat hepatocyte polyploidization.

    PubMed

    Ikhtiar, Adnan M

    2015-07-01

    To characterize hepatocyte polyploidization induced by intermediate dose of γ-ray. Male Wistar strain rats were whole-body irradiated (WBI) with 2 Gy of γ-ray at the age of 1 month, and 5-6 rats were sacrificed monthly at 0-25 months after irradiation. The nuclear DNA content of individual hepatocytes was measured by flow cytometry, then hepatocytes were classified into various ploidy classes. Survival percentage, after exposure up to the end of the study, did not indicate any differences between the irradiated groups and controls. The degree of polyploidization in hepatocytes of irradiated rats, was significantly lower than that for the control after 1 month of exposure, and it continued to be lower after up to 8 months. Thereafter, the degree of polyploidization in the irradiated group slowly returned to the control level when the irradiated rats reached the age of 10 months. Intermediate dose of ionizing radiation, in contrast to high doses, decelerate hepatocyte polyploidization, which may coincides with the hypothesis of the beneficial effects of low doses of ionizing radiation.

  12. Progesterone and estradiol plasma levels in neonatally irradiated cycling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Freud, A.; Sod-Moriah, U.A. )

    1990-01-01

    Female rats which were exposed to a single low dose of gamma irradiation (6R or 15R) at the age of 8 days produce smaller litters when mature than untreated controls. The possibility that the impaired fertility resulted from altered ovarian activity as reflected by changes in plasma levels of progesterone or estardiol was investigated. Plasma levels of both steroids were determined throughout the day of proestrus. Progesterone level was also determined in 6R animals on the day of weaning. The maturity of such irradiated rats was assessed by observing the time of vaginal opening. The results indicated that the preovulatory peak of progesterone was delayed in the 6R rats whereas in the 15R group its levels were significantly lower. On the other hand no differences in estradiol plasma levels were noticed between the groups. The higher level of progesterone in the 6R animals was not evident on the day of weaning and was even in both groups, but vaginal opening in the irradiated rats was significantly delayed. The elevated level of progesterone might be responsible, among other endocrine changes, for the lower fertility of neonatally irradiated mature female rats.

  13. Melatonin protects rat liver against irradiation-induced oxidative injury.

    PubMed

    Koc, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Bakan, Nuri

    2003-09-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the antioxidant roles of different doses of melatonin (5 and 10 mg x kg (-1) ) against gamma-irradiation-caused oxidative damage in liver tissue after total body irradiation (TBI) with a single dose of 6.0 Gy. Fifty adult rats were divided into 5 equal groups, 10 rats each. Groups I and II were injected with 5 and 10 mg x kg (-1) of melatonin, and group III was injected with an isotonic NaCl solution. Group IV was injected with only 5 mg x kg (-1) of melatonin. Group V was reserved as a sham control. Following a 30-min-period, 6.0 Gy TBI was given to groups 1, 2 and 3 in a single fraction. The liver malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, super oxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities were measured in all groups. TBI resulted in a significant increase in the liver tissue MDA levels and a decrease of SOD and GSH-Px activities. The results demonstrated that the liver tissue MDA levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with melatonin (5 or 10 mg x kg (-1) ) were significantly decreased, while the SOD and GSH-Px activities were significantly increased. Decreasing the MDA levels by melatonin was dose dependent, but the liver tissue SOD and GSH activities were not. The data obtained in this study suggest that melatonin administration prior to irradiation may prevent liver damage by irradiation.

  14. Gastroprotective effect of kefir on ulcer induced in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Fahmy, Hanan A; Ismail, Amel F M

    2015-03-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the protective effect of kefir milk on ethanol-induced gastric ulcers in γ-irradiated rats. The results of the present study revealed that treatment with γ-irradiation and/or ethanol showed a significant increase in ulcers number, total acidity, peptic, H(+)K(+)ATPase, MMP-2 and MMP-9 activities and MDA level, which were accompanied by a significant decrease in the mucus content, the stomach GSH level, the GSH-Px activity and DNA damage. Pre-treatment with kefir milk exert significant improvement in all the tested parameters. Kefir milk exerts comparable effect to that of the antiulcer drug ranitidine. In conclusion, the present study revealed that oral administration of kefir milk prevents ethanol-induced gastric ulcer in γ-irradiated rats that could attribute to its antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and radio-protective activities. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Hepatic injury after whole-liver irradiation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Leitch, J.M.

    1985-03-01

    Radiation-induced hepatic injury in rats, which is characterized by marked ascites accompanied by liver necrosis, fibrosis, and vein lesions, is described in this study. These adverse sequelae are produced within 30 days after irradiation if there is surgical removal of two-thirds of the liver immediately after whole-liver irradiation. The LD/sub 50/30/ day and median survival time after liver irradiation and two-thirds partial hepatectomy is 24 Gy and 17 days, respectively. Death is preceded by reduction in liver function as measured by (/sup 131/I)-labeled rose bengal clearance. Prior to death, liver sepsis and endotoxemia were detected in most irradiated, partially hepatectomized animals. Pretreatment of the animals with endotoxin and/or antibiotic decontamination of the GI tract resulted in increased survival time, but no irradiated, partially hepatectomized animal survived beyond 63 days. This suggests that sepsis and endotoxemia resulting from the bacteria in the intestine are the immediate cause of death after 30-Gy liver irradiation and partial hepatectomy. It is concluded that the hepatectomized rat model is an economical and scientifically manageable experimental system to study a form of radiation hepatitis that occurs in compromised human livers.

  16. Teratogenic effect of californium-252 irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Satow, Y; Lee, J Y; Hori, H; Okuda, H; Tsuchimoto, S; Sawada, S; Yokoro, K

    1989-06-01

    The teratogenicity of californium-252 (Cf-252) irradiation which generates approximately 70% 2.3 MeV fast neutron and 30% gamma rays was evaluated. A single whole body exposure of Cf-252 at various doses was given to pregnant rats on day 8 or 9 of pregnancy, followed by microscopic autopsy of the fetuses at the terminal stage of pregnancy to search for external and internal malformations. For comparison, pregnant rats were irradiated with various doses of cobalt-60 (Co-60) standard gamma rays at the same dose rate (1 rad/min.). The doses were 20-120 rad of Cf-252 and 80-220 rad of Co-60. Using frequency of radiation induced malformations observed on day 8 of pregnancy as an index, relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of 2.3-2.7 was obtained from the straight line obtained by modifying by the least squares method the frequency curves of malformed fetuses in total implants and in surviving fetuses. The types of malformations induced by Cf-252 and Co-60 irradiation were alike. Using fetal LD50 as an index, 2.4 was obtained as RBE when irradiated on day 8 of pregnancy and 3.1 as that when irradiated on day 9. The results showed that Cf-252 had stronger a teratogenic effect than Co-60 gamma rays.

  17. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Annual report No. 3, 1 May 85-30 Apr 86

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.J.

    1986-05-01

    We have compared the characteristics of the recognition sites for 3(H)acetylcholine and 3H(-)nicotine in rat brain and found that the pharmacology, distribution, disulfide bond requirement, and regulation by chronic administration of nicotine and soman are identical. From these studies we conclude that 3Hacetylcholine and 3H(-)nicotine recognize the same recognition site which has the characteristics expected of a nicotinic cholinergic receptor. We have also determined that 3Hacetylcholine of high specific radioactivity (80 Ci/mmol) is an excellent ligand with which to study muscarinic receptors that have high affinity for agonists. These receptors may represent a subtype of muscarinic receptors found in brain, heart, glands, an some smooth muscle. (JS)

  18. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors in rat brain. Annual report No. 1, 1 May 83-30 Apr 84

    SciTech Connect

    Kellar, K.J.

    1984-06-02

    We have examined the molecular bond requirements of 3Hacetylcholine 3HACh nicotinic binding sites in rat brain. Reduction of disulfide bonds in vitro with the reducing agent dithiothreitol (DTT) resulted in a decrease in the number of 3HACh binding sites that could be measured, but the affinity of the remaining sites was unaltered. The effect of DTT was concentration-dependent, and it was reversed by reoxidation of the reduced disulfide bonds, with 5,5-dithiobis-2-nitrobenzoic acid. The reversibility of the DTT effect was prevented by p-chloromercuribenzoic acid, which forms thiol complexes with exposed sulfhydryl groups. The data indicate that disulfide bonds at or near the 3HACh recognition site are critical for binding of acetylcholine.

  19. Thromboxane and prostacyclin synthesis following whole body irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Schneidkraut, M.J.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Rose, J.C.

    1984-01-01

    The effect of radiation on the mechanism and source of in vivo thromboxane B/sub 2/ (TxB/sub 2/) and 6-keto-prostaglandin F/sub 1..cap alpha../ (6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha..) synthesis was evaluated. Rats were irradiated with 2, 10, or 20 gray (Gy) whole body gamma irradiation and showed an increase in urine TxB/sup 2/ after either 10 or 20 Gy. Urine 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ was elevated only after exposure to 20 Gy. Irradiation did not alter urine volume and osmolarity, nor was there a correlation between urine osmolarity and the urinary concentration of TxB/sup 2/ or 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../. Rats were pretreated with indomethacin to determine if radiation-induced alterations in urine TxB/sup 2/ and 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha../ could be suppressed. Pretreatment with indomethacin significantly decreased urine TxB..cap alpha.. and 6-keto-PFG/sub 1..cap alpha../ in both irradiated and nonirradiated animals. Finally, the sources of urinary cyclooxygenase products were investigated using an isogravitometric cross-perfusion system. These experiments demonstrated that urine TxB..cap alpha.. is derived from extrarenal sources, whereas 6-keto-PGF/sub 1..cap alpha.. is synthesized primarily by the kidney. It may be concluded that radiation exposure increases in vivo cyclooxygenase pathway activity by both renal and ultrarenal tissues.

  20. Anti-inflammatory effect of selenium nanoparticles on the inflammation induced in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    El-Ghazaly, M A; Fadel, N; Rashed, E; El-Batal, A; Kenawy, S A

    2017-02-01

    Selenium (Se) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties, but its bioavailability and toxicity are considerable limiting factors. The present study aimed to investigate the possible anti-inflammatory and analgesic effects of selenium nanoparticles (Nano-Se) on inflammation induced in irradiated rats. Paw volume and nociceptive threshold were measured in carrageenan-induced paw edema and hyperalgesia model. Leukocytic count, tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBAR), and total nitrate/nitrite (NOx) were estimated in the exudate collected from 6 day old air pouch model. Irradiated rats were exposed to 6 Gy gamma (γ)-irradiation. Nano-Se were administered orally in a dose of 2.55 mg/kg once before carrageenan injection in the first model and twice in the second model. The paw volume but not the nociceptive response produced by carrageenan in irradiated rats was higher than that induced in non-irradiated rats. Nano-Se were effective in reducing the paw volume in non-irradiated and irradiated rats but it did not alter the nociceptive threshold. The inflammation induced in irradiated rats increased all the estimated parameters in the exudate whereas; Nano-Se decreased their elevation in non-irradiated and irradiated rats. Nano-Se possess a potential anti-inflammatory activity on inflammation induced in irradiated rats.

  1. The effect of chlorpromazine on pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics of phenobarbital in X-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Okulicz-Kozaryn, I; Wójciakowa, Z; Godlewski, J; Nowakowska, E

    1984-01-01

    Male Wistar rats were irradiated with a single 600R dose of X-rays on the whole body. Chlorpromazine was given 30 min before phenobarbital. Phenobarbital sleeping time was prolonged by chlorpromazine both in irradiated and non-irradiated rats. On the 3rd day after irradiation the prolongation of the phenobarbital sleep by chlorpromazine was more marked than on the 6th day. No correlation between the pharmacodynamic action of phenobarbital and its cerebral level was noted.

  2. Glucidic and lipidic metabolic changes in rats induced by irradiation and the effect of adrenalectomy.

    PubMed

    Groza, P; Ghizari, E; Butculescu, I; Ciontescu, L; Ciuntu, L

    1975-01-01

    In experiments on X-irradiated rats (1000 R) the hepatic glycogen, total lipids, phospholipids content, and plasma glucose, cholesterol and beta-lipoprotein concentration were determined in intact and adrenalectomized animals. It was confirmed that irradiation produces a hepatic glycogen and blood glucose increased concentration. The glucidic metabolic response on irradiation is diminished by adrenalectomy. The adrenalectomy-induced modifications in the lipid metabolism of irradiated rats are more inconstant, which corresponds with its relative independence from glucocorticoid hormones.

  3. Comparative effects of neutron irradiation and X irradiation on the embryonic development of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Solomon, H.M. ); Beckman, D.A.; Buck, S.J.; Brent, R.L. Thomas Jefferson Univ., Philadelphia, PA ); Gorson, R.O. ); Mills, R.E. )

    1994-02-01

    Our aim was to compare the dose-response relationship for the embryotoxic effects of 0.43 MeV neutrons with those of 240 kVp X rays after in utero exposures during early organogenesis in the rat. At 9.5 days after conception, pregnant rats were exposed to 0.025 to 0.35 Gy 0.43 MeV neutrons at a dose rate of 0.04 to 0.07 Gy/h. Comparable biological effects were produced using 0.50 to 2.05 Gy 240 kVp X rays. Neutron irradiation produced a greater proportion of offspring with very low body weight than with malformations when compared to X rays. There were no embryotoxic effects observed at neutron exposures of 0.025, 0.049, 0.079, 0.10, 0.15, and 0.20 Gy or X-ray exposures of 0.50 and 0.96 Gy. Taken together, the results suggest that the mechanisms by which neutron irradiation affects embryonic development may, in part, be both quantitatively and qualitatively different from those by which X irradiation affects development. These results support the generalization that the embryo exhibits a nonlinear response to increasing doses of ionizing radiations during the period of early organogenesis. 25 refs., 3 tabs.

  4. Total lymphoid irradiation in the Wistar rat: technique and dosimetry

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; de Jong, J.

    1983-01-01

    The technical and dosimetric aspects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in the Wistar rat were evaluated as part of a set-up to develop a new model for tumor xenotransplantation. Information obtained from anatomical dissections, radionuclide imaging of the spleen, lymphography and chromolymphography was used to standardize the localization portals cut out in a lead plate. The two portals encompassed the lymphoid tissue above and below the diaphragm. A specially designed masonite phantom was used to measure the dose distribution in the simulated target volumes. Ionization chamber dosimetery, thermoluminescence dosimetry and film densitometry were used for measuring exposure and absorbed dose. Irradiation was performed with 250 kV X rays (HVL 3.1 mm Cu). The dose rate was regulated by adjusting the treatment distance. The dose inhomogeneity measured in the target volumes varied between 80-100%. The side scatter dose to non target tissues under the shielded area between the two portals ranged between 20-30%. The technique and dosimetry of total lymphoid irradiation in Wistar rats are now standardized and validated and pave the way for tumor xenotransplantation experiments.

  5. Head and neck tumors after energetic proton irradiation in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wood, D.; Cox, A.; Hardy, K.; Salmon, Y.; Trotter, R.

    1994-10-01

    This is a two-year progress report on a life span dose-response study of brain tumor risk at moderate to high doses of energetic protons. It was initiated because a joint NASA/USAF life span study of rhesus monkeys that were irradiated with 55-MeV protons (average surface dose, 3.5 Gy) indicated that the incidence of brain tumors per unit surface absorbed dose was over 19 times that of the human tinea capitis patients whose heads were exposed to 100 kv x-rays. Examination of those rats that died in the two-year interval after irradiation of the head revealed a linear dose-response for total head and neck tumor incidence in the dose range of 0-8.5 Gy. The exposed rats had a greater incidence of pituitary chromophobe adenomas, epithelial and mesothelial cell tumors than the unexposed controls but the excessive occurrence of malignant gliomas that was observed in the monkeys was absent in the rats. The estimated dose required to double the number of all types of head and neck tumors was 5.2 Gy. The highest dose, 18 Gy, resulted in high mortality due to obstructive squamous metaplasia at less than 50 weeks, prompting a new study of the relative bological effectiveness of high energy protons in producing this lesion.

  6. Hepatic regeneration after sublethal partial liver irradiation in cirrhotic rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Ke; Lai, Song-Tao; Ma, Ning-Yi; Zhao, Jian-Dong; Ren, Zhi-Gang; Wang, Jian; Liu, Jin; Jiang, Guo-Liang

    2011-01-01

    Our previous animal study had demonstrated that partial liver irradiation (IR) could stimulate regeneration in the protected liver, which supported the measurements adopted in radiotherapy planning for hepatocellular carcinoma. The purpose of this present study is to investigate whether cirrhotic liver repopulation could be triggered by partial liver IR. The cirrhosis was induced by thioacetamide (TAA) in rats. After cirrhosis establishment, TAA was withdrawn. In Experiment 1, only right-half liver was irradiated with single doses of 5 Gy, 10 Gy and 15 Gy, respectively. In Experiment 2, right-half liver was irradiated to 15 Gy, and the left-half to 2.5 Gy, 5 Gy and 7.5 Gy, respectively. The regeneration endpoints, including liver index (LI); mitotic index (MI); liver proliferation index (LPI); PCNA-labeling index (PCNA-LI); serum HGF, VEGF, TGF-α and IL-6, were evaluated on 0 day, 30-day, 60-day, 90-day, 120-day and 150-day after IR. Serum and in situ TGF-β1 were also measured. In both experimental groups, the IR injuries were sublethal, inducing no more than 9% animal deaths. Upon TAA withdrawal, hepatic regeneration decelerated in the controls. In Experiment 1 except for LI, all other regeneration parameters were significantly higher than those in controls for both right-half and left-half livers. In Experiment 2 all regeneration parameters were also higher compared with those in controls for both half livers. Serum HGF and VEGF were increased compared with that of controls. Both unirradiated and low dose-irradiated cirrhotic liver were able to regenerate triggered by sublethal partial liver IR and higher doses and IR to both halves liver triggered a more enhanced regeneration.

  7. Antiapoptotic effect of L-carnitine on testicular irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Kanter, Mehmet; Topcu-Tarladacalisir, Yeter; Parlar, Sule

    2010-04-01

    We evaluated the effects of L-carnitine on apoptosis of germ cells in the rat testis following irradiation. Male Wistar rats were divided into three groups. Control group received sham irradiation plus physiological saline. Radiotherapy group received scrotal gamma-irradiation of 10 Gy as a single dose plus physiological saline. Radiotherapy + L-carnitine group received scrotal irradiation plus 200 mg/kg intraperitoneally L-carnitine. Twenty-four hours post-irradiation, the rats were sacrificed and testes were harvested. Testicular damage was examined by light and electron microscopy, and germ cell apoptosis was determined by terminal deoxynucleotidyltransferase-mediated deoxyuridine triphosphate in situ nick end-labeling (TUNEL) technique. Morphologically, examination of irradiated testis revealed presence of disorganization and desquamation of germinal cells and the reduction in sperm count in seminiferous tubule lumen. Under electron microscopy, the morphological signs of apoptosis were frequently detected in spermatogonia. Apoptotic spermatogonia showed the marginal condensation of chromatin onto the nuclear lamina, nucleus and cytoplasm shrinkage and still functioning cell organelles. TUNEL-positive cells were significantly more numerous in irradiated rats than in control rats. L-carnitine treatment significantly attenuated the radiation-induced morphological changes and germ cell apoptosis in the irradiated rat testis. In conclusion, these results suggested that L-carnitine supplementation during the radiotherapy may be beneficial for spermatogenesis following testicular irradiation by decreasing germ cell apoptosis.

  8. Late behavioural and neuropathological effects of local brain irradiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Hodges, H; Katzung, N; Sowinski, P; Hopewell, J W; Wilkinson, J H; Bywaters, T; Rezvani, M

    1998-03-01

    The delayed consequences of radiation damage on learning and memory in rats were assessed over a period of 44 weeks, commencing 26 weeks after local irradiation of the brain with single doses of X-rays. Doses were set at levels known to produce vascular changes alone (20 Gy) or vascular changes followed by necrosis (25 Gy). Following T-maze training, 29 weeks after irradiation, irradiated and sham control groups performed equally well on the forced choice alternation task. When tested 35 weeks after irradiation, treated rats achieved a much lower percentage of correct choices than controls in T-maze alternation, with no difference between the two irradiated groups. At 38-40 weeks after irradiation, rats receiving both doses showed marked deficits in water maze place learning compared with age-matched controls; performance was more adversely affected by the higher dose. The extent of impairment was equivalent in the two groups of rats irradiated with 25 Gy, those trained or not previously trained in the T-maze, suggesting that water maze acquisition deficits were not influenced by prior experience in a different spatial task. In contrast to water maze acquisition, rats irradiated with 20 Gy showed no deficits in working memory assessed in the water maze 44 weeks after irradiation, whereas rats receiving 25 Gy showed substantial impairment. Rats receiving 25 Gy irradiation showed marked necrosis of the fimbria and degeneration of the corpus callosum, damage to the callosum occurring in animals examined histologically 46 weeks after irradiation, but in only a third of the animals examined at 41 weeks. However, there was no evidence of white matter necrosis in rats irradiated with 20 Gy, examined 46 weeks after irradiation. These findings demonstrated that local cranial irradiation with single doses of 20 and 25 Gy of X-rays produced delayed impairment of spatial learning and working memory in the rat. The extent of these deficits appears to be task- and dose

  9. Experimental study on rat NK cell activity improvement by laser acupoint irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, Dongxiao; Chen, Xiufeng; Ruan, Buqing; Yang, Feng

    1998-08-01

    To study the improvement of the natural killer (NK) cell activity by semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation, rats were used in this experiment and were injected immunosuppressant in their abdomen. The immunoassay was made after the surface irradiation and inner irradiation at Baihui point by semiconductor laser. The NK cell activity is an important index of immunologic function. The results showed that the NK cell activity after laser acupoint irradiation was enhanced. This enhancement is relatively important in the clinical therapy of tumor.

  10. Royal jelly modulates oxidative stress and tissue injury in gamma irradiated male Wister Albino rats

    PubMed Central

    Azab, Khaled Shaaban; Bashandy, Mohamed; Salem, Mahmoud; Ahmed, Osama; Tawfik, Zaki; Helal, Hamed

    2011-01-01

    Background: Royal jelly is a nutritive secretion produced by the worker bees, rich in proteins, carbohydrates, vitamins and minerals. Aim: The present study was designed to determine the possible protective effects of royal jelly against radiation induced oxidative stress, hematological, biochemical and histological alterations in male Wister albino rats. Materials and Methods: Male Wister albino rats were exposed to a fractionated dose of gamma radiation (2 Gy every 3 days up to 8 Gy total doses). Royal jelly was administrated (g/Kg/day) by gavages 14 days before exposure to the 1st radiation fraction and the treatment was continued for 15 days after the 1st irradiation fraction till the end of the experiment. The rats were sacrificed 3rd, equivalent to 3rd post 2nd irradiation fraction, and equivalent to 3rd day post last irradiation fraction. Results: In the present study, gamma- irradiation induced hematological, biochemical and histological effects in male Wister albino rats. In royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable decrease recorded in thiobarbituric reactive substances concentration when compared to γ-irradiated group. Also, the serum nitric oxide concentration was significantly improved. The administration of royal jelly to irradiated rats according to the current experimental design significantly ameliorates the changes induced in serum lipid profile. Moreover, in royal jelly treated irradiated group, there was a noticeable amelioration recorded in all hematological parameters along the three experimental intervals. The microscopic examination of cardiac muscle of royal jelly treated irradiated rats demonstrated structural amelioration, improved nuclei and normal features of capillaries and veins in endomysium when compared to gamma-irradiated rats. Conclusion: It was suggested that the biochemical, hematological and histological amelioration observed in royal jelly (g/Kg/day) treated irradiated rats might be due to the antioxidant

  11. SU-E-T-492: Implementing a Method for Brain Irradiation in Rats Utilizing a Commercially Available Radiosurgery Irradiator

    SciTech Connect

    Cates, J; Drzymala, R

    2014-06-01

    Purpose: The purpose of the study was to implement a method for accurate rat brain irradiation using the Gamma Knife Perfexion unit. The system needed to be repeatable, efficient, and dosimetrically and spatially accurate. Methods: A platform (“rat holder”) was made such that it is attachable to the Leskell Gamma Knife G Frame. The rat holder utilizes two ear bars contacting bony anatomy and a front tooth bar to secure the rat. The rat holder fits inside of the Leskell localizer box, which utilizes fiducial markers to register with the GammaPlan planning system. This method allows for accurate, repeatable setup.A cylindrical phantom was made so that film can be placed axially in the phantom. We then acquired CT image sets of the rat holder and localizer box with both a rat and the phantom. Three treatment plans were created: a plan on the rat CT dataset, a phantom plan with the same prescription dose as the rat plan, and a phantom plan with the same delivery time as the rat plan. Results: Film analysis from the phantom showed that our setup is spatially accurate and repeatable. It is also dosimetrically accurate, with an difference between predicted and measured dose of 2.9%. Film analysis with prescription dose equal between rat and phantom plans showed a difference of 3.8%, showing that our phantom is a good representation of the rat for dosimetry purposes, allowing for +/- 3mm diameter variation. Film analysis with treatment time equal showed an error of 2.6%, which means we can deliver a prescription dose within 3% accuracy. Conclusion: Our method for irradiation of rat brain has been shown to be repeatable, efficient, and accurate, both dosimetrically and spatially. We can treat a large number of rats efficiently while delivering prescription doses within 3% at millimeter level accuracy.

  12. Preserving effects of melatonin on the levels of glutathione and malondialdehyde in rats exposed to irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yildirim, O; Comoğlu, S; Yardimci, S; Akmansu, M; Bozkurt, G; Sürücü, S

    2008-03-01

    In this study we investigated whether pretreatment with melatonin was protective against the injury of the central nervous system (CNS) in rats receiving LD(50) whole body irradiation. The wistar rats were randomized into four groups: i) the control group (CG), ii) melatonin-administered group (MG; 1 mg/kg body weight), iii) irradiated group (RG; 6.75 Gy, one dose), and iv) melatonin-administered and irradiated group (MRG). Blood samples were drawn from the rats 24 h after the treatment and plasma glutathione levels were assayed. Plasma glutathione level was significantly higher in RG than CG. The melatonin pretreatment prevented GSH increase induced by irradiation. Lipid peroxidation and glutathione levels of rat cerebral cortex were determined in all groups after 24 h. Cortical malondialdehyde (MDA) was significantly higher in the RG. The melatonin pretreatment prevented cortical MDA increase induced by irradiation. Cortical GSH was significantly lower in RG than the CG. The melatonin pretreatment prevented cortical GSH decrease induced by irradiation. Tissue samples were obtained from cerebral cortex and hypothalamus which also were affected by ionizing irradiation in the CNS and were evaluated with electron microscopy. Histopathological findings showed that LD(50) whole body irradiation resulted in damage of the neuronal cells of CNS. The results obtained from this study demonstrated that pretreatment with melatonin prevented the damage that develops in CNS following irradiation. The beneficial effect of melatonin can be related to protection of the CNS from oxidative injury and preventing the decrease in the level of cortical glutathione.

  13. Boron neutron capture therapy: re-irradiation response of the rat spinal cord.

    PubMed

    Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Hopewell, J W; Micca, P L; Wielopolski, L

    1998-09-01

    To evaluate the retreatment response of the CNS to BNC irradiation using a rat spinal cord model. Fischer 344 rats were irradiated with single doses of 6 MeV X-rays which were 22, 40 or 80% of a total effect (TE). An additional group of rats was irradiated with a single exposure of thermal neutrons in the presence of the neutron capture agent boronophenylalanine (BPA) to a dose that represented 82% of the TE. After an interval of 26 weeks, animals were re-irradiated using various single doses of thermal neutrons in combination with BPA. The re-irradiation ED50 doses represented 77, 80 or 50% of the TE after an initial X-ray dose of 22, 40 or 80% of the TE, respectively. The re-irradiation ED50 dose was 55% of the TE after an initial BNC irradiation dose representing 82% of the TE. The level of the initial radiation damage had a direct bearing on the re-irradiation response. Recovery following initial treatment with BNC irradiation was similar to that after initial irradiation with X-rays.

  14. Labile iron pool and ferritin content in developing rat brain gamma-irradiated in utero.

    PubMed

    Robello, Elizabeth; Galatro, Andrea; Puntarulo, Susana

    2009-05-01

    This study was aimed to assess the content of total Fe, Ferritin (Ft) and labile Fe pool (LIP) in developing rat brain exposed in utero to 1 Gy of gamma-irradiation. A significant increase (2.3-fold) in the total Fe content of the fetal rat brain irradiated in utero was observed from 1 to 4h post-irradiation, as compared to the content in non-irradiated brain. Ft was analyzed by immunoblotting. The Ft protein was composed by 20 kDa subunits. According to the analysis of the band density in the Western blot, the Ft content decreased by 77+/-15% 2h after gamma-irradiation, as compared to the values in non-irradiated samples. The effect of gamma-irradiation on the LIP was studied by both electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) and by a fluorescence technique employing calcein (CA). A reduction on the LIP was detected at 2h post-irradiation, independently of the methodology employed for the assay. Since NO content increased in the same time frame of LIP decreasing, a protective role for NO is suggested in fetal rat brain exposed to gamma-irradiation. The data presented in this work are the first experimental evidence suggesting that, as part of the network of the cellular response to limit irradiation-dependent injury, a complex interaction between Fe and NO could be triggered.

  15. Increased metallothionein content in rat liver induced by x irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension

    SciTech Connect

    Shiraishi, N.; Aono, K.; Utsumi, K.

    1983-08-01

    X irradiation and exposure to high oxygen tension are known to induce lipid peroxidation. The effects of these stresses on hepatic content of metallothionein, which may be involved in the regulation of zinc and copper metabolism, have been studied. The amount of metallothionein in rat liver was increased 11-fold by a high dose of X irradiation (1000 R). Increased metallothionein content (about 15 times) was also observed in liver of rats exposed to high oxygen tension for 3 days.

  16. APR-2 Tropical Cyclone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) participated in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in August and September of 2010, collecting a large volume of data in several tropical systems, including Hurricanes Earl and Karl. Additional measurements of tropical cyclone have been made by APR-2 in experiments prior to GRIP (namely, CAMEX-4, NAMMA, TC4); Table 1 lists all the APR-2 tropical cyclone observations. The APR-2 observations consist of the vertical structure of rain reflectivity at 13.4 and 35.6 GHz, and at both co-polarization and crosspolarization, as well as vertical Doppler measurements and crosswind measurements. APR-2 normally flies on the NASA DC-8 aircraft, as in GRIP, collecting data with a downward looking, cross-track scanning geometry. The scan limits are 25 degrees on either side of the aircraft, resulting in a roughly 10-km swath, depending on the aircraft altitude. Details of the APR-2 observation geometry and performance can be found in Sadowy et al. (2003).The multiparameter nature of the APR-2 measurements makes the collection of tropical cyclone measurements valuable for detailed studies of the processes, microphysics and dynamics of tropical cyclones, as well as weaker systems that are associated with tropical cyclone formation. In this paper, we give a brief overview of how the APR-2 data are processed. We also discuss use of the APR-2 cross-track winds to estimate various quantities of interest in in studies of storm intensification. Finally, we show examples of the standard products and derived information.

  17. APR-2 Tropical Cyclone Observations

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Durden, S. L.; Tanelli, S.

    2011-01-01

    The Second Generation Airborne Precipitation Radar (APR-2) participated in the Genesis and Rapid Intensification Processes (GRIP) experiment in August and September of 2010, collecting a large volume of data in several tropical systems, including Hurricanes Earl and Karl. Additional measurements of tropical cyclone have been made by APR-2 in experiments prior to GRIP (namely, CAMEX-4, NAMMA, TC4); Table 1 lists all the APR-2 tropical cyclone observations. The APR-2 observations consist of the vertical structure of rain reflectivity at 13.4 and 35.6 GHz, and at both co-polarization and crosspolarization, as well as vertical Doppler measurements and crosswind measurements. APR-2 normally flies on the NASA DC-8 aircraft, as in GRIP, collecting data with a downward looking, cross-track scanning geometry. The scan limits are 25 degrees on either side of the aircraft, resulting in a roughly 10-km swath, depending on the aircraft altitude. Details of the APR-2 observation geometry and performance can be found in Sadowy et al. (2003).The multiparameter nature of the APR-2 measurements makes the collection of tropical cyclone measurements valuable for detailed studies of the processes, microphysics and dynamics of tropical cyclones, as well as weaker systems that are associated with tropical cyclone formation. In this paper, we give a brief overview of how the APR-2 data are processed. We also discuss use of the APR-2 cross-track winds to estimate various quantities of interest in in studies of storm intensification. Finally, we show examples of the standard products and derived information.

  18. The changes in pharmacokinetics and conjugation of chloramphenicol in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Stoklasová, A; Krízala, J; Ledvina, M

    1978-11-01

    In the serum and the liver of rats levels of chloramphenicol (CAP) following its i.v. administration (200 mg/kg) in the control groups and in the rats irradiated with whole-body air exposure to 500 R were determined with spectrophotometric methods. The CAP-levels in the serum increased in the group of rats 3 days after irradiation, but only during the 1st hour. At later time intervals the values were lower than in the controls. This decrease at the 60th min is striking even in the groups 6 and 9 days after exposure. Free CAP in the liver of rats irradiated 6 and 9 days before was lower at interval 30 min after CAP-administration, but the group irradiated 9 days before was unaltered. However, 120 min after CAP-administration the values of free CAP decreased at all intervals investigated following the irradiation. The levels of conjugated CAP in the liver of the rats 3 and 6 days after exposure were lower than in controls in both intervals after drug administration; but in rats 9 days after irradiation they increased. Our results indicate that the kinetics of CAP is altered and corresponding changes in its conjugation are effected under the condition of acute radiation syndrome.

  19. [Sequencing of low-molecular-weight DNA in blood plasma of irradiated rats].

    PubMed

    Vasilieva, I N; Bespalov, V G; Zinkin, V N; Podgornaya, O I

    2015-01-01

    Extracellular low-molecular-weight DNA in blood of irradiated rats was sequenced for the first time. The screening of sequences in the DDBJ database displayed homology of various parts of the rodent genome. Sequences of low-molecular-weight DNA in rat's plasma are enriched with G/C pairs and long interspersed elements relative to rat genome. DNA sequences in blood of rats irradiated at the doses of 8 and 100 Gy have marked distinctions. Data of sequencing of extracellular DNA from normal humans and with pathology were analyzed. DNA sequences of irradiated rats differ from the human ones by a wealth of long interspersed elements. This new knowledge lays the foundation for development of minimally invasive technologies of diagnosing the probability of pathology and controlling the adaptive resources of people in extreme environments.

  20. Responses to Selection for Body Weight in Descendants of X-Irradiated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gianola, Daniel; Chapman, A. B.; Rutledge, J. J.

    1979-01-01

    The effectiveness of selection for high and low body weight at six weeks of age was studied in descendants of X-irradiated (R) and nonirradiated (C) inbred rats. There were two replicates of each of the direction of selection-irradiation treatments. In C lines, there were no consistent responses to selection, probably due to a low level of genetic variability. In R rats, selection was effective only for decreased body weight. The results of this experiment do not suggest the use of irradiation combined with selection as a means of enhancing responses to selection in animals. PMID:456888

  1. [Radioprotective effect of drinking sulfate mineral water on spermatogenesis in offspring of irradiated male rats].

    PubMed

    Korolev, Iu N; Geniatulina, M S; Nikulina, L A; Kurilo, L F

    2003-01-01

    Histological and electron-microscopic studies of a radioprotective action of drinking sulphate mineral water (SMW) on spermatogenesis of irradiated male rats' progeny have found that SMW used before radiation (2 Gy) and 10 days after it is able to reduce postradiation sequelae in the progeny (2-5 month and 1.5 year old rats) testes.

  2. Low-level laser irradiation promotes the recovery of atrophied gastrocnemius skeletal muscle in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakano, Jiro; Kataoka, Hideki; Sakamoto, Jyunya; Origuchi, Tomoki; Okita, Minoru; Yoshimura, Toshiro

    2009-09-01

    Low-level laser (LLL) irradiation promotes proliferation of muscle satellite cells, angiogenesis and expression of growth factors. Satellite cells, angiogenesis and growth factors play important roles in the regeneration of muscle. The objective of this study was to examine the effect of LLL irradiation on rat gastrocnemius muscle recovering from disuse muscle atrophy. Eight-week-old rats were subjected to hindlimb suspension for 2 weeks, after which they were released and recovered. During the recovery period, rats underwent daily LLL irradiation (Ga-Al-As laser; 830 nm; 60 mW; total, 180 s) to the right gastrocnemius muscle through the skin. The untreated left gastrocnemius muscle served as the control. In conjunction with LLL irradiation, 5-bromo-2-deoxyuridine (BrdU) was injected subcutaneously to label the nuclei of proliferating cells. After 2 weeks, myofibre diameters of irradiated muscle increased in comparison with those of untreated muscle, but did not recover back to normal levels. Additionally, in the superficial region of the irradiated muscle, the number of capillaries and fibroblast growth factor levels exhibited significant elevation relative to those of untreated muscle. In the deep region of irradiated muscle, BrdU-positive nuclei of satellite cells and/or myofibres increased significantly relative to those of the untreated muscle. The results of this study suggest that LLL irradiation can promote recovery from disuse muscle atrophy in association with proliferation of satellite cells and angiogenesis.

  3. Mechanical properties of UV irradiated rat tail tendon (RTT) collagen.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina; Wess, Tim

    2004-04-01

    The mechanical properties of RTT collagen tendon before and after UV irradiation have been investigated by mechanical testing (Instron). Air-dried tendon were submitted to treatment with UV irradiation (wavelength 254 nm) for different time intervals. The changes in such mechanical properties as breaking strength and percentage elongation have been investigated. The results have shown, that the mechanical properties of the tendon were greatly affected by time of UV irradiation. Ultimate tensile strength and ultimate percentage elongation decreased after UV irradiation of the tendon. Increasing UV irradiation leads to a decrease in Young's modulus of the tendon.

  4. Separate effects of irradiation and of graft-versus-host reaction on rat mucosal mast cells.

    PubMed Central

    Cummins, A G; Munro, G H; Huntley, J F; Miller, H R; Ferguson, A

    1989-01-01

    T cell mediated immune responses in the gut can produce enteropathy and malabsorption. We have investigated the relevance of mucosal mast cells (MMC) to the mechanisms of this enteropathy by using graft-versus-host reaction (GvHR) in the rat as a model of mucosal delayed type hypersensitivity. Measurements of mucosal architecture, intraepithelial lymphocytes (IEL) and MMC counts were performed in control and experimental rats, and release of rat mast cell protease II (RMCPII) into the bloodstream was used as an index of MMC activation. In unirradiated rats, jejunal MMC count was increased on day 14 of the GvHR (mean 272/mm2 v 182 in controls, p less than 0.01), as was serum RMCPII (p less than 0.01). Irradiated rats (4.5 Gy, reconstituted with isogeneic spleen cells) had low counts of IEL and crypt hyperplasia seven to 14 days after irradiation. Irradiated rats with GvHR (induced by ip injection of parental strain spleen cells) and studied on days 7, 10 and 14, had significant enteropathy with longer crypts and higher CCPR than matched irradiated animals (p less than 0.05 on day 14 when compared with irradiation alone). Intraepithelial lymphocytes counts, however, reflected only the effect of radiation. Irradiation, with or without GvHR, led to the virtual disappearance of jejunal MMC, undetectable jejunal RMCPII and very low levels of RMCPII in serum (all p less than 0.01 when compared with unirradiated controls). These experiments show that there is a modest expansion in jejunal MMC in unirradiated rats with semiallogeneic GvHR, whereas irradiation, alone or associated with GvHR, profoundly depletes MMC for at least two weeks. The enteropathy of GvHR can evolve in the virtual absence of MMC. PMID:2707634

  5. Laser irradiation affects enzymatic antioxidant system of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ibuki, Flavia Kazue; Simões, Alyne; Nicolau, José; Nogueira, Fernando Neves

    2013-05-01

    The aim of the present study was to analyze the effect of low-power laser irradiation in the antioxidant enzymatic system of submandibular (SMG) and parotid (PG) salivary glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. The animals were randomly divided into six groups: three diabetic groups (D0, D5, and D20) and three non-diabetic groups (C0, C5, and C20), according to laser dose received (0, 5, and 20 J/cm(2), respectively). Areas of approximately 1 cm(2) were demarcated in the salivary glands (each parotid and both submandibular glands) and after irradiated according to Simões et.al. (Lasers Med Sci 24:202-208, 2009). A diode laser (660 nm/100 mW) was used, with laser beam spot of 0.0177 cm(2). The group treated with 5 J/cm(2) laser dose was subjected to irradiation for 1 min and 4 s (total irradiation time) and the group treated with 20 J/cm(2) laser dose was subjected to irradiation for 4 min and 16 s. Twenty-four hours after irradiation the animals were euthanized and the salivary glands were removed for biochemical analysis. The total antioxidant values (TA), the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase enzymes were determined. SOD and CAT activities, as well as TA were higher in SMG of irradiated diabetic rats. However, in SMG of non-diabetic rats, laser irradiation decreased TA values and led to an increase in the CAT activity. In addition, there was a decrease in the activity of CAT in PG of diabetic and non-diabetic animals after laser irradiation. According to the results of the present study, low-power laser irradiation can affect the enzymatic antioxidant system of salivary glands of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  6. Respirators: APR Issuer Self Study 33461

    SciTech Connect

    Chochoms, Michael

    2016-07-13

    Respirators: APR Issuer Self-Study (course 33461) is designed to introduce and familiarize employees selected as air-purifying respirator (APR) issuers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) with the responsibilities, limitations, procedures, and resources for issuing APRs at LANL. The goal is to enable these issuers to consistently provide proper, functioning APRs to authorized users

  7. Age-related changes in the induction of DNA polymerases in rat liver by gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takao; Tahara, Shoichi; Tanno, Munehiko; Taguchi, Takahiko

    2002-09-01

    DNA polymerase activities related to DNA repair were examined in the livers of young (6-month-old) and aged (27-month-old) rats irradiated with gamma-rays. The activity of DNA polymerase alpha was little changed in the livers of gamma-ray-irradiated rats, while DNA polymerases beta and gamma were induced in the livers of young and aged rats exposed by gamma-ray irradiation. These enzymes were induced from 2 to 6 h after irradiation of young and aged rats, respectively, although the induction in aged rats was weak. DNA polymerase beta activity in the livers of young rats irradiated with gamma-rays was 2-fold that in aged rats. Similarly, DNA polymerase gamma activity in the livers of young rats subjected to gamma-ray irradiation was 3-fold that in aged rats. The induction of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in the livers of aged rats irradiated with gamma-rays was also delayed compared with young rats. These results indicate that the decline in repair activity in aged rats leads to the accumulation of oxidative damage and DNA mutations in aged tissues.

  8. Soins Aux Brules Apres Un Accident Nucleaire

    PubMed Central

    Bargues, L.; Donat, N.; Jault, P.; Leclerc, T.

    2010-01-01

    Summary Les lésions radiques sont dues le plus souvent à des radio-isotopes utilisés dans l’industrie. L’explosion d’un réacteur nucléaire, les armes nucléaires ou une attaque terroriste constituent un risque d’afflux massif de victimes brûlées. Les radiations ionisantes occasionnent des brûlures thermiques, des syndromes d’irradiation aiguë avec pancytopénie et des signes cutanés retardés. Après une période de latence, des symptômes cutanés apparaissent et leur profondeur est proportionnelle à la dose reçue. Les protocoles habituels de réanimation des brûlés s’appliquent ici. Les soins aux irradiés nécessitent aussi une mesure de l’irradiation et une décontamination par des personnels entraînés. En cas de catastrophe nucléaire, la priorité est d’optimiser les structures existantes et de préserver les moyens pour les patients ayant la plus forte probabilité de survie. Après un accident nucléaire isolé, les difficultés dans les centres de brûlés sont l’évaluation de la profondeur et les techniques chirurgicales de couverture cutanée. La préparation des moyens médicaux et des centres de brûlés est nécessaire pour faire face à la prise en charge de ces brûlures différentes et complexes. PMID:21991218

  9. Effects of preconceptional gamma irradiation on the development of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sanová, Stefánia; Bálentová, Sona; Slovinská, Lucia; Misúrová, Eva

    2005-01-01

    We investigated the influence of irradiation of rat males with sublethal dose (3 Gy) of gamma radiation 25 or 80 days before mating with control females on brain development in F1 generation progeny in prenatal and postnatal period. We found out the decrease in mitotic activity and increase in occurrence of chromosomal aberrations (chromosomal bridges) in embryos and brain (hemispheres and little brain) of youngs. Effects transferred to progeny from irradiated spermatids (by irradiation of males of F0 generation 25 days before fertilization) were more marked as effects transferred from irradiated spermatogonia (by irradiation 80 days before fertilization). During embryonic development and early postnatal period, the changes of mitotic index (MI) were gradually less expressive. The incidence of cells with unrepaired DNA damage (chromosomal bridges), however, was high until the end of experiment. These findings we consider as a manifestation of increased genome instability induced in the progeny by paternal irradiation.

  10. Thermal denaturation of UV-irradiated wet rat tail tendon collagen.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, Alina

    2005-04-01

    The thermal helix-coil transition of UV irradiated collagen in rat tail tendon has been investigated by differential scanning calorimetry. During UVB irradiation the tendons were immersed in water to keep the collagen fibers in a fully hydrated condition at all times. UV irradiation induced changes in collagen which caused both stabilization and destabilization of the triple helix in fibers. The helix-coil transition for non-irradiated collagen occurred near 64 degrees C, for irradiated 1 and 3 h at 66 and 67 degrees C, respectively. After irradiating for longer times (20-66 h) the helix-coil transition peak occurred at much lower temperatures. The peak was very broad and suggested that collagen was reduced by UV to different polypeptides of different molecular weight and different lower thermal stabilities. It was caused by the disruption of a network of hydrogen-bonded water molecules surrounding the collagen macromolecule.

  11. Irradiated human chondrocytes expressing bone morphogenetic protein 2 promote healing of osteoporotic bone fracture in rats.

    PubMed

    Yi, Youngsuk; Choi, Kyoung Baek; Lim, Chae-Lyul; Hyun, Jong-Pil; Lee, Hyeon-Youl; Lee, Kun Bok; Yun, Lillian; Ayverdi, Asli; Hwang, Sally; Yip, Vivian; Noh, Moon Jong; Lee, Kwan Hee

    2009-10-01

    Bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) was selected as a transgene to regenerate osteoporotic bone defects after several BMPs were tested using a bone formation study in nude mice. Human chondrocytes were transduced with a BMP2-containing retroviral vector, and single clones were selected. The cells were characterized over numerous passages for growth and BMP2 expression. The single clones were irradiated and tested for viability. BMP2 expression lasted for 3 weeks before dying off completely after approximately 1 month. Irradiated and non-irradiated transduced chondrocytes successfully healed fractures in osteoporotic rats induced by ovariectomy. The osteoinducing effect of irradiated cells was better than that of their non-irradiated counterparts or a chondrocytes-only control. This study showed that delivering BMP2 from the transduced and irradiated chondrocytes could be an effective and safe method of repairing osteoporotic bone fractures.

  12. The biological effects of low power laser irradiation on cultivated rat glial and glioma cells.

    PubMed

    Tsai, J C; Kao, M C

    1991-02-01

    Two cell lines were used as models to investigate the biological effects resulting from irradiation by low power lasers. One was a well-established rat glial cell line (RBA-1) obtained from the dissociated culture of normal neonatal rat (JAR-2, F-51) brain tissue. The other was a rat C6 glioma cell line obtained from a propagated culture of rat glial tumor induced by N-nitrosomethylurea. Both of them showed relatively constant cellular morphological characteristics and had steady growth and proliferation in the monolayer system. In this study, the monolayer cell culture was exposed to irradiation by various lasers at low power density in various situations. These lasers with their low energy range are used conventionally in bioregulation and acupuncture, so that their output power primarily will not cause a significant elevation of temperature of the irradiated tissue. The effects on cellular morphology, proliferation, and other functional activities after various conditions of irradiation were studied. A biostimulatory effect was noted after He-Ne laser irradiation on C6 glioma cells and was dose related. A biostimulatory effect was noted also after IR (gallium-arsenide infrared) laser irradiation but was not dose related. No significant biostimulatory effects on RBA-1 cells were noted after exposure to the four types of lasers used in this study.

  13. Inhibition of recovery of spermatogenesis in irradiated rats by different androgens.

    PubMed

    Shetty, Gunapala; Wilson, Gene; Hardy, Matthew P; Niu, Enmei; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Meistrich, Marvin L

    2002-09-01

    We previously showed that exogenous testosterone (T) inhibited GnRH-antagonist-stimulated spermatogenic recovery in irradiated rats through an androgen-receptor-mediated action. In the present study, we tested whether the inhibition is attributable to T, a specific androgenic metabolite of T, or a general property of androgens in this system. In addition, we also tested whether estradiol-17beta (E2), a metabolite of T, is similarly inhibitory. Rats irradiated with 5 Gy were treated with a GnRH antagonist during wk 3-7. Neither irradiation nor GnRH-antagonist treatment produced biologically significant changes in the relative intratesticular levels of several androgenic metabolites. Next, groups of rats, irradiated and treated with GnRH antagonist as above, were given various doses of one of the following androgens: T, 5alpha-dihydrotestosterone, 7alpha-methyl-19-nortestosterone, methyltrienolone, or E2. The percentage of tubules showing differentiation (tubule differentiation index) was increased to 68% by the GnRH antagonist, from a value of 0.1% in irradiated-only rats at 13 wk after irradiation. All of the added androgens inhibited spermatogenic recovery, lowering the tubule differentiation index to between 0.4-36%, but no inhibition was observed with the addition of E2. Of all the androgen treatments tested, T (given as daily injections of T propionate) minimally inhibited spermatogenic recovery while maintaining androgen-responsive tissue weights, and might be most useful in clinical studies. Hormonal measurements in androgen-treated rats were most consistent with the androgen inhibition of spermatogenic recovery in irradiated rats being a combined result of a direct inhibitory effect of all androgens on the testis and an indirect effect through the pituitary by raising levels of FSH, which seems to add to the inhibition of spermatogenic recovery.

  14. Continuous gamma-irradiation of rats: dose-rate effect on loss and recovery of spermatogenesis.

    PubMed

    Pinon-Lataillade, G; Maas, J

    1985-07-01

    Male Sprague Dawley rats were continuously irradiated at a dose-rate of either 5 or 7 cGy/day, up to a total dose of 900 cGy. Changes in spermatogenesis with irradiation and the recovery of the testis during 33 weeks after irradiation were studied. No clear dose-rate effect with testicular weight occurred. During the irradiation time, increased dose and dose-rate induced a decrease in A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocyte number. In our experimental conditions germ cell production did not plateau, as shown by the increasing number of tubular cross sections devoid of germ cells beyond 500 cGy. The recovery of seminiferous epithelium occurred essentially within nine weeks. It was not dose-rate dependent and was still incomplete after 33 weeks. This lack of recovery might be due to limited compensatory division ability of the stem cells. Clusters of Sertoli cells were observed in the lumen of the seminiferous tubules; impaired function of these cells could also prevent the complete recovery of the seminiferous epithelium. By 16 weeks after the end of irradiation 67% of 5 cGy/day irradiated rats and 34% of 7 cGy/day irradiated rats recovered fertility.

  15. Relationship between oxidative damage and colon carcinogenesis in irradiated rats: influence of dietary countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Nancy; Sanders, Lisa; Wu, Guoyao; Davidson, Laurie; Ford, John; Braby, Leslie; Carroll, Raymond; Chapkin, Robert; Lupton, Joanne

    Galactic cosmic radiation not only kills colon epithelial cells, it also generates a cellular environment that can lead to oxidative DNA damage. We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil and pectin protects against initiation of colon cancer by enhancing apoptotic removal of cells with oxidative DNA adducts (8-OHdG), and that apoptosis was highly correlated with colon cancer suppression. We hypothesized this diet combination will mitigate the oxidative damage occurring from radiation and thus reduce colon cancer. The experiment tested the effect of radiation (± 1 Gy, 1 GeV/n Fe ions) on redox balance, apoptosis, and 8-OHdG levels at initiation and colon tumor incidence. Diets contained fish oil or corn oil, and cellulose or pectin (2x2 factorial design). Rats received the diets 3 wk before irradiation (half of the rats), followed by azoxymethane (AOM) injections 10 and 17 d later (all rats). Just prior to AOM injection, irradiated fish oil/pectin rats had a more reduced redox state in colonocytes (lower GSSG, P < 0.05; higher GSH/GSSG ratio), which was not observed in irradiated corn oil/cellulose rats. A shift to a more oxidative state (lower GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, P < 0.05) occurred between 6 and 12 h after AOM in the fish oil/pectin irradiated rats. Changes in redox balance likely contributed to lower 8-OHdG levels in colonocytes from rats consuming the fish oil diets. Dietary pectin enhanced (P < 0.04) apoptosis induction 12 h after AOM injection in irradiated rats. Similar to the 8-OHdG results, colon tumor incidence was 42% higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed corn oil vs fish oil diets. In summary, fish oil/pectin diets created a more reduced colon environment in irradiated rats that was evident 10 d after irradiation. The ensuing oxidative shift in those rats after AOM injection may have enhanced apoptosis; effectively eliminating more DNA damaged cells. Thus, inclusion of fish oil and pectin in diets for long-duration space flights should help

  16. Irradiation of rat brain reduces P-glycoprotein expression and function.

    PubMed

    Bart, J; Nagengast, W B; Coppes, R P; Wegman, T D; van der Graaf, W T A; Groen, H J M; Vaalburg, W; de Vries, E G E; Hendrikse, N H

    2007-08-06

    The blood-brain barrier (BBB) hampers delivery of several drugs including chemotherapeutics to the brain. The drug efflux pump P-glycoprotein (P-gp), expressed on brain capillary endothelial cells, is part of the BBB. P-gp expression on capillary endothelium decreases 5 days after brain irradiation, which may reduce P-gp function and increase brain levels of P-gp substrates. To elucidate whether radiation therapy reduces P-gp expression and function in the brain, right hemispheres of rats were irradiated with single doses of 2-25 Gy followed by 10 mg kg(-1) of the P-gp substrate cyclosporine A (CsA) intravenously (i.v.), with once 15 Gy followed by CsA (10, 15 or 20 mg kg(-1)), or with fractionated irradiation (4 x 5 Gy) followed by CsA (10 mg kg(-1)) 5 days later. Additionally, four groups of three rats received 25 Gy once and were killed 10, 15, 20 or 25 days later. The brains were removed and P-gp detected immunohistochemically. P-gp function was assessed by [(11)C]carvedilol uptake using quantitative autoradiography. Irradiation increased [(11)C]carvedilol uptake dose-dependently, to a maximum of 20% above non irradiated hemisphere. CsA increased [(11)C]carvedilol uptake dose-dependently in both hemispheres, but more (P<0.001) in the irradiated hemisphere. Fractionated irradiation resulted in a lost P-gp expression 10 days after start irradiation, which coincided with increased [(11)C]carvedilol uptake. P-gp expression decreased between day 15 and 20 after single dose irradiation, and increased again thereafter. Rat brain irradiation results in a temporary decreased P-gp function.

  17. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P.; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB. PMID:27375765

  18. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB.

  19. Effect of external irradiation on the gastrointestinal absorption of uranium and neptunium in rats.

    PubMed

    Houpert, P; Paquet, F; Dublineau-Naud, I

    2001-03-01

    The gastrointestinal absorption and systemic distribution of uranium and neptunium were determined after external gamma irradiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of gamma radiation (6Gy; 0.75Gy.min(-1)). Three days after irradiation they were orally and/or intravenously contaminated with 100 microg.kg(-1) uranium or 3kBq.kg(-1) neptunium. The gastrointestinal absorption and organ distribution of both radionuclides were measured 6 days after irradiation. External irradiation increased the intestinal transit time of uranium and neptunium but had no effect on their gastrointestinal absorption. The average fractional absorption was determined to be 0.93 and 0.98% (uranium) and 4.7 and 4.8% (neptunium) for the irradiated and non-irradiated rats respectively. The excretion of uranium and neptunium was not affected by the irradiation. A 6 Gy whole-body irradiation (gamma; 0.75Gy.min(-1)) did not affect the absorption of uranium and neptunium after oral intake.

  20. In vitro γ Irradiation of Leukemic Cells in Mice, Rats, and Guinea Pigs

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gross, Ludwik; Dreyfuss, Yolande; Ehrenreich, Theodore; Feldman, Dorothy; Limbert, Lorraine M.

    1980-12-01

    In vitro γ irradiation of virus-induced (Gross) mouse leukemia cells at doses of 350-1600 rads (1 rad = 0.01 gray) had no effect on their ability to induce leukemia, usually within 2 weeks, after transplantation into syngeneic mice. However, when cells irradiated at doses of 2000-20,000 rads were transplanted, they induced leukemia after a latency period exceeding 2.5 months, similar to the result observed in mice inoculated with filtered mouse leukemia extracts. Similar results were also obtained after irradiation of leukemic cells derived from rats in which leukemia had been induced by rat-adapted mouse leukemia virus. Apparently, γ irradiation at a dose of, or exceeding, 2000 rads, inhibits the ability of mouse and rat leukemic cells to induce leukemia after transplantation into syngeneic hosts; however, it does not inactivate the virus carried by such cells nor prevent it from inducing leukemia. [In previous experiments, doses of more than 4,500,000 rads were needed to inactivate the passage A (Gross) leukemia virus carried in either mouse or rat leukemic cells.] In vitro γ irradiation of L2C guinea pig leukemic cells at doses of 750--2500 rads had no apparent effect on their ability to induce leukemia after transplantation into strain 2 guinea pigs. However, irradiation at doses of 3250-20,000 rads inactivated their ability to do so. The morphology of mouse, rat, and guinea pig leukemic cells and the virus particles present in such cells was not affected by irradiation at doses of 20,000 rads.

  1. Effect of high-dose total body irradiation on ACTH, corticosterone, and catecholamines in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Eric P; Bruder, Eric D; Cullinan, William E; Ziegler, Dana; Raff, Hershel

    2011-01-01

    Total body irradiation (TBI) or partial body irradiation is a distinct risk of accidental, wartime, or terrorist events. Total body irradiation is also used as conditioning therapy before hematopoietic stem cell transplantation. This therapy can result in injury to multiple tissues and might result in death as a result of multiorgan failure. The hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis could play a causative role in those injuries, in addition to being activated under conditions of stress. In a rat model of TBI, we have established that radiation nephropathy is a significant lethal complication, which is caused by hypertension and uremia. The current study assessed HPA axis function in rats undergoing TBI. Using a head-shielded model of TBI, we found an enhanced response to corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH) in vitro in pituitaries from irradiated compared with nonirradiated rats at both 8 and 70 days after 10-Gy single fraction TBI. At 70, but not 8 days, plasma adrenocorticotrophic hormone (ACTH) and corticosterone levels were increased significantly in irradiated compared with nonirradiated rats. Plasma aldosterone was not affected by TBI at either time point, whereas plasma renin activity was decreased in irradiated rats at 8 days. Basal and stimulated adrenal steroid synthesis in vitro was not affected by TBI. In addition, plasma epinephrine was decreased at 70 days after TBI. The hypothalamic expression of CRH messenger RNA (mRNA) and hippocampal expression of glucocorticoid receptor mRNA were unchanged by irradiation. We conclude that the hypertension of radiation nephropathy is not aldosterone or catecholamine-dependent but that there is an abscopal activation of the HPA axis after 10 Gy TBI. This activation was attributable at least partially to enhanced pituitary ACTH production.

  2. Low dose X-irradiation mitigates diazepam induced depression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Amandeep; Singla, Neha; Dhawan, D K

    2016-10-01

    Depression is considered as one of the most prevalent health ailments. Various anti-depressant drugs have been used to provide succour to this ailment, but with little success and rather have resulted in many side effects. On the other hand, low dose of ionizing radiations are reported to exhibit many beneficial effects on human body by stimulating various biological processes. The present study was conducted to investigate the beneficial effects of low doses of X-rays, if any, during diazepam induced depression in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were segregated into four different groups viz: Normal control, Diazepam treated, X-irradiated and Diazepam + X-irradiated. Depression model was created in rats by subjecting them to diazepam treatment at a dosage of 2 mg/kg b.wt./day for 3 weeks. The skulls of animals belonging to X-irradiated and Diazepam + X-irradiated rats were X-irradiated with a single fraction of 0.5 Gy, given twice a day for 3 days, thereby delivered dose of 3 Gy. Diazepam treated animals showed significant alterations in the neurobehavior and neuro-histoarchitecture, which were improved after X-irradiation. Further, diazepam exposure significantly decreased the levels of neurotransmitters and acetylcholinesterase activity, but increased the monoamine oxidase activity in brain. Interestingly, X-rays exposure to diazepam treated rats increased the levels of neurotransmitters, acetylcholinesterase activity and decreased the monoamine oxidase activity. Further, depressed rats also showed increased oxidative stress with altered antioxidant parameters, which were normalized on X-rays exposure. The present study, suggests that low dose of ionizing radiations, shall prove to be an effective intervention and a novel therapy in controlling depression and possibly other brain related disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. A Novel Technique for Image-Guided Local Heart Irradiation in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G.; Boerma, Marjan; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Han, Eun Young; Clarkson, Richard; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Corry, Peter M.

    2014-01-01

    In radiotherapy treatment of thoracic, breast and chest wall tumors, the heart may be included (partially or fully) in the radiation field. As a result, patients may develop radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) several years after exposure to radiation. There are few methods available to prevent or reverse RIHD and the biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In order to further study the effects of radiation on the heart, we developed a model of local heart irradiation in rats using an image-guided small animal conformal radiation therapy device (SACRTD) developed at our institution. First, Monte Carlo based simulations were used to design an appropriate collimator. EBT-2 films were used to measure relative dosimetry, and the absolute dose rate at the isocenter was measured using the AAPM protocol TG-61. The hearts of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a total dose of 21 Gy. For this purpose, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed in a custom-made vertical rat holder. Each heart was irradiated with a 3-beam technique (one AP field and 2 lateral fields), with each beam delivering 7 Gy. For each field, the heart was visualized with a digital flat panel X-ray imager and placed at the isocenter of the 1.8 cm diameter beam. In biological analysis of radiation exposure, immunohistochemistry showed γH2Ax foci and nitrotyrosine throughout the irradiated hearts but not in the lungs. Long-term follow-up of animals revealed histopathological manifestations of RIHD, including myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. The results demonstrate that the rat heart irradiation technique using the SACRTD was successful and that surrounding untargeted tissues were spared, making this approach a powerful tool for in vivo radiobiological studies of RIHD. Functional and structural changes in the rat heart after local irradiation are ongoing. PMID:24000983

  4. A novel technique for image-guided local heart irradiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G; Boerma, Marjan; Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Han, Eun Young; Clarkson, Richard; Hauer-Jensen, Martin; Corry, Peter M

    2014-12-01

    In radiotherapy treatment of thoracic, breast and chest wall tumors, the heart may be included (partially or fully) in the radiation field. As a result, patients may develop radiation-induced heart disease (RIHD) several years after exposure to radiation. There are few methods available to prevent or reverse RIHD and the biological mechanisms remain poorly understood. In order to further study the effects of radiation on the heart, we developed a model of local heart irradiation in rats using an image-guided small animal conformal radiation therapy device (SACRTD) developed at our institution. First, Monte Carlo based simulations were used to design an appropriate collimator. EBT-2 films were used to measure relative dosimetry, and the absolute dose rate at the isocenter was measured using the AAPM protocol TG-61. The hearts of adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with a total dose of 21 Gy. For this purpose, rats were anesthetized with isoflurane and placed in a custom-made vertical rat holder. Each heart was irradiated with a 3-beam technique (one AP field and 2 lateral fields), with each beam delivering 7 Gy. For each field, the heart was visualized with a digital flat panel X-ray imager and placed at the isocenter of the 1.8 cm diameter beam. In biological analysis of radiation exposure, immunohistochemistry showed γH2Ax foci and nitrotyrosine throughout the irradiated hearts but not in the lungs. Long-term follow-up of animals revealed histopathological manifestations of RIHD, including myocardial degeneration and fibrosis. The results demonstrate that the rat heart irradiation technique using the SACRTD was successful and that surrounding untargeted tissues were spared, making this approach a powerful tool for in vivo radiobiological studies of RIHD. Functional and structural changes in the rat heart after local irradiation are ongoing.

  5. Avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Tomášová, Lenka; Smajda, B; Bona, M

    2011-12-01

    The aim of this study was to assess, whether a sublethal dose of gamma-rays will influence the avoidance behaviour and anxiety in rats and whether the response to radiation depends on time of day of its application. Adult male Wistar rats were tested in elevated plus-maze, in hot plate test and in the light/dark box in 4 regular intervals during a day. After two weeks the animals were irradiated with a whole-body dose 6 Gy of gamma-rays. One day after irradiation the animals were repeatedly tested in the same way, as before irradiation. In the plus-maze test an increased level of anxiety was established. The irradiation significantly decreased the locomotor activity of rats, but the extent of exploratory and comfortable behaviour were not altered. After irradiation, an elevated aversion to the thermal stimulus was observed in the hot plate test. The effects of radiation were more pronounced in the light period of the day, than in the dark one. No significant differences in aversion to light were detected after irradiation. The obtained results indicate, that sublethal doses of ionizing radiation can markedly influence the reactivity of animals to adverse stimuli, their motoric activity and emotional status, as well.

  6. Radio-protective effects of melatonin against irradiation-induced oxidative damage in rat peripheral blood.

    PubMed

    Shirazi, Alireza; Mihandoost, Ehsan; Mohseni, Mehran; Ghazi-Khansari, Mahmoud; Rabie Mahdavi, Seied

    2013-01-01

    During radiotherapy, ionizing irradiation interacts with biological systems to produce free radicals, which attacks various cellular components. The hematopoietic system is well-known to be radiosensitive and its damage may be life-threatening. Melatonin synergistically acts as an immunostimulator and antioxidant. In this study we used a total of 120 rats with 20 rats in each group. Group 1 did not receive melatonin or irradiation (Control group), Group 2 received only 10 mg/kg melatonin (Mel group), Group 3 exposed to dose of 2 Gy irradiation (2 Gy Rad group), Group 4 exposed to 8 Gy irradiation (8 Gy Rad group), Group 5 received 2 Gy irradiation plus 10 mg/kg melatonin (Mel +2 Gy Rad group) and Group 6 received 8 Gy irradiation plus 10 mg/kg melatonin (Mel+8 Gy Rad group). Following exposure to radiation, five rats from each group were sacrificed at 4, 24, 48 and 72 h. Exposure to different doses of irradiation resulted in a dose-dependent decline in the antioxidant enzymes activity and lymphocyte count (LC) and an increase in the nitric oxide (NO) levels of the serum. Pre-treatment with melatonin (10 mg/kg) ameliorates harmful effects of 2 and 8 Gy irradiation by increasing lymphocyte count(LC) as well as antioxidant enzymes activity and decreasing NO levels at all time-points. In conclusion 10 mg/kg melatonin is likely to be a threshold concentration for significant protection against lower dose of 2 Gy gamma irradiation compared to higher dose of 8 Gy. Therefore, it seems that radio-protective effects of melatonin are dose-dependent.

  7. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B) and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate, protected rat skin tissue against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury, as evidenced by a reversal of solar irradiation-induced changes in cellular reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde production. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production in rat skin microsomes. Taken together, Sch B or Sch C, by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response, may prevent photo-aging of skin.

  8. A high frequency of induction of chromosome aberrations in the fibroblasts of LEC strain rats by X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Okui, T; Endoh, D; Arai, S; Hayashi, M

    1996-08-01

    The LEC strain of rats (LEC rats), originally developed as a model for hereditary fulminant hepatitis, is highly sensitive to whole-body X-irradiation when compared to WKAH strain of rats (WKAH rats). The present results showed that frequencies of certain types of chromosome aberrations induced by in vitro X-irradiation in the fibroblasts of LEC rats were higher than those of WKAH rats. In particular, frequencies of chromatid gaps and chromosome exchanges in LEC cells were higher approximately 4- to 5-fold and 6- to 8-fold, respectively, than those of WKAH cells.

  9. Differential protection by WR2721 of skin versus growing cartilage following irradiation in weanling rats

    SciTech Connect

    Constine, L.S.; Rubin, P.; Gregory, P.

    1987-04-01

    The potential for radioprotection of growing cartilage by the thiophosphate WR2721 was evaluated in weanling rats using single fractions of irradiation. Protection of acute skin toxicity was monitored simultaneously. Single doses of 600, 1200, 1800, or 2400 cGy were administered to the left tibia of CrL:CD(SD)BR female rats in groups of 12. Identically treated groups were injected with 310 mg/kg WR2721 (2/3 the determined LD50/30) in a concentration of 26 mg/ml intraperitoneally 15 min prior to irradiation. Rats untreated or given WR2721 without radiation served as control groups. Radiographs of the irradiated and unirradiated tibiae for each animal were obtained weekly to the date of sacrifice at 80 days following the initial treatment. Skin toxicity was assessed weekly starting on the second week using Moulder's scale. No significant difference in bone growth as measured by tibial lengths for the WR2721-treated or untreated animals was observed. Skin toxicity including moist desquamation occurred in irradiated limbs and was substantially less in rats treated with WR2721. As opposed to previous work with cysteamine, WR2721 as administered had no significant radioprotective effect on tibial growth in weanling rats but substantially reduced the accompanying skin toxicity.

  10. Neuronal damage in chick and rat embryos following X-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Schneider, B.F.; Norton, S.

    1980-12-01

    Exposure of rat and chick embryos to X-irradiation at the time of development of neurons at the telencephalic-diencephalic border results in prolonged damage to neurons in this area as measured by neuronal nuclear size. A dose of 100 rads to the seven-day-old chick embryo has about the same effect as 125 rads to the 15-day-old rat fetus. The nuclear volume of large, multipolar neurons in the chick paleostriatum primitivum and the rat lateral preoptic area are reduced from 10 to 15%. Larger doses of X-irradiation to the chick (150 and 200 rads) cause progressively greater reductions in nuclear size. The large neurons which were measured in the rat and chick are morphologically similar in the two species. Both contain cytoplasmic acetylcholinesterase and have several branched, spiny dendritic processes. The similarity of response of chick and rat neurons to X-irradiation diminishes the significance of maternal factors as the cause of the effects of fetal irradiation in these experiments.

  11. Prolongation of rat heart allografts by donor-specific blood transfusion treated with ultraviolet irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Oluwole, S.F.; Iga, C.; Lau, H.; Hardy, M.A.

    1985-07-01

    The effect of donor-specific blood transfusion was compared to that of UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion on heart allograft survival in inbred rats with major histocompatibility differences. In one series ACI rats received heterotopic heart grafts from Lewis rats and 1 mL transfusion of donor-type blood at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to the transplantation. Fifty percent of the grafts were permanently accepted (survival greater than 200 days). Following UVB-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion, 55% of the grafts survived indefinitely. In a mixed lymphocyte reaction ACI lymphocytes are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes. In another series, Lewis rats received ACI hearts. Donor-specific transfusions at 1, 2, and 3 weeks prior to transplantation did not significantly alter the survival of heart allografts. Lewis lymphocytes react strongly to ACI stimulator cells in a mixed lymphocyte reaction. However, when the donor blood was UVB-irradiated prior to transfusion, the ACI allograft survival was significantly prolonged in this ACI-to-Lewis strain combination. When Lewis rats received W/F hearts following either donor-specific or UVB-irradiated donor-specific transfusions, the hearts' survival was similarly and significantly prolonged, but did not become permanent. Mixed lymphocyte reaction reveals that the stimulation index of Lewis lymphocytes against W/F lymphocytes is greater than that of ACI versus Lewis, but is less than that between Lewis responder cells against ACI stimulators.

  12. Serum copper concentration as an index of lung injury in rats exposed to hemithorax irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Fitzsimons, E.J.; Hinz, J.

    1988-06-01

    Serum copper concentration was evaluated as an index of lung injury (monitored by lung prostacyclin production) with respect to the effects of time, dose, dose fractionation, and penicillamine dose modification in rats irradiated to the right hemithorax. Both lung PGI2 production and serum Cu concentration increased with increasing /sup 60/Co gamma-ray dose in animals sacrificed 2 or 6 months postirradiation, and the highest values for both responses were observed at the latter autopsy time. At 2 months postirradiation, the elevations in lung PGI2 production and serum Cu concentration also were spared similarly when total radiation doses were delivered in five equal daily fractions as compared to single doses. Finally, the ability of D-penicillamine to ameliorate the radiation-induced hyperproduction of PGI2 by rat lung was accompanied by an attenuation of the dose-dependent increase in serum Cu concentration at 2 months postirradiation in the drug-treated rats. In contrast, serum iron concentration was independent of time, dose, and penicillamine. At 2 months after irradiation, there also was a dose-dependent increase in lung hydroxyproline (collagen) content, the magnitude of which correlated closely with serum copper concentration in individual animals. Thus serum copper concentration is an accurate and minimally invasive index of lung injury in rats irradiated to the hemithorax and can predict lung hydroxyproline (collagen) content in individual irradiated rats.

  13. Increased EZH2 and decreased osteoblastogenesis during local irradiation-induced bone loss in rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Changjun; Li, Changwei; Yang, Kai; Kang, Hui; Xu, Xiaoya; Xu, Xiangyang; Deng, Lianfu

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy is commonly used to treat cancer patients but exhibits adverse effects, including insufficiency fractures and bone loss. Epigenetic regulation plays an important role in osteogenic differentiation of bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). Here, we reported local bone changes after single-dose exposure to 137CS irradiation in rats. Femur bone mineral density (BMD) and trabecular bone volume in the tibia were significantly decreased at 12 weeks after irradiation. Micro-CT results showed that tBMD, Tb.h and Tb.N were also significantly reduced at 12 weeks after irradiation exposure. ALP-positive OB.S/BS was decreased by 42.3% at 2 weeks after irradiation and was decreased by 50.8% at 12 weeks after exposure. In contrast to the decreased expression of Runx2 and BMP2, we found EZH2 expression was significantly increased at 2 weeks after single-dose 137CS irradiation in BMSCs. Together, our results demonstrated that single-dose 137CS irradiation induces BMD loss and the deterioration of bone microarchitecture in the rat skeleton. Furthermore, EZH2 expression increased and osteoblastogenesis decreased after irradiation. The underlying mechanisms warrant further investigation. PMID:27499068

  14. The effect of melatonin on peripheral blood cells during total body irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Koc, Mehmet; Buyukokuroglu, Mehmet Emin; Taysi, Seyithan

    2002-05-01

    Melatonin, has been reported to participate in the regulation of a number of important physiological and pathological process. It has also the ability to protect the genetic material of hematopoietic cells of mice from damaging effects of acute total body irradiation. The objective of this study was to the potential radioprotective effects of pharmacological doses of melatonin in total body irradiated rat's peripheral blood cells. Forty adult rats were divided into 4 equal groups. Group 1 received no melatonin or irradiation (control group), while group 2 received only melatonin (5 mg/kg, i.p.). Group 3 received only total body irradiation (RT) by 5 Gy of gamma irradiation only and group 4 received RT plus melatonin (5 mg/kg, i.p., 30 min before RT). An hour and a half following RT, blood samples were taken. Leukocytes and thrombocytes number and hemoglobin levels were measured in all groups. Five mg/kg dose of melatonin significantly protected leukocytes and as well as thrombocytes number against y irradiation. There were no significant differences between Hb levels. Our results suggest that melatonin administration prior to irradiation prevented radiation damage on peripheral blood cells. Melatonin radioprotection is achieved by its ability as a scavenger for free radicals generated by ionizing radiation and acts probably as a growth factor, especially for granulocytes in bone marrow.

  15. Effects of low intensity laser irradiation during healing of infected skin lesions in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nussbaum, Ethne L.; Lilge, Lothar; Mazzulli, Tony; Pritzker, Kenneth P.

    2006-02-01

    Purpose: To determine the effect of low intensity laser therapy (LILT) on healing of infected skin wounds in the rat. Methods: Wounds on the dorsum of Sprague-Dawley rats (14 per group) were inoculated or sham-inoculated with P. aeruginosa. Wounds were irradiated or sham-irradiated three times weekly from Day 1-19 using 635nm or 808nm diode lasers at radiant exposure of 1 or 20 J/cm2 delivered in continuous wave (CW) or at an intensity modulation frequency of 3800Hz. Wound area and bacterial growth were evaluated three times weekly. Results: CW 808 nm (1 and 20 J/cm2) irradiation generally delayed healing in acute wounds. However, from Day 10 onwards CW 808 nm (1 J/cm2 and 20 J/cm2) and 808 nm 3800 Hz (1 J/cm2) irradiation improved healing in inoculated wounds. Healing in acute wounds improved using 635 nm irradiation at low radiant exposure (1 J/cm2); however, using 635 nm irradiation at high radiant exposure (20 J/cm2) delayed healing. Bacterial balance in wounds was significantly altered using 635 nm (20 J/cm2) and CW 808 nm irradiation (1 and 20 J/cm2). Conclusion: Clearing wounds of normal flora was not associated with improved healing. Proliferation of staphylococcal species in wounds was associated with delayed healing.

  16. Induction of Lipocalin2 in a Rat Model of Lung Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Sultan, Sadaf; Ahmad, Shakil; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed; Hess, Clemens F.; Christiansen, Hans; Cameron, Silke

    2016-01-01

    Previously, we showed that lipocalin2 (LCN2) serum levels increased after liver irradiation and during acute-phase conditions. Here, we evaluate LCN2 expression and serum levels after single-dose lung irradiation with 25 Gy, percutaneously administered to the lung of randomly-paired male Wistar rats. Due to the concave anatomy of the lung recesses, the irradiation field included the upper part of the liver. No rat died due to irradiation. In control tissue, lung immunohistochemistry showed a high constitutive expression of LCN2+ granulocytes. LCN2 mRNA levels in lung tissue increased up to 24 h (9 ± 2.3-fold) after irradiation. However, serum LCN2 levels remained undetectable after lung irradiation. LCN2 expression in the upper part of the liver increased up to 4.2-fold after lung irradiation, but the lower liver showed an early decrease. Acute-phase cytokines (IL-1β and TNF-α) showed a significant increase on transcript level in both lung and upper liver, whilst the lower liver did not show any considerable increase. In conclusion, constitutive expression of LCN2 in local immune cells demonstrates its local role during stress conditions in the lung. The absence of LCN2 in the serum strengthens our previous findings that the liver is the key player in secreting LCN2 during stress conditions with liver involvement. PMID:27136530

  17. Mitochondrial activity assessed by cytofluorescence after in-vitro-irradiation of primary rat brain cultures

    SciTech Connect

    Cervos-Navarro, J.; Hamdorf, G. )

    1993-05-01

    Mitochondria play a key role in cell homeostasis and are the first cell organells affected by ionizing irradiation, as it was proved by previous electron microscopic investigations. In order to observe functional parameters of mitochondria after low-dose irradiation, primary rat brain cultures (prepared from 15-day-old rat fetuses) were irradiated from a [sup 60]Co-source with 0.5 and 1 Gy at the age of 2 or 7 days in vitro (div). Cytofluorescence measurement was made by a Cytofluor[sup [trademark]2350] using Rhodamine 123. This fluorescent dye is positively charged and accumulates specifically in the mitochondria of living cells without cytotoxic effect. Since its retention depends on the negative membrane potential as well as the proton gradient that exists across the inner mitochondrial membrane, Rhodamine 123 accumulation reflects the status of mitochondrial activity as a whole. After irradiation with 0.5 and 1 Gy on day 2 in culture there was a decrease in Rhodamine uptake in the irradiated cultures during the first week after the irradiation insult which reached minimum values after 3 days. Rhodamine uptake increased during the following period and finally reached the values of the control cultures. In the second experiment with irradiated cultures on day 7 and the same doses of 0.5 and 1 Gy the accumulation of Rhodamine decreased only initially then increased tremendously. After both doses values of Rhodamine-accumulation were higher than the control level. The results demonstrated that irradiation caused a change in mitochondrial activity depending on the time of irradiation. The dramatic increase over the control levels after irradiation on day 7 in vitro is attributed to the fact that at this time synapses have already developed. Deficiency of mitochondrial activity as well as hyperactivity and the consequent change in energy production may lead to changes in neuronal metabolism including an increase in production of free radicals.

  18. Rat Models of Post-Irradiation Recovery of Spermatogenesis: Interstrain Differences

    PubMed Central

    Abuelhija, Mahmoud; Weng, Connie C.; Shetty, Gunapala; Meistrich, Marvin L.

    2012-01-01

    Recently we reported large differences between rat strains in spermatogenesis recovery at 10 weeks after 5-Gy irradiation suggesting that there are interstrain as well as interspecies differences in testicular radiation response. To determine whether these interstrain differences in sensitivity might be a result of the particular dose and time-point chosen, we performed dose-response and time-course studies on sensitive Brown-Norway (BN) and more resistant spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Type A spermatogonia were observed in atrophic tubules at 10 weeks after irradiation in all strains indicating that tubular atrophy was caused by a block in their differentiation, but the doses to produce the block ranged from 4.0 Gy in BN to 10 Gy in SD rats. Although the numbers of type A spermatogonial were unaffected at doses below 6 Gy, higher doses reduced their number, indicating that stem cell killing also contributed to the failure of recovery. After 10 weeks, there was no further recovery and even a decline in spermatogonial differentiation in BN rats, but in SHR rats, sperm production returned to control levels by 20 weeks after 5.0 Gy and, after 7.5 Gy, differentiation resumed in 60% of tubules by 30 weeks. Suppression of testosterone and gonadotropins after irradiation restored production of differentiated cells in nearly all tubules in BN rats and in all tubules in SHR rats. Thus the differences in recovery of spermatogenesis between strains were a result of both quantitative differences in their sensitivities to a radiation-induced, hormone-dependent block of spermatogonial differentiation and qualitative interstrain differences in the progression of post-irradiation recovery. The progression of recovery in SHR rats was similar to the prolonged delays in recovery of human spermatogenesis after cytotoxic agent exposure and thus may be a system for investigating a phenomenon also observed in men. PMID:23413134

  19. The effects of Pycnogenol(®) on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    PubMed

    Değer, K Cumhur; Şeker, Ahmet; Özer, Ilter; Bostancı, E Birol; Dalgıç, Tahsin; Akmansu, Müge; Ekinci, Özgür; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Akoğlu, Musa

    2013-01-01

    Pycnogenol(®) has excellent radical scavenging properties and enhances the production of antioxidative enzymes which contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract. Irradiation delivered to the abdominal region, typically results in severe damage to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by the formation of free radicals through radiolysis. Irradiation has local effects on tissues. These local effects of irradiation on the bowel are believed to involve a two-stage process which includes both short and long term components. In our study we aimed to investigate the short term effects of Pycnogenol(®) on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Sixty male Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. There were three groups: Group I, control group (n = 20); group II which received preoperative irradiation (n = 20); group III which received per oral Pycnogenol(®) before irradiation (n = 20). Only segmeter colonic resection and anastomosis was performed to the control group (Group I). The other groups (Group II, III) underwent surgery on the 5th day after pelvic irradiation. On postoperative days 3 and 7, half of the rats in each group were sacrificed and then relaparotomy was performed. There was no statistical difference between groups with respect to biochemical parameters. Bursting pressure was significantly higher in the Control and Group III compared with the Group II. In conclusion, the present study showed that preoperative irradiation effect negatively on colonic anastomoses in rats by means of mechanical parameters and administration of Pycnogenol(®) preoperatively ameliorates this unfavorable effect.

  20. Kidney and lung injury in irradiated rats protected from acute death by partial-body shielding

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.; Michieli, B.M. )

    1990-04-01

    Ninety-six CD-1 male rats were exposed to gamma-ray doses (0-25 Gy) in increments of 5 Gy. One femur, the surgically exteriorized GI tract, and the oral cavity were shielded during irradiation to protect against acute mortality from injury to the hematopoietic system, small intestine, and oral cavity. In addition, the thoraxes of half of the animals from each dose group were shielded. At approximately monthly intervals from 2 to 10 months after irradiation the hematocrit, plasma urea nitrogen (PUN), and {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance were measured. During the study 20 thorax-shielded and 19 thorax-irradiated animals died. All rats whose thoraxes received 25 Gy irradiation and three out of seven rats whose thoraxes received 20 Gy died 1 to 3 months postirradiation with massive pleural fluid accumulation. Shielding the thoraxes prevented this mode of death at these doses. Kidney injury was judged to be the primary cause of death of all thorax-shielded animals and 15- and 20-Gy thorax-irradiated animals. Animals with kidney damage had elevated PUN and reduced {sup 51}Cr-EDTA clearance and hematocrits. The relative merits of each of these end points in assessing radiation-induced kidney injury after total-body exposure are discussed.

  1. Reversal of impaired wound healing in irradiated rats by platelet-derived growth factor-BB

    SciTech Connect

    Mustoe, T.A.; Purdy, J.; Gramates, P.; Deuel, T.F.; Thomason, A.; Pierce, G.F. )

    1989-10-01

    This study examined the potential influence of platelet-derived growth factor-BB homodimers (PDGF-BB) on surgical incisions in irradiated animals with depressed wound healing. Rats were irradiated with either 800 rads total body or 2,500 rads surface irradiation. Parallel dorsal skin incisions were made 2 days later, and PDGF-BB was applied topically a single time to one of two incisions. In total body-irradiated rats, bone marrow-derived elements were severely depressed, wound macrophages were virtually eliminated, and PDGF-BB treatment was ineffective. However, in surface-irradiated rats, PDGF-BB treatment recruited macrophages into wounds and partially reversed impaired healing on day 7 (p less than 0.005) and day 12 (p less than 0.001). PDGF-BB-treated wounds were 50 percent stronger than the paired control wounds. The results suggest PDGF requires bone marrow-derived cells, likely wound macrophages, for activity and that it may be useful as a topical agent in postirradiation surgical incisions.

  2. [Effect of irradiation on the degradation of rat thymocyte chromatin].

    PubMed

    Tsudzevich, B O; Parkhomets', Iu P; Andriĭchuk, T R; Iurkina, V V

    1998-01-01

    Genome instability of adaptive nature is formed under the experimental influence on a cell. Under critical conditions, strategy of organism is to damage the cells that cannot be restored and controlled by including the program of apoptosis. The ordered internucleosomal DNA degradation is considered to be one of the proof attributes of immunocompetent cell apoptosis. We investigated the effects of various doses of irradiation on the thymocytes chromatine fragmentation in 1,2,3 hours after a single X-ray exposure or after chronic influence in conditions of Chernobyl research base. By the means of electrophoresis in agarose and judging by polydeoxyribonucleotides accumulation we observed the "ladder pattern" of degradation in 3 hr after single 1 Gr irradiation (the smallest dose displaying the effect). We suppose that the influence of both chronic low-intensity irradiation taking place in Chernobyl and single X-ray exposure result in intensifying of DNA fragmentation in the cells of immunocompetent organs.

  3. Cerebrovascular and metabolic effects on the rat brain of focal Nd:YAG laser irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kiessling, M.; Herchenhan, E.; Eggert, H.R. )

    1990-12-01

    To investigate the effects of focal neodymium:yttrium-aluminum-garnet (Nd:YAG) laser irradiation (lambda = 1060 nm) on regional cerebral blood flow, cerebral protein synthesis, and blood-brain barrier permeability, the parietal brain surface of 44 rats was irradiated with a focused laser beam at a constant output energy of 30 J. Survival times ranged from 5 minutes to 48 hours. Laser irradiation immediately caused well-defined cortical coagulation necrosis. Within 5 minutes after unilateral irradiation, 14C-iodoantipyrine autoradiographs demonstrated severely reduced blood flow to the irradiation site and perilesional neocortex, but a distinct reactive hyperemia in all other areas of the forebrain. Apart from a persistent ischemic focus in the vicinity of the cortical coagulation necrosis, blood flow alterations in remote areas of the brain subsided within 3 hours after irradiation. Autoradiographic assessment of 3H-tyrosine incorporation into brain proteins revealed rapid onset and prolonged duration of protein synthesis inhibition in perifocal morphologically intact cortical and subcortical structures. Impairment of amino acid incorporation proved to be completely reversible within 48 hours. Immunoautoradiographic visualization of extravasated plasma proteins using 3H-labeled rabbit anti-rat immunoglobulins-showed that, up to 1 hour after irradiation, immunoreactive proteins were confined to the neocortex at the irradiation site. At 4 hours, vasogenic edema was present in the vicinity of the irradiation site and the subcortical white matter, and, at later stages (16 to 36 hours), also extended into the contralateral hemisphere. Although this was followed by a gradual decrease in labeling intensity, resolution of edema was still not complete after 48 hours.

  4. [Study of DNA-binding proteins in mitochondria of rat liver gamma-irradiation].

    PubMed

    Kutsyĭ, M P; Guliaeva, N A; Kuznetsova, E A; Gaziev, A I

    2005-01-01

    Acid-soluble proteins were isolated from the liver mitochondria of control and irradiated (8 Gy) rats. By means of electrophoresis in 15% polyacrylamide gel, these proteins were separated into more than 20 polypeptides of molecular masses between 10 and 120 kDa. The irradiation of rats with a dose of 8 Gy led to changes in the polypeptide content of mitochondrial acid-soluble proteins in the postradiation period. It was found that the liver acid-soluble proteins of control and irradiated rats were able to form nucleoproteid complexes with DNA at the physiological NaCl concentration. It was shown that along with mitochondrial acid-soluble proteins, proteases were also released, their activity increased in the presence of DNA. Twenty four hours after irradiation of rats with 8 Gy, the activity of proteases cleaving mitochondrial acid-soluble proteins decreased. Probably, the acid-soluble proteins and DNA-activated proteases of mitochondria are involved in the regulation of the structural organization and functional activity of mitochondrial DNA.

  5. Serum protein concentration in low-dose total body irradiation of normal and malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Viana, W C M; Lambertz, D; Borges, E S; Neto, A M O; Lambertz, K M F T; Amaral, A

    2016-12-01

    Among the radiotherapeutics' modalities, total body irradiation (TBI) is used as treatment for certain hematological, oncological and immunological diseases. The aim of this study was to evaluate the long-term effects of low-dose TBI on plasma concentration of total protein and albumin using prematurely and undernourished rats as animal model. For this, four groups with 9 animals each were formed: Normal nourished (N); Malnourished (M); Irradiated Normal nourished (IN); Irradiated Malnourished (IM). At the age of 28 days, rats of the IN and IM groups underwent total body gamma irradiation with a source of cobalt-60. Total protein and Albumin in the blood serum was quantified by colorimetry. This research indicates that procedures involving low-dose total body irradiation in children have repercussions in the reduction in body-mass as well as in the plasma levels of total protein and albumin. Our findings reinforce the periodic monitoring of total serum protein and albumin levels as an important tool in long-term follow-up of pediatric patients in treatments associated to total body irradiation.

  6. Effect of X-irradiation on the stomach of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Breiter, N.; Trott, K.R.; Sassy, T. )

    1989-10-01

    A model for localized 300 kV X-irradiation of the rat stomach was developed. After irradiation with single doses, three distinct gastric disorders were observed which occurred at different latency times. Acute death 2-3 weeks after irradiation was caused by an erosive and ulcerative gastritis and occurred in all animals given 28.5 Gy without diet, in 17% of the animals given 28.5 Gy plus diet, and in 13% of the animals given 23 Gy. Subacute to chronic fatal disorders 4 weeks to 7 months after irradiation were seen as stomach dilatation and gastroparesis, associated with the replacement of the normal gastric mucosa by a hyperkeratinized multilayered squamous epithelium. These disorders occurred in 40-100% of the animals after doses between 16 Gy and 28.5 Gy (+diet). An ED 50 value of 19.2 Gy (16.5-21.2 Gy, 95% confidence interval) was calculated for this gastroparesis. Late gastric obstruction exceeding 7 months after irradiation was seen in the rats because of profound changes in the gastric wall in 13-18% of the animals after doses between 23 Gy and 14 Gy. In animals surviving these three periods, an atrophic mucosa and intestinal metaplasia developed. From functional and morphohistological studies, it can be concluded that there are differences in the pathogenesis of the fatal radiation damage for each of these periods after irradiation.

  7. [Effects of electromagnetic irradiation on glucocorticoid in serum and its receptor expression in rat hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Li, Mao-quan; Wang, Yan-yan; Zhang, Guang-bin; Yu, Zheng-ping

    2007-04-01

    To explore the role and mechanism of glucocorticoid (GC) in the harmful bio-effects of electromagnetic irradiation. Rats were exposed to 65 mW/cm(2) electromagnetic wave for 20 min. At 10 min, 30 min, 3 h, 12 h after irradiation, their learning and memory abilities were tested by Morris water maze. The levels of corticosterone (CORT) in serum were measured by radioimmunoprecipitation assay and the changes of total glucocorticoid receptor (GR) expression and GR nuclear translocation in rat hippocampus were measured by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction and Western blot. The rats had learning and memory deficits at 10 min, 30 min and 3 h after irradiation, but at 12 h had no difference from the normal control. The levels of corticosterone in serum increased significantly at 10 min, 30 min, decreased at 3 h and increased significantly compared with 12 h after irradiation. GR mRNA and total GR protein expression in rat hippocampus had no significant changes at 10 min, 30 min after irradiation. At 3 h, 12 h GR mRNA expression significantly decreased by 69%, 76% respectively and GR total protein decreased by 58%, 67% respectively. There were significant differences between the two groups and the corresponding controls (P<0.05). And compared with the control, the GR nuclear translocation increased significantly at 3 h and 12 h (P<0.05). GC may take part in the injury to learning and memory abilities after electromagnetic irradiation, and the non-genomic and genomic effects of GC may play a major role in the early and late stage, respectively.

  8. TREADMILL EXERCISE PERFORMANCE BY THE AGEING IRRADIATED RAT.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    lifespan shortening. For those control animals able to complete the task, there was an abrupt rise in heart rate with the onset of exercise, little or... heart rate with exercise was not markedly affected by age and only occasional differences between irradiated and control groups were noted. Although

  9. Effects of 0. 6-Gy prenatal X irradiation on postnatal neurophysiologic development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1986-04-01

    Forty-one pregnant Wistar strain rats were irradiated with 0.6-Gy X rays or were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th days of gestation to determine if this dosage level would result in alterations in postnatal neurophysiologic development. Half of the mothers were sacrificed at term, and the developmental status of 221 newborns was evaluated. The remaining mothers delivered and raised their litters. The 161 offspring were observed for the age of attainment of the following physiologic parameters: pinna detachment, eye opening, testes opening. Offspring were also tested for the acquisition of the following selected reflexes: surface righting, negative geotaxis, auditory startle, air righting, and visual placing. Term fetal weight was lower than the controls in the group irradiated on the 9th day but was recuperable postnatally. None of the 9 developmental tests performed postnatally were abnormal in the animals irradiated on the 9th day. Thus, at least with regard to these measures, the surviving embryos exposed during the all-or-none period could not be differentiated from the controls. Offspring irradiated on the 17th day exhibited retarded growth which persisted during neonatal life. The three-day-mean neonatal weight was significantly lower in the group irradiated on the 17th day compared to controls. There were no significant maternal body weight or organ/weight differences between the groups. Rats exposed in utero on the 17th day had a significantly delayed acquisition of air righting. These results demonstrate that 0.6-Gy in utero irradiation on the 17th day of gestation can cause subtle alterations in growth and development of the Wistar strain rat during postnatal life.

  10. A magnetic resonance imaging study on changes in rat mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue after high-dose irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Wan; Lee, Byung-Do; Lee, Kang-Kyoo

    2014-01-01

    Purpose This study was designed to evaluate whether magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is appropriate for detecting early changes in the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of rats after high-dose irradiation. Materials and Methods The right mandibles of Sprague-Dawley rats were irradiated with 10 Gy (Group 1, n=5) and 20 Gy (Group 2, n=5). Five non-irradiated animals were used as controls. The MR images of rat mandibles were obtained before irradiation and once a week until week 4 after irradiation. From the MR images, the signal intensity (SI) of the mandibular bone marrow and pulp tissue of the incisor was interpreted. The MR images were compared with the histopathologic findings. Results The SI of the mandibular bone marrow had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. There was little difference between Groups 1 and 2. The SI of the irradiated groups appeared to be lower than that of the control group. The histopathologic findings showed that the trabecular bone in the irradiated group had increased. The SI of the irradiated pulp tissue had decreased on T2-weighted MR images. However, the SI of the MR images in Group 2 was high in the atrophic pulp of the incisor apex at week 2 after irradiation. Conclusion These patterns seen on MRI in rat bone marrow and pulp tissue were consistent with histopathologic findings. They may be useful to assess radiogenic sclerotic changes in rat mandibular bone marrow. PMID:24701458

  11. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour.

    PubMed

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-26

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects.We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model.Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males.

  12. Liver irradiation causes distal bystander effects in the rat brain and affects animal behaviour

    PubMed Central

    Kovalchuk, Anna; Mychasiuk, Richelle; Muhammad, Arif; Hossain, Shakhawat; Ilnytskyy, Slava; Ghose, Abhijit; Kirkby, Charles; Ghasroddashti, Esmaeel; Kovalchuk, Olga; Kolb, Bryan

    2016-01-01

    Radiation therapy can not only produce effects on targeted organs, but can also influence shielded bystander organs, such as the brain in targeted liver irradiation. The brain is sensitive to radiation exposure, and irradiation causes significant neuro-cognitive deficits, including deficits in attention, concentration, memory, and executive and visuospatial functions. The mechanisms of their occurrence are not understood, although they may be related to the bystander effects. We analyzed the induction, mechanisms, and behavioural repercussions of bystander effects in the brain upon liver irradiation in a well-established rat model. Here, we show for the first time that bystander effects occur in the prefrontal cortex and hippocampus regions upon liver irradiation, where they manifest as altered gene expression and somewhat increased levels of γH2AX. We also report that bystander effects in the brain are associated with neuroanatomical and behavioural changes, and are more pronounced in females than in males. PMID:26678032

  13. Boron neutron capture irradiation of the rat spinal cord: histopathological evidence of a vascular-mediated pathogenesis.

    PubMed

    Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Bywaters, A; Whitehouse, E; Hopewell, J W

    1996-09-01

    A histopathological study was carried out on the spinal cord of rats after boron neutron capture (BNC) irradiation. Rats were irradiated with thermal neutrons alone or in combination with borocaptate sodium (BSH) or p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Spinal cords were examined 1 year after irradiation, or at earlier times in rats developing myelopathy. Considered overall, the pathology of the spinal cord after BNC irradiation was comparable with that reported previously after X irradiation of the spinal cord in the identical strain of rat. When BSH was used as the neutron capture agent, the biologically effective dose of radiation delivered to the CNS parenchyma was a factor of -2.7 lower than that delivered to the vascular endothelium. In effect, the blood vessels were selectively irradiated using this BNC modality. The resultant pathology was similar to that observed after irradiation with thermal neutrons alone or in the presence of BPA, situations in which the CNS vasculature was not selectively irradiated. This points to the vascular endothelium as being the critical target cell population, damage to which results in the development of the lesions seen in the spinal cord after BNC irradiation and, by inference, after irradiation with more conventional modalities.

  14. Boron neutron capture irradiation of the rat spinal cord: Histopathological evidence of a vascular-mediated pathogenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Morris, G. M.; Bywaters, A.; Hopewell, J.W.; Coderre, J.A.

    1996-09-01

    A histopathological study was carried out on the spinal cord of rats after boron neutron capture (BNC) irradiation. Rats were irradiated with thermal neutrons alone or in combination with borocaptate sodium (BSH) or p-boronophenylalanine (BPA). Spinal cords were examined 1 year after irradiation, or at earlier times in rats developing myelothapy. Considered overall, the pathology of the spinal cord after BNC irradiation was comparable with that reported previously after X irradiation of the spinal cord in the identical strain of rat. When BSH was used as the neutron capture agent, the biologically effective dose of radiation delivered to the CNS parechyma was a factor of {approx}2.7 lower than that delivered to the vascular endothelium. In effect, the blood vessels were selectively irradiated using this BNC modality. The resultant pathology was similar to that observed after irradiation with thermal neutrons alone or in the presence of BPA, situations in which the CNS vasculature was not selectively irradiated. This points to the vascular endothelium as being the critical target cell population, damage to which results in the development of the lesions seen in the spinal cord after BNC irradiation and, by inference, after irradiation with more conventional modalities. 37 refs., 6 figs., 4 tabs.

  15. Effects of low intensity laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xiong, Guoxin; Xiong, Leilei; Li, Xinzhong

    2016-09-01

    To investigate the effects of low intensity semiconductor laser acupoint irradiation on inhibiting islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes, a method using a high-fat diet and low-dose intraperitoneal injections of streptozotocin established a type 2 diabetes mellitus rat model. Model rats were randomly divided into a laser acupoint irradiation group, rosiglitazone control group, and placebo group; each group had 10 rats. In addition, 10 normal male rats were selected for the normal control group. The Housanli, Neiting and Yishu acupoints of the rats in the laser acupoint irradiation group were irradiated with a 10 mW semiconductor laser; each point was irradiated for 15 min, once every 2 d over 28 d, for a total of 14 episodes of irradiation. The rosiglitazone group rats were given rosiglitazone (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically; the placebo group rats were given 0.9% brine (0.2 mg kg-1) intragastrically, once daily, for four consecutive weeks. The change of fasting blood glucose was determined before and after each treatment. The islet beta-cell apoptosis was determined. The islet beta-cell apoptosis rates of the laser acupoint irradiation group and the rosiglitazone group were significantly lower than the rate of the placebo group. Even though the rate was lower in the laser acupoint irradiation group than in the rosiglitazone group, there was no significant difference between them. It is shown that acupoint irradiation with a semiconductor laser can effectively inhibit islet beta-cell apoptosis in rats with type 2 diabetes.

  16. Stimulation of post-traumatic regeneration of skeletal muscles of old rats after x-ray irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bulyakova, N.V.; Popova, M.F.

    1987-09-01

    The authors seek a method of stimulating restorative processes in irradiated muscles of old animals. Rats were used in the experiments. Different series of experiments were performed, including complete transverse section of the gastrocnemius muscle after local x-ray irradiation, and laser therapy of the transversly divided gastrocnemius muscle. Post-traumatic regeneration of the gastrocnemius muscle of old rats is illustrated schematically. The experimental data showed that pulsed laser therapy or grafting of minced unirradiated muscle tissue can largely restore the regenerative capacity of the gastrocnemius muscle of old rats when depressed by x-ray irradiation, but the method of grafting minced unirradiated muscle tissue was more effective.

  17. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Barrera-Ochoa, Sergi; Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-11-01

    The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. One hundred forty male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis.

  18. Effect of Previous Irradiation on Vascular Thrombosis of Microsurgical Anastomosis: A Preclinical Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gallardo-Calero, Irene; López-Fernández, Alba; Romagosa, Cleofe; Vergés, Ramona; Aguirre-Canyadell, Marius; Soldado, Francisco; Velez, Roberto

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the present investigation was to compare the effect of neoadjuvant irradiation on the microvascular anastomosis in cervical bundle using an experimental model in rats. Methods: One hundred forty male Sprague–Dawley rats were allocated into 4 groups: group I, control, arterial microanastomosis; group II, control, venous microanastomosis; group III, arterial microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy); and group IV, venous microanastomosis with previous irradiation (20 Gy). Clinical parameters, technical values of anastomosis, patency, and histopathological parameters were evaluated. Results: Irradiated groups (III and IV) and vein anastomosis groups (II and IV) showed significantly increased technical difficulties. Group IV showed significantly reduced patency rates (7/35) when compared with the control group (0/35). Radiotherapy significantly decreased the patency rates of the vein (7/35) when compared with the artery (1/35). Groups III and IV showed significantly reduced number of endothelial cells and also showed the presence of intimal thickening and adventitial fibrosis as compared with the control group. Conclusion: Neoadjuvant radiotherapy reduces the viability of the venous anastomosis in a preclinical rat model with a significant increase in the incidence of vein thrombosis. PMID:27975009

  19. EEG changes as heat stress reactions in rats irradiated by high intensity 35 GHz millimeter waves.

    PubMed

    Xie, Taorong; Pei, Jian; Cui, Yibin; Zhang, Jie; Qi, Hongxing; Chen, Shude; Qiao, Dengjiang

    2011-06-01

    As the application of millimeter waves for civilian and military use increases, the possibility of overexposure to millimeter waves will also increase. This paper attempts to evaluate stress reactions evoked by 35 GHz millimeter waves. The stress reactions in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were quantitatively studied by analyzing electroencephalogram (EEG) changes induced by overexposure to 35 GHz millimeter waves. The relative changes in average energy of the EEG and its wavelet decompositions were used for extracting the stress reaction indicators. Incident average power densities (IAPDs) of 35 GHz millimeter waves from 0.5 W cm(-2) to 7.5 W cm(-2) were employed to investigate the relation between irradiation dose and the stress reactions in the rats. Different stress reaction periods evoked by irradiation were quantitatively evaluated by EEG results. The results illustrate that stress reactions are more intense during the first part of the irradiation than during the later part. The skin temperature increase produced by millimeter wave irradiation is the principle reason for stress reactions and skin injuries. As expected, at the higher levels of irradiation, the reaction time decreases and the reaction intensity increases.

  20. [Effect of External Irradiation and Immobilization Stress on the Reproductive System of Male Rats].

    PubMed

    Vereschako, G G; Tshueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Kozlov, I G; Naumov, A D

    2016-01-01

    We studied the state of the reproductive system of male rats after irradiation at a dose of 2.0 Gy, immobilization stress (6 hours/day for 7 days) and their combined effects. On the 30th day after the combined treatment (37 days after irradiation) a decrease in the testicular weight by almost 50% compared with the control and lesions connected with the process of spermatogenesis are observed. In the remote period--on the 60th day (67th after irradiation) the effect of irradiation and irradiation in combination with immobilization stress leads to a sharp drop in the number of epididymal sperm (up to 18% of the control), and a reduction of their viability. The reaction ofthe reproductive system to the immobilization stress is expressed in a certain increase in the mass of the testes and epididymis, moderate imbalances in the composition of spermatogenic cells in the testis tissue, and in the long term--in the increased number of epididymal sperm and the decrease in their viability. Changes of testosterone in the blood serum, especially significant for the combined effect, reflect impairments of the regulation of the reproductive system of males under these conditions. With regard to individual indicators of the reproductive system of male rats in some cases, the- combined effects of radiation and stress had a synergistic, or, on the contrary, antagonistic character.

  1. U. v. -enhanced reactivation of u. v. -irradiated herpes virus by primary cultures of rat hepatocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Zurlo, J.; Yager, J.D. )

    1984-04-01

    Carcinogen treatment of cultured mammalian cells prior to infection with u.v.-irradiated virus results in enhanced virus survival and mutagenesis suggesting the induction of SOS-type processes. The development of a primary rat hepatocyte culture system is reported to investigate cellular responses to DNA damage which may be relevant to hepatocarcinogenesis in vivo. Enhanced reactivation of u.v.-irradiated Herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) occurred in hepatocytes irradiated with u.v. Cultured hepatocytes were pretreated with u.v. at the time of enhanced DNA synthesis. These treatments caused an inhibition followed by a recovery of DNA synthesis. At various times after pretreatment, the hepatocytes were infected with control or u.v.-irradiated HSV-1 at low multiplicity, and virus survival was measured. U.v.-irradiated HSV-1 exhibited the expected two-component survival curve in control or u.v. pretreated hepatocytes. The magnitude of enhanced reactivation of HSV-1 was dependent on the u.v. dose to the hepatocytes, the time of infection following u.v. pretreatment, and the level of DNA synthesis at the time of pretreatment. These results suggest that u.v. treatment of rat hepatocytes causes the induction of SOS-type functions tht may have a role in the initiation of hepatocarcinogenesis.

  2. Gamma-irradiated β-glucan modulates signaling molecular targets of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats.

    PubMed

    Elsonbaty, Sawsan M; Zahran, Walid E; Moawed, Fatma Sm

    2017-08-01

    β-glucans are one of the most abundant forms of polysaccharides known as biological response modifiers which influence host's biological response and stimulate immune system. Accordingly, this study was initiated to evaluate irradiated β-glucan as a modulator for cellular signaling growth factors involved in the pathogenesis of hepatocellular carcinoma in rats. Hepatocellular carcinoma was induced with 20 mg diethylnitrosamine/kg BW. Rats received daily by gastric gavage 65 mg irradiated β-glucan/kg BW. It was found that treatment of rats with diethylnitrosamine induced hepatic injury and caused significant increase in liver injury markers with a concomitant significant increase in both hepatic oxidative and inflammatory indices: alpha-fetoprotein, interferon gamma, and interleukin 6 in comparison with normal and irradiated β-glucan-treated groups. Western immunoblotting showed a significant increase in the signaling growth factors: extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 and phosphoinositide 3-kinase proteins in a diethylnitrosamine-treated group while both preventive and therapeutic irradiated β-glucan treatments recorded significant improvement versus diethylnitrosamine group via the modulation of growth factors that encounters hepatic toxicity. The transcript levels of vascular endothelial growth factor A and inducible nitric oxide synthase genes were significantly higher in the diethylnitrosamine-treated group in comparison with controls. Preventive and therapeutic treatments with irradiated β-glucan demonstrated that the transcript level of these genes was significantly decreased which demonstrates the protective effect of β-glucan. Histological investigations revealed that diethylnitrosamine treatment affects the hepatic architecture throughout the significant severe appearance of inflammatory cell infiltration in the portal area and congestion in the portal vein in association with severe degeneration and dysplasia in hepatocytes all over hepatic

  3. Effect of low-energy laser (He-Ne) irradiation on embryo implantation rate in the rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Stein, Anat; Kraicer, P. F.; Oron, Uri

    1997-12-01

    Attempts to date to increase the rate of embryo implantation, for example by assisting embryo hatching from the zona pellucida, have failed. Recently, several studies have suggested the biostimulating effect of low power laser irradiation. The objective of this study was therefore to examine the potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat potential of low power laser irradiation of the uterus to enhance embryo implantation rate in the rat. Rat blastocysts were flushed from the uterus on day 5 of gestation. They were transferred to the uteri of pseudopregnant recipients on day 4 or 5 of pseudopregnancy. One cornu of the recipient uterus was irradiated; the other was used as control. On day 5 of pregnancy, irradiation did not change implantation rate after 10 or 30 sec of irradiation while 120 sec. of irradiation significantly decreased embryonic implantation. On the other hand, on day 4 of pregnancy, 120 sec. of radiation allowed embryonic implantation to a level similar to that seen after synchronized transfer. Conclusion: He-Ne laser irradiation of the exposed rat uterus can attenuate embryo implantation rate.

  4. Total-Body Irradiation Produces Late Degenerative Joint Damage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hutchinson, Ian D.; Olson, John; Lindburg, Carl A.; Payne, Valerie; Collins, Boyce; Smith, Thomas L.; Munley, Michael T.; Wheeler, Kenneth T.; Willey, Jeffrey S.

    2014-01-01

    Purpose Premature musculoskeletal joint failure is a major source of morbidity among childhood cancer survivors. Radiation effects on synovial joint tissues of the skeleton are poorly understood. Our goal was to assess long-term changes in the knee joint from skeletally mature rats that received total-body irradiation while skeletal growth was ongoing. Materials and Methods 14 week-old rats were irradiated with 1, 3 or 7 Gy total-body doses of 18 MV x-rays. At 53 weeks of age, structural and compositional changes in knee joint tissues (articular cartilage, subchondral bone, and trabecular bone) were characterized using 7T MRI, nanocomputed tomography (nanoCT), microcomputed tomography (microCT), and histology. Results T2 relaxation times of the articular cartilage were lower after exposure to all doses. Likewise, calcifications were observed in the articular cartilage. Trabecular bone microarchitecture was compromised in the tibial metaphysis at 7 Gy. Mild to moderate cartilage erosion was scored in the 3 and 7 Gy rats. Conclusions Late degenerative changes in articular cartilage and bone were observed after total body irradiation in adult rats exposed prior to skeletal maturity. 7T MRI, microCT, nanoCT, and histology identified potential prognostic indicators of late radiation-induced joint damage. PMID:24885745

  5. Thermal helix-coil transition in UV irradiated collagen from rat tail tendon.

    PubMed

    Sionkowska, A; Kamińska, A

    1999-05-01

    The thermal helix-coil transition in UV irradiated collagen solution, collagen film and pieces of rat tail tendon (RTT) were compared. Their thermal stability's were determined by differential scanning calorimeter (DSC) and by viscometric measurements. The denaturation temperatures of collagen solution, film and pieces of RTT were different. The helix-coil transition occur near 40 degrees C in collagen solution, near 112 degrees C in collagen film, and near 101 degrees C in pieces of RTT. After UV irradiation the thermal helix-coil transition of collagen samples were changed. These changes depend on the degree of hydratation.

  6. HeNe laser irradiation delivered transcutaneously: its effect on the sciatic nerve of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nissan, M.; Rochkind, S.; Razon, N.; Bartal, A.

    1986-01-01

    For our study of the effect of low energy laser irradiation (LELI) on living tissue we used HeNe laser on rats. The exponential absorption was reaffirmed in the living tissues overlying the sciatic nerve. An optimal range of energy between 3.5 and 7 J--associated with energy concentration of 4-10 J/cm2 delivered transcutaneously--was found to cause a significant increase in action potential in the sciatic nerve. The effect lasted for more than 8 months after the irradiation session.

  7. Regenerative effects of tetrachlorodecaoxide in BD IX rats after total-body gamma irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Ivankovic, S.; Kempf, S.R.

    1988-07-01

    Tetrachlorodecaoxide (TCDO) was tested for its effects in BD IX rats when combined with a single dose nearing LD50 of total-body irradiation (gamma rays, /sup 60/Co). In pilot tests we found that TCDO administrations prior to or immediately after irradiation led to a very high mortality rate (up to 90%), whereas the initiation of TCDO treatment on Day 2, 3, or 4 after irradiation lowered the death rate noticeably, with optimum results when TCDO application was started on Day 4. In our major experiment on 100 BD IX rats, it was demonstrated that the following treatment schedule considerably decreased the death rate (from 44 to 4%): 15.5 mumol TCDO/kg body wt/day on Days 4-6 after irradiation and 7.75 mumol/kg body wt/day on Days 7-11. The animals treated with TCDO showed only mild anemia in the peripheral blood, accompanied by reticulocytosis and low-grade leukocytopenia. Examination of the bone marrow on Day 12 after irradiation revealed X-ray-induced agranulocytosis in the animals that had received only physiological saline solution, whereas in the bone marrow of the animals treated with TCDO there was erythropoiesis as well as myelopoiesis. In addition, the degree of hair loss and depigmentation occurring about 1 month after irradiation was considerably reduced by TCDO. From these results it can be postulated that TCDO has two different effects: as an oxygen donator it causes radiosensitization in the tissue when given before or immediately after irradiation; as an agent stimulating phagocytes and tissue regeneration, it promotes regeneration very effectively when damage is already evident in the tissue.

  8. Tissue-protective effects of fullerenol C60(OH)24 and amifostine in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Trajković, Sanja; Dobrić, Silva; Jaćević, Vesna; Dragojević-Simić, Viktorija; Milovanović, Zoran; Dordević, Aleksandar

    2007-07-01

    Polyhydroxylated fullerenes, named fullerenols (C(60)(OH)(n); n=12-26) are excellent antioxidants. Harmful effects of ionizing radiation on living organism are mainly mediated by free radical species and fullerenols attract an attention as a potential radioprotectors. Our preliminary investigations on mice and rats subjected to radiation injury show that fullerenol C(60)(OH)(24) provides high survival rate of irradiated small rodents. Radioprotective effect was comparable to that of the standard radioprotector amifostine. The aim of this study was to compare the efficacy of fullerenol C(60)(OH)(24) (10 and 100mg/kg i.p.) and amifostine (300 mg/kg i.p.) in protection of rats against harmful effects of ionizing radiation. The animals were whole-body irradiated by X-rays (8 MV). Both compounds were given 30 min before irradiation. In order to evaluate the general radioprotective efficacy of fullerenol and amifostine rats were irradiated with an absolutely lethal dose of X-rays (8 Gy) and their survival and body mass gain were monitored during the period of 30 days after irradiation. The aim of the second part of the study is to investigate the tissue-protective effects of tested compounds (100 mg/kg i.p. of fullerenol and 300 mg/kg i.p. of amifostine, 30 min before irradiation). It was carried out on rats irradiated with a sublethal dose of X-rays (7 Gy). Influence of ionizing radiation on hematopoesis as well as the radioprotective efficiency of the compounds given were evaluated by determining blood cell count during 28 days after irradiation. For this purpose the blood was taken from tail vein before irradiation and on the 3rd, 7th, 14th, 21st and 28th day after irradiation. In order to estimate the radioprotective effects of fullerenol and amifostine on other rat tissue, the animals were sacrificed on the 7th and 28th day after irradiation and their main organs (lung, heart, liver, kidney, small intestine and spleen) were taken for histopathological analysis. In

  9. Attempted protection of spermatogenesis from single doses of gamma-irradiation in the androgen pretreated rat.

    PubMed

    Schlappack, O K; Delic, J I; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-01-01

    Spermatogenic stem-cell survival after gamma-irradiation has been investigated in the adult Wistar rat. Single doses of 4.5 and 9 Gy gamma-rays were administered to the testes of rats who received arachis oil (0.1 ml/100 g body weight) or testosterone enanthate (240 micrograms/100 g body weight) subcutaneously three times weekly for 6 weeks prior to radiation and during the week in which the radiations were given. A mean percentage of regenerating seminiferous tubule cross-sections of 32.45% and 7.26% was found in the testes of androgen-pretreated rats at 8 weeks after 4.5 and 9 Gy, respectively. Similar values (33.4% and 6.2%) were obtained in arachis oil-pretreated controls. We therefore conclude that protection of rat spermatogenesis from single doses of gamma-rays cannot be achieved by androgen pretreatment.

  10. Blue light irradiation-induced oxidative stress in vivo via ROS generation in rat gingival tissue.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Ayaka; Shiotsu-Ogura, Yukako; Wada-Takahashi, Satoko; Takahashi, Shun-suke; Toyama, Toshizo; Yoshino, Fumihiko

    2015-10-01

    It has been reported that oxidative stress with reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation is induced by blue light irradiation to a living body. Only limited research has been reported in dental field on the dangers of blue light, mostly focusing on cytotoxicity associated with heat injury of dental pulp. We thus performed an in vivo study on oral tissue exposed to blue light. ROS generated upon blue light irradiation of flavin adenine dinucleotide were measured by electron spin resonance spectroscopy. After blue light irradiation, the palatal gingiva of Wistar rats were isolated. Collected samples were subjected to biochemical analysis of lipid peroxidation and glutathione. Singlet oxygen was generated by blue light irradiation, but was significantly quenched in an N-acetyl-L-cysteine (NAC) concentration-dependent manner. Blue light significantly accelerated oxidative stress and increased the oxidized glutathione levels in gingival tissue. These effects were also inhibited by NAC pre-administration. The results suggest that blue light irradiation at clinical levels of tooth bleaching treatment may enhance lipid peroxidation by the induction of oxidative stress and the consumption of a significant amount of intracellular glutathione. In addition, NAC might be an effective supplement for the protection of oral tissues against blue light irradiation-induced oxidative damage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. Fluid and sodium loss in whole-body-irradiated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Geraci, J.P.; Jackson, K.L.; Mariano, M.S.

    1987-09-01

    Whole-body and organ fluid compartment sizes and plasma sodium concentrations were measured in conventional, GI decontaminated, bile duct ligated, and choledochostomized rats at different times after various doses of gamma radiation. In addition, sodium excretion was measured in rats receiving lethal intestinal radiation injury. After doses which were sublethal for 3-5 day intestinal death, transient decreases occurred in all the fluid compartments measured (i.e., total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume). No recovery of these fluid compartments was observed in rats destined to die from intestinal radiation injury. The magnitude of the decreases in fluid compartment sizes was dose dependent and correlated temporally with the breakdown and recovery of the intestinal mucosa but was independent of the presence or absence of enteric bacteria or bile acids. Associated with the loss of fluid was an excess excretion of 0.83 meq of sodium between 48 and 84 h postirradiation. This represents approximately 60% of the sodium lost from the extracellular fluid space in these animals during this time. The remaining extracellular sodium loss was due to redistribution of sodium to other spaces. It is concluded that radiation-induced breakdown of the intestinal mucosa results in lethal losses of fluid and sodium as evidenced by significant decreases in total body water, extracellular fluid space, plasma volume, and plasma sodium concentration, with hemoconcentration. These changes are sufficient to reduce tissue perfusion leading to irreversible hypovolemic shock and death.

  12. Trans-canal laser irradiation reduces tinnitus perception of salicylate treated rat.

    PubMed

    Park, Young Min; Na, Woo Sung; Park, Il Yong; Suh, Myung-Whan; Rhee, Chung-Ku; Chung, Phil-Sang; Jung, Jae Yun

    2013-06-07

    The aim of this study was to find out the effect of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on salicylate-induced tinnitus in the rat model. Fourteen Sprague-Dawley rats (8 weeks; 240-280 gm) were divided into 2 groups (study group, control group). Rats of both groups were treated with 400 mg/kg/day of sodium salicylate for 8 consecutive days. Tinnitus was monitored using GPIAS (Gap Prepulse Inhibition of Acoustic Startle) 2 h after first salicylate treatment, and every 24 h during 9 days of treatment. Rats in laser group were irradiated to each ear with wavelength of 830 nm diode laser (165 mW/cm(2)) for 30 min daily for 8 days. During salicylate treatment, rats of study group irradiated with low level laser showed significantly higher GPIAS values throughout the experiment. Therapeutic effect of LLLT is demonstrated in animal tinnitus model by means of GPIAS. Further experimental studies are needed to find possible mechanisms and better methods to improve LLLT efficacy.

  13. EFFICIENCY OF BORAGE SEEDS OIL AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE RATS: POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY

    PubMed Central

    Khattab, Hala A.H.; Abdallah, Inas Z.A.; Yousef, Fatimah M.; Huwait, Etimad A.

    2017-01-01

    Background: Borage (Borago officinal L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of great interest because its oil contains a high percentage of γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The present work was carried out to detect fatty acids composition of the oil extracted from borage seeds (BO) and its potential effectiveness against γ-irradiation- induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. Materials and Methods: GC-MS analysis of fatty acids methyl esters of BO was performed to identify fatty acids composition. Sixty rats were divided into five groups (12 rats each): Control, irradiated; rats were exposed to (6.5 Gy) of whole body γ-radiation, BO (50 mg/kg b.wt), irradiated BO post-treated and irradiated BO prepost-treated. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at two time intervals 7 and 15 days post-irradiation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde) (MDA) levels were assessed. Histopathological examination of liver sections were also carried out. Results: The results showed that the high contents of BO extracted by cold pressing, were linoleic acid (34.23%) and GLA (24.79%). Also, oral administration of BO significantly improved serum levels of liver enzymes, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic GSH and MDA levels (p<0.001) as compared with irradiated rats after 15 days post irradiation. Moreover, it exerted marked amelioration against irradiation-induced histopathological changes in liver tissues. The improvement was more pronounced in irradiated BO prepost-treated group than irradiated BO post-treated. Conclusion: BO has a beneficial role in reducing hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by radiation exposure. Therefore, BO may be used as a beneficial supplement for patients during radiotherapy treatment. PMID:28638880

  14. EFFICIENCY OF BORAGE SEEDS OIL AGAINST GAMMA IRRADIATION-INDUCED HEPATOTOXICITY IN MALE RATS: POSSIBLE ANTIOXIDANT ACTIVITY.

    PubMed

    Khattab, Hala A H; Abdallah, Inas Z A; Yousef, Fatimah M; Huwait, Etimad A

    2017-01-01

    Borage (Borago officinal L.) is an annual herbaceous plant of great interest because its oil contains a high percentage of γ-linolenic acid (GLA). The present work was carried out to detect fatty acids composition of the oil extracted from borage seeds (BO) and its potential effectiveness against γ-irradiation- induced hepatotoxicity in male rats. GC-MS analysis of fatty acids methyl esters of BO was performed to identify fatty acids composition. Sixty rats were divided into five groups (12 rats each): Control, irradiated; rats were exposed to (6.5 Gy) of whole body γ-radiation, BO (50 mg/kg b.wt), irradiated BO post-treated and irradiated BO prepost-treated. Six rats from each group were sacrificed at two time intervals 7 and 15 days post-irradiation. Serum aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma glutamyl transferase (GGT) levels, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic reduced glutathione (GSH) and lipid peroxide (malondialdehyde) (MDA) levels were assessed. Histopathological examination of liver sections were also carried out. The results showed that the high contents of BO extracted by cold pressing, were linoleic acid (34.23%) and GLA (24.79%). Also, oral administration of BO significantly improved serum levels of liver enzymes, lipids profile, as well as serum and hepatic GSH and MDA levels (p<0.001) as compared with irradiated rats after 15 days post irradiation. Moreover, it exerted marked amelioration against irradiation-induced histopathological changes in liver tissues. The improvement was more pronounced in irradiated BO prepost-treated group than irradiated BO post-treated. BO has a beneficial role in reducing hepatotoxicity and oxidative stress induced by radiation exposure. Therefore, BO may be used as a beneficial supplement for patients during radiotherapy treatment.

  15. Increases in morphologically abnormal sperm in rats exposed to Co60 irradiation.

    PubMed

    Lock, L F; Soares, E R

    1980-01-01

    We have investigated the effects of testicular exposure to different doses of Co60 radiation on sperm morphology in F-344 rats. The results indicate that from 150 rad to 500 rad gamma irradiation causes statistically significant, dose-related increased in 1) the percent of morphologically aberrant sperm and 2) the frequency of tailless sperm. Both of these effects were detectable in sperm which were derived from treated spermatid, spermatocytes, and spermatogonial cells. These data indicate that the development of a sperm morphology assay in rats is feasible.

  16. State of the antioxidative enzymes of rat bone marrow cells after irradiation, fractures, and a combination of both

    SciTech Connect

    Bogdanova, I.A.; Ovchinnikov, K.G.; Torbenko, V.P.; Gerasimov, A.M.

    1987-11-01

    The authors study bone marrow levels of antioxidative (antiradical) defensive systems (ADS) enzymes, namely superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GP), glutathione reductase (GR), and glutathione: dehydroascorbate oxidoreductase (GDAR), rats and changes in their activity in the bone marrow at various times after irradiation, mechanical trauma, and a combination of both. Development of acute radiation sickness as a result of a single irradiation was accompanied by marked changes in the enzymic antioxidative system of rat bone marrow cells.

  17. Neonatal low-dose gamma irradiation-induced impaired fertility in mature rats.

    PubMed

    Freud, A; Canfi, A; Sod-Moriah, U A; Chayoth, R

    1990-11-01

    The reproductive capacity of mature rats at the age of 8 days was studied following neonatal exposure to 0.06 Gy dose of gamma-radiation. Decreased litter size and reduced body weight of the pups on weaning day, but not at parturition, were observed in female rats. The reduced litter size was not associated with impaired ovulation, impaired uterine implantation or mortality in utero, but resulted from increased death rate or at near parturition. Of the neonatally irradiated males 29% were found to be sterile and had degenerated or necrotic testes. The testicular damage and the reduced growth rate of the offspring of the irradiated females demonstrate the extreme sensitivity of the immature reproductive system to ionizing radiation, even at very low doses.

  18. Changes in the neuroglial cell populations of the rat spinal cord after local X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Hubbard, B M; Hopewell, J W

    1979-10-01

    A 16 mm length of cervical spinal cord of young adult female rats was irradiated with 4000 rad of 250 kV X rays. Counts of astrocyte and oligodendrocyte nuclei were made in the dorsal columns of both irradiated and control cervical cords during the latent period before the onset of radionecrosis. The numbers of both astrocyte and oligodendrocyte nuclei were reduced one month after exposure to radiation. Both cell populations showed an apparent recovery but this was subsequently followed by a rapid loss of cells prior to the development of white-matter necrosis. The oligodendrocyte population in unirradiated spinal cords increased with age, and mitotic figures were observed among the neuroglia of both irradiated and control cervical spinal cords. A slow, natural turnover of neuroglial cells in the cervical spinal cord is proposed and the relevance of this to the manifestation of delayed white matter necrosis is discussed.

  19. The effects of celecoxib, a COX-2 selective inhibitor, on acute inflammation induced in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Khayyal, M T; El-Ghazaly, Mona A; El-Hazek, R M; Nada, A S

    2009-10-01

    The potential value of selective and non-selective COX-2 inhibitors in preventing some of the biochemical changes induced by ionizing radiation was studied in rats exposed to carrageenan-induced paw edema and 6-day-old air pouch models. The animals were exposed to different exposure levels of gamma-radiation, namely either to single doses of 2 and 7.5 Gy or a fractionated dose level of 7.5 Gy delivered as 0.5 Gy twice weekly for 7.5 weeks. The inflammatory response produced by carrageenan in irradiated rats was markedly higher than that induced in non-irradiated animals, and depended on the extent of irradiation. Celecoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, in doses of 3, 5, 10, and 15 mg/kg was effective in reducing paw edema in irradiated and non-irradiated rats in a dose-dependent manner as well as diclofenac (3 mg/kg), a non-selective COX inhibitor. Irradiation of animals before the induction of the air pouch by an acute dose of 2 Gy led to a significant increase in leukocytic count, as well as in the level of interleukin-6 (IL-6), interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), LTB(4), PGE(2) (as an index of COX-2 activity), TXB(2) (as an index of COX-1 activity), and the plasma level of MDA. This increase in level of these parameters was more marked than that observed in the non-irradiated animals subjected to the inflammagen. The blood GSH level was not affected by the dose of irradiation used, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity was suppressed. In many respects, celecoxib (5 mg/kg) was as potent as diclofenac in decreasing the elevated levels of IL-6, IL-1beta, TNF-alpha, LTB(4), PGE(2), but lacked any significant effect on TXB(2) level. Since it is mostly selective for COX-2 with a rare effect on COX-1 enzyme, both drugs at the selected dose levels showed no effect on level of MDA, GSH, and SOD activity.

  20. Radiation effects on rat testes. IX. Studies on oxidative enzymes after partial body gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G S; Bawa, S R

    1975-08-01

    Oxidative enzymes in the rat testes have been studied after gamma irradiation. The role of these enzymes in relation to spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis after radiation injury to testis has been discussed. Loss of succinic dehydrogenase and sorbitol dehydrogenase reflects the losts of germ cell population. Malic enzyme and malic dehydrogenase seem to the related to the deficiency of steroid hormones, whereas increase in glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and NADP isocitric dehydrogenase is due to secondary stimulation of pituitary.

  1. Increased activity of tyrosine hydroxylase in the cerebellum of the x-irradiated dystonic rat

    SciTech Connect

    Dopico, A.M.; Rios, H.; Mayo, J.; Zieher, L.M. )

    1990-08-01

    The exposure of the cephalic end of rats to repeated doses of x-irradiation (150 rad) immediately after birth induces a long-term increase in the noradrenaline (NA) content of cerebellum (CE) (+ 37.8%), and a decrease in cerebellar weight (65.2% of controls), which results in an increased NA concentration (+ 109%). This increase in the neurotransmitter level is accompanied by a dystonic syndrome and histological abnormalities: Purkinje cells (the target cells for NA afferents to CE) fail to arrange in a characteristic monolayer, and their primary dendritic tree appears randomly oriented. The injection of reserpine 0.9 and 1.2 mg/kg ip to adult rats for 18 h depletes cerebellar NA content in both controls (15.7 {plus minus} 4 ng/CE and 2.8 {plus minus} 1.5 ng/CE, respectively) and x-irradiated rats (17.1 {plus minus} 1 ng/CE and 8.3 {plus minus} 2 ng/CE, respectively). The activity of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in CE of adult rats, measured by an in vitro assay, is significantly increased in neonatally x-irradiated animals when compared to age-matched controls (16.4 {plus minus} 1.4 vs 6.32 {plus minus} 0.6 nmol CO2/h/mg prot., p less than 0.01). As observed for NA levels, a net increase in TH activity induced by the ionizing radiation is also measured: 308.9 {plus minus} 23.8 vs 408.2 {plus minus} 21.5 nmol CO2/h/CE, p less than 0.01 (controls and x-treated, respectively). These results suggest that x-irradiation at birth may induce an abnormal sprouting of noradrenergic afferents to CE. The possibility that these changes represent a response of the NA system to the dystonic syndrome is discussed.

  2. Variation in cyclic nucleotide levels and lysosomal enzyme activities in the irradiated rat

    SciTech Connect

    Trocha, P.J.; Catravas, G.N.

    1980-09-01

    Whole-body irradiation of rats causes not only a release of hydrolases from the lysosomes but also fluctuations in the cyclic nucleotide levels in spleen and liver tissues. Significant increases in lysosomal enzyme activities were further observed in spleen following radiation treatment. At 3 to 6 hr after rats were exposed to ..gamma.. radiation, transient increases in both cGMP and cAMP levels were accompanied with the release of ..beta..-glucuronidase and acid phosphatase enzymes from lysosomes in liver and spleen tissues. A second transitory release and activation of lysosomal hydrolases and an increase in cAMP levels occurred between 2 and 5 days after irradiation in spleen but not in liver. On Days 7 and 8, there was a third release of lysosomal hydrolases and a slight increase in the spleen cAMP concentration before they returned to near-control values. Cyclic GMP levels in the spleen decreased on the third day after irradiation, remained suppressed until Day 9, and then increased to levels higher than normal physiological values. The liver cGMP concentration remained unchanged between 9 hr and 11 days after irradiation.

  3. The effect of melatonin against oxidative damage during total-body irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Koc, Mehmet; Taysi, Seyithan; Emin Buyukokuroglu, M; Bakan, Nuri

    2003-08-01

    Melatonin has been reported to participate in the regulation of a number of important physiological and pathological processes. Melatonin, which is a powerful endogenous antioxidant, may play a role in the prevention of oxidative damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with melatonin (5 mg kg(-1) and 10 mg kg(-1)) on gamma-radiation-induced oxidative damage in plasma and erythrocytes after total-body irradiation with a single dose of 5 Gy. Total-body irradiation resulted in a significant increase in plasma and erythrocyte MDA levels. Melatonin alone increased the levels of SOD and GSH-Px. Erythrocyte and plasma MDA levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with melatonin (5 or 10 mg kg(-1)) were significantly lower than those in rats that were not pretreated. There was no significant difference between the effects of 5 and 10 mg kg(-1) on plasma MDA activities and CAT activities. However, erythrocyte MDA levels showed a dose-dependent decrease, while GSH-Px activities increased with dose. Our study suggests that melatonin administered prior to irradiation may protect against the damage produced by radiation by the up-regulation of antioxidant enzymes and by scavenging free radicals generated by ionizing radiation.

  4. Vascular Injury After Whole Thoracic X-Ray Irradiation in the Rat

    SciTech Connect

    Ghosh, S.N. Wu, Q. M.S.; Maeder, M.; Fish, B.L.; Moulder, J.E.; Jacobs, E.R.; Medhora, M.; Molthen, R.C.

    2009-05-01

    Purpose: To study vascular injury after whole thoracic irradiation with single sublethal doses of X-rays in the rat and to develop markers that might predict the severity of injury. Methods and Materials: Rats that received 5- or 10-Gy thorax-only irradiation and age-matched controls were studied at 3 days, 2 weeks, and 1, 2, 5, and 12 months. Several pulmonary vascular parameters were evaluated, including hemodynamics, vessel density, total lung angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, and right ventricular hypertrophy. Results: By 1 month, the rats in the 10-Gy group had pulmonary vascular dropout, right ventricular hypertrophy, increased pulmonary vascular resistance, increased dry lung weights, and decreases in total lung angiotensin-converting enzyme activity, as well as pulmonary artery distensibility. In contrast, irradiation with 5 Gy resulted in only a modest increase in right ventricular weight and a reduction in lung angiotensin-converting enzyme activity. Conclusion: In a previous investigation using the same model, we observed that recovery from radiation-induced attenuation of pulmonary vascular reactivity occurred. In the present study, we report that deterioration results in several vascular parameters for {<=}1 year after 10 Gy, suggesting sustained remodeling of the pulmonary vasculature. Our data support clinically relevant injuries that appear in a time- and dose-related manner after exposure to relatively low radiation doses.

  5. Possible modulating impact of glutathione disulfide mimetic on physiological changes in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Salama, S F; Montaser, S A

    2015-04-01

    Glutathione disulfide mimetic (NOV-002) is a complex of oxidized glutathione (GSSG) formulated with cisplatin at approximately 1000:1 molar ratio. Cisplatin serves to stabilize GSSG but does not assert any therapeutic effect. The objective of this study is to evaluate the impact of NOV-002 on hematological suppression, excessive free radical damage and DNA fragmentation in splenocytes, and metabolite disorders in whole-body γ-irradiated rats. The obtained data revealed that rats treated with 25 mg kg(-1) NOV-002 injected intraperitoneally (i.p.) for 5 days after whole-body γ-irradiation (IR) at 6.5 Gy attenuated the decrease of red blood cells, platelets, total white blood cells, absolute lymphocytes and neutrophils counts, hematocrit value, and hemoglobin content. NOV-002 treatment inhibits serum advanced oxidation protein products, malondialdehyde concentrations as well as cholesterol, triglycerides, urea, and creatinine levels, while enhances glutathione content and superoxide dismutase activity and improves DNA fragmentation in splenocytes. These findings provide a better understanding of the NOV-002 modulating impact in whole-body γ-rays-induced hematological toxicities, oxidative stress, and biological disturbances in γ-irradiated rats and could enhance the tolerance to high doses of ionizing IR utilized in radiotherapy. © The Author(s) 2014.

  6. The neuroprotective effects of intravascular low level laser irradiation on cerebral ischemia rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Qiu, Yongming; Lu, Zhaofeng; Wang, Zhongguang; Jiang, Jiyao

    2005-07-01

    The effects of intravascular low level laser irradiation of He-Ne on rat MCAo-induced cerebral injury were studied. The results showed that control rats (subjected to MCAo injury without laser treatment) at 7d exhibited striatal and cortical brain infarction in the right hemisphere from approximately 3 to 11mm from the front pole. the total infarct volume in this group was 34.5+/-8.1mm3. For experimental rats (with laser management), the total infarct volume was 29.0+/-9.0mm3. P was gained less than 0.05. The neurological score of control group was 4.7+/-0.6 and it was 5.2+/-1.0 in experimental group, comparison by statistical analysis showed P less than 0.05. The cerebral pathological damages in the control group were more severe than in experimental group. We concluded that the intravascular low level laser irradiation has no remarked complication and is helpful to reduce ischemic damage. There is clinically potential for the application of intravascular He-Ne low level laser irradiation in ischemia stroke.

  7. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on object recognition memory in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Carrihill-Knoll, Kirsty; Hinchman, Marie; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Joseph, James A.; Foster, Brian C.

    2009-04-01

    On long-duration missions to other planets astronauts will be exposed to types and doses of radiation that are not experienced in low earth orbit. Previous research using a ground-based model for exposure to cosmic rays has shown that exposure to heavy particles, such as 56Fe, disrupts spatial learning and memory measured using the Morris water maze. Maintaining rats on diets containing antioxidant phytochemicals for 2 weeks prior to irradiation ameliorated this deficit. The present experiments were designed to determine: (1) the generality of the particle-induced disruption of memory by examining the effects of exposure to 56Fe particles on object recognition memory; and (2) whether maintaining rats on these antioxidant diets for 2 weeks prior to irradiation would also ameliorate any potential deficit. The results showed that exposure to low doses of 56Fe particles does disrupt recognition memory and that maintaining rats on antioxidant diets containing blueberry and strawberry extract for only 2 weeks was effective in ameliorating the disruptive effects of irradiation. The results are discussed in terms of the mechanisms by which exposure to these particles may produce effects on neurocognitive performance.

  8. Phototherapeutic Effect of Low-Level Laser on Thyroid Gland of Gamma-Irradiated Rats.

    PubMed

    Morcos, Nadia; Omran, Manar; Ghanem, Hala; Elahdal, Mahmoud; Kamel, Nashwa; Attia, Elbatoul

    2015-01-01

    One inescapable feature of life on the earth is exposure to ionizing radiation. The thyroid gland is one of the most sensitive organs to gamma-radiation and endocrine disrupters. Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used to stimulate tissue repair, and reduce inflammation. The aim of this study was to gauge the value of using Helium-Neon laser to repair the damaged tissues of thyroid gland after gamma-irradiation. Albino rats were used in this study (144 rats), divided into control, gamma, laser, and gamma plus laser-irradiated groups, each group was divided into six subgroups according to time of treatment (total six sessions). Rats were irradiated once with gamma radiation (6 Gy), and an external dose of laser (Wavelength 632.8 nm, 12 mW, CW, Illuminated area 5.73 cm(2), 2.1 mW cm(-2) 120 s, 1.4 J, 0.252 J cm(-2)) twice weekly localized on thyroid region of the neck, for a total of six sessions. Animals were sacrificed after each session. Analysis included thyroid function, oxidative stress markers, liver function and blood picture. Results revealed improvement in thyroid function, liver function and antioxidant levels, and the blood cells count after LLLT.

  9. [Insulin function in rats at early terms after 4 Gy whole-body irradiation].

    PubMed

    Shkumatov, L M

    2004-01-01

    In the present study we made an attempt to estimate changes of insulin function at early terms after external irradiation of rats. Experimental conditions: male albino rats were studied 7; 14; 21; 28 days after the external whole-body gamma-irradiation (137Cs; 4 Gy). For this purpose the kinetics of 125I-insulin disappearance from blood plasma was investigated. Simultaneously dynamics of insulin blood concentration was studied in practically full and fasting animals. On the basis of the data received the following basic pharmacokinetic parameters were designed according to the two-compartmental model: central and peripheral compartment volumes, transfer and elimination rates, turnover and metabolic clearance rates. No substantial changes in insulin clearance were found compared to controls in all the postirradiation terms investigated. Hence, the changes in the turnover rate of insulin are proportional to blood hormone concentration. The significant increase of concentration and turnover was observed only 7 days after irradiation in rats with free access to food. The data received suggest that the insulin function of a pancreas in an organism exposed to a 4 Gy dose is maintained at a level sufficient for ensuring adequate regulation of the glucose homeostasis and of the carbohydrate metabolism.

  10. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains

    SciTech Connect

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-05-15

    Purpose: Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Methods: Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. Results: The authors’ results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. Conclusions: The authors’ results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  11. Gamma Knife irradiation method based on dosimetric controls to target small areas in rat brains.

    PubMed

    Constanzo, Julie; Paquette, Benoit; Charest, Gabriel; Masson-Côté, Laurence; Guillot, Mathieu

    2015-05-01

    Targeted and whole-brain irradiation in humans can result in significant side effects causing decreased patient quality of life. To adequately investigate structural and functional alterations after stereotactic radiosurgery, preclinical studies are needed. The purpose of this work is to establish a robust standardized method of targeted irradiation on small regions of the rat brain. Euthanized male Fischer rats were imaged in a stereotactic bed, by computed tomography (CT), to estimate positioning variations relative to the bregma skull reference point. Using a rat brain atlas and the stereotactic bregma coordinates obtained from CT images, different regions of the brain were delimited and a treatment plan was generated. A single isocenter treatment plan delivering ≥ 100 Gy in 100% of the target volume was produced by Leksell GammaPlan using the 4 mm diameter collimator of sectors 4, 5, 7, and 8 of the Gamma Knife unit. Impact of positioning deviations of the rat brain on dose deposition was simulated by GammaPlan and validated with dosimetric measurements. The authors' results showed that 90% of the target volume received 100 ± 8 Gy and the maximum of deposited dose was 125 ± 0.7 Gy, which corresponds to an excellent relative standard deviation of 0.6%. This dose deposition calculated with GammaPlan was validated with dosimetric films resulting in a dose-profile agreement within 5%, both in X- and Z-axes. The authors' results demonstrate the feasibility of standardizing the irradiation procedure of a small volume in the rat brain using a Gamma Knife.

  12. Effects of single-dose and fractionated cranial irradiation on rat brain accumulation of methotrexate

    SciTech Connect

    Kamen, B.A.; Moulder, J.E.; Kun, L.E.; Ring, B.J.; Adams, S.M.; Fish, B.L.; Holcenberg, J.S.

    1984-11-01

    The effects of single-dose and fractionated whole-brain irradiation on brain methotrexate (MTX) has been studied in a rat model. The amount of MTX present in the brain 24 hr after a single i.p. dose (100 mg/kg) was the same whether animals were sham irradiated or given a single dose of 2000 rads 6 or 48 hr prior to the drug (6.9, 8.3, and 6.8 pmol MTX/g, wet weight, respectively). Animals sham irradiated or given 2000 rads in 10 fractions over 11 days and treated with an average dose of 1.2 mg MTX/kg i.p. twice a week for 24 weeks did not differ significantly in their brain MTX concentration (7.9 and 8.3 pmol MTX/g, wet weight, respectively). Chronically MTX-treated animals became folate deficient whether they were irradiated or not (450 and 670 pmol folate/g, wet weight, brain in MTX-treated and control animals). Thus, MTX accumulates in the brain with acute or chronic administration, and this accumulation is not altered by this amount of brain irradiation.

  13. Electroacupuncture Prevents Cognitive Impairments by Regulating the Early Changes after Brain Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fan, Xing-Wen; Chen, Fu; Chen, Yan; Chen, Guan-Hao; Liu, Huan-Huan; Guan, Shi-Kuo; Deng, Yun; Liu, Yong; Zhang, Sheng-Jian; Peng, Wei-Jun; Jiang, Guo-Liang; Wu, Kai-Liang

    2015-01-01

    Cognitive impairments severely affect the quality of life of patients who undergo brain irradiation, and there are no effective preventive strategies. In this study, we examined the therapeutic potential of electroacupuncture (EA) administered immediately after brain irradiation in rats. We detected changes in cognitive function, neurogenesis, and synaptic density at different time points after irradiation, but found that EA could protect the blood-brain barrier (BBB), inhibit neuroinflammatory cytokine expression, upregulate angiogenic cytokine expression, and modulate the levels of neurotransmitter receptors and neuropeptides in the early phase. Moreover, EA protected spatial memory and recognition in the delayed phase. At the cellular/molecular level, the preventative effect of EA on cognitive dysfunction was not dependent on hippocampal neurogenesis; rather, it was related to synaptophysin expression. Our results suggest that EA applied immediately after brain irradiation can prevent cognitive impairments by protecting against the early changes induced by irradiation and may be a novel approach for preventing or ameliorating cognitive impairments in patients with brain tumors who require radiotherapy. PMID:25830357

  14. Cranial irradiation modulates hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and corticosteroid receptor expression in the hippocampus of juvenile rat.

    PubMed

    Velickovic, Natasa; Djordjevic, Ana; Drakulic, Dunja; Stanojevic, Ivana; Secerov, Bojana; Horvat, Anica

    2009-01-01

    Glucocorticoids, essential for normal hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activity, exert their action on the hippocampus through two types of corticosteroid receptors: the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and the mineralocorticoid receptor (MR). Recent studies report that exposure of juvenile rats to cranial irradiation adversely affects HPA axis stability leading to its activation along with radiation- induced inflammation. This study was aimed to examine the acute effects of radiation on HPA axis activity and hippocampal corticosteroid receptor expression in 18-day-old rats. Since immobilization was part of irradiation procedure, both irradiated and sham-irradiated animals were exposed to this unavoidable stress. Our results demonstrate that the irradiated rats exhibited different pattern of corticosteroid receptor expression and hormone levels compared to respective controls. These differences included upregulation of GR protein in the hippocampus with a concomitant elevation of GR mRNA and an increase in circulating level of corticosterone. In addition, the expression of MR, both at the level of protein and gene expression, was not altered. Taken together, this study demonstrates that cranial irradiation in juvenile rats leads to enhanced HPA axis activity and increased relative GR/MR ratio in hippocampus. The present paper intends to show that neuroendocrine response of normal brain tissue to localized irradiation comprise both activation of HPA axis and altered corticosteroid receptor balance, probably as consequence of innate immune activation.

  15. Monitoring the process of tissue healing of rat skin in vivo after laser irradiation based on optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Youwu; Wu, Shulian; Li, Zhifang; Cai, Shoudong; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    It is imperative to evaluate the tissue wound healing response after laser irradiation so as to develop effective devices for this clinical indication, and evaluate the thermal damage degree to take appropriate treatment. In our research, we prepare 6 white rat (approximately 2 months old, weight :28+/-2g). Each rat was injected intraperitoneally a single dose of 2% pentobarbital sodium. After the rat was anesthetized, the two side of the rats' back were denuded and antisepsised a standardized. An Er:YAG laser (2940nm, 2.5J/cm2, single spot, 4 times) was irradiated on rat skin in vivo, and the skin which before irradiated and the process of renovating scathe that irradiated after Er:YAG laser were observed by an Optical coherence tomography (OCT). The tissue recovery is about a twelve -day period. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient of post- tissue has changed distinctly. The and flexibility fiber is the chief component of rat dermis and the collagen is the main scattering material. The normal tissue has a large scattering coefficient, after laser irradiated, the collagen became concreting and putrescence and caused the structure change. It became more uniform density distribution, which results in a reduced scattering coefficient. In a word, OCT can noninvasively monitor changes in collagen structure and the recover process in thermal damage through monitor the tissue scattering coefficient.

  16. [Dominant lethality and translocations in the sex cells of male rats under low-intensity gamma irradiation].

    PubMed

    Baev, I A; Rupova, I M

    1978-11-01

    Adult male rats were given 1300 rad of chronic gamma-irradiation (0.08 rad/min) Dominant lethal rates were found to be high (ranging from 48 to 75%) in irradiated postmeiotic cells and clearly lower (6.8%) in spermatogonia. The chromosome aberration (reciprocal translocation) yields observed with 1300 rad chronic irradiation were comparatively low, averaging 1.6%. Spermatogonia irradiation at low dose rate resulted in a smaller effect as compared to the genetic effects of a single acute exposure.

  17. [Induction of cytogenetic damages by combined action of heavy metal salts, chronic and acute gamma irradiation in bone marrow cells of mice and rats].

    PubMed

    Zaichkina, S I; Rozanova, O M; Aptikaeva, G F; Akhmadieva, A Kh; Klokov, D Iu; Smirnova, E N

    2001-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study the combined action of salts of heavy metals (lead and cadmium), and acute and chronic gamma-irradiation on the cytogenetic damage to bone marrow cells of rats and mice. It was shown that the chronic exposure of rats and mice in vivo to gamma-irradiation induced the adaptive response. The salts of heavy metals supplemented to the diet of rats enhanced the cytogenetic damage to the non-irradiated animals, slightly enhanced the effect of chronic and acute gamma-irradiation, decreased the cytogenetic adaptive response induced by chronic gamma-irradiation.

  18. Radiation response of the rat cervical spinal cord after irradiation at different ages: Tolerance, latency and pathology

    SciTech Connect

    Ruifrok, A.C.C.; Van Der Kogel, A.J. ); Stephens, L.C. )

    1994-04-30

    Investigation of the age dependent single-dose radiation tolerance, latency to radiation myelopathy, and the histopathological changes after irradiation of the rat cervical spinal cord is presented. Rats were irradiated with graded single doses of 4 MV photons to the cervical spinal cord. When the rats showed definite signs of paresis of the forelegs, they were killed and processed for histological examination. The radiation dose resulting in paresis due to white matter damage in 50% of the animals (ED[sub 50]) after single dose irradiation was about 21.5 Gy at all ages [ge] 2 weeks. Only the Ed[sub 50] at 1 week was significantly lower. The latency to the development of paresis clearly changed with the age at irradiation, from about 2 weeks after irradiation at 1 week to 6-8 months after irradiation at age [ge] 8 weeks. The white matter damage was similar in all symptomatic animals studied. The most prominent were areas with diffuse demyelination and swollen axons, often with focal necrosis, accompanied by glial reaction. This was observed in all symptomatic animals, irrespective of the age at irradiation. Expression of vascular damage appeared to depend on the age at irradiation. Although the latency to myelopathy is clearly age dependent, single dose tolerance is not age dependent at age [ge] 2 weeks in the rat cervical spinal cord. The white matter damage is similar in all symptomatic animals studied, but the vasculopathies appear to be influenced by the age at irradiation. It is concluded that white matter damage and vascular damage are separate phenomena contributing to the development of radiation myelopathy, expression of which may depend on the radiation dose applied and the age at irradiation. 28 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.

  19. Effect of terahertz electromagnetic irradiation at nitric oxide frequencies on concentration of nitrites in blood serum of albino rats under conditions of immobilization stress.

    PubMed

    Kirichuck, V F; Ivanov, A N; Kulapina, E G; Krenickiy, A P; Mayborodin, A V

    2010-08-01

    The terahertz electromagnetic irradiation at NO emission and absorption spectrum frequencies elevated the concentration of nitrites in blood serum of albino rats subjected to acute immobilization stress.

  20. Modulatory effects of new curcumin analogues on gamma-irradiation - Induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Zaher, Nashwa H; El-Hossary, Ebaa M; El-Gazzar, Marwa G

    2016-12-25

    In the present study, a new series of 2-amino-pyran-3-carbonitrile derivatives of curcumin 2-7 have been synthesized via one-pot simple and efficient protocol, involving the reaction of curcumin 1 with substituted-benzylidene-malononitrile to modify the 1,3-diketone moiety. The structures of the synthesized compounds 2-7 were elucidated by microanalytical and spectral data, which were found consistent with the assigned structures. The nephroprotective mechanism of these new curcumin analogues was evaluated on the post-gamma-irradiation (7 Gy) - induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Activation of Nrf2 by these curcumin analogues is responsible for the amendment of the antioxidant status, impairment of NF-κB signal, thus attenuate the nephrotoxicity induced post-γ-irradiation exposure. 4-Chloro-phenyl curcumin analogue 7 showed the most potent activity. In conclusion, the results of the present study demonstrate a promising role of these new curcumin analogues to attenuate the early symptoms of nephrotoxicity induced by γ-irradiation in rats via activation of Nrf2 gene expression. These new curcumin analogues need further toxicological investigations to assess their therapeutic index.

  1. Induction of tolerance to cardiac allografts in lethally irradiated rats reconstituted with syngeneic bone marrow

    SciTech Connect

    Hartnett, L.C.

    1983-01-01

    Generally, organ grafts from one individual animal to another are rejected in one-two weeks. However, if the recipients are given Total Body Irradiation (TBI) just prior to grafting, followed by reconstitution of hemopoietic function with syngeneic (recipient-type) bone marrow cells, then vascularized organ grafts are permanently accepted. Initially after irradiation, it is possible to induce tolerance to many strain combinations in rats. This thesis examines the system of TBI as applied to the induction of tolerance in LEW recipients of WF cardiac allografts. These two rat strains are mismatched across the entire major histocompatibility complex. When the LEW recipient are given 860 rads, a WF cardiac allograft and LEW bone marrow on the same day, 60% of the grafts are accepted. Methods employed to improve the rate of graft acceptance include: treating either donor or recipient with small amounts of methotrexate, or waiting until two days after irradiation to repopulate with bone marrow. It seems from these investigations of some of the early events in the induction of tolerance to allografts following TBI and syngeneic marrow reconstitution that an immature cell population in the bone marrow interacts with a radioresistant cell population in the spleen to produce tolerance to completely MHC-mismatched allografts.

  2. Pulmonary endothelial dysfunction induced by unilateral as compared to bilateral thoracic irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'Ao, C.H.; Solliday, N.H.

    1987-07-01

    Rats were sacrificed 2 months after a single dose of 10-30 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays delivered to either a right unilateral or a bilateral thoracic port. Four indices of lung endothelial function were measured: the activities of angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) and plasminogen activator (PLA) and the production of prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TXA2). The number of macrophages recovered by bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) and the degree of right ventricular hypertrophy (an index of pulmonary hypertension) also were determined. Right lung ACE and PLA activity decreased linearly, and PGI2 and TXA2 production increased linearly with increasing radiation dose. The response curves for right unilateral and bilateral thoracic irradiation were not significantly different. In contrast, bilateral irradiation was more toxic than unilateral, since rats exposed to the former exhibited decreased body weight, an increased incidence of pleural effusions, an increase in the number of macrophages recovered by BAL, and right ventricular hypertrophy. These data demonstrate that pulmonary endothelial dysfunction induced by hemithorax irradiation represents a direct response of the endothelium to radiation injury and is not secondary to other phenomena such as shunting of function to the shielded lung.

  3. Genetic effects of acute spermatogonial X-irradiation of the laboratory rat.

    PubMed

    Chambers, J R; Chapman, A B

    1977-02-01

    The genetic effects of one generation of spermatogonial X-irradiation in rats, by a single dose of 600r in one experiment and by a fractionated dose of 450r in another, were measured in three generations of their descendants. Estimates of dominant lethal mutation rates--(2 to 3) X 10-4/gamete/r--from litter size differences between irradiated and nonirradiated stock were consistent with previous estimates from rats and mice. Similar consistency was found for estimates of sex-linked recessive mutation rates--(1 to 2) X 10-4 chromosome/r--from male proportions within strains; however, when measured in crossbreds the proportion of males was higher in the irradiated than in the nonirradiated lines. This inconsistency in results is in keeping with the contradictory results reported for recessive sex-linked lethal mutation rates in mice. The effects used to estimate recessive lethal mutation rates which were unusually high--(2 to 14) X 10-4/gamete/r--were not significant. Other factors that could have contributed to the observed effects are postulated.

  4. The Impact of Heart Irradiation on Dose-Volume Effects in the Rat Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Luijk, Peter van Faber, Hette; Meertens, Harm; Schippers, Jacobus M.; Langendijk, Johannes A.; Brandenburg, Sytze; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Robert P. Ph.D.

    2007-10-01

    Purpose: To test the hypothesis that heart irradiation increases the risk of a symptomatic radiation-induced loss of lung function (SRILF) and that this can be well-described as a modulation of the functional reserve of the lung. Methods and Materials: Rats were irradiated with 150-MeV protons. Dose-response curves were obtained for a significant increase in breathing frequency after irradiation of 100%, 75%, 50%, or 25% of the total lung volume, either including or excluding the heart from the irradiation field. A significant increase in the mean respiratory rate after 6-12 weeks compared with 0-4 weeks was defined as SRILF, based on biweekly measurements of the respiratory rate. The critical volume (CV) model was used to describe the risk of SRILF. Fits were done using a maximum likelihood method. Consistency between model and data was tested using a previously developed goodness-of-fit test. Results: The CV model could be fitted consistently to the data for lung irradiation only. However, this fitted model failed to predict the data that also included heart irradiation. Even refitting the model to all data resulted in a significant difference between model and data. These results imply that, although the CV model describes the risk of SRILF when the heart is spared, the model needs to be modified to account for the impact of dose to the heart on the risk of SRILF. Finally, a modified CV model is described that is consistent to all data. Conclusions: The detrimental effect of dose to the heart on the incidence of SRILF can be described by a dose dependent decrease in functional reserve of the lung.

  5. Comparing the functional consequences of human stem cell transplantation in the irradiated rat brain.

    PubMed

    Acharya, Munjal M; Christie, Lori-Ann; Lan, Mary L; Limoli, Charles L

    2013-01-01

    Radiotherapy is a frontline treatment for the clinical management of CNS tumors. Although effective in eradicating tumor cells, radiotherapy also depletes neural stem and progenitor cells in the hippocampus that are important for neurogenesis and cognitive function. Consequently, the use of radiation to control primary and metastatic brain tumors often leads to debilitating and progressive cognitive decrements in surviving patients, representing a serious medical condition that, to date, has no satisfactory, long-term solutions. As a result, we have explored the use of stem cells as therapeutic agents to improve cognition after radiotherapy. Our past work has demonstrated the capability of cranially transplanted human embryonic (hESCs) and neural (hNSCs) stem cells to functionally restore cognition in rats 1 and 4 months after head-only irradiation. We have now expanded our cognitive analyses with hESCs and quantified both survival and differentiated fates of engrafted cells at 1 and 4 months after irradiation. Our findings indicate the capability of hESC transplantation to ameliorate radiation-induced cognitive dysfunction 1 month following cranial irradiation, using a hippocampal-dependent novel place recognition task. Irradiated animals not engrafted with stem cells experienced prolonged and significant cognitive dysfunction. Stereological estimates indicated that 35% and 17% of the transplanted hESCs survived at 1 and 4 months postgrafting, respectively. One month after irradiation and grafting, phenotypic analyses revealed that 26% and 31% of the hESCs differentiated into neurons and astrocytes, while at the 4-month time, neuronal and astrocytic differentiation was 7% and 46%, respectively. Comparison between present and past data with hESCs and hNSCs demonstrates equivalent cognitive restoration and a preference of hNSCs to commit to neuronal versus astrocytic lineages over extended engraftment times. Our data demonstrate the functional utility of human stem

  6. The effects of LED rectal irradiation on the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of light emitting diode(LED λ 632.8nm; power 4.0mw)applied directly to the colon on the experimental ulcerative colitis. 34 rats were divided into 3 groups, which was LED treatment group (n=12), model group (n=12), and normal control group (n=10). Given glacial acetic acid (5%) intra-anally so as to be replicated the rat model of ulcerative colitis. LED irradiation was used to curative group, with 30min each time, once per day. The period of treatment was one week. Then the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and content of malondi-aldehyde (MDA) in the blood plasma were detected and the histopathological study in Colonic tissue was performed. The degree of the Colonic tissue injury in curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Comparing with model group, the Content of MDA in LED curative group was reductive and the activity of SOD was increased significantly. We concluded that the LED irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from acetic acid induced damage in rats and the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation of LED.

  7. Radioprotective effect of Curcuma longa extract on γ-irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Nada, Ahmed S; Hawas, Asrar M; Amin, Nour El-Din; Elnashar, Magdy M; Abd Elmageed, Zakaria Y

    2012-04-01

    This study was conducted to evaluate the modulatory effect of aqueous extract of Curcuma longa (L.) against γ-irradiation (GR), which induces biochemical disorders in male rats. The sublethal dose of GR was determined in primary hepatocytes. Also, the effect of C. longa extract was examined for its activity against GR. In rats, C. longa extract was administered daily (200 mg/kg body mass) for 21 days before, and 7 days after GR exposure (6.5 Gy). The lipid profile and antioxidant status, as well as levels of transaminases, interleukin-6 (IL-6), and tumour necrosis factor α (TNFα) were assessed. The results showed that in hepatocytes, the aqueous extract exhibited radioprotective activity against exposure to GR. Exposure of untreated rats to GR resulted in transaminase disorders, lipid abnormalities, elevation of lipid peroxidation, trace element alterations, release of IL-6 and TNF, and decrease in glutathione and protein level of superoxide dismutase-1 (SOD-1) and peroxiredoxin-1 (PRDX-1). However, treatment of rats with this extract before and after GR exposure improved antioxidant status and minimized the radiation-induced increase in inflammatory cytokines. Changes occurred in the tissue levels of trace elements, and the protein levels of SOD-1 and PRDX-1 were also modulated by C. longa extract. Overall, C. longa exerted a beneficial radioprotective effect against radiation-induced oxidative stress in male rats by alleviating pathological disorders and modulating antioxidant enzymes.

  8. Inhibiting the repair of DNA damage induced by gamma irradiation in rat thymocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Smit, J.A.; Stark, J.H.

    1994-01-01

    This study assessed the ability of 11 established and potential radiosensitizing agents to retard the repair of radiation-induced DNA damage with a view to enhancing the immunosuppressive effects of in vivo lymphoid irradiation. The capability of irradiated rat thymocytes to repair DNA damage was assessed by an adaptation of the fluorimetric unwinding method. Three compounds, 3-aminobenzamide (3-AB), novobiocin and flavone-8-acetic acid (FAA), inhibited repair significantly. We also report the effect of low-dose irradiation combined with repair inhibitors on the relationship between DNA strand breaks, fragmentation, cell viability and use of nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD). DNA fragmentation was increased by 1 mM/l FAA, 1 mM/l novobiocin and 50 {mu}M/l RS-61443 within 3 h of incubation. The latter two compounds also proved cytotoxic. All three drugs augmented the effect of ionizing radiation on the use of NAD. Of the agents investigated, FAA showed the most promise for augmenting the immunosuppressive action of irradiation at nontoxic, pharmacokinetically achievable concentrations. 33 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  9. The megakaryocyte DNA content and platelet formation after the sublethal whole body irradiation of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Tanum, G.

    1984-04-01

    The DNA content of rat bone marrow megakaryocytes (MK) was studied by Feulgen photometry, following whole body irradiation with 2 Gy. The DNA measurements were preceded by acetylcholinesterase staining to avoid missing the smaller 2N-8N MK. The number of 2N-8N MK declined immediately following irradiation, whereas the number of 16N-64N MK remained normal for 4 days before decreasing. The number of 2N-8N and 16N-64N MK reached minimum around days 7 and 10, respectively, and thereafter increased to supranormal values at days 14 and 20, respectively. Platelet production, measured by /sup 35/S incorporation into platelets, increased during the first 4 days, then decreased to minimum about day 10. A rise to supranormal values was present at day 20. All values were about normal 30 days after exposure. The observed pattern may be explained as follows: Most of the 16N-64N MK survive the applied dose and maintain their ability to produce platelets. Some of the 2N-4N and 8N MK survive irradiation and transform into platelet-producing MK. No influx of cells from the MK stem cell compartment into the MK compartment can be observed before day 7 after irradiation. One explanation for this time lag may be that thrombocytopenia, which does not occur before then, is an essential stimulus for MK stem cell activation.

  10. Thromboxane release from irradiated perfused rat lungs: role of oncotic agents

    SciTech Connect

    Heinz, T.R.; Kot, P.A.; Ramwell, P.W.; Schneidkraut, M.J.

    1987-07-27

    Isolated lungs from 20 Gray (Gy) whole body irradiated rats were perfused with Krebs-Ringer bicarbonate plus 3% bovine serum albumin (KRB-BSA). The pulmonary effluent showed a 99% (p < .05) increase in immunoassayable thromboxane B2 (iTXB2) release compared with non-irradiated lungs. Since both arachidonic acid and cyclooxygenase products bind to albumin, studies were performed to determine if omission or substitution of this protein oncotic agent would alter the radiation-induced increase in pulmonary iTXB2 release. Irradiated, isolated lungs perfused with media from which the BSA was omitted (KRB) did not demonstrate the radiation-induced increase in pulmonary iTXB2 release. Similarly, irradiated lungs perfused with media in which Dextran 70 (KRB plus 3% Dextran 70, KRB-Dextran 70) was substituted for BSA also did not show the radiation-induced increase in pulmonary effluent iTXB2 levels. These studies demonstrate the importance of including albumin as the oncotic agent in perfused organ systems when studying cyclooxygenase product release. 23 references, 2 tables.

  11. Low level laser therapy on injured rat muscle: assessment of irradiation parameters

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, M.; Pinheiro, J. P.; Morgado, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Although studies show the clinical effectiveness of low level laser therapy (LLLT) in facilitating the muscle healing process, scientific evidence is still required to prove the effectiveness of LLLT and to clarify the cellular and molecular mechanisms triggered by irradiation. Here we evaluate the effect of different LLLT wavelengths, using continuous coherent Laser illumination (830 nm and 980 nm) and non-coherent LED illumination (850 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through the quantification of cytokines in systemic blood. We verified that all applied doses of coherent radiation produce an effect on reducing the concentration of pro-inflammatory TNF-α and IL-1β cytokines, while no treatment effect was observed after irradiation with non-coherent radiation. The best results were obtained for 40 mW at 830 nm. The results may suggest an important role of coherence properties of laser in LLLT.

  12. Superoxide dismutase levels in various radioresistant and radiosensitive tissues of irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Krízala, J; Kovárová, H; Stoklasová, A; Ledvina, M

    1982-01-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase (E.C. 1.15.1.1; SOD) was determined in male Wistar rats in order to evaluate the possible relationship between both the enzyme content in tissue and the resistance of this tissue to ionizing radiation (8,0 Gy, 60Co). Our results showed that some non-irradiated radioresistant organs (liver) had a high SOD activity and on the contrary, in some radiosensitive tissue (bone marrow) the SOD content was low. In spite of this observation it is not possible to generalize the statement that the radiosensitivity is directly conditioned by the SOD level without any exception. The SOD content in the spleen was higher than in the brain, but the spleen is remarkably radiosensitive, whereas the brain is not. The radiosensitivity of individual tissues probably reflected the changes of SOD activity after the irradiation.

  13. Congenital hydrocephalus following X-irradiation of pregnant rats on an early gestational day

    SciTech Connect

    Takeuchi, I.K.; Takeuchi, Y.K.

    1986-03-01

    When pregnant rats were X-irradiated at a dose of 100 R on gestational day 9.5, a considerable number of postnatally-viable hydrocephalic offspring resulted, all of which were accompanied with bilateral micro- or anophthalmia. Histological studies revealed that the cerebral aqueduct of the congenital hydrocephalic brain was severely stenosed, and the subcommissural organ was reduced in size and displaced at some distance from the anterior end of the cerebral aqueduct. From embryological studies, it was considered that the maldevelopment of the subcommissural organ in the X-irradiated fetus might cause a reduction in the amount of its secretions which function as a cushion preventing complete closure of the cerebral aqueduct during fetal life, resulting in stenosis of the cerebral aqueduct.

  14. Radioprotective effects of Nigella sativa oil against oxidative stress in liver tissue of rats exposed to total head irradiation.

    PubMed

    Cikman, Oztekin; Ozkan, Adile; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Soylemez, Omer; Alkis, Hilal; Taysi, Seyithan; Karaayvaz, Muammer

    2014-10-01

    Many cancer patients treated with radiotherapy suffer severe side effects during and after their treatment. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of irradiation and the addition of Nigella sativa oil (NSO) on the oxidant/antioxidant system in the liver tissue of irradiated rats. A total of 24 Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly distributed into three groups of equal numbers. The control group received neither NSO nor irradiation but received 1-ml saline orally. The irradiation group (IR) received total head 5 gray (Gy) of gamma irradiation as a single dose, plus 1-ml saline orally. The IR plus NSO group received both total head 5 Gy of gamma irradiation as a single dose and 1 g/kg/day NSO orally through an orogastric tube starting one hour before irradiation and continuing for 10 days. While liver tissue total oxidant status (TOS), lipid hydroperoxide (LOOH) level, and oxidative stress index (OSI) were significantly increased in the IR group compared to the control group, total antioxidant status (TAS), sulfhydryl (-SH) levels, and PON activity were significantly decreased. Cp activity in the IR plus NSO and IR groups was higher than in the control group. ARYL activity in the IR plus NSO supplemented group was higher than that in other groups. NSO reduces oxidative stress markers and has antioxidant effects, which also augments the antioxidant capacity in the liver tissue of rats.

  15. Gamma irradiation of isolated rat islets pretransplantation produces indefinite allograft survival in cyclosporine-treated recipients

    SciTech Connect

    James, R.F.; Lake, S.P.; Chamberlain, J.; Thirdborough, S.; Bassett, P.D.; Mistry, N.; Bell, P.R.

    1989-06-01

    In this study we have examined the use of low-dose gamma-irradiation for the reduction of islet immunogenicity in the strong allogeneic combination of WAG rat islets transplanted into diabetic AUG recipients. First, we determined that gamma-irradiation reduced immunogenicity in vitro by use of a modified MLR with WAG islets as stimulators and AUG splenocytes as responders. We then determined the maximum dose of gamma-irradiation that could be used (250 rads) before islet function was affected. As 250 rads islet pretreatment alone was ineffective in prolonging allograft survival, we combined the pretreatment with a short course (days 0, 1, 2; 30 mg/kg) of cyclosporine. We found that CsA was only effective in significantly prolonging allograft survival when given subcutaneously in olive oil. The CsA treatment alone gave a significantly prolonged survival time for the islet allografts (median, 37 days vs. 6 days for controls), but when combined with the 250 rads islet pretreatment a synergistic effect was seen with 100% becoming long-term survivors (greater than 100 days). The long-term surviving AUG rats from both the CsA alone group and the CsA plus 250 rads pretreated islets group were challenged with WAG dendritic cells (DC). The islets from the 250 rads pretreated group were subsequently rejected (day 6) while the CsA alone group were not affected. The role of low dose gamma-irradiation when combined with CsA treatment of islet graft recipients in inducing specific unresponsiveness will be discussed.

  16. Transmission of a Filterable Agent from Rat Leukaemia Induced by X-Ray Irradiation and Treatment with Methylcholanthrene

    SciTech Connect

    Sveg, F.; Hlavay, E.

    2004-07-01

    Leukemia was induced in rats by combination of x irradiation and oral application of methylcholanthrene. The rats were irradiated by a single dose of 800 r, and methylcholanthrene was applied 3 times a week by stomach tube in a dose of 1 mg for 9 months. From 60 rats, myelogenous leukemia developed in 2 and lymphatic leukemia in 1. The myelobiastic leukemia proved to be transplantable and was maintained as MR-leukemia. After irtravenous injection of 1 to 10 x 10/ sup 6/ leukemic cells, obtained from the liver and spleen, the disease developed in adult rats in 6 to 10 days. As early as the 2nd or 3rd day after inoculation, leukemic infiltration of organs, especially liver and spleen, were seen. The rats died exhibiting signs of generalized leukemia within 10 days. If cell-free filtrates from the liver and spleen of rats bearing MR leukemia were injected into newborn and 4-week-old rats, myelogenous leukemia developed in the newborn group in 24% after a latency period of 520 days and in 33% of the 4-week-old group after 570 days, on an average. The induced leukemias were transplantable into both suckling and adult rats. Many of the injected animals, which did not develop leukemia, died of cirrhosis of the liver. The results suggest that the leukemia induced by irradiation and chemical carcinogen might be caused by a submicroscopic virus-like agent.

  17. The induction of insulinomas by X-irradiation to the gastric region in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Watanabe, Hiromitsu; Kamiya, Kenji

    2008-04-01

    The X-ray induction of tumors was examined in five-week-old male Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats, treated with two 10 Gy doses to the gastric region with a 3-day interval (total 20 Gy). After irradiation, the rats received the commercial diet MF and tap water and were maintained for up to 564 days. The mean serum glucose level in the X-irradiated group was significantly lower than that in the non-irradiated animals at the 18 month time point. The total tumor incidence was 27/30 (87.1%) in the treated rats (islet tumors, gastric tumors, sarcomas, seminomas, adrenal tumors, kidney tumors, papilloma, lymphomas and mammary tumors). Islet tumors, generally showed to be positive for insulin by immunohistochemistry, developed in 19 rats (63.3%), and were associated with low serum glucose. Since spontaneous tumors observed in 6/19 (31.6%) rats (sarcomas, kidney tumors, duodenum tumors, seminoma, adrenal tumor and squamous cell carcinoma) did not include any insulinomas, these are clearly induced by X-irradiation in OLETF rats.

  18. Rat parotid cell function in vitro following x irradiation in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Bodner, L.; Kuyatt, B.L.; Hand, A.R.; Baum, B.J.

    1984-02-01

    The effect of X irradiation on rat parotid acinar cell function was evaluated in vitro 1, 3, and 7 days following in vivo exposure to 2000 R. Several cellular functions were followed: protein secretion (amylase release), ion movement (K/sup +/ efflux and reuptake), amino acid transport (..cap alpha..-amino(/sup 14/C)isobutyric acid), and an intermediary metabolic response ((/sup 14/C)glucose oxidation). In addition both the morphologic appearance and in vivo saliva secretory ability of parotid cells were assessed. Our results demonstrate that surviving rat parotid acinar cells, isolated and studied in vitro 1-7 days following 2000 R, remain functionally intact despite in vivo diminution of secretory function.

  19. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.J.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  20. Tumor xenotransplantation in Wistar rats after treatment with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Hoogenhout, J.; Kazem, I.; Jerusalem, C.R.; Bakkeren, J.A.; de Jong, J.; Kal, H.B.; van Munster, P.J.

    1982-10-01

    Three-month-old male Wistar rats were treated with cyclophosphamide and total lymphoid irradiation, and C22LR mouse osteosarcoma was transplanted into the rats. The effects of immunosuppression were monitored by lymphocyte counts, serum IgG determinations, phytohemagglutinin (PHA) and concanavalin A (Con A) responses, measurement of the proportion of B cells, and histopathological studies of the lymphoid organs. At eight days after treatment, the lymphocyte counts, IgG levels, and PHA and Con A values were decreased. Mitotic activity started in the depleted B and T cell areas of the peripheral lymphatic organs two weeks after treatment. There was a 94% graft take of the osteosarcoma. It was determined that the optimum time for tumor xenograft transplantation is 4 days after treatment. The duration of growth was 11 days, and this was followed by regression up to day 21.

  1. [The Chinese medicine nutrient diet intervention prevent against the neurologic damage induce by EMF irradiation in rat hippocampus].

    PubMed

    Gong, Qian-Fen; Yang, Xue-Sen; Tu, Ling; Zhang, Guang-Bin; Yu, Zheng-Ping

    2013-07-01

    To observe the neurologic damage in rat hippocampus after electromagnetic field (EMF) acute or chronic irradiation and research the protective effects of Chinese medicine diet (CMD) which comprised ferulic acid, ginsenoside, astragalus polysaccharide and rhodiola sachalinensis. Eighty rats were divided into ten groups (n = 8): normal diet with shame irradiation group (NS), normal diet with chronic irradiation group (NCI), three groups of normal diet with acute irradiation after 3 h, 24 h, 72 h (NAI), Chinese medicine diet with shame irradiation group (CS), Chinese medicine diet with chronic irradiation group (CCI), three groups of Chinese medicine diet with acute irradiation after 3 h, 24 h, 72 h (CAI). The chronic EMF irradiation were performed by electromagnetic wave at 15 W/cm2 for 20 min everyday for 8 weeks continuously. The acute EMF irradiation were performed by electromagnetic wave at 65 W/cm2 for 20 min after feeding with CMD for 8 weeks. The learning and memory were evaluated by Morris water maze before/after electromagnetic wave irradiation. The apoptotic cells in hippocampus was detected by Tunel staining. The peroxidation damage of EMF and the protective effect of CMD intervention were assayed by measuring superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) and reactive oxygen species (ROS). The acute and chronic EMF irradiation disturbed the ability of learning and memory significantly (P < 0.05), CMD intervention markedly antagonized this effect. The apoptotic cells in hippocampus increased evidently after EMF irradiation (P < 0.05), but CMD intervention reduced the apoptotic cells. The acute and chronic EMF irradiation induced the oxidative stress by down-regulating SOD activity, GSH-Px activity, ROS inhibiting and up-regulating the content of MDA obviously (P < 0.05), and CMD intervention reduced peroxidation damage significantly (P < 0.05). The acute and chronic EMF irradiation could initiate neurologic damage in

  2. Effects of β-glucan on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    PubMed

    Seker, Ahmet; Deger, Kamuran Cumhur; Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Ozer, Ilter; Dalgic, Tahsin; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akmansu, Muge; Ekinci, Ozgur; Ercin, Ugur; Akoglu, Musa

    2014-06-01

    Radiation therapy is an essential therapeutic modality in the management of a wide variety of tumors. We aimed to investigate the short-term effects of pelvic irradiation on the healing of colon anastomoses and to determine the potential protective effects of β-glucan in this situation. Sixty Wistar albino rats were randomized into three experimental groups: a control group (n = 20), an irradiation (IR) group (n = 20), and an irradiation+β-glucan (IR+β-glucan) group (n = 20). Only segmental colonic resection and anastomosis were performed on the control group. The IR group underwent the same surgical procedure as the control group 5 days after pelvic irradiation. In the IR+β-glucan group, the same procedure was applied as in the IR group after β-glucan administration. The groups were subdivided into subgroups according to the date of euthanasia (third [n = 10] or seventh [n = 10] postoperative [PO] day), and anastomotic colonic segments were resected to evaluate bursting pressures and biochemical and histopathological parameters. Bursting pressure values were significantly lower in the IR group (p < .001). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the IR group, whereas β-glucan significantly decreased MDA levels on the third PO day (p < .001). Granulation tissue formation scores were significantly lower in the IR+β-glucan group compared with the control group and the IR group (p < .001). The results of this study indicate that irradiation has negative effects on the early healing of colon anastomoses. The administration of β-glucan ameliorates these unfavorable effects by altering bursting pressures and biochemical parameters.

  3. Effect of CO₂ laser irradiation on wound healing of exposed rat pulp.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Masaya; Ogisu, Takahito; Kato, Chikage; Shinkai, Koichi; Katoh, Yoshiroh

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the effects of direct pulp capping treatment using super-pulsed CO₂ laser preirradiation on the wound healing process of exposed rat pulp on days 1, 3, 7, 14, and 28 postoperatively. Group 1 was irradiated with a CO₂ laser and directly capped with a self-etching adhesive system. The laser was operated in super-pulse mode (pulse duration, 200 μs; interval, 5800 μs; 0.003 J/pulse). The irradiation conditions were a power output of 0.5 W, an irradiation time of 3 s, and repeat mode (10 ms of irradiation at 10-ms intervals for a total beam exposure time of 1.5 s), defocused beam diameter of 0.74 mm (approximately 20 mm from the exposed pulp surface), energy density of 0.698 J/cm² per pulse, total applied energy of 0.75 J, and an activated air-cooling system. Group 2 was capped with the self-etching adhesive system. Group 3 was capped with commercially available calcium hydroxide, and the self-etching adhesive system was applied to the cavity. The following parameters were evaluated: pulp tissue disorganization, inflammatory cell infiltration, reparative dentin formation, and bacterial penetration. The results were statistically analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis test for differences among the groups at each observation period (P < 0.05). There were no significant differences among the experimental groups in any parameters at any postoperative period (P > 0.05). CO₂ laser irradiation was effective in arresting hemorrhaging but showed a tendency to delay reparative dentin formation compared with the application of calcium hydroxide.

  4. Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation in gerbil (Meriones Hurrianae Jerdon) and house rat (Rattus rattus Rufescens).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P; Agrawal, M; Gupta, C H

    1976-08-01

    Liver dysfunction following whole-body Co-60 irradiation has been studied in domestic and desert rat species. A significant elevation in the serum transaminases activity was noticed both in gerbil and house rat. Alkaline phosphatase and plasma cholesterol levels were also increased indicating an early radiation impairment of the liver tissue, which was later confirmed by histological studies. A steady fall in liver glycogen in irradiated gerbils was strikingly in contrast to an increase in irradiated house rat. Drastic depletion in liver glycogen, changes in the serum enzyme levels and the severity of the hepatic necrosis in gerbils point out that desert mammalian species are much more sensitive to radiation hazard as compared with domestic ones.

  5. Radioprotective effect of green tea and grape seed extracts mixture on gamma irradiation induced immune suppression in male albino rats.

    PubMed

    El-Desouky, Wael; Hanafi, Amal; Abbas, Manal M

    2017-04-01

    Green tea extract (GTE) and grape seed extract (GSE) have antioxidant and radioprotective effects. The current study aimed to investigate the radioprotective effect of GTE and GSE mixture on radiation-induced immune suppression in rats. A total of 35 male albino rats were divided into five groups: group 1 (control rats). The 2nd and 3rd groups rats were exposed to a single dose of gamma radiation (5 and 10 Gy), respectively. The 4th and 5th groups of rats were gamma-irradiated with 5 and 10 Gy, respectively, then administrated by gavage with GTE and GSE mixture (100 mg: 200 mg/kg BW), respectively, for 14 consecutive days. Gamma irradiation induced hematological, immunological and biochemical effects in rats. Treated rats with GTE and GSE mixture (1:2) showed an increase in concentrations of immune cells including CD4 and CD8. The level of pro-inflammatory cytokines Tumor necrosis factor-α and C-reactive protein elevated after γ-irradiation and significantly decreased by mixture administration. Moreover, groups treated with antioxidant mixture showed a significant increase in all hematological parameters and a significant decrease in cholesterol and triglyceride levels. GTE and GSE mixture is a good radioprotector and immune modulator compound, indicating its possible use as an adjuvant during radiotherapy.

  6. Efficacy of Intracerebral Delivery of Carboplatin in Combination With Photon Irradiation for Treatment of F98 Glioma-Bearing Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Rousseau, Julia; Barth, Rolf F.; Moeschberger, Melvin L.; Elleaume, Helene

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To evaluate the efficacy of prolonged intracerebral (i.c.) administration of carboplatin by means of ALZET osmotic pumps, in combination with radiotherapy for the treatment of intracranial F98 glioma in rats. Methods and Materials: Seven days after stereotactic implantation of F98 glioma cells into the brains of Fischer rats, carboplatin was administrated i.c. by means of ALZET pumps over 6 days. Rats were treated at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility with a single 15-Gy X-ray dose, either given alone or 24 h after administration of carboplatin. Results: Untreated rats had a mean survival time (MST) {+-} SE of 23 {+-} 1 days, compared with 44 {+-} 3 days for X-irradiated animals and 69 {+-} 20 days for rats that received carboplatin alone, with 3 of 13 of these surviving >195 days. Rats that received carboplatin followed by X-irradiation had a MST of >142 {+-} 21 days and a median survival time of >195 days, with 6 of 11 rats (55%) still alive at the end of the study. The corresponding percentage increases in lifespan, based on median survival times, were 25%, 85%, and 713%, respectively, for carboplatin alone, radiotherapy alone, or the combination. Conclusions: Our data demonstrate that i.c. infusion of carboplatin by means of ALZET pumps in combination with X-irradiation is highly effective for the treatment of the F98 glioma. They provide strong support for the approach of concomitantly administering chemo- and radiotherapy for the treatment of brain tumors.

  7. Preventive and therapeutic effects of low level laser irradiation on gentamicin vestibulotoxicity in rat utricle

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rhee, Chung-Ku; Oh, Yang Hee; Ahn, Jin-Chul; Jung, Min-Sang; Kim, Yeong-Sik; Suh, Myung-Whan

    2009-02-01

    Purpose: To investigate the effects of low level laser (LLL) irradiation for the prevention and treatment of aminoglycoside-induced vestibular ototoxicity. Materials and Methods: An organotypic culture of 2 to 4 days old rat utricular maculae hair cells was used. The cultured utricular hair cells were divided into 6 groups. Group C: the hair cells were cultured for 14 days. Group G: cultured hair cells were treated with 1 mM gentamicin (GM) for 48 hours. Group L: LLL irradiation with 670 nm diode laser 3 mW/cm2 for 60 min (10.8 J/cm2)/day for 14 days. Group LG: LLL irradiation 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 2 days followed by GM insult. Group GL: treated with GM and followed by LLL irradiation 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 12 days. LGL group: LLL irradiation 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 2 days, then GM insulted, followed by the LLLT 10.8 J/ cm2/day for 10 days. The hair cells in each group were examined and counted by confocal laser scanning electron microscope on 7th and 14th days after FM1-43 staining and observed by scanning electron microscope (SEM). Results: The number of vestibular hair cells of group G was significantly less than those in group C. Group L showed no difference compared to group C. Significantly higher numbers of cells were seen in Group LG and GL comparing to group G. The cells were more in LG than group GL. Group LGL showed the most vestibular hair cells compared to the G, LG, and GL groups. SEM showed damaged hair cells in group G while they were well preserved in groups C, L, LG, GL, and LGL. Conclusion: LLL irradiation before and after GM insult on utricular hair cells were most effective to prevent and treat GM ototoxicity. This study indicates that LLL irradiation may have clinical implications to treat various vestibular and cochlear inner ear diseases.

  8. Investigation of irradiated rats DNA in the presence of Cu(II) chelates of amino acids Schiff bases.

    PubMed

    Karapetyan, N H; Torosyan, A L; Malakyan, M; Bajinyan, S A; Haroutiunian, S G

    2016-01-01

    The new synthesized Cu(II) chelates of amino acids Schiff bases were studied as a potential radioprotectors. Male albino rats of Wistar strain were exposed to X-ray whole-body irradiation at 4.8 Gy. This dose caused 30% mortality of the animals (LD30). The survival of animals exposed to radiation after preliminary administration of 10 mg/kg Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tyrosinate)2 or Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tryptophanate)2 prior to irradiation was registered about 80 and 100% correspondingly. Using spectrophotometric melting and agarose gel electrophoresis methods, the differences between the DNA isolated from irradiated rats and rats pretreated with Cu(II) chelates were studied. The fragments of DNA with different breaks were revealed in DNA samples isolated from irradiated animals. While, the repair of the DNA structure was observed for animals pretreated with the Cu(II) chelates. The results suggested that pretreatment of the irradiated rats with Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tyrosinate)2 and Cu(II)(Nicotinyl-L-Tryptophanate)2 compounds improves the liver DNA characteristics.

  9. Taxifolin and Fucoidin Abolish the Irradiation-Induced Increase in the Production of Reactive Oxygen Species in Rat Aorta.

    PubMed

    Arutyunyan, T V; Korystova, A F; Kublik, L N; Levitman, M Kh; Shaposhnikova, V V; Korystov, Yu N

    2016-03-01

    We studied changes in ROS content in the aorta of Wistar rats at early terms after irradiation in doses equal to single fraction used in tumor radiotherapy and the effects of taxifolin and fucoidin, blockers of leukocyte adhesion to endothelium, on ROS content. Male rats were exposed to X-rays (200 kW) in doses of 1-7.5 Gy. ROS production in aorta segments was measured in 1-48 h after irradiation by dichlorodihydrofluorescein oxidation. The content of ROS in the aorta of rats exposed to radiation in doses of 1-2.5 Gy increased in 1-24 h after irradiation, the peak ROS content was found in 2 h after irradiation. Taxifolin (100 μg/kg dihydroquercetin once a day with drinking water) and fucoidin (10 mg/kg, i.v.) abolished ROS accumulation. The content of ROS in rat aorta increased in 1-24 h after irradiation in doses used for tumor radiotherapy and this increase can be determined by leukocyte adhesion to the endothelium.

  10. Evaluation of radioprotective effect of aloe vera and zinc/copper compounds against salivary dysfunction in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Nejaim, Yuri; I V Silva, Amaro; V Vasconcelos, Taruska; J N L Silva, Emmanuel; M de Almeida, Solange

    2014-09-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the radioprotective and reparative effects of compounds based on aloe vera, zinc, and copper against salivary gland dysfunction in Wistar rats. A total of 150 Wistar rats were randomly divided into 12 groups, in which the animals received aloe vera and/or zinc and copper. In eight of these groups the animals were also subjected to irradiation before or after administration of the substances. After 27 days, sialometry tests were performed. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Rats that had been administered aloe vera before or after irradiation showed a significantly higher salivary flow rate than rats that had been simply irradiated. When both substances were administered, a statistically significant difference in the salivary flow rate was observed in comparison with the irradiation alone group seven days after irradiation. The present results suggest that aloe vera exerts positive protective and reparative effects, and can be considered a potential radioprotective substance.

  11. Effect of compensating filters on the isodose charts of rat and guinea-pig phantoms irradiated with "fission-neutrons".

    PubMed

    Zaránd, P

    1976-01-01

    Isodose charts were calculated for rat and guinea-pig phantoms exposed to a modified fission spectrum with a most probable energy of 1.3 MeV. Infinite tissue equivalent cylinders (r = 2.5 and 3.3 cm) and a plane source emitting neutrons according to a cosine distribution were assumed and an albedo code was used. Combined effect of (tissue-equivalent or polyethylene) compensating filters (or simply filters) and a bilateral irradiation or rotation was studied. Bilateral irradiation and the use of a filter resulted in a uniform irradiation of a rat phantom (Dmax/Dmin less than 1.15), while a uniform irradiation of a guinea-pig phantom could be obtained by the combined use of filters and rotation. If rotation is possible a Dmax/Dmin less than 1.05 ratio can be achieved. Filters + rotation should be used in all circumstances when geometrical restrictions do not prevent the installation of a rotation equipment. In this case bilateral irradiation + compensating filters are advisable. Unilateral irradiation of small laboratory animals (mouse, rat, guinea-pig) should be avoided.

  12. Ovarian toxicity of cyclophosphamide alone and in combination with ovarian irradiation in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jarrell, J.; Lai, E.V.; Barr, R.; McMahon, A.; Belbeck, L.; O'Connell, G.

    1987-05-01

    The effects of radiation and chemotherapy on gonadal function are relevant to the morbidity induced by such treatments. Cyclophosphamide given i.p. to rats on Day 30 of age delayed vaginal opening, prevented vaginal cyclicity, and caused a reduction in serum estradiol and progesterone. Antral follicular atresia increased in a dose-dependent fashion in response to cyclophosphamide (0 mg/kg, 53.5%; 1 mg/kg, 67.3%; 50 mg/kg, 65.7%; 100 mg/kg, 73.9%; 150 mg/kg, 92.2%). Despite such alterations in ovarian function, serum gonadotrophins did not rise. The concurrent administration of 0, 20, 30, 40, 50, and 60 Gy of radiation to the exteriorized ovaries in rats receiving 50 mg/kg cyclophosphamide induced widespread loss of primordial, preantral, and healthy antral follicles associated with reduction in serum progesterone and estradiol. Such irradiation induced dose-related increases in serum follicle-stimulating hormone and luteinizing hormone. Parenteral cyclophosphamide and local irradiation appear to induce ovarian toxicity by different mechanisms.

  13. Biophotonic effect of diode laser irradiance on tensile strength of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Lau, Pik Suan; Bidin, Noriah; Krishnan, Ganesan; Nassir, Zaleha; Bahktiar, Hazri

    2015-04-01

    Low-energy laser irradiance at certain wavelengths is able to stimulate the tissue bio-reaction and enhance the healing process. Collagen deposition is one of the important aspects in healing process because it can increase the strength of the skin. This study was designed to examine the biophotonic effect of irradiance on collagen production of diabetic wound in rat model. The tensile strength of skin was employed as a parameter to describe the wound. Diabetic rat models were induced by streptozotocin via intravenous injection. Skin-breaking strength was measured using an Instron tensile test machine. The experimental animals were treated with 808-nm diode laser at two different powers-0.1 and 0.5 W/cm(2)-and 30, 60, and 120 s for each session. The tensile strength was optimized after treated with high-power diode laser. The photostimulation effect was revealed by accelerated healing process and enhanced tensile strength of wound. Laser photostimulation on tensile strength in diabetic wound suggests that such therapy facilitates collagen production in diabetic wound healing.

  14. Effect of Alpha-Particle Irradiation on Brain Glycogen in the Rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wolfe, L. S.; Klatzo, Igor; Miquel, Jaime; Tobias, Cornelius; Haymaker, Webb

    1962-01-01

    The studies of Klatzo, Miquel, Tobias and Haymaker (1961) have shown that one of the earliest and most sensitive indications of the effects of alpha-particle irradiation on rat bran is the appearance of glycogen granules mainly in the neuroglia of the exposed area of the brain. Periodic acid-Schiff (PAS) positive, alpha-amylase soluble granules were demonstrated within 12 hr after irradiation, preceding by approximately 36 hr the first microscopically detectable vascular permeability disturbances, as shown by the fluorescein labeled serum protein technique. These studies suggested that the injurious effects of alpha-particle energy were on cellular elements primarily, according to the physical properties and distribution of the radiation in the tissue, and that the vascular permeability disturbances played a secondary role in pathogenesis. The purpose of this study was to correlate the histochemical observations on glycogen with a quantitative assessment of the glycogen in the irradiated brain tissue. It is felt that such a study may contribute to the understanding of radiation injury at the molecular level. A practical aspect of this problem is that the information on biological radiation effects due to accelerated particles from the cyclotron source, is employed in this study, is applicable to radiation from cosmic particles both in free space and entrapped in the Van Allen belts.

  15. p21WAF1 expression during spermatogenesis of the normal and X-irradiated rat.

    PubMed

    West, A; Lähdetie, J

    1997-03-01

    The cyclin dependent kinase inhibitor p21WAF1 has been shown to be upregulated during differentiation and after DNA damage in somatic cells. We examined the expression of p21WAF1 mRNA during the differentiation of germ cells in normal and X-irradiated rat testis by in situ hybridization and Northern blotting. p21WAF1 was normally expressed in primary spermatocytes of the pachytene phase, but could also be detected in round spermatids. In preparations of defined segments of the seminiferous tubules, the strongest hybridization signals were detected in the segments containing stages VII VIII and IX XII of the seminiferous epithelium. Ionizing radiation (1-12 Gy) induced the expression of p21WAF1 in a dose-dependent manner and the lowest dose that showed a clear increase in mRNA levels was 3 Gy. The p21WAF1 mRNA levels peaked after 3-4 hours, but remained high compared with the control levels during the 24-h follow-up. No change in the in situ hybridization pattern was seen when comparing unirradiated and irradiated tissue. Thus, it appears that X-irradiation induces p21WAF1 in the pachytene spermatocytes. Since p21WAF1 mRNA was found in pachytene spermatocytes and in round spermatids in normal testis, the protein may take part in the regulation of meiosis and in the 'terminal' differentiation of the male germ cells.

  16. Lung damage following bone marrow transplantation. I. The contribution of irradiation. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Cardozo, B.L.; Zoetelief, H.; van Bekkum, D.W.; Zurcher, C.; Hagenbeek, A.

    1985-05-01

    High dose whole body irradiation is commonly included in conditioning regimens for bone marrow transplantation for treatment of patients with hematological malignancies. Interstitial pneumonitis is a major complication after BMT. When no infectious cause is found, it is classified as idiopathic IP (IIP). Total body irradiation is often associated with the induction of IIP; however, extrapolation of animal data from the experiments presented indicates that this is not the only factor contributing to IIP in man. Brown Norway (BN/Bi) rats were bilaterally irradiated to the lungs with 300 kV X rays at a high dose rate (HDR; 0.8 Gy/min) and at low dose rate (LDR; 0.05 Gy/min). The LD50 at 180 days was 13.3 Gy for HDR and 22.7 Gy for LDR. The ratios of LD/sub 50/180/ at 0.05 Gy/min to that at 0.8 Gy/min is 1.7, which indicates a great repair capacity of the lungs. Extrapolation of animal data to patient data leads to an estimated dose of about 15-16 Gy at a 50% radiation pneumonitis induction for low dose rate TBI. As the absorbed dose in the lungs of BMT patients rarely exceeds 10 Gy, additional factors might be involved in the high incidence of HP in man after BMT.

  17. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

  18. Effects of heavy particle irradiation and diet on amphetamine- and lithium chloride-induced taste avoidance learning in rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Rabin, Bernard M.; Shukitt-Hale, Barbara; Szprengiel, Aleksandra; Joseph, James A.

    2002-01-01

    Rats were maintained on diets containing either 2% blueberry or strawberry extract or a control diet for 8 weeks prior to being exposed to 1.5 Gy of 56Fe particles in the Alternating Gradient Synchrotron at Brookhaven National Laboratory. Three days following irradiation, the rats were tested for the effects of irradiation on the acquisition of an amphetamine- or lithium chloride-induced (LiCl) conditioned taste avoidance (CTA). The rats maintained on the control diet failed to show the acquisition of a CTA following injection of amphetamine. In contrast, the rats maintained on antioxidant diets (strawberry or blueberry extract) continued to show the development of an amphetamine-induced CTA following exposure to 56Fe particles. Neither irradiation nor diet had an effect on the acquisition of a LiCl-induced CTA. The results are interpreted as indicating that oxidative stress following exposure to 56Fe particles may be responsible for the disruption of the dopamine-mediated amphetamine-induced CTA in rats fed control diets; and that a reduction in oxidative stress produced by the antioxidant diets functions to reinstate the dopamine-mediated CTA. The failure of either irradiation or diet to influence LiCl-induced responding suggests that oxidative stress may not be involved in CTA learning following injection of LiCl.

  19. Protective Effects of Hong Shan Capsule against Lethal Total-Body Irradiation-Induced Damage in Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jianzhong; Xu, Jing; Xu, Weiheng; Qi, Yang; Lu, Yiming; Qiu, Lei; Hu, Zhenlin; Chu, Zhiyong; Chai, Yifeng; Zhang, Junping

    2015-01-01

    Hong Shan Capsule (HSC), a crude drug of 11 medicinal herbs, was used in clinical practice for the treatment of radiation injuries in China. In this study, we investigated its protection in rats against acute lethal total-body irradiation (TBI). Pre-administration of HSC reduced the radiation sickness characteristics, while increasing the 30-day survival of the irradiated rats. Administration of HSC also reduced the radiation sickness characteristics and increased the 30-day survival of mice after exposure to lethal TBI. Ultrastructural observation illustrated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC significantly attenuated the TBI-induced morphological changes in the different organs of irradiated rats. Gene expression profiles revealed the dramatic effect of HSC on alterations of gene expression caused by lethal TBI. Pretreatment with HSC prevented differential expression of 66% (1398 genes) of 2126 genes differentially expressed in response to TBI. Pathway enrichment analysis indicated that these genes were mainly involved in a total of 32 pathways, such as pathways in cancer and the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) signaling pathway. Our analysis indicated that the pretreatment of rats with HSC modulated these pathways induced by lethal TBI, such as multiple MAPK pathways, suggesting that pretreatment with HSC might provide protective effects on lethal TBI mainly or partially through the modulation of these pathways. Our data suggest that HSC has the potential to be used as an effective therapeutic or radio-protective agent to minimize irradiation damage. PMID:26274957

  20. Post-irradiation dietary vitamin E does not affect the development of radiation-induced lung damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Wiegman, Erwin M; van Gameren, Mieke M; Kampinga, Harm H; Szabó, Ben G; Coppes, Rob P

    2004-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether application of post-irradiation vitamin E, an anti-oxidant, could prevent the development of radiation induced lung damage. Wistar rats were given vitamin E enriched or vitamin E deprived food starting from 4 weeks after 18Gy single dose irradiation of the right thorax. Neither breathing frequencies nor CT density measurements revealed differences between the groups. It is concluded that post-irradiation vitamin E does not influence radiation-induced fibrosis to the lung.

  1. DNA Methylation Patterns in Rat Mammary Carcinomas Induced by Pre- and Post-Pubertal Irradiation.

    PubMed

    Takabatake, Masaru; Blyth, Benjamin J; Daino, Kazuhiro; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate one's age at exposure to radiation strongly modifies the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer. We previously reported that rat mammary carcinomas induced by pre- and post-pubertal irradiation have distinct gene expression patterns, but the changes underlying these differences have not yet been characterized. The aim of this investigation was to see if differences in CpG DNA methylation were responsible for the differences in gene expression between age at exposure groups observed in our previous study. DNA was obtained from the mammary carcinomas arising in female Sprague-Dawley rats that were either untreated or irradiated (γ-rays, 2 Gy) during the pre- or post-pubertal period (3 or 7 weeks old). The DNA methylation was analyzed using CpG island microarrays and the results compared to the gene expression data from the original study. Global DNA hypomethylation in tumors was accompanied by gene-specific hypermethylation, and occasionally, by unique tumor-specific patterns. We identified methylation-regulated gene expression candidates that distinguished the pre- and post-pubertal irradiation tumors, but these represented only 2 percent of the differentially expressed genes, suggesting that methylation is not a major or primary mechanism underlying the phenotypes. Functional analysis revealed that the candidate methylation-regulated genes were enriched for stem cell differentiation roles, which may be important in mammary cancer development and worth further investigation. However, the heterogeneity of human breast cancer means that the interpretation of molecular and phenotypic differences should be cautious, and take into account the co-variates such as hormone receptor status and cell-of-origin that may influence the associations.

  2. DNA Methylation Patterns in Rat Mammary Carcinomas Induced by Pre- and Post-Pubertal Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Takabatake, Masaru; Blyth, Benjamin J.; Daino, Kazuhiro; Imaoka, Tatsuhiko; Nishimura, Mayumi; Fukushi, Masahiro; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2016-01-01

    Several lines of evidence indicate one’s age at exposure to radiation strongly modifies the risk of radiation-induced breast cancer. We previously reported that rat mammary carcinomas induced by pre- and post-pubertal irradiation have distinct gene expression patterns, but the changes underlying these differences have not yet been characterized. The aim of this investigation was to see if differences in CpG DNA methylation were responsible for the differences in gene expression between age at exposure groups observed in our previous study. DNA was obtained from the mammary carcinomas arising in female Sprague-Dawley rats that were either untreated or irradiated (γ-rays, 2 Gy) during the pre- or post-pubertal period (3 or 7 weeks old). The DNA methylation was analyzed using CpG island microarrays and the results compared to the gene expression data from the original study. Global DNA hypomethylation in tumors was accompanied by gene-specific hypermethylation, and occasionally, by unique tumor-specific patterns. We identified methylation-regulated gene expression candidates that distinguished the pre- and post-pubertal irradiation tumors, but these represented only 2 percent of the differentially expressed genes, suggesting that methylation is not a major or primary mechanism underlying the phenotypes. Functional analysis revealed that the candidate methylation-regulated genes were enriched for stem cell differentiation roles, which may be important in mammary cancer development and worth further investigation. However, the heterogeneity of human breast cancer means that the interpretation of molecular and phenotypic differences should be cautious, and take into account the co-variates such as hormone receptor status and cell-of-origin that may influence the associations. PMID:27711132

  3. Effect of age on the induction of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine-releasing enzyme in rat liver by gamma-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kaneko, Takao; Tahara, Shoichi; Tanno, Munehiko; Taguchi, Takahiko

    2003-01-01

    Aged (27 months of age) and young (6 months of age) Fischer 344/DuCrj rats were exposed to gamma-ray irradiation, and their livers were compared for levels of oxidative DNA modifications and repair enzyme activities. The amounts of 8-oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine (8-oxodG) in the nuclear DNA of the livers of both young and aged rats increased immediately after irradiation, by 1.7-fold in the livers of young rats and 2.7-fold in the livers of the aged rats. Also, the rate of 8-oxodG decay was slower in the livers of the aged rats than in young rat liver, and remained above the baseline level even 1 week after irradiation. The activities of 8-oxodG-releasing enzymes peaked 2 and 6 h after irradiation in the livers of young and aged rats, respectively. The repair activity in the livers of the young rats was increased by sevenfold 2 h after irradiation, while the livers of the aged rats showed a twofold increase 6 h after irradiation. These results suggest that the ability to repair damaged DNA is lower in aged rats, and that the accumulation of oxidative DNA damage that takes place during aging may be related to this decline in repair activity.

  4. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

    1967-01-01

    Long-term organotypic cultures of rat dorsal root ganglia were exposed to a single 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and studied in the living and fixed states by light or electron microscopy at 1–14 day intervals thereafter. Within the first 4 days following irradiation, over 30% of the neurons display chromatolytic reactions (eccentric nuclei, peripheral dispersal of Nissl substance, central granular zone) as well as abnormal nucleolar changes and dissociation of ribosomes from endoplasmic reticulum cisternae. Some satellite cells undergo retraction or acute degeneration, leaving only basement membrane to cover the neuron in these areas. 8 days after irradiation, neurons also exhibit (a) areas in which ribosomes are substantially reduced, (b) regions of cytoplasmic sequestration, (c) extensive vacuolization of granular endoplasmic reticulum and Golgi complex, and (d) diversely altered mitochondria (including the presence of ribosome-like particles or association with abnormal glycogen and lipid deposits). Nucleolar components become altered or reoriented and may form abnormal projections and ringlike configurations. Sizeable areas of the neuronal soma are now denuded of satellite cells; underlying these areas, nerve processes are found abnormally invaginated into the neuronal cytoplasm. By the 14th day following irradiation, most neurons display marked degenerative changes including extensive regions of ribosome depletion, sequestration, vacuolization, autolysis, and, in some areas, swirls of filaments, myelin figures, and heterogeneous dense bodies. These observations demonstrate that X-irradiation produces profound cytopathological changes in nervous tissue isolated from the host and that many of these changes resemble the effects of radiation on nervous tissue in vivo. PMID:10976234

  5. Tissue structure of rat brain after microwave irradiation using maximum magnetic field component.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Y; Okada, M; Maruyama, Y

    1986-05-14

    A novel microwave instrument has recently been designed by New Japan Radio Co. Ltd., to provide more homogeneous distribution of the rapidly deposited heat in the rodent brain. Being the first commercial unit which concentrates the maximum magnetic field component of irradiation, rather than the usual electric field, it provides complete enzymatic inactivation in a typical rat brain when a power of 9 kW (90% of maximum) is applied for 0.80 s at the standard operating frequency of 2450 MHz. Tissue structural integrity was investigated in animals sacrificed by this approach or by the usual decapitation to see if any tissue disruption or pressure-induced spreading, a major problem with other microwave devices, might also be of concern for this new unit. Histological examination of tissue samples employed both light and electron microscopy. Using Luxol Fast Blue in the light microscopy, the microwave irradiated tissues exhibited a decreased affinity for the staining agent, an appearance of slight vacuoles, and the disappearance of fine fibrils in the parenchyma. However, the interfacial areas between distinct brain regions remained well preserved. Electron microscopic observation indicated that microwave irradiated tissue caused protein denaturation accompanied by the aggregation of nuclear chromatin, the disappearance of Nissl bodies, ribosomes and neurofilaments, and noticeably irregular myelin sheaths. However, the essential structure of nerve cell membranes and synaptic membranes were maintained, and synaptic vesicles were clearly defined. These results indicated that the rapid heating of brain tissue with maximal magnetic field concentration of the irradiation does not result in significant tissue disruption, pressure-induced spreading or cell breakdown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  6. Modification of mortality and tumorigenesis by tocopherol-mono-glucoside (TMG) administered after X irradiation in mice and rats.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Megumi; Inano, Hiroshi; Onoda, Makoto; Murase, Hironobu; Ikota, Nobuo; Kagiya, Tsutomu V; Anzai, Kazunori

    2009-10-01

    The effects of TMG [2-(alpha-d-glucopyranosyl) methyl-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-6-ol], a water-soluble vitamin E derivative, administered after irradiation on the mortality of X-irradiated mice and on the development of tumors in the mammary and pituitary glands in rats were investigated. When TMG (650 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally (i.p.) to C3H mice immediately after whole-body exposure to 7 Gy radiation, the 30-day survival was significantly higher than that of the control mice. The i.p. administration of TMG at 4 h after irradiation significantly improved survival compared to that of the controls, but administration 8 h after irradiation did not have a significant effect. Subcutaneous administration of TMG immediately after irradiation also decreased mortality significantly. When dams of lactating Wister rats were exposed to 1.5 Gy of X rays at day 21 after parturition and were then treated with diethylstilbestrol as a tumor promoter, the incidence of mammary tumors and pituitary tumors was increased compared to that in the nonirradiated control group. The administration of TMG (600 mg/kg, i.p.) after irradiation significantly reduced the incidence of mammary tumors and pituitary tumors. The number of rats that were free of both mammary and pituitary gland tumors was enhanced fourfold by TMG. These results suggest that TMG is effective in preventing radiation-induced bone marrow death in mice and in reducing mammary and pituitary tumors in rats even when it is administered after irradiation.

  7. The influence of testosterone on the development of autoimmune thyroiditis in thymectomized and irradiated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ahmed, S A; Penhale, W J

    1982-01-01

    Orchidectomy was found to potentiate the development of autoimmune thyroiditis induced by thymectomy and irradiation (Tx-X) in male PVG/c strain rats. Conversely, testosterone administration to orchidectomized Tx-X rats markedly reduced or inhibited the development of this condition. When given in varying quantities by injection in oil over a period of 15 weeks the inhibitory effect on the development of both thyroiditis and thyroglobulin autoantibodies was found to be directly related to dose. Levels between 150 ng and 150 micrograms/100 gm body weight reduced the incidence and severity of the disease whilst levels of 500 micrograms and 5000 micrograms abrogated these autoimmune effects. Testosterone in implant form had a similar effect. Low doses of testosterone administered by either procedure were also found to be beneficial to entire female Tx-X rats. These results indicate that sex steroid hormones have an important modulatory influence on the genesis of autoimmune thyroiditis. Furthermore, it is also apparent in this particular model that this influence can be demonstrated in the absence of the thymus gland Images Fig. 2 PMID:7049452

  8. Suppressed histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells by ultraviolet B irradiation: decreased diacylglycerol formation as a possible mechanism

    SciTech Connect

    Danno, K.; Fujii, K.; Tachibana, T.; Toda, K.; Horio, T.

    1988-06-01

    This study was designed to investigate the effect of ultraviolet B (UVB) irradiation on mast cell functions. Purified mast cells obtained from rat peritoneal cavity were irradiated with UVB and subsequently exposed to a degranulator, compound 48/80, or the calcium ionophore A-23187. The amount of histamine released from mast cells measured by the enzyme isotopic assay was significantly decreased by UVB irradiation (100-400 mJ/cm2). Within this dose range, UVB alone was not cytotoxic to the cells because it did not induce histamine release. The suppression was observed when mast cells were subjected to degranulation without intervals after UVB irradiation, and even after 5 h postirradiation. The wavelength of 300 nm from a monochromatic light source showed the maximum effect. When mast cells prelabeled with (/sup 3/H)arachidonate were irradiated and challenged by compound 48/80, label accumulation in diacylglycerol produced by the phosphatidylinositol cycle was considerably decreased by UVB irradiation. From these results, we hypothesize that, within an adequate irradiation dose, UVB irradiation suppresses histamine release from mast cells, probably by causing noncytotoxic damage to the membrane phospholipid metabolism, which is tied to the degranulation mechanisms.

  9. [Change of catecholamine in serum and hippocampus of rats after electromagnetic irradiation and the selection of protective site].

    PubMed

    Yang, Xuesen; Suo, Yulan; Zhang, Guangbin; Yu, Zhengping

    2002-08-01

    To study the role of catecholamine(CA) in the mechanism of bio-effect of electromagnetic irradiation. The contents of norepinephrine (NE), epinephrine (E) and dopamine (DA) in serum and hippocampus of rats at 0, 8, 24, 48 hours after electromagnetic irradiation were measured by using high performance liquid chromatography with electrochemical detector(HPLC-ECD), and the influence of two kinds of shelter on CA was studied. The levels of CA in serum and hippocampus increased obviously in an instant, decreased at 8 h and increased significantly again at 24 h after irradiation without shielding irradiation. But at 48 h, the levels of NA, DA in hippocampus were still higher and the serum's NA, DA were not different from the control. After irradiation with whole body shielding, the levels of CA had no changes. The contents of CA increased significantly only at 24 h after irradiation by 65 W/cm2 electromagnetic wave with trunk shielding. After irradiation by 129 W/cm2 with trunk shielding, the change of CA were similar to that of no shielding. CA may take part in the injury to central nervous system and cardiovascular system after electromagnetic irradiation. And the injury to central nervous system may sustain longer than that of cardiovascular system. The protective effect of whole body shielding is the best, while trunk shielding may have some protective effect following lower and middle power electromagnetic wave. The most important protective measure is to shield the head.

  10. Steroid hormone production in testis, ovary, and adrenal gland of immature rats irradiated in utero with /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Inano, H.; Suzuki, K.; Ishii-Ohba, H.; Imada, Y.; Kumagai, R.; Kurihara, S.; Sato, A.

    1989-02-01

    Pregnant rats received whole-body irradiation at 20 days of gestation with 2.6 Gy lambda rays from a 60Co source. Endocrinological effects before maturation were studied using testes and adrenal glands obtained from male offspring and ovaries from female offspring irradiated in utero. Seminiferous tubules of the irradiated male offspring were remarkably atrophied with free germinal epithelium and containing only Sertoli cells. Female offspring also had atrophied ovaries. Testicular tissue obtained from intact and 60Co-irradiated rats was incubated with 14C-labeled pregnenolone, progesterone, 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone, and androstenedione as a substrate. Intermediates for androgen production and catabolic metabolites were isolated after the incubation. The amounts of these metabolites produced by the irradiated testes were low in comparison with the control. The activities of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase, 17 alpha-hydroxylase, C17,20-lyase, and delta 4-5 alpha-reductase in the irradiated testes were 30-40% of those in nonirradiated testes. Also, the activities of 17 beta- and 20 alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenases were 72 and 52% of the control, respectively. In adrenal glands, the 21-hydroxylase activity of the irradiated animals was 38% of the control, but the delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase activity was comparable to that of the control. On the other hand, the activity of delta 5-3 beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase of the irradiated ovary was only 19% of the control. These results suggest that 60Co irradiation of the fetus in utero markedly affects the production of steroid hormones in testes, ovaries, and adrenal glands after birth.

  11. Short Communication: Rheological properties of blood serum of rats after irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo.

    PubMed

    Abdelhalim, Mohamed Anwar K; Moussa, Sherif Aa; Ms, Al-Ayed

    2016-01-01

    The blood serum rheological properties open the door to find suitable radio-protectors and convenient therapy for many cases of radiation exposure. The present study aimed to investigate the rheological properties of rat blood serum at wide range of shear rates after whole body irradiation with different gamma radiation doses in vivo. Healthy male rats were divided into five groups; one control group and 4 irradiated groups. The irradiation process was carried out using Co60 source with dose rate of 0.883cG/sec. Several rheological parameters were measured using Brookfield LVDV-III Programmable rheometer. A significant increase in viscosity and shear stress was observed with 25 and 50Gy corresponding to each shear rate compared with the control; while a significant decrease observed with 75 and 100Gy. The viscosity exhibited a Non-Newtonian behaviour with the shear rate while shear stress values were linearly related with shear rate. The decrease in blood viscosity might be attributed to changes in molecular weight, pH sensitivity and protein structure. The changes in rheological properties of irradiated rats' blood serum might be attributed to destruction changes in the haematological and dimensional properties of rats' blood products.

  12. Reduction of food intake following X-ray irradiation of rats--involvement of visceral afferent nerves.

    PubMed

    Unno, Tatsuya; Hashimoto, Mitsuyasu; Arai, Shoichi; Kurosawa, Mieko

    2002-03-18

    Radiotherapy for malignant tumours often elicits anorexia or loss of appetite as an adverse effect. However, the mechanism for this is poorly understood. The present study was undertaken to investigate if visceral afferents are responsible for reduction of food intake following X-ray irradiation. Rats were exposed bilaterally to X-ray (10 MV) irradiation with total doses of 1.5, 3 and 6 Gy, using a high-energy electron linear accelerator at a dose rate of 4.9 Gy min(-1) X-ray irradiation of the whole body, abdomen or head with doses of 1.5, 3 and 6 Gy reduced food intake in a dose-dependent manner. The reduction of food intake after X-ray irradiation of the whole body or abdomen was significantly greater than when only the head was irradiated. Reduction of food intake was observed for the first 4 days after 6 Gy X-ray irradiation of the abdomen, while it was observed only on the first day after the same 6-Gy irradiation of the abdomen in animals whose small-diameter afferents were ablated by capsaicin pre-treatment. These results suggested that the abdominal afferent nerves at least contribute to the reduction of food intake observed on second to fourth days after 6-Gy abdominal irradiation. Taken together, the present evidence suggests that the reduction of food intake following X-ray irradiation of the whole body or the abdomen is partly mediated via abdominal afferent nerves. Moreover, the results of X-ray irradiation to the head suggest that X-ray irradiation directly influences the central nervous system to reduce food intake.

  13. Gamma irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of rats increases the proteinase activity associated with histones of thymus nuclei

    SciTech Connect

    Kutsyi, M.P.; Gaziev, A.I.

    1994-11-01

    An increase in the activity of histone-associated rat thymus nucleus proteinases specific for histones H2A, H2B and H1 was shown after {gamma} irradiation or hydrocortisone treatment of animals. Histone H1-specific proteinase activity is dependent on DNA and increases in the presence of denatured DNA, whereas proteinases specific for core histones are inhibited in the presence of denatured DNA. The increase in the activity of histone-associated proteinases depends on the radiation dose and the time after irradiation or hydrocortisone injection. In the presence of dithiothreitol and sodium dodecyl sulfate, these proteinases dissociate from histones. It was found by gel electrophoresis that several proteinases of various molecular masses are closely associated with histones obtained from thymus nuclei of irradiated or hydrocortisone-treated rats. 43 refs., 7 figs.

  14. Treatment Planning and Delivery of Whole Brain Irradiation with Hippocampal Avoidance in Rats.

    PubMed

    Cramer, C K; Yoon, S W; Reinsvold, M; Joo, K M; Norris, H; Hood, R C; Adamson, J D; Klein, R C; Kirsch, D G; Oldham, M

    2015-01-01

    Despite the clinical benefit of whole brain radiotherapy (WBRT), patients and physicians are concerned by the long-term impact on cognitive functioning. Many studies investigating the molecular and cellular impact of WBRT have used rodent models. However, there has not been a rodent protocol comparable to the recently reported Radiation Therapy Oncology Group (RTOG) protocol for WBRT with hippocampal avoidance (HA) which is intended to spare cognitive function. The aim of this study was to develop a hippocampal-sparing WBRT protocol in Wistar rats. The technical and clinical challenges encountered in hippocampal sparing during rat WBRT are substantial. Three key challenges were identified: hippocampal localization, treatment planning, and treatment localization. Hippocampal localization was achieved with sophisticated imaging techniques requiring deformable registration of a rat MRI atlas with a high resolution MRI followed by fusion via rigid registration to a CBCT. Treatment planning employed a Monte Carlo dose calculation in SmART-Plan and creation of 0.5 cm thick lead blocks custom-shaped to match DRR projections. Treatment localization necessitated the on-board image-guidance capability of the XRAD C225Cx micro-CT/micro-irradiator (Precision X-Ray). Treatment was accomplished with opposed lateral fields with 225 KVp X-rays at a current of 13 mA filtered through 0.3 mm of copper using a 40x40 mm square collimator and the lead blocks. A single fraction of 4 Gy was delivered (2 Gy per lateral field) with a 41 second beam on time per field at a dose rate of 304.5 cGy/min. Dosimetric verification of hippocampal sparing was performed using radiochromic film. In vivo verification of HA was performed after delivery of a single 4 Gy fraction either with or without HA using γ-H2Ax staining of tissue sections from the brain to quantify the amount of DNA damage in rats treated with HA, WBRT, or sham-irradiated (negative controls). The mean dose delivered to radiochromic

  15. Interaction of cadmium chloride and gamma irradiation on blood parameters of the young adult rat.

    PubMed

    Morgan, R M; Kundomal, Y R; Hupp, E W

    1984-12-01

    Two hundred and sixteen male Sprague-Dawley (S-D) rats, 80 +/- 5 days old and weighing 220-250 g each, were assigned at random to nine groups of 24 rats each. Rats were injected with cadmium (Cd) intraperitoneally every 3 days for 29 days for a total of nine injections. Injections doses were 0, 1.0, or 2.5 mg Cd kg-1 body wt. Twenty-four hours after the last Cd injection (Day 30), each rat received an acute whole-body 60Co gamma radiation dose of 0, 3.62, or 5.43 Gray (Gy) at a dose rate of 33.04 Gy min-1. The irradiated groups exhibited significant decreases in the total number of white blood cells (WBCs) and the percentage of lymphocytes. Significant increases were seen in the percentage of polyneutrophils, serum triacylglycerols (TG), serum iron, and serum lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). Cd-treated groups had increased total WBCs, percentage of polyneutrophils, and serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (SGOT). Significant decreases were observed in the percentage of lymphocytes, hemoglobin, total number of red blood cells (RBCs), and hematocrit. In the co-insult, significant decreases were seen in the total number of WBCs and RBCs, the percentage of lymphocytes, hemoglobin, and hematocrit. Significant increases were observed in the percentage of polyneutrophils and serum iron. In general, Cd acted as a debilitator which enhanced the overall effect of ionizing radiation when applied as the second insult. On the other hand, Cd also provided protection against radiation; that is, some parameters such as total WBCs, serum TG, serum iron, and serum LDH were not as adversely affected by the co-insult as when radiation only was used. The mechanism of this Cd anomaly is not known.

  16. Pre-exposure to low-power diode laser irradiation promotes cytoprotection in the rat retina.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yue; Zhang, Shisheng; Liao, Huaping; Wang, Jing; Wang, Ling

    2015-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether pre-exposure to low-power laser irradiation can provoke an effect on cellular protection in the rat retina. The right eyes of 40 rats were exposed to a 3-mm diode laser beam for 1 min in different light intensities and different experimental sets: group A low power of 60 mW (34.27 J/cm(2) on the retina in consideration of the energy losses along the optical pathway) prior to high power of 80 mW (44.88 J/cm(2) on the retina in consideration of the energy losses along the optical pathway), group B high power, group C low power, group D (the left eyes from the counterpart of group A) and group E (untreated rat eyes) as controls. Morphological retinal change retinas were assessed using light microscopy and/or transmission electron microscopy. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 70 and cleaved caspase 3 protein expression were analyzed by immunohistochemical staining and Western blot. Cellular injury was assessed by terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end-labeling (TUNEL) assay. Hsp 70 expression in the inner plexiform layer and the outer plexiform layer in group A were 73.09 ± 6.49 and 78.03 ± 3.05%, respectively, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than those observed in group B (59.07 ± 1.40 and 32.25 ± 4.26%, respectively). The Hsp70/β-actin ratio was 0.49 ± 0.06 in group C, which was significantly higher (P < 0.05) than that of group B (0.27 ± 0.04). Cleaved caspase 3 expression in group C both was significantly lower than that observed in group B. TUNEL staining showed that positive cells in the outer nuclear layer and inner nuclear layer in group A were significantly lower than those of group B. Pre-exposure to a 60-mW (34.27 J/cm(2) on the retina) power laser irradiation stimulates a hyperexpression of Hsp70 together with a hypoexpression of cleaved caspase 3 in rat retina, which may suggest a cellular protective effect.

  17. Changes in miRNA in the lung and whole blood after whole thorax irradiation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Feng; Liu, Pengyuan; Narayanan, Jayashree; Yang, Meiying; Fish, Brian L.; Liu, Yong; Liang, Mingyu; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Medhora, Meetha

    2017-01-01

    We used a rat model of whole thorax x-ray irradiation to profile the microRNA (miRNA) in lung and blood up to 4 weeks after radiation. MiRNA from normal and irradiated Wistar rat lungs and whole blood were analyzed by next-generation sequencing and the changes by radiation were identified by differential deRNA-seq 1, 2, 3 and 4 weeks after irradiation. The average total reads/library was 2,703,137 with a mean of 88% mapping to the rat genome. Detailed profiles of 100 of the most abundant miRNA in rat blood and lung are described. We identified upregulation of 4 miRNA, miR-144-5p, miR-144-3p, miR-142-5p and miR-19a-3p in rat blood 2 weeks after radiation that have not previously been shown to be altered after radiation to the lung. Ingenuity Pathway Analysis identified signaling of inflammatory response pathways. These findings will support development of early detection methods, as well as mechanism(s) of injury and mitigation in patients after radiotherapy or radiological accidents. PMID:28303893

  18. Possible ameliorative effects of kolaviron against reproductive toxicity in sub-lethally whole body gamma-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Adaramoye, Oluwatosin A; Adedara, Isaac A; Farombi, E Olatunde

    2012-05-01

    Ionizing radiation is one of the environmental factors that may contribute to reproductive dysfunction by a mechanism involving oxidative stress. We investigated the possible ameliorative effects of kolaviron (KV) (a biflavonoid from the seeds of Garcinia kola) on sperm characteristics, testicular lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant status after a whole body γ-irradiation in Wistar rats. Vitamin C (VC) served as standard antioxidant in this study. The study consists of four groups of 6 rats each. Group I received corn oil, whereas group II received a single dose of γ-radiation (5 Gy). The animals in groups III and IV were pretreated with KV (250 mg/kg) and VC (250 mg/kg) by oral gavage five times in a week, respectively, for 6 weeks prior to and 8 weeks after exposure to γ-radiation. Gamma-irradiation resulted in a significant (p<0.05) decrease in body weight and relative testes weight. Also, γ-irradiation significantly (p<0.05) decreased the activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione S-transferase as well as glutathione level, but markedly elevated malondialdehyde levels in the serum and testes. Irradiated rats showed testicular degeneration with concomitant decrease in sperm motility and viability. Although sperm abnormalities significantly increased, it has no effect on the epididymal sperm count. KV and VC significantly (p<0.05) decreased the body weight loss and increased relative testes weights of the rats. Furthermore, supplementation of KV and VC ameliorated radiation-induced toxicity by increasing the activities of antioxidant enzymes, decreased LPO and abrogated testicular degeneration. Taken together, γ-irradiation caused reproductive dysfunction by depleting the antioxidant defence system in the rats, while administration of KV or VC ameliorated the radiation-induced testicular toxicity.

  19. Comparative effects of X irradiation on the testes of adult Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Delic, J I; Schlappack, O K; Harwood, J R; Stanley, J A

    1987-10-01

    The response of the testes of two strains of adult rats (Sprague-Dawley and Wistar) to graded single doses and split doses of 230 kVp X rays has been investigated. A marked difference was noted between the strains in the response of the clonogenic spermatogonia to irradiation, as measured histologically by the repopulation index. Single-dose response curves derived for these cells in the Sprague-Dawley strain had a much larger shoulder (up to about 4-5 Gy) than for the Wistar (less than 2 Gy). Split-dose studies revealed that this difference may partly be explained by a greater repair capacity in the cells of the Sprague-Dawley strain. Changes in serum FSH concentrations mirrored the changes in clonogenic spermatogonial survival following split doses of radiation.

  20. Evaluation of low level laser therapy irradiation parameters on rat muscle inflammation through systemic blood cytokines

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mantineo, Matias; Pinheiro, João. P.; Morgado, António M.

    2014-02-01

    Low level laser therapy (LLLT) has been used for inflammation treatment. Here, we evaluate the effect of different doses, using continuous (830 and 980 nm) and pulsed illumination (830 nm), in the treatment of inflammation induced in the gastrocnemius muscle of Wistar rats, through cytokines concentration in systemic blood and histological analysis of muscle tissue. Animals were randomly divided into five groups per wavelength (5 animals per group: 10, 20, 30, 40 and 50 mW) plus a control group. LLLT was applied during five days, with constant exposure time and irradiated area (3 minutes; 0.5026 cm2). Blood was collected on days 0, 3 and 6. TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-2 and IL-6 cytokines were quantified by ELISA. Rats were killed on day 6. Muscle inflammatory cells were counted using optical microscopy. Treatment effects occurred for all applied doses (largest effect at 40 mW: 7.2 J, 14 J/cm2 per irradiation), with reduction of proinflammatory TNF-α, IL-1β and IL-6 cytokines and lower number of inflammatory cells. Results were better for 830 nm. Identical methodology was used with pulsed illumination. Average power (40 mW) and duty cycle were kept constant (80%) at five frequencies (5, 25, 50, 100 and 200 Hz). Treatment effects were observed at higher frequencies, with no significant differences between them. However, the treatment effect was lower than for continuous illumination. LLLT effect on inflammation treatment can be monitored by measuring systemic blood cytokines. A larger treatment effect was observed with continuous illumination, where results seem to be compatible with a biphasic dose response.

  1. The influence of antiorthostatic unloading and long gamma-irradiation on rat bone marrow (MSCs)

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Roe, Maria; Bobyleva, Polina; Shtemberg, Andrey; Buravkova, Ludmila

    With the prospect of long interplanetary spaceflight becoming a real possibility there are some important questions that need to be answered regarding the combined effects of microgravity and long gamma-irradiation.The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of synchronous antiorthostatic unloading and fractional gamma-irradiation on the functional characteristics of rat bone marrow multipotent stromal cells (MSCs).This experiment was carried out following all rules laid out by the Commission on Bioethics at the SSC RF - IBMP RAS. In this experiment the Wistar rats were kept in an unloaded position for a duration of 30 days. They were also subjected to 6 doses of gamma-radiation on the “GOBO-60” with a source of (137) Cs. The dose rate set to 1 meter 50 sGr / H (Total dose of 3 Gr).The study revealed a significant reduction in the number of colonies (CFU-F) in all cultures from the experimental groups when compared to the control groups. The most significant reduction was observed in the group, which had been subject to combined unloading, and radiation. This result was confirmed by examination of cell cultures during 10 days of growth.We found that the CD45 expression was increased in the groups exposed to radiation. At the same time a reduction in the expression of CD90 was observed during combination of radiation and unloading we found.The experimental groups also differed from the control group showing smaller lipid inclusions and decreased expression of alkaline phosphates in the MSCs. This experiment concluded that the bone marrow MSCs after a combination of unloading and multiple radiation sessions, showed a decrease in proliferation and differentiation potential which could reduce the adaption and reparative capacity of the organism.

  2. Effect of low-level prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal development in the Wistar rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1987-03-01

    The objective of this investigation was to determine the effect of low-dose prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal growth and neurobehavioral development, and whether alterations would manifest at dosages lower than those which produce anatomic malformations from exposure at the most sensitive period of organogenesis. Ninety-eight Wistar strain rats were exposed to 0.1, 0.2, or 0.4 Gy X-radiation of were sham irradiated on the 9th or 17th day of gestation. A conventional teratologic evaluation was completed on half of the animals (572 fetuses). The age of appearance of four physiologic markers and of acquisition of six reflexes was observed in 372 offspring. Exposure during early organogenesis at these levels had no effect on any of these parameters. Prenatal exposure to X-radiation on the 17th day of gestation at dosage levels greater than 0.1 Gy resulted in alterations in the appearance of three postnatal neurophysiologic parameters. Growth retardation throughout the postpartum period also was observed in the offspring. The induction of developmental and reflex alterations had a comparable threshold to the known threshold for anatomic malformations on the 9th day. These results indicate that all of the parameters studied had thresholds either at or above 0.2 Gy acute radiation, and that the postpartum developmental and reflex acquisition measures were not more sensitive indicators of exposure to X-radiation than growth parameters.

  3. Estimates of genetic parameters of body weight in descendants of X-irradiated rat spermatogonia.

    PubMed

    Gianola, D; Chapman, A B; Rutledge, J J

    1977-08-01

    Effects of nine generations of 450r per generation of ancestral spermatogonial X irradiation of inbred rats on genetic parameters of body weight at 3, 6, and 10 weeks of age and of weight gains between these periods were studied. Covariances among relatives were estimated by mixed model and regression techniques in randomly selected lines with (R) and without (C) radiation history. Analyses of the data were based on five linear genetic models combining additive direct, additive indirect (maternal), dominance and environmental effects. Parameters in these models were estimated by generalized least-squares. A model including direct and indirect genetic effects fit more closely to the data in both R and C lines. Overdominance of induced mutations did not seem to be present. Ancestral irradiation increased maternal additive genetic variances of body weights and gains but not direct genetic variances. Theoretically, due to a negative direct-maternal genetic correlation, within full-sib family selection would be ineffective in increasing body weight at six weeks in both R and C lines. However, progress from mass selection would be expected to be faster in the R lines.

  4. Low energy scatter due to in-situ irradiation of solid tumors in laboratory rats

    SciTech Connect

    Ritenour, E.R. Jr.

    1980-01-01

    A study of the pattern of scattered radiation in laboratory rat cadavers during irradiation of solid tumors on the animals' flanks was performed. The animals were wrapped in a lead shield having a circular cutout through which the tumor protruded. Irradiations were performed with a 250 kVp 15ma X-ray machine with a measured half value layer of 1.39 mmCu. Lead shielding was of sufficient thickness to attenuate essentially all of the beam. The absorbed dose measured in the animal was then due to internal scatter from the tumor. Arrays of thermoluminescent dosimeters (TLDs) were placed beneath the skin of 17 animals bearing a solid tumor (hepatoma H-4-II-E). Absorbed dose was seen to vary isotropically, decreasing as the inverse distance squared from the tumor. Analysis of experimental error played a major role in this study. A pilot study resulted in standard errors that were 35% of the mean absorbed dose measurements. A careful reassessment of methods of manipulating the animals and the dosimetry system resulted in a reduction in standard error to 14% of the mean for small groups (less than 10 animals).

  5. The influence of red laser irradiation timeline on burn healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Núñez, Silvia Cristina; França, Cristiane Miranda; Silva, Daniela Fátima Teixeira; Nogueira, Gessé Eduardo Calvo; Prates, Renato Araujo; Ribeiro, Martha Simões

    2013-02-01

    Low-level laser therapy (LLLT) promotes biomodulation of wound healing and literature reports that light delivery during the inflammation could play a different role compared with latter phases of the healing process. The objective of this study was to investigate whether single dose of a red laser (λ = 660 nm) is different from fractionated delivery protocol in full thickness burns. Two lesions were inflicted on the back of 36 rats. In the fractionated dose group (FG), the lesions were irradiated with 1 J/cm² on days 1, 3, 8, and 10 post-wounding. In the single dose group (SG), the lesions were irradiated with 4 J/cm² on day 1, immediately after injury. Control lesions (CG) received no light and were left to heal spontaneously. Blood flow was measured on days 1, 3, 8, 10, 15, and 21 using laser Doppler flowmetry. Animals were killed on days 3, 8, 10, 15, and 21. Skin specimens were obtained and routinely processed for hematoxylin and eosin. The specimens were evaluated according to differential leukocyte counting and angiogenesis. Statistical analysis was performed, and significance was accepted at p < 0.05. Irradiated groups showed a peak of new vessels on day 15 while, for CG, the peak was on day 21. On day 21, FG exhibited a significantly greater number of cumulative neutrophils while SG showed a higher number of mononuclear cells. Our results confirm that both protocols used accelerate angiogenesis and stimulate leukocyte chemotaxis on burn treatment. In addition, this work suggests that a single-dose LLLT accelerates the inflammatory phase of skin repair.

  6. Cellular regulation of basal and FSH-stimulated cyclic AMP production in irradiated rat testes

    SciTech Connect

    Kangasniemi, M.; Kaipia, A.; Toppari, J.; Mali, P.; Huhtaniemi, I.; Parvinen, M. )

    1990-05-01

    Basal and follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)-stimulated cyclic AMP (cAMP) productions by seminiferous tubular segments from irradiated adult rats were investigated at defined stages of the epithelial cycle when specific spermatogenic cells were low in number. Seven days post-irradiation, depletion of spermatogonia did not influence the basal cAMP production, but FSH response increased in stages II-VIII. Seventeen days post-irradiation when spermatocytes were low in number, there was a small increase in basal cAMP level in stages VII-VIII and FSH-stimulated cAMP production increased in stages VII-XII and XIII-I. At 38 days when pachytene spermatocytes and round spermatids (steps 1-6) were low in number, a decreased basal cAMP production was measured in stages II-VI and IX-XII. FSH-stimulated cAMP output increased in stages VII-XII but decreased in stages II-VI. At 52 days when all spermatids were low in number, basal cAMP levels decreased in all stages of the cycle, whereas FSH response was elevated only in stages VII-XII. All spermatogenic cell types seem to have an effect on cAMP production by the seminiferous tubule in a stage-specific fashion. Germ cells appear to regulate Sertoli cell FSH response in a paracrine way, and a part of cAMP may originate from spermatids stimulated by an unknown FSH-dependent Sertoli cell factor. The FSH-dependent functions may control such phenomena as spermatogonial proliferation, final maturation of spermatids, and onset of meiosis.

  7. Effects of irradiation and semistarvation on rat thyrotropin beta subunit messenger ribonucleic acid, pituitary thyrotropin content, and thyroid hormone levels

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, R.Z. ); Carr, F.E. ); Fein, H.G.; Smallridge, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    The effect of radiation-induced anorexia on serum thyrotropin (TSH), pituitary TSH-{beta} mRNA, pituitary TSH content, serum thyroxine (T{sub 4}), and serum 3,5,3{prime}-triiodothyronine (T{sub 3}) was investigated using feed-matched controls. Rats received 10 Gy gamma whole-body irradiation and were examined 1-3 days postirradiation. Feed-matched and untreated controls were also studied. The average food intake of the irradiated and feed-matched groups was approximately 18% of the untreated controls. Over the three day period both the irradiated and feed-matched groups lost a significant amount of body weight. The serum T{sub 4} levels of both the irradiated and feed-matched groups were not significantly different from each other, but were significantly depressed when compared to the untreated control group. The serum TSH and T{sub 3} were, however, significantly greater in the irradiated than the feed-matched groups at day 3 posttreatment. To determine if the difference in the serum TSH level between the two groups was due to a pretranslational alteration in TSH production, we measured the TSH-{beta} mRNA using an RNA blot hybridization assay. We found that the TSH-{beta} mRNA level was the same in the irradiated and feed-matched groups, suggesting that the mechanism responsible for the radiation-induced increase in the serum TSH level is posttranscriptional. Pituitary TSH content in the irradiated rats was significantly less than in pair-fed controls, suggesting that irradiation may permit enhanced secretion of stored hormone.

  8. Reduction of interleukin-6 expression in human synoviocytes and rheumatoid arthritis rat joints by linear polarized near infrared light (Superlizer) irradiation.

    PubMed

    Araki, Hidefumi; Imaoka, Asayo; Kuboyama, Noboru; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2011-01-01

    Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disorder that involves inflammation and pain of joints. Low-level laser irradiation is being evaluated for treating RA, however, the effectiveness of linear polarized near infrared light (SuperLizer; SL) irradiation is unclear. It has been reported that interleukin 6 (IL-6) plays a key role in the progression of RA. In our previous study, using DNA microarray analysis, we examined the gene expression profiling of human rheumatoid fibroblast-like synoviocyte MH7A in response to IL-1ß administration and SL irradiation. As a result, IL-6 was listed in altered gene as increased by IL-1ß and decreased by SL irradiation. The reduction of IL-6 gene expression in MH7A by SL irradiation was confirmed by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and real-time PCR. Effect of SL irradiation on the RA inflammation in the collagen induced arthritis (CIA) rats was also studied by measuring temperature. IL-6 production in knee joint of rats was analyzed by immunohisto-chemistry. Scatter plot analysis demonstrated that an increase in IL-6 gene expression by IL-1ß was reduced by SL irradiation. The reduction of IL-6 mRNA level by SL irradiation was successfully confirmed by RT-PCR and real-time PCR. SL irradiation treated CIA rat decreased the temperature of knee joints. The immunohistochemical analysis demonstrated a strong IL-6 staining in synovial membrane tissue of CIA rat joint, and SL irradiation significantly reduced the staining. Since IL-6 has been identified to be an important proinflarnmatory cytokine in the pathogenesis of RA, the reduction of IL-6 expression is one of mechanisms in reduction of inflammation in RA joints by SL irradiation suggesting that SL irradiation may be useful for RA therapy. SL irradiation reduced IL-6 gene expression in MH7A, and reduced inflammation and IL-6 protein expression in knee joint of CIA rats.

  9. Increased CD147 and MMP-9 expression in the normal rat brain after gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Li, Hong; Wei, Ming; Li, Shenghui; Zhou, Ziwei; Xu, Desheng

    2013-01-01

    Radiation-induced vascular injury is a major complication of Gamma knife surgery (GKS). Previous studies have shown that CD147 and MMP-9 are closely associated with vascular remodeling and pathological angiogenesis. Thus, we analysed changes in CD147 and MMP-9 expression in the cerebral cortex to investigate the correlation between CD147 and MMP-9 in the rat following GKS. Adult male Wistar rats were subjected to GKS at a maximum dose of 75 Gy and then euthanized 1 to 12 weeks later. Using immunohistochemistry and western blot analysis, we found that CD147 and MMP-9 expression were markedly upregulated in the target area 8-12 weeks after GKS when compared with the control group. Immunofluorescent double staining demonstrated that CD147 signals colocalized with CD31, GFAP and MMP-9-positive cells. Importantly, CD147 levels correlated with increased MMP-9 expression in irradiated brain tissue. For the first time, these data demonstrate a potential relationship between CD147 and MMP-9 following GKS. In addition, our study also suggests that CD147 and MMP-9 may play a role in vascular injury after GKS.

  10. Anticarcinogenic effect of tetrachlorodecaoxide after total-body gamma irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kempf, S.R.; Port, R.E.; Ivankovic, S.

    1994-08-01

    Tetrachlorodecaoxygen (TCDO) therapy of acute radiation syndrome was tested for a possible influence on the development of X-ray-induced malignancies. BD IX rats were exposed to total-body irradiation (TBI, {gamma} rays, 9 or 11 Gy) and received daily intravenous injections of either TCDO or physiological saline solution from days 4 through 11 after TBI. The short-term TCDO therapy reduced the acute death rate markedly, but survival rates after 4 months were similar with and without TCDO. The first malignancy after TBI occurred on day 103, and over the lifetime of the animals the tumor incidence in the group given TBI (11 Gy) without TCDO treatment was 73% vs 20% in animals with short-term TCDO therapy after TBI. In particular, there was a highly significant prevention of radiation-induced leukemia [P (one-sided) < 0.001] by TCDO, and a significantly reduced incidence of malignant epithelial tumors [P (one-sided) < 0.05]. The development of sarcomas was not affected by TCDO. Long-term survival was not enhanced by TCDO due to the occurrence of bronchopneumonial infections about 1 year after TBI. In conclusion, TCDO is not only a potent therapeutic agent in acute radiation syndrome, but it also significantly reduced the carcinogenic risk in rats after exposure to ionizing radiation. 18 refs., 3 figs., 4 tabs.

  11. Radiation effects on rat testes. VIII. Kinetic properties of hydrolases following partial body gamma irradiation of rats.

    PubMed

    Gupta, G S; Bawa, S R

    1975-05-01

    Kinetic properties such as Michaelis constant (Km), maximum velocity (Vmax), temperature coefficient (Q10) and energy of activation (Ea) for hydrolysis of adenosine-5'-phosphate at pH 9.5 and sodium pyrophosphate at pH 8.35 by normal and radiated testes supernatants have been described. Kinetic parameters are related to respective phosphohydrolases (phosphatases). (1) Km values for 5'nucleotidase and inorganic pyrophosphatase of normal testis were determined as 1.25 X 10(-3)M and 0.81 X 10(-3)M respectively; (II) Vmax correspond to 318 mug P/15 min and 430 mug P/15 min for 100 mg tissue respectively; (III) Q10 for 5 nucleotidase is 1.7 and for inorganic pyrophosphatase is 4.2 at a temperature 10-30degreesC; (IV) Ea for hydrolysis of AMP and sodium pyrophosphate were calculated by Arrhenius plots as 17000 and 9000 cal/mol. (V) Km values for irradiated enzymes are similar to the control values suggesting that the binding capacities of these enzymes with their substrates remain unaffected after radiation; (VI) Vmax for radiated enzymes correspond to a value of 500 mug P/100 mg tissue/15 min for 5'nucleotidase and 118 mug P/100 mug tissue/15 min for inorganic pyrophosphatase; (VII) 110 for 5'nucleotidase is 2.2 and inorganic pyrophosphatase 1.16 at 10-30degreesC; (VIII) Ea for irradiated 5'nucleotidase is comparable to those of normal rats whereas for inorganic pyrophosphatase Ea is moderately declined. The observed changes have been related to the different types of metabolic activity in germinal and nongerminal cells of testes.

  12. Anti-tumor response induced by immunologically modified carbon nanotubes and laser irradiation using rat mammary tumor model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Acquaviva, Joseph T.; Hasanjee, Aamr M.; Bahavar, Cody F.; Zhou, Fefian; Liu, Hong; Howard, Eric W.; Bullen, Liz C.; Silvy, Ricardo P.; Chen, Wei R.

    2015-03-01

    Laser immunotherapy (LIT) is being developed as a treatment modality for metastatic cancer which can destroy primary tumors and induce effective systemic anti-tumor responses by using a targeted treatment approach in conjunction with the use of a novel immunoadjuvant, glycated chitosan (GC). In this study, Non-invasive Laser Immunotherapy (NLIT) was used as the primary treatment mode. We incorporated single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) into the treatment regimen to boost the tumor-killing effect of LIT. SWNTs and GC were conjugated to create a completely novel, immunologically modified carbon nanotube (SWNT-GC). To determine the efficacy of different laser irradiation durations, 5 minutes or 10 minutes, a series of experiments were performed. Rats were inoculated with DMBA-4 cancer cells, a highly aggressive metastatic cancer cell line. Half of the treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 10 minutes survived without primary or metastatic tumors. The treatment group of rats receiving laser irradiation for 5 minutes had no survivors. Thus, Laser+SWNT-GC treatment with 10 minutes of laser irradiation proved to be effective at reducing tumor size and inducing long-term anti-tumor immunity.

  13. Gross morphometric reduction of rats' cerebellum by gamma irradiation was mitigated by pretreatment with Vernonia amygdalina leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Owoeye, O; Farombi, E O; Onwuka, S K

    2011-01-01

    The methanolic extract of Vernonia amygdalina (M) or "bitter leaf" is known for its antioxidant activity, and antioxidants are noted to mitigate radiation damage in tissues. The aim of the present study was to observe the radioprotective effect of M on the cerebellum of gamma irradiated rats using alpha-tocopherol (TOCO) as a reference antioxidant. Forty-two male Wistar rats (n=42) weighing 200-240 g were taken for the study. The study comprised of seven groups, with each group comprising of six (n=6) rats i.e. control, M at 250, and 500 mg/kg/day, radiation only, radiation plus M at 250, and 500 mg/kg/day, and TOCO. After 14 days of treatment administered via oral gavage, rats were irradiated with a single dose of 2.0 Gy of gamma rays on the 15-th day and euthanized the next day. Rats cerebella were removed, fixed in 10% formalin saline, weighed and vernier caliper used to obtain cerebellar dimensions as follows: (i) maximum width, (ii) rostrocaudal dimension, and (iii) dorsoventral extent. Data were analyzed using ANOVA with post-test. Gamma radiation caused a statistically significant reduction of the relative weight of the rats' whole brain, relative weight of the cerebellum, the maximum width, rostrocaudal dimension, and dorsoventral extent of the cerebellum. However, pretreatment with M and TOCO significantly mitigated these effects. This study demonstrated that administration of M and TOCO before 2.0 Gy gamma irradiation reduced significantly the radiation induced gross morphometry changes in rats' cerebellum, suggesting that M may qualify for consideration as a medicinal radioprotector.

  14. Inability of donor total body irradiation to prolong survival of vascularized bone allografts: Experimental study in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-07-01

    At the present time, the toxic side effects of recipient immunosuppression cannot be justified for human non-vital organ transplantation. Total body irradiation has proven effective in ablating various bone-marrow-derived and endothelial immunocompetent cellular populations, which are responsible for immune rejection against donor tissues. Irradiation at a dose of 10 Gy was given to donor rats six days prior to heterotopic transplantation of vascularized bone allografts to host animals. Another group of recipient rats also received a short-term (sixth to fourteenth day after grafting), low dose of cyclosporine. Total body irradiation was able merely to delay rejection of grafts across a strong histocompatibility barrier for one to two weeks, when compared to nonirradiated allografts. The combination of donor irradiation plus cyclosporine did not delay the immune response, and the rejection score was similar to that observed for control allografts. Consequently, allograft viability was quickly impaired, leading to irreversible bone damage. This study suggest that 10 Gy of donor total body irradiation delivered six days prior to grafting cannot circumvent the immune rejection in a vascularized allograft of bone across a strong histocompatibility barrier.

  15. Increases in circulating megakaryocyte growth-promoting activity in the plasma of rats following whole body irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Miura, M.; Jackson, C.W.; Lyles, S.A.

    1984-05-01

    To gain insight into the regulation of megakaryocyte precursors in vivo, we assayed (in vitro) megakaryocyte growth-promoting activity (Meg-GPA) in plasma of rats in which both marrow hypoplasia and thrombocytopenia had been induced by irradiation. Rats received whole body irradiation of 834 rad from a /sup 137/Cs source. Plasma was collected at intervals of hours to days, up through day 21 postirradiation, and was tested, at a concentration of 30%, for Meg-GPA on bone marrow cells cultured in 1.1% methylcellulose with 5 X 10(-5) M 2-mercaptoethanol. With normal rat plasma, no megakaryocyte colonies (defined as greater than or equal to 4 megakaryocytes) were seen and only a few single megakaryocytes and clusters (defined as 2 or 3 megakaryocytes) were formed. Two peaks of plasma Meg-GPA were observed after irradiation. The first appeared at 12 hr, before any decrease in marrow megakaryocyte concentration or platelet count. The second occurred on days 10-14 after irradiation, after the nadir in megakaryocyte concentration and while platelet counts were at their lowest levels. A dose-response study of plasma concentration and megakaryocyte growth, using plasma collected 11 days postirradiation, demonstrated that patterns of megakaryocyte growth were related to plasma concentration; formation of single megakaryocytes was optimal over a range of 20%-30% plasma concentration, while cluster and colony formation were optimal at a plasma concentration of 30%. All forms of megakaryocyte growth were decreased with 40% plasma. There was a linear relationship between the number of bone marrow cells plated and growth of single cells, clusters, and colonies using a concentration of 30% plasma collected 11 days after irradiation. We conclude that irradiation causes time-related increases in circulating megakaryocyte growth-promoting activity.

  16. Evaluating SPP/APR Improvement Activities

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    National Early Childhood Technical Assistance Center (NECTAC), 2009

    2009-01-01

    This document is intended to assist State Education Agency (SEA) and Lead Agency (LA) staff and technical assistance providers in designing a meaningful evaluation for the State Performance Plan (SPP)/Annual Performance Report (APR) improvement activities. It provides: (1) information about the relevance of evaluation in the context of improvement…

  17. The effect of. gamma. irradiation and cystamine on superoxide dismutase activity in the bone marrow and erythocytes of rats. [/sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Krizala, J.; Stoklasova, A.; Kovarova, H.; Ledvina, M.

    1982-09-01

    The effect of a single dose of cystamine (50 mg/kg body wt; ip) on superoxide dismutase activity (E.C. 1.15.1.1; SOD) was studied in the cytosol fraction of bone marrow cells and erythrocytes of peripheral blood. The experiments were carried out on irradiated (8.0 Gy /sup 60/Co) and nonirradiated male Wistar rats. Whole-body irradiation caused a decrease in the specific activity of superoxide dismutase in the bone marrow which persisted for more than 14 days, whereas an increased activity occurred in erythrocytes at the same intervals. Cystamine administration to rats prior to irradiation led to decreased SOD activity in the bone marrow that was less pronounced than in the nonprotected, irradiated animals. In erythrocytes, treatment with cystamine prior to irradiation considerably increased SOD activity (especially on Day 14); this increase was much more pronounced than that after either cystamine administration or irradiation. The administration of cystamine to nonirradiated animals led to a decrease in SOD activity in the bone marrow on the third day only; however, in erythrocytes the activity increased (mostly on Day 14). Irradiation of the bone marrow was reflected in a substantial decrease of its cellularity that was, to a certain extent, normalized after cystamine treatment. The SOD activity per bone marrow cell (expressed in U/10/sup 6/ cells) was increased in the protected rats on the third day after irradiation, but this increase was not as pronounced as in nonprotected, irradiated rats.

  18. Fermentation enhances Ginkgo biloba protective role on gamma-irradiation induced neuroinflammatory gene expression and stress hormones in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; El-Sonbaty, Sawsan M

    2016-05-01

    Ionizing radiation has attracted a lot of attention due to its beneficial and possible harmful effects to the human population. The brain displays numerous biochemical and functional alterations after exposure to irradiation, which induces oxidative-stress through generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS). The present study evaluated the neuro-protective role of fermented Ginkgo biloba (FGb) leaf extract, compared to non-fermented G. biloba (Gb) leaf extract against γ-irradiation (6Gy) in the rats' brain. The changes of the Gb phytochemical constituents after fermentation, using Aspergillus niger were evaluated by Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry. The results showed a significant decrease in superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities and elevation of the calcium level in the brain cytosolic fraction of γ-irradiated rats. Further, significant increases in the malondialdehyde (MDA), the stress hormones (catecholamines); epinephrine (EN), norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels and the interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) gene expression relative ratio in parallel with a significant decrease in the glutathione (GSH) content and DNA fragmentation in the brain tissues of the γ-irradiated rats were observed. The pre-treatment with Gb extract significantly amended these biochemical parameters. Meanwhile, the pre-treatment with the FGb showed more improvement, compared to Gb, of these biochemical parameters in the brain of γ-irradiated rats, which could be attributed to the enhancement of its antioxidant activity after fermentation. These findings suggested that fermentation enhances the protective effect of Gb in the brain on the neuroinflammation, release of the stress hormones, apoptosis and oxidative damage induced by γ-irradiation. fermentation improved the bio-activities of Gb leaf extract and thus enhanced the in-vivo antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities, leading to

  19. Low-level (gallium-aluminum-arsenide) laser irradiation of Par-C10 cells and acinar cells of rat parotid gland.

    PubMed

    Onizawa, Katsuhiro; Muramatsu, Takashi; Matsuki, Miwako; Ohta, Kazumasa; Matsuzaka, Kenichi; Oda, Yutaka; Shimono, Masaki

    2009-03-01

    We investigated cell response, including cell proliferation and expression of heat stress protein and bcl-2, to clarify the influence of low-level [gallium-aluminum-arsenide (Ga-Al-As) diode] laser irradiation on Par-C10 cells derived from the acinar cells of rat parotid glands. Furthermore, we also investigated amylase release and cell death from irradiation in acinar cells from rat parotid glands. The number of Par-C10 cells in the laser-irradiated groups was higher than that in the non-irradiated group at days 5 and 7, and the difference was statistically significant (P < 0.01). Greater expression of heat shock protein (HSP)25 and bcl-2 was seen on days 1 and 3 in the irradiated group. Assay of the released amylase showed no significant difference statistically between the irradiated group and the non-irradiated group. Trypan blue exclusion assay revealed that there was no difference in the ratio of dead to live cells between the irradiated and the non-irradiated groups. These results suggest that low-level laser irradiation promotes cell proliferation and expression of anti-apoptosis proteins in Par-C10 cells, but it does not significantly affect amylase secretion and does not induce rapid cell death in isolated acinar cells from rat parotid glands.

  20. Characterization of AprE176, a fibrinolytic enzyme from Bacillus subtilis HK176.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seon-Ju; Heo, Kyeong; Park, Ji Yeong; Lee, Kang Wook; Park, Jae-Yong; Joo, Sang Hoon; Kim, Jeong Hwan

    2015-01-01

    Bacillus subtilis HK176 with high fibrinolytic activity was isolated from cheonggukjang, a Korean fermented soyfood. A gene, aprE176, encoding the major fibrinolytic enzyme was cloned from B. subtilis HK176 and overexpressed in E. coli BL21(DE3) using plasmid pET26b(+). The specific activity of purified AprE176 was 216.8 ± 5.4 plasmin unit/mg protein and the optimum pH and temperature were pH 8.0 and 40°C, respectively. Error-prone PCR was performed for aprE176, and the PCR products were introduced into E. coli BL21(DE3) after ligation with pET26b(+). Mutants showing enhanced fibrinolytic activities were screened first using skim-milk plates and then fibrin plates. Among the mutants, M179 showed the highest activity on a fibrin plate and it had one amino acid substitution (A176T). The specific activity of M179 was 2.2-fold higher than that of the wild-type enzyme, but the catalytic efficiency (kcat/Km) of M179 was not different from the wild-type enzyme owing to reduced substrate affinity. Interestingly, M179 showed increased thermostability. M179 retained 36% of activity after 5 h at 45°C, whereas AprE176 retained only 11%. Molecular modeling analysis suggested that the 176(th) residue of M179, threonine, was located near the cation-binding site compared with the wild type. This probably caused tight binding of M179 with Ca(2+), which increased the thermostability of M179.

  1. Thyroid tumors following /sup 131/I or localized x irradiation to the thyroid and pituitary glands in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lee, W.; Chiacchierini, R.P.; Shleien, B.; Telles, N.C.

    1982-11-01

    Three thousand 6-week-old female Long-Evans rats were randomly assigned to 10 equal treatment groups. Three groups were injected intraperitoneally with 0.48, 1.9, and 5.4 ..mu..Ci of Na /sup 131/I yielding mean thyroid doses of 30, 330, and 850 rad, respectively. Three groups were irradiated with 94, 410, and 1060 rad from localized X ray to the thyroid. One group was irradiated with 410 rad to the pituitary, and another group was given 410 rad to both the thyroid and the pituitary with localized X rays. The remaining two groups of animals were used as separate sham-irradiated controls for the two types of radiation. All the surviving animals were killed 2 years later. Results derived from this study indicate that: (a) The proportion of animals with thyroid carcinoma is similar for /sup 131/I and X irradiation within the dose range of 0-1000 rad. (b) The thryoid carcinoma dose-response functions fitted by the least-squares method are nearly proportional to the square root of the thyroid dose. (c) Thyroid carcinoma induction appears to be independent of the dose rates resulting from the radiations used in this study. (d) A localized X-ray dose of 410 rad to the pituitary, whether the dose was administered concomitantly with thyroid irradiation or without thyroid irradiation, did not modify the risk of thyroid tumor.

  2. Androgen-mediated development of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats: dependence on animal age during interval of androgen replacement in castrated males

    SciTech Connect

    Hofmann, C.; Oslapas, R.; Nayyar, R.; Paloyan, E.

    1986-07-01

    When male Long-Evans rats at age 8 weeks were radiation treated (40 microCi Na131I), thyroid follicular adenomas and carcinomas were observed at age 24 months with a high incidence of 94%. Castration of males prior to irradiation significantly reduced this tumor incidence to 60%. When testosterone (T) was replaced in castrated, irradiated male rats, differentially increased incidences of thyroid tumors occurred. Immediate (age 2-6 mo) or early (age 6-12 mo) T replacement at approximate physiologic levels led to thyroid follicular tumor incidences of 100 and 82%, respectively, whereas intermediate (12-18 mo) or late (18-24 mo) T treatment led to only 70 and 73% incidences, respectively. Continuous T replacement (2-24 mo) in castrated irradiated male rats raised thyroid tumor incidence to 100%. Since elevated thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) is a reported requisite for development of radiation-associated thyroid tumors, the effects of T on serum TSH levels were examined. Mean serum TSH values in all irradiated animal groups were significantly elevated above age-matched nonirradiated animals at 6, 12, 18, and 24 months. Serum TSH levels were higher in continuous T-replaced irradiated castrates than in intact, irradiated males, whereas such intact male TSH levels were greater than those for irradiated castrates without T treatment. Interval T replacement in castrated male rats was associated with increased serum TSH levels during the treatment interval and with lowered TSH levels after discontinuation of T treatment, particularly in irradiated rats. However, when irradiated, castrated males received late T replacement (age 18-24 mo), there was no elevation of TSH at the end of the treatment interval. An indirect effect of T via early stimulation of TSH may be partly responsible for the high incidence of irradiation-induced thyroid tumors in rats.

  3. CYTOLOGICAL STUDIES OF ORGANOTYPIC CULTURES OF RAT DORSAL ROOT GANGLIA FOLLOWING X-IRRADIATION IN VITRO

    PubMed Central

    Masurovsky, Edmund B.; Bunge, Mary Bartlett; Bunge, Richard P.

    1967-01-01

    Under suitable conditions rat dorsal root ganglia differentiate and myelinate in culture, providing an organotypic model of the ganglion (8). Mature cultures of this type were irradiated with a 40 kR dose of 184 kvp X-rays and, after daily observation in the living state, were fixed for light and electron microscopy. Within 24 hr after irradiation, numerous Schwann cells investing unmyelinated axons acutely degenerate. The axons thus denuded display little change. Conversely, few ultrastructural changes develop in Schwann cells investing myelinated axons until after the 4th day. During the 4–14 day period, these Schwann cells and their related myelin sheaths undergo progressive deterioration. Associated axons decrease in diameter but are usually maintained. Myelin deterioration begins as a nodal lengthening and then progresses along two different routes. In intact Schwann cells, fragmentation of myelin begins in a pattern reminiscent of Wallerian degeneration, but its slow breakdown thereafter suggests metabolic disturbances in these Schwann cells. The second pattern of myelin deterioration, occurring after complete degeneration of the related Schwann cell, involves unusual configurational changes in the myelin lamellae. Atypical repeating periods are formed by systematic splitting of lamellae at each major dense line with further splitting at the intraperiod line (Type I) or by splitting in the region of every other intraperiod line (Type II); some sheaths display a compact, wavy, inner zone and an abnormally widened lamellar spacing peripherally (Type III). Extensive blebbing of myelin remnants characterizes the final stages of this extracellular myelin degradation. These observations provide the first description of ultrastructural changes produced by ionizing radiation in nerve fascicles in vitro. PMID:10976235

  4. Persistent visceral allodynia in rats exposed to colorectal irradiation is reversed by mesenchymal stromal cell treatment.

    PubMed

    Durand, Christelle; Pezet, Sophie; Eutamène, Hélène; Demarquay, Christelle; Mathieu, Noëlle; Moussa, Lara; Daudin, Rachel; Holler, Valérie; Sabourin, Jean-Christophe; Milliat, Fabien; François, Agnès; Theodorou, Vassilia; Tamarat, Radia; Benderitter, Marc; Sémont, Alexandra

    2015-08-01

    Each year, millions of people worldwide are treated for primary or recurrent pelvic malignancies, involving radiotherapy in almost 50% of cases. Delayed development of visceral complications after radiotherapy is recognized in cancer survivors. Therapeutic doses of radiation may lead to the damage of healthy tissue around the tumor and abdominal pain. Because of the lack of experimental models, the underlying mechanisms of radiation-induced long-lasting visceral pain are still unknown. This makes managing radiation-induced pain difficult, and the therapeutic strategies proposed are mostly inefficient. The aim of our study was to develop an animal model of radiation-induced visceral hypersensitivity to (1) analyze some cellular and molecular mechanisms involved and (2) to test a therapeutic strategy using mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs). Using a single 27-Grays colorectal irradiation in rats, we showed that such exposure induces a persistent visceral allodynia that is associated with an increased spinal sensitization (enhanced p-ERK neurons), colonic neuroplasticity (as increased density of substance P nerve fibers), and colonic mast cell hyperplasia and hypertrophy. Mast cell stabilization by ketotifen provided evidence of their functional involvement in radiation-induced allodynia. Finally, intravenous injection of 1.5 million MSCs, 4 weeks after irradiation, induced a time-dependent reversion of the visceral allodynia and a reduction of the number of anatomical interactions between mast cells and PGP9.5+ nerve fibers. Moreover, unlike ketotifen, MSC treatment has the key advantage to limit radiation-induced colonic ulceration. This work provides new insights into the potential use of MSCs as cellular therapy in the treatment of pelvic radiation disease.

  5. Effects of Prenatal Irradiation with an Accelerated Heavy-Ion Beam on Postnatal Development in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Fujita, K.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Effects on postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring were studied following exposure of pregnant Wistar rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV mu m at a dose range from 0 1 Gy to 2 0Gy on the 15th day of gestation The age at which four physiologic markers appeared and five reflexes were acquired was examined prior to weaning Gain in body weight was monitored until the offspring were 3 months old Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison Our previous study on carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV mu m was also cited to elucidate a possible LET-related effect For most of the endpoints at early age significant alteration was even observed in offspring prenatally received 0 1 Gy of accelerated neon ions while neither X rays nor carbon-ions under the same dose resulted in such a significant alteration compared to that from the sham-irradiated dams All offspring whose mothers received 2 0 Gy died prior to weaning Offspring from dams irradiated with accelerated neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death and preweaning mortality markedly delayed accomplishment in their physiological markers and reflexes and gain in body weight compared to those exposed to X-rays or carbon ions at doses of 0 1 to 1 5 Gy Significantly reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight at postnatal ages of 30 60 and 90 days were also observed

  6. Estrogen-regulated genes in rat testes and their relationship to recovery of spermatogenesis after irradiation.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wei; Bolden-Tiller, Olga U; Shao, Shan H; Weng, Connie C; Shetty, Gunapala; AbuElhija, Mahmoud; Pakarinen, Pirjo; Huhtaniemi, Ilpo; Momin, Amin A; Wang, Jing; Stivers, David N; Liu, Zhilin; Meistrich, Marvin L

    2011-10-01

    Despite numerous observations of the effects of estrogens on spermatogenesis, identification of estrogen-regulated genes in the testis is limited. Using rats in which irradiation had completely blocked spermatogonial differentiation, we previously showed that testosterone suppression with gonadotropin-releasing hormone-antagonist acyline and the antiandrogen flutamide stimulated spermatogenic recovery and that addition of estradiol (E2) to this regimen accelerated this recovery. We report here the global changes in testicular cell gene expression induced by the E2 treatment. By minimizing the changes in other hormones and using concurrent data on regulation of the genes by these hormones, we were able to dissect the effects of estrogen on gene expression, independent of gonadotropin or testosterone changes. Expression of 20 genes, largely in somatic cells, was up- or downregulated between 2- and 5-fold by E2. The unexpected and striking enrichment of transcripts not corresponding to known genes among the E2-downregulated probes suggested that these might represent noncoding mRNAs; indeed, we have identified several as miRNAs and their potential target genes in this system. We propose that genes for which expression levels are altered in one direction by irradiation and in the opposite direction by both testosterone suppression and E2 treatment are candidates for controlling the block in differentiation. Several genes, including insulin-like 3 (Insl3), satisfied those criteria. If they are indeed involved in the inhibition of spermatogonial differentiation, they may be candidate targets for treatments to enhance recovery of spermatogenesis following gonadotoxic exposures, such as those resulting from cancer therapy.

  7. Total lymphoid irradiation in rat heart albgrafts: dose, fractionation, and combination with cyclosporin-A. [X-ray

    SciTech Connect

    Rynasiewicz, J.J.; Sutherland, D.E.R.; Kawahara, K.; Kim, T.; Najarian, J.S.

    1981-03-01

    The survival or organ allografts is prolonged in mice and rats treated with fractionated, high-dose total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). We have studied the effect of TLI, alone or in combination with donor bone marrow or pharmacologic immunosuppression (cyclosporin-A: CY-A), on the survival of heterotopic rat heart allografts. Specifically, we evaluated the generalized immunosuppressive effect of TLI as a function of accumulated dose and fractionation schedule. In addition, TLI and CY-A were used individually in schedules that by themselves gave only moderate graft prolongation and then subsequently in sequential combination.

  8. Amelioration of radiation-induced oxidative stress and biochemical alteration by SOD model compounds in pre-treated gamma-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Abou-Seif, Mosaad A M; El-Naggar, Mohammad M; El-Far, Mohammad; Ramadan, Mohsen; Salah, N

    2003-11-01

    The role of metalloelements in tissue maintenance, function and response to injury offer a new approach to decreasing and/or treating radiation injury. We investigated the roles of CuL(2)SO(4), [MnL(2)O](2)Cl(4)(H(2)O)(2) and [(VL(2)O)(VL(2)H(2)O)]Cl(6) complexes (L=2-methylaminopyridine) of SOD-mimetic activities, in ameliorating the radiation-induced oxidative stress and alterations in some biochemical parameters in liver, kidney, spleen and brain in pretreated female rats exposed to gamma-irradiation. Both untreated-rats and rats treated with the above complexes were subjected to whole-body gamma-irradiation (6 Gy). 5'-Nucleotidase (5'-NT), acetylcholinesterase (AChE), adenosne triphosphatase (ATPase), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione reductase (GSSG-R) were assessed as well as liver DNA and RNA contents and total protein concentration were estimated in tissue homogenates of the above organs. The same parameters were assessed in non-irradiated treated rats and normal control rats. Results were compared to irradiated non-treated and normal control rats. Pretreatment of gamma-irradiated rats with Mn(IV) or V(IV) complex produced a significant decrease in liver 5'-NT activity compared to the corresponding value of the untreated irradiated rats. In contrast, liver DNA and RNA contents and brain AChE and ATPase activities were significantly increased in irradiated rat group pre-treated with these metal complexes. Cu II, Mn IV or V IV complex inoculation prior to irradiation of normal rats exhibited a significant increase in SOD, CAT, GSSG-R activities and protein content of liver, kidney, spleen and brain homogenates compared with that of the untreated irradiated rats. The treatment of non-irradiated rats with these complexes produced a highly significant increase in mean activities of SOD and CAT, with no changes in other parameters vs. controls. Cu(II), Mn(IV) and V(IV) 2-methylaminopyridine complexes offer a physiological approach to

  9. Modulation of gamma-irradiation and carbon tetrachloride induced oxidative stress in the brain of female rats by flaxseed oil.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Salem, Asmaa A M; Eassawy, Mamdouh M T

    2016-08-01

    The activity of flaxseed oil (FSO) on gamma-irradiation (7Gy) and/or carbon tetrachloride (CCl4) induced acute neurotoxicity in rats' brain was investigated. The results revealed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione-peroxidase (GSH-Px) activities, reduced glutathione (GSH) and manganese (Mn) contents. Further, a significant elevation (p<0.05) in malondialdehyde, nitric oxide (NO), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α), Interleukin-1-beta (IL-1β), Interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1), iron (Fe), calcium (Ca), copper (Cu) and magnesium (Mg) levels were observed. Furthermore, the relative ratio of xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression levels were elevated in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated and CCl4 intoxicated animals. Those effects were augmented due to the effect of CCl4-induced toxicity in γ-irradiated rats. The treatment of FSO displayed significant amendment of the studied parameters in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated and CCl4 intoxicated animals. FSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in gamma-irradiated rats. This effect is interrelated to the ability of FSO to scavenges the free radicals, enhances the antioxidant enzymes activity, increases GSH contents, down-regulates the inflammatory responses, ameliorates the iron, calcium, copper, magnesium, manganese levels and inhibiting the gene expression level of XO and iNOS in the brain tissues of intoxicated animals. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that the potent antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of FSO have the ability to improve the antioxidant status, suppress the inflammatory responses, and regulate the trace elements in the brain tissues of γ-irradiated, CCl4, and their combined effect in intoxicated animals. Consequently, FSO exhibited neuroprotective activity on γ-irradiated, CCl4, and their combined effect induced brain injury in

  10. Regionally distinct responses of microglia and glial progenitor cells to whole brain irradiation in adult and aging rats.

    PubMed

    Hua, Kun; Schindler, Matthew K; McQuail, Joseph A; Forbes, M Elizabeth; Riddle, David R

    2012-01-01

    Radiation therapy has proven efficacy for treating brain tumors and metastases. Higher doses and larger treatment fields increase the probability of eliminating neoplasms and preventing reoccurrence, but dose and field are limited by damage to normal tissues. Normal tissue injury is greatest during development and in populations of proliferating cells but also occurs in adults and older individuals and in non-proliferative cell populations. To better understand radiation-induced normal tissue injury and how it may be affected by aging, we exposed young adult, middle-aged, and old rats to 10 Gy of whole brain irradiation and assessed in gray- and white matter the responses of microglia, the primary cellular mediators of radiation-induced neuroinflammation, and oligodendrocyte precursor cells, the largest population of proliferating cells in the adult brain. We found that aging and/or irradiation caused only a few microglia to transition to the classically "activated" phenotype, e.g., enlarged cell body, few processes, and markers of phagocytosis, that is seen following more damaging neural insults. Microglial changes in response to aging and irradiation were relatively modest and three markers of reactivity - morphology, proliferation, and expression of the lysosomal marker CD68- were regulated largely independently within individual cells. Proliferation of oligodendrocyte precursors did not appear to be altered during normal aging but increased following irradiation. The impacts of irradiation and aging on both microglia and oligodendrocyte precursors were heterogeneous between white- and gray matter and among regions of gray matter, indicating that there are regional regulators of the neural response to brain irradiation. By several measures, the CA3 region of the hippocampus appeared to be differentially sensitive to effects of aging and irradiation. The changes assessed here likely contribute to injury following inflammatory challenges like brain irradiation and

  11. Boron neutron capture irradiation of the rat spinal cord: effects of variable doses of borocaptate sodium.

    PubMed

    Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Hopewell, J W; Micca, P L; Fisher, C

    1996-06-01

    The Fischer 344 rat spinal cord model has been used to evaluate the response of the central nervous system to boron neutron capture irradiation with variable doses of the neutron capture agent, borocaptate sodium (BSH). Three doses of BSH, 190, 140 and 80 mg/kg body weight, administered by i.p. injection, were used to establish the time course of 10B accumulation in and removal from the blood. After administration of the two lower doses of BSH, blood 10B levels peaked at 0.5 h after injection, with no significant (P > 0.1) change at 1 h after injection. Beyond this time point, levels of 10B in the blood began to decrease after a dose of 80 mg/kg BSH, but remained constant until 3 h after administration after the two higher doses of BSH. Myelopathy developed after latent intervals of 20.4 +/- 0.1, 20.8 +/- 1.4, 15.0 +/- 0.8, 15.4 +/- 0.4 and 15.6 +/- 0.4 weeks, following irradiation with thermal neutrons in combination with BSH at doses of 20, 40, 80, 140 and 190 mg/kg body weight, respectively. The radiation-induced lesion in the spinal cord was white matter necrosis. ED50 values for myelopathy were calculated from probit-fitted dose-effect curves. Expressed as total physical absorbed doses, these values were 20.7 +/- 1.9, 24.9 +/- 1.2, 27.2 +/- 0.9, 28.4 +/- 0.6 and 32.4 +/- 1.9 Gy after irradiation with thermal neutrons in the presence of 20, 40, 80, 140 and 190 mg/kg body weight of BSH, respectively. The compound biological effectiveness (CBE) factor values, estimated from this data, were in the range 0.49-0.55. There was no significant (P > 0.1) variation in the CBE factor for BSH as a function of increasing 10B concentration in the blood. It was concluded that there was no significant synergistic interaction between the low and high linear energy transfer (LET) components of the boron neutron capture (BNC) radiation field.

  12. Low power laser and LED irradiation effect on proliferation and differentiation of Wistar rats mesenchymal stem cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mancera, Diana; Solarte, Efrain; Fierro, Leonardo; Criollo, William

    2013-11-01

    It has been demonstrated that appropriately cultured and stimulated mesenchymal cells, can give rise to cells of all tissues of the body. We evaluate the cell proliferation and differentiation induced by low power light irradiation in cell cultures of mesenchymal cells, isolated and previously characterized, from Wistar rats. Roche® XTT and LDH tests were used to assess proliferation and cytotoxicity. Cellular differentiation was determined by optical microscopy and using specific fluorescent markers. We report laser cellular proliferation enhancement by 532 and 473 nm, and the best cell culture response by a dose of 2 Jcm-2. Although a three day irradiation protocol the cultures grown and no cytotoxicity was detected. Cellular differentiation occurred, and the production of cardiomyocytes was promoted by the cell proliferation stimulated by low power laser irradiation.

  13. [Radioprotective action of a gas hypoxic mixture GHM-10 in multiple irradiations of rat and human skin].

    PubMed

    Strelkov, R B; Chizhov, A Ia; Tokarev, O Iu; Tolstykh, V N; Kucherenko, N G

    1983-01-01

    Gas hypoxic mixture (GHM-10) decreased significantly the occurrence and duration of radioepidermitis after local therapeutic fractionated irradiation of Wistar rat skin with a cumulative dose of 66 Gy. In patients subjected to radiation therapy and protected with GHM-10 erythema and epidermitis developed at a much higher cumulative dose than in the controls. With erythema dose modifying coefficient was 1.38 +/- 0.06.

  14. [Effect of long-term exposure to low dose gamma-irradiation on the rat thyroid status].

    PubMed

    Nadol'nik, L I; Netsetskaia, Z V; Vinogradov, V V

    2004-01-01

    The effect of long-term exposure to low-dose external radiation on the rat thyroid status was studied. The experiments were carried out on Wistar female rats. The single doses absorbed were 0.1; 0.25; 0.5 Gy. The rats were irradiated 20 times (5 days x 4 weeks). The animals were decapitated after 1, 30 and 180 days following the last irradiation. Blood serum was assayed for content of thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) radioimmunologically. The liver was spectrophotometrically assayed for thyroid-induced NADP-malatedehydrogenase (NADP-MDH). It was shown that the long-term 0.5-Gy irradiation of the animals induced a decrease in blood T4 and T3 concentrations 1.34-1.71-fold and 1.24-1.43-fold after 1, 30 and 180 days, respectively. The T3 level was diminished most pronouncedly after 1 day, whereas that of T4--after 30 days following the exposure. With the doses of 0.1 and 0.25 Gy absorbed, the T4 and T3 concentration remained unchanged throughout all the periods studied. The activity of NADP-MDH was decreased 1.55-2.46-fold in all the experimental animals, and it was held decreased after 180 days (1.43-1.50-fold) in 0.25- and 0.5-Gy-irradiated groups, which indicates a disturbance in thyroid hormone metabolism in rats exposed chronically to low-dose radiation. After 180 days, the experimental animals experienced an elevation of thyroid gland weight on 15-20%. The thyroid status disturbance seemed to be due to both inhibited T4 and T3 biosynthesis in thyroid and disturbed hormone peripheral metabolism under radiation exposure.

  15. Effects of total body irradiation on fatty acid and total lipid content of rats.

    PubMed

    Chukwuemeka, Nwokocha; Philippe, Mounmbegna; Magdalene, Nwokocha; Onyezuligbo, Onyekachi

    2012-01-01

    We examined time-dependent changes in plasma lipids of rats given total body irradiation (TBI) with X-rays at 3 Gy. for consecutive periods. Animals were exposed to x ray radiations consecutively for 20 days at 5 day interval thereafter five animals were picked at random and sacrificed (5, 10, 15 and 20 days after beginning the exposure). The triacylglycerols and total cholesterol serum levels were significant differences between control and experimental groups after the first exposure (5 days), values for the triacylglcerols were significantly higher with the second (day 10) and third (day 15) radiation exposures but not with the fourth radiation exposures (day 20) (p<0.05). However, the serum cholesterol values were not found to be significant with the second and third exposures but with the fourth exposure (day 20) (p<0.05). The serum HDL-C concentrations were not significantly different between control and experimental groups at any time analyzed. But the LDL cholesterol was found to decrease on days 5 and 20 of the experimental period. Our results indicate that the applied long term exposure to x rays ionization radiations exposure may induce slight but statistically significant alterations in some serum lipids profile of rats, within the physiological range. The mechanisms for the effects of these ionizing radiations on serum lipid profile are not well understand yet, we suggest that the changes could be due to some non-specific stress reactions. The consequences of our observation are not known yet, but could point to some possible clinical intervention.

  16. The effects of pre-emptive low-dose X-ray irradiation on MIA induced inflammatory pain in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hahm, Suk-Chan; Lee, Go-Eun; Kim, Eun-Hye; Kim, Junesun; Lee, Taewoong; Lee, Wonho

    2013-07-01

    This study was performed to determine the effect of pre-emptive low-dose irradiation on the development of inflammatory pain and to characterize the potential mechanisms underlying this effect in osteoarthritis (OA) animal model. Whole-body X-irradiations with 0.1, 0.5, 1 Gy or sham irradiations were performed for 3 days before the induction of ostearthritis with monosodium iodoacetate (MIA) (40 µl, in saline) into the right knee joint in male Sprague Dawley rats. Behavioral tests for arthritic pain including evoked and non-evoked pain were conducted before and after MIA injection and inducible nitric-oxide synthase (iNOS) expression level was measured by western blot. Low-dose radiation significantly prevented the development of mechanical allodynia and thermal hyperalgesia and reduction in weight bearing that is regarded as a behavioral signs of non-evoked pain following MIA injection. Low-dose radiation significantly inhibited the increase in iNOS expression after MIA injection in spinal L3-5 segments in rat. These data suggest that low-dose X-irradiation is able to prevent the development of arthritic pain through modulation of iNOS expression in the spinal cord dorsal horn. Thus, low-dose radiotherapy could be substituted in part for treatment with drugs for patients with chronic inflammatory disease in clinical setting.

  17. [Effect of anabolic preparation fenobolin on blood, reproductive system and hormone levels in blood serum of fractionally irradiated male rats].

    PubMed

    Vereshchako, G G; Gorokh, G A; Fedosenko, O L; Gun'kova, N V; Iakushev, D L; Konoplia, E F

    2011-01-01

    Influence of anabolic drug (phenobolin) injection at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg on some indexes of blood, reproductive system, the level of thyroid hormones, corticosterone and testosterone in blood serum of the male rats exposed to a fractional irradiation at the total dose of 2.0 Gy have been studied. A significant decrease in the quantity of leucocytes and lymphocytes after a fractional irradiation without and with phenobolin introduction was determined. Introduction of anabolic drug resulted in a significant drop of relative mass of testes and, particularly, epididymes, and also in a sharp decrease of the number of mature germ cells isolated from epididymes. A combined action of phenobolin and fractional irradiation (2.0 Gy) led to a significant reduction (3-5 times) in the quantity of mature germ cells in an epididymis. In some cases phenobolin influenced the level of testosterone in blood serum of the intact and irradiated animals. The anabolic steroid drug affects negatively the state of reproductive system of male rats.

  18. Failure of spermatogenesis to recover despite the presence of a spermatogonia in the irradiated LBNF1 rat.

    PubMed

    Kangasniemi, M; Huhtaniemi, I; Meistrich, M L

    1996-06-01

    The dose and time response of LBNF1, rat testis to gamma irradiation was studied with use of single doses from 2.5 Gy to 6.0 Gy. Germ cells were initially depleted as a result of killing the radiosensitive differentiating spermatogonia. Some recovery of spermatogenesis was observed at 4 and 6 wk after irradiation as indicated by the repopulation of tubules with germ cells derived from surviving stem spermatogonia. Although spermatogenesis showed additional recovery and was maintained throughout the 60-wk follow-up period after 2.5 Gy, at doses from 3.5 Gy to 6.0 Gy, repopulation indices declined after 6 wk to less than 2%. The numbers of Sertoli cells per nonrepopulating tubule were constant, independent of radiation dose or time. In addition, the nonrepopulating tubules contained an average of one A spermatogonium per 100 Sertoli cells. The size and shape of these cells corresponded to undifferentiated A spermatogonia in nonirradiated control tests. Despite high labeling (40%) and mitotic (20%) indices, the numbers of A spermatogonia changed very little with time, and no differentiated cells were produced in these tubules. The failure of spermatogenesis to recover was not due to hormone deficiency: serum gonadotropin levels increased after irradiation, and serum testosterone remained at control levels. The irradiated LBNF1 rat model may be useful for studying the regulation of differentiation of A spermatogonia.

  19. Evaluation of the effect of a gamma irradiated DBM-pluronic F127 composite on bone regeneration in Wistar rat.

    PubMed

    Al Kayal, Tamer; Panetta, Daniele; Canciani, Barbara; Losi, Paola; Tripodi, Maria; Burchielli, Silvia; Ottoni, Priscilla; Salvadori, Piero Antonio; Soldani, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is widely used for bone regeneration. Since DBM is prepared in powder form its handling properties are not optimal and limit the clinical use of this material. Various synthetic and biological carriers have been used to enhance the DBM handling. In this study we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the physical-chemical properties of Pluronic and on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) amount in DBM samples. In vivo studies were carried out to investigate the effect on bone regeneration of a gamma irradiated DBM-Pluronic F127 (DBM-PF127) composite implanted in the femur of rats. Gamma irradiation effects (25 kGy) on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic F127 were investigated by rheological and infrared analysis. The BMP-2/BMP-7 amount after DBM irradiation was evaluated by ELISA. Bone regeneration capacity of DBM-PF127 containing 40% (w/w) of DBM was investigated in transcortical holes created in the femoral diaphysis of Wistar rat. Bone porosity, repaired bone volume and tissue organization were evaluated at 15, 30 and 90 days by Micro-CT and histological analysis. The results showed that gamma irradiation did not induce significant modification on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic, while a decrease in BMP-2/BMP-7 amount was evidenced in sterilized DBM. Micro-CT and histological evaluation at day 15 post-implantation revealed an interconnected trabeculae network in medullar cavity and cellular infiltration and vascularization of DBM-PF127 residue. In contrast a large rate of not connected trabeculae was observed in Pluronic filled and unfilled defects. At 30 and 90 days the DBM-PF127 samples shown comparable results in term of density and thickness of the new formed tissue respect to unfilled defect. In conclusion a gamma irradiated DBM-PF127 composite, although it may have undergone a significant decrease in the concentration of BMPs, was able to maintains bone regeneration capability.

  20. Influence of germ cells upon Sertoli cells during continuous low-dose rate gamma-irradiation of adult rats.

    PubMed

    Pinon-Lataillade, G; Vélez de la Calle, J F; Viguier-Martinez, M C; Garnier, D H; Folliot, R; Maas, J; Jégou, B

    1988-07-01

    The effects of continuous gamma-irradiation of adult rats at two low-dose rates (7 cGy and 12 cGy/day; up to a total dose of 9.1 Gy and 10.69 Gy 60Co gamma-ray, respectively) were investigated. Over a period of 3-131 days of irradiation, groups of experimental and control animals were killed. Body weight, testis, epididymis, prostate and seminal vesicle weights, the number of germ cells and Sertoli cells, tubular ultrastructure, epididymal and testicular levels of biologically active androgen-binding protein (ABP), and the plasma concentrations of follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH), luteinizing hormone (LH) and testosterone were monitored. Irradiation had no effect on body weight, whereas testicular and epididymal weight began to decrease following 35 and 50 days of irradiation at 7 and 12 cGy, respectively. At 7 cGy the target cells of the gamma-rays were essentially A spermatogonia, whereas at 12 cGy A spermatogonia and preleptotene spermatocytes were primarily affected. This resulted in a progressive and sequential dose-related reduction in the number of pachytene spermatocytes, round spermatids and late spermatids (LS). Under both irradiation procedures the Sertoli cell number remained unchanged whereas partial (7 cGy) or no change (12 cGy) was seen at the Leydig cell level. Whatever the irradiation protocol, from the time LS numbers decreased, vacuolisation of the Sertoli cell cytoplasm progressively occurred, followed by thickening and folding of the peritubular tissue. Moreover, in parallel to the drop in the number of these germ cell types, ABP production fell whereas FSH levels rose. A highly significant positive correlation was found between LS numbers and these Sertoli cell parameters. This study supports our previous concept of a control of certain important aspects of Sertoli cell function by late spermatids in the adult rat.

  1. Evaluation of the Effect of a Gamma Irradiated DBM-Pluronic F127 Composite on Bone Regeneration in Wistar Rat

    PubMed Central

    Canciani, Barbara; Losi, Paola; Tripodi, Maria; Burchielli, Silvia; Ottoni, Priscilla; Salvadori, Piero Antonio; Soldani, Giorgio

    2015-01-01

    Demineralized bone matrix (DBM) is widely used for bone regeneration. Since DBM is prepared in powder form its handling properties are not optimal and limit the clinical use of this material. Various synthetic and biological carriers have been used to enhance the DBM handling. In this study we evaluated the effect of gamma irradiation on the physical-chemical properties of Pluronic and on bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) amount in DBM samples. In vivo studies were carried out to investigate the effect on bone regeneration of a gamma irradiated DBM-Pluronic F127 (DBM-PF127) composite implanted in the femur of rats. Gamma irradiation effects (25 kGy) on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic F127 were investigated by rheological and infrared analysis. The BMP-2/BMP-7 amount after DBM irradiation was evaluated by ELISA. Bone regeneration capacity of DBM-PF127 containing 40% (w/w) of DBM was investigated in transcortical holes created in the femoral diaphysis of Wistar rat. Bone porosity, repaired bone volume and tissue organization were evaluated at 15, 30 and 90 days by Micro-CT and histological analysis. The results showed that gamma irradiation did not induce significant modification on physical-chemical properties of Pluronic, while a decrease in BMP-2/BMP-7 amount was evidenced in sterilized DBM. Micro-CT and histological evaluation at day 15 post-implantation revealed an interconnected trabeculae network in medullar cavity and cellular infiltration and vascularization of DBM-PF127 residue. In contrast a large rate of not connected trabeculae was observed in Pluronic filled and unfilled defects. At 30 and 90 days the DBM-PF127 samples shown comparable results in term of density and thickness of the new formed tissue respect to unfilled defect. In conclusion a gamma irradiated DBM-PF127 composite, although it may have undergone a significant decrease in the concentration of BMPs, was able to maintains bone regeneration capability. PMID:25897753

  2. Radioprotective effects of hesperidin on oxidative damages and histopathological changes induced by X-irradiation in rats heart tissue

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeyan, Abolhasan; Haddadi, Gholam Hassan; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Moradi, Maryam; Najafi, Masoud

    2016-01-01

    This study was carried out to evaluate radioprotective effects of hesperidin (HES) administration before the irradiation on the cardiac oxidative stress and histopathological changes in an experimental rat model. The cardiovascular complications of radiation exposure cause morbidity and mortality in patients who received radiotherapy. HES, an antioxidant flavonoid found in citrus fruits, suggests the protection against the tissue damage. Fifty-eight rats were divided into four groups: Group 1 received phosphate buffered saline (PBS) and sham radiation; Group 2, HES and sham radiation; Group 3, PBS and radiation; and Group 4, HES and radiation. The rats were exposed to single dose of 18 Gy of 6 MV X-ray. One hundred milligrams per kilogram doses of HES was administered for 7 days before irradiation. The estimation of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and histopathological analyses was performed at 24 h and 8 weeks after radiation exposure. The irradiation of chest area resulted in an elevated MDA level and decreased SOD activity. Moreover, long-term pathological lesions of radiation were inflammation, fibrosis, the increased number of mast cells and macrophages, and development of plaque, vascular leakage, myocardial degeneration, and myocyte necrosis. Although the administration of HES decreases inflammation, fibrosis, mast cell and macrophage numbers, and myocyte necrosis, it did not result in reduced thrombus, myocardium degeneration, and vascular leakage. In conclusion, these results suggest that HES can perform a radioprotection action. The protective effect of HES may be attributable to its immunomodulatory effects and free radical-scavenging properties. PMID:27651565

  3. Restorative role of persimmon leaf (Diospyros kaki) to gamma irradiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ashry, Omaima M; Hussein, Elham M; Abd El-Azime, Afrag Sh

    2017-03-01

    To evaluate the efficacy of persimmon leaf extract (PL (as a rich plant source) in modulation of radiation-induced liver injury and some metabolic variations in gamma-irradiated rats. PL at a dose of 1000 mg/kg body weight (P1000) was administered to male albino rats via gastric intubation for 15 days after whole body γ-irradiation (6 Gy). Irradiated rats showed significant decreases in hepatic glutathione content (GSH), superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and xanthine dehydrogenase (XDH) activities with significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) level and xanthine oxidase (XO) activity designating oxidative stress. In parallel significant increases in serum aspartate and alanine transaminase (AST, ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), γ-glutamyl-transferase (GGT) activities and bilirubin content were recorded indicating liver injury. In addition, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia (elevated total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein-cholesterol and Atherogenic Index and decreased high density lipoprotein-cholesterol) were recorded. PL treatment has significantly attenuated radiation-induced oxidative stress in hepatic tissues concomitant with significant amelioration of liver function and metabolic disturbances. It is concluded that PL may have therapeutic potential to alleviate the severity of radiation-induced liver injury, hyperglycemia, hypoinsulinemia and dyslipidemia.

  4. Evaluation of Drugs for Prevention of Hyperthermia in Rats Exposed to Microwave Irradiation.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1987-03-04

    MAR 83 APR edition may be used until exhausted SECURITY CLASSIFICATION OF THIS PAGE All other editions are obsolete OU.&. Gowinment Pirntirn Office...Q) "(1) 0 II L0 rl. -) 0 a, 4-. V )’J l 7c 41.01 WEEK DHT 1.p. (•) -- 1 (NONE) 2 5 40.0 --- 3 4 --- "- 4 5 .--.- * 5 5 / 39.0 // 39,0- AM GROUP (n

  5. Retroductal Submandibular Gland Instillation and Localized Fractionated Irradiation in a Rat Model of Salivary Hypofunction

    PubMed Central

    Nair, Renjith Parameswaran; Zheng, Changyu; Sunavala-Dossabhoy, Gulshan

    2017-01-01

    Normal tissues that lie within the portals of radiation are inadvertently damaged. Salivary glands are often injured during head and neck radiotherapy. Irreparable cell damage results in a chronic loss of salivary function that impairs basic oral activities, and increases the risk of oral infections and dental caries. Salivary hypofunction and its complications gravely impact a patient's comfort. Current symptomatic management of the condition is ineffective, and newer therapies to assuage the condition are needed. Salivary glands are exocrine glands, which expel their secretions into the mouth via excretory ducts. Cannulation of these ducts provides direct access to the glands. Retroductal delivery of a contrast agent to major salivary glands is a routine out-patient procedure for diagnostic imaging. Using a similar procedure, localized treatment of the glands is feasible. However, performing this technique in preclinical studies with small animals poses unique challenges. In this study we describe the technique of retroductal administration in rat submandibular glands, a procedure that was refined in Dr. Bruce Baum's laboratory (NIH)1, and lay out a procedure for local gland irradiation. PMID:27168158

  6. Changes in the nuclear protein kinase activities in the regenerating liver of partially irradiated rat

    SciTech Connect

    Asami, K.; Kobayashi, H.; Fujiwara, A.; Yasumasu, I. )

    1989-09-01

    X rays (4.8 Gy) inhibit both DNA synthesis and phosphorylation of histone H1 in the regenerating liver of the rat. To determine the cause of the inhibition of histone H1 phosphorylation, changes in the nuclear protein kinase activities during the prereplicative phase of regeneration were measured. The cAMP-dependent protein kinase activity was low during regeneration, and the changes in the activity were not statistically significant. The cAMP-independent protein kinase activity increased at 15 h, decreased at 18 h, and increased again at 24 h after partial hepatectomy. X irradiation prior to partial hepatectomy did not inhibit the increase at 15 h, but it did inhibit the increase at 24 h. The activity was not inhibited by isoquinolinesulfonamide inhibitors such as H-7, and it was activated by a commercial preparation of an inhibitor protein of the cAMP-dependent kinase. It was also inhibited by quercetin. The possibility that the radiation-sensitive nuclear protein kinase is a nuclear cAMP-independent protein kinase specific for histone H1 is considered.

  7. Mitochondrial dysfunction by gamma-irradiation accompanies the induction of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Chung, H C; Kim, S H; Lee, M G; Cho, C K; Kim, T H; Lee, D H; Kim, S G

    2001-03-21

    Multiple biological effects are induced by ionizing radiation through dysfunction of cellular organelles, direct interaction with nucleic acids and production of free radical species. The expression of cytochrome P450s was assessed in the livers of 60Co gamma-irradiated rats. Three gray (G) of gamma-irradiation caused CYP2E1 induction with a 3.6-fold increase in the mRNA at 24 h, whereas the expression of CYP1A2 and CYP3A was not changed. Pharmacokinetics of chlorzoxazone, a specific substrate of CYP2E1, was studied in 3 G-irradiated rats. The area under the plasma concentration-time curve from time zero to infinity of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone and the amount of 6-hydroxychlorzoxazone excreted in 8 h urine were both significantly greater than those in control rats. Hepatic CYP2E1 was not induced in rats exposed to 0.5-1 G of gamma-rays. Rats irradiated at 6-9 G accumulated doses of gamma-rays exhibited smaller increases in the mRNA due to liver injury than those irradiated at a single dose of 3 G gamma-rays. The plasma glucose and insulin levels were not altered in rats with 3 G of gamma-irradiation. As the exposure level of gamma-irradiation increased, the activity of hepatic aconitase, a key enzyme in energy metabolism in mitochondria, was 30-90% decreased. The amount of mitochondrial DNA per gram of wet liver was 50% decreased in rats exposed to 3 G of gamma-rays. These results demonstrated that gamma-ray irradiation at the exposure level inducing organelle dysfunction induced CYP2E1 in the liver, which might be associated with mitochondrial damage, but not with alterations in glucose or insulin levels.

  8. Concerning the Influence of Head Irradiation on the Development of Radiation Damage in the Rat Thymus,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    compared to unoperated controls. It is concluded that the adenohypophysis response of irradiation is not involved in the death or damage of thymocytes following low doses of whole body irradiation. (Author)

  9. Hesperidin a flavanoglycone protects against gamma-irradiation induced hepatocellular damage and oxidative stress in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Pradeep, Kannampalli; Park, Sang Hyun; Ko, Kyong Cheol

    2008-06-10

    Oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in the pathogenesis and progression of gamma-irradiation induced cellular damage and the administration of dietary antioxidants has been suggested to protect against the subsequent tissue damage. Here, we present the data to explore the hepatoprotective and antioxidant effect of hesperidin, a naturally occurring citrus flavanoglycone, against gamma-irradiation induced oxidative damage in the liver of rats. Healthy male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to gamma-irradiation (1 Gy, 3 Gy and 5 Gy) and were administered hesperidin (50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg, b.w, orally) for 7 days post irradiation. The changes in body weight, liver weight, spleen index, serum and liver aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), alkaline phosphatase (ALP), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase (gamma-GT) and serum ceruloplasmin levels were determined along with differences in the liver histopathology. Liver thiobarbuturic acid reactive substance as an index for lipid peroxidation and the levels of enzymatic antioxidants like superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and the status of non-enzymatic antioxidants as an index for oxidative stress were also determined. Exposure to gamma-irradiation resulted in hepatocellular damage in a dose-dependent manner, featuring a significantly decreased body weight and liver weight and higher levels of serum AST, ALT, ALP, LDH and gamma-GT levels and a simultaneous decrease in their levels in the liver tissue. Oxidative stress was evidenced by elevated levels of lipid peroxidation and a decrease in the levels of key enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in the liver. However, the gamma-irradiation induced toxic effects were dramatically and dose-dependently inhibited by hesperidin treatment as observed by the restoration in the altered levels of the marker enzymes, lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants. The results of the biochemical

  10. Effect of a bradykinin-potentiating factor isolated from scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus) on some blood indices and lipid profile in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Salman, Muhammad M A; Kotb, Ahmed M; Haridy, Mohie A M; Golka, Klaus; Hammad, Seddik

    2017-04-08

    Bradykinin appears to be an important regulator of cardiovascular function. It is also being increasingly noted as a participant in actions of drugs that affect the liver, kidney, and circulation. In our previous studies, bradykinin-potentiating factor (BPF) isolated from scorpion venom (Leiurus quinquestriatus) has been shown to be protective against hepato- and nephrotoxicity as well as healing skin burns by reducing oxidative stress in hyperglycemic conditions. Therefore, we aim to evaluate the ability of BPF in treating irradiated rats. A group of rats was exposed to γ-irradiation and subsequently treated with BPF injections aiming to elucidate the possibility of BPF to rescue γ-irradiation harmful effects. As controls, we used γ-irradiation exposed, BPF-injected, and untreated rats. The data obtained showed that the irradiated animals suffered from marked changes of many important blood parameters including red blood cells, leukocytes, platelets, hemoglobin, packed cell volume, high-density cholesterol, total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density cholesterol. Interestingly, BPF was able to rescue the deleterious effects of irradiation in rats and normalized their blood parameters to the basal levels. We conclude that BPF could ameliorate irradiation damaging effects.

  11. Evaluating the effect of laser irradiation on bone regeneration in midpalatal suture concurrent to rapid palatal expansion in rats

    PubMed Central

    Amini, Fariborz; Najaf Abadi, Maryam Pirmoradian; Mollaei, Mobina

    2015-01-01

    Background: Rapid palatal expansion is one of the most important orthopedic treatments that correct the dental and palatal constriction. Stability of the changes partly depend on the rapidity of new bone formation in affected sutures after expansion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laser irradiation on the healing of midpalatal suture concurrent to the expansion of midpalatal suture in rats. Materials and Methods: A total of 78 male Sprague rats in seven groups were evaluated: A control group of six rats without any treatments and three experimental groups of 24 which underwent palatal expansion for different time periods (7, 14, and 30 days), and each divided into two groups of with and without laser irradiation. Laser therapy was done by gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser with 810 nm wavelength and 4 J/cm2 irradiation in days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 in 4 points (1 labial and 3 palatal points). After sacrificing, the sections were evaluated by histomorphometric and quantitative analysis and results were statistically investigated by independent samples t-test. Results: The results in 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days show that laser therapy can increase the rate of osteogenesis in palatal suture during rapid palatal expansion but the differences in 7 days groups were not significant (P = 0.117) while in 14 days groups (P = 0.032) and 30 days groups were significant (P = 0.001). Most of effectiveness of low-power laser was seen between 14 and 30 days while the laser therapy was stopped. Conclusion: These findings suggest that low-level laser irradiation can increase and accelerate bone regeneration in the midpalatal suture after rapid palatal expansion, hence, reduce retention time. PMID:26229946

  12. Effect of in vivo heart irradiation on the development of antioxidant defenses and cardiac functions in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Benderitter, M.; Assem, M.; Maupoil, V.

    1995-10-01

    During radiotherapy of thoracic tumors, the heart is often included in the primary treatment volume, and chronic impairment of myocardial function occurs. The cellular biomolecules are altered directly by radiation or damaged indirectly by free radical production. The purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the biochemical and functional response of the rat heart to a single high dose of radiation. The effect of 20 Gy local X irradiation was determined in the heart of Wistar rats under general anesthesia. Mechanical performances were measured in vitro using an isolated perfused working heart model, and cardiac antioxidant defenses were also evaluated. Hearts were studied at 1 and 4 months after irradiation. This single dose of radiation induced a marked drop in the mechanical activity of the rat heart: aortic output was significantly reduced (18% less than control values) at 1 month postirradiation and remained depressed for the rest of the experimental period (21% less than control 4 months after treatment). This suggests the development of myocardial failure after irradiation. The decline of functional parameters was associated with changes in antioxidant defenses. The decrease in cardiac levels of vitamin E (-30%) was associated with an increase in the levels of Mn-SOD and glustathione peroxidase (+45.5% and +32%, respectively, at 4 months postirradiation). However, cardiac vitamin C and catalase levels remained constant. Since these antioxidant defenses were activated relatively long after irradiation, it is suggested that this was probable due to the production of free radical species associated with the development of inflammation. 49 refs., 8 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Evaluating the effect of laser irradiation on bone regeneration in midpalatal suture concurrent to rapid palatal expansion in rats.

    PubMed

    Amini, Fariborz; Najaf Abadi, Maryam Pirmoradian; Mollaei, Mobina

    2015-01-01

    Rapid palatal expansion is one of the most important orthopedic treatments that correct the dental and palatal constriction. Stability of the changes partly depend on the rapidity of new bone formation in affected sutures after expansion. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of laser irradiation on the healing of midpalatal suture concurrent to the expansion of midpalatal suture in rats. A total of 78 male Sprague rats in seven groups were evaluated: A control group of six rats without any treatments and three experimental groups of 24 which underwent palatal expansion for different time periods (7, 14, and 30 days), and each divided into two groups of with and without laser irradiation. Laser therapy was done by gallium-aluminum-arsenide diode laser with 810 nm wavelength and 4 J/cm(2) irradiation in days 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14 in 4 points (1 labial and 3 palatal points). After sacrificing, the sections were evaluated by histomorphometric and quantitative analysis and results were statistically investigated by independent samples t-test. The results in 7 days, 14 days, and 30 days show that laser therapy can increase the rate of osteogenesis in palatal suture during rapid palatal expansion but the differences in 7 days groups were not significant (P = 0.117) while in 14 days groups (P = 0.032) and 30 days groups were significant (P = 0.001). Most of effectiveness of low-power laser was seen between 14 and 30 days while the laser therapy was stopped. These findings suggest that low-level laser irradiation can increase and accelerate bone regeneration in the midpalatal suture after rapid palatal expansion, hence, reduce retention time.

  14. Hepatic progenitor cell lines from allyl alcohol-treated adult rats are derived from gamma-irradiated mouse STO cells.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Mingjun; Sell, Stewart; Leffert, Hyam L

    2003-01-01

    In attempts to recharacterize several markers of putative rat liver progenitor cells, single-stage reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) analyses failed to confirm the reported immunochemical detection of albumin, alpha(1)-fetoprotein, and cytochrome P450-1A2 in the clonal line, 3(8)#21, and the cloned derivative, 3(8)#21-EGFP (enhanced green fluorescent protein). Undetectable expression occurred whether or not both lines were cultured on or off feeder layers of gamma-irradiated mouse embryonic STO (SIM [Sandoz inbred Swiss mouse] thioguanine-resistant ouabain-resistant) cells. PCR amplification of liver progenitor cell chromosomal (rat and mouse Pigr, rat INS1, mouse INS2) and mitochondrial (rat and mouse COX1) genes revealed only mouse sequences. Further analyses of rat and mouse COX1 sequences in cells from untampered storage vials of all 11 reported liver progenitor cell lines and strains revealed only mouse sequences. In addition, uniquely similar metaphase spreads were observed in STO, 3(8)#21, and 3(8)#21-EGFP cells. The combined results suggest that the previously reported "rat" liver progenitor cell lines were most likely generated during early derivation in cell culture from gamma-radiation-resistant or ineffectively irradiated mouse STO cells used as the feeder layers. These findings reveal new types of artifacts encountered in cocultures of tissue progenitor cells and feeder layer cell lines, and they sound a cautionary note: phenotypic and genotypic properties of feeder layers should be well-characterized before and during coculture with newly derived stem cells and clonal derivatives.

  15. Gamma irradiation leads to two waves of apoptosis in distinct cell populations of the retina of newborn rats.

    PubMed

    Borges, H L; Linden, R

    1999-12-01

    Gamma radiation induces apoptosis in the proliferative zone (neuroblastic layer) of the developing rat retina. We asked whether sensitivity to apoptosis might be related to distinct phases of the cell cycle. Explants of newborn rat retina or newborn pups were gamma-irradiated and apoptosis was detected by chromatin condensation, DNA fragmentation in situ and DNA electrophoresis. After 6 hours, early appearing apoptotic bodies were located mainly towards the outer tier of the neuroblastic layer. In contrast, after 24 hours, late-appearing apoptotic cells were located towards the inner margin of the neuroblastic layer, a region associated with the S phase of the cell cycle. Labeling of a cohort of cells with the nucleotide analog bromo-deoxyuridine (BrdU) at the time of irradiation, showed that these cells die in the late wave of apoptosis. BrdU given 3 hours before fixation labeled a large number of late apoptotic cells, but no early apoptotic cells. After labeling of all cycling cells with BrdU, 40% of the early apoptotic profiles were unlabeled, and thus post-mitotic. The same schedules of cell death were identified after gamma irradiation in vivo. The results show that irradiation leads to two waves of apoptosis in distinct cell populations. An early wave comprises both post-mitotic cells and proliferating cells out of the S phase. The late wave comprises cells in S phase, which pass through this phase again to die. The antioxidant pyrrolidinedithiocarbamate prevented the early but not the late wave of apoptosis following irradiation, and blocked lipid peroxidation at 6 hours after the insult, suggesting that the two waves of apoptosis are indeed mediated by distinct mechanisms.

  16. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    SciTech Connect

    Parreiras Nogueira, Liebert; Barroso, Regina Cely; Pereira de Almeida, Andre; Braz, Delson; Almeida, Carlos Eduardo de; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; Silva, Claudia Marcello da

    2012-05-17

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-{mu}XRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian registered (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  17. Histological analysis of healthy epithelium of Wistar rats in vivo irradiated with different intensities of therapeutic ultrasound.

    PubMed

    De Bem, Daiane M; Maciel, Carlos D; Zuanon, José A; Neto, Carlos B; Parizotto, Nivaldo A

    2010-01-01

    Ultrasound (US) is a widely used and studied resource for physical therapy treatments. Given the scarcity of studies on the effects of US on healthy tissue, many physical therapy professionals make unfounded decisions regarding its methods and parameters of application. The possible histological and morphometric changes in the healthy tissue of Wistar rats in vivo irradiated with different intensities of US were evaluated. Thirty Wistar rats, randomly distributed among five groups of six animals each, were treated on the right side of the dorsal region, over an area of 4 cm(2). The left side served as a control. The treatment was applied over a four-day period, with two mins. of daily irradiation. The output intensity was checked using a precision dosimeter before the applications. Histological and morphometric analyses were performed using the Image Tool software. There were slight inflammatory infiltration and thinning of the dermis fibers, particularly in the groups irradiated with 1.5 and 2 W/cm(2). There was also thickening of the epidermis in the samples from the irradiated animals. To evaluate the quantitative results, the statistical analyses consisted of one-way ANOVAs with the post-hoc Tukey tests. There were significant differences in epidermis thicknesses between the control group and the groups irradiated with 1.0, 1.5 and 2.0 W/cm(2). Higher doses of US produced changes in the epidermis and dermis, i.e. increased thickness and collagen fiber thinning and proliferation, respectively. These results serve as a warning of the possible implications of therapeutic ultrasound use in esthetics.

  18. Evaluation of photon irradiation treatment upon calcium content of ribs of Wistar rats using micro-XRF

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nogueira, Liebert Parreiras; Barroso, Regina Cély; de Almeida, André Pereira; Braz, Delson; de Almeida, Carlos Eduardo; Salata, Camila; Andrade, Cherley Borba; da Silva, Claudia Marcello

    2012-05-01

    Therapeutic doses of radiation have been shown to have deleterious consequences on bone health. Among the treatment strategies used for breast cancer treatment, the most used are radiotherapy and chemotherapy. Radiotherapy may be given to destroy the cancer cells using high-dose x-rays. Protocols vary considerably, but generally whole body irradiation totals from 10 to 15 Gy, whereas local therapy totals from 40 to 70 Gy. In clinical practice, the quantitative evaluation of bone tissue relies on measurements of bone mineral density values, which are closely associated with the risk of osteoporotic fracture. Improved survivorship rates of cancer patients receiving radiotherapy increase the importance of understanding the mechanisms and long-term effects of radiation-induced bone loss. In this work, we investigated the variation on calcium distribution in ribs of female Wistar rats (Rattus norvegicus) submitted to photon irradiation with a single dose of 20 Gy. The determination of the calcium distribution was performed using synchrotron radiation microfluorescence (SR-μXRF) at the X-ray Fluorescence beamline at Brazilian Synchrotron Light Laboratory (LNLS). Animals were irradiated using the linear accelerator Varian® (CLINAC 2100) at the University Centre for Cancer Control of the State University of Rio de Janeiro (CUCC/UERJ). The total dose delivered was 20 Gy. The animals were about three months old and weighting about 200g. They were distributed into two groups (seven per group): control (did not receive any treatment) and irradiated (submitted to irradiation procedure) groups. Results showed that calcium content decreased within the dorsal ribs of rats submitted to radiotherapy in comparison to the control group.

  19. Inactivation of aprE Gene in Bacillus subtilis 168 by Homologus Recombination

    PubMed Central

    Rabbani, Mohammed; Soleymani, Safoura; Sadeghi, Hamid Mir Mohammad; Soleimani, Narjes; Moazen, Fatemeh

    2014-01-01

    Background One of the most important producers of high quality industrial enzymes is the Gram-positive bacterium, Bacillus subtilis (B. Subtilis). One major limitation that hinders the wide application of B. subtilis is the secretion of high levels of extracellular proteases which degrade the secreted foreign proteins. In this study, homologus recombination technique was used to knock out its protease gene, aprE. Methods The internal segment of the pro-sequence of aprE gene of B. subtilis 168 with a length of 80 bps and its complementary sequence were synthesized and ligated into pUB110 at EcoR1 and XbaI restriction sites. Competent cells of B. subtilis 168 were prepared and transformed by electroporation using Bio Rad gene pulser as explained in the methods section. Transformants carrying the recombinant plasmid were selected for resistance to neomycin. The success of homologous recombination was checked by PCR amplification of the neomycin gene which was part of the vector and did not exist in the genome of B. subtilis 168. The protease activity was measured using the Protease Fluorescent Detection Kit based on the proteolytic hydrolysis of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC)–labeled casein-substrate. Results The results demonstrated that aprE gene would not be able to produce further active subtilisin E. The reduction of protease activity also confirmed the efficacy of the induced mutation in this gene. Conclusion It will therefore be a major challenge for future research to identify and modulate quality control systems of B. subtilis which limit the production of high quality protease- sensitive products such as lipase. PMID:25215183

  20. HZE ⁵⁶Fe-ion irradiation induces endothelial dysfunction in rat aorta: role of xanthine oxidase.

    PubMed

    Soucy, Kevin G; Lim, Hyun Kyo; Kim, Jae Hyung; Oh, Young; Attarzadeh, David O; Sevinc, Baris; Kuo, Maggie M; Shoukas, Artin A; Vazquez, Marcelo E; Berkowitz, Dan E

    2011-10-01

    Ionizing radiation has been implicated in the development of significant cardiovascular complications. Since radiation exposure is associated with space exploration, astronauts are potentially at increased risk of accelerated cardiovascular disease. This study investigated the effect of high atomic number, high-energy (HZE) iron-ion radiation on vascular and endothelial function as a model of space radiation. Rats were exposed to a single whole-body dose of iron-ion radiation at doses of 0, 0.5 or 1 Gy. In vivo aortic stiffness and ex vivo aortic tension responses were measured 6 and 8 months after exposure as indicators of chronic vascular injury. Rats exposed to 1 Gy iron ions demonstrated significantly increased aortic stiffness, as measured by pulse wave velocity. Aortic rings from irradiated rats exhibited impaired endothelial-dependent relaxation consistent with endothelial dysfunction. Acute xanthine oxidase (XO) inhibition or reactive oxygen species (ROS) scavenging restored endothelial-dependent responses to normal. In addition, XO activity was significantly elevated in rat aorta 4 months after whole-body irradiation. Furthermore, XO inhibition, initiated immediately after radiation exposure and continued until euthanasia, completely inhibited radiation-dependent XO activation. ROS production was elevated after 1 Gy irradiation while production of nitric oxide (NO) was significantly impaired. XO inhibition restored NO and ROS production. Finally, dietary XO inhibition preserved normal endothelial function and vascular stiffness after radiation exposure. These results demonstrate that radiation induced XO-dependent ROS production and nitroso-redox imbalance, leading to chronic vascular dysfunction. As a result, XO is a potential target for radioprotection. Enhancing the understanding of vascular radiation injury could lead to the development of effective methods to ameliorate radiation-induced vascular damage.

  1. Influence of laser and LED irradiation on mast cells of cutaneous wounds of rats with iron deficiency anemia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Becher Rosa, Cristiane; Oliveira Sampaio, Susana C. P.; Monteiro, Juliana S. C.; Ferreira, Maria F. L.; Zanini, Fátima A. A.; Santos, Jean N.; Cangussú, Maria Cristina T.; Pinheiro, Antonio L. B.

    2011-03-01

    This work aimed to study histologically the effect of Laser or LED phototherapy on mast cells on cutaneous wounds of rats with iron deficiency. 18 rats were used and fed with special peleted iron-free diet. An excisional wound was created on the dorsum of each animal which were divided into: Group I - Control with anemia + no treatment; Group II - Anemia + Laser; Group III - Anemia + LED; Group IV - Healthy + no treatment; Group V - Healthy + Laser; Group VI - Healthy + LED. Irradiation was performed using a diode Laser (λ660nm, 40mW, CW, total dose of 10J/cm2, 4X2.5J/cm2) or a RED-LED ( λ700nm, 15mW, CW, total dose of 10J/cm2). Histological specimens were routinely processed, cut and stained with toluidine blue and mast cell counts performed. No significant statistic difference was found between groups as to the number of degranulated, non-degradulated or total mast cells. Greater mean values were found for degranulated mast cells in the Anemia + LED. LED irradiation on healthy specimens resulted in a smaller number of degranulated mast cells. Our results leads to conclude that there are no significant differences in the number of mast cells seven days after irradiation following Laser or LED phototherapy.

  2. Protective mechanism of grape seed oil on carbon tetrachloride-induced brain damage in γ-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Ismail, Amel F M; Moawed, Fatma S M; Mohamed, Marwa Abdelhameed

    2015-12-01

    This study investigated the possible beneficial effects of grape seed oil (GSO) on carbon tetrachloride (CCl4)-induced acute neurotoxicity in γ-irradiated rats. A statistical significant decrease in superoxide-dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione-peroxidase (GPx) activities and reduced glutathione (GSH) content were exhibited. Further, a significant elevation in malondialdehyde (MDA), nitric oxide (NO), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and transforming growth factor-beta-1 (TGF-β1) levels was observed. Furthermore, xanthine oxidase (XO) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression were elevated in the γ-irradiated animals treated with an acute dose of CCl4. The pretreatment of GSO exerts significant amelioration of the studied parameters. In conclusion, this study demonstrated that GSO has a neuroprotective effect against CCl4-induced brain injury in γ-irradiated rats, which is likely attributed to its ability to scavenge the free radicals, suppress the inflammatory responses, improve the activity of the antioxidant enzymes and inhibit the XO and iNOS gene expression levels.

  3. Effects of split-dose X irradiation on rat salivary gland function

    SciTech Connect

    Vissink, A.; s-Gravenmade, E.J.; Ligeon, E.E.; Konings, A.W. )

    1991-07-01

    The effect of a single local dose of 15 Gy on salivary gland function in male Albino Wistar rats was compared with the effect of two doses of 7.5 Gy. The intervals chosen were 0-24 h and 1 week. Before and 1-30 days after the last radiation dose, samples of parotid and submandibular saliva were collected simultaneously after stimulation of the glands with pilocarpine. Irradiation with the single dose resulted in an increased lag phase and potassium concentration, and a decreased flow rate and sodium concentration. The rate of secretion of amylase was decreased during Days 1-6, increased at Day 10, and was decreased again at Day 30. With two dose fractions, substantial dose-sparing effects on lag phase, flow rate, and secretion of amylase were observed for both the very early (0-6 days postirradiation) and later (6-30 days postirradiation) effects. These effects were maximal when the interval between the fractions was 6 h. A significant dose-sparing effect on electrolytes was observed for the later effects only, again with a maximum for the 6-h interval. The dose-sparing observed for the very early effects cannot be explained satisfactorily by repair of sublethal damage (SLD), redistribution of cells over the cell cycle, or repopulation of salivary gland tissue between the doses. In contrast to the earlier dose-sparing effects, the split-dose recovery seen for later damage may be attributed, in part, to SLD repair in providing for greater reproductive survival of intercalated ductal cells and enhanced tissue regeneration.

  4. NSBRI Radiation Effects: Carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats Irradiated with Iron Ions, Protons, or Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, J. F.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Gridley, D. S.; Howard, S. P.; Novak, G. R.; Ricart-Arbona, R.; Strandberg, J. D.; Vazquez, M. E.; Williams, J. R.; Zhang, Y.; Zhou, H.; Huso, D. L.

    1999-01-01

    Our ability to confidently develop appropriate countermeasures for radiations in space in terms of shielding and design of a spacecraft, the mission scenario, or chemoprevention is severely limited by the uncertainties in both the risk itself and the change in that risk with intervention. Despite the fact that the risk of carcinogenesis from exposures of personnel to radiations on long-term missions is considered one of the worst hazards in space, only a limited amount of in-vivo data exist for tumor induction from exposures to protons or energetic heavy ions (HZEs) at lower doses. The most extensive work remains the landmark study. for tumor development in the harderian gland of the mouse. The objective of this study is to characterize the level of risk for tumor induction in another relevant animal model. Subsequent experiments are designed to test the hypothesis that the level of risk can be reduced by pharmaceutical intervention in the promoting and progressing stages of the disease rather than in the initiating stage. The work presented here results from a cooperative effort on the part of investigators from two projects of the Radiation-Effects Team of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The collaborating projects are the Core Project which is investigating the risk of carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats and the Chemoprevention Project which is investigating the ability of Tamoxifen to reduce the number of malignant tumors in the irradiated animals. Research at the cellular and subcellular levels is being conducted in two other projects of the Radiation-Effects Team, Cytogenetics with J. R. Williams as Principal Investigator and Mutations from Repeated DNA Sequences. Results for these other projects also are being presented at this Workshop.

  5. NSBRI Radiation Effects: Carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats Irradiated with Iron Ions, Protons, or Photons

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Dicello, J. F.; Cucinotta, F. A.; Gridley, D. S.; Howard, S. P.; Novak, G. R.; Ricart-Arbona, R.; Strandberg, J. D.; Vazquez, M. E.; Williams, J. R.; Zhang, Y.; hide

    1999-01-01

    Our ability to confidently develop appropriate countermeasures for radiations in space in terms of shielding and design of a spacecraft, the mission scenario, or chemoprevention is severely limited by the uncertainties in both the risk itself and the change in that risk with intervention. Despite the fact that the risk of carcinogenesis from exposures of personnel to radiations on long-term missions is considered one of the worst hazards in space, only a limited amount of in-vivo data exist for tumor induction from exposures to protons or energetic heavy ions (HZEs) at lower doses. The most extensive work remains the landmark study. for tumor development in the harderian gland of the mouse. The objective of this study is to characterize the level of risk for tumor induction in another relevant animal model. Subsequent experiments are designed to test the hypothesis that the level of risk can be reduced by pharmaceutical intervention in the promoting and progressing stages of the disease rather than in the initiating stage. The work presented here results from a cooperative effort on the part of investigators from two projects of the Radiation-Effects Team of the National Space Biomedical Research Institute (NSBRI). The collaborating projects are the Core Project which is investigating the risk of carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats and the Chemoprevention Project which is investigating the ability of Tamoxifen to reduce the number of malignant tumors in the irradiated animals. Research at the cellular and subcellular levels is being conducted in two other projects of the Radiation-Effects Team, Cytogenetics with J. R. Williams as Principal Investigator and Mutations from Repeated DNA Sequences. Results for these other projects also are being presented at this Workshop.

  6. Effect of He-Ne laser irradiation on spontaneous contractive activity and basal tone level of rat portal vein

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Petrishchev, Nikolai N.; Barabanova, Valeria V.; Mikhailova, Irina A.; Chephu, Svetlana G.

    2000-11-01

    To study the effect of He-Ne irradiation (632.8 nm, 15 mW/cm2) on spontaneous contractive activity the fragments of rat portal vein weremounted isometrically in Krebs buffer. Irradiation of vessel fragments by He-Ne laser during 3,5 and 10 min caused the decrease of ton up to 50%, which lasted in postirradiation period (the observation time - 10 min). The frequency of phasic and tonic contractions did not change, but the amplitude increased up to 40% as compared to the initial level. The decreased basal tone level and the increased amplitude of phasic oscillations lasted in postirradiation period. Adding NO synthasa blocator (N - nitro-L-arginine) to Krebs solution before irradiation caused no significant changes mentioned above parameters. Irradiation and coputing of the same parameters of spontaneous contractive activity of vena porta caused no effects, mentioned in the absence of the blocator. From the results it is concluded that the decrease of tone is evoked by the increase of EDRF production and cGMP. The increase of amplitude of phasic and tonic contractions is connected with increase of Ca++ entry in every contraction cycle as a result of membrane Ca++ pool increase.

  7. [Changes in functional activity of the synthetic apparatus of rat thymocytes under acute and chronic gamma-irradiation].

    PubMed

    Sergievich, L A; Karnaukhova, N A

    2002-01-01

    The changes in functional activity of rat thymocyte synthetic apparatus (synthetic activity) under acute (7.5 Gy) and continuous (dose rates 14.4 and 0.43 cGy/day) gamma-irradiation were studied by the fluorescent microspectral analysis. It has been shown that after the acute irradiation the changes in synthetic activity occurred in three main stages. The stages reflect the depression and activation of synthetic processes that is due to interphase and reproductive cell death and urgent recovery of thymus cellularity and secondary repopulating. Under continuous irradiation with a dose rate 14.4 cGy/day in long-term period both the decrease of thymocyte synthetic activity (in most animals) and activation (in the animals with pronounced symptoms of radiation damage) were observed. This reflects the depression processes in immune system and augmentation of immunoreactivity due to mass antigen influence of transformed cells and infectious agents on thymocytes. Under low dose ionizing irradiation (dose rate 0.43 cGy/day) the undulating changes in synthetic processes in thymus cells were observed. This depends on the recurrence of depression and recovery processes in the blood-forming tissue.

  8. Alkaline serine protease AprE plays an essential role in poly-γ-glutamate production during natto fermentation.

    PubMed

    Kada, Shigeki; Ishikawa, Atsushi; Ohshima, Yoshifumi; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2013-01-01

    Natto is a traditional Japanese food made from soybeans fermented by natto starter strains of Bacillus subtilis natto. It has been suggested that extracellular protease activity released by the bacteria are involved in the production of poly-γ-glutamate (γ-PGA) during natto fermentation. One of the natto starters, strain r22, possesses at least seven genes, each of which encoded an extracellular protease orthologous to its counterpart in B. subtilis 168, aprE, bpr, epr, mpr, nprE, vpr, and wprA, but it was found to lack nprB. Inactivating the aprE ortholog alone resulted in a severe decrease in γ-PGA production and in the total extracellular protease activity. The defect in γ-PGA production of the mutant lacking the aprE ortholog was complemented when the medium was supplemented with sufficient glutamate. These results suggest that the alkaline serine protease encoded by aprE plays an indispensable role in supplying materials to produce γ-PGA. On the other hand, simultaneous inactivation of all the protease genes except for aprE did not significantly affect either γ-PGA production or total protease activity.

  9. A biosafety evaluation of synchrotron radiation X-ray to skin and bone marrow: single dose irradiation study of rats and macaques.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yifan; Tang, Guanghui; Lin, Hui; Lin, Xiaojie; Jiang, Lu; Yang, Guo-Yuan; Wang, Yongting

    2017-06-01

    Very limited experimental data is available regarding the safe dosages related to synchrotron radiation (SR) procedures. We used young rats and macaques to address bone marrow and skin tolerance to various doses of synchrotron radiation. Rats were subjected to 0, 0.5, 2.5, 5, 25 or 100 Gy local SR X-ray irradiation at left hind limb. Rat blood samples were analyzed at 2-90 days after irradiation. The SR X-ray irradiated skin and tibia were sectioned for morphological examination. For non-human primate study, three male macaques were subjected to 0.5 or 2.5 Gy SR X-ray on crus. Skin responses of macaques were observed. All rats that received SR X-ray irradiation doses greater than 2.5 Gy experienced hair loss and bone-growth inhibition, which were accompanied by decreased number of follicles, thickened epidermal layer, and decreased density of bone marrow cells (p < 0.05). Macaque skin could tolerate 0.5 Gy SR X-ray but showed significant hair loss when the dose was raised above 2.5 Gy. The safety threshold doses of SR X-ray for rat skin, bone marrow and macaque skin are between 0.5 and 2.5 Gy. Our study provided essential information regarding the biosafety of SR X-ray irradiation.

  10. Time-course of hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity and inflammation in juvenile rat brain after cranial irradiation.

    PubMed

    Veličković, Nataša; Drakulić, Dunja; Petrović, Snježana; Grković, Ivana; Milošević, Maja; Stanojlović, Miloš; Horvat, Anica

    2012-10-01

    Recent studies reported that exposure of juvenile rats to cranial irradiation affects hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis stability, leading to its activation along with radiation-induced inflammation. In the present study, we hypothesized whether inflammatory reaction in the CNS could be a mediator of HPA axis response to cranial irradiation (CI). Therefore, we analyzed time-course changes of serum corticosterone level, as well IL-1β and TNF-α level in the serum and hypothalamus of juvenile rats after CI. Protein and gene expression of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) and nuclear factor kappaB (NFκB) were examined in the hippocampus within 24 h postirradiation interval. Cranial irradiation led to rapid induction of both GR and NFκB mRNA and protein in the hippocampus at 1 h. The increment in NFκB protein persisted for 2 h, therefore NFκB/GR protein ratio was turned in favor of NFκB. Central inflammation was characterized by increased IL-1β in the hypothalamus, with maximum levels at 2 and 4 h after irradiation, while both IL-1β and TNF-α were undetectable in the serum. Enhanced hypothalamic IL-1β probably induced the relocation of hippocampal NFκB to the nucleus and decreased NFκB mRNA at 6 h, indicating promotion of inflammation in the key tissue for HPA axis regulation. Concomitant increase of corticosterone level and enhanced GR nuclear translocation in the hippocampus at 6 h might represent a compensatory mechanism for observed inflammation. Our results indicate that acute radiation response is characterized by increased central inflammation and concomitant HPA axis activation, most likely having a role in protection of the organism from overwhelming inflammatory reaction.

  11. Host cell cytotoxicity, cellular repopulation dynamics, and phase-specific cell survival in X-irradiated rat rhabdomyosarcoma tumors

    SciTech Connect

    Tenforde, T.S. ); Kavanau, K.S.; Afzal, S.M.J.; Curtis, S.B. )

    1990-01-01

    Postirradiation tumor volume response, cellular repopulation dynamics, cell-cycle perturbations, and phase-specific cell survival were characterized in rat rhabdomyosarcoma R-1 tumors (the R2C5 subline) following an in situ 10-Gy dose of 225-kVp X rays. This X-ray dose produced a 7.5-day delay in tumor growth to twice the volume measured at the time of irradiation, and reduced the initial surviving fraction of R2C5 cells to 0.17 as measured by the excision assay procedure. The surviving fraction of R2C5 cells returned to unity by the 16th day after tumor irradiation. On the basis of flow cytometry measurements of DNA content in tumor cells stained with a noncytotoxic concentration of Hoechst 33342, a transient G{sub 2} block was observed 1 day after irradiation. Flow cytometry measurements also demonstrated that the tetraploid R2C5 cells constituted only 30% of the total tumor cell population, with the remainder being diploid host cells comprised of macrophages, monocytes, lymphocytes, and granulocytes. Large numbers of host cells infiltrated the irradiated tumors, leading to an increase in the percentage of diploid cells by Day 2 and reaching a level of more than 80% of the total tumor cell population by 4 to 8 days after irradiation. The influx of host cells into irradiated tumors was correlated temporally with a significant 12-fold decrease in the surviving fraction of R2C5 cells that occurred between Days 2 and 4 postirradiation. When the diploid host cell population was removed by cell sorting procedures, the surviving fraction of R2C5 cells at Day 4 substantially greater than that in the presence of the host cells. Experiments involving the mixing of 4/1 and 12/1 ratios of diploid host cells and tetraploid tumor cells isolated from irradiated and unirradiated tumors demonstrated that the cytotoxic effect of the host cells was specific for the irradiated tumor cells.

  12. [Effect of supposed radioprotectors on oxidation-reduction of vitamin E in the tissues of irradiated rats].

    PubMed

    Paranich, A V; Pocherniaeva, V F; Dubinskaia, G M; Mishchenko, V P; Mironova, N G; Gugalo, V P; Nazarets, V V

    1993-01-01

    In experiments with mature Wistar male rats under irradiation by dose of 5 Gy the effect of emoxypine, citomedine and echinacea purpurea on the content of liposoluble vitamin A, carotene, vitamin E and its metabolites (quinone and oxidized tocopherol) in blood plasma, spleen, liver and testes was studied. It was shown the drugs under study mobilized the internal reserves of these vitamins and promoted effective functioning of vitamin E redox system. Mechanisms of their action are different. The drugs might be used as radioprotectors, but they exhaust the reserves of the liposoluble vitamins. Therefore they should be used in a combination with vitamin preparations.

  13. Comparative study and histomorphometric analysis of bone allografts lyophilized and sterilized by autoclaving, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide in rats.

    PubMed

    Almeida, Otavio Machado de; Jorgetti, Wanda; Oksman, Denis; Jorgetti, Camilo; Rocha, Diógenes Laércio; Gemperli, Rolf

    2013-01-01

    To compare three sterilization methods (autoclave, gamma irradiation and ethylene oxide) over non demineralized lyophilized bone allografts. Bone allografts were implanted on paravertebral muscles of 21 rats. After 30 days animals were sacrificed and grafts underwent comparative analysis regarding histomorphometric and macroscopic parameters. Allografts that underwent the three sterilization methods presents similar weight gain, cortical thickness similar to control group, and less fibrosis than the control group. Grafts that underwent sterilization in autoclave presented less presence of multinucleated giant cells, although not statistically significant. There was also no statistically significant difference regarding mineralization on the three groups. The three sterilization methods cause similar effects on bone allografts regarding macroscopic and histomorphometric parameters.

  14. Long-term pathological and immunohistochemical features in the liver after intraoperative whole-liver irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Imaeda, Masumi; Ishikawa, Hitoshi; Yoshida, Yukari; Takahashi, Takeo; Ohkubo, Yu; Musha, Atsushi; Komachi, Mayumi; Nakazato, Yoichi; Nakano, Takashi

    2014-07-01

    Radiation therapy (RT) has become particularly important recently for treatment of liver tumors, but there are few experimental investigations pertaining to radiation-induced liver injuries over long-term follow-up periods. Thus, the present study examined pathological liver features over a 10-month period using an intraoperative whole-liver irradiation model. Liver function tests were performed in blood samples, whereas cell death, cell proliferation, and fibrotic changes were evaluated pathologically in liver tissues, which were collected from irradiated rats 24 h, 1, 2, 4 and 40 weeks following administration of single irradiation doses of 0 (control), 15 or 30 Gy. The impaired liver function, increased hepatocyte number, and decreased apoptotic cell proportion observed in the 15 Gy group, but not the 30 Gy group, returned to control group levels after 40 weeks; however, the Ki-67 indexes in the 15 Gy group were still higher than those in the control group after 40 weeks. Azan staining showed a fibrotic pattern in the irradiated liver in the 30 Gy group only, but the expression levels of alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) in both the 15 and 30 Gy groups were significantly higher than those in the control group (P < 0.05). There were differences in the pathological features of the irradiated livers between the 15 Gy and 30 Gy groups, but TGF-β1 and α-SMA expression patterns supported the gradual progression of radiation-induced liver fibrosis in both groups. These findings will be useful in the future development of protective drugs for radiation-induced liver injury.

  15. The influence of LED rectal irradiation on IL-1α and IL-4 of experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. In this paper, the influence of IL-1α and IL-4 on the experimental ulcerative colitis by light emitting diode ( LED ) (λ: 632.8nm; power: 4.0mw) applied to colon directly were studied. Making 30 rats into 3 groups: LED curative group, model group, normal control group. There were 10 rats of each group. We used glacial acetic acid (5%) and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) (1%) intra-anally to replicate the rat model of ulcerative colitis. After a week treatment with administrating LED rectal irradiation to curative group, 30mm each time, once per day, the histopathological studies in colonic tissue were performed, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα and IL-4 in colonic tissues were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The extent of the Colonic tissue injury in LED curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Compared with model group, the content of MDA in LED curative group was reductived and the activity of SOD was increased significantly, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα in LED curative group was depressed significantly, however the expression and distribution of IL-4 in LED curative group was increased obviously. This results show that the LED rectal irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats, and suggest that the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation and immunomodulation of LED.

  16. Intra-oral administration of rebamipide liquid prevents tongue injuries induced by X-ray irradiation in rats.

    PubMed

    Nakashima, Takako; Uematsu, Naoya; Sakurai, Kazushi

    2017-07-01

    Oral mucositis is a common and serious side effect in patients who undergo cytotoxic cancer therapies. The purpose of this study was to investigate the preventive effects of rebamipide on radiation-induced glossitis model in rats. Glossitis was induced by a single dose of 15 Gy of X-rays to the snouts of rats (day 0). A novel form of rebamipide liquid comprising its submicronized crystals was administered intra-orally. The preventive effect of rebamipide on tongue injuries was macroscopically evaluated on day 7 following irradiation. The pretreatment period, dosing frequency, and dose dependency of rebamipide were examined. Two percent rebamipide liquid, administered six times a day for 14 days from day -7 to day 6, significantly decreased the ulcer-like area. However, no significant effect was observed when rebamipide was given either from day -4 or from day -1. Four or six times daily, 2% rebamipide liquid significantly inhibited the ulcer-like injury area ratio, but not when given twice daily. Rebamipide liquid, 1, 2, and 4% six times daily significantly reduced the area ratios of total injury and ulcer-like injury in a dose-dependent manner. Gene expression and protein levels of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines were dramatically elevated in the irradiated tongues of control rats on day 7 without rebamipide liquid treatment. They were dose-dependently and significantly suppressed in rebamipide-treated groups. Intra-oral administration of rebamipide liquid prevented oral mucositis dose-dependently accompanied by the suppression of inflammatory expression in the radiation-induced rats' glossitis model.

  17. The effect of Cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats (a preliminary study)

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background and purpose of the study The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of cinnamaldehyde on mucositis and salivary total antioxidant capacity in gamma-irradiated rats. Methods The study was conducted on 28 male Wistar rats, 7–11 weeks of age and 160 ± 20 g body weight, divided into four groups of seven rats each. The first group receiving normal saline (S), the second group receiving saline and gamma radiation (SR), the third group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% (C), and the fourth group receiving 50 mg/kg cinnamaldehyde 98% and gamma radiation (CR). SR and CR groups were exposed to 15 Gy gamma irradiation for 7 min and 39 s. Rats were intraperitoneally injected each day during the 10-day period of the experiment, and their tongues and lips were examined to assess the incidence and severity of mucositis. The saliva samples were taken from the animals three times on day zero, six, and ten. Results The mean mucositis incidence appeared to be delayed in the CR than the SR group (P = 0.024), and the severity was significantly higher in the SR compared to the CR group;the difference was statistically significant on the second day (P = 0.027). In the evaluation of salivary antioxidant capacity, salivary antioxidant concentration was significantly higher in the C than the S, SR, and CR groups on the tenth day of the experiment (p <0.05). Conclusion The clinical effects in the CR group seem to be due to antioxidant, anti-bacterial and anti-inflammatory effects of cinnamaldehyde; this conclusion, however, requires further investigations. Delayed antioxidant effect in the CR group was evident in ip cinnamaldehyde injection, the exact mechanism is not clear. PMID:23351595

  18. Identification and determination of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 in the blood and liver of vitamin D-deficient rats irradiated with ultraviolet light.

    PubMed

    Okano, T; Mizuno, K; Kobayashi, T

    1978-01-01

    The intestinal calcium transport activity and serum calcium and phosphorous concentrations of vitamin D-deficient rats were increased by irradiation with an ultraviolet (UV) lamp. The existence of 25-hydroxyvitamin D3(25-OH-D3) in their bloods and livers was physicochemically confirmed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), gas-liquid chromatography (GLC) and mass fragmentography, whereas the compound could not be detected in the tissues of non-irradiated rats. The results strongly suggested that vitamin D3 in vivo generated in irradiated rat skin might be normally metabolized and utilized to prevent rickets. The level of 25-OH-D3 in the tissues was determined by a HPLC method.

  19. Enhanced heat shock protein 25 immunoreactivity in cranial nerve motoneurons and their related fiber tracts in rats prenatally-exposed to X-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Sawada, Kazuhiko; Saito, Shigeyoshi; Horiuchi-Hirose, Miwa; Murase, Kenya

    2014-05-01

    Alterations in histoarchitecture of the brainstem were examined immunohistochemically in 4-week-old rats with a single whole body X-irradiation at a dose of 0.5, 1.0, or 1.5 Gy on embryonic day (ED) 15 using anti-heat shock protein 25 (HSP25). HSP25 immunostaining was seen in the neuronal perikarya of cranial nerve motoneurons, that is, the motor and mesencephalic nuclei of the trigeminal nerve, facial nucleus, abducens nucleus and accessory facial nucleus in the pons, and the ambiguous nucleus, dorsal nucleus of vagus nerve and hypoglossus nucleus in the medulla oblongata of intact controls. In 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, HSP25 immunostaining in those neurons was more intense than in controls, while the most intense immunostaining was marked in 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. HSP25 immunostaining was also apparent in the spinal tract of the trigeminal nerve and facial nerve tracts in 0.5 to 1.5 Gy-irradiated rats, but was faint in controls. Interestingly, HSP25 immunostaining was aberrantly enhanced in dendritic arbors in the magnocellular region of medial vestibular nucleus of 0.5-1.5 Gy-irradiated rats. Those arbors were identified as excitatory secondary vestibulo-ocular neurons by double immunofluorescence for HSP25 and SMI-32. The results suggest an increase of HSP25 expression in cranial nerve motoneurons and their related fiber tracts from prenatal exposure to ionizing irradiation. This may be an adaptive response to chronic hypoxia due to malformed brain arteries caused by prenatal ionizing irradiation.

  20. Low-Level Laser Irradiation Improves Functional Recovery and Nerve Regeneration in Sciatic Nerve Crush Rat Injury Model

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Yeh, Ming-Long; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liang, Jen-I; Chen, Chia-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm2 and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm2. Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm2 had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm2. Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm2. Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm2 and 8 J/cm2) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury. PMID:25119457

  1. Low-level laser irradiation improves functional recovery and nerve regeneration in sciatic nerve crush rat injury model.

    PubMed

    Wang, Chau-Zen; Chen, Yi-Jen; Wang, Yan-Hsiung; Yeh, Ming-Long; Huang, Mao-Hsiung; Ho, Mei-Ling; Liang, Jen-I; Chen, Chia-Hsin

    2014-01-01

    The development of noninvasive approaches to facilitate the regeneration of post-traumatic nerve injury is important for clinical rehabilitation. In this study, we investigated the effective dose of noninvasive 808-nm low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on sciatic nerve crush rat injury model. Thirty-six male Sprague Dawley rats were divided into 6 experimental groups: a normal group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 8 J/cm(2) and a sciatic nerve crush injury group with or without 808-nm LLLT at 3, 8 or 15 J/cm(2). Rats were given consecutive transcutaneous LLLT at the crush site and sacrificed 20 days after the crush injury. Functional assessments of nerve regeneration were analyzed using the sciatic functional index (SFI) and hindlimb range of motion (ROM). Nerve regeneration was investigated by measuring the myelin sheath thickness of the sciatic nerve using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) and by analyzing the expression of growth-associated protein 43 (GAP43) in sciatic nerve using western blot and immunofluorescence staining. We found that sciatic-injured rats that were irradiated with LLLT at both 3 and 8 J/cm(2) had significantly improved SFI but that a significant improvement of ROM was only found in rats with LLLT at 8 J/cm(2). Furthermore, the myelin sheath thickness and GAP43 expression levels were significantly enhanced in sciatic nerve-crushed rats receiving 808-nm LLLT at 3 and 8 J/cm(2). Taken together, these results suggest that 808-nm LLLT at a low energy density (3 J/cm(2) and 8 J/cm(2)) is capable of enhancing sciatic nerve regeneration following a crush injury.

  2. PCR assay of DNA damage and repair at the gene level in brain and spleen of gamma-irradiated young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Ploskonosova, I I; Baranov, V I; Gaziev, A I

    1999-06-23

    The PCR amplification of fragments of transcribed (beta-actin, p53) and nontranscribed (IgE, heavy chain) genes in brain and spleen DNA from gamma-irradiated and unirradiated 2- and 28-month-old rats was studied. The amplification levels of fragments of these genes in DNA from old rats were substantially lower than those from young rats, which suggested that these gene fragments in old-rat DNA contained lesions blocking thermostable polymerase in PCR. The beta-actin and IgE gene fragments of spleen DNA from old rats exhibited a significantly higher level of lesions inhibiting Tth polymerase compared to analogous fragments of brain DNA from the same animals. DNA from the tissues of gamma-irradiated rats showed the amount of damage inhibiting amplification to be dependent on animal age and the postirradiation time before DNA isolation. As judged from the changes in the amplification level of gene fragments, there was no preferential fast repair of lesions in the actively transcribed gene beta-actin compared to the nontranscribed gene IgE (heavy chain) in the brain and spleen of gamma-irradiated young and old rats. The amplification results suggest that equal amounts of DNA lesions were repaired in the brain of both old and young rats during the first 0.5 h of the postirradiation time (fast-repair phase), whereas in the subsequent postirradiation period over 5 h (slow-repair phase), the efficiency of damage elimination in the brain DNA of old rats was markedly lower. As for the spleen tissue, the elimination of lesions blocking Tth polymerase was much lower in old gamma-irradiated animals for both of the repair phases.

  3. Transcranial low-level infrared laser irradiation ameliorates depression induced by reserpine in rats.

    PubMed

    Mohammed, Haitham S

    2016-11-01

    Transcranial low-level infrared laser is a modality of therapy based on the principle of photons delivered in a non-invasive manner through the skull for the treatment of some neurological conditions such as psychological disorders, traumatic brain injuries, and neurodegenerative diseases among others. In the present study, effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation with different radiation powers (80, 200, and 400 mW, continuous wave) were investigated on normal animals subjected to forced swimming test (FST). Results indicated that there are changes in FST parameters in animals irradiated with laser; the lowest dose provoked a significant increase in animal activity (swimming and climbing) and a significant decrease in animal's immobility, while the highest laser dose resulted in a complete inverse action by significantly increasing animal immobility and significantly decreasing animal activity with respect to control animals. The lowest dose (80 mW) of transcranial laser irradiation has then utilized on animals injected with a chronic dose of reserpine (0.2 mg/kg i.p. for 14 days) served as an animal model of depression. Laser irradiation has successfully ameliorated depression induced by reserpine as indicated by FST parameters and electrocorticography (ECoG) spectral analysis in irradiated animals. The findings of the present study emphasized the beneficial effects of low-level infrared laser irradiation on normal and healthy animals. Additionally, it indicated the potential antidepressant activity of the low dose of infrared laser irradiation.

  4. Long-term antihypertensive effects of far-infrared ray irradiated from wooden board in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Chien-Tsong; Lin, Ming-Ju; Chen, Yung-Pin; Lee, Ko-Chao; Huang, Kuo-Chin; Chang, Shun-Fu; Chen, Cheng-Nan

    2016-02-08

    Far-infrared ray (FIR) has been widely used in promoting health and has been shown to exert beneficial effects in vascular function. The non-thermal effect of FIR has been found to play a significant role in the protective effect on some vascular-related diseases, but its protective effects and use against hypertension have not been clearly presented. In the present study, by using a wooden board coated with FIR-irradiated materials, we evaluated the long-term antihypertensive effect on spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) in the environment in contact with the FIR-irradiated wooden board. SHRs were placed on the wooden board with or without FIR radiation for 4 weeks. The systolic blood pressure (BP) of SHRs undergoing different treatments was measured weekly using a tail-cuff method. FIR radiation significantly reduced the systolic BP of the SHRs along with a decreasing plasma level of angiotensin II and an increasing plasma level of bradykinin. In addition, long-term contact of FIR did not significantly affect the BP in normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKYs). Our results provided the evidence based on which FIR radiation could be considered an effective non-pharmacological choice for preventing hypertension.

  5. Anti-apoptotic and antioxidant effects of low dose gamma irradiation against diabetes-induced brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Rashed, Engy R; El-Daly, Menna A; Abd-Elhalim, Sawsan A; El-Ghazaly, Mona A

    2016-11-01

    The current study aimed to investigate the effect of different low doses of gamma irradiation on hyperglycemia-induced brain injury. The aim was further extended to investigate the sub-chronic effect of low dose radiation on the neuronal damage induced by diabetes. To induce diabetes, male albino rats were injected with dexamethasone (10 mg/kg/day, for 9 successive days, subcutaneously). Different diabetic groups were irradiated with 0.1, 0.25 and 0.5 Gy. The effect of low dose gamma irradiation on the hyperglycemia-induced brain damage based was analyzed at two levels: oxidative stress and apoptosis. The brain contents of glutathione, malondialdhyde and total nitrate/nitrite were measured to assess the oxidative stress. In order to evaluate the extent of the apoptotic changes in brain, tissue caspase-3 expression was detected using immunohistochemistry and the degree of DNA fragmentation was estimated. Moreover, brain tissues were examined using light microscopy to evaluate the histological changes in different groups and serum lactate dehydrogenase activity was determined as an indicator for the brain tissue damage. Results indicated that exposure to 0.5 Gy ameliorated the hyperglycemia and subsequently inhibited oxidative stress and apoptosis. Radiation exposure at this dose level also increased the survival rate of diabetic animals.

  6. Ameliorative effect of septilin, an ayurvedic preparation against gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative stress and tissue injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mansour, Heba Hosny; Ismael, Naglaa El-Sayed Rifaat; Hafez, Hafez Farouk

    2014-04-01

    Ionizing radiation is known to induce multiple organ dysfunctions directly related to an increase of cellular oxidative stress, due to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS). This study was aimed to investigate the effect of septilin (an ayurvedic poly-herbal formulation containing the principal herbs, namely Commiphora wightii, Trinospora cordifolia, Rubia cardifolia, Emblica officinalis, Saussurea lappa and Glycyrrhiza glabra) against whole body gamma-irradiation-induced oxidative damage in hepatic and brain tissues in rats. Administration of septilin for 5 days (100 mg/kg) prior to radiation resulted in a significant increase in both superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and total glutathione (GSH) level in hepatic and brain tissues, while serum high-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL) was reduced by gamma-irradiation. Also, septilin resulted in a significant decrease in NO(x), nitric oxide and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels in hepatic and brain tissues and a significant decrease in serum triglycerides, low-density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL) and total cholesterol levels and serum alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) levels and alkaline phosphatase (ALP), gamma-glutamyl transferase (GGT) activities, as well as serum tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), compared to irradiated group. In conclusion, data obtained from this study indicated that septilin exhibited potential antioxidant activity and showed radioprotective effect against gamma-radiation by preventing oxidative stress and scavenging free radicals.

  7. [Apoptotic cell death in rat embryo fibroblasts transformed by EiA + cHa-RAS oncogenes after gamma irradiation].

    PubMed

    Bulavin, D V; Tararova, N D; Aksenov, N D; Pospelov, V A; Pospelova, T V

    1998-01-01

    A mechanism of apoptotic death of normal rat embryo fibroblasts and of those transformed by E1A + cHa-Ras oncogenes following gamma irradiation has been investigated. The E1A + cHa-Ras transformed cells were shown to express wild type p53 which was able to trans-activate a reporter pG13-luc Plasmid. As a result of trans-activation, an accumulation of universal inhibitor of cyclin-dependent kinases--p21/Waf1 protein and an increase in the proportion of p21/Waf1 expressing cells were observed, The accumulated p21/Waf1 was found to bind with PCNA. The association with PCNA, however, did not lead to suppression of DNA replication according to the data of iododeoxyuridine (IdUr) incorporation. A high proportion of S-phase cells, in combination with cell cycle blocking in G2-phase, promoted polyploidization of E1A + cHa-Ras transformed cells after gamma irradiation. The polyploidic cells with DNA content equal and higher than 8c die 48-72 h following irradiation due to apoptosis. A significant proportion of E1A + cHa-Ras cells with incorporated IdUr contains labeled micronuclei, the fact being a morphological evidence of apoptosis of cells in S-phase of the cell cycle.

  8. A synthetic superoxide dismutase/catalase mimetic EUK-207 mitigates radiation dermatitis and promotes wound healing in irradiated rat skin

    PubMed Central

    Doctrow, Susan R.; Lopez, Argelia; Schock, Ashley M.; Duncan, Nathan E.; Jourdan, Megan M.; Olasz, Edit B.; Moulder, John E.; Fish, Brian L.; Mäder, Marylou; Lazar, Jozef; Lazarova, Zelmira

    2012-01-01

    In the event of a radionuclear attack or nuclear accident, the skin would be the first barrier exposed to radiation, though skin injury can progress over days to years following exposure. Chronic oxidative stress has been implicated as being a potential contributor to the progression of delayed radiation-induced injury to skin and other organs. To examine the causative role of oxidative stress in delayed radiation-induced skin injury, including impaired wound healing, we tested a synthetic superoxide dismutase (SOD)/catalase mimetic, EUK-207, in a rat model of combined skin irradiation and wound injury. Administered systemically, beginning 48 h after irradiation, EUK-207 mitigated radiation dermatitis, suppressed indicators of tissue oxidative stress, and enhanced wound healing. Evaluation of gene expression in irradiated skin at 30 days after exposure revealed a significant upregulation of several key genes involved in detoxication of reactive oxygen and nitrogen species. This gene expression pattern was primarily reversed by EUK-207 therapy. These results demonstrate that oxidative stress plays a critical role in the progression of radiation-induced skin injury, and that the injury can be mitigated by appropriate antioxidant compounds administered 48 h after exposure. PMID:23190879

  9. Developmental disturbance of rat cerebral cortex following prenatal low-dose gamma-irradiation: a quantitative study

    SciTech Connect

    Fukui, Y.; Hoshino, K.; Hayasaka, I.; Inouye, M.; Kameyama, Y. )

    1991-06-01

    Pregnant rats were exposed to a single whole-body gamma-irradiation on Day 15 of gestation at a dose of 0.27, 0.48, 1.00, or 1.46 Gy. They were allowed to give birth and the offspring were killed at 6 or 12 weeks of age for microscopic and electron microscopic examinations of the cerebrum. Their body weight, brain weight, cortical thickness, and numerical densities of whole cells and synapses in somatosensory cortex were examined. Growth of the dendritic arborization of layer V pyramidal cells was also examined quantitatively with Golgi-Cox specimens. A significant dose-related reduction in brain weight was found in all irradiated groups. Neither gross malformation nor abnormality of cortical architecture was observed in the groups exposed to 0.27 Gy. A significant change was found in thickness of cortex in the groups exposed to 0.48 Gy or more. Cell packing density increased significantly in the group exposed to 1.00 Gy. Significant reduction in the number of intersections of dendrites with the zonal boundaries were found in the groups exposed to 0.27 Gy or more. There was no difference in the numerical density of synapses in layer I between the control and irradiated groups. These results suggested that doses as low as 0.27 Gy could cause a morphologically discernible change in the mammalian cerebrum.

  10. Effects of whole body CO60 irradiation on the male genital tract of gerbil (Meriones hurrianae), hedgehod (hemiechinus auratus Collaris), and house rat (Rattus rattus Rufescens).

    PubMed

    Dixit, V P

    1977-06-01

    1. The effects of 400 and 575 rads of whole body irradiation in gerbil (Meriones hurrianae), hedgehog (Hemiechinus auratus Collaris) and house rat have been studied with a view to compare the effects of irradiation on the desert mammalian species with those of domestic ones. 2. Typical signs and symptoms of radiation sickness, transient body loss and radiation mortality in gerbils and house-rats were apparent, whereas the hedgehogs were not affected at this dose level. 3. Extensive necrosis, exfoliation of seminiferous element, intertubular edema and shrinkage of the seminiferous tubule and Leydig cell nuclei in gerbils and house-rats were conspicuous in histological preparations. Mild regressive tubular lesions were also observed in hedgehogs treated with 575R. 4. Whole body irradiation depleted the RNA, protein and sialic acid contents of the testes. High cholesterol contens in the testes of irradiated gerbil, hedgehog and house rats identified this as the site of degenerating cells and fragments. 5. Reduced androgen production was confirmed in non active Leydig cells and decreased fructose contents in the seminal vesicles of gerbil and house rats. At 575 R dose level, hedgehog was comparatively radio-resistant. But at 875 R extensive damage to the reproductive organs could be noticed.

  11. The effect of essentiale on histones and nucleic acids in liver and blood-forming tissues of rats irradiated with gamma-rays.

    PubMed

    Kozurková, M; Misúrová, E; Kropácová, K; Haková, H

    1999-01-01

    In this paper, the influence of the hepatoprotective drug Essentiale on the target (normal and regenerating liver) and the non-target (spleen and bone marrow) rat tissues was studied after whole body irradiation with the dose of 5.7 Gy gamma-radiation. The application of the drug 24 h before irradiation alleviated all the radiation induced changes of the histones and nucleic acids in the normal and regenerating liver tissue. In the non-target tissues only mild radioprotective effect was observed. The application of the preparation 30 min after irradiation was less effective than the application before irradiation. The repeated application of Essentiale after irradiation did not increase the beneficial effect of the previous preparation application.

  12. Expression of TNF-alpha and TGF-beta 1 in the rat brain after a single high-dose irradiation.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Se-Hoon; Lim, Dong-Jun; Chung, Yong-Gu; Cho, Tai-Hyoung; Lim, Seong-Jun; Kim, Woo-Jae; Suh, Jung-Keun

    2002-01-01

    Cytokines and growth factors are important regulatory proteins controlling the growth and differentiation of normal and malignant glial cells. In this study, we investigated the expression and origin of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-beta 1) in the subacute brain injury after a single high-dose irradiation using 60 Sprague-Dawley rats. The right cerebral hemispheres of rats were exposed to a single 10 Gy dose of gamma rays using Ir-192. The radiation effect was assessed at 1 week, 2 weeks, 4 weeks, 6 weeks, and 8 weeks after irradiation, and the results were compared with those in sham operation group. Histological changes characteristic of radiation injury were correlated with the duration after the single dose irradiation. The loss of cortical thickness also increased with the lapse of time after irradiation. The TNF-alpha expression in the irradiated cerebral hemispheres was significantly increased compared with that in the sham operation group. TGF-beta 1 expression was also increased in the irradiated hemispheres. Immunohistochemical study revealed that TGF-beta 1 was expressed predominantly by infiltrating macrophages and astrocytes around the necrotic areas. These findings indicate that TNF-alpha and TGF-beta 1 may play prominent roles in the radiation injuries after a single high-dose irradiation. PMID:11961311

  13. Expression of activated ATF-2, CREB and c-Myc in rat colon transversum after whole-body gamma-irradiation and its contribution to pathogenesis and biodosimetry.

    PubMed

    Pejchal, Jaroslav; Osterreicher, Jan; Vilasová, Zdenka; Tichý, Ales; Vávrová, Jirina

    2008-04-01

    The purpose of our study is to examine phospho-ATF-2(Thr-69/71) (phospho-activating transcription factor-2, p-ATF-2), phospho-CREB(Ser-133) (phospho-cAMP response binding element protein, p-CREB), and phospho-c-Myc(Thr-58/Ser-62) (phosho-myelocytomatosis protooncogene, p-c-Myc) expression in irradiated rat colon transversum. Male Wistar rats were randomly divided to 28 groups and irradiated with whole-body gamma-radiation of 0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75, 1, 2, 3, 4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, and 10 Gy. Samples were taken 4 and 24 hours after the irradiation, immunohistochemically stained. P-ATF-2, p-CREB, and p-c-Myc expression was measured. We measured increased cytoplasmatic p-ATF-2 expression 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 10 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.5 - 1, 10 Gy. Increased cytoplasmatic p-CREB expression was found 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 9, 10 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.25 - 1, 4, 10 Gy. Increased p-c-Myc cytoplasmatic expression was found 4 hours after irradiation by 0.25, 0.75, 4, 5 Gy and 24 hours after irradiation by 0.75, 1, 10 Gy. Nuclear p-ATF-2, p-CREB, and p-c-Myc expressions were similar to their cytoplasmatic expressions. The detection of p-ATF-2 and p-CREB might be considered as a perspective biodosimetric tool for irradiated enterocytes in vivo. The use of p-c-Myc appears to be controversial due to the ambivalent expression values.

  14. Changes in activity of stress-realizing body systems as a result of terahertz irradiation at nitric oxide frequencies in albino rats under conditions of acute stress.

    PubMed

    Ivanov, A N

    2013-01-01

    We studied the effects of irradiation with teraherz electromagnetic waves at frequencies corresponding to nitric oxide emission and absorption molecular spectrum (150,176-150,664 GHz) on activity of the sympathoadrenal and pituitary-adrenal axes of the stress response in albino male rats under conditions of acute immobilization stress. It was shown that terahertz waves exert stress-limiting effect and are capable of reducing the levels of catecholamines, corticotropin, and corticosterone in male rats exposed to acute stress.

  15. Low-power laser irradiation in salivary glands reduces glycemia in streptozotocin-induced diabetic female rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Cíntia Yuki; Torres Schröter, Gabriella; Nicolau, José; Simões, Alyne

    2016-12-01

    Low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has been extensively employed to modulate inflammation in vitro and in vivo. Previous reports from our group indicated that LPLI might regulate glycemia in diabetic animals. Diabetes results in chronic hyperglycemia and therefore chronic inflammation by upregulation of inflammatory markers such as the high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) protein. Thus this study aimed to analyze the LPLI effects upon blood glucose levels, plasma insulin and HMGB1 concentrations in a diabetes experimental rat model. Streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats were irradiated in the salivary glands area with a diode laser applied at 660 nm, 70 mW, 20 J/cm(2) , 22.4 J, with a spot area of 0.028 cm(2) and its effects were evaluated. LPLI significantly reduced diabetic rat hyperglycemia, without changing insulin or HMGB1 plasma levels, but possibly by ameliorating the insulin resistance in these animals. These findings suggest that LPLI might have a systemic effect, but more studies are necessary to better understand its mechanisms. Fasting blood glucose measured by peroxidase-glucose oxidase (PGO) method (A), showing a reduction of diabetic animals glycemia after LPLI. LPLI probably reduced the hyperglycemia in diabetes by improving the insulin resistance in these animals (B). C n = 10, CL n = 10, D n = 7 and DL n = 8. Data are expressed as mean ± SD; * P < 0.05 vs. respective control group; # P < 0.05 vs. D group.

  16. Loss of albumin and megalin binding to renal cubilin in rats results in albuminuria after total body irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yammani, Raghunatha R; Sharma, Mukut; Seetharam, Shakuntla; Moulder, John E; Dahms, Nancy M; Seetharam, Bellur

    2002-08-01

    The role of the renal apical brush-border membrane (BBM) endocytic receptors cubilin and megalin in the onset of albuminuria in rats exposed to a single dose of total body irradiation (TBI) has been investigated. Albuminuria was evident as immunoblot (IB) analysis of the urine samples from TBI rats revealed excretion of large amounts of albumin. IB analysis of the BBM proteins did not reveal any significant changes in cubilin or megalin levels, but (125)I-albumin binding to BBM from TBI rats declined by 80% with a fivefold decrease (from 0.5 to 2.5 microM) in the affinity for albumin. IB analysis of cubilin from the BBM demonstrated a 75% loss when purified using albumin, but not intrinsic factor (IF)-cobalamin (Cbl) ligand affinity chromatography. Immunoprecipitation (IP) of Triton X-100 extract of the BBM with antiserum to cubilin followed by IB of the immune complex with an antiserum to megalin revealed a 75% loss of association between megalin and cubilin. IP studies with antiserum to cubilin or megalin and IB with antiserum to the cation-independent mannose 6-phosphate/insulin-like growth factor II-receptor (CIMPR) revealed that CIMPR interacted with both cubilin and megalin. In addition, TBI did not disrupt the association of CIMPR with either cubilin or megalin in BBM. These results suggest that albuminuria noted in TBI rats is due to selective loss of albumin and megalin, but not CIMPR or IF-Cbl binding by cubilin. Furthermore, these results also suggest that albumin and IF-Cbl binding to cubilin occur at distinct sites and that in the rat renal BBM, CIMPR interacts with both cubilin and megalin.

  17. Response of the central nervous system to boron neutron capture irradiation: evaluation using rat spinal cord model.

    PubMed

    Morris, G M; Coderre, J A; Hopewell, J W; Micca, P L; Nawrocky, M M; Liu, H B; Bywaters, A

    1994-09-01

    The response of the central nervous system to boron neutron capture irradiation, with either p-boronophenylalanine (BPA) or borocaptate sodium (BSH) as neutron capture agents, has been assessed using a rat spinal cord model. The mean latency times for the development of myelopathy after irradiation with the thermal neutron beam-alone, or in combination with BPA or BSH, were 23.7 +/- 0.3, 21.8 +/- 0.4 and 19.6 +/- 0.4 weeks, respectively. The radiation-induced lesion in the spinal cord was characterised by white matter necrosis. Due to the variations in the microdistribution of different neutron capture agents in body tissues, it was considered inappropriate to define the biological effectiveness of the high LET radiation, resulting from the 10B(n, alpha)7Li neutron capture reaction, relative to photon radiation, using the term 'relative biological effectiveness' (RBE). The term 'compound biological effectiveness' (CBE) factor was used as an alternative. ED50 values for the various irradiation modalities were calculated from probit fitted dose effect curves. Expressed as total physical absorbed doses these values were 13.6 +/- 0.4, 30.3 +/- 2.7 and 13.8 +/- 0.5 Gy after irradiation with the thermal neutron beam alone, or the thermal neutron beam in combination with BSH or BPA, respectively. The RBE of the thermal neutron beam was 1.4 +/- 0.04. The microdistribution of the two neutron capture agents played a crucial role in the determination of the overall biological effect, after thermal neutron activation. BSH, which is excluded from the CNS parenchyma by the blood brain barrier, had a low CBE factor value of 0.46 +/- 0.5. BPA, on the other hand, which crosses the blood brain barrier and distributes in the CNS parenchyma, had a higher CBE factor value of 1.33 +/- 0.16.

  18. Antinociceptive effect of linear polarized 0.6 to 1.6 microm irradiation of lumbar sympathetic ganglia in chronic constriction injury rats.

    PubMed

    Muneshige, Hiroshi; Toda, Katsuhiro; Ma, Dianli; Kimura, Hiroaki; Asou, Tomohiro; Ikuta, Yoshikazu

    2006-01-01

    Linear polarized near-infrared light created with linear polarized near-infrared light therapy equipment (Super Lizer HA-550, Tokyo Iken Co, Ltd, Tokyo, Japan) has been used for the treatment of various painful disorders in Japan. Irradiation near the stellate ganglion with a Super Lizer (ISGL) is an especially notable therapeutic method used with stellate ganglion block (SGB) or substitutes for SGB. ISGL is a safe, simple, well-tolerated, and effective treatment. We examined the effects of irradiation with a Super Lizer applied to an area near the lumbar sympathetic ganglia on the ligated side in a chronic constriction injury (CCI) model, which is believed to be an animal model of complex regional pain syndrome (CRPS). Rats showing thermal hyperalgesia in a radiant heat test 1 wk postoperatively were used in Experiments 1 and 2: (1) Thermal hyperalgesia of irradiation group (n = 11) was less than that of the control or nonirradiation (n = 11) group at 1, 3, and 8 h after irradiation; however, the effect disappeared 12 h after irradiation. (2) Daily irradiation (n = 16) and 1 wk (n = 14) from 7 days after nerve ligation significantly shortened the interval from thermal hyperalgesia until recovery. Rats showing mechanical hyperalgesia in the von Frey hair test 1 wk postoperatively were used in Experiment 3: 1 wk irradiation beginning 7 days after nerve ligation (n = 9) did not promote the recovery from mechanical hyperalgesia. We speculate that repeated ISGL may be more effective than a single ISGL in alleviating pain in CRPS patients. We cannot explain the discrepancy between the results obtained in Experiments 2 and 3. We believe the results of this study are relevant to the effect of ISGL for patients with upper-limb CRPS: irradiation near the lumbar sympathetic ganglia of the rat is effective for thermal but not mechanical pain in CCI.

  19. Orally active multi-functional antioxidants delay cataract formation in streptozotocin (type 1) diabetic and gamma-irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Randazzo, James; Zhang, Peng; Makita, Jun; Blessing, Karen; Kador, Peter F

    2011-04-26

    Age-related cataract is a worldwide health care problem whose progression has been linked to oxidative stress and the accumulation of redox-active metals. Since there is no specific animal model for human age-related cataract, multiple animal models must be used to evaluate potential therapies that may delay and/or prevent cataract formation. Proof of concept studies were conducted to evaluate 4-(5-hydroxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 4) and 4-(5-hydroxy-4,6-dimethoxypyrimidin-2-yl)-N,N-dimethyl-3,5-dioxopiperazine-1-sulfonamide (compound 8), multi-functional antioxidants that can independently chelate redox metals and quench free radicals, on their ability to delay the progression of diabetic "sugar" cataracts and gamma radiation-induced cataracts. Prior to 15 Gy of whole head irradiation, select groups of Long Evans rats received either diet containing compound 4 or 8, or a single i.p. injection of panthethine, a radioprotective agent. Compared to untreated, irradiated rats, treatment with pantethine, 4 and 8 delayed initial lens changes by 4, 47, and 38 days, respectively, and the average formation of posterior subcapsular opacities by 23, 53 and 58 days, respectively. In the second study, select groups of diabetic Sprague Dawley rats were administered chow containing compounds 4, 8 or the aldose reductase inhibitor AL1576. As anticipated, treatment with AL1576 prevented cataract by inhibiting sorbitol formation in the lens. However, compared to untreated rats, compounds 4 and 8 delayed vacuole formation by 20 days and 12 days, respectively, and cortical cataract formation by 8 and 3 days, respectively, without reducing lenticular sorbitol. Using in vitro lens culture in 30 mM xylose to model diabetic "sugar" cataract formation, western blots confirmed that multi-functional antioxidants reduced endoplasmic reticulum stress. Multi-functional antioxidants delayed cataract formation in two diverse rat models. These studies

  20. The action of a dietary retinoid on gene expression and cancer induction in electron-irradiated rat skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Fredric J.; Chen, Shuaili; Xu, Guijuan; Wu, Feng; Tang, Moon-Shong

    2002-01-01

    Current models of radiation carcinogenesis generally assume that the DNA is damaged in a variety of ways by the radiation and that subsequent cell divisions contribute to the conversion of the damage to heritable mutations. Cancer may seem complex and intractable, but its complexity provides multiple opportunities for preventive interventions. Mitotic inhibitors are among the strongest cancer preventive agents, not only slowing the growth rate of preneoplasias but also increasing the fidelity of DNA repair processes. Ionizing radiation, including electrons, is a strong inducer of cancer in rat skin, and dietary retinoids have shown potent cancer preventive activity in the same system. A non-toxic dietary dose of retinyl acetate altered gene expression levels 24 hours after electron irradiation of rat skin. Of the 8740 genes on an Affymetrix rat expression array, the radiation significantly (5 fold or higher) altered 188, while the retinoid altered 231, including 16 radiation-altered genes that were reversely altered. While radiation strongly affected the expression of stress response, immune/inflammation and nucleic acid metabolism genes, the retinoid most strongly affected proliferation-related genes, including some significant reversals, such as, keratin 14, retinol binding protein, and calcium binding proteins. These results point to reversal of proliferation-relevant genes as a likely basis for the anti-radiogenic effects of dietary retinyl acetate.

  1. The action of a dietary retinoid on gene expression and cancer induction in electron-irradiated rat skin

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Burns, Fredric J.; Chen, Shuaili; Xu, Guijuan; Wu, Feng; Tang, Moon-Shong

    2002-01-01

    Current models of radiation carcinogenesis generally assume that the DNA is damaged in a variety of ways by the radiation and that subsequent cell divisions contribute to the conversion of the damage to heritable mutations. Cancer may seem complex and intractable, but its complexity provides multiple opportunities for preventive interventions. Mitotic inhibitors are among the strongest cancer preventive agents, not only slowing the growth rate of preneoplasias but also increasing the fidelity of DNA repair processes. Ionizing radiation, including electrons, is a strong inducer of cancer in rat skin, and dietary retinoids have shown potent cancer preventive activity in the same system. A non-toxic dietary dose of retinyl acetate altered gene expression levels 24 hours after electron irradiation of rat skin. Of the 8740 genes on an Affymetrix rat expression array, the radiation significantly (5 fold or higher) altered 188, while the retinoid altered 231, including 16 radiation-altered genes that were reversely altered. While radiation strongly affected the expression of stress response, immune/inflammation and nucleic acid metabolism genes, the retinoid most strongly affected proliferation-related genes, including some significant reversals, such as, keratin 14, retinol binding protein, and calcium binding proteins. These results point to reversal of proliferation-relevant genes as a likely basis for the anti-radiogenic effects of dietary retinyl acetate.

  2. Administration of rat acute-phase protein α(2)-macroglobulin before total-body irradiation initiates cytoprotective mechanisms in the liver.

    PubMed

    Bogojević, Desanka; Poznanović, Goran; Grdović, Nevena; Grigorov, Ilijana; Vidaković, Melita; Dinić, Svetlana; Mihailović, Mirjana

    2011-03-01

    Previously, we showed that administration of the acute-phase protein α(2)-macroglobulin (α(2)M) to rats before total-body irradiation with 6.7 Gy (LD(50/30)) of X-rays provides the same level of radioprotection as amifostine. Here, we compare the cytoprotective effects of α(2)M and amifostine on rat liver. The potential of the liver to replenish cells destroyed by ionizing radiation was assessed by immunoblot analysis with antibody to proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). After irradiation, in unprotected rats PCNA decreased 6-fold from the basal level. In rats pretreated with either α(2)M or amifostine, PCNA was increased throughout a 4 week follow-up period, indicating that hepatocyte proliferation was unaffected. Since PCNA is an important component of the repair machinery, its increased expression was accompanied by significantly lower DNA damage in α(2)M- and amifostine-treated rats. At 2 weeks after irradiation, the Comet assay revealed a 15-fold increase in DNA damage in unprotected rats, while in α(2)M- and amifostine-treated rats we observed 3- and 4-fold rise in damage, respectively. The improved protection to DNA damage was supported by elevated activity of the antioxidant systems. Compared to untreated rats, pretreatments with α(2)M and amifostine led to similar increases in levels of the inflammatory cytokine IL-6 and the redox-sensitive transcription factor NFκB, promoting upregulation of MnSOD, the major component of the cell's antioxidant axis, and subsequent increases in Mn/CuZnSOD and catalase enzymatic activities. The results show that α(2)M induces protein factors whose interplay underlies radioprotection and support the idea that α(2)M is the central effector of natural radioprotection in the rat.

  3. [Experimental Evaluation of Radioprotective Efficacy of Synthetic Genistein on Criteria of Glutathione System and Lipid Peroxidation in Erythrocytes of Peripheral Blood in Irradiated Rats].

    PubMed

    Grebenyuk, A N; Tarumov, R A; Basharin, V A; Kovtun, V U

    2015-01-01

    The study was aimed to evaluate experimentally the radioprotective effectiveness of synthetic genistein in terms of the glutathione system and lipid peroxidation in erythrocytes of irradiated rats. The animals were exposed to single acute X-ray irradiation at a dose of 6 Gy. Genistein was administered intraperitoneally at 200 mg/kg 1 hour before radiation exposure. The irradiation caused the initiation of lipid peroxidation in the background depletion of reduced glutathione. Decrease by 25% in the number of malondialdehyde in the rats treated with genistein was registered 5 min after irradiation compared with the control. It is established thatl day after irradiation the level of reduced glutathione in the rats treated with genistein was 26% higher. However, intraperitoneal administration of genistein did not cause statistically significant changes in the activity of glutathione reductase, glutathione-S-transferase, or glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase during the whole period of observation. The results suggest that the radioprotective effect of synthetic genistein is implemented, along with other mechanisms, by stimulating the glutathione system and reducing the severity of lipid peroxidation.

  4. Effect of prenatal X irradiation on chemical components of DNA and DNA-protein crosslinks in rat cerebrum in the perinatal periods

    SciTech Connect

    Iwasaki, S.; Tanaka, H.; Arima, M.

    1987-04-01

    Wistar rats were X-irradiated in utero with 100 or 200 R on Day 13 of gestation. X Irradiation resulted in decreases not only in cerebral weight up to 15 days old but also in DNA content from Day 19 of gestation to 5 days old, and in a tendency to increase the ratio of protein to DNA in the perinatal period. The DNA contents of the homogenate, isolated nuclei, and chromatin of the cerebrum in the irradiated group were significantly lower than those in the control group. The ratio of protein to DNA at the nuclei, chromatin, and isolated DNA steps increased on irradiation. The total nucleoside content of isolated DNA determined by high-performance liquid chromatography was higher in the irradiated group than that in the control group on Day 21 of gestation but not on Day 19 of gestation. No new peaks were observed and no change in the guanine-cytosine content was seen on irradiation. X Irradiation resulted in decreases in the cytosine and deoxycytidine contents and an increase in the deoxyadenosine content. The formation of DNA-protein crosslinks in the cerebral chromatin as determined by a filter binding assay tended to increase in the irradiated groups.

  5. Gene Expression Analysis of Cultured Rat-Endothelial Cells after Nd:YAG Laser Irradiation by Affymetrix GeneChip Array

    PubMed Central

    MASUDA, YOSHIKO; YOKOSE, SATOSHI; SAKAGAMI, HIROSHI

    2017-01-01

    Endothelial cells and dental pulp cells enhance osteo-/odontogenic and angiogenic differentiation. In our previous study, rat pulp cells migrated to Nd:YAG laser-irradiated endothelial cells in an insert cell culture system. The purpose of this study was to examine the possible changes in the gene expression of cultured rat aortic endothelial cells after Nd:YAG laser irradiation using affymetrix GeneChip Array. Total RNA was extracted from the cells at 5 h after laser irradiation. Gene expressions were evaluated by DNA array chip. Up-regulated genes were related to cell migration and cell structure (membrane stretch, actin regulation and junctional complexes), neurotransmission and inflammation. Heat-shock 70 kDa protein (Hsp70) was related to the development of tooth germ. This study offers candidate genes for understanding the relationship between the laser-stimulated endothelial cells and dental pulp cells. PMID:28064220

  6. Low-intensity laser irradiation stimulates bone nodule formation via insulin-like growth factor-I expression in rat calvarial cells.

    PubMed

    Shimizu, Noriyoshi; Mayahara, Kotoe; Kiyosaki, Takeshi; Yamaguchi, Akikuni; Ozawa, Yasuhiro; Abiko, Yoshimitsu

    2007-07-01

    We previously reported that low-intensity laser irradiation stimulated bone nodule formation through enhanced cellular proliferation and differentiation. However, the mechanisms of irradiation are unclear. Thus, we attempted to determine the responsibility of insulin-like growth factor (IGF)-I for the action observed. Osteoblast-like cells were isolated from fetal rat calvariae and cultured with rat recombinant (r) IGF-I, IGF-I-antibody (Ab), and/or the cells were irradiated once (3.75 J/cm(2)) with a low-intensity Ga-Al-As laser (830 nm). The number and area of bone nodules formed in the culture were analyzed, and IGF-I expression was also examined. Treatment with rIGF-I significantly stimulated the number and area of bone nodules. This stimulatory effect was quite similar to those by laser irradiation, and this stimulation was abrogated dose-dependently by treatment with IGF-I-Ab. Moreover, laser irradiation significantly increased IGF-I protein and gene expression. The stimulatory effect of bone nodule formation by low-intensity laser irradiation will be at least partly mediated by IGF-I expression. (c) 2007 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  7. The effects of different schedules of total-body irradiation in heterotopic vascularized bone transplantation. An experimental study in the Lewis rat

    SciTech Connect

    Gonzalez del Pino, J.; Benito, M.; Randolph, M.A.; Weiland, A.J. )

    1990-12-01

    To evaluate the effects of irradiation on heterotopically placed vascularized knee isografts, a single dose of 10 Gy of total-body irradiation was given to Lewis donor rats. Irradiation was delivered either 2 or 6 days prior to harvesting or subsequent transplantation, and evaluated at 1, 2, and 4 weeks after grafting. Irradiation caused endothelial depopulation of the graft artery, although vascular pedicle patency was maintained throughout the study. Bone graft viability and mineralization were normal. Dramatic changes in the bone marrow were seen that included an increase of its fat content (P less than 0.001), and a concomitant decrease in bone marrow-derived immunocompetent cells. These changes were more prominent in recipients of grafts from day -6 irradiated donor rats. Total-body irradiation did not prejudice the use of vascularized bone grafts, and exhibited an associated immunosuppresant effect over the vascular endothelium and bone marrow. This may be a further rational conditioning procedure to avoid recipient manipulation in vascularized bone allotransplantation.

  8. Low-power laser irradiation fails to improve liver regeneration in elderly rats at 48 h after 70 % resection.

    PubMed

    Araújo, Tiago G; Oliveira, Alexandre G; Tobar, Natália; Moreira, Luciana R; Reis, Edmyr R; Nicola, Ester M D; de L Jorge, Gracinda; dos R Tártaro, Rodolfo; Boin, Ilka F S F; Saad, Mário J Abdalla; Teixeira, Antonio R Franchi

    2015-09-01

    The liver regeneration is an important clinical issue after major hepatectomies. Unfortunately, many organs (including the liver) exhibit age-related impairments regarding their regenerative capacity. Recent studies found that low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) has a stimulatory effect on the liver regeneration process. However, its effects in elderly remain unknown. Thus, this study aimed to investigate the main molecular mechanisms involved in liver regeneration of partially hepatectomized elderly rats exposed to LPLI. The effects of 15 min of LPLI (wavelength of 632.8 nm; fluence of 0.97 J/cm(2); total energy delivered of 3.6 J) were evaluated in hepatectomized elderly Wistar male rats. Afterwards, through immunoblotting approaches, the protein expression and phosphorylation levels of hepatocyte growth factor (HGF), Met, Akt and Erk 1/2 signaling pathways as well as the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) were investigated. It was observed that LPLI was not able to improve liver regeneration in elderly rats as evidenced by the lack of improvement of HGF and PCNA protein expression or phosphorylation levels of Met, Akt and Erk 1/2 in the remnant livers. In sum, this study demonstrated that the main molecular pathway, i.e. HGF/Met → Akt and Erk 1/2 → PCNA, involved in the hepatic regeneration process was not improved by LPLI in elderly hepatectomized rats, which in turn rules out LPLI as an adjuvant therapy, as observed in this protocol of liver regeneration evaluation (i.e. at 48 h after 70 % resection), in elderly.

  9. Combination effects of chronic cadmium exposure and gamma-irradiation on the genotoxicity and cytotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Bao, Yizhong; Chen, Honghong; Hu, Yuxing; Bai, Yang; Zhou, Meijun; Xu, Aihong; Shao, Chunlin

    2012-03-18

    This work investigated the effects of chronic cadmium (Cd) exposure combined with γ-ray irradiation on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity of peripheral blood cells and bone marrow cells in rats. Results showed that when the rats were exposed to low dose (LD) Cd of 0.1mg CdCl₂/(kgd) for 8 and 12 weeks, the Cd concentration in blood reached to 135-140 μg/L and no toxic effects on peripheral blood lymphocytes, white blood cells (WBC) and granulocyte-monocyte (GM) progenitor cells were observed except polychromatic erythrocytes (PCE) of bone marrow. Moreover, this chronic LD Cd exposure significantly decreased irradiation-induced micronucleus (MN) formation and hypoxanthine-guanine phosphoribosyl transferase (hprt) mutation in lymphocytes and PCE, while the combination of LD Cd exposure and irradiation induced the additive metallothionein (MT) protein expression in bone marrow cells. When the rats were exposed to a high dose (HD) Cd of 0.5mg CdCl/₂(kgd) for 8 and 12 weeks, the blood Cd level approached to 458-613 μg/L and an inflammatory response was induced, meanwhile, MN formation and hprt mutation were markedly increased, and the ratio of PCE/NCE (normochromatic erythrocyte) was significantly decreased. Furthermore, when the rats were exposed to HD Cd plus 2 Gy irradiation, additive toxic effects on MN formation, hprt mutation, PCE damage and GM progenitor cell proliferation were observed, while this combination treatment resulted in an obvious reduction of MT protein compared to HD Cd group. In conclusion, chronic exposure to LD Cd induced the adaptive response to irradiation in the genotoxicity of peripheral blood lymphocytes and PCE of bone marrow by the up-regulation of Cd-induced MT protein, but the combination of HD Cd exposure and irradiation generated the additive effects on the cytotoxicity and genotoxicity in peripheral blood lymphocytes and bone marrow cells. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  10. Role of immobilization of irradiated rats in the protective effect of bone marrow shielding

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Gronskaya, N. F.; Strelin, G. S.

    1982-01-01

    Rats were exposed to X-radiation to study the influence of immobilization and shielding of part of bone marrow during exposure on survival. It is concluded that (1) the beneficial effect of the stress factor (created by the immobilization of rats during exposure) can aggregate with the effect of bone marrow shielding and, under certain conditions, imitate the latter; and (2) the probability of the protective effect of immobilization should be taken into account when assessing the influence of bone marrow shielding.

  11. Prolactin and aging: X-irradiated and estrogen-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis

    SciTech Connect

    Ito, A.; Naito, M.; Watanabe, H.; Yokoro, K.

    1984-07-01

    Both sexes of inbred WF rats at either 8 or 28-60 weeks of age were exposed to 200 rad whole-body radiation, 2.5 or 5.0 mg 17 beta-estradiol (E2), or both agents The female rats treated with E2 alone or with both X-rays and E2 at 8 weeks of age showed a high incidence of mammary carcinomas (MCA), a large increase in pituitary weight, and a rise in serum prolactin (PRL) levels. However, the same treatments to males did not induce MCA despite a moderate increase in both pituitary weight and serum PRL. Ovariectomy prior to E2 treatment failed to modify the occurrence of MCA or pituitary tumors. When X-rays and E2 were given to female rats at 28-60 weeks of age, pituitary weight, serum PRL levels, and the incidence of MCA were unaffected. When the E2 pellet was kept for the first 24 weeks and withdrawn during the last 12 weeks, the incidence of MCA, pituitary weight, and serum PRL was low. It was concluded that: 1) the pituitary glands of young female rats were susceptible to E2 treatment but were insensitive in older females, and 2) the occurrence of MCA in female rats appeared to be promoted by elevated PRL levels secreted by E2-induced pituitary tumors. Mammary tissue of male rats was less sensitive to PRL levels in the development of MCA.

  12. Control of anoxic depolarization in rat brain by near-infrared laser irradiation and its monitoring by intrinsic optical signal imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Ashida, Hiroshi

    2012-03-01

    In brain anoxia or ischemia, spreading depolarization is a key event that deterimines brain tissue survival. After onset of anoxia/ischemia, impairment of energy metabolism causes anoxic/ischemic depolarization (AD), which considerably consumes energy, leading to acute neuronal death in the brain. Our previous intrinsic-optical-signal imaging for the rat brains showed that about 2 min after starting hypoxia, AD-related light-scattering waves were focally generated in the bilateral outermost regions in the cortex and spread toward the midline, indicating that AD can be monitored by lightscattering signal. The behaviors of the scattering waves were found to be correlated with the survival of the rats. In the present study, we used the scattering signal-based monitoring method for AD and examined whether near-infrared laser irradiation can control AD in the rat brains. The left hemisphere was irradiated with 808-nm laser transcranially at 7.5 mW/cm2 before (30 min) and during hypoxia. The onset time of the scattering wave (AD) was significantly delayed in the irradiated hemisphere when compared with that in the non-irradiated hemisphere (3.4 s, n=8). The area of AD spreading in the irradiated hemisphere was significantly smaller than that in the non-irradiated hemisphere (27-90% reduction at 10-50 s after AD onset). These results suggest that near-infrared light can delay and reduce anoxic depolarization in the brain, which is probably due to increase in the cerebral ATP by near-infrared laser irradiation.

  13. DNA damage in irradiated endothelial cells of the rat cerebral cortex. Protective action of cysteamine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Cerda, H.; Rosander, K.

    1983-08-01

    The induction and repair of DNA damage in single endothelial cells of rat cerebral cortex capillaries were studied in vivo and in vitro. Capillaries from the cerebral cortex were prepared in suspension, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, and treated with alkaline solution (unwinding of DNA). After neutralization the slides were stained with the fluorescent dye acridine orange and endothelial cell nuclei were evaluated in a microscope photometer. The intensity of the red fluorescence (from single-stranded DNA) divided by the green fluorescence (from double-stranded DNA) was used as a measure of DNA strand breaks. The results showed that most DNA strand breaks were repaired within 30 min postirradiation. A linear dose-effect relationship was found up to 18 Gy. Similar results were obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cysteamine administered 20 min before irradiation in vivo gave a protective effect on the cells studied. An EMF of 1.3 was determined.

  14. DNA damage in irradiated endothelial cells of the rat cerebral cortex. Protective action of cysteamine in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Cerda, H.; Rosander, K.

    1983-08-01

    The induction and repair of DNA damage in single endothelial cells of rat cerebral cortex capillaries were studied in vivo and in vitro. Capillaries from the cerebral cortex were prepared in suspension, embedded in agarose on microscope slides, and treated with alkaline solution (unwinding of DNA). After neutralization the slides were stained with the fluorescent dye acridine orange and endothelial cell nuclei were evaluated in a microscope photometer. The intensity of the red fluorescence (from single-stranded DNA) divided by the green fluorescence (from double-stranded DNA) was used as a measured of DNA strand breaks. The results showed that most DNA strand breaks were repaired within 30 min postirradiation. A linear dose-effect relationship was found up to 18 Gy. Similar results were obtained from in vitro and in vivo experiments. Cysteamine administered 20 min before irradiation in vivo gave a protective effect on the cells studied. An EMF of 1.3 was determined.

  15. Effects of prenatal X irradiation on the appearance of reflexes and physiologic markers in the neonatal rat

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-12-01

    Seventy pregnant adult Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to 1 of 12 exposure groups; 9th or 17th day irradiation at the 0-, 0.1-, 0.2-, 0.4-, 0.6-, or 0.8-Gy dosage level. On the first day of postnatal life, litters were reduced to a maximum of eight pups per litter. A total of 508 pups were observed for the age of acquisition of five reflexes (air righting, surface righting, visual placing, negative geotaxis, auditory startle) and the appearance of four physiologic markers (pinna detachment, eye opening, vaginal opening, testes descent). A dose-response relationship for alterations in reflex acquisition and physiologic marker appearance was observed due to exposure above 0.2 Gy on the 17th day of gestation. Therefore, 0.2 to 0.4-Gy exposure may represent a threshold range for exposure on the 17th day using these postnatal parameters.

  16. The contribution of late-generated neurons to the callosal projection in rat: a study with prenatal x-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensen, K.F.; Altman, J.

    1982-08-01

    Studies utilizing horseradish peroxidase tracing methods have suggested that there are species differences in the relative contribution of the different neocortical layers to the callosal projection. The present investigation utilized x-irradiation at different gestational ages to eliminate the late-generated neurons in the rat neocortex. The caudorostral gradient of reduction in the neuronal population of the supragranular layers is closely correlated with the gradient of reduction in the size of the corpus callosum. Furthermore, the callosal projection is absent in anteroposterior cortical segments in which the development of the supragranular layers was prevented without a reduction of the number of neurons in the infragranular layers of the neocortex. These results indicate that late-generated neurons residing primarily in the supragranular layers are essential for the formation of the corpus callosum.

  17. Polyvinyl Alcohol Hydrogel Irradiated and Acetalized for Osteochondral Defect Repair: Mechanical, Chemical, and Histological Evaluation after Implantation in Rat Knees

    PubMed Central

    Batista, N. A.; Rodrigues, A. A.; Bavaresco, V. P.; Mariolani, J. R. L.; Belangero, W. D.

    2012-01-01

    Polyvinyl Alcohol (PVA) hydrogel plugs were implanted in artificial osteochondral defects on the trochlear groove of rat knees. After 0, 3, 6, 12, and 24 weeks of followup, samples containing the implants were mechanically evaluated by creep indentation test, chemically, and histologically by optical microscopy. The mechanical test pointed towards an increase of the implant creep modulus and the chemical analysis exhibited an increasing concentration of calcium and phosphorus within the implants over time. Optical microscopy showed no foreign body reaction and revealed formation, differentiation, and maintenance of new tissue at the defect/implant interface. The absence of implant wear indicated that the natural articular lubrication process was not disturbed by the implant. The performance of the irradiated and acetalized PVA was considered satisfactory for the proposed application. PMID:23197982

  18. [Change in glutathione content in rat thymocytes under apoptosis induced by H2O2 or irradiation].

    PubMed

    Koval', T V; Nazarova, O O; Matyshevs'ka, O P

    2008-01-01

    Glutathione (GSH) content as well as GSH-peroxidase and GSH-reductase activity in isolated rat thymocytes X-irradiated in a dose of 4.5 Gy or treated with 0.1 mM H2O2 were studied in a period preceding the appearance of apoptosis morphological symptoms. The early adaptive response of thymocytes to radiation - increase of both GSH content and glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activity was revealed. On the contrary the rapid fall of GSH level in H2O2-treated thymocytes was observed simultaneousely with glutathione reductase inhibition and enhanced GSH consumption by glutathione peroxidase, this disbalance of GSH-dependent antioxidant system probably facilitates mitochondrial way of apoptosis.

  19. Effect of In-Ga-Al-P diode laser irradiation on angiogenesis in partial ruptures of Achilles tendon in rats.

    PubMed

    Salate, Ana C B; Barbosa, Gisele; Gaspar, Patrícia; Koeke, Paulo U; Parizotto, Nivaldo A; Benze, Benedito G; Foschiani, Daiane

    2005-10-01

    This study was conducted to analyze the effect of different irradiances of low-level laser therapy (LLLT) on angiogenesis after partial rupture of Achilles tendon of rats. Ninety-six animals were divided into three groups subject to treatment during 3, 5, and 7 days post-lesion. Thirty-two animals were used in each group. The groups were further divided into four subgroups with eight animals in each, receiving In-Ga-Al-P laser (660 nm) treatment at (1) mean output of 10 mW, (2) 40 mW during 10 sec, (3) a sham subgroup, and (4) a non-treatment subgroup. Each animal was subjected to a lesion of the Achilles tendon by dropping a 186-g weight from a 20-cm height over the tendon. Treatment was initiated 6 h post-injury for all the groups. Blood vessels were colored with India ink injection and were examined in a video microscope. Laser exposure promoted an increase in blood vessel count when compared to controls. The 40-mW group showed early neovascularization, with the greatest number of microvessels after three laser applications. The 10-mW subgroup showed angiogenesis activity around the same time as the sham laser group did, but the net number of vessels was significantly higher in the former than in the controls. After seven irradiations, the subgroup receiving 40 mW experienced a drop in microvessel number, but it was still higher than in the control groups. LLLT of different intensities seems to promote neovascularization in damaged Achilles tendons of rats after partial rupture compared to controls.

  20. Irradiation-induced effects on mast cells, neuropeptides, and atrial natriuretic peptide in the rat heart and lung: bases for further studies.

    PubMed

    Forsgren, K S; Cavén, A G; Hansson, M C; Larsson, F H; Kjörell, U K; Henriksson, R G; Franzén, L I

    2001-01-01

    We examined the effects of irradiation over the thorax of the rat on the mast cells, the neuropeptide-containing nerve fibers, and the expression of atrial natriuretic peptide in the heart and lung. The total doses were 20 to 36 Gy delivered as single doses or fractionated irradiation. Immunohistochemical and radioimmunoassay methods were used. The number of mast cells was much reduced in both the lung and heart in response to irradiation. A trend for lowering the atrial natriuretic peptide levels in plasma was noted both 1 day and 9 days after irradiation. In contrast to the situation in other organs (salivary and laryngeal glands, the intestine), no changes occurred in the immunohistochemical expression of neuropeptides. With these observations and those made in previous studies about the effects of radiotherapy on other organs, the functional significance and basis for further research in the fields are discussed.

  1. Effects of local irradiation combined with sunitinib on early remodeling, mitochondria, and oxidative stress in the rat heart.

    PubMed

    Sridharan, Vijayalakshmi; Thomas, Chanice J; Cao, Maohua; Melnyk, Stepan B; Pavliv, Oleksandra; Joseph, Jacob; Singh, Sharda P; Sharma, Sunil; Moros, Eduardo G; Boerma, Marjan

    2016-05-01

    Thoracic (chemo)radiation therapy is increasingly administered with tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI). While TKI have adverse effects on the heart, it is unknown whether combination with other cancer therapies causes enhanced toxicity. We used an animal model to investigate whether radiation and sunitinib interact in their effects on the heart. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received local heart irradiation (9Gy per day, 5days). Oral sunitinib (8 or 15mg/kg bodyweight per day) started on day 1 of irradiation and continued for 2weeks. Cardiac function was examined with echocardiography. Cardiac remodeling, cell death, left ventricular (LV) oxidative stress markers, mitochondrial morphology and mitochondrial permeability transition pore (mPTP) opening were assessed. Cardiac diameter, stroke volume, and LV volume, mass and anterior wall thickness increased in time, but only in the vehicle group. Sunitinib reduced LV inner diameter and volume in systole, which were counteracted by radiation. Sunitinib and radiation showed enhanced effects on mitochondrial morphology and mPTP opening, but not on cardiac troponin I, mast cell numbers or markers of oxidative stress. This study found no early enhanced effects of radiation and sunitinib on cardiac function or structure. Long-term effects remain to be determined. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  2. The treatment of peripheral nerve injuries using irradiated allografts and temporary host immunosuppression (in a rat model)

    SciTech Connect

    Easterling, K.J.; Trumble, T.E. )

    1990-10-01

    Irradiation of allografts prior to transplantation and host immunosuppression with cyclosporin-A were studied separately and in combination as means of lessening the rejection of transplanted peripheral nerve tissue. Lewis and Brown Norway rats were used in the animal model, as they differ at both major and minor histocompatibility loci. Sciatic nerve grafts (2.5 cm) were used and the animals were followed for 16 weeks after nerve grafting. The outcome was studied by functional measurements (sensory testing, gait analysis, joint flexion contracture, and muscle weight), as well as by measurements of biochemical and histologic parameters (hydroxyproline concentration and axon counts, respectively). Sensory testing was not reliable because of crossover innervation by the saphenous nerve. Evaluation by standard gait-testing techniques was found to be unsatisfactory. However, the allografted animals receiving cyclosporin-A had significantly smaller flexion contractures, compared to the allografted animals without immunosuppression (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 44 degrees +/- 13 degrees and 51 degrees +/- 13 degrees, p less than 0.005). Allografted animals receiving short-term cyclosporin-A had contractures that were not significantly different from those seen in isografted control animals (17 degrees +/- 12 degrees vs. 22 degrees +/- 15 degrees, NS). Muscle hydroxyproline concentration analysis revealed a lower hydroxyproline concentration among the allografted groups that received irradiated allografts, compared to groups receiving nonirradiated allogeneic grafts. The studies of muscle hydroxyproline concentration and muscle weight both showed substantial reinnervation, even in allografted animals without pretreatment of the grafts or immunosuppression of the recipient animal.

  3. Histologic effects of high energy electron and proton irradiation of rat brain detected with a silver-degeneration stain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Switzer, R. C.; Bogo, V.; Mickley, G. A.

    1994-10-01

    Application of the degeneration sensitive, cupric-silver staining method to brain sections of male Sprague-Dawley rats irradiated 4 days before sacrifice with 155 Mev protons, 2-8 Gy at 1 Gy/min (N=6) or 22-101Gy at 20 Gy/min (N=16) or with 18.6 Mev electrons, 32-67 Gy at 20 Gy/min (N=20), doses which elicit behavioral changes (accelerod or conditioned taste aversion), resulted in a display of degeneration of astrocyte-like cell profiles which were not uniformly distributed. Plots of `degeneration scores' (counts of profiles in 29 areas) vs. dose for the proton and electron irradiations displayed a linear dose response for protons in the range of 2-8 Gy. In the 20-100 Gy range, for both electrons and protons the points were distributed in a broad band suggesting a saturation curve. The dose range in which these astrocyte-like profiles becomes maximal corresponds well with the dose range for the X-ray eradication of a subtype of astrocytes, `beta astrocytes`.

  4. Radiation cataractogenesis induced by neutron or gamma irradiation in the rat lens is reduced by vitamin E

    SciTech Connect

    Ross, W.M.; Creighton, M.O.; Trevithick, J.R. )

    1990-09-01

    Although cataract of the eye lens is a known late effect of ionizing radiation exposure, most of the experimental work to date has concentrated on single, acute high doses or multiple, fractionated, chronic exposures. Many papers have dealt with biochemical alterations in metabolism and cellular components, with microscopic and electron microscopic lesions to the epithelial and cortical layers, and with clinical cataract formation. However, the minimum cataractogenic dose for rats has for many years been considered to be about 2 Gy for a single, acute dose of low LET radiation. Our purpose in designing this pilot study was three fold: firstly, to determine whether any physical damage could be detected after low, acute exposure to neutron radiation (10 and 100 cGy); secondly, to compare the relative effectiveness of fast (14 MeV) neutrons with gamma-rays; and thirdly, to investigate the possibility that vitamin E could protect the lenses from radiation damage. The results revealed that morphological damage was already discernible within minutes after exposure to neutrons or gamma-rays, that it became greater after 24 hours, that neutrons were more damaging than gamma-rays, and that vitamin E could effectively reduce the cataractogenic damage induced by ionizing radiation. Control, non-irradiated lenses with or without vitamin E, either in vivo or in vitro, showed no damage. Also, it appeared that in vitro irradiation was more damaging to lenses than in vivo irradiation, so this culture technique may prove to be a sensitive tool for assessing early damage caused by ionizing radiation.

  5. 5. Historic American Buildings Survey Roger Sturtevant, Photographer Apr. 5, ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    5. Historic American Buildings Survey Roger Sturtevant, Photographer Apr. 5, 1934 JACOB R. GIDDIS AND JOEL A. CUMBACK, MOUNTAIN VIEW CEMETERY, COLUMBIA - Grave Stones, Mountain View Cemetery, Bigler Street, Columbia, Tuolumne County, CA

  6. 12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    12. Historic American Buildings Survey Arthur C. Haskell, Photographer Apr. 1, 1939 (l) INT.- STAIRWAY, 4th FLOOR, LOOKING SOUTH - M.I.T., Rogers Building, 491 Boylston Street, Boston, Suffolk County, MA

  7. Revision of testing criteria for air cleaning unit of renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPPS.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Seung-Young

    2011-07-01

    Designing Air Cleaning Units (ACU) of an Engineered Safety Feature and normal atmosphere clean-up system at the renovated APR-1000 and APR-1400 NPP, and fuel cycle facilities in Korea, is required to meet the standards of ASME AG-1 (1997), ASME N509/N510 (1989) and KEPIC-MH (2001) to enhance the removal efficiency of aerosols and particulates from the effluents. The revised ACU testing criteria are allowed to use alternative challenge agents of the dioctyl phthalate and Refrigerant-11 for in situ testing of high efficiency particulate air filters and adsorption banks. The operability testing time of engineered safety feature (ESF) trains was changed from 10 h to 15 min. The activated carbon in adsorption banks should undergo laboratory tests at a temperature of 30 °C and relative humidity 95 %. The removal criteria of methyl iodide should be over 99.5 % for ESF and 99 % for normal systems. This paper provides the background of the changed criteria for designing and testing of the ACU system in nuclear facilities.

  8. Immunosuppression and tolerance after total lymphoid irradiation (TLI). [Mice, rats, monkeys, dogs, patients

    SciTech Connect

    Strober, S.; Gottlieb, M.; Slavin, S.; King, D.P.; Hoppe, R.T.; Fuks, Z.; Bieber, C.P.; Kaplan, H.S.

    1980-09-01

    The immunosuppressive effects of total lymphoid irradiation (TLI) in humans and in several species of inbred and outbred laboratory animals have been investigated. A unique property of TLI, the prevention of the graft vs. host disease, was used to induce transplantation tolerance in order to study the mechanism of altered immunity when the celluar basis of the TLI-induced immunosuppression was examined by means of the mixed lymphocyte response (MLR), no suppression of the MLR was observed when spleen cells from unirradiated or whole body-irradiated donors were used instead of donors given TLI. These results indicated that TLI induces a population of cells in the spleen that can nonspecifically suppress the MLR.

  9. Ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field irradiation during pregnancy leads to an increase in erythrocytes micronuclei incidence in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Amâncio Romanelli; Knakievicz, Tanise; Pasquali, Matheus Augusto de Bittencourt; Gelain, Daniel Pens; Dal-Pizzol, Felipe; Fernández, Claudio Enrique Rodriguez; de Salles, Alvaro Augusto de Almeida; Ferreira, Henrique Bunselmeyer; Moreira, José Cláudio Fonseca

    2006-12-03

    Mobile telephones and their base stations are an important ultra high frequency-electromagnetic field (UHF-EMF) source and their utilization is increasing all over the world. Epidemiological studies suggested that low energy UHF-EMF emitted from a cellular telephone may cause biological effects, such as DNA damage and changes on oxidative metabolism. An in vivo mammalian cytogenetic test, the micronucleus (MN) assay, was used to investigate the occurrence of chromosomal damage in erythrocytes from rat offspring exposed to a non-thermal UHF-EMF from a cellular phone during their embryogenesis; the irradiated group showed a significant increase in MN occurrence. In order to investigate if UHF-EMF could also alter oxidative parameters in the peripheral blood and in the liver - an important hematopoietic tissue in rat embryos and newborns - we also measured the activity of antioxidant enzymes, quantified total sulfhydryl content, protein carbonyl groups, thiobarbituric acid-reactive species and total non-enzymatic antioxidant defense. No significant differences were found in any oxidative parameter of offspring blood and liver. The average number of pups in each litter has also not been significantly altered. Our results suggest that, under our experimental conditions, UHF-EMF is able to induce a genotoxic response in hematopoietic tissue during the embryogenesis through an unknown mechanism.

  10. Evidences for amelioration of reserpine-induced fibromyalgia in rat by low dose of gamma irradiation and duloxetine.

    PubMed

    Shibrya, Eman E; Radwan, Rasha R; Abd El Fattah, Mai A; Shabaan, Esmat A; Kenawy, Sanaa A

    2017-05-01

    Fibromyalgia is a prevalent disorder characterized by chronic widespread pain and complex symptoms. This study was conducted to investigate the potential therapeutic effect of low-dose irradiation (LDI) alone or in combination with duloxetine on the reserpine-induced fibromyalgia in rats. Fibromyalgia was induced by administration of reserpine (1 mg/kg/s.c) for 3 consecutive days. Duloxetine (30 mg/kg, p.o) was administered 60 min before a forced swimming test (FST), and rats were exposed to a single dose of γ-radiation (0.5 Gy) 1 day before the FST. Reserpine significantly increased immobility time in the FST, decreased the amount of 5-hydroxytryptamine, dopamine, and norepinephrine in cerebral cortex. It also increased malondialdehyde and nitric oxide and reduced glutathione contents in brain tissue. LDI alone or combined with duloxetine completely antagonized reserpine-induced fibromyalgia as assessed by the measured parameters. One of the most significant findings in this study was that the therapeutic effect of duloxetine was more pronounced by its combination with LDI. A possible mechanism of action of LDI and duloxetine responsible for their therapeutic effect was discussed. On the basis of the presented evidences, it could be concluded that LDI alone or combined with duloxetine could be of value in the management of fibromyalgia.

  11. The Effects of Low-Power Laser Irradiation on Inflammation and Apoptosis in Submandibular Glands of Diabetes-Induced Rats

    PubMed Central

    Simões, Alyne; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Kuboyama, Noboru

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes can lead to dysfunction of the secretory capacity in salivary glands. Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands has been suggested to participate in chronic disorders such as diabetes and its complications. In this study, the expression of RAGE, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and advanced glycation end products (AGE), as well as the effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) in salivary glands of diabetic rats were evaluated, and the mechanisms involved were characterized. The expression of RAGE and HMGB1 at the protein and mRNA levels was observed in submandibular glands (SMGs) of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A diode laser was applied at 660 nm, 70 mW, 20 J/cm2, 0.56 J/point, with a spot area of 0.028 cm2 and its in vivo effects and the pathways involved were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis were performed for inflammatory and apoptosis markers. Diabetes up-regulates HMGB1/AGE/RAGE axis gene expression in SMGs that is associated with activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Interestingly, LPLI suppresses NF-κB activation induced by inflammation. LPLI also reduces diabetes-induced apoptosis. That effect was accompanied by decreased levels of Bax, and cleaved caspase 3, which were up-regulated in diabetes. Taken together, our data suggest that LPLI reduces diabetes-induced inflammation by reducing the induction of HMGB1, ultimately leading to inhibition of apoptosis in submandibular glands of diabetic rats. PMID:28099448

  12. The Effects of Low-Power Laser Irradiation on Inflammation and Apoptosis in Submandibular Glands of Diabetes-Induced Rats.

    PubMed

    Fukuoka, Cíntia Yuki; Simões, Alyne; Uchiyama, Toshikazu; Arana-Chavez, Victor Elias; Abiko, Yoshimitsu; Kuboyama, Noboru; Bhawal, Ujjal K

    2017-01-01

    Diabetes can lead to dysfunction of the secretory capacity in salivary glands. Activation of the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and its ligands has been suggested to participate in chronic disorders such as diabetes and its complications. In this study, the expression of RAGE, high mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) and advanced glycation end products (AGE), as well as the effects of low-power laser irradiation (LPLI) in salivary glands of diabetic rats were evaluated, and the mechanisms involved were characterized. The expression of RAGE and HMGB1 at the protein and mRNA levels was observed in submandibular glands (SMGs) of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. A diode laser was applied at 660 nm, 70 mW, 20 J/cm2, 0.56 J/point, with a spot area of 0.028 cm2 and its in vivo effects and the pathways involved were evaluated. Immunohistochemistry and western blotting analysis were performed for inflammatory and apoptosis markers. Diabetes up-regulates HMGB1/AGE/RAGE axis gene expression in SMGs that is associated with activation of the nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathway. Interestingly, LPLI suppresses NF-κB activation induced by inflammation. LPLI also reduces diabetes-induced apoptosis. That effect was accompanied by decreased levels of Bax, and cleaved caspase 3, which were up-regulated in diabetes. Taken together, our data suggest that LPLI reduces diabetes-induced inflammation by reducing the induction of HMGB1, ultimately leading to inhibition of apoptosis in submandibular glands of diabetic rats.

  13. Topical Administration of the Mitochondrial PTP Opening Inhibitor CoQ10 Prevents Apoptotic Cell Death Induced by UVC-Irradiation in Rat's Corneas and Rabbit's Retinas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papucci, Laura; Witort, Ewa; Schiavone, Nicola; Donnini, Martino; Lapucci, Andrea; Lulli, Matteo; Lazzarano, Stefano; Simoncini, Madine; Mazzoni, Tiziano; Falciani, Piergiuseppe; Capaccioli, Sergio

    2008-06-01

    We have previously demonstrated in vitro that ubiquitous free radical scavenger coenzyme Q10 prevents keratocyte apoptosis induced by excimer laser irradiation more efficiently than other antioxidants. We showed that its anti apoptotic property is independent of its free radical scavenging ability and is related to direct inhibition of PTP (permeability transition pore) opening and mitochondrial depolarization. Here, we demonstrate in vivo, that CoQ10 can efficiently protect rat's corneas and rabbit's retinas irradiated with UVC. Therefore, we propose application of CoQ10 as countermeasure to prevent micro radiation-induced eye damage during interplanetary space exploration.

  14. Effect of irradiation on cell transcriptome and proteome of rat submandibular salivary glands.

    PubMed

    Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; David, Ran; Neumann, Yoav; Krief, Guy; Deutsch, Omer; Zacks, Batia; Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

    2012-01-01

    Salivary glands (SGs) are irreversibly damaged by irradiation (IR) treatment in head and neck cancer patients. Here, we used an animal irradiation model to investigate and define the molecular mechanisms affecting SGs following IR, focusing on saliva proteome and global transcription profile of submandibular salivary gland (SSG) tissue.We show that saliva secretion was gradually reduced to 50% of its initial level 12 weeks post-IR. Saliva protein composition was further examined by proteomic analysis following mass spectrometry (MS) analysis that revealed proteins with reduced expression originating from SSGs and proteins with increased expression derived from the serum, both indicating salivary tissue damage. To examine alterations in mRNA expression levels microarray analysis was performed. We found significant alterations in 95 genes, including cell-cycle arrest genes, SG functional genes and a DNA repair gene.Tissue damage was seen by confocal immunofluorescence of α-amylase and c-Kit that showed an increase and decrease, respectively, in protein expression. This was coherent with real-time PCR results.This data indicates that IR damages the SSG cells' ability to produce and secrete saliva and proteins, and maintain the physiological barrier between serum and saliva. The damage does not heal due to cell-cycle arrest, which prevents tissue regeneration. Taken together, our results reveal a new insight into IR pathobiology.

  15. Changes in Expression of Injury After Irradiation of Increasing Volumes in Rat Lung

    SciTech Connect

    Novakova-Jiresova, Alena; Luijk, Peter van; Goor, Harry van; Kampinga, Harm H.; Coppes, Robert P. . E-mail: r.p.coppes@med.umcg.nl

    2007-04-01

    Purpose: To improve the cure rates of thoracic malignancies by radiation dose escalation, very accurate insight is required in the dose delivery parameters that maximally spare normal lung function. Radiation-induced lung complications are classically divided into an early pneumonitic and a late fibrotic phase. This study investigated the relative dose-volume sensitivity, underlying pathologic findings, and consequentiality of early to late pathologic features. Methods and Materials: We used high-precision, graded dose-volume lung irradiations and followed the time dependency of the morphologic sequelae in relation to overall respiratory function. Results: Two distinct pathologic lesions were identified in the early postirradiation period (6-12 weeks): vascular inflammation and parenchymal inflammation. Vascular inflammation occurred at single doses as low as 9 Gy. This translated into early respiratory dysfunction only when a large lung volume had been irradiated and was reversible with time. Parenchymal inflammation was seen after higher doses only (onset at 16 Gy), progressed into later fibrotic remodeling but did not translate into dysfunction at a 25% lung volume even after single doses up to 36 Gy. Conclusion: Our data imply that a low dose scattered over a large lung volume causes more early toxicity than an extreme dose confined to a small volume. Such findings are crucial for clinical treatment planning of dose escalations and choices for modern radiotherapy techniques.

  16. Dietary essential fatty acids and gender-specific behavioral responses in cranially irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Elkin, T David; Wollan, Michael O; Anderson, Stacy L; Gaston, Robert; Meyer, William; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Holloway, Frank A; Martin, Rex E

    2006-09-01

    Specific memory deficits, reduced intellectual processing speed, and a variety of social and behavioral problems have been implicated as long-term effects of cranial radiation therapy (CRT). These deficits are thought to be related to changes in brain cytology and structure associated with microvascular aberrations. N-3 fatty acids may serve as protectants in pediatric patients who receive CRT for brain tumors. Timed-pregnant rat dams were fed one of four diets that were identical in all respects, except for their essential fatty acid content. The dams were placed on these diets at the beginning of the third trimester of gestation and their pups remained on them throughout the study. The rats' behavioral response as judged by acoustic startle response (ASR) and neurocognitive response (performance in a radial maze, RM) were evaluated in relation to diet, gender, and CRT. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) female rats will show greater CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (2) dietary n-3 fatty acids will diminish CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (3) gender-specific differences would be dampened by n-3 fatty acids in the diet. All three hypotheses were partially supported. These findings are discussed in light of the potential neuroprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids.

  17. [Effects of single-dose external gamma irradiation on rat thyroid status as observed during the year].

    PubMed

    Nadol'nik, L I; Netsetskaia, Z V; Vinogradov, V V

    2003-01-01

    We studied the rat thyroid status depending on the dose of external radiation and the time passed after the exposure. The experiments were carried out on female albino Wistar rats. The doses absorbed amounted to 0.25; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 5.0 Gy. The animals were decapitated after 3, 6, 24 hours and 7, 30, 180 and 365 days following the radiation. The blood serum was assayed for the contents of thyroxin (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3) using a radioimmunological technique. The liver tissue was assayed spectrophotometrically for the activity of thyroid-induced NADP malate dehydrogenase (NADP-MDH). No changes were found in the blood thyroid hormone contents within short periods after the radiation effect. After 6 hours the T4 levels was 1.2-1.3-fold decreased in the blood of rats receiving the radiation doses of 1.0; 2.0; and 5.0 Gy. After a day the T4 concentration was diminished by 1.21-193-fold in all the experimental animals independently of the radiation dose and that of T3--in 2.0 Gy--and 5.0 Gy--irradiated group. After 7 days following the radiation the T4 and T3 contents remained to be decreased by 1.37-1.75 fold and those of NADP-MDH--by 1.3-1.8-fold in all the animal groups. In a month, the low dose-treated animals (0.25, 0.5, 1.0 Gy) showed the level of thyroid hormones reduced to the control values, whereas the 2.0 and 5.0 Gy--treated rats demonstrated this reduction only by 6 months. The decreased concentration of blood thyroid hormones was due not to the activation of their peripheral metabolism, but, probably, to inhibition of their biosynthesis in thyroid cells under conditions of radiation-induced activation of oxidative stress.

  18. Effect of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult.

    PubMed

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Moon Young; Lim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jongmin

    2012-06-01

    We previously reported that 710 nm Light-emitting Diode (LED) has a protective effect through cellular immunity activation in the stroke animal model. However, whether LED directly protects neurons suffering from neurodegeneration was entirely unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neuronal protection and neuronal outgrowth in an in vitro stroke model. Primary cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation and normal conditions. An LED array with a peak wavelength of 710 nm was placed beneath the covered culture dishes with the room light turned off and were irradiated accordingly. LED treatments (4 min at 4 J/cm(2) and 50 mW/cm(2)) were given once to four times within 8h at 2h intervals for 7 days. Mean neurite density, mean neurite diameter, and total fiber length were also measured after microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining using the Axio Vision program. Synaptic marker expression and MAPK activation were confirmed by Western blotting. Images captured after MAP2 immunocytochemistry showed significant (p<0.05) enhancement of post-ischemic neurite outgrowth with LED treatment once and twice a day. MAPK activation was enhanced by LED treatment in both OGD-exposed and normal cells. The levels of synaptic markers such as PSD 95, GAP 43, and synaptophysin significantly increased with LED treatment in both OGD-exposed and normal cells (p<0.05). Our data suggest that LED treatment may promote synaptogenesis through MAPK activation and subsequently protect cell death in the in vitro stroke model. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Effect of whole-brain irradiation on the specific brain regions in a rat model: Metabolic and histopathological changes.

    PubMed

    Bálentová, Soňa; Hnilicová, Petra; Kalenská, Dagmar; Murín, Peter; Hajtmanová, Eva; Lehotský, Ján; Adamkov, Marian

    2017-03-19

    Effect of ionizing radiation on the brain affects neuronal, glial, and endothelial cell population and lead to significant morphological, metabolic, and functional deficits. In the present study we investigated a dose- and time-dependent correlation between radiation-induced metabolic and histopathological changes. Adult male Wistar rats received a total dose of 35Gy delivered in 7 fractions (dose 5Gy per fraction) once per week in the same weekday during 7 consecutive weeks. Proton magnetic resonance spectroscopy ((1)H MRS), histochemistry, immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy were used to determine whether radiation-induced alteration of the brain metabolites correlates with appropriate histopathological changes of neurogenesis and glial cell response in 2 neurogenic regions: the hippocampal dentate gyrus (DG) and the subventricular zone-olfactory bulb axis (SVZ-OB axis). Evaluation of the brain metabolites 18-19 weeks after irradiation performed by (1)H MRS revealed a significant decrease in the total N-acetylaspartate to total creatine (tNAA/tCr) ratio in the striatum and OB. A significant decline of gamma-aminobutyric acid to tCr (GABA/tCr) ratio was seen in the OB and hippocampus. MR revealed absence of gross inflammatory or necrotic lesions in these regions. Image analysis of the brain sections 18-21 weeks after the exposure showed a radiation-induced increase of neurodegeneration, inhibition of neurogenesis and strong resemblance to the reactive astrogliosis. Results showed that fractionated whole-brain irradiation led to the changes in neurotransmission and to the loss of neuronal viability in vivo. Metabolic changes were closely associated with histopathological findings, i.e. initiation of neuronal cell death, inhibition of neurogenesis and strong response of astrocytes indicated development of late radiation-induced changes.

  20. Carbon Ion Irradiation of the Rat Spinal Cord: Dependence of the Relative Biological Effectiveness on Linear Energy Transfer

    SciTech Connect

    Saager, Maria; Glowa, Christin; Peschke, Peter; Brons, Stephan; Scholz, Michael; Huber, Peter E.; Debus, Jürgen; Karger, Christian P.

    2014-09-01

    Purpose: To measure the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of carbon ions in the rat spinal cord as a function of linear energy transfer (LET). Methods and Materials: As an extension of a previous study, the cervical spinal cord of rats was irradiated with single doses of carbon ions at 6 positions of a 6-cm spread-out Bragg peak (16-99 keV/μm). The TD{sub 50} values (dose at 50% complication probability) were determined according to dose-response curves for the development of paresis grade 2 within an observation time of 300 days. The RBEs were calculated using TD{sub 50} for photons of our previous study. Results: Minimum latency time was found to be dose-dependent, but not significantly LET-dependent. The TD{sub 50} values for the onset of paresis grade 2 within 300 days were 19.5 ± 0.4 Gy (16 keV/μm), 18.4 ± 0.4 Gy (21 keV/μm), 17.7 ± 0.3 Gy (36 keV/μm), 16.1 ± 1.2 Gy (45 keV/μm), 14.6 ± 0.5 Gy (66 keV/μm), and 14.8 ± 0.5 Gy (99 keV/μm). The corresponding RBEs increased from 1.26 ± 0.05 (16 keV/μm) up to 1.68 ± 0.08 at 66 keV/μm. Unexpectedly, the RBE at 99 keV/μm was comparable to that at 66 keV/μm. Conclusions: The data suggest a linear relation between RBE and LET at high doses for late effects in the spinal cord. Together with additional data from ongoing fractionated irradiation experiments, these data will provide an extended database to systematically benchmark RBE models for further improvements of carbon ion treatment planning.

  1. Large-area irradiated low-level laser effect in a biodegradable nerve guide conduit on neural regeneration of peripheral nerve injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Chiung-Chyi; Yang, Yi-Chin; Liu, Bai-Shuan

    2011-08-01

    This study used a biodegradable composite containing genipin-cross-linked gelatin annexed with β-tricalcium phosphate ceramic particles (genipin-gelatin-tricalcium phosphate, GGT), developed in a previous study, as a nerve guide conduit. The aim of this study was to analyse the influence of a large-area irradiated aluminium-gallium-indium phosphide (AlGaInP) diode laser (660 nm) on the neural regeneration of the transected sciatic nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats. The animals were divided into two groups: group 1 comprised sham-irradiated controls and group 2 rats underwent low-level laser (LLL) therapy. A compact multi-cluster laser system with 20 AlGaInP laser diodes (output power, 50mW) was applied transcutaneously to the injured peripheral nerve immediately after closing the wound, which was repeated daily for 5 min for 21 consecutive days. Eight weeks after implantation, walking track analysis showed a significantly higher sciatic function index (SFI) score (P<0.05) and better toe spreading development in the laser-treated group than in the sham-irradiated control group. For electrophysiological measurement, both the mean peak amplitude and nerve conduction velocity of compound muscle action potentials (CMAPs) were higher in the laser-treated group than in the sham-irradiated group. The two groups were found to be significantly different during the experimental period (P<0.005). Histomorphometric assessments revealed that the qualitative observation and quantitative analysis of the regenerated nerve tissue in the laser-treated group were superior to those of the sham-irradiated group. Thus, the motor functional, electrophysiologic and histomorphometric assessments demonstrate that LLL therapy can accelerate neural repair of the corresponding transected peripheral nerve after bridging the GGT nerve guide conduit in rats.

  2. Rat model of fractionated (2 Gy/day) 60 Gy irradiation of the liver: long-term effects.

    PubMed

    Rave-Fränk, Margret; Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed; Christiansen, Hans; Naz, Naila; Sultan, Sadaf; Amanzada, Ahmad; Blaschke, Martina; Cameron, Silke; Ahmad, Shakil; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Ramadori, Giuliano; Moriconi, Federico

    2013-08-01

    The liver is considered a radiosensitive organ. However, in rats, high single-dose irradiation (HDI) showed only mild effects. Consequences of fractionated irradiation (FI) in such an animal model have not been studied so far. Rats were exposed to selective liver FI (total dose 60 Gy, 2 Gy/day) or HDI (25 Gy) and were killed three months after the end of irradiation. To study acute effects, HDI-treated rats were additionally killed at several time points between 1 and 48 h. Three months after irradiation, no differences between FI and HDI treatment were found for macroscopically detectable small "scars" on the liver surface and for an increased number of neutrophil granulocytes distributed in the portal fields and through the liver parenchyma. As well, no changes in HE-stained tissues or clear signs of fibrosis were found around the portal vessels. Differences were seen for the number of bile ducts being increased in FI- but not in HDI-treated livers. Serum levels indicative of liver damage were determined for alkaline phosphatase (AP), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT), gamma-glutamyltransferase (γGT) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH). A significant increase of AP was detected only after FI while HDI led to the significant increases of AST and LDH serum levels. By performing RT-PCR, we detected up-regulation of matrix metalloproteinases, MMP-2, MMP-9, MMP-14, and of their inhibitors, TIMP-1, TIMP-2 and TIMP-3, shortly after HDI, but not at 3 month after FI or HDI. Overall, we saw punctual differences after FI and HDI, and a diffuse formation of small scars at the liver surface. Lack of "provisional clot"-formation and absence of recruitment of mononuclear phagocytes could be one explanation for scar formation as incomplete repair response to irradiation.

  3. Effect of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neurite outgrowth in primary rat cortical neurons following ischemic insult

    SciTech Connect

    Choi, Dong-Hee; Lee, Kyoung-Hee; Kim, Ji-Hye; Kim, Moon Young; Lim, Jeong Hoon; Lee, Jongmin

    2012-06-01

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer 710 nm wavelength light (LED) has a protective effect in the stroke animal model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We determined the effects of LED irradiation in vitro stroke model. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment promotes the neurite outgrowth through MAPK activation. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The level of synaptic markers significantly increased with LED treatment. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer LED treatment protects cell death in the in vitro stroke model. -- Abstract: Objective: We previously reported that 710 nm Light-emitting Diode (LED) has a protective effect through cellular immunity activation in the stroke animal model. However, whether LED directly protects neurons suffering from neurodegeneration was entirely unknown. Therefore, we sought to determine the effects of 710 nm visible light irradiation on neuronal protection and neuronal outgrowth in an in vitro stroke model. Materials and methods: Primary cultured rat cortical neurons were exposed to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and reoxygenation and normal conditions. An LED array with a peak wavelength of 710 nm was placed beneath the covered culture dishes with the room light turned off and were irradiated accordingly. LED treatments (4 min at 4 J/cm{sup 2} and 50 mW/cm{sup 2}) were given once to four times within 8 h at 2 h intervals for 7 days. Mean neurite density, mean neurite diameter, and total fiber length were also measured after microtubule associated protein 2 (MAP2) immunostaining using the Axio Vision program. Synaptic marker expression and MAPK activation were confirmed by Western blotting. Results: Images captured after MAP2 immunocytochemistry showed significant (p < 0.05) enhancement of post-ischemic neurite outgrowth with LED treatment once and twice a day. MAPK activation was enhanced by LED treatment in both OGD-exposed and normal cells. The levels of synaptic markers such as PSD 95, GAP 43, and synaptophysin significantly

  4. Functional responses of the pulmonary endothelium to thoracic irradiation in rats: differential modification by D-penicillamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Molteni, A.; Ts'ao, C.; Solliday, N.H.

    1987-10-01

    Male rats were sacrificed 2 or 6 months after a range of single doses of gamma rays (0-30 Gy) to the right hemithorax. Half of each dose group consumed control feed continuously after irradiation, and half consumed feed containing the collagen antagonist D-penicillamine (10 mg/rat/day). Four markers of pulmonary endothelial function were monitored: angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) activity, plasminogen activator (PLA) activity, and prostacyclin (PGI2) and thromboxane (TXA2) production. Bronchoalveolar lavage (BAL) fluid also was obtained from the right lung, and was analyzed for macrophage number, and PGI2 and TXA2 concentration. Right lung ACE and PLA activities decreased linearly with increasing dose at both 2 and 6 months postirradiation, and penicillamine had no significant effect on either response. In contrast, PGI2 and TXA2 production by the right lung increased linearly with increasing radiation dose at both autopsy times. Penicillamine significantly ameliorated the increase in PGI2 production at 2 months, and the increase in TXA2 production at both 2 and 6 months postirradiation. Penicillamine dose-reduction factors (DRF) for PGI2 and TXA2 production were 1.3-1.4, and the response curve slope ratios were 1.7-2.5 (p less than 0.05). Penicillamine also ameliorated the dose-dependent increase in TXA2 concentration in the BAL fluid at 2 months. These data indicate that the four markers of radiation-induced pulmonary endothelial dysfunction do not respond identically to penicillamine dose-modification. Of the four markers, TXA2 production exhibits the most significant and widespread penicillamine sparing. TXA2 is a potent vasoconstrictor, promoter of platelet aggregation, and mediator of inflammation, and partial prevention of the radiation-induced hyperproduction of this eicosanoid may account in part for penicillamine's therapeutic action in this model.

  5. Alterations in rat cardiac myosin isozymes induced by whole-body irradiation are prevented by 3,5,3'-L-triiodothyronine

    SciTech Connect

    Litten, R.Z.; Fein, H.G.; Gainey, G.T.; Walden, T.L.; Smallridge, R.C. )

    1990-01-01

    Changes in cardiac myosin isozymes and serum thyroid hormone levels were investigated in rats following 10 Gy whole-body gamma irradiation. The percent beta-myosin heavy chain increased from 21.3 {plus minus} 1.8 to 28.1 {plus minus} 6.8 (NS) at 3-day postirradiation, 37.7 {plus minus} 1.9 (P less than .001) at 6-day postirradiation, and 43.8 {plus minus} 3.3 (P less than .001) at 9-day postirradiation. Along with the change in myosin isozymes was a significant 53% decrease (P less than .001) in the serum thyroxine (T4) level by day 3 postirradiation, remaining depressed through day 9 postirradiation. The serum 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) level, however, was normal until day 9, when significant depression was also observed. In contrast, the thyroid-stimulating hormone (TSH) level was significantly increased by fourfold at day 3, returning to near normal values by day 9 postirradiation. Daily injections of physiological doses of T3 (0.3 microgram/100 g body weight) prevented the change in the myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation. Daily pharmacological injections of T3 (3.0 micrograms/100 g body weight) to the irradiated rats produced a further decrease in the percent beta-myosin heavy chain (below control values) indicating tissue hyperthyroidism. Thus, this study suggests that the change in myosin isozymes following whole-body irradiation is caused by an alteration in thyroid hormone activity.

  6. Thirteen-week feeding study of thaumatin (a natural proteinaceous sweetener), sterilized by electron beam irradiation, in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Hagiwara, A; Yoshino, H; Sano, M; Kawabe, M; Tamano, S; Sakaue, K; Nakamura, M; Tada, M; Imaida, K; Shirai, T

    2005-08-01

    This study was designed to evaluate and characterize any subchronic toxicity of thaumatin sterilized by electron beam irradiation (5.0 kGy) when administered at dietary levels of 0% (control), 0.3%, 1.0% and 3.0% to groups of 10 male and 10 female Crj: CD (SD) IGS rats for 13 weeks. Separate groups of both sexes received 3.0% non-irradiated thaumatin. There were no treatment-related clinical signs or adverse effects on the survival rate, body weight, food consumption, water consumption and urinalysis, ophthalmology, haematology, or blood biochemistry data. No treatment-related alterations in gross pathology or organ weights were found in any group. On histopathological examination, sporadic spontaneous lesions known to occur in this strain of rats were the only findings, with no specific relation to the test substance. Thus, the no-observed-adverse-effect-level (NOAEL) was judged to be a dietary level of at least 3.0% (2502 mg/kg body weight/day for males, 2889 mg/kg body weight/day for females) for electron beam irradiated thaumatin under the present experimental conditions. It was concluded that electron beam-irradiation of thaumatin does not cause changes of any toxicological significance.

  7. Elevated expression of proto-oncogenes accompany enhanced induction of heat-shock genes after exposure of rat embryos in utero to ionizing irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Higo, H.; Lee, J.Y.; Satow, Y.; Higo, K. )

    1989-01-01

    We have recently found that the effects of exposing rat embryos in utero to teratogens capable of producing cardiac anomalies were expressed later as enhanced induction of heat-shock proteins (hsp70 family) when embryonic hearts were cultured in vitro. However, it remained to be determined whether heat-shock proteins are induced in vivo after exposure to teratogens. The heat-shock response in some mammalian systems is known to be accompanied by elevated expression of proto-oncogenes. Using gene-specific DNA probes, we examined the levels of the expression (transcription) of heat-shock protein genes and two nuclear proto-oncogenes, c-fos and c-myc, in the embryos removed from irradiated pregnant mother rats 4 or 5 days after the irradiation. We found that the levels of expression in vivo of the hsp70 and c-myc genes in the irradiated embryos increased by approximately twofold as compared with those in the control. The expression in vivo of the c-fos gene was not detected in either the irradiated or non-irradiated embryos. After 0.5-hr incubation in vitro of the embryos, however, the expression of the c-fos gene in the irradiated embryos was highly enhanced whereas the control showed no changes. Although the exact functions of these gene products still remain obscure, the enhanced expression of hsp70 gene(s) and the nuclear proto-oncogenes observed in the present study may reflect repair of intracellular damages and/or regeneration of tissue by compensatory cell proliferation, processes that may disturb the normal program of organogenesis.

  8. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation

    SciTech Connect

    Jensh, R.P.; Brent, R.L.

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  9. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on postnatal testicular development and function in the Wistar rat: development/teratology/behavior/radiation.

    PubMed

    Jensh, R P; Brent, R L

    1988-11-01

    It is evident that significant permanent tissue hypoplasia can be produced following radiation exposure late in fetal development. Because two organs, brain and testes, are developmentally and functionally interrelated, it was of interest to determine whether fetal testicular hypoplasia was a primary or a secondary effect of fetal brain irradiation. Twenty-four pregnant Wistar strain rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups, and a laparotomy was performed on day 18 of gestation. The fetuses received sham irradiation, whole body irradiation, or only head/thorax or pelvic body irradiation at a dosage level of 1.5 Gy. Mothers were allowed to deliver and raise their offspring until postnatal day 30, when the offspring were weaned. At 60 days of age, 74 male offspring were allowed to mate with colony control females of similar age until successful insemination or until the males reached 90 days of age, when they were killed. Testes were weighed and processed for histologic examination. Direct radiation of testes, due to whole body or pelvic exposure, resulted in testicular growth retardation and significantly reduced spermatogenesis. Breeding activity of the males and the percent of positive inseminations were also slightly reduced. However, a significant percentage of male offspring receiving direct testicular radiation did produce offspring. Head/thorax-only irradiation did not adversely affect testicular growth or spermatogenesis. Therefore, the use of histologic analysis as the sole determinant of infertility may be misleading. This study indicates that testicular growth retardation and an increased infertility rate result from direct prenatal exposure of rat testes to X-radiation and are not necessarily mediated via X-irradiation effects on the central nervous system.

  10. Increased expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF in the rat brain after gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Wei, Ming; Li, Hong; Huang, Huiling; Xu, Desheng; Zhi, Dashi; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yipei

    2012-03-01

    The extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) has been known to play a key regulatory role in pathological angiogenesis. A elevated activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) following radiation injury has been shown to mediate blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. However, the roles of EMMPRIN and VEGF in radiation-induced brain injury after gamma knife surgery (GKS) are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated EMMPRIN changes in a rat model of radiation injury following GKS and examined potential associations between EMMPRIN and VEGF expression. Adult male rats were subjected to cerebral radiation injury by GKS under anesthesia. We found that EMMPRIN and VEGF expression were markedly upregulated in the target area at 8-12 weeks after GKS compared with the control group by western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR analysis. Immunofluorescent double staining demonstrated that EMMPRIN signals colocalized with caspase-3 and VEGF-positive cells. Our data also demonstrated that increased EMMPRIN expression was correlated with increased VEGF levels in a temporal manner. This is the first study to show that EMMPRIN and VEGF may play a role in radiation injuries of the central nervous system after GKS.

  11. Increased Expression of EMMPRIN and VEGF in the Rat Brain after Gamma Irradiation

    PubMed Central

    Wei, Ming; Huang, Huiling; Xu, Desheng; Zhi, Dashi; Liu, Dong; Zhang, Yipei

    2012-01-01

    The extracellular matrix metalloproteinase inducer (EMMPRIN) has been known to play a key regulatory role in pathological angiogenesis. A elevated activation of vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) following radiation injury has been shown to mediate blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown. However, the roles of EMMPRIN and VEGF in radiation-induced brain injury after gamma knife surgery (GKS) are not clearly understood. In this study, we investigated EMMPRIN changes in a rat model of radiation injury following GKS and examined potential associations between EMMPRIN and VEGF expression. Adult male rats were subjected to cerebral radiation injury by GKS under anesthesia. We found that EMMPRIN and VEGF expression were markedly upregulated in the target area at 8-12 weeks after GKS compared with the control group by western blot, immunohistochemistry, and RT-PCR analysis. Immunofluorescent double staining demonstrated that EMMPRIN signals colocalized with caspase-3 and VEGF-positive cells. Our data also demonstrated that increased EMMPRIN expression was correlated with increased VEGF levels in a temporal manner. This is the first study to show that EMMPRIN and VEGF may play a role in radiation injuries of the central nervous system after GKS. PMID:22379341

  12. Dietary essential fatty acids and gender-specific behavioral responses in cranially irradiated rats

    PubMed Central

    Elkin, T David; Wollan, Michael O; Anderson, Stacy L; Gaston, Robert; Meyer, William; Fuemmeler, Bernard F; Holloway, Frank A; Martin, Rex E

    2006-01-01

    Specific memory deficits, reduced intellectual processing speed, and a variety of social and behavioral problems have been implicated as long-term effects of cranial radiation therapy (CRT). These deficits are thought to be related to changes in brain cytology and structure associated with microvascular aberrations. N-3 fatty acids may serve as protectants in pediatric patients who receive CRT for brain tumors. Timed-pregnant rat dams were fed one of four diets that were identical in all respects, except for their essential fatty acid content. The dams were placed on these diets at the beginning of the third trimester of gestation and their pups remained on them throughout the study. The rats’ behavioral response as judged by acoustic startle response (ASR) and neurocognitive response (performance in a radial maze, RM) were evaluated in relation to diet, gender, and CRT. The following hypotheses were tested: (1) female rats will show greater CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (2) dietary n-3 fatty acids will diminish CRT-induced neurocognitive and behavioral deficits; (3) gender-specific differences would be dampened by n-3 fatty acids in the diet. All three hypotheses were partially supported. These findings are discussed in light of the potential neuroprotective effects of n-3 fatty acids. PMID:19412484

  13. Effects of dose and dose protraction on embryotoxicity of 14.1 MeV neutron irradiation in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Beckman, D.A.; Buck, S.J. |; Solomon, H.M.; Gorson, R.O.; Mills, R.E.; Brent, R.L. |

    1994-06-01

    The embryotoxic effects of neutron radiation on rodent embryos are documented, but there is disagreement about the dose-response relationship and the impact of protracting the dose. Pregnant rats were exposed to total absorbed doses of 0.15 to 1.50 Gy 14.1 MeV neutrons on day 9.5 after conception, coincident with the most sensitive stage of embryonic development for the induction of major congenital malformations. In general terms, the incidence of embryotoxic effects increased with increasing total absorbed dose. However, the dose-response relationship differed depending on the parameter of embryotoxicity chosen, namely, intrauterine death, malformations or very low body weight. In a second study, embryos were exposed to a single embryotoxic absorbed dose (0.75 Gy) administered at a range of dose rates, from 0.10 to 0.50 Gy/h. The results offer no evidence that protraction of this selected dose significantly increased or decreased the incidence or pattern of embryotoxicity of the neutron exposure used in this study. The results do not support the hypothesis of a linear dose-response relationship for the effects of prenatal neutron irradiation that contribute to embryotoxicity for total absorbed doses of 0.15 to 1.50 Gy. 23 refs., 8 tabs.

  14. Chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute contribute to accelerated full-thickness wound healing in irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Jaafar, Hasnan; Asiah, Abu Bakar; Hassan, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation.

  15. In vivo study of laser irradiation of fractionated drug administration based mechanism for effective photodynamic therapy in rat liver

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Khurshid, A.; Firdous, S.; Ahmat, L.; Ferraria, J.; Vollet-Filho, J. D.; Kurachi, C.; Bagneto, V. S.; Nawaz, M.; Ikram, M.; Ahmad, M.

    2011-11-01

    Up-regulation of stress-activated proteins in cancer cells plays a protective role against photodynamic induced apoptosis. Post photodynamic therapy extracted normal rat liver tissue usually shows a fraction of surviving cells, the photodynamic resistant cells, residing in the necrotic region. To treat these photodynamic resistant cells a technique has been proposed based on fractionated drug administration of diluted photosensitizer, keeping the net concentration (5 mg/kg) constant, and subsequently varying drug light interval (DLI). Flourescence measurements were made for the presence of photosensitizer in a tissue. For qualitative analysis both histological and morphological studies were made. Although preliminary aim of this approach was not achieved but there were some interesting observation made i.e. for higher dilution of photosensitizer there was a sharp boundary between necrotic and normal portion of tissue. An increase in the absorption coefficient (α) from 2.7 → 2.9 was observed as photosensitizer was diluted while the corresponding threshold dose (D th) persistently decreases from (0.10 → 0.02) J/cm2 when irradiated with a 635 nm laser fluence of 150 J/cm2.

  16. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Hilmi, A.B.; Hassan, Asma; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-01-01

    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bilayer skin substitute and evaluates its effectiveness for the production of collagen bundles in an impaired healing model. Approach: Rats were exposed to 10 Gy of radiation. Two months postirradiation, the wounds were excised and treated with one of three skin replacement products: bilayer engineered skin substitutes, chitosan skin templates, or duoderm©. The collagen deposition was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: On day 21 postwound, the irradiated wounds displayed increased collagen bundle deposition after treatment using bilayer engineered skin substitutes (3.4±0.25) and chitosan skin templates (3.2±0.58) compared with duoderm (2.0±0.63). Innovation: We provide the first report on the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitutes using high density human dermal fibroblasts cocultured with HFSCs on chitosan skin templates. Conclusion: The high density of fibroblasts significantly increases the penetration of cells into chitosan skin templates, contributing to the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitute. PMID:26005597

  17. A Bilayer Engineered Skin Substitute for Wound Repair in an Irradiation-Impeded Healing Model on Rat.

    PubMed

    Mohd Hilmi, A B; Hassan, Asma; Halim, Ahmad Sukari

    2015-05-01

    Objective: An engineered skin substitute is produced to accelerate wound healing by increasing the mechanical strength of the skin wound via high production of collagen bundles. During the remodeling stage of wound healing, collagen deposition is the most important event. The collagen deposition process may be altered by nutritional deficiency, diabetes mellitus, microbial infection, or radiation exposure, leading to impaired healing. This study describes the fabrication of an engineered bilayer skin substitute and evaluates its effectiveness for the production of collagen bundles in an impaired healing model. Approach: Rats were exposed to 10 Gy of radiation. Two months postirradiation, the wounds were excised and treated with one of three skin replacement products: bilayer engineered skin substitutes, chitosan skin templates, or duoderm(©). The collagen deposition was analyzed by hematoxylin and eosin staining. Results: On day 21 postwound, the irradiated wounds displayed increased collagen bundle deposition after treatment using bilayer engineered skin substitutes (3.4±0.25) and chitosan skin templates (3.2±0.58) compared with duoderm (2.0±0.63). Innovation: We provide the first report on the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitutes using high density human dermal fibroblasts cocultured with HFSCs on chitosan skin templates. Conclusion: The high density of fibroblasts significantly increases the penetration of cells into chitosan skin templates, contributing to the fabrication of bilayer engineered skin substitute.

  18. Chitosan Dermal Substitute and Chitosan Skin Substitute Contribute to Accelerated Full-Thickness Wound Healing in Irradiated Rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohd Hilmi, Abu Bakar; Halim, Ahmad Sukari; Jaafar, Hasnan; Asiah, Abu Bakar; Hassan, Asma

    2013-01-01

    Wounds with full-thickness skin loss are commonly managed by skin grafting. In the absence of a graft, reepithelialization is imperfect and leads to increased scar formation. Biomaterials can alter wound healing so that it produces more regenerative tissue and fewer scars. This current study use the new chitosan based biomaterial in full-thickness wound with impaired healing on rat model. Wounds were evaluated after being treated with a chitosan dermal substitute, a chitosan skin substitute, or duoderm CGF. Wounds treated with the chitosan skin substitute showed the most re-epithelialization (33.2 ± 2.8%), longest epithelial tongue (1.62 ± 0.13 mm), and shortest migratory tongue distance (7.11 ± 0.25 mm). The scar size of wounds treated with the chitosan dermal substitute (0.13 ± 0.02 cm) and chitosan skin substitute (0.16 ± 0.05 cm) were significantly decreased (P < 0.05) compared with duoderm (0.45 ± 0.11 cm). Human leukocyte antigen (HLA) expression on days 7, 14, and 21 revealed the presence of human hair follicle stem cells and fibroblasts that were incorporated into and surviving in the irradiated wound. We have proven that a chitosan dermal substitute and chitosan skin substitute are suitable for wound healing in full-thickness wounds that are impaired due to radiation. PMID:24324974

  19. Collagen accumulation in irradiated rat lung: modification by D-penicillamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Shih-Hoellwarth, A.; Tuttle, R.D.

    1983-02-01

    The collagen antagonist D-penicillamine (10 mg/day, p.o.) significantly ameliorated radiation-induced hydroxproline (HP) accumulation in the lungs of rats killed 3, 6, 9, or 12 months after a single exposure of 25 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays to the right hemithorax. The beneficial effect of penicillamine was observed when HP values were expressed on the basis of wet weight, dry weight, or per whole lung and was not accompanied by significant changes in the size of the soluable (0.5 M citrate, pH 3.6) collagen fraction. This drug regimen had no effect on HP concentration in the shielded left lung and was apparently free of deleterious side effects.

  20. Collagen accumulation in irradiated rat lung: modification by D-penicillamine

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.; Shih-Hoellwarth, A.; Tuttle, R.D.

    1983-02-01

    The collagen antagonist D-penicillamine (10 mg/day, p.o.) significantly ameliorated radiation-induced hydroxyproline (HP) accumulation in the lungs of rats killed 3, 6, 9, or 12 months after a single exposure of 25 Gy of /sup 60/Co gamma rays to the right hemithorax. The beneficial effect of penicillamine was observed when HP values were expressed on the basis of wet weight, dry weight, or per whole lung and was not accompanied by significant changes in the size of the soluble (0.5 M citrate, pH 3.6) collagen fraction. This drug regimen had no effect on HP concentration in the shielded left lung and was apparently free of deleterious side effects.

  1. Effects of L-Glutamine oral supplementation on prostate of irradiated rats

    PubMed Central

    Pinto, Flavia C. M.; Costa, Waldemar S.; Silva, Pamella C.; de Souza, Diogo B; Gregório, Bianca; Sampaio, Francisco J. B.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Objectives To investigate the protective effect of L-Glutamine in animals undergone to ventral radiation when the target organ is not the prostate. Materials and Methods Wistar rats were divided into groups of 10 animals each: Controls (C), maintained under standard conditions and not exposed to radiation, Radiated group (R) undergone to abdominal radiation only and Radiated plus supplemented by L-glutamine group (R+G). The animals of group R+G were supplemented with L-glutamine at the beginning of the experiment until death in the 22nd day. The ventral prostate was dissected and processed for morphometrical analysis. The epithelial height, collagen density and acinar area were objectively assessed in histological sections. Results Epithelial height was significantly reduced in R group in comparison to C group (p= 0.005). However, there was no statistical difference between the C and R+G groups. Collagen surface density in the C and R groups were not statistically different, but a significant difference was observed when comparing groups R+G and R (p= 0.040). The R+G group values did not differ significantly from C group. The acinar prostate area of group R was similar to that of C (p= 0.971), but in R+G it was significantly reduced when compared with the C (p= 0.038) and R (p= 0.001) groups. Conclusions Pelvic radiation promotes structural modifications in ventral prostate of rats, which can be reduced by L-Glutamine. PMID:27286127

  2. Effect of Age at Exposure on the Incidence of Lung and Mammary Cancer after Thoracic X-Ray Irradiation in Wistar Rats.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Yutaka; Iwata, Ken-Ichi; Blyth, Benjamin J; Doi, Kazutaka; Morioka, Takamitsu; Daino, Kazuhiro; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2017-02-01

    Epidemiology studies have shown that children are at greater overall risk of radiation-induced cancer, but the modifying effect of age at exposure in different tissues is heterogeneous. Early epidemiology findings of increased lung cancer risk with increasing age at the time of exposure have been dismissed, with suggestions that the trend is an artefact from a failure to adequately correct for the effects of tobacco smoking. Yet, differing models used in subsequent analyses have shown that the increased susceptibility with age, counter to the overall solid tumor trend, can either be confirmed or discounted depending on the model parameters used. In this study, we analyzed the induction of tumors in female Wistar rats exposed to increasing thoracic doses of X-ray as neonates, juveniles or young adults, to allow the effect of age at exposure in this early period to be observed in the absence of any interactions with smoking. Histology was used to compare tumor subtypes among groups, and genomic DNA copy number alterations in a number of tumors arising after irradiation at different ages were examined. Induction of lung cancers increased with radiation dose, with the frequency of early occurring lung adenomas greater in rats irradiated at older ages. At the highest dose, the rats irradiated at 5 or 15 weeks of age showed increased age-specific rates of lung adenocarcinomas in later life compared to those irradiated at 1 week of age. However, thoracic mammary gland tumors induced by the highest dose at the later ages significantly decreased the lifespan in these groups, reducing the number of rats at risk of radiation-induced lung adenocarcinoma. There was no induction of mammary tumors outside of the irradiated field. Lung adenocarcinomas showed widespread DNA copy number aberrations at the chromosome level, but the only recurrent lesions were intragenic Fhit deletions and losses on chromosome 4. The results presented here suggest that the risk of radiation

  3. Site specific oxidation of amino acid residues in rat lens γ-crystallin induced by low-dose γ-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Kim, Ingu; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Takashi; Chatake, Toshiyuki; Fujii, Noriko

    2015-10-30

    Although cataracts are a well-known age-related disease, the mechanism of their formation is not well understood. It is currently thought that eye lens proteins become abnormally aggregated, initially causing clumping that scatters the light and interferes with focusing on the retina, and ultimately resulting in a cataract. The abnormal aggregation of lens proteins is considered to be triggered by various post-translational modifications, such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation and isomerization, that occur during the aging process. Such modifications, which are also generated by free radical and reactive oxygen species derived from γ-irradiation, decrease crystallin solubility and lens transparency, and ultimately lead to the development of a cataract. In this study, we irradiated young rat lenses with low-dose γ-rays and extracted the water-soluble and insoluble protein fractions. The water-soluble and water-insoluble lens proteins were digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by LC-MS. Specific oxidation sites of methionine, cysteine and tryptophan in rat water-soluble and -insoluble γE and γF-crystallin were determined by one-shot analysis. The oxidation sites in rat γE and γF-crystallin resemble those previously identified in γC and γD-crystallin from human age-related cataracts. Our study on modifications of crystallins induced by ionizing irradiation may provide useful information relevant to human senile cataract formation. - Highlights: • Low-dose γ-rays induced oxidation at specific residues in γE- and γF-crystallin. • The number of oxidation sites was higher in insoluble than soluble crystallins. • γ-Irradiation closely mimics the oxidation that occur in senile human cataracts.

  4. Alteration of spermatozoal structure and trace metal profile of testis and epididymis of rat under chronic low-level X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Chatterjee, J; De, K; Basu, S K; Das, A K

    1994-06-01

    This study investigates the short-term as well as long-term effects of low-level X-ray irradiation on the Spermatozoal structure and trace metal (Zn, Fe, Cu, and Cd) contents in the testis and epididymis of whole-body irradiated albino rats. Male rats were exposed to 0.675, 1.350, 2.700, and 4.050 cGy of X-ray intermittently in 45, 90, 180, and 270 equal fractions (each fraction of 0.015 cGy s-1), respectively. SEM study had revealed numerous fusiform swelling in sperm tail in most of the x-irradiated groups. Moreover, in 2.700 and 4.050 cGy dose groups, the tail sheath of several sperm were eroded out. In the TEM study, damage in microtubules of sperm tail in 4.050 cGy irradiated group was noted. The AAS study showed a transient increase in Zn content in 0.675 and 1.350 cGy dose groups, but its concentration was decreased in 2.700 and 4.050 cGy dose groups. Fe concentration was increased in all the cases in comparison to that of control group. Nevertheless, Cu and Cd contents were increased mostly in 2.700 and 4.050 cGy doses. Thus present findings probably throw some light regarding mammalian response threshold at low-level X-ray irradiation. Moreover, it raises questions regarding the validity of "safe dose ionizing radiation."

  5. Metabolic changes in rat lens after in vivo exposure to ultraviolet irradiation: measurements by high resolution MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Risa, Øystein; Saether, Oddbjørn; Löfgren, Stefan; Söderberg, Per G; Krane, Jostein; Midelfart, Anna

    2004-06-01

    In the present study, high-resolution magic angle spinning proton nuclear magnetic resonance (HR-MAS (1)H NMR) spectroscopy was used to investigate changes in the metabolic profile of intact rat lenses after UVB irradiation of the eyes. Three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to UVB radiation at 2.5, 5.0, and 7.5 kJ/m(2). One eye was exposed, and the contralateral eye served as the control. One week after exposure, the lenses were removed and forward light-scattering was quantified. Thereafter, proton NMR spectra from the intact lenses were obtained. Relative changes in metabolite concentrations were determined. The lenses in all three groups showed significant increases in light-scattering after UVB irradiation. The high-quality HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectra permitted more than 30 different metabolites to be identified. UVB irradiation caused a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in concentrations of taurine, hypotaurine, tyrosine, phenylalanine, valine, myo-inositol, phosphocholine, betaine, succinate, and glutathione at all three UV doses. For glycine, glutamate, and lactate, significant decreases in concentration were observed at the two lowest UVR-B doses. The total amount of adenosine tri- and diphosphate and (ATP, ADP) decreased significantly and that of adenosine monophosphate AMP increased significantly at the two highest doses. Alanine was the only amino acid that increased after UVB irradiation. None of these metabolites exhibited a significant UVB dose-dependent relationship. This study demonstrates for the first time the potential of HR-MAS (1)H NMR spectroscopy as an analytical tool for use on intact lenses. Near-threshold UVR-B doses led to a generally significant decrease in water-soluble metabolites 1 week after exposure. The lack of dose-dependent changes in the metabolites indicates that repair processes during the first week after UVB irradiation overcome the immediate metabolic disturbances.

  6. Delayed effects of neutron irradiation on central nervous system microvasculature in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Goodman, J.H.; McGregor, J.M.; Clendenon, N.R.; Gordon, W.A.; Yates, A.J.; Gahbauer, R.A.; Barth, R.F.; Fairchild, R.G.

    1988-01-01

    Pathologic examination of a series of 14 patients with malignant gliomas treated with BNCT showed well demarcated zones of radiation damage characterized by coagulation necrosis. Beam attenuation was correlated with edema, loss of parenchymal elements, demyelination, leukocytosis, and peripheral gliosis. Vascular disturbances consisted of endothelial swelling, medial and adventitial proliferation, fibrin impregnation, frequent thrombosis, and perivascular inflammation. Radiation changes appeared to be acute and delayed. The outcome of the patients in this series was not significantly different from the natural course of the disease, even though two of the patients had no residual tumor detected at the time of autopsy. The intensity of the vascular changes raised a suspicion that boron may have sequestered in vessel walls, resulting in selectively high doses of radiation to these structures (Asbury et al., 1972), or that there may have been high blood concentrations of boron at the time of treatment. The potential limiting effects of a vascular ischemic reaction in Boron Neutron Capture Therapy (BNCT) prompted the following study to investigate the delayed response of microvascular structures in a rat model currently being used for pre-clinical investigations. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Low dose irradiation profoundly affects transcriptome and microRNAme in rat mammary gland tissues

    PubMed Central

    Luzhna, Lidia; Kovalchuk, Olga

    2014-01-01

    Ionizing radiation has been successfully used in medical tests and treatment therapies for a variety of medical conditions. However, patients and health-care workers are greatly concerned about overexposure to medical ionizing radiation and possible cancer induction due to frequent mammographies and/or CT scans. Diagnostic imaging involves the use of low doses of ionizing radiation, and its potential carcinogenic role creates a cancer risk concern for exposed individuals. In this study, the effects of X-ray exposure of different doses on the gene expression patterns and the micro-RNA expression patterns in normal breast tissue were investigated in rats. Our results revealed the activation of immune response pathways upon low dose of radiation exposure. These included natural killer mediated cytotoxicity pathways, antigen processing and presentation pathways, chemokine signaling pathways, and T- and B-cell receptor signaling pathways. Both high and low doses of radiation led to miRNA expression alterations. Increased expression of miR-34a may be linked to cell cycle arrest and apoptosis. Up-regulation of miR-34a was correlated with down-regulation of its target E2F3 and up-regulation of p53. This data suggests that ionizing radiation at specific high and low doses leads to cell cycle arrest and a possible initiation of apoptosis. PMID:25594002

  8. The effect of dianabol on certain cell energy processes in postirradiation disease. III. The effect of chronic administration of dianabol and irradiation on oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria.

    PubMed

    Sierakowski, S; Mackowiak, J

    1979-10-01

    Chronic administration of Dianabol did not prevent the radiation-induced changes of oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. Irradiation of rats with X-rays, in a dose of 600 R for the whole body, causes damage of oxidative phosphorylation in rat liver mitochondria. Progressive reducation of oxygen consumption, decrease of high-energy bond formation and a drop of the P/O coefficient were observed in irradiated animals. The presumable role of the postirradiation damage of oxidative phosphorylation and the effects of radioprotective compounds on this process are discussed.

  9. 15 CFR 781.3 - Scope of the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Regulations or APR implement certain obligations of the United States under the Protocol Additional to the Agreement Between the United States of America and the International Atomic Energy Agency Concerning the Application of Safeguards in the United States of America, known as the Additional Protocol. (a) Persons and...

  10. Recombinant Human MFG-E8 Attenuates Intestinal Injury and Mortality in Severe Whole Body Irradiation in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ajakaiye, Michael A.; Jacob, Asha; Wu, Rongqian; Yang, Weng Lang; Nicastro, Jeffrey; Coppa, Gene F.; Wang, Ping

    2012-01-01

    The gastrointestinal (GI) syndrome component of acute radiation syndrome (ARS) results from depletion of immature parenchymal stem cells after high dose irradiation and contributes significantly to early mortality. It is associated with severe, irreparable damage in the GI tract and extremely low survival. There is a need for the development of viable mitigators of whole body irradiation (WBI) due to the possibility of unexpected high level radiation exposure from nuclear accidents or attacks. We therefore examined the effect of recombinant human milk fat globule-EGF factor 8 (rhMFG-E8) in mitigating damage after WBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 10 Gy WBI using Cesium-137 as the radiation source. The animals in the treatment group received rhMFG-E8 (166 µg/kg BW) subcutaneously once a day with the first dose given 6 h after WBI. Blood and tissue samples from the ileum were collected after 3 days of treatment. A separate cohort of animals was treated for 7 days and the 21 day mortality rate was determined. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 significantly improved the survival from 31% to 75% over 21 days. Furthermore, rhMFG-E8 treatment resulted in a 36% reduction in the radiation injury intestinal mucosal damage score, corresponding to visible histological changes. MFG-E8 gene expression was significantly decreased in WBI-induced animals as compared to sham controls. Treatment with rhMFG-E8 increased p53 and p21 expression by 207% and 84% compared to untreated controls. This was accompanied by an 80% increase in the expression of anti-apoptotic cell regulator Bcl-2. p53 and p21 levels correlate with improved survival after radiation injury. These cell regulators arrest the cell after DNA damage and enable DNA repair as well as optimize cell survival. Taken together, these results indicate that rhMFG-E8 ameliorates the GI syndrome and improves survival after WBI by minimizing intestinal cell damage and optimizing recovery. PMID:23056336

  11. Selective decrease of small sensory neurons in lumbar dorsal root ganglia labeled with horseradish peroxidase after ND:YAG laser irradiation of the tibial nerve in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Wesselmann, U.; Lin, S.F.; Rymer, W.Z. )

    1991-02-01

    Recent electrophysiological evidence indicates that Q-switched Nd:YAG laser irradiation might have selective effects on neural impulse transmission in small slow conducting sensory nerve fibers as compared to large diameter afferents. In an attempt to clarify the ultimate fate of sensory neurons after laser application to their peripheral axons, we have used horseradish peroxidase (HRP) as a cell marker to retrogradely label sensory neurons innervating the distal hindlimb in the rat. Pulsed Nd:YAG laser light was applied to the tibial nerve at pulse energies of 70 or 80 mJ/pulse for 5 min in experimental rats. Seven days later HRP was applied to the left (laser-treated) and to the contralateral (untreated) tibial nerve proximal to the site of laser irradiation. In control animals the numbers of HRP-labeled dorsal root ganglion cells were not significantly different between the right and the left side. In contrast, after previous laser irradiation labeling was always less on the laser-treated side (2183 +/- 513 cells, mean +/- SEM) as compared to the untreated side (3937 +/- 225). Analysis of the dimensions of labeled cells suggested that the reduction of labeled cells on the laser-treated side was mainly due to a deficit in small sensory neurons. Since the conduction velocity of nerve fibers is related to the size of their somata, our histological data imply that laser light selectively affects retrograde transport mechanisms for HRP in slow conducting sensory nerve fibers.

  12. Effects of prenatal X-irradiation on open-field behavior in rats: application of randomized fostering technique and mapping results

    SciTech Connect

    Tachibana, T.

    1986-10-01

    Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were given X-irradiation (150 R) on Day 17 of gestation. After birth, all male pups were pooled once and then assigned randomly to irradiated mothers and control mothers. Offspring were administered an open-field test at about 7 weeks of age. The analysis was performed on the basis of two approaches: In the per subject approach, individual subject data (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4) were treated as the basic unit of statistical analysis. In the per litter approach, double aggregation (aggregation across Day 2 through Day 4 for each subject and aggregation across subjects within each litter) was used. The per subject approach was slightly more sensitive as to the treatment effect, but it induced a reduction in the magnitude of eta squared. A principal component analysis was performed using eta squared together with those of several reference groups. Results were plotted on a map constructed from component scores. The characteristics of behavior in X-irradiated rats were very similar to those of the earlier stage of trials in terms of the location on the map. The postnatal maternal effect on open-field behavior was not serious and was adequately negligible in practice. A new fostering procedure was proposed and its advantages discussed.

  13. Protective role of intramuscularly administered vitamin E on the levels of lipid peroxidation and the activitiesof antioxidant enzymes in the lens of rats made cataractous with gamma-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Karslioglu, I; Vecdi Ertekin, M; Kocer, I; Taysi, S; Sezen, O; Gepdiremen, A; Balci, E

    To determine the antioxidant role of vitamin E (VE) (10 mg/kg/day) against radiation-induced cataract in lens after total-cranium irradiation of rats with a single dose of 5 Gy. Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups. Group 1 did not receive VE or irradiation but received both 0.1 ml physiologic saline intraperitoneally and sham irradiation (control group). Group 2 received to total cranium 5 Gy of gamma irradiation as a single dose (RT group) plus 0.1 ml physiologic saline intraperitoneally. Group 3 received irradiation to total cranium plus 10 mg/kg/day VE (RT+VE group). The rats were irradiated using a cobalt-60 teletherapy unit. Chylacks cataract classification (1) was used in this study. At the end of 10 days, the rats were killed and their eyes were enucleated to measure the antioxidant enzymes (the activity of superoxide dismutase [SOD], glutathione peroxidase [GSH-Px]) and lipid peroxidation level (malondialdehyde [MDA]). While grade 1 cataract development was detectable in seven rats in the RT group, it was detectable only in two rats in the RT+VE group, whereas none of the rats in the control group exhibited any biomicroscopic change in their lenses. MDA level and GSH-Px activity in the rat lens in the RT group was significantly higher than in the control group. SOD activity in the RT group was lower than in the control group. The activity of SOD and GSH-Px enzymes was higher in the RT+VE group, but MDA level was lower in the RT+VE group when compared with the RT group. Vitamin E has a protective effect on radiation-induced cataract by decreasing oxidative stress. (Eur J Ophthalmol 2004; 14: 478-85).

  14. Photothermal stress triggered by near infrared-irradiated carbon nanotubes promotes bone deposition in rat calvarial defects.

    PubMed

    Yanagi, Tsukasa; Kajiya, Hiroshi; Kawaguchi, Minoru; Kido, Hirofumi; Fukushima, Tadao

    2015-03-01

    The bone regenerative healing process is often prolonged, with a high risk of infection particularly in elderly and diseased patients. A reduction in healing process time usually requires mechanical stress devices, chemical cues, or laser/thermal therapies. Although these approaches have been used extensively for the reduction of bone healing time, the exact mechanisms involved in thermal stress-induced bone regeneration remain unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of optimal hyperthermia on rat calvarial defects in vivo and on osteogenesis in vitro. Photothermal stress stimulation was carried out using a new photothermal device, composed of an alginate gel including in carbon nanotubes and their irradiator with near-infrared light. Photothermal stress (15 min at 42℃, every day), trigged by near-infrared-induced carbon nanotube, promoted bone deposition in critical-sized calvarial defects compared with nonthermal stress controls. We recently reported that our novel DNA/protamine complex scaffold induces bone regeneration in calvarial defects. In this study, photothermal stress upregulated bone deposition in DNA/protamine-engrafted calvarial defects. Furthermore, photothermal stress significantly induced expression of osteogenic related genes in a time-dependent manner, including alkaline phosphatase, osterix, and osteocalcin. This was observed in DNA/protamine cells, which were expanded from regenerated tissue engrafted into the DNA/protamine scaffold, as well as in human MG63 preosteoblasts. In summary, this novel carbon nanotube-based photothermal stress approach upregulated expression of osteogenic-related genes in preosteoblasts, resulting in promotion of mineral deposition for enhanced bone repair.

  15. Evaluating the effectiveness of gel formulation of irradiated seed lectin Cratylia mollis during bone repair in rats

    PubMed Central

    Santos-Oliveira, Ralph; Lima-Ribeiro, Maria Helena Madruga; Carneiro-Leão, Ana Maria dos Anjos; Cruz, Adriana Ferreira; de Santana, Mauricélia Firmino; Cavalcanti, Carmelita de Lima Bezerra; de Pontes Filho, Nicodemos Teles; Coelho, Luana Cassandra Breitenbach Barroso; dos Santos Correia, Maria Tereza

    2013-01-01

    Context: Regeneration corresponds to the replacement of damaged cells with ones that have the same morphology and function. For experimental evaluation of materials that may favor the process of bone healing, defects are created with dimensions that prevent spontaneous regeneration. For the development and use of new drugs, it is necessary to study its effects in vitro, which depends on the formulation, concentration, and rate of irradiation in vivo and the route and frequency of administration; thus, it is possible to characterize the physiological and molecular mechanisms involved in the response and cellular effects. Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effect of Cramoll-1,4 on the process of bone repair. Materials and Methods: A formulation of biopharmaceutical lectin Cramoll-1,4 at a concentration of 300 mg/100 mL was applied in a single application via gamma radiation and its effect on the process of bone repair in rats was assessed. Results: Histologically, it was observed that the bone defect is coated by loose connective tissue rich in fibroblasts, providing a range similar to the thick bone original and competing with site of new bone formation. This prevented direct contact between the formulation and experimental bone tissue, as, despite its proven effectiveness in experiments on the repair of skin lesions, the formulation used did not promote bone stimulation that would have promoted the tissue repair process. Conclusion: Because of the direct interference of loose tissue repair that prevented direct contact of the implant with the bone interface, the formulation did not promote bone stimulation. PMID:24083142

  16. In vivo radioprotective effects of Nigella sativa L oil and reduced glutathione against irradiation-induced oxidative injury and number of peripheral blood lymphocytes in rats.

    PubMed

    Cemek, Mustafa; Enginar, Hüseyin; Karaca, Turan; Unak, Perihan

    2006-01-01

    Radiotherapy is one of the most common therapies for treating human cancers. Several studies have indicated that irradiation induces reactive oxygen species (ROS), which play an important role in radiation damage of the cell. It has been shown that Nigella sativa L. (NS) and reduced glutathione (GSH) have both an antiperoxidative effect on different tissues and a scavenger effect on ROS. The purpose of this study was to determine the antioxidant and radio-protective roles of NS and GSH against irradiation-induced oxidative injury in an experimental model. The NS group was administrated NS (1 mL/kg body weight), the GSH group was injected GSH (150 mg/kg body weight) and the control group was given physiologic saline solution (1 mL/kg body weight) for 30 consecutive days before exposure to a single dose of 6 Gy of radiation. Animals were sacrificed after irradiation. Malondialdehyde, nitrate, nitrite (oxidative stress markers) and ascorbic acid, retinol, beta-carotene, GSH and ceruloplasmin (nonenzymatic antioxidant markers) levels and peripheral blood lymphocytes were measured in all groups. There were statistically significant differences between the groups for all parameters (P < 0.05). Whole-body irradiation caused a significant increase in blood malondialdehyde, nitrate and nitrite levels. The blood oxidative stress marker levels in irradiated rats that were pretreated with NS and GSH were significantly decreased; however, non-enzymatic antioxidant levels were significantly increased. Also, our results suggest that NS and GSH administration prior to irradiation prevent the number of alpha-naphthyl acetate esterase peripheral blood T lymphocytes from declining. These results clearly show that NS and GSH treatment significantly antagonize the effects of radiation. Therefore, NS and GSH may be a beneficial agent in protection against ionizing radiation-related tissue injury.

  17. Antagonistic effects of Lycium barbarum polysaccharides on the impaired reproductive system of male rats induced by local subchronic exposure to 60Co-γ irradiation.

    PubMed

    Luo, Qiong; Cui, Xiaoyan; Yan, Jun; Yang, Mingliang; Liu, Jun; Jiang, Yuanhai; Li, Jingjing; Zhou, Yinzhu

    2011-05-01

    Lycium barbarum, a famous Chinese medicinal herb, has a long history of use in traditional medicine as an antioxidant and to promote sexual fertility. Polysaccharides are the most important functional constituents in L. barbarum fruits. In this study, male rats were exposed to subchronic (60)Co-γ irradiation to investigate the effects of LBP on sperm quantity and motility, sexual ability, serum hormone levels, oxidative status and testicular tissue DNA damage on days 1, 7 and 14 of treatment. It was found that LBP significantly increased the sperm quantity and motility, shortened the erection, capture and ejaculation latencies, increased the number of captures and ejaculations, and improved the sexual ability of male rats. LBP also played a significant role in the recovery of serum testosterone levels, increased superoxide dismutase activity, decreased malondialdehyde levels, promoted oxidative balance and rescued testicular DNA damage. In conclusion, LBP has significant protective effects against damage induced by local subchronic exposure to (60)Co-γ irradiation, allowing rats to achieve near-complete recovery with LBP treatment. Copyright © 2010 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  18. [Adaptogenic effect of the vitamin D3 containing supplement "videchol" on glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase activity in erythrone of irradiated rats].

    PubMed

    Becerril Aragon, G A; Starykovych, L S; Kolodkin, A; Horot', I V; Velykyĭ, M M

    2007-01-01

    Two fast migrating, major, multiple molecular forms (MMF) of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase [EC:1.1.1.49]: G-6-PDH-1 and G-6-PDH-2, and two minor forms: G-6-PDH-3 and G-6-PDH-4 were revealed in the electrophoregrams of both erythrocytes haemolisates as well in the homogenates of bone marrow cellular lines of rats at control conditions. Daily 1 cGy irradiation of rats up to a cumulative dose of 20 cGy led to a drop of G-6-PDH total activity and it caused a redistribution of the MMF of the enzyme in bone marrow cellular populations. However, G-6-PDH activity in erythrocytes exceeded the control means in all the experimental terms. The calculation of the local redistribution coefficient (l(G-6-FDH-i)) showed that these changes are mainly determined by the increase of the activity of the isoform G-6-PDH-3. Vitamin D3 administration to rats generated a correction of G-6-PDH activity in all studied cellular populations. Meanwhile, the MMF profiles were characterized by multidirectional rearrangements in the bone marrow erythroid and granulocyte-monocyte cells and in erythrocytes. The specificity of changes in the distribution of the MMF of G-6-PDH in the three studied cellular populations depends on the particularities of their energetic metabolism at irradiation conditions and on the modifying action of the natural adaptogen 1,25-dihydroxicholecalciferol.

  19. Enhancement of 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea resistance by gamma-irradiation or drug pretreatment in rat hepatoma cells

    SciTech Connect

    Habraken, Y.; Laval, F. )

    1991-02-15

    Treatment of rat hepatoma cells (H4 cells) with various DNA-damaging agents increases the number of O6-methylguanine-DNA-methyltransferase (transferase) molecules per cell. Because the cellular resistance to chloroethylnitrosoureas depends on the number of transferase molecules, we studied the influence of pretreatment with gamma-irradiation, cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II), or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium on the sensitivity of H4 cells to 1,3-bis(2-chloroethyl)-1-nitrosourea (BCNU). The BCNU resistance depends on the gamma-ray dose and increases with time after irradiation: it is maximum when the drug is added 48 h after irradiation, which corresponds to the maximum enhancement of the transferase activity in the cells. Pretreatment with a single dose of cis-dichlorodiammineplatinum(II) or 2-methyl-9-hydroxyellipticinium also increases the cellular resistance to BCNU. This resistance is not due to a modification of the alkylation of the cellular DNA in the pretreated cells but is related to the increased transferase activity, as it is no longer observed when this activity is depleted by incubating the pretreated cells with the free base O6-methylguanine before BCNU treatment. These results suggest that tumor cells surviving after gamma-irradiation or drug treatment may become resistant to chemotherapy with chloroethylnitrosoureas.

  20. Iron-56 irradiation diminishes muscarinic but not {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic-stimulated low-K{sub m} GTPase in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Villalobos-Molina, R.; Joseph, J.A.; Rabin, B.M.; Kandasamy, S.B.; Dalton, T.K.; Roth, G.S.

    1994-12-01

    Initial findings from our laboratory have indicated that muscarinic enhancement of K{sup +}-evoked release of dopamine from perifused striatal slices is reduced after exposure to {sup 56}Fe-particle irradiation. This finding suggested that there is a radiation-induced deficit in muscarinic receptor sensitivity. Subsequent findings have indicated that at least part of the loss in sensitivity may occur as a result of alterations in the initial steps of the signal transduction process and involve muscarinic receptor-G protein coupling/uncoupling. The present study was carried out to localize this deficit further by determining carbachol-stimulated low-K{sub m} guanosine triphosphatase (GTPase) activity in striatal and hippocampal tissue obtained from rats exposed to 0, 0.1 or 1.0 Gy of {sup 56}Fe-particle irradiation. In addition, to examine the specificity of the effect of {sup 56}Fe-particle irradiation, {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic-stimulated low-K{sub m} GTPase activity was also examined in these tissues. The results showed that there was a high degree of specificity in the effects of {sup 56}Fe particles. Decrements were observed in muscarinic-stimulated low-K{sub m} GTPase in striatum but not in hippocampus, and {sup 56}Fe-particle irradiation did not affect {alpha}{sub 1}-adrenergic low-K{sub m} GTPase activity in either brain tissue. 24 refs., 2 figs.

  1. Proteomic changes in the rat brain induced by homogenous irradiation and by the bystander effect resulting from high energy synchrotron X-ray microbeams.

    PubMed

    Smith, Richard W; Wang, Jiaxi; Schültke, Elisabeth; Seymour, Colin B; Bräuer-Krisch, Elke; Laissue, Jean A; Blattmann, Hans; Mothersill, Carmel E

    2013-02-01

    To further evaluate the use of microbeam irradiation (MBI) as a potential means of non-invasive brain tumor treatment by investigating the induction of a bystander effect in non-irradiated tissue. Adult rats were irradiated with 35 or 350 Gy at the European Synchotron Research Facility (ESRF), using homogenous (broad beam) irradiation (HI) or a high energy microbeam delivered to the right brain hemisphere only. The proteome of the frontal lobes were then analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis (2-DE) and mass spectrometry. HI resulted in proteomic responses indicative of tumourigenesis; increased albumin, aconitase and triosphosphate isomerase (TPI), and decreased dihydrolipoyldehydrogenase (DLD). The MBI bystander effect proteomic changes were indicative of reactive oxygen species mediated apoptosis; reduced TPI, prohibitin and tubulin and increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP). These potentially anti-tumourigenic apoptotic proteomic changes are also associated with neurodegeneration. However the bystander effect also increased heat shock protein (HSP) 71 turnover. HSP 71 is known to protect against all of the neurological disorders characterized by the bystander effect proteome changes. These results indicate that the collective interaction of these MBI-induced bystander effect proteins and their mediation by HSP 71, may confer a protective effect which now warrants additional experimental attention.

  2. [State of the reproductive systemin in male rats of 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and exposed to electromagnetic radiation (897 MHz) during embryogenesis and postnatal development].

    PubMed

    Vereshchako, G G; Chueshova, N V; Gorokh, G A; Naumov, A D

    2014-01-01

    The consequences of prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation from cellular phone (897 MHz, daily 8 h/day) in male rats of the 1st generation obtained from irradiated parents and subjected to prolonged exposure to electromagnetic radiation of the range of mobile communications during ontogeny and postnatal development were studied. It has been found that irradiation causes a decrease in the number of births of animals, changing the sex ratio towards the increase in the number of males. It had a significant impact on the reproductive system of males, accelerating their sexual development, revealed at the age of two months. Radiation from cell phones led to significant disproportions in the cell number at different stages of spermatogenesis. It increased the number of mature spermatozoa which decreased viability.

  3. Co-operative effects of thoracic X-ray irradiation and N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl) amine administration on lung tumorigenesis in neonatal, juvenile and adult Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Iwata, Ken-ichi; Yamada, Yutaka; Nakata, Akifumi; Oghiso, Yoichi; Tani, Shusuke; Doi, Kazutaka; Morioka, Takamitsu; Blyth, Benjamin J; Nishimura, Mayumi; Kakinuma, Shizuko; Shimada, Yoshiya

    2013-03-15

    Assessment of risks associated with childhood exposure to ionizing radiation when combined with chemical carcinogens is of great importance. We studied the age-dependence of the effect of combined exposure to ionizing radiation (IR) and a chemical carcinogen on lung carcinogenesis. Female 1-, 5-, and 22-week-old Wistar rats were locally irradiated on the thorax with X-rays (3.18 Gy) and/or were injected intraperitoneally with N-nitrosobis(2-hydroxypropyl)amine (BHP) (1g/kg body weight) 1 week after X-ray exposure or at 23 weeks of age. Rats were terminated at 90 weeks of age. We found that: (i) the incidence of lung tumors (adenoma and adenocarcinoma) increased slightly as a function of age at X-ray exposure, although this was not statistically significant, while the incidence induced by BHP decreased with increasing age at administration; (ii) combined exposure to X-rays at 5 or 22 weeks with BHP 1 week later enhanced the tumor incidence, and the effect at early-life stage (5 weeks irradiation) was more effective than that at late-life stage (22 weeks irradiation); (iii) combined exposure preferentially enhanced malignant transformation; (iv) although a longer interval between the X-ray and BHP treatments reduced the combined effect, risks of early-life irradiation at 1 or 5 weeks of age lasted into adulthood; (v) adenomas and adenocarcinomas induced by X-ray and/or BHP originated from surfactant apoprotein A-positive alveolar type II cells; and (vi), extracellular signal-regulated kinase pathway activation was observed in half the adenocarcinomas, regardless of the exposure schedule. In conclusion, combined exposure may enhance lung tumorigenesis more synergistically at early-life stage (5 weeks of age) than later-life stage.

  4. Time dependency of metabolic changes in rat lens after in vivo UVB irradiation analysed by HR-MAS 1H NMR spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Risa, Oystein; Saether, Oddbjørn; Kakar, Manoj; Mody, Vino; Löfgren, Stefan; Söderberg, Per G; Krane, Jostein; Midelfart, Anna

    2005-10-01

    The lens ability to protect against, and repair ultraviolet radiation (UVR) induced damages, is of crucial importance to avoid cataract development. The influence of UVR-induced damage and repair processes on the lens metabolites are not fully understood. Observation of short- and long-term changes in light scattering and the metabolic profile of pigmented rat lenses after threshold UVR exposure might serve to better understand the protective mechanisms in the lens. By using high resolution magic angle spinning (HR-MAS) 1H NMR spectroscopy it was possible to investigate the metabolites of intact rat lenses. Brown-Norway rats were exposed to 15 kJm(-2) UVB irradiation. One eye was exposed and the contralateral served as control. The rats were sacrificed 5, 25, 125, and 625 hr post-exposure and the lenses were removed. The degree of cataract was quantified by measurement of lens forward light scattering. Thereafter, proton NMR spectra from intact lenses were obtained and relative changes in metabolite concentrations were determined. The light scattering in the lens peaked at 25 hr post-exposure and decreased thereafter. The lowest level of light scattering was measured 625 hr after exposure. No significant changes in concentration were observed for the metabolites 5 and 25 hr post-exposure except the total amount of adenosine tri- and diphosphate (ATP/ADP) that showed a significant decrease already 5 hr after exposure. At 125 hr the lens concentrations of lactate, succinate, phospho-choline, taurine, betaine, myo-inositol, and ATP/ADP showed a significant decrease (p<0.05). Phenylalanine was the only metabolite that revealed a significant increase 125 hr post-exposure. At 625 hr most of the metabolic changes seemed to normalise back to control levels. However, the concentration of betaine and phospho-choline were still showing a significant decrease 625 hr after UVB irradiation. The impact of UVB irradiation on the metabolic profile did not follow the same time

  5. Implementation and Analysis for APR1400 Soft Control System

    SciTech Connect

    2015-07-01

    Due to the rapid advancement of digital technology, the definite technical advantages of digital control system compared to analog control system are accelerating the implementation of advanced distributed digital control system in the nuclear power plant. One of the major advantages of digital control system is the capability of Soft Control System. The design of Soft Control System for Advanced Power Reactor 1400 (APR1400) plant of Man-Machine Interface System (MMIS) is based on full digital technologies to enhance reliability, operability and maintainability. Computer-based compact workstation has been adopted in the APR1400 Main Control Room (MCR) to provide convenient working environment. This paper introduces the approaches and methodologies of Soft Control System for the Advanced Control Room (ACR). This paper also explains major design features for operation and display of the Soft Control System and its implementation to cope with regulatory requirements. (authors)

  6. [The status of the progeny of male rats subjected to low-dose external gamma irradiation exposure].

    PubMed

    Ovcharenko, E P; Kononenko, V V; Galian, S P; Vernidub, I V; Topchiĭ, I G

    1996-01-01

    In studies on 120 mature males of Wistar rats and 252 female rats of the same line, 20-day-old fetuses and 974 young rats of the first generation, anomalies of antenatal and postnatal development were found after exposure of spermatids and spermatozoa to gamma-radiation in doses 0.25-1.0 Gy. After exposure of male rats to radiation in dose 0.25 Gy, reliable delay of pelvic bone ossification was observed as compared to the control.

  7. Gamma irradiation induces acetylcholine-evoked, endothelium-independent relaxation and activatesk-channels of isolated pulmonary artery of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Eder, Veronique . E-mail: eder@med.univ-tours.fr; Gautier, Mathieu; Boissiere, Julien; Girardin, Catherine; Rebocho, Manuel; Bonnet, Pierre

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: To test the effects of irradiation (R*) on the pulmonary artery (PA). Methods and materials: Isolated PA rings were submitted to gamma irradiation (cesium, 8 Gy/min{sup -1}) at doses of 20 Gy-140 Gy. Rings were placed in an organ chamber, contracted with serotonin (10{sup -4} M 5-hydroxytryptamine [5-HT]), then exposed to acetylcholine (ACh) in incremental concentrations. Smooth muscle cell (SMC) membrane potential was measured with microelectrodes. Results: A high dose of irradiation (60 Gy) increased 5HT contraction by 20%, whereas lower (20 Gy) doses slightly decreased it compared with control. In the absence of the endothelium, 5-HT precontracted rings exposed to 20 Gy irradiation developed a dose-dependent relaxation induced by acetylcholine (EI-ACh) with maximal relaxation of 60 {+-} 17% (n = 13). This was totally blocked by L-NAME (10{sup -4} M), partly by 7-nitro indazole; it was abolished by hypoxia and iberiotoxin, decreased by tetra-ethyl-ammonium, and not affected by free radical scavengers. In irradiated rings, hypoxia induced a slight contraction which was never observed in control rings. No differences in SMC membrane potential were observed between irradiated and nonirradiated PA rings. Conclusion: Irradiation mediates endothelium independent relaxation by a mechanism involving the nitric oxide pathway and K-channels.

  8. Effect of irradiation on neovascularization in rat skinfold chambers: Implications for clinical trials of low-dose radiotherapy for wet-type age-related macular degeneration

    SciTech Connect

    Hori, Katsuyoshi . E-mail: k-hori@idac.tohoku.ac.jp; Saito, Sachiko; Tamai, Makoto

    2004-12-01

    Purpose: Wet-type age-related macular degeneration is a refractory eye disease that involves choroidal neovascularization. Randomized controlled trials of low-dose radiotherapy for this disease performed in Japan showed that, at 12 months of follow-up, visual acuity was significantly well preserved and the neovascular membrane size decreased. Because understanding the effect of irradiation on new vascular networks is an important prerequisite for clinical trials, we used a rat skinfold chamber technique to investigate X-ray-induced changes in neovasculature microcirculation. Methods and materials: Neovascularization was induced in rat skinfold chambers via polyvinyl chloride resin plates. Neovessels were irradiated in a single 10-Gy dose, after which, changes in vascular density, blood velocity, tissue blood flow, and interstitial fluid pressure (IFP), were measured. Results: Vascular density, tissue blood flow, and IFP measurements in resin-induced inflammatory tissue were much higher than those measurements in normal tissue. Although overall blood velocity was low and sluggish or blood-flow stasis occurred in the neovascular network, after a single 10-Gy dose of radiation, the velocity increased, stasis improved markedly, and many dilated vessels narrowed. Thereafter, vascular density, blood flow, and IFP significantly decreased and approached normal values. Conclusion: These findings may help explain clinical results related to radiotherapy-induced changes in neovascular membranes in age-related macular degeneration. Both vascular morphology and vascular function in inflammatory tissue returned to normal, without vessel destruction, after an appropriate radiation dose.

  9. Effects of prenatal irradiation with accelerated heavy-ion beams on postnatal development in rats: III. Testicular development and breeding activity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    With a significant increase in human activities dealing with space missions, potential teratogenic effects on the mammalian reproductive system from prenatal exposure to space radiation have become a hot topic that needs to be addressed. However, even for the ground experiments, such effects from exposure to high LET ionizing radiation are not as well studied as those for low LET ionizing radiations such as X-rays. Using the Heavy-Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, effects on gonads in prenatal male fetuses, on postnatal testicular development and on breeding activity of male offspring were studied following exposure of the pregnant animals to either accelerated carbon-ion beams with a LET value of about 13 keV/μm or neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on gestation day 15. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp estimated for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. A significantly dose-dependent increase of apoptosis in gonocytes appeared 6 h after irradiations with a dose of 0.5 Gy or more. Measured delayed testis descent and malformed testicular seminiferous tubules were observed to be significantly different from the control animals at a dose of 0.5 Gy. These effects are observed to be dose- and LET-dependent. Markedly reduced testicular weight and testicular weight to body weight ratio were scored at postnatal day 30 even in the offspring that were prenatally irradiated with neon-ions at a dose of 0.1 Gy. A dose of 0.5 Gy from neon-ion beams induced a marked decrease in breeding activity in the prenatally irradiated male rats, while for the carbon-ion beams or X-rays, the significantly reduced breeding activity was observed only when the prenatal dose was at 1.0 Gy or more. These findings indicated that prenatal irradiations with heavy-ion beams on gestation day 15 generally induced markedly detrimental effects on prenatal gonads, postnatal testicular development and male

  10. Radioprotective effects of cimetidine on rats irradiated by long-term, low-dose-rate neutrons and (60)Co γ-rays.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Ding-Wen; Wang, Qing-Rong; Shen, Xian-Rong; He, Ying; Qian, Tian-Tian; Liu, Qiong; Hou, Deng-Yong; Liu, Yu-Ming; Chen, Wei; Ren, Xin; Li, Ke-Xian

    2017-01-01

    Cimetidine, an antagonist of histamine type II receptors, has shown protective effects against γ-rays or neutrons. However, there have been no reports on the effects of cimetidine against neutrons combined with γ-rays. This study was carried out to evaluate the protective effects of cimetidine on rats exposed to long-term, low-dose-rate neutron and γ-ray combined irradiation (n-γ LDR). Fifty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: the normal control group, radiation model group, 20 mg/(kg · d) cimetidine group, 80 mg/(kg · d) cimetidine group and 160 mg/(kg · d) cimetidine group (10 rats per group). Except for the normal control group, 40 rats were simultaneously exposed to fission neutrons ((252)Cf, 0.085 mGy/h) for 22 h every day and γ-rays ((60)Co, 0.097 Gy/h) for 1.03 h once every three days, and the cimetidine groups were administered intragastrically with cimetidine at doses of 20, 80 and 160 mg/kg each day. Peripheral blood WBC of the rats was counted the day following exposure to γ-rays. The rats were anesthetized and sacrificed on the day following exposure to (252)Cf for 28 days. The spleen, thymus, testicle, liver and intestinal tract indexes were evaluated. The DNA content of bone marrow cells and concanavalin A (ConA)-induced lymphocyte proliferation were measured. The frequency of micronuclei in polychromatic erythrocytes (fMNPCEs), superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in the serum and liver tissues were detected. The peripheral blood WBC in the cimetidine groups was increased significantly on the 8th day and the 26th day compared with those in the radiation model group. The spleen, thymus and testicle indexes of the cimetidine groups were higher than those of the radiation model group. The DNA content of bone marrow cells and lymphocyte proliferation in the cimetidine groups were increased significantly, and fMNPCE was reduced 1.41-1.77 fold in

  11. Effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP low-level laser irradiation on experimental wound healing in healthy and diabetic Wistar rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Neves, L. M. G.; Matheus, R. L.; Santos, G. M. T.; Esquisatto, M. A. M.; Amaral, M. E. C.; Mendonça, F. A. S.

    2013-03-01

    This study evaluated the effects of microcurrent application and 670 nm InGaP laser irradiation on wound healing in healthy and alloxan diabetic rats. The animals were divided into eight groups: healthy control (HC); diabetic control (DC); healthy treated with microcurrent (HMC); diabetic treated with microcurrent (DMC); healthy irradiated with laser (HL); diabetic irradiated with laser (DL); healthy receiving laser and microcurrent application (HLMC) and diabetic receiving laser and microcurrent application (DLMC). Wound samples were collected on days 2, 6, 10 and 14 of treatment for structural analysis, morphometry, and Western blotting to quantify the expression of TGF-β1 and VEGF. Comparison of animals receiving laser and microcurrent therapy showed a reduction in the number of inflammatory cells in diabetic animals, as well as an increase of fibroblasts in healthy animals and of newly formed vessels in healthy and diabetic animals. Expression of TGF-β1 was increased on day 6 in all groups, especially diabetic animals. A reduction in the expression of this protein was observed on day 10 in all groups. VEGF expression was higher on day 6 in treated and control diabetic animals when compared to healthy animals. Analysis of VEGF expression in the laser- and microcurrent-treated groups on day 10 showed a decrease in diabetic animals and an increase in healthy animals. In conclusion, laser therapy and microcurrent stimulation exert beneficial effects on wound healing in both healthy and diabetic animals.

  12. Rat germinal cells require PARP for repair of DNA damage induced by gamma-irradiation and H2O2 treatment.

    PubMed

    Atorino, L; Di Meglio, S; Farina, B; Jones, R; Quesada, P

    2001-03-01

    The ability of rat germinal cells to recover from genotoxic stress has been investigated using isolated populations of primary spermatocytes and round spermatids. Using a comet assay at pH 10.0 to assess single strand breakage (SSB) in DNA, it was found that a high level of damage was induced by 5 Gy gamma-irradiation and acute exposure to 50 microM H2O2. This damage was effectively repaired during a subsequent recovery period of 1-3 hours culture in vitro but repair was significantly delayed in the presence of the poly(ADP-ribose)polymerase (PARP) inhibitor 3-aminobenzamide (3-ABA). Immunofluorescence detection of PARP with specific antibodies localised the protein to discrete foci within the nucleus of both spermatocytes and spermatids. Poly(ADP-ribose) (pADPR) could also be detected in spermatid nuclei following gamma-irradiation or H2O2 treatment. Moreover, PARP activation occurs both in spermatocytes and spermatids left to recover after both genotoxic stresses. The NO donors, 3-morpholino-sydnonimine (SIN-1) and S-nitrosoglutathione (SNOG), caused significant SSBs in both spermatocytes and spermatids. The effects of SIN-1 could be prevented by exogenous catalase (CAT), but not superoxide dismutase (SOD), in the cell suspensions. SNOG-induced SSBs were insensitive to both CAT and SOD. It is concluded that DNA in spermatocytes and spermatids is sensitive to damage by gamma-irradiation and H2O2 and that efficient repair of SSBs requires PARP activity.

  13. Quantification of rat retinal growth and vascular population changes after single and split doses of proton irradiation: translational study using stereology methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Xiao W.; Archambeau, John O.; Kubinova, Lucie; Boyle, Soames; Petersen, Georgia; Grove, Roger; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified architectural and population changes in the rat retinal vasculature after proton irradiation using stereology. A 100 MeV conformal proton beam delivered 8, 14, 20 and 28 Gy as single and split doses to the whole eye. The vascular networks were prepared from retinal digests. Stereological methods were used to obtain the area of the retina and unbiased estimates of microvessel/artery/vein endothelial, pericyte and smooth muscle population, and vessel length. The retinal area increased progressively in the unirradiated, age-matched controls and in the retinas irradiated with 8 and 14 Gy, indicating uniform progressive retinal growth. No growth occurred after 20 and 28 Gy. Regression analysis of total endothelial cell number in all vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) after irradiation documented a progressive time- and dose-dependent cell loss occurring over 15 to 24 months. The difference from controls was significant (P<0.01) after 28 Gy given in single and split doses and after 20 Gy given as a split dose (P<0.05). Total vessel length in microvessel was significantly shortened at 20 and 28 Gy compared to that of controls (P<0.05). No evident dose recovery was observed in the endothelial populations after split doses. At 10 Gy, the rate of endothelial cell loss, a dose parameter used to characterize the time- and dose-dependent loss of the endothelial population, was doubled.

  14. Effects of chronic postnatal opioid receptor blockade by naltrexone upon proliferation capacity in the prenatally x-irradiated brain of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Schmahl, W.; Miaskowski, U. )

    1991-01-01

    We recently reported that in rats prenatally x-irradiated on gestation day 14 with 1 Gy, postnatal chronic application of the opioid antagonist naltrexone (Nx) led to a remarkable growth spurt of the microencephalic brain. In the present study we present histological and autoradiographic results found in the subependymal layer (SEL) of the forebrain lateral ventricles. Nx led to an intermittent augmentation of the mitotic index of the x-irradiated brains within a postnatal observation period of 24 weeks. The most conspicuous finding was transient hyperplasia of the SEL at 4-6 weeks of age which occurred in close proximity to an intact ependymal lining. Districts of the lateral ventricles which were denuded from ependyme and where the rest of the ependymal layer (EL) was dislocated peripherally showed upon Nx treatment a long-lasting SEL hyperplasia with a tendency towards dysplasia. These results revealed that repair proliferation of embryotoxic x-irradiation is normally under strong control by the opioid system. If that system, which exerts a suppressing effect upon glial growth, is blocked by Nx, prominent hyperplastic reactions occur which may be useful for repairing the lesion pattern.

  15. Neuroprotective effect of EGb761® and low-dose whole-body γ-irradiation in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    El-Ghazaly, Mona A; Sadik, Nermin A H; Rashed, Engy R; Abd-El-Fattah, Amal A

    2015-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder after Alzheimer's disease. The present study was undertaken to investigate the pretreatment effects of standardized Ginkgo biloba extract (EGb761(®)) and low-dose whole-body γ-irradiation on the neurological dysfunction in the reserpine model of PD. Male Wistar rats were pretreated orally with EGb761 or fractionated low-dose whole-body γ-irradiation or their combination, then subjected to intraperitoneal injection of reserpine (5 mg/kg body weight) 24 h after the final dose of EGb761 or radiation. Reserpine injection resulted in the depletion of striatal dopamine (DA) level, increased catalepsy score, increased oxidative stress indicated via depletion of glutathione (GSH), increased malondialdehyde (MDA) and iron levels, decreased DA metabolites metabolizing enzymes; indicated by inhibition by glutathione-S-transferase, and nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NADPH)-quinone oxidoreductase (NQO) activities, mitochondrial dysfunction; indicated by declined complex I activity, and adenosine triphosphate (ATP) level and increased apoptosis; indicated by decreased mitochondrial B cell lymphoma-2 (Bcl-2) protein level and by transmission electron microscope. EGb761 and low-dose γ-radiation ameliorated the reserpine-induced state of oxidative stress, mitochondrial dysfunction, and apoptosis in brain. It can be concluded that EGb761, a widely used herbal medicine and low dose of γ-irradiation have protective effects for combating Parkinsonism possibly via replenishment of GSH levels.

  16. Quantification of rat retinal growth and vascular population changes after single and split doses of proton irradiation: translational study using stereology methods

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Mao, Xiao W.; Archambeau, John O.; Kubinova, Lucie; Boyle, Soames; Petersen, Georgia; Grove, Roger; Nelson, G. A. (Principal Investigator)

    2003-01-01

    This study quantified architectural and population changes in the rat retinal vasculature after proton irradiation using stereology. A 100 MeV conformal proton beam delivered 8, 14, 20 and 28 Gy as single and split doses to the whole eye. The vascular networks were prepared from retinal digests. Stereological methods were used to obtain the area of the retina and unbiased estimates of microvessel/artery/vein endothelial, pericyte and smooth muscle population, and vessel length. The retinal area increased progressively in the unirradiated, age-matched controls and in the retinas irradiated with 8 and 14 Gy, indicating uniform progressive retinal growth. No growth occurred after 20 and 28 Gy. Regression analysis of total endothelial cell number in all vessels (arteries, veins and capillaries) after irradiation documented a progressive time- and dose-dependent cell loss occurring over 15 to 24 months. The difference from controls was significant (P<0.01) after 28 Gy given in single and split doses and after 20 Gy given as a split dose (P<0.05). Total vessel length in microvessel was significantly shortened at 20 and 28 Gy compared to that of controls (P<0.05). No evident dose recovery was observed in the endothelial populations after split doses. At 10 Gy, the rate of endothelial cell loss, a dose parameter used to characterize the time- and dose-dependent loss of the endothelial population, was doubled.

  17. Effects of naltrexone in postnatal rats on the recovery of disturbed brain and lymphatic tissues after X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea treatment in utero

    SciTech Connect

    Schmahl, W.G.; Plendl, J.; Reinoehl-Kompa, S.

    1987-01-01

    The role of endogenous opioid systems in preweaning development after intrauterine exposure to X-irradiation or ethylnitrosourea (ENU) was explored in rats using naltrexone, a potent antagonist of beta-endorphin. After daily s.c. injections of 50 mg/kg naltrexone only the prenatally untreated controls had body weights increased by 11% from control level on day 28 (weaning). In the X-irradiated as well as the ENU-treated pups no significant effects of naltrexone on body weight gain were observed. However, brain weight increased in all animals under the influence of naltrexone, irrespective of prenatal treatment or the severity of brain lesions: 9.5% above control values in untreated offspring and 14% after X-irradiation (1 Gy) on gestation day 14. The brain weight of ENU-treated rats (50 mg/kg on gest. day 14) was 13% higher after postnatal naltrexone application than that of their postnatally untreated counterparts. ENU (80 mg/kg) effects on the brain when given on gestation day 18 were ameliorated to 9.2% by naltrexone in the weaning period. Naltrexone significantly increased the thymus weight in controls. Prenatally treated animals also showed an increased thymus weight at weaning, presumably due to compensatory growth. In these cases naltrexone revealed a suppressive effect on the thymus, whereas spleen weight was apparently not influenced by naltrexone treatment. These results provide compelling evidence that endogenous opioid systems play a crucial role not only in normal development, but also in reparative growth events of the brain after prenatal injuries. The thymus, predominantly containing T-lymphocytes, seems to represent another sensitive system which is regulated under the influence of opioids.

  18. Washout rate in rat brain irradiated by a 11C beam after acetazolamide loading using a small single-ring OpenPET prototype

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hirano, Yoshiyuki; Takuwa, Hiroyuki; Yoshida, Eiji; Nishikido, Fumihiko; Nakajima, Yasunori; Wakizaka, Hidekatsu; Yamaya, Taiga

    2016-03-01

    In dose verification techniques of particle therapies based on in-beam positron emission tomography (PET), the causes of washout of positron emitters by physiological effects should be clarified to correct washout for accurate verification. As well, the quantitative washout rate has a potential usefulness as a diagnostic index which should be explored. Therefore, we measured washout rates of rat brain after vasodilator acetazolamide loading to investigate the possible effects of blood flow on washout. Six rat brains were irradiated by a radioisotope 11C beam and time activity curves on the whole brains were obtained with a small single-ring OpenPET prototype. Then, washout rates were calculated with the Mizuno model, where two washout rates (k 2m and k 2s ) were assumed, and a two-compartment model including efflux from tissue to blood (k 2) and influx (k 3) and efflux (k 4) between the two tissue compartments. Before the irradiations, we used laser-Doppler flowmetry to confirm that acetazolamide increased cerebral blood flow (CBF) of a rat. We compared means of k 2m , k 2s and k 2, k 3 and k 4 without acetazolamide loading (Rest) and with acetazolamide loading (ACZ). For all k values, ACZ values were lower than Rest values. In other words, though CBF increased, washout rates were decreased. This may be attributed to the implanted 11C reacting to form 11CO2. Because acetazolamide increased the concentration of CO2 in brain, suppressed diffusion of 11CO2 and decomposition of 11CO2 into ions were prevented.

  19. Exocytosis sensitivity to growth hormone-releasing hormone in subsets of GH cells in rats under different corticosterone conditions. Ultrastructural study using microwave irradiation for fixation and immunocytochemistry.

    PubMed

    Ozawa, Hitoshi; Han, Fang; Kawata, Mitsuhiro

    2004-12-01

    Growth hormone (GH) cells in the rat anterior pituitary have been morphologically classified into three subtypes: type I (mature) containing large secretory granules about 350 nm in diameter, type II (intermediate) containing a mixture of large and small granules, and type III (immature) containing small granules about 150 nm in diameter. However, the functional implications of morphological heterogeneity, especially the different sensitivities to growth hormone-releasing hormone (GRH) under different corticosteroid conditions have not been elucidated to date. In the present study, by application of microwave irradiation (MWI) for fixation and immunocytochemistry, new findings of the exocytotic response have been revealed among the subsets of GH cells following adrenalectomy (ADX), corticosterone treatment and/or GRH treatment. The MWI gave effective results for fixation, especially for the permeability of the fixative, and showed good results for immunoelectron microscopy using the protein-A gold method. Moreover, the use of MWI greatly shortened the fixation, processing and immunolabeling times without compromising the quality of ultrastructural preservation and the specificity of labeling. The number of exocytotic figures was low in all subtypes of GH cells in the sham-operated control rats. GRH treatment induced a significant increase in exocytosis in each subtype of GH cells, particularly in type I (mature) and type II (intermediate) GH cells in the control rats. GRH injection to rats for 4 days after ADX also showed an increase in exocytosis, but the degree was significantly less in comparison with the GRH injection in the control group. Corticosterone replacement given to ADX rats induced a clear recovery of the exocytotic response to GRH to the control level. Serum GH content measured by radioimmunoassay correlated with these morphological results. These results suggest that the secretion of GH stimulated by GRH is closely related to corticosteroids, and

  20. Long-term Brain Tissue Monitoring after Semi-brain Irradiation in Rats Using Proton Magnetic Resonance Spectroscopy: A Preliminary Study In vivo.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hong; Cheng, Yu-Shu; Zhou, Zheng-Rong

    2017-04-20

    In head and neck neoplasm survivors treated with brain irradiation, metabolic alterations would occur in the radiation-induced injury area. The mechanism of these metabolic alterations has not been fully understood, while the alternations could be sensitively detected by proton (1H) nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy (MRS). In this study, we investigated the metabolic characteristics of radiation-induced brain injury through a long-term follow-up after radiation treatment using MRS in vivo. A total of 12 adult Sprague-Dawley rats received a single dose of 30 Gy radiation treatment to semi-brain (field size: 1.0 cm × 2.0 cm; anterior limit: binocular posterior inner canthus connection; posterior limit: external acoustic meatus connection; internal limit: sagittal suture). Conventional magnetic resonance imaging and single-voxel 1H-MRS were performed at different time points (in month 0 before irradiation as well as in the 1st, 3rd, 5th, 7th, and 9th months after irradiation) to investigate the alternations in irradiation field. N-acetylaspartate/choline (NAA/Cho), NAA/creatinine (Cr), and Cho/Cr ratios were measured in the bilateral hippocampus and quantitatively analyzed with a repeated-measures mixed-effects model and multiple comparison test. Significant changes in the ratios of NAA/Cho (F = 57.37, Pg < 0.001), NAA/Cr (F = 54.49, Pg < 0.001), and Cho/Cr (F = 9.78, Pg = 0.005) between the hippocampus region of the irradiated semi-brain and the contralateral semi-brain were observed. There were significant differences in NAA/Cho (F = 9.17, Pt < 0.001) and NAA/Cr (F = 13.04, Pt < 0.001) ratios over time. The tendency of NAA/Cr to change with time showed no significant difference between the irradiated and contralateral sides. Nevertheless, there were significant differences in the Cho/Cr ratio between these two sides. MRS can sensitively detect metabolic alternations. Significant changes of metabolites ratio in the first few months

  1. Review of APR+ Level 2 PSA. Revision 2

    SciTech Connect

    Lehner, John R.; Mubayi, Vinod; Pratt, W. Trevor; Kim, Do Sam; Cho, Yong Jin; Cho, Sang Jin; Kim, In Goo

    2012-02-17

    Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) assisted the Korea Institute of Nuclear Safety (KINS) in reviewing the Level 2 Probabilistic Safety Assessment (PSA) of the APR+ Advanced Pressurized Water Reactor (PWR) prepared by the Korea Hydro & Nuclear Power Co., Ltd (KHNP) and KEPCO Engineering & Construction Co., Inc. (KEPCO-E&C). The work described in this report involves a review of the APR+ Level 2 PSA submittal [Ref. 1]. The PSA and, therefore, the review is limited to consideration of accidents initiated by internal events. As part of the review process, the review team also developed three sets of Requests for Additional Information (RAIs). These RAIs were provided to KHNP and KEPCO-E&C for their evaluation and response. This final detailed report documents the review findings for each technical element of the PSA and includes consideration of all of the RAIs made by the reviewers as well as the associated responses. This final report was preceded by an interim report [Ref. 2] that focused on identifying important issues regarding the PSA. In addition, a final meeting on the project was held at BNL on November 21-22, 2011, where BNL and KINS reviewers discussed their preliminary review findings with KHNP and KEPCO-E&C staffs. Additional information obtained during this final meeting was also used to inform the review findings of this final report. The review focused not only on the robustness of the APR+ design to withstand severe accidents, but also on the capability and acceptability of the Level 2 PSA in terms of level of detail and completeness. The Korean nuclear regulatory authorities will decide whether the PSA is acceptable and the BNL review team is providing its comments for KINS consideration. Section 2.0 provides the basis for the BNL review. Section 3.0 presents the review of each technical element of the PSA. Conclusions and a summary are presented in Section 4.0. Section 5.0 contains the references.

  2. Gamma irradiation effect on the enzymatic activities of horseradish and apple peroxidases

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Constantinovici, M.; Oancea, D.; Zaharescu, T.

    2009-01-01

    The behavior at low-dose exposure (0.033-0.4 kGy) of horseradish peroxidase (HRP) and of two different purified fractions of apple (Jonathan cultivar) peroxidases (named APR 1S and APR 2S) was studied. The HRP solutions were added with either 0.32 M fructose or glucose in order to study their effect on enzymes activity response under γ ( 137Cs, dose rate 0.4 kGy/h) irradiation. The obtained results showed similar behavior between HRP-sugar-added solution and apple fraction with higher oligosaccharides content (APR 2S) undergoing low-dose treatment. The same pattern was observed between unglycosylated HRP and APR 1S with lower oligosaccharides content. These similarities gave us the possibility to conclude that the presence of oligosaccharides, in more or less quantities, influences in the same way the peroxidases activity, from different plant species, exposed to γ irradiation.

  3. Regulatory influence of germ cells on sertoli cell function in the pre-pubertal rat after acute irradiation of the testis.

    PubMed

    Guitton, N; Touzalin, A M; Sharpe, R M; Cheng, C Y; Pinon-Lataillade, G; Méritte, H; Chenal, C; Jégou, B

    2000-12-01

    While germ cell regulation of Sertoli cells has been extensively explored in adult rats in vivo, in contrast, very little is known about germ cell influence on Sertoli cell function at the time when spermatogenesis begins and develops. In the present study various Sertoli cell parameters (number, testicular androgen binding protein (ABP) and testin, serum inhibin-B and, indirectly, follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH)) were investigated after the exposure of 19-day-old rats to a low dose of 3 Grays of gamma-rays. Differentiated spermatogonia were the primary testicular targets of the gamma-rays, which resulted in progressive maturation depletion, sequentially and reversibly affecting all germ cell classes. Testicular weight declined to a nadir when pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids were depleted from the seminiferous epithelium and complete or near complete recovery of spermatogenesis and testicular weight was observed at the end of the experiment. Blood levels of FSH and ABP were normal during the first 11 days after irradiation, when spermatogonia and early spermatocytes were depleted. While the number of Sertoli cells was not significantly affected by the irradiation, from days 11-66 after gamma-irradiation, ABP production declined and FSH levels increased when pachytene spermatocytes and spermatids were depleted and the recovery of these parameters was only observed when spermatogenesis was fully restored. Comparison of the pattern of change in serum levels of inhibin-B and testicular levels of testin and of germ cell numbers strongly suggest a relationship between the disappearance of spermatocytes and spermatids from the seminiferous epithelium and the decrease in levels of inhibin-B and increase in levels of testin from 7 to 36 days post-irradiation. Levels of testin and inhibin-B were restored before spermatogenesis had totally returned to normal. In conclusion, this in vivo study shows that pre-pubertal Sertoli cell function is under the complex control

  4. FORMAL REPORT NO. 1, 1 APR-30 SEP 65.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    PROTON BEAMS), (*RADIATION EFFECTS, RADIOBIOLOGY, PRIMATES, MICE , EYE, BRAIN, WHOLE BODY IRRADIATION, RADIATION DOSAGE, DOSIMETERS, ROTATION, EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), TEST EQUIPMENT, INSTRUMENTATION, CYCLOTRONS.

  5. [Effect of gaseous hypoxic mixture GHM-10 on the intestinal death of Wistar rats and Na+,K+-ATPase activity of the plasma membrane of the small intestine mucosa after irradiation].

    PubMed

    Strelkov, R B; Dvoretskiĭ, A I; Kucherenko, N G

    1986-01-01

    It was shown that gas hypoxic mixture containing O2 (10%) and N2 (90%) significantly decreases "intestinal" death of Wistar rats on the 5th day following irradiation and normalizes Na+,K+-ATPase activity of the small intestine mucosa plasma membranes.

  6. Post-Irradiation Polymerization of a Silorane Composite

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2013-04-26

    Post-Irradiation Polymerization of a Silorane Composite A THESIS Presented to the Faculty of The Air Force Postgraduate Dental School...Oral Biology By Bryan Michael Wilson, BS, MS, DDS Dunn Dental Clinic JBSA-Lackland, TX 26 Apr 2013 2 ii Poet-Irradiation...Postgraduate Dental School (AFPDS) 4. Phone: 210-671-9822 5. Type of clearance: _Paper _Article_ Book _x_Poster _Presentation _Other 6. Title: Post

  7. [Consequences for posterity of two generations of an irradiation pregnant from females rats Wistar in small doses during a bookmark of reproduction system of fetuses development of posterity of the second generation and it reproduction function].

    PubMed

    Palyga, G F; Chibisova, O F

    2006-01-01

    With the purpose of study of consequences for development and reproduction functions of posterity of the second generation from females rats Wistar of a total unitary gamma-irradiation in dozes 0.25; 0.5 and 1 Gy (capacity of a doze 0.03 sGy/s) on 10th day of pregnancy (the period of the onset of fetuses reproduction system development) is investigated more than 630 females, 1400 with the age of 19th days, and about 3200 young rats. The revealed deviations(rejections) in development of posterity of two generations parents, antenatal irradiated in not sterilizing dozes, in he period of a beginning of formation of reproduction system, them a variety at different dozes of radiating influence, shown as at posterity of the irradiated mothers, and fathers, testify about instability genoms in a line of generations requiring the account and acceptance of necessary measures for preservation normal genofund.

  8. Reasons for reduced activities of 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase in spite of increased contents of cytochrome P-450 in mature rat testis fetally irradiated with 60Co.

    PubMed

    Inano, H; Ishii-Ohba, H; Suzuki, K; Ikeda, K

    1990-05-01

    Pregnant rats received whole body irradiation with 2.6 Gy gamma-ray from a 60Co source at Day 20 of gestation. When pups were 4 months old, activities of electron transport system and steroid monooxygenase in tests were assayed. The content of total cytochrome P-450 in the irradiated testes had increased to 170% of that in non-irradiated rats, but NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity had reduced to 36% of the control. Also, amounts of cytochrome b5 in testicular microsomal fraction were decreased markedly after irradiation, but no significant change of NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase activity was observed in the treated pups. Because both 17 alpha-hydroxylase and C17-C20 lyase activities tended to be decreased by fetal irradiation, testosterone production from progesterone and 17 alpha-hydroxyprogesterone was reduced to about 30% of the control. From these results, it has been suggested that the testicular cytochrome P-450 is radioresistant but steroid monooxygenase activities are reduced after the fetal irradiation. We propose that the discrepancy arises from the marked decrement of NADPH-cytochrome P-450 reductase activity.

  9. Storage of pork by irradiation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Shupei, Liu; Renli, Yang; Chixum, Chen; Yongzhi, Wang; Zhen, Sun

    In this paper the study of storage of pork, irradiated with Co-60 gamma rays, is recommended. The changes of the appearance and the main qualitative, indexes of pork, irradiated with 1.5 M rad radiation and after two month's storage, were analysed. The evaluation of storage. Transportation and nutritional acceptability of the two kinds of irradiated pork products was made. Systematic toxicological tests of rats and dogs, fed with irradiated pork, were given. The comparison of the economic facilitation of refrigerated pork and irradiated pork was made

  10. Histometric evaluation of the healing of the dental alveolus in rats after irradiation with a low-powered GaA1As laser

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lizarelli, Rosane F. Z.; Lamano-Carvalho, Tereza L.; Brentegani, Luis G.

    1999-05-01

    The aim of the present work was to evaluate histometrically the effect of the irradiation with semiconductor diode GaAlAs 790 nm low-powered laser in the chronology of alveolar repair of rats. Lasers of low intensity possesses an eminently analgesic, anti-inflammatory and bioestimulant effect, producing an increase of the local micro-circulation and in the speed of healing. Groups of five animals had their upper right incisors extracted under anesthesia and the mucous sutured; three groups received 1.5 J/cm2 of irradiation immediately after the extraction with laser for sweeping on the operated area. After that, the animals were sacrificed in the periods of 7, 14 and 21 days after the dental extraction. The material was decalcified and processed for inclusion in paraffin. Longitudinal sections of 7 micrometers in the alveolus were made and stained with HE. The histometric analysis was performed with the Merz grid, and 2000 points were counted in each cervical, middle and apical thirds of the alveolus, assessing the percentage of the bone tissue. The result shows that low-powered intensity laser produced acceleration in osseous formation (10%) in some periods.

  11. Effects of prenatal irradiation with an accelerated heavy-ion beam on postnatal development in rats: II. Further study on neurophysiologic alterations

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, B.; Murakami, M.; Eguchi-Kasai, K.; Nojima, K.; Shang, Y.; Tanaka, K.; Watanabe, K.; Fujita, K.; Moreno, S. G.; Coffigny, H.; Hayata, I.

    Organogenesis is a highly radiosensitive period, study of prenatal exposure to high LET heavy ion beams on postnatal development is important for clarifying the radiation risk in space and promoting the evidence-based mechanism research. The effects from heavy ion irradiations are not well studied as those for low LET radiations such as X-rays in this field, even the ground-based investigations remain to be addressed. Using the Heavy Ion Medical Accelerator in Chiba (HIMAC) and Wistar rats, postnatal neurophysiological development in offspring was investigated following exposure of pregnant rats to accelerated neon-ion beams with a LET value of about 30 keV/μm at a dose range from 0.1 to 2.0 Gy on the 15th day of gestation. The age for appearance of four physiologic markers and attainment of five neonatal reflexes, and gain in body weight were monitored. Male offspring were evaluated as young adults using two behavioral tests including open field and hole-board dipping tests. The effects of X-rays at 200 kVp measured for the same biological end points were studied for comparison. For most of the endpoints at early age, significant neurophysiological alteration was observed even in offspring receiving 0.1 Gy of accelerated neon ions but not X-rays. All offspring receiving 2.0 Gy of accelerated neon ions died prior to weaning. Offspring prenatally irradiated with neon ions generally showed higher incidences of prenatal death, increased preweaning mortality, markedly delayed accomplishment in physiological markers and reflexes, significantly lower body weight and reduced ratios of main organ weight to body weight, and altered behavior compared to those exposed to X-rays at doses of 0.1 1.5 Gy. These findings indicate that irradiations with neon ions at 0.1 1.5 Gy on day 15 of gestation caused varied developmental alterations in offspring, and efficient dose leading to the detrimental effects seemed to be lower than that of X-rays.

  12. Effect of ultraviolet-B-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusions and peritransplant immunosuppression with cyclosporine on rat cardiac allograft survival

    SciTech Connect

    Oluwole, S.F.; Lau, H.T.; Reemtsma, K.; Hardy, M.A.

    1988-02-01

    We have previously demonstrated that pretreatment of ACI recipients with ultraviolet-irradiated donor-specific blood transfusion (UV-DST) leads to permanent cardiac allograft survival without further host immunosuppression (ACI rats are weak responders to Lewis lymphocytes in mixed-lymphocyte reaction). This study examines the effect of UV-DST and the timing of transfusions on ACI cardiac allograft survival in Lewis recipients with and without the addition of peritransplant cyclosporine (CsA) (20 mg/kg i.m.) given on days 0, +1, and +2 in relation to the time of transplantation. The mean survival time (MST) of ACI cardiac allografts in Lewis recipients was significantly increased to 33.6 +/- 5.7 days (P less than 0.001) by CsA treatment alone as compared to 6.5 +/- 0.5 days survival in control. When DST was given on day -3 combined with CsA, graft survival was increased to 42.0 +/- 9.3 days (P less than 0.01), as compared to 5.8 +/- 1.3 days when DST alone was used. When DST was irradiated with ultraviolet B (UV-DST) and administered on day -3 combined with peritransplant CsA, the MST was increased to 68.83 +/- 16.1 days as compared to an MST of 10.0 +/- 1.0 days in controls treated with UV-DST alone. When UV-DST was given on day -7 and combined with peritransplant CsA immunosuppression, the results were similar. However, when UV-DST was peritransplant CsA course, 4 of 6 recipients maintained their ACI heart allografts indefinitely (greater than 300 days) in contrast to the effect of UV-DST alone (MST of 13.5 days). Third-party (W/F) UV-irradiated blood transfusions were ineffective in prolonging ACI cardiac allografts in Lewis rats, regardless of whether the transfusions were given alone or in combination with peritransplant immunosuppression with CsA.

  13. Increase in the ADP/ATP exchange in rat liver mitochondria irradiated in vitro by helium-neon laser

    SciTech Connect

    Passarella, S.; Ostuni, A.; Atlante, A.; Quagliariello, E.

    1988-10-31

    To gain some insight into the mechanism of cell photostimulation by laser light, measurements were made of the rate of ADP/ATP exchange in mitochondria irradiated with the low power continuous wave Helium Neon laser (energy dose 5 Joules/cm2). To do this a method has been developed to continuously monitor ATP efflux from phosphorylating mitochondria caused by externally added ADP, by photometrically following the NADP+ reduction which occurs in the presence of glucose, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase and effluxed ATP. The NADP+ reduction rate shows hyperbolic dependence on ADP concentration (Km and Vmax values 8.5 +/- 0.87 microM and 20.7 +/- 0.49 nmoles NADP+ reduced/min x mg mitochondrial protein, respectively), and proves to measure the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator as shown by inhibition experiments using atracyloside, powerful inhibitor of this carrier. Irradiation was found to enhance the rate of ADP/ATP antiport, with externally added ADP ranging between 5 and 100 microM. As a result of experiments carried out with mitochondria loaded with either ATP or ADP, the increase in the activity of the ADP/ATP translocator is here proposed to depend on the increase in the electrochemical proton gradient which occurs owing to irradiation of mitochondria.

  14. Infrared laser diode irradiation has no behavioral or biochemical effect on pain in the sciatic nerve ligation-induced mononeuropathy in rat.

    PubMed Central

    Parris, W. C.; Janicki, P. K.; Johnson, B. W.; Mathews, L.

    1994-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of acute and repeated (5 days) treatment with various types of infrared (IR) diode lasers and probes (single- vs cluster-beam) on the pain response in rats with peripheral mononeuropathy produced by sciatic nerve ligation. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital, and the mid-thigh was surgically exposed to reveal the sciatic nerve, around which four ligatures were loosely tied. On postoperative day 5, the skin over the sciatic nerve lesion was subjected to a 30-min daily local exposure from a 904-nm IR diode laser (700 Hz, average output power 10 mW) with a single-beam probe, a 830-nm IR diode laser (700 Hz) with either a single-beam (average output power 50 mW) or cluster-beam probe (average output power 15 mW), or placebo for 5 consecutive days. Two pain responses (foot-withdrawal time and the hind-paw elevation time) were measured on both sides using the radiant heat method on days 5 and 9. In addition, cold allodynia was measured on day 9 of treatment by placing the rats on a chilled metal plate (4 degrees C) and measuring the duration of elevation of either of the hind paws. On day 9, the animals were sacrificed for collection of the samples of brain and lumbar spinal cord for the determination of the tissue concentrations of dynorphin A1-8-like immunoactivity (DYN) using specific radioimmunoassay (RIA). The hind-paw withdrawal and elevation times on the right side in all groups subjected to the various methods of IR laser irradiation did not differ significantly as compared with the placebo-treated group when measured on days 5 and 9 after surgery. No statistically significant differences in withdrawal response and elevation time of the unaffected left hind paw were noted either. The measurement of cold allodynia similarly failed to reveal any effect in laser-treated groups versus placebo. The RIA analysis found that tissue concentrations of DYN were significantly elevated in the

  15. 15 CFR 782.2 - Persons responsible for submitting reports required under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... reports required under the APR. 782.2 Section 782.2 Commerce and Foreign Trade Regulations Relating to Commerce and Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL... responsible for submitting reports required under the APR. The owner, operator, or senior management official...

  16. The effects of exogenous glutathione on reduced glutathione level, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase activities of rats with different ages and gender after whole-body Γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Erden Inal, Mine; Akgün, Asiye; Kahraman, Ahmet

    2003-07-01

    Age-and gender-related changes on reduced glutathione (GSH) level, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and glutathione reductase (GR) activities in the liver of rat exposed to different dose of whole-body g-ray irradiation were determined. In addition, the effect of administration of exogenous GSH on endogenous GSH levels, GPx and GR activities was investigated. For this aim, male and female rats aged 1 and 5 moths were divided into two groups as g-ray and g-ray+GSH. Both groups were again divided into four groups as irradiated with 2, 4, 6 and 8 Gy doses. GSH level and GPx activity did not change with age while GR activity was decreased with age. Gender-dependent changes in GPx and GR activities were observed, but GSH values were not affect by sex. GSH levels, GPx and GR activities were not observed dose-associated changes of g-irradiation. GSH level and GPx activity in the 8Gy group were increased by GSH. GR activities of old male rats were found to be increased by glutathione in the 6 and 8Gy groups. These results indicate that radiation and administration of exogenous GSH affect gender-and age-dependent GSH level, GPx and GR activities in the rats.

  17. Effect of electromagnetic irradiation produced by 3G mobile phone on male rat reproductive system in a simulated scenario.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Sanjay; Nirala, Jay Prakash; Behari, J; Paulraj, R

    2014-09-01

    Reports of declining male fertility have renewed interest in assessing the role of electromagnetic fields (EMFs). Testicular function is particularly susceptible to the radiation emitted by EMFs. Significant decrease in sperm count, increase in the lipid peroxidation damage in sperm cells, reduction in seminiferous tubules and testicular weight and DNA damage were observed following exposure to EMF in male albino rats. The results suggest that mobile phone exposure adversely affects male fertility.

  18. Microdosimetry of rat alveolar type II cells irradiated with alpha particles from 239PuO2

    SciTech Connect

    Shen, Z.Y.; Ye, C.Q.; Wu, D.C. )

    1989-11-01

    The alveolar type II cell is one of the critical cells for radiation damage in the lungs after inhalation of radioactive aerosols. With the aid of a Quantimet-970 image analyzer and a VAX-11/780 computer, we calculated the radiation dose to rat alveolar type II cells from alpha particles emitted by {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}. A series of dosimetric parameters for type II cells, including track length distribution, linear energy transfer (LET), values of the specific energy for a single hit of a spherical target (z1), cellular dose, hit number, and their spatial distributions were calculated. By comparing the volume density of type II cells and lung tissue with energy deposited in alveolar type II cells, we found that the energy deposited per unit volume of type II cells was larger than that of lung tissue excluding type II cells. The z1 for spherical targets and the LET across type II cells were less than those in lung tissue excluding type II cells. The age of the rat and damage to lung by inhalation may significantly influence some of the parameters. The neoplastic transformation probability for type II cells is also discussed. The results suggest that the type II cell is an important target cell in the rat lung for exposure to inhaled {sup 239}PuO{sub 2}.

  19. Microdosimetry of rat alveolar type II cells irradiated with alpha particles from 239PuO2.

    PubMed

    Shen, Z Y; Ye, C Q; Wu, D C

    1989-11-01

    The alveolar type II cell is one of the critical cells for radiation damage in the lungs after inhalation of radioactive aerosols. With the aid of a Quantimet-970 image analyzer and a VAX-11/780 computer, we calculated the radiation dose to rat alveolar type II cells from alpha particles emitted by 239PuO2. A series of dosimetric parameters for type II cells, including track length distribution, linear energy transfer (LET), values of the specific energy for a single hit of a spherical target (z1), cellular dose, hit number, and their spatial distributions were calculated. By comparing the volume density of type II cells and lung tissue with energy deposited in alveolar type II cells, we found that the energy deposited per unit volume of type II cells was larger than that of lung tissue excluding type II cells. The z1 for spherical targets and the LET across type II cells were less than those in lung tissue excluding type II cells. The age of the rat and damage to lung by inhalation may significantly influence some of the parameters. The neoplastic transformation probability for type II cells is also discussed. The results suggest that the type II cell is an important target cell in the rat lung for exposure to inhaled 239PuO2.

  20. Healing of rat mouth mucosa after irradiation with CO2, Nd:YAG, and CO2-Nd:YAG combination lasers.

    PubMed

    Luomanen, M; Rauhamaa-Mäkinen, R; Meurman, J H; Kosloff, T; Tiitta, O

    1994-08-01

    The healing process of wounds made by a combination laser was studied in 90 rats. The laser system enabled both separate and combined use of CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiations. The laser wounds and the control excision wounds made by alligator forceps appeared on both sides of the tongue. Specimens from the wound sites were taken immediately, 6 h, and 1, 2, 4, 7, 11, 21, 28, and 42 days after surgery. The wound-healing process was studied by macroscopic evaluation before preparing the specimens for light microscopy. Some differences were noted in the wound-healing process among the three groups into which the experimental animals were divided. Tissue coagulation damage was most extensive in the Nd:YAG laser sites, where it was observed in its full extent 4 days after surgery. Epithelial cells were seen to begin to proliferate in all the wounds 6 h after surgery. Re-epithelialization was completed by between 7 (CO2) and 21 days (Nd:YAG) at all the wound sites. The inflammatory cell infiltration was more prominent in the Nd:YAG and the CO2-Nd:YAG combination laser wounds than in the CO2 and excision wounds during healing. Tissue regeneration occurred faster with less contraction in the combination CO2-Nd:YAG wounds than in Nd:YAG wounds. The best macroscopic healing result was seen in the CO2 wound sites. The combination laser was effective both at cutting and at coagulating tissue. Combining the CO2 and Nd:YAG laser irradiation into one beam resulted in a greater incision depth than what could have been expected from using the two lasers separately.

  1. Vitamin E prevents increase in oxidative damage to lipids and DNA in liver of ODS rats given total body X-ray irradiation.

    PubMed

    Yoshimura, Mika; Kashiba, Misato; Oka, Jun; Sugisawa, Ayako; Umegaki, Keizo

    2002-01-01

    We examined the effects of dietary vitamin E (VE) on oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in the liver a few days after total body irradiation (TBI). ODS rats, which lack vitamin C synthesis, were fed either a low VE diet (4.3 mg VE/kg) or a basal VE diet (75.6 mg VE/kg) for 5 weeks while vitamin C was supplied in the drinking water. The VE level in the liver of the low VE group was lower and the levels of lipid peroxides were higher compared to those of the basal VE group: the relative levels in the two groups were 1:30 for VE, 18:1 for 4-hydroxynonenal (HNE), and 10:1 for hexanal (HA). The level of 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8OHdG), a marker of oxidative DNA damage, did not differ between the low VE and the basal VE groups. When the rats received TBI at the dose of 3 Gy and were killed on day 6, the levels of HNE, HA and 8OHdG increased by 2.2-, 2-, and 1.5-times, respectively, in the low VE group, but TBI did not cause such increases in the basal VE group. Changes in antioxidative enzymes (glutathione peroxidase, catalase, and Cu/Zn-SOD) in the liver could not explain the different responses of the two diet groups to TBI-induced oxidative damage. The concentrations of vitamin C and glutathione in the liver did not differ between the two groups. These results suggest that dietary VE can prevent the oxidative damage to DNA and lipids in the liver which appear a few days after TBI at dose of 3 Gy.

  2. Radiation metabolomics. 3. Biomarker discovery in the urine of gamma-irradiated rats using a simplified metabolomics protocol of gas chromatography-mass spectrometry combined with random forests machine learning algorithm.

    PubMed

    Lanz, Christian; Patterson, Andrew D; Slavík, Josef; Krausz, Kristopher W; Ledermann, Monika; Gonzalez, Frank J; Idle, Jeffrey R

    2009-08-01

    Abstract Radiation metabolomics employing mass spectral technologies represents a plausible means of high-throughput minimally invasive radiation biodosimetry. A simplified metabolomics protocol is described that employs ubiquitous gas chromatography-mass spectrometry and open source software including random forests machine learning algorithm to uncover latent biomarkers of 3 Gy gamma radiation in rats. Urine was collected from six male Wistar rats and six sham-irradiated controls for 7 days, 4 prior to irradiation and 3 after irradiation. Water and food consumption, urine volume, body weight, and sodium, potassium, calcium, chloride, phosphate and urea excretion showed major effects from exposure to gamma radiation. The metabolomics protocol uncovered several urinary metabolites that were significantly up-regulated (glyoxylate, threonate, thymine, uracil, p-cresol) and down-regulated (citrate, 2-oxoglutarate, adipate, pimelate, suberate, azelaate) as a result of radiation exposure. Thymine and uracil were shown to derive largely from thymidine and 2'-deoxyuridine, which are known radiation biomarkers in the mouse. The radiation metabolomic phenotype in rats appeared to derive from oxidative stress and effects on kidney function. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry is a promising platform on which to develop the field of radiation metabolomics further and to assist in the design of instrumentation for use in detecting biological consequences of environmental radiation release.

  3. Irradiation in Adulthood as a New Model of Schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Iwata, Yasuhide; Suzuki, Katsuaki; Wakuda, Tomoyasu; Seki, Norihito; Thanseem, Ismail; Matsuzaki, Hideo; Mamiya, Takayoshi; Ueki, Takatoshi; Mikawa, Sumiko; Sasaki, Takeshi; Suda, Shiro; Yamamoto, Shigeyuki; Tsuchiya, Kenji J.; Sugihara, Genichi; Nakamura, Kazuhiko; Sato, Kohji; Takei, Nori; Hashimoto, Kenji; Mori, Norio

    2008-01-01

    Background Epidemiological studies suggest that radiation exposure may be a potential risk factor for schizophrenia in adult humans. Here, we investigated whether adult irradiation in rats caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia. Methodology/Principal Findings A total dose of 15-Gy irradiation in six fractionations during 3 weeks was exposed to the forebrain including the subventricular zone (SVZ) and subgranular zone (SGZ) with male rats in the prone position. Behavioral, immunohistochemical, and neurochemical studies were performed three months after fractionated ionizing irradiation. Three months after fractionated ionizing irradiation, the total numbers of BrdU-positive cells in both the SVZ and SGZ zones of irradiated rats were significantly lower than those of control (sham-irradiated) rats. Hyperactivity after administration of the dopaminergic agonist methamphetamine, but not the N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptor antagonist dizocilpine, was significantly enhanced in the irradiated rats although spontaneous locomotion in the irradiated rats was significantly lower than that of controls. Behavioral abnormalities including auditory sensory gating deficits, social interaction deficits, and working memory deficits were observed in the irradiated rats. Conclusion/Significance The present study suggests that irradiation in adulthood caused behavioral abnormalities relevant to schizophrenia, and that reduction of adult neurogenesis by irradiation may be associated with schizophrenia-like behaviors in rats. PMID:18509473

  4. Status of p53, p21, mdm2, pRb proteins, and DNA methylation in gonocytes of control and gamma-irradiated rats during testicular development.

    PubMed

    Moréno, S G; Dutrillaux, B; Coffigny, H

    2001-05-01

    In fetal and newborn rat testes, gonocytes, which stop cycling for about 8 days, become highly radiosensitive. The presence of p53, p21, mdm2, and pRb, which are involved in cell cycle, apoptosis control, or both, were studied by immunohistochemistry to determine if their expression is related to this radiosensitivity. A strong cytoplasmic expression of p53 and p21 was detected. Cytoplasmic expression of p53 occurred only in arrested gonocytes, whereas that of p21 was observed before and after the block. P21 was found to colocalize with mitochondria. No expression of mdm2 was detected and pRb was present only when the gonocytes started cycling again. In animals exposed to 1.5 Gy of gamma-irradiation at Day 19 postcoitum, p53 expression was prolonged in time, whereas no change was observed in p21 amounts and localization, compared with controls. Using antibodies against 5-methyl cytosine, it was shown that gonocyte DNA passed from a hypomethylated to a methylated status 1 day after gonocytes stopped cycling. A prolonged survival of gonocytes after exposure to radiation was followed by their progressive apoptosis, which finally involved the entire gonocyte population between Days 6 and 12 postpartum. The elevated but delayed sensitivity of gonocytes to genotoxic stress may be related to the unusual expression of p53 and p21, which may itself be related to the large DNA methylation changes.

  5. Long-term cryopreservation model of rat salivary gland stem cells for future therapy in irradiated head and neck cancer patients.

    PubMed

    Neumann, Yoav; David, Ran; Stiubea-Cohen, Raluca; Orbach, Yoav; Aframian, Doron J; Palmon, Aaron

    2012-09-01

    Irradiated head and neck cancer patients suffer from irreversible loss of salivary gland (SG) function, along with significant morbidity and compromised quality of life. To date there is no biologically-based treatment for this distress. Adult salivary gland stem cells are promising candidates for autologous transplantation therapy in the context of tissue-engineered artificial SGs or direct cell therapy. The major restrictions in handling such cells are their limited lifespan during in vitro cultivation, resulting in a narrow time-window for implantation and a risk of tumorigenic changes during culture. To overcome these difficulties, we tested in a rat model the possibility of establishing a personal/autologous SG stem cell bank. SG's integrin-α6β1-expressing cells were shown to hold a subpopulation of SG-specific progenitor-cells. Explanted and cultured single cell-originated clones were cryopreserved for up to 3 years and shown to exhibit genetic and functional stability similar to noncryopreserved cells, as was emphasized by soft agar assay, division potential assessment, flow cytometric analysis, real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, in vitro three-dimensional differentiation assay, and immunofluorescence confocal microscopy. Future integration of the novel strategies presented herein to a clinical therapeutic model will allow safe preservation until transplantation and repeated transplantation if needed. These tools open a new venue for adult autologous stem-cell transplantation-based SG regeneration.

  6. PHOTO-STIMULATORY EFFECT OF LOW ENERGY HELIUM-NEON LASER IRRADIATION ON EXCISIONAL DIABETIC WOUND HEALING DYNAMICS IN WISTAR RATS

    PubMed Central

    Maiya, Arun G; Kumar, Pramod; Nayak, Shivanand

    2009-01-01

    Background: Generally, the significances of laser photo stimulation are now accepted, but the laser light facilitates wound healing and tissue repair remains poorly understood. Aims: We have examined the hypothesis that the laser photo stimulation can enhance the collagen production in diabetic wounds using the excision wound model in the Wistar rat model. Methods: The circular wounds were created on the dorsum of the back of the animals. The animals were divided into two groups. The study group (N = 24) wound was treated with 632.8 nm He-Ne laser at a dose of 3-9 J/cm2 for 5 days a week until the wounds healed completely. The control group was sham irradiated. Result: A significant increase in the hydroxyproline content and reduction in the wound size were observed in the study group. The pro-healing actions seem to be due to increased collagen deposition as well as better alignment and maturation. Conclusion: The biochemical analysis and clinical observation suggested that 3-6 J/cm2 laser photo stimulation facilitates the tissue repair process by accelerating collagen production in diabetic wound healing. PMID:20101331

  7. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-01

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to ΔkTARGET. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f =∑i (ΔkF A-Δki ) ] , and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to ΔkTARGET as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  8. Fuel assembly design for APR1400 with low CBC

    SciTech Connect

    Hah, Chang Joo

    2015-04-29

    APR 1400 is a PWR (Pressurized Water Reactor) with rated power of 3983 MWth and 241 assemblies. Recently, demand for extremely longer cycle up to 24 months is increasing with challenge of higher critical boron concentration (CBC). In this paper, assembly design method of selecting Gd-rods is introduced to reduce CBC. The purpose of the method is to lower the critical boron concentration of the preliminary core loading pattern (PLP), and consequently to achieve more negative or less positive moderator temperature coefficient (MTC). In this method, both the ratio of the number of low-Gd rod to the number of high-Gd rod (r) and assembly average Gd wt% (w) are the decision variables. The target function is the amount of soluble boron concentration reduction, which can be converted to Δk{sub TARGET}. A set of new designed fuel assembly satisfies an objective function, min [f=∑{sub i}(Δk{sub FA}−Δk{sub i})], and enables a final loading pattern to reach a target CBC. The constraints required to determine a set of Δk are physically realizable pair, (r,w), and the sum of Δk of new designed assemblies as close to Δk{sub TARGET} as possible. New Gd-bearing assemblies selected based on valid pairs of (r,w) are replaced with existing assemblies in a PLP. This design methodology is applied to Shin-Kori Unit 3 Cycle 1 used as a reference model. CASMO-3/MASTER code is used for depletion calculation. CASMO-3/MASTER calculations with new designed assemblies produce lower CBC than the expected CBC, proving that the proposed method works successful.

  9. 48 CFR 1552.235-76 - Treatment of Confidential Business Information (APR 1996).

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-10-01

    ...)(APR 1996) (a) The Project Officer (PO) or his/her designee, after a written determination by the... General Counsel for Information Law or his/her designee; and (iii) return the CBI to the PO or...

  10. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  11. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  12. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2010 CFR

    2010-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  13. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2011 CFR

    2011-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  14. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  15. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  16. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  17. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2014 CFR

    2014-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  18. 15 CFR 782.1 - Overview of reporting requirements under the APR.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2012 CFR

    2012-01-01

    ... Foreign Trade (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL... (see § 782.5 of the APR). In addition, forms may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov....

  19. 15 CFR 782.5 - Where to obtain APR report forms.

    Code of Federal Regulations, 2013 CFR

    2013-01-01

    ... (Continued) BUREAU OF INDUSTRY AND SECURITY, DEPARTMENT OF COMMERCE ADDITIONAL PROTOCOL REGULATIONS GENERAL... forms required by the APR may be downloaded from the Internet at http://www.ap.gov. You also may...

  20. 86. Neg. No. F64, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    86. Neg. No. F-64, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY STORAGE CONVEYOR - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  1. 79. Neg. No. F61A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    79. Neg. No. F-61A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY CONSTRUCTION - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  2. 85. Neg. No. F51, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    85. Neg. No. F-51, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BODY AND CUSHION LINE - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  3. 53. Neg. No. F69, Apr 21, 1930, EXTERIOROFFICE BUILDING, WEST ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    53. Neg. No. F-69, Apr 21, 1930, EXTERIOR-OFFICE BUILDING, WEST (FRONT) AND NORTH SIDES, OPENING DAY - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  4. 82. Neg. No. F66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    82. Neg. No. F-66A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, TRIM LINE AND GLASS DEPARTMENTS - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  5. 83. Neg. No. F53, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, BACK ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    83. Neg. No. F-53, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, BACK TRIM LINE - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  6. 90. Neg. No. F59A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIORASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHASSIS ...

    Library of Congress Historic Buildings Survey, Historic Engineering Record, Historic Landscapes Survey

    90. Neg. No. F-59A, Apr 13, 1930, INTERIOR-ASSEMBLY BUILDING, CHASSIS LINE, LOOKING SOUTH - Ford Motor Company Long Beach Assembly Plant, Assembly Building, 700 Henry Ford Avenue, Long Beach, Los Angeles County, CA

  7. Single-dose gamma-irradiation induces up-regulation of chemokine gene expression and recruitment of granulocytes into the portal area but not into other regions of rat hepatic tissue.

    PubMed

    Malik, Ihtzaz Ahmed; Moriconi, Federico; Sheikh, Nadeem; Naz, Naila; Khan, Sajjad; Dudas, Jozsef; Mansuroglu, Tümen; Hess, Clemens Friedrich; Rave-Fränk, Margret; Christiansen, Hans; Ramadori, Giuliano

    2010-04-01

    Liver damage is a serious clinical complication of gamma-irradiation. We therefore exposed rats to single-dose gamma-irradiation (25 Gy) that was focused on the liver. Three to six hours after irradiation, an increased number of neutrophils (but not mononuclear phagocytes) was observed by immunohistochemistry to be attached to portal vessels between and around the portal (myo)fibroblasts (smooth muscle actin and Thy-1(+) cells). MCP-1/CCL2 staining was also detected in the portal vessel walls, including some cells of the portal area. CC-chemokine (MCP-1/CCL2 and MCP-3/CCL7) and CXC-chemokine (KC/CXCL1, MIP-2/CXCL2, and LIX/CXCL5) gene expression was significantly induced in total RNA from irradiated livers. In laser capture microdissected samples, an early (1 to 3 hours) up-regulation of CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL8, and CXCR2 gene expression was detected in the portal area but not in the parenchyma; with the exception of CXCL1 gene expression. In addition, treatment with an antibody against MCP-1/CCL2 before irradiation led to an increase in gene expression of interferon-gamma and IP-10/CXCL10 in liver tissue without influencing the recruitment of granulocytes. Indeed, the CCL2, CXCL1, CXCL2, and CXCL5 genes were strongly expressed and further up-regulated in liver (myo)fibroblasts after irradiation (8 Gy). Taken together, these results suggest that gamma-irradiation of the liver induces a transient accumulation of granulocytes within the portal area and that (myo)fibroblasts of the portal vessels may be one of the major sources of the chemokines involved in neutrophil recruitment. Moreover, inhibition of more than one chemokine (eg, CXCL1 and CXCL8) may be necessary to reduce leukocytes recruitment.

  8. Expression and mechanism of regulation of PP2A/Pr65 in ameloblastoma.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xiuqiu; Wang, Guannan; Zhang, Yun-Kai; Zhong, Ming

    2014-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of PP2A/PR65 protein in ameloblastoma and the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of PP2A/PR65. The association between PP2A/PR65 and the clinicopathological characteristics of tumor specimens in ameloblastoma were to provide a theoretical basis for the diagnosis, therapy and prognosis of ameloblastoma. Streptavidin-peroxidase (S-P) immunohistochemical staining was used to detect PP2A/Pr65 expression changes in a total of 68 cases of ameloblastoma, six ameloblastic carcinomas, 21 squamous cell carcinomas and seven normal oral mucosas. Western blot was used to analyze PP2A/PR65 protein expression in 15 cases of ameloblastoma and three cases of normal oral mucosa. Of the 68 cases analyzed, four cases were negative, 25 cases were weakly positive, 20 cases were moderately positive and 19 cases were strongly positive. In six cases of ameloblastic carcinoma, three cases were weak positive, one case was positive, two cases were strongly positive and none were negative. In 21 cases of squamous cell carcinomas, three cases were negative, 17 cases were weakly positive, one case was moderately positive and none were strongly positive. Western blot analysis showed that, PP2A/Pr65 protein expression was lower in ameloblastoma tissue compared with normal oral mucosa. Reduced expression of PP2A/PR65 in ameloblastoma compared with normal oral mucosa indicates that PP2A/PR65 is involved in the occurrence and development of ameloblastoma. Copyright © 2013 Royal College of Surgeons of Edinburgh (Scottish charity number SC005317) and Royal College of Surgeons in Ireland. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Reliability enhancement of APR + diverse protection system regarding common cause failures

    SciTech Connect

    Oh, Y. G.; Kim, Y. M.; Yim, H. S.; Lee, S. J.

    2012-07-01

    The Advanced Power Reactor Plus (APR +) nuclear power plant design has been developed on the basis of the APR1400 (Advanced Power Reactor 1400 MWe) to further enhance safety and economics. For the mitigation of Anticipated Transients Without Scram (ATWS) as well as Common Cause Failures (CCF) within the Plant Protection System (PPS) and the Emergency Safety Feature - Component Control System (ESF-CCS), several design improvement features have been implemented for the Diverse Protection System (DPS) of the APR + plant. As compared to the APR1400 DPS design, the APR + DPS has been designed to provide the Safety Injection Actuation Signal (SIAS) considering a large break LOCA accident concurrent with the CCF. Additionally several design improvement features, such as channel structure with redundant processing modules, and changes of system communication methods and auto-system test methods, are introduced to enhance the functional reliability of the DPS. Therefore, it is expected that the APR + DPS can provide an enhanced safety and reliability regarding possible CCF in the safety-grade I and C systems as well as the DPS itself. (authors)

  10. APR: A geographic information system based primary router for underground residential distribution design

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, E.C.; Sumic, Z. |; Venkata, S.S.

    1995-02-01

    This paper presents an automated tool for optimizing the routing of primary cables in underground residential distribution systems (URD). Although initially developed as one of the modules in Puget Sound Power and Light Co.`s automated electrical plant design program, Automated Primary Router (APR) can also be used in standalone mode. APR, implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based environment, is capable of efficiently accessing and manipulating geographically referenced data from a facilities management system database. It also provides a full-fledged Graphic User Interface, along with on-line visualization and accurate cost estimation to facilitate the design process. APR employs a heuristic search algorithm to find the best primary cable routes either for new residential developments, or for existing URD systems as part of the ongoing cable replacement program. Based on the test results, APR shows significant stability and efficiency in finding the optimal solution for primary cable routing. With this performance, APR can help distribution engineers improve the quality of URD design, producing standardized and economically justifiable primary cable routes. Because geographically referenced design data are digitally stored in the GIS database, APR further increases the reusability and accessibility of the URD design information.

  11. APR: A geographic information system based primary router for underground residential distribution design

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, E.C.; Sumic, Z. |; Venkata, S.S.

    1994-12-31

    This paper presents an automated tool for optimizing the routing of primary cables in underground residential distribution systems (URD). Although initially developed as on of the modules in Puget Sound Power and Light Co.`s automated electrical plant design program, Automated Primary Router (APR) can also be used in standalone mode. APR, implemented in a Geographic Information System (GIS)-based environment, is capable of efficiently accessing and manipulating geographically referenced data from a facilities management system database. It also provides a full-fledged Graphic User Interface, along with on-line visualization and accurate cost estimation to facilitate the design process. APR employs a heuristic search algorithm to find the best primary cable routes whether for new residential developments, or for existing URD systems as part of the ongoing cable replacement program. Based on the test results, APR shows significant stability and efficiency in finding the optimal solution for primary cable routing. With this performance, APR can help distribution engineers improve the quality of URD design, producing standardized and economically justifiable primary cable routes. Because geographically referenced design data are digitally stored in the GIS database, APR further increases the reusability and accessibility of the URD design information.

  12. Efficacy of human umbilical cord derived-mesenchymal stem cells in treatment of rat bone marrow exposed to gamma irradiation.

    PubMed

    Mousa, Hanaa S E; Shalaby, Sally M; Gouda, Zienab A; Ahmed, Fayza E; El-Khodary, Aisha A

    2017-03-01

    To assess the therapeutic effects of the human umbilical cord blood (hUCB) derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) on rat bone marrow (BM) exposed to gamma rays, 3 groups (n=15 each) of adult male Wistar albino rats were utilized as follows: the 1st group received PBS (control group), the 2nd group was exposed to gamma rays 1.04Gy/min (R group) and the 3rd group exposed to same dose as RG and injected hUCB-MSCs. The BM of femurs was processed for histological and immunohistochemical staining with proliferating cell nuclear antigen antibody (PCNA), anti human CD105 and anti human CD34. Hb content, leukocytes and platelet counts were analyzed as well as fat cells and megakaryocytic counts. Also, the BM vascular spaces and the optical density of immunostaining for PCNA were analyzed. The leukocytes and platelet counts were significantly lower in the R (2.85±235.8; P=0.000 and 95.27±3.01; P=0.000 respectively) when compared with the control (10.40±443.2; P=0.000 and 430.18±20.28; P=0.000 respectively). The fat cell count was significantly higher in the R (36.55±1.83; P=0.000) than in control (7.64±0.61; P=0.000) and in R injected h-MSCs tissues (18.82±2.03; P=0.000). The megakaryocytic count was significantly higher in the R injected h-MSCs (5.36±0.310; P=0.000) than in control (2.82±0.263; P=0.000) and in the R BM (0.45±0.157; P=0.000). The vascular spaces were dilated and significantly increased in the R injected h-MSCs (50.10±2.40; P=0.000) than in control (33.36±1.01; P=0.000). The optical density of PCNA expression was significantly lower in R (0.18±0.11; P=0.005) than in control (0.41±0.40; P=0.005) and in R injected h-MSCs groups (0.30±0.17; P=0.005). The present study concluded that injection of hUCB-MSCs improves destructive effects of bone marrow induced by gamma radiation. Use of radio-protective agents during exposure is recommended. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  13. One-shot LC-MS/MS analysis of post-translational modifications including oxidation and deamidation of rat lens α- and β-crystallins induced by γ-irradiation.

    PubMed

    Kim, Ingu; Saito, Takeshi; Fujii, Norihiko; Kanamoto, Takashi; Fujii, Noriko

    2016-12-01

    The eye lens is a transparent organ that functions to focus light and images on the retina. The transparency and high refraction of the lens are maintained by the function of α-, β-, and γ-crystallins. These long-lived proteins are subject to various post-translational modifications, such as oxidation, deamidation, truncation and isomerization, which occur gradually during the aging process. Such modifications, which are generated by UV light and oxidative stress, decrease crystallin solubility and lens transparency, and ultimately lead to the development of age-related cataracts. Here, we irradiated young rat lenses with γ-rays (5-500 Gy) and extracted the water-soluble (WS) and water-insoluble (WI) protein fractions. The WS and WI lens proteins were digested with trypsin, and the resulting peptides were analyzed by one-shot LC-MS/MS to determine the specific sites of oxidation of methionine and tryptophan, deamidation sites of asparagine and glutamine, and isomerization of aspartyl in rat α- and β-crystallins in the WS and WI fractions. Oxidation and deamidation occurred in several crystallins after irradiation at more than, respectively, 50 and 5 Gy; however, isomerization did not occur in any crystallin even after exposure to 500 Gy of irradiation. The number of oxidation and deamidation sites was much higher in the WI than in the WS fraction. Furthermore, the oxidation and deamidation sites in rat crystallins resemble those reported in crystallins from human age-related cataracts. Thus, this study on post-translational modifications of crystallins induced by ionizing irradiation may provide useful information relevant to the formation of human age-related cataracts.

  14. Measurements by filter elution of DNA single- and double-strand breaks in rat hepatocytes: effects of nitrosamines and gamma-irradiation

    SciTech Connect

    Bradley, M.O.; Dysart, G.; Fitzsimmons, K.; Harbach, P.; Lewin, J.; Wolf, G.

    1982-07-01

    This work presents a filter elution method for measuring DNA single- and double-strand breaks in primary rat hepatocytes without radioactive labeling of DNA. Researchers have studied the effects of a series of nitrosamines and of gamma-irradiation on DNA single- and double-strand break induction. The repair of DNA single-strand breaks in the hepatocytes was measured after treatment with /sup 60/Co, 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea, and N-nitrosodimethylamine. The hepatocytes were isolated by ethylene glycol-bis(beta-aminoethyl ether)-N,N'-tetra acetic acid-collagenase perfusion and had a mean viability of 91 +/- 4% (S.D.). The isolated cells were treated for varying lengths of time with nitrosamines in suspension culture in L-15 medium containing 10% fetal bovine serum. After treatment, the cells were chilled, loaded onto 2 micrometers polycarbonate filters, and lysed in a 2% sodium dodecyl sulfate-proteinase K solution, pH 9.6. The DNA was eluted from the filter at either native or denaturing pH with fractions collected every 3 hr. The quantity of DNA in each fraction was determined by measuring the fluorescent product formed between it and diaminobenzoic acid after ethanol-sodium acetate precipitation and trapping of the DNA on 0.2-micrometer polycarbonate filters. The results show that the carcinogens, N-nitrosodimethylamine, N-nitrosodiethylamine, N-nitrosodipropylamine, N-nitrosodibutylamine, and 1-nitrosopiperidine all made dose- and time-related increases in the number of single-strand breaks in rat hepatocytes. N-Nitrosodiphenylamine produced small numbers of single-strand breaks. No double-strand breaks were formed by any of the nitrosamines. Single-strand breaks induced by N-nitrosodimethylamine were repaired very slowly relative to repair of either gamma-ray of 1-methyl-1-nitrosourea-induced single-strand breaks. This system has many advantages for studying carcinogen metabolism and DNA damage in hepatocytes, one of the major target cells for many carcinogens.

  15. Bioactive compound loaded stable silver nanoparticle synthesis from microwave irradiated aqueous extracellular leaf extracts of Naringi crenulata and its wound healing activity in experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Bhuvaneswari, T; Thiyagarajan, M; Geetha, N; Venkatachalam, P

    2014-07-01

    An efficient and eco-friendly protocol for the synthesis of bioactive silver nanoparticles was developed using Naringi crenulata leaf extracts via microwave irradiation method. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by treating N. crenulata leaf extracts with 1mM of aqueous silver nitrate solution. An effective bioactive compound such as alkaloids, phenols, saponins and quinines present in the N. crenulata reduces the Ag(+) into Ag(0). The synthesized silver nanoparticles were monitored by UV-vis spectrophotometer and further characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier Transform Infra Red (FTIR), Energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDX) and field emission scanning electron microscopy (FESEM). UV-vis spectroscopy showed maximum absorbance at 390nm due to surface plasmon resonance of AgNPs. From FESEM results, an average crystal size of the synthesized nanoparticle was 72-98nm. FT-IR results showed sharp absorption peaks and they were assigned to phosphine, alkyl halides and sulfonate groups. Silver nanoparticles synthesized were generally found to be spherical and cubic shape. Topical application of ointment prepared from silver nanoparticles of N. crenulata were formulated and evaluated in vivo using the excision wound healing model on Wistar albino rats. The measurement of the wound areas was performed on 3rd, 6th, 9th, 12th and 15th days and the percentage of wound closures was calculated accordingly. By the 15th day, the ointment base containing 5% (w/w) of silver nanoparticles showed 100% wound healing activity compared with that of the reference as well as control bases. The results strongly suggested that the batch C ointment containing silver nanaoparticles synthesized from the leaf extracts of N. crenulata was found to be very effective in wound repair and encourages harnessing the potentials of the plant biomolecules loaded silver nanoparticle in the treatment of tropical diseases including wound healing. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights

  16. Zinc sulfate in the prevention of total-body irradiation-induced early hematopoietic toxicity: a controlled study in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Ertekin, Mustafa Vecdi; Karslioğlu, Ihsan; Erdem, Fuat; Sezen, Orhan; Gepdiremen, Akçahan; Serifoğlu, Korkmaz

    2004-07-01

    Exposure to ionizing total-body radiation suppresses hematopoiesis, resulting in decreased production of blood cells. Many researchers have demonstrated the critical role of zinc (Zn) in diverse physiological processes, such as growth and development, maintenance and priming of the immune system, and tissue repair. The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of zinc sulfate (40 mg/kg and 80 mg/kg) on early hematopoietic toxicity, caused by total-body irradiation (TBI) of rats with a single dose of 8 Gy. Both in the Zn 40 and in the Zn 80 groups, there were significantly increased white blood cell (WBC) count, when compared with control group. The WBC count was higher in the control group than in the TBI group. This result was statistically significant (p<0.05). Both the TBI+Zn 40 and the TBI+Zn 80 groups had a significantly protected WBC count against TBI. No difference was detected in any final measurement of thrombocyte count and hemoglobin level with direct comparison among all groups, with the exception that the hemoglobin level in the Zn 80 group compared to the control group. Whereas hemoglobin level in the control group was at a median figure of 13.98 g/dL (13.30-14.80), it was at a median figure of 14.25 g/dL (14.10-15.50) in the Zn 80 group. It would be worthwhile studying the effect of oral zinc sulfate supplements in radiation-treated cancer patients, in the hope of reducing radiation-induced toxicity.

  17. Comparison of effects of 0.5 and 3.0 Gy X-irradiation on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant enzyme function in rat testis and liver.

    PubMed

    Peltola, V; Parvinen, M; Huhtaniemi, I; Kulmala, J; Ahotupa, M

    1993-01-01

    The prooxidant effect of X-irradiation on rat testis and liver tissue was studied with doses of 0.5 and 3.0 Gy; the latter dose kills the proliferating spermatogonia and causes a maturation-depletion process in the germ cells. The level of lipid peroxidation, measured by the formation of diene conjugates and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS) and the activities of the antioxidant enzymes were determined 0.5 hours, 1 day, 7 days, and 31 days after the exposure. In the liver, increased levels of diene conjugation (+36%, P < 0.05) in the group of 3.0 Gy at 0.5 hours indicated increased lipid peroxidation. At the same time, TBARS were increased (+25%, P < 0.05) in the group of 0.5 Gy, but not in the 3.0-Gy group. In the testis, diene conjugation was not determined at 0.5 hours postirradiation, and at day 1 it was at the control level. The level of TBARS in the testis was below control (-11%, P < 0.01) in the 3.0-Gy group at day 1. At day 31 after 3.0 Gy in the testis, an increase in the amount of conjugated dienes (+24%, P < 0.01) was observed in parallel with a decreased level of TBARS (-15%, P < 0.01). The activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was decreased in the testis at 0.5 hours postirradiation (-28%, P < 0.05, and -29%, P < 0.05, in the groups of 0.5 and 3.0 Gy), whereafter it returned to normal by day 7. In the liver, such inactivation of SOD was not observed.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. In vitro analysis of T cell-mediated cytotoxicity displayed by rat heart allograft recipients rendered unresponsive by total-lymphoid irradiation and extracted donor antigen

    SciTech Connect

    Florence, L.S.; Jiang, G.L.; Ang, K.K.; Stepkowski, S.M.; Kahan, B.D. )

    1990-02-01

    The addition of 3M KCl-extracted donor antigen (HAg) to immunosuppressive therapy with 16 Gy total lymphoid irradiation produces a significantly higher fraction of Wistar-Furth (WFu) recipients displaying indefinite survival of heterotopic buffalo (BUF) heart allografts, namely 80 versus 20%. The experiments presented herein analyzed the direct activity as well as estimated the potential precursor numbers at 1 and 3 months in treated recipients. At 1 month post-TLI/HAg therapy, recipients showed reduced proliferative responses in mixed lymphocyte reactions (MLR) in a specific pattern toward donor but not third-party stimulators. Both TLI/Graft and TLI/HAg/Graft groups showed a higher frequency of BUF antigen-directed T-cytotoxic cells (fTc) than TLI-treated, but nontransplanted, WFu hosts. In addition, the TLI/HAg group alone displayed alloantigen-specific suppressor cells that suppressed the MLR proliferative responses of normal spleen T cells against donor, but not third-party, alloantigens. At 3 months postirradition, both TLI/Graft and TLI/HAg/Graft groups displayed variable MLR proliferative responses toward donor and third-party alloantigens. Whereas nontransplanted, TLI-treated WFu rats recovered their fTc to normal levels at 3 months, the TLI and TLI/HAg treated recipients bearing functional heart allografts demonstrated significantly decreased splenic fTc. These results show that reduced numbers of cytotoxic cell precursors may afford more reliable indices of prolonged heart allograft survival than MLR responses. The observations suggest that TLI/HAg transplant hosts display both reduced cytotoxic precursors and activated suppressor elements.

  19. L'effet de la superoxyde dismutase sur le système nerveux central irradié à propos d'études pilotes expérimentales chez le rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Baillet, F.; Lamproglou, I.; Boisserie, G.

    1998-04-01

    It has been observed that bovine superoxide dismutase (SOD) can reduce some chronic complications due to radiotherapy. For this reason this enzyme has been used in the rat to treat radiation induced encaphalitis, studied by the two-way avoidance test. SOD has allowed significant regression of troubles in two studies with chronic encephalitis and two studies with acute encephalitis. Moreover, another study ha