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Sample records for rat basilar artery

  1. Propranolol-induced relaxation in the rat basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Cekic, Edip G; Soydan, Guray; Guler, Sebile; Babaoglu, Melih O; Tuncer, Meral

    2013-04-01

    Propranolol is a non-selective beta-adrenergic receptor blocker used in the treatment of cardiovascular diseases and migraine prophylaxis. Although it has been shown that propranolol dilates the peripheral arteries of rat, its action in the central nervous system vasculature has not been investigated. In this study, the effects of propranolol in rat basilar artery were investigated. Basilar arteries from male Wistar rats were examined in a myograph system. The relaxant effects of propranolol, pindolol, atenolol, pizotifen and methysergide were examined in basilar arteries precontracted by serotonin or PGF2α. Only propranolol and pizotifen induced vasorelaxations; the pD2 values were 5.23±0.13 and 5.94±0.03; respectively. The vasorelaxation induced by propranolol and pizotifen was not affected by endothelium or the presence of l-NOARG and/or indomethacin. The calcium channel blocking activity of propranolol and pizotifen was compared with that of nifedipine in a calcium free solution with high K(+) (60mM) concentration. These drugs shifted the concentration-response curves of calcium induced contractions with pA2 values of 5.45±0.04; 7.14±0.09; and 9.22±0.06 respectively. The P2Y receptor agonist UTP was used to induce sustained and stable contractions in basilar artery segments. Nifedipine caused a marked, but an incomplete relaxation. Cyclopiazonic acid, an inhibitor of sarcoplasmic reticulum calcium channels, but not propranolol or pizotifen abolished the remaining tonus after partial relaxations obtained with nifedipine. These results suggest that propranolol causes vasorelaxation by blocking the L-type voltage-gated calcium channels in the rat basilar artery. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yang, Cui; Chan, Shun Wan; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Leung, George Pak Heng

    2015-01-01

    The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels. The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5' nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate. Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5' nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may not be related to endothelial dysfunction

  3. Relaxation Effect of Abacavir on Rat Basilar Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Li, Rachel Wai Sum; Yang, Cui; Chan, Shun Wan; Hoi, Maggie Pui Man; Lee, Simon Ming Yuen; Kwan, Yiu Wa; Leung, George Pak Heng

    2015-01-01

    Background The use of abacavir has been linked with increased cardiovascular risk in patients with human immunodeficiency virus infection; however, the mechanism involved remains unclear. We hypothesize that abacavir may impair endothelial function. In addition, based on the structural similarity between abacavir and adenosine, we propose that abacavir may affect vascular contractility through endogenous adenosine release or adenosine receptors in blood vessels. Methods The relaxation effect of abacavir on rat basilar arteries was studied using the myograph technique. Cyclic GMP and AMP levels were measured by immunoassay. The effects of abacavir on nucleoside transporters were studied using radiolabeled nucleoside uptake experiments. Ecto-5′ nucleotidase activity was determined by measuring the generation of inorganic phosphate using adenosine monophosphate as the substrate. Results Abacavir induced the relaxation of rat basilar arteries in a concentration-dependent manner. This relaxation was abolished when endothelium was removed. In addition, the relaxation was diminished by the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NAME, the guanylyl cyclase inhibitor, ODQ, and the protein kinase G inhibitor, KT5820. Abacavir also increased the cGMP level in rat basilar arteries. Abacavir-induced relaxation was also abolished by adenosine A2 receptor blockers. However, abacavir had no effect on ecto-5’ nucleotidase and nucleoside transporters. Short-term and long-term treatment of abacavir did not affect acetylcholine-induced relaxation in rat basilar arteries. Conclusion Abacavir induces acute endothelium-dependent relaxation of rat basilar arteries, probably through the activation of adenosine A2 receptors in endothelial cells, which subsequently leads to the release of nitric oxide, resulting in activation of the cyclic guanosine monophosphate/protein kinase G-dependent pathway in vascular smooth muscle cells. It is speculated that abacavir-induced cardiovascular risk may

  4. The role of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in the hypoxic vasoconstriction in isolated rat basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Shen, Haitao; Liang, Peng; Qiu, Suhua; Zhang, Bo; Wang, Yongli; Lv, Ping

    2016-06-01

    Hypoxia-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction is a key factor in the occurrence and the development of cerebral ischemia. Na(+), K(+)-ATPase affects the regulation of intracellular Ca(2+) concentration and plays an important role in vascular smooth muscle function. However, the potential role of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in hypoxia-induced cerebrovascular dysfunction is unknown. In this study, we found that the KCl-induced contraction under hypoxia in rat endothelium-intact basilar arteries is similar to that of denuded arteries, suggesting that hypoxia may cause smooth muscle cell (SMC)-dependent vasoconstriction in the basilar artery. The Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity of the isolated basilar artery with or without endothelium significantly reduced with prolonged hypoxia. Blocking the Na(+)-Ca(2+) exchanger with Ni(2+) (10(-3)M) or the L-type Ca(2+) channel with nimodipine (10(-8)M) dramatically attenuated KCl-induced contraction under hypoxia. Furthermore, prolonged hypoxia significantly reduced Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity and increased [Ca(2+)]i in cultured rat basilar artery SMCs. Hypoxia reduced the protein and mRNA expression of the α2 isoform of Na(+), K(+)-ATPase in SMCs in vitro. We used a low concentration of the Na(+), K(+)-ATPase inhibitor ouabain, which possesses a high affinity for the α2 isoform. The contractile response in the rat basilar artery under hypoxia was partly inhibited by ouabain pretreatment. The decreased Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in isolated basilar artery and the increased [Ca(2+)]i in SMCs induced by hypoxia were partly inhibited by pretreatment with a low concentration of ouabain. These results suggest that hypoxia may educe Na(+), K(+)-ATPase activity in SMCs through the α2 isoform contributing to vasoconstriction in the rat basilar artery. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  5. Contractile responses to rat urotensin II in resting and depolarized basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Porras-González, Cristina; Ureña, Juan; Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Gordillo-Escobar, Elena; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco; González-Montelongo, María del Carmen; Muñoz-Sánchez, María Angeles

    2014-03-01

    The effects of human urotensin II (hUII) on the vascular tone of different animal species has been studied extensively. However, little has been reported on the vasoactive effects of rat urotensin (rUII) in murine models. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of rUII on vasoreactivity in rat basilar arteries. Basilar arteries from adult male Wistar rats (300-350 g) were isolated, cut in rings, and mounted on a small vessel myograph to measure isometric tension. rUII concentrations were studied in both resting and depolarized state. To remove endothelial nitric oxide effects from the rUII response, we treated selected arterial rings with Nω-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). 10 μM rUII produced a potent vasoconstrictor response in rat basilar arteries with intact endothelium, while isometric forces remained unaffected in arterial rings treated with lower rUII concentrations. Although L-NAME did not have a significant effect on 10 μM rUII-evoked contraction, it slightly increased arterial ring contraction elicited by 1 μM rUII. In depolarized arteries, dose-dependent rUII increased depolarization-induced contractions. This effect was suppressed by L-NAME. Our results show that the rat basilar artery has a vasoconstrictor response to rUII. The most potent vasoconstrictor effect was produced by lower doses of rUII (0.1 and 1 μM) in depolarized arteries with intact endothelium. This effect could facilitate arterial vasospasm in vascular pathophysiological processes such as subarachnoid hemorrhage and hypertension, when sustained depolarization and L-type Ca(2+) channel activation are present.

  6. A new NO donor failed to release NO and to induce relaxation in the rat basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Paulo, Michele; Rodrigues, Gerson J; da Silva, Roberto S; Bendhack, Lusiane M

    2012-02-14

    Nitric oxide (NO)-donors are pharmacologically active substances that in vivo or in vitro release NO. Their most common side effect is headache caused by cerebral vasodilatation. We previously demonstrated that the new NO-donor Ru(terpy)(bdq)NO](3+) (Terpy), synthesized in our laboratory, induces relaxation of rat aorta. This study aimed to verify the effect of Terpy and sodium nitroprusside (SNP) in basilar artery. We conducted vascular reactivity experiments on endothelium-denuded basilar rings. The concentrations of iron (Fe) and ruthenium (Ru) complex were analyzed in basilar artery lysates after incubation with NO donors by mass spectrometry. We also evaluated the NO released from SNP and Terpy by using confocal microscopy. Interestingly, Terpy did not induce relaxation of the basilar artery. SNP induced relaxation in a concentration-dependent way. NO donors cross the membrane of vascular smooth muscle and entered the cell. In spite of its permeability, Terpy did not release NO in the basilar artery. Otherwise, SNP released NO in the basilar artery cells cytoplasm. Taken together, our results demonstrate that the new NO donor (Terpy) failed to release NO and to induce relaxation in the basilar artery. The NO donor SNP induces vascular relaxation due to NO release in the vascular smooth muscle cells. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. EndothelinA-endothelinB receptor cross-talk in rat basilar artery in situ.

    PubMed

    Yoon, SeongHun; Zuccarello, Mario; Rapoport, Robert M

    2012-04-01

    The rationale for the therapeutic use of dual as opposed to selective endothelin (ET) receptor antagonists stems in part from cross-talk between the ET(A) and ET(B) receptors. However, whether ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk is present in the cerebral vasculature is difficult to discern since findings of cross-talk contrast even among the few reports available. Thus, this study tested whether ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk is present in the rat basilar artery. In an in situ cranial window, 0.1 μM sarafotoxin S6c, an ET(B) receptor agonist, relaxed basilar artery basal tone by 54%. ET-1 (3 nM) in the absence and presence of 10 μM BQ123, an ET(A) receptor agonist, induced 13% contraction and 15% relaxation, respectively. In contrast, the 3-nM ET-1 plateau contraction was relaxed by only ∼50% by 3-10 μM BQ123 and 10 μM BQ610, ET(A) receptor antagonists. N(ω)-nitro-L: -arginine, an NO synthase inhibitor, did not enhance contraction to 3 nM ET-1, suggesting that the partial relaxation of the ET-1 plateau contraction did not involve unmasked endothelial ET(B) receptor-mediated relaxation. The ∼50% ET-1 contraction that remained following ET(A) receptor antagonist was relaxed by 3-10 μM BQ788, consistent with an ET(B) receptor-mediated component of contraction. However, 10 μM BQ788 in the absence of prior ET(A) receptor antagonist did not cause relaxation. Subsequent BQ123 addition in the presence of BQ788 completely relaxed the ET-1 contraction. PD145065 (1 μM), an ET(A/B) receptor antagonist, completely relaxed 3-nM ET-1 contracted vessels in both the absence and presence of BQ123. These findings suggest that the inability of ET(A) receptor antagonist to completely relax the ET-1 plateau contraction in rat basilar artery is due to ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk.

  8. Hyperdensity of the Basilar Artery on Postmortem CT: A Potential Indicator for Basilar Artery Thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Garland, Jack; Tse, Rexson; Beh, Raymond J; Lyons, Timothy J; Cala, Allan D

    2016-06-01

    Basilar artery thrombosis constitutes 1% of all types of stroke, carries a mortality rate of up to 90%, and is one of the rarer causes of sudden death. It leads to brain stem ischemia and commonly presents with impaired consciousness, cranial nerve palsy, hemiplegia or quadriplegia, and sudden collapse. Clinically, the diagnosis of basilar artery thrombosis is made on clinical symptoms, along with a hyperdense basilar artery in antemortem computed tomography (CT) scan. To our knowledge, whether a hyperdense basilar artery indicates basilar artery thrombosis on postmortem CT scan is not documented in the literature. We present a case report of a 55-year-old man who on postmortem CT scan showed a hyperdense basilar artery and was subsequently confirmed to be a fatal basilar artery thrombosis. We suggest that a hyperdense basilar artery on postmortem CT should prompt the pathologist to consider basilar artery thrombosis.

  9. Functional ET(A)-ET(B) Receptor Cross-talk in Basilar Artery In Situ From ET(B) Receptor Deficient Rats.

    PubMed

    Yoon, SeongHun; Gariepy, Cheryl E; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Zuccarello, Mario; Rapoport, Robert M

    2016-03-01

    The role of endothelin (ET)(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk in limiting the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction is revealed by the partial or complete dependency of the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition on functional removal of the ET(B) receptor. Although functional removal of the ET(B) receptor is generally accomplished with ET(B) receptor antagonist, a novel approach using rats containing a naturally occurring deletion mutation in the ET(B) receptor [rescued "spotting lethal" (sl) rats; ET(B)(sl/sl)] demonstrated increased ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction in vena cava. We investigated whether this deletion mutation was also sufficient to remove the ET(B) receptor dependency of the ET(A) receptor antagonist inhibition of ET-1 constriction in the basilar artery. Consistent with previous reports, ET-1 plasma levels were elevated in ET(B)(sl/sl) as compared with ET(B)(+/+) rats. ET(B) receptor antagonist failed to relax the ET-1 constricted basilar artery from ET(B)(+/+) and ET(B)(sl/sl) rats. Relaxation to combined ET(A) and ET(B) receptor antagonist was greater than relaxation to ET(A) receptor antagonist in the basilar artery from ET(B)(+/+) and, unexpectedly, ET(B)(sl/sl) rats. These findings confirm the presence of ET(A)-ET(B) receptor cross-talk in the basilar artery. We speculate that mutant ET(B) receptor expression produced by alternative splicing may be sufficient to allow cross-talk.

  10. The vasorelaxant effect of pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide in isolated rat basilar arteries is partially mediated by activation of nitrergic neurons.

    PubMed

    Seebeck, Jörg; Löwe, Marcus; Kruse, Marie Luise; Schmidt, Wolfgang E; Mehdorn, H Maximilian; Ziegler, Albrecht; Hempelmann, Ralf G

    2002-07-15

    The structurally related neuropeptides pituitary adenylate cyclase activating polypeptide (PACAP) and vasoactive intestinal polypeptide (VIP) are recognised by two G protein-coupled receptors, termed VPAC(1)-R and VPAC(2)-R, with equal affinity. PACAP and VIP have previously been shown to relax cerebral arteries in an endothelium-independent manner. The aim of the present study was to test if intramural neurons are involved in the mediation of PACAP/VIP-induced vasodilatory responses. Therefore, the vascular tone of isolated rat basilar arteries was measured by means of a myograph. The vasorelaxing effect of PACAP was assessed in arteries precontracted by serotonin in the absence or presence of different test compounds known to selectively inhibit certain signaling proteins. The vasorelaxant effect of PACAP could be significantly reduced by the inhibitor of neuronal N-type calcium channels omega-conotoxin GVIA (omega-CgTx), as well as by 3-bromo-7-nitroindazole (3Br-7-Ni), an inhibitor of the neuronal nitric oxide-synthase (nNOS). The localization of N-type calcium channels and VPAC-Rs within the rat basilar artery was investigated by confocal laser scanning microscopy using omega-CgTx- and VIP-analogs labelled with fluorescent dyes. These findings suggest that activation of intramural neurons may represent an important effector mechanism for mediation of the vasorelaxant PACAP-response.

  11. Basilar artery migraine and reversible imaging abnormalities.

    PubMed

    Maytal, J; Libman, R B; Lustrin, E S

    1998-01-01

    We report a case of a basilar artery migraine in a 17-year-old boy with transient CT and MR abnormalities after each of two migraine episodes. A repeat MR study 6 months after the last event showed complete resolution of the lesion. Transient abnormalities on brain images similar to those shown in our case have been reported in patients with migraine and other neurologic conditions and are most likely related to cerebral vasogenic edema.

  12. Vertebral artery dissection related to basilar impression: case report.

    PubMed

    Dickinson, L D; Tuite, G F; Colon, G P; Papadopoulos, S M

    1995-04-01

    A 50-year-old man with myelopathy secondary to basilar impression developed bilateral vertebral artery dissection after undergoing treatment with 8 pounds of cervical traction. The vertebral artery dissection resulted in vertebrobasilar insufficiency and posterior circulation stroke. In this report, the current management philosophies in the treatment of basilar impression are discussed, and the pertinent neurovascular anatomy is illustrated. This report suggests that vertebral artery injury may result from attempted reduction of severe basilar impression. Regardless of the cause of cranial settling, the risk of vertebral artery injury with cervical traction should be considered in patients with severe basilar impression.

  13. Effects of K+ channel agonists cromakalim and pinacidil on rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells are mediated by Ca(++)-activated K+ channels.

    PubMed

    Stockbridge, N; Zhang, H; Weir, B

    1991-11-27

    Whole-cell and cell-free inside-out patch-clamp recording techniques were used to examine the actions of potassium channel openers pinacidil and cromakalim in enzymatically isolated smooth muscle cells of rat basilar artery. Delayed rectifier and calcium-dependent potassium currents were identified from the whole-cell recordings. Only the calcium-dependent potassium current was increased by cromakalim and pinacidil. Recordings from inside-out membrane patches revealed a large conductance voltage- and calcium-dependent potassium channel, which was blocked by charybdotoxin but unaffected by ATP less than 10 mM. Cromakalim and pinacidil increased the open probability of this channel. On the basis of these results, we suggest that such drugs, acting on cerebral arterial smooth muscle cell potassium channels, may be of some benefit in the treatment of cerebral vasospasm following subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Basilar Artery Aneurysms Associated with Distal Fenestration

    PubMed Central

    Juszkat, R.; Nowak, S.; Moskal, J.; Kociemba, W.; Zarzecka, A.

    2009-01-01

    Summary Segmental non-fusion of the basilar artery results from failed fusion of the neural arteries and from regression of the bridging arteries that connect the longitudinal arteries. This condition is associated with aneurysm formation in 7% of cases. Distally unfused arteries with associated aneurysms are very rare. We report on a case of successful endovascular treatment of an aneurysm of the distally unfused basilar trunk. PMID:20465939

  15. Basilar artery of the capybara (Hydrochaeris hydrochaeris): an ultrastructural study.

    PubMed

    Islam, S; Ribeiro, A A C M; Loesch, A

    2004-04-01

    The present study investigated the ultrastructural features of the basilar artery of the largest rodent species, the capybara. The study suggests that the general ultrastructural morphological organization of the basilar artery of the capybara is similar to that of small rodents. However, there are some exceptions. The basilar artery of the capybara contains a subpopulation of 'granular' vascular smooth muscle cells resembling monocytes and/or macrophages. The possibility cannot be excluded that the presence of these cells reflects the remodelling processes of the artery due to animal maturation and the regression of the internal carotid artery. To clarify this issue, more systemic studies are required involving capybaras of various ages.

  16. Acute basilar artery occlusion in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study: does gender matter?

    PubMed

    Arnold, Marcel; Fischer, Urs; Compter, Annette; Gralla, Jan; Findling, Oliver; Mattle, Heinrich P; Kappelle, L Jaap; Tanne, David; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2010-11-01

    Randomized trials suggested a different benefit of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) and intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT) between men and women with anterior circulation stroke because of a worse outcome of women in the control group. We compared outcome and recanalization in men and women with basilar artery occlusion treated with antithrombotic treatment alone, IVT or combined IVT-IAT, or IAT in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study. Overall, 389 male and 226 female patients were analyzed. In the antithrombotic treatment group, 68 of 111 (61%) men and 47 of 70 (67%) women had a poor outcome defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 4 to 6 (adjusted risk ratio [aRR], 0.96; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.24), in the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group, 47 of 77 (61%) men and 24 of 43 (56%) women (aRR, 1.19; 95% CI, 0.89 to 1.60), and in the IAT group, 142 of 185 (77%) men and 71 of 102 (70%) women (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.88 to 1.17). Mortality was not different between men and women in the antithrombotic treatment group (aRR, 0.80; 95% CI, 0.55 to 1.16), the IVT/combined IVT-IAT group (aRR, 1.11; 95% CI, 0.72 to 1.73), or in the IAT group (aRR, 1.01; 95% CI, 0.75 to 1.36). Insufficient recanalization after combined IVT-IAT or IAT was similar in men and women (23% versus 22%; aRR, 0.92; 95% CI, 0.58 to 1.46). In patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, no significant gender differences for outcome and recanalization were observed, regardless of treatment modality.

  17. Collagen network changes in basilar artery in aging.

    PubMed

    Gudiene, Devika; Valanciūte, Angelija; Velavicius, Juozas

    2007-01-01

    The aim of this study was to examine and evaluate morphometrically age-related changes in collagen network in the tunica media of human basilar artery. Histological analysis of the basilar arteries obtained from 89 individuals, aged 20 to 85 years, was performed. The study has been carried out by standard histological technique; histological samples were stained with picrosirius red. Detailed quantitative analysis of collagen bundle network in the tunica media of basilar artery was performed. We analyzed collagen network area, perimeter and number of collagen bundles in the tunica media of the basilar artery. After investigation of age-related changes in collagen network area in men and women, we determined that in both genders collagen network area in the tunica media of the basilar artery increased with age. Analyzing the perimeter and number of collagen bundles in both genders by different age groups, it was found that they decreased with age. We found a statistically significant correlation between all the measured parameters and the age. The area of collagen bundles increased, the number and perimeter of collagen bundles decreased with age in both genders in the tunica media of human basilar artery. While aging, the structure of collagen bundle network became less branchy, collagen fibers merged, their cross section area enlarged.

  18. Distal basilar artery aneurysms: conditions for safe and secure clipping.

    PubMed

    Nakagomi, Tadayoshi

    2014-01-01

    In general, vertebro-basilar aneurysms are good indications for endovascular treatment. However, basilar artery (BA) bifurcation aneurysms, BA-superior cerebellar artery (SCA) aneurysms, and sometimes mid-basilar aneurysms are also good indications for clipping. In this paper, conditions for safe and secure clipping for distal basilar aneurysms are discussed.There are several tips for the clipping of distal BA aneurysms. Among them, the following are very important: patency of the perforators, posterior cerebral artery (P1), and SCA must always be maintained. Several modalities including micro-Doppler ultrasonography and indocyanine green video-angiography (ICGVA) should be used to confirm the patency of these vessels. Each confirmation of patency of the vessels after clipping must be compared to those from before the clipping. Intra-operative digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is needed for large or giant aneurysms.

  19. Dilated Basilar Arteries in Patients with Congenital Central Hypoventilation Syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Rajesh; Nguyen, Haidang D.; Macey, Paul M.; Woo, Mary A.; Harper, Ronald M.

    2009-01-01

    Congenital central hypoventilation syndrome (CCHS) patients show hypoventilation during sleep and severe autonomic impairments, including aberrant cardiovascular regulation. Abnormal sympathetic patterns, together with increased and variable CO2 levels, lead to the potential for sustained cerebral vasculature changes. We performed high-resolution T1-weighted imaging in 13 CCHS and 31 control subjects using a 3.0-Tesla magnetic resonance imaging scanner, and evaluated resting basilar and bilateral middle cerebral artery cross-sections. Two T1-weighted image series were acquired; images were averaged and reoriented to common space, and regions containing basilar and both middle cerebral arteries were oversampled. Cross-sections of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries were manually outlined to calculate cross-sectional areas, and differences between and within groups were evaluated. Basilar arteries in CCHS were significantly dilated over control subjects, but both middle cerebral artery cross-sections were similar between groups. No significant differences appeared between left and right middle cerebral arteries within either group. Basilar artery dilation may result from differential sensitivity to high CO2 over other vascular beds, damage to serotonergic or other chemosensitive cells accompanying the artery, or enhanced microvascular resistance, and that dilation may impair tissue perfusion, leading to further neural injury in CCHS. PMID:19822189

  20. The Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography Prognostic Score for Basilar Artery Occlusion.

    PubMed

    Alemseged, Fana; Shah, Darshan G; Diomedi, Marina; Sallustio, Fabrizio; Bivard, Andrew; Sharma, Gagan; Mitchell, Peter J; Dowling, Richard J; Bush, Steven; Yan, Bernard; Caltagirone, Carlo; Floris, Roberto; Parsons, Mark W; Levi, Christopher R; Davis, Stephen M; Campbell, Bruce C V

    2017-03-01

    Basilar artery occlusion is associated with high risk of disability and mortality. This study aimed to assess the prognostic value of a new radiological score: the Basilar Artery on Computed Tomography Angiography (BATMAN) score. A retrospective analysis of consecutive stroke patients with basilar artery occlusion diagnosed on computed tomographic angiography was performed. BATMAN score is a 10-point computed tomographic angiography-based grading system which incorporates thrombus burden and the presence of collaterals. Reliability was assessed with intraclass coefficient correlation. Good outcome was defined as modified Rankin Scale score of ≤3 at 3 months and successful reperfusion as thrombolysis in cerebral infarction 2b-3. BATMAN score was externally validated and compared with the Posterior Circulation Collateral score. The derivation cohort included 83 patients with 41 in the validation cohort. In receiver operating characteristic (ROC) analysis, BATMAN score had an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.81 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.7-0.9) in derivation cohort and an area under receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.74 (95% CI, 0.6-0.9) in validation cohort. In logistic regression adjusted for age and clinical severity, BATMAN score of <7 was associated with poor outcome in derivation cohort (odds ratio, 5.5; 95% CI, 1.4-21; P=0.01), in validation cohort (odds ratio, 6.9; 95% CI, 1.4-33; P=0.01), and in endovascular patients, after adjustment for recanalization and time to treatment (odds ratio, 4.8; 95% CI, 1.2-18; P=0.01). BATMAN score of <7 was not associated with recanalization. Interrater agreement was substantial (intraclass coefficient correlation, 0.85; 95% CI, 0.8-0.9). BATMAN score had greater accuracy compared with Posterior Circulation Collateral score (P=0.04). The addition of collateral quality to clot burden in BATMAN score seems to improve prognostic accuracy in basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2017

  1. KMUP-1 inhibits L-type Ca²⁺ channels involved the protein kinase C in rat basilar artery myocytes.

    PubMed

    Chen, Jun-Yih; Jiang, Min-Chi; Chu, Li-Wen; Hsieh, Su-Ling; Chen, Ing-Jun; Wu, Bin-Nan

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated whether KMUP-1, a xanthine-based derivative, inhibits L-type Ca(2+) currents (I(Ca,L)) in rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells (RBASMCs). We used whole cell patch-clamp recording to monitor Ba(2+) currents (I(Ba)) through L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs). Under voltage-clamp conditions, holding at -40 mV, KMUP-1 (1, 3, 10 μM) inhibited I(Ba) in a concentration-dependent manner and its IC(50) value was 2.27 ± 0.45 μM. A high concentration of KMUP-1 (10 μM) showed without modifying the I(Ba) current-voltage relationship. On the other hand, the protein kinase C (PKC) activator phorbol 12-myristate 13-acetate (PMA, 1 μM) increase I(Ba) was inhibited by KMUP-1. Pretreatment with the PKC inhibitor chelerythrine (5 μM) intensified KMUP-1-inhibited I(Ba). However, the Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 (30 μM) failed to affect the I(Ba) inhibition by KMUP-1. In light of these results, we suggest that KMUP-1 inhibition of LTCCs in concentration- and voltage-dependent manners in RBASMCs may be due, at least in part, to its modulation of the PKC pathway. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Taiwan LLC. All rights reserved.

  2. Endophilin A2 protects H2O2-induced apoptosis by blockade of Bax translocation in rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yun; Gao, Min; Ma, Ming-Ming; Tang, Yong-Bo; Zhou, Jia-Guo; Wang, Guan-Lei; Du, Yan-Hua; Guan, Yong-Yuan

    2016-03-01

    Apoptosis plays a central role in maintaining the normal cell number and tissue homeostasis. Endophilins are a family of evolutionarily conserved proteins that have the critical role in endocytosis. Here, we determined whether endophilin A2 (EndoII) contributes to hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-induced apoptosis in rat basilar artery smooth muscle cells (BASMCs) and the underlying mechanisms. By using small interference RNA (siRNA) and EndoII overexpression strategy, we found that EndoII siRNA knockdown reduced cell viability and promoted H2O2-induced cell apoptosis, evidenced by loss of mitochondrial membrane potential, release of cytochrome c, and activation of caspase-9, 3 and poly (ADP-ribose) polymerase (PARP). In contrast, EndoII overexpression showed opposite effects and inhibited H2O2-induced BASMCs apoptosis. Further studies revealed that there was a direct interaction between EndoII and Bax. Upon H2O2-induced apoptosis, the association of EndoII with Bax were significantly decreased, while the interaction of Bax/tBid were increased, accompanied by a translocation of Bax from cytosol to mitochondria. Knockdown of EndoII did not affect the expression of Bax, but further promoted the binding of Bax with tBid and favored the accumulation of Bax to mitochondria as well as Bax activation; whereas EndoII overexpression produced the opposite effects. In addition, EndoII siRNA aggravated, but EndoII overexpression alleviated, the reduction of Bcl-2 expression in H2O2-treated cells. These data suggested a role of EndoII in protecting BASMCs apoptosis induced by H2O2, possibly by inhibiting the addressing of Bax to mitochondria. Targeting on EndoII may be a new strategy to treat apoptosis-associated diseases. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Impaired vasodilator response to organic nitrates in isolated basilar arteries

    PubMed Central

    Martens, Dorothee; Kojda, Georg

    2001-01-01

    The differential responsiveness of various sections and regions in the vascular system to the vasodilator activity of organic nitrates is important for the beneficial antiischaemic effects of these drugs. In this study we examined the vasodilator activity of organic nitrates in cerebral arteries, where vasodilation causes substantial nitrate induced headache. Isolated porcine basilar and coronary arteries were subjected to increasing concentrations of glyceryl trinitrate (GTN), isosorbide-5-nitrate (ISMN) and pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN). S-nitroso-N-acetyl-D,L-penicillamine (SNAP) and endothelium-dependent vasodilation was investigated for comparison purpose. The vasodilator potency (halfmaximal effective concentration in −logM) of GTN (4.33±0.1, n=8), ISMN (1.61±0.07, n=7) and PETN (>10 μM, n=7) in basilar arteries was more than 100 fold lower than that of GTN (6.52±0.06, n=12), ISMN (3.66±0.08, n=10) and PETN (6.3±0.13, n=8) observed in coronary arteries. In striking contrast, the vasodilator potency of SNAP (halfmaximal effective concentration in −logM) was almost similar in basilar (7.76±0.05, n=7) and coronary arteries (7.59±0.05, n=9). Likewise, no difference in endothelium dependent relaxation was observed. Denudation of the endothelium resulted in a small increase of the vasodilator potency (halfmaximal effective concentration in −logM) of GTN (4.84±0.09, n=7, P<0.03) in basilar arteries and similar results were obtained in the presence of the NO-synthase inhibitor Nω-nitro-L-arginine (4.59±0.05, n=9, P<0.03). These results suggest that cerebral conductance blood vessels such as porcine basilar arteries seems to have a reduced expression and/or activity of certain cellular enzymatic electron transport systems such as cytochrome P450 enzymes, which are necessary to bioconvert organic nitrates to NO. PMID:11156558

  4. Double Stent Assist Coiling of Ruptured Large Saccular Aneurysm in Proximal Basilar Artery Fenestration

    PubMed Central

    Park, Woong Bae; Huh, Joon; Cho, Chul Bum; Yang, Seung Ho; Kim, Il Sup; Hong, Jae Taek; Lee, Sang Won

    2015-01-01

    Basilar artery fenestration is infrequent and even rarer in association with a large aneurysm. With proximity to brain stem and vital perforators, endovascular coiling can be considered first. If the large ruptured aneurysm with a wide neck originated from fenestra of the proximal basilar artery and the fenestration loop has branches of posterior circulation, therapeutic consideration should be thorough and fractionized. We report endovascular therapeutic details for a case of a ruptured large saccular aneurysm in proximal basilar artery fenestration. PMID:26523257

  5. Vessel-specific role of sphingosine kinase 1 in the vasoconstriction of isolated basilar arteries

    PubMed Central

    Salomone, Salvatore; Soydan, Guray; Ching-Tze Ip, Peter; Park Hopson, Kristen M.; Waeber, Christian

    2010-01-01

    Sphingosine-1-phosphate (S1P) constricts cerebral arteries through S1P3 receptor stimulation. Because the activity of the key S1P-synthesizing enzyme, sphingosine kinase (SPK), can be stimulated by agonists of various G protein-coupled receptors, it is likely that S1P also acts as a second messenger for other vasoconstrictors. We investigated the effect of SPK inhibitors and SPK gene deletion on the contractile responses of isolated vessels to vasoactive agonists and KCl-induced depolarization. Basilar and femoral arteries of rat, mounted in a wire myograph, were incubated with dimethylsphingosine (DMS), 2-(p-hydroxyanilino)-4-(p-chlorophenyl) thiazole (Compound 2) or FTY720, and exposed to KCl, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT), S1P or phenylephrine (PE). Vasomotor responses in basilar artery were decreased by DMS, Compound 2 and FTY720, while they were not affected in femoral artery. Basilar artery from SPK1−/− mice exhibited weaker vasoconstriction to both KCl and agonists (S1P and the prostanoid U46619) when compared to either wild type (WT) or SPK2−/−. In contrast, in mesenteric resistance arteries, neither the contraction to KCl nor the maximum contraction to PE and S1P significantly differed among WT, SPK1−/− and SPK2−/−. Quantitative analysis of SPK mRNA (reverse transcription and real time polymerase chain reaction) in mouse arteries showed 40–80-fold higher SPK1 expression in cerebral arteries than in aorta or mesenteric arteries. SPK1 critically modulates the reactivity of cerebral vasculature to vasoconstrictors. S1P plays a specific role as modulator of cerebral blood flow, potentially acting either directly outside vascular smooth muscle cells on S1P3 receptors, or indirectly after being generated inside the cell in response to vasoconstrictors. PMID:20850539

  6. [Intra-arterial fibrinolysis in acute thrombosis of the basilar artery].

    PubMed

    Solaz, J; Martínez-Rodrigo, J; Lonjedo, E; Poyatos, C; Vega, M; Palmero, J

    1998-12-01

    Ischemia in the territory of the basilar artery presents with a variable clinical picture of hemiparesia-tetraplegia, progressive deterioration of level of consciousness, irregular respiration and apnea leading to irreversible coma and death in between 75% and 86% of cases. The usual treatment is supportive. We present the case of a 49 year old woman with acute thrombosis of the basilar artery and a progressive course leading to coma. No bulbar lesions were seen on the CT scan done in the Emergency Department. Thrombosis of the basilar artery and permeable bilateral carotid systems were shown on arteriography. There were no contra-indications to fibrinolysis. Following local fibrinolytic treatment with urokinase the patient had full recovery from her neurological disorder and no sequelae. The basilar artery remained permeable six months later. Emergency treatment with cerebral intra-arterial fibrinolysis within the first six hours, in a case of neurological deficit progressing in the basilar artery territory, with persistence of brain-stem functions and no signs of decerebration (provided there are no contra-indications to fibrinolysis and the initial cerebral CT scan shows no bulbar lesions) may save the patient's life, with total or partial recovery of brain-stem function.

  7. Microsurgery for the aneurysms of the basilar artery apex.

    PubMed

    Dãnãilã, I

    2012-01-01

    The aneurysms of the Basilar Artery apex (ABA) are not very common. My personal experience derives from having performed surgery on a number of 3340 patients with cerebral aneurysms at the Department of Vascular Neurosurgery II in Bucharest between 1979 and 2010. In 234 (7%) of the aneurysms they were located in the posterior vasculature. In 146 patients, representing 4.37% of the total number of patients with cerebral aneurysms and 62.39% of those with aneurysms of posterior vasculature, the location was in the basilar artery apex. The mean age of the 146 patients with aneurysms of the basilar artery apex (ABA) was 45.2 years, varying between 34 and 71 years old. Most cases (69 -47.26%) were in the 41-50 years age group. Aneurysms were found in 68 males (46.57%) and 78 females (53.42%) suggesting a slight predominance in female patients. The main reason for hospitalization was subarachnoid haemorrhage. There were four reports of patients having three episodes of subarachnoid bleeding in the three months preceding the surgery. The mean time between the last subarachnoid bleeding and the hospital admission was 26 days, ranging between 1 and 62 days. On admission three patients were in a severe general and neurological state (Hunt IV and V, respectively). The diagnostic assessment for those patients started with computer tomography (CT) followed by brain angiogram for the four main vessels. The main challenges for the surgical treatment of such lesions are due to the complex vascular anatomy of the basilar artery apex, to the direct vicinity of these aneurysms with the base of the skull and with vital neural structures in the interpeduncular fossa as well as due to difficulties in gaining proximal control over them. The post-surgical evolution was excellent and good in 131 (89.72%) of patients, unsatisfactory in 8 patients (5.48%), while 8 patients (5.48%) died. Three of the 8 patients marked by an unsatisfactory evolution presented with right-side hemiballismus and

  8. Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy in acute basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Leker, Ronen R; Moscovici, Samuel; Attia, Moshe; Itshayek, Eyal

    2011-12-01

    Stent-based mechanical thrombectomy was recently proposed as an effective alternative to other mechanical techniques to achieve recanalization of large-vessel embolic occlusions in the anterior circulation. To our knowledge, there are no reports of the use of this technique in acute basilar artery occlusion (ABAO). We present a patient with complete endovascular recanalization of ABAO using a stent-based thrombectomy technique. Advantages and limitations of this technique in the management of ABAO are discussed. The stent-thrombectomy technique is promising, and will need further evaluation in posterior circulation stroke. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Hyperintense basilar artery on FLAIR MR imaging: diagnostic accuracy and clinical impact in patients with acute brain stem stroke.

    PubMed

    Gawlitza, M; Quäschling, U; Hobohm, C; Otto, J; Voigt, P; Hoffmann, K-T; Lobsien, D

    2014-08-01

    FLAIR-hyperintense vessels are known to be a sign of sluggish collateral blood flow in hemispheric vessel occlusion. Additionally, they seem to have a prognostic implication. The aim of the current study was to evaluate the hyperintense configuration of the basilar artery (FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery) as a marker of basilar artery occlusion and as a predictor of patient outcome. We retrospectively identified 20 patients with basilar artery occlusion who initially underwent MR imaging with subsequent DSA. The diagnostic accuracy of the FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery sign was tested by 4 independent readers in a case-control design, and the relation among FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery and DWI posterior circulation-ASPECTS, patient outcome, and patient survival was evaluated. To grade the extent of the FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery sign, we generated a score by counting the number of sections from the basilar tip to the foramen magnum in which a hyperintense signal in the vessel lumen was present multiplied by the section thickness. The FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery sign showed moderate sensitivity (65%-95%) but very good specificity (95%-100%) and accuracy (85%-93%) for the detection of basilar artery occlusion. Substantial or excellent inter-reader agreement was observed (Cohen κ, 0.64-0.85). The FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery inversely correlated with the posterior circulation-ASPECTS (r = -0.67, P = .01). Higher FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery scores were associated with patient death (28.3 ± 13.7 versus 13.4 ± 11.1, P < .05). The FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery sign proved to be a valuable marker of vessel occlusion and may substantially support the diagnosis of basilar artery occlusion. The established FLAIR-hyperintense basilar artery score may be helpful for the prediction of individual patient survival. © 2014 by American Journal of Neuroradiology.

  10. Inhibition by ketamine and amphetamine analogs of the neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations in porcine basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Chen, Mei-Fang; Lai, Su-Yu; Kung, Po-Cheng; Lin, Yo-Cheng; Yang, Hui-I; Chen, Po-Yi; Liu, Ingrid Y; Lua, Ahai Chang; Lee, Tony Jer-Fu

    2016-08-15

    The abuse of ketamine and amphetamine analogs is associated with incidence of hypertension and strokes involving activation of sympathetic activities. Large cerebral arteries at the base of the brain from several species receive dense sympathetic innervation which upon activation causes parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation with increased regional blood flow via axo-axonal interaction mechanism, serving as a protective mechanism to meet O2 demand in an acutely stressful situation. The present study was designed to examine effects of ketamine and amphetamine analogs on axo-axonal interaction-mediated neurogenic nitrergic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries using techniques of blood-vessel myography, patch clamp and two-electrode voltage clamp, and calcium imaging. In U46619-contracted basilar arterial rings, nicotine (100μM) and electrical depolarization of nitrergic nerves by transmural nerve stimulation (TNS, 8Hz) elicited neurogenic nitrergic vasodilations. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs concentration-dependently inhibited nicotine-induced parasympathetic-nitrergic vasodilation without affecting that induced by TNS, nitroprusside or isoproterenol. Ketamine and amphetamine analogs also concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced inward currents in Xenopus oocytes expressing α3β2-nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs), and nicotine-induced inward currents as well as calcium influxes in rat superior cervical ganglion neurons. The potency in inhibiting both inward-currents and calcium influxes is ketamine>methamphetamine>hydroxyamphetamine. These results indicate that ketamine and amphetamine analogs, by blocking nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerves, reduce nicotine-induced, axo-axonal interaction mechanism-mediated neurogenic dilation of the basilar arteries. Chronic abuse of these drugs, therefore, may interfere with normal sympathetic-parasympathetic interaction mechanism resulting in diminished neurogenic vasodilation

  11. A vertebral artery dissection with basilar artery occlusion in a child.

    PubMed

    Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services.

  12. A Vertebral Artery Dissection with Basilar Artery Occlusion in a Child

    PubMed Central

    Devue, Katleen; Van Ingelgem, Annemie; De Keukeleire, Katrien; De Leeuw, Marc

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the case report of an 11-year-old boy with an acute dissection with thrombosis of the left vertebral artery and thrombosis of the basilar artery. The patient was treated with acute systemic thrombolysis, followed by intra-arterial thrombolysis, without any clinical improvement, showing left hemiplegia, bilateral clonus, hyperreflexia, and impaired consciousness. MRI indicated persistent thrombosis of the arteria basilaris with edema and ischemia of the right brainstem. Heparinization for 72 hours, followed by a two-week LMWH treatment and subsequent oral warfarin therapy, resulted in a lasting improvement of the symptoms. Vertebral artery dissection after minor trauma is rare in children. While acute basilar artery occlusion as a complication is even more infrequent, it is potentially fatal, which means that prompt diagnosis and treatment are imperative. The lack of class I recommendation guidelines for children regarding treatment of vertebral artery dissection and basilar artery occlusion means that initial and follow-up management both require a multidisciplinary approach to coordinate emergency, critical care, interventional radiology, and child neurology services. PMID:25587466

  13. Left internal carotid artery agenesis associated with basilar and left vertebral artery aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Paşaoğlu, Lale; Vural, Murat; Ziraman, Ipek; Uyanιk, Sadιk Ahmet

    2011-01-01

    Agenesis of the internal carotid artery (ICA) is a rare congenital anomaly. Most of the patients are asymptomatic and it is usually discovered incidentally by computed tomography (CT) or magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). There is close association of the cranial aneurysms and subarachnoid hemorrhage with ICA agenesis. We present a case of a 61-year-old male with left ICA agenesis associated with basilar artery and left vertebral artery aneurysms. The patient complained of headaches and numbness on the right-side of the face. Physical examination showed high blood pressure (210/90 mmHg). Neurological examination revealed nystagmus and decreased sensation on the right-side of the face. Agenesis of left ICA, left carotid canal with basilar and left vertebral artery aneurysms were demonstrated incidentally using CT, MRI, and digital subtraction angiography, as a part of an evaluation for suspected cerebrovascular accident.

  14. Endovascular Treatment of Huge Dissecting Aneurysms Involving the Basilar Artery

    PubMed Central

    Yang, X.; Mu, S.; Lv, M.; Li, L.; Wu, Z.

    2007-01-01

    Summary Dissecting aneurysms involving the basilar artery (BA) are lesions with significant morbidity and mortality. Their management is controversial and often difficult. There is no generally approved strategy. Two cases of huge dissections involving the BA presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage in one case and mass effect in both cases. The dissection of case 1 involved the upper two thirds of the BA distal to the anterior inferior cerebellar arteries (AICA). Another dissection of case 2 involved the bilateral vertebral arteries (VA) distal to bilateral PICA and extended to upper third of the BA. After making a basket with coils inside the pseudoaneursym, proximal dissection was totally occluded in case 1. Dissection on the bilateral VA distal to the bilateral PICA and proximal BA was occluded in case 2 with a small residual dissection on the left VA. Case 1 had an excellent recovery with a durable image and clinical result. But recanalization and regrowth occurred in case 2, which might have originated from the residual dissection on the left VA, induced acute mass effect and sudden coma six weeks after the initial treatment. The residual and regrown dissection had to be occluded in a second intervention. The patient died two days later. BA occlusion is safe and efficient for dissections involving the BA as in our case and the literature. Proximal occlusion might be enough for huge and long lesions like ours. It seems that completely dense packing of proximal dissection is the key point to prevent recanalization. PMID:20566106

  15. Outcomes of basilar artery occlusion in patients aged 75 years or older in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    PubMed

    Vergouwen, Mervyn D I; Compter, Annette; Tanne, David; Engelter, Stefan T; Audebert, Heinrich; Thijs, Vincent; de Freitas, Gabriel; Algra, Ale; Jaap Kappelle, L; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2012-11-01

    Patients with an acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) have a high risk of long-lasting disability and death. Only limited data are available on functional outcome in elderly patients with BAO. Using data from the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study, we aimed to determine outcomes in patients ≥75 years. Primary outcome measure was poor functional outcome (modified Rankin scale score 4-6). Secondary outcomes were death, insufficient vessel recanalization (defined as thrombolysis in myocardial infarction score 0-1) and symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage (SICH). Patients were divided into four age-groups, based on quartiles: 18-54, 55-64, 65-74, and ≥75 years. Outcomes were compared between patients ≥75 years and patients aged 18-54 years. Risk ratios with corresponding 95 % confidence intervals (CI) were calculated and Poisson regression analyses were performed to calculate adjusted risk ratios (aRR). We included 619 patients [18-54 years n = 153 (25 %), 55-64 years n = 133 (21 %), 65-74 years n = 171 (28 %), and ≥75 years n = 162 (26 %)]. Compared with patients aged 18-54 years, patients ≥75 years were at increased risk of poor functional outcome [aRR 1.33 (1.14-1.55)] and death [aRR 2.47 (1.75-3.51)]. Nevertheless, 35/162 (22 %, 95 % CI 15-28 %) of patients ≥75 years had good functional outcome. No significant differences between age groups were observed for recanalization rate and incidence of SICH. Although patients ≥75 years with BAO have an increased risk of poor outcome compared with younger patients, a substantial group of patients ≥75 years survives with a good functional outcome.

  16. [Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty for progressing stroke caused by severe basilar artery stenosis: case report].

    PubMed

    Yamamura, A; Takamura, Y; Yamaki, T; Nakagawa, T; Hashi, K

    1994-03-01

    We encountered one case of progressing stroke caused by severe basilar artery stenosis. The patient was treated with emergent percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) with satisfactory results. A 54 year-old woman was admitted 15 minutes after the sudden onset of rt. hemiparesis, rt. hemidysesthesia, dysarthria and consciousness disturbance. CT scan on admission showed no abnormal findings. The consciousness level of the patient deteriorated rapidly from JCS 1 to JCS 20 within 30 minutes from the ictus. An emergent angiogram revealed severe basilar artery stenosis at its middle portion and poorly developed collateral circulation. One hour after the stroke occurred, PTA was performed. Using a 3mm diameter balloon catheter, we introduced the balloon into the stenotic lesion and inflated it 6 times from 4 atm to 8 atm pressure. The patient recovered immediately on the operating table improving from JCS 20 to JCS 1. Rt. hemiparesis also improved. Follow-up MRI showed a small area of ischemic change in the brain stem, but no large infarction appeared. The patient was discharged with no neurosurgical deficits after 30 days of PTA. PTA for basilar artery stenosis is still a controversial subject. One reason is the risk of basilar artery perforating branches occlusion by balloon catheter and the other is the difficulty of introducing a flexible balloon catheter into the basilar artery beyond the acute angulation of the vertebral artery. If those two problems were solved, PTA would be the first-choice therapy for basilar artery stenosis in both acute and chronic stages.

  17. Model studies of blood flow in basilar artery with 3D laser Doppler anemometer

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Frolov, S. V.; Sindeev, S. V.; Liepsch, D.; Balasso, A.; Proskurin, S. G.; Potlov, A. Y.

    2015-03-01

    It is proposed an integrated approach to the study of basilar artery blood flow using 3D laser Doppler anemometer for identifying the causes of the formation and development of cerebral aneurysms. Feature of the work is the combined usage of both mathematical modeling and experimental methods. Described the experimental setup and the method of measurement of basilar artery blood flow, carried out in an interdisciplinary laboratory of Hospital Rechts der Isar of Technical University of Munich. The experimental setup used to simulate the blood flow in the basilar artery and to measure blood flow characteristics using 3D laser Doppler anemometer (3D LDA). Described a method of numerical studies carried out in Tambov State Technical University and the Bakoulev Center for Cardiovascular Surgery. Proposed an approach for sharing experimental and numerical methods of research to identify the causes of the basilar artery aneurysms.

  18. Natural history and management of basilar trunk artery aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Saliou, Guillaume; Sacho, Raphael H; Power, Sarah; Kostynskyy, Alex; Willinsky, Robert A; Tymianski, Michael; terBrugge, Karel G; Rawal, Sapna; Krings, Timo

    2015-04-01

    Basilar trunk aneurysms (BTAs), defined as aneurysms distal to the basilar origin and proximal to the origin of the superior cerebellar artery, are rare and challenging to manage. We describe the natural history and management in a consecutive series of BTAs. Between 2000 and 2013, 2522 patients with 3238 aneurysms were referred to our institution for aneurysm management. A retrospective review of this database was conducted to identify all patients with BTAs. In total, 52 patients had a BTA. Mean age was 56 (SD±18) years. Median clinical follow-up was 33 (interquartile range, 8-86) months, and imaging follow-up was 26 (interquartile range, 2-80.5) months. BTAs were classified into 4 causal subtypes: acute dissecting aneurysms, segmental fusiform ectasia, mural bleeding ectasia, and saccular aneurysms. Multiple aneurysms were more frequently noticed among the 13 saccular aneurysms when compared with overall population (P=0.021). There was preponderance of segmental ectasia or mural bleeding ectasia (P=0.045) in patients presenting with transit ischemic attack/stroke or mass effect. Six patients with segmental and 4 with mural bleeding ectasia demonstrated increasing size of their aneurysm, with 2 having subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by aneurysm rupture. None of the fusiform aneurysms that remained stable bled. BTAs natural histories may differ depending on subtype of aneurysm. Saccular aneurysms likely represent an underlying predisposition to aneurysm development because more than half of these cases were associated with multiple intracranial aneurysms. Intervention should be considered in segmental ectasia and chronic dissecting aneurysms, which demonstrate increase in size over time as there is an increased risk of subarachnoid hemorrhage. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  19. HIGH DIETARY FRUCTOSE DOES NOT EXACERBATE THE DETRIMENTAL CONSEQUENCES OF HIGH FAT DIET ON BASILAR ARTERY FUNCTION

    PubMed Central

    TOKLU, H.Z.; MULLER-DELP, J.; SAKARYA, Y.; OKTAY, S.; KIRICHENKO, N.; MATHENY, M.; CARTER, C.S.; MORGAN, D.; STREHLER, K.Y.E.; TUMER, N.; SCARPACE, P.J.

    2017-01-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of a high fat (HF) diet alone or with high fructose (HF/F) on functional and structural changes in the basilar arteries and cardiovascular health parameters in rats. Male Sprague Dawley rats were fed either a HF (30%) or HF/F (30/40%) diet for 12 weeks. The basilar artery was cannulated in a pressurized system (90 cm H2O) and vascular responses to KCl (30 – 120 mM), endothelin (10−11 – 10−7 M), acetylcholine (ACh) (10−10 – 10−4 M), diethylamine (DEA)-NONO-ate (10−10 – 10−4 M), and papaverine (10−10 – 10−4 M) were evaluated. Rats were also monitored for food intake, body weight, blood lipids, blood pressure, and heart rate. At death, asymmetrical dimethyl arginine level (ADMA) and leptin were assayed in serum. Although there was no significant difference in weight gain and food intake, HF and HF/F diets increased body fat composition and decreased the lean mass. HF/F diet accelerated the development of dyslipidemia. Although resting blood pressure remained unchanged, stress caused a significant elevation in blood pressure and a modest increase in heart rate in HF fed rats. Both HF and HF/F diet resulted in decreased response to endothelium-dependent and -independent relaxation, whereas increased basilar artery wall thickness was observed only in HF group. Serum leptin levels positively correlated with wall thickness. Moreover serum ADMA was increased and eNOS immunofluorescence was significantly decreased with both diets. These data suggest that the presence of high fructose in a HF diet does not exacerbate the detrimental consequences of a HF diet on basilar artery function. PMID:27226180

  20. Chronic supplementation of paeonol combined with danshensu for the improvement of vascular reactivity in the cerebral basilar artery of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hu, Jing; Li, Ya-Ling; Li, Zi-Lin; Li, Hua; Zhou, Xuan-Xuan; Qiu, Peng-Cheng; Yang, Qian; Wang, Si-Wang

    2012-11-08

    One of the leading causes of death in the world is cerebrovascular disease. Numerous Chinese traditional medicines, such as Cortex Moutan (root bark of Paeonia suffruticosa Andrew) and Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae (root and rhizome of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge), protect against cerebrovascular diseases and exhibit anti-atherosclerotic effects. Traditional medicines have been routinely used for a long time in China. In addition, these two herbs are prescribed together in clinical practice. Therefore, the pharmacodynamic interactions between the active constituents of these two herbs, which are paeonol (Pae) and danshensu (DSS), should be particularly studied. The study of Pae and DSS can provide substantial foundations in understanding their mechanisms and empirical evidence to support clinical practice. This study investigated the effects and possible mechanisms of the pharmacodynamic interaction between Pae and DSS on cerebrovascular malfunctioning in diabetes. Experimental diabetes was induced in rats, which was then treated with Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS for eight weeks. Afterward, cerebral arteries from all groups were isolated and equilibrated in an organ bath with Krebs buffer and ring tension. Effects of Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS were observed on vessel relaxation with or without endothelium as well as on the basal tonus of vessels from normal and diabetic rats. Indexes about oxidative stress were also determined. We report that the cerebral arteries from diabetic rats show decreased vascular reactivity to acetylcholine (ACh) which was corrected in Pae, DSS, and Pae + DSS treated groups. Furthermore, phenylephrine (PE)-induced contraction response decreased in the treated groups. Phenylephrine and CaCl(2)-induced vasoconstrictions are partially inhibited in the three treated groups under Ca2+-free medium. Pre-incubated with tetraethylammonium, a non-selective K+ channel blocker, the antagonized relaxation responses increased in DSS and Pae + DSS treated diabetic

  1. Results of Endovascular Management for Mid-Basilar Artery Aneurysms

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, J.; Zhang, R.; Wu, Z.; Lv, X.; Liu, B.

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated the results of endovascular management of patients with mid-basilar artery aneurysm (mBAA). During a seven year period, 14 patients (mean age 39.6 years, male/female ratio 1:1) with mBAA were treated with endovascular techniques at our institute. Pretreatment clinical grades were determined using the Hunt-Hess scale. Outcome was evaluated using the Glasgow Outcome Scale scores (GOS) during a mean follow-up period of 15.6 months (range, three to 70 months). Fourteen patients with 15 mBAAs were treated endovascularly. Four (28.6%) patients died of rebleeding within one day after embolization. In ten mBAAs, immediate postprocedural angiograms showed that complete occlusion was achieved, subtotal occlusion in one, and incomplete occlusion in four. Follow-up angiographic results in ten patients confirmed complete occlusion of 11 aneurysms. Long-term outcome was good (GOS Score 4 or 5) in ten patients (71.4%) and fatal (GOS Score 1) in four (28.6%). Favorable overall long-term outcome can be achieved in 78.6% patients with mBAAs. Endovascular management of mBAAs is an effective treatment in the long-term. In our experience, the natural history of mBAAs is dismal. PMID:20977855

  2. Basilar artery occlusion: Prognostic signs of severity on computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Poletti, Pierre-Alexandre; Pereira, Vitor Mendes; Lovblad, Karl-Olof; Canel, Lucie; Sztajzel, Roman; Becker, Minerva; Perneger, Thomas; Platon, Alexandra

    2015-07-01

    To determine the computed tomography (CT) signs that are predictive of the clinical outcome of basilar artery occlusion (BAO). The study population consisted in 37 patients (14 women, 23 men, mean age: 63 years), admitted with onset of neurological deficit, starting 1-72 h prior to admission, who were diagnosed with BAO on the basis of a CT examination with intravenous contrast agent. The following signs were collected on CT scans performed on admission: clot density on noncontrast images, clot length, and clot location, as well as the presence of acute ischemic lesions. The results were compared against the modified Rankin Scale (mRS) score of patients at 3 months, favorable clinical outcome being defined as a mRS score ≤3. The clinical outcome was favorable in 13 (35%) of the 37 patients and unfavorable in 24 (65%). Signs of acute ischemia were visible in 13 of the 24 patients with unfavorable outcome but in none of the 13 patients with favorable outcome (p<0.001). None of the other CT signs analyzed were significantly correlated with clinical prognosis. Of all the CT signs analyzed, only the presence of signs of acute ischemia on the admission CT of patients with BAO was associated with poor prognosis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Non-aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with basilar artery dissection--autopsy case report.

    PubMed

    Ogiichi, T; Endo, S; Onizuka, K; Takaba, M; Takaku, A; Yasuda, M

    1997-08-01

    A 60-year-old male presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) of unknown origin and died of peritonitis 2 months after the ictus. Computed tomography on admission revealed localized hemorrhage at the interpedunclar cistern and sedimentation in both posterior horns. Repeat angiography could not detect any aneurysm. Postmortem histological examination revealed disruption of the wall associated with intramural hemorrhage at the top of the basilar artery, and subintimal hemorrhages of the lower basilar artery and the left vertebral artery. Arterial dissection of the vertebrobasilar system may be a cause of SAH of unknown origin including perimesencephalic hemorrhage.

  4. Acute basilar artery dissection treated by emergency stenting in a 13-year-old boy.

    PubMed

    Komiyama, Masaki; Yoshimura, Masaki; Honnda, Yuji; Matsusaka, Yasuhiro; Yasui, Toshihiro

    2005-01-01

    We report a 13-year-old boy who presented with acute basilar artery occlusion due to traumatic arterial dissection. Because a grave prognosis was expected if left untreated, and the chance of neurological recovery was believed to be unlikely but not zero, given that emergency stenting for the dissection was performed within 6 h of ictus. Recanalization of the basilar artery with stent placement did not change the poor prognosis in this patient because there was extension of dissection into the posterior cerebral arteries. Copyright (c) 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  5. Protein kinase mediated upregulation of endothelin A, endothelin B and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D receptors during organ culture in rat basilar artery

    PubMed Central

    Hansen-Schwartz, Jacob; Svensson, Carl-Lennart; Xu, Cang-Bao; Edvinsson, Lars

    2002-01-01

    Organ culture has been shown to upregulate both endothelin (ET) and 5-hydroxytryptamine 1B/1D (5-HT1B/1D) receptors in rat cerebral arteries. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the involvement of protein kinases, especially protein kinases C (PKC) and A (PKA) in this process. The effect of inhibiting protein kinases during organ culture with staurosporine (unspecific protein kinase inhitor), RO 31-7549 (specific inhibitor of classical PKC's) and H 89 (specific inhibitor of PKA) was examined using in vitro pharmacological examination of cultured vessel segments with ET-1 (unspecific ETA and ETB agonist), S6c (specific ETB agonist) and 5-CT (5-HT1 agonist). Levels of mRNA coding for the ETA, ETB, 5-HT1B and 5-HT1D receptors were analysed using real-time RT–PCR. Classical PKC's are critically involved in the appearance of the ETB receptor; co-culture with RO 31-7549 abolished the contractile response (6.9±1.8%) and reduced the ETB receptor mRNA by 44±4% as compared to the cultured control. Correlation between decreased ETB receptor mRNA and abolished contractile function indicates upstream involvement of PKC. Inhibition of PKA generally had an enhancing effect on the induced changes giving rise to a 7–25% increase in Emax in response to ET-1, S6c and 5-CT as compared to the cultured control. Staurosporine inhibited the culture induced upregulation of the response of both the ETA and the 5-HT1B/1D receptors, but had no significant effect on the mRNA levels of these receptors. This lack of correlation indicates an additional downstream involvement of protein kinases. PMID:12183337

  6. Basilar artery bending length, vascular risk factors, and pontine infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Dao-Pei; Zhang, Shu-Ling; Zhang, Jie-Wen; Zhang, Hong-Tao; Fu, Sheng-Qi; Yu, Meng; Ren, Ya-Fang; Ji, Peng

    2014-03-15

    Patients exhibiting basilar artery (BA) curvature (not dolichoectasia) are at an increased risk of posterior circulation ischemic stroke. In this study, pontine infarction patients were analyzed to assess the effect of BA bending length (BL) together with other vascular factors on pontine stroke risk. Acute pontine infarction patients were divided into BA bending and non-BA bending groups by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Patients with BA bending who reported symptoms of dizziness or vertigo but who had not suffered brain infarction constituted the control group. The diameter of the vertebral artery (VA) and BL were measured using MRA. Based on the bilateral VA diameter data in vertebral artery-dominant (VAD) patients, the study participants were divided into three classes for VA diameter: class one, 0.30-0.80 mm (20 cases); class two, 0.81-1.37 mm (20 cases); and class three, 1.38-3.24 mm (20 cases). The measured BL in VAD cases allowed division of patients into three levels for BL: level one, 1.02-2.68 mm (21 cases); level two, 2.69-3.76 mm (20 cases); and level three, 3.77-7.25 mm (19 cases). Vascular risk factors were compared among the three groups. Correlations of BL and VA diameter differences were studied, and multivariate analysis was applied to search for predictors of ischemic stroke in BA bending patients. Among BA bending, non-BA bending, and control groups, VA dominance (VAD) proved to be a significant differentiator. For all three groups, a patient age of ≥ 65 years, the occurrence of hypertension, smoking, high homocysteine levels, high cholesterol, and a history of type 2 diabetes, were all statistically significant factors (P<0.05). After adjusting for other relevant factors, multivariate analysis shows that BL of level 3 was an independent risk factor for pontine infarction (OR=2.74; 95% CI, 1.27 to 4.48). Both BL and diameter differences between the VAs were positively correlated with risk with statistical significance (r=0.769, P<0

  7. The functional and structural changes in the basilar artery due to overpressure blast injury

    PubMed Central

    Toklu, Hale Z; Muller-Delp, Judy; Yang, Zhihui; Oktay, Şehkar; Sakarya, Yasemin; Strang, Kevin; Ghosh, Payal; Delp, Michael D; Scarpace, Philip J; Wang, Kevin KW; Tümer, Nihal

    2015-01-01

    Overpressure blast-wave induced brain injury (OBI) leads to progressive pathophysiologic changes resulting in a reduction in brain blood flow, blood brain barrier breakdown, edema, and cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cerebral vascular function after single and repeated OBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Control (Naive), single OBI (30 psi peak pressure, 1 to 2 msec duration), and repeated (days 1, 4, and 7) OBI (r-OBI). Rats were killed 24 hours after injury and the basilar artery was isolated, cannulated, and pressurized (90 cm H2O). Vascular responses to potassium chloride (KCl) (30 to 100 mmol/L), endothelin-1 (10−12 to 10−7 mol/L), acetylcholine (ACh) (10−10 to 10−4 mol/L) and diethylamine-NONO-ate (DEA-NONO-ate) (10−10 to 10−4 mol/L) were evaluated. The OBI resulted in an increase in the contractile responses to endothelin and a decrease in the relaxant responses to ACh in both single and r-OBI groups. However, impaired DEA-NONO-ate-induced vasodilation and increased wall thickness to lumen ratio were observed only in the r-OBI group. The endothelin-1 type A (ETA) receptor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity were significantly enhanced by OBI. These findings indicate that both single and r-OBI impairs cerebral vascular endothelium-dependent dilation, potentially a consequence of endothelial dysfunction and/or vascular remodelling in basilar arteries after OBI. PMID:26104291

  8. The functional and structural changes in the basilar artery due to overpressure blast injury.

    PubMed

    Toklu, Hale Z; Muller-Delp, Judy; Yang, Zhihui; Oktay, Şehkar; Sakarya, Yasemin; Strang, Kevin; Ghosh, Payal; Delp, Michael D; Scarpace, Philip J; Wang, Kevin K W; Tümer, Nihal

    2015-12-01

    Overpressure blast-wave induced brain injury (OBI) leads to progressive pathophysiologic changes resulting in a reduction in brain blood flow, blood brain barrier breakdown, edema, and cerebral ischemia. The aim of this study was to evaluate cerebral vascular function after single and repeated OBI. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into three groups: Control (Naive), single OBI (30 psi peak pressure, 1 to 2 msec duration), and repeated (days 1, 4, and 7) OBI (r-OBI). Rats were killed 24 hours after injury and the basilar artery was isolated, cannulated, and pressurized (90 cm H2O). Vascular responses to potassium chloride (KCl) (30 to 100 mmol/L), endothelin-1 (10(-12) to 10(-7) mol/L), acetylcholine (ACh) (10(-10) to 10(-4) mol/L) and diethylamine-NONO-ate (DEA-NONO-ate) (10(-10) to 10(-4) mol/L) were evaluated. The OBI resulted in an increase in the contractile responses to endothelin and a decrease in the relaxant responses to ACh in both single and r-OBI groups. However, impaired DEA-NONO-ate-induced vasodilation and increased wall thickness to lumen ratio were observed only in the r-OBI group. The endothelin-1 type A (ET(A)) receptor and endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) immunoreactivity were significantly enhanced by OBI. These findings indicate that both single and r-OBI impairs cerebral vascular endothelium-dependent dilation, potentially a consequence of endothelial dysfunction and/or vascular remodelling in basilar arteries after OBI.

  9. Memantine inhibits α3β2-nAChRs-mediated nitrergic neurogenic vasodilation in porcine basilar arteries.

    PubMed

    Lee, Reggie Hui-Chao; Tseng, Ting-Yi; Wu, Celeste Yin-Chieh; Chen, Po-Yi; Chen, Mei-Fang; Kuo, Jon-Son; Lee, Tony Jer-Fu

    2012-01-01

    Memantine, an NMDA receptor antagonist used for treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD), is known to block the nicotinic acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs) in the central nervous system (CNS). In the present study, we examined by wire myography if memantine inhibited α3β2-nAChRs located on cerebral perivascular sympathetic nerve terminals originating in the superior cervical ganglion (SCG), thus, leading to inhibition of nicotine-induced nitrergic neurogenic dilation of isolated porcine basilar arteries. Memantine concentration-dependently blocked nicotine-induced neurogenic dilation of endothelium-denuded basilar arteries without affecting that induced by transmural nerve stimulation, sodium nitroprusside, or isoproterenol. Furthermore, memantine significantly inhibited nicotine-elicited inward currents in Xenopous oocytes expressing α3β2-, α7- or α4β2-nAChR, and nicotine-induced calcium influx in cultured rat SCG neurons. These results suggest that memantine is a non-specific antagonist for nAChR. By directly inhibiting α3β2-nAChRs located on the sympathetic nerve terminals, memantine blocks nicotine-induced neurogenic vasodilation of the porcine basilar arteries. This effect of memantine is expected to reduce the blood supply to the brain stem and possibly other brain regions, thus, decreasing its clinical efficacy in the treatment of Alzheimer's disease.

  10. Unusual origin of the left ophthalmic artery from the basilar trunk.

    PubMed

    Rivera, Rodrigo; Choi, In Sup; Sordo, Juan Gabriel; Giacaman, Pablo; Badilla, Lautaro; Bravo, Eduardo; Echeverria, Daniel

    2015-05-01

    The formation of the ophthalmic artery (OA) is a complex process with two different proposed embryological steps for its development. Several anatomical variants have been described. We present a very unusual origin of the ophthalmic artery from the basilar trunk, in a 45-year-old male with a history of pontine hemorrhagic stroke. MRI and CTA showed evidence of previous hemorrhage in the pons and several intracranial arterial dysplastic dilatations. DSA confirmed several fusiform dilatations of the basilar trunk. In the left ICA, no ophthalmic artery was seen arising from the carotid siphon. The left ophthalmic artery arises from the basilar trunk and runs lateral to the cavernous sinus through the middle cranial fossa, entering the left orbit at the superior orbital fissure. The patient was treated conservatively. Two main theories for this anomaly are known, one from Lasjaunias and the other from Paget. To our knowledge, this basilar origin of the OA has only been described three times in the literature. For its origin, we propose a partial persistence of the trigeminal artery together with a dominance of the dorsal ophthalmic artery.

  11. Embolization of Ruptured Aneurysm Arising From Basilar Artery Fenestration Using Hydrocoils

    PubMed Central

    Chuan Zhi, Duan

    2015-01-01

    Aneurysms arising from the basilar artery fenestration are considered among the rare cerebrovascular diseases. Here, we report on a 44-year-old gentleman who presented with the sudden onset of severe headache complicated by several episodes of vomiting and an altered level of consciousness. A subarachnoid hemorrhage in the interpeduncle and ambient cisterns was detected by computed tomography of the head. During left vertebral arteriography, a basilar fenestration with a ruptured aneurysm just above the proximal end of vertebrobasilar junction was identified. The aneurysm was successfully occluded by means of endovascular treatment using Hydrosoft coils. In the 15-month follow-up angiography, 100% occlusion without recurrence and recanalization was observed. Bilateral anterior inferior cerebellar arteries and both channels of the basilar artery fenestration were entirely filled in follow-up angiograms. PMID:26488001

  12. Reversible vasoconstriction syndrome involving the basilar artery in an adolescent: imaging and clinical features.

    PubMed

    Guerriero, Réjean M; Rivkin, Michael J

    2015-06-01

    Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is characterized by recurrent episodes of "thunderclap headache" and by transient, multifocal vasoconstriction of cerebral vasculature. Here we present an adolescent boy whose clinical features fit the diagnostic criteria and whose neurovascular imaging revealed reversible vasoconstriction of the basilar artery alone. A previously healthy 14-year-old boy presented with repeated severe sudden thunderclap headaches following exercise. These symptoms were accompanied by isolated basilar artery stenosis. Reversible cerebral vasoconstriction syndrome is a condition with several clinical triggers. Its pathophysiology is poorly understood. This patient adds to a broadening spectrum of clinical features of this disorder. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Supraorbital Keyhole Craniotomy for Basilar Artery Aneurysms: Accounting for the "Cliff" Effect.

    PubMed

    Stamates, Melissa M; Wong, Andrew K; Bhansali, Anita; Wong, Ricky H

    2017-04-01

    Treatment of basilar artery aneurysms is challenging. While endovascular techniques have dominated, there still remain circumstances where open surgical clipping is required or preferred. Minimally invasive "keyhole" approaches are being used more frequently to provide the durability of surgical clipping with a lower morbidity profile; however, careful patient selection is required. The supraorbital "keyhole" approach has been described for the treatment of basilar artery aneurysms, but careful assessment of the basilar exposure is necessary to ensure proper visualization of the aneurysm and ability to obtain proximal vascular control. Various methods of estimating the basilar artery exposure in this approach have been described, including the anterior skull base line and the posterior clinoid line, but both are unreliable and inaccurate. To propose a new method, the orbital roof-dorsum line, to simply and accurately predict the basilar artery exposure. CT angiograms for 20 consecutive unique patients were analyzed to obtain the anterior skull base line, posterior clinoid line, and the orbital roof-dorsum line. CT angiograms were then loaded onto a Stealth neuronavigation system (Medtronic, Minneapolis, Minnesota) to obtain "true" visualization lengths. A case illustration is presented. Pairwise comparison tests demonstrated that both the anterior skull base and the posterior clinoid estimation lines differed significantly from the "true"  value ( P < .0001). Our orbital roof-dorsum estimation provided results that accurately predicted the "true" value ( P = .71). The orbital roof-dorsum line provides a simple and reliable method of estimating basilar artery exposure and should be used whenever considering patients for surgical clipping by this approach.

  14. Diagnostic ability of 3-dimensional contrast-enhanced MR angiography in identifying vertebral basilar artery stenosis.

    PubMed

    Yi, Ting-yu; Chen, Wen-huo; Zhang, Mei-fang; Chen, Yue-hong; Cai, Ruo-wei; Wu, Zong-zhong; Wu, Yan-min; Shi, Yan-chuan; Chen, Bai-ling; Guo, Ting-hui; Wu, Chao-xin; Yang, Miao-xiong; Chen, Xue-jiao

    2016-04-15

    Vertebral-basilar artery stenosis is associated with posterior circulation infarction. So correct detection of vertebral basilar artery stenosis is very important. Studies concerning the sensitivity and specificity of 3-dimensional contrast enhanced MR angiography (3D-CE-MRA) in detecting vertebral basilar artery stenosis is generally lacking. Retrospectively reviewed the imagines of consecutive one hundred and forty-nine Chinese patients with ischemic stroke or vertigo/dizziness who underwent 3D-CE-MRA and DSA. DSA and CE-MRA images were studied separately and to determine the presence of mild, moderate, or severe stenosis of the vertebral-basilar arteries. Analysis combined with vascular origin image was applied when evaluating the vertebral artery origin stenosis. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values, and the accuracy of 3D-CE-MRA in detecting and grading of vertebral-basilar artery stenosis were calculated. Compared with DSA, sensitivity, specificity and accuracy of 3D-CE-MRA in detecting of vertebral artery origin ≥70% stenosis or occlusion was 97.1%, 77.4% and 81.9%, but diagnostic consistency was poor (K=0.59); Analysis combined with vascular origin images, the specificity (97.8%), accuracy (92.9%) and consistency (K=0.826) was significantly improved. 3D-CE-MRA is a sensitive and noninvasive technique for the detection of vertebral artery origin stenosis. Furthermore, analysis combined with vascular origin image would improve the diagnostic accuracy. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Role of L-type Ca(2+) channels, sarcoplasmic reticulum and Rho kinase in rat basilar artery contractile properties in a new model of subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Egea-Guerrero, Juan José; Murillo-Cabezas, Francisco; Muñoz-Sánchez, María Ángeles; Vilches-Arenas, Angel; Porras-González, Cristina; Castellano, Antonio; Ureña, Juan; González-Montelongo, María del Carmen

    2015-09-01

    We have previously described that L-type Ca(2+) channels' (LTCCs) activation and metabotropic Ca(2+) release from the sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) regulate RhoA/Rho kinase (ROCK) activity and sustained arterial contraction. We have investigated whether this signaling pathway can be altered in a new experimental model of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). For this purpose, arterial reactivity was evaluated on days 1 to 5 after surgery. A significant increase of basal tone, measured 4 and 60min after normalization, was observed on day 5 after SAH and at 60min on days 2 and 3 after SAH. This phenomenon was suppressed with LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors. We have also studied arterial rings vasoreactivity in response to high K(+) solutions. Interestingly, there were no significant differences in the phasic component of the high K(+)-induced contraction between sham and SAH groups, whereas a significant increase in the sustained contraction was observed on day 5 after SAH. This latter component was sensitive to fasudil, and selectively reduced by low nifedipine concentration, and phospholipase C and SR-ATPase inhibitors. Therefore, our data suggest that the metabotropic function of LTCCs is potentiated in SAH. Our results could provide a new strategy to optimize the pharmacological treatment of this pathological process.

  16. Accessing the Basilar Artery Apex: Is the Temporopolar Transcavernous Route an Anatomically Advantageous Alternative?

    PubMed Central

    Sabuncuoğlu, Hakan; Jittapiromsak, Pakrit; Cavalcanti, Daniel D.; Spetzler, Robert F.; Preul, Mark C.

    2010-01-01

    The restricted operative field, difficulty of obtaining proximal vascular control, and close relationship to important anatomic structures limit approaches to basilar apex aneurysms. We used a cadaveric model to compare three surgical transcavernous routes to the basilar apex in the neutral configuration. Five cadaveric heads were dissected and analyzed. Working areas and length of exposure provided by the transcavernous (TC) approach via pterional, orbitozygomatic, and temporopolar (TP) routes were measured along with assessment of anatomic variation for the basilar apex region. In the pterional TC and orbitozygomatic TC approaches, the mean length of exposure of the basilar artery measured 6.9 and 7.2 mm, respectively (p = NS). The mean length of exposure in a TP TC approach increased to 9.3 mm (p < 0.05). Compared with the pterional and orbitozygomatic approaches, the TP TC approach provided a larger peribasilar area of exposure ipsilaterally and contralaterally (p < 0.05). The multiplanar working area related to the TP TC approach was 77.7 and 69.5% wider than for the pterional TC and orbitozygomatic TC, respectively. For a basilar apex in the neutral position, the TP TC approach may be advantageous, providing a wider working area for the basilar apex region, improving maneuverability for clip application, fine visualization of perforators, and better proximal control. PMID:22451796

  17. Rapid ventricular pacing for a basilar artery pseudoaneurysm in a pediatric patient: case report.

    PubMed

    Nimjee, Shahid M; Smith, Tony P; Kanter, Ronald J; Ames, Warwick; Machovec, Kelly A; Grant, Gerald A; Zomorodi, Ali R

    2015-06-01

    Large cerebral aneurysms of the basilar apex are difficult to treat. Recently, endovascular treatment has mitigated much of the morbidity associated with treating these lesions. However, the morphology of aneurysms of the vertebrobasilar system can preclude endovascular treatment. Rapid ventricular pacing (RVP) facilitates open surgical treatment of cerebral aneurysms. It can assist in reducing the pressure of the neck of the aneurysm, allowing safe application of a clip. The authors present a case of a pediatric patient who developed a basilar artery pseudoaneurysm that required surgery. Given the large size of the aneurysm, RVP was performed, allowing the surgeons to dissect the dome of the aneurysm from the surrounding tissue and pontine perforating branches away from the lesion to safely clip the lesion. The patient had an uneventful recovery. To the authors' knowledge, this represents the first known case of RVP to aid in basilar artery clip occlusion in a pediatric patient.

  18. Numerical simulations of post-surgical flow and thrombosis in basilar artery aneurysms

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Seshadhri, Santhosh; Lawton, Michael; Boussel, Loic; Saloner, David; Rayz, Vitaliy

    2015-11-01

    Surgical treatment of basilar artery aneurysms presents a major challenge since it is crucial to preserve the flow to the vital brainstem perforators branching of the basilar artery. In some cases, basilar aneurysms can be treated by clipping vessels in order to induce flow reduction and aneurysm thrombosis. Patient-specific CFD models can provide guidance to clinicians by simulating postoperative flows resulting from alternative surgeries. Several surgical options were evaluated for four basilar aneurysm patients. Patient-specific models were generated from preoperative MR angiography and MR velocimetry data and modified to simulate different procedures. The Navier-Stokes equations were solved with a finite-volume solver Fluent. Virtual contrast injections were simulated by solving the advection-diffusion equation in order to estimate the flow residence time and determine thrombus-prone regions. The results indicated on procedures that reduce intra-aneurysmal velocities and flow regions which are likely to become thrombosed. Thus CFD modeling can help improve the outcome of surgeries altering the flow in basilar aneurysms.

  19. Thrombectomy using a stent retriever with artificially induced vertebral artery vasospasm in a patient with acute basilar artery occlusion: a case report

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Sanghyeon; Choi, Jae-Hyung

    2015-01-01

    An acute basilar artery occlusion is not an uncommon cause of stroke. It represents 6–10% of large vessel strokes and has been associated with poor clinical outcomes. Multimodal treatments have been introduced to recanalise a basilar artery occlusion successfully. However, all mechanical thrombectomy devices are not always usable in an emergent situation. We present a case of basilar artery occlusion treated with a stent retriever assisted by a vertebral artery vasospasm. We attempted thrombectomy with a stent retriever several times. However, the captured thrombus was not pulled out and migrated to the distal basilar artery and posterior cerebral artery due to anterograde flow of the vertebral artery. We carefully advanced the catheter into the distal vertebral artery and generated a vasospasm. The vertebral artery vasospasm reduced the forward flow significantly like a balloon-guided catheter. The thrombus was pulled out with the stent. PMID:26678752

  20. Vertebral artery stenosis in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): prevalence and outcome.

    PubMed

    Compter, Annette; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; van der Worp, H Bart; Vos, Jan Albert; Weimar, Christian; Rueckert, Christina M; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2015-02-01

    We assessed the prevalence of vertebral artery (VA) stenosis or occlusion and its influence on outcome in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We studied 141 patients with acute BAO enrolled in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS) registry of whom baseline CT angiography (CTA) of the intracranial VAs was available. In 72 patients an additional CTA of the extracranial VAs was available. Adjusted risk ratios (aRRs) for death and poor outcome, defined as a modified Rankin Scale score ≥4, were calculated with Poisson regression in relation to VA occlusion, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %, and bilateral VA occlusion. Sixty-six of 141 (47 %) patients had uni- or bilateral intracranial VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. Of the 72 patients with intra- and extracranial CTA, 46 (64 %) had uni- or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % and 9 (12 %) had bilateral VA occlusion. Overall, VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % was not associated with the risk of poor outcome. Patients with intra- and extracranial CTA and bilateral VA occlusion had a higher risk of poor outcome than patients without bilateral VA occlusion (aRR, 1.23; 95 % CI 1.02-1.50). The risk of death did not depend on the presence of unilateral or bilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 %. In conclusion, in patients with acute BAO, unilateral VA occlusion or stenosis ≥50 % is frequent, but not associated with an increased risk of poor outcome or death. Patients with BAO and bilateral VA occlusion have a slightly increased risk of poor outcome.

  1. Transluminal angioplasty for arteriosclerotic disease of the distal vertebral and basilar arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Terada, T; Higashida, R T; Halbach, V V; Dowd, C F; Nakai, E; Yokote, H; Itakura, T; Hieshima, G B

    1996-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) for the distal vertebral and basilar artery is now being performed in selected patients with haemodynamically significant lesions of the posterior cerebral circulation. Its effect and overall results were examined. PATIENTS AND METHODS: A balloon dilatation catheter specifically developed for these procedures, with a 2.0-3.5 mm balloon diameter, at 6 atmospheres of pressure, was used. Angioplasty was performed in 12 patients (including six whose initial results have been reported) with angiographically documented stenotic lesions involving either the intracranial vertebral artery (C1-C2 portion) or the basilar artery, and satisfying the following criteria: (1) clinical symptoms suggestive or consistent with a transient ischaemic attack refractory to medical treatment, or small infarction of the posterior circulation; and (2) angiographically documented stenosis greater than 70%. Two of 12 patients had complete thrombosis of the distal vertebral and basilar artery and PTA was performed after successful intra-arterial thrombolysis. RESULTS: Successful results, without complications, were obtained in eight patients, with complete resolution of vertebrobasilar ischaemic symptoms. Immediate complications occurred in four patients including two with vessel dissection, and two with thromboembolism. The two patients with acute arterial dissection were reoperated but developed small infarctions with permanent neurological deficits. The two patients with thromboembolic complication showed transient neurological deficit. The overall stenosis ratio decreased from a mean of 84% pretreatment to 44% after the angioplasty procedure. Restenosis occurred in two patients. Long term clinical follow up in 11 patients who survived more than six months showed resolution of ischaemic symptoms after PTA in all except for one with a restenosis who had recurrent transient ischaemic attacks. CONCLUSION: Transluminal angioplasty may be an

  2. Study on the correlation of vertebral artery dominance, basilar artery curvature and posterior circulation infarction.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Wei; Wang, Ya-Fang; Dong, Xiao-Feng; Feng, Hong-Xuan; Zhao, He-Qing; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-09-01

    Vertebral artery dominance (VAD), which is a common congenital variation of vertebral artery, may be associated with an increased risk of cerebral posterior circulation infarction (PCI). The aims of this study were to investigate the correlation of VAD with incidence and laterality of PCI, and oblige the correlation of VAD and basilar artery (BA) curvature. Incidence of separate territory infarction in posterior circulation and incidence of BA curvature were compared between 78 VAD patients and 68 controls. VA dominance, laterality of BA curvature and separate territory infarction, and their directional relationships were observed in VAD group. The incidence of BA curvature in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.000). 89.7 % (35/39) of patients had an opposite directional relationship between dominant VA and BA curvature. The total incidence of PCI in VAD group was significantly higher than that in controls (P = 0.001). The incidences of posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) and BA territory infarction were both significantly higher than those in controls [11.5 % (9/78) vs. 1.5 % (1/68), P = 0.016; 20.5 % (16/78) vs. 7.4 % (5/68), P = 0.024]. No differences were found in superior cerebellar artery and posterior cerebral artery territory infarction between two groups. 77.8 % (7/9) of PICA infarction were on the opposite side of dominant VA. 75.0 % (12/16) of BA infarction were on the side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI in BA curvature patients was significantly higher than that in BA straight patients. The incidence of BA curvature is higher in VAD patients, and BA usually bends to the opposite side of dominant VA. The incidence of PCI is higher in VAD patients, especially in PICA infarction and BA infarction patients.

  3. Coronary and Basilar Artery Ectasia Are Associated: Results From an Autopsy Case-Control Study.

    PubMed

    Pico, Fernando; Labreuche, Julien; Hauw, Jean-Jacques; Seilhean, Danielle; Duyckaerts, Charles; Amarenco, Pierre

    2016-01-01

    Intracranial artery dolichoectasia (IADE) and coronary artery ectasia have been associated with stroke and myocardial infarction, respectively. Only rarely have cases of coexisting IADE and coronary artery ectasia been reported. We investigated this association in a large consecutive autopsy series. Sixteen stroke patients with IADE were identified among 381 stroke patients and were matched with 16 stroke patients without IADE. The heart and coronary arteries from all patients were examined after a prespecified protocol. Coronary artery ectasia was observed in 8 of the stroke patients with IADE, and in none of the stroke patients without IADE (P=0.008). The diameters of basilar and right coronary arteries were positively correlated (IADE patients, r=0.51; P=0.003 and coronary artery ectasia patients, P=0.006). This autopsy study examining the association of coronary artery ectasia and IADE in stroke patients suggests a common pathogenesis. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

  4. Extent of hypoattenuation on CT angiography source images in basilar artery occlusion: prognostic value in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    PubMed

    Puetz, Volker; Khomenko, Andrei; Hill, Michael D; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Michel, Patrik; Weimar, Christian; Wijman, Christine A C; Mattle, Heinrich P; Engelter, Stefan T; Muir, Keith W; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Tanne, David; Szabo, Kristina; Kappelle, L Jaap; Algra, Ale; von Kummer, Ruediger; Demchuk, Andrew M; Schonewille, Wouter J

    2011-12-01

    The posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-ASPECTS) quantifies the extent of early ischemic changes in the posterior circulation with a 10-point grading system. We hypothesized that pc-ASPECTS applied to CT angiography source images predicts functional outcome of patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS). BASICS was a prospective, observational registry of consecutive patients with acute symptomatic basilar artery occlusion. Functional outcome was assessed at 1 month. We applied pc-ASPECTS to CT angiography source images of patients with CT angiography for confirmation of basilar artery occlusion. We calculated unadjusted and adjusted risk ratios (RRs) of pc-ASPECTS dichotomized at ≥8 versus <8. Primary outcome measure was favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-3). Secondary outcome measures were mortality and functional independence (modified Rankin Scale scores 0-2). Of 158 patients included, 78 patients had a CT angiography source images pc-ASPECTS≥8. Patients with a pc-ASPECTS≥8 more often had a favorable outcome than patients with a pc-ASPECTS<8 (crude RR, 1.7; 95% CI, 0.98-3.0). After adjustment for age, baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale score, and thrombolysis, pc-ASPECTS≥8 was not related to favorable outcome (RR, 1.3; 95% CI, 0.8-2.2), but it was related to reduced mortality (RR, 0.7; 95% CI, 0.5-0.98) and functional independence (RR, 2.0; 95% CI, 1.1-3.8). In post hoc analysis, pc-ASPECTS dichotomized at ≥6 versus <6 predicted a favorable outcome (adjusted RR, 3.1; 95% CI, 1.2-7.5). pc-ASPECTS on CT angiography source images independently predicted death and functional independence at 1 month in the CT angiography subgroup of patients in the BASICS registry.

  5. Acute Pontine Infarction due to Basilar Artery Dissection from Strenuous Physical Effort: One from Sexual Intercourse and Another from Defecation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Su-Ho; Suh, Sang-Jun; Lee, Jeong-Ho; Ryu, Kee-Young; Kang, Dong-Gee

    2016-01-01

    A basilar artery dissection (BAD) is an extremely rare disease. It can lead to hemorrhage or infarction involving the brain stem, and is often associated with grave outcome. However, little is known about the pathophysiology of BAD, and its proper managements are yet in controversy. Herein, we report on two rare cases of basilar artery dissection from strenuous physical effort; one from sexual intercourse and another from defecation. The treatment modalities and the outcomes are also discussed. PMID:27790399

  6. [Stroke due to acute occlusion of the basilar artery : Diagnosis and treatment].

    PubMed

    Nagel, S

    2017-09-13

    Acute occlusion of the basilar artery is a rare and, if left untreated, severe neurovascular condition with a high mortality. The clinical presentation is often atypical and hence diagnosis may be delayed. Because of the devastating natural course, recanalization strategies were often more aggressive than in patients with occlusions in the anterior circulation. To date, there is no evidence-based therapy, and recent larger registry studies and meta-analyses do not show a clear superiority of endovascular approaches over systemic thrombolysis alone. The current review aims to provide an overview of the most critical aspects in clinical and radiological diagnosis and treatment of basilar artery thrombosis.

  7. Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator in two patients with basilar artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Herderscheê, D; Limburg, M; Hijdra, A; Koster, P A

    1991-01-01

    Two patients with angiographically proved basilar artery occlusion were treated with systemic recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rtPA) according to protocol. The first patient was in a locked-in state and gradually deteriorated. On repeat angiography the basilar artery remained occluded. He died and necropsy revealed a pontine haemorrhagic infarction. The second patient, who was comatose and with decerebrate posturing, made a remarkable recovery. Angiography showed reperfusion. Therapy was initiated in the first patient after six hours and in the second after two hours. Treatment with rtPA is promising but probably not feasible for every patient. Success may depend on duration of occlusion and composition of occluding thrombus. Images PMID:1901349

  8. Transient total mesencephalic locked-in syndrome after bilateral ptosis due to basilar artery thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yasunori; Ohnishi, Yu-ichiro; Wakayama, Akatsuki; Yoshimine, Toshiki

    2012-11-01

    Locked-in syndrome (LIS) usually occurs as a result of pontine lesions and has been classified into various categories on the basis of neurologic conditions, of which transient total mesencephalic LIS is extremely rare. A 53-year-old man presented with bilateral ptosis followed by a total locked-in state. In the clinical course, the patient successfully recovered with only left slight hemiparesis and skew deviation remaining. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed multiple ischemic lesions caused by thrombosis at the top of basilar artery, including the bilateral cerebral peduncles, tegmentum of the midbrain, and the right cerebellar hemisphere. Antecedent bilateral ptosis before the locked-in state may be related to ischemia in the central caudal nucleus of the oculomotor nuclei. We should pay attention to this easily missed condition during the treatment of ischemic stroke involving the basilar artery.

  9. The efficiency analysis of thrombolytic rt-PA combined with intravascular interventional therapy in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Xianxian, Zhao; Chengsong, Yue; Qiang, Mei; Fei, Wei; Lin, Shen; Huiyan, Ding; Zili, Gong

    2017-01-01

    In order to further optimize the treatment strategy for the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion, we were dedicated to study the therapeutic effects and influential factors in the process of treated basilar artery occlusion with thrombolytic combined vascular interventional therapy. 75 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with arterial thrombolytic therapy were analyzed retrospectively. In accordance with the discharge records of patients, their short-term curative effect with 24-hour treatment and 14-days treatment were evaluated. Our data showed that the survival condition of the patients with acute acute basilar artery occlusion were visibly improved by combination thrombolytic and interventional therapy. Moreover, their BI scores were remarkably improved, while NIHSS and mRS scores were evidently reduced. These data proved that our treatment strategy was able to improve the survival condition of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. Furthermore, our data showed that coagulation related factors remarkably improved in the patients, when they treated by combination thrombolytic therapy with interventional therapy. In addition, our results suggested that the patients' bilateral Babinski(+), revascularization and coma symptom were closely related to their prognosis after treated the patients with combination thrombolytic and vascular interventional therapy, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05, p<0.05, p<0.05). Besides, our data also displayed that the with stent assisted angioplasty was significantly superior to the patients with balloon angioplasty, and the difference was statistically significant (p<0.05). Anyhow, combination thrombolytic with interventional therapy can effectively promote the prognosis of the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. The coma symptom, bilateral Babinski(+), and revascularization in the patients with acute basilar artery occlusion have an appreciable impact on the patients

  10. Neurologic Examination at 24 to 48 Hours Predicts Functional Outcomes in Basilar Artery Occlusion Stroke.

    PubMed

    Rangaraju, Srikant; Jovin, Tudor G; Frankel, Michael; Schonewille, Wouter J; Algra, Ale; Kappelle, L Jaap; Nogueira, Raul G

    2016-10-01

    Accurate long-term outcome prognostication in basilar artery occlusion strokes may guide clinical management in the subacute stage. We determine the prognostic value of the follow-up neurological examination using the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS) and identify 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories in basilar artery occlusion patients. Participants of an observational registry of radiologically confirmed acute basilar artery occlusion (BASICS [Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study]) with prospectively collected 24- to 48-hour NIHSS and 1-month modified Rankin scale scores were included. Uni- and multivariable modeling were performed to identify independent predictors of poor outcome. Predictive powers of baseline and 24- to 48-hour NIHSS for poor outcome (modified Rankin scale, 4-6) and 1-month mortality were determined by receiver operating characteristic analyses. Classification and regression tree analysis was performed to identify risk groups. Three hundred seventy-six of 619 BASICS participants were included, of whom 65.4% had poor outcome. In multivariable analyses, 24- to 48-hour NIHSS (odds ratio=1.28 [1.21-1.35]), history of minor stroke (odds ratio=2.64 [1.04-6.74], time to treatment >6 hours (odds ratio=3.07 [1.35-6.99]), and age (odds ratio=1.02 [0.99-1.04]) were retained in the final model as predictors of poor outcome. Prognostic power of 24- to 48-hour NIHSS was higher than baseline NIHSS for 1-month poor outcome (area under the curve, 0.92 versus 0.75) and mortality (area under the curve, 0.85 versus 0.72). Classification and regression tree analysis identified five 24- to 48-hour NIHSS risk categories with poor outcome rates of 9.4% (NIHSS 0-4), 36% (NIHSS 5-11), 84.3% (NIHSS 12-22), 96.1% (NIHSS 23-27), and 100% (NIHSS≥28). Twenty-four- to 48-hour NIHSS accurately predicts 1-month poor outcome and mortality and represents a clinically valuable prognostic tool for the care of basilar artery occlusion patients. © 2016

  11. CT-angiography source images indicate less fatal outcome despite coma of patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Lars P; Khomenko, Andrei; Dzialowski, Imanuel; Barlinn, Jessica; Barlinn, Kristian; Zerna, Charlotte; van der Hoeven, Erik Jrj; Algra, Ale; Kapelle, L Jaap; Michel, Patrik; Bodechtel, Ulf; Demchuk, Andrew M; Schonewille, Wouter; Puetz, Volker

    2017-02-01

    Background Coma is associated with poor outcome in patients with basilar artery occlusion. Aims We sought to assess whether the posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score and the Pons-Midbrain Index applied to CT angiography source images predict the outcome of comatose patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study. Methods Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study was a prospective, observational registry of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion with 48 recruiting centers worldwide. We applied posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score and Pons-Midbrain Index to CT angiography source images of Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study patients who presented with coma. We calculated adjusted risk ratios to assess the association of dichotomized posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (≥8 vs. <8) and Pons-Midbrain Index (<3 vs. ≥3) with mortality and favourable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score 0-3) at one month. Results Of 619 patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study registry, CT angiography source images were available for review in 158 patients. Among these, 78 patients (49%) presented with coma. Compared to non-comatose patients, comatose patients were more likely to die (risk ratios 2.34; CI 95% 1.56-3.52) and less likely to have a favourable outcome (risk ratios 0.44; CI 95% 0.24-0.80). Among comatose patients, a Pons-Midbrain Index < 3 was related to reduced mortality (adjusted RR 0.66; 95% CI 0.46-0.96), but not to favourable outcome (adjusted RR 1.19; 95% CI 0.39-3.62). Posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score dichotomized at ≥ 8 vs. <8 was not significantly associated with death (adjusted RR 0.70; 95% CI 0.46-1.05). Conclusion In comatose patients with basilar artery occlusion, the extent of brainstem ischemia appears to be related to mortality but not to favourable outcome.

  12. Vasoconstrictive effects of levobupivacaine on the basilar artery in the rabbit

    PubMed Central

    Ergil, Julide; Kertmen, Hayri; Sayın, Murat; Yılmaz, Erdal Reşit; Özkan, Derya; Arıkök, Ata Türker; Kanat, Mehmet Ali; Şekerci, Zeki

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Spinal anesthesia is a widely used technique of the modern practice of anesthesia. Spinal cord ischemia is a rare but catastrophic complication of spinal anesthesia which may be caused by a direct vasoconstrictive effect of the local anesthetic. Although the vasoconstrictive effects of levobupivacaine have been widely studied, the vasoconstrictive effects of this drug on the intradural arteries have never been studied. The aim of this study is to evaluate whether levobupivacaine has vasoconstrictive effects on the basilar artery in rabbits. Material and methods Thirty male New Zealand white rabbits were divided randomly into three groups of ten rabbits each: group 1 (control); group 2 (0.125% levobupivacaine); group 3 (0.25% levobupivacaine). The cisterna magna was punctured as described below, then 1 ml of saline or 0.125% or 0.25% levobupivacaine was injected into the cisterna magna in 10 min by an infusion pump in groups 1, 2 and 3 respectively. All animals were euthanized by perfusion-fixation 30 min after the procedure. The luminal area and the size of the cross-sectional area for each basilar artery were measured. Results Both 0.125% and 0.25% levobupivacaine infusion caused significant vasoconstriction. Vasoconstriction was more significant for the 0.125% concentration. Conclusions The results of this study indicated that both 0.125% and 0.25% concentrations of levobupivacaine caused significant vasoconstriction of the basilar artery when administered into the subarachnoid space. This may constitute proof that subarachnoid administration of levobupivacaine may diminish the spinal cord blood flow, causing ischemia. PMID:26170861

  13. Basilar artery to bilateral posterior cerebral artery 'Y stenting' for endovascular reconstruction of wide-necked basilar apex aneurysms: report of three cases.

    PubMed

    Perez-Arjona, Eimir; Fessler, Richard D

    2004-04-01

    Endovascular reconstruction of basilar artery (BA) apex aneurysms has been augmented by adjunctive techniques such as balloon and stent assistance. We present three cases of a wide-necked BA apex aneurysm involving the bilateral P1 segments of both posterior cerebral arteries (PCAs) treated by placement of BA to PCA stents bilaterally in a 'Y' configuration to reconstruct the BA apex for effective coil embolization. Three patients (aged 70, 65 and 37 years) with wide-necked basilar artery aneurysms presented for endovascular treatment. All aneurysms had necks that involved the bilateral P1 segments. Each patient was deemed an appropriate candidate for endovascular reconstruction. Patients were pretreated with clopidogrel (75 mg) and aspirin (325 mg) each day for 3 days prior to the procedure. Following induction of general anesthesia, access to the right femoral artery was obtained by placement of a 6F sheath. Intravenous heparin was administered to achieve an activated coagulation time (ACT) of approximately 300 seconds. A 6F guide catheter was placed within the left vertebral artery (VA) in two patients, the right VA in a third. Utilizing over-the-wire (OTW) technique, a microcatheter was advanced into the left P2-P3 junction of the PCA. A 300-cm 0.014-inch microwire was passed through the microcatheter into the distal PCA and the microcatheter was removed. In each case, two neuroform stents were prepared (SMART Therapeutics Inc., San Leandro, CA) and advanced OTW into the PCA with the most acute angle relative to the BA. The initial stent placed was 20 mm in length and was deployed from the P1 segment into the BA. The microwire was pulled retrograde into the BA apex, then advanced though the stent struts and into the right PCA. A second stent, 15 mm in length, was advanced OTW through the struts of the previously placed stent. It was then deployed from the P1 into the BA where it overlapped the first stent, resulting in a stent-in-stent 'Y' configuration at the

  14. The tectopontine projection the the rat with comments on visual pathways to the basilar pons

    SciTech Connect

    Burne, R.A.; Azizi, S.A.; Mihailoff, G.A.; Woodward, D.J.

    1981-10-20

    The projection from the superior and inferior colliculi to the basilar pons in the rat was studied with the technique of orthograde transport of labeled amino acids and autoradiography. Injections restricted to the medial or lateral regions of the superior colliculus gave rise to grain labeling representing terminal fields over the ipsilateral peduncular, dorsolateral, and ventrolateral regions of the caudal basilar pons and over the dorsomedial area of the contralateral nucleus reticularis tegmenti pontis (NRTP). The pontine projection from the superior colliculus to the lateral basilar pons is topographically organized; the medial superior colliculus projects primarily to the peduncular region, whereas the lateral superior colliculus terminates chiefly in ventrolateral pontine areas. A projection from the superior colliculus to the contralateral dorsomedial pontine and medial peduncular pontine regions, a previously undescribed finding, has also been shown. Descending fibers from the inferior colliculus do not appear to terminate extensively within the basilar pons but rather course adjacent to pontine cells of the dorsolateral region in the caudal pons. Pretectal nuclei project ipsilaterally to medial and lateral nuclei in the rostral and middle basilar pons, respectively. A rostrocaudal topography exists in the tectopontine projection; the pretectum projects to rostromiddle basilar pons, the superior colliculus to more caudal pontine regions, and the inferior colliculus (although sparsely) to further caudal areas. The pontine projection pattern from the colliculi and pretectum differs from the pontine afferents from the visual cortices.

  15. Aneurysms of the basilar artery treated with circulatory arrest, hypothermia, and barbiturate cerebral protection.

    PubMed

    Spetzler, R F; Hadley, M N; Rigamonti, D; Carter, L P; Raudzens, P A; Shedd, S A; Wilkinson, E

    1988-06-01

    Complete circulatory arrest, deep hypothermia, and barbiturate cerebral protection are efficacious adjuncts in the surgical treatment of selected giant intracranial aneurysms. These techniques were utilized in seven patients, one with a large and six with giant basilar artery aneurysms; four had excellent results, one had a good result, one had a fair outcome, and one died. The rationale for the use of complete cardiac arrest with extracorporeal circulation, hypothermia, and barbiturate cerebral protection is outlined. The surgical and anesthetic considerations are reviewed. The perioperative morbidity and long-term results support the use of these techniques in selected patients with complex intracranial vascular lesions.

  16. Endothelin-1 and endothelin receptors in the basilar artery of the capybara.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Andrzej; Gajkowska, Barbara; Dashwood, Michael R; Fioretto, Emerson T; Gagliardo, Karina M; Lima, Ana R De; Ribeiro, Antonio A C M

    2005-02-01

    Little is known about cerebral vasculature of capybara, which seems may serve as a natural model of studying changes in cerebral circulation due to internal carotid artery atrophy at animal sexual maturation. This is the first study of the light- and electron-immunocytochemical localisation of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ETA and ETB endothelin receptors in the basilar artery of capybaras (6 to 12-month-old females and males) using an ExtrAvidin detection method. All animals examined showed similar patterns of immunoreactivity. Immunoreactivity for ET-1 was detected in the endothelium and adventitial fibroblasts, whilst immunoreactivity for ETA and ETB receptors was present in the endothelium, vascular smooth muscle, perivascular nerves and fibroblasts. In endothelial cells immunoreactivity to ET-1 was pronounced in the cytoplasm or on the granular endoplasmic reticulum. Similar patterns of immunolabelling were observed for ETA and ETB receptors, though cytoplasmic location of clusters of immunoprecipitate seems dominant. These results suggest that the endothelin system is present throughout the wall of the basilar artery of capybara.

  17. A case of intracranial arterial dolichoectasia with 4 repeated cerebral infarctions in 6 months and enlargement of basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Moriyoshi, Hideyuki; Furukawa, Soma; Iwata, Mai; Suzuki, Junichiro; Nakai, Noriyoshi; Nishida, Suguru; Ito, Yasuhiro

    2017-03-28

    A 78-year-old man was admitted to our hospital because of sudden right hemiparesis and dysarthria. His cranial MRI showed an area of hyperintensity in left pons on DWI and MRA revealed dilated, elongated and tortuous intracranial artery. We diagnosed as acute phase ischemic stroke and intracranial arterial dolichoectasia (IADE). Intravenous infusion of rt-PA was performed 157 minutes after the onset of symptoms, and his hemiparesis improved. However, he subsequently suffered from cerebral infarction 4 times in 6 months, and we treated him twice with thrombolytic therapy. Although thrombolytic therapy was effective in the short term and antithrombotic therapy was continued, he had bilateral hemiplegia and severe dysphagia because of repeated cerebral infarctions. Hence basilar artery was dilated with intramural hemorrhage over 6 months, and we discontinued antithrombolytic therapy. It is possible that antithrombolytic therapy affects enlargement of IADE. Antithrombolytic therapy for IADE should be done carefully.

  18. The Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial.

    PubMed

    van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; Schonewille, Wouter J; Vos, Jan Albert; Algra, Ale; Audebert, Heinrich J; Berge, Eivind; Ciccone, Alfonso; Mazighi, Mikael; Michel, Patrik; Muir, Keith W; Obach, Víctor; Puetz, Volker; Wijman, Cristanne A C; Zini, Andrea; Kappelle, Jaap L

    2013-07-08

    Despite recent advances in acute stroke treatment, basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a death or disability rate of close to 70%. Randomised trials have shown the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) given within 4.5 h and have shown promising results of intra-arterial thrombolysis given within 6 h of symptom onset of acute ischaemic stroke, but these results do not directly apply to patients with an acute BAO because only few, if any, of these patients were included in randomised acute stroke trials.Recently the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS), a prospective registry of patients with acute symptomatic BAO challenged the often-held assumption that intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is superior to IVT. Our observations in the BASICS registry underscore that we continue to lack a proven treatment modality for patients with an acute BAO and that current clinical practice varies widely. BASICS is a randomised controlled, multicentre, open label, phase III intervention trial with blinded outcome assessment, investigating the efficacy and safety of additional IAT after IVT in patients with BAO. The trial targets to include 750 patients, aged 18 to 85 years, with CT angiography or MR angiography confirmed BAO treated with IVT. Patients will be randomised between additional IAT followed by optimal medical care versus optimal medical care alone. IVT has to be initiated within 4.5 h from estimated time of BAO and IAT within 6 h. The primary outcome parameter will be favourable outcome at day 90 defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0-3. The BASICS registry was observational and has all the limitations of a non-randomised study. As the IAT approach becomes increasingly available and frequently utilised an adequately powered randomised controlled phase III trial investigating the added value of this therapy in patients with an acute symptomatic BAO is needed (clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01717755).

  19. The Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS): study protocol for a randomised controlled trial

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Despite recent advances in acute stroke treatment, basilar artery occlusion (BAO) is associated with a death or disability rate of close to 70%. Randomised trials have shown the safety and efficacy of intravenous thrombolysis (IVT) given within 4.5 h and have shown promising results of intra-arterial thrombolysis given within 6 h of symptom onset of acute ischaemic stroke, but these results do not directly apply to patients with an acute BAO because only few, if any, of these patients were included in randomised acute stroke trials. Recently the results of the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS), a prospective registry of patients with acute symptomatic BAO challenged the often-held assumption that intra-arterial treatment (IAT) is superior to IVT. Our observations in the BASICS registry underscore that we continue to lack a proven treatment modality for patients with an acute BAO and that current clinical practice varies widely. Design BASICS is a randomised controlled, multicentre, open label, phase III intervention trial with blinded outcome assessment, investigating the efficacy and safety of additional IAT after IVT in patients with BAO. The trial targets to include 750 patients, aged 18 to 85 years, with CT angiography or MR angiography confirmed BAO treated with IVT. Patients will be randomised between additional IAT followed by optimal medical care versus optimal medical care alone. IVT has to be initiated within 4.5 h from estimated time of BAO and IAT within 6 h. The primary outcome parameter will be favourable outcome at day 90 defined as a modified Rankin Scale score of 0–3. Discussion The BASICS registry was observational and has all the limitations of a non-randomised study. As the IAT approach becomes increasingly available and frequently utilised an adequately powered randomised controlled phase III trial investigating the added value of this therapy in patients with an acute symptomatic BAO is needed (clinicaltrials

  20. [Sonographic screening of basilar arteries reduces the risk of sudden infant death].

    PubMed

    Deeg, K H; Reisig, A

    2013-09-01

    Sudden infant death syndrome (SIDS) is the most frequent cause of death in the first year of life. The causes of SIDS remain unclear although multiple theories have been published in recent decades. However, some important risk factors associated with SIDS, such as prone sleeping have been validated. Over 85% of all SIDS victims were found in a prone position but it is unclear why the prone sleeping position is more dangerous than the supine sleeping position. A possible cause of SIDS is hypoperfusion of the brain stem during head rotation. Some infants show compression of the vertebral arteries at the craniocervical junction during head rotation, especially in the prone position and this may lead to a subsequent decrease of brain stem perfusion. If compression lasts for a longer time hypoperfusion of the brainstem and central apnea and bradycardia result, which can lead to SIDS. The decrease in brainstem perfusion occurs more often and is more pronounced in the prone position as the head is more rotated in the prone than in the supine position. Doppler sonographic flow measurements of the flow in the basilar artery through the open fontanel, allow the detection of patients at risk of position-dependent hypoperfusion of the brain. Flow measurements are obtained in a neutral position (head in midline) and during head rotation. In the vast majority of infants (98.7%) the flow in the basilar artery is independent of head rotation and body position. In rare cases (1.3%) flow velocities drop to below 50% of the initial value during head rotation. A pathological biphasic or even retrograde flow can be found during head rotation in only 0.3% of infants and these infants may have an increased risk for SIDS. To prevent SIDS head rotation which leads to an abnormal or pathological flow decrease during head rotation should be avoided. Additionally these infants should be monitored until blood flow in the basilar artery has returned to normal, which usually occurs during the

  1. Successful Coil Embolization of a Ruptured Basilar Artery Aneurysm in a Child with Leukemia: A Case Report

    PubMed Central

    HAYASHI, Shihori; MAEHARA, Taketoshi; MUKAWA, Maki; AOYAGI, Masaru; YOSHINO, Yoshikazu; NEMOTO, Shigeru; ONO, Toshiaki; OHNO, Kikuo

    2014-01-01

    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are rare in the pediatric population compared to adults. This has incited considerable discussion on how to treat children with this condition. Here, we report a child with a ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization. A 12-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and accompanying abdominal candidiasis after chemotherapy suddenly complained of a severe headache and suffered consciousness disturbance moments later. Computed tomography scans and cerebral angiography demonstrated acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by saccular basilar artery aneurysm rupture. External ventricular drainage was performed immediately. Because the patient was in severe condition and did not show remarkable signs of central nervous system infection in cerebrospinal fluid studies, we applied endovascular treatment for the ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysm, which was successfully occluded with coils. The patient recovered without new neurological deficits after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Recent reports indicate that both endovascular and microsurgical techniques can be used to effectively treat ruptured cerebral aneurysms in pediatric patients. A minimally invasive endovascular treatment was effective in the present case, but long-term follow-up will be necessary to confirm the efficiency of endovascular treatment for children with ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysms. PMID:24257487

  2. Successful coil embolization of a ruptured basilar artery aneurysm in a child with leukemia: a case report.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shihori; Maehara, Taketoshi; Mukawa, Maki; Aoyagi, Masaru; Yoshino, Yoshikazu; Nemoto, Shigeru; Ono, Toshiaki; Ohno, Kikuo

    2014-01-01

    Ruptured intracranial aneurysms are rare in the pediatric population compared to adults. This has incited considerable discussion on how to treat children with this condition. Here, we report a child with a ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysm that was successfully treated with coil embolization. A 12-year-old boy with acute lymphoblastic leukemia and accompanying abdominal candidiasis after chemotherapy suddenly complained of a severe headache and suffered consciousness disturbance moments later. Computed tomography scans and cerebral angiography demonstrated acute hydrocephalus and subarachnoid hemorrhage caused by saccular basilar artery aneurysm rupture. External ventricular drainage was performed immediately. Because the patient was in severe condition and did not show remarkable signs of central nervous system infection in cerebrospinal fluid studies, we applied endovascular treatment for the ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysm, which was successfully occluded with coils. The patient recovered without new neurological deficits after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Recent reports indicate that both endovascular and microsurgical techniques can be used to effectively treat ruptured cerebral aneurysms in pediatric patients. A minimally invasive endovascular treatment was effective in the present case, but long-term follow-up will be necessary to confirm the efficiency of endovascular treatment for children with ruptured saccular basilar artery aneurysms.

  3. A novel trigger for cholesterol-dependent smooth muscle contraction mediated by the sphingosylphosphorylcholine-Rho-kinase pathway in the rat basilar artery: a mechanistic role for lipid rafts.

    PubMed

    Shirao, Satoshi; Yoneda, Hiroshi; Shinoyama, Mizuya; Sugimoto, Kazutaka; Koizumi, Hiroyasu; Ishihara, Hideyuki; Oka, Fumiaki; Sadahiro, Hirokazu; Nomura, Sadahiro; Fujii, Masami; Tamechika, Masakatsu; Kagawa, Yoshiteru; Owada, Yuji; Suzuki, Michiyasu

    2015-05-01

    Hyperlipidemia is a risk factor for abnormal cerebrovascular events. Rafts are cholesterol-enriched membrane microdomains that influence signal transduction. We previously showed that Rho-kinase-mediated Ca(2+) sensitization of vascular smooth muscle (VSM) induced by sphingosylphosphorylcholine (SPC) has a pivotal role in cerebral vasospasm. The goals of the study were to show SPC-Rho-kinase-mediated VSM contraction in vivo and to link this effect to cholesterol and rafts. The SPC-induced VSM contraction measured using a cranial window model was reversed by Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, in rats fed a control diet. The extent of SPC-induced contraction correlated with serum total cholesterol. Total cholesterol levels in the internal carotid artery (ICA) were significantly higher in rats fed a cholesterol diet compared with a control diet or a β-cyclodextrin diet, which depletes VSM cholesterol. Western blotting and real-time PCR revealed increases in flotillin-1, a raft marker, and flotillin-1 mRNA in the ICA in rats fed a cholesterol diet, but not in rats fed the β-cyclodextrin diet. Depletion of cholesterol decreased rafts in VSM cells, and prevention of an increase in cholesterol by β-cyclodextrin inhibited SPC-induced contraction in a cranial window model. These results indicate that cholesterol potentiates SPC-Rho-kinase-mediated contractions of importance in cerebral vasospasm and are compatible with a role for rafts in this process.

  4. Duret hemorrhage: demonstration of ruptured paramedian pontine branches of the basilar artery on minimally invasive, whole body postmortem CT angiography.

    PubMed

    Chew, Ka Lip; Baber, Yeliena; Iles, Linda; O'Donnell, Christopher

    2012-12-01

    A 25 year old male died suddenly and unexpectedly. Postmortem CT scanning revealed marked raised intracranial pressure with brainstem compression due to subarachnoid, subdural and parenchymal hemorrhage. A hyperdense mass at the termination of the right internal carotid artery was thought to represent an aneurysm. Postmortem, whole body CT angiography failed to fill the aneurysm but did demonstrate multiple central pontine linear enhancing structures in continuity with the mid basilar artery and small foci of contrast leak into the adjacent mid pontine parenchyma. Autopsy confirmed subarachnoid hemorrhage, a thrombosed and ruptured proximal right middle cerebral artery aneurysm and Duret hemorrhages in the mid pons. This finding supports the theory that Duret hemorrhages occur as a result of perforating pontine branch of the basilar arterial rupture but does not exclude the contribution of venous congestion.

  5. Forced arterial suction thrombectomy with the penumbra reperfusion catheter in acute basilar artery occlusion: a retrospective comparison study in 2 Korean university hospitals.

    PubMed

    Eom, Y-I; Hwang, Y-H; Hong, J M; Choi, J W; Lim, Y C; Kang, D-H; Kim, Y-W; Kim, Y-S; Kim, S Y; Lee, J S

    2014-12-01

    A performance of forced arterial suction thrombectomy was not reported for the treatment of acute basilar artery occlusion. This study compared revascularization performance between intra-arterial fibrinolytic treatment and forced arterial suction thrombectomy with a Penumbra reperfusion catheter in patients with acute basilar artery occlusion. Fifty-seven patients with acute basilar artery occlusion were treated with intra-arterial fibrinolysis (n = 25) or forced arterial suction thrombectomy (n = 32). Baseline characteristics, successful revascularization rate, and clinical outcomes were compared between the groups. Baseline characteristics, the frequency of patients receiving intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator, and mean time interval between symptom onset and femoral puncture did not differ between groups. The forced arterial suction thrombectomy group had a shorter procedure duration (75.5 minutes versus 113.3 minutes, P = .016) and higher successful revascularization rate (88% versus 60%, P = .017) than the fibrinolysis group. Fair outcome, indicated by a modified Rankin Scale 0-3, at 3 months was achieved in 34% of patients undergoing forced arterial suction thrombectomy and 8% of patients undergoing fibrinolysis (P = .019), and the mortality rate was significantly higher in the fibrinolysis group (25% versus 68%, P = .001). Multiple logistic regression analysis identified the forced arterial suction thrombectomy method as an independent predictor of fair outcome with adjustment for age, sex, initial NIHSS score, and the use of intravenous recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (odds ratio, 7.768; 95% CI, 1.246-48.416; P = .028). In acute basilar artery occlusion, forced arterial suction thrombectomy demonstrated a higher revascularization rate and improved clinical outcome compared with traditional intra-arterial fibrinolysis. Further clinical trials with the newer Penumbra catheter are warranted. © 2014 by American Journal of

  6. Simulation of unsteady laminar flow in models of terminal aneurysm of the basilar artery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Valencia, Alvaro

    2005-05-01

    Blood flow dynamics play an important role in the pathogenesis and treatment of intracranial aneurysms. The evaluation of the velocity field in the aneurysm dome and neck is important for the correct placement of endovascular coils, in addition the temporal and spatial variations of wall shear stress in the aneurysm are correlated with its growth and rupture. The present numerical investigation describes the hemodynamics in two models of terminal aneurysm of the basilar artery. Aneurysm models with an aspect ratio of 1.0 and 1.67 were studied. Each model was subject to a steady, sinusoidal and physiologically representative waveform of inflow for a mean Reynolds number of 560. Symmetric and asymmetric outflow conditions in the branches were also studied.

  7. Successful interventional thrombectomy of a basilar artery thrombus in a long-term LVAD patient.

    PubMed

    Zerdzitzki, Matthaeus; Schmid, Christof; Hirt, Stephan; Wendl, Christina; Schlachetzki, Felix; Camboni, Daniele

    2015-01-01

    Cerebral thromboembolism builds the Achilles heel for patients on left ventricular support (LVAD). Thrombolytic therapy is usually contraindicated considering the increased risk of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with LVAD under therapeutic oral anticoagulation with concomitant platelet inhibition. We report on an alternative approach to this dilemma. On day 1,091 of LVAD support (INCOR Berlin Heart), a 69 year-old male patient was admitted to a rural hospital unconscious with a left-sided hemiplegia. Cerebral computed tomography (CT) with CT angiography revealed a thromboembolic distal basilar artery occlusion. The patient was immediately transported to our medical center, where an interventional thrombectomy restored full patency of the vessel. The patient recovered without neurologic sequelae within days. This case highlights the fact that patients on LVAD support with a neurologic event should be immediately transferred to a neurovascular center for appropriate treatment including a neurointervention.

  8. [Vertebral and basilar arterial oclusions in children. A case report and review of literature (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Pascual-Pascual, J I; Pascual-Castroviejo, I; Tendero, A; Roche, M C

    1977-01-01

    A nine-year-old boy with thrombosis in the right vertebral artery is presented. When child was 20 months old symptoms began suddenly with loss of consciousness, hemiparesia in the left side and later on psychomotor involution. The various aspects of the vertebral and basilar occlusions are discussed when they happen before the age of fourteen, of which there are 19 other cases published already. Etiology of this affection is very mixed in children and frequently unknown. There are more than one obstruction in 50% of patients and very often the nearest one is located at the level of the axis. Evolution is better in children than in adults, being dependant on such factors as the type of initial symptom, location of occlusion and quantity of collateral circulation present.

  9. Different Imaging Strategies in Patients With Possible Basilar Artery Occlusion: Cost-Effectiveness Analysis.

    PubMed

    Beyer, Sebastian E; Hunink, Myriam G; Schöberl, Florian; von Baumgarten, Louisa; Petersen, Steffen E; Dichgans, Martin; Janssen, Hendrik; Ertl-Wagner, Birgit; Reiser, Maximilian F; Sommer, Wieland H

    2015-07-01

    This study evaluated the cost-effectiveness of different noninvasive imaging strategies in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion. A Markov decision analytic model was used to evaluate long-term outcomes resulting from strategies using computed tomographic angiography (CTA), magnetic resonance imaging, nonenhanced CT, or duplex ultrasound with intravenous (IV) thrombolysis being administered after positive findings. The analysis was performed from the societal perspective based on US recommendations. Input parameters were derived from the literature. Costs were obtained from United States costing sources and published literature. Outcomes were lifetime costs, quality-adjusted life-years (QALYs), incremental cost-effectiveness ratios, and net monetary benefits, with a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY. The strategy with the highest net monetary benefit was considered the most cost-effective. Extensive deterministic and probabilistic sensitivity analyses were performed to explore the effect of varying parameter values. In the reference case analysis, CTA dominated all other imaging strategies. CTA yielded 0.02 QALYs more than magnetic resonance imaging and 0.04 QALYs more than duplex ultrasound followed by CTA. At a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000 per QALY, CTA yielded the highest net monetary benefits. The probability that CTA is cost-effective was 96% at a willingness-to-pay threshold of $80,000/QALY. Sensitivity analyses showed that duplex ultrasound was cost-effective only for a prior probability of ≤0.02 and that these results were only minimally influenced by duplex ultrasound sensitivity and specificity. Nonenhanced CT and magnetic resonance imaging never became the most cost-effective strategy. Our results suggest that CTA in patients with possible basilar artery occlusion is cost-effective. © 2015 The Authors.

  10. Clinical and radiological predictors of recanalisation and outcome of 40 patients with acute basilar artery occlusion treated with intra-arterial thrombolysis

    PubMed Central

    Arnold, M; Nedeltchev, K; Schroth, G; Baumgartner, R; Remonda, L; Loher, T; Stepper, F; Sturzenegger, M; Schuknecht, B; Mattle, H

    2004-01-01

    Objective: To define predictors of recanalisation and clinical outcome of patients with acute basilar artery occlusions treated with local intra-arterial thrombolysis (IAT). Methods: Vascular risk factors, severity of the neurological deficit graded by the National Institutes of Health stroke scale (NIHSS), and radiological findings were recorded at presentation. Outcome was measured using the modified Rankin scale (mRS) three months later and categorised as favourable (mRS 0–2), poor (mRS 3–5), or death (mRS 6). Results: 40 patients were studied. Median NIHSS on admission was 18. Mean time from symptom onset to treatment was 5.5 hours (range 2.3 to 11). Outcome was favourable in 14 patients (35%) and poor in nine (23%); 17 (42%) died. There were two symptomatic cerebral haemorrhages (5%). Recanalisation of the basilar artery was achieved in 32 patients (80%); it was complete (TIMI grade 3) in 20% and partial (TIMI grade 2) in 60%. In multivariate logistic regression analysis, low NIHSS score on admission (p = 0.002) and vessel recanalisation (p = 0.005) were independent predictors of favourable outcome. Recanalisation occurred more often with treatment within six hours of symptom onset (p = 0.003) and when admission computed tomography showed a hyperdense basilar artery sign (p = 0.007). In a univariate model, quadriplegia (p = 0.002) and coma (p = 0.004) were associated with a poor outcome or death. Conclusions: Low baseline NIHSS on admission and recanalisation of basilar artery occlusions predict a favourable outcome after intra-arterial thrombolysis. Early initiation of IAT and the presence of a hyperdense basilar artery sign on CT were associated with a higher likelihood of recanalisation. PMID:15146000

  11. Endovascular Treatment of Aneurysms Arising from the Basilar Artery Trunk and Branches

    PubMed Central

    Yu, J.-L.; Wang, H.-L.; Xu, N.; Xu, K.; Wang, B.; Luo, Q.

    2010-01-01

    Summary This study reports our experience with the endovascular treatment of basilar artery (BA) trunk and branch aneurysms. Subjects included 16 patients with BA trunk and branch aneurysms who underwent endovascular treatment in our hospital from October 2000 to October 2009, including four patients with associated arteriovenous malformation (AVM), two with associated moyamoya disease, one with multiple aneurysms at adjacent sites, and one with a distant aneurysm. Endovascular coil embolization, together with stent or balloon assistance when necessary, or while occluding the parent artery was performed. Associated diseases were managed intraoperatively or in the second stage, or treated with gamma knife radiotherapy, or followed up. Two patients with unsuccessful embolization died of re-rupture at the fourth month and fifth month follow-up. The remaining 14 patients reported good outcomes and experienced no re-rupture of either the aneurysm or associated disease. Angiographic follow-ups were conducted for the 14 patients for six to 12 months. Digital subtraction angiography (DSA) examination at the last follow-up showed no recurrence of the BA trunk and branch aneurysms. Together, BA trunk and branch aneurysms should be actively managed via endovascular techniques to prevent serious consequences due to aneurysm rupture and bleeding. Favorable outcomes can be obtained by the proper selection of endovascular treatment regimens. PMID:21162767

  12. Chronic basilar artery dissection with an associated symptomatic aneurysm presenting with massive subarachnoid hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Cohen, José E; Moscovici, Samuel; Rajz, Gustavo; Vargas, Andres; Itshayek, Eyal

    2016-08-01

    Basilar artery dissection (BAD) is a rare condition with a worse prognosis than a dissection limited to the vertebral artery. We report a rare case of chronic BAD with an associated symptomatic aneurysm presenting with massive subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in a 54-year-old woman. The diagnosis of acute BAD could only be made retrospectively, based on clinical and neuroradiological studies from a hospital admission 10months earlier. Angiography performed after her SAH showed unequivocal signs of imperfect healing; she was either post-recanalization of a complete occlusion or post-dissection. Residual multi-channel intraluminal defects led to the development of a small aneurysm, which was responsible for the massive hemorrhage. The occurrence of an associated aneurysm, and wall disease, but not an intraluminal process, reinforces the diagnosis of dissection. The patient was fully recovered at 90day follow-up. This case reinforces the need for long-term neuroradiological surveillance after non-hemorrhagic intracranial dissections to detect the development of de novo aneurysms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Characterization of histamine receptors in isolated pig basilar artery by functional and radioligand binding studies

    SciTech Connect

    Miyamoto, Atsushi; Nishio, Akira )

    1993-01-01

    Histamine receptors in pig basilar arteries were investigated in vitro by radioligand binding assays and by measuring the contractile and relaxant responses to histamine. Histamine and 2-pyridyethylamine (H[sub 1]-agonist) induced concentration-dependent contractions, whereas impromidine (H[sub 2]-agonist) induced concentration-dependent relaxations. These responses were independent of the presence of endothelial cells. Diphenhydramine (H[sub 1]-antagonist) partially reversed the histamine-induced contractions to relaxations. Cimetidine (H[alpha][sub 2]-antagonist) potentiated the contraction in a concentration-dependent manner. In the presence of cimetidine, the pEC[sub 50] value of histamine for the contraction was 6.30, and diphenhydramine competitively antagonized the histamine-induced contractions (pA[sub 2], 7.77). In the presence of diphenhydramine, the pEC[sub 50] value of histamine for the relaxation was 5.93, and cimetidine competitively antagonized the histamine-induced relaxations (pA[sub 2], 6.62). In the binding studies, the K[sub d] value of [[sup 3]H]mepyramine was 2.1 nM and the B[sub max] value was 95.6 fmol/mg protein. A competition experiment with diphenhydramine showed that the pK[sub i] value (7.51) was similar to the pA[sub 2] value. The K[sub d] value for [[sup 3]H]cimetidine was 126.0 nM and the B[sub max] value was 459.8 fmol/mg protein. The pK[sub d] (6.90) for [[sup 3]H]cimetidine was similar to the pA[sub 2] for cimetidine. The Hill coefficients for these experiments were not significantly different from unity. The present findings indicate that the number of H[sub 1]-receptors, in terms of the B[sub max] value for [[sup 3]H]mepyramine, is smaller than that of H[sub 2]-receptors, in terms of the B[sub max] value for [[sup 3]H]cimetidine. However, the contractile response to histamine is predominantly mediated through stimulation of H[sub 1]-receptors on vascular smooth muscle cells in pig basilar artery.

  14. Fatal Traumatic Subarachnoid Hemorrhage due to Acute Rebleeding of a Pseudoaneurysm Arising from the Distal Basilar Artery.

    PubMed

    Kim, Byung Chul; Lee, Jae Il; Cho, Won Ho; Nam, Kyoung Hyup

    2014-11-01

    Isolated traumatic pseudoaneurysms of the basilar artery are extremely rare but often fatal resulting in a mortality rate as high as 50%. A 51-year-old man presented with craniofacial injury after blunt trauma. A brain computed tomography (CT) scan showed thick basal subarachnoid hemorrhage associated with multiple craniofacial fractures, while CT angiography revealed contrast extravasation at the distal basilar artery with pseudoaneurysm formation. After this primary survey, the condition of the patient suddenly deteriorated. Conventional angiography confirmed the contrast extravasation resulted from pseudoaneurysm formation, which was successfully treated with endovascular coil embolization. Decompressive craniectomy and coma therapy with propofol were also performed. However, the patient died on the 7th hospital day because of the poor initial clinical condition. The current case is the first report of acute pseudoaneurysm rupture arising from the basilar artery within the first day after trauma. Our findings suggest the possibility that pseudoaneurysm rupture should be considered if brain CT shows thick traumatic subarachnoid hemorrhage on the basal cistern with a basal skull fracture.

  15. Ruptured aneurysm at the cortical segment of the distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery associated with hemodynamic stress after basilar artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Marutani, Akiko; Nakagawa, Ichiro; Park, Hun Soo; Tamura, Kentaro; Motoyama, Yasushi; Nakase, Hiroyuki

    2016-01-01

    Background: A distal posterior inferior cerebellar artery (PICA) de novo aneurysm at the cortical segment after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion is extremely rare. Here, we report the case of a ruptured distal PICA de novo aneurysm 8 years after basilar artery occlusion. Case Description: A 75-year-old man experienced sudden disturbance of consciousness; computed tomography demonstrated cerebellar and subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured distal PICA aneurysm. Neck clipping of the aneurysm prevented re-rupture initially, and superficial temporal artery-superior cerebellar artery (STA-SCA) bypass was performed 3 months after admission. Postoperative angiography confirmed patency of the bypass, and the patient was discharged without any new neurological deficits. Conclusion: This report describes a case of de novo development of a saccular distal PICA aneurysm after atherosclerotic basilar artery occlusion. We believe that increased hemodynamic stress at the PICA might have contributed to the occurrence and rupture of the aneurysm. STA-SCA bypass, introduced in the territory of the cerebellar hemisphere, reduces hemodynamic stress, which would prevent the occurrence of de novo aneurysm and recurrent bleeding. PMID:28144485

  16. Differences in the basilar artery bifurcation angle among patients who present with a ruptured aneurysm at the top of the basilar artery and patients with perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage: a retrospective cross-sectional study.

    PubMed

    Jagadeesan, Bharathi D; Kadkhodayan, Yasha; Delgado Almandoz, Josser E; Wallace, Adam; Cross, Dewitte T; Derdeyn, Colin P; Zipfel, Gregory J; Dacey, Ralph G; Moran, Christopher J

    2013-07-01

    The angle of the basilar artery bifurcation of (BAB angle) is thought to influence the risk of the development and rupture of aneurysms at this site. It is, however, unknown whether the BAB angle also influences the incidence of angiographically negative perimesencephalic subarachnoid hemorrhage (PMSAH). We performed a retrospective cross-sectional study comparing the BAB angle in a series of patients who presented with subarachnoid hemorrhage from a ruptured aneurysm at the top of the basilar artery (BSAH) with the BAB angle in a series of patients who presented with PMSAH. Consecutive patients who presented to our institution with PMSAH or BSAH between January 1, 2005 and December 31, 2010 were studied. Patients with PMSAH were further subdivided into patients with classic PMSAH (CPMSAH) and those with nonclassic PMSAH (NCPMSAH) based on initial head computed tomography examinations. In each patient, the BAB angle was measured on the standard cranial anteroposterior projections after vertebral artery injections. A total of 21 patients with CPMSAH, 30 patients with NCPMSAH, and 31 patients with BSAH were studied. The BAB angle was significantly smaller in patients with CPMSAH (87.7 ± 17.1 degrees) and NCPMSAH (98.4 ± 21.1 degrees) compared with patients with BSAH (135.0 ± 30.8 degrees) (P < .001). The significantly lower BAB angle in PMSAH patients compared with BSAH patients suggests that bleeding in PMSAH is either nonarterial in nature or is secondary to variations in hemodynamic arterial stress at the top of the basilar artery that need to be studied further with computational models.

  17. [Effect of vertebral manipulation therapy on vertebro-basilar artery blood flow in cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type].

    PubMed

    Hong, En-Si; Deng, Ming-Ying; Cheng, Li-Hong; Zhou, Shanling; Wang, Baiyang; Zhang, Anli; Li, Yuanqin; Wang, Hong

    2005-08-01

    To observe the effect of vertebral manipulation (VM) therapy on vertebro-basilar artery (VBA) blood flow in patients with cervical spondylosis of vertebral artery type (CS-VAT) by transcranial Doppler (TCD) ultrasonic examination. One hundred and fifty patients with CS-VAT were randomized into the VM group (n = 100) and the acupuncture group (n = 50), and treated for ten times as one therapeutic course. Changes of the contraction peak, the end-diastolic and average blood flow velocity of VBA before and after treatment in the two groups were observed and compared by TCD. Vp, Vd, Vm of LVA, RVA and BA in the two groups after treatment were all lowered, showing significant difference, excepting Vp of VBA in the acupuncture group, when compared with before treatment (P< 0.05 or P <0.01). Comparison between the two groups after treatment showed significant difference in Vp and Vm of LVA, Vp, Vd and Vm of RVA, Vp and Vm of VBA respectively (P<0.05, P <0.01). VM therapy in treating patients with CS-VAT shows therapeutic effect superior to VA therapy, which could significantly improve VBA blood flow.

  18. Anatomical study on the "perforator-free zone": reconsidering the proximal superior cerebellar artery and basilar artery perforators.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Gonzalez, Ulises; Cavalcanti, Daniel D; Agrawal, Abhishek; Spetzler, Robert F; Preul, Mark C

    2012-03-01

    The proximal superior cerebellar artery (pSCA) is often considered a perforator-free area. Precise anatomical knowledge of this region clarifies the pathophysiology underlying posterior fossa ischemic syndromes and helps avoid treatment-related complications. To anatomically evaluate perforating branches arising from the pSCA and the upper basilar artery (BA). Forty-four SCAs from 20 cadaveric heads were examined to determine patterns of the pSCA; its morphometry for medial and lateral branches; and frequency, number, diameter, distribution, and vascular territory of perforators arising from the pSCA and rostral BA. SCA arose as a single trunk in 36 sides (90%): mean diameter at origin was 1.38 mm; mean length was 14.4 ± 7.9 mm. Ninety-nine pSCA perforator branches were present in 82% of specimens (mean, 2.3 ± 1.6; range, 0-7 perforators/side). Of these, 59% were direct, belonging to the interpeduncular group in 85% of cases; 28% were short circumflex, belonging to lateral and medial pontine group; and 13% were long circumflex, reaching the medullary perforation zone (basal cerebellar group). Median distance to the first perforator was 2.0 mm (range, 0.1-15 mm). There were 132 perforator branches in the last centimeter of the BA. The pSCA should not be regarded as a perforator-free area. Although the pSCA territories likely overlap with the posterior cerebral artery, BA, and anterior inferior cerebellar artery, the pSCA segment cannot be surgically manipulated with impunity.

  19. Complete Obliteration of a Basilar Artery Aneurysm after Insertion of a Self-Expandable Leo Stent into the Basilar Artery without Coil Embolization

    PubMed Central

    Nowak, Stanisław; Wieloch, Michał; Zarzecka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 45-year-old man who underwent endovascular treatment in the acute setting of a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm. The patient was treated with stent implantation without coiling. A control angiographic scan obtained immediately after the procedure revealed significantly decreased intraaneurysmal flow. Follow-up angiography performed after one month demonstrated total aneurysm occlusion. PMID:18682676

  20. Complete obliteration of a basilar artery aneurysm after insertion of a self-expandable Leo stent into the basilar artery without coil embolization.

    PubMed

    Juszkat, Robert; Nowak, Stanisław; Wieloch, Michał; Zarzecka, Anna

    2008-01-01

    We report a case of a 45-year-old man who underwent endovascular treatment in the acute setting of a subarachnoid hemorrhage due to rupture of a wide-necked basilar trunk aneurysm. The patient was treated with stent implantation without coiling. A control angiographic scan obtained immediately after the procedure revealed significantly decreased intraaneurysmal flow. Follow-up angiography performed after one month demonstrated total aneurysm occlusion.

  1. Pharmacological characteristics of Artemisia vulgaris L. in isolated porcine basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Nguyen, Ha Thi Thanh; Nguyen, Hai Thanh; Islam, Md Zahorul; Obi, Takeshi; Pothinuch, Pitchaya; Zar, Phyu Phyu Khine; Hou, De Xing; Van Nguyen, Thanh; Nguyen, Tuong Manh; Van Dao, Cuong; Shiraishi, Mitsuya; Miyamoto, Atsushi

    2016-04-22

    In Vietnamese traditional herbalism, there are conflicting opinions about the effect of Artemisia vulgaris L. (AVL, English name: mugwort) on hypertension. Some ethnic doctors recommend the use of AVL for treatment of hypertension, whereas others advise against it. The purpose of this study was to clarify the pharmacological characteristics of AVL in isolated arteries to explain the conflicts surrounding the use of AVL for treatment of hypertension. We initially performed a functional study using an organ bath system to investigate the effect of AVL extract on isolated porcine basilar artery. We then measured the change in intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration elicited by AVL using cultured smooth muscle cells loaded with the Ca(2+) indicator fluo-4. Finally, using HPLC, we determined the active components in AVL. AVL induced vasoconstriction at resting tension, and endothelial removal enhanced this effect significantly. Pretreatment with PD123319 (an AT2 receptor antagonist), Nω-nitro-L-arginine (a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor), or both, also enhanced this effect. AVL-induced contraction was competitively inhibited by methiothepin (a 5-HT1 and 5-HT2 receptor antagonist) in the presence of ketanserin (a 5-HT2 receptor antagonist). Removal of extracellular calcium with nifedipine (an L-type Ca(2+) channel blocker) or ruthenium red (a ryanodine receptor blocker) significantly reduced AVL-induced contraction, whereas losartan (an AT1 receptor antagonist) and diphenhydramine (a H1 receptor antagonist) had no effect on this contraction. AVL increased the intracellular free Ca(2+) concentration in cultured cells, and this increment was inhibited by methiothepin. HPLC analysis revealed that the retention time of the first peak in the AVL profile was similar to that of the 5-HT standard, and that addition of 5-HT to the AVL sample enhanced this peak. On the other hand, AVL induced endothelium-independent relaxation under precontracted conditions with 60mM KCl

  2. A Comparison between Mechanical Thrombectomy and Intra-arterial Fibrinolysis in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusion: Single Center Experiences

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Seunguk; Jung, Cheolkyu; Bae, Yun Jung; Choi, Byung Se; Kim, Jae Hyoung; Lee, Sang-Hwa; Chang, Jun Young; Kim, Beom Joon; Han, Moon-Ku; Bae, Hee-Joon; Kwon, Bae Ju; Cha, Sang-Hoon

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Recent advances in intra-arterial techniques and thrombectomy devices lead to high rate of recanalization. However, little is known regarding the effect of the evolvement of endovascular revascularization therapy (ERT) in acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO). We compared the outcome of endovascular mechanical thrombectomy (EMT) versus intra-arterial fibrinolysis (IAF)-based ERT in patients with acute BAO. Methods After retrospectively reviewed a registry of consecutive patients with acute ischemic stroke who underwent ERT from September 2003 to February 2015, 57 patients with acute BAO within 12 hours from stroke onset were enrolled. They were categorized as an IAF group (n=24) and EMT group (n=33) according to the primary technical option. We compared the procedural and clinical outcomes between the groups. Results The time from groin puncture to recanalization was significantly shorter in the EMT group than in the IAF group (48.5 [25.3 to 87.8] vs. 92 [44 to 179] minutes; P=0.02) The rate of complete recanalization was significantly higher in the EMT group than in the IAF group (87.9% vs 41.7%; P<0.01). The good outcome of the modified Rankin Scale score≤2 at 3 months was more frequent in the EMT group than in the IAF group, but it was not statistically significant (39.4% vs 16.7%; P=0.06). Conclusions EMT-based ERT in patients with acute BAO is superior to IAF-based ERT in terms of the reduction of time from groin puncture to recanalization and the improvement of the rate of complete recanalization. PMID:27283281

  3. Intra-Arterial tPA Treatment for Basilar Artery Thrombosis in the Combat Zone: An Example of Modern Nontrauma Medical Care in War

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    computed tomography ( CT ) was not avail- able. Because of a concern for a brain te rn syndrome, he was evacuated to Craig Joint Theater Hospital for CT ...a "one-and-one-half yndrome" on eye movement exam, locali zing the lesion to the left caudal pon- tine tegmentum. CT angiogram followed by...conventional angiogram confirmed the BAO. Using angiography , the neu- ro urgeon (JJS) infused 10 mg of IA-tPA directly into the proximal basilar artery

  4. Basilar artery blood flow velocity and the ventilatory response to acute hypoxia in mountaineers.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Gerard F A; Kagenaar, Dick A; Basnyat, Buddha; Odoom, Joseph A

    2002-10-23

    Hypoxic ventilatory response is higher in successful extreme-altitude climbers than in controls. We hypothesized that these climbers have lower brainstem blood flow secondary to hypoxia which may possibly cause retention of medullary CO(2) and greater ventilatory drive. Using transcranial Doppler, basilar artery blood flow velocity (Vba) was measured at sea level in 7 extreme-altitude climbers and 10 controls in response to 10 min sequential exposures to inspired oxygen fractions (FI(O(2))) of 0.21 (baseline), 0.13, 0.11, 0.10, 0.09, 0.08 and 0.07. Sa(O(2)) was higher in climbers at FI(O(2)) of 0.11 (P<0.05), 0.08 and 0.07 (both P<0.0001). Expired ventilation (VE) increased more (n.s.), and PET(CO(2)) decreased more (n.s.) in the climbers than in controls. Vba did not significantly change in both groups at FI(O(2)) of 0.13-0.09. At FI(O(2)) of 0.08 and 0.07, Vba decreased 21% (P<0.03) and 27% (P<0.01), respectively, in climbers, and increased 29% (P<0.01) and 27% (P<0.01), respectively, in controls. The conflicting effects of hypoxia and hypocapnia on both medullary blood flow and ventilatory drive thus balance out, giving climbers a greater drive and higher Sa(O(2)), despite lower PET(CO(2)) and lower brain stem blood flow.

  5. Stent-assisted coiling strategies for the treatment of wide-necked basilar artery bifurcation aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jian-Zhong; Yang, Peng-Fei; Huang, Qing-Hai; Xu, Yi; Hong, Bo; Zhao, Wen-Yuan; Liu, Jian-Min

    2014-06-01

    Stent-assisted coiling is now the preferred treatment option for wide-necked basilar artery bifurcation aneurysms (BABA). However, the optimal choice of specific treatment strategies is still not well documented. In this paper, based on the "two-neck" theory of BABA, we classified the stent-assisted coiling treatment of BABA into three types: unilateral stent-assisted coiling, unilateral stent plus contralateral microcatheter or microwire-assisted coiling, and bilateral stent-assisted coiling. We assessed the feasibility and effectiveness of different stent-assisted coiling strategies for the treatment of BABA. Twenty-three BABA patients treated with stent-assisted coiling between May 2003 and September 2012 were included. Of the 23 aneurysms, 16 were treated with unilateral stent-assisted coiling, two were treated with unilateral stent and microcatheter or microwire-assisted coiling, and five were treated with bilateral stent-assisted coiling. All 23 BABA were successfully embolized, with a technical success rate of 100%. According to the Raymond classification, the immediate procedural outcome was grade I in nine patients, grade II (neck residue) in four patients and grade III (body filling) in 10 patients. The rate of procedure-related complications was 4.3% (1/23), where intra-operative hemorrhage occurred during coiling due to rupture of the aneurysm. Of the 23 patients, 16 (69.6%) had angiographic follow-up. The mean follow-up duration was 13.5 months (range 1-46 months). Angiographic follow-up showed complete occlusion in 10 patients (62.5%), improvement in two patients (12.5%), stability in three patients (18.7%), and recanalization in one patient (6.25%). The various stent-assisted coiling strategies available at present are feasible and effective for the treatment of wide-necked BABA.

  6. Effects of the novel high-affinity 5-HT(1B/1D)-receptor ligand frovatriptan in human isolated basilar and coronary arteries.

    PubMed

    Parsons, A A; Raval, P; Smith, S; Tilford, N; King, F D; Kaumann, A J; Hunter, J

    1998-08-01

    The contractile actions of the novel high-affinity 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT(1B/1D)) ligand, frovatriptan (formerly VML 251/SB-209509) were investigated in human isolated basilar and coronary arteries in which the endothelium had been removed. Basilar arteries were obtained post mortem, and coronary arteries were obtained from patients undergoing heart transplant (recipient) or from donor hearts that were not suitable for transplant. Frovatriptan was a potent contractile agent in isolated basilar artery with a -log mean effective concentration (EC50) value of 7.86 +/- 0.07 and intrinsic activity of 1.25 +/- 0.10 relative to 5-HT (n = 4). Frovatriptan was 8.5-fold more potent than sumatriptan, which produced a -log EC50 value of 6.93 +/- 0.09 and intrinsic activity 11.1 +/- 0.08 relative to 5-HT (n = 4). In coronary arteries, frovatriptan produced contraction with -log EC50 values of 7.38 +/- 0.12 and 7.81 +/- 0.2 in recipient (n = 7) and donor (n = 3) arteries, respectively. The relative degree of contraction of frovatriptan was lower than that of 5-HT, with relative intrinsic activities of 0.42 +/- 0.06 and 0.40 +/- 0.09, respectively. Sumatriptan produced contraction of human recipient and donor arteries with -log EC50 values (intrinsic activity) of 6.57 +/- 0.13 (0.79 +/- 0.27; n = 6) and 7.35 (1.41; n = 2), respectively. Furthermore, marked bell-shaped responses were apparent for frovatriptan in coronary arteries, with relaxation occurring at concentrations >6 microM in some tissues. In contrast, no bell-shaped concentration-response curves were apparent for sumatriptan or 5-HT. Threshold concentrations for frovatriptan-induced contractions were also different between basilar (>2 nM) and coronary arteries (>20 nM). No separation of threshold activity was observed with sumatriptan or 5-HT. These data show that frovatriptan produces constriction of human isolated basilar and coronary arteries. However, frovatriptan produces a complex pharmacologic response in the

  7. Effects of hindlimb unloading on rat cerebral, splenic, and mesenteric resistance artery morphology.

    PubMed

    Wilkerson, M K; Muller-Delp, J; Colleran, P N; Delp, M D

    1999-12-01

    Hindlimb unloading (HU) of rats induces a cephalic shift in body fluids. We hypothesized that the putative increase in cranial fluid pressure and decrease in peripheral fluid pressure would alter the morphology of resistance arteries from 2-wk HU male Sprague-Dawley rats. To test this hypothesis, the cerebral basilar, mesenteric, and splenic arteries were removed from control (C) and HU animals. The vessels were cannulated, and luminal pressure was set to 60 cmH(2)O. The resistance arteries were then relaxed with 10(-4) M nitroprusside, fixed, and cut into transverse cross sections (5 microm thick). Media cross-sectional area (CSA), intraluminal CSA, media layer thickness, vessel outer perimeter, and media nuclei number were determined. In the basilar artery, both media CSA (HU 17, 893 +/- 2,539 microm(2); C 12,904 +/- 1,433 microm(2)) and thickness (HU 33.9 +/- 4.1 microm; C 22.3 +/- 3.2 microm) were increased with hindlimb unloading (P < 0.05), intraluminal CSA decreased (HU 7,816 +/- 3,045 microm(2); C 13,469 +/- 5,500 microm(2)) (P < 0.05), and vessel outer perimeter and media nuclei number were unaltered. There were no differences in mesenteric or splenic resistance artery morphology between HU and C rats. These findings suggest that hindlimb unloading-induced increases in cephalic arterial pressure and, correspondingly, increases in circumferential wall stress result in the hypertrophy of basilar artery smooth muscle cells.

  8. Endovascular Treatment of the Huge Dissecting Aneurysms Involving the Basilar Artery by the Internal Trapping Technique: Technical Note

    PubMed Central

    Mu, Shi-Qing; Yang, Xin-Jian; Li, You-Xiang; Jiang, Chu-Han; Wu, Zhong-Xue

    2015-01-01

    Background: The endovascular strategy of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the basilar artery (BA) is controversial and challenging. This study was to investigate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of the treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA by the internal trapping (IT) technique. Methods: We retrospectively studied 15 patients with the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA treated by the IT technique between September 2005 and September 2014 in Department of Interventional Neuroradiology of Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Clinical and angiographic data were reviewed and evaluated. Results: All patients were treated by the IT technique. That meant the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. After the procedure, the angiography demonstrated that all the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. Follow-up angiography was performed at 3–6 months or 12–18 months after the endovascular treatment (median 8 months), 14 patients had a good recovery. Re-canalization occurred in one patient whose aneurysm involved in bilateral vertebral arteries and the two third of the middle-lower BA. After the second treatment, the patient died by the ventricular tachycardia. Conclusions: The IT technique is a technically feasible and safe alternative for the treatment of BA dissecting aneurysms, but it is not necessarily the safest or most definitive treatment modality. The ideal treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA remains debatable and must be investigated on a case-by-case basis. PMID:26168833

  9. Nontraumatic, posterior circulation pseudoaneurysm of the basilar artery summit with complete spontaneous resolution: Case report and literature review

    PubMed Central

    Turan, Nefize; Butler, Shannon; Larson, Theodore C.; Mason, Alexander

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intracranial pseudoaneurysms are rare vascular defects of arterial walls that are classically the result of traumatic injury, iatrogenic causes, or infection. Idiopathic pseudoaneurysms are seen even less frequently and are often related to atherosclerosis. Pseudoaneurysms are most commonly found along the distal wall of the internal carotid artery, however, can occur at any location in the cerebrovascular circulation. Treatment of these arterial defects is often challenging due to their frail nature. Case Description: A 61-year-old male with a history of hypertension presented with a severe, atypical headache without history of trauma. Computed tomography (CT) and computed tomography angiography (CTA) demonstrated diffuse subarachnoid hemorrhage. Imaging demonstrated a 3.5 mm pseudoaneurysm projecting distally from the basilar artery at the apex. Repeated imaging (CTA, digital subtraction angiography) demonstrated decreased size and flow associated within the aneurysm over the following 2 weeks; as such, the patient was managed conservatively. The patient was discharged in neurologically intact condition when imaging at 14 days confirmed complete and spontaneous resolution of the pseudoaneurysm. Conclusion: Idiopathic pseudoaneurysms that are commonly associated with atherosclerosis are most commonly managed surgically or endovascularly. Conservative approach may be considered in a select group of patients that exhibit decreased size and/or flow within the aneurysm in repeated imaging; spontaneous resolution was seen in the present case. PMID:28480112

  10. Endovascular Treatment of the Huge Dissecting Aneurysms Involving the Basilar Artery by the Internal Trapping Technique: Technical Note.

    PubMed

    Mu, Shi-Qing; Yang, Xin-Jian; Li, You-Xiang; Jiang, Chu-Han; Wu, Zhong-Xue

    2015-07-20

    The endovascular strategy of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the basilar artery (BA) is controversial and challenging. This study was to investigate the clinical and angiographic outcomes of the treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA by the internal trapping (IT) technique. We retrospectively studied 15 patients with the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA treated by the IT technique between September 2005 and September 2014 in Department of Interventional Neuroradiology of Beijing Tiantan Hospital. Clinical and angiographic data were reviewed and evaluated. All patients were treated by the IT technique. That meant the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. After the procedure, the angiography demonstrated that all the dissecting artery and aneurysm segments were completed occlusion. Follow-up angiography was performed at 3-6 months or 12-18 months after the endovascular treatment (median 8 months), 14 patients had a good recovery. Re-canalization occurred in one patient whose aneurysm involved in bilateral vertebral arteries and the two third of the middle-lower BA. After the second treatment, the patient died by the ventricular tachycardia. The IT technique is a technically feasible and safe alternative for the treatment of BA dissecting aneurysms, but it is not necessarily the safest or most definitive treatment modality. The ideal treatment of the huge dissecting aneurysms involving the BA remains debatable and must be investigated on a case-by-case basis.

  11. Elevated vertebrobasilar artery resistance in neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Cates, Matthew J; Steed, Peter W; Abdala, Ana P L; Langton, Philip D; Paton, Julian F R

    2011-07-01

    There is a strong correlation between increased vertebral artery resistance and arterial blood pressure in humans. The reasons for this increased resistance at high systemic pressure remain unknown, but may include raised sympathetic activity. With the recent finding that prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (PHSH) rats, which have raised sympathetic nerve activity, but a blood pressure comparable to normotensive rat strains, we hypothesized that its vertebrobasilar vascular resistance would already be raised and, as a consequence, would exhibit a more responsive Cushing response (e.g., brain ischemia evoked sympathoexcitation and a pressor response). We report that PHSH rats exhibited a remodeling of the basilar artery (i.e., increased wall thickness and lower lumen-to-wall thickness ratio) that occurred before the onset of hypertension. In a novel in vitro vascularly isolated, arterially perfused brain stem preparation of PHSH rats of 4-5 wk of age, brain stem vascular resistance was raised by ∼35% relative to age- and sex-matched normotensive rats (P < 0.05). In the in situ arterial perfused working heart-brain stem preparation, occlusion of both vertebral arteries in the PHSH rat resulted in a significantly greater increase in sympathetic activity (57 vs. 20%, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) that triggered a greater increase in arterial perfusion pressure (8 vs. 3 mmHg, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) compared with normotensive rats. These data indicate raised vertebrobasilar artery resistance before the onset of hypertension in the PHSH rat. With the raised responsiveness of the Cushing response in the PHSH rat, we discuss the possibility of brain stem perfusion as a central nervous system determinant of the set point of vasomotor sympathetic tone in the hypertensive condition.

  12. Elevated vertebrobasilar artery resistance in neonatal spontaneously hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Cates, Matthew J.; Steed, Peter W.; Abdala, Ana P. L.; Langton, Philip D.

    2011-01-01

    There is a strong correlation between increased vertebral artery resistance and arterial blood pressure in humans. The reasons for this increased resistance at high systemic pressure remain unknown, but may include raised sympathetic activity. With the recent finding that prehypertensive spontaneously hypertensive (PHSH) rats, which have raised sympathetic nerve activity, but a blood pressure comparable to normotensive rat strains, we hypothesized that its vertebrobasilar vascular resistance would already be raised and, as a consequence, would exhibit a more responsive Cushing response (e.g., brain ischemia evoked sympathoexcitation and a pressor response). We report that PHSH rats exhibited a remodeling of the basilar artery (i.e., increased wall thickness and lower lumen-to-wall thickness ratio) that occurred before the onset of hypertension. In a novel in vitro vascularly isolated, arterially perfused brain stem preparation of PHSH rats of 4–5 wk of age, brain stem vascular resistance was raised by ∼35% relative to age- and sex-matched normotensive rats (P < 0.05). In the in situ arterial perfused working heart-brain stem preparation, occlusion of both vertebral arteries in the PHSH rat resulted in a significantly greater increase in sympathetic activity (57 vs. 20%, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) that triggered a greater increase in arterial perfusion pressure (8 vs. 3 mmHg, PHSH vs. control; P < 0.01) compared with normotensive rats. These data indicate raised vertebrobasilar artery resistance before the onset of hypertension in the PHSH rat. With the raised responsiveness of the Cushing response in the PHSH rat, we discuss the possibility of brain stem perfusion as a central nervous system determinant of the set point of vasomotor sympathetic tone in the hypertensive condition. PMID:21493719

  13. Anesthetic management for clipping a giant basilar artery aneurysm with moderate hypothermia, extracorporeal circulation assistance, and propofol infusion.

    PubMed

    Yamada, Makiko; Nishikawa, Koichi; Kawahara, Fuminori; Yoshikawa, Daisuke; Saito, Shigeru; Goto, Fumio

    2003-07-01

    A 65-year-old female patient underwent surgery to clip a giant basilar artery aneurysm with closed-chest extracorporeal circulation using femorofemoral bypass. Moderate hypothermia (27 degrees C-30 degrees C), retention of spontaneous circulation, and propofol infusion (3-5 mg. kg(-1). h(-1)) were used under general anesthesia. Blood outflow via femoral vein was sufficient to maintain cardiopulmonary bypass and to induce hypothermia. Hemodynamics were controlled with dopamine and noradrenaline. In this case, extracorporeal circulation under moderate hypothermia was used to assist rather than substitute for spontaneous circulation, and spontaneous circulation was maintained at all times. We think that this method had advantages over deep hypothermic circulatory arrest with regard to intraoperative risks and postoperative complications.

  14. Immunoreactive endothelin-1 and endothelin a receptor in basilar artery perivascular nerves of young and adult capybaras.

    PubMed

    Loesch, Andrzej; Dashwood, Michael R; Coppi, Antonio A

    2013-01-01

    The purpose of this qualitative morphological study was the immunocytochemical and ultrastructural comparison of perivascular nerves of the basilar artery (BA) of young (6-month-old) and adult (12-month-old) capybaras - adult capybaras showed regression of the internal carotid artery (ICA). The study focused on immunolabeling for the vasoactive peptide endothelin-1 (ET-1) and endothelin A receptor (ETA) as well as for the synapse marker synaptophysin (SYP). In the BA of young capybaras, immunoreactivity for ET-1, ETA receptor and SYP was detected in perivascular nerve varicosities and/or intervaricosities. Immunoreactivity for ET-1 and ETA receptor was also displayed by some Schwann cells, which accompanied perivascular nerves. In addition to the presence of the above-described perivascular nerve characteristics, the BA of adult animals also revealed structurally altered perivascular nerves, where axon profiles were irregular in shape with dense axoplasm, while the cytoplasm of Schwann cells was vacuolated and contained myelin-like figures. These structurally altered perivascular nerves displayed immunoreactivity for ET-1, ETA receptor and SYP. These results show that the ET-1 system is present in some of the BA perivascular nerves and it is likely that this system is affected during animal maturation when ICA regression takes place. The role of ET-1 in cerebrovascular nerves is still unclear but its involvement in neural (sensory) control of cerebral blood flow and nerve function is possible. Copyright © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Relaxant Effects of the Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulator, Bazedoxifene, and Estrogen Receptor Agonists in Isolated Rabbit Basilar Artery.

    PubMed

    Castelló-Ruiz, María; Salom, Juan B; Fernández-Musoles, Ricardo; Burguete, María C; López-Morales, Mikahela A; Arduini, Alessandro; Jover-Mengual, Teresa; Hervás, David; Torregrosa, Germán; Alborch, Enrique

    2016-10-01

    We have previously shown that the selective estrogen receptor modulator, bazedoxifene, improves the consequences of ischemic stroke. Now we aimed to characterize the effects and mechanisms of action of bazedoxifene in cerebral arteries. Male rabbit isolated basilar arteries were used for isometric tension recording and quantitative polymerase chain reaction. Bazedoxifene relaxed cerebral arteries, as 17-β-estradiol, 4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol [estrogen receptor (ER) α agonist], and G1 [G protein-coupled ER (GPER) agonist] did it (4,4',4″-(4-propyl-[1H]-pyrazole-1,3,5-triyl)trisphenol > bazedoxifene = G1 > 17-β-estradiol). 2,3-Bis(4-hydroxyphenyl)-propionitrile (ERβ agonist) had no effect. Expression profile of genes encoding for ERα (ESR1), ERβ (ESR2), and GPER was GPER > ESR1 > ESR2. As to the endothelial mechanisms, endothelium removal, N-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester, and indomethacin, did not modify the relaxant responses to bazedoxifene. As to the K channels, both a high-K medium and the Kv blocker, 4-aminopyridine, inhibited the bazedoxifene-induced relaxations, whereas tetraethylammonium (nonselective K channel blocker), glibenclamide (selective KATP blocker) or iberiotoxin (selective KCa blocker) were without effect. Bazedoxifene also inhibited both Ca- and Bay K8644-elicited contractions. Therefore, bazedoxifene induces endothelium-independent relaxations of cerebral arteries through (1) activation of GPER and ERα receptors; (2) increase of K conductance through Kv channels; and (3) inhibition of Ca entry through L-type Ca channels. Such a profile is compatible with the beneficial effects of estrogenic compounds (eg, SERMs) on vascular function and, specifically, that concerning the brain. Therefore, bazedoxifene could be useful in the treatment of cerebral disorders in which the cerebrovascular function is compromised (eg, stroke).

  16. A conversion disorder or a stroke? A proximal basilar artery thrombosis induced 'locked-in' syndrome in a young Caucasian woman.

    PubMed

    Li, Wang; Brandon, Ohman; Smith, Debbie Villarreal; Petersen, Eric

    2013-03-14

    The incidence of the basilar artery occlusion is relatively low among all strokes. Clinical presentation varies depending on the location of the occlusion. The symptoms include mild dysarthria to coma or sudden death. The initial subtle clinical presentation could lead to misdiagnosis. Psychogenic diagnosis in the differential could make the timely diagnosis more difficult. This case involves a 34-year-old woman presenting with a gradual onset of slurred speech. The initial CT scan of head did not indicate any intracranial pathology, and she was initially treated for an anxiety/conversion disorder. With progression of the pathology, the patient quickly developed a 'locked-in' syndrome, with preserved high cognitive function and vertical eye movement, but otherwise total loss of motor function. The diagnosis was confirmed with MRI/MR angiography studies, which indicated thrombosis of the proximal basilar artery. Serological studies did not disclose any relevant risk factors.

  17. Locked-in syndrome in a patient with acute obstructive hydrocephalus, caused by large unruptured aneurysm of the basilar artery (BA).

    PubMed

    Kolić, Zlatko; Kukuljan, Melita; Vukas, Duje; Bonifačić, David; Vrbanec, Kristina; Franić, Ivana Karla

    2016-09-15

    We describe a case of acute obstructive hydrocephalus as a consequence of compression of the brainstem by a large aneurysm of the basilar artery (BA) in a 62-year-old male. After the insertion of the ventriculoperitoneal shunt (VPS), we encountered the "locked-in syndrome" clinical condition. "Locked-in syndrome" is a clinical state characterized by quadriplegia and anarthria with preserved consciousness, most commonly caused by ischemia in the ventral part of pons.

  18. Resolution of giant basilar artery aneurysm compression and reversal of sensorineural hearing loss with use of a flow diverter: case report.

    PubMed

    Mohammad, Laila M; Coon, Alexander L; Carlson, Andrew P

    2017-07-01

    The authors present an unusual case of a 15-year-old boy in whom sensorineural hearing loss and disequilibrium developed in the setting of a giant basilar artery aneurysm. This patient was treated with a flow-diverting stent and had complete resolution of his clinical symptoms including hearing loss. This case demonstrates the efficacy of flow diversion in select pediatric patients with posterior circulation aneurysms. The features that are thought to result in successful treatment are discussed.

  19. gamma-Aminobutyric acid-A receptor-mediated suppression of 5-hydroxytryptamine-induced guinea-pig basilar artery smooth muscle contractility.

    PubMed

    Shirakawa, J; Hosoda, K; Taniyama, K; Matsumoto, S; Tanaka, C

    1989-01-01

    The mechanism of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-induced suppression of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5HT)-induced contractility of cerebral blood vessels was studied in single smooth muscle cells isolated from the guinea-pig basilar artery. GABA reduced 5HT-induced contraction of single smooth muscle cells, and the effect of GABA was mimicked by muscimol, but not baclofen. The response of muscimol was antagonized by bicuculline, thereby indicating that GABAA receptors exist on the smooth muscle of the basilar artery. Since GABA did not change the contraction induced by the addition of Ca2+ to the Ca2+-free medium in the presence of high K+, it is unlikely that GABA inhibits the influx of extracellular Ca2+. The caffeine-induced contraction in the Ca2+-free medium was reduced by GABA, and the effect of GABA was not obtained by treatment with furosemide and in the Cl- -free medium. These results indicate that GABA acts on the GABAA receptor located on smooth muscle cells and reduces the contractility of the basilar artery by suppression of the mobilization of intracellular Ca2+.

  20. Activation of sensory nerves in guinea-pig isolated basilar artery by nicotine: evidence for inhibition of trigeminal sensory neurotransmission by sumatriptan.

    PubMed

    O'Shaughnessy, C T; Connor, H E

    1994-06-23

    Nicotine (100 microM), but not electrical field stimulation or potassium chloride (0.1-3 microM), caused capsaicin (1 microM)- and tetrodotoxin (1 microM)-sensitive relaxations of guinea-pig isolated basilar artery precontracted with prostaglandin F2 alpha. Nicotine-induced responses were blocked by the neurokinin NK1 receptor antagonist, GR82334 (10 microM), but were unaffected by the calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) receptor antagonist, CGRP-(8-37) (1 microM). This suggests that nicotine activates capsaicin-sensitive sensory nerves in guinea-pig basilar artery to cause relaxation predominantly via substance P release. The vascular 5-HT1 receptor agonist, sumatriptan (0.3 and 3 microM), inhibited nicotine-induced relaxation (by 50 and 80% respectively); the inhibitory effect of sumatriptan (0.3 microM) was attenuated in the presence of the non-selective 5-HT1 receptor antagonist, methiothepin (0.1 microM). These data suggest that sumatriptan can inhibit sensory neurotransmission in guinea-pig basilar artery via activation of inhibitory prejunctional 5-HT1 receptors on sensory nerve terminals.

  1. Pharmacological evidence that Ca²+ channels and, to a lesser extent, K+ channels mediate the relaxation of testosterone in the canine basilar artery.

    PubMed

    Ramírez-Rosas, Martha B; Cobos-Puc, Luis E; Muñoz-Islas, Enriqueta; González-Hernández, Abimael; Sánchez-López, Araceli; Villalón, Carlos M; Maassenvandenbrink, Antoinette; Centurión, David

    2011-03-01

    Testosterone induces vasorelaxation through non-genomic mechanisms in several isolated blood vessels, but no study has reported its effects on the canine basilar artery, an important artery implicated in cerebral vasospasm. Hence, this study has investigated the mechanisms involved in testosterone-induced relaxation of the canine basilar artery. For this purpose, the vasorelaxant effects of testosterone were evaluated in KCl- and/or PGF(₂α)-precontracted arterial rings in vitro in the absence or presence of several antagonists/inhibitors/blockers; the effect of testosterone on the contractile responses to CaCl₂ was also determined. Testosterone (10-180 μM) produced concentration-dependent relaxations of KCl- or PGF(₂α)-precontracted arterial rings which were: (i) unaffected by flutamide (10 μM), DL-aminoglutethimide (10 μM), actinomycin D (10 μM), cycloheximide (10 μM), SQ 22,536 (100 μM) or ODQ (30 μM); and (ii) significantly attenuated by the blockers 4-aminopyridine (K(V); 1 mM), BaCl₂ (K(IR); 30 μM), iberiotoxin (BK(Ca²+); 20 nM), but not by glybenclamide (K(ATP); 10 μM). In addition, testosterone (31, 56 and 180 μM) and nifedipine (0.01-1 μM) produced a concentration-dependent blockade of the contraction to CaCl₂ (10 μM to 10 mM) in arterial rings depolarized by 60mM KCl. These results, taken together, show that testosterone relaxes the canine basilar artery mainly by blockade of voltage-dependent Ca²+ channels and, to a lesser extent, by activation of K+ channels (K(IR), K(V) and BK(Ca²+)). This effect does not involve genomic mechanisms, production of cAMP/cGMP or the conversion of testosterone to 17β-estradiol.

  2. Diagnostic and Prognostic Impact of pc-ASPECTS Applied to Perfusion CT in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study.

    PubMed

    Pallesen, Lars-Peder; Gerber, Johannes; Dzialowski, Imanuel; van der Hoeven, Erik J R J; Michel, Patrik; Pfefferkorn, Thomas; Ozdoba, Christoph; Kappelle, L Jaap; Wiedemann, Baerbel; Khomenko, Andrei; Algra, Ale; Hill, Michael D; von Kummer, Ruediger; Demchuk, Andrew M; Schonewille, Wouter J; Puetz, Volker

    2015-01-01

    The posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (pc-APECTS) applied to CT angiography source images (CTA-SI) predicts the functional outcome of patients in the Basilar Artery International Cooperation Study (BASICS). We assessed the diagnostic and prognostic impact of pc-ASPECTS applied to perfusion CT (CTP) in the BASICS registry population. We applied pc-ASPECTS to CTA-SI and cerebral blood flow (CBF), cerebral blood volume (CBV), and mean transit time (MTT) parameter maps of BASICS patients with CTA and CTP studies performed. Hypoattenuation on CTA-SI, relative reduction in CBV or CBF, or relative increase in MTT were rated as abnormal. CTA and CTP were available in 27/592 BASICS patients (4.6%). The proportion of patients with any perfusion abnormality was highest for MTT (93%; 95% confidence interval [CI], 76%-99%), compared with 78% (58%-91%) for CTA-SI and CBF, and 46% (27%-67%) for CBV (P < .001). All 3 patients with a CBV pc-ASPECTS < 8 compared to 6/23 patients with a CBV pc-ASPECTS ≥ 8 had died at 1 month (RR 3.8; 95% CI, 1.9-7.6). CTP was performed in a minority of the BASICS registry population. Perfusion disturbances in the posterior circulation were most pronounced on MTT parameter maps. CBV pc-ASPECTS < 8 may indicate patients with high case fatality. Copyright © 2014 by the American Society of Neuroimaging.

  3. Intravenous Recombinant Tissue Plasminogen Activator Therapy for Acute Basilar Artery Ischemic Stroke Following Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Implantation.

    PubMed

    Montarello, Nicholas J; Nelson, Adam J; Sidharta, Samuel L; Worthley, Stephen G

    2016-01-01

    Transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) can now be considered a standard of care for inoperable and high-risk surgical patients with severe aortic stenosis, and its uptake worldwide is rapidly increasing. Indeed, many centers performing the procedure have now moved towards treating intermediate-risk patients with TAVI rather than referring them for surgical aortic valve replacement. Although the incidence of peri-procedural acute and subacute stroke following TAVI has fallen to 2-5%, its occurrence can be life-threatening and life-changing, and every effort must be made to improve patient outcome should stroke occur. Many cardiologists would not instinctively consider the use of thrombolytic therapy for post-transfemoral TAVI ischemic stroke because of concern about the risk of major bleeding from the access site, despite it being a standard of care for ischemic stroke in other circumstances. The present case highlights the benefit of using intravenous thrombolytic therapy for an acute basilar artery thrombotic stroke after transfemoral TAVI (TF-TAVI) that would otherwise have almost certainly resulted in the patient's death. The case may also prompt interventional cardiologists to consider performing TF-TAVI under conscious sedation rather than general anesthesia, as this can result in an earlier detection of acute stroke and allow an earlier intervention with thrombolytic agents, with an improved outcome.

  4. Association between an aplastic basilar artery, unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis, and multiple aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery.

    PubMed

    Behari, Sanjay; Krishna, Himanshu; Kumar, Marakani V Kiran; Sawlani, Vijay; Phadke, Rajendra V; Jain, Vijendra K

    2004-05-01

    Basilar artery (BA) aplasia when unaccompanied by a primitive carotid-vertebrobasilar anastomosis is exceedingly rare. The association of BA aplasia with two aneurysms on the dominant posterior communicating artery (PCoA) has not been previously reported. This 40-year-old man presented in a state of drowsiness and responded to simple commands only after being coaxed. He had complete left cranial third nerve palsy, right hemiparesis, and persisting signs of meningeal irritation. A computerized tomography (CT) scan revealed subarachnoid and intraventricular hemorrhage. An angiogram revealed BA aplasia. The right PCoA followed a sinuous course with multiple loops and provided the dominant supply to the posterior circulation. This vessel harbored two aneurysms, one at the origin of the PCoA from the internal carotid artery and the other at the looping segment just proximal to the brainstem. The left PCoA was extremely thin. The pterional transsylvian approach was used to clip the two aneurysms on the PCoA. The hemodynamic changes produced by the BA aplasia may have produced alterations in the cerebral vasculature leading to aneurysm formation and consequent subarachnoid hemorrhage.

  5. Effect of ST36 Acupuncture on Hyperventilation-Induced CO2 Reactivity of the Basilar and Middle Cerebral Arteries and Heart Rate Variability in Normal Subjects

    PubMed Central

    Jung, Woo-Sang; Cho, Ki-Ho; Kim, Young-Suk; Ko, Chang-Nam; Park, Jung-Mi; Moon, Sang-Kwan

    2014-01-01

    This study was conducted to verify the effect of acupuncture on cerebral haemodynamics to provide evidence for the use of acupuncture treatment as a complementary therapy for the high-risk stroke population. The effect of ST36 acupuncture treatment on the hyperventilation-induced CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries was studied in 10 healthy male volunteers (mean age, 25.2 ± 1.5 years) using a transcranial Doppler sonography with an interval of 1 week between measurements, and a portable ECG monitoring system was used to obtain ECG data simultaneously. The CO2 reactivity of the basilar and middle cerebral arteries increased significantly after ST36 acupuncture treatment, whereas the mean arterial blood pressure and pulse rate did not change significantly. The high-frequency power significantly increased after ST36 acupuncture treatment, and the percentage increase of high-frequency power correlated significantly with the percentage increase in the CO2 reactivity of the contralateral middle cerebral artery. These data suggest that ST36 acupuncture treatment increases CO2 reactivity, indicating improvement of vasodilatory potential of the cerebral vasculature to compensate for fluctuations caused by changes in external conditions. The increase in parasympathetic tone by ST36 acupuncture treatment is responsible for this therapeutic effect. PMID:25132861

  6. Nascent Aneurysm Formation at the Basilar Terminus Induced by Hemodynamics

    PubMed Central

    Gao, Ling; Hoi, Yiemeng; Swartz, Daniel D.; Kolega, John; Siddiqui, Adnan; Meng, Hui

    2008-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hemodynamic insults at arterial bifurcations are hypothesized to play a key role in intracranial aneurysm formation. This study investigates aneurysm-initiating vascular responses at the rabbit basilar terminus subsequent to common carotid artery ligation. Methods Nine adult female New Zealand white rabbits were subjected to sham, unilateral, or bilateral common carotid artery ligation to produce varying degrees of compensatory basilar artery flow increase. Basilar artery flow velocity and geometry were monitored by transcranial Doppler and rotational angiography, respectively, for 12 weeks after surgery. Bifurcation tissues were harvested at 12 weeks and examined histologically. From the histological sections, we quantified the destructive structural changes at the basilar terminus and correlated them with the basilar artery flow rate increase. Results Subsequent to common carotid artery ligation, basilar artery flow rate increased by 105% to 900% at the maximum. All common carotid artery-ligated rabbits presented nascent aneurysm formation characterized by a bulge with thinned media and absent internal elastic lamina near the basilar terminus. We defined a nascent aneurysm index based on a multiplicative combination of the local destructive remodeling lengths measured at the nascent aneurysm. The nascent aneurysm index strongly correlated with the increase in basilar artery flow rate with R2=0.91. Conclusion Without other known predisposition, flow increase alone at the basilar bifurcation can lead to a nascent aneurysm. This nascent aneurysm formation is dose-dependent on basilar artery flow increase. PMID:18451348

  7. Basilar artery occlusion in a child treated successfully with mechanical thrombectomy using ADAPT.

    PubMed

    Lena, Jonathan; Eskandari, Ramin; Infinger, Libby; Fargen, Kyle M; Spiotta, Alejandro; Turk, Aquilla; Turner, Raymond D; Chaudry, Imran

    2016-04-11

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the pediatric population is rare. Furthermore, it is common for physicians to take significantly longer diagnosing a posterior circulation stroke in a child than in an adult. There are increasing case reports in the literature of treating AIS in children with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, intra-arterial thrombolysis, and/or mechanical thrombectomy. We present the first case of pediatric AIS treated using a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) as a means of mechanical thrombectomy. 2016 BMJ Publishing Group Ltd.

  8. Basilar artery occlusion in a child treated successfully with mechanical thrombectomy using ADAPT.

    PubMed

    Lena, Jonathan; Eskandari, Ramin; Infinger, Libby; Fargen, Kyle M; Spiotta, Alejandro; Turk, Aquilla; Turner, Raymond D; Chaudry, Imran

    2017-01-01

    Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) in the pediatric population is rare. Furthermore, it is common for physicians to take significantly longer diagnosing a posterior circulation stroke in a child than in an adult. There are increasing case reports in the literature of treating AIS in children with intravenous tissue plasminogen activator, intra-arterial thrombolysis, and/or mechanical thrombectomy. We present the first case of pediatric AIS treated using a direct aspiration first pass technique (ADAPT) as a means of mechanical thrombectomy. Published by the BMJ Publishing Group Limited. For permission to use (where not already granted under a licence) please go to http://www.bmj.com/company/products-services/rights-and-licensing/.

  9. Surgical treatment for combined hemifacial spasm and atypical trigeminal neuralgia caused by a tortuous basilar artery. Case report and review of the literature.

    PubMed

    Gressot, L V; Hassaneen, W; Fox, B D; Mitchell, B D; Tatsui, C E; Ehni, B L; Omeis, I

    2012-06-01

    Simultaneous hemifacial spasm (HFS) and trigeminal neuralgia caused by cranial nerve (CN) compression from a tortuous basilar artery (BA) is very rare. We report a case of a 66-year-old man who presented with both HFS and "atypical" trigeminal neuralgia. The patient had a tortuous BA compressing both CN V and VII. The patient underwent microvascular decompression after failing conservative medical management. To the best of our knowledge this is the first reported case of both HFS and "atypical" trigeminal neuralgia that were both successfully treated by surgical intervention. We report the management of this rare combination and review the literature.

  10. [A mechanism of cheiro-oral syndrome due to brainstem lesions, a case of a dissecting aneurysm of the basilar artery].

    PubMed

    Nakayasu, H; Sue, S; Takahashi, K; Hori, T; Hokama, Y

    1991-05-01

    A 42-year-old woman developed an abrupt onset of severe headache, nausea, vomiting, unstable gait and numbness around the right side of her mouth and in her right hand. Neurological examination revealed bilateral pyramidal tract signs and hypesthesia of her right palmar tip and the right side of her mouth. However, pain and temperature sensibility was preserved. Cerebrospinal fluid was clear and colorless. CT scan showed an enhancing mass in the prepontine cistern compressing the pontine base. Vertebral angiography revealed irregular narrowing of bilateral vertebral arteries (string sign) proximal to a fusiform aneurysm on the entire length of the basilar artery. MRI showed double lumina in the wall of the aneurysm. The medial lemniscus conducts the discriminatory tactile and the deep sensory impulses from the extremities. The ventral ascending tract of the trigeminal nerve conducts the discriminatory tactile sensory impulses from the face. These two tracts lie close together in the pontine tegmentum, which is also a watershed area of the paramedian branches and circumferential branches of the basilar artery. We suggest that in this case the dissecting aneurysm caused ischemia of these two tracts in the left pontine tegmentum, presenting right cheiro-oral syndrome.

  11. Expression of NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) in the basilar artery after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rabbits: a preliminary study.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Xu-Dong; Zhou, Yi-Ting; Zhang, Xing; Wang, Xiao-Liang; Qi, Wu; Zhuang, Zong; Su, Xing-Fen; Shi, Ji-Xin

    2010-10-28

    It has been suggested that the pathogenesis of vasospasm is complex including endothelial damage, oxidative stress, inflammatory damage, and the accumulation of toxic metabolites. Recently, a growing body of evidence indicates that nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf2) plays a unique role in many physiological stress processes. In this study, a total of 48 rabbits were assigned randomly to four groups: control group, SAH day 3, day 5, and day 7 groups. The animals in SAH day 3, day 5, and day 7 groups were subjected to injection of autologous blood into cisterna magna twice on day 0 and day 2 and were killed on days 3, 5, and 7, respectively. Cross-sectional area of basilar artery was measured and the Nrf2 expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry and Western blot analysis. The mRNA levels of Nrf2 were also determined by RT-PCR. The basilar arteries exhibited vasospasm after SAH and became more severe on days 3 and 5. The elevated expression of Nrf2 was detected after SAH and peaked on days 3 and 5. Nrf2 is increasingly expressed in a parallel time course to the development of cerebral vasospasm in a rabbit experimental model of SAH.

  12. The resistance of some rat cerebral arteries to the vasorelaxant effect of cromakalim and other K+ channel openers.

    PubMed Central

    McPherson, G. A.; Stork, A. P.

    1992-01-01

    1. Cromakalim (0.01-30 microM) and sodium nitroprusside (SNP, 0.01-100 microM) were tested for their ability to relax a number of pre-contracted small arteries (approximate diameter 200-700 microM at 100 mmHg) from the rat, rabbit and guinea-pig. 2. In the rat, SNP (0.01-100 microM) caused near maximal relaxation in all vessels studied including the middle cerebral, anterior cerebellar, basilar, mesenteric and renal arteries. Cromakalim (0.01-30 microM) relaxed pre-contracted mesenteric and renal arteries but was only a weak relaxant of all the rat cerebral arteries with the exception of the basilar artery. Similar experiments using mesenteric and cerebral vessels from the rabbit and guinea-pig showed cromakalim could relax pre-contracted vessels in a concentration-dependent manner. 3. Two other K+ channel openers, nicorandil and pinacidil, were also tested for their ability to relax rat cerebral arteries. Nicorandil (0.01-100 microM) was ineffective in the rat anterior cerebellar artery at concentrations up to 100 microM. Pinacidil (0.01-100 microM) caused significant vasorelaxation, although high concentrations were required (greater than 10 microM) and the response was insensitive to the effects of glibenclamide (3 microM). 4. Electrophysiological experiments with the rat anterior cerebellar artery showed that cromakalim (up to 30 microM) failed to influence the resting membrane potential of impaled single smooth muscle cells. 5. The results showed that some rat small cerebral arteries were resistant to the effects of K+ channel openers including cromakalim, pinacidil and nicorandil. This is peculiar to this vascular tree since the same vessels from other species do not exhibit the same behaviour.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1534504

  13. Differing calcium sensitivities of human cerebral and digital arteries, human metatarsal veins, and rat aorta.

    PubMed Central

    Iwanov, V; Moulds, R F

    1991-01-01

    1. The effects of the voltage dependent calcium channel blocking agent nifedipine, and of a calcium free bathing medium, on the responses of human blood vessels obtained postmortem to various agonists have been compared with those of the rat aorta. The human vessels studied were digital arteries, basilar arteries and metatarsal veins. 2. Responses to potassium chloride (5-80 mM), noradrenaline (10(-9)-10(-4) M), 5-hydroxytryptamine (10(-8)-10(-4) M) and U46619 (10(-11)-10(-6) M), in the presence and absence of nifedipine (1, 10, and 100 nM) or in a calcium-free bathing medium, were assessed using an area-under-curve analysis. 3. In general, the order of sensitivity of the vessels to inhibition of agonist induced contractures by nifedipine was basilar arteries greater than metatarsal veins = digital arteries = rat aorta. 4. For all the vessels, the order of sensitivity for antagonism of responses to the agonists by nifedipine was potassium chloride greater than 5-hydroxytryptamine = noradrenaline greater than U46619. 5. A calcium free bath inhibited responses of digital arteries to potassium chloride more than noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine or U46619, and responses of rat aorta to a greater extent than responses of the digital arteries. 6. In the rat aorta, a calcium-free bath inhibited responses to all agonists (except KCl) to a greater degree than did nifedipine. 7. We conclude that inhibition of extracellular calcium entry through voltage dependent calcium channels affects contractile responses of different blood vessels to different extents, and, within the same blood vessel, responses to different contractile agonists to different extents. PMID:2015170

  14. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using the Solitaire FR system for Occlusion of the Top of the Basilar Artery: Intentional Detachment of the Device after Partial Retrieval

    PubMed Central

    Siu, Kwong Lok; Lee, Dong-Geun; Shim, Jae Ho; Suh, Dae Chul

    2014-01-01

    Acute, distal, basilar artery occlusion is a challenging neurovascular emergency. There have been several reports regarding the successful application of the Solitaire FR device for treating this lesion. However, due to the lack of a suitable, balloon-tipped, guiding catheter for the vertebral artery, during this procedure we frequently experience the occurrence of clot fragmentation and distal migration. There may be some technical solutions to solve this problem. The purpose of this report is to present a technical variation of using the Solitaire FR, and which is referred to as the 'intentional device detachment technique.' As a clot tends to re-embolize during its passage through the tortuous cranio-cervical junction level of the vertebral artery or its passage through the tip of the guiding catheter, due to the lack of proximal flow arrest, we thought that not removing the stent segment of the device which is capturing the clot could avoid this problem. We were able to successfully apply this technique in two cases. We believe that this technique can be a possible technical option for using the Solitaire FR device when a patient has little concern regarding the subsequent use of antiplatelets. PMID:24642915

  15. Mechanical Thrombectomy Using the Solitaire FR system for Occlusion of the Top of the Basilar Artery: Intentional Detachment of the Device after Partial Retrieval.

    PubMed

    Siu, Kwong Lok; Lee, Dong-Geun; Shim, Jae Ho; Suh, Dae Chul; Lee, Deok Hee

    2014-02-01

    Acute, distal, basilar artery occlusion is a challenging neurovascular emergency. There have been several reports regarding the successful application of the Solitaire FR device for treating this lesion. However, due to the lack of a suitable, balloon-tipped, guiding catheter for the vertebral artery, during this procedure we frequently experience the occurrence of clot fragmentation and distal migration. There may be some technical solutions to solve this problem. The purpose of this report is to present a technical variation of using the Solitaire FR, and which is referred to as the 'intentional device detachment technique.' As a clot tends to re-embolize during its passage through the tortuous cranio-cervical junction level of the vertebral artery or its passage through the tip of the guiding catheter, due to the lack of proximal flow arrest, we thought that not removing the stent segment of the device which is capturing the clot could avoid this problem. We were able to successfully apply this technique in two cases. We believe that this technique can be a possible technical option for using the Solitaire FR device when a patient has little concern regarding the subsequent use of antiplatelets.

  16. Burst generation in rat pyramidal neurones by regenerative potentials elicited in a restricted part of the basilar dendritic tree

    PubMed Central

    Milojkovic, Bogdan A; Radojicic, Mihailo S; Goldman-Rakic, Patricia S; Antic, Srdjan D

    2004-01-01

    The common preconception about central nervous system neurones is that thousands of small postsynaptic potentials sum across the entire dendritic tree to generate substantial firing rates, previously observed in in vivo experiments. We present evidence that local inputs confined to a single basal dendrite can profoundly influence the neuronal output of layer V pyramidal neurones in the rat prefrontal cortical slices. In our experiments, brief glutamatergic stimulation delivered in a restricted part of the basilar dendritic tree invariably produced sustained plateau depolarizations of the cell body, accompanied by bursts of action potentials. Because of their small diameters, basolateral dendrites are not routinely accessible for glass electrode measurements, and very little is known about their electrical properties and their role in information processing. Voltage-sensitive dye recordings were used to follow membrane potential transients in distal segments of basal branches during sub- and suprathreshold glutamate and synaptic stimulations. Recordings were obtained simultaneously from multiple dendrites and multiple points along individual dendrites, thus showing in a direct way how regenerative potentials initiate at the postsynaptic site and propagate decrementally toward the cell body. The glutamate-evoked dendritic plateau depolarizations described here are likely to occur in conjunction with strong excitatory drive during so-called ‘UP states’, previously observed in in vivo recordings from mammalian cortices. PMID:15155788

  17. Basilar Occlusion Syndromes

    PubMed Central

    Broderick, Joseph P.

    2015-01-01

    Basilar artery occlusions (BAOs) are a subset of posterior circulation strokes. Particular issues relevant to BAOs include variable and stuttering symptoms at onset resulting in delays in diagnosis, high morbidity and mortality, and uncertain best management. Despite better imaging techniques, diagnosis, and therefore treatment, is often delayed. We will present the most common signs and symptoms of posterior circulation strokes. Data on optimal treatment strategies are gathered from multiple case series, registries, and one randomized trial, which was stopped early. Possible etiologies of BAOs, acute, and subacute treatment strategies and special topics in neuroimaging of the posterior fossa are discussed. This review may be helpful to neurohospitalists who are managing patients with acute stroke as well as emergency room physicians and neurologists. PMID:26288672

  18. A case of basilar artery aneurysm rupture from 1836: lessons in clinical observation and the natural history of the disease.

    PubMed

    Demetriades, Andreas K; Horiguchi, Takashi; Goodrich, James T; Kawase, Takeshi

    2014-11-01

    Although credit is given to Sir William Gull for highlighting the clinical picture of subarachnoid hemorrhage in 1859, we discuss a case presented by Mr. Egerton A. Jennings, Fellow of the Linnaean Society, published 23 years earlier in the 1836 edition of the Transactions of the Provincial Medical and Surgical Association. This case, probably the first reported in the English language of a basilar aneurysm rupture, is of medico-historical interest. Jennings provided a remarkably accurate and detailed description of the patient, who experienced coma as a result of the severity of subarachnoid hemorrhage. The detailed clinical observations on initial assessment and the description of the patient's deterioration to the time of death are a succinct representation of the natural history of this disease. The author's discussion provides evidence of a philosophy committed to medical education and progress at the time based on principles of rational observation, meticulous clinical acumen, insight into experimental physiology, and the awareness of ethical boundaries. In provincial 1836 England, similar to most of Europe, cerebral localization was elementary. Nonetheless, this case report highlights the attempt at linking structure to function by means of observation on the effects of lesioning. It provides evidence of an established thought process already in progress in England in the 19th century. It is characteristic that this thought process came from a surgical practitioner. The cultivation of practical observation in British surgical culture would allow the late 19th century surgeon scientists to match the contributions of British neurologists with landmark steps in the development and establishment of neurosurgery.

  19. The influence of noise on blood flow in the basilar artery (BA) - measurements with transcranial color-coded duplex sonography (TCCD).

    PubMed

    Zenk, J; Scheffler, D; Scheffler, P; Delb, W; Iro, H

    2000-02-01

    Acoustic stimuli are being reported as a cause of changes in resistance in the basilar artery (BA). It was the aim of this study to investigate this effect under standardized conditions dependent upon the intensity of the evoking stimulus. Twenty healthy subjects with normal hearing (male/female 14/6; mean age 26.4 years) were exposed to 'pink noise' for periods of 2 min at 75, 85 and 95 dB(A). Parallel to this, the Doppler spectrum of the BA and both the Pourcelot resistance index and the Gosling pulsatility index were measured by means of transcranial color-coded Doppler sonography. In comparison with the base value (at rest) a significant increase in resistance was noted during noise exposure. The noise-induced resistance changes could be interpreted as a consequence of changes in activity of the various centers of the auditory pathway and cerebral function. Further animal experiments may prove the connection between BA blood flow and resistance and their changes depending on different acoustic stimuli or different hearing pathophysiology.

  20. Endovascular repositioning of a pipeline embolization device dislocated from the vertebral into the basilar artery using a stent-in-stent technique. Practical and technical considerations.

    PubMed

    Kerl, H U; Al-Zghloul, M; Groden, C; Brockmann, M A

    2012-03-01

    Stent dislocation is a rarely encountered problem in interventional neuroradiology. This article describes the repositioning of a pipeline embolization device (PED) dislocated from the vertebral artery (VA) into the basilar artery (BA) using a stent-in-stent technique. Based on this case additional in vitro measurements were performed. In a patient, a larger PED (4.0 × 20 mm) was partially opened in a PED (3.0 × 20 mm) floating freely within the distal BA. The microcatheter with the partially opened stent was pulled back hereby pulling back the stent-in-stent construct into the VA. In vitro the maximum tensile force that could be applied to a 3.5 mm and a 4.5 mm PED before dislodgement out of a 3.0 mm PED was determined. Videomorphometric analyses of the stent-in-stent construct were performed while applying traction to the construct. Repositioning of a dislocated PED is feasible using a stent-in-stent technique. Higher dislodgement forces can be applied using a larger PED (4.5 mm, 0.36 N) whereas dislodgement occurred faster using a smaller PED (3.5 mm, 0.26 N). Before dislodgement occurs, elongation and tapering of both stents can be seen. Finally, it was found that incidental extraction of the 4.5 mm PED out of the delivering microcatheter during traction is possible. Repositioning of a lost PED is feasible using a stent-in-stent technique. Principally, dislodgement force is higher using a larger PED, while in this case care has to be taken to avoid incidental extraction of the second PED out of the microcatheter.

  1. Effect of Baseline Characteristics on the Outcome of Stent Retriever-Based Thrombectomy in Acute Basilar Artery Occlusions: A Single-Center Experience and Pooled Data Analysis.

    PubMed

    Wen, Wan-Ling; Li, Zi-Fu; Zhang, Yong-Wei; Yang, Peng-Fei; Simfukwe, Keith; Fang, Yi-Bin; Zhang, Tian-Yi; Deng, Ben-Qiang; Hong, Bo; Liu, Jian-Min; Huang, Qing-Hai

    2017-08-01

    To explore the association of baseline characteristics and the outcome of patients with acute basilar artery occlusion (BAO) after stent retriever-based thrombectomy (SRT). Clinical and imaging information of consecutive SRT-treated patients with BAO from a comprehensive stroke center and up-to-date literature were reviewed respectively. The impact of baseline variables toward favorable outcome was evaluated using subgroup analysis and odds ratio (OR) extracted from published data together with single-center records using pooled analysis. Nineteen cases from our center and 15 published studies involving 487 cases were included. Estimated pooled favorable outcome rate was 0.3746 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.3165-0.4327), mortality was 0.2950 (95% CI, 0.2390-0.3510). Pooled estimates showed that successful reperfusion (modified thrombolysis in cerebral ischemia scale 2b or 3) gained by SRT alone was 0.7317 (95% CI, 0.6532-0.8102) and final successful reperfusion rate with or without additional reperfusion procedures was 0.8834 (95% CI, 0.8279-0.9390). Univariate analysis indicated that patients with successful reperfusion (OR, 2.05; P = 0.05), distal segment occlusion (OR, 2.03; P = 0.03), and cardioembolus origin (OR, 2.13; P = 0.01) were more likely to have favorable outcome (modified Rankin Scale score ≤2 at 3 months). Study series that applied intra-arterial thrombolysis, angioplasty, or stenting as rescuing therapy had higher successful reperfusion rate but they did not show a higher rate of favorable outcome. SRT with or without additional treatment appeared to be effective for the treatment of BAO. Successful reperfusion, distal segment occlusion, and cardiac embolism were associated with favorable outcome. The overall benefit of lesions requiring additional reperfusion therapy was unclear. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. Functional Independence following Endovascular Treatment for Basilar Artery Occlusion despite Extensive Bilateral Pontine Infarcts on Diffusion-Weighted Imaging: Refuting a Self-Fulfilling Prophecy

    PubMed Central

    Haussen, Diogo C.; Oliveira, Renato A.C.; Patel, Vikas; Nogueira, Raul G.

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose Extensive brainstem diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI) hyperintensity has been associated with poor outcomes. We aim at documenting a series of patients with extensive DWI pontine lesions who achieved independence following endovascular therapy and aggressive medical therapy in the setting of posterior circulation basilar artery occlusion (BAO). Methods This is a retrospective endovascular database review of a single-operator experience over a 9-year period for patients with (1) complete BAO, (2) extensive bilateral pontine DWI changes and (3) 90-day modified Rankin scale 0–2. Results Three out of a total of 40 patients met the inclusion criteria. Case 1 was an 18-year-old male with National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) 32 on admission, treated 25 h after symptom onset. Case 2 was a 56-year-old male with NIHSS 19, treated 10 h after onset. Case 3 was a 73-year-old male with NIHSS 29, treated 6 h after onset. Full endovascular reperfusion was achieved in all 3 patients. A literature review identified 9 additional cases of extensive pontine DWI changes and good outcome. These patients were young (32 ± 22 years), mostly males (69%), presented with a relatively low posterior circulation Acute Stroke Prognosis Early CT Score (6 ± 1), were treated relatively late from last known normal (13 ± 10 h) and were mostly (84%) treated with endovascular intervention. Conclusion Extensive bilateral pontine DWI lesions among patients with BAO are not an unequivocal indicator of poor prognosis. We advise strong caution when considering these findings in the treatment decision algorithm. PMID:27781047

  3. Basilar impression in children.

    PubMed

    Teodori, J B; Painter, M J

    1984-12-01

    Ataxia is a common neurologic sign in childhood. Basilar impression due to bony abnormalities of the craniovertebral junction is an uncommon but readily treatable cause of ataxia in children. Two children who had neck stiffness, ataxia, nystagmus, and corticospinal tract signs are described. Basilar impression was recognized only after specific radiologic studies were performed. Both children were treated surgically with good results.

  4. Quantitative and qualitative analysis of the working area obtained by endoscope and microscope in pterional and orbitozigomatic approach to the basilar artery bifurcation using computed tomography based frameless stereotaxy: A cadaver study

    PubMed Central

    Filipce, Venko; Ammirati, Mario

    2015-01-01

    Objective: Basilar aneurisms are one of the most complex and challenging pathologies for neurosurgeons to treat. Endoscopy is a recently rediscovered neurosurgical technique that could lend itself well to overcome some of the vascular visualization challenges associated with this pathology. The purpose of this study was to quantify and compare the basilar artery (BA) bifurcation (tip of the basilar) working area afforded by the microscope and the endoscope using different approaches and image guidance. Materials and Methods: We performed a total of 9 dissections, including pterional (PT) and orbitozygomatic (OZ) approaches bilaterally in five whole, fresh cadaver heads. We used computed tomography based image guidance for intraoperative navigation as well as for quantitative measurements. We estimated the working area of the tip of the basilar, using both a rigid endoscope and an operating microscope. Operability was qualitatively assessed by the senior authors. Results: In microscopic exposure, the OZ approach provided greater working area (160 ± 34.3 mm2) compared to the PT approach (129.8 ± 37.6 mm2) (P > 0.05). The working area in both PT and OZ approaches using 0° and 30° endoscopes was larger than the one available using the microscope alone (P < 0.05). In the PT approach, both 0° and 30° endoscopes provided a working area greater than a microscopic OZ approach (P < 0.05) and an area comparable to the OZ endoscopic approach (P > 0.05). Conclusion: Integration of endoscope and microscope in both PT and OZ approaches can provide significantly greater surgical exposure of the BA bifurcation compared to that afforded by the conventional approaches alone. PMID:25972933

  5. A rare complication of a unilateral vertebral artery occlusion, which resulted in a basilar emboli after a C5-C6 bifacet dislocation in a professional rugby player: case study.

    PubMed

    Davies, Simon R

    2011-03-01

    Vertebral artery damage after cervical fracture and especially cervical dislocations is a recognized phenomenon. The incidence of significant intracranial neurology after unilateral vertebral damage is extremely rare, and to our knowledge, no such injury has been sustained while playing sport. To describe a rare vascular complication of a bifacet C5-C6 dislocation. Case report and clinical discussion. We present a 28-year old white man who was a professional rugby player. He sustained a hyperflexion injury while playing scrum half in a recent league match, which resulted in a C5-C6 dislocation, diagnosed clinically and with a plain radiograph. The patient on admission had complete neurologic loss below C6. The patient underwent immediate computed tomography and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) scans that revealed a 50% displacement of C5 on C6 with a complete unifacet dislocation and the other facet partially dislocated. The MRI revealed signal changes in the cord at the C5-C6 level and an intimal tear in the left vertebral artery. The decision was taken to reduce the dislocation when medically stable. A few hours after injury, after an episode of vomiting, the patient sustained a respiratory arrest owing to the embolization of a clot from the left vertebral artery into the basilar artery. Despite rapid embolectomy and subsequent permanent left vertebral artery occlusion, the patient sustained multiple infarcts in the cerebellar, thalamic, occipital, and pontine regions of the brain that eventually proved fatal. This case shows a rare complication of unilateral vertebral artery occlusion. Despite early identification of a basilar infarct and a successful embolectomy, intracranial infarction occurred. Although there is no guideline for the treatment of vertebral artery damage, early reduction and anticoagulation may reduce the risk of cerebral infarction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Vasorelaxing effects of estetrol in rat arteries.

    PubMed

    Hilgers, Rob H P; Oparil, Suzanne; Wouters, Wout; Coelingh Bennink, Herjan J T

    2012-10-01

    This study compared ex vivo relaxing responses to the naturally occurring human hormone estetrol (E(4)) vs 17β-estradiol (E(2)) in eight different vascular beds. Arteries were mounted in a myograph, contracted with either phenylephrine or serotonin, and cumulative concentration-response curves (CRCs) to E(4) and E(2) (0·1-100  μmol/l) were constructed. In all arteries tested, E(4) had lower potency than E(2), although the differential effect was less in larger than smaller arteries. In uterine arteries, the nonselective estrogen receptor (ER) blocker ICI 182 780 (1  μmol/l) caused a significant rightward shift in the CRC to both E(4) and E(2), indicating that the relaxation responses were ER dependent. Pharmacological blockade of nitric oxide (NO) synthases by N(ω)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) blunted E(2)-mediated but not E(4)-mediated relaxing responses, while inhibition of prostaglandins and endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization did not alter relaxation to either E(4) or E(2) in uterine arteries. Combined blockade of NO release and action with L-NAME and the soluble guanylate cyclase (sGC) inhibitor ODQ resulted in greater inhibition of the relaxation response to E(4) compared with E(2) in uterine arteries. Endothelium denudation inhibited responses to both E(4) and E(2), while E(4) and E(2) concentration-dependently blocked smooth muscle cell Ca(2)(+) entry in K(+)-depolarized and Ca(2)(+)-depleted uterine arteries. In conclusion, E(4) relaxes precontracted rat arteries in an artery-specific fashion. In uterine arteries, E(4)-induced relaxations are partially mediated via an endothelium-dependent mechanism involving ERs, sGC, and inhibition of smooth muscle cell Ca(2)(+) entry, but not NO synthases or endothelium-dependent hyperpolarization.

  7. Vertebral-Basilar Insufficiency

    PubMed Central

    Cape, Ronald D. T.; Hogan, David B.

    1983-01-01

    Vertebral-basilar ischemia can result in giddiness, transient ischemic attacks, and drop attacks. Management involves controlling blood pressure, getting the patient to stop smoking, controlling diabetes and/or hyperlipidemia, and instituting antiplatelet therapy. Several facets of this problem remain unexplained. PMID:21283322

  8. Arterial vasa vasorum: a quantitative study in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    McGeachie, J; Campbell, P; Simpson, S; Prendergast, F

    1982-01-01

    This study was designed to quantitate the vasa vasorum of common iliac arteries in 20 rats. The number of vasa vasorum per mm2 of arterial wall was extremely variable - from 0 to 124, the mean being 33 . 95 +/- 29 . 86 (S.D.). There was no significant difference in the vasa vasorum vascularity between the right and left common iliac arteries. The mean wall thickness of these arteries was 0 . 085 +/- 0 . 015 (S.D.) mm and 60 +/- 8% (S.D.) of this was made up by the tunica media. Arterial tissue in this study was shown to have approximately 10% of the vascularity of muscle tissue. By relating these data to the 'critical depth' hypothesis, on the nutritional supply of large arteries, it was concluded that the vasa vasorum in the common iliac arteries in rat (major arteries in small animals) probably play an insignificant role in the nutrition of the arterial wall. Images Fig. 1 PMID:7076548

  9. Geometrical characteristics after Y-stenting of the basilar bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Sağlam, Muzaffer; Kızılkılıç, Osman; Anagnostakou, Vania; Yıldız, Bülent; Koçer, Naci; Işlak, Civan

    2015-01-01

    PURPOSE We aimed to investigate the angular changes after Y-stenting of the basilar bifurcation aneurysms. METHODS A total of 19 patients (age range, 27–80 years; mean age, 52.5 years) underwent Y-stent coiling for basilar bifurcation aneurysm. Three vascular angles (α, β1, β2) were measured in the anteroposterior plane. β1 and β2 represented the angles between the basilar artery and the proximal P1 segments of the right and left posterior cerebral arteries, respectively. α represented the complementary angle between the β1 and β2 angles. Angles were measured before and after stent deployment. Diameters of the basilar artery and P2 segment of the posterior cerebral artery were measured at both sides. Correlation between vascular diameter and angular change of the basilar bifurcation was investigated. RESULTS Statistically significant α, β1, and β2 angle changes were found after stent deployment (P < 0.001). There was no statistically significant relationship between the diameter of the basilar artery and the α, β1, β2 angle changes (P > 0.05). There was no statistically significant relationship between the diameter of the posterior cerebral artery and the β angle change (P > 0.05). We found a statistically significant inverse correlation between pre-stent β angle and post-stent angle change (right side, P = 0.008; left side, P < 0.001). CONCLUSION Y-stenting narrows the effective neck and straightens the vascular bifurcation angle. Most of the angular remodeling occurs on the side that had a more acute angle before stent deployment. PMID:26359879

  10. Catheterization of the Hepatic Artery Via the Left Common Carotid Artery in Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Li Xiao; Wang Yixiang, J.; Zhou Xiangping Guan Yongsong; Tang Chengwei

    2006-12-15

    The commonly used approach for rat hepatic artery catheterization is via the gastroduodenal artery, which is ligated after the procedure. A new method of rat hepatic artery catheterization via the left common carotid artery (LCCA) is described. The LCCA is repaired after catheterization. The catheterization procedures included the following: (1) opening the rat's abdominal cavity and exposing the portion of abdominal aorta at the level of the celiac trunk; (2) separating and exposing the LCCA; inserting a microguidewire and microcatheter set into the LCCA via an incision; after placement into the descending aorta, the microguidewire and microcatheter are maneuvered into the hepatic artery under direct vision; (3) after transcatheter therapy, the catheter is withdrawn and the incision at the LCCA is repaired. This technique was employed on 60 male Sprague-Dawley rats with diethylnitrosamine-induced liver cancer, using a 3F microguidewire and microcatheter set. Selective hepatic artery catheterization was successfully performed in 57 rats. One rat died during the operation and five rats died within 7 days after the procedure. It is envisaged that as experience increases, the catheterization success rate will increase and the death rate will decrease. A new approach for selective hepatic artery catheterization via the LCCA in rats is introduced, which makes repeat catheterization of this artery possible and allows large embolization particles to be delivered by using a 3F catheter.

  11. Neurofibromatosis, stroke and basilar impression. Case report.

    PubMed

    Piovesan, E J; Scola, R H; Werneck, L C; Zétola, V H; Nóvak, E M; Iwamoto, F M; Piovesan, L M

    1999-06-01

    Neurofibromatosis type 1 (NF1) can virtually affect any organ, presenting most frequently with "cafe au lait" spots and neurofibromas. Vasculopathy is a known complication of NF1, but cerebrovascular disease is rare. We report the case of a 51-year-old man admitted to the hospital with a history of stroke four months before admission. On physical examination, he presented various "cafe au lait" spots and cutaneous neurofibromas. Neurologic examination demonstrated right-sided facial paralysis, right-sided hemiplegia, and aphasia. Computed tomography scan of head showed hypodense areas in the basal ganglia and centrum semiovale. Radiographs of cranium and cervical spine showed basilar impression. Angiography revealed complete occlusion of both vertebral and left internal carotid arteries, and partial stenosis of the right internal carotid artery. A large network of collateral vessels was present (moyamoya syndrome). It is an uncommon case of occlusive cerebrovascular disease associated with NF1, since most cases described in the literature are in young people, and tend to spare the posterior cerebral circulation. Basilar impression associated with this case may be considered a pure coincidence, but rare cases of basilar impression and NF1 have been described.

  12. [Evaluation of cerebro-vascular diseases with persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis].

    PubMed

    Harada, K; Uozumi, T; Kurisu, K; Sumida, M; Nakahara, A; Migita, K

    1994-12-01

    Five cases of cerebro-vascular diseases with carotid-basilar anastomosis were evaluated. Case 1: a 73-year-old female was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm of the right internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery bifurcation and demonstrated that a left proatlantal intersegmental artery. Case 2: a 38-year-old female showed intraventricle hemorrhage due to arteriovenous malformation and showed left primitive hypoglossal artery. Case 3: 73-year-old female was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured basilar top aneurysm and demonstrated that a right primitive hypoglossal artery. Case 4: a 29-year-old male with unruptured aneurysm of the left internal carotid artery-posterior communicating artery bifurcation, and right trigeminal artery was detected incidentally by magnetic resonance angiography (MRA). Furthermore, right proatlantal intersegmental artery was detected by conventional angiography. Case 5: a 76-year-old male was diagnosed as having subarachnoid hemorrhage due to a ruptured aneurysm of the anterior communicating artery. MRA showed the aneurysm and a primitive trigeminal artery. No clinical symptom related with carotid-basilar anastomosis was detected. Magnetic resonance angiography (MRA) was useful for diagnosis of asymptomatic carotid-basilar anastomosis. Especially, axial view of MRA by time of flight method detected two cases of a primitive trigeminal artery. And coronal view of MRA by phase contrast method is useful for diagnosis of primitive proatlantal intersegmental artery. More asymptomatic persistent carotid-basilar anastomosis may be detected by MRA.

  13. Platybasia and basilar invagination.

    PubMed

    Pearce, J M S

    2007-01-01

    Descriptions of the flattening (platybasia) of the skull base and the upward displacement(impression) of the basilar and condylar portions of the occipitalbone by the upper cervical spine date to the late 18th and early 19th centuries. Anatomical measurements to display these abnormalities were begun in 1865, but the full clinical significance was not appreciated until Homen's work in 1901. Subsequent refinement of radiology facilitated diagnosis and the later advent of surgical treatment.

  14. Long-term effectiveness of an ad hoc tailored titanium implant as a spacer for microvascular decompression in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia caused by megadolichoectatic basilar artery anomaly: 9-year follow-up.

    PubMed

    Banczerowski, Péter; Czigléczki, Gábor; Nyáry, István

    2014-12-01

    An enlarged, elongated, ectatic, and sclerotic aberration of the vertebrobasilar system is known as a megadolichoectatic basilar artery (BA) anomaly. The anomaly is often involved in the pathological process of trigeminal neuralgia by compressing and distorting the trigeminal nerve. First-line medical treatment includes drug therapy, but a second-line surgical procedure could be effective in medication-resistant cases. The authors report the case of a 65-year-old man with a 12-year history of progressing trigeminal neuralgia who underwent microvascular decompression after the first-line drug treatment had failed. This case is unique because an in situ tailored titanium microplate was used as a spacer to alleviate compression by the BA on the trigeminal nerve. The titanium implant provided durable and sufficient retraction for the sclerotic arterial complex when the trigeminal nerve was placed in the tunnel of the implant. The 9-year follow-up examination proves the safety and long-term efficacy of titanium implants in the treatment of trigeminal neuralgia caused by a megadolichoectatic BA anomaly. The method applied in this case was not intended to be and certainly is not an alternative to routine microvascular decompression-this surgical solution may be reserved for some extreme cases.

  15. Impaired myogenic tone in mesenteric arteries from overweight rats.

    PubMed

    Sweazea, Karen L; Walker, Benjimen R

    2012-03-16

    Rats fed high fat (HFD) or high sucrose (HSD) diets develop increased adiposity as well as impaired vasodilatory responsiveness stemming from oxidative stress. Moreover, HFD rats become hypertensive compared to either control (Chow) or HSD fed rats, suggesting elevated vascular tone. We hypothesized that rats with increased adiposity and oxidative stress demonstrate augmented pressure-induced vasoconstriction (i.e. myogenic tone) that could account for the hypertensive state. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed Chow, HFD or HSD for 6 weeks. The effects of oxidative stress and endogenous nitric oxide on myogenic responses were examined in small mesenteric arteries by exposing the arteries to incremental intraluminal pressure steps in the presence of antioxidants or an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase, LNNA (100 μM). Contrary to the hypothesis, rats fed either HSD or HFD had significantly impaired myogenic responses despite similar vascular morphology and passive diameter responses to increasing pressures. Vascular smooth muscle (VSM) calcium levels were normal in HFD arteries suggesting that diminished calcium sensitivity was responsible for the impaired myogenic response. In contrast, VSM calcium levels were reduced in HSD arteries but were increased with pre-exposure of arteries to the antioxidants tiron (10 mM) and catalase (1200 U/mL), also resulting in enhanced myogenic tone. These findings show that oxidative stress impairs myogenic tone in arteries from HSD rats by decreasing VSM calcium. Similarly, VSM calcium responses were increased in arteries from HFD rats following treatment with tiron and catalase, but this did not result in improved myogenic tone. Nitric oxide is involved in the impaired myogenic response in HFD, but not HSD, rats since inhibition with LNNA resulted in maximal myogenic responses at lower intraluminal pressures and VSM calcium levels, further implicating reduced calcium sensitivity in the impaired response. The impaired myogenic

  16. Megadolichobasilar anomaly, basilar impression and occipito-vertebral anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Dehaene, I; Pattyn, G; Calliauw, L

    1975-01-01

    The authors describe a case of a megadolichobasilar anomaly associated with basilar impression, bilateral megadolichocarotid arteries and an occipito-vertebral anastomosis. The concurrence of these anomalies lends support to the hypothesis that congenital factors play a part in the origin of the megadolichobasilar anomaly.

  17. [Basilar ectasia and stroke: clinical aspects of 21 cases].

    PubMed

    de Oliveira, R de M; Cardeal, J O; Lima, J G

    1997-09-01

    Ectasia of the basilar artery (EB) occurs when its diameter is greater than normal along all or part of its course, and/or when it is abnormally tortuous. EB may cause cranial nerve dysfunction, ischemic stroke or subarachnoid hemorrhage, pseudotumor or hydrocephalus. We tried to describe cases of stroke associated with EB, analyze its frequency, clinical aspects, and the mechanisms involved in different forms of its presentation. We found 21 patients with stroke and EB. The association between EB and stroke was more prevalent in males over the age of fifty. Main symptoms were hemiparesia, cranial nerves dysfunction, and cerebellar ataxia. Cerebral infarcts associated with EB were due to different mechanisms: arterial thrombosis, artery-to-artery embolism, mass effect with angulation and obstruction of the vertebral and basilar branches.

  18. Intravenous alteplase at 0.6 mg/kg for acute stroke patients with basilar artery occlusion: the stroke acute management with urgent risk factor assessment and improvement (SAMURAI) Recombinant tissue plasminogen activator registry.

    PubMed

    Miyagi, Tetsuya; Koga, Masatoshi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki; Nakagawara, Jyoji; Hasegawa, Yasuhiro; Furui, Eisuke; Kimura, Kazumi; Kario, Kazuomi; Okuda, Satoshi; Yamagami, Hiroshi; Okada, Yasushi; Nezu, Tomohisa; Maeda, Koichiro; Endo, Kaoru; Minematsu, Kazuo; Toyoda, Kazunori

    2013-10-01

    The therapeutic efficacy of low-dose intravenous alteplase (0.6 mg/kg) for basilar artery occlusion (BAO) remains unknown. BAO patients enrolled from the Japanese multicenter registry involving 600 stroke patients treated with the low-dose intravenous alteplase were studied. Twenty-five patients had BAO (8 women ranging from 32-92 years of age; mean baseline National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale [NIHSS] score 16). The stroke subtype was cardioembolic in 15 patients and atherothrombotic in 4 patients. BAO was recanalized during hospitalization in 18 (78%) of 23 patients undergoing follow-up angiography. Within the initial 24 hours, 14 patients (56%) had a ≥ 8-point decrease in the NIHSS score, being more common than 267 patients with middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCO) from the same registry (odds ratio [OR] 2.50; 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.06-5.97) after adjustment by sex, age, and baseline NIHSS score. In addition, 4 patients (16%) had a ≥ 4-point increase in the score, being marginally more common than MCO patients (OR 3.13; 95% CI 0.81-10.25). Symptomatic intracranial hemorrhage within the initial 36 hours (8% v 5%), independence at 3 months (modified Rankin Scale score ≤ 2, 48% v 52%), and mortality at 3 months (4% v 6%) were similar when comparing BAO and MCO patients. When compared with previous studies of BAO, vital and functional outcomes at 3 months were relatively better in our study. The use of low-dose alteplase resulted in similar outcomes when comparing acute BAO and MCO patients. Copyright © 2013 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Endovascular Treatment of Aberrant Systemic Arterial Supply to Normal Basilar Segments of the Right Lower Lobe: Case Report and Review of the Literature

    SciTech Connect

    Chabbert, Valerie; Doussau-Thuron, Sandrine; Otal, Philippe; Bouchard, Louis; Didier, Alain; Joffre, Francis; Rousseau, Herve

    2002-06-15

    We report the case of a 17-year-old man with acute chest pain due to a partial thrombosis of a pseudo sequestration. Unlike a true sequestration, there was a normal bronchial distribution and the involved lung parenchyma was normal on CT scan. A therapeutic transarterial embolization of the aberrant systemic artery from the proximal abdominal aorta was performed successfully. The patient did not suffer from further chest pain during the follow-up of 12 months. A contrast-enhanced CT scan 4 months later demonstrated complete occlusion of the embolized aberrant artery. Our case represents an alternative treatment to surgery for this rare abnormality.

  20. Cigarette Smoke Upregulates Rat Coronary Artery Endothelin Receptors In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Lei; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Yong-Xiao; Edvinsson, Lars; Xu, Cang-Bao

    2012-01-01

    Background Cigarette smoking is a strong cardiovascular risk factor and endothelin (ET) receptors are related to coronary artery diseases. The present study established an in vivo secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure model and investigated the hypothesis that cigarette smoke induces ET receptor upregulation in rat coronary arteries and its possible underlying mechanisms. Methodology/Principal Findings Rats were exposed to SHS for 200 min daily for 8 weeks. The coronary arteries were isolated and examined. The vasoconstriction was studied by a sensitive myograph. The expression of mRNA and protein for receptors was examined by real-time PCR, Western blot and immunofluorescence. Compared to fresh air exposure, SHS increased contractile responses mediated by endothelin type A (ETA) and type B (ETB) receptors in coronary arteries. In parallel, the expression of mRNA and protein for ETA and ETB receptors of smoke exposed rats were higher than that of animals exposed to fresh air, suggesting that SHS upregulates ETA and ETB receptors in coronary arteries in vivo. Immunofluorescence staining showed that the enhanced receptor expression was localized to the smooth muscle cells of coronary arteries. The protein levels of phosphorylated (p)-Raf-1 and p-ERK1/2 in smoke exposed rats were significantly higher than in control rats, demonstrating that SHS induces the activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway. Treatment with Raf-1 inhibitor GW5074 suppressed SHS-induced enhanced contraction mediated by ETA receptors, and inhibited the elevated mRNA and protein levels of ETA and ETB receptors caused by SHS. The results of correlation and regression analysis showed that phosphorylation of Raf and ERK1/2 were independent determinants to affect protein expression of ETB and ETA receptors. Conclusions/Significance Cigarette smoke upregulates ETB and ETA receptors in rat coronary artery, which is associated with the activation of the Raf/ERK/MAPK pathway. PMID:22412974

  1. Endothelin-1 and endothelin-2 initiate and maintain contractile responses by different mechanisms in rat mesenteric and cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Compeer, M G; Janssen, G M J; De Mey, J G R

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Endothelin (ET)-1 and ET-2 cause potent long-lasting vasoconstrictions by tight binding to smooth muscle ETA receptors. We tested the hypotheses that different mechanisms mediate initiation and maintenance of arterial contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 and that this differs among vascular beds. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Segments of rat mesenteric resistance artery (MRA) and basilar artery (BA) were studied in wire myographs with and without functional antagonists. KEY RESULTS Sensitivity and maximum of MRA contractile responses to ET-1 were not, or only moderately, reduced by stimulation of soluble GC, AC or K+-channels and by an inhibitor of receptor-operated ion channels. However, each of these reduced maintenance of ET-1 effects and relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A calcium channel antagonist did not alter sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of ET-1 effects, but relaxed ET-1-induced contractions in MRA. A PLC inhibitor prevented contractile responses to ET-1 and ET-2 in MRA and BA, and relaxed ET-1- and ET-2-induced responses in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. A Rho-kinase inhibitor did not modify sensitivity, maximum and maintenance of responses to both peptides in both arteries but relaxed ET-2, but not ET-1, effects in MRA and ET-1 effects in BA. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS PLC played a key role in arterial contractile responses to ETs, but ET-1 and ET-2 initiated and maintained vasoconstriction through different mechanisms, and these differed between MRA and BA. Selective functional antagonism may be considered for agonist- and vascular bed selective pharmacotherapy of ET-related diseases. PMID:23941276

  2. Long-term effects of benidipine on cerebral vasoreactivity in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Kitayama, Jiro; Kitazono, Takanari; Ooboshi, Hiroaki; Takada, Junichi; Fujishima, Masatoshi; Ibayashi, Setsuro

    2002-03-08

    We tested the hypothesis that long-term application of a Ca2+ channel blocker would ameliorate the functional and morphological deterioration of the cerebral arteries during hypertension. Male spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed a standard rat chow, containing a low (3 mg/kg/day) or high dose (6 mg/kg/day) of benidipine, a Ca2+ channel blocker, for 2 months. Using a cranial window, we examined responses of the basilar artery to acetylcholine, sodium nitroprusside, (-)-(3S,4R)-4-(N-acetyl-N-hydroxyamino)-6-cyano-3,4-dihydro-2,2-dimethyl-2H-1-benzopyran-3-ol (Y-26763; an opener of ATP-sensitive K+ channels), and (R)-(+)-trans-N-(4-pyridyl)-4-(1-aminoethyl)-cyclohexanecarboxamide (Y-27632; an inhibitor of Rho-associated kinase). Mean arterial pressure of the control group was 193+/-5 mm Hg (mean+/-S.E.M.), while that of the low-dose benidipine group was 183+/-5 mm Hg and that of the high-dose group was 159+/-4 mm Hg. Dilator responses of the basilar artery to acetylcholine and Y-26763 were impaired in SHR compared with those of normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats and treatment with benidipine enhanced the vasodilator responses to acetylcholine and Y-26763 in SHR. Y-27632-induced dilatation of the basilar artery was enhanced in SHR compared to that in WKY rats and the vasodilatation was reduced by benidipine in SHR. Sodium nitroprusside caused similar dilatation of the basilar artery, in both WKY rats and the SHR control group, and benidipine did not affect nitroprusside-induced dilatation of the artery in SHR. The wall of the basilar artery was significantly thicker in SHR than in WKY rats and benidipine treatment reduced the wall thickness of the artery in SHR. These findings suggest that chronic treatment with a Ca2+ channel blocker may enhance the dilator capacity and reduce contractility of the basilar artery during hypertension. Benidipine may also ameliorate the morphological changes of the basilar artery in hypertension.

  3. Stroke following appendectomy under general anesthesia in a patient with basilar impression.

    PubMed

    Zotter, H; Zenz, W; Gallistl, S; Zohrer, B; Lindbichler, F

    2000-11-01

    We report a boy who developed a vertebral stroke immediately after an appendectomy. Basilar impression was diagnosed eight years after this event when skull roentgenograms revealed basilar impression with high standing tip of the odontoid. We speculate that muscle relaxation and cervical hyperextension during intubation in the presence of basilar impression resulted in vertebral artery dissection and stroke. We suggest that patients with vertebral stroke and no obvious risk factors should be evaluated for the presence of malformations of the craniovertebral junction to be able to take precautions against excessive neck movement during intubation.

  4. Parameters of Blood Flow in Great Arteries in Hypertensive ISIAH Rats with Stress-Dependent Arterial Hypertension.

    PubMed

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel', A L

    2016-08-01

    Magnetic resonance angiography was used to examine blood flow in great arteries of hypertensive ISIAH and normotensive Wistar rats. In hypertensive ISIAH rats, increased vascular resistance in the basin of the abdominal aorta and renal arteries as well as reduced fraction of total renal blood flow were found. In contrast, blood flow through both carotid arteries in ISIAH rats was enhanced, which in suggests more intensive blood supply to brain regulatory centers providing enhanced stress reactivity of these rats characterized by stress-dependent arterial hypertension.

  5. Lipopolysaccharide impairs endothelial nitric oxide synthesis in rat renal arteries.

    PubMed

    Piepot, H A; Boer, C; Groeneveld, A B; Van Lambalgen, A A; Sipkema, P

    2000-06-01

    Impaired endothelium-dependent vasodilation may contribute to hypoperfusion and failure of abdominal organs, including the kidneys during endotoxin or septic shock. In this study, the short-term (2 h) effects of bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) on endothelium-dependent vasodilation in rat renal and superior mesenteric arteries were documented. Rat renal and mesenteric arteries were dissected and exposed in vitro to LPS for two hours. The effects of LPS on vascular reactivity were determined and compared with time-matched controls. Endothelial nitric oxide (NO) release was determined using an NO microsensor in adjacent vessel segments. LPS impaired maximal acetylcholine (ACh)-induced endothelium-dependent vasodilation in renal arteries (62.5 +/- 8.8% vs. 34.4 +/- 7.5% in controls and LPS-exposed arteries), but not in mesenteric arteries. LPS did not alter the sensitivity of renal arteries to exogenous NO. ACh-dependent vasodilation was abolished after blocking NO synthesis with 10-4 mol/L L-NA in control and LPS-incubated renal arteries. When compared with controls, NO release induced by ACh and the receptor-independent calcium ionophore A23187 was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) in LPS-exposed renal segments and was fully abolished in endothelium-denuded segments, indicating that LPS attenuated receptor-dependent as well as receptor-independent endothelial NO release. In contrast, ACh- and A23187-induced NO release was normal in LPS-exposed mesenteric arteries. These results indicate that LPS-induced selective impairment of ACh-induced endothelium-dependent relaxation in rat renal arteries is caused by decreased endothelial NO release. This may contribute to the propensity for acute renal failure during septic shock.

  6. Morphological Characteristics of Renal Artery and Kidney in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoldas, Atilla; Dayan, Mustafa Orhun

    2014-01-01

    The gross anatomy and morphometry of the kidney and renal arteries were studied in the strains of laboratory rat: Sprague-Dawley (Sp) and Wistar (W) rats. Total of 106 three-dimensional endocasts of the intrarenal arteries of kidney that were prepared using standard injection-corrosion techniques were examined. A single renal artery was observed in 100% of the cases. The renal arteries were divided into a dorsal and a ventral branch. The dorsal and ventral branches were divided into two branches, the cranial and caudal branch. Renal arteries were classified into types I and II, depending on the cranial and caudal branches and their made of branching. The present study also showed that the right kidney was slightly heavier than the left one and that the kidney of the male was generally larger than that of the female. The mean live weights of the Sprague-Dawley and Wistar rats were found to be 258.26 ± 5.9 and 182.4 ± 19.05 g, respectively. The kidney weights were significantly correlated (P < 0.01) with body weights. The kidney weights were not found significantly correlated (P > 0.01) with the length of renal arteries. PMID:24737971

  7. Use of cryopreserved rat arteries for microsurgical training.

    PubMed

    Lausada, Natalia R; Escudero, E; Lamonega, R; Dreizzen, E; Raimondi, J C

    2005-01-01

    Silastic tubes are used as training material for performing microvascular anastomoses. However, silastic texture differs from that of actual blood vessels. In the present work, we evaluate the use of preserved rat arterial segments for training in microvascular anastomoses. One-centimeter-long rat arterial segments were obtained from femoral, carotid, and abdominal arteries, preserved in cold saline solution, and frozen. Trainees performed microvascular anastomoses using the aforementioned material and answered questions about texture, consistency, and wall resistance to the needle, comparing preserved arterial wall and silastic tubes. They were also asked whether the arterial pedicles had a consistency and texture similar to normal vessels, and if they were a more reliable method for practicing microsurgery techniques than synthetic materials. They preferred frozen arterial pedicles over silastic tubes. We conclude that arterial cadaveric segments are a suitable biologic material for microsurgical training. Since they can be obtained from other experiments, this is an effective way to reduce the number of animals bred and sacrificed for teaching purposes. Copyright 2005 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  8. Basilar Invagination, Basilar Impression, and Platybasia: Clinical and Imaging Aspects.

    PubMed

    Pinter, Nandor K; McVige, Jennifer; Mechtler, Laszlo

    2016-08-01

    The congenital and acquired deformities of the craniovertebral junction (CVJ), such as basilar invagination, basilar impression, or platybasia, can present in the form of slowly progressive or acute neurologic deterioration. In many cases, an insidious headache is the only symptom and can be a diagnostic challenge for the neurologist. Proper imaging studies as well as recognizing often associated neurologic or systemic conditions are required for early diagnosis and effective therapy. In the current report, the primary focus will be on clinical aspects of these CVJ abnormalities; the pathologic and radiologic aspects, such as developmental and pathophysiologic background or radiographic analysis, will be discussed briefly, confined to clinically relevant data.

  9. Cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostanoids reduce inward arterial remodeling induced by blood flow reduction in old obese Zucker rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Vessières, Emilie; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Jardel, Alain; Toutain, Bertrand; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2013-01-01

    Obesity is associated with altered arterial structure and function leading to arterial narrowing in most vascular beds, especially when associated with aging. Nevertheless, mesenteric blood flow remains elevated in obese rats, although the effect of aging remains unknown. We investigated mesenteric artery narrowing following blood flow reduction in vivo in 3- and 12-month-old obese Zucker rats. After 21 days, inward remodeling occurred in low flow (LF) arteries in young and old lean rats and in young obese rats (30% diameter reduction). Diameter did not significantly decrease in old obese rats. Phenylephrine-mediated contraction was reduced by approximately 20% in LF arteries in all groups but in old obese rat arteries in which the decrease reached 80%. LF arteries expressed cyclooxygenase-2 and blood 6-keto-PGF1alpha (prostacyclin metabolite) was elevated in old obese rats. In old obese rats, acute cyclooxygenase-2 blockade restored phenylephrine-mediated contraction in LF arteries and chronic cyclooxygenase-2 blockade restored inward remodeling and contractility to control level. Thus, in old obese rats, cyclooxygenase-2-derived prostacyclin prevented the diameter reduction induced by a chronic decrease in blood flow. This adaptation is in favor of a preserved perfusion of the mesentery by contrast with other vascular territories, possibly amplifying the vascular disorders occurring in obesity.

  10. Treatment of Vertebro-Basilar Dissecting Aneurysms Using Intravascular Stents

    PubMed Central

    Yamasaki, S.; Hashimoto, K.; Kawano, Y.; Yoshimura, M.; Yamamoto, T.; Hara, M.

    2006-01-01

    Summary Endovascular surgery is an established primary therapeutic modality for dissecting aneurysms at vertebro-basilar arteries. Intravascular stents can be used to treat the dissecting aneurysms for which simple obliteration procedures cannot be used. In such cases, stent implantation alone or a combination of stents and coils need to be selected properly by taking into consideration the site and shape of dissections. In this report, three patterns of stent application are described and their method of selection is discussed. PMID:20569619

  11. Computational modeling of flow-altering surgeries in basilar aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Rayz, V L; Abla, A; Boussel, L; Leach, J R; Acevedo-Bolton, G; Saloner, D; Lawton, M T

    2015-05-01

    In cases where surgeons consider different interventional options for flow alterations in the setting of pathological basilar artery hemodynamics, a virtual model demonstrating the flow fields resulting from each of these options can assist in making clinical decisions. In this study, image-based computational fluid dynamics (CFD) models were used to simulate the flow in four basilar artery aneurysms in order to evaluate postoperative hemodynamics that would result from flow-altering interventions. Patient-specific geometries were constructed using MR angiography and velocimetry data. CFD simulations carried out for the preoperative flow conditions were compared to in vivo phase-contrast MRI measurements (4D Flow MRI) acquired prior to the interventions. The models were then modified according to the procedures considered for each patient. Numerical simulations of the flow and virtual contrast transport were carried out in each case in order to assess postoperative flow fields and estimate the likelihood of intra-aneurysmal thrombus deposition following the procedures. Postoperative imaging data, when available, were used to validate computational predictions. In two cases, where the aneurysms involved vital pontine perforator arteries branching from the basilar artery, idealized geometries of these vessels were incorporated into the CFD models. The effect of interventions on the flow through the perforators was evaluated by simulating the transport of contrast in these vessels. The computational results were in close agreement with the MR imaging data. In some cases, CFD simulations could help determine which of the surgical options was likely to reduce the flow into the aneurysm while preserving the flow through the basilar trunk. The study demonstrated that image-based computational modeling can provide guidance to clinicians by indicating possible outcome complications and indicating expected success potential for ameliorating pathological aneurysmal flow

  12. Spontaneous thrombosis of a basilar tip aneurysm after ventriculoperitoneal shunting

    PubMed Central

    Pop, Raoul; Chibarro, Salvatore; Manisor, Monica; Proust, Francois; Beaujeux, Remy

    2015-01-01

    We present a case of a large unruptured basilar tip aneurysm with concomitant hydrocephalus. Complete thrombosis of the aneurysm was observed after ventriculoperitoneal shunting. Analyzing preoperative and postoperative MRI and DSA images, we identified reduced intracranial pressure and widening of the aneurysm–artery inclination angle as possible factors influencing spontaneous thrombosis. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of aneurysm thrombosis occurring after CSF diversion. PMID:26150627

  13. Decreased femoral arterial flow during simulated microgravity in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roer, Robert D.; Dillaman, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether the blood supply to the hindlimbs of rats is altered by the tail-suspension model of weightlessness, rats were chronically instrumented for the measurement of femoral artery flow. Ultrasonic transit-time flow probes were implanted into 8-wk-old Wistar-Furth rats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia, and, after 24 h of recovery, flow was measured in the normal ambulatory posture. Next, rats were suspended and flow was measured immediately and then daily over the next 4-7 days. Rats were subsequently returned to normal posture, and flow was monitored daily for 1-3 days. Mean arterial flow decreased immediately on the rats being suspensed and continued to decrease until a new steady state of approximately 60% of control values was attained at 5 days. On the rats returning to normal posture, flow increased to levels observed before suspension. Quantile-quantile plots of blood flow data revealed a decrease in flow during both systole and diastole. The observed decrease in hindlimb blood flow during suspension suggests a possible role in the etiology of muscular atrophy and bone loss in microgravity.

  14. Decreased femoral arterial flow during simulated microgravity in the rat

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Roer, Robert D.; Dillaman, Richard M.

    1994-01-01

    To determine whether the blood supply to the hindlimbs of rats is altered by the tail-suspension model of weightlessness, rats were chronically instrumented for the measurement of femoral artery flow. Ultrasonic transit-time flow probes were implanted into 8-wk-old Wistar-Furth rats under ketamine-xylazine anesthesia, and, after 24 h of recovery, flow was measured in the normal ambulatory posture. Next, rats were suspended and flow was measured immediately and then daily over the next 4-7 days. Rats were subsequently returned to normal posture, and flow was monitored daily for 1-3 days. Mean arterial flow decreased immediately on the rats being suspensed and continued to decrease until a new steady state of approximately 60% of control values was attained at 5 days. On the rats returning to normal posture, flow increased to levels observed before suspension. Quantile-quantile plots of blood flow data revealed a decrease in flow during both systole and diastole. The observed decrease in hindlimb blood flow during suspension suggests a possible role in the etiology of muscular atrophy and bone loss in microgravity.

  15. Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Masafumi . E-mail: masafumi@sch.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Morimoto, Hajime; Izawa, Atsushi; Ise, Hirohiko; Hongo, Minoru; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Ito, Takayuki; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Uichi

    2006-10-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, and death. We investigated whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a potent immunosuppresssant, prevents the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. MMF effectively decreased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, and reduced the medial thickness of pulmonary arteries. MMF significantly inhibited the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, infiltration of macrophages, and expression of P-selectin and interleukin-6 on the endothelium of pulmonary arteries. The infiltration of T cells and mast cells was not affected by MMF. In vitro experiments revealed that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an active metabolite of MMF, dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of human pulmonary arterial SMCs. MMF attenuated the development of PAH through its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. These findings provide new insight into the potential role of immunosuppressants in the treatment of PAH.

  16. Vascular Balloon Injury and Intraluminal Administration in Rat Carotid Artery

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wei; Trebak, Mohamed

    2014-01-01

    The carotid artery balloon injury model in rats has been well established for over two decades. It remains an important method to study the molecular and cellular mechanisms involved in vascular smooth muscle dedifferentiation, neointima formation and vascular remodeling. Male Sprague-Dawley rats are the most frequently employed animals for this model. Female rats are not preferred as female hormones are protective against vascular diseases and thus introduce a variation into this procedure. The left carotid is typically injured with the right carotid serving as a negative control. Left carotid injury is caused by the inflated balloon that denudes the endothelium and distends the vessel wall. Following injury, potential therapeutic strategies such as the use of pharmacological compounds and either gene or shRNA transfer can be evaluated. Typically for gene or shRNA transfer, the injured section of the vessel lumen is locally transduced for 30 min with viral particles encoding either a protein or shRNA for delivery and expression in the injured vessel wall. Neointimal thickening representing proliferative vascular smooth muscle cells usually peaks at 2 weeks after injury. Vessels are mostly harvested at this time point for cellular and molecular analysis of cell signaling pathways as well as gene and protein expression. Vessels can also be harvested at earlier time points to determine the onset of expression and/or activation of a specific protein or pathway, depending on the experimental aims intended. Vessels can be characterized and evaluated using histological staining, immunohistochemistry, protein/mRNA assays, and activity assays. The intact right carotid artery from the same animal is an ideal internal control. Injury-induced changes in molecular and cellular parameters can be evaluated by comparing the injured artery to the internal right control artery. Likewise, therapeutic modalities can be evaluated by comparing the injured and treated artery to the

  17. Basilar impression as a possible cause of cerebellar stroke: case report.

    PubMed

    Roje-Bedeković, Marina; Vargek-Solter, Vesna; Bedek, Darko; Demarin, Vida

    2011-12-01

    A case is reported of a 72-year-old woman who presented with severe vertigo, vomit, and mild neck and occipital pain. She had a medical history of hypertension, angina pectoris, cholelithiasis, gastric ulcer, pyelonephritis and periodical mild dizziness. Neuroimaging revealed right vertebral artery occlusion, right cerebellar stroke and basilar impression. The therapeutic approach chosen in our patient was conservative, with non-steroid anti-inflammatory drugs and neck collar. Although our patient's prior risk factors for stroke supported a diagnosis of vertebrobasilar stroke, it is possible that the vertebral artery occlusion was the result of changes in the atlantoaxial anatomy and that cerebellar infarction was secondary to craniocervical anomaly. Although the presence of vertebral artery occlusion, cerebellar stroke and basilar impression in our patient may have been coincidental, we suggest that patients with basilar impression and craniocervical anomalies in general may be at an increased risk of vertebrobasilar vascular disease and vertebrobasilar stroke.

  18. Extensive brainstem ischemia on neuroimaging does not preclude meaningful recovery from locked-in syndrome: two cases of endovascularly managed basilar thrombosis.

    PubMed

    Tomycz, Nestor D; Holm, Margo B; Horowitz, Michael B; Wechsler, Lawrence R; Raina, Ketki; Gupta, Rishi; Jovin, Tudor G

    2008-01-01

    We report 2 patients with angiographically demonstrated basilar artery thrombosis who received emergent intra-arterial thrombolysis with successful recanalization of the basilar artery. In the ensuing weeks after the procedure, both patients were in a locked-in state and had sustained large bilateral regions of pontine ischemia on brain imaging. Following aggressive supportive care and rehabilitation, outcomes obtained prospectively revealed that both patients made a remarkable recovery, becoming fully independent with Barthel scores of 20 and modified Rankin scores of 2.

  19. [A case of brainstem and cerebellar infarctions related to basilar impression].

    PubMed

    Kasai, Takashi; Yoshikawa, Kenji; Tachibana, Shunji; Taniguchi, Takuya; Nakagawa, Masanori

    2004-03-01

    We report a 30-year-old man presenting with medial longitudinal fasciculus (MLF) syndrome after an afternoon nap. Magnetic resonance imaging revealed a right medial pontine tegmental infarction and right cerebellar infarctions. This patient was complicated with basilar impression detected on cervical X-ray and MRI. Three-dimensional CT angiography disclosed that the odontoid process migrated into the posterior fossa, thrusting the bilateral vertebral arteries postero-laterally. The mechanical stress on the bilateral vertebral arteries may have caused infarctions in the territories of the posterior circulation of this patient with basilar impression.

  20. Norepinephrine release in arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Zsoter, T.T.; Wolchinsky, C.; Lawrin, M.; Sirko, S.

    1982-01-01

    The role of the sympathetic nervous system in arterial hypertension cannot be properly evaluated until it is known about the activity in the vessels themselves. In this study researchers investigated the effect of transmural stimulation on the tail artery - labelled in vitro with /sup 3/H-norepinephrine - of 7-9 week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar Kyoto controls (WKR). Electrical stimulation using two frequencies (2 and 10 Hz) resulted in significantly more /sup 3/H overflow in vessels from SHR than from WKR. With 10 Hz stimulation the fractional release was also greater. Column chromatographic analysis of /sup 3/H overflow revealed that transmural stimulation in arteries of SHR enhanced mainly the release of norepinephrine and not of its metabolites. Significantly, an increased release of /sup 3/H-norepinephrine on stimulation was observed in SHR before the full development of hypertension suggesting that it might be a cause rather than a consequence of high blood pressure.

  1. Traumatic basilar impression: case report.

    PubMed

    Kuroiwa, T; Tanabe, H; Hasegawa, T; Ohta, T

    1995-07-01

    A very rare case of traumatic basilar impression is reported. The patient, a 57-year-old man, was hit on the head vertically in the parietal region. X ray of the cervical spine and computed tomography (CT) scans showed intracranial indentation of the atlas and the odontoid process with a depressed fracture around the foramen magnum. There are no previous reports about this type of fracture.

  2. [Familial occurrence of basilar impression].

    PubMed

    Da Silva, J A; Da Silva, E B; de Souza, M B

    1978-09-01

    The authors studied nine members of the same family; two among them received surgical treatment for basilar impression and Arnold-Chiari malformation. In the other members of the family, several signs and symptoms of central nervous disease were observed. All patients had the apex of the odontoid apophysis above McGregor's line, 4 mm in the case 9, and 10 mm or more in the others.

  3. The curcumin induced vasorelaxation in rat superior mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Han; Liu, Huanhuan; Chen, Yulong; Zhang, Yan

    2017-09-21

    Curcumin (Cur) is a natural lipophilic polyphenol compound extracted from the rhizome of turmeric. Recently, protective effect of Cur on cardiovascular system is pay close attention. Some researches demonstrated that Cur could induce vascular relaxation in many arterial beds. However, relaxant effect of Cur on rat superior mesenteric artery is not clear. The present study will investigate the vasorelaxant effect of Cur on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded by a sensitive myograph system in vitro. The vasodilation of Cur at various concentrations ( range from 10(-8)-10(-4)M) on potassium chloride (KCl,60mmol/L) or phenylephrine (PE,10μmol/L)-precontracted arterial rings were observed.We also observed vasorelaxant effect of Cur on KCl (60mM)-preconstricted rat superior mesenteric arterial rings after incubating inhibitors of Endothelial mechanism, the endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) inhibitor L-NAME, the guanylate cyclase inhibitor ODQ and the cyclooxygenase inhibitor Indo, and inhibitors of Potassium ion channel, 4-AP (KV channels blockers), and TEA (KCa channels blockers), and BaCL2 (Kir channels blockers), and Glib (KATP channels blockers), respectively. The effects of Cur are expressed as percentage of relaxation from the pre-contraction induced by KCl (60mmol/L) or PE (10μmol/L). The Emax value refers to the maximum relaxation. The pD2 value refers to the negative logarithmic value of the drug concentration that produces 50% Emax. Cur concentration-dependently relaxed the superior mesenteric artery rings with endothelium pre-contracted by PE (Emax=84.33 ± 1.11%, pD2=5.03 ± 0.02) or KCl (Emax=80.96 ± 2.12%; pD2=4.32 ± 0.01). The vasorelaxant effect of Cur on the superior mesenteric artery rings relied on endothelium partially. Indomethacin (5 μM) significantly inhibited the effect. Hovever, 1H-[1,2,4]Oxadiazolo[4,3-a]quinoxalin-1-one (10 μM) and N

  4. Experimental study of physiological flow in a cerebral saccular basilar tip aneurysm

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, William; Savas, Omer; Ortega, Jason; Maitland, Duncan; Saloner, David

    2008-11-01

    The subject matter of the research is the flow within cerebral saccular basilar tip aneurysms and exploring correlations with their growth and rupture. The flow phantom consists of an inlet pipe branching out 90^o into two outlets, simulating the basilar artery bifurcation and a nearly spherical dome at the flow divider simulating the aneurysm. Input flow is a physiological waveform for the basilar artery. Flow outlet branching ratios are controlled at will. Experiments are done at Reynolds numbers 221-376 and Sexl-Wormersley number 4.46. Flow visualization and particle image velocimetry are used to study velocity, vorticity, and wall shear stress. All flows can be characterized by an off-center inlet jet and a circulation region, whose transient strength and behavior depends on the outflow ratios.

  5. Anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the adrenal gland in the rat

    PubMed Central

    KIGATA, Tetsuhito; SHIBATA, Hideshi

    2016-01-01

    The adrenal gland is an essential endocrine organ for the stress response. The functions of this organ may be studied by ligation of the adrenal artery or adrenalectomy. However, in prior studies, descriptions of the anatomical variations of the adrenal artery were insufficient and inconsistent. Therefore, anatomical variations of the arterial supply to the adrenal gland were studied in 18 male and 18 female Wistar rats by colored latex injection into the arteries. The vascularization pattern was categorized into 4 types based on the origin of each adrenal artery. The cranial and middle adrenal arteries arose from the caudal phrenic artery in Types 1–3, but the caudal adrenal artery emerged from the caudal phrenic artery in Type 1, from the renal artery in Type 2 and from the abdominal aorta in Type 3. In Type 4, the cranial and middle adrenal arteries stemmed from the cranial phrenic artery, and the caudal adrenal artery arose from the caudal phrenic artery. The number of adrenal arteries varied from 3 to 11 on the left side and from 4 to 12 on the right side, and the total varied from 9 to 20 (predominantly 14) in each individual. There was no sex difference in the vascularization pattern. The results show that more individual variations occur in the adrenal arteries of rats than was previously reported. Such variations should always be considered when experimental treatments of the rat adrenal gland are performed. PMID:27867163

  6. Transoral surgery for basilar impression.

    PubMed

    Pásztor, E; Vajda, J; Piffkó, P; Horváth, M

    1980-12-01

    A patient with basilar impression presented with a progressive myelopathy due to odontoid invagination. It was thought that a posterior decompression would be hazardous; therefore, the inferior clivus, odontoid process, and anterior arch of the atlas were removed transorally. We have found that, even with symptoms of long duration, marked improvement can be expected when the operation is targeted to the actual abnormality. In such cases, analysis of craniocervical tomograms will show the direction of medullary compression and thus indicate the correct surgical approach.

  7. BET Bromodomain Blockade Mitigates Intimal Hyperplasia in Rat Carotid Arteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Mengxue; Takayama, Toshio; Shi, Xudong; Roenneburg, Drew Alan; Craig Kent, K; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-11-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is a common cause of many vasculopathies. There has been a recent surge of interest in the bromo and extra-terminal (BET) epigenetic "readers" including BRD4 since the serendipitous discovery of JQ1(+), an inhibitor specific to the seemingly undruggable BET bromodomains. The role of the BET family in the development of intimal hyperplasia is not known. We investigated the effect of BET inhibition on intimal hyperplasia using a rat balloon angioplasty model. While BRD4 was dramatically up-regulated in the rat and human hyperplastic neointima, blocking BET bromodomains with JQ1(+) diminished neointima in rats. Knocking down BRD4 with siRNA, or treatment with JQ1(+) but not the inactive enantiomer JQ1(-), abrogated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB)-stimulated proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells. This inhibitory effect of JQ1(+) was reproducible in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells. In human aortic endothelial cells, JQ1(+) prevented cytokine-induced apoptosis and impairment of cell migration. Furthermore, either BRD4 siRNA or JQ1(+) but not JQ1(-), substantially down-regulated PDGF receptor-α which, in JQ1(+)-treated arteries versus vehicle control, was also reduced. Blocking BET bromodomains mitigates neointima formation, suggesting an epigenetic approach for effective prevention of intimal hyperplasia and associated vascular diseases. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. BET Bromodomain Blockade Mitigates Intimal Hyperplasia in Rat Carotid Arteries.

    PubMed

    Wang, Bowen; Zhang, Mengxue; Takayama, Toshio; Shi, Xudong; Roenneburg, Drew Alan; Kent, K Craig; Guo, Lian-Wang

    2015-11-01

    Intimal hyperplasia is a common cause of many vasculopathies. There has been a recent surge of interest in the bromo and extra-terminal (BET) epigenetic "readers" including BRD4 since the serendipitous discovery of JQ1(+), an inhibitor specific to the seemingly undruggable BET bromodomains. The role of the BET family in the development of intimal hyperplasia is not known. We investigated the effect of BET inhibition on intimal hyperplasia using a rat balloon angioplasty model. While BRD4 was dramatically up-regulated in the rat and human hyperplastic neointima, blocking BET bromodomains with JQ1(+) diminished neointima in rats. Knocking down BRD4 with siRNA, or treatment with JQ1(+) but not the inactive enantiomer JQ1(-), abrogated platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF-BB)-stimulated proliferation and migration of primary rat aortic smooth muscle cells. This inhibitory effect of JQ1(+) was reproducible in primary human aortic smooth muscle cells. In human aortic endothelial cells, JQ1(+) prevented cytokine-induced apoptosis and impairment of cell migration. Furthermore, either BRD4 siRNA or JQ1(+) but not JQ1(-), substantially down-regulated PDGF receptor-α which, in JQ1(+)-treated arteries versus vehicle control, was also reduced. Blocking BET bromodomains mitigates neointima formation, suggesting an epigenetic approach for effective prevention of intimal hyperplasia and associated vascular diseases.

  9. Post-Treatment Hemodynamics of a Basilar Aneurysm and Bifurcation

    PubMed Central

    Ortega, J.; Hartman, J.; Rodriguez, J.; Maitland, D.

    2009-01-01

    To investigate whether or not a successful aneurysm treatment procedure can subject a parent artery to harmful hemodynamic stresses, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a patient-specific basilar aneurysm and bifurcation before and after a virtual endovascular treatment. Prior to treatment, the aneurysm at systole is filled with a periodic train of vortex tubes, which form at the aneurysm neck and advect upwards into the dome. Following the treatment procedure however, the motion of the vortex train is inhibited by the aneurysm filling material, which confines the vortex tubes to the region beneath the aneurysm neck. Analysis of the post-treatment flow field indicates that the impingement of the basilar artery flow upon the treated aneurysm neck and the close proximity of a vortex tube to the parent artery wall increase the maximum wall shear stresses to values approximately equal to 50 Pa at systole. Calculation of the time-averaged wall shear stresses indicates that there is a 1.4 × 9 10−7 m2 area on the parent artery exposed to wall shear stresses greater than 37.9 Pa, a value shown by Fry [Circ. Res. 22(2):165–197, 1968] to cause severe damage to the endothelial cells that line the artery wall. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible for a treatment procedure, which successfully isolates the aneurysm from the circulation and leaves no aneurysm neck remnant, to elevate the hemodynamic stresses to levels that are injurious to the artery wall. PMID:18629647

  10. Effect of chlorpromazine on rat arterial lipid synthesis, in vitro

    SciTech Connect

    Bell, F.P.; Hubert, E.V.

    1982-10-01

    The effect of chlorpromazine, a major tranquilizer, on arterial lipid metabolism was studied in vitro in rat aortas incubated with (/sup 14/C)acetate and (/sup 14/C)mevalonate as lipid precursors. Chlorpromazine at a level of 0.25 mM in the incubation medium significantly reduced the incorporation of (/sup 14/C)acetate into free fatty acids (p less than 0.01) and total phospholipids (p less than 0.001) but not triglycerides. Chlorpromazine also altered the pattern of arterial phospholipids synthesized from (/sup 14/C)acetate by significantly increasing the relative proportion of phosphatidylinositol plus phosphatidylserine (p less than 0.02) and reducing the relative proportion of sphingomyelin (p less than 0.001). (/sup 14/C) Acetate incorporation into the combined fractions of steryl esters plus hydrocarbons and sterols plus diglycerides was also significantly reduced (p less than 0.001) by 0.25 mM chlorpromazine. Studies with (/sup 14/C)mevalonate showed that chlorpromazine is also an inhibitor of sterol biosynthesis in arterial tissues as evidenced by 35-40% reductions (p less than 0.05) in the formation of /sup 14/C-labeled squalene and C27 sterols.

  11. Flow-induced remodeling in resistance arteries from obese Zucker rats is associated with endothelial dysfunction.

    PubMed

    Bouvet, Céline; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Vessières, Emilie; Bocquet, Arnaud; Dumont, Odile; Jardel, Alain; Loufrani, Laurent; Moreau, Pierre; Henrion, Daniel

    2007-07-01

    Chronic increases in blood flow increase arterial diameter and NO-dependent dilation in resistance arteries. Because endothelial dysfunction accompanies metabolic syndrome, we hypothesized that flow-mediated remodeling might be impaired in obese rat resistance arteries. Obese and lean Zucker rat mesenteric resistance arteries were exposed to chronic flow increases through arterial ligation in vivo: arteries exposed to high flow were compared with normal flow arteries. Diameter was measured in vitro in cannulated arteries using pressure arteriography. After 7 days, outward remodeling (diameter increased from 346+/-9 to 412+/-11 mum at 100 mm Hg) occurred in lean high-flow arteries. Endothelium-dependent tone was reduced in high-flow arteries from obese rats by contrast with lean animals. On the other hand, diameter enlargement occurred similarly in the 2 strains. The involvement of NO in endothelium-dependent dilation (evidenced by NO blockade) and endothelial NO synthase phosphorylation was smaller in obese than in lean rats. Superoxide anion and reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate oxidase subunit expression (p67phox and gp91phox) increased in obese rats and were higher in high-flow than in control arteries. Acute Tempol (a catalase mimetic), catalase plus superoxide dismutase, and l-arginine plus tetrahydrobiopterin restored endothelium-dependent dilation in obese rat normal and high-flow arteries to the level found in lean control arteries. Thus, flow-induced remodeling in obese resistance arteries was associated with a reduced endothelium-mediated dilation because of a decreased NO bioavailability and an excessive superoxide production. This dysfunction might have negative consequences in ischemic diseases in patients with obesity or metabolic syndrome.

  12. Basilar invagination, Chiari malformation, syringomyelia: a review.

    PubMed

    Goel, Atul

    2009-01-01

    Institute and personal experience (over 25 years) of basilar invagination was reviewed. The database of the department included 3300 patients with craniovertebral junction pathology from the year 1951 till date. Patients with basilar invagination were categorized into two groups based on the presence (Group A) or absence (Group B) of clinical and radiological evidence of instability of the craniovertebral junction. Standard radiological parameters described by Chamberlain were used to assess the instability of the craniovertebral junction. The pathogenesis and clinical features in patients with Group A basilar invagination appeared to be related to mechanical instability, whereas it appeared to be secondary to embryonic dysgenesis in patients with Group B basilar invagination. Treatment by facetal distraction and direct lateral mass fixation can result in restoration of craniovertebral and cervical alignment in patients with Group A basilar invagination. Such a treatment can circumvent the need for transoral or posterior fossa decompression surgery. Foramen magnum bone decompression appears to be a rational surgical treatment for patients having Group B basilar invagination. The division of patients with basilar invagination on the basis of presence or absence of instability provides insight into the pathogenesis of the anomaly and a basis for rational surgical treatment.

  13. [Mechanism of losartan suppressing vascular calcification in rat aortic artery].

    PubMed

    Shao, Juan; Wu, Panfeng; Wu, Jiliang; Li, Mincai

    2016-08-01

    Objective To investigate the effect of the angiotensin II receptor 1 (AT1R) blocker losartan on vascular calcification in rat aortic artery and explore the underlying mechanisms. Methods SD rats were divided randomly into control group, vascular calcification model group and treatment group. Vascular calcification models were made by subcutaneous injection of warfarin plus vitamin K1 for two weeks. Rats in the treatment group were subcutaneously injected with losartan (10 mg/kg) at the end of the first week and consecutively for one week. We observed the morphological changes by HE staining and the calcium deposition by Alizarin red staining in the artery vascular wall. The mRNA expressions of bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and Runt-related transcription factor 2 (RUNX2) were analyzed by reverse transcription PCR. The BMP2 and RUNX2 protein expressions were determined by Western blotting. The apoptosis of smooth muscle cells (SMCs) were detected by TUNEL. The AT1R expression was tested by fluorescent immunohistochemistry. Results The aortic vascular calcification was induced by warfarin and vitamin K1. Compared with the vascular calcification model group, the mRNA and protein expressions of BMP2 and RUNX2 were significantly downregulated in the aorta in the losartan treatment group. Furthermore, the apoptosis of SMCs and the AT1R expression obviously decreased. Conclusion AT1R blocker losartan inhibits the apoptosis of SMCs and reduces AT1R expression; it downregulates the BMP2 and RUNX2 expressions in the vascular calcification process.

  14. Middle cerebral artery alterations in a rat chronic hypoperfusion model

    PubMed Central

    Márquez-Martín, Ana; Jiménez-Altayó, Francesc; Dantas, Ana P.; Caracuel, Laura; Planas, Anna M.

    2012-01-01

    Chronic cerebral hypoperfusion (CHP) induces microvascular changes that could contribute to the progression of vascular cognitive impairment and dementia in the aging brain. This study aimed to analyze the effects of CHP on structural, mechanical, and myogenic properties of the middle cerebral artery (MCA) after bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) in adult male Wistar rats. Sham animals underwent a similar surgical procedure without carotid artery (CA) ligation. After 15 days of occlusion, MCA and CA were dissected and MCA structural, mechanical, and myogenic properties were assessed by pressure myography. Collagen I/III expression was determined by immunofluorescence in MCA and CA and by Western blot in CA. mRNA levels for 1A1, 1A2, and 3A1 collagen subunits were quantified by quantitative real-time PCR in CA. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and MMP-13) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) protein expression were determined in CA by Western blot. BCCAO diminished cross-sectional area, wall thickness, and wall-to-lumen ratio. Nevertheless, whereas wall stress was increased, stiffness was not modified and myogenic response was diminished. Hypoperfusion triggered HIF-1α expression. Collagen I/III protein expression diminished in MCA and CA after BCCAO, despite increased mRNA levels for 1A1 and 3A1 collagen subunits. Therefore, the reduced collagen expression might be due to proteolytic degradation, since the expression of MMP-1 and MMP-9 increased in the CA. These data suggest that BCCAO induces hypotrophic remodeling by a mechanism that involves a reduction of collagen I/III in association with increased MMP-1 and MMP-9 and that decreases myogenic tone in major arteries supplying the brain. PMID:22096118

  15. Technical nuances of subtemporal approach for the treatment of basilar tip aneurysm

    PubMed Central

    Nakov, Vladimir S.; Spiriev, Toma Y.; Todorov, Ivan T.; Simeonov, Plamen

    2017-01-01

    Background: Basilar tip aneurysms are one of the most complex vascular lesions to treat surgically because of their location, depth of the approach, and close proximity of vital neurovascular structures such as the mesencephalon, cranial nerves, perforating arteries to the thalamus. There are different surgical approaches utilized to reach basilar tip aneurysms, namely, pterional, pretemporal, orbitozygomatic, subtemporal, and anterior petrosectomy. Each of them has its advantages and limitations. Methods: In this paper, we present our personal experience with the use of subtemporal approach. The technique is described in detail including its nuances and potential pitfalls. Results: The subtemporal approach is indicated for basilar tip aneurysms located at the level of the floor of the sella turcica to 1 cm above the dorsum sellae. Conclusion: Subtemporal approach offers good surgical corridor for the management of these complex vascular lesions. PMID:28217394

  16. H2S induces vasoconstriction of rat cerebral arteries via cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway.

    PubMed

    Li, Sen; Ping, Na-Na; Cao, Lei; Mi, Yan-Ni; Cao, Yong-Xiao

    2015-12-15

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S), traditionally known for its toxic effects, is now involved in regulating vascular tone. Here we investigated the vasoconstrictive effect of H2S on cerebral artery and the underlying mechanism. Sodium hydrosulfide (NaHS), a donor of H2S, concentration-dependently induced vasoconstriction on basilar artery, which was enhanced in the presence of isoprenaline, a β-adrenoceptor agonist or forskolin, an adenylyl cyclase activator. Administration of NaHS attenuated the vasorelaxant effects of isoprenaline or forskolin. Meanwhile, the NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was diminished in the presence of 8B-cAMP, an analog of cAMP, but was not affected by Bay K-8644, a selective L-type Ca(2+) channel agonist. These results could be explained by the revised effects of NaHS on isoprenaline-induced cAMP elevation and forskolin-stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity. Additionally, NaHS-induced vasoconstriction was enhanced by removing the endothelium or in the presence of L-NAME, an inhibitor of nitric oxide synthase. L-NAME only partially attenuated the effect of NaHS which was given together with forskolin on the pre-contracted artery. In conclusion, H2S induces vasoconstriction of cerebral artery via, at least in part, cAMP/adenylyl cyclase pathway. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Staged Trapping of Traumatic Basilar Trunk Pseudoaneurysm: Case Report and Review of Literature.

    PubMed

    Sujijantarat, Nanthiya; Pierson, Matthew J; Kemp, Joanna; Coppens, Jeroen R

    2017-09-01

    Traumatic intracranial aneurysms (TICAs) of the posterior circulation in the pediatric populations are rare. Only a few reports in the literature document basilar artery TICA in the pediatric population. These cases were typically associated with a clival fracture and commonly diagnosed weeks to months after trauma. We present a case of a patient with a basilar TICA diagnosed after a motor vehicle collision treated with staged trapping and review of the literature. We present a case of a 14-year-old boy who sustained a high-speed motor vehicle collision and developed a basilar trunk TICA identified on admission. Initially, the patient underwent craniotomy for proximal sacrifice of the basilar artery in hope for spontaneous thrombosis of the aneurysm through flow reversal. Endovascular options were reviewed and felt to be less feasible than surgical trapping. Due to continued filling through the right posterior communicating artery, the second surgery was performed to distally trap the aneurysm. The aneurysm was opened, showing some thrombosis and the absence of flow. Repeat magnetic resonance imaging did not reveal any new infarction, and the patient was discharged with neurologic improvement over time. At 1 year, he was able to ambulate unassisted and had a modified Rankin Scale score of 3. Development of a TICA may be more acute than literature previously suggested. Treatment consists of a wide range of options and should be considered, especially in the pediatric population, to prevent rupture. Trapping can be performed safely if adequate collateral flow is present in the setting of a large basilar artery aneurysm. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Persistent proatlantal artery associated with carotid artery stenosis treatment by percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty.

    PubMed

    Bour, P; Bracard, S; Frisch, N; Frisch, R; Fiévé, G

    1991-01-01

    A 58-year-old man had an asymptomatic tight stenosis of the internal carotid artery associated with a persistent proatlantal artery. This as well as other compositional arterial anomalies of the basilar artery were discovered on arteriograms. The stenosis was successfully treated by percutaneous transluminal balloon angioplasty. Therapeutic choices are discussed in this setting because of the risk of carotid clamping in the presence of persistent carotid-basilar anastomoses.

  19. Modification of sympathetic neuronal function in the rat tail artery by dietary lipid treatment

    SciTech Connect

    Panek, R.L.; Dixon, W.R.; Rutledge, C.O.

    1985-06-01

    The effect of dietary lipid treatment on sympathetic neuronal function was examined in isolated perfused tail arteries of adult rats. The hypothesis that dietary manipulations alter the lipid environment of receptor proteins which may result in the perturbation of specific membrane-associated processes that regulate peripheral adrenergic neurotransmission in the vasculature was the basis for this investigation. In the present study, rats were fed semisynthetic diets enriched in either 16% coconut oil (saturated fat) or 16% sunflower oil (unsaturated fat). The field stimulation-evoked release of endogenous norepinephrine and total /sup 3/H was decreased significantly in rats receiving the coconut oil diet when compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Norepinephrine content in artery segments from coconut oil-treated rats was significantly higher compared to either sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Tail arteries from rats receiving the coconut oil diet displayed significantly lower perfusion pressure responses to nerve stimulation at all frequencies tested when compared to the sunflower oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats. Vasoconstrictor responses of perfused tail arteries exposed to exogenous norepinephrine resulted in an EC50 for norepinephrine that was not changed by the dietary treatment, but adult rats receiving the sunflower oil diet displayed a significantly greater maximum response to exogenous norepinephrine (10(-5) M) compared to arteries from either coconut oil- or standard lab chow-fed rats.

  20. Management of basilar invagination: A historical perspective

    PubMed Central

    Shah, Abhidha; Serchi, Elena

    2016-01-01

    For a long time the terms basilar invagination and platybasia were used interchangeably. Basilar invagination has been defined as a prolapse of the vertebral column into the spinal cord. Platybasia is defined as an abnormal obtuse angle between the anterior skull base and the clivus. The authors review the existing literature and summarize the historical and modern perspectives in the management of basilar invagination. From radiological curiosities, the subject of basilar invagination is now viewed as eminently treatable. The more pronounced understanding of the subject has taken place in the last three decades when on the basis of understanding of the biomechanical subtleties the treatment paradigm has remarkably altered. From surgery that involved decompression of the region, stabilization and realignment now form the basis of treatment.

  1. Changes in Sympathetic Innervation of Rat Caudal Artery in Experimental Myocardial Infarction. Effect of Semax Peptide.

    PubMed

    Gorbacheva, A M; Berdalin, A B; Stulova, A N; Nikogosova, A D; Lin, M D; Buravkov, S V; Gavrilova, S A; Koshelev, V B

    2016-08-01

    Activation of the sympathetic nervous system aggravates the course of myocardial infarction. Semax peptide moderated the degree of this activation and prevented the increase in the density of sympathetic endings in rat caudal artery in 28 days after ischemia or ischemia/reperfusion. The peptide reduced the density of α-adrenoreceptors in the caudal artery of rats with myocardial infarction. Semax produced no effect on β-adrenoreceptors in both experimental models. The experiments on isolated segments of the caudal artery revealed reduced vascular responsiveness to electrical stimulation and norepinephrine infusion in rats treated with Semax after ischemia/reperfusion injury.

  2. Angiotensinogen expression in vascular tissues of simulated weightless rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Zi-Tai; Zhang, Li-Fan; Ma, Jin

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to elucidate whether changes of angiotensinogen (AGT) are involved in the adaptation of arteries to simulated weightlessness. Conventional and real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to examine mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in arterial tissues of tail-suspended (SUS) rats. The results showed that compared with CON rats, mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in basilar arterial tissue were significantly increased in SUS rats, but had no obvious change in carotid tissues. In mesenteric and femoral tissues, mRNA expressions of AGT were significantly decreased in SUS rats, but protein expression of AGT just showed a tendency of decrease. The results suggest that local renin-angiotensin system (L-RAS) may play a pivotal role in adaptation of arteries to weightlessness.

  3. Post-Treatment Hemodynamics of a Basilar Aneurysm and Bifurcation

    SciTech Connect

    Ortega, J; Hartman, J; Rodriguez, J; Maitland, D

    2008-01-16

    Aneurysm re-growth and rupture can sometimes unexpectedly occur following treatment procedures that were initially considered to be successful at the time of treatment and post-operative angiography. In some cases, this can be attributed to surgical clip slippage or endovascular coil compaction. However, there are other cases in which the treatment devices function properly. In these instances, the subsequent complications are due to other factors, perhaps one of which is the post-treatment hemodynamic stress. To investigate whether or not a treatment procedure can subject the parent artery to harmful hemodynamic stresses, computational fluid dynamics simulations are performed on a patient-specific basilar aneurysm and bifurcation before and after a virtual endovascular treatment. The simulations demonstrate that the treatment procedure produces a substantial increase in the wall shear stress. Analysis of the post-treatment flow field indicates that the increase in wall shear stress is due to the impingement of the basilar artery flow upon the aneurysm filling material and to the close proximity of a vortex tube to the artery wall. Calculation of the time-averaged wall shear stress shows that there is a region of the artery exposed to a level of wall shear stress that can cause severe damage to endothelial cells. The results of this study demonstrate that it is possible for a treatment procedure, which successfully excludes the aneurysm from the vascular system and leaves no aneurysm neck remnant, to elevate the hemodynamic stresses to levels that are injurious to the immediately adjacent vessel wall.

  4. Flow-evoked vasodilation is blunted in penile arteries from Zucker diabetic fatty rats.

    PubMed

    Schjørring, Olav; Kun, Attila; Flyvbjerg, Allan; Kirkeby, Hans Jørgen; Jensen, Jørgen Bjerggaard; Simonsen, Ulf

    2012-07-01

    Endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO), prostanoids, and endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) are thought to play an important role in vasodilation of penile arteries. The present study investigated the mechanisms involved in flow- and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation in penile arteries, and whether acetylcholine- and flow-mediated vasodilation is altered in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats, a model of type 2 diabetes. Moreover, it was addressed whether enhanced myogenic tone may explain impaired flow-evoked vasodilation in arteries from ZDF rats. Penile dorsal arteries obtained from lean control and ZDF rats were suspended in a pressure myograph, and flow- and acetylcholine-evoked vasodilation was measured as changes in arterial diameter. Changes in penile arterial diameter. Incubation with an inhibitor of NO synthase, asymmetric dimethyl-L-arginine (ADMA), and of cyclooxygenase, indomethacin, reduced acetylcholine but not flow-evoked vasodilation in penile arteries, while both responses were abolished by endothelial cell removal. Iberiotoxin, a blocker of large-conductance calcium-activated K+ (BK(Ca) ) channels, inhibited flow-evoked vasodilation. Flow-evoked vasodilation was reduced in arteries from ZDF rats in the absence, but not in the presence, of indomethacin plus ADMA. Elevation of intraluminal pressure increased myogenic tone, which was reduced in arteries from ZDF rats. The present findings show that flow evokes endothelium-dependent EDHF-type vasodilation involving BK(Ca) channels in penile arteries. Flow-evoked vasodilation is reduced and only of EDHF-type in penile arteries from type 2 diabetic rats suggesting modulation of this pathway may restore endothelial function and preserve erection in diabetes. © 2012 International Society for Sexual Medicine.

  5. Inhomogeneous vasodilatory responses of rat tail arteries to heat stress: evaluation by synchrotron radiation microangiography.

    PubMed

    Kuwabara, Eriko; Furuyama, Fujiya; Ito, Kunihisa; Tanaka, Etsuro; Hattan, Naoichiro; Fujikura, Hisanori; Kimura, Koji; Goto, Takako; Hayashi, Takashi; Taira, Hiroyuki; Shinozaki, Yoshiro; Umetani, Keiji; Hyodo, Kazuyuki; Tanioka, Kenkichi; Mochizuki, Ryo; Kawai, Toshiaki; Koide, Shirosaku; Mori, Hidezo

    2002-10-01

    Tail blood flow is crucial for dissipating body heat in rats. Angiographies are convenient tools to evaluate tail circulation. However, conventional angiographies do not have sufficient sensitivity or spatial resolution for small vessels. Recently, we developed a novel microangiographic system using monochromatic synchrotron radiation and a high-definition video camera system. Here, we report an evaluation of rat tail circulation under heat stress using the synchrotron radiation microangiographic system. We performed an experiment using the microangiography of the caudal artery before and after heating up WKAH/HkmSlc rats to rectal temperature of 39 degrees C. The images were digitized and temporal subtraction was performed, and the diameters of caudal arteries were evaluated. After heating, the medial caudal artery was markedly dilated (320 +/- 53 to 853 +/- 243 micro m in diameter, p<0.001), while no significant change was observed in the lateral caudal arteries (139 +/- 42 to 167 +/- 73 micro m) and segmental anastomosing vessels. The heat stress allowed for visualization of the superficial caudal arteries with a diameter of approximately 60 micro m, not visible prior to heating. Thus, synchrotron radiation microangiography demonstrated that the rat tail possessed dual sets of arteries; one set was highly sensitive to heat-induced vasodilation (medial caudal artery and superficial caudal arteries) and the other set was less sensitive (lateral caudal arteries and segmental anastomosing vessels).

  6. Characterization of Critical Hemodynamics Contributing to Aneurysmal Remodeling at the Basilar Terminus in a Rabbit Model

    PubMed Central

    Metaxa, Eleni; Tremmel, Markus; Natarajan, Sabareesh K; Xiang, Jianping; Paluch, Rocco A.; Mandelbaum, Max; Siddiqui, Adnan H.; Kolega, John; Mocco, J; Meng, Hui

    2010-01-01

    Background and Purpose Hemodynamic insult by bilateral common carotid artery (CCA) ligation has been shown to induce aneurysmal remodeling at the basilar terminus in a rabbit model. To characterize critical hemodynamics that initiate this remodeling, we applied a novel hemodynamics-histology co-mapping technique. Methods Eight rabbits received bilateral CCA ligation to increase basilar artery flow. Three underwent sham operations. Hemodynamic insult at the basilar terminus was assessed by computational fluid dynamics. Bifurcation tissue was harvested on day 5; histology was co-mapped with initial postligation hemodynamic fields of wall shear stress (WSS) and WSS gradient (WSSG). Results All bifurcations showed internal elastic lamina (IEL) loss in periapical regions exposed to accelerating flow with high WSS and positive WSSG. IEL damage happened 100% of the time at locations where WSS>122 Pa and WSSG>530 Pa/mm. The degree of destructive remodeling accounting for IEL loss, medial thinning, and luminal bulging correlated with the magnitude of the hemodynamic insult. Conclusions Aneurysmal remodeling initiates when local hemodynamic forces exceed specific limits at the rabbit basilar terminus. A combination of high WSS and positive WSSG represents “dangerous” hemodynamics likely to induce aneurysmal remodeling. PMID:20595660

  7. Diminished contractile responses of isolated conduit arteries in two rat models of hypertension.

    PubMed

    Zemancíková, Anna; Török, Jozef

    2013-08-31

    Hypertension is accompanied by thickening of arteries, resulting in marked changes in their passive and active mechanical properties. The aim of this study was to demonstrate that the large conduit arteries from hypertensive individuals may not exhibit enhanced contractions in vitro, as is often claimed. Mechanical responses to vasoconstrictor stimuli were measured under isometric conditions using ring arterial segments isolated from spontaneously hypertensive rats, N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME)-treated Wistar rats, and untreated Wistar rats serving as normotensive control. We found that thoracic aortas from both types of hypertensive rats had a greater sensitivity but diminished maximal developed tension in response to noradrenaline, when compared with that from normotensive rats. In superior mesenteric arteries, the sensitivity to noradrenaline was similar in all examined rat groups but in L-NAME-treated rats, these arteries exhibited decreased active force when stimulated with high noradrenaline concentrations, or with 100 mM KCl. These results indicate that hypertension leads to specific biomechanical alterations in diverse arterial types which are reflected in different modifications in their contractile properties.

  8. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats

    PubMed Central

    Whidden, Melissa A.; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-01-01

    [Purpose] Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries [Methods] Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. [Results] Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. [Conclusion] These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli. PMID:27508155

  9. Altered potassium ATP channel signaling in mesenteric arteries of old high salt-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Whidden, Melissa A; Basgut, Bilgen; Kirichenko, Nataliya; Erdos, Benedek; Tümer, Nihal

    2016-06-01

    Both aging and the consumption of a high salt diet are associated with clear changes in the vascular system that can lead to the development of cardiovascular disease; however the mechanisms are not clearly understood. Therefore, we examined whether aging and the consumption of excess salt alters the function of potassium ATP-dependent channel signaling in mesenteric arteries. Young (7 months) and old (29 months) Fischer 344 x Brown Norway rats were fed a control or a high salt diet (8% NaCl) for 12 days and mesenteric arteries were utilized for vascular reactivity measurements. Acetylcholine-induced endothelium relaxation was significantly reduced in old arteries (81 ± 4%) when compared with young arteries (92 ± 2%). Pretreatment with the potassium-ATP channel blocker glibenclamide reduced relaxation to acetylcholine in young arteries but did not alter dilation in old arteries. On a high salt diet, endothelium dilation to acetylcholine was significantly reduced in old salt arteries (60 ± 3%) when compared with old control arteries (81 ± 4%). Glibenclamide reduced acetylcholine-induced dilation in young salt arteries but had no effect on old salt arteries. Dilation to cromakalim, a potassium-ATP channel opener, was reduced in old salt arteries when compared with old control arteries. These findings demonstrate that aging impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation in mesenteric arteries. Furthermore, a high salt diet alters the function of potassium-ATP-dependent channel signaling in old isolated mesenteric arteries and affects the mediation of relaxation stimuli.

  10. Pancreaticoduodenal arterial rupture and hemoabdomen in ACI/SegHsd rats with polyarteritis nodosa.

    PubMed

    Cohen, Joyce K; Cai, Li-Qun; Zhu, Yuan-Shan; La Perle, Krista M D

    2007-08-01

    Many lesions associated with aging have been well-characterized in various strains of rats. Although documented in Sprague-Dawley and spontaneously hypertensive rats, polyarteritis nodosa has not previously been reported in ACI/SegHsd rats. ACII SegHsd rats were maintained on high-fat (40.5%), low-fat (11.6%), and high-fat to low-fat dietary protocols to examine the correlation between dietary fat and the regulation of prostate 5alpha-reductase gene expression and prostate cancer. Seven rats died unexpectedly with hemoabdomen and rupture of the pancreaticoduodenal artery secondary to polyarteritis nodosa (PAN). The purpose of this study was to analyze the pathologic findings in these and the remaining ACI/SegHsd rats and to correlate the level of dietary fat with the presence of PAN, arterial rupture, and hemoabdomen. Approximately 65% of the rats had evidence of PAN by histopathology, with a 24% incidence of arterial rupture. Additional lesions noted included an 88% incidence of chronic progressive nephropathy (CPN) and a 32% incidence of cartilaginous foci in the aortic valve. We found no association between the percentage of dietary fat and incidence of PAN, CPN, or cardiac cartilage. Although arterial rupture is a known complication of polyarteritis nodosa in humans, this case series is the first to document arterial rupture and hemoabdomen in rats with PAN.

  11. Caloric restriction increases internal iliac artery and penil nitric oxide synthase expression in rat: comparison of aged and adult rats.

    PubMed

    Ozbek, Emin; Simsek, Abdulmuttalip; Ozbek, Mustafa; Somay, Adnan

    2013-09-26

    Because of the positive corelation between healthy cardiovascular system and sexual life we aimed to evaluate the effect of caloric restriction (CR) on endothelial and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (eNOS, nNOS) expression in cavernousal tissues and eNOS expression in the internal iliac artery in young and aged rats. Young (3 mo, n = 7) and aged (24 mo, n = 7) male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to 40% CR and were allowed free access to water for 3 months. Control rats (n = 14) fed ad libitum had free access to food and water at all times. On day 90, rats were sacrificed and internal iliac arteries and penis were removed and parafinized, eNOS and nNOS expression evaluated with immunohistochemistry. Results were evaluated semiquantitatively. eNOS and nNOS expression in cavernousal tis- sue in CR rats were more strong than in control group in both young and old rats. eNOS expression was also higher in the internal iliac arteries of CR rats than in control in young and old rats. As a result of our study we can say that there is a positive link between CR and neurotransmitter of erection in cavernousal tissues and internal iliac arteries. CR has beneficial effect to prevent sexual dysfunction in young and old animals and possible humans.

  12. An in vivo Rat Model of Artery Buckling for Studying Wall Remodeling

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2014-01-01

    Theoretical modeling and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that arterial buckling is a possible mechanism for the development of artery tortuosity. However, there has been no report of whether artery buckling develops into tortuosity, partially due to the lack of in vivo models for long-term studies. The objective of this study was to establish an in vivo buckling model in rat carotid arteries for studying arterial wall remodeling after buckling. Rat left carotid arteries were transplanted to the right carotid arteries to generate buckling under in vivo pressure and were maintained for 1 week to examine wall remodeling and adaptation. Our results showed that a significant buckling was achieved in the carotid arterial grafts with altered wall stress. Cell proliferation and matrix metalloprotinease-2 (MMP-2) expression in the buckled arteries increased significantly compared with the controls. The tortuosity level of the grafts also slightly increased 1 week post-surgery, while there was no change in vessel dimensions, blood pressure, and blood flow velocity. The artery buckling model provides a useful tool for further study of the adaptation of arteries into tortuous shapes. PMID:24793586

  13. An in vivo rat model of artery buckling for studying wall remodeling.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jinzhou; Liu, Qin; Han, Hai-Chao

    2014-08-01

    Theoretical modeling and in vitro experiments have demonstrated that arterial buckling is a possible mechanism for the development of artery tortuosity. However, there has been no report of whether artery buckling develops into tortuosity, partially due to the lack of in vivo models for long-term studies. The objective of this study was to establish an in vivo buckling model in rat carotid arteries for studying arterial wall remodeling after buckling. Rat left carotid arteries were transplanted to the right carotid arteries to generate buckling under in vivo pressure and were maintained for 1 week to examine wall remodeling and adaptation. Our results showed that a significant buckling was achieved in the carotid arterial grafts with altered wall stress. Cell proliferation and matrix metalloprotinease-2 (MMP-2) expression in the buckled arteries increased significantly compared with the controls. The tortuosity level of the grafts also slightly increased 1 week post-surgery, while there was no change in vessel dimensions, blood pressure, and blood flow velocity. The artery buckling model provides a useful tool for further study of the adaptation of arteries into tortuous shapes.

  14. Alterations in structure and mechanics of resistance arteries from ouabain-induced hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Briones, Ana M; Xavier, Fabiano E; Arribas, Silvia M; González, M Carmen; Rossoni, Luciana V; Alonso, María J; Salaices, Mercedes

    2006-07-01

    We have previously described that chronic administration of ouabain induces hypertension and functional alterations in mesenteric resistance arteries. The aim of this study was to analyze whether ouabain treatment also alters the structural and mechanical properties of mesenteric resistance arteries. Wistar rats were treated for 5 wk with ouabain (8.0 microg/day sc). The vascular structure and mechanics of the third-order branches of the mesenteric artery were assessed with pressure myography and confocal microscopy. Total collagen content was determined by picrosirius red staining, collagen I/III was analyzed by Western blot, and elastin was studied by confocal microscopy. Vascular reactivity was analyzed by wire myography. Internal and external diameters and cross-sectional area were diminished, whereas the wall-to-lumen ratio was increased in arteries from ouabain-treated rats compared with controls. In addition, arteries from ouabain-treated rats were stiffer. Ouabain treatment decreased smooth muscle cell number and increased total and I/III collagens in the vascular wall. However, this treatment did not modify adventitia and media thickness, nuclei morphology, elastin structure, and vascular reactivity to norepinephrine and acetylcholine. The present work shows hypotrophic inward remodeling of mesenteric resistance arteries from ouabain-treated rats that seems to be the consequence of a combination of decreased cell number and impaired distension of the artery, possibly due to a higher stiffness associated with collagen deposition. The narrowing of resistance arteries could play a role in the pathogenesis of hypertension in this model.

  15. Characterization of pressure-mediated vascular tone in resistance arteries from bile duct-ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Jadeja, Ravirajsinh N.; Thounaojam, Menaka C.; Khurana, Sandeep

    2017-01-01

    In cirrhosis, changes in pressure-mediated vascular tone, a key determinant of systemic vascular resistance (SVR), are unknown. To address this gap in knowledge, we assessed ex vivo dynamics of pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries (diameter ~ 260 μm) from bile duct-ligated (BDL) and sham-operated (SHAM) rats and determined the underlying mechanisms. At isobaric intraluminal pressure (70 mmHg) as well as with step-wise increase in pressure (10-110 mmHg), arteries from SHAM-rats constricted more than BDL-rats, and had reduced luminal area. In both groups, incubation with LNAME (a NOS inhibitor) had no effect on pressure-mediated tone, and expression of NOS isoforms were similar. TEA, which enhances Ca2+ influx, augmented arterial tone only in SHAM-rats, with minimal effect in those from BDL-rats that was associated with reduced expression of Ca2+ channel TRPC6. In permeabilized arteries, high-dose Ca2+ and γGTP enhanced the vascular tone, which remained lower in BDL-rats that was associated with reduced ROCK2 and pMLC expression. Further, compared to SHAM-rats, in BDL-rats, arteries had reduced collagen expression which was associated with increased expression and activity of MMP-9. BDL-rats also had increased plasma reactive oxygen species (ROS). In vascular smooth muscle cells in vitro, peroxynitrite enhanced MMP-9 activity and reduced ROCK2 expression. These data provide evidence that in cirrhosis, pressure-mediated tone is reduced in resistance arteries, and suggest that circulating ROS play a role in reducing Ca2+ sensitivity and enhancing elasticity to induce arterial adaptations. These findings provide insights into mechanisms underlying attenuated SVR in cirrhosis. PMID:28430609

  16. Horner's syndrome: a complication of experimental carotid artery surgery in rats.

    PubMed

    Aalbers, M W; Rijkers, K; van Winden, L A A P; Hoogland, G; Vles, J S H; Majoie, H J M

    2009-05-11

    To report on the occurrence of iatrogenic Horner's syndrome (HS) in epileptic rats after implantation of an electrode for vagus nerve stimulation and to describe the possible consequences of this new complication of carotid artery surgery in rats. A bipolar circular electrode was placed around the left carotid artery and vagus nerve of 31 rats. The incidence of HS was evaluated by visual inspection within 24 h after surgery. 68% of rats suffered from HS immediately after surgery. This complication did not affect epileptogenesis. The occurrence of HS in the rat is a frequent complication of vagus nerve electrode implantation, which does not affect epileptogenesis in this study. However, rats affected by HS may suffer from damage to the sympathetic innervation of the gut, due to rat-specific neuroanatomy. Therefore, caution towards other research questions is warranted.

  17. Spinal cord injury increases the reactivity of rat tail artery to angiotensin II

    PubMed Central

    Al Dera, Hussain; Brock, James A.

    2015-01-01

    Studies in individuals with spinal cord injury (SCI) suggest the vasculature is hyperreactive to angiotensin II (Ang II). In the present study, the effects of SCI on the reactivity of the rat tail and mesenteric arteries to Ang II have been investigated. In addition, the effects of SCI on the facilitatory action of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions of these vessels were determined. Isometric contractions of artery segments from T11 (tail artery) or T4 (mesenteric arteries) spinal cord-transected rats and sham-operated rats were compared 6–7 weeks postoperatively. In both tail and mesenteric arteries, SCI increased nerve-evoked contractions. In tail arteries, SCI also greatly increased Ang II-evoked contractions and the facilitatory effect of Ang II on nerve-evoked contractions. By contrast, SCI did not detectably change the responses of mesenteric arteries to Ang II. These findings provide the first direct evidence that SCI increases the reactivity of arterial vessels to Ang II. In addition, in tail artery, the findings indicate that Ang II may contribute to modifying their responses following SCI. PMID:25610365

  18. Ouabain–digoxin antagonism in rat arteries and neurones

    PubMed Central

    Song, Hong; Karashima, Eiji

    2014-01-01

    Key points ‘Classic’ cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) all inhibit Na+,K+‐ATPase (Na+ pumps) and exert cardiotonic and vasotonic effects. Nevertheless, prolonged ouabain, but not digoxin, administration induces hypertension; moreover, digoxin antagonizes the hypertensinogenic effect of ouabain.To examine acute ouabain–digoxin interactions, we tested these and related CTSs on myogenic tone (MT) in pressurized rat mesenteric small arteries and glutamate‐evoked Ca2+ transients in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurones.The CTSs (0.3–10 nm) all augmented MT at 70 mmHg and Ca2+ signals, but separated into two functional groups according to whether they were ouabain‐ or digoxin‐like. CTSs within each group were synergistic, but between groups, were antagonistic to one another in both assays.Na+ pump αβ protomers may function as tetraprotomers ((αβ)4) with quarter‐site reactivity; simultaneous ouabain‐ and digoxin‐like molecule binding promotes tetraprotomer disaggregation, enabling partial protomer reactivation.These results may reveal why some patients respond poorly to digoxin therapy, and why Na+ pumps may be a novel target for therapeutic development. Abstract ‘Classic’ cardiotonic steroids (CTSs) such as digoxin and ouabain selectively inhibit Na+,K+‐ATPase (the Na+ pump) and, via Na+/Ca2+ exchange (NCX), exert cardiotonic and vasotonic effects. CTS action is more complex than previously thought: prolonged subcutaneous administration of ouabain, but not digoxin, induces hypertension, and digoxin antagonizes ouabain's hypertensinogenic effect. We studied the acute interactions between CTSs in two indirect assays of Na+ pump function: myogenic tone (MT) in isolated, pressurized rat mesenteric small arteries, and Ca2+ signalling in primary cultured rat hippocampal neurones. The ‘classic’ CTSs (0.3–10 nm) behaved as ‘agonists’: all increased MT70 (MT at 70 mmHg) and augmented glutamate‐evoked Ca2+ (Fura‐2) signals. We then

  19. Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats

    PubMed Central

    Beltz, Terry G.; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2010-01-01

    We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much or more water in response to ANG II compared with young rats, depending on whether intakes were analyzed using absolute or body weight-adjusted values. When arterial blood pressure first was reduced with minoxidil, MAP in response to ANG II stabilized at significantly lower levels compared with control conditions for all groups. Young rats drank significantly more water under reduced pressure conditions compared with control conditions, while middle-aged and old rats did not. Urine volume in response to ANG II was lower, while water balance was higher, under conditions of reduced pressure compared with control conditions. Baroreflex control of heart rate was substantially reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged animals. In summary, young rats appear to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of increased arterial blood pressure on water drinking than are older animals. PMID:20739604

  20. Drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to ANG II in young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Thunhorst, Robert L; Beltz, Terry G; Johnson, Alan Kim

    2010-11-01

    We investigated water drinking and arterial blood pressure responses to intravenous infusions of ANG II in young (4 mo), middle-aged adult (12 mo), and old (29 mo) male Brown Norway rats. Infusions of ANG II began with arterial blood pressure either at control levels or at reduced levels following injection of the vasodilator minoxidil. Under control conditions, mean arterial pressure (MAP) in response to ANG II rose to the same level for all groups, and middle-aged and old rats drank as much or more water in response to ANG II compared with young rats, depending on whether intakes were analyzed using absolute or body weight-adjusted values. When arterial blood pressure first was reduced with minoxidil, MAP in response to ANG II stabilized at significantly lower levels compared with control conditions for all groups. Young rats drank significantly more water under reduced pressure conditions compared with control conditions, while middle-aged and old rats did not. Urine volume in response to ANG II was lower, while water balance was higher, under conditions of reduced pressure compared with control conditions. Baroreflex control of heart rate was substantially reduced in old rats compared with young and middle-aged animals. In summary, young rats appear to be more sensitive to the inhibitory effects of increased arterial blood pressure on water drinking than are older animals.

  1. Equol increases cerebral blood flow in rats via activation of large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells.

    PubMed

    Yu, Wei; Wang, Yan; Song, Zheng; Zhao, Li-Mei; Li, Gui-Rong; Deng, Xiu-Ling

    2016-05-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the effect of equol on cerebral blood flow and the underlying molecular mechanisms. The regional cerebral blood flow in parietal lobe of rats was measured by using a laser Doppler flowmetry. Isolated cerebral basilar artery and mesenteric artery rings from rats were used for vascular reactivity measurement with a multi wire myography system. Outward K(+) current in smooth muscle cells of cerebral basilar artery, large-conductance Ca(2+)-activated K(+) (BK) channel current in BK-HEK 293 cells stably expressing both human α (hSlo)- and β1-subunits, and hSlo channel current in hSlo-HEK 293 cells expressing only the α-subunit of BK channels were recorded with whole cell patch-clamp technique. The results showed that equol significantly increased regional cerebral blood flow in rats, and produced a concentration-dependent but endothelium-independent relaxation in rat cerebral basilar arteries. Both paxilline and iberiotoxin, two selective BK channel blockers, significantly inhibited equol-induced vasodilation in cerebral arteries. Outward K(+) currents in smooth muscle cells of cerebral basilar artery were increased by equol and fully reversed by washout or blockade of BK channels with iberiotoxin. Equol remarkably enhanced human BK current in BK-HEK 293 cells, but not hSlo current in hSlo-HEK 293 cells, and the increase was completely abolished by co-application of paxilline. Our findings provide the first information that equol selectively stimulates BK channel current by acting on its β1 subunit, which may in turn contribute to the equol-mediated vasodilation and cerebral blood flow increase.

  2. Quantitative Indexes of Leukocytes in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats During Various Periods of Arterial Hypertension Development.

    PubMed

    Aliev, O I; Anishchenko, A M; Sidekhmenova, A V; Shamanaev, A Yu; Fedorova, E P; Plotnikov, M B

    2015-10-01

    SHR rats were examined in the period before arterial hypertension development (5th week), during the increase in BP (6th-10th weeks), and under conditions of constantly elevated BP (11th-12th weeks). The total number of leukocytes did not differ in SHR and normotensive WKY rats. However, the relative number of lymphocytes and monocytes was shown to differ in various periods of arterial hypertension development. Our results suggest that white blood cells (primarily lymphocytes) are involved in the development of arterial hypertension.

  3. Peripheral and Cerebral Resistance Arteries in the Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure Rat: Effects of Stilbenoid Polyphenols.

    PubMed

    Lee, Danielle I; Acosta, Crystal; Anderson, Christopher M; Anderson, Hope D

    2017-02-28

    Hypertension is associated with aberrant structure and mechanical properties of resistance arteries. We determined the effects of resveratrol, a non-flavonoid polyphenol found in foods such as red grapes, and structurally-similar analogues (pterostilbene and gnetol) on systolic blood pressure (SBP) and resistance arteries from the spontaneously hypertensive heart failure (SHHF) rat. SBP was elevated in 17-week-old SHHF vs. Sprague-Dawley rats (normotensive control; 194 ± 3 vs. 142 ± 6 mmHg, p < 0.01) and was unaffected by resveratrol, pterostilbene, or gnetol (2.5 mg/kg/d). Geometry and mechanical properties of pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries and middle cerebral arteries were calculated from media and lumen dimensions measured at incremental intraluminal pressures. SHHF arteries exhibited remodeling which consisted of augmented media-to-lumen ratios, and this was attenuated by stilbenoid treatment. Compliance was significantly reduced in SHHF middle cerebral arteries but not mesenteric arteries vis-à-vis increased wall component stiffness; stilbenoid treatment failed to normalize compliance and wall component stiffness. Our data suggest that neither AMPK nor ERK mediate stilbenoid effects. In conclusion, we observed arterial bed-specific abnormalities, where mesenteric resistance arteries exhibited remodeling and cerebral arteries exhibited remodeling and stiffening. Resveratrol, pterostilbene, and gnetol exhibited similar abilities to attenuate vascular alterations.

  4. Congenital basilar impression: correlated neurological syndromes.

    PubMed

    Bassi, P; Corona, C; Contri, P; Paiocchi, A; Loiero, M; Mangoni, A

    1992-01-01

    A series of 8 cases operated on for symptomatic basilar impression associated with occipitalization of the atlas is reported (with or without atlantoaxial dislocation). Symptoms of onset (such as the frequent association between nuchal pain and vertigo) are emphasized and analyzed in relation to the pathogenetic mechanism that underlies the multiform symptomatology of the basilar impression. The diagnostic workup for basilar impression foresees X-rays, magnetic resonance imaging and computed tomography. The most important diagnostic problem is that of considering the possible existence of such a pathology in the presence of very common symptoms such as nuchal pain and vertigo. The surgical treatment has certainly been useful both to improve and to stabilize the symptomatology mainly when there is atlantoaxial dislocation. In fact in these cases the symptomatology is more severe and progressive for the alteration of the transverse ligament of the atlas secondary to abnormal mechanical stimuli.

  5. Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension, hemodynamic changes and brain metabolites in hypertensive ISIAH rats: MRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel, A L; Akulov, A E

    2017-03-08

    The study of early development of the arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of etiolody and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. MRI technique was applied to evaluate the hemodynamic and brain metabolites changes in 1- and 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive WAG rats (8 male rats). In the 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, age-dependent increase in the blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of abdominal aorta. The renal vascular resistance in the ISIAH rats decreased while aging, though, at both ages it remained higher than the renal vascular resistance in WAG rats. Integral metabolome portrait demonstrated that hypertension development in the ISIAH rats was associated with attenuation of excitatory and energetic activity in the prefrontal cortex, whereas in the WAG rats, the opposite age-dependent changes were observed. In contrast, in hypothalamus of 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, an increase in energetic activity and prevalence of excitatory neurotransmitters over inhibitory was noticed. The blood flow through the main arteries showed positive correlation with glutamate and glutamine levels in hypothalamus, and negative one - with hypothalamic GABA level. The blood pressure values positively correlated with hypothalamic choline levels. Thus, the early development of the stress-sensitive hypertension in the ISIAH rats is accompanied by considerable changes both in brain metabolite ratios and in the parameters of blood flow through the main arteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  6. Characteristics of plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase of rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Kwan, C Y

    1983-01-01

    General characteristics of alkaline phosphatase activity of the plasma membrane-enriched fraction isolated from rat mesenteric arteries were investigated. The vascular smooth muscle plasmalemma alkaline phosphatase is a metalloenzyme which is strongly inhibited by chelating agents and this inhibition can be completely overcome by addition of Mg2+ or Ca2+. Zn2+ only partially reactivates the enzyme in the presence of low concentrations of EDTA. The enzymatic hydrolysis of p-nitrophenyl phosphate, beta-glycerophosphate, alpha-glycerophosphate, or 3'-adenosine monophosphate showed an optimal activity in the alkaline region between pH 9 and 11. The alkaline phosphatase activity is distinctly different from the plasmalemma ATPase and 5'-nucleotidase activities with respect to their pH dependence, influence by added divalent metal ions and stability against heat inactivation. Vanadate ion, being structurally similar to the transition state analog of the phosphoryl group, potently inhibits alkaline phosphatase with an apparent Ki of 1.5 microM. The altered alkaline phosphatase activity of vascular smooth muscle in relation to its possible physiological function and pathophysiological manifestation associated with hypertensive disease are discussed.

  7. Pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats due to age-related arginase activation in intermittent hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Nara, Akina; Nagai, Hisashi; Shintani-Ishida, Kaori; Ogura, Sayoko; Shimosawa, Tatsuo; Kuwahira, Ichiro; Shirai, Mikiyasu; Yoshida, Ken-ichi

    2015-08-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is prevalent in patients with obstructive sleep apnea syndrome (OSAS). Aging induces arginase activation and reduces nitric oxide (NO) production in the arteries. Intermittent hypoxia (IH), conferred by cycles of brief hypoxia and normoxia, contributes to OSAS pathogenesis. Here, we studied the role of arginase and aging in the pathogenesis of PAH in adult (9-mo-old) and young (2-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats subjected to IH or normoxia for 4 weeks and analyzed them with a pressure-volume catheter inserted into the right ventricle (RV) and by pulsed Doppler echocardiography. Western blot analysis was conducted on arginase, NO synthase isoforms, and nitrotyrosine. IH induced PAH, as shown by increased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, in adult rats but not in young rats. IH increased expression levels of arginase I and II proteins in the adult rats. IH also increased arginase I expression in the pulmonary artery endothelium and arginase II in the pulmonary artery adventitia. Furthermore, IH reduced pulmonary levels of nitrate and nitrite but increased nitrotyrosine levels in adult rats. An arginase inhibitor (N(ω)-hydroxy-nor-1-arginine) prevented IH-induced PAH and normalized nitrite and nitrate levels in adult rats. IH induced arginase up-regulation and PAH in adult rats, but not in young rats, through reduced NO production. Our findings suggest that arginase inhibition prevents or reverses PAH.

  8. [Unruptured intracranial aneurysms associated with vascular disorder of the vertebro-basilar system: report of five cases].

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, M; Jimbo, M; Ide, M; Kasai, T; Tanaka, N; Takeyama, E

    1987-12-01

    Among fifty-two angiographically examined patients of vertebro-basilar disorder, incidental intracranial aneurysms were found in five cases. These were four males and a female, ages ranging from 42-67 year old. Vertebro-basilar disorders were ischemic origin in three cases and hemorrhage in two cases. Locations of incidental aneurysms were the internal carotid artery, middle cerebral artery, anterior communicating artery and basilar artery. They were multiple in three cases. They were operated on radically, except one case whose status seemed to be untolerable to the operation. Intervals between strokes and operations were 51-81 days. In spite of successful operation, mild to moderate disturbances of consciousness appeared in three cases. In two cases they were subsided in a week, but in one case it persisted for two months. Fortunately, final results in all operative cases were good. These transient deterioration of consciousness level might probably be ascribed to vertebro-basilar insufficiency once subsided but resumed due to the operative affections. Through a small experience of four cases, three points would be discussed to prevent such hazards. 1) Extreme systemic hypotension as well as hypertension should be avoided during operation. 2) GOF might be an anesthesia of choice in such cases. 3) Operation should be favorably waited for more than six months after the ictus.

  9. Intra-arterial application of magnetic nanoparticles for targeted thrombolytic therapy: A rat embolic model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ma, Yunn-Hwa; Hsu, Ya-Wun; Chang, Yeu-Jhy; Hua, Mu-Yi; Chen, Jyh-Ping; Wu, Tony

    2007-04-01

    Targeted delivery of thrombolytic drug to the site of emboli exhibits potential to greatly reduce hemorrhagic side effect. A rat embolic model with an easy access of a magnet was established for study of the efficacy of magnetic drug targeting. In anesthetized rats, a whole blood clot produced in vitro was injected from the right iliac artery and lodged in the left iliac artery. Intra-arterial infusion of recombinant tissue plasminogen activator (rt-PA) thereafter significantly reversed the iliac flow within 15 min. Placement of an NdFeB magnet above the left iliac artery caused magnetic nanoparticle retention against hemodynamic dragging force in the presence and absence of the clot. Our results suggest the feasibility of this rat embolic model for the study of magnetic targeted delivery of thrombolytic drugs.

  10. MR imaging of familial basilar impression.

    PubMed

    Bewermeyer, H; Dreesbach, H A; Hünermann, B; Heiss, W D

    1984-10-01

    Basilar impression was found in three members of one family. The mother showed an asymptomatic deformity, her eldest son complained of headache, drop-attacks, nystagmus, unilateral ophthalmoplegia, and ataxia; the middle son presented with headache, nystagmus, and hemiparesis. Magnetic resonance (MR) imaging demonstrated convexobasia of various degrees with elevation of the upper spine and malformation of the occipital bone. The medulla oblongata and the pons were flattened and dislocated backward in two cases. Chiari malformation was present in one case and mild hydrocephalus in another. A comparison of MR with CT imaging demonstrates some advantages of the former method in the assessment of the neural structures directly involved in basilar impression.

  11. Daily short-period gravitation can prevent functional and structural changes in arteries of simulated microgravity rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Biao; Zhang, Li-Fan; Gao, Fang; Ma, Xiao-Wu; Zhang, Miao-Li; Liu, Jian; Zhang, Le-Ning; Ma, Jin

    2004-09-01

    This study was designed to clarify whether simulated microgravity-induced differential adaptational changes in cerebral and hindlimb arteries could be prevented by daily short-period restoration of the normal distribution of transmural pressure across arterial vasculature by either dorsoventral or footward gravitational loading. Tail suspension (Sus) for 28 days was used to simulate cardiovascular deconditioning due to microgravity. Daily standing (STD) for 1, 2, or 4 h, or +45 degrees head-up tilt (HUT) for 2 or 4 h was used to provide short-period dorsoventral or footward gravitational loading as countermeasure. Functional studies showed that Sus alone induced an enhancement and depression in vasoconstrictor responsiveness of basilar and femoral arterial rings, respectively, as previously reported. These differential functional alterations can be prevented by either of the two kinds of daily gravitational loading treatments. Surprisingly, daily STD for as short as 1 h was sufficient to prevent the differential functional changes that might occur due to Sus alone. In morphological studies, the effectiveness of daily 4-h HUT or 1-h STD in preventing the differential remodeling changes in the structure of basilar and anterior tibial arteries induced by Sus alone was examined by histomorphometry. The results showed that both the hypertrophic and atrophic changes that might occur, respectively, in cerebral and hindlimb arteries due to Sus alone were prevented not only by daily HUT for 4 h but also by daily STD even for 1 h. These data indicate that daily gravitational loading by STD for as short as 1 h is sufficient to prevent differential adaptational changes in function and structure of vessels in different anatomic regions induced by a medium-term simulated microgravity.

  12. Changes in the pulmonary arteries of the rat during recovery from hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension.

    PubMed

    Hislop, A; Reid, L

    1977-12-01

    Pulmonary hypertension has been induced in rats by 2 weeks' exposure to hypoxia, equivalent to an altitude of approximately 5500 m, in a hypobaric chamber. The rats were removed from the chamber and allowed to recover for up to 8 weeks at atmospheric pressure. Precise quantitative microscopic techniques after injection of the pulmonary artery have been used to estimate the regression in the pulmonary artery of the structural changes associated with pulmonary hypertension. During recovery the degree of muscularization of the pulmonary arteries decreases by disappearance of muscle cells from the small arteries and a drop in arterial wall thickness of larger vessels. These changes do not seem to reflect pulmonary artery pressure directly, since right ventricular hypertrophy regresses at a faster rate. In hypertensive rats there is a "loss" of small arteries in the alveolar region and little filling of precapillary vessels. On recovery, some of the vessels fill, suggesting that encroachment on the lumen by muscle and endothelial cells has lessened. Even after 8 weeks' recovery, however, some arteries do not return, suggesting they have completely disappeared and that regions are left with relatively little perfusion. This reduction of vascular reserve presents without there being right ventricular hypertrophy.

  13. Brief communications: visualization of coronary arteries in rats by 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography.

    PubMed

    Ishikura, Fuminobu; Hirayama, Hideo; Iwata, Akiko; Toshida, Tsutomu; Masuda, Kasumi; Otani, Kentaro; Asanuma, Toshihiko; Beppu, Shintaro

    2008-05-01

    Angiogenesis is under intense investigation to advance the treatment of various ischemic diseases. Small animals, such as mice and rats, are often used for this purpose. However, evaluating the structure of coronary arteries in small animals in situ is not easy. We succeeded in visualizing the coronary artery in rats on 3-dimensional real-time contrast echocardiography using a high-frequency transducer. These methods will be applied for more convenient assessment in a new study, examining issues such as angiogenesis using rats in situ.

  14. Binding and functional pharmacological characteristics of gepant-type antagonists in rat brain and mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Sheykhzade, Majid; Amandi, Nilofar; Pla, Monica Vidal; Abdolalizadeh, Bahareh; Sams, Anette; Warfvinge, Karin; Edvinsson, Lars; Pickering, Darryl S

    2017-03-01

    The neuropeptide calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is found in afferent sensory nerve fibers innervating the resistance arteries and plays a pivotal role in a number of neurovascular diseases such as migraine and subarachnoid bleedings. The present study investigates the binding and antagonistic characteristics of small non-peptide CGRP receptor antagonists (i.e. gepants) in isolated rat brain and mesenteric resistance arteries. The antagonistic behavior of gepants was investigated in isolated rat mesenteric arteries using a wire myograph setup while binding of gepants to CGRP receptors was investigated in rat brain membranes using a radioligand competitive binding assay. Furthermore, the histological location of the key components of CGRP receptor (RAMP1 and CLR) was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Our functional studies clearly show that all gepants are reversible competitive antagonists producing Schild plot slopes not significantly different from unity and thus suggesting presence of a uniform CGRP receptor population in the arteries. A uniform receptor population was also confirmed by radioligand competitive binding studies showing similar affinities for the gepants in rat brain and mesenteric arteries, the exception being rimegepant which had 50-fold lower affinity in brain than mesenteric arteries. CLR and RAMP1 were shown to be located in both vascular smooth muscle and endothelial cells of rat mesenteric arteries by immunohistochemistry. The present results indicate that, despite species differences in the CGRP receptor affinity, the antagonistic nature of these gepants, the distribution pattern of CGRP receptor components and the mechanism behind CGRP-induced vasodilation seem to be similar in resistance-sized arteries of human and rats. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Dynamics of change in rat arterial pressure under conditions of immobilization

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yumatov, Y. A.; Skotselyas, Y. G.; Ivanona, L. I.

    1980-01-01

    Emotional stress developed in immobilized rats was shown to be accompanied by changes in the regulation of arterial pressure and the frequency of cardiac contractions. A group of adapting rats displayed definite resistance to emotional stress, while a group of rats incapable of adapting to acute emotional stress died with characteristics of cardiovascular insufficiency. The mechanisms providing resistance to emotional stress in numerous conflict situations were analyzed.

  16. Noradrenaline-induced changes in intracellular Ca(2+) and tension in mesenteric arteries from diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Chow, W L; Zhang, L; MacLeod, K M

    2001-09-01

    1. The purpose of this investigation was to determine whether enhanced contractile responses to noradrenaline (NA) of mesenteric arteries from rats with chronic streptozotocin-induced diabetes are associated with increases in mean cytosolic [Ca(2+)]i. 2. [Ca(2+)]i was measured with fura 2-AM, and was monitored simultaneously with tension in perfused endothelium-denuded mesenteric arterial rings from 12 - 14 week diabetic rats and age- and gender-matched control rats. 3. Basal [Ca(2+)]i (expressed as R(n), the normalized fura 2 ratio) was not significantly different in arteries from control and diabetic rats. Similarly, no differences between control and diabetic arteries in the tension or [Ca(2+)]i responses to 80 mM KCl in the presence of phentolamine were detected. 4. The rate of tension development, peak tension and integrated tension in response to 30 microM NA were all significantly greater in diabetic than control arteries. However, this was not associated with enhancement of the corresponding [Ca(2+)]i responses in the diabetic arteries. 5. Peak contractile responses to perfusion with both 0.3 and 3 microM NA, but peak [Ca(2+)]i only in response to 0.3 microM NA, were significantly greater in diabetic than control arteries. 6. NA (30 microM) produced a greater increase in both peak tension and [Ca(2+)]i in diabetic than control arteries perfused with Ca(2+)-free solution containing 1 mM EGTA. Neither the rate nor the magnitude of NA-induced Ca(2+) influx appeared to be altered in the diabetic arteries. 7. The enhanced sustained contractile response of diabetic arteries to NA appears to be dissociated from increases in [Ca(2+)]i, and may be due to other factors, such as an increase in the Ca(2+) sensitivity of the contractile proteins.

  17. Removal of anterior clinoid process for basilar tip aneurysm: clinical and cadaveric analysis.

    PubMed

    Sato, S; Sato, M; Oizumi, T; Nishizawa, M; Ishikawa, M; Inamasu, G; Kawase, T

    2001-06-01

    The difficulty in the operation for basilar tip aneurysm is the restriction in surgical working space. To resolve this problem, aggressive skull base surgery has been reported, but these techniques are not prevalent. Pterional and subtemporal approaches are commonly used for basilar tip aneurysms. In an attempt to increase the surgical working space during the pterional approach, the anterior clinoid process and the roof of the optic nerve were removed extradurally to increase the mobilization of the intracranial internal carotid artery and optic nerve. The effects of removing the anterior clinoid process and microanatomy in the perioptic area were analyzed by cadaveric procedures in 10 cases (20 sides). With this procedure, the internal carotid artery can be retracted medially with a spatula 6.1 +/- 0.8 mm (mean +/- SD). The length and the area of dural fold in the bone defect region in the optic canal roof are 2.1 mm and 13.6 mm. In 10 clinical cases, this procedure allowed enough space to approach the basilar tip aneurysm without disturbing the internal carotid artery blood flow. The clinical outcome was satisfactory.

  18. Renin system of the kidney in ISIAH rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fedoseeva, L A; Dymshits, G M; Markel, A L; Jakobson, G S

    2009-02-01

    The renal renin system was studied in ISIAH rats with inherited stress-induced arterial hypertension. The expression of genes for renin (Ren1) and cyclooxygenase (Cox-2) was evaluated in renal tissue of ISIAH and WAG rats (normotensive control). Basal gene expression for Ren1 and Cox-2 in ISIAH rats was much lower than in WAG rats. Water deprivation for 11 h was followed by a 4-fold increase in Cox-2 gene expression in ISIAH rats. The increase in gene expression was insignificant in WAG rats (by 30%). Renin gene expression in renal tissue of ISIAH and WAG rats remained practically unchanged after water deprivation. We conclude that a change in Cox-2 gene expression after short-term water deprivation serves as a reliable criterion for functional strain of the renal renin system in hypertensive ISIAH rats.

  19. Paradoxical role of angiotensin II type 2 receptors in resistance arteries of old rats

    PubMed Central

    Pinaud, Frédéric; Bocquet, Arnaud; Dumont, Odile; Retailleau, Kevin; Baufreton, Christophe; Andriantsitohaina, Ramaroson; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2007-01-01

    The role of angiotensin II type 2 receptors (AT2R) remains a matter of controversy. Its vasodilatory and antitrophic properties are well accepted. Nevertheless, in hypertensive rats AT2R stimulation induces a vasoconstriction counteracting flow-mediated dilation (FMD). This contraction is reversed by hydralazine. As FMD is also decreased in aging, another risk factor for cardiovascular diseases, we hypothesized that AT2R function might be altered in old rats resistance arteries. Mesenteric resistance arteries (250 μm diameter) were isolated from old (24 months) and control (4 months) rats receiving hydralazine (16 mg/kg/day, 2 weeks) or water. FMD, NO-mediated dilation and eNOS expression were lower in old than in control rats. AT2R blockade improved FMD in old rats, suggesting that AT2R stimulation produced vasoconstriction. AT2R expression was higher in old rats and mainly located in the smooth muscle layer. In old rats AT2R stimulation induced endothelium-independent contraction, which was suppressed by the antioxydant Tempol. Reactive oxygen species (ROS) level was higher in old rats arteries than in controls. Hydralazine improved FMD and NO-dependent dilation in old rats without change in AT2R expression and location. In old rats treated with hydralazine ROS level was reduced in endothelial and smooth muscle cells and AT2R-dependent contraction was abolished. Thus, AT2R stimulation induced vasoconstriction through activation of ROS production, contributing to decrease FMD in old rats resistance arteries. Hydralazine suppressed AT2R-dependent ROS production and AT2R-dependent contraction, improving FMD. Importantly, endothelial alterations in aging were reversible. These findings are important to consider in the choice of vasoactive drugs in aging. PMID:17485601

  20. Basilar impression in a child with hypochondroplasia.

    PubMed

    Wong, V C; Fung, C F

    1991-01-01

    A 4-year-old boy with hypochondroplasia presented with delay in gross motor development. Magnetic resonance imaging demonstrated basilar impression with compression at the craniovertebral junction and mild degree of hydrocephalus. Posterior fossa decompression resulted in improvement in neurologic function and relief of hydrocephalus.

  1. Interaction of perivascular adipose tissue and sympathetic nerves in arteries from normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Török, J; Zemančíková, A; Kocianová, Z

    2016-10-24

    The inhibitory action of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in modulation of arterial contraction has been recently recognized and contrasted with the prohypertensive effect of obesity in humans. In this study we demonstrated that PVAT might have opposing effect on sympatho-adrenergic contractions in different rat conduit arteries. In superior mesenteric artery isolated from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), PVAT exhibited inhibitory influence on the contractions to exogenous noradrenaline as well as to endogenous noradrenaline released from arterial sympathetic nerves during transmural electrical stimulation or after application of tyramine. In contrast, the abdominal aorta with intact PVAT responded with larger contractions to transmural electrical stimulation and tyramine when compared to the aorta after removing PVAT; the responses to noradrenaline were similar in both. This indicates that PVAT may contain additional sources of endogenous noradrenaline which could be responsible for the main difference in the modulatory effect of PVAT on adrenergic contractions between abdominal aortas and superior mesenteric arteries. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the anticontractile effect of PVAT in mesenteric arteries was reduced, and the removal of PVAT completely eliminated the difference in the dose-response curves to exogenous noradrenaline between SHR and WKY. These results suggest that in mesenteric artery isolated from SHR, the impaired anticontractile influence of PVAT might significantly contribute to its increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimuli.

  2. The GPR55 agonist lysophosphatidylinositol relaxes rat mesenteric resistance artery and induces Ca2+ release in rat mesenteric artery endothelial cells

    PubMed Central

    AlSuleimani, Y M; Hiley, C R

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose Lysophosphatidylinositol (LPI), a lipid signalling molecule, activates GPR55 and elevates intracellular Ca2+. Here, we examine the actions of LPI in the rat resistance mesenteric artery and Ca2+ responses in endothelial cells isolated from the artery. Experimental Approach Vascular responses were studied using wire myographs. Single-cell fluorescence imaging was performed using a MetaFluor system. Hypotensive effects of LPI were assessed using a Biopac system. Key Results In isolated arteries, LPI-induced vasorelaxation was concentration- and endothelium-dependent and inhibited by CID 16020046, a GPR55 antagonist. The CB1 receptor antagonist AM 251 had no effect, whereas rimonabant and O-1918 significantly potentiated LPI responses. Vasorelaxation was reduced by charybdotoxin and iberiotoxin, alone or combined. LPI decreased systemic arterial pressure. GPR55 is expressed in rat mesenteric artery. LPI caused biphasic elevations of endothelial cell intracellular Ca2+. Pretreatment with thapsigargin or 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate abolished both phases. The PLC inhibitor U73122 attenuated the initial phase and enhanced the second phase, whereas the Rho-associated kinase inhibitor Y-27632 abolished the late phase but not the early phase. Conclusions and Implications LPI is an endothelium-dependent vasodilator in the rat small mesenteric artery and a hypotensive agent. The vascular response involves activation of Ca2+-sensitive K+ channels and is not mediated by CB1 receptors, but unexpectedly enhanced by antagonists of the ‘endothelial anandamide’ receptor. In endothelial cells, LPI utilizes PLC-IP3 and perhaps ROCK-RhoA pathways to elevate intracellular Ca2+. Overall, these findings support an endothelial site of action for LPI and suggest a possible role for GPR55 in vasculature. PMID:25652040

  3. Bypass Surgery for the Treatment of Dolichoectatic Basilar Trunk Aneurysms: A Work in Progress

    PubMed Central

    Lawton, Michael T.; Abla, Adib A.; Rutledge, W. Caleb; Benet, Arnau; Zador, Zsolt; Rayz, Vitaliy; Saloner, David; Halbach, Van

    2016-01-01

    BACKGROUND The treatment of dolichoectatic basilar trunk aneurysms has been ineffectual or morbid due to non-saccular morphology, deep location, and involvement of brainstem perforators. Treatment with bypass surgery has been advocated to eliminate malignant hemodynamics and stabilize aneurysm growth. OBJECTIVE To validate that flow alteration with bypass and parent artery occlusion favorably impacts aneurysm progression. METHODS Surgical management evolved in 3 phases, each with different hemodynamic alterations. RESULTS During a 17-year period, 37 patients with dolichoectatic basilar trunk aneurysms were retrospectively identified, of whom 21 patients were observed, 12 treated immediately, and 4 selected for treatment after clinical progression. In Phase 1, flow reversal was overly thrombogenic, despite heparin (N=5, final mortality, 100%). In Phase 2, flow reduction with IC-IC bypass was safer than flow reversal but did not prevent progressive aneurysm enlargement (N=3, final mortality 67%). In Phase 3, distal clip occlusion of the basilar trunk aneurysm preserved anterograde flow in the aneurysm without rupture, but reduced flow threatened perforator patency, despite treatment with Clopidogrel (Plavix) (N=8, final mortality 62%). CONCLUSION Shifting treatment strategy for dolichoectatic basilar trunk aneurysms improved surgical (80% to 50%) and final mortalities (100% to 62%), with stabilization of aneurysms in the Phase 3 survivors. Good outcomes are determined by perforator preservation and mitigating aneurysm thrombosis. Occlusion techniques with increased distal run-off appear to benefit perforators. The treatment of dolichoectatic basilar trunk aneurysms can advance through concentrated management in dedicated centers, concerted efforts to study morphology/hemodynamics with computational methods, and widespread collection of registry data. PMID:26671632

  4. Novel Model of Pulmonary Artery Banding Leading to Right Heart Failure in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hirata, Masataka; Ousaka, Daiki; Arai, Sadahiko; Okuyama, Michihiro; Tarui, Suguru; Kobayashi, Junko; Kasahara, Shingo; Sano, Shunji

    2015-01-01

    Background. Congenital heart diseases often involve chronic pressure overload of the right ventricle (RV) which is a major cause of RV dysfunction. Pulmonary artery (PA) banding has been used to produce animal models of RV dysfunction. We have devised a new and easier method of constricting the PA and compared it directly with the partial ligation method. Methods. Eight-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats (240–260 g) were divided into three groups: sham operation, partial pulmonary artery ligation (PAL) procedure, and pulmonary artery half-closed clip (PAC) procedure. RV function and remodeling were determined by echocardiography and histomorphometry. Results. Surgical mortality was significantly lower in the PAC group while echocardiography revealed significantly more signs of RV dysfunction. At the 8th week after surgery RV fibrosis rate was significantly higher in the PAC group. Conclusions. This procedure of pulmonary artery banding in rats is easier and more efficient than partial ligation. PMID:26504827

  5. Development of sympathetic innervation to proximal and distal arteries of the rat mesentery.

    PubMed Central

    Hill, C E; Hirst, G D; van Helden, D F

    1983-01-01

    The changes which occur during the post-natal development of sympathetic innervation to proximal and distal arteries of the rat mesentery have been examined using intracellular recording and histochemical techniques. In the youngest animals examined, single perivascular stimuli initiated slow depolarizing potentials which were not calcium-dependent. After day 4, single stimuli failed to initiate membrane potential changes in a proportion of preparations. This stage coincided with the period of extensive ramification of sympathetic nerve fibres over the surface of the arterioles. From day 9 onwards, membrane potential changes were again initiated by single stimuli in the distal arteries. These responses were distinct from those recorded from the younger animals and in many ways resembled excitatory junction potentials recorded from the arteries of mature animals. There was a gradient in the development of the innervation to the arteries of the rat mesentery, with that to the distal vessels maturing earlier than that to the more proximal vessels. PMID:6875954

  6. Calcium channels are differentially activated in cerebral and hindquarter arteries of rats during simulated microgravity

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xie, Man-Jiang; Fu, Zhao-Jun; Zhang, Li-Fan; Ma, Jin; Cheng, Hong-Wei

    2005-08-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether L-type Ca2+ channels (CaL) are differentially activated in cerebral and mesenteric arteries during simulated microgravity. The function of CaL in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) was studied by whole-cell patch clamp. For cerebral arteries, the VSMCs of suspended rats had a more depolarized membrane potential (Em) and a larger calcium current density as compared with those of control rats. For small mesenteric arteries, VSMCs of suspended rats had a more negative Em and smaller calcium current densities. These results suggested that different profiles of channel remodeling in VSMCs might occur and play an important role in vascular adaptation to microgravity.

  7. Increased arterial distensibility induced by the angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitor, lisinopril, in normotensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Makki, T.; Talom, R. T.; Niederhoffer, N.; Amin, F.; Tankosic, P.; Mertès, P. M.; Atkinson, J.

    1994-01-01

    1. We investigated possible structural correlates of the beneficial effect of chronic angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibition (ACEI) with lisinopril on the aortic distensibility of normotensive rats. 2. Experiments were performed in young (4-month old), normotensive, Wistar rats which received lisinopril in their drinking water (0.9 or 9 mg kg-1 day-1) for 9 months. 3. Following ACEI treatment, rats were pithed and aortic pulse wave velocity was measured during the progressive rise in mean arterial blood pressure produced by i.v. infusion of the alpha 1-adrenoceptor agonist, phenylephrine. The slope of the regression line relating aortic pulse wave velocity to mean arterial blood pressure was taken as an index of aortic distensibility. Following this, the aorta was fixed in situ at a normotensive pressure level and histomorphometry was performed. We also measured the calcium content of the aortic wall by atomic absorption. 4. The lower dose of lisinopril failed to lower systolic arterial blood pressure (unanaesthetized rat) or mean arterial blood pressure (pithed rat). Chronic ACEI with the higher dose of lisinopril lowered both systolic arterial blood pressure (104 +/- 6 mmHg, controls 133 +/- 4 mmHg, unanaesthetized), and mean arterial blood pressure (27 +/- 1 mmHg, controls 34 +/- 2 mmHg, pithed). 5. Although the lower dose of lisinopril did not lower blood pressure, it did improve aortic distensibility as revealed by a fall in the slope relating aortic pulse wave velocity (Y) to mean arterial blood pressure (X). Values were 5.7 +/- 0.7, 3.8 +/- 0.6 and 2.7 +/- 0.3 in controls, and in low and high ACEI groups, respectively.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8004398

  8. 20-HETE modulates myogenic response of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from hypertensive Dahl-SS rats.

    PubMed

    Frisbee, J C; Roman, R J; Krishna, U M; Falck, J R; Lombard, J H

    2001-03-01

    The present study determined the role of 20-hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid [20-HETE; produced by omega-hydroxylation of arachidonic acid via cytochrome P-450 (CP450) 4A enzymes] in regulating myogenic activation of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from normotensive (NT) and hypertensive (HT) Dahl salt-sensitive (SS) rats. Gracilis arteries (GA) were isolated from each rat and viewed via television microscopy, and changes in vessel diameter with altered transmural pressure were measured with a video micrometer. Under control conditions, GA from both groups exhibited strong, endothelium-independent myogenic activation. Treatment of GA with 17-octadecynoic acid (17-ODYA; inhibitor of CP450 4A enzymes) did not alter myogenic activation in NT rats, but impaired this response in HT animals. Treatment of GA from HT rats with dibromo-dodecynyl-methylsulfimide (DDMS; inhibitor of 20-HETE production) impaired myogenic activation, as did application of 20-hydroxyeicosa-6(Z),15(Z)-dienoic acid, an antagonist for 20-HETE receptors. Application of iberiotoxin, a Ca(2+)-activated potassium (K(Ca)) channel inhibitor, restored myogenic activation from HT rats treated with DDMS. These results suggest that myogenic activation of skeletal muscle resistance arteries from NT Dahl-SS rats does not depend on CP450, whereas myogenic activation of these vessels in HT Dahl-SS rats is partly a function of 20-HETE production, inhibiting K(Ca) channels through a receptor-mediated process.

  9. Evaluation of plasma von Willebrand factor as a biomarker for acute arterial damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Newsholme, S J; Thudium, D T; Gossett, K A; Watson, E S; Schwartz, L W

    2000-01-01

    Plasma von Willebrand factor (vWF) was evaluated as a potential biomarker of acute arterial damage in rats after a vasotoxic dose of the dopaminergic vasodilator, fenoldopam (FP). Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given FP or isotonic saline by subcutaneous injection, and plasma vWF was measured at 2, 6, and 24 hours after challenge. Mean plasma vWF values increased in FP-treated rats compared to controls at 2 hours (167 vs 122%; p < 0.05) and 6 hours postdose (172 vs 130%; p < 0.01) but were comparable to control values after 24 hours. Mesenteric arterial lesions were observed microscopically in all FP-treated rats 24 hours postdose but were not present in rats at 1, 2, 4, 6, or 8 hours after FP challenge. Further, plasma vWF concentrations increased in saline-treated rats after only the minimal perturbation of repeated venipuncture. These results indicate an early, minimal, and transient release of vWF that precedes the onset of morphologically evident vascular damage. The minimal increases in plasma vWF concentrations were of limited predictive value, may be more reflective of an acute-phase reactant response, and were not considered a reliable biomarker of acute FP-induced arterial damage in the rat.

  10. Increased arterial smooth muscle Ca2+ signaling, vasoconstriction, and myogenic reactivity in Milan hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Linde, Cristina I.; Karashima, Eiji; Raina, Hema; Zulian, Alessandra; Wier, Withrow G.; Hamlyn, John M.; Ferrari, Patrizia; Blaustein, Mordecai P.

    2012-01-01

    The Milan hypertensive strain (MHS) rats are a genetic model of hypertension with adducin gene polymorphisms linked to enhanced renal tubular Na+ reabsorption. Recently we demonstrated that Ca2+ signaling is augmented in freshly isolated mesenteric artery myocytes from MHS rats. This is associated with greatly enhanced expression of Na+/Ca2+ exchanger-1 (NCX1), C-type transient receptor potential (TRPC6) protein, and sarco(endo)plasmic reticulum Ca2+-ATPase (SERCA2) compared with arteries from Milan normotensive strain (MNS) rats. Here, we test the hypothesis that the enhanced Ca2+ signaling in MHS arterial smooth muscle is directly reflected in augmented vasoconstriction [myogenic and phenylephrine (PE)-evoked responses] in isolated mesenteric small arteries. Systolic blood pressure was higher in MHS (145 ± 1 mmHg) than in MNS (112 ± 1 mmHg; P < 0.001; n = 16 each) rats. Pressurized mesenteric resistance arteries from MHS rats had significantly augmented myogenic tone and reactivity and enhanced constriction to low-dose (1–100 nM) PE. Isolated MHS arterial myocytes exhibited approximately twofold increased peak Ca2+ signals in response to 5 μM PE or ATP in the absence and presence of extracellular Ca2+. These augmented responses are consistent with increased vasoconstrictor-evoked sarcoplasmic reticulum (SR) Ca2+ release and increased Ca2+ entry, respectively. The increased SR Ca2+ release correlates with a doubling of inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate receptor type 1 and tripling of SERCA2 expression. Pressurized MHS arteries also exhibited a ∼70% increase in 100 nM ouabain-induced vasoconstriction compared with MNS arteries. These functional alterations reveal that, in a genetic model of hypertension linked to renal dysfunction, multiple mechanisms within the arterial myocytes contribute to enhanced Ca2+ signaling and myogenic and vasoconstrictor-induced arterial constriction. MHS rats have elevated plasma levels of endogenous ouabain, which may initiate the

  11. Hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction and vascular contractility in monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hae Jin

    2016-01-01

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is a progressive disease characterized by vascular remodeling of pulmonary arteries (PAs) and increased vascular resistance in the lung. Monocrotaline (MCT), a toxic alkaloid, is widely used for developing rat models of PAH caused by injury to pulmonary endothelial cells; however, characteristics of vascular functions in MCT-induced PAH vary and are not fully understood. Here, we investigated hypoxic pulmonary vasoconstriction (HPV) responses and effects of various vasoconstrictors with isolated/perfused lungs of MCT-induced PAH (PAH-MCT) rats. Using hematoxylin and eosin staining, we confirmed vascular remodeling (i.e., medial thickening of PA) and right ventricle hypertrophy in PAH-MCT rats. The basal pulmonary arterial pressure (PAP) and PAP increase by a raised flow rate (40 mL/min) were higher in the PAH-MCT than in the control rats. In addition, both high K+ (40 mM KCl)- and angiotensin II-induced PAP increases were higher in the PAH-MCT than in the control rats. Surprisingly, application of a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, L-NG-Nitroarginine methyl ester (L-NAME), induced a marked PAP increase in the PAH-MCT rats, suggesting that endothelial functions were recovered in the three-week PAH-MCT rats. In addition, the medial thickening of the PA was similar to that in chronic hypoxia-induced PAH (PAH-CH) rats. However, the HPV response (i.e., PAP increased by acute hypoxia) was not affected in the MCT rats, whereas HPV disappeared in the PAH-CH rats. These results showed that vascular contractility and HPV remain robust in the MCT-induced PAH rat model with vascular remodeling. PMID:27847441

  12. Implication of PDGF signaling in cigarette smoke-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rat.

    PubMed

    Xing, Ai-ping; Hu, Xiao-yun; Shi, Yi-wei; Du, Yong-cheng

    2012-07-01

    Pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH) is a severe disease characterized with progressive increase of pulmonary vascular resistance that finally causes right ventricular failure and premature death. Cigarette smoke (CS) is a major factor of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD) that can lead to PAH. However, the mechanism of CS-induced PAH is poorly understood. Mounting evidence supports that pulmonary vascular remodeling play an important role in the development of PAH. PDGF signaling has been demonstrated to be a major mediator of vascular remodeling implicated in PAH. However, the association of PDGF signaling with CS-induced PAH has not been documented. In this study, we investigated CS-induced PAH in rats and the expression of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and PDGF receptor (PDGFR) in pulmonary artery. Forty male rats were randomly divided into control group and three experimental groups that were exposed to CS for 1, 2, and 3 months, respectively. CS significantly increased right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP) and right ventricular hypertrophy index (RVHI). Histology staining demonstrated that CS significantly increased the thickness of pulmonary artery wall and collagen deposition. The expression of PDGF isoform B (PDGF-B) and PDGF receptor beta (PDGFRβ) were significantly increased at both protein and mRNA levels in pulmonary artery of rats with CS exposure. Furthermore, Cigarette smoke extract (CSE) significantly increased rat pulmonary artery smooth muscle cell (PASMC) proliferation, which was inhibited by PDGFR inhibitor Imatinib. Thus, our data suggest PDGF signaling is implicated in CS-induced PAH.

  13. Pitfalls of invasive blood pressure monitoring using the caudal ventral artery in rats

    PubMed Central

    Ohta, Hiroki; Ohki, Takao; Kanaoka, Yuji; Koizumi, Makoto; Okano, Hirotaka J.

    2017-01-01

    During rodent experiments, the caudal ventral artery (CVA) is useful for blood pressure (BP) measurement. However, CVA measurements may not reflect the true BP. This study was performed to verify the site-specific accuracy of invasive arterial BP monitoring during surgery in rats. Invasive arterial BP was simultaneously measured in rats via the CVA and the common carotid artery (CCA). The BP values were analysed while the rats were subjected to cooling of the head or tail. Additionally, the rats underwent digital subtraction angiography and histological examination of these arteries. The pressure difference was more significant in the tail cooling group than in the head cooling group. Digital subtraction angiography revealed that angiospasms occurred more frequently in the CVA than in the CCA upon cooling. This phenomenon was supported by histological analysis, which showed that the tunica media area was significantly larger in the CVA than in the CCA. CVA pressure is susceptible to environmental changes and may not accurately reflect the true BP without a strictly controlled laboratory environment. Therefore, understanding the pitfalls of this method is necessary to avoid cooling of the tail during BP measurement. PMID:28198822

  14. Copper induces vasorelaxation and antagonizes noradrenaline-induced vasoconstriction in rat mesenteric artery.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yu-Chun; Hu, Chao-Wei; Liu, Ming-Yu; Jiang, Hong-Chao; Huo, Rong; Dong, De-Li

    2013-01-01

    Copper is an essential trace element for normal cellular function and contributes to critical physiological or pathological processes. The aim of the study was to investigate the effects of copper on vascular tone of rat mesenteric artery and compare the effects of copper on noradrenaline (NA) and high K(+) induced vasoconstriction. The rat mesenteric arteries were isolated and the vessel tone was measured by using multi wire myograph system in vitro. Blood pressure of carotid artery in rabbits was measured by using physiological data acquisition and analysis system in vivo. Copper dose-dependently blunted NA-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. Copper-induced vasorelaxation was inhibited when the vessels were pretreated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME). Copper did not blunt high K(+)-induced vasoconstriction. Copper preincubation inhibited NA-evoked vasoconstriction and the inhibition was not affected by the presence of L-NAME. Copper preincubation showed no effect on high K(+)-evoked vasoconstriction. Copper chelator diethyldithiocarbamate trihydrate (DTC) antagonized the vasoactivity induced by copper in rat mesenteric artery. In vivo experiments showed that copper injection (iv) significantly decreased blood pressure of rabbits and NA or DTC injection (iv) did not rescue the copper-induced hypotension and animal death. Copper blunted NA but not high K(+)-induced vasoconstriction of rat mesenteric artery. The acute effect of copper on NA-induced vasoconstriction was depended on nitric oxide (NO), but the effect of copper pretreatment on NA-induced vasoconstriction was independed on NO, suggesting that copper affected NA-induced vasoconstriction by two distinct mechanisms. © 2013 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  15. Permanent catheterization of the carotid artery induces kidney infection and inflammation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Fonseca, Uno N K; Nielsen, Sanne Gram; Hau, Jann; Hansen, Axel Kornerup

    2010-01-01

    Catheterization of the carotid artery and the jugular vein is one of the most commonly applied techniques used to gain intravascular access in pharmacology studies on rodents. We catheterized 10 rats by conventional clean techniques, 10 rats by aseptic techniques and 10 rats by conventional clean techniques using a heparin-coated catheter rather than an ordinary non-coated polyvinyl chloride catheter. In all groups, approximately 80% of the rats developed kidney infection and 10-30% of the rats were septicaemic. Clinical chemistry did not indicate severe kidney damage, but serum haptoglobin and body temperature rises indicated an inflammatory response in rats independent of the surgical method. Heparin coating did not seem to improve the usability of the catheter. It is concluded that this commonly used method for catheterization has an impact on animals that may very well render them unsuitable for the purpose, e.g. pharmacological research, and therefore an alternative method would be preferable.

  16. Effects of CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody on rats with permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Liu, K. F.; Bree, M. P.

    1996-01-01

    The progression of a lesion from ischemic injury to infarct, after the permanent occlusion of a middle cerebral artery, may be influenced by the influx of leukocytes into the ischemic territory. We aimed to evaluate the effectiveness of treating rats that had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion with a single dose of an anti-CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody injected 1 hour after the arterial occlusion. To mimic the clinical situation of patients with ischemic strokes who may be treated within 1 hour of the ischemic event, the artery remained occluded. Forty-one adult Wistar rats had permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion, and one was subjected to a sham operation. One hour later, 22 rats received CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody and an additional 20 were injected either with a nonspecific antibody (n = 10) or a buffer solution (n = 10). Experiments were terminated at intervals ranging 12 to 96 hours after the arterial occlusion. Endpoints included neurological testing, daily evaluation of body weight, counts of white blood cells in the peripheral blood, measurement of the area of pallor in the ischemic hemisphere, counts of necrotic neurons, and counts of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere. In experiments terminated 12 hours after the arterial occlusion (n = 4), there were fewer necrotic neurons in the group treated with the CD11b/18 monoclonal antibody compared with the two controls (P < .05), but this difference was not reflected in the neurological scores. Numbers of necrotic neurons in experiments terminated > 12 hours later were not different among the three subgroups. White blood cell counts in peripheral blood were lower in animals with arterial occlusion injected with the monoclonal antibody CD11b/18 (P < .05); numbers of leukocytes sequestered in the ischemic hemisphere were not different in the three groups. Neither changes in body weight nor in the volume of the area of pallor were significantly different among the three groups. Images

  17. Resveratrol Improved Flow-Mediated Outward Arterial Remodeling in Ovariectomized Rats with Hypertrophic Effect at High Dose

    PubMed Central

    Petit, Marie; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Grimaud, Linda; Vessieres, Emilie; Toutain, Bertrand; Menet, Marie-Claude; Nivet-Antoine, Valérie; Arnal, Jean-François; Loufrani, Laurent; Procaccio, Vincent; Henrion, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Chronic increases in blood flow in resistance arteries induce outward remodeling associated with increased wall thickness and endothelium-mediated dilatation. This remodeling is essential for collateral arteries growth following occlusion of a large artery. As estrogens have a major role in this remodeling, we hypothesized that resveratrol, described as possessing phytoestrogen properties, could improve remodeling in ovariectomized rats. Methods Blood flow was increased in vivo in mesenteric arteries after ligation of adjacent arteries in 3-month old ovariectomized rats treated with resveratrol (5 or 37.5 mg/kg per day: RESV5 or RESV37.5) or vehicle. After 2 weeks arterial structure and function were measured in vitro in high flow (HF) and normal flow (NF) arteries isolated from each rat. Results Arterial diameter was greater in HF than in NF arteries in ovariectomized rats treated with RESV5 or RESV37.5, not in vehicle-treated rats. In mice lacking estrogen receptor alpha diameter was equivalent in HF and NF arteries whereas in mice treated with RESV5 diameter was greater in HF than in NF vessels. A compensatory increase in wall thickness and a greater phenylephrine-mediated contraction were observed in HF arteries. This was more pronounced in HF arteries from RESV37.5-treated rats. ERK1/2 phosphorylation, involved in hypertrophy and contraction, were higher in RESV37.5-treated rats than in RESV5- and vehicle-treated rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was greater in HF than in NF arteries in RESV5-treated rats only. In HF arteries from RESV37.5-treated rats relaxation was increased by superoxide reduction and markers of oxidative stress (p67phox, GP91phox) were higher than in the 2 other groups. Conclusion Resveratrol improved flow-mediated outward remodeling in ovariectomized rats thus providing a potential therapeutic tool in menopause-associated ischemic disorders. This effect seems independent of the estrogen receptor alpha. Nevertheless

  18. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  19. Contribution of the vertebral artery to cerebral circulation in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zippel, K. C.; Lillywhite, H. B.; Mladinich, C. R.; Hargens, A. (Principal Investigator)

    1998-01-01

    Blood supplying the brain in vertebrates is carried primarily by the carotid vasculature. In most mammals, cerebral blood flow is supplemented by the vertebral arteries, which anastomose with the carotids at the base of the brain. In other tetrapods, cerebral blood is generally believed to be supplied exclusively by the carotid vasculature, and the vertebral arteries are usually described as disappearing into the dorsal musculature between the heart and head. There have been several reports of a vertebral artery connection with the cephalic vasculature in snakes. We measured regional blood flows using fluorescently labeled microspheres and demonstrated that the vertebral artery contributes a small but significant fraction of cerebral blood flow (approximately 13% of total) in the rat snake Elaphe obsoleta. Vascular casts of the anterior vessels revealed that the vertebral artery connection is indirect, through multiple anastomoses with the inferior spinal artery, which connects with the carotid vasculature near the base of the skull. Using digital subtraction angiography, fluoroscopy, and direct observations of flow in isolated vessels, we confirmed that blood in the inferior spinal artery flows craniad from a point anterior to the vertebral artery connections. Such collateral blood supply could potentially contribute to the maintenance of cerebral circulation during circumstances when craniad blood flow is compromised, e.g., during the gravitational stress of climbing.

  20. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries.

    PubMed

    Rutkai, Ibolya; Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V; Busija, David W

    2015-11-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using N(ω)-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I-V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  1. Dynamics of enhanced mitochondrial respiration in female compared with male rat cerebral arteries

    PubMed Central

    Dutta, Somhrita; Katakam, Prasad V.; Busija, David W.

    2015-01-01

    Mitochondrial respiration has never been directly examined in intact cerebral arteries. We tested the hypothesis that mitochondrial energetics of large cerebral arteries ex vivo are sex dependent. The Seahorse XFe24 analyzer was used to examine mitochondrial respiration in isolated cerebral arteries from adult male and female Sprague-Dawley rats. We examined the role of nitric oxide (NO) on mitochondrial respiration under basal conditions, using Nω-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester, and following pharmacological challenge using diazoxide (DZ), and also determined levels of mitochondrial and nonmitochondrial proteins using Western blot, and vascular diameter responses to DZ. The components of mitochondrial respiration including basal respiration, ATP production, proton leak, maximal respiration, and spare respiratory capacity were elevated in females compared with males, but increased in both male and female arteries in the presence of the NOS inhibitor. Although acute DZ treatment had little effect on mitochondrial respiration of male arteries, it decreased the respiration in female arteries. Levels of mitochondrial proteins in Complexes I–V and the voltage-dependent anion channel protein were elevated in female compared with male cerebral arteries. The DZ-induced vasodilation was greater in females than in males. Our findings show that substantial sex differences in mitochondrial respiratory dynamics exist in large cerebral arteries and may provide the mechanistic basis for observations that the female cerebral vasculature is more adaptable after injury. PMID:26276815

  2. Comparative morphological and histochemical aspects of selected arteries in the chicken and rat.

    PubMed

    Fischer, V W; Kloetzer, W S; Baker, K E

    1977-01-01

    Morphologic and histochemical characteristics of selected portions of normal arteries from two species known to differ in susceptibility to vascular disease were examined. Arteries were classified as predominantly elastic, muscular or complex. Species differences in the structural organization of the abdominal aortic segment were observed. Arterial mucopoly-saccharides were stained more intensely in the tunica intima and media of chicken vessels than within those of the rat, and tended to be most concentrated in proximity of the internal elastic membrane. Histochemical procedures for the demonstration of enzymatic activity revealed inter-and intraspecies variations in vascular metabolism. Pronounced differences in reaction intensity for hydroxybutyrate dehydrogenase and malic enzyme, affecting chicken and rat coronary arteries, were noted. In contrast, theses vessels displayed only minimal activity for acid phosphatase. Marked endothelial deposition of alkaline phosphatase reaction products in the arteries of the chicken was demonstrated, while this enzyme's activity in the vessels of the rat was restricted to the tunica adventitia. The implications of these structural and histochemical factors with regard to vascular susceptibility to disease were discussed.

  3. Warfarin exposure and calcification of the arterial system in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Howe, A M; Webster, W S

    2000-01-01

    There is evidence from knock-out mice that the extrahepatic vitamin K-dependent protein, matrix gla protein, is necessary to prevent arterial calcification. The aim of this study was to determine if a warfarin treatment regimen in rats, designed to cause extra-hepatic vitamin K deficiency, would also cause arterial calcification. Sprague-Dawley rats were treated from birth for 5–12 weeks with daily doses of warfarin and concurrent vitamin K1. This treatment causes an extrahepatic vitamin K deficiency without affecting the vitamin K-dependent blood clotting factors. At the end of treatment the rats were killed and the vascular system was examined for evidence of calcification. All treated animals showed extensive arterial calcification. The cerebral arteries and the veins and capillaries did not appear to be affected. It is likely that humans on long-term warfarin treatment have extrahepatic vitamin K deficiency and hence they are potentially at increased risk of developing arterial calcification. PMID:10718864

  4. The vasodilatory action of telmisartan on isolated mesenteric artery rings from rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Xiao-Ping; Qian, Li-Ren

    2015-10-01

    Angiotensin II type 1 receptor blockers (ARBs) represent one of the widely used antihypertensive agents. In addition to anti-hypertension effect, some ARBs also show other molecular effects such as activating peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ and so on. Here we studied the effects of telmisartan on the rat isolated mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine (PE). Rat mesenteric artery rings were pre-contracted with 10 μM PE, and cumulative concentration-response curves to telmisartan were obtained. The endothelium-dependent mechanisms were investigated by mechanical removal of the endothelium. K(+) channels were investigated by pretreatment of the artery rings with various K(+) channel blockers. Telmisartan produced concentration-dependent relaxation of the artery rings pre-contracted by 10 μM PE. Denudation of the endothelium did not affect the relaxant effect of telmisartan. Pretreatment with BaCl2 nearly inhibited the relaxation induced by the 0.5, 1, 5 and 10 μM telmisartan, but did not affect the relaxation induced by the 50 and 100 μM telmisartan. While the relaxation induced by telmisartan was not affected by pretreatment with TEA, 4-AP and glibenclamide. These findings demonstrated that telmisartan produces concentration dependent vasodilation in isolated rat mesenteric artery rings with or without endothelium pre-contracted by PE. KIR channel may be involved in such a relaxant effect of telmisartan.

  5. Effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 in diabetic rat small resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Bayram, Zeliha; Nacitarhan, Cahit; Ozdem, Sadi S

    2014-09-01

    We investigated the functional effects of glucagon-like peptide-1 [GLP-1(7-36)] and GLP-1(9-36) and the mechanism(s) playing a role in the effects of these agents in isolated small resistance arteries from control and diabetic rats. Cumulative concentrations of GLP-1(7-36) and GLP-1(9-36) produced concentration-dependent relaxations in endothelium-intact but not endothelium-denuded arteries that were significantly decreased in diabetic rats. GLP-1 receptor antagonist exendin(9-39) significantly inhibited responses to GLP-1 analogs. Nitric oxide/cyclic guanosine monophosphate pathway blockers, but not indomethacin, significantly decreased responses to GLP-1(7-36) or GLP-1(9-36) in control and diabetic rats. 4-Aminopyridine or glibenclamide incubation did not alter relaxations to GLP-1 analogs. GLP-1(7-36)- and GLP-1(9-36)-induced relaxations were blunted significantly and to similar extends by charybdotoxin and apamin combination in control and diabetic rats. Catalase did not affect, whereas superoxide dismutase (SOD) caused a significant increase in relaxations to GLP-1 analogs only in diabetic rats. We provided evidence about the relaxant effects of GLP-1(7-36) and GLP-1(9-36) in resistance arteries that were reduced in diabetic rats. Both calcium-activated potassium channels and endothelium played a major role in relaxations. Increment in certain reactive oxygen species and/or reduction in superoxide dismutase function might play a role in reduced relaxant responses of resistance arteries to GLP-1(7-36) and GLP-1(9-36) in diabetic rats.

  6. Mechanisms of noradrenaline-induced vasorelaxation in isolated femoral arteries of the neonatal rat.

    PubMed

    Nishina, H; Ozaki, T; Hanson, M A; Poston, L

    1999-06-01

    Isolated arteries from the femoral circulation of Wistar rats mounted on a small vessel myograph demonstrated age related tension development to noradrenaline (NA, 1 x 10(-8) - 5 x 10(-5) M) day 20 greater than day 10 (P<0.005); day 100 greater than day 20 (P<0.001) and depolarizing potassium (125 mM) buffer day 20 greater than day 10 (P<0.001). NA evoked dilatation in femoral arteries from neonatal rats (10 days) when added to unstimulated vessels or to those preconstricted with the thromboxane mimetic, U46619. Relaxation to NA was inhibited by L-NAME (0.1 mM) (P<0.001), endothelial removal (P<0.001) and the alpha2-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (0.1 microM) (P<0.001). Alpha1- or beta-adrenoceptor antagonism was without effect. Relaxation was evoked in femoral arteries of the 10-day-old rats by the alpha2-adrenoceptor agonist UK14304 (1 x 10(-8) - 5 x 10(-5) M). This relaxation was also abolished by L-NAME (0.1 mM) (P<0.001) or endothelial removal (P<0.001). Alpha2-adrenoceptor-mediated vasorelaxation was the predominant response to NA stimulation in femoral arteries of the neonatal rat. These responses were endothelium-dependent and were NO-mediated.

  7. Fronto-temporo-orbitozygomatic craniotomy and "half-and-half" approach for basilar apex aneurysms.

    PubMed

    Behari, Sanjay; Das, Rupant K; Jaiswal, Awadhesh K; Jain, Vijendra K

    2009-01-01

    Basilar apex aneurysms (BAA) are located in interpeduncular cistern surrounded by eloquent neurovascular structures. Surgical access is difficult due to narrow surgical corridors and requires traversing through a depth of 6-8 cm of subarachnoid space. Surgical management of BAAs clipped using frontotemporal craniotomy, orbitozygomatic osteotomy with combined subtemporal and transylvian (half and half) approach is discussed. Tertiary care referral institute; prospective study. Five patients with BAA rupture causing subarachnoid hemorrhage presented in modified Hunt and Hess (Hand H) grades II (n=1), III (n=1) and IV (n=3), respectively. In 4 patients, the aneurysms were 0.8-1.2 cm in diameter, situated 7 mm-1 cm above dorsum sellae. Two of them had posteriorly projecting aneurysms. One patient had a giant, high BAA with a left parietooccipital arteriovenous malformation. Vasospasm of posterior cerebral/proximal basilar artery was seen in 2 patients. In one patient, internal carotid artery was mobilized by intradural anterior clinoid drilling with carotid collar division. Triple-H therapy was administered following surgery. There was no intraoperative rupture or temporary clipping. Follow up angiography showed complete aneurysmal obliteration with preservation of posterior cerebral and superior cerebellar arteries. Follow up (mean: 8.7+/-3.5 months) H and H grades were II (n=2) and III (n=3), respectively. The morbidity include caudate and thalamic region infarct, transient III rd nerve palsy and cerebrospinal fluid otorrhoea (n=1, respectively). This simple approach provides a wide surgical corridor from 5 mm below to greater than 1 cm above dorsum sellae with adequate proximal control of basilar artery. It is an option to endovascular embolization especially with large and giant, or wide-necked BAA, vertebrobasilar tortuosity, coil compaction or postcoiling re-rupture and an associated large haematoma.

  8. The stress of maternal separation causes misprogramming in the postnatal maturation of rat resistance arteries.

    PubMed

    Reho, John J; Fisher, Steven A

    2015-11-01

    We examined the effect of stress in the first 2 wk of life induced by brief periods of daily maternal separation on developmental programming of rat small resistance mesenteric arteries (MAs). In MAs of littermate controls, mRNAs encoding mediators of vasoconstriction, including the α1a-adrenergic receptor, smooth muscle myosin heavy chain, and CPI-17, the inhibitory subunit of myosin phosphatase, increased from after birth through sexual [postnatal day (PND) 35] and full maturity, up to ∼80-fold, as measured by quantitative PCR. This was commensurate with two- to fivefold increases in maximum force production to KCl depolarization, calcium, and the α-adrenergic agonist phenylephrine, and increasing systolic blood pressure. Rats exposed to maternal separation stress as neonates had markedly accelerated trajectories of maturation of arterial contractile gene expression and function measured at PND14 or PND21 (weaning), 1 wk after the end of the stress protocol. This was suppressed by the α-adrenergic receptor blocker terazosin (0.5 mg·kg ip(-1)·day(-1)), indicating dependence on stress activation of sympathetic signaling. Due to the continued maturation of MAs in control rats, by sexual maturity (PND35) and into adulthood, no differences were observed in arterial function or response to a second stressor in rats stressed as neonates. Thus early life stress misprograms resistance artery smooth muscle, increasing vasoconstrictor function and blood pressure. This effect wanes in later stages, suggesting plasticity during arterial maturation. Further studies are indicated to determine whether stress in different periods of arterial maturation may cause misprogramming persisting through maturity and the potential salutary effect of α-adrenergic blockade in suppression of this response.

  9. [Arterial blood pressure and high calcium diet in normal and mineralcorticoid (DOCA and sodium chloride hypertensive rats].

    PubMed

    Pernot, F; Berthelot, A; Gairard, A

    1978-01-01

    High calcium diet induces an hypertension lasting one week in normal rats. In mineralocorticoid treated rats (DOCA + NaCl), the same diet prevents for 10 weeks the increase of arterial blood pressure. Parathyroid activity (estimated by urinary cAMP) is decreased after the high calcium diet. These results confirm the role of the parathyroid glands in mineralocorticoid hypertension in the rat.

  10. Decreased interleukin-2 production by rat uterine artery, aorta and uterine tissues during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, M; Leiberman, J R; Yohay, D; Glezerman, M

    1996-06-01

    Changes in size and function during pregnancy are unique to the uterine artery. The aim of this study was to determine the interleukin (IL)-6 activity of the uterine artery wall tissue in pregnant rats. A total of 18 Charles River white rats (nine virgin and nine in midpregnancy) were used for the study. Bilateral uterine arteries were obtained, together with reference tissues from aorta and uterus. IL-6 production was measured as optical density (OD)/mg protein, in control culture media, and in the presence of stimulants including IL-1, tumour necrosis factor alpha and lipopolysaccharide. Polyclonal rabbit anti-human IL-6 antibodies were used to assess IL-6 activity. In control culture medium, uterine artery tissue samples from virgin rats produced significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 than samples obtained from pregnancy animals (1.8 +/- 0.3 versus 0.9 +/- 0.25 OD/mg protein respectively (mean +/- SE, P = 0.001). Stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increased IL-6 activity of the uterine artery wall. In comparison with the uterine artery, the aorta produced higher activities of IL-6, and its production in virgin animal samples was higher than during pregnancy. Stimulants increased IL-6 production by both aorta and uterus tissues. Neutralization of IL-6 activity was obtained in a range of 77-93% in all samples. The lower level of IL-6 activity during pregnancy in the uterine artery and in reference tissues including aorta and uterus, may be related to acceptance of pregnancy by maternal tissues.

  11. Endothelium-dependent and-independent relaxation induced by resveratrol in rat superior mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yulong; Xu, Cangbao; Wei, Yahui; Zhang, Yaping; Cao, Ailan

    2016-01-01

    Resveratrol (Res) is a specific agonist of sirtuin 1, and has many cardioprotective effects. Although Res is able to relax various vascular beds, its pharmacological properties in rat superior mesenteric arteries and the underlying mechanism are not well clarified. The aim of present study was to investigate the vasorelaxant effects of Res on rat superior mesenteric arteries and the mechanisms involved. The isometric tension of rat superior mesenteric arterial rings was recorded in vitro using myography. It was found that Res concentration-dependently relaxed endothelium-intact superior mesenteric artery rings pre-contracted by phenylephrine hydrochloride (Emax, 97.66±0.79%; pD2, 4.30±0.14) or KCl (Emax, 101.3±0.6%; pD2, 4.12±0.03). The vasorelaxant effect of Res on the superior mesenteric artery rings was partially endothelium-dependent. NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 µM) significantly inhibited the Res-induced vasorelaxant effect. However, 1H-[1,2,4]oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (10 µM) and indomethacin (5 µM) each had no effect on the Res-induced vasorelaxation. In artery rings without endothelium, the vasorelaxation induced by Res was attenuated by 4-aminopyridine (100 µM) and glibenclamide (10 µM). However, barium chloride dehydrate (10 µM) and tetraethylammonium chloride (1 mM) did not affect the vasorelaxation induced by Res. Moreover, Res also inhibited the contraction induced by an increase in external calcium concentration in Ca2+-free medium plus KCl (60 mM). These results suggest that Res induces relaxation in superior mesenteric arterial rings through an endothelium-dependent pathway, involving nitric oxide release, and also through an endothelium-independent pathway, with opening of voltage-dependent K+ channels and ATP-sensitive K+ channels and blockade of extracellular Ca2+ influx. PMID:27698719

  12. Elevated Testosterone Reduces Uterine Blood Flow, Spiral Artery Elongation, and Placental Oxygenation in Pregnant Rats.

    PubMed

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Mishra, Jay S; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Vincent, Kathleen L; Patrikeev, Igor; Motamedi, Massoud; Saade, George R; Hankins, Gary D; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2016-03-01

    Elevated maternal testosterone levels are shown to cause fetal growth restriction, eventually culminating in sex-specific adult-onset hypertension that is more pronounced in males than in females. In this study, we tested whether uteroplacental and fetoplacental disturbances underlie fetal growth restriction and if these changes vary in male and female placentas. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=16) or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/kg per day from gestation day 15-19; n=16). On gestation day 20, we quantified uterine artery blood flow using microultrasound, visualized placental arterial network using x-ray microcomputed tomography, determined fetoplacental hypoxia using pimonidazole and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and used Affymetrix array to determine changes in placental expression of genes involved in vascular development. Plasma testosterone levels increased 2-fold in testosterone-injected rats. Placental and fetal weights were lower in rats with elevated testosterone. Uterine artery blood flow was lower, and resistance index was higher in the testosterone group. Radial and spiral artery diameter and length, the number of fetoplacental arterial branches, and umbilical artery diameter were reduced in the testosterone group. In addition, markers of hypoxia in the placentas and fetuses were elevated in the testosterone group. The magnitude of changes in placental vasculature and hypoxia was greater in males than in females and was associated with sex-specific alteration of unique sets of genes involved in angiogenesis and blood vessel morphogenesis. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces a decrease in uterine arterial blood flow and fetal sex-related uteroplacental vascular changes, which may set the stage for subsequent sex differences in adult-onset diseases.

  13. ELEVATED TESTOSTERONE REDUCES UTERINE BLOOD FLOW, SPIRAL ARTERY ELONGATION AND PLACENTAL OXYGENATION IN PREGNANT RATS

    PubMed Central

    Gopalakrishnan, Kathirvel; Mishra, Jay S.; Chinnathambi, Vijayakumar; Vincent, Kathleen L.; Patrikeev, Igor; Motamedi, Massoud; Saade, George R.; Hankins, Gary D.; Sathishkumar, Kunju

    2016-01-01

    Elevated maternal testosterone levels are shown to cause fetal growth restriction, eventually culminating in sex-specific adult-onset hypertension that is more pronounced in males than females. In this study, we tested whether utero- and feto-placental disturbances underlie fetal growth restriction and if these changes vary in male and female placentas. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were injected with vehicle (n=16) or testosterone propionate (0.5 mg/Kg/day from gestation day 15–19; n=16). On gestation day 20, we quantified uterine artery blood flow using microultrasound, visualized placental arterial network using x-ray microcomputed tomography, determined fetoplacental hypoxia using pimonidazole and hypoxia-inducible factor-1α, and used Affymetrix array to determine changes in placental expression of genes involved in vascular development. Plasma testosterone levels increased 2-fold in testosterone-injected rats. Placental and fetal weights were lower in rats with elevated testosterone. Uterine artery blood flow was lower and resistance index was higher in testosterone group. Radial and spiral artery diameter and length, number of fetoplacental arterial branches, and umbilical artery diameter were reduced in the testosterone group. In addition, markers of hypoxia in the placentas and fetuses were elevated in the testosterone group. The magnitude of changes in placental vasculature and hypoxia were greater in males than females and were associated with sex-specific alteration of unique sets of genes involved in angiogenesis and blood vessel morphogenesis. The results demonstrate that elevated testosterone during gestation induces a decrease in uterine arterial blood flow and fetal sex-related uteroplacental vascular changes, which may set the stage for subsequent sex differences in adult-onset diseases. PMID:26781277

  14. Hydrogen sulphide induces vasoconstriction of rat coronary artery via activation of Ca(2+) influx.

    PubMed

    Ping, N-N; Li, S; Mi, Y-N; Cao, L; Cao, Y-X

    2015-05-01

    Hydrogen sulphide (H2S) exhibits a dual modulation of isolated artery tension. This study investigated the vasoconstrictive effect of sulphur sodium hydride (NaHS), a donor of gaseous H2S, on rat coronary artery. The contractile response of isolated arteries was recorded using a wire myograph. Fluo-3/AM was used to load vascular smooth muscle, and intracellular calcium was determined using confocal laser microscopy. The protein expression of Rho kinase was examined using Western blot. NaHS induced concentration-dependent contractions of rat coronary artery, and the contraction reached approx. 65% of 60 mm KCl-induced contraction. The NaHS-induced contraction was elevated following the removal of endothelium or the use of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitor L-NAME. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor indomethacin reduced NaHS-induced contraction. The Rho kinase inhibitor Y-27632 significantly attenuated NaHS-induced vasoconstriction. Furthermore, NaHS elevated the protein expression of Rho kinase. NaHS-induced contraction was completely abolished in a Ca(2+)-free solution and suppressed by the Ca(2+) influx blocker nifedipine (100 nm). NaHS also significantly increased the change rate of Ca(2+) fluorescence intensity. However, treatment with a Cl(-)/HCO(3-) exchanger blocker, K(+) channel blockers, the mitogen-activated protein kinase inhibitor U-0126 or cyclic adenosine monophosphate did not affect contraction. Species-dependent differences in NaHS-induced vasoconstriction were observed because these effects were only modest in dog coronary artery and absent in rabbit coronary artery. NaHS induces the contraction of rat coronary artery, which is dependent on the activation of Ca(2+) influx. Rho kinase likely participates in the vasoconstriction. © 2015 Scandinavian Physiological Society. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  15. Computational fluid dynamics evaluation of flow reversal treatment of giant basilar tip aneurysm.

    PubMed

    Alnæs, Martin Sandve; Mardal, Kent-Andre; Bakke, Søren; Sorteberg, Angelika

    2015-10-01

    Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal is a treatment option for giant, partially thrombosed basilar tip aneurysms. The effectiveness of this treatment has been variable and not yet studied by applying computational fluid dynamics. Computed tomography images and blood flow velocities acquired with transcranial Doppler ultrasonography were obtained prior to and after bilateral endovascular vertebral artery occlusion for a giant basilar tip aneurysm. Patient-specific geometries and velocity waveforms were used in computational fluid dynamics simulations in order to determine the velocity and wall shear stress changes induced by treatment. Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal lead to a dramatic increase in aneurysm inflow and wall shear stress (30 to 170 Pa) resulting in an increase in intra-aneurysmal circulation. The enlargement of the circulated area within the aneurysm led to a re-normalization of the wall shear stress and the aneurysm remained stable for more than 8 years thereafter. Therapeutic parent artery flow reversal can lead to unintended, potentially harmful changes in aneurysm inflow which can be quantified and possibly predicted by applying computational fluid dynamics. © The Author(s) 2015.

  16. Exercise training enhances insulin-stimulated nerve arterial vasodilation in rats with insulin-treated experimental diabetes.

    PubMed

    Olver, T Dylan; McDonald, Matthew W; Grisé, Kenneth N; Dey, Adwitia; Allen, Matti D; Medeiros, Philip J; Lacefield, James C; Jackson, Dwayne N; Rice, Charles L; Melling, C W James; Noble, Earl G; Shoemaker, J Kevin

    2014-06-15

    Insulin stimulates nerve arterial vasodilation through a nitric oxide (NO) synthase (NOS) mechanism. Experimental diabetes reduces vasa nervorum NO reactivity. Studies investigating hyperglycemia and nerve arterial vasodilation typically omit insulin treatment and use sedentary rats resulting in severe hyperglycemia. We tested the hypotheses that 1) insulin-treated experimental diabetes and inactivity (DS rats) will attenuate insulin-mediated nerve arterial vasodilation, and 2) deficits in vasodilation in DS rats will be overcome by concurrent exercise training (DX rats; 75-85% VO2 max, 1 h/day, 5 days/wk, for 10 wk). The baseline index of vascular conductance values (VCi = nerve blood flow velocity/mean arterial blood pressure) were similar (P ≥ 0.68), but peak VCi and the area under the curve (AUCi) for the VCi during a euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp (EHC; 10 mU·kg(-1)·min(-1)) were lower in DS rats versus control sedentary (CS) rats and DX rats (P ≤ 0.01). Motor nerve conduction velocity (MNCV) was lower in DS rats versus CS rats and DX rats (P ≤ 0.01). When compared with DS rats, DX rats expressed greater nerve endothelial NOS (eNOS) protein content (P = 0.04). In a separate analysis, we examined the impact of diabetes in exercise-trained rats alone. When compared with exercise-trained control rats (CX), DX rats had a lower AUCi during the EHC, lower MNCV values, and lower sciatic nerve eNOS protein content (P ≤ 0.03). Therefore, vasa nervorum and motor nerve function are impaired in DS rats. Such deficits in rats with diabetes can be overcome by concurrent exercise training. However, in exercise-trained rats (CX and DX groups), moderate hyperglycemia lowers vasa nervorum and nerve function. Copyright © 2014 the American Physiological Society.

  17. Impaired Ca2+ handling in penile arteries from prediabetic Zucker rats: involvement of Rho kinase.

    PubMed

    Villalba, Nuria; Contreras, Cristina; Hernández, Medardo; García-Sacristán, Albino; Prieto, Dolores

    2011-06-01

    Diabetes is associated with an increased vascular tone usually involved in the pathogenesis of diabetic cardiovascular complications such as hypertension, stroke, coronary artery disease, or erectile dysfunction (ED). Enhanced contractility of penile erectile tissue has been associated with augmented activity of the RhoA/Rho kinase (RhoK) pathway in models of diabetes-associated ED. The present study assessed whether abnormal vasoconstriction in penile arteries from prediabetic obese Zucker rats (OZRs) is due to changes in the intracellular Ca(2+) concentration ([Ca(2+)](i)) and/or in myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity. Penile arteries from OZRs and lean Zucker rats (LZRs) were mounted on microvascular myographs for simultaneous measurements of [Ca(2+)](i) and tension. The relationships between [Ca(2+)](i) and contraction for the α(1)-adrenergic vasoconstrictor phenylephrine (PE) were left shifted and steeper in OZRs compared with LZRs, although the magnitude of the contraction was similar in both groups. In contrast, the vasoconstriction induced by the thromboxane A(2) receptor agonist U-46619 was augmented in arteries from OZRs, and this increase was associated with an increase in both the sensitivity and maximum responses to Ca(2+). The RhoK inhibitor Y-27632 (10 μM) reduced the vasoconstriction induced by PE to a greater extent in OZRs than in LZRs, without altering Ca(2+). Y-27632 inhibited with a greater potency the contraction elicited by high KCl in arteries from OZRs compared with LZRs without changing [Ca(2+)](i). RhoK-II expression was augmented in arteries from OZRs. These results suggest receptor-specific changes in the Ca(2+) handling of penile arteries under conditions of metabolic syndrome. Whereas augmented vasoconstriction upon activation of the thromboxane A(2) receptor is coupled to enhanced Ca(2+) entry, a RhoK-mediated enhancement of myofilament Ca(2+) sensitivity is coupled with the α(1)-adrenergic vasoconstriction in penile arteries from OZRs.

  18. Bradykinin B2 receptor contributes to the exaggerated muscle mechanoreflex in rats with femoral artery occlusion

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Jian; Xing, Jihong

    2013-01-01

    Static muscle contraction activates the exercise pressor reflex, which in turn increases sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) and blood pressure (BP). Bradykinin (BK) is considered as a muscle metabolite responsible for modulation of the sympathetic and cardiovascular responses to muscle contraction. Prior studies have suggested that kinin B2 receptor mediates the effects of BK on the reflex SNA and BP responses during stimulation of skeletal muscle afferents. In patients with peripheral artery disease and a rat model with femoral artery ligation, amplified SNA and BP responses to static exercise were observed. This dysfunction of the exercise pressor reflex has previously been shown to be mediated, in part, by muscle mechanoreflex overactivity. Thus, in this report, we determined whether kinin B2 receptor contributes to the augmented mechanoreflex activity in rats with 24 h of femoral artery occlusion. First, Western blot analysis was used to examine protein expression of B2 receptors in dorsal root ganglion tissues of control limbs and ligated limbs. Our data show that B2 receptor displays significant overexpression in ligated limbs as compared with control limbs (optical density: 0.94 ± 0.02 in control and 1.87 ± 0.08 after ligation, P < 0.05 vs. control; n = 6 in each group). Second, mechanoreflex was evoked by muscle stretch and the reflex renal SNA (RSNA) and mean arterial pressure (MAP) responses to muscle stretch were examined after HOE-140, a B2 receptors blocker, was injected into the arterial blood supply of the hindlimb muscles. The results demonstrate that the stretch-evoked reflex responses were attenuated by administration of HOE-140 in control rats and ligated rats; however, the attenuating effects of HOE-140 were significantly greater in ligated rats, i.e., after 5 μg/kg of HOE-140 RSNA and MAP responses evoked by 0.5 kg of muscle tension were attenuated by 43% and 25% in control vs. 54% and 34% in ligation (P < 0.05 vs. control group; n = 11 in

  19. Cyclooxygenase-2 Inhibition Restored Endothelium-Mediated Relaxation in Old Obese Zucker Rat Mesenteric Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Vessières, Emilie; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J.; Toutain, Bertrand; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Jardel, Alain; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with reduced endothelial vasodilator function. It is also associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), which produces vasoactive prostanoids. The frequency of metabolic syndrome increases with age and aging per se is a risk factor associated with reduced endothelium-mediated relaxation. Nevertheless, the combined effect of aging and metabolic syndrome on the endothelium is less known. We hypothesized that COX2 derived prostanoids may affect endothelium function in metabolic syndrome associated with aging. We used obese Zucker rats, a model of metabolic syndrome. First order mesenteric arteries were isolated from 4- and 12-month-old rats and acetylcholine (endothelium)-dependent relaxation determined using wire-myography. Endothelium-mediated relaxation, impaired in young Zucker rats (89 versus 77% maximal relaxation; lean versus Zucker), was further reduced in old Zucker rats (72 versus 51%, lean versus Zucker). The effect of the nitric oxide-synthesis inhibitor L-NAME on the relaxation was reduced in both young and old Zucker rats without change in eNOS expression level. COX inhibition (indomethacin) improved acetylcholine-mediated relaxation in old obese rats only, suggesting involvement of vasoconstrictor prostanoids. In addition, COX2 inhibition (NS398) and TxA2/PGH2 receptor blockade (SQ29548) both improved relaxation in old Zucker rat arteries. Old Zucker rats had the highest TxB2 (TxA2 metabolite) blood level associated with increased COX2 immunostaining. Chronic COX2 blockade (Celecoxib, 3 weeks) restored endothelium-dependent relaxation in old Zucker rats to the level observed in old lean rats. Thus the combination of aging and metabolic syndrome further impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation by inducing an excessive production of COX2-derived vasoconstrictor(s); possibly TxA2. PMID:21423385

  20. Cyclooxygenase-2 inhibition restored endothelium-mediated relaxation in old obese zucker rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Vessières, Emilie; Belin de Chantemèle, Eric J; Toutain, Bertrand; Guihot, Anne-Laure; Jardel, Alain; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2010-01-01

    Metabolic syndrome is associated with reduced endothelial vasodilator function. It is also associated with the induction of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX2), which produces vasoactive prostanoids. The frequency of metabolic syndrome increases with age and aging per se is a risk factor associated with reduced endothelium-mediated relaxation. Nevertheless, the combined effect of aging and metabolic syndrome on the endothelium is less known. We hypothesized that COX2 derived prostanoids may affect endothelium function in metabolic syndrome associated with aging. We used obese Zucker rats, a model of metabolic syndrome. First order mesenteric arteries were isolated from 4- and 12-month-old rats and acetylcholine (endothelium)-dependent relaxation determined using wire-myography. Endothelium-mediated relaxation, impaired in young Zucker rats (89 versus 77% maximal relaxation; lean versus Zucker), was further reduced in old Zucker rats (72 versus 51%, lean versus Zucker). The effect of the nitric oxide-synthesis inhibitor L-NAME on the relaxation was reduced in both young and old Zucker rats without change in eNOS expression level. COX inhibition (indomethacin) improved acetylcholine-mediated relaxation in old obese rats only, suggesting involvement of vasoconstrictor prostanoids. In addition, COX2 inhibition (NS398) and TxA2/PGH2 receptor blockade (SQ29548) both improved relaxation in old Zucker rat arteries. Old Zucker rats had the highest TxB2 (TxA2 metabolite) blood level associated with increased COX2 immunostaining. Chronic COX2 blockade (Celecoxib, 3 weeks) restored endothelium-dependent relaxation in old Zucker rats to the level observed in old lean rats. Thus the combination of aging and metabolic syndrome further impairs endothelium-dependent relaxation by inducing an excessive production of COX2-derived vasoconstrictor(s); possibly TxA2.

  1. A novel embolic middle cerebral artery occlusion model induced by thrombus formed in common carotid artery in rat.

    PubMed

    Ma, Yin-Zhong; Li, Li; Song, Jun-Ke; Niu, Zi-Ran; Liu, Hai-Feng; Zhou, Xiang-Shan; Xie, Fu-Sheng; Du, Guan-Hua

    2015-12-15

    Stroke is a major cause of death and disability worldwide. However, treatment options to date are very limited. To meet the need for validating the novel therapeutic approaches and understanding the physiopathology of the ischemic brain injury, experimental stroke models were critical for preclinical research. However, commonly used embolic stroke models are reluctant to mimic the clinical situation and not suitable for thrombolytic timing studies. In this paper, we established a standard method for producing a rat embolic stroke model with autologous thrombus formed within the common carotid artery (CCA) by constant galvanic stimulation. Then the thrombus was shattered and channeled into the origin of the MCA and small (lacunar) artery. To identify the success of MCA occlusion, regional cerebral blood flow was monitored, neurological deficits and infarct volumes were measured at 2, 4 and 6h postischemia. This model developed a predictable infarct volume (38.37 ± 2.88%) and gradually reduced blood flow (20% of preischemic baselines) within the middle cerebral artery (MCA) territory. The thrombus occluded in the MCA was able to be lysed by a tissue-type plasminogen activator (t-PA) within 4h postischemia. The techniques presented in this paper would help investigators to overcome technical problems for stroke research.

  2. Measurement of arterial input function of 17O water tracer in rat carotid artery by using a region-defined (REDE) implanted vascular RF coil.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaoliang; Zhu, Xiao-Hong; Tian, Runxia; Zhang, Yi; Merkle, Hellmut; Chen, Wei

    2003-07-01

    A method of determining arterial input function (AIF) by continuously detecting the (17)O MR signal changes of (17)O-labeled water tracer in the rat carotid artery using a region-defined (REDE) implanted vascular RF coil at 9.4 Tesla is reported. This coil has a compact physical size of 1 mm inner diameter, 3 mm outer diameter and 11 mm in length. It can be readily implanted into the rat neck and wrapped around the rat carotid artery for achieving adequate MR detection sensitivity for determining AIF with minimal surgical trauma. Water phantom and in vivo MR experiments were conducted for validating the coil's performance. A signal-to-noise ratio of approximately 20:1 was achieved for the (17)O signal acquired from naturally abundant H(2)(17)O in a small amount of blood (approximately 7 microl) inside the rat carotid artery with an acquisition time of 11 s. The REDE RF coil design electromagnetically isolates the rat carotid artery from surrounding tissues and ensures that the MR signal detected by the RF coil is only attributable to the artery blood. It also minimizes the electromagnetic coupling between the implanted RF coil and a head surface coil tuned at the same operating frequency (two-coil configuration). This configuration allowed simultaneous measurements of dynamic changes of (17)O MR signal of the H(2)(17)O tracer in both rat carotid artery and brain. Compared to most contemporary MR approaches, the REDE implanted RF provides a simple, accurate, and promising solution for determination of AIF in small experimental animals.

  3. Dietary docosahexaenoic acid supplementation prevents the formation of cholesterol oxidation products in arteries from orchidectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Villalpando, Diva M; Rojas, Mibsam M; García, Hugo S; Ferrer, Mercedes

    2017-01-01

    Testosterone deficiency has been correlated with increased cardiovascular diseases, which in turn has been associated with increased oxidative stress. Several studies have considered cholesterol oxidation products (COPs) as oxidative stress biomarkers, since some of them play pro-oxidant and pro-inflammatory roles. We have previously described the cardioprotective effects of a dosahexaenoic acid (DHA) supplemented diet on the aortic and mesenteric artery function of orchidectomized rats. The aim of this study was to investigate whether impaired gonadal function alters the formation of COPs, as well as the potential preventive role of a DHA-supplemented diet on that effect. For this purpose, aortic and mesenteric artery segments obtained from control and orchidectomized rats, fed with a standard or supplemented with DHA, were used. The content of the following COPs: 7α-hydroxycholesterol, 7β-hydroxycholesterol, 7-ketocholesterol, 5,6α-epoxycholesterol, 5,6β-epoxycholesterol, cholestanetriol and 25-hydroxycholesterol, were analyzed by gas chromatography. The results showed that orchidectomy increased the formation of COPs in arteries from orchidectomized rats, which may participate in the orchidectomy-induced structural and functional vascular alterations already reported. The fact that the DHA-supplemented diet prevented the orchidectomy-induced COPs increase confirms the cardiovascular protective actions of DHA, which could be of special relevance in mesenteric arterial bed, since it importantly controls the systemic vascular resistance.

  4. Relaxation effect of a novel Danshensu/tetramethylpyrazine derivative on rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Li, Rachel Wai-Sum; Yang, C; Shan, Luchen; Zhang, Zaijun; Wang, Yuqiang; Kwan, Y W; Lee, Simon M Y; Hoi, Maggie P M; Chan, S W; Cheung, Alex Chun; Cheung, K H; Leung, George P H

    2015-08-15

    Danshen (Radix Salviae miltiorrhizae) and ChuanXiong (Ligusticum wallichii) are two traditional herbal medicines commonly used in China for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases. The active components in Danshen and ChuanXiong are Danshensu (DSS, (R)-3, 4-dihydroxyphenyllactic acid) and tetramethylpyrazine (TMP), respectively. In the present study, a new compound named ADTM, which is a conjugation of DSS and TMP, was synthesized and its effect on the contractility of rat mesenteric arteries was examined. The relaxation effect of ADTM on rat mesenteric arteries was studied using myography. The effects of ADTM on Ca(2+) channels were measured by Ca(2+) imaging and patch-clamp techniques. The results showed that ADTM caused a concentration-dependent relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries. This relaxation effect was not affected by the removal of endothelium or inhibitors of nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase, guanylyl cyclase and adenylyl cyclase. Potassium channel blockers including tetraethylammonium, iberiotoxin, apamin, 4-aminopyridine, BaCl2 and glibenclamide also failed to inhibit the relaxation response to ADTM. ADTM inhibited CaCl2-induced contractions and reduced the Ca(2+) influx in isolated mesenteric arterial muscle cells. Our results suggest that ADTM may be a novel relaxing agent. Its mechanism of action involves the direct blockade of voltage-gated Ca(2+) channels in vascular smooth muscle cells, resulting in a decrease in Ca(2+) influx into the cells. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. MRI evaluation of frequent complications after intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Namestnikova, D.; Gubskiy, I.; Gabashvili, A.; Sukhinich, K.; Melnikov, P.; Vishnevskiy, D.; Soloveva, A.; Vitushev, E.; Chekhonin, V.; Gubsky, L.; Yarygin, K.

    2017-08-01

    Intra-arterial transplantation of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is an effective delivery route for treatment of ischemic brain injury. Despite significant therapeutic effects and targeted cells delivery to the brain infraction, serious adverse events such as cerebral embolism have been reported and may restrict potential clinical applications of this method. In current study, we evaluate potential complications of intra-arterial MSCs administration and determine the optimum parameters for cell transplantation. We injected SPIO-labeled human MSCs via internal carotid artery with different infusion parameters and cell dose in intact rats and in rats with the middle cerebral occlusion stroke model. Cerebrovascular complications and labeled cells were visualized in vivo using MRI. We have shown that the incidence of cerebral embolic events depends on such parameters as cell dose, infusion rate and maintenance of blood flow in the internal carotid artery (ICA). Optimal parameters were considered to be 5×105 hMSC in 1 ml of PBS by syringe pump with velocity 100 μ/min and maintenance of blood flow in the ICA. Obtained data should be considered before planning experiments in rats and, potentially, can help in planning clinical trials in stroke patients.

  6. Inflammatory events in a vascular remodeling model induced by surgical injury to the rat carotid artery

    PubMed Central

    Rinaldi, Barbara; Romagnoli, Paolo; Bacci, Stefano; Carnuccio, Rosa; Maiuri, Maria Chiara; Donniacuo, Maria; Capuano, Annalisa; Rossi, Francesco; Filippelli, Amelia

    2005-01-01

    The aim of our study was to gain insight into the molecular and cellular mechanisms of the inflammatory response to arterial injury in a rat experimental model. Rats (five for each experimental time) were subjected to brief clamping and longitudinal incision of a carotid artery and monitored for 30 days. Subsequently, Nuclear Factor-kappaB (NF-κB) expression was measured by electrophoretic mobility shift assay. Heat shock protein (HSP) 27, HSP47 and HSP70 were evaluated by Western blot. Morphological changes of the vessel wall were investigated by light and electron microscopy. In injured rat carotid artery NF-κB activity started immediately upon injury, and peaked between 2 and 3 weeks later. Western blot showed a significant increase of HSP47 and HSP70 7 days after injury. At 2 weeks postinjury, HSP27 expression peaked. Ligth microscopy showed a neointima formation, discontinuity of the media layer and a rich infiltrate. Among infiltrating cells electron microscopy identified dendritic-like cells in contact with lymphocytes. Our model of surgical injury induces a significant inflammatory process characterized by enhanced NF-κB activity and HSPs hyperexpression. Dendritic-like cells were for the first time identified as a novel component of tissue repair consequent to acute arterial injury. PMID:16299548

  7. A method for evaluating drug effects on intermittent claudication using a treadmill in rats with unilateral hindlimb artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Orito, Kensuke; Kishi, Masami; Fujiki, Hiroyuki; Nakazawa, Toru; Imaizumi, Takashi; Kimura, Yukio; Mori, Toyoki; Kambe, Toshimi

    2004-01-01

    We have developed an in vivo experimental model for evaluating peripheral arterial insufficiency and predicting the efficacy of drugs on intermittent claudication (IC). We found that rats that had been running normally on a treadmill developed a gait disturbance when a hindlimb artery was unilaterally occluded. We hypothesized that the distance run before gait disturbance developed (DGD) in rats with occlusion of a hindlimb artery might be an appropriate index of the severity of peripheral insufficiency, and that the model might serve as a test bed for evaluating drug efficacy. To prove this hypothesis, we examined whether DGD was determined by severity of hindlimb ischemia. Furthermore, we also examined whether cilostazol, which has been proved to have ameliorative effects in patients with IC, increased DGD. To vary the severity of ischemia, either the superficial femoral artery, the distal portion of the iliac artery, or the proximal portion of iliac artery was unilaterally occluded. After a recovery period, these rats were subjected to a treadmill test (15 m/min and 15% incline) to determine DGD and examine the effect of cilostazol on DGD. DGD was the longest and shortest in rats with superficial femoral artery and proximal portion of iliac artery occlusion, respectively. Intermediate DGD was observed in rats with distal portion of iliac artery occlusion. These data suggest that DGD is correlated with the severity of hindlimb ischemia. Two weeks or longer administration of cilostazol 30 and 100 mg/kg twice a day evoked a significant increase in DGD. Peripheral arterial insufficiency and its modulation by drugs can be evaluated in rats with unilateral hindlimb artery occlusion, on a treadmill, by measuring DGD.

  8. Effects of physical training on pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise under hypobaric hypoxia in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kashimura, Osamu; Sakai, Akio

    1991-12-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the effects of physical training on exercise-induced systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic changes under hypobaric hypoxia in catheter-implanted rats. We made continuous measurements of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures during progressive treadmill exercises under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to altitudes of 2500 and 5500 m) in 46 control and 41 trained rats. Trained rats were exercised on two running schedules: 4 weeks (4-trained) and 6 weeks (6-trained). Both these groups of trained rats were exercised for the same length of running time each day. The increase in resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure(overline {P_{pa} } ) with increasing equivalent altitude was lower in the two trained groups than in the control group. The increase in(overline {P_{pa} } ) with progressive intensity of exercise was lower in the 6-trained than in the 4-trained and control groups at 610 and 2500 m. The 6-trained rats showed higher pH, P a CO 2 and O2 saturation in their blood than did the control group, whereas the P a O 2 was less. Lung tissue cyclic AMP concentration at rest was higher in the 6-trained than in the control group. Finally, it may be noted that exercise-induced lung tissue vasodilator responses seem to be enhanced in well-trained rats under both normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. This study indicates that exercise training may be useful in preventing pulmonary hypertension resulting from both hypoxia and exercise.

  9. Effects of physical training on pulmonary arterial pressure during exercise under hypobaric hypoxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kashimura, O; Sakai, A

    1991-12-01

    In this investigation, we assessed the effects of physical training on exercise-induced systemic and pulmonary hemodynamic changes under hypobaric hypoxia in catheter-implanted rats. We made continuous measurements of pulmonary and systemic arterial pressures during progressive treadmill exercises under hypobaric hypoxia (equivalent to altitudes of 2500 and 5500 m) in 46 control and 41 trained rats. Trained rats were exercised on two running schedules: 4 weeks (4-trained) and 6 weeks (6-trained). Both these groups of trained rats were exercised for the same length of running time each day. The increase in resting mean pulmonary arterial pressure (Ppa) with increasing equivalent altitude was lower in the two trained groups than in the control group. The increase in Ppa with progressive intensity of exercise was lower in the 6-trained than in the 4-trained and control groups at 610 and 2500 m. The 6-trained rats showed higher pH, Pa CO2 and O2 saturation in their blood than did the control group, whereas the Pa O2 was less. Lung tissue cyclic AMP concentration at rest was higher in the 6-trained than in the control group. Finally, it may be noted that exercise-induced lung tissue vasodilator responses seem to be enhanced in well-trained rats under both normobaric normoxia and hypobaric hypoxia. This study indicates that exercise training may be useful in preventing pulmonary hypertension resulting from both hypoxia and exercise.

  10. Effects of Hyperhomocysteinemia on Arterial Pressure and Nitric Oxide Production in Pregnant Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chandler, DL; Llinas, MT; Reckelhoff, JF; LaMarca, B; Speed, J; Granger, JP

    2010-01-01

    Background An elevated plasma level of homocysteine (hyperhomocysteinemia) is thought to be an important risk factor for a variety of cardiovascular diseases including preeclampsia. Although clinical studies have reported a 2-3 fold elevation in plasma levels of homocysteine in women who developed preeclampsia, the importance of hyperhomocysteinemia in causing endothelial dysfunction and increases in arterial pressure during pregnancy is unknown. Method Therefore, the purpose of this study was to determine the effects of a 2-3 fold elevation in plasma homocysteine levels on arterial pressure, chronic pressure natriuresis relationship, and endothelial factors during pregnancy in the rat. Homocysteine treatment for 4 weeks increased plasma homocysteine levels in pregnant rats from 7.1 ± 1.9 to 16.7 ± 2.3 μmol/L. Results Homocysteine treatment decreased urinary nitrate/nitrite levels from 53 +/- 7 vs. 39 +/- 5 (umol/24 h/kg BW) in pregnant rats while having no effect on urinary excretion of endothelin. Homocysteine treatment had no effect on MAP in pregnant rats (104 +/- 2 vs. 107 +/- 3 mmHg) nor on the chronic pressure natriuresis relationship. Conclusion These results suggest that while hyperhomocysteinemia decreases nitric oxide production in pregnant rats, hyperhomocysteinemia does not affect MAP, the chronic pressure-natriuresis relationship, or urinary excretion of endothelin in pregnant rats. Moreover, the reported 2-3 fold elevation in plasma level of homocysteine in women with preeclampsia is unlikely to contribute to the hypertension of preeclampsia. PMID:19629051

  11. Concentrated ambient air particles induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Batalha, Joao R F; Saldiva, Paulo H N; Clarke, Robert W; Coull, Brent A; Stearns, Rebecca C; Lawrence, Joy; Murthy, G G Krishna; Koutrakis, Petros; Godleski, John J

    2002-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine whether short-term exposures to concentrated ambient particles (CAPs) alter the morphology of small pulmonary arteries in normal rats and rats with chronic bronchitis (CB). Sprague-Dawley male rats were exposed to CAPs, using the Harvard Ambient Particle Concentrator, or to particle-free air (sham) under identical conditions during 3 consecutive days (5 hr/day) in six experimental sets. CB was induced by exposure to 276 +/- 9 ppm of sulfur dioxide (5 hr/day, 5 days/week, 6 weeks). Physicochemical characterization of CAPs included measurements of particle mass, size distribution, and composition. Rats were sacrificed 24 hr after the last CAPs exposure. Histologic slides were prepared from random sections of lung lobes and coded for blinded analysis. The lumen/wall area (L/W) ratio was determined morphometrically on transverse sections of small pulmonary arteries. When all animal data (normal and CB) were analyzed together, the L/W ratios decreased as concentrations of fine particle mass, silicon, lead, sulfate, elemental carbon, and organic carbon increased. In separate univariate analyses of animal data, the association for sulfate was significant only in normal rats, whereas silicon was significantly associated in both CB and normal rats. In multivariate analyses including all particle factors, the association with silicon remained significant. Our results indicate that short-term CAPs exposures (median, 182.75 micro g/m3; range, 73.50-733.00 micro g/m3) can induce vasoconstriction of small pulmonary arteries in normal and CB rats. This effect was correlated with specific particle components and suggests that the pulmonary vasculature might be an important target for ambient air particle toxicity. PMID:12460797

  12. Transcriptome-wide RNA sequencing analysis of rat skeletal muscle feed arteries. I. Impact of obesity.

    PubMed

    Jenkins, Nathan T; Padilla, Jaume; Thorne, Pamela K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Rector, R Scott; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold

    2014-04-15

    We employed next-generation RNA sequencing (RNA-Seq) technology to determine the influence of obesity on global gene expression in skeletal muscle feed arteries. Transcriptional profiles of the gastrocnemius and soleus muscle feed arteries (GFA and SFA, respectively) and aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples from obese Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) and lean Long-Evans Tokushima Otsuka (LETO) rats were examined. Obesity produced 282 upregulated and 133 downregulated genes in SFA and 163 upregulated and 77 downregulated genes in GFA [false discovery rate (FDR) < 10%] with an overlap of 93 genes between the arteries. In LETO rats, there were 89 upregulated and 114 downregulated genes in the GFA compared with the SFA. There were 244 upregulated and 275 downregulated genes in OLETF rats (FDR < 10%) in the GFA compared with the SFA, with an overlap of 76 differentially expressed genes common to both LETO and OLETF rats in both the GFA and SFA. A total of 396 transcripts were found to be differentially expressed between LETO and OLETF in aortic endothelial cell-enriched samples. Overall, we found 1) the existence of heterogeneity in the transcriptional profile of the SFA and GFA within healthy LETO rats, 2) that this between-vessel heterogeneity was markedly exacerbated in the hyperphagic, obese OLETF rat, and 3) a greater number of genes whose expression was altered by obesity in the SFA compared with the GFA. Also, results indicate that in OLETF rats the GFA takes on a relatively more proatherogenic phenotype compared with the SFA.

  13. Rat pulmonary arterial smooth muscle myosin light chain kinase and phosphatase activities decrease with age.

    PubMed

    Belik, J; Kerc, Ewa; Pato, Mary D

    2006-03-01

    We and others have shown that the fetal pulmonary arterial smooth muscle potential for contraction and relaxation is significantly reduced compared with the adult. Whether these developmental changes relate to age differences in the expression and/or activity of key enzymes regulating the smooth muscle mechanical properties has not been previously evaluated. Therefore, we studied the catalytic activities and expression of myosin light chain kinase (MLCK) and myosin light chain phosphatase (MLCP) catalytic (PP1cdelta) and regulatory (MYPT) subunits in late fetal, early newborn, and adult rat intrapulmonary arterial tissues. In keeping with the greater force development and relaxation of adult pulmonary artery, Western blot analysis showed that the MLCK, MYPT, and PP1cdelta contents increased significantly with age and were highest in the adult rat. In contrast, their specific activities (activity/enzyme content) were significantly higher in the fetal compared with the adult tissue. The fetal and newborn pulmonary arterial muscle relaxant response to the Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 was greater than the adult tissue. In addition to the 130-kDa isoform of MLCK, we documented the presence of minor higher-molecular-weight embryonic isoforms in the fetus and newborn. During fetal life, the lung pulmonary arterial MLCK- and MLCP-specific activities are highest and appear to be related to Rho-kinase activation during lung morphogenesis.

  14. Endovascular trophoblast invasion and associated structural changes in uterine spiral arteries of the pregnant rat.

    PubMed

    Caluwaerts, S; Vercruysse, L; Luyten, C; Pijnenborg, R

    2005-08-01

    The involvement of endovascular trophoblast in fibrinoid deposition, replacement of the endothelium and vascular smooth muscle breakdown is studied in spiral arteries of the mesometrial triangle from day 15 to day 21 of rat pregnancy, by examining arterial cross sections after staining for cytokeratin, PAS, CD31 and alpha-actin. From day 15 to day 18 of pregnancy, fibrinoid deposition underneath the endovascular trophoblast increases gradually, whereas the amount of endovascular trophoblast in invaded arteries remains constant. CD31 staining is significantly reduced in sub-ET (= underlying the endovascular trophoblast) as compared to extra-ET (= outside the endovascular trophoblast) and no-ET (= non-invaded arterial sections) at each time-point of pregnancy examined (P < 0.005 and P < 0.0005 at each day of pregnancy), whereas alpha-actin staining is reduced both in sub-ET and in extra-ET as compared to no-ET. During pregnancy, CD31 staining in sub-ET initially declines, but increases significantly on day 21 (P < 0.001 versus d20) suggesting re-endothelialization of the vascular wall. In conclusion, changes in spiral arteries of pregnant rats reveal striking similarities with physiological changes seen in human pregnancy, thus emphasizing the usefulness of this species as an experimental model for studying normal and complicated pregnancies in humans.

  15. An evaluation of vardenafil as a calcium channel blocker in pulmonary artery in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minareci, Edibe; Sadan, Gulay

    2014-01-01

    Objective: Vardenafil was reported to relax rat pulmonary artery through endothelium-dependent mechanisms. The aim of this in vitro study was to investigate other related mechanisms for this effect. Materials and Methods: Endothelium-intact and denuded artery rings were suspended in order to record isometric tension. In the rings with or without endothelium, the concentration-response curves for vardenafil were generated. In the rings without endothelium the contractile response induced by phenylephrine (Phe) or KCl was assessed in the presence or absence of vardenafil. In the last set of experiments, pulmonary artery rings were exposed to calcium-free isotonic depolarizing solution and the contractile response induced by the addition of calcium was evaluated in the presence or absence of vardenafil, nifedipine, verapamil or 1H-[1,2,4] oxadiazolo[4,3-a] quinoxalin-1-one (ODQ). Results: Vardenafil attenuated pulmonary artery contraction induced by phenylephrine in the presence and absence of endothelium. In addition, vardenafil attenuated both Phe or KCl-induced contraction but, it's effect on the KCl dose-response curve was more significant. Vardenafil also inhibited the contractile response induced by calcium in a dose-dependent manner. Addition of nifedipine or verapamil did not significantly alter this effect while ODQ incubation significantly inhibited vardenafil-induced relaxation. Conclusion: From these findings, it was proposed that vardenafil relaxed rat pulmonary artery through inhibiting calcium influx. PMID:24741191

  16. Viscosity and haemodynamics in a late gestation rat feto-placental arterial network.

    PubMed

    Bappoo, Nikhilesh; Kelsey, Lachlan J; Parker, Louis; Crough, Tim; Moran, Carmel M; Thomson, Adrian; Holmes, Megan C; Wyrwoll, Caitlin S; Doyle, Barry J

    2017-08-01

    The placenta is a transient organ which develops during pregnancy to provide haemotrophic support for healthy fetal growth and development. Fundamental to its function is the healthy development of vascular trees in the feto-placental arterial network. Despite the strong association of haemodynamics with vascular remodelling mechanisms, there is a lack of computational haemodynamic data that may improve our understanding of feto-placental physiology. The aim of this work was to create a comprehensive 3D computational fluid dynamics model of a substructure of the rat feto-placental arterial network and investigate the influence of viscosity on wall shear stress (WSS). Late gestation rat feto-placental arteries were perfused with radiopaque Microfil and scanned via micro-computed tomography to capture the feto-placental arterial geometry in 3D. A detailed description of rat fetal blood viscosity parameters was developed, and three different approaches to feto-placental haemodynamics were simulated in 3D using the finite volume method: Newtonian model, non-Newtonian Carreau-Yasuda model and Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect model. Significant variability in WSS was observed between different viscosity models. The physiologically-realistic simulations using the Fåhræus-Lindqvist effect and rat fetal blood estimates of viscosity revealed detailed patterns of WSS throughout the arterial network. We found WSS gradients at bifurcation regions, which may contribute to vessel enlargement, and sprouting and pruning during angiogenesis. This simulation of feto-placental haemodynamics shows the heterogeneous WSS distribution throughout the network and demonstrates the ability to determine physiologically-relevant WSS magnitudes, patterns and gradients. This model will help advance our understanding of vascular physiology and remodelling in the feto-placental network.

  17. Transcriptomic effects of metformin in skeletal muscle arteries of obese insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Jaume; Thorne, Pamela K; Martin, Jeffrey S; Rector, R Scott; Akter, Sadia; Davis, J Wade; Laughlin, M Harold; Jenkins, Nathan T

    2017-03-01

    We examined the effects of metformin, a commonly used antidiabetic drug, on gene expression in multiple arteries. Specifically, transcriptional profiles of feed arteries and second branch order arterioles in the soleus, gastrocnemius, and diaphragm muscles as well as aortic endothelial scrapes were examined from obese insulin-resistant Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty rats treated with ( n = 9) or without ( n = 10) metformin from 20 to 32 weeks of age. Metformin-treated rats exhibited a reduction in body weight, adiposity, and HbA1c ( P < 0.05). The greatest number of differentially expressed genes (FDR < 15%) between those treated with and without metformin was found in the red gastrocnemius 2a arterioles (93 genes), followed by the diaphragm 2a arterioles (62 genes), and soleus 2a arterioles (15 genes). We also found that two genes were differentially expressed in aortic endothelial cells (LETMD1 and HMGCS2, both downregulated), one gene in the gastrocnemius feed artery (BLNK, downregulated), and no genes in the soleus and diaphragm feed arteries and white gastrocnemius 2a arterioles. No single gene was altered by metformin across all vessels examined. This study provides evidence that metformin treatment produces distinct gene expression effects throughout the arterial tree in a rat model of obesity and insulin resistance. Genes whose expression was modulated with metformin do not appear to have a clear connection with its known mechanisms of action. These findings support the notion that vascular gene regulation in response to oral pharmacological therapy, such as metformin, is vessel specific. Impact statement This study provides evidence that metformin treatment produces artery-specific gene expression effects. The genes whose expression was modulated with metformin do not appear to have a clear connection with its known mechanisms of action.

  18. Allicin relaxes isolated mesenteric arteries through activation of PKA-KATP channel in rat.

    PubMed

    Li, Shuzhen; Chen, Shuo; Yang, Weiwei; Liao, Lin; Li, Shanshan; Li, Jiali; Zheng, Yaqin; Zhu, Daling

    2017-02-01

    Allicin is a natural effective organosulfur compound isolated from garlic, which possesses many beneficial properties, such as antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, antimicrobial, hypotensive and hypolipidemic. In the present study, we investigated the effects and the underlying mechanisms of allicin on isolated mesenteric arteries (MAs). We examined MAs relaxation induced by allicin on rat-isolated mesenteric artery (MA) rings, the KATP channels with patch, and the expression of Kir6.1 and SUR2B with western blotting and NO production with Diaminofluorescein-FM diacetate (DAF-FMDA) in rat mesenteric artery smooth muscle cells (MASMCs). The results showed that allicin elicited the dose-dependent vasorelaxation effect with phenylephrine (PE) precontracted rat MA rings. The vasorelaxation effect was endothelium and NO independent but could be diminished by inhibition of PKA and KATP channels in the vascular smooth muscle. Allicin activated KATP channels in rat MASMCs, and the activation of KATP channels was inhibited by the inhibitors of PKA and KATP channels. But allicin had no effect on the expression of KATP subtypes Kir6.1 and SUR2B. These observations suggest that allicin exerts vasorelaxation effect through activation of PKA-KATP(-)signaling pathway.

  19. Impaired Mitochondrial Respiration in Large Cerebral Arteries of Rats with Type 2 Diabetes.

    PubMed

    Merdzo, Ivan; Rutkai, Ibolya; Sure, Venkata N L R; McNulty, Catherine A; Katakam, Prasad V G; Busija, David W

    2017-01-01

    Mitochondrial dysfunction has been suggested as a potential underlying cause of pathological conditions associated with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). We have previously shown that mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial protein levels were similar in the large cerebral arteries of insulin-resistant Zucker obese rats and their lean controls. In this study, we extend our investigations into the mitochondrial dynamics of the cerebral vasculature of 14-week-old Zucker diabetic fatty obese (ZDFO) rats with early T2DM. Body weight and blood glucose levels were significantly higher in the ZDFO group, and basal mitochondrial respiration and proton leak were significantly decreased in the large cerebral arteries of the ZDFO rats compared with the lean controls (ZDFL). The expression of the mitochondrial proteins total manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSOD) and voltage-dependent anion channel (VDAC) were significantly lower in the cerebral microvessels, and acetylated MnSOD levels were significantly reduced in the large arteries of the ZDFO group. Additionally, superoxide production was significantly increased in the microvessels of the ZDFO group. Despite evidence of increased oxidative stress in ZDFO, exogenous SOD was not able to restore mitochondrial respiration in the ZDFO rats. Our results show, for the first time, that mitochondrial respiration and protein levels are compromised during the early stages of T2DM. © 2017 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  20. Role of secretory phospholipase A(2) in rhythmic contraction of pulmonary arteries of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Tanabe, Yoshiyuki; Saito-Tanji, Maki; Morikawa, Yuki; Kamataki, Akihisa; Sawai, Takashi; Nakayama, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    Excessive stretching of the vascular wall in accordance with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induces a variety of pathogenic cellular events in the pulmonary arteries. We previously reported that indoxam, a selective inhibitor for secretory phospholipase A(2) (sPLA(2)), blocked the stretch-induced contraction of rabbit pulmonary arteries by inhibition of untransformed prostaglandin H(2) (PGH(2)) production. The present study was undertaken to investigate involvement of sPLA(2) and untransformed PGH(2) in the enhanced contractility of pulmonary arteries of experimental PAH in rats. Among all the known isoforms of sPLA(2), sPLA(2)-X transcript was most significantly augmented in the pulmonary arteries of rats with monocrotaline-induced pulmonary hypertension (MCT-PHR). The pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR frequently showed two types of spontaneous contraction in response to stretch; 27% showed rhythmic contraction, which was sensitive to indoxam and SC-560 (selective COX-1 inhibitor), but less sensitive to NS-398 (selective COX-2 inhibitor); and 47% showed sustained incremental tension (tonic contraction), which was insensitive to indoxam and SC-560, but sensitive to NS-398 and was attenuated to 45% of the control. Only the rhythmically contracting pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR produced a substantial amount of untransformed PGH(2), which was abolished by indoxam. These results suggest that sPLA(2)-mediated PGH(2) synthesis plays an important role in the rhythmic contraction of pulmonary arteries of MCT-PHR.

  1. Mechanics of the basilar membrane in Caiman crocodilus.

    PubMed

    Wilson, J P; Smolders, J W; Klinke, R

    1985-04-01

    Vibration measurements were made at a number of positions near the proximal (basal) end of the basilar membrane, and on the columella footplate, of Caiman crocodilus using a capacitive probe. The measurements established the existence of a mechanical travelling wave in this species. They showed no significant change of mechanical tuning with temperature, and were highly significantly different from previous reports of neural temperature sensitivity (Smolders, J. and Klinke, R. (1984): J. Comp. Physiol. 155, 19-30). Thus the neural sensitivity to temperature change appears not to depend upon basilar membrane mechanics. One interpretation of this is that the basilar membrane passively precedes an active temperature-sensitive filter. It was also found that the limbus supporting the basilar membrane had a measurable, but unturned, vibration and that the effect of draining scala tympani for the measurements was to increase the basilar membrane tuning frequency by a factor of about 1.5.

  2. Cardioprotective effect of polydatin on ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in coronary artery ligation rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Yan; Gao, Jianping; Chen, Changxun; Wang, Huilin; Guo, Juan; Wu, Rong

    2015-05-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the effect of polydatin on ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in coronary artery ligation rats and to elucidate the underlying mechanisms. A rat model of ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction was established by left coronary artery ligation. Rats with coronary artery ligation were randomly divided into five groups: control, plus 40 mg/kg captopril, plus 25 mg/kg polydatin, plus 50 mg/kg polydatin, and plus 100 mg/kg polydatin. The sham-operated group was used as a negative control. Rats were administered intragastrically with the corresponding drugs or drinking water for seven weeks. At the end of the treatment, the left ventricular weight index and heart weight index were assessed. The cross-sectional size of cardiomyocytes was measured by staining myocardium tissue with hematoxylin and eosin. Collagen content was counted by Sirius red in aqueous saturated picric acid. The concentrations of angiotensin I, angiotensin II, aldosterone, and endothelin 1 in myocardium or serum were determined by radioimmunoassay. Hydroxyproline and nitric oxide concentrations and glutathione peroxidase and catalase activities in serum were measured by ultraviolet spectrophotometry. Our results showed that seven weeks of polydatin treatment resulted in a significantly reduced left ventricular weight index, heart weight index, serum concentrations of hydroxyproline and aldosterone, an increased concentration of nitric oxide as well as enhanced activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase. Myocardial angiotensin I, angiotensin II, and endothelin 1 levels were also reduced. The cardiomyocyte cross-sectional area and collagen deposition diminished. This study suggests that polydatin may attenuate ventricular remodeling after myocardial infarction in coronary artery ligation rats through restricting the excessive activation of the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system and inhibiting peroxidation. Georg Thieme

  3. Expression of Nemo-like kinase (NLK) in the brain in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Chen, Gang; Feng, Dongxia; Zhang, Li; Dang, Baoqi; Liu, Huixiang; Wang, Zhong

    2013-07-01

    This study aimed to investigate the expression of the Nemo-like kinase (NLK) in the brain after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. A total of 90 rats were randomly divided into six groups: control group, day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, and day 14. Day 1, day 3, day 5, day 7, and day 14 groups were all SAH groups in which the rats were killed on days 1, 3, 5, 7, and 14, respectively. In SAH groups, autologous arterial blood was injected into cisterna magna once on day 0. Cross-sectional area of basilar artery was measured by H&E staining. Immunostaining and immunoblotting experiments were performed to detect the expression of NLK protein. Real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to analyze the presence and quantity of NLK mRNA. The level of oxidative stress in the artery was also measured. The basilar arteries exhibited vasospasm after SAH and became the most severe on day 3. The expressions of NLK protein and mRNA were decreased remarkably in SAH groups compared with the control group. The down-regulated expression of NLK was detected after SAH and the low ebb was on day 3, which was oppositely the peak time of oxidative stress. The expression of NLK was present mainly in the neurons in the brain and smooth muscle cells in the basilar artery. NLK is decreasingly expressed in an opposite time-course to the development of cerebral vasospasm (CVS) and SAH-induced brain injury in this rat experimental model of SAH and these findings might have important implications during the administration of specific NLK agonist to prevent or reduce CVS or neuronal apoptosis caused by SAH.

  4. Impact of intracranial blood-flow redistribution on stroke size during ischemia-reperfusion in 7-day-old rats.

    PubMed

    Bonnin, Philippe; Leger, Pierre-Louis; Deroide, Nicolas; Fau, Sébastien; Baud, Olivier; Pocard, Marc; Charriaut-Marlangue, Christiane; Renolleau, Sylvain

    2011-05-15

    We evaluated color-coded pulsed Doppler ultrasound imaging for the assessment of intracranial blood flow in two models of cerebral ischemia in 7-day-old (P7) rats. Blood-flow velocities (BFVs) were measured in the internal carotid arteries and basilar trunk upstream from the circle of Willis, and in the posterior cerebral arteries downstream (1) before, (2) during left middle cerebral artery electrocoagulation and 50 min-transient either one (I/R-1) or both (I/R-2) common carotid (CCA) arteries occlusion, and (3) after release of CCA(s) occlusion. At 48 h after ischemia 41-48% (I/R-1 model) and 24% (I/R-2 model) of rats did not present a lesion. Those rats displayed increased mean BFV in both right internal carotid artery and basilar trunk in I/R-1 model, and increased mean BFV in the basilar trunk (BT) in I/R-2 model. In contrast, no significant changes in mean BFV were observed in lesioned rats. Furthermore, mean BFV in the BT was inversely correlated to the size of the lesion (r² = 0.75, p<0.0001) in the I/R-2 model. Thus, we demonstrated the protective role of collateral support in P7 rodents. Ultrasound imaging can evidence the establishment or not of the cerebral collateral recruitment, leading to the presence or absence of a lesion. This novel approach should greatly help preclinical studies to reduce animal variability. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Mechanisms Involved in Thromboxane A2 -induced Vasoconstriction of Rat Intracavernous Small Penile Arteries.

    PubMed

    Grann, Martin; Comerma-Steffensen, Simon; Arcanjo, Daniel D R; Simonsen, Ulf

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is associated with erectile dysfunction and with hypercontractility in erectile tissue and this is in part ascribed to increased formation of thromboxane. Rho kinase (ROCK) is a key regulator of calcium sensitization and contraction in vascular smooth muscle. This study investigated the role of calcium and ROCK in contraction evoked by activation of the thromboxane receptors. Rat intracavernous penile arteries were mounted for isometric tension and intracellular calcium ([Ca(2+) ]i ) recording and corpus cavernosum for measurements of MYPT1 phosphorylation. In penile arteries, U46619 by activation of thromboxane receptors concentration dependently increased calcium and contraction. U46619-induced calcium influx was blocked by nifedipine, a blocker of L-type calcium channels, and by 2-aminoethoxydiphenyl borate, a blocker of transient receptor potential (TRP) channels. Inhibitors of ROCK, Y27632 and glycyl-H1152P, concentration dependently reduced U46619-induced contraction, but only Y27632 reduced [Ca(2+) ]i levels in the penile arteries activated with either high extracellular potassium or U46619. MYPT-Thr(850) phosphorylation in corpus cavernous strips was increased in response to U46619 through activation of TP receptors and was found to be a direct result of phosphorylation by ROCK. Y27632 induced less relaxation in mesenteric arteries, H1152P induced equipotent relaxations, and a protein kinase C inhibitor, Ro-318220, failed to relax intracavernous penile arteries, but induced full relaxation in rat mesenteric arteries. Our findings suggest that U46619 contraction depends on Ca(2+) influx through L-type and TRP channels, and ROCK-dependent mechanisms in penile arteries. Inhibition of the ROCK pathway is a potential approach for the treatment of erectile dysfunction associated with hypertension and diabetes.

  6. Responses of mean arterial pressure to pressor agents and diuretics in renal hypertensive and salt hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Nicholas, T. E.

    1971-01-01

    1. The responses of the mean arterial pressure to (—)-noradrenaline, tyramine, angiotensin II-val5-amide, vasopressin and rat renin have been contrasted in renal hypertensive and in salt plus desoxycorticosterone hypertensive rats. The responses were measured in rats both unanaesthetized and rats anaesthetized with pentobarbitone. 2. Responses of unanaesthetized, ganglion blocked renal hypertensive rats to noradrenaline, tyramine and vasopressin markedly exceeded, and to angiotensin II and renin were markedly smaller than, those of unanaesthetized ganglion blocked salt + DOC hypertensive animals. Responses to angiotensin and to renin were apparently enhanced in the latter animals. 3. Hydrochlorothiazide and frusemide markedly reduced mean arterial pressure in salt + DOC hypertensive rats before and after ganglionic blockade. 4. Neither diuretic caused significant reduction in the mean arterial pressures of unanaesthetized, renal hypertensive rats in the absence of ganglionic blockade: frusemide did so in anaesthetized and unanaesthetized rats after ganglionic blockade. 5. Whereas the diuretics did not affect the responses of the renal hypertensive rats to pressor agents, frusemide and to a lesser extent hydrochlorothiazide tended to depress the responses to pressor agents in salt induced hypertension. 6. Hydrochlorothiazide did not influence mean arterial pressure in unanaesthetized rats with neurogenic hypertension. PMID:4326321

  7. A comparison of betahistine hydrochloride with placebo for vertebral-basilar insufficiency: a double-blind study.

    PubMed

    Spruill, J H; Toole, J F; Kitto, W; Miller, H E

    1975-01-01

    To test the effectiveness of betahistine HC1 in reducing the frequency of transient ischemic attacks (TIAs) caused by vertebral-basilar artery insufficiency, we randomly assigned 26 patients with a typical history of the condition to a placebo-drug or a drug-placebo sequence, each sequence lasting two months. During the study, the frequency of TIAs did not differ significantly between the placebo and the drug groups. Subjective responses indicated some value for betahistine as a palliative agent.

  8. One hundred percent patency of one-millimeter polytetrafluoroethylene (Gore-tex) grafts in the carotid arteries of rats.

    PubMed

    Cuadros, C L

    1984-01-01

    Expanded polytetrafluoroethylene arterial interposition grafts with an internal diameter of 1.0 mm were placed in the carotid arteries of rats. At 2 weeks, 100% patency rate was achieved by the use of strict sterile technique in 23 rats. In contrast, only 1 out of 21 grafts remained open in rats operated using standard clean but nonsterile technique, 5% patency. All thrombosed grafts showed evidence of infection. Orally administered aspirin at therapeutic doses prolonged bleeding times in the rats but did not affect patency results in either group.

  9. Harmonic Variations of Arterial Pulse During Dying Process of Rats

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-11-02

    Cancer.1999 May;7(3):128 – 33 [8] Hunter-A; Kennedy-L; Henry -J; Ferguson-I: Application of neural networks and sensitivity analysis to...unit. Critical-Care-Med 1997 Feb;25(2):258-66 [12] Baroreflex modulation of blood pressure and heart rate variabilities in rats :assessment by

  10. Effects of cyclic intermittent hypoxia on ET-1 responsiveness and endothelial dysfunction of pulmonary arteries in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhuo; Li, Ai-Ying; Guo, Qiu-Hong; Zhang, Jian-Ping; An, Qi; Guo, Ya-jing; Chu, Li; Weiss, J Woodrow; Ji, En-Sheng

    2013-01-01

    Obstructive sleep apnoea (OSA) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disorders and in some cases is complication of pulmonary hypertension. We simulated OSA by exposing rats to cyclic intermittent hypoxia (CIH) to investigate its effect on pulmonary vascular endothelial dysfunction. Sprague-Dawley Rats were exposed to CIH (FiO2 9% for 1 min, repeated every 2 min for 8 h/day, 7 days/wk for 3 wk), and the pulmonary arteries of normoxia and CIH treated rats were analyzed for expression of endothelin-1 (ET-1) and ET receptors by histological, immunohistochemical, RT-PCR and Western Blot analyses, as well as for contractility in response to ET-1. In the pulmonary arteries, ET-1 expression was increased, and ET-1 more potently elicited constriction of the pulmonary artery in CIH rats than in normoxic rats. Exposure to CIH induced marked endothelial cell damage associated with a functional decrease of endothelium-dependent vasodilatation in the pulmonary artery. Compared with normoxic rats, ETA receptor expression was increased in smooth muscle cells of the CIH rats, while the expression of ETB receptors was decreased in endothelial cells. These results demonstrated endothelium-dependent vasodilation was impaired and the vasoconstrictor responsiveness increased by CIH. The increased responsiveness to ET-1 induced by intermittent hypoxia in pulmonary arteries of rats was due to increased expression of ETA receptors predominantly, meanwhile, decreased expression of ETB receptors in the endothelium may also participate in it.

  11. Radiation-induced pulmonary arterial perfusion defects: modification by D-penicillamine. [Rats; /sup 60/Co

    SciTech Connect

    Ward, W.F.

    1981-04-01

    D-penicillamine, previously shown to have a beneficial effect on radiation-induced pulmonary histopathology, was tested to determine its effect on function in the irradiated lung. Male rats were irradiated with /sup 60/Co gamma rays; half then received 10 mg D-penicillamine per day, and half received no further treatment. One to nine months after irradiation, animals were subjected to lung perfusion scans. Untreated irradiated rats exhibited hyperemia, hypoperfusion, and perfusion defects of the irradiated lung. In penicillamine-treated rats, the appearance of perfusion defects was delayed, the peak incidence and severity of the defects was reduced, and recovery from pulmonary hypoperfusion was accelerated. Thus, using functional criteria, penicillamine appears to improve arterial perfusion and to ameliorate radiation injury in the rat lung.

  12. Stiffening of the Extrapulmonary Arteries From Rats in Chronic Hypoxic Pulmonary Hypertension

    PubMed Central

    Drexler, E. S; Bischoff, J. E; Slifka, A. J; McCowan, C. N; Quinn, T. P; Shandas, R; Ivy, D. D; Stenmark, K. R

    2008-01-01

    Changes in the compliance properties of large blood vessels are critical determinants of ventricular afterload and ultimately dysfunction. Little is known of the mechanical properties of large vessels exhibiting pulmonary hypertension, particularly the trunk and right main artery. We initiated a study to investigate the influence of chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension on the mechanical properties of the extrapulmonary arteries of rats. One group of animals was housed at the equivalent of 5000 m elevation for three weeks and the other held at ambient conditions of ~1600 m. The two groups were matched in age and gender. The animals exposed to hypobaric hypoxia exhibited signs of pulmonary hypertension, as evidenced by an increase in the RV/(LV+S) heart weight ratio. The extrapulmonary arteries of the hypoxic animals were also thicker than those of the control population. Histological examination revealed increased thickness of the media and additional deposits of collagen in the adventitia. The mechanical properties of the trunk, and the right and left main pulmonary arteries were assessed; at a representative pressure (7 kPa), the two populations exhibited different quantities of stretch for each section. At higher pressures we noted less deformation among the arteries from hypoxic animals as compared with controls. A four-parameter constitutive model was employed to fit and analyze the data. We conclude that chronic hypoxic pulmonary hypertension is associated with a stiffening of all the extrapulmonary arteries. PMID:27096124

  13. Copper dependence of angioproliferation in pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats and humans.

    PubMed

    Bogaard, Harm J; Mizuno, Shiro; Guignabert, Christophe; Al Hussaini, Aysar A; Farkas, Daniela; Ruiter, Gerrina; Kraskauskas, Donatas; Fadel, Elie; Allegood, Jeremy C; Humbert, Marc; Vonk Noordegraaf, Anton; Spiegel, Sarah; Farkas, Laszlo; Voelkel, Norbert F

    2012-05-01

    Obliteration of the vascular lumen by endothelial cell growth is a hallmark of many forms of severe pulmonary arterial hypertension. Copper plays a significant role in the control of endothelial cell proliferation in cancer and wound-healing. We sought to determine whether angioproliferation in rats with experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension and pulmonary microvascular endothelial cell proliferation in humans depend on the proangiogenic action of copper. A copper-depleted diet prevented, and copper chelation with tetrathiomolybdate reversed, the development of severe experimental pulmonary arterial hypertension. The copper chelation-induced reopening of obliterated vessels was caused by caspase-independent apoptosis, reduced vessel wall cell proliferation, and a normalization of vessel wall structure. No evidence was found for a role of super oxide-1 inhibition or lysyl-oxidase-1 inhibition in the reversal of angioproliferation. Tetrathiomolybdate inhibited the proliferation of human pulmonary microvascular endothelial cells, isolated from explanted lungs from control subjects and patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension. These data suggest that the inhibition of endothelial cell proliferation by a copper-restricting strategy could be explored as a new therapeutic approach in pulmonary arterial hypertension. It remains to be determined, however, whether potential toxicity to the right ventricle is offset by the beneficial pulmonary vascular effects of antiangiogenic treatment in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

  14. Studies on CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase activity in rat arterial wall.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, N; Matsuoka, N; Shirai, K; Saito, Y; Kumagai, A

    1982-06-01

    The properties of CDP-choline:1,2-diacylglycerol cholinephosphotransferase (CPT) (EC 2.7.8.2.), which catalyzes de novo synthesis of phosphatidylcholine, were studied in rat arterial wall. The optimal pH of CPT of the arterial wall was about 8.5. On subcellular fractionation of the arterial wall, the highest activity was found in the microsome-rich fraction; the cytosolic fraction showed only a trace of activity. The Michaelis constant (KM) for CDP-choline was 0.019 mM. The CPT activity of a homogenate of arterial wall increased linearly with increase in concentration of diolein up to 3.2 mM. 20 mM magnesium and 0.2 mM manganese ions caused marked activation respectively and essential for the activity. Calcium, barium, cobalt, copper, and ferrous ions were inhibitory. 0.5 mM ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid (EDTA) and 0.5 mM glycoletherdiamine-N,N,N'N'-tetraacetic acid (GEDTA) increased the activity in the presence of 10 mM magnesium ion. Sonication of the enzyme solution and addition of high concentration of detergent, such as Triton X-100 and Tween 20, markedly decreased the activity. Porcine liver phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, and especially polyenephosphatidylcholine increased CPT activity of the arterial wall, while lysophosphatidylcholine was strongly inhibitory. The properties of arterial CPT activity under various conditions are discussed.

  15. Chronic high blood flow potentiates shear stress-induced release of NO in arteries of aged rats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Changdong; Huang, An; Kaley, Gabor; Sun, Dong

    2011-01-01

    Aging impairs shear-stress-dependent dilation of arteries via increased superoxide production, decreased SOD activity, and decreased activation of endothelial nitric oxide (NO) synthase (eNOS). In the present study, we investigated whether chronic increases in shear stress, elicited by increases in blood flow, would improve vascular endothelial function of aged rats. To this end, second-order mesenteric arteries of young (6 mo) and aged (24 mo) male Fischer-344 rats were selectively ligated for 3 wk to elevate blood flow in a first-order artery [high blood flow (HF)]. An in vitro study was then conducted on first-order arteries with HF and normal blood flow (NF) to assess shear stress (1, 10, and 20 dyn/cm2)-induced release of NO into the perfusate. In HF arteries of both age groups, shear stress-induced NO production increased significantly. In 24-mo-old rats, the reduced shear stress-induced NO production in NF arteries was normalized by HF to a level similar to that in NF arteries of 6-mo-old rats. The increased NO production in HF arteries of 24-mo-old rats was associated with increased shear stress-induced dilation, expression of eNOS protein, and shear stress-induced eNOS phosphorylation. Wortmannin, a phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase inhibitor, reduced shear stress-induced eNOS phosphorylation and vasodilation. Superoxide production decreased significantly in HF compared with NF arteries in 24-mo-old rats. The decreased superoxide production was associated with significant increases in CuZn-SOD and extracellular SOD protein expressions and total SOD activity. These results suggest that stimulation with chronic HF restores shear-stress-induced activation of eNOS and antioxidant ability in aged arteries. PMID:17873019

  16. Effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to endothelin-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Amor, Sara; García-Villalón, Angel Luis; Rubio, Carmen; Carrascosa, Jose Ma; Monge, Luis; Fernández, Nuria; Martín-Carro, Beatriz; Granado, Miriam

    2017-02-01

    Cardiovascular alterations are the most prevalent cause of impaired physiological function in aged individuals with kidney being one the most affected organs. Aging-induced alterations in renal circulation are associated with a decrease in endothelium-derived relaxing factors such as nitric oxide (NO) and with an increase in contracting factors such as endothelin-1(ET-1). As caloric restriction (CR) exerts beneficial effects preventing some of the aging-induced alterations in cardiovascular system, the aim of this study was to analyze the effects of age and caloric restriction in the vascular response of renal arteries to ET-1 in aged rats. Vascular function was studied in renal arteries from 3-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (3m) and in renal arteries from 8-and 24-month-old Wistar rats fed ad libitum (8m and 24m), or subjected to 20% caloric restriction during their three last months of life (8m-CR and 24m-CR). The contractile response to ET-1 was increased in renal arteries from 8m and 24m compared to 3m rats. ET-1-induced contraction was mediated by ET-A receptors in all experimental groups and also by ET-B receptors in 24m rats. Caloric restriction attenuated the increased contraction to ET-1 in renal arteries from 8m but not from 24m rats possibly through NO release proceeding from ET-B endothelial receptors. In 24m rats, CR did not attenuate the aging-increased response of renal arteries to ET-1, but it prevented the aging-induced increase in iNOS mRNA levels and the aging-induced decrease in eNOS mRNA levels in arterial tissue. In conclusion, aging is associated with an increased response to ET-1 in renal arteries that is prevented by CR in 8m but not in 24m rats.

  17. Nylon filament coated with paraffin for intraluminal permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Zuo, Xia-Lin; Wu, Ping; Ji, Ai-Min

    2012-06-21

    A variety of intraluminal nylon filament has been used in rat middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) models. However the lesion extent and its reproducibility vary among laboratories. The properties of nylon filament play a part of reasons for these variations. In the present study, we used paraffin-coated nylon filament for rat MCAO model, tested the effects and advanced improvement for making the rat MCAO. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomized into two groups, MCAO with traditional uncoated nylon filament (uMCAO) and MCAO with paraffin-coated nylon filament (cMCAO), three rats as normal group and sham group respectively. Assessment included mortality rates, model success rates, neurological deficit evaluation, and infarct volume. The study showed two rats died in uMCAO group, no rat died in cMCAO group within the 12h. The model success rate of uMCAO was 100%, while the uMCAO group was 55% (n=20, two died within 12h, seven rats were excluded as the brain slices showed no TTC staining due to subarachanoid hemorrhage). Neurological evaluation demonstrated group cMCAO had more worse neurological outcomes than group uMCAO, and the difference was statistically signification (p<0.05). TTC staining cMCAO group had significantly larger infarct volumes than uMCAO group, and also showed statistically significant difference (p<0.05). The result demonstrated that the paraffin-coated nylon filament intraluminal occlusion provide better occlusion of middle cerebral artery than the uncoated nylon filament, improve the consistent of model, and raise the success rate to reduce the number of experimental animals. These positive results are much encouraging and interesting.

  18. Effects of melatonin and Pycnogenol on small artery structure and function in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Rezzani, Rita; Porteri, Enzo; De Ciuceis, Carolina; Bonomini, Francesca; Rodella, Luigi F; Paiardi, Silvia; Boari, Gianluca E M; Platto, Caterina; Pilu, Annamaria; Avanzi, Daniele; Rizzoni, Damiano; Agabiti Rosei, Enrico

    2010-06-01

    It was suggested that oxidative stress has a key role in the development of endothelial dysfunction, as well as microvascular structural alterations. Therefore, we have investigated 2 substances with antioxidant properties: melatonin and Pycnogenol. We treated 7 spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRs) with melatonin and 7 with Pycnogenol for 6 weeks. We compared results obtained with those observed in 7 SHRs and 7 Wistar-Kyoto normotensive control rats kept untreated. Mesenteric small resistance arteries were dissected and mounted on a wire myograph, and a concentration-response curve to acetylcholine was performed. Aortic contents of metalloproteinase 2, Bax, inducible NO synthase, and cyclooxygenase 2 were evaluated, together with the aortic content of total collagen and collagen subtypes and apoptosis rate. A small reduction in systolic blood pressure was observed. A significant improvement in mesenteric small resistance artery structure and endothelial function was observed in rats treated with Pycnogenol and melatonin. Total aortic collagen content was significantly greater in untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats, whereas a full normalization was observed in treated rats. Apoptosis rate was increased in the aortas of untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats; an even more pronounced increase was observed in treated rats. Bax and metalloproteinase 2 expressions changed accordingly. Cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible NO synthase were more expressed in the aortas of untreated SHRs compared with Wistar-Kyoto control rats; this pattern was normalized by both treatments. In conclusion, our data suggest that treatment with Pycnogenol and melatonin may protect the vasculature, partly independent of blood pressure reduction, probably through their antioxidant effects.

  19. Long-term outcome of basilar stenosis in Erdheim–Chester disease

    PubMed Central

    Mathis, Stéphane; Godenèche, Gaëlle; Haroche, Julien; Milin, Serge; Julian, Adrien; Berthomet, Aline; Baron, Clément; Palazzo, Paola; Neau, Jean-Philippe

    2016-01-01

    Abstract Background: Erdheim–Chester disease (ECD) is a rare form of non-Langerhans cell histiocytosis. This inflammatory myeloid neoplasm is frequently complicated by neurological symptoms, but stroke is an exceptional manifestation of this disease. Methods: We report the case of a 59-year-old woman who presented a vertebrobasilar stroke secondary to infiltration and severe stenosis of the basilar artery, improved after interferon-alpha therapy. We performed a review of the relevant literature and reported the few other cases described. Results: With our patient, we have found only 7 observations of cerebrovascular disorder in ECD. Most of them had supravascular arteries involvement. Conclusion: Stroke is a rare treatable and potentially reversible complication of ECD. The pathophysiological processes explaining stroke in this disease are uncertain, but periarterial stenosis of cerebral arteries may be a mechanism. PMID:27603396

  20. Entrapment of a micro-guidewire during stenting of basilar stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Lian; Wang, Tie-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Tong; Miao, Zhong-Rong

    2014-06-01

    Entrapment of a microwire related to intracranial endovascular therapy is an uncommon complication. A 64-year-old man with symptomatic basilar artery stenosis was treated with stenting. A 300 cm Synchro microwire became trapped in the P1 segment of the left posterior cerebral artery during the procedure. The decision was made to leave the microwire in place, considering that aggressive retrieval procedures could cause injury to the cerebral vasculature. The entrapped microwire was later inadvertently dislocated and removed while pulling the microwire back into the femoral artery with a looped catheter from the left femoral access. This demonstrates that, although entrapment of a microwire during endovascular therapy is a rare event, an optimal salvage technique needs to be explored further.

  1. Entrapment of a micro-guidewire during stenting of basilar stenosis.

    PubMed

    Ma, Ning; Liu, Lian; Wang, Tie-Jun; Xu, Xiao-Tong; Miao, Zhong-Rong

    2013-08-01

    Entrapment of a microwire related to intracranial endovascular therapy is an uncommon complication. A 64-year-old man with symptomatic basilar artery stenosis was treated with stenting. A 300 cm Synchro microwire became trapped in the P1 segment of the left posterior cerebral artery during the procedure. The decision was made to leave the microwire in place, considering that aggressive retrieval procedures could cause injury to the cerebral vasculature. The entrapped microwire was later inadvertently dislocated and removed while pulling the microwire back into the femoral artery with a looped catheter from the left femoral access. This demonstrates that, although entrapment of a microwire during endovascular therapy is a rare event, an optimal salvage technique needs to be explored further.

  2. Altered contractile responses of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rat: The role of endogenous mediators and membrane depolarization.

    PubMed

    Bencze, Michal; Behuliak, Michal; Vavřínová, Anna; Zicha, Josef

    2016-12-01

    The goal of our study was to reveal the important mechanism(s) responsible for the enhanced contractility of isolated arteries from animals suffering genetic hypertension. Contractile force of endothelium-denuded arteries, modulated by various interventions, was measured by wire myography. Spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rat (WKY) arteries were stimulated by norepinephrine, increased extracellular K(+) or tyramine. Strain difference was not observed in the contraction elicited by exogenous norepinephrine but SHR arteries responded more to tyramine (causing endogenous norepinephrine release from neuronal varicosities). K(+)-induced contraction was enhanced in SHR arteries, with no involvement of endogenous catecholamines. The α-adrenoceptor blockade lowered tyramine-induced contraction more in SHR arteries; similar effect was achieved by guanethidine-induced sympathectomy. Partial depolarization of WKY arteries by 20mM K(+) enhanced its contraction to SHR level. The blockade of β-adrenoceptors by propranolol or selective β2-antagonist ICI-118,551 induced contraction of SHR endothelium-denuded arteries but was without significant effects on WKY arteries unless they were stimulated with K(+). Both tyramine-induced and propranolol-induced contractions were attenuated by flupirtine and abolished by nifedipine. The differences of SHR and WKY arteries were not related to vascular expression of α- and β-adrenoceptors or G-proteins. Enhanced contractility of SHR arteries is related to both increased presence of endogenous norepinephrine in vascular wall and also to altered vascular smooth muscle membrane potential. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Ameliorating effects of two extracts of Nigella sativa in middle cerebral artery occluded rat

    PubMed Central

    Akhtar, Mohammad; Maikiyo, Aliyu Muhammad; Khanam, Razia; Mujeeb, Mohd; Aqil, Mohd; Najmi, Abul Kalam

    2012-01-01

    Purpose: Aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts of Nigella sativa (400 mg/kg, orally) for 7 days were administered and evaluated for their neuroprotective effects on middle cerebral artery occluded (MCAO) rats. Materials and Methods: Cerebral ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2 h followed by reperfusion for 22 h. After 24 h of ischemia, grip strength, locomotor activity tests were performed in the surgically operated animals. After behavioral tests, animals were immediately sacrificed. Infarct volumes followed by the estimation of markers of oxidative stress in the brains were measured. Results: Locomotor activity and grip strength of animals were improved in both aqueous and hydroalcoholic extracts pretreated rats. Infarct volume was also reduced in both extracts pretreated rats as compared with MCAO rats. An elevation of thiobarbituric acid reactive substance (TBARS) and a reduction in glutathione and antioxidant enzymes, viz., superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase levels were observed following MCAO. Pretreatment of Nigella sativa extracts showed the reduction in TBARS, elevation in glutathione, SOD and catalase levels as compared with MCAO rats. Conclusion: The present study observed the neuroprotective effects of both the extracts of Nigella sativa in cerebral ischemia. The neuroprotective effects could be due to its antioxidant, free radical scavenging, and anti-inflammatory properties. PMID:22368403

  4. Ultrastructural pathological features of unilateral renal artery stenosis in the rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Xin; Mao, Yonghui; He, Xuemei; Wang, Mei; Gan, Liangying

    2015-01-01

    Renal artery stenosis (RAS) is one of the main reasons of renovascular hypertension and its pathogenesis remains unclear. In this study, we aimed to investigate histopathological characteristics in a rat model of RAS. Sprague-Dawley (SD) male rats were randomly divided into unilateral RAS group (Model group, n = 30) and Sham group (n = 30). The left renal artery was clamped with miniature silver clip for the rats in RAS group, while it was exposed but not clamped for the rats in Sham group. After the surgery, the rats were randomly divided into ten subgroups based on the time after surgery (n = 3). Blood pressure, urinary albumin/creatinine ratio, and serum albumin and creatinine levels were measured. The kidneys were dissected for histological and electron microscopy analysis. The results showed that systolic blood pressure was significantly higher since 4 weeks after surgery compared to before surgery. There were no significant differences in urinary albumin/creatinine ratio as well as serum albumin and creatinine levels in Model and Sham groups. During the early acute renal ischemia the stenotic kidney exhibited acute tubular injury, podocyte injury and some crescent formation, and the main components of crescent are podocytes. Although renal tubules and vascular lesions gradually recover and crescent disappears, segmental lesions of podocyte appear in the late stage of RAS. These data reveal ultrastructural pathological changes during RAS, and suggest the role of podocyte lesions in chronic renal ischemia. PMID:26191171

  5. Surgical technique of orthotopic liver transplantation in rats: the Kamada technique and a new splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction.

    PubMed

    Ishii, Eiichi; Shimizu, Akira; Takahashi, Mikiko; Terasaki, Mika; Kunugi, Shinobu; Nagasaka, Shinya; Terasaki, Yasuhiro; Ohashi, Ryuji; Masuda, Yukinari; Fukuda, Yuh

    2013-01-01

    Orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT) in rats is technically feasible and useful for the assessment of clinical liver transplantation and analysis of inflammatory liver diseases. OLT in rats was pioneered by Lee et al. in 1973 using hand-suture techniques of all vessels. This model has not been widely used due to the long operative time and technical demand. The cuff method was introduced by Kamada in 1979, and today, the Kamada technique is the one most commonly used worldwide. However, this technique does not include hepatic artery reconstruction, although this procedure is routinely performed in clinical transplantation. Nevertheless, several techniques for hepatic artery reconstruction in rat OLT have been reported recently, and our group also developed a simple splint technique from recipient right renal artery to donor celiac axis bearing the hepatic artery. In the present article, we describe the Kamada technique, as a standard surgical method for rat OLT. In addition, we also describe our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction. Then, we compare the features of Kamada technique and our splint technique for hepatic artery reconstruction and all other surgical techniques currently in use for rat OLT. The widespread use of the rat OLT model should help to provide full assessment of transplant immunology and the mechanism and treatment of inflammatory liver diseases.

  6. Endogenous Melanocortin System Activity Contributes to the Elevated Arterial Pressure in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    da Silva, Alexandre A.; do Carmo, Jussara M.; Kanyicska, Bela; Dubinion, John; Brandon, Elizabeth; Hall, John E.

    2009-01-01

    Previous studies suggest that activation of the CNS melanocortin system reduces appetite while increasing sympathetic activity and arterial pressure. The present study tested whether endogenous activity of the CNS melanocortin 3/4 receptors (MC3/4-R) contributes to elevated arterial pressure in the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR), a model of hypertension with increased sympathetic activity. A cannula was placed in the lateral ventricle of male SHR and Wistar (WKY) rats for chronic intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusions (0.5 μL/h). Mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) were recorded 24 hour/d using telemetry. After 5-day control period, rats were infused with MC3/4-R antagonist (SHU-9119, 1 nmol/h-ICV) for 12 days, followed by 5-day posttreatment period. MC3/4-R antagonism increased food intake in SHR by 90% and in WKY by 125%, resulting in marked weight gain, insulin resistance, and hyperleptinemia in SHR and WKY. Despite weight gain, MC3/4-R antagonism reduced HR in SHR and WKY (≈40 bpm), while lowering MAP to a greater extent in SHR (−22±4 mm Hg) than WKY (−4±3 mm Hg). SHU9119 treatment failed to cause further reductions in MAP during chronic adrenergic blockade with propranolol and terazosin. These results suggest that endogenous activity of the CNS melanocortin system contributes to the maintenance of adrenergic tone and elevated arterial pressure in SHR even though mRNA levels for POMC and MC4R in the mediobasal hypothalamus were not increased compared to WKY. These results also support the hypothesis that weight gain does not raise arterial pressure in the absence of a functional MC3/4-R. PMID:18285617

  7. Spreading dilatation to luminal perfusion of ATP and UTP in rat isolated small mesenteric arteries

    PubMed Central

    Winter, Polly; Dora, Kim A

    2007-01-01

    Levels of ATP achieved within the lumen of vessels suggest a key autacoid role. P2Y receptors on the endothelium may represent the target for ATP, leading to hyperpolarization and associated relaxation of vascular smooth muscle through the endothelium-dependent hyperpolarizing factor (EDHF) pathway. EDHF signals radially from the endothelium to cause dilatation, and appears mechanistically distinct from the axial spread of dilatation, which we showed occurs independently of a change in endothelial cell Ca2+ in rat mesenteric arteries. Here we have investigated the potential of P2Y receptor stimulation to evoke spreading dilatation in rat resistance small arteries under physiological pressure and flow. Triple cannulation of isolated arteries enables focal application of purine and pyrimidine nucleotides to the endothelium, avoiding potential complicating actions of these agents on the smooth muscle. Nucleotides were locally infused through one branch of a bifurcation, causing near maximal local dilatation attributable to EDHF. Dilatation then spread rapidly into the adjacent feed artery and upstream against the direction of luminal flow, sufficient to increase flow into the feed artery. The rate of decay of this spreading dilatation was identical between nucleotides, and matched that to ACh, which acts only on the endothelium. In contrast, focal abluminal application of either ATP or UTP at the downstream end of cannulated arteries evoked constriction, which only in the case of ATP was also associated with modest spread of dilatation. The non-hydrolysable ADP analogue, ADPβS, acting at P2Y1 receptors, caused robust local and spreading dilatation responses whether applied to the luminal or abluminal surface of pressurized arteries. Dilatation to nucleotides was sensitive to inhibition with apamin and TRAM-34, selective blockers of small- and intermediate-conductance Ca2+-activated K+ channels, respectively. These data demonstrate that direct luminal stimulation of P

  8. Severity of middle cerebral artery occlusion determines retinal deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Allen, Rachael S.; Sayeed, Iqbal; Cale, Heather A.; Morrison, Katherine C.; Boatright, Jeffrey H.; Pardue, Machelle T.; Stein, Donald G.

    2014-01-01

    Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) using the intraluminal suture technique is a common model used to study cerebral ischemia in rodents. Due to the proximity of the ophthalmic artery to the middle cerebral artery, MCAO blocks both arteries, causing both cerebral and retinal ischemia. While previous studies have shown retinal dysfunction at 48 hours post-MCAO, we investigated whether these retinal function deficits persist until 9 days and whether they correlate with central neurological deficits. Rats received 90 minutes of transient MCAO followed by electroretinography at 2 and 9 days to assess retinal function. Retinal damage was assessed with cresyl violet staining, immunohistochemistry for glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) and glutamine synthetase, and TUNEL staining. Rats showed behavioral deficits as assessed with neuroscore that correlated with cerebral infarct size and retinal function at 2 days. Two days after surgery, rats with moderate MCAO (neuroscore < 5) exhibited delays in electroretinogram implicit time, while rats with severe MCAO (neuroscore ≥ 5) exhibited reductions in amplitude. Glutamine synthetase was upregulated in Müller cells 3 days after MCAO in both severe and moderate animals, however, retinal ganglion cell death was only observed in MCAO retinas from severe animals. By 9 days after MCAO, both glutamine synthetase labeling and electroretinograms had returned to normal levels in moderate animals. Early retinal function deficits correlated with behavioral deficits. However, retinal function decreases were transient and selective retinal cell loss was observed only with severe ischemia, suggesting that the retina is less susceptible to MCAO than the brain. Temporary retinal deficits caused by MCAO are likely due to ischemia-induced increases in extracellular glutamate that impair signal conduction, but resolve by 9 days after MCAO. PMID:24518488

  9. Salvianolic acid A attenuates vascular remodeling in a pulmonary arterial hypertension rat model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-cai; Yuan, Tian-yi; Zhang, Hui-fang; Wang, Dan-shu; Yan, Yu; Niu, Zi-ran; Lin, Yi-huang; Fang, Lian-hua; Du, Guan-hua

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The current therapeutic approaches have a limited effect on the dysregulated pulmonary vascular remodeling, which is characteristic of pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH). In this study we examined whether salvianolic acid A (SAA) extracted from the traditional Chinese medicine 'Dan Shen' attenuated vascular remodeling in a PAH rat model, and elucidated the underlying mechanisms. Methods: PAH was induced in rats by injecting a single dose of monocrotaline (MCT 60 mg/kg, sc). The rats were orally treated with either SAA (0.3, 1, 3 mg·kg−1·d−1) or a positive control bosentan (30 mg·kg−1·d−1) for 4 weeks. Echocardiography and hemodynamic measurements were performed on d 28. Then the hearts and lungs were harvested, the organ indices and pulmonary artery wall thickness were calculated, and biochemical and histochemical analysis were conducted. The levels of apoptotic and signaling proteins in the lungs were measured using immunoblotting. Results: Treatment with SAA or bosentan effectively ameliorated MCT-induced pulmonary artery remodeling, pulmonary hemodynamic abnormalities and the subsequent increases of right ventricular systolic pressure (RVSP). Furthermore, the treatments significantly attenuated MCT-induced hypertrophic damage of myocardium, parenchymal injury and collagen deposition in the lungs. Moreover, the treatments attenuated MCT-induced apoptosis and fibrosis in the lungs. The treatments partially restored MCT-induced reductions of bone morphogenetic protein type II receptor (BMPRII) and phosphorylated Smad1/5 in the lungs. Conclusion: SAA ameliorates the pulmonary arterial remodeling in MCT-induced PAH rats most likely via activating the BMPRII-Smad pathway and inhibiting apoptosis. Thus, SAA may have therapeutic potential for the patients at high risk of PAH. PMID:27180980

  10. Differential changes in vascular mRNA levels between rat iliac and renal arteries produced by cessation of voluntary running.

    PubMed

    Padilla, Jaume; Jenkins, Nathan T; Roberts, Michael D; Arce-Esquivel, Arturo A; Martin, Jeffrey S; Laughlin, M Harold; Booth, Frank W

    2013-01-01

    Early vascular changes at the molecular level caused by adoption of a sedentary lifestyle are incompletely characterized. Herein, we employed the rodent wheel-lock model to identify mRNAs in the arterial wall that are responsive to the acute transition from higher to lower levels of daily physical activity. Specifically, we evaluated whether short-term cessation of voluntary wheel running alters vascular mRNA levels in rat conduit arteries previously reported to have marked increases (i.e. iliac artery) versus marked decreases (i.e. renal artery) in blood flow during running. We used young female Wistar rats with free access to voluntary running wheels. Following 23 days of voluntary running (average distance of ∼15 km per night; ∼4.4 h per night), rats in one group were rapidly transitioned to a sedentary state by locking the wheels for 7 days (n = 9; wheel-lock 7 day rats) or remained active in a second group for an additional 7 days (n = 9; wheel-lock 0 day rats). Real-time PCR was conducted on total RNA isolated from iliac and renal arteries to evaluate expression of 25 pro-atherogenic and anti-atherogenic genes. Compared with the iliac arteries of wheel-lock 0 day rats, iliac arteries of wheel-lock 7 day rats exhibited increased expression of TNFR1 (+19%), ET1 (+59%) and LOX-1 (+31%; all P < 0.05). Moreover, compared with renal arteries of wheel-lock 0 day rats, renal arteries of wheel-lock 7 day rats exhibited decreased expression of ETb (-23%), p47phox (-32%) and p67phox (-19%; all P < 0.05). These data demonstrate that cessation of voluntary wheel running for 7 days produces modest, but differential changes in mRNA levels between the iliac and renal arteries of healthy rats. This heterogeneous influence of short-term physical inactivity could be attributed to the distinct alteration in haemodynamic forces between arteries.

  11. Dysfunction of neurotransmitter modulation system on adrenergic nerves of caudal artery in type 2 diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rats.

    PubMed

    Ishii-Nozawa, Reiko; Mita, Mitsuo; Shoji, Masaru; Takeuchi, Koichi

    2012-01-01

    The Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rat is a non-obese and spontaneous model of mild Type 2 diabetes mellitus. In the present study, we compared the regulatory mechanisms of endogenous norepinephrine (NE) release from sympathetic nerves of caudal arteries of 12-week-old GK rats and age-matched normal Wistar rats. Electrical stimulation (ES) evoked significant NE release from caudal arteries of Wistar and GK rats. The amounts of NE released by ES were almost equal in Wistar and GK rats, although the NE content in caudal artery of GK rats was significantly lower than that of Wistar rats. We examined the effects of an α₂-adrenoceptor agonist, clonidine (CLO), and an α₂-adrenoceptor antagonist, yohimbine (YOH), on the release of endogenous NE evoked by ES. CLO significantly reduced NE release from caudal arteries of Wistar but not GK rats. On the other hand, YOH significantly increased NE release from both rats. Furthermore, we examined the effects of an A₁-adenosine receptor agonist, 2-chloroadenosine (2CA), and an A₁-adenosine receptor antagonist, 8-sulfophenyltheophylline (8SPT), on the release of endogenous NE evoked by ES. 2CA significantly reduced NE release from caudal arteries of Wistar but not GK rats. On the other hand, 8SPT did not affect NE release from both rats. These results suggest that the dysfunction of negative feedback regulation of NE release via presynaptic receptors on sympathetic nerves in GK rats may be involved in the autonomic nervous system dysfunction associated with diabetic autonomic neuropathy.

  12. Optimization of an Arterialized Venous Fasciocutaneous Flap in the Abdomen of the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Mota-Silva, Eduarda; Pais, Diogo; Iria, Inês; Videira, Paula A.; Tanganho, David; Alves, Sara; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Martins Ferreira, José; Ferraz-Oliveira, Mário; Vassilenko, Valentina; O’Neill, João Goyri

    2017-01-01

    Background: Although numerous experimental models of arterialized venous flaps (AVFs) have been proposed, no single model has gained widespread acceptance. The main aim of this work was to evaluate the survival area of AVFs produced with different vascular constructs in the abdomen of the rat. Methods: Fifty-three male rats were divided into 4 groups. In group I (n = 12), a 5-cm-long and 3-cm-wide conventional epigastric flap was raised on the left side of the abdomen. This flap was pedicled on the superficial caudal epigastric vessels caudally and on the lateral thoracic vein cranially. In groups II, III, and IV, a similar flap was raised, but the superficial epigastric artery was ligated. In these groups, AVFs were created using the following arterial venous anastomosis at the caudal end of the flap: group II (n = 13) a 1-mm-long side-to-side anastomosis was performed between the femoral artery and vein laterally to the ending of the superficial caudal epigastric vein. In group III (n = 14), in addition to the procedure described for group II, the femoral vein was ligated medially. Finally, in group IV (n = 14), the superficial caudal epigastric vein was cut from the femoral vein with a 1-mm-long ellipse of adjacent tissue, and an end-to-side arterial venous anastomosis was established between it and the femoral artery. Results: Seven days postoperatively, the percentage of flap survival was 98.89 ± 1.69, 68.84 ± 7.36, 63.84 ± 10.38, 76.86 ± 13.67 in groups I–IV, respectively. Conclusion: An optimized AVF can be produced using the vascular architecture described for group IV. PMID:28894657

  13. Minimally Modified LDL Upregulates Endothelin Type A Receptors in Rat Coronary Arterial Smooth Muscle Cells

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jie; Cao, Lei; Xu, Cang-Bao; Wang, Jun-Jie

    2013-01-01

    Minimally modified low-density lipoprotein (mmLDL) is a risk factor for cardiovascular disease. The present study investigated the effects of mmLDL on the expression of endothelin type A (ETA) receptors in coronary arteries. Rat coronary arteries were organ-cultured for 24 h. The contractile responses were recorded using a myographic system. ETA receptor mRNA and protein expressions were determined using real-time PCR and western blotting, respectively. The results showed that organ-culturing in the presence of mmLDL enhanced the arterial contractility mediated by the ETA receptor in a concentration-dependent and time-dependent manner. Culturing with mmLDL (10 μg/mL) for 24 h shifted the concentration-contractile curves toward the left significantly with increased Emax of 228% ± 20% from control of 100% ± 10% and significantly increased ETA receptor mRNA and protein levels. Inhibition of the protein kinase C, extracellular signal-related kinases 1 and 2 (ERK1/2), or NF-κB activities significantly attenuated the effects of mmLDL. The c-Jun N-terminal kinase inhibitor or the p38 pathway inhibitor, however, had no such effects. The results indicate that mmLDL upregulates the ETA receptors in rat coronary arterial smooth muscle cells mainly via activating protein kinase C, ERK1/2, and the downstream transcriptional factor, NF-κB. PMID:23861561

  14. Impaired function of alpha-2 adrenoceptors in smooth muscle of mesenteric arteries from spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Feres, T; Borges, A C; Silva, E G; Paiva, A C; Paiva, T B

    1998-11-01

    The alpha2-adrenoceptor function in mesenteric arteries of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) was investigated by comparing membrane potential changes in response to adrenergic agonists in preparations from female SHR, Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) and normotensive Wistar rats (NWR). Resting membrane potential was found to be less negative in mesenteric arteries from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. Apamin induced a decrease in the membrane potential of mesenteric artery rings without endothelium from NWR and WKY, but had no effects in those from SHR. Both UK 14,304 and adrenaline, in the presence of prazosin, induced a hyperpolarization that was significantly lower in de-endothelialized mesenteric rings from SHR than in those from NWR and WKY. In mesenteric rings with endothelium, however, similar hyperpolarization was observed in the three strains. In NWR mesenteric rings with endothelium the hyperpolarization induced by activation of alpha2-adrenoceptors was abolished by apamin, whereas in intact SHR mesenteric rings this hyperpolarization was slightly reduced by apamin and more efficiently reduced by Nomega-nitro-L-arginine. It is concluded that the activity of potassium channels coupled to alpha2-adrenoceptors is altered in the smooth muscle cells of SHR mesenteric arteries, contributing to their less negative membrane potential. On the other hand, the endothelial alpha2-receptors are functioning in mesenteric vessels from SHR and their stimulation induces a hyperpolarization mainly through the release of nitric oxide.

  15. Protective Effect of a Fish Egg Homogenate Marine Compound on Arterial Ultrastructure in Spontaneous Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Nagpal, Ravinder; Singh, Birbal; Mohania, Dheeraj; Milazzo, Michele; Italia, Angelo; Tomella, Claudio; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-01-01

    Abstract We assessed the effect of a sturgeon eggs–based nutraceutical (LD-1227) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the ultrastructure of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) aortas. Sixty SHR were randomly divided into three groups that were fed (1) rat chow, (2) rat chow plus 10 mg of EPA/DHA, or (3) rat chow plus 10 mg of LD-1227, for 18 weeks. Afterward, aortas of these rats were used for blind measurements of the thickened intima area and examination by electron microscopy. Control SHR showed an expanded subendothelial space and leukocyte infiltration of the intima that were reduced in LD-1227–fed rats (p<0.05) and less in EPA/DHA group. Transmission electron microscopy showed endothelial alteration with severe subcellular injury and, unlike the EPA/DHA-group, LD-1227–treated rats displayed a significant reduction in endothelial alteration with severe subcellular injury (p<0.05). These data suggest that LD-1227 has stronger arterial protective properties and deserves further investigation in view of a preventive medicine strategy. PMID:24050389

  16. Protective effect of a fish egg homogenate marine compound on arterial ultrastructure in spontaneous hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zerbinati, Nicola; Marotta, Francesco; Nagpal, Ravinder; Singh, Birbal; Mohania, Dheeraj; Milazzo, Michele; Italia, Angelo; Tomella, Claudio; Catanzaro, Roberto

    2014-04-01

    We assessed the effect of a sturgeon eggs-based nutraceutical (LD-1227) versus eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA)/docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) on the ultrastructure of spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) aortas. Sixty SHR were randomly divided into three groups that were fed (1) rat chow, (2) rat chow plus 10 mg of EPA/DHA, or (3) rat chow plus 10 mg of LD-1227, for 18 weeks. Afterward, aortas of these rats were used for blind measurements of the thickened intima area and examination by electron microscopy. Control SHR showed an expanded subendothelial space and leukocyte infiltration of the intima that were reduced in LD-1227-fed rats (p<0.05) and less in EPA/DHA group. Transmission electron microscopy showed endothelial alteration with severe subcellular injury and, unlike the EPA/DHA-group, LD-1227-treated rats displayed a significant reduction in endothelial alteration with severe subcellular injury (p<0.05). These data suggest that LD-1227 has stronger arterial protective properties and deserves further investigation in view of a preventive medicine strategy.

  17. Age-associated characteristics of vasomotor regulation of the pia mater arteries in rats.

    PubMed

    Chertok, V M; Kotsyuba, A E

    2010-09-01

    The endothelium-dependent and myogenic reactions of pia mater arteries of the 1st-5th branching orders were studied in 1-, 3-, and 24-month-old rats by biomicroscopy method. The endothelium-independent (myogenic) reaction predominated in the 1st-3rd order branches and the endothelium-dependent vascular reaction in the 5th order branches of 3-month-old rats. Both regulatory mechanisms were equally developed in the 4th order branches. In 1-month-old rats, the endothelium-dependent reaction was more active in the majority of branches. In 24-month-old rats, this reaction was significantly higher than the endothelium-independent one only in the 4th and 5th order branches. In contrast to 3-month-old rats, the myogenic reaction of 24-month-old animals predominated in the 1st and 2nd order branches and the endothelium-dependent one in the 4th and 5th order branches. Vascular reactivity of 24-month-old rats was lower than in younger rats in all cases.

  18. Arterial medial necrosis and hemorrhage induced in rats by intravenous infusion of fenoldopam mesylate, a dopaminergic vasodilator.

    PubMed Central

    Yuhas, E. M.; Morgan, D. G.; Arena, E.; Kupp, R. P.; Saunders, L. Z.; Lewis, H. B.

    1985-01-01

    Fenoldopam mesylate, a selective, postsynaptic, dopaminergic vasodilator, was administered to rats for assessment of its clinical, toxicologic, and pathologic effects. Groups of 8 male and 8 female rats received 5, 25, 50, or 100 micrograms/kg/min by intravenous infusion for 24 hours. Groups of 12 male and 12 female rats received 2, 8, 16, or 20 mg/kg/day by intravenous injection once daily for 12 days. Tissues were examined by light microscopy. Rats infused for 24-hours with 5-100 micrograms/kg/min of fenoldopam had lesions of renal and splanchnic arteries characterized by medial necrosis and hemorrhage. None were seen in control rats or those administered the compound by intravenous injection. Arteries with four to five layers of medial smooth-muscle cells were most severely and frequently affected. Lesions were particularly severe in interlobular pancreatic arteries and subserosal gastric arteries. They occurred first at 4 hours, were present at low incidence at 8 hours, were induced in unrestrained rats, and were not caused by the experimental procedures employed. The nature and disposition of this novel arterial lesion in the rat suggests that its pathogenesis may be related to the pharmacologic activity of fenoldopam mesylate at the dopamine receptor. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 PMID:2858975

  19. Reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in living mouse cochleae

    PubMed Central

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Kemp, David

    2016-01-01

    It is commonly believed that the exceptional sensitivity of mammalian hearing depends on outer hair cells which generate forces for amplifying sound-induced basilar membrane vibrations, yet how cellular forces amplify vibrations is poorly understood. In this study, by measuring subnanometer vibrations directly from the reticular lamina at the apical ends of outer hair cells and from the basilar membrane using a custom-built heterodyne low-coherence interferometer, we demonstrate in living mouse cochleae that the sound-induced reticular lamina vibration is substantially larger than the basilar membrane vibration not only at the best frequency but surprisingly also at low frequencies. The phase relation of reticular lamina to basilar membrane vibration changes with frequency by up to 180 degrees from ∼135 degrees at low frequencies to ∼-45 degrees at the best frequency. The magnitude and phase differences between reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations are absent in postmortem cochleae. These results indicate that outer hair cells do not amplify the basilar membrane vibration directly through a local feedback as commonly expected; instead, they actively vibrate the reticular lamina over a broad frequency range. The outer hair cell-driven reticular lamina vibration collaboratively interacts with the basilar membrane traveling wave primarily through the cochlear fluid, which boosts peak responses at the best-frequency location and consequently enhances hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity. PMID:27516544

  20. Reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations in living mouse cochleae.

    PubMed

    Ren, Tianying; He, Wenxuan; Kemp, David

    2016-08-30

    It is commonly believed that the exceptional sensitivity of mammalian hearing depends on outer hair cells which generate forces for amplifying sound-induced basilar membrane vibrations, yet how cellular forces amplify vibrations is poorly understood. In this study, by measuring subnanometer vibrations directly from the reticular lamina at the apical ends of outer hair cells and from the basilar membrane using a custom-built heterodyne low-coherence interferometer, we demonstrate in living mouse cochleae that the sound-induced reticular lamina vibration is substantially larger than the basilar membrane vibration not only at the best frequency but surprisingly also at low frequencies. The phase relation of reticular lamina to basilar membrane vibration changes with frequency by up to 180 degrees from ∼135 degrees at low frequencies to ∼-45 degrees at the best frequency. The magnitude and phase differences between reticular lamina and basilar membrane vibrations are absent in postmortem cochleae. These results indicate that outer hair cells do not amplify the basilar membrane vibration directly through a local feedback as commonly expected; instead, they actively vibrate the reticular lamina over a broad frequency range. The outer hair cell-driven reticular lamina vibration collaboratively interacts with the basilar membrane traveling wave primarily through the cochlear fluid, which boosts peak responses at the best-frequency location and consequently enhances hearing sensitivity and frequency selectivity.

  1. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv 7 channels in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum of healthy and metabolic syndrome rats.

    PubMed

    Jepps, T A; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A; Dalsgaard, T

    2016-05-01

    KCNQ-encoded voltage-dependent potassium channels (Kv 7) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In this study we evaluated the influence of Kv 7 channel activation on smooth muscle relaxation in rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum from normal and spontaneously hypertensive, heart failure-prone (SHHF) rats - a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of KCNQ isoforms in penile tissue. Isometric tension was measured in intracavernous arterial rings and corpus cavernosum strips isolated from normal and SHHF rats. Transcripts for KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were detected in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. KCNQ1 was only found in corpus cavernosum. Immunofluorescence signals to Kv 7.4 and Kv 7.5 were found in penile arteries, penile veins and corpus cavernosum. The Kv 7.2-7.5 activators, ML213 and BMS204352, relaxed pre-contracted penile arteries and corpus cavernosum independently of nitric oxide synthase or endothelium-derived hyperpolarization. Relaxations to sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an nitric oxide donor, were reduced by blocking Kv 7 channels with linopirdine in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. In SHHF rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum, relaxations to ML213 and BMS204352 were attenuated, and the blocking effect of linopirdine on sildenafil-induced and SNP-induced relaxations reduced. KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were down-regulated, and KCNQ1 was up-regulated in corpus cavernosum from SHHF rats. KCNQ1-5 transcripts remained unchanged in penile arteries from SHHF rats. These data suggest that Kv 7 channels play a role in erectile function and contribute to the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, an early indicator of cardiovascular disease. © 2016 The British Pharmacological Society.

  2. Molecular and functional characterization of Kv7 channels in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum of healthy and metabolic syndrome rats

    PubMed Central

    Jepps, T A; Olesen, S P; Greenwood, I A

    2016-01-01

    Background and Purpose KCNQ‐encoded voltage‐dependent potassium channels (Kv7) are involved in the regulation of vascular tone. In this study we evaluated the influence of Kv7 channel activation on smooth muscle relaxation in rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum from normal and spontaneously hypertensive, heart failure‐prone (SHHF) rats – a rat model of human metabolic syndrome. Experimental Approach Quantitative PCR and immunohistochemistry were used to determine the expression of KCNQ isoforms in penile tissue. Isometric tension was measured in intracavernous arterial rings and corpus cavernosum strips isolated from normal and SHHF rats. Key Results Transcripts for KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were detected in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. KCNQ1 was only found in corpus cavernosum. Immunofluorescence signals to Kv7.4 and Kv7.5 were found in penile arteries, penile veins and corpus cavernosum. The Kv7.2–7.5 activators, ML213 and BMS204352, relaxed pre‐contracted penile arteries and corpus cavernosum independently of nitric oxide synthase or endothelium‐derived hyperpolarization. Relaxations to sildenafil, a PDE5 inhibitor, and sodium nitroprusside (SNP), an nitric oxide donor, were reduced by blocking Kv7 channels with linopirdine in penile arteries and corpus cavernosum. In SHHF rat penile arteries and corpus cavernosum, relaxations to ML213 and BMS204352 were attenuated, and the blocking effect of linopirdine on sildenafil‐induced and SNP‐induced relaxations reduced. KCNQ3, KCNQ4 and KCNQ5 were down‐regulated, and KCNQ1 was up‐regulated in corpus cavernosum from SHHF rats. KCNQ1–5 transcripts remained unchanged in penile arteries from SHHF rats. Conclusions and Implications These data suggest that Kv7 channels play a role in erectile function and contribute to the pathophysiology of erectile dysfunction, an early indicator of cardiovascular disease. PMID:26802314

  3. HMGB1 Promotes the Development of Pulmonary Arterial Hypertension in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadamura-Takenaka, Yukari; Ito, Takashi; Noma, Satoshi; Oyama, Yoko; Yamada, Shingo; Kawahara, Ko-ichi; Inoue, Hiromasa; Maruyama, Ikuro

    2014-01-01

    Rationale Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by increased pulmonary vascular resistance leading to right ventricular failure and death. Recent studies have suggested that chronic inflammatory processes are involved in the pathogenesis of PAH. However, the molecular and cellular mechanisms driving inflammation have not been fully elucidated. Objectives To elucidate the roles of high mobility group box 1 protein (HMGB1), a ubiquitous DNA-binding protein with extracellular pro-inflammatory activity, in a rat model of PAH. Methods Male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered monocrotaline (MCT). Concentrations of HMGB1 in bronchoalveolar lavage fluid (BALF) and serum, and localization of HMGB1 in the lung were examined over time. The protective effects of anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody against MCT-induced PAH were tested. Results HMGB1 levels in BALF were elevated 1 week after MCT injection, and this elevation preceded increases of other pro-inflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, and the development of PAH. In contrast, serum HMGB1 levels were elevated 4 weeks after MCT injection, at which time the rats began to die. Immunohistochemical analyses indicated that HMGB1 was translocated to the extranuclear space in periarterial infiltrating cells, alveolar macrophages, and bronchial epithelial cells of MCT-injected rats. Anti-HMGB1 neutralizing antibody protected rats against MCT-induced lung inflammation, thickening of the pulmonary artery wall, and elevation of right ventricular systolic pressure, and significantly improved the survival of the MCT-induced PAH rats. Conclusions Our results identify extracellular HMGB1 as a promoting factor for MCT-induced PAH. The blockade of HMGB1 activity improved survival of MCT-induced PAH rats, and thus might be a promising therapy for the treatment of PAH. PMID:25032709

  4. Impaired endothelin calcium signaling coupled to endothelin type B receptors in penile arteries from insulin-resistant obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Contreras, Cristina; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Pilar; Climent, Belén; Benedito, Sara; García-Sacristán, Albino; Hernández, Medardo; Prieto, Dolores

    2013-09-01

    Erectile dysfunction is considered as an early sign of subclinical vascular disease and endothelial dysfunction and a highly prevalent condition in diabetic patients. The current study assessed whether impaired vascular effects of endothelin (ET)-1 may contribute to the vascular dysfunction of penile arteries from a rat model of insulin resistance. The effect of ETA and ETB receptor antagonists was assessed on the intracellular Ca(2+) [Ca(2+) ]i and contractile responses to ET-1 in penile arteries from obese Zucker rats (OZR) and lean Zucker rats (LZR), and ET receptor expression in the arterial wall was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Changes in ET-1 [Ca(2+) ]i and vasoconstriction and ET receptor expression were evaluated in penile arteries from insulin-resistant rats. ET-1-induced vasoconstriction was associated with a higher increase in smooth muscle [Ca(2+) ]i in penile arteries from OZR compared with LZR. Removal of the endothelium inhibited and enhanced contractions to the lowest and highest doses of ET-1, respectively, mainly in OZR. The selective ETA receptor antagonist BQ-123 inhibited ET-1 vasoconstriction and [Ca(2+) ]i response in both LZR and OZR. The ETB receptor antagonist BQ-788 had little effect in healthy arteries but markedly inhibited ET-1-induced increases in [Ca(2+) ]i and vasoconstriction in arteries from OZR. ETA receptors were located on the smooth muscle and endothelium of penile arteries, whereas ETB receptors were found on the arterial endothelium in LZR and OZR, and also on the smooth muscle in OZR, immunostaining for both receptors being higher in OZR. Penile arteries from OZR exhibit an impaired ET-1 Ca(2+) signaling along with changes in the ET receptor profile. Thus, whereas ET-1 contraction and the associated [Ca(2+) ]i increase are mediated by smooth muscle ETA receptors in healthy arteries, ETB receptors contribute to contraction and are coupled to the augmented ET-1 [Ca(2+) ]i response under conditions of insulin resistance

  5. The AGE-Breaker ALT-711 Restores High Blood Flow–Dependent Remodeling in Mesenteric Resistance Arteries in a Rat Model of Type 2 Diabetes

    PubMed Central

    Freidja, Mohamed L.; Tarhouni, Kahena; Toutain, Bertrand; Fassot, Céline; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2012-01-01

    Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxide–dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711–treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711–treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes. PMID:22415880

  6. The AGE-breaker ALT-711 restores high blood flow-dependent remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in a rat model of type 2 diabetes.

    PubMed

    Freidja, Mohamed L; Tarhouni, Kahena; Toutain, Bertrand; Fassot, Céline; Loufrani, Laurent; Henrion, Daniel

    2012-06-01

    Flow-mediated remodeling of resistance arteries is essential for revascularization in ischemic diseases, but this is impaired in diabetes. We hypothesized that breaking advanced glycation end product (AGE) cross-links could improve remodeling in mesenteric resistance arteries in Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF) rats compared with lean Zucker (LZ) rats. Arteries, exposed to high (HF) or normal (NF) blood flow after alternate arterial ligation in vivo, were collected after 2 weeks. In LZ rats, HF artery diameter was larger than for NF vessels, but this was not the case in ZDF rats. Endothelium-mediated dilation in ZDF rats, which was lower than in LZ rats, was further decreased in HF arteries. Treatment of rats with the AGE-breaker 4,5-dimethyl-3-phenacylthiazolium chloride (ALT-711) (3 mg/kg/day; 3 weeks) reversed diabetes-induced impairment of HF-dependent remodeling. ALT-711 also improved endothelium nitric oxide-dependent relaxation in mesenteric resistance arteries. Reactive oxygen species reduction restored relaxation in ZDF rats but not in LZ or ALT-711-treated rats. AGEs were reduced in ALT-711-treated ZDF rats compared with ZDF rats. Metalloproteinase activity, necessary for HF-dependent remodeling, was reduced in ZDF rats compared with LZ rats and restored by ALT-711. Thus, targeting AGE cross-links may provide a therapeutic potential for overcoming microvascular complications in ischemic disorders occurring in diabetes.

  7. Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to basilar impression: A case report

    PubMed Central

    de Almeida Holanda, Maurus Marques; Pereira Neto, Normando Guedes; de Moura Peixoto, Gustavo; Pinheiro Santos, Rayan Haquim

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of trigeminal neuralgia. A 23-year-old woman with a history of 1 year of typical trigeminal neuralgia manifested the characteristics of basilar impression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated basilar impression, deformity of the posterior fossa with asymmetry of petrous bone, and compression of medulla oblongata in the topography of the odontoid apophysis. The operation was performed through a suboccipital craniectomy. The neuralgia disappeared after surgery and remains completely resolved until today. This is the second reported case of trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with basilar impression in Brazil. PMID:25972713

  8. Basilar impression. A differential diagnosis of Menier'es disease.

    PubMed

    Elies, W; Plester, D

    1980-04-01

    We examined the craniocervical region in 180 patients with nonspecific dizziness and unilateral sensorineural hearing loss in most of them. In 32 cases, we found malformations of the craniocervical region. The symptoms of the basilar impression are probably caused by compression of the vessels of the lower cerebellar region and the brainstem as well as by disturbances of the CSF circulation. The diagnosis of basilar impression is based on lateral x-ray films of the skull base, tomography of this region, and in some cases on computerized axial tomography. We emphasize the importance of basilar impression in the differential diagnosis of Meniere's disease.

  9. Trigeminal neuralgia secondary to basilar impression: A case report.

    PubMed

    de Almeida Holanda, Maurus Marques; Pereira Neto, Normando Guedes; de Moura Peixoto, Gustavo; Pinheiro Santos, Rayan Haquim

    2015-01-01

    We report a rare case of trigeminal neuralgia. A 23-year-old woman with a history of 1 year of typical trigeminal neuralgia manifested the characteristics of basilar impression. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) demonstrated basilar impression, deformity of the posterior fossa with asymmetry of petrous bone, and compression of medulla oblongata in the topography of the odontoid apophysis. The operation was performed through a suboccipital craniectomy. The neuralgia disappeared after surgery and remains completely resolved until today. This is the second reported case of trigeminal neuralgia in a patient with basilar impression in Brazil.

  10. Characterisation of P2X receptors expressed in rat pulmonary arteries.

    PubMed

    Syed, Nawazish-i-Husain; Tengah, Asrin; Paul, Andrew; Kennedy, Charles

    2010-12-15

    Previous studies indicated that a P2X receptor other than the P2X1 subtype might be present in rat large, but not small pulmonary arteries. The aim here was to characterise further these P2X receptors. Isometric tension was recorded from rat isolated small (i.d. 250-500 μm) and large pulmonary artery (i.d. 1-1.5 mm) rings mounted on a wire myograph. In both tissues the P2X receptor agonist α,β-meATP evoked rapidly-developing contractions that were inhibited by the P2X antagonists NF449, PPADS and suramin in a concentration-dependent manner and eventually abolished by each. The rank order of the potency in both tissues was NF449>PPADS=suramin. For each antagonist there was no significant difference between its potency in the small and large pulmonary arteries. Prolonged administration of a high concentration of α,β-meATP induced complete desensitisation in both tissues. RT-PCR followed by PCR with specific oligonucleotide primers, identified mRNA for all seven P2X subunits. Subtype-specific antibodies showed strong, punctate P2X1 receptor-like immunoreactivity in the majority of cells and faint, punctate staining with the anti-P2X2 and anti-P2X4 antibodies, whilst P2X5-like immunoreactivity was barely detectable and no P2X3, P2X6, and P2X7 receptor-like immunoreactivity was seen. No differences in P2X mRNA and protein expression were seen between small and large pulmonary arteries. In conclusion, the pharmacological properties and mRNA and protein expression profiles of P2X receptors in rat small and large pulmonary arteries are very similar. Thus P2X1 appears to be the predominant P2X subunit functionally expressed in smooth muscle cells of rat small and large pulmonary arteries.

  11. Smooth muscle cell proliferation in the occluded rat carotid artery: lack of requirement for luminal platelets.

    PubMed Central

    Guyton, J. R.; Karnovsky, M. J.

    1979-01-01

    The relationship of intimal smooth muscle cell proliferation in the permanently occluded rat carotid artery to the presence or absence of luminal platelets was examined. Blood was rinsed from the arterial lumen immediately after occlusion and was replaced by autologous, citrated platelet-rich plasma (PRP, 6 to 20 X 10(5) platelets/microliter) or filtered platelet-poor plasma (PPP, less than 100 platelets/microliter). Occluded arteries were studied after 1 to 28 days by light and electron microscopy. Events occurring within the first 2 days included fibrin clot formation, endothelial degeneration and denudation, transmural migration of polymorphonucelar leukocytes and monocytes, and, in PRP-filled arteries, degranulation and disappearance of platelets. By 7 days a neointima was formed by macrophages and undifferentiated cells. The latter cells had some features of vascular smooth muscle cells and were apparently derived from medial cells which traversed the internal elastic lamina. After 14 days, identifiable smooth muscle cells emerged as the predominant cell type in a rapidly growing intimal plaque. No differences could be discerned between arteries originally filled with PRP or PPP. This experimental model is similar to atherosclerosis in dimensions of avascular area and in coexistence of degenerative, inflammatory, and proliferative processes. Cell proliferation deep within an atherosclerotic plaque could be initiated by factors other than platelets, perhaps by products of inflammatory cells. Images Figure 4 Figure 7 Figure 6 Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 8 Figure 5 PMID:426040

  12. Myogenic and structural properties of cerebral arteries from the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat.

    PubMed

    Izzard, Ashley S; Graham, Delyth; Burnham, Matthew P; Heerkens, Egidius H; Dominiczak, Anna F; Heagerty, Anthony M

    2003-10-01

    The aims of the study were to compare the myogenic and structural properties of middle cerebral arteries (MCAs) from the stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) with MCAs from the spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) before stroke development in SHRSP. Rats were fed a "Japanese" diet (low-protein rat chow and 1% NaCl in drinking water) for 8 wk, and cerebral arteries were studied in vitro at 12 wk using a pressure arteriograph. Systolic pressure was significantly increased in SHRSP compared with SHR at 12 wk. Between 60 and 180 mmHg, MCAs from SHR maintained an essentially constant diameter, i.e., displayed a "myogenic range," whereas the diameter of MCAs from SHRSP progressively increased as a function of pressure. Passive lumen diameter of MCAs from SHRSP was reduced at high pressure, and wall thickness and wall/lumen were increased, compared with SHR. Wall cross-sectional area was also increased in MCAs from SHRSP compared with the SHR, indicating growth. The stress-strain relationship was shifted to the left in MCAs from SHRSP, indicating decreased MCA distensibility compared with SHR. However, collagen staining with picrosirius red revealed a redistribution of collagen to the outer half of the MCA wall in SHRSP compared with SHR. These data demonstrate impaired myogenic properties in prestroke SHRSP compared with SHR, which may explain stroke development. The structural differences in MCAs from SHRSP compared with SHR were a consequence of both growth and a reduced distensibility.

  13. Facilitation of serotonin-induced contraction of rat mesenteric artery by ketamine

    PubMed Central

    Park, Sang Woong; Noh, Hyun Ju; Kim, Jung Min; Kim, Bokyung; Cho, Sung-Il; Kim, Yoon Soo; Woo, Nam Sik

    2016-01-01

    Ketamine is an anesthetic with hypertensive effects, which make it useful for patients at risk of shock. However, previous ex vivo studies reported vasodilatory actions of ketamine in isolated arteries. In this study, we reexamined the effects of ketamine on arterial tones in the presence and absence of physiological concentrations of 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and norepinephrine (NE) by measuring the isometric tension of endothelium-denuded rat mesenteric arterial rings. Ketamine little affected the resting tone of control mesenteric arterial rings, but, in the presence of 5-HT (100~200 nM), ketamine (10~100 µM) markedly contracted the arterial rings. Ketamine did not contract arterial rings in the presence of NE (10 nM), indicating that the vasoconstrictive action of ketamine is 5-HT-dependent. The concentration-response curves (CRCs) of 5-HT were clearly shifted to the left in the presence of ketamine (30 µM), whereas the CRCs of NE were little affected by ketamine. The left shift of the 5-HT CRCs caused by ketamine was reversed with ketanserin, a competitive 5-HT2A receptor inhibitor, indicating that ketamine facilitated the activation of 5-HT2A receptors. Anpirtoline and BW723C86, selective agonists of 5-HT1B and 5-HT2B receptors, respectively, did not contract arterial rings in the absence or presence of ketamine. These results indicate that ketamine specifically enhances 5-HT2A receptor-mediated vasoconstriction and that it is vasoconstrictive in a clinical setting. The facilitative action of ketamine on 5-HT2A receptors should be considered in ketamine-induced hypertension as well as in the pathogenesis of diseases such as schizophrenia, wherein experimental animal models are frequently generated using ketamine. PMID:27847437

  14. [Genistein attenuates monocrotaline-induced pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats by up-regulating heme oxygenase-1 expression].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Yukun; Wang, Daoxin; Zhu, Tao; Li, Changyi

    2012-02-01

    To study the effect of genistein on the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) induced by monocrotaline (MCT). Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into 4 groups (n=15), namely the control group, model group, low-dose (20 µg/kg) genistein group and high-dose (80 µg/kg) genistein group. The hemodynamic parameters were measured and the remodeling of pulmonary small arteries was observed by electron microscope (EM). The expression of HO-1 in the lung tissues were detected by Western blotting. Compared with the model group, genistein treatment significantly reduced the elevated mean pulmonary arterial pressure, improved the right ventricular hypertrophy index, and increased the expression of HO-1 in a dose-dependent manner. Genistein attentuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in MCT-treated rats possibly by up-regulation of HO-1 in the lung tissues.

  15. Effect of sex hormones on plasma phospholipid fatty acid composition in intact rats and rats with bilaterally occluded carotid arteries.

    PubMed

    Petrović, S; Takić, M; Arsić, A; Vučić, V; Drakulić, D; Milošević, M; Glibetić, M

    2014-01-01

    The effects of 8-days treatment with 17alpha-estradiol (33.3 microg/kg) and progesterone (1.7 mg/kg) on plasma lipids and fatty acid composition of plasma phospholipids were examined in intact (INT) and bilaterally common carotid arteries occluded (BCO) male Wistar rats. Significant decrease of triglyceride level was found in BCO rats after the estradiol treatment. Both hormones elevated proportion of 18:1n-7 fatty acid in INT, but they failed to have such an effect in BCO. Estradiol increased 22:5n-3 and total n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) in intact, and decreased 18:2n-6 in BCO rats. Significantly lower level of total n-3 was found in progesterone-treated than in estradiol-treated BCO rats. Given that n-3 PUFA have many beneficial effects on cell and tissue function, while n-6 PUFA have mostly the opposite effects, estradiol, rather than progesterone, was seen to improve plasma lipids and phospholipids FA profiles in INT and BCO animals. Estradiol significantly elevated the estimated activity of delta9-desaturases and progesterone of delta5-desaturase in BCO group, with no effects in INT rats.

  16. A rare case of basilar impression.

    PubMed

    Verma, Rajesh; Junewar, Vivek; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh

    2012-06-01

    A teenage girl presented with progressively worsening neck and occipital pain since 8 months ago that was associated with restriction of neck movements, low to moderate grade fever, anorexia and weight loss followed by gradually progressive quadriparesis since 3 months ago. Neurological examination revealed spastic quadriparesis without cranial nerve palsy. MRI of the cervical spine revealed prevertebral and paravertebral abscess from clivus to C2/C3 level, which extended into the anterior epidural space at C1-C3 level, causing atlantoaxial dislocation. There was evidence of basilar invagination. The dislocated dens caused compression over the cervicomedullary junction. On this basis, a diagnosis of craniovertebral junction Pott's disease was made. The patient was given neck immobilisation with cervical collar, and antitubercular treatment was started. She showed significant improvement in her neurological deficit during follow-up.

  17. A rare case of basilar impression

    PubMed Central

    Verma, Rajesh; Junewar, Vivek; Garg, Ravindra Kumar; Malhotra, Hardeep Singh

    2012-01-01

    A teenage girl presented with progressively worsening neck and occipital pain since 8 months ago that was associated with restriction of neck movements, low to moderate grade fever, anorexia and weight loss followed by gradually progressive quadriparesis since 3 months ago. Neurological examination revealed spastic quadriparesis without cranial nerve palsy. MRI of the cervical spine revealed prevertebral and paravertebral abscess from clivus to C2/C3 level, which extended into the anterior epidural space at C1–C3 level, causing atlantoaxial dislocation. There was evidence of basilar invagination. The dislocated dens caused compression over the cervicomedullary junction. On this basis, a diagnosis of craniovertebral junction Pott's disease was made. The patient was given neck immobilisation with cervical collar, and antitubercular treatment was started. She showed significant improvement in her neurological deficit during follow-up. PMID:22669923

  18. Double-barrel Y-configuration Stenting for Flow Diversion of a Giant Recurrent Basilar Apex Aneurysm with the Pipeline Flex Embolization Device

    PubMed Central

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M.; McGuinness, Ben; Brew, Stefan

    2016-01-01

    Giant basilar apex aneurysms are extremely challenging to successfully manage. The Pipeline Flex embolization device (PFED) is a new generation flow-diverting stent with a modified delivery system which allows resheathing of the stent after partial deployment. We describe a case of double-barrel Y-configuration stenting of a giant, recurrent basilar apex aneurysm using the PFED. A 73-year-old male was previously treated for an unruptured 11-mm basilar apex aneurysm with stent-assisted coiling using a Neuroform stent. The aneurysm was retreated twice with repeat coiling. After the third recurrence and persistent aneurysm growth into a giant, symptomatic lesion, we decided to proceed with flow diversion. We performed Y-stenting of the basilar bifurcation using three PFEDs, and was recoiled the aneurysm sac. Due to the low porosity of the flow diverters, a side-by-side double-barrel configuration was necessary in the basilar artery. Without the PFED's resheathable capability, it would not have been possible to perform Y-stenting with flow diverters. PMID:28163518

  19. Double-barrel Y-configuration Stenting for Flow Diversion of a Giant Recurrent Basilar Apex Aneurysm with the Pipeline Flex Embolization Device.

    PubMed

    Ding, Dale; Starke, Robert M; McGuinness, Ben; Brew, Stefan

    2016-12-01

    Giant basilar apex aneurysms are extremely challenging to successfully manage. The Pipeline Flex embolization device (PFED) is a new generation flow-diverting stent with a modified delivery system which allows resheathing of the stent after partial deployment. We describe a case of double-barrel Y-configuration stenting of a giant, recurrent basilar apex aneurysm using the PFED. A 73-year-old male was previously treated for an unruptured 11-mm basilar apex aneurysm with stent-assisted coiling using a Neuroform stent. The aneurysm was retreated twice with repeat coiling. After the third recurrence and persistent aneurysm growth into a giant, symptomatic lesion, we decided to proceed with flow diversion. We performed Y-stenting of the basilar bifurcation using three PFEDs, and was recoiled the aneurysm sac. Due to the low porosity of the flow diverters, a side-by-side double-barrel configuration was necessary in the basilar artery. Without the PFED's resheathable capability, it would not have been possible to perform Y-stenting with flow diverters.

  20. Hypoxia Does neither Stimulate Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cell Proliferation in Mice and Rats with Pulmonary Hypertension and Vascular Remodeling nor in Human Pulmonary Artery Endothelial Cells

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Lunyin; Hales, Charles A.

    2011-01-01

    Background Hypoxia results in pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling due to induction of pulmonary artery cell proliferation. Besides pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells, pulmonary artery endothelial cells (PAECs) are also involved in the development of pulmonary hypertension, but the effect of hypoxia on PAEC proliferation has not been completely understood. Methods We investigated PAEC proliferation in mice and rats with hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling as well as in human PAECs under hypoxia. Results and Conclusion We did not find significant PAEC proliferation in chronically hypoxic rats or mice. There was a slight decrease in proliferation in mice and rats with pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. We also did not find significant human PAEC proliferation and cell cycle progression under different levels of oxygen (1, 2, 3, 5 and 10%) for one day, although the same conditions of hypoxia induced significant proliferation and cell cycle progression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle cells and pulmonary artery fibroblasts. Exposure to hypoxia for 7 days also did not increase PAEC proliferation. These results demonstrated that hypoxia alone is not a stimulus to PAEC proliferation in vivo and in vitro. The present study provides a novel role for PAECs in hypoxia-induced pulmonary hypertension and vascular remodeling. PMID:21691120

  1. Age-related changes in the noradrenergic innervation of the coronary arteries in old rats: a fluorescent histochemical study.

    PubMed

    Amenta, F; Mione, M C

    1988-04-01

    Age-related changes in the density of the noradrenergic perivascular plexus supplying the coronary vessels in the rat were studied using the glyoxylic acid fluorescence technique. A marked decrease in the density of the noradrenergic innervation of large, medium and small size coronary arteries was observed in 25-month-old rats. In contrast, the fluorescent nerves supplying the coronary veins were not decreased in old animals. The present data are indicative of an age-related reduction of fluorescent noradrenergic nerves in the rat coronary arteries.

  2. Dual effect of initial [K] on vascular tone in rat mesenteric arteries.

    PubMed

    Brochet, Didier X P; Langton, Philip D

    2006-10-01

    A slight increase in extracellular concentration of potassium ([K(+)](o)) can act as a vasodilator in rat mesenteric vascular bed. However, in recent years, several groups have failed to consistently observe relaxation of rat mesenteric arteries in these conditions. The aim of the present study was to provide a mechanistic understanding of this discrepancy. In rat small mesenteric arteries, 37 of 40 arteries mounted for measurement of isometric force and pre-contracted with phenylephrine (PE) did not relax when ([K(+)](o) was raised from 5.9 mM (control ([K(+)](o) to 11.2 or 21.2 mM. However, when ([K(+)](o) was briefly lowered to 1.2 mM, increasing ([K(+)](o) to between 5.9 and 41.2 mM evoked relaxation. This relaxation was not reduced by barium or by removal of the endothelium, but was abolished by 0.1 mM ouabain. Raising ([K(+)](o) from concentrations between 0 and 5.9 mM to 13.8 mM elicited a relaxation of PE-induced tone that was inversely proportional to initial ([K(+)](o). Relaxation was associated with a ouabain-sensitive hyperpolarization of smooth muscle cells. In arteries exposed to dihydroouabain (DHO), raising ([K(+)](o) from 5.9 to 13.8 mM and simultaneously washing out DHO resulted in relaxation of PE-induced force. These results suggest that only when the initial ([K(+)](o) is less than approximately 5 mM do small elevations in ([K(+)](o) evoke smooth muscle hyperpolarization and relaxation via activation of Na,K-ATPase, and not inwardly rectifying K(+) channels. Therefore, small differences in the initial ([K(+)](o) (4.6 vs 5.9 mM) can strongly influence the variations of vascular tone to increases in ([K(+)](o).

  3. Uteroplacental insufficiency and lactational environment separately influence arterial stiffness and vascular function in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Tare, Marianne; Parkington, Helena C; Bubb, Kristen J; Wlodek, Mary E

    2012-08-01

    Early life environmental influences can have lifelong consequences for health, including the risk of cardiovascular disease. Uteroplacental insufficiency causes fetal undernutrition and impairs fetal growth. Previously we have shown that uteroplacental insufficiency is associated with impaired maternal mammary development, compromising postnatal growth leading to hypertension in male rat offspring. In this study we investigated the roles of prenatal and postnatal nutritional environments on endothelial and smooth muscle reactivity and passive wall stiffness of resistance arteries of male rat offspring. Fetal growth restriction was induced by maternal bilateral uterine vessel ligation (restricted) on day 18 of pregnancy. Control offspring were from mothers that had sham surgery (control) and another group from mothers with their litter size reduced (reduced; litter size reduced to 5 at birth, equivalent to the restricted group). On postnatal day 1, offspring (control, restricted, and reduced) were cross-fostered onto control or restricted mothers. At 6 months, mesenteric and femoral arteries were studied using wire and pressure myography. In restricted-on-restricted rats, wall stiffness was increased, and sensitivity to phenylephrine and relaxation evoked by endothelium-derived hyperpolarizing factor and sodium nitroprusside were impaired in mesenteric arteries. In femoral arteries, relaxation to sodium nitroprusside was reduced, whereas wall stiffness was unaltered. Cross-fostering restricted offspring onto control mothers alleviated deficits in vascular stiffness and reactivity. Control or reduced offspring who suckled a restricted mother had marked vascular stiffening. In conclusion, prenatal and early postnatal environments separately influence vascular function and stiffness. Furthermore, the early postnatal lactational environment is a determinant of later cardiovascular function.

  4. Insulin resistance in penile arteries from a rat model of metabolic syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Contreras, Cristina; Sánchez, Ana; Martínez, Pilar; Raposo, Rafaela; Climent, Belén; García-Sacristán, Albino; Benedito, Sara; Prieto, Dolores

    2010-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND PURPOSE Metabolic and cardiovascular abnormalities accompanying metabolic syndrome, such as obesity, insulin resistance and hypertension, are all associated with endothelial dysfunction and are independent risk factors for erectile dysfunction. The purpose of the present study was to investigate the vascular effects of insulin in penile arteries and whether these effects are impaired in a rat model of insulin resistance and metabolic syndrome. EXPERIMENTAL APPROACH Penile arteries from obese Zucker rats (OZR) and their counterpart, lean Zucker rats (LZR), were mounted on microvascular myographs and the effects of insulin were assessed in the absence and presence of endothelium and of specific inhibitors of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis, phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) and mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK). Insulin-induced changes in intracellular Ca2+ concentration [Ca2+]i were also examined. KEY RESULTS OZR exhibited mild hyperglycaemia, hypercholesterolemia, hypertryglyceridemia and hyperinsulinemia. Insulin induced endothelium- and NO-dependent relaxations in LZR that were impaired in OZR. Inhibition of PI3K reduced relaxation induced by insulin and by the β-adrenoceptor agonist isoprenaline, mainly in arteries from LZR. Antagonism of endothelin 1 (ET-1) receptors did not alter insulin-induced relaxation in either LZR or OZR, but MAPK blockade increased the responses in OZR. Insulin decreased [Ca2+]i, a response impaired in OZR. CONCLUSIONS AND IMPLICATIONS Insulin-induced relaxation was impaired in penile arteries of OZR due to altered NO release through the PI3K pathway and unmasking of a MAPK-mediated vasoconstriction. This vascular insulin resistance is likely to contribute to the endothelial dysfunction and erectile dysfunction associated with insulin resistant states. PMID:20735420

  5. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P.; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB. PMID:27375765

  6. The Effect of Photoluminescence of Bioceramic Irradiation on Middle Cerebral Arterial Occlusion in Rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Lei; Chan, Paul; Liu, Zhong-Min; Hwang, Ling-Ling; Lin, Kuo-Chi; Chan, Wing P; Leung, Ting-Kai; Choy, Cheuk Sing

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study is to determine the possible effect of photoluminescence of bioceramic (PLB) on ischemic cerebral infarction (stroke), by using an animal model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Sprague-Dawley rats were used to induce MCAO to block the origin of the left MCAO; three months later, the positive chronic stroke rats were selected by running tunnel maze; the MCAO rats with significant chronic stroke and neurological defects were used for treadmill experiments with varying speed settings to test their capability for restoration after muscular fatigue under conditions of with and without PLB irradiation. As a result, PLB irradiation could improve exercise completion rate and average running speed during slow and fast treadmill settings. After PLB irradiation, the selected MCAO rats successfully completed all the second-round treadmill exercises at the maximum speed setting, and they had better restoration from muscular fatigue. An in vitro cell study on astrocytes of rats by bioceramic irradiation further demonstrated increased intracellular nitric oxide. To explain these results, we suggest that cortical brain stimulation of microcirculation and enhancement of peripheral muscular activity are the main causes of the improved exercise performance in MCAO rats by PLB.

  7. Carbonic anhydrase inhibitors reduce cardiac dysfunction after sustained coronary artery ligation in rats.

    PubMed

    Vargas, Lorena A; Pinilla, Oscar A; Díaz, Romina G; Sepúlveda, Diana E; Swenson, Erik R; Pérez, Néstor G; Álvarez, Bernardo V

    Two potent carbonic anhydrase (CA) inhibitors with widely differing membrane permeability, poorly diffusible benzolamide (BZ), and highly diffusible ethoxzolamide (ETZ) were assessed to determine whether they can reduce cardiac dysfunction in rats subjected to coronary artery ligation (CAL)-induced myocardial infarction. Rats with evidence of heart failure (HF) at 32 weeks following a permanent left anterior coronary artery occlusion were treated with placebo, BZ, or ETZ (4 mg kgday(-1)) for 4 weeks at which time left ventricular function and structure were evaluated. Lung weight/body weight (LW/BW) ratio increased in CAL rats by 17±1% vs. control, suggesting pulmonary edema. There was a trend for BZ and ETZ to ameliorate the increase in LW/BW by almost 50% (9±5% and 9±8%, respectively, versus CAL) (P=.16, NS). Echocardiographic assessment showed decreased left ventricular midwall shortening in HF rats, 21±1% vs. control 32±1%, which was improved by BZ to 29±1% and ETZ to 27±1%, and reduced endocardial shortening in HF rats 38±3% vs. control 62±1%, partially restored by BZ and ETZ to ~50%. Expression of the hypoxia-inducible membrane-associated CAIX isoform increased by ~60% in HF rat hearts, and this effect was blocked by ETZ. We conclude that CAL-induced myocardial interstitial fibrosis and associated decline in left ventricular function were diminished with BZ or ETZ treatment. The reductions in cardiac remodeling in HF with both ETZ and BZ CA inhibitors suggest that inhibition of a membrane-bound CA appears to be the critical site for this protection. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Alterations in Perivascular Sympathetic and Nitrergic Innervation Function Induced by Late Pregnancy in Rat Mesenteric Arteries

    PubMed Central

    Caracuel, Laura; Callejo, María; Balfagón, Gloria

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose We investigated whether pregnancy was associated with changed function in components of perivascular mesenteric innervation and the mechanism/s involved. Experimental Approach We used superior mesenteric arteries from female Sprague-Dawley rats divided into two groups: control rats (in oestrous phase) and pregnant rats (20 days of pregnancy). Modifications in the vasoconstrictor response to electrical field stimulation (EFS) were analysed in the presence/absence of phentolamine (alpha-adrenoceptor antagonist) or L-NAME (nitric oxide synthase-NOS- non-specific inhibitor). Vasomotor responses to noradrenaline (NA), and to NO donor DEA-NO were studied, NA and NO release measured and neuronal NOS (nNOS) expression/activation analysed. Key Results EFS induced a lower frequency-dependent contraction in pregnant than in control rats. Phentolamine decreased EFS-induced vasoconstriction in segments from both experimental groups, but to a greater extent in control rats. EFS-induced vasoconstriction was increased by L-NAME in arteries from both experimental groups. This increase was greater in segments from pregnant rats. Pregnancy decreased NA release while increasing NO release. nNOS expression was not modified but nNOS activation was increased by pregnancy. Pregnancy decreased NA-induced vasoconstriction response and did not modify DEA-NO-induced vasodilation response. Conclusions and Implications Neural control of mesenteric vasomotor tone was altered by pregnancy. Diminished sympathetic and enhanced nitrergic components both contributed to the decreased vasoconstriction response to EFS during pregnancy. All these changes indicate the selective participation of sympathetic and nitrergic innervations in vascular adaptations produced during pregnancy. PMID:25951331

  9. Wave reflection correlates with pulmonary vascular wall thickening in rats with pulmonary arterial hypertension.

    PubMed

    Fukumitsu, Masafumi; Kawada, Toru; Shimizu, Shuji; Turner, Michael J; Uemura, Kazunori; Sugimachi, Masaru

    2017-09-14

    Wave reflection is enhanced in patients with pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH), which may be derived from a mismatch of pulmonary artery (PA) impedance between proximal and distal sites of arteries. Whether enhanced wave reflection correlates with histological remodeling remains unknown, partly because lung biopsy is not clinically recommended for PAH patients due to substantial risks of mortality and morbidity. Pulmonary hypertension was induced by SU5416 injection and 3-week hypoxic exposure (SuHx-PH) in rats, and hemodynamic and histological examinations were performed at 4weeks (SuHx-PH4W) and 8weeks (SuHx-PH8W) after SU5416 injection (n=7 each). Two groups of age-matched normal rats were also analyzed (n=7 each). Using an elastic tube with a 3-element Windkessel model, PA impedance was parameterized as pulmonary artery compliance (CP), peripheral resistance (RP), characteristic impedance (ZC), and transmission time (TD) in conducting arteries. Wave reflection was quantified as reflection gain at 0 Hz (Γgain) in the frequency domain, and as the ratio of peak backward pressure to peak forward pressure (KB/F) in the time domain. The SuHx-PH groups demonstrated increased RP and ZC, and decreased CP and TD compared with normal groups. Γgain and KB/F were significantly higher in the SuHx-PH8W group than in the SuHx-PH4W group, and correlated strongly with a histological index of vascular wall thickening (R(2)=0.839, P<0.001 for Γgain and R(2)=0.775, P<0.001 for KB/F). Enhanced wave reflection caused by abnormal PA impedance correlates with histological remodeling, and may have a diagnostic value in clinical staging of PAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Reduced Endothelium-Dependent Relaxation to Anandamide in Mesenteric Arteries from Young Obese Zucker Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lobato, Nubia S.; Filgueira, Fernando P.; Prakash, Roshini; Giachini, Fernanda R.; Ergul, Adviye; Carvalho, Maria Helena C.; Webb, R. Clinton; Tostes, Rita C.; Fortes, Zuleica B.

    2013-01-01

    Impaired vascular function, manifested by an altered ability of the endothelium to release endothelium-derived relaxing factors and endothelium-derived contracting factors, is consistently reported in obesity. Considering that the endothelium plays a major role in the relaxant response to the cannabinoid agonist anandamide, the present study tested the hypothesis that vascular relaxation to anandamide is decreased in obese rats. Mechanisms contributing to decreased anandamide-induced vasodilation were determined. Resistance mesenteric arteries from young obese Zucker rats (OZRs) and their lean counterparts (LZRs) were used. Vascular reactivity was evaluated in a myograph for isometric tension recording. Protein expression and localization were analyzed by Western blotting and immunofluorescence, respectively. Vasorelaxation to anandamide, acetylcholine, and sodium nitroprusside, as well as to CB1, CB2, and TRPV1 agonists was decreased in endothelium-intact mesenteric arteries from OZRs. Incubation with an AMP-dependent protein kinase (AMPK) activator or a fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibitor restored anandamide-induced vascular relaxation in OZRs. CB1 and CB2 receptors protein expression was decreased in arteries from OZRs. Incubation of mesenteric arteries with anandamide evoked endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), AMPK and acetyl CoA carboxylase phosphorylation in LZRs, whereas it decreased phosphorylation of these proteins in OZRs. In conclusion, obesity decreases anandamide-induced relaxation in resistance arteries. Decreased cannabinoid receptors expression, increased anandamide degradation, decreased AMPK/eNOS activity as well as impairment of the response mediated by TRPV1 activation seem to contribute to reduce responses to cannabinoid agonists in obesity. PMID:23667622

  11. Hypertension and impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation of arteries from spontaneously hypertensive and L-NAME-treated Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, F; Miyake, Y; Hirakawa, A; Nakahira, T; Yamaoka, M; Shimamura, K; Yamamoto, K; Sunano, S

    2001-04-01

    Effects of chronic treatment of normotensive Wistar rats with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on blood pressure and on endothelium-dependent relaxation of the aorta, carotid and iliac arteries were studied. The endothelium-dependent relaxation was compared in arteries from normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) and genetically hypertensive rats (stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats, SHRSP). Chronic treatment of normotensive Wistar rats with L-NAME caused an elevation of blood pressure. The elevated blood pressure at 15 weeks of age was significantly higher in these animals than that of untreated Wistar rats, but lower than that of SHRSP. Endothelium-dependent relaxation of the arteries induced by acetylcholine (ACh) was almost abolished by chronic treatment with L-NAME. The remaining small relaxation in arteries from L-NAME-treated rats was completely inhibited by application of L-NAME (10(-4) M). In such preparations, higher concentrations of ACh induced a contraction, which was abolished by removal of the endothelium or by an application of indomethacin (10(-5) M). Endothelium-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was similar between preparations from untreated and L-NAME-treated Wistar rats. Endothelium-dependent relaxation was significantly impaired in preparations from SHRSP, when compared with that in those from WKY. However, the impairment was less prominent in preparations from SHRSP than in those from L-NAME-treated rats. These results suggest that the impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation in the arteries from L-NAME-treated rats is not due to the elevated blood pressure resulting from the chronic treatment, and that impairment of NO synthesis by the endothelium does not play a major role in the initiation of hypertension in SHRSP.

  12. Alterations in Vasoreactivity of Femoral Artery Induced by Hindlimb Unweighting are Related to the Changes of Contractile Protein in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jin; Ren, Xinling; Meng, Qinjun; Zhang, Lifan; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of endothelium removed femoral arterial rings to vasoactive compounds were examined in vitro, and the expression of Myosin and Actin of femoral artery were observed by Western Blotting and Immunohistochemistry in hndlimb unweighting rats and control rats. The results showed that contractile responses of femoral arterial rings evoked by Phenylephrine, Endothelin-1, Vasopressin, KCl, Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 were decreased in hindlimb unweighting rats as compared with that of controls. But vasoddatory responses induced by SNPand cGMP were not different between groups. No significant differences have been found in expressions of Calponin, Myosin, Actin, and the ratio of MHC SM1/SM2 between the two groups, but expression of alpha-SM-Actin decreased in hindlimb unweighting rats. The data indicated that the diminished contractile responsiveness probably result from altered contractile apparatus, especially the contractile proteins.

  13. Alterations in Vasoreactivity of Femoral Artery Induced by Hindlimb Unweighting are Related to the Changes of Contractile Protein in Rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Ma, Jin; Ren, Xinling; Meng, Qinjun; Zhang, Lifan; Purdy, Ralph E.

    2005-01-01

    Responses of endothelium removed femoral arterial rings to vasoactive compounds were examined in vitro, and the expression of Myosin and Actin of femoral artery were observed by Western Blotting and Immunohistochemistry in hndlimb unweighting rats and control rats. The results showed that contractile responses of femoral arterial rings evoked by Phenylephrine, Endothelin-1, Vasopressin, KCl, Ca(2+) and Ca(2+) ionophore A23187 were decreased in hindlimb unweighting rats as compared with that of controls. But vasoddatory responses induced by SNPand cGMP were not different between groups. No significant differences have been found in expressions of Calponin, Myosin, Actin, and the ratio of MHC SM1/SM2 between the two groups, but expression of alpha-SM-Actin decreased in hindlimb unweighting rats. The data indicated that the diminished contractile responsiveness probably result from altered contractile apparatus, especially the contractile proteins.

  14. Plasmid pLXSN-Mediated Adrenomedullin Gene Therapy for Cerebral Vasospasm Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xin; Xia, Xiaoshuang; Li, Xin

    2017-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to investigate the protective effect of ADM gene mediated by plasmid pVAX1 on cerebral vasospasm (CVS) after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). Material/Methods The recombinant plasmid pVAX-ADM was successfully established, and 40 SD rats were randomly divided into normal saline, pVAX1, pVAX1-ADM low-dose, pVAX1-ADM mid-dose, and pVAX1-ADM high-dose groups. The circumference and diameter of basilar artery, diameter of middle cerebral artery and internal carotid artery, and thickness of basilar artery wall were observed. The levels of circulating endothelial cells (CEC) and levels of regional cerebral blood flow (rCBF) of the parietal cortex were detected at different time-points. The expression levels of serum ADM, ET-1, and NOS of each group and the neurological functions were compared. Results The circumference and diameter of basilar artery and the diameter of the middle cerebral artery and internal carotid artery in pVAX1-ADM groups were significantly longer than those in the saline group and pVAX1 group (P<0.05), but the thickness of the basilar artery wall in pVAX1-ADM groups was significantly lower (P<0.05), and the levels of growth or decrease were both dose-dependent (P<0.05). Compared with the saline group and pVAX1 group, the expression levels of serum ADM, NOS, and rCBF in pVAX1-ADM groups were significantly higher (P<0.05), but the levels of serum ET-1 and CEC were significantly lower (P<0.05). The scores of neurobehavioral functions of pVAX1-ADM groups were significantly lower (P<0.05), and the scores were also dose-dependent (P<0.05). Conclusions The recombinant eukaryotic expression plasmid pVAX1-ADM can significantly relieve cerebral vasospasm, increase the expression of serum ADM and NOS, and decrease the expression of serum ET-1 in a rat model of CVS; it is dose-dependent and can also improve nervous system function. PMID:28684727

  15. Basilar impression in osteogenesis imperfecta tarda. Case report.

    PubMed

    Kurimoto, M; Ohara, S; Takaku, A

    1991-01-01

    A case is presented of basilar impression secondary to osteogenesis imperfecta tarda, associated with hemifacial spasm and brain-stem compression syndrome. The symptoms improved with posterior fossa decompression and posterior fusion.

  16. Volume of myocardium perfused by coronary artery branches as estimated from 3D micro-CT images of rat hearts

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lund, Patricia E.; Naessens, Lauren C.; Seaman, Catherine A.; Reyes, Denise A.; Ritman, Erik L.

    2000-04-01

    Average myocardial perfusion is remarkably consistent throughout the heart wall under resting conditions and the velocity of blood flow is fairly reproducible from artery to artery. Based on these observations, and the fact that flow through an artery is the product of arterial cross-sectional area and blood flow velocity, we would expect the volume of myocardium perfused to be proportional to the cross-sectional area of the coronary artery perfusing that volume of myocardium. This relationship has been confirmed by others in pigs, dogs and humans. To test the body size-dependence of this relationship we used the hearts from rats, 3 through 25 weeks of age. The coronary arteries were infused with radiopaque microfil polymer and the hearts scanned in a micro- CT scanner. Using these 3D images we measured the volume of myocardium and the arterial cross-sectional area of the artery that perfused that volume of myocardium. The average constant of proportionality was found to be 0.15 +/- 0.08 cm3/mm2. Our data showed no statistically different estimates of the constant of proportionality in the rat hearts of different ages nor between the left and right coronary arteries. This constant is smaller than that observed in large animals and humans, but this difference is consistent with the body mass-dependence on metabolic rate.

  17. Chronic mild stress-induced depression-like symptoms in rats and abnormalities in catecholamine uptake in small arteries.

    PubMed

    Bouzinova, Elena V; Møller-Nielsen, Nina; Boedtkjer, Donna B; Broegger, Torbjoern; Wiborg, Ove; Aalkjaer, Christian; Matchkov, Vladimir V

    2012-04-01

    Major depression and cardiovascular diseases have a strong comorbidity; however, the reason for this is unknown. In the chronic mild stress (CMS) model of depression, only a fraction of rats develop a major feature of depression-anhedonia-like behavior, whereas other rats are stress resilient. Previous studies suggested that CMS rats also have increased total peripheral vascular resistance. On the basis of CMS-induced changes of sucrose intake, a reliable measure for anhedonia, rats were divided into "resilient" and "anhedonic" groups. An interaction between hedonic status and vascular function was studied after 4 and 8 weeks of CMS exposure in vitro in wire myograph on saphenous arteries and mesenteric small arteries (MSAs) from these rats. When comparing the different experimental rat groups, arterial sensitivities to noradrenaline (NA) were similar under control conditions, but in the presence of the neuronal reuptake inhibitor cocaine, arteries from anhedonic rats were more sensitive to NA. No change in perivascular innervation was found, but elevated expression of neuronal NA transporter was detected. Inhibition of extraneuronal uptake with corticosterone (1 μM) suggests that this transport is diminished in MSAs after CMS. The corticosterone-sensitive transporter organic cation cotransporter 2 was shown to be reduced in MSAs after CMS. No CMS-induced changes in the corticosterone-sensitive transport were found in saphenous arteries. Our results indicate that CMS-induced depression-like symptoms in rats are associated with changes in catecholamine uptake pathways in the vascular wall, which potentially modulates the effect of sympathetic innervation of resistance arteries.

  18. Endothelium-dependent relaxation in pulmonary arteries of L-NAME-treated Wistar and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Sekiguchi, Fumiko; Yamamoto, Kazuo; Matsuda, Kyoko; Kawata, Kyoko; Negishi, Maki; Shinomiya, Kazuaki; Shimamur, Keiichi; Sunano, Satoru

    2002-10-01

    To evaluate whether the elevated blood pressure induced by chronic treatment with N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) contributes to an impairment of endothelium-dependent relaxation (EDR), the effects of chronic treatment of Wistar rats with L-NAME on systolic blood pressure, pulmonary arterial blood pressure and EDR of the pulmonary arteries were studied and compared with those of stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP). While the systolic blood pressure (SBP) of Wistar rats was increased above that of controls by chronic treatment with L-NAME, it was still significantly lower than that of SHRSP. Chronic treatment with L-NAME did not affect pulmonary arterial blood pressure. On the other hand, the pulmonary arterial blood pressure of SHRSP was slightly but significantly higher than that of the control normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY). EDR in response to acetylcholine in the pulmonary artery of L-NAME-treated rats was significantly smaller than that in control Wistar rats. The EDR markedly increased in the presence of L-arginine and completely disappeared in the presence of N(omega)-nitro-L-arginine. Indomethacin hardly affected EDR. In preparations from SHRSP, the EDR was not different from that in those from WKY. Relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside was identical in all preparations. Elevation of SBP and the impairment of EDR observed in L-NAME-treated rats recovered two weeks following cessation of treatment. These results suggest that the impaired EDR in the pulmonary artery of L-NAME-treated rats is not due to an L-NAME-induced increase in blood pressure but due to the inhibition of nitric oxide synthase by the drug remaining in the endothelium.

  19. Effect of age on kinetics of nitric oxide release in rat aorta and pulmonary artery.

    PubMed Central

    Tschudi, M R; Barton, M; Bersinger, N A; Moreau, P; Cosentino, F; Noll, G; Malinski, T; Lüscher, T F

    1996-01-01

    Aging is an important determinant of vascular disease. Endothelium-derived nitric oxide (NO) is protective as a vasodilator and inhibitor of platelet function. This study was designed to directly measure effects of prolonged aging on endotheliai NO release in isolated blood vessels and to delineate differences between the systemic and pulmonary circulation. Aortas and pulmonary arteries from 5-6-mo-old (young), 18-19-mo-old (middle-aged), and 32-33-mo-old (old) normotensive female rats were used. Blood pressure and plasma estradiol-17beta (E2) remained unchanged. In isolated blood vessels, NO release was induced by the receptor-independent agonist calcium ionophore A23187 (10 micromol/liter) and measured in situ on the endothelial surface of vessels using a porphyrinic microsensor. In vessels suspended in organ chambers isometric tension was recorded. In the aorta, the initial rate of NO release and peak NO concentration were reduced in middle-aged and old rats (P < 0.0006 vs. young rats, n = 6). Furthermore, endothelium-dependent relaxations to calcium ionophore and acetylcholine (both 10(-10) - 10(-5) mol/liter) were also reduced in aortas from old as compared with young rats (n = 6, P < 0.05). The initial rate of NO release and peak NO concentration significantly correlated with maximal relaxation to calcium ionophore A23187 (correlation coefficients r - 0.916, P < 0.0018 and r = 0.961, P < 0.0001, respectively, n = 7). In pulmonary arteries, however, the initial rate of NO release as well as peak NO concentration did not decrease with age (n = 6 for each age group, NS). In both blood vessels, the NO release was unaffected by superoxide dismutase in all age groups (n = 6, NS). Thus, aging specifically reduces initial rate and peak concentrations of endothelial NO release from aorta but not pulmonary artery indicating reduced NO production. As arterial pressure did not change with aging, the chronic exposure of the aorta to higher pressure and/or pulsatility than

  20. Basilar impression in an achondroplastic dwarf: causative role in tetraparesis.

    PubMed

    Luyendijk, W; Matricali, B; Thomeer, R T

    1978-01-01

    The neurological and radiological findings in a case of chondrodystrophic dwarfism are described. The progressive tetraparesis proved to be based on a high-level medullary compression resulting from basilar impression and upper cervical stenosis. Surgical decompression led to the disappearance of the tetraparetic phenomena. Various aspects of chondrodystrophic dwarfism and basilar impression are discussed in relation to the neurological symptomatology, and the question of whether, in general, more attention should be given to the cranio-cervical region, is raised.

  1. Robustness of arterial blood gas analysis for assessment of respiratory safety pharmacology in rats.

    PubMed

    Whiteside, Garth T; Hummel, Michele; Boulet, Jamie; Beyenhof, Jessica D; Strenkowski, Bryan; John, Janet Dell; Knappenberger, Terri; Maselli, Harry; Koetzner, Lee

    2016-01-01

    Whole body plethysmography using unrestrained animals is a common technique for assessing the respiratory risk of new drugs in safety pharmacology studies in rats. However, wide variations in experimental technique make cross laboratory comparison of data difficult and raise concerns that non-appropriate conditions may mask the deleterious effects of test compounds - in particular with suspected respiratory depressants. Therefore, the objective of this study was to evaluate the robustness of arterial blood gas analysis as an alternative to plethysmography in rats. We sought to do this by assessing the effect of different vehicles and times post-surgical catheterization on blood gas measurements, in addition to determining sensitivity to multiple opioids. Furthermore, we determined intra-lab variability from multiple datasets utilizing morphine and generated within a single lab and lastly, inter-lab variability was measured by comparing datasets generated in two separate labs. Overall, our data show that arterial blood gas analysis is a measure that is both flexible in terms of experimental conditions and highly sensitive to respiratory depressants, two key limitations when using plethysmography. As such, our data strongly advocate the adoption of arterial blood gas analysis as an investigative approach to reliably examine the respiratory depressant effects of opioids. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  2. (-)epicatechin induces and modulates endothelium-dependent relaxation in isolated rat mesenteric artery rings.

    PubMed

    Chen, Zhen-Yu; Yao, Xiao-Qiang; Chan, Franky Leung; Lau, Chi-Wai; Huang, Yu

    2002-12-01

    The present study was aimed to examine the role of endothelial nitric oxide in the relaxant response to green tea (-)epicatechin and its modulation of endothelium-mediated relaxation in the isolated rat mesenteric artery rings. Changes in the isometric tension were measured with Grass force-displacement transducers. The (-)epicatechin-induced relaxation was largely dependent on the presence of intact endothelium and was reversed by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester 10 micromol/L or methylene blue 10 micromol/L, the inhibitors of nitric oxide-mediated relaxation. L-Arginine at 1 mmol/L antagonized the effect of L-NAME or methylene blue. Pretreatment of endothelium-intact rings with (-)epicatechin 10 micromol/L enhanced the relaxation induced by endothelium-dependent vasodilator, acetylcholine, while this concentration did not influence the endothelium-independent relaxation induced by sodium nitroprusside in the endothelium-denuded artery rings. The results indicate that the endothelium-dependent vasodilation by (-)epicatechin is mainly mediated through nitric oxide and low concentration of (-)epicatechin augments endothelium-dependent vasorelaxation in the rat mesenteric arteries.

  3. Effect of quercetin-rich onion peel extracts on arterial thrombosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Seung-Min; Moon, Jiyoung; Chung, Ji Hyung; Cha, Yong-Jun; Shin, Min-Jeong

    2013-07-01

    The aim of this study was to examine whether oral supplementation of quercetin-rich onion peel extract (OPE) influences blood coagulation and arterial thrombosis in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. 24 male rats, 5 weeks old, were divided into three groups with different diets (C: control, 2mg OPE: chow diet with 2mg OPE supplementation, 10mg OPE: chow diet with 10mg OPE supplementation) for 6 weeks. Blood coagulation parameters including prothrombin time (PT), activated partial thromboplastin time (aPTT) and platelet aggregation were examined. The OPE did not affect blood cholesterol levels but significantly decreased blood triglyceride and glucose levels. PT, aPTT and platelet aggregation were not significantly different among all tested groups. However, in vivo arterial thrombosis was significantly delayed in groups that were fed 2mg and 10mg OPE diets compared to the control group. In addition, the OPE greatly diminished thrombin-induced expression of tissue factor in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs), a coagulation initiator. In addition, extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) and c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK) signaling pathways activated by thrombin treatment were prevented by the OPE pre-treatment. These results indicate that OPE may have anti-thrombotic effects through restricting the induced expression of tissue factor via down-regulating mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) activation upon coagulation stimulus, leading to the prolongation of time for arterial thrombosis.

  4. Size-dependent heterogeneity of contractile Ca2+ sensitization in rat arterial smooth muscle

    PubMed Central

    Kitazawa, Toshio; Kitazawa, Kazuyo

    2012-01-01

    Each segment along arterial vessels adapts to different circumstances, including blood pressure and sympathetic innervation. PKC and Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) Ca2+-sensitizing pathways leading to myosin phosphatase inhibition are critically involved in α1-adrenoceptor-mediated vascular smooth muscle contraction in distinctive time-dependent manners. We tested whether the amplitude and time course of each pathway varies dynamically between arterial segments. Using pharmacological approaches, we determined the time-dependent roles of Ca2+ release, Ca2+ influx, PKC and ROCK in α1-agonist-induced contraction and phosphorylation of key proteins in denuded rat small mesenteric artery, midsized caudal artery and thoracic aorta. SR Ca2+ release and voltage-dependent Ca2+ influx were essential for the initial rising and late sustained phases, respectively, of phenylephrine-induced contraction, regardless of arterial size. In small mesenteric arteries, α1A-subtype-specific antagonists and inhibitors of PKC, but not ROCK, markedly reduced the initial and late phases of contraction in a non-additive manner and suppressed phosphorylation of myosin light chain (MLC) and CPI-17, but not myosin targeting subunit of myosin light chain phosphatase (MYPT1). In aorta, an α1D-specific antagonist reduced both the initial and late phases of contraction with a significant decrease in MLC but not CPI-17 or MYPT1 phosphorylation. ROCK inhibitors, but not PKC inhibitors, suppressed the sustained phase of contraction with a decrease in MLC and MYPT1 phosphorylation in the aorta. The effect of ROCK inhibitors was additive with the α1D-antagonist. The results for midsized arteries were intermediate. Thus, the PKC–CPI-17 Ca2+-sensitizing pathway, which is dependent on PKC subtype and a Ca2+-handling mechanism, and is downstream of α1A receptors, plays a major role in α1-agonist-induced contraction of small resistance arteries in the splanchnic vascular beds. The effect of PKC and

  5. Length-tension relationships of small arteries, veins, and lymphatics from the rat mesenteric microcirculation.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Rong-Zhen; Gashev, Anatoliy A; Zawieja, David C; Davis, Michael J

    2007-04-01

    The passive and active length-tension relationships of isolated rat mesenteric lymphatics ( approximately 150 microm ID), and adjacent small arteries ( approximately 240 microm) and veins ( approximately 275 microm) were compared under isometric conditions using a wire myograph. About 60% of the lymphatic vessels developed spontaneous contractions in physiological saline solution at nominal preload. To maximally activate smooth muscle, 145 mM K(+) + 5 x 10(-5) M norepinephrine was used for arteries, and 145 mM K(+) + 1 x 10(-6) M substance P was used for lymphatics and veins. In response, arteries exhibited monotonic force development to a plateau level, whereas lymphatics and veins showed biphasic force development, consisting of a transient force peak followed by partial relaxation to a plateau over approximately 5 min. The passive and the active length-tension curves were similar in shape among all three vessels. However, the maximal active tension of arteries (3.4 +/- 0.42 mN/mm) was significantly greater than peak active tension (0.59 +/- 0.04 mN/mm) or plateau tension (0.20 +/- 0.04 mN/mm) in small veins and greater than peak active tension (0.34 +/- 0.02 mN/mm) or plateau tension (0.21 +/- 0.02 mN/mm) in lymphatics. Maximal active medial wall stress was similar between lymphatics and veins but was approximately fivefold higher in small arteries. For lymphatics, the pressure calculated from the optimal preload was significantly higher than that found previously in isobaric studies of isolated lymphatics, suggesting the capacity to operate at higher than normal pressures for increased responsiveness. Our results represent the first mechanical comparisons of arterial, venous, and lymphatic vessels in the same vasculature.

  6. Photodynamic therapy of normal rat arteries after photosensitisation using disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine and 5-aminolaevulinic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Grant, W. E.; Speight, P. M.; MacRobert, A. J.; Hopper, C.; Bown, S. G.

    1994-01-01

    Photodynamic therapy of cancer exposes adjacent arteries to the risk of injury and the possibility of haemorrhage and thrombosis. The nature of photodynamic injury to normal arteries has not been satisfactorily defined, and the ability of arteries to recover with time is unclear. To clarify these issues, we have investigated the effects of PDT on rat femoral arteries, using a second-generation photosensitiser, disulphonated aluminium phthalocyanine, and a new method of photosensitisation, using endogenous synthesis of protoporphyrin IX following systemic administration of 5-aminolaevulinic acid (ALA). Pharmacokinetic studies of sensitiser fluorescence were carried out to determine peak levels of sensitiser. Subsequently photodynamic therapy at times corresponding to maximal fluorescence was performed using two light doses, 100 and 250 J cm-2. The nature of injury sustained and recovery over a 6 month period was investigated. Three days following PDT, all vessels treated showed complete loss of endothelium, with death of all medial smooth muscle cells, leaving an acellular flaccid artery wall. No vascular occlusion, haemorrhage or thrombosis was found. A striking feature was the lack of inflammatory response in the vessel wall at any time studied. Re-endothelialisation occurred in all vessels by 2 weeks. The phthalocyanine group showed repopulation of the media with smooth muscle cells to be almost complete by 3 months. However, the ALA group failed to redevelop a muscular wall and remained dilated at 6 months. Luminal cross-sectional area of the ALA-treated group was significantly greater than both control and phthalocyanine groups at 6 months. All vessels remained patent. This study indicates that arteries exposed to PDT are not at risk of catastrophic haemorrhage or occlusion, a finding that is of significance for both the local treatment of tumours and the use of PDT as an intraoperative adjunct to surgery for the ablation of microscopic residual malignant

  7. Architecture of the rat nephron-arterial network: analysis with micro-computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Marsh, Donald J; Postnov, Dmitry D; Rowland, Douglas J; Wexler, Anthony S; Sosnovtseva, Olga V; Holstein-Rathlou, Niels-Henrik

    2017-08-01

    Among solid organs, the kidney's vascular network stands out, because each nephron has two distinct capillary structures in series and because tubuloglomerular feedback, one of the mechanisms responsible for blood flow autoregulation, is specific to renal tubules. Tubuloglomerular feedback and the myogenic mechanism, acting jointly, autoregulate single-nephron blood flow. Each generates a self-sustained periodic oscillation and an oscillating electrical signal that propagates upstream along arterioles. Similar electrical signals from other nephrons interact, allowing nephron synchronization. Experimental measurements show synchronization over fields of a few nephrons; simulations based on a simplified network structure that could obscure complex interactions predict more widespread synchronization. To permit more realistic simulations, we made a cast of blood vessels in a rat kidney, performed micro-computed tomography at 2.5-μm resolution, and recorded three-dimensional coordinates of arteries, afferent arterioles, and glomeruli. Nonterminal branches of arcuate arteries form treelike structures requiring two to six bifurcations to reach terminal branches at the tree tops. Terminal arterial structures were either paired branches at the tops of the arterial trees, from which 52.6% of all afferent arterioles originated, or unpaired arteries not at the tree tops, yielding the other 22.9%; the other 24.5% originated directly from nonterminal arteries. Afferent arterioles near the corticomedullary boundary were longer than those farther away, suggesting that juxtamedullary nephrons have longer afferent arterioles. The distance separating origins of pairs of afferent arterioles varied randomly. The results suggest an irregular-network tree structure with vascular nodes, where arteriolar activity and local blood pressure interact. Copyright © 2017 the American Physiological Society.

  8. Caveolae regulate vasoconstriction of conduit arteries to angiotensin II in hindlimb unweighted rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Zhongchao; Bai, Yungang; Yu, Jinwen; Liu, Huan; Cheng, Yaoping; Liu, Yonghong; Xie, Xiaoping; Ma, Jin; Bao, Junxiang

    2015-10-15

    Weightlessness induces the functional remodelling of arteries, but the changes to angiotensin II (Ang II)-elicited vasoconstriction and the underlying mechanism have never been reported. Caveolae are invaginations of the cell membrane crucial for the contraction of vascular smooth muscle cells, so we investigated the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to simulated weightlessness and the role of caveolae in it. The 4 week hindlimb unweighted (HU) rat was used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was measured by isometric force recording. The morphology of caveolae was examined by transmission electron microscope. The binding of the angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1 ) and caveolin-1 (cav-1) was examined by coimmunoprecipitation and Western blot. We found that the maximal developing force (E(max)) of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction was decreased in abdominal aorta by 30.6%, unchanged in thoracic aorta and increased in carotid artery by 17.9% after HU, while EC50 of the response was increased in all three arteries (P < 0.05). AT1 desensitization upon activation was significantly reduced by HU in all three arteries, as was the number of caveolae (P < 0.05). Furthermore, Ang II promoted the binding of AT1 and cav-1 significantly in control but not HU arteries. Both the number of caveolae and the binding of AT1 and cav-1 in HU arteries were restored by cholesterol pretreatment which also reinstated the change in EC50 as well as the level of AT1 desensitization. These results indicate that modified caveolae in vascular smooth muscle cells could interfere with the binding of AT1 and cav-1 mediating the adaptation of Ang II-elicited vasoconstriction to HU. © 2015 The Authors. The Journal of Physiology © 2015 The Physiological Society.

  9. Role played by interleukin-6 in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats: effect of femoral artery ligation

    PubMed Central

    Stone, Audrey J.; Li, Jianhua; Kaufman, Marc P.

    2015-01-01

    IL-6 signaling via the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r) has been shown to increase primary afferent responsiveness to noxious stimuli. This finding prompted us to test the hypothesis that IL-6 and sIL-6r would increase the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. We also tested the hypothesis that soluble glycoprotein (sgp)130, an inhibitor of IL-6/sIL-6r signaling, would decrease the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex that is found in decerebrate rats with ligated femoral arteries. In rats with freely perfused femoral arteries, coinjection of 50 ng of IL-6 and sIL-6r into the arterial supply of the hindlimb significantly increased the peak pressor response to static (control: 14 ± 3 mmHg and IL-6/sIL-6r: 17 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.03) and intermittent isometric (control: 10 ± 2 mmHg and IL-6/sIL-6r: 15 ± 4 mmHg, P = 0.03) hindlimb muscle contraction. In rats with ligated femoral arteries, injection of 50 ng of sgp130 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced the peak pressor response to static (control: 24 ± 2 mmHg and sgp130: 16 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.01) and intermittent isometric (control: 16 ± 2 mmHg and sgp130: 13 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.04) hindlimb muscle contraction, whereas there was no effect of sgp130 on the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. We conclude that coinjection of exogenous IL-6 and sIL-6r increased the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. More importantly, we also conclude that IL-6 and sIL-6r play an endogenous role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries but not in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. PMID:25910806

  10. Role played by interleukin-6 in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats: effect of femoral artery ligation.

    PubMed

    Copp, Steven W; Stone, Audrey J; Li, Jianhua; Kaufman, Marc P

    2015-07-01

    IL-6 signaling via the soluble IL-6 receptor (sIL-6r) has been shown to increase primary afferent responsiveness to noxious stimuli. This finding prompted us to test the hypothesis that IL-6 and sIL-6r would increase the exercise pressor reflex in decerebrate rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. We also tested the hypothesis that soluble glycoprotein (sgp)130, an inhibitor of IL-6/sIL-6r signaling, would decrease the exaggerated exercise pressor reflex that is found in decerebrate rats with ligated femoral arteries. In rats with freely perfused femoral arteries, coinjection of 50 ng of IL-6 and sIL-6r into the arterial supply of the hindlimb significantly increased the peak pressor response to static (control: 14 ± 3 mmHg and IL-6/sIL-6r: 17 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.03) and intermittent isometric (control: 10 ± 2 mmHg and IL-6/sIL-6r: 15 ± 4 mmHg, P = 0.03) hindlimb muscle contraction. In rats with ligated femoral arteries, injection of 50 ng of sgp130 into the arterial supply of the hindlimb reduced the peak pressor response to static (control: 24 ± 2 mmHg and sgp130: 16 ± 3 mmHg, P = 0.01) and intermittent isometric (control: 16 ± 2 mmHg and sgp130: 13 ± 2 mmHg, P = 0.04) hindlimb muscle contraction, whereas there was no effect of sgp130 on the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. We conclude that coinjection of exogenous IL-6 and sIL-6r increased the exercise pressor reflex in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries. More importantly, we also conclude that IL-6 and sIL-6r play an endogenous role in evoking the exercise pressor reflex in rats with ligated femoral arteries but not in rats with freely perfused femoral arteries.

  11. Hypotrophy of conduit artery walls of the offspring of nitric oxide-defective rats.

    PubMed

    Kristek, F; Gerová, M

    2004-04-01

    The objective of the present study was to investigate the structure of the arterial walls of the offspring stemming from nitric oxide (NO)-defective hypertensive parents. The parents were treated with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (40 mg kg-1 day-1) for 5 weeks. Blood pressure was measured noninvasively in six 30-day-old rats and nine age-matched controls. The cardiovascular system was perfused with glutaraldehyde at 120 mmHg. The thoracic aorta and carotid artery were processed for electron microscopy, and geometry was determined by light microscopy. Endothelial cells, smooth muscle cells (SMC) and extracellular matrix (ECM) were determined by the point counting method in electron micrographs of the carotid artery. The blood pressure of experimental offspring was 150.0 +/- 2.3 vs 104.6 +/- 2.1 mmHg (P < 0.01) for the controls and their heart/body weight ratio of 3.9 +/- 0.1 vs 4.4 +/- 0.2 (P < 0.05) for the controls indicated cardiac hypotrophy. The wall thickness (tunica intima and media) of the thoracic aorta and carotid artery of experimental offspring was decreased to 78.9% (P < 0.01) and 83.8% (P < 0.01), respectively, compared to controls, as confirmed by a respective cross-sectional area of 85.3% (P < 0.01) and 84.1% (P < 0.01). The wall thickness/inner diameter ratio was reduced to 75% (P < 0.01) in the thoracic artery and to 81.5% (P < 0.01) in the carotid artery. No change in endothelial cell volume density or ECM was observed in the tunica intima of the carotid artery, and SMC volume density was lower in the tunica media (37.6 +/- 0.9 vs 44.7 +/- 1.1% for controls, P < 0.01), indicating compromised SMC development. Interference with arginine metabolism, a decrease in NO, and other factors are possible mechanisms underlying the structural alterations of the cardiovascular system of offspring from NO-defective hypertensive rats.

  12. Clinical Presentations and Outcomes of Children With Basilar Skull Fractures After Blunt Head Trauma.

    PubMed

    Tunik, Michael G; Powell, Elizabeth C; Mahajan, Prashant; Schunk, Jeff E; Jacobs, Elizabeth; Miskin, Michelle; Zuspan, Sally Jo; Wootton-Gorges, Sandra; Atabaki, Shireen M; Hoyle, John D; Holmes, James F; Dayan, Peter S; Kuppermann, Nathan

    2016-10-01

    We describe presentations and outcomes of children with basilar skull fractures in the emergency department (ED) after blunt head trauma. This was a secondary analysis of an observational cohort of children with blunt head trauma. Basilar skull fracture was defined as physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture without basilar skull fracture on computed tomography (CT), or basilar skull fracture on CT regardless of physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture. Other definitions included isolated basilar skull fracture (physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture or basilar skull fracture on CT with no other intracranial injuries on CT) and acute adverse outcomes (death, neurosurgery, intubation for >24 hours, and hospitalization for ≥2 nights with intracranial injury on CT). Of 42,958 patients, 558 (1.3%) had physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture, basilar skull fractures on CT, or both. Of the 525 (94.1%) CT-imaged patients, 162 (30.9%) had basilar skull fracture on CT alone, and 104 (19.8%) had both physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture and basilar skull fracture on CT; 269 patients (51.2%) had intracranial injuries other than basilar skull fracture on CT. Of the 363 (91.7%) CT-imaged patients with physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture, 104 (28.7%) had basilar skull fracture on CT. Of 266 patients with basilar skull fracture on CT, 104 (39.1%) also had physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture. Of the 256 CT-imaged patients who had isolated basilar skull fracture, none had acute adverse outcomes (0%; 95% confidence interval 0% to 1.4%), including none (0%; 95% confidence interval 0% to 6.1%) of 59 with isolated basilar skull fractures on CT. Approximately 1% of children with blunt head trauma have physical examination signs of basilar skull fracture or basilar skull fracture on CT. The latter increases the risk of acute adverse outcomes more than physical examination signs of

  13. Low-dose ouabain constricts small arteries from ouabain-hypertensive rats: implications for sustained elevation of vascular resistance

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jin; Hamlyn, John M.; Karashima, Eiji; Raina, Hema; Mauban, Joseph R. H.; Izuka, Michelle; Berra-Romani, Roberto; Zulian, Alessandra; Wier, W. Gil; Blaustein, Mordecai P.

    2009-01-01

    Prolonged ouabain administration to normal rats causes sustained blood pressure (BP) elevation. This ouabain-induced hypertension (OH) has been attributed, in part, to the narrowing of third-order resistance arteries (∼320 μm internal diameter) as a result of collagen deposition in the artery media (see Ref. 6). Here we describe the structural and functional properties of fourth-order mesenteric small arteries from control and OH rats, including the effect of low-dose ouabain on myogenic tone in these arteries. Systolic BP in OH rats was 138 ± 3 versus 124 ± 4 mmHg in controls (P < 0.01). Pressurized (70 mmHg) control and OH arteries, with only a single layer of myocytes, both had ∼165-μm internal diameters and ∼20-μm wall thicknesses. Even after fixation, despite vasoconstriction, the diameters and wall thicknesses did not differ between control and OH fourth-order arteries, whereas in third-order arteries, both parameters were significantly smaller in OH than in controls. Myogenic reactivity was significantly augmented in OH fourth-order arteries. Nevertheless, phenylephrine- (1 μM) and high K+-induced vasoconstrictions and acetylcholine-induced vasodilation were comparable in control and OH arteries. Vasoconstrictions induced by 5 μM phenylephrine and by 10 mM caffeine in Ca2+-free media indicated that releasable sarcoplasmic reticulum Ca2+ stores were normal in OH arteries. Importantly, 100 nM ouabain constricted both control and OH arteries by ∼26 μm, indicating that this response was not downregulated in OH rats. This maximal ouabain-induced constriction corresponds to a ∼90% increase in resistance to flow in these small arteries; thus ouabain at EC50 of ∼0.66 nM should raise resistance by ∼35%. We conclude that dynamic constriction in response to circulating nanomolar ouabain in small arteries likely makes a major contribution to the increased vascular tone and BP in OH rats. PMID:19617413

  14. Dependence of cerebral arterial contractions on intracellularly stored Ca++.

    PubMed

    Sasaki, T; Kassell, N F; Zuccarello, M

    1986-01-01

    The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the dependence of the arterial contractions induced by different vasoactive agents upon intracellularly stored calcium in canine versus monkey cerebral arteries. The potency for inducing contractions in Ca++-free media was in the order of 9,11-epithio-11,12-metano-thromboxane A2 (STXA2) greater than prostaglandin F2 alpha (PGF2 alpha) much greater than serotonin greater than K+ in canine basilar arteries, and STXA2 greater than PGF2 alpha much greater than serotonin = K+ in monkey basilar arteries.

  15. Carboxypeptidase B and other kininases of the rat coronary and mesenteric arterial bed perfusates.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Eduardo B; Souza, Laura L; Sivieri, Disney O; Bispo-da-Silva, Luiz B; Pereira, Hugo J V; Costa-Neto, Claudio M; Sousa, Marcelo V; Salgado, Maria Cristina O

    2007-12-01

    We describe the enzymes that constitute the major bradykinin (BK)-processing pathways in the perfusates of mesenteric arterial bed (MAB) and coronary vessels isolated from Wistar normotensive rats (WNR) and spontaneously hypertensive rats. The contribution of particular proteases to BK degradation was revealed by the combined analysis of fragments generated during incubation of BK with representative perfusate samples and the effect of selective inhibitors on the respective reactions. Marked differences were seen among the perfusates studied; MAB secretes, per minute of perfusion, kininase activity capable of hydrolyzing approximately 300 pmol of BK/min, which is approximately 250-fold larger amount on a per unit time basis than that of its coronary counterpart. BK degradation in the coronary perfusate seems to be mediated by ANG I-converting enzyme, neutral endopeptidase 24.11-like enzyme, and a dl-2-mercaptomethyl-3-guanidinoethylthiopropanoic acid-sensitive basic carboxypeptidase; coronary perfusate of WNR contains an additional BK-degrading enzyme whose specificity resembles that of neurolysin or thimet oligopeptidase. Diversely, a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme, responsible for nearly all of the kininase activity of MAB perfusates of WNR and spontaneously hypertensive rats, could be purified by a procedure that involved affinity chromatography over potato carboxypeptidase inhibitor-Sepharose column and shown to be structurally identical to rat pancreatic carboxypeptidase B (CPB). Comparable levels of CPB mRNA expression were observed in pancreas, liver, mesentery, and kidney, but very low levels were detected in lung, heart, aorta, and carotid artery. In conclusion, distinct BK-processing pathways operate in the perfusates of rat MAB and coronary bed, with a substantial participation of a des-Arg(9)-BK-forming enzyme identical to pancreatic CPB.

  16. Transneuronal Degeneration of Thalamic Nuclei following Middle Cerebral Artery Occlusion in Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Objective. Postinfarction transneuronal degeneration refers to secondary neuronal death that occurs within a few days to weeks following the disruption of input or output to synapsed neurons sustaining ischemic insults. The thalamus receives its blood supply from the posterior circulation; however, infarctions of the middle cerebral arterial may cause secondary transneuronal degeneration in the thalamus. In this study, we presented the areas of ischemia and associated transneuronal degeneration following MCAo in a rat model. Materials and Methods. Eighteen 12-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to receive middle cerebral artery occlusion surgery for 1, 7, and 14 days. Cerebral atrophy was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium hydrochloride staining. Postural reflex and open field tests were performed prior to animal sacrifice to assess the effects of occlusion on behavior. Results. Myelin loss was observed at the lesion site following ischemia. Gliosis was also observed in thalamic regions 14 days following occlusion. Differential degrees of increased vascular endothelial growth factor expression were observed at each stage of infarction. Increases in myelin basic protein levels were also observed in the 14-day group. Conclusion. The present rat model of ischemia provides evidence of transneuronal degeneration within the first 14 days of occlusion. The observed changes in protein expression may be associated with self-repair mechanisms in the damaged brain. PMID:27597962

  17. The determination of optimal initial tension in rat coronary artery using wire myography.

    PubMed

    Ping, N-N; Cao, L; Xiao, X; Li, S; Cao, Y-X

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the optimal initial tension, i.e. initial stretch for rat coronary artery when using the multi-wire myograph system. We used the normalization procedure to mimic physiological conditions and to stretch the coronary arterial segments to normalized internal circumference (IC(1)). It is determined the internal circumference when the vessel relaxed under a transmural pressure of 100 mm Hg (IC(100)), and the IC(1) is calculated by multiplying the IC(100) by a factor k. The impact of different factor k on the initial stretch and agonist-induced tension of coronary arteries were investigated. The results showed that the maximal agonist-induced tension was achieved at the factor k value of 0.90 and the initial stretch tension was given 1.16+/-0.04 mN/mm. The most appropriate factor k value was 0.90-0.95 and the most appropriate initial tension was 1.16-1.52 mN/mm. The equilibration time of the coronary artery segments should be at least 1.0 h. In the same optimal initial tension, the agonist-induced tension increased as equilibration time lengthened.

  18. Effect of diesel emissions and coal dust inhalation on heart and pulmonary arteries of rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vallyathan, V.; Virmani, R.; Rochlani, S.; Green, F.H.; Lewis, T.

    1986-01-01

    Fischer 344 (SPF) rats were exposed by inhalation to respirable particulate levels of 2 mg/m3 diesel emissions, diesel emissions plus coal dust, coal dust, or air for 7 h/d, 5 d/wk for 24 mo. The effects of treatment on body and heart weights, right and left ventricular wall thickness, severity of cardiomyopathy, and changes in the small pulmonary arteries were evaluated after 24 mo of exposure. In all dust-exposed animals, light microscopic examination of the lungs revealed dust-laden macrophages in alveolar spaces and focal accumulations of dust-laden macrophages near the respiratory bronchioles associated with hyperplasia of type II cells. This response was more prominent in animals exposed to diesel emissions alone. Age-related myocardial fibrosis and inflammatory infiltrates were common in all four groups. No statistically significant differences were detected between the groups for heart weights, ventricular wall thickness, and pulmonary arterial wall thickness. However, animals exposed to diesel emissions did show a consistent trend toward increased pulmonary arterial wall thickness, for all size categories of artery, compared to controls.

  19. Osteopontin is elevated during neointima formation in rat arteries and is a novel component of human atherosclerotic plaques.

    PubMed Central

    Giachelli, C M; Bae, N; Almeida, M; Denhardt, D T; Alpers, C E; Schwartz, S M

    1993-01-01

    In an earlier report, we used differential cloning to identify genes that might be critical in controlling arterial neointima formation (Giachelli, C., N. Bae, D. Lombardi, M. Majesky, and S. Schwartz. 1991. Biochem. Biophys. Res. Commun. 177:867-873). In this study, we sequenced the complete cDNA and conclusively identified one of these genes, 2B7, as rat osteopontin. Using immunochemistry and in situ hybridization, we found that medial smooth muscle cells (SMC) in uninjured arteries contained very low levels of osteopontin protein and mRNA. Injury to either the adult rat aorta or carotid artery using a balloon catheter initiated a qualitatively similar time-dependent increase in both osteopontin protein and mRNA in arterial SMC. Expression was transient and highly localized to neointimal SMC during the proliferative and migratory phases of arterial injury, suggesting a possible role for osteopontin in these processes. In vitro, basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF), transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), and angiotensin II (AII), all proteins implicated in the rat arterial injury response, elevated osteopontin expression in confluent vascular SMC. Finally, we found that osteopontin was a novel component of the human atherosclerotic plaque found most strikingly associated with calcified deposits. These data implicate osteopontin as a potentially important mediator of arterial neointima formation as well as dystrophic calcification that often accompanies this process. Images PMID:8408622

  20. Effect of mastication on functional recoveries after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Kawanishi, Katsuya; Koshino, Hisashi; Toyoshita, Yoshifumi; Tanaka, Maki; Hirai, Toshihiro

    2010-01-01

    We evaluated whether solid feed is more effective for functional recoveries than liquid feed in rats with ischemic brain injury after permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). A total of 36 male Wistar/ST rats were subjected to MCAO or sham surgery. After MCAO or sham surgery, all rats were provided liquid feed for 14 days. Then, all rats were divided into 3 groups: the solid feeding group, the liquid feeding group, and the solid feeding group of sham. Effect of mastication on functional recoveries after permanent MCAO in rats was evaluated by the limb placement test and Morris water maze (MWM) task. After surgery, limb placement test scores were equal in both MCAO groups. In the acquisition trials of MWM task, statistically significant differences in escape latency were observed between the liquid feeding group and sham groups at all days, and between the solid feeding group and sham groups at days 3 and 4 of the trials. In the probe trial, statistically significant differences in time spent were observed between the liquid feeding group and sham group. On day 5 of acquisition trials, the time spent in the periphery of the pool in MWM task was significantly different among the 3 groups. This study suggested that solid diet mastication could be effective for the rehabilitation of sensorimotor and learning/memory dysfunction induced by cerebral infarction. Copyright (c) 2010 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Low-dose combination of Rho kinase and L-type Ca(2+) channel antagonists for selective inhibition of depolarization-induced sustained arterial contraction.

    PubMed

    Porras-González, Cristina; González-Rodríguez, Patricia; Calderón-Sánchez, Eva; López-Barneo, José; Ureña, Juan

    2014-06-05

    L-type Ca(2+) channels (LTCCs) are involved in the maintenance of tonic arterial contractions and regulate the RhoA/Rho-associated kinase (ROCK) sensitization cascade. We have tested effects of individual and combined low concentrations of LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors to produce arterial relaxation without the adverse side effects of LTCCs antagonists. We have also studied whether this pharmacological strategy alters Ca(2+)-dependent electrical properties of isolated arterial and cardiac myocytes as well as cardiac contractility. Rat basilar, human carotid and coronary arterial rings were mounted on a small-vessel myograph to measure isometric tension and cardiac contractility was measured in Langendorff-perfused rat heart. Simultaneous cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration and arterial diameter were measured in intact pressurized arteries loaded with Fura-2. Patch-clamp techniques were used to measure electrical properties in isolated cardiac and arterial myocytes. Low concentrations of LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors reduced the tonic component of moderate depolarization-evoked contraction, leaving the phasic component practically unaltered. This selective vasorelaxant effect was more marked when the LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors were applied together. In the concentration range used (nM), Ca(2+) currents in arterial myocytes, cardiac action potentials and heart contractility were unaffected by this pharmacological approach. In conclusion, low doses of LTCCs and ROCK inhibitors could be used to selectively relax precontracted arteries in pathologic conditions such as hypertension, and cerebral or coronary spasms with minor side effects on physiological contractile properties of vascular and cardiac myocytes.

  2. Performing Repeated Quantitative Small-Animal PET with an Arterial Input Function Is Routinely Feasible in Rats.

    PubMed

    Huang, Chi-Cheng; Wu, Chun-Hu; Huang, Ya-Yao; Tzen, Kai-Yuan; Chen, Szu-Fu; Tsai, Miao-Ling; Wu, Hsiao-Ming

    2017-04-01

    Performing quantitative small-animal PET with an arterial input function has been considered technically challenging. Here, we introduce a catheterization procedure that keeps a rat physiologically stable for 1.5 mo. We demonstrated the feasibility of quantitative small-animal (18)F-FDG PET in rats by performing it repeatedly to monitor the time course of variations in the cerebral metabolic rate of glucose (CMRglc). Methods: Aseptic surgery was performed on 2 rats. Each rat underwent catheterization of the right femoral artery and left femoral vein. The catheters were sealed with microinjection ports and then implanted subcutaneously. Over the next 3 wk, each rat underwent (18)F-FDG quantitative small-animal PET 6 times. The CMRglc of each brain region was calculated using a 3-compartment model and an operational equation that included a k*4Results: On 6 mornings, we completed 12 (18)F-FDG quantitative small-animal PET studies on 2 rats. The rats grew steadily before and after the 6 quantitative small-animal PET studies. The CMRglc of the conscious brain (e.g., right parietal region, 99.6 ± 10.2 μmol/100 g/min; n = 6) was comparable to that for (14)C-deoxyglucose autoradiographic methods. Conclusion: Maintaining good blood patency in catheterized rats is not difficult. Longitudinal quantitative small-animal PET imaging with an arterial input function can be performed routinely. © 2017 by the Society of Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging.

  3. Hydrogen sulfide attenuates ferric chloride-induced arterial thrombosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Qin, Yi-Ren; You, Shou-Jiang; Zhang, Yan; Li, Qian; Wang, Xian-Hui; Wang, Fen; Hu, Li-Fang; Liu, Chun-Feng

    2016-06-01

    Hydrogen sulfide (H2S) is a novel gaseous transmitter, regulating a multitude of biological processes in the cardiovascular and other systems. However, it remains unclear whether it exerts any effect on arterial thrombosis. In this study, we examined the effect of H2S on ferric chloride (FeCl3)-induced thrombosis in the rat common carotid artery (CCA). The results revealed a decrease of the H2S-producing enzyme cystathionine γ-lyase (CSE) expression and H2S production that persisted until 48 h after FeCl3 application. Intriguingly, administration with NaHS at appropriate regimen reduced the thrombus formation and enhanced the blood flow, accompanied with the alleviation of CSE and CD31 downregulation, and endothelial cell apoptosis in the rat CCA following FeCl3 application. Moreover, the antithrombotic effect of H2S was also observed in Rose Bengal photochemical model in which the development of thrombosis is contributed by oxidative injury to the endothelium. The in vitro study demonstrated that the mRNA and protein expression of CSE, as well as H2S production, was decreased in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2)-treated endothelial cells. Exogenous supplement of NaHS and CSE overexpression consistently alleviated the increase of cleaved caspase-3 and endothelial cell damage caused by H2O2. Taken together, our findings suggest that endogenous H2S generation in the endothelium may be impaired during arterial thrombosis and that modulation of H2S, either exogenous supplement or boost of endogenous production, may become a potential venue for arterial thrombosis therapy.

  4. Dietary calcium and magnesium supplements in spontaneously hypertensive rats and isolated arterial reactivity.

    PubMed Central

    Mäkynen, H.; Kähönen, M.; Arvola, P.; Wuorela, H.; Vapaatalo, H.; Pörsti, I.

    1995-01-01

    1. High calcium diet attenuates the development of hypertension but an associated undesirable effect is that Mg2+ loss to the urine is enhanced. Therefore, we studied the effects of high calcium diet alone and in combination with increased magnesium intake on blood pressure and arterial function. 2. Forty-eight young spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were allocated into four groups, the dietary contents of Ca2+ and Mg2+ being: 1.1%, 0.2% (SHR); 2.5%, 0.2% (Ca-SHR); 2.5%, 0.8% (CaMg-SHR); and 1.1%, 0.8% (Mg-SHR), respectively. Development of hypertension was followed for 13 weeks, whereafter electrolyte balance, lymphocyte intracellular free calcium ([Ca2+]i), and mesenteric arterial responses in vitro were examined. Forty normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were investigated in a similar manner. 3. Calcium supplementation comparably attenuated the development of Lypertension during normal and high magnesium intake in SHR, with an associated reduced lymphocyte [Ca2+]i and increased Mg2+ loss to the urine. 4. Endothelium-dependent arterial relaxation to acetylcholine was augmented in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR, while the relaxations to isoprenaline and the nitric oxide donor SIN-1 were similar in all SHR groups. Relaxation responses induced by the return of K+ to the organ bath upon precontractions in K(+)-free solution were used to evaluate the function of arterial Na+, K(+)-ATPase. The rate of potassium relaxation was similar in Ca-SHR and CaMg-SHR and faster than in untreated SHR.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:8564205

  5. In vivo imaging of rat coronary arteries using bi-plane digital subtraction angiography

    PubMed Central

    Badea, Cristian T.; Hedlund, Laurence W.; Qi, Yi; Berridge, Brian; Johnson, G. Allan

    2011-01-01

    INTRODUCTION X-ray based digital subtraction angiography (DSA) is a common clinical imaging method for vascular morphology and function. Coronary artery characterization is one of its most important applications. We show that bi-plane DSA of rat coronary arteries can provide a powerful imaging tool for translational safety assessment in drug discovery. METHODS A novel, dual tube/detector system, constructed explicitly for preclinical imaging, supports image acquisition at 10 frames/second with 88-micron spatial resolution. Ventilation, x-ray exposure, and contrast injection are all precisely synchronized using a biological sequence controller implemented as a LabVIEW application. A set of experiments were performed to test and optimize the sampling and image quality. We applied the DSA imaging protocol to record changes in the visualization of coronaries and myocardial perfusion induced by a vasodilator drug, nitroprusside. The drug was infused into a tail vein catheter using a peristaltic infusion pump at a rate of 0.07 ml/h for 3 mins (dose: 0.0875 mg). Multiple DSA sequences were acquired before, during, and up to 25 minutes after drug infusion. Perfusion maps of the heart were generated in MATLAB to compare the drug effects over time. RESULTS The best trade-off between the injection time, pressure, and image quality was achieved at 60 PSI, with the injection of 150 ms occurring early in diastole (60 ms delay) and resulting in the delivery of 113 microL of contrast agent. DSA images clearly show the main branches of the coronary arteries in an intact, beating heart. The drug test demonstrated that DSA can detect relative changes in coronary circulation via perfusion maps. DISSCUSION The methodology for DSA imaging of rat coronary arteries can serve as a template for future translational studies to assist in safety evaluation of new pharmaceuticals. Although x-ray imaging involves radiation, the associated dose (0.4 Gy) is not a major limitation. PMID:21683146

  6. Progression from ischemic injury to infarct following middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Garcia, J. H.; Yoshida, Y.; Chen, H.; Li, Y.; Zhang, Z. G.; Lian, J.; Chen, S.; Chopp, M.

    1993-01-01

    Focal brain ischemia induced in rats by occlusion of an intracranial artery is a widely used paradigm of human brain infarct. Details of the structural changes that develop in either the human or the rat brain at various times after occlusion of an intracranial artery are incompletely characterized. We studied, in 48 adult Wistar rats, structural alterations involving the cerebral hemisphere ipsilateral to an arterial occlusion, at intervals ranging from 30 min to 7 days. Microscopic changes developed over time in separate areas of the corresponding cerebral hemisphere in a predictable pattern, appearing as small lesions in the preoptic area (30 minutes), enlarging to involve the striatum, and finally involving the cerebral cortex. Two types of neuronal responses were noted according to the time elapsed; acute changes (up to 6 hours) included scalloping, shrinkage, and swelling, whereas delayed changes (eosinophilia and karyolysis) appeared later (> or = 12 hours). Three types of astrocytic responses were noted. 1) Cytoplasmic disintegration occurred in the preoptic area at a time and in a place where neurons appeared minimally injured. 2) Nuclear and cytoplasmic swelling were prominent responses in the caudoputamen and cerebral cortex at a time when neurons showed minimal alterations. 3) Increased astrocytic glial fibrillary acidic protein reactivity was noted at the interface between the lesion and the surrounding brain tissue after 4 to 6 hours. The gross pattern of the brain lesion and the maturation of neuronal changes typical of a brain infarct have a predictable progression. Focal brain ischemia of up to 6-hour duration does not induce coagulation necrosis. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 PMID:8434652

  7. Effects of human relaxin on isolated rat and human myometrium and uteroplacental arteries.

    PubMed

    Petersen, L K; Svane, D; Uldbjerg, N; Forman, A

    1991-11-01

    We investigated the effects of synthetic human relaxin (hRLX-2) on isolated rat and human myometrium and on uteroplacental arteries from term pregnant women. The preparations were mounted in organ baths and isometric tension was recorded. In isolated myometrium from nonpregnant rats, hRLX-2 (10(-10)-10(-7) mol/L) produced concentration-dependent inhibition of contractile activity induced by vasopressin (10(-8) mol/L). In isolated human myometrium from the fundus or isthmus, hRLX-2 (10(-10)-10(-7) mol/L) did not influence spontaneous activity or contractions induced by oxytocin (10(-9) mol/L) and prostaglandin (PG) F2 alpha (10(-5) mol/L). Nor did it influence the tension induced in small intramyometrial arteries by U46619 (10(-7) mol/L), noradrenaline (10(-5) mol/L), and endothelin (10(-9) mol/L); or the tension induced in fetal stem villus arteries by U46619 (10(-7) mol/L), endothelin (10(-9) mol/L), and PGF2 alpha (10(-5) mol/L). The inhibitory effects of hRLX-2 in preparations of rat myometrium were not influenced by the presence of human myometrium in the organ bath or by pre-incubation of hRLX-2 with human myometrium. These results suggest that direct inhibitory effects of relaxin may be of minor importance for the regulation of myometrial activity and uteroplacental circulation in term human pregnancy.

  8. The Arteries of the Brain in Hare (Lepus europaeus Pallas, 1778).

    PubMed

    Brudnicki, Witold; Kirkiłło-Stacewicz, Krzysztof; Skoczylas, Benedykt; Nowicki, Włodzimierz; Jabłoński, Ryszard; Brudnicki, Adam; Wach, Jan

    2015-10-01

    Research into course and variability of brain arteries in hare were performed on 38 adult hares of both sexes (males 23 and females 15). The arteries were filled with a synthetic latex at a constant pressure introduced with a medical syringe to the left ventricle. The source of blood supply to the brain was internal carotid arteries, whose branches formed an arterial circle of the brain, vertebral arteries, and basilar artery as the result of its anastomosis. Variability focused on a method of departure of middle cerebral arteries, which were multiple vessels in 39.5% of cases and rostral cerebellar arteries. Caudal communicating arteries in hare comprised bilateral anastomosis of internal carotid arteries and final branches of the basilar artery. It stabilized the steady flow of blood to all parts of the brain. Caudal cerebral arteries comprised final branches of the basilar artery. The largest capacity of all the arteries of the brain was observed in the main trunk of the basilar artery. The capacity of these vessels was 4.53 mm(3) on average. The factor of capacity of cerebral arteries in relation to weight of the brain reaches a high value in hare.

  9. Neuroprotective effects of argon in an in vivo model of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Ryang, Yu-Mi; Fahlenkamp, Astrid V; Rossaint, Rolf; Wesp, Dominik; Loetscher, Philip D; Beyer, Cordian; Coburn, Mark

    2011-06-01

    The neuroprotective effects of the noble gas xenon are well known. Argon, in contrast to xenon, is abundant, inexpensive, and therefore widely applicable. In this study, we analyzed the possible neuroprotective role of argon in an in vivo rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia. Controlled laboratory study. Academic research laboratory. Male adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Twenty-two rats underwent 2 hrs of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using the endoluminal thread model. One hr after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion induction, spontaneously breathing rats received either 50 vol % argon/50 vol % O2 (argon group, n = 11) or 50 vol % N2/50 vol % O2 (control group, n = 11) for 1 hr through a face mask. Twenty-four hrs after reperfusion, rats were neurologically and behaviorally tested and euthanized. Rat brains were stained with 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride and infarct volumes determined by planimetry. After 2 hrs of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rat, we found in the argon group a significant reduction in the overall (p = .004) and after subdivision in the cortical (p = .007) and the basal ganglia (p = .02) infarct volumes. Argon treatment resulted in a significant improvement of the composite adverse outcome (p = .034). However, there was no advantage in acute survival 24 hrs after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (p = .361). We were able to demonstrate argon's neuroprotective effects in an in vivo experimental rat model of acute focal cerebral ischemia. Animals breathing spontaneously 50 vol % argon 1 hr after induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for 1 hr by face mask showed significantly reduced infarct volumes and composite adverse outcomes.

  10. Uterine artery function in pregnant rats fed a diet supplemented with animal lard.

    PubMed

    Taylor, P D; Khan, I Y; Lakasing, L; Dekou, V; O'Brien-Coker, I; Mallet, A I; Hanson, M A; Poston, L

    2003-05-01

    We hypothesised that maternal uterine artery vascular dysfunction could contribute to cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring of rats fed a diet rich in fat. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed for 10 days prior to pregnancy and throughout gestation either: (a) a control breeding diet, or (b) the same diet supplemented with 20 % w/w lard, vitamins, essential micronutrients and protein to control values. At 20 days gestation vascular function was assessed in uterine arteries and third-order mesenteric arteries. Vascular reactivity in response to application of potassium, noradrenaline, the thromboxane analogue U46619, acetylcholine and nitric oxide was assessed. Maternal plasma concentrations of factors likely to contribute to endothelial dysfunction were measured. Maximum acetylcholine-induced relaxation was impaired in the mesenteric arteries of the lard-fed dams (max % relaxation: lard-fed, 69.7 +/- 6.48; control, 85.37 +/- 2.69, P = 0.03). Uterine artery vascular function was similar in the two groups (max % acetylcholine-induced relaxation: lard-fed, 73.7 +/- 4.01; control, 77.5 +/- 4.72, P = 0.98). Concentrations of plasma lipids, 8-epi-PGF(2alpha) and leptin were normal, whereas insulin and corticosterone concentrations were raised in the lard-fed group (insulin (ng ml(-1)): lard-fed, 8.04 +/- 0.47; control, 1.35 +/- 0.37, P < 0.0001; corticosterone (ng ml(-1)): lard-fed, 1164.0 +/- 170.9; control, 541.9 +/- 96.3, P = 0.005). Fetal and placental weights were reduced in lard-fed dams (fetus (g): lard-fed, 4.27 +/- 0.38; control, 2.96 +/- 0.40, P = 0.025; placenta (g): lard-fed, 0.72 +/- 0.06; control, 0.57 +/- 0.04, P = 0.05). Cardiovascular dysfunction in offspring is not associated with reduced uterine artery endothelial function but is associated with activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, hyperinsulinaemia and fetoplacental growth retardation.

  11. Spatiotemporal characterization of brain infarction by sequential multimodal MR imaging following transient focal ischemia in a Rat model of intra-arterial middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Gory, Benjamin; Chauveau, Fabien; Bolbos, Radu; Langlois, Jean-Baptiste; Labeyrie, Paul-Emile; Signorelli, Francesco; Turjman, Alexis; Turjman, Francis

    2016-12-01

    To assess spatiotemporal brain infarction evolution by sequential multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging in an endovascular model of acute stroke in rats. A microwire was selectively placed in the middle cerebral artery (MCA) in 16 consecutives rats during 90 minutes occlusion. Longitudinal 7-T MR imaging, including angiography, diffusion, and perfusion was performed during ischemia, immediately after reperfusion, 3 h and 24 h after subsequent reperfusion. MCA occlusion was complete in 75 % and partial in 18.7 %. Hypoperfusion (mean ± SD) was observed in all animals during ischemia (-59 ± 18 % of contralateral hemisphere, area 31 ± 5 mm(2)). Infarction volume (mean ± SD) was 90 ± 64 mm(3) during ischemia and 57 ± 67 mm(3) at 24 h. Brain infarction was fronto-parietal cortical in five animals (31 %), striatal in four animals (25 %), and cortico-striatal in seven animals (44 %) at 24 h. All rats survived at 24 h. This model is suitable to neuroprotection studies because of possible acute and close characterization of spatiotemporal evolution of brain infarction by MR imaging techniques, and evidence of ischemic penumbra, the target of neuroprotection agents. However, optimization of the brain infarct reproducibility needs further technical and neurointerventional tools improvements. • Nitinol microwire is MRI compatible allowing spatiotemporal characterization of brain infarction in rats. • Microwire selective placement in middle cerebral artery allows complete artery occlusion in 75 %. • A diffusion/perfusion mismatch during arterial occlusion is observed in 77 % of rats.

  12. Daily exercise attenuates the development of arterial blood pressure related cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, H L; Rodenbaugh, D W; DiCarlo, S E

    2000-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that daily spontaneous running (DSR) attenuates the development of blood pressure-related cardiovascular disease risk factors (BP-related CVD risk factors) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After 8 weeks of DSR or sedentary control, rats were chronically instrumented with arterial catheters. Daily exercise attenuated the development of all measures of BP-related CVD risk factors. Specifically DSR attenuated the increase in systolic blood pressure (delta--22 mmHg), systolic blood pressure variability (delta--2.5 mmHg), and systolic blood pressure load (delta--27%). Similarly, DSR attenuated the increase in diastolic blood pressure (delta--15 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure variability (delta--1.19 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure load (delta--17%). Finally, DSR attenuated the development of tachycardia (delta--63 bpm). These data demonstrate that daily exercise attenuates the development of hypertension and tachycardia in animals predisposed to hypertension.

  13. The Effects of Simulated Microgravity and of Endurance Training on Sympathetic Neurotransmission in Rat Cutaneous Small Arteries

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vinogradova, O. L.; Kalentchuk, V. U.; Andreev-Andrievskii, A. A.; Borzykh, A. A.; Mochalov, S. V.; Buravkov, S. V.; Borovik, A. S.; Sharova, A. P.; Tarasova, O. S.

    2008-06-01

    We investigated neuroeffector mechanisms in cutaneous small arteries of rats after 2-wk tail suspension (TS) or 8-wk endurance training (ET). Contractile responses of saphenous artery were studied in vitro and the periarterial nerve plexus was stained with glyoxylic acid. In TS rats pronounced decrease of neurogenic contraction was observed that correlated with smaller density of periarterial nerve plexus. However, TS increased smooth muscle sensitivity to noradrenaline and serotonin. In ET rats neurogenic response was also diminished, but the sensitivity to the agonists was not changed. ET had no effect on nerve density, but reduced intensity of their fluorescence. Therefore, both TS and ET depress sympathetic neurotransmission in cutaneous small arteries, but through different mechanisms.

  14. Resveratrol can both enhance and relax adrenergic contractions of the rat tail artery

    PubMed Central

    Stom, Sayra M.; Phelps, Laura E.; Peuler, Jacob D.

    2016-01-01

    Our aims were to determine 1) if resveratrol's vasorelaxant action is greater in the distal (resistance) versus proximal (conductance) portion of the rat tail artery, and 2) if it can be blocked by agents known to block different potassium (K) channels in arterial smooth muscle. We found that its half-maximally effective concentration values were essentially identical (25 ± 3 versus 27 ± 3 μM) for relaxing adrenergically-precontracted rings prepared from distal versus proximal tissues. This does not confirm a previous report of greater relaxation in resistance versus conductance arteries. We also found that its relaxation could not be blocked by any of seven different K channel blockers. However, we uncovered a novel unanticipated action not yet reported. In half our arterial ring preparations, resveratrol transiently enhanced adrenergically-induced precontractions beginning well before its sustained relaxant effect became apparent. This action provides the first reasonable explanation for previously unexplained increases in arterial pressures observed during acute intravenous administration of resveratrol to animal models of traumatic ischemic tissue injury, in which hypotension is often present and in need of correction. Also unanticipated, this same transient enhancement of adrenergic contraction was notably inhibited by some of the same K channel blockers (particularly tetraethylammonium and glibenclamide) that failed to influence its relaxant effect. Although we do not rule out smooth muscle as a possible site for such a paradoxical finding, we suspect resveratrol could also be acting on K-selective mechano-sensitive ion channels located in the endothelium where they may participate in release of contracting factors. PMID:26936000

  15. Effects of tyrosine kinase inhibitors on the contractility of rat mesenteric resistance arteries.

    PubMed Central

    Toma, C; Jensen, P E; Prieto, D; Hughes, A; Mulvany, M J; Aalkjaer, C

    1995-01-01

    1. A pharmacological characterization of tyrosine kinase inhibitors (TKI) belonging to two distinct groups (competitors at the ATP-binding site and the substrate-binding site, respectively) was performed, based on their effects on the contractility of rat mesenteric arteries. 2. Both the ATP-site competitors (genistein and its inactive analogue, daidzein) and the substrate-site competitors (tyrphostins A-23, A-47 and the inactive analogue, A-1) reversibly inhibited noradrenaline (NA, (10 microM)) and KCl (125 mM) induced contractions, concentration-dependently. Genistein was slightly but significantly more potent than daidzein; the tyrphostins were all less potent than genistein, and there were no significant differences between the individual potencies. The tyrosine kinase substrate-site inhibitor bis-tyrphostin had no inhibitory effect. 3. Genistein, daidzein, A-23 and A-47 each suppressed the contraction induced by Ca2+ (1 microM) in alpha-toxin permeabilized arteries. A-1 and bis-tyrphostin had little or no effect on contraction of the permeabilized arteries. 4. Genistein was significantly more potent than daidzein with respect to inhibition of the contraction induced by 200 nM Ca2+ in the presence of NA (100 microM) and GTP (3 microM). The effect of A-23, A-47, A-1 and bis-tyrphostin was similar in permeabilized arteries activated with Ca2+ (200 nM) + NA (100 microM) + GTP (3 microM) and permeabilized arteries activated with 1 microM Ca2+.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7620718

  16. Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang ameliorates coronary artery ligation-induced myocardial ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Chunhua, Ma; Hongyan, Long; Weina, Zhu; Xiaoli, He; Yajie, Zhang; Jie, Ruan

    2017-04-01

    Dang The present study was designed to investigate cardioprotective effects of Dang Gui Bu Xue Tang (DGBUT) on coronary artery ligation-induced myocardial ischemia. Myocardial ischemia (MI) model was induced in SD rats by surgical ligation of the left anterior descending coronary artery. ST segment elevation of Electrocardiograph (ECG) infarct size, levels of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), creatine kinase (CK), glutathione (GSH) and catalase (CAT), catalase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), and inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) 1/2, p38, c-Jun NH2 terminal kinases (JNK), nuclear factor (NF)-κBp65, inhibitory kappa B (IκB) α, IκB kinase (IKK) α and IKKβ were evaluated in rats treated with or without DGBUT. DGBUT treatment significantly reduced the elevation of the ST segment of ECG, the myocardial infarct size of MI. The level of LDH, CK and MDA were suppressed, the contents of SOD, GSH and CAT were enhanced with DGBUT. The elevated concentration of inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 in MI rats were effectively reversed by the DGBUT administration. Also, highly expressed p-JNK, p-ERK, p-p38, p-NF-κBp65, p-IκBα, p-IKKα and p-IKKβ in MI rats were restored respectively by DGBUT treatment. The protective effect of DGBUT against MI injury might be associated with MAPK/NF-кB pathway. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  17. Lentil-based diets attenuate hypertension and large-artery remodelling in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Hanson, Matthew G; Zahradka, Peter; Taylor, Carla G

    2014-02-01

    Hypertension is a major risk factor for CVD, the leading cause of mortality worldwide. The prevalence of hypertension is expected to continue increasing, and current pharmacological treatments cannot alleviate all the associated problems. Pulse crops have been touted as a general health food and are now being studied for their possible effects on several disease states including hypertension, obesity and diabetes. In the present study, 15-week-old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) were fed diets containing 30% w/w beans, peas, lentils, chickpeas, or mixed pulses or a pulse-free control diet for 4 weeks. Normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were placed on a control diet. Pulse wave velocity (PWV) was measured weekly, while blood pressure (BP) was measured at baseline and week 4. Fasting serum obtained in week 4 of the study was analysed for circulating lipids. A histological analysis was carried out on aortic sections to determine vascular geometry. Of all the pulse varieties studied, lentils were found to be able to attenuate the rise in BP in the SHR model (P< 0·05). Lentils were able to decrease the media:lumen ratio and media width of the aorta. The total cholesterol (TC), LDL-cholesterol (LDL-C) and HDL-cholesterol levels of rats fed the pulse-based diets were found to be lower when compared with those of the WKY rat and SHR controls (P< 0·05). Although all pulses reduced circulating TC and LDL-C levels in the SHR, only lentils significantly reduced the rise in BP and large-artery remodelling in the SHR, but had no effect on PWV. These results indicate that the effects of lentils on arterial remodelling and BP in the SHR are independent of circulating LDL-C levels.

  18. Flow Studies in Basilar Tip Aneurysm Models

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cole, Russell; Selby, Kathy; Saloner, David; Savas, Omer

    2001-11-01

    Particle image velocimetry and flow visualization are performed on two models of basilar tip bifurcation aneurysms. The models are intended to correspond to an aneurysm at two stages during its growth. The models are subject to steady flow conditions covering the physiological range of Reynold’s numbers while being subject to both symmetric and asymmetric outflow conditions. A brief investigation is also made using pulsatile input flow with a physiologically representative waveform. Experiment showed a general pattern of increasing unsteadiness in the aneurysm head with increasing Reynold’s number. Only for a case of a small-headed model and asymmetric outflow could a quasi-stable flow pattern be established. For the same model with symmetric outflow conditions, instability in the aneurysm head occurs at the low end of physiological Reynold’s numbers. A larger-headed aneurysm model displayed a similar onset of instability for both symmetric and asymmetric outflow conditions, with flow within the aneurysm head being less pronounced than the small-headed model.

  19. Treatment of Basilar Aneurysms with SMP Foams

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ortega, J. M.; Rodriguez, J. N.; Maitland, D. J.; Wilson, T. S.; Hartman, J.

    2006-11-01

    Researchers in the Medical Division at LLNL are currently developing a shape memory polymer (SMP) foam aneurysm treatment technique. This technique involves the catheter delivery of a compressed piece of SMP foam to an aneurysm. When the foam is heated by laser radiation from a diffusing fiber-optic element embedded within the catheter, the foam expands, filling the aneurysm volume. If proven successful, such a treatment alternative will provide clinicians the ability to not only isolate an aneurysm from the vascular system with one device, but also to customize the shape of the lumen beneath the aneurysm neck. Consequently, the flow patterns beneath the aneurysm neck could potentially be optimized to minimize the hemodynamic stresses on the lumen. In this computational study, multiple lumen shapes are simulated beneath the necks of several patient-specific basilar aneurysms. A comparison is made between the pre-treatment and post-treatment configurations, as well as with a conventional surgical clipping configuration. This work was performed under the auspices of the U.S. Department of Energy by the University of California, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory under Contract No. W-7405-Eng-48. UCRL-ABS-222933.

  20. [Role of connective tissue growth factor on pulmonary artery remodeling in rats exposed to smoke].

    PubMed

    Tian, Feng; Xu, Yong-Jian; Zhang, Zhen-Xiang; Fan, Xin-Lei; Hu, Jing

    2007-12-01

    To explore the role of connective tissue growth factor (CTGF) on pulmonary artery remodeling induced by smoke exposure in rats. Thirty-five male Wistar rats were randomly assigned into a control group (A group), a smoke exposure one month group (B group), a smoke exposure and high dose CTGF antisense oligonucleotide (ASON) one month group (C group), a smoke exposure and low dose CTGF ASON one month group (D group), a smoke exposure two month group (E group), a smoke exposure and high dose CTGF ASON two month group (F group), and a smoke exposure and low dose CTGF ASON two month group (G group). Pulmonary artery remodeling was observed by hematoxylin-eosin staining, and the CTGF mRNA expressions of pulmonary arteries were evaluated by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry methods were performed to determine CTGF protein expression in pulmonary artery smooth muscle. The difference between the groups was analyzed. (1) The pulmonary artery WA% of the seven groups were respectively (28.6 +/- 1.2)%, (42.5 +/- 2.3)%, (33.7 +/- 1.8)%, (42.1 +/- 2.4)%, (49.6 +/- 2.1)%, (34.3 +/- 1.9)% and (38.4 +/- 2.0)%. There was significant difference between B group and C group (q = 5.09, P < 0.01). Compared to E group, there were significant decreases in F group and G group (q = 8.15, 3.75, all P < 0.05). (2) The CTGF protein expressions (A value) of pulmonary artery smooth muscle were respectively 0.098 +/- 0.015, 0.159 +/- 0.023, 0.118 +/- 0.017, 0.153 +/- 0.022, 0.406 +/- 0.036, 0.109 +/- 0.012 and 0.146 +/- 0.024. There was significant difference between B group and C group (q = 3.26, P < 0.05). Compared to E group, there were significant decreases in F group and G group (q = 67.08, 18.09, all P < 0.01). (3) The CTGF mRNA expressions (A(CTGF)/A(beta-actin)) of pulmonary artery were respectively 0.051 +/- 0.010, 0.823 +/- 0.096, 0.216 +/- 0.056, 0.810 +/- 0.085, 2.452 +/- 0.267, 0.207 +/- 0.062 and 0.509 +/- 0.067. There was significant difference between B group and C group (q = 53.50, P

  1. Effects of perinatal undernutrition on the basilar dendritic arbor of the anterior cingulate pyramidal neurons in lactating dams.

    PubMed

    Salas, Manuel; Torrero, Carmen; Regalado, Mirelta; Rubio, Lorena

    2015-01-01

    In altricial species, early pre- and neonatal undernutrition interferes with the neuronal organization of several brain structures that have critical time windows for synaptic organization, including the prefrontal cortex. In Golgi-Cox stained tissue the basilar dendritic arbor of pyramidal neurons in the anterior cingulate cortex of early underfed adult lactating dams was evaluated. The anterior cingulate of the rat plays a major role in the execution of sexual, maternal and visual attentional control and other cognitive responses. The effects of neonatal undernutrition on the basilar dendritic tree and perikaryon measurements in layer II/III pyramidal neurons of the anterior cingulate were examined in lactating dams at postpartum days 8 and 12. In the underfed dams the distal portions of the basilar dendrites had fewer branches and a lower dendritic density of dendrites, and neurons had perikarya with reduced perimeter and cross-sectional area. Thus, the neuronal alterations may interfere the plastic synaptic activity and with maternal cognitive performance of rats subjected to early underfeeding. These anatomical alterations of the anterior cingulate may help to understand the disruption of long-term cognitive processes associated with perinatal food restriction.

  2. Endothelium-dependent relaxation and noradrenaline sensitivity in mesenteric resistance arteries of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed Central

    Taylor, P. D.; McCarthy, A. L.; Thomas, C. R.; Poston, L.

    1992-01-01

    1. Noradrenaline sensitivity and acetylcholine-induced relaxation were investigated in mesenteric resistance arteries of control and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. 2. The diabetic rats demonstrated enhanced vascular sensitivity to noradrenaline compared with age-matched controls (pEC50 5.99 +/- 0.06 for diabetic rats, n = 25, versus 5.82 +/- 0.03 for controls, n = 45, P < 0.05). 3. Significant impairment of acetylcholine-induced relaxation was observed in arteries from the diabetic animals compared with controls (pEC50 6.81 +/- 0.17 for diabetic rats, n = 21, versus 7.54 +/- 0.17 for controls, n = 45, P < 0.001). 4. The difference between acetylcholine-induced relaxation in diabetic and control arteries remained in the presence of 10 microM indomethacin (pEC50 6.41 +/- 0.11 for diabetic rats, n = 16, versus 7.59 +/- 0.08 for controls, n = 20, P < 0.001). 5. The nitric oxide synthase inhibitor, NG-monomethyl-L-arginine (L-NMMA, 1 mM) produced profound inhibition of acetylcholine-induced relaxation in diabetic arteries but partial inhibition in controls. The incomplete inhibition of acetylcholine-induced relaxation by L-NMMA in the control arteries was the result of ineffective inhibition of nitric oxide synthase since an alternative inhibitor, NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 0.1 mM), led to similar inhibition to that seen in the diabetic arteries with L-NMMA. The endothelium-derived relaxing factor (EDRF)-mediated component of acetylcholine-induced relaxation determined by use of the nitric oxide synthase inhibitors was, therefore, apparently reduced in diabetic rats compared with control animals.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:1422588

  3. Voluntary exercise delays heart failure onset in rats with pulmonary artery hypertension.

    PubMed

    Natali, Antonio J; Fowler, Ewan D; Calaghan, Sarah C; White, Ed

    2015-08-01

    Increased physical activity is recommended for the general population and for patients with many diseases because of its health benefits but can be contraindicated if it is thought to be a risk for serious cardiovascular events. One such condition is pulmonary artery hypertension (PAH). PAH and right ventricular failure was induced in rats by a single injection of monocrotaline (MCT). MCT rats with voluntary access to a running wheel ran on average 2 km/day. The time for half the animals to develop heart failure signs (median survival time) was 28 days (exercise failure group), significantly longer than sedentary animals (sedentary failure group, 23 days). The contractility of single failing myocytes in response to increasing demand (stimulation frequency) was significantly impaired compared with that in both sedentary control and exercising control myocytes. However, myocytes from exercising MCT rats, tested at 23 days (exercise + MCT group), showed responses intermediate to the control (sedentary control and exercising control) and failing (sedentary failure and exercise failure) groups. We conclude that voluntary exercise is beneficial to rats with heart failure induced by PAH, and this is evidence to support the consideration of appropriate exercise regimes for potentially vulnerable groups. Copyright © 2015 the American Physiological Society.

  4. Impaired pulmonary artery contractile responses in a rat model of microgravity: role of nitric oxide

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Nyhan, Daniel; Kim, Soonyul; Dunbar, Stacey; Li, Dechun; Shoukas, Artin; Berkowitz, Dan E.

    2002-01-01

    Vascular contractile hyporesponsiveness is an important mechanism underlying orthostatic intolerance after microgravity. Baroreceptor reflexes can modulate both pulmonary resistance and capacitance function and thus cardiac output. We hypothesized, therefore, that pulmonary vasoreactivity is impaired in the hindlimb-unweighted (HLU) rat model of microgravity. Pulmonary artery (PA) contractile responses to phenylephrine (PE) and U-46619 (U4) were significantly decreased in the PAs from HLU vs. control (C) animals. N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (10(-5) M) enhanced the contractile responses in the PA rings from both C and HLU animals and completely abolished the differential responses to PE and U4 in HLU vs. C animals. Vasorelaxant responses to ACh were significantly enhanced in PA rings from HLU rats compared with C. Moreover, vasorelaxant responses to sodium nitroprusside were also significantly enhanced. Endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and soluble guanlyl cyclase expression were significantly enhanced in PA and lung tissue from HLU rats. In marked contrast, the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase was unchanged in lung tissue. These data support the hypothesis that vascular contractile responsiveness is attenuated in PAs from HLU rats and that this hyporesponsiveness is due at least in part to increased nitric oxide synthase activity resulting from enhanced eNOS expression. These findings may have important implications for blood volume distribution and attenuated stroke volume responses to orthostatic stress after microgravity exposure.

  5. Effects of intrathecal kynurenate on arterial pressure during chronic osmotic stress in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Veitenheimer, Britta; Osborn, John W

    2013-01-15

    Increased plasma osmolality elevates mean arterial pressure (MAP) through activation of the sympathetic nervous system, but the neurotransmitters released in the spinal cord to regulate MAP during osmotic stress remain unresolved. Glutamatergic neurons of the rostral ventrolateral medulla project to sympathetic preganglionic neurons in the spinal cord and are likely activated during conditions of osmotic stress; however, this has not been examined in conscious rats. This study investigated whether increased MAP during chronic osmotic stress depends on activation of spinal glutamate receptors. Rats were chronically instrumented with an indwelling intrathecal (i.t.) catheter for antagonist delivery to the spinal cord and a radiotelemetry transmitter for continuous monitoring of MAP and heart rate. Osmotic stress induced by 48 h of water deprivation (WD) increased MAP by ~15 mmHg. Intrathecal kynurenic acid, a nonspecific antagonist of ionotropic glutamate receptors, decreased MAP significantly more after 48 h of WD compared with the water-replete state. Water-deprived rats also showed a greater fall in MAP in response to i.t. 2-amino-5-phosphonovalerate. Finally, i.t. kynurenic acid also decreased MAP more in an osmotically driven model of neurogenic hypertension, the DOCA-salt rat, compared with normotensive controls. Our results suggest that spinally released glutamate mediates increased MAP during 48-h WD and DOCA-salt hypertension.

  6. Arterial flow regulator enables transplantation and growth of human fetal kidneys in rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, N K; Gu, J; Gu, S; Osorio, R W; Concepcion, W; Gu, E

    2015-06-01

    Here we introduce a novel method of transplanting human fetal kidneys into adult rats. To overcome the technical challenges of fetal-to-adult organ transplantation, we devised an arterial flow regulator (AFR), consisting of a volume adjustable saline-filled cuff, which enables low-pressure human fetal kidneys to be transplanted into high-pressure adult rat hosts. By incrementally withdrawing saline from the AFR over time, blood flow entering the human fetal kidney was gradually increased until full blood flow was restored 30 days after transplantation. Human fetal kidneys were shown to dramatically increase in size and function. Moreover, rats which had all native renal mass removed 30 days after successful transplantation of the human fetal kidney were shown to have a mean survival time of 122 days compared to 3 days for control rats that underwent bilateral nephrectomy without a prior human fetal kidney transplant. These in vivo human fetal kidney models may serve as powerful platforms for drug testing and discovery.

  7. Impaired motor activity and motor learning function in rat with middle cerebral artery occlusion.

    PubMed

    Ding, Yuchuan; Zhou, Yandong; Lai, Qin; Li, Jie; Park, Hun; Diaz, Fernando G

    2002-04-15

    The poor quality of life after a stroke is largely attributed to deficits in cognitive-motor functioning. The goals of this study were to detect if damaged motor learning function were attributed to motor deficits in rats following a transient middle cerebral artery (MCA) occlusion. Stroke was induced by a 2-h occlusion of the MCA using an intraluminal filament. Motor functions were evaluated from 5 up to 28 days after reperfusion in ischemic and control rats. Motor function was detected by a series of motor tests (runway traversing and beam balancing, as well as foot fault placing, parallel bar crossing, rope and ladder climbing), and motor learning behavior was determined by analyzing the rate of improvement of impaired function during performance of the motor tasks. Significant (P<0.001) motor deficits were detected in the stroke group (n=10) while performing motor tasks that involve extensive coordination, in comparison to the controls (n=12). Although motor behavior was improved with repeated behavior testing, unparalleled rate of improvement of motor performance on rope and ladder climbing tests was found between the two groups, suggesting an impaired motor learning function. Brain tissue damage was detected in the ischemic animals 28 days after surgery, demonstrated by 40% infarct volume of contralateral hemisphere. Both motor learning and motor function were impaired in ischemic rats. The motor tests used in this study are sensitive, semi-quantitative, and reproducible measurements of functional impairment in rats following an ischemic stroke.

  8. L-Cysteine ethyl ester reverses the deleterious effects of morphine on, arterial blood-gas chemistry in tracheotomized rats.

    PubMed

    Mendoza, James; Passafaro, Rachael; Baby, Santhosh; Young, Alex P; Bates, James N; Gaston, Benjamin; Lewis, Stephen J

    2013-10-01

    This study determined whether the membrane-permeable ventilatory stimulant, L-cysteine ethylester (L-CYSee), reversed the deleterious actions of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry in isoflurane-anesthetized rats. Morphine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) elicited sustained decreases in arterial blood pH, pO₂ and sO₂, and increases in pCO₂ (all responses indicative of hypoventilation) and alveolar-arterial gradient (indicative of ventilation-perfusion mismatch). Injections of L-CYSee (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) reversed the effects of morphine in tracheotomized rats but were minimally active in non-tracheotomized rats. L-cysteine or L-serine ethylester (100 μmol/kg, i.v.) were without effect. It is evident that L-CYSee can reverse the negative effects of morphine on arterial blood-gas chemistry and alveolar-arterial gradient but that this positive activity is negated by increases in upper-airway resistance. Since L-cysteine and L-serine ethylester were ineffective, it is evident that cell penetrability and the sulfur moiety of L-CYSee are essential for activity. Due to its ready penetrability into the lungs, chest wall muscle and brain, the effects of L-CYSee on morphine-induced changes in arterial blood-gas chemistry are likely to involve both central and peripheral sites of action. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Blood pressure, heart rate and arterial blood gas reactions to acute hypoxia in carotid body denervated spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Huckstorf, C; Behm, R; Habeck, J O; Rückborn, K; Franz, U

    1987-01-01

    The role of the peripheral