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Sample records for rat brain attenuation

  1. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia attenuates traumatic brain injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Espinera, Alyssa; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Wei, Ling; Dix, Thomas A; Yu, Shan Ping

    2015-05-01

    Neonatal brain trauma is linked to higher risks of mortality and neurological disability. The use of mild to moderate hypothermia has shown promising potential against brain injuries induced by stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in various experimental models and in clinical trials. Conventional methods of physical cooling, however, are difficult to use in acute treatments and in induction of regulated hypothermia. In addition, general anesthesia is usually required to mitigate the negative effects of shivering during physical cooling. Our recent investigations demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefits of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) using the neurotensin receptor (NTR) agonist HPI201 (formerly known as ABS201) in stroke and TBI models of adult rodents. The present investigation explored the brain protective effects of HPI201 in a P14 rat pediatric model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact. When administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, HPI201 induced dose-dependent reduction of body and brain temperature. A 6-h hypothermic treatment, providing an overall 2-3°C reduction of brain and body temperature, showed significant effect of attenuating the contusion volume versus TBI controls. Attenuation occurs whether hypothermia is initiated 15min or 2h after TBI. No shivering response was seen in HPI201-treated animals. HPI201 treatment also reduced TUNEL-positive and TUNEL/NeuN-colabeled cells in the contusion area and peri-injury regions. TBI-induced blood-brain barrier damage was attenuated by HPI201 treatment, evaluated using the Evans Blue assay. HPI201 significantly decreased MMP-9 levels and caspase-3 activation, both of which are pro-apototic, while it increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression in the peri-contusion region. In addition, HPI201 prevented the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In sensorimotor activity assessments, rats in the HPI201

  2. Hydrogen-rich water attenuates brain damage and inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Runfa; Hou, Zonggang; Hao, Shuyu; Wu, Weichuan; Mao, Xiang; Tao, Xiaogang; Lu, Te; Liu, Baiyun

    2016-04-15

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are the two major causes of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Most previous studies of the neuroprotective effects of hydrogen-rich water on TBI primarily focused on antioxidant effects. The present study investigated whether hydrogen-rich water (HRW) could attenuate brain damage and inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats. A TBI model was induced using a controlled cortical impact injury. HRW or distilled water was injected intraperitoneally daily following surgery. We measured survival rate, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neurological dysfunction in all animals. Changes in inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cells and Cho/Cr metabolites in brain tissues were also detected. Our results demonstrated that TBI-challenged rats exhibited significant brain injuries that were characterized by decreased survival rate and increased BBB permeability, brain edema, and neurological dysfunction, while HRW treatment ameliorated the consequences of TBI. HRW treatment also decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1), inflammatory cell number (Iba1) and inflammatory metabolites (Cho) and increased the levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the brain tissues of TBI-challenged rats. In conclusion, HRW could exert a neuroprotective effect against TBI and attenuate inflammation, which suggests HRW as an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI patients.

  3. Ceftriaxone attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Perinatal brain injury is the leading cause of subsequent neurological disability in both term and preterm baby. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major factors involved in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Glutamate transporter GLT1, expressed mainly in mature astrocytes, is the major glutamate transporter in the brain. HIE induced excessive glutamate release which is not reuptaked by immature astrocytes may induce neuronal damage. Compounds, such as ceftriaxone, that enhance the expression of GLT1 may exert neuroprotective effect in HIE. Methods We used a neonatal rat model of HIE by unilateral ligation of carotid artery and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen for 2 hrs on postnatal day 7 (P7) rats. Neonatal rats were administered three dosages of an antibiotic, ceftriaxone, 48 hrs prior to experimental HIE. Neurobehavioral tests of treated rats were assessed. Brain sections from P14 rats were examined with Nissl and immunohistochemical stain, and TUNEL assay. GLT1 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone significantly reduced the brain injury scores and apoptotic cells in the hippocampus, restored myelination in the external capsule of P14 rats, and improved the hypoxia-ischemia induced learning and memory deficit of P23-24 rats. GLT1 expression was observed in the cortical neurons of ceftriaxone treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest that pre-treatment of infants at risk for HIE with ceftriaxone may reduce subsequent brain injury. PMID:21933448

  4. Moderate Hypothermia Inhibits Brain Inflammation and Attenuates Stroke-induced Immunodepression in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Li-Juan; Xiong, Xiao-Xing; Ito, Takashi; Lee, Jessica; Xu, Bao-Hui; Krams, Sheri; Steinberg, Gary K.; Zhao, Heng

    2013-01-01

    Summary Aims Stroke causes both brain inflammation and immunodepression. Mild to moderate hypothermia is known to attenuate brain inflammation but its role in stroke-induced immunodepression (SIID) of the peripheral immune system remains unknown. This study investigated the effects in rats of moderate intra-ischemic hypothermia on SIID and brain inflammation. Methods Stroke was induced in rats by permanent distal MCA occlusion combined with transient bilateral CCA occlusion while body temperature was reduced to 30°C. Real-time PCR, flow cytometry, in vitro T cell proliferation assays and confocal microscopy were used to study SIID and brain inflammation. Results Brief Intra-Ischemic hypothermia helped maintain certain leukocytes in the peripheral blood and spleen, and enhanced T cell proliferation in vitro and delayed-type hypersensitivity in vivo, suggesting that hypothermia reduces SIID. In contrast, in the brain, brief intra-Ischemic hypothermia inhibited mRNA expression of anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 and pro-inflammatory cytokines INF-γ, TNF-α, IL-2, IL-1β and MIP-2. Brief intra-Ischemic hypothermia also attenuated the infiltration of lymphocytes, neutrophils (MPO+ cells) and macrophages (CD68+ cells) into the ischemic brain, suggesting that hypothermia inhibited brain inflammation. Conclusions Brief intra-ischemic hypothermia attenuated SIID and protected against acute brain inflammation. PMID:23981596

  5. Cordycepin attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced impairments of blood-brain barrier integrity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Wang, Aihua; He, Yan; Si, Zhihua; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Shanchao; Wang, Kun; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yiming

    2016-10-01

    Loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is a downstream event caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). BBB integrity is affected by certain physiological conditions, including inflammation and oxidative stress. Cordycepin is a susbtance with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate whether cordycepin affects TBI-induced impairments of BBB integrity. Using TBI rats as the in vivo model and applying multiple techniques, including stroke severity evaluation, Evans blue assessment, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and ELISA, we investigated the dose-dependent protective effects of cordycepin on the TBI-induced impairments of BBB integrity. Cordycepin treatment attenuated the TBI-induced impairments in a dose-dependent manner, and played a role in protecting BBB integrity. Cordycepin was able to alleviate TBI-induced loss of tight junction proteins zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which are important for BBB integrity. Moreover, cordycepin suppressed pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, iNOS, MPO and MMP-9, and promoted anti-inflammation-associated factors arginase 1 and IL-10. Furthermore, cordycepin inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and activity following TBI, probably through NOX1, but not NOX2 and NOX4. Cordycepin has protective effects against brain damages induced by TBI. The protection of cordycepin on BBB integrity was probably achieved through recovery of tight junction proteins, inhibition of local inflammation, and prevention of NOX activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. L-histidine but not D-histidine attenuates brain edema following cryogenic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Mochizuki, Y; Matsumoto, H; Nakamura, Y; Dohi, K; Jimbo, H; Shimazu, M; Hayashi, M; Matsumoto, K

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the genesis of traumatic brain injury and brain edema (BE). Recent studies have suggested that hydroxyl radical can initiate lipid peroxidation, thus producing lipid-free radicals that may become important sources of singlet oxygen. L-histidine, a singlet oxygen scavenger, potentially can be used to treat BE. In this study we investigated the effects of L-histidine and D-histidine on BE following cryogenic injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. Vasogenic BE was produced by a cortical freezing lesion. Generation of singlet oxygen from photoactivation of rose bengal was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR). Animals were separated into four groups: sham rats (n = 5), saline-treated rats (n = 10), L-histidine treated rats (n = 6) and D-histidine treated rats (n = 7). Each agent (100 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at 30 minutes before lesion production. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hours after lesion production and the brain water content was determined by the dry-wet weight method. L-histidine had no effect on rectal and brain temperature. Election Spin Resonance studies demonstrated that L-histidine is a singlet oxygen scavenger. L-histidine but not D-histidine significantly attenuated BE following cryogenic injury (p < 0.05). In conclusion, L-histidine is useful in the treatment of traumatic BE.

  7. Renal denervation prevents stroke and brain injury via attenuation of oxidative stress in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yu; Uekawa, Ken; Ma, Mingjie; Katayama, Tetsuji; Sueta, Daisuke; Toyama, Kensuke; Kataoka, Keiichiro; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Maeda, Masanobu; Kuratsu, Jun-Ichi; Kim-Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2013-10-14

    Although renal denervation (RD) is shown to reduce blood pressure significantly in patients with resistant hypertension, the benefit of RD in prevention of stroke is unknown. We hypothesized that RD can prevent the incidence of stroke and brain injury in hypertensive rats beyond blood pressure lowering. High-salt-loaded, stroke-prone, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were divided into 4 groups: (1) control; (2) sham operation; (3) bilateral RD; and (4) hydralazine administration to examine the effect of RD on stroke and brain injury of SHRSP. RD significantly reduced the onset of neurological deficit and death in SHRSP, and this protection against stroke by RD was associated with the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF), the suppression of blood-brain barrier disruption, the limitation of white matter (WM) lesions, and the attenuation of macrophage infiltration and activated microglia. Furthermore, RD significantly attenuated brain oxidative stress, and NADPH oxidase subunits, P67 and Rac1 in SHRSP. On the other hand, hydralazine, with similar blood pressure lowering to RD, did not significantly suppress the onset of stroke and brain injury in SHRSP. Furthermore, RD prevented cardiac remodeling and vascular endothelial impairment in SHRSP. Our present work provided the first experimental evidence that RD can prevent hypertensive stroke and brain injury, beyond blood pressure lowering, thereby highlighting RD as a promising therapeutic strategy for stroke as well as hypertension.

  8. Renal Denervation Prevents Stroke and Brain Injury via Attenuation of Oxidative Stress in Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakagawa, Takashi; Hasegawa, Yu; Uekawa, Ken; Ma, Mingjie; Katayama, Tetsuji; Sueta, Daisuke; Toyama, Kensuke; Kataoka, Keiichiro; Koibuchi, Nobutaka; Maeda, Masanobu; Kuratsu, Jun‐ichi; Kim‐Mitsuyama, Shokei

    2013-01-01

    Background Although renal denervation (RD) is shown to reduce blood pressure significantly in patients with resistant hypertension, the benefit of RD in prevention of stroke is unknown. We hypothesized that RD can prevent the incidence of stroke and brain injury in hypertensive rats beyond blood pressure lowering. Methods and Results High‐salt‐loaded, stroke‐prone, spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were divided into 4 groups: (1) control; (2) sham operation; (3) bilateral RD; and (4) hydralazine administration to examine the effect of RD on stroke and brain injury of SHRSP. RD significantly reduced the onset of neurological deficit and death in SHRSP, and this protection against stroke by RD was associated with the increase in cerebral blood flow (CBF), the suppression of blood–brain barrier disruption, the limitation of white matter (WM) lesions, and the attenuation of macrophage infiltration and activated microglia. Furthermore, RD significantly attenuated brain oxidative stress, and NADPH oxidase subunits, P67 and Rac1 in SHRSP. On the other hand, hydralazine, with similar blood pressure lowering to RD, did not significantly suppress the onset of stroke and brain injury in SHRSP. Furthermore, RD prevented cardiac remodeling and vascular endothelial impairment in SHRSP. Conclusions Our present work provided the first experimental evidence that RD can prevent hypertensive stroke and brain injury, beyond blood pressure lowering, thereby highlighting RD as a promising therapeutic strategy for stroke as well as hypertension. PMID:24125845

  9. Curcumin Mediated Attenuation of Carbofuran Induced Oxidative Stress in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Jaiswal, Sunil Kumar; Sharma, Ashish; Gupta, Vivek Kumar; Singh, Rakesh Kumar; Sharma, Bechan

    2016-01-01

    The indiscriminate use of carbofuran to improve crop productivity causes adverse effects in nontargets including mammalian systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate carbofuran induced oxidative stress in rat brain stem and its attenuation by curcumin, a herbal product. Out of 6 groups of rats, 2 groups received two different doses of carbofuran, that is, 15 and 30% of LD50, respectively, for 30 days. Out of these, 2 groups receiving same doses of carbofuran were pretreated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight). The levels of antioxidants, TBARS, GSH, SOD, catalase, and GST were determined in rat brain stem. The 2 remaining groups served as placebo and curcumin treated, respectively. The data suggested that carbofuran at different doses caused significant alterations in the levels of TBARS and GSH in dose dependent manner. The TBARS and GSH contents were elevated. The activities of SOD, catalase, and GST were significantly inhibited at both doses of carbofuran. The ratio of P/A was also found to be sharply increased. The pretreatment of curcumin exhibited significant protection from carbofuran induced toxicity. The results suggested that carbofuran at sublethal doses was able to induce oxidative stress in rat brain which could be attenuated by curcumin. PMID:27213055

  10. Serine protease inhibitor attenuates intracerebral hemorrhage-induced brain injury and edema formation in rat.

    PubMed

    Nakamura, Takehiro; Kuroda, Yasuhiro; Hosomi, Naohisa; Okabe, Naohiko; Kawai, Nobuyuki; Tamiya, Takashi; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard F; Itano, Toshifumi

    2010-01-01

    Our previous studies have demonstrated that thrombin plays an important role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH)-induced brain injury and edema formation. We, therefore, examined whether nafamostat mesilate (FUT), a serine protease inhibitor, can reduce ICH-induced brain injury. Anesthetized male Sprague-Dawley rats received an infusion of autologous whole blood (100 microL), thrombin (5U/50 microL) or type VII collagenase (0.4 U/2 microL) into the right basal ganglia, the three ICH models used in the present study. FUT (10 mg/kg) or vehicle was administered intraperitoneally 6 h after ICH (or immediately after thrombin infusion) and then at 12-h intervals (six treatments in total, n = 5 in each group). All rats were sacrificed 72 h later. We also examined whether FUT promotes rebleeding in a model in which ICH was induced by intracerebral injection of collagenase. Systemic administration of FUT starting 6 h after ICH reduced brain water content in the ipsilateral basal ganglia 72 h after ICH compared with vehicle. FUT attenuated ICH-induced changes in 8-OHdG and thrombin-reduced brain edema. FUT did not increase collagenase-induced hematoma volume. FUT attenuates ICH-induced brain edema and DNA injury suggesting that serine protease inhibitor may be potential therapeutic agent for ICH.

  11. Rat umbilical cord blood cells attenuate hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Keiko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Mizutani, Yuka; Ito, Miharu; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Higashi, Yujiro

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCBC) have a favorable effect on hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury. However, the efficacy of using hUCBCs to treat this injury has been variable and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigated its effectiveness using stereological analysis in an allogeneic system to examine whether intraperitoneal injection of cells derived from UCBCs of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats could ameliorate brain injury in neonatal rats. Three weeks after the HI event, the estimated residual brain volume was larger and motor function improved more in the cell-injected rats than in the control (PBS-treated) rats. The GFP-positive cells were hardly detectable in the brain (0.0057% of injected cells) 9 days after injection. Although 60% of GFP-positive cells in the brain were Iba1-positive, none of these were positive for NeuroD or DCX. While the number of proliferating cells increased in the hippocampus, that of activated microglia/macrophages decreased and a proportion of M2 microglia/macrophages increased in the ipsilateral hemisphere of cell-injected rats. These results suggest that intraperitoneal injection of cells derived from UCBCs could ameliorate HI injury, possibly through an endogenous response and not by supplying differentiated neurons derived from the injected stem cells. PMID:28281676

  12. Metabolic enhancer piracetam attenuates rotenone induced oxidative stress: a study in different rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Verma, Dinesh Kumar; Joshi, Neeraj; Raju, Kunumuri Sivarama; Wahajuddin, Muhammad; Singh, Rama Kant; Singh, Sarika

    2015-01-01

    Piracetam is clinically being used nootropic drug but the details of its neuroprotective mechanism are not well studied. The present study was conducted to assess the effects of piracetam on rotenone induced oxidative stress by using both ex vivo and in vivo test systems. Rats were treated with piracetam (600 mg/kg b.w. oral) for seven constitutive days prior to rotenone administration (intracerebroventricular, 12 µg) in rat brain. Rotenone induced oxidative stress was assessed after 1 h and 24 h of rotenone administration. Ex vivo estimations were performed by using two experimental designs. In one experimental design the rat brain homogenate was treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4 mM) and rotenone+piracetam (10 mM) for 1 h. While in second experimental design the rats were pretreated with piracetam for seven consecutive days. On eighth day the rats were sacrificed, brain homogenate was prepared and treated with rotenone (1 mM, 2 mM and 4mM) for 1h. After treatment the glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in brain homogenate. In vivo study showed that pretreatment of piracetam offered significant protection against rotenone induced decreased GSH and increased MDA level though the protection was region specific. But the co-treatment of piracetam with rotenone did not offer significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress in ex vivo study. Whereas ex vivo experiments in rat brain homogenate of piracetam pretreated rats, showed the significant protection against rotenone induced oxidative stress. Findings indicated that pretreatment of piracetam significantly attenuated the rotenone induced oxidative stress though the protection was region specific. Piracetam treatment to rats led to its absorption and accumulation in different brain regions as assessed by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry. In conclusion, study indicates the piracetam is able to enhance the antioxidant capacity in brain cells

  13. Enalapril attenuates ischaemic brain oedema and protects the blood-brain barrier in rats via an anti-oxidant action.

    PubMed

    Panahpour, Hamdollah; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2014-03-01

    1. In the present study, we investigated the effects of postischaemic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with enalapril on vasogenic oedema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following transient focal cerebral ischaemia in rats. 2. Cerebral ischaemia was induced by 60 min occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Vehicle and a non-hypotensive dose of enalapril (0.03 mg/kg) were administered at the beginning of the reperfusion period. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was determined for all rats at the end of the reperfusion period. Then, brain oedema formation was investigated using the wet-dry weight method and BBB permeability was evaluated on the basis of extravasation of Evans blue (EB) dye. In addition, oxidative stress was assessed by measuring reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain homogenates. 3. Inhibition of ACE by enalapril significantly reduced NDS and decreased brain oedema formation (P < 0.05 for both). Disruption of the BBB following ischaemia resulted in considerable leakage of EB dye into the brain parenchyma of the ipsilateral hemispheres of vehicle-treated rats. Enalapril significantly (P < 0.05) decreased EB extravasation into the lesioned hemisphere. Enalapril also augmented anti-oxidant activity in ischaemic brain tissue by increasing GSH concentrations and significantly (P < 0.05) attenuating the increased MDA levels in response to ischaemia. 4. In conclusion, inhibition of ACE with a non-hypotensive dose of enalapril may protect BBB function and attenuate oedema formation via anti-oxidant actions.

  14. Propofol Inhibits NLRP3 Inflammasome and Attenuates Blast-Induced Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jie; Xiao, Wenjing; Wang, Junrui; Wu, Juan; Ren, Jiandong; Hou, Jun; Gu, Jianwen; Fan, Kaihua; Yu, Botao

    2016-12-01

    Increasing evidence has demonstrated that inflammatory response plays a crucial role in the pathogenesis of secondary injury following blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). Propofol, a lipid-soluble intravenous anesthetic, has been shown to possess therapeutic benefit during neuroinflammation on various brain injury models. Recent findings have proved that the NOD-like receptor family, pyrin domain-containing 3 (NLRP3) inflammasome involved in the process of the inflammatory response following brain trauma, may probably be a promising target in the treatment of bTBI. Rats were randomly divided into six groups (n = 8): normal group; bTBI-12 and 24 h group; bTBI-12 h and bTBI-24 h group treated with propofol; and bTBI treated with control dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) group. The effect of propofol on the expression and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome and the degree of oxidative stress and inflammatory cascades, as well as the brain trauma biomarkers were evaluated in rats suffering from bTBI. The enhanced expressions and activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the cerebral cortex of bTBI rats were substantially suppressed by the administration of propofol, which was paralleled with the decreased oxidative stress, cytokines production, and the amelioration of cerebral cortex damage. Our results have, for the first time, revealed that over-activation of NLRP3 inflammasome in the cerebral cortex may be involved in the process of neuroinflammation during the secondary injury of bTBI in rats. Propofol might relieve the inflammatory response and attenuate brain injury by inhibiting ROS and reluctant depressing NLRP3 inflammasome activation and pro-inflammatory cytokines maturation.

  15. Carnosine Attenuates Brain Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xie, Rong-Xia; Li, Da-Wei; Liu, Xi-Chang; Yang, Ming-Feng; Fang, Jie; Sun, Bao-Liang; Zhang, Zong-Yong; Yang, Xiao-Yi

    2017-02-01

    Carnosine, an endogenous dipeptide (β-alanyl-L-histidine), exerts multiple neuroprotective properties, but its role in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) remains unclear. This study investigates the effect of Carnosine on brain injury using the rat ICH model, which is established by type IV collagenase caudatum infusion. The results indicate that intraperitoneal administration of Carnosine (1000 mg/kg) significantly attenuates brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption, oxidative stress, microglia activation and neuronal apoptosis of perihematoma at 72 h following ICH in rats models, as convinced by preventing the disruption of tight junction protein ZO-1, occludin and claudin-5, followed by the decrease of ROS, MDA, 3-NT, 8-OHDG level and the increase of GSH-Px and SOD activity, then followed by the decline of Iba-1, ED-1, active caspase-3 and TUNEL positive cells and the decrease of IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, active caspase-3 and cytochrome c level. Our results suggest that Carnosine may provide neuroprotective effect after experimental ICH in rat models.

  16. Thymoquinone Attenuates Brain Injury via an Anti-oxidative Pathway in a Status Epilepticus Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Shao, Yi-ye; Li, Bing; Huang, Yong-mei; Luo, Qiong; Xie, Yang-mei; Chen, Ying-hui

    2017-01-01

    Abstract Aim Status epilepticus (SE) results in the generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), which contribute to seizure-induced brain injury. It is well known that oxidative stress plays a pivotal role in status epilepticus (SE). Thymoquinone (TQ) is a bioactive monomer extracted from black cumin (Nigella sativa) seed oil that has anti-inflammatory, anti-cancer, and antioxidant activity in various diseases. This study evaluated the protective effects of TQ on brain injury in a lithium-pilocarpine rat model of SE and investigated the underlying mechanism related to antioxidative pathway. Methods Electroencephalogram and Racine scale were used to value seizure severity. Passive-avoidance test was used to determine learning and memory function. Moreover, anti-oxidative activity of TQ was observed using Western blot and super oxide dismutase (SOD) activity assay. Results Latency to SE increased in the TQ-pretreated group compared with rats in the model group, while the total power was significantly lower. Seizure severity measured on the Racine scale was significantly lower in the TQ group compared with the model group. Results of behavioral experiments suggest that TQ may also have a protective effect on learning and memory function. Investigation of the protective mechanism of TQ showed that TQ-pretreatment significantly increased the expression of Nrf2, HO-1 proteins and SOD in the hippocampus. Conclusion These findings showed that TQ attenuated brain injury induced by SE via an anti-oxidative pathway. PMID:28400978

  17. Sarin-induced brain damage in rats is attenuated by delayed administration of midazolam.

    PubMed

    Chapman, Shira; Yaakov, Guy; Egoz, Inbal; Rabinovitz, Ishai; Raveh, Lily; Kadar, Tamar; Gilat, Eran; Grauer, Ettie

    2015-07-01

    Sarin poisoned rats display a hyper-cholinergic activity including hypersalivation, tremors, seizures and death. Here we studied the time and dose effects of midazolam treatment following nerve agent exposure. Rats were exposed to sarin (1.2 LD50, 108 μg/kg, im), and treated 1 min later with TMB4 and atropine (TA 7.5 and 5 mg/kg, im, respectively). Midazolam was injected either at 1 min (1 mg/kg, im), or 1 h later (1 or 5 mg/kg i.m.). Cortical seizures were monitored by electrocorticogram (ECoG). At 5 weeks, rats were assessed in a water maze task, and then their brains were extracted for biochemical analysis and histological evaluation. Results revealed a time and dose dependent effects of midazolam treatment. Rats treated with TA only displayed acute signs of sarin intoxication, 29% died within 24h and the ECoG showed seizures for several hours. Animals that received midazolam within 1 min survived with only minor clinical signs but with no biochemical, behavioral, or histological sequel. Animals that lived to receive midazolam at 1h (87%) survived and the effects of the delayed administration were dose dependent. Midazolam 5 mg/kg significantly counteracted the acute signs of intoxication and the impaired behavioral performance, attenuated some of the inflammatory response with no effect on morphological damage. Midazolam 1mg/kg showed only a slight tendency to modulate the cognitive function. In addition, the delayed administration of both midazolam doses significantly attenuated ECoG compared to TA treatment only. These results suggest that following prolonged seizure, high dose midazolam is beneficial in counteracting adverse effects of sarin poisoning.

  18. CDP-choline (citicoline) attenuates brain damage in a rat model of birth asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Fiedorowicz, Michał; Makarewicz, Dorota; Stańczak-Mrozek, Kinga I; Grieb, Paweł

    2008-01-01

    To estimate protective potential of citicoline in a model of birth asphyxia, the drug was given to 7-day old rats subjected to permanent unilateral carotid artery occlusion and exposed for 65 min to a hypoxic gas mixture. Daily citicoline doses of 100 or 300 m/kg, or vehicle, were injected intraperitoneally for 7 consecutive days beginning immediately after the end of the ischemic-hypoxic insult, and brain damage was assessed by gross zorphology score and weight deficit two weeks after the insult. Caspase-3, alpha-fodrin, Bcl-2, and Hsp70 levels were assessed at 0, 1, and 24 h after the end of the hypoxic insult in another group of rat pups subjected to the same insult and given a single dose of 300 m/kg of citicoline or the vehicle. Citicoline markedly reduced caspase-3 activation and Hsp70 expression 24 h after the insult, and dose-dependently attenuated brain damage. In the context of the well-known excellent safety profile of citicoline, these data suggest that clinical evaluation of the efficacy of the drug in human birth asphyxia may be warranted.

  19. Early VEGF inhibition attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption in ischemic rat brains by regulating the expression of MMPs

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hai-Tao; Zhang, Ping; Gao, Yi; Li, Chen-Long; Wang, Hong-Jun; Chen, Ling-Chao; Feng, Yan; Li, Rui-Yan; Li, Yong-Li; Jiang, Chuan-Lu

    2016-01-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) inhibition has been demonstrated to be an effective strategy in preserving the integrity of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) in patients with acute ischemic stroke. Loss of the BBB is the key event associated with morbidity and mortality in these patients. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. In the present study, the effects of VEGF inhibition and the possible mechanism that underlies acute cerebral ischemia in rats was investigated. Following the induction of transient middle cerebral artery occlusion for a 90-min period, either an anti-VEGF neutralizing antibody (RB-222; 5 or 10 µg), or IgG (control), was administered by intracerebroventricular injection at 1 h following reperfusion. Functional outcomes, BBB leakage, brain edema, microvessel numbers and the relative protein levels of VEGF, matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2, MMP-9, occludin and collagen-IV were then determined using neurological assessments, Evans Blue staining, brain water content, CD31 staining and western blotting. Treatment with RB-222 at a dose of 5 and 10 µg significantly improved neurological functional outcomes and diminished infarct size, BBB leakage and brain edema compared with the MCAO and IgG groups at 24 h following reperfusion; 10 µg RB-222 was more effective than a 5 µg dose of the antibody. In addition, RB-222 reduced the number of immature microvessels, which subsequently attenuated BBB permeability. RB-222 significantly repressed VEGF expression as well as decreased MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. However, it enhanced occludin and collagen-IV levels in the ischemic rat brain compared with the MCAO and IgG groups. Taken together, the results indicate that early inhibition of VEGF may have significant potential against cerebral ischemia, partly by regulating the expression of MMPs. PMID:27909732

  20. Ethosuximide and phenytoin dose-dependently attenuate acute nonconvulsive seizures after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Mountney, Andrea; Shear, Deborah A; Potter, Brittney; Marcsisin, Sean R; Sousa, Jason; Melendez, Victor; Tortella, Frank C; Lu, Xi-Chun M

    2013-12-01

    Acute seizures frequently occur following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and have been associated with poor patient prognosis. Silent or nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) manifest in the absence of motor convulsion, can only be detected via continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and are often unidentified and untreated. Identification of effective anti-epileptic drugs (AED) against post-traumatic NCS remains crucial to improve neurological outcome. Here, we assessed the anti-seizure profile of ethosuximide (ETX, 12.5-187.5 mg/kg) and phenytoin (PHT, 5-30 mg/kg) in a spontaneously occurring NCS model associated with penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Rats were divided between two drug cohorts, PHT or ETX, and randomly assigned to one of four doses or vehicle within each cohort. Following PBBI, NCS were detected by continuous EEG monitoring for 72 h post-injury. Drug efficacy was evaluated on NCS parameters of incidence, frequency, episode duration, total duration, and onset latency. Both PHT and ETX attenuated NCS in a dose-dependent manner. In vehicle-treated animals, 69-73% experienced NCS (averaging 9-10 episodes/rat) with average onset of NCS occurring at 30 h post-injury. Compared with control treatment, the two highest PHT and ETX doses significantly reduced NCS incidence to 13-40%, reduced NCS frequency (1.8-6.2 episodes/rat), and delayed seizure onset: <20% of treated animals exhibited NCS within the first 48 h. NCS durations were also dose-dependently mitigated. For the first time, we demonstrate that ETX and PHT are effective against spontaneously occurring NCS following PBBI, and suggest that these AEDs may be effective at treating post-traumatic NCS.

  1. Ethosuximide and Phenytoin Dose-Dependently Attenuate Acute Nonconvulsive Seizures after Traumatic Brain Injury in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shear, Deborah A.; Potter, Brittney; Marcsisin, Sean R.; Sousa, Jason; Melendez, Victor; Tortella, Frank C.; Lu, Xi-Chun M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Acute seizures frequently occur following severe traumatic brain injury (TBI) and have been associated with poor patient prognosis. Silent or nonconvulsive seizures (NCS) manifest in the absence of motor convulsion, can only be detected via continuous electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings, and are often unidentified and untreated. Identification of effective anti-epileptic drugs (AED) against post-traumatic NCS remains crucial to improve neurological outcome. Here, we assessed the anti-seizure profile of ethosuximide (ETX, 12.5–187.5 mg/kg) and phenytoin (PHT, 5–30 mg/kg) in a spontaneously occurring NCS model associated with penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI). Rats were divided between two drug cohorts, PHT or ETX, and randomly assigned to one of four doses or vehicle within each cohort. Following PBBI, NCS were detected by continuous EEG monitoring for 72 h post-injury. Drug efficacy was evaluated on NCS parameters of incidence, frequency, episode duration, total duration, and onset latency. Both PHT and ETX attenuated NCS in a dose-dependent manner. In vehicle-treated animals, 69–73% experienced NCS (averaging 9–10 episodes/rat) with average onset of NCS occurring at 30 h post-injury. Compared with control treatment, the two highest PHT and ETX doses significantly reduced NCS incidence to 13–40%, reduced NCS frequency (1.8–6.2 episodes/rat), and delayed seizure onset: <20% of treated animals exhibited NCS within the first 48 h. NCS durations were also dose-dependently mitigated. For the first time, we demonstrate that ETX and PHT are effective against spontaneously occurring NCS following PBBI, and suggest that these AEDs may be effective at treating post-traumatic NCS. PMID:23822888

  2. Edaravone attenuates brain damage in rats after acute CO poisoning through inhibiting apoptosis and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Li, Qin; Bi, Ming Jun; Bi, Wei Kang; Kang, Hai; Yan, Le Jing; Guo, Yun-Liang

    2016-03-01

    Acute carbon monoxide (CO) poisoning is the most common cause of death from poisoning all over the world and may result in neuropathologic and neurophysiologic changes. Acute brain damage and delayed encephalopathy are the most serious complication, yet their pathogenesis is poorly understood. The present study aimed to evaluate the neuroprotective effects of Edaravone against apoptosis and oxidative stress after acute CO poisoning. The rat model of CO poisoning was established in a hyperbaric oxygen chamber by exposed to CO. Ultrastructure changes were observed by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). TUNEL stain was used to assess apoptosis. Immunohistochemistry and immunofluorescence double stain were used to evaluate the expression levels of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 (Nrf-2) protein and their relationship. By dynamically monitored the carboxyhemoglobin (HbCO) level in blood, we successfully established rat model of severe CO poisoning. Ultrastructure changes, including chromatin condensation, cytoplasm dissolution, vacuoles formation, nucleus membrane and cell organelles decomposition, could be observed after CO poisoning. Edaravone could improve the ultrastructure damage. CO poisoning could induce apoptosis. Apoptotic cells were widely distributed in cortex, striatum and hippocampus. Edaravone treatment attenuated neuronal apoptosis as compared with the poisoning group (P < 0.01). Basal expressions of HO-1 and Nrf-2 proteins were found in normal brain tissue. CO poisoning could activate HO-1/Nrf-2 pathway, start oxidative stress response. After the administration of Edaravone, the expression of HO-1 and Nrf-2 significantly increased (P < 0.01). These findings suggest that Edaravone may inhibit apoptosis, activate the Keapl-Nrf/ARE pathway, and thus improve the ultrastructure damage and neurophysiologic changes following acute CO poisoning.

  3. Rosiglitazone attenuates inflammation and CA3 neuronal loss following traumatic brain injury in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Liu, Hao; Rose, Marie E.; Culver, Sherman; Ma, Xiecheng; Dixon, C. Edward; Graham, Steven H.

    2016-04-15

    Rosiglitazone, a potent peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor (PPAR)-γ agonist, has been shown to confer neuroprotective effects in stroke and spinal cord injury, but its role in the traumatic brain injury (TBI) is still controversial. Using a controlled cortical impact model in rats, the current study was designed to determine the effects of rosiglitazone treatment (6 mg/kg at 5 min, 6 h and 24 h post injury) upon inflammation and histological outcome at 21 d after TBI. In addition, the effects of rosiglitazone upon inflammatory cytokine transcription, vestibulomotor behavior and spatial memory function were determined at earlier time points (24 h, 1–5 d, 14–20 d post injury, respectively). Compared with the vehicle-treated group, rosiglitazone treatment suppressed production of TNFα at 24 h after TBI, attenuated activation of microglia/macrophages and increased survival of CA3 neurons but had no effect on lesion volume at 21 d after TBI. Rosiglitazone-treated animals had improved performance on beam balance testing, but there was no difference in spatial memory function as determined by Morris water maze. In summary, this study indicates that rosiglitazone treatment in the first 24 h after TBI has limited anti-inflammatory and neuroprotective effects in rat traumatic injury. Further study using an alternative dosage paradigm and more sensitive behavioral testing may be warranted. - Highlights: • Effects of rosiglitazone after CCI were evaluated using a rat TBI model. • Rosiglitazone suppressed production of TNFα at 24 h after CCI. • Rosiglitazone inhibited microglial activation at 21 d after CCI. • Rosiglitazone increased survival of CA3 neurons at 21 d after CCI. • Rosiglitazone-treated animals had improved performance in beam balance testing.

  4. [Effect of the attenuated strain (TC-83) of Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus on nuclear transcription in rat brain cells].

    PubMed

    Valero-Fuenmayor, N; Añez, F; Teruel-López, M E

    1996-03-01

    In the present study the effect of the attenuated strain TC-83 of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis virus on the nuclear transcription in brain cells of rats was assessed. The transcription activity of the DNA depending RNA polymerases (types I and II) in the isolated nuclei of brain of infected rats and controls was determinated by incorporation of the (3H) UTP. Simultaneously a viral replication curve in the brain and the serum was carried out by plaque forming method in chicken embryo cell cultures. RNA polymerase I activity was only significantly reduced after 25 hours of infection, respect to control values, while polymerase II activity was progressive and significantly diminished from inicial stages of the viral infection at 10, 15, 20 y 25 hours post-infection compared to control values. The virus was not detected in the brain but after 25 hours post-infection with very low titers (< 0.7 log10 P.F.U./ml.), while the viral presence in the blood was demonstrated after a 10 hour period. Our results demonstrated a marked effect of the attenuated strain on the brain nuclear transcription, although the presence of the virus was not detected in the brain of the infected rats. This finding suggest a mechanism of action which deserves further studies to elucidate the cerebral metabolic response and the pathogenesis of the Venezuelan Equine Encephalitis infection.

  5. Lycopene attenuates early brain injury and inflammation following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, An; Liu, Rongcai; Dai, Weimin; Jie, Yuanqing; Yu, Guofeng; Fan, Xiaofeng; Huang, Qiang

    2015-01-01

    Early brain injury (EBI), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), includes blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation. This study aims to evaluate the effect of lycopene on early brain injury and inflammation in SAH. Neurological deficits, brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation were evaluated after the treatment with lycopene. Besides neuronal apoptosis,some inflammatory cytokines were also detected. The results suggested that administration of lycopene following SAH significantly ameliorated EBI, including brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) impairment, cortical apoptosis, and neurological deficits. In addition, it also ameliorated inflammation triggered by SAH. In conclusion, post-SAH lycopene administration may attenuate EBI in SAH, possibly through ameliorating neuronal apoptosis, maintaining BBB integrity and attenuating inflammation. PMID:26550416

  6. Simvastatin combined with antioxidant attenuates the cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response in a rat traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Wang, Kuo-Wei; Wang, Hao-Kuang; Chen, Han-Jung; Liliang, Po-Chou; Liang, Cheng-Loong; Tsai, Yu-Duan; Cho, Chung-Lung; Lu, Kang

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) leads to important and deleterious neuroinflammation, as evidenced by indicators such as edema, cytokine production, induction of nitric oxide synthase, and leukocyte infiltration. After TBI, cerebral vascular endothelial cells play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of inflammation. In our previous study, we proved that simvastatin could attenuate cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response in a rat traumatic brain injury. This purpose of this study was to determine whether simvastatin combined with an antioxidant could produce the same effect or greater and to examine affected surrogate biomarkers for the neuroinflammation after traumatic brain injury in rat. In our study, cortical contusions were induced, and the effect of acute and continuous treatment of simvastatin and vitamin C on behavior and inflammation in adult rats following experimental TBI was evaluated. The results demonstrated that simvastatin combined with an antioxidant could provide neuroprotection and it may be attributed to a dampening of cerebral vascular endothelial inflammatory response.

  7. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  8. Carnosine attenuates early brain injury through its antioxidative and anti-apoptotic effects in a rat experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Zong-yong; Sun, Bao-liang; Yang, Ming-feng; Li, Da-wei; Fang, Jie; Zhang, Shuai

    2015-03-01

    Carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine) has been demonstrated to provide antioxidative and anti-apoptotic roles in the animal of ischemic brain injuries and neurodegenerative diseases. The aim of this study was to examine whether carnosine prevents subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI) in rats. We found that intraperitoneal administration of carnosine improved neurobehavioral deficits, attenuated brain edema and blood-brain barrier permeability, and decreased reactive oxygen species level at 48 h following SAH in rat models. Carnosine treatment increased tissue copper/zinc superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) enzymatic activities, and reduced post-SAH elevated lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activity, the concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA), 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT), 8-hydroxydeoxyguanosine (8-OHDG), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in rats. Furthermore, carnosine treatment attenuated SAH-induced microglia activation and cortical neuron apoptosis. These results indicated that administration of carnosine may provide neuroprotection in EBI following SAH in rat models.

  9. Testosterone replacement attenuates cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived lean rats, but not in obese rats, by mitigating brain oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Testosterone replacement improves metabolic parameters and cognitive function in hypogonadism. However, the effects of testosterone therapy on cognition in obese condition with testosterone deprivation have not been investigated. We hypothesized that testosterone replacement improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function, and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats had either a bilateral orchiectomy (ORX: O, n = 24) or a sham operation (S, n = 6). ORX rats were further divided into two groups fed with either a normal diet (NDO) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n = 6/subgroup) and were given either castor oil or testosterone (2 mg/kg/day, s.c.) for 4 weeks. At the end of this protocol, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity, and brain mitochondrial function were determined. We found that testosterone replacement increased peripheral insulin sensitivity, decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, and attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production in HFO rats. However, testosterone failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in HFO rats. In contrast, in NDO rats, testosterone decreased circulation and brain oxidative stress levels, attenuated brain mitochondrial ROS production, and restored hippocampal synaptic plasticity as well as cognitive function. These findings suggest that testosterone replacement improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and decreased oxidative stress levels, but failed to restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats. However, it provided beneficial effects in reversing cognitive impairment in testosterone-deprived non-obese rats.

  10. Early transient mild hypothermia attenuates neurological deficits and brain damage after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Lilla, Nadine; Rinne, Christoph; Weiland, Judith; Linsenmann, Thomas; Ernestus, Ralf-Ingo; Westermaier, Thomas

    2017-09-23

    Metabolic exhaustion in ischemic tissue is the basis for a detrimental cascade of cell damage. In the acute stage of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), a sequence of global and focal ischemia occurs, threatening brain tissue to undergo ischemic damage. This study was conducted to investigate whether early therapy with moderate hypothermia can offer neuroprotection after experimental SAH. 20 male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to SAH and treated by active cooling (34° C) or served as controls by continuous maintenance of normothermia (37.0° C). Mean arterial blood pressure (MABP), intracranial pressure (ICP) and local cerebral blood flow (CBF) over both hemispheres were continuously measured. Neurological assessment was performed 24 hours later. Hippocampal damage was assessed by hematoxylin and eosin and Caspase-3 staining. By a slight increase of MABP in the cooling phase and a significant reduction of ICP, hypothermia improved cerebral perfusion pressure (CPP) in the first 60 minutes after SAH. Accordingly, a trend to increased CBF was observed during this period. The rate of injured neurons was significantly reduced in hypothermia-treated animals compared to normothermic controls. The results of this series cannot finally answer whether this form of treatment permanently attenuates or only delays ischemic damage. In the latter case, slowing down metabolic exhaustion by hypothermia may still be a valuable treatment during this state of ischemic brain damage and prolong the therapeutic window for possible causal treatments of the acute perfusion deficit. Therefore, it may be useful as a first-tier therapy in suspected SAH. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Minocycline attenuates brain tissue levels of TNF-α produced by neurons after prolonged hypothermic cardiac arrest in rats

    PubMed Central

    Drabek, Tomas; Janata, Andreas; Wilson, Caleb D.; Stezoski, Jason; Janesko-Feldman, Keri; Tisherman, Samuel A.; Foley, Lesley M.; Verrier, Jonathan; Kochanek, Patrick M.

    2014-01-01

    Neuro-cognitive disabilities are a well-recognized complication of hypothermic circulatory arrest. We and others have reported that prolonged cardiac arrest (CA) produces neuronal death and microglial proliferation and activation that are only partially mitigated by hypothermia. Microglia, and possibly other cells, are suggested to elaborate tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) which can trigger neuronal death cascades and exacerbate edema after CNS insults. Minocycline is neuroprotective in some brain ischemia models in part by blunting the microglial response. We tested the hypothesis that minocycline would attenuate neuroinflammation as reflected by brain tissue levels of TNF-α after hypothermic CA in rats. Rats were subjected to rapid exsanguination, followed by a 6 min normothermic CA. Hypothermia (30 °C) was then induced by an aortic saline flush. After a total of 20 min CA, resuscitation was achieved via cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB). After 5 min reperfusion, minocycline (90 mg/kg; n=6) or vehicle (PBS; n=6) were given. Hypothermia (34 °C) was maintained for 6 h. Rats were sacrificed at 6 or 24 h. TNF-α was quantified (ELISA) in four brain regions (cerebellum, CEREB; cortex, CTX; hippocampus, HIP; striatum, STRI). Naïve rats (n=6) and rats subjected to the same anesthesia and CPB but no CA served as controls (n=6). Immunocytochemistry was used to localize TNF-α. Naïve rats and CPB controls had no detectable TNF-α in any brain region. CA markedly increased brain TNF-α. Regional differences were seen, with the highest TNF-α levels in striatum in CA groups (10-fold higher, P<0.05 vs. all other brain regions). TNF-α was undetectable at 24 h. Minocycline attenuated TNF-α levels in CTX, HIP and STRI (P<0.05). TNF-α showed unique co-localization with neurons. In conclusion, we report region-dependent early increases in brain TNF-α levels after prolonged hypothermic CA, with maximal increases in striatum. Surprisingly, TNF-α co-localized in neurons and

  12. Swimming training attenuates oxidative damage and increases enzymatic but not non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Nonato, L F; Rocha-Vieira, E; Tossige-Gomes, R; Soares, A A; Soares, B A; Freitas, D A; Oliveira, M X; Mendonça, V A; Lacerda, A C; Massensini, A R; Leite, H R

    2016-09-29

    Although it is well known that physical training ameliorates brain oxidative function after injuries by enhancing the levels of neurotrophic factors and oxidative status, there is little evidence addressing the influence of exercise training itself on brain oxidative damage and data is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of well-established swimming training protocol on lipid peroxidation and components of antioxidant system in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were randomized into trained (5 days/week, 8 weeks, 30 min; n=8) and non-trained (n=7) groups. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, animals were euthanized and the brain was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Swimming training decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels (P<0.05) and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) with no effect on brain non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity, estimated by FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assay (P>0.05). Moreover, the swimming training promoted metabolic adaptations, such as increased maximal workload capacity (P<0.05) and maintenance of body weight. In this context, the reduced TBARS content and increased SOD antioxidant activity induced by 8 weeks of swimming training are key factors in promoting brain resistance. In conclusion, swimming training attenuated oxidative damage and increased enzymatic antioxidant but not non-enzymatic status in the rat brain.

  13. Swimming training attenuates oxidative damage and increases enzymatic but not non-enzymatic antioxidant defenses in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Nonato, L.F.; Rocha-Vieira, E.; Tossige-Gomes, R.; Soares, A.A.; Soares, B.A.; Freitas, D.A.; Oliveira, M.X.; Mendonça, V.A.; Lacerda, A.C.; Massensini, A.R.; Leite, H.R.

    2016-01-01

    Although it is well known that physical training ameliorates brain oxidative function after injuries by enhancing the levels of neurotrophic factors and oxidative status, there is little evidence addressing the influence of exercise training itself on brain oxidative damage and data is conflicting. This study investigated the effect of well-established swimming training protocol on lipid peroxidation and components of antioxidant system in the rat brain. Male Wistar rats were randomized into trained (5 days/week, 8 weeks, 30 min; n=8) and non-trained (n=7) groups. Forty-eight hours after the last session of exercise, animals were euthanized and the brain was collected for oxidative stress analysis. Swimming training decreased thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels (P<0.05) and increased the activity of the antioxidant enzyme superoxide dismutase (SOD) (P<0.05) with no effect on brain non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity, estimated by FRAP (ferric-reducing antioxidant power) assay (P>0.05). Moreover, the swimming training promoted metabolic adaptations, such as increased maximal workload capacity (P<0.05) and maintenance of body weight. In this context, the reduced TBARS content and increased SOD antioxidant activity induced by 8 weeks of swimming training are key factors in promoting brain resistance. In conclusion, swimming training attenuated oxidative damage and increased enzymatic antioxidant but not non-enzymatic status in the rat brain. PMID:27706439

  14. Ketamine coadministration attenuates morphine tolerance and leads to increased brain concentrations of both drugs in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Lilius, T O; Jokinen, V; Neuvonen, M S; Niemi, M; Kalso, E A; Rauhala, P V

    2015-01-01

    Background and Purpose The effects of ketamine in attenuating morphine tolerance have been suggested to result from a pharmacodynamic interaction. We studied whether ketamine might increase brain morphine concentrations in acute coadministration, in morphine tolerance and morphine withdrawal. Experimental Approach Morphine minipumps (6 mg·day–1) induced tolerance during 5 days in Sprague–Dawley rats, after which s.c. ketamine (10 mg·kg–1) was administered. Tail flick, hot plate and rotarod tests were used for behavioural testing. Serum levels and whole tissue brain and liver concentrations of morphine, morphine-3-glucuronide, ketamine and norketamine were measured using HPLC-tandem mass spectrometry. Key Results In morphine-naïve rats, ketamine caused no antinociception whereas in morphine-tolerant rats there was significant antinociception (57% maximum possible effect in the tail flick test 90 min after administration) lasting up to 150 min. In the brain of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, the morphine, ketamine and norketamine concentrations were 2.1-, 1.4- and 3.4-fold, respectively, compared with the rats treated with morphine or ketamine only. In the liver of morphine-tolerant ketamine-treated rats, ketamine concentration was sixfold compared with morphine-naïve rats. After a 2 day morphine withdrawal period, smaller but parallel concentration changes were observed. In acute coadministration, ketamine increased the brain morphine concentration by 20%, but no increase in ketamine concentrations or increased antinociception was observed. Conclusions and Implications The ability of ketamine to induce antinociception in rats made tolerant to morphine may also be due to increased brain concentrations of morphine, ketamine and norketamine. The relevance of these findings needs to be assessed in humans. PMID:25297798

  15. Rhubarb attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption via increased zonula occludens-1 expression in a rat model of intracerebral hemorrhage

    PubMed Central

    WANG, YANG; PENG, FAN; XIE, GUI; CHEN, ZE-QI; LI, HAI-GANG; TANG, TAO; LUO, JIE-KUN

    2016-01-01

    Blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption is a key pathophysiological factor of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). The level of zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) has been closely associated with the degree of BBB damage, and is an indicator of BBB destruction. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of rhubarb on BBB function in a rat model of ICH. ICH was induced in rats by treatment with type VII collagenase. Sham-operated rats were administered with an equal volume of saline. Following the administration of rhubarb decoction (20 g/kg), neurobehavioral function evaluation and Evans blue extravasation assays were performed at days 1, 3 and 5 after ICH. ZO-1 expression in the brain of ICH-induced rats were analyzed via reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemical analyses. The results suggested that rhubarb significantly ameliorated neurological symptoms and attenuated BBB permeability. The results of immunohistochemistry and RT-PCR studies indicated that the expression of ZO-1 expression was robust in the sham-operated group and was weak in the vehicle-treated group at day 3. The present data indicated that rhubarb effectively attenuated ICH-induced BBB damage in rats, raising the possibility that rhubarb or its active components may be considered useful as neuroprotective drugs for ICH. The protective mechanisms appeared to involve the preservation of BBB integrity and elevation of ZO-1 protein expression levels. PMID:27347045

  16. N-acetylcysteine attenuates copper overload-induced oxidative injury in brain of rat.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Dervis; Uzun, Hafize; Nazıroglu, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    Copper is an integral part of many important enzymes involved in a number of vital biological processes. Even though it is essential to life, at elevated tissue concentrations, copper can become toxic to cells. Recent studies have reported oxidative damage due to copper in various tissues. Considering the vulnerability of the brain to oxidative stress, this study was undertaken to explore possible beneficial antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress induced by copper overload in brain tissue of rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. The first group was used as control. The second, third, and fourth groups were given 1 g/L copper in their drinking water for 1 month. At the end of this period, the group 2 rats were sacrificed. During the next 2 weeks, the rats in group 3 were injected intraperitoneally with physiological saline and those in group 4 with 20 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of N-acetylcysteine. In group 2 the lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels were increased in the brain cortex while the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the concentration of glutathione were decreased. In rats treated with N-acetylcysteine, lipid peroxidation decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzyme improved in the brain cortex. In conclusion, treatment with N-acetylcysteine modulated the antioxidant redox system and reduced brain oxidative stress induced by copper.

  17. Intranasal delivery of nerve growth factor attenuates aquaporins-4-induced edema following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Qiushi; Fan, Xinying; Xu, Gelin; Liu, Qian; Tian, Lili; Cai, Xiaoyi; Sun, Wenshan; Wang, Xiaomeng; Cai, Qiankun; Bao, Yuanfei; Zhou, Lulu; Zhang, Yao; Ge, Liang; Guo, Ruibing; Liu, Xinfeng

    2013-02-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) remains the leading cause of injury-related death and disability. Brain edema, one of the most major complications of TBI, contributes to elevated intracranial pressure, and poor prognosis following TBI. Nerve growth factor (NGF) appears to be a viable strategy to treat brain edema and TBI. Unfortunately, due to its poor blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability, the clinical application of NGF has been greatly limited. We previously demonstrated that intranasal NGF could bypass the BBB and distribute throughout the brain. Here we further studied whether intranasal NGF could attenuate TBI-induced brain edema and its putative mechanisms. TBI was produced by a modified weight-drop model. We found that intranasal administration of NGF (5μg/d) attenuated the brain edema, as assayed by hemisphere water content, at 12h, 24h and 72h after TBI induction. This attenuation was associated with a prominent decrease of the content of aquaporin-4, which plays a pivotal role in the formation of brain edema. By the use of RT-PCR and ELISA, we showed that intranasal NGF markedly inhibited the transcription and expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines including IL-1β and TNF-α. An electrophoretic mobility shift assay (EMSA) displayed a significant activation of nuclear factor-κB following TBI, which was, however, much lowered in the NGF-treated rats. Furthermore, upon intranasal NGF supplementation, mitochondria-mediated apoptosis following TBI was minimized, as indicated by upregulation of Bcl-2 and downregulation of caspase-3. Collectively, our findings suggested that intranasal NGF may be a promising strategy to treat brain edema and TBI.

  18. Sodium tungstate attenuate oxidative stress in brain tissue of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nakhaee, Alireza; Bokaeian, Mohammad; Akbarzadeh, Azim; Hashemi, Mohammad

    2010-08-01

    High blood glucose concentration in diabetes induces free radical production and, thus, causes oxidative stress. Damage of cellular structures by free radicals play an important role in development of diabetic complications. In this study, we evaluated effects of sodium tungstate on enzymatic and nonenzymatic markers of oxidative stress in brain of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Rats were divided into four groups (ten rats in each group): untreated control, sodium tungstate-treated control, untreated diabetic, and sodium tungstate-treated diabetic. Diabetes was induced with an intraperitoneal STZ injection (65 mg/kg body weight), and sodium tungstate with concentration of 2 g/L was added to drinking water of treated animals for 4 weeks. Diabetes caused a significant increase in the brain thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (P < 0.01) and protein carbonyl levels (P < 0.01) and a decrease in ferric reducing antioxidant power (P < 0.01). Moreover, diabetic rats presented a reduction in brain glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (21%), superoxide dismutase (41%), glutathione peroxidase (19%), and glutathione reductase (36%) activities. Sodium tungstate reduced the hyperglycemia and restored the diabetes-induced changes in all mentioned markers of oxidative stress. However, catalase activity was not significantly affected by diabetes (P = 0.4), while sodium tungstate caused a significant increase in enzyme activity of treated animals (P < 0.05). Data of present study indicated that sodium tungstate can ameliorate brain oxidative stress in STZ-induced diabetic rats, probably by reducing of the high glucose-induced oxidative stress and/or increasing of the antioxidant defense mechanisms.

  19. Magnesium sulfate attenuates increased blood-brain barrier permeability during insulin-induced hypoglycemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaya, M; Küçük, M; Kalayci, R B; Cimen, V; Gürses, C; Elmas, I; Arican, N

    2001-09-01

    Magnesium probably protects brain tissue against the effects of cerebral ischemia, brain injury and stroke through its actions as a calcium antagonist and inhibitor of excitatory amino acids. The effects of magnesium sulfate on cerebrovascular permeability to a dye, Evans blue, were studied during insulin-induced hypoglycemia with hypothermia in rats. Hypoglycemia was induced by an intramuscular injection of insulin. After giving insulin, each animal received MgSO4 (270 mg/kg) ip, followed by a 27 mg/kg dose every 20 min for 2.5 h. Plasma glucose and Mg2+ levels of animals were measured. Magnesium concentrations increased in the serum following MgSO4 administration (6.05+/-0.57 vs. 2.58+/-0.14 mg/dL in the Mg2+ group, and 7.14+/-0.42 vs. 2.78+/-0.06 mg/dL in the insulin + Mg2+ group, P < 0.01). Plasma glucose levels decreased following hypoglycemia (4+/-0.66 vs. 118+/-2.23 mg/dL in the insulin group, and 7+/-1.59 vs. 118+/-4.84 mg/dL in the insulin + Mg2+ group, P < 0.01). Blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue considerably increased in hypoglycemic rats (P < 0.01). In contrast, blood-brain barrier permeability to Evans blue was significantly reduced in treatment of hypoglycemic rats with MgSO4 (P < 0.01). These results indicate that Mg2+ greatly reduced the passage of exogenous vascular tracer bound to albumin into the brain during hypoglycemia with hypothermia. Mg2+ could have protective effects on blood-brain barrier permeability against insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

  20. Docosahexaenoic acid improves behavior and attenuates blood-brain barrier injury induced by focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Hong, Sung-Ha; Khoutorova, Larissa; Bazan, Nicolas G; Belayev, Ludmila

    2015-01-01

    Ischemic brain injury disrupts the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and then triggers a cascade of events, leading to edema formation, secondary brain injury and poor neurological outcomes. Recently, we have shown that docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) improves functional and histological outcomes following experimental stroke. However, little is known about the effect of DHA on BBB dysfunction after cerebral ischemia-reperfusion injury. The present study was designed to determine whether DHA protects against BBB disruption after focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Physiologically-controlled SD rats received 2 h middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). DHA (5 mg/kg) or vehicle (saline) was administered I.V. at 3 h after onset of MCAo. Fluorometric quantitation of Evans Blue dye (EB) was performed in eight brain regions at 6 h, 24 h or 72 h after MCAo. Fluorescein isothiocynate (FITC) - dextran leakage and histopathology was evaluated on day 3 after stroke. Physiological variables were stable and showed no significant differences between groups. DHA improved neurological deficits at 24 h, 48 h and 72 h and decreased EB extravasation in the ischemic hemisphere at 6 h (by 30%), 24 h (by 48%) and 72 h (by 38%). In addition, EB extravasation was decreased by DHA in the cortex and total hemisphere as well. FITC-dextran leakage was reduced by DHA treatment on day 3 by 68% compared to the saline group. DHA treatment attenuated cortical (by 50%) and total infarct volume (by 38%) compared to vehicle-treated rats on day 3 after stroke. DHA therapy diminishes BBB damage accompanied with the acceleration of behavioral recovery and attenuation of the infarct volume. It is reasonable to propose that DHA has the potential for treating focal ischemic stroke in the clinical setting.

  1. Polyhydroxylated fullerene nanoparticles attenuate brain infarction and oxidative stress in rat model of ischemic stroke

    PubMed Central

    Vani, Javad Rasouli; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Foroshani, Mahsa Sarami; Jafari, Mahvash

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress is the common underlying mechanism of damage in ischemic stroke. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the possible protective effects of polyhydroxylated fullerene derivatives on brain infarction and oxidative/nitrosative stress in a rat model of ischemic stroke. The experiment was performed by four groups of rats (each; n=12); Sham, Control ischemia, and ischemic treatment groups (Pretreatment and Posttreatment). Brain ischemia was induced by 90 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) followed by 24 hours reperfusion. Rats received fullerene nanoparticles at dose of 1 mg/kg 30 min before MCAO and immediately after beginning of reperfusion. Infarct volume, contents of malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and nitrate as well as superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity were assessed 24 hours after termination of MCAO. Brain infarct volume was 310 ± 21 mm3 in control group. Administration of fullerene nanoparticles before and after MCAO significantly decreased the infarct volume by 53 % (145 ± 45 mm3) and 81 % (59 ± 13 mm3), respectively. Ischemia also enhanced MDA and nitrate contents of ischemic hemispheres by 45 % and 25 % , respectively. Fullerene nanoparticles considerably reduced the MDA and nitrate contents of ischemic hemispheres before MCAO by 58 % and 17 % , respectively, and after MCAO by 38 % and 21 % , respectively. Induction of MCAO significantly decreased GSH content (19 % ) and SOD activity (52 % ) of ischemic hemispheres, whereas fullerene nanoparticles increased the GSH content and SOD activity of ischemic hemispheres by 19 % and 52 % before MCAO, respectively, and 21 % and 55 % after MCAO, respectively. Our findings indicate that fullerene nanoparticles, as a potent scavenger of free radicals, protect the brain cells against ischemia/reperfusion injury and inhibit brain oxidative/nitrosative damage. PMID:27540350

  2. Acute ethanol intake attenuates inflammatory cytokines after brain injury in rats: a possible role for corticosterone.

    PubMed

    Gottesfeld, Zehava; Moore, Anthony N; Dash, Pramod K

    2002-03-01

    It has been reported that acute ethanol intoxication exerts dose-dependent effects, both beneficial and detrimental, on the outcome of traumatic brain injury (TBI), although the mechanism(s) has not been determined. Given that pro-inflammatory cytokines are either neuroprotective or neurotoxic, depending on their tissue levels, ethanol-induced alterations in brain cytokine production may be involved in determining the recovery after TBI. The present study was undertaken to examine the effect of acute ethanol pretreatments (producing blood alcohol concentrations of 100+/-16 mg/dL, and 220+/-10 mg/dL, considered low and intoxicating doses, respectively) on interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) levels in discrete brain regions. In addition, serum corticosterone levels were also examined because the hormone is a modulator of cytokine production, its secretion is stimulated by ethanol, and it has been associated with the severity of post-injury neurologic dysfunction. The data presented in this report demonstrate that moderate cortical impact brain injury elicits a marked increase in IL-1beta and TNF-alpha in the injured cortex as well as in the hippocampus ipsilateral to the injury. Ethanol pretreatment lowered cytokine levels in the cortex, hippocampus and hypothalamus in a dose-dependent manner after TBI compared to the untreated injured rats. Serum corticosterone levels were markedly increased in the injured rats, and were further augmented in the ethanol-pretreated injured animals in a dose-dependent manner. Our findings suggest that ethanol-induced decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokine production may be linked to increased circulating corticosterone, both of which may contribute to the outcome of brain injury.

  3. Cannabinoid CB2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema and neurological deficits in a germinal matrix hemorrhage rat model.

    PubMed

    Tao, Yihao; Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Guo, Jing; Li, Lin; Yang, Liming; Feng, Hua; Zhu, Gang; Chen, Zhi

    2015-03-30

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is one of the most common and devastating cerebrovascular events that affect premature infants, resulting in a significant socioeconomic burden. However, GMH has been largely unpreventable, and clinical treatments are mostly inadequate. In the present study, we tested the hypothesis that JWH133, a selective CB2 receptor agonist, could attenuate brain injury and neurological deficits in a clostridial collagenase VII induced GMH model in seven-day-old (P7) S-D rat pups. Up to 1h post-injury, the administration of JWH133 (1mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection) significantly attenuated brain edema at 24h post-GMH, which was reversed by a selective CB2R antagonist, SR144528 (3mg/kg, intraperitoneal injection). Long-term brain morphology and neurofunctional outcomes were also improved. In contrast, JWH133 did not have a noticeable effect on the hematoma volume during the acute phase. These data also showed that microglia activation and inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α) release were significantly inhibited by JWH133 after GMH. This current study suggests a potential clinical utility for CB2R agonists as a potential therapy to reduce neurological injury and improve patient outcomes after GMH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Calcium-sensing receptor antagonist NPS2390 attenuates neuronal apoptosis though intrinsic pathway following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Xue, Zhaoliang; Song, Zhengfei; Wan, Yingfeng; Wang, Kun; Mo, Lianjie; Wang, Yirong

    2017-03-20

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a complex cascade of neurochemical and signaling changes that leads to neuronal apoptosis, which contributes to poor outcomes for patients with TBI. Previous study indicates that calcium-sensing receptor (CaSR) activation contributes to neuron death in focal cerebral ischemia-reperfusion mice, however, its role in neuronal apoptosis after TBI is not well-established. Using a controlled cortical impact model in rats, the present study was designed to determine the effect of CaSR inhibitor NPS2390 upon neuronal apoptosis after TBI. Rats were randomly distributed into three groups undergoing the sham surgery or TBI procedure, and NPS2390 (1.5 mg/kg) was infused subcutaneously at 30 min and 120 min after TBI. All rats were sacrificed at 24 h after TBI. Our data indicated that NPS2390 significantly reduced the brain edema and improved the neurological function after TBI. In addition, NPS2390 decreased caspase-3 levels and the number of apoptotic neurons. Furthermore, NPS2390 up-regulated anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 expression and down-regulated pro-apoptotic protein Bax, and reduced subsequent release of cytochrome c into the cytosol. In summary, this study indicated that inhibition of CaSR by NPS2390 attenuates neuronal apoptosis after TBI, in part, through modulating intrinsic apoptotic pathway.

  5. Exendin-4 attenuates brain death-induced liver damage in the rat.

    PubMed

    Carlessi, Rodrigo; Lemos, Natalia E; Dias, Ana L; Brondani, Leticia A; Oliveira, Jarbas R; Bauer, Andrea C; Leitão, Cristiane B; Crispim, Daisy

    2015-11-01

    The majority of liver grafts destined for transplantation originate from brain dead donors. However, significantly better posttransplantation outcomes are achieved when organs from living donors are used, suggesting that brain death (BD) causes irreversible damage to the liver tissue. Recently, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP1) analogues were shown to possess interesting hepatic protection effects in different liver disease models. We hypothesized that donor treatment with the GLP1 analogue exendin-4 (Ex-4) could alleviate BD-induced liver damage. A rat model of BD was employed in order to estimate BD-induced liver damage and Ex-4's potential protective effects. Liver damage was assessed by biochemical determination of circulating hepatic markers. Apoptosis in the hepatic tissue was assessed by immunoblot and immunohistochemistry using an antibody that only recognizes the active form of caspase-3. Gene expression changes in inflammation and stress response genes were monitored by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. Here, we show that Ex-4 administration to the brain dead liver donors significantly reduces levels of circulating aspartate aminotransferase and lactate dehydrogenase. This was accompanied by a remarkable reduction in hepatocyte apoptosis. In this model, BD caused up-regulation of tumor necrosis factor and stress-related genes, confirming previous findings in clinical and animal studies. In conclusion, treatment of brain dead rats with Ex-4 reduced BD-induced liver damage. Further investigation is needed to determine the molecular basis of the observed liver protection. After testing in a randomized clinical trial, the inclusion of GLP1 analogues in organ donor management might help to improve organ quality, maximize organ donation, and possibly increase liver transplantation success rates.

  6. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor stimulation attenuates brain edema by reducing cerebral leukocyte infiltration following subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Fujii, Mutsumi; Sherchan, Prativa; Krafft, Paul R; Rolland, William B; Soejima, Yoshiteru; Zhang, John H

    2014-07-15

    Early brain injury (EBI), following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH), comprises blood-brain barrier (BBB) disruption and consequent edema formation. Peripheral leukocytes can infiltrate the injured brain, thereby aggravating BBB leakage and neuroinflammation. Thus, anti-inflammatory pharmacotherapies may ameliorate EBI and provide neuroprotection after SAH. Cannabinoid type 2 receptor (CB2R) agonism has been shown to reduce neuroinflammation; however, the precise protective mechanisms remain to be elucidated. This study aimed to evaluate whether the selective CB2R agonist, JWH133 can ameliorate EBI by reducing brain-infiltrated leukocytes after SAH. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sham-operated, SAH with vehicle, SAH with JWH133 (1.0mg/kg), or SAH with a co-administration of JWH133 and selective CB2R antagonist SR144528 (3.0mg/kg). SAH was induced by endovascular perforation, and JWH133 was administered 1h after surgery. Neurological deficits, brain water content, Evans blue dye extravasation, and Western blot assays were evaluated at 24h after surgery. JWH133 improved neurological scores and reduced brain water content; however, SR144528 reversed these treatment effects. JWH133 reduced Evans blue dye extravasation after SAH. Furthermore, JWH133 treatment significantly increased TGF-β1 expression and prevented an SAH-induced increase in E-selectin and myeloperoxidase. Lastly, SAH resulted in a decreased expression of the tight junction protein zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1); however, JWH133 treatment increased the ZO-1 expression. We suggest that CB2R stimulation attenuates neurological outcome and brain edema, by suppressing leukocyte infiltration into the brain through TGF-β1 up-regulation and E-selectin reduction, resulting in protection of the BBB after SAH.

  7. Attenuating brain inflammation, ischemia, and oxidative damage by hyperbaric oxygen in diabetic rats after heat stroke.

    PubMed

    Lee, Kai-Li; Niu, Ko-Chi; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Niu, Chiang-Shan

    2013-08-01

    Alternating hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis mechanisms would lead to multiple organs dysfunction or failure. Herein, we attempt to assess whether hypothalamic inflammation and ischemic and oxidative damage that occurred during heatstroke (HS) can be affected by hyperbaric oxygen (HBO₂) therapy in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. In this study, anesthetized diabetic rats, immediately after the onset of HS, were divided into two major groups and given the normobaric air (21% O₂ at 1.0 atmospheres absolute) or HBO₂ (100% O₂ at 2.0 atmospheres absolute). HS was induced by exposing the animals to heat stress (43°C). Another group of anesthetized diabetic rats was kept at normothermic state and used as controls. The survival time values for the HBO2-treated HS-diabetic rats increased form the control values of 78-82 minutes to new values of 184-208 minutes. HBO₂ therapy caused a reduction of HS-induced cellular ischemia (e.g., increased cellular levels of glutamate and lactate/pyruvate ratio), hypoxia (e.g., decreased cellular levels of PO₂), inflammation (e.g., increased cellular levels of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, interleukin-6, and myeloperoxidase), and oxidative damage (e.g., increased values of nitric oxide, 2,3-dihydroxybenzoic acid, glycerol, and neuronal damage score) in the hypothalamus of the diabetic rats. Our results suggest that, in diabetic animals, HBO2 therapy may improve outcomes of HS in part by reducing heat-induced activated inflammation and ischemic and oxidative damage in the hypothalamus and other brain regions. Copyright © 2012. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  8. Attenuation of Oxidative Damage by Boerhaavia diffusa L. Against Different Neurotoxic Agents in Rat Brain Homogenate.

    PubMed

    Ayyappan, Prathapan; Palayyan, Salin Raj; Kozhiparambil Gopalan, Raghu

    2016-01-01

    Due to a high rate of oxidative metabolic activity in the brain, intense production of reactive oxygen metabolite occurs, and the subsequent generation of free radicals is implicated in the pathogenesis of traumatic brain injury, epilepsy, and ischemia as well as chronic neurodegenerative diseases. In the present study, protective effects of polyphenol rich ethanolic extract of Boerhaavia diffusa (BDE), a neuroprotective edible medicinal plant against oxidative stress induced by different neurotoxic agents, were evaluated. BDE was tested against quinolinic acid (QA), 3-nitropropionic acid (NPA), sodium nitroprusside (SNP), and Fe (II)/EDTA complex induced oxidative stress in rat brain homogenates. QA, NPA, SNP, and Fe (II)/EDTA treatment caused an increased level of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) in brain homogenates along with a decline in the activities of antioxidant enzymes. BDE treatment significantly decreased the production of TBARS (p < .05) and increased the activities of antioxidant enzymes like catalase and superoxide dismutase along with increased concentration of non-enzymatic antioxidant, reduced glutathione (GSH). Similarly, BDE caused a significant decrease in the lipid peroxidation (LPO) in the cerebral cortex. Inhibitory potential of BDE against deoxyribose degradation (IC50 value 38.91 ± 0.12 μg/ml) shows that BDE can protect hydroxyl radical induced DNA damage in the tissues. Therefore, B. diffusa had high antioxidant potential that could inhibit the oxidative stress induced by different neurotoxic agents in brain. Since many of the neurological disorders are associated with free radical injury, these data may imply that B. diffusa, functioning as an antioxidant agent, may be beneficial for reducing various neurodegenerative complications.

  9. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema.

    PubMed

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-12-13

    BACKGROUND Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). MATERIAL AND METHODS TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. RESULTS We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) and decreased the cortical lesion volume (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) compared with vehicle-only treatment. PA treatment at the dose of 125 mg/kg attenuated brain edema and ameliorated BBB integrity. In addition, PA treatment significantly reduced the loss of ATP (p<0.01), reduced lactic acid levels (p<0.001), and increased the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (p<0.01). CONCLUSIONS Our results indicate PA has neuroprotective effects on TBI through increasing ATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA.

  10. Potassium Aspartate Attenuates Brain Injury Induced by Controlled Cortical Impact in Rats Through Increasing Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP) Levels, Na+/K+-ATPase Activity and Reducing Brain Edema

    PubMed Central

    Gu, Yi; Zhang, Jie; Zhao, Yumei; Su, Yujin; Zhang, Yazhuo

    2016-01-01

    Background Potassium aspartate (PA), as an electrolyte supplement, is widely used in clinical practice. In our previous study, we found PA had neuroprotective effects against apoptosis after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion in rats. In this study, we examine whether PA has protective effects on traumatic brain injury (TBI). Material/Methods TBI was induced by controlled cortical impact (CCI) in rats. Vehicle treatment (control) or PA treatment was administered intraperitoneally at 30 minutes after CCI. The modified neurological severity score (mNSS) and cortical lesion volume were examined. Brain edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity were measured, as well as brain ATP contents, lactic acid levels, and Na+/K+-ATPase activities. Results We found that CCI induced cortical injury in rats. Acute PA treatment at the dose of 62.5 mg/kg and 125 mg/kg significantly improved neurological deficits (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) and decreased the cortical lesion volume (p<0.05 and p<0.001, respectively) compared with vehicle-only treatment. PA treatment at the dose of 125 mg/kg attenuated brain edema and ameliorated BBB integrity. In addition, PA treatment significantly reduced the loss of ATP (p<0.01), reduced lactic acid levels (p<0.001), and increased the activity of Na+/K+-ATPase (p<0.01). Conclusions Our results indicate PA has neuroprotective effects on TBI through increasing ATP levels, Na+/K+-ATPase activity, and reducing brain edema. It provides experimental evidence for the clinical application of PA. PMID:27959885

  11. Open lung approach with low tidal volume mechanical ventilation attenuates lung injury in rats with massive brain damage

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Introduction The ideal ventilation strategy for patients with massive brain damage requires better elucidation. We hypothesized that in the presence of massive brain injury, a ventilation strategy using low (6 milliliters per kilogram ideal body weight) tidal volume (VT) ventilation with open lung positive end-expiratory pressure (LVT/OLPEEP) set according to the minimal static elastance of the respiratory system, attenuates the impact of massive brain damage on gas-exchange, respiratory mechanics, lung histology and whole genome alterations compared with high (12 milliliters per kilogram ideal body weight) VT and low positive end-expiratory pressure ventilation (HVT/LPEEP). Methods In total, 28 adult male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to one of four groups: 1) no brain damage (NBD) with LVT/OLPEEP; 2) NBD with HVT/LPEEP; 3) brain damage (BD) with LVT/OLPEEP; and 4) BD with HVT/LPEEP. All animals were mechanically ventilated for six hours. Brain damage was induced by an inflated balloon catheter into the epidural space. Hemodynamics was recorded and blood gas analysis was performed hourly. At the end of the experiment, respiratory system mechanics and lung histology were analyzed. Genome wide gene expression profiling and subsequent confirmatory quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) for selected genes were performed. Results In NBD, both LVT/OLPEEP and HVT/LPEEP did not affect arterial blood gases, as well as whole genome expression changes and real-time qPCR. In BD, LVT/OLPEEP, compared to HVT/LPEEP, improved oxygenation, reduced lung damage according to histology, genome analysis and real-time qPCR with decreased interleukin 6 (IL-6), cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant 1 (CINC)-1 and angiopoietin-4 expressions. LVT/OLPEEP compared to HVT/LPEEP improved overall survival. Conclusions In BD, LVT/OLPEEP minimizes lung morpho-functional changes and inflammation compared to HVT/LPEEP. PMID:24693992

  12. Lignans from Schisandra chinensis ameliorate cognition deficits and attenuate brain oxidative damage induced by D-galactose in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Tingxu; Shang, Lei; Wang, Mengshi; Zhang, Chenning; Zhao, Xu; Bi, Kaishun; Jia, Ying

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this study was to explore the neuroprotective effects of active compounds from Schisandra chinensis (Trucz.) Baill. (Magnoliaceae) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced neurotoxicity in rat. The Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected with D-gal (150 mg/(kg day)) for six weeks and orally administered with water extract or 95 % ethanol extract (partitioned with petroleum ether (PE), chloroform (CF), ethyl acetate (EA) and n-Butanol (NB), respectively) of the fruits of Schisandra chinensis simultaneously. The alteration of cognitive functions was assessed by using Morris water maze and Step-down type passive avoidance test. The results demonstrated that PE fraction was the most effective fraction to ameliorate cognitive deficits. Further biochemical examination indicated that PE could attenuate the activities decreasing of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), the total antioxidant (T-AOC) induced by D-gal, and maintain the normal levels of glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the serum, prefrontal cortex, striatum and hippocampus of the brain of related rat, selectively. Meanwhile, the compounds of PE fraction were also identified as mainly lignans, thus, these results suggest that lignans from the PE fraction of Schisandra chinensis represented a potential source of medicine for the treatment of the aging-associated neurodegenerative diseases.

  13. Nerve growth factor attenuates cholinergic deficits following traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Dixon, C E; Flinn, P; Bao, J; Venya, R; Hayes, R L

    1997-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) results in chronic derangements in central cholinergic neurotransmission that may contribute to posttraumatic memory deficits. Intraventricular cannula (IVC) nerve growth factor (NGF) infusion can reduce axotomy-induced spatial memory deficits and morphologic changes observed in medial septal cholinergic neurons immunostained for choline acetyltransferase (ChAT). We examined the efficacy of NGF to (1) ameliorate reduced posttraumatic spatial memory performance, (2) release of hippocampal acetylcholine (ACh), and (3) ChAT immunoreactivity in the rat medial septum. Rats (n = 36) were trained prior to TBI on the functional tasks and retested on Days 1-5 (motor) and on Day 7 (memory retention). Immediately following injury, an IVC and osmotic pump were implanted, and NGF or vehicle was infused for 7 days. While there were no differences in motor performance, the NGF-treated group had significantly better spatial memory retention (P < 0.05) than the vehicle-treated group. The IVC cannula was then removed on Day 7, and a microdialysis probe was placed into the dorsal hippocampus. After a 22-h equilibration period, samples were collected prior to and after administration of scopolamine (1 mg/kg), which evoked ACh release by blocking autoreceptors. The posttraumatic reduction in scopolamine-evoked ACh release was completely reversed with NGF. Injury produced a bilateral reduction in the number and cross-sectional area of ChAT immunopositive medial septal neurons that was reversed by NGF treatment. These data suggest that cognitive but not motor deficits following TBI are, in part, mediated by chronic deficits in cholinergic systems that can be modulated by neurotrophic factors such as NGF.

  14. Overexpression cdc42 attenuates isoflurane-induced neurotoxicity in developmental brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Fang, Xi; Li, Shiyong; Han, Qiang; Zhao, Yilin; Gao, Jie; Yan, Jing; Luo, Ailin

    2017-08-26

    Nowadays many children receive operations with general anesthesia. Isoflurane is a commonly-used general anesthetic. Numbers of studies demonstrated that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and neurobehavioral deficiency in young rats, however, the underlying mechanism remained unknown. Cell division cycle 42 (cdc42) played an important role in regulating synaptic vesicle trafficking and actin dynamics in neuron, which closely linked to synaptic plasticity and dendritic spine formation. Meanwhile, cdc42 also involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. However, whether cdc42 provided a protective role in isoflurane induced synaptogenesis dysfunction still unknown. As the upstream of cdc42, calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) interacts with ion channels such as VDCCs and N-methyl-d-aspartate receptors (NMDARs), which closely associated with neuroapoptosis and cognitive deficiency in developing brain. The phosphorylation of CaMKIIα at Thr 286 plays an important role in introduction and maintenance of long-term potentiation (LTP). Therefore, we investigated the effect of isoflurane on cdc42 and its upstream Calcium/Calmodulin-dependent protein kinase II (CaMKII) and its downstream p21 activated kinase 3 (PAK3), then determined whether CaMKIIα/cdc42/PAK3 signaling pathway was involved in neurotoxicity and cognitive deficiency induced by isoflurane. Our study found that isoflurane induced neurotoxicity and resulted in cognitive impairment in young rats through suppressed CaMKIIα/cdc42/PAK3 signaling pathway. Cdc42 over-expression could reverse neurotoxicity and improve cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  15. PPARγ-Dependent and -Independent Inhibition of the HMGB1/TLR9 Pathway by Eicosapentaenoic Acid Attenuates Ischemic Brain Damage in Ovariectomized Rats.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Manabu; Satomi, Junichiro; Kitazato, Keiko T; Yagi, Kenji; Shimada, Kenji; Kurashiki, Yoshitaka; Korai, Masaaki; Miyamoto, Takeshi; Suzue, Ryoko; Kuwayama, Kazuyuki; Nagahiro, Shinji

    2015-06-01

    High mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) elevation after cerebral ischemia activates inflammatory pathways via receptors such as the receptor for advanced glycation end products (RAGE) and toll-like receptors (TLRs) and leads to brain damage. Eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonist, attenuates postischemic inflammation and brain damage in male animals. However, postischemic HMGB1 signaling and the effects of EPA on ovariectomized (OVX(+)) rats remain unclear. We hypothesized that EPA attenuates brain damage in OVX(+) rats via the inhibition of HMGB1 signaling in a PPARγ-dependent manner. Seven-week-old female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups; nonovariectomized (OVX(-)) rats and EPA-treated and EPA-untreated OVX(+) rats before cerebral ischemia induction. Another set of EPA-treated OVX(+) rats was injected with the PPARγ inhibitor GW9662. OVX(+) decreased the messenger RNA level of PPARγ and increased that of HMGB1, RAGE, TLR9, and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα) in parallel with ischemic brain damage. EPA restored the PPARγ expression, downregulated the HMGB1 signal-related molecules, and attenuated the ischemic brain damage. Neither OVX(+) nor EPA affected the expression of TLR2 or TLR4. Interestingly, GW9662 partially abrogated the EPA-induced neuroprotection and the downregulation of RAGE and TLR9. In contrast, GW9662 did not affect HMGB1 or TNFα. These results suggest that EPA exerts PPARγ-dependent and PPARγ-independent effects on postischemic HMGB1/TLR9 pathway. The cortical infarct volume exacerbated by OVX(+) is associated with the upregulation of the HMGB1/TLR9 pathway. Suppression of this pathway may help to limit ischemic brain damage in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2015 National Stroke Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Resuscitation with Pooled and Pathogen-Reduced Plasma Attenuates the Increase in Brain Water Content following Traumatic Brain Injury and Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats.

    PubMed

    Genét, Gustav Folmer; Bentzer, Peter; Ostrowski, Sisse Rye; Johansson, Pär Ingemar

    2017-03-01

    Traumatic brain injury and hemorrhagic shock is associated with blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and edema formation. Recent animal studies have shown that fresh frozen plasma (FFP) resuscitation reduces brain swelling and improves endothelial function compared to isotonic NaCl (NS). The aim of this study was to investigate whether pooled and pathogen-reduced plasma (OctaplasLG(®) [OCTA]; Octapharma, Stockholm, Sweden) was comparable to FFP with regard to effects on brain water content, BBB permeability, and plasma biomarkers of endothelial glycocalyx shedding and cell damage. After fluid percussion brain injury, hemorrhage (20 mL/kg), and 90-min shock, 48 male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomized to resuscitation with OCTA, FFP, or NS (n = 16/group). Brain water content (wet/dry weight) and BBB permeability (transfer constant for (51)Cr-EDTA) were measured at 24 h. Plasma osmolality, oncotic pressure, and biomarkers of systemic glycocalyx shedding (syndecan-1) and cell damage (histone-complexed DNA) were measured at 0 and 23 h. At 24 h, brain water content was 80.44 ± 0.39%, 80.82 ± 0.82%, and 81.15 ± 0.86% in the OCTA, FFP, and NS groups (lower in OCTA vs. NS; p = 0.026), with no difference in BBB permeability. Plasma osmolality and oncotic pressures were highest in FFP and OCTA resuscitated, and osmolality was further highest in OCTA versus FFP (p = 0.027). In addition, syndecan-1 was highest in FFP and OCTA resuscitated (p = 0.010). These results suggest that pooled solvent-detergent (SD)-treated plasma attenuates the post-traumatic increase in brain water content, and that this effect may, in part, be explained by a high crystalloid and colloid osmotic pressure in SD-treated plasma.

  17. Repetitive Hyperbaric Oxygenation Attenuates Reactive Astrogliosis and Suppresses Expression of Inflammatory Mediators in the Rat Model of Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Lavrnja, Irena; Parabucki, Ana; Dacic, Sanja; Savic, Danijela; Pantic, Igor; Stojiljkovic, Mirjana; Pekovic, Sanja

    2015-01-01

    The exact mechanisms by which treatment with hyperbaric oxygen (HBOT) exerts its beneficial effects on recovery after brain injury are still unrevealed. Therefore, in this study we investigated the influence of repetitive HBOT on the reactive astrogliosis and expression of mediators of inflammation after cortical stab injury (CSI). CSI was performed on male Wistar rats, divided into control, sham, and lesioned groups with appropriate HBO. The HBOT protocol was as follows: 10 minutes of slow compression, 2.5 atmospheres absolute (ATA) for 60 minutes, and 10 minutes of slow decompression, once a day for 10 consecutive days. Data obtained using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot, and immunohistochemical and immunofluorescence analyses revealed that repetitive HBOT applied after the CSI attenuates reactive astrogliosis and glial scarring, and reduces expression of GFAP (glial fibrillary acidic protein), vimentin, and ICAM-1 (intercellular adhesion molecule-1) both at gene and tissue levels. In addition, HBOT prevents expression of CD40 and its ligand CD40L on microglia, neutrophils, cortical neurons, and reactive astrocytes. Accordingly, repetitive HBOT, by prevention of glial scarring and limiting of expression of inflammatory mediators, supports formation of more permissive environment for repair and regeneration. PMID:25972624

  18. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: Molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride

    SciTech Connect

    Kalpana, S.; Dhananjay, S.; Anju, B. Lilly, G.; Sai Ram, M.

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor {kappa}B (NF{kappa}B) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-{gamma} (IFN-{gamma}), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-{alpha} (TNF-{alpha}) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NF{kappa}B inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NF{kappa}B in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NF{kappa}B. The lower levels of NF{kappa}B observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NF{kappa}B DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  19. Cobalt chloride attenuates hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage in rat brain: molecular mechanisms of action of cobalt chloride.

    PubMed

    Kalpana, S; Dhananjay, S; Anju, B; Lilly, G; Sai Ram, M

    2008-09-15

    This study reports the efficacy of cobalt preconditioning in preventing hypobaric hypoxia induced vascular leakage (an indicator of cerebral edema) using male Sprague-Dawley rats as model system. Exposure of animals to hypobaric hypoxia led to a significant increase in vascular leakage, reactive oxygen species (ROS), nitric oxide (NO), and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) levels. There was a marked increase in Nuclear Factor kappaB (NFkappaB) DNA binding activity and levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines such as Monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP-1), Interferon-gamma (IFN-gamma), Interleukin-1 (IL-1), and Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and cell adhesion molecules such as Vascular Cell Adhesion Molecule-1 (VCAM-1), and P-selectin. Chemical preconditioning by cobalt for 7 days (12.5 mg Co/kg b.w., oral) significantly attenuated cerebral vascular leakage and the expression of inflammatory mediators induced by hypoxia. Administration of NFkappaB inhibitor, curcumin (50 mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) appreciably inhibited hypoxia induced vascular leakage indicating the involvement of NFkappaB in causing vascular leakage. Interestingly, cobalt when administered at 12.5 mg Co/kg b.w. (i.p.), 1 h before hypoxia could not prevent the vascular leakage indicating that cobalt per se did not have an effect on NFkappaB. The lower levels of NFkappaB observed in the brains of cobalt administered animals might be due to higher levels of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory proteins (hemeoxygenase-1 and metallothionein). To conclude cobalt preconditioning inhibited hypobaric hypoxia induced cerebral vascular leakage by lowering NFkappaB DNA binding activity and its regulated pro-inflammatory mediators. This is contemplated to be mediated by cobalt induced reduction in ROS/NO and increase in HO-1 and MT.

  20. Activation of angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis in the brain lowers blood pressure and attenuates cardiac remodeling in hypertensive transgenic (mRen2)27 rats.

    PubMed

    Kangussu, Lucas M; Guimaraes, Priscila S; Nadu, Ana Paula; Melo, Marcos B; Santos, Robson A S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose

    2015-10-01

    Activation of the peripheral angiotensin-(1-7)/Mas axis of the renin-angiotensin system produces important cardioprotective actions, counterbalancing the deleterious actions of an overactivity of Ang II/AT1 axis. In the present study we evaluated whether the chronic increase in Ang-(1-7) levels in the brain could ameliorate cardiac disorders observed in transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats through actions on Mas receptor. Sprague Dawley (SD) and transgenic (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats, instrumented with telemetry probe for arterial pressure (AP) measurement were subjected to 14 days of ICV infusion of Ang-(1-7) (200 ng/h) or Ang-(1-7) associated with Mas receptor antagonist (A779, 1 μg/h) or 0.9% sterile saline (0.5 μl/h) through osmotic mini-pumps. Ang-(1-7) infusion in (mRen2)27 rats reduced blood pressure, normalized the baroreflex control of HR, restored cardiac autonomic balance, reduced cardiac hypertrophy and pre-fibrotic alterations and decreased the altered imbalance of Ang II/Ang-(1-7) in the heart. In addition, there was an attenuation of the increased levels of atrial natriuretic peptide, brain natriuretic peptide, collagen I, fibronectin and TGF-β in the heart of (mRen2)27 rats. Furthermore, most of these effects were mediated in the brain by Mas receptor, since were blocked by its selective antagonist, A779. These data indicate that increasing Ang-(1-7) levels in the brain can attenuate cardiovascular disorders observed in (mRen2)27 hypertensive rats, probably by improving the autonomic balance to the heart due to centrally-mediated actions on Mas receptor. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  1. Dietary Fish Oil Modestly Attenuates the Effect of Age on Diastolic Function but Has No Effect on Memory or Brain Inflammation in Aged Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sergeant, Susan; McQuail, Joseph A.; Riddle, David R.; Chilton, Floyd H.; Ortmeier, Steven B.; Jessup, Jewell A.

    2011-01-01

    Fish oil (FO) mediates a number of cardioprotective benefits in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the absence of cardiovascular disease, however, the effects of FO on cardiac structure and function are not clear. In addition, it is not known if an effective dosing strategy for attenuating age-related cardiac dysfunction is also effective at limiting cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we determined if 4 months of FO supplementation in aged rats would lessen age-related cardiac dysfunction while concomitantly preventing the cognitive decline that is normally observed in this population. The results indicate that FO initiated late in life modifies diastolic function in a small but positive way by attenuating the age-related increases in filling pressure, posterior wall thickness, and interstitial collagen without mitigating age-related deficits in memory or increases in brain inflammation. These data raise the possibility that FO supplementation for purposes of cardiac and brain protection may need to occur earlier in the life span. PMID:21393424

  2. Dietary fish oil modestly attenuates the effect of age on diastolic function but has no effect on memory or brain inflammation in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sergeant, Susan; McQuail, Joseph A; Riddle, David R; Chilton, Floyd H; Ortmeier, Steven B; Jessup, Jewell A; Groban, Leanne; Nicolle, Michelle M

    2011-05-01

    Fish oil (FO) mediates a number of cardioprotective benefits in patients with cardiovascular disease. In the absence of cardiovascular disease, however, the effects of FO on cardiac structure and function are not clear. In addition, it is not known if an effective dosing strategy for attenuating age-related cardiac dysfunction is also effective at limiting cognitive dysfunction. Therefore, we determined if 4 months of FO supplementation in aged rats would lessen age-related cardiac dysfunction while concomitantly preventing the cognitive decline that is normally observed in this population. The results indicate that FO initiated late in life modifies diastolic function in a small but positive way by attenuating the age-related increases in filling pressure, posterior wall thickness, and interstitial collagen without mitigating age-related deficits in memory or increases in brain inflammation. These data raise the possibility that FO supplementation for purposes of cardiac and brain protection may need to occur earlier in the life span.

  3. Chronic Carbamazepine Administration Attenuates Dopamine D2-like Receptor-Initiated Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Bell, Jane M.; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2016-01-01

    Observations that dopaminergic antagonists are beneficial in bipolar disorder and that dopaminergic agonists can produce mania suggest that bipolar disorder involves excessive dopaminergic transmission. Thus, mood stabilizers used to treat the disease might act in part by downregulating dopaminergic transmission. In agreement, we reported that dopamine D2-like receptor mediated signaling involving arachidonic acid (AA, 20:4n-6) was downregulated in rats chronically treated with lithium. To see whether chronic carbamazepine, another mood stabilizer, did this as well, we injected i.p. saline or the D2-like receptor agonist, quinpirole (1 mg/kg), into unanesthetized rats that had been pretreated for 30 days with i.p. carbamazepine (25 mg/kg/day) or vehicle, and used quantitative autoradiography to measure regional brain incorporation coefficients (k*) for AA, markers of signaling. We also measured brain prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), an AA metabolite. In vehicle-treated rats, quinpirole compared with saline significantly increased k* for AA in 35 of 82 brain regions examined, as well as brain PGE2 concentration. Affected regions belong to dopaminergic circuits and have high D2-like receptor densities. Chronic carbamazepine pretreatment prevented the quinpirole-induced increments in k* and in PGE2. These findings are consistent with the hypothesis that effective mood stabilizers generally downregulate brain AA signaling via D2-like receptors, and that this signaling is upregulated in bipolar disorder. PMID:18302021

  4. Increasing angiotensin-(1-7) levels in the brain attenuates metabolic syndrome-related risks in fructose-fed rats.

    PubMed

    Guimaraes, Priscila S; Oliveira, Mariana F; Braga, Janaína F; Nadu, Ana Paula; Schreihofer, Ann; Santos, Robson A S; Campagnole-Santos, Maria Jose

    2014-05-01

    We evaluated effects of chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of angiotensin (Ang)-(1-7) on cardiovascular and metabolic parameters in fructose-fed (FF) rats. After 6 weeks of fructose intake (10% in drinking water), Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7) (200 ng/h; FF+A7 group) or 0.9% sterile saline (FF group) for 4 weeks with continued access to fructose. Compared with control rats, FF rats had increased mean arterial pressure and cardiac sympathetic tone with impaired baroreflex sensitivity. FF rats also presented increased circulating triglycerides, leptin, insulin, and glucose with impaired glucose tolerance. Furthermore, relative weights of liver and retroperitoneal adipose tissue were increased in FF rats. Glycogen content was reduced in liver, but increased in muscle. In contrast, fructose-fed rats subjected to chronic intracerebroventricular infusion of Ang-(1-7) presented reduced cardiac sympathetic tone with normalized mean arterial pressure, baroreflex sensitivity, glucose and insulin levels, and improved glucose tolerance. Relative weight of liver, and hepatic and muscle glycogen contents were also normalized in FF+A7 rats. In addition, FF+A7 rats had reduced mRNA expression for neuronal nitric oxide synthase and NR1 subunit of N-methyl-d-aspartate receptor in hypothalamus and dorsomedial medulla. Ang-(1-7) infusion did not alter fructose-induced hyperleptinemia and increased relative weight of retroperitoneal adipose tissue. There were no differences in body weights, neither in liver mRNA expression of phosphoenolpyruvate carboxykinase or glucose-6-phosphatase among the groups. These data indicate that chronic increase in Ang-(1-7) levels in the brain may have a beneficial role in fructose-fed rats by ameliorating cardiovascular and metabolic disorders.

  5. Minocycline Attenuates High Mobility Group Box 1 Translocation, Microglial Activation, and Thalamic Neurodegeneration after Traumatic Brain Injury in Postnatal Day 17 Rats.

    PubMed

    Simon, Dennis W; Aneja, Rajesh K; Alexander, Henry; Bell, Michael J; Bayır, Hülya; Kochanek, Patrick M; Clark, Robert S B

    2017-08-22

    In response to cell injury, the danger signal high mobility group box-1 (HMGB) is released, activating macrophages by binding pattern recognition receptors. We investigated the role of the anti-inflammatory drug minocycline in attenuating HMGB1 translocation, microglial activation, and neuronal injury in a rat model of pediatric traumatic brain injury (TBI). Post-natal day 17 Sprague-Dawley rats underwent moderate-severe controlled cortical impact (CCI). Animals were randomized to treatment with minocycline (90 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) or vehicle (saline) at 10 min and 20 h after injury. Shams received anesthesia and craniotomy. We analyzed HMGB1 translocation (protein fractionation and Western blotting), microglial activation (Iba-1 immunohistochemistry), neuronal death (Fluoro-Jade-B [FJB] immunofluorescence), and neuronal cell counts (unbiased stereology). Behavioral assessments included motor and Morris-water maze testing. Nuclear to cytosolic translocation of HMGB1 in the injured brain was attenuated in minocycline versus vehicle-treated rats at 24 h (p < 0.001). Treatment with minocycline reduced microglial activation in the ipsilateral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle, all regions); attenuated neurodegeneration (FJB-positive neurons) at seven days (p < 0.05 vs. vehicle); and increased thalamic neuronal survival at 14 days (naïve 22773 ± 1012 cells/mm(3), CCI + vehicle 11753 ± 464, CCI + minocycline 17047 ± 524; p < 0.001). Minocycline-treated rats demonstrated delayed motor recovery early after injury but had no injury effect on Morris-water maze whereas vehicle-treated rats performed worse than sham on the final two days of testing (both p < 0.05 vs. vehicle). Minocycline globally attenuated HMGB1 translocation and microglial activation in injured brain in a pediatric TBI model and afforded selective thalamic neuroprotection. The HMGB1 translocation and thalamic injury may represent novel

  6. Diazoxide Attenuates Postresuscitation Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest by Opening Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels.

    PubMed

    Wu, Haidong; Wang, Peng; Li, Yi; Wu, Manhui; Lin, Jiali; Huang, Zitong

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We investigated whether and how diazoxide can attenuate brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with induced cerebral ischemia (n = 10 per group) received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (1 mL; vehicle group), diazoxide (10 mg/kg; DZ group), or diazoxide (10 mg/kg) plus 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg; DZ + 5-HD group) 30 min after CPR. The control group (sham group, n = 5) underwent sham operation, without cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR) was determined. Brain cell apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL staining. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) in the cerebral cortex was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results. The neurological deficit scores (NDS) in the vehicle group decreased significantly at 24 h and 48 h after CPR. Diazoxide significantly improved NDS and mitochondrial RCR after CPR at both time points; 5-HD cotreatment abolished these effects. Diazoxide decreased TUNEL-positive cells following CPR, upregulated Bcl-2 and PKCε, downregulated Bax, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; 5-HD cotreatment reversed these effects. Conclusions. Diazoxide attenuates postresuscitation brain injury, protects mitochondrial function, inhibits brain cell apoptosis, and activates the PKC pathway by opening mitoKATP channels.

  7. Diazoxide Attenuates Postresuscitation Brain Injury in a Rat Model of Asphyxial Cardiac Arrest by Opening Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Peng; Li, Yi; Wu, Manhui; Lin, Jiali

    2016-01-01

    Objective. We investigated whether and how diazoxide can attenuate brain injury after cardiopulmonary resuscitation (CPR) by selective opening of mitochondrial ATP-sensitive potassium (mitoKATP) channels. Methods. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats with induced cerebral ischemia (n = 10 per group) received an intraperitoneal injection of 0.1% dimethyl sulfoxide (1 mL; vehicle group), diazoxide (10 mg/kg; DZ group), or diazoxide (10 mg/kg) plus 5-hydroxydecanoate (5 mg/kg; DZ + 5-HD group) 30 min after CPR. The control group (sham group, n = 5) underwent sham operation, without cardiac arrest. Mitochondrial respiratory control rate (RCR) was determined. Brain cell apoptosis was assessed using TUNEL staining. Expression of Bcl-2, Bax, and protein kinase C epsilon (PKCε) in the cerebral cortex was determined by Western blotting and immunohistochemistry. Results. The neurological deficit scores (NDS) in the vehicle group decreased significantly at 24 h and 48 h after CPR. Diazoxide significantly improved NDS and mitochondrial RCR after CPR at both time points; 5-HD cotreatment abolished these effects. Diazoxide decreased TUNEL-positive cells following CPR, upregulated Bcl-2 and PKCε, downregulated Bax, and increased the Bcl-2/Bax ratio; 5-HD cotreatment reversed these effects. Conclusions. Diazoxide attenuates postresuscitation brain injury, protects mitochondrial function, inhibits brain cell apoptosis, and activates the PKC pathway by opening mitoKATP channels. PMID:27648441

  8. Pentoxifylline attenuates TNF-α protein levels and brain edema following temporary focal cerebral ischemia in rats.

    PubMed

    Vakili, Abedin; Mojarrad, Somye; Akhavan, Maziar Mohammad; Rashidy-Pour, Ali

    2011-03-04

    Cerebral edema is the most common cause of neurological deterioration and mortality during acute ischemic stroke. Despite the clinical importance of cerebral ischemia, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly understood. Recent studies suggest a role for TNF-α in the brain edema formation. To further investigate whether TNF-α would play a role in brain edema formation, we examined the effects of pentoxifylline (PTX, an inhibitor of TNF-α synthesis) on the brain edema and TNF-α levels in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The right middle cerebral artery (MCA) of rats was occluded for 60 min using the intraluminal filament method. The animals received PTX (60 mg/kg) immediately, 1, 3, or 6h post-ischemic induction. Twenty-four hours after induction of ischemic injury, permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and brain edema were determined by in situ brain perfusion of Evans Blue (EB) and wet-to-dry weight ratio, respectively. TNF-α protein levels in ischemic cortex were also measured at 1, 4, and 24h after the beginning of an ischemic stroke by using an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay method. The administration of PTX up to 6h after occlusion of the MCA significantly reduced the brain edema. Moreover, PTX significantly reduced the concentration of TNF-α in ischemic brain cortex up to 4h post-transient focal stroke (P<0.002). Finally, treatment by PTX led to a significant decrease in EB extravasations (P<0.001). Our data demonstrate that PTX administration up to 6h after ischemia can reduce brain edema in a model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. The beneficial effects of PTX may be mediated, at least in part, through a decline in TNF-α production and BBB breakdown.

  9. Anti-high mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) antibody attenuates delayed cerebral vasospasm and brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Haruma, Jun; Teshigawara, Kiyoshi; Hishikawa, Tomohito; Wang, Dengli; Liu, Keyue; Wake, Hidenori; Mori, Shuji; Takahashi, Hideo Kohka; Sugiu, Kenji; Date, Isao; Nishibori, Masahiro

    2016-01-01

    Although delayed cerebral vasospasm (DCV) following subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) is closely related to the progression of brain damage, little is known about the molecular mechanism underlying its development. High mobility group box-1 (HMGB1) plays an important role as an initial inflammatory mediator in SAH. In this study, an SAH rat model was employed to evaluate the effects of anti-HMGB1 monoclonal antibody (mAb) on DCV after SAH. A vasoconstriction of the basilar artery (BA) associated with a reduction of nuclear HMGB1 and its translocation in vascular smooth muscle cells were observed in SAH rats, and anti-HMGB1 mAb administration significantly suppressed these effects. Up-regulations of inflammation-related molecules and vasoconstriction-mediating receptors in the BA of SAH rats were inhibited by anti-HMGB1 mAb treatment. Anti-HMGB1 mAb attenuated the enhanced vasocontractile response to thrombin of the isolated BA from SAH rats and prevented activation of cerebrocortical microglia. Moreover, locomotor activity and weight loss recovery were also enhanced by anti-HMGB1 mAb administration. The vasocontractile response of the BA under SAH may be induced by events that are downstream of responses to HMGB1-induced inflammation and inhibited by anti-HMGB1 mAb. Anti-HMGB1 mAb treatment may provide a novel therapeutic strategy for DCV and early brain injury after SAH. PMID:27883038

  10. Repeated administration of almonds increases brain acetylcholine levels and enhances memory function in healthy rats while attenuates memory deficits in animal model of amnesia.

    PubMed

    Batool, Zehra; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Tabassum, Saiqa; Madiha, Syeda; Rafiq, Sahar; Tariq, Sumayya; Batool, Tuba Sharf; Saleem, Sadia; Naqvi, Fizza; Perveen, Tahira; Haider, Saida

    2016-01-01

    Dietary nutrients may play a vital role in protecting the brain from age-related memory dysfunction and neurodegenerative diseases. Tree nuts including almonds have shown potential to combat age-associated brain dysfunction. These nuts are an important source of essential nutrients, such as tocopherol, folate, mono- and poly-unsaturated fatty acids, and polyphenols. These components have shown promise as possible dietary supplements to prevent or delay the onset of age-associated cognitive dysfunction. This study investigated possible protective potential of almond against scopolamine induced amnesia in rats. The present study also investigated a role of acetylcholine in almond induced memory enhancement. Rats in test group were orally administrated with almond suspension (400 mg/kg/day) for four weeks. Both control and almond-treated rats were then divided into saline and scopolamine injected groups. Rats in the scopolamine group were injected with scopolamine (0.5 mg/kg) five minutes before the start of each memory test. Memory was assessed by elevated plus maze (EPM), Morris water maze (MWM) and novel object recognition (NOR) task. Cholinergic function was determined in terms of hippocampal and frontal cortical acetylcholine content and acetylcholinesterase activity. Results of the present study suggest that almond administration for 28 days significantly improved memory retention. This memory enhancing effect of almond was also observed in scopolamine induced amnesia model. Present study also suggests a role of acetylcholine in the attenuation of scopolamine induced amnesia by almond. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Catechin attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced blood-brain barrier damage and improves longer-term neurological outcomes in rats.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Zhixian; Zhang, Jinning; Cai, Yonghui; Huang, Jiaxin; You, Lingtong

    2017-10-01

    What is the central question of this study? We investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of catechin after traumatic brain injury and explored the underlying mechanisms. What is the main finding and its importance? Catechin treatment had neuroprotective effects in a rat model of traumatic brain injury, and these effects might be mediated by intervention in the self-perpetuating process of blood-brain barrier disruption and excessive inflammatory reaction. Traumatic brain injury (TBI) resulting from external force on the head usually leads to long-term deficits in motor and cognitive functions. Catechin has shown neuroprotective effects in neurodegenerative diseases and ischaemia models. We therefore investigated the potential neuroprotective effects of catechin after TBI and explored the underlying mechanisms. Male rats were subjected to controlled cortical impact injury and then treated with catechin. Brain damage, motor and cognitive functions, blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity and neuro-inflammation were examined. Catechin treatment ameliorated brain damage and motor and cognitive deficits after TBI. Catechin was shown to protect BBB integrity, alleviate the TBI-induced loss of the junction proteins occludin and zonula occludens protein-1 and suppress local inflammatory reactions. Catechin treatment had neuroprotective effects in a rat model of TBI, and these effects might be mediated by intervention in the self-perpetuating process of BBB disruption and excessive inflammatory reaction. © 2017 The Authors. Experimental Physiology © 2017 The Physiological Society.

  12. Standardized extract of Bacopa monniera (BESEB CDRI-08) attenuates contextual associative learning deficits in the aging rat's brain induced by D-galactose.

    PubMed

    Prisila Dulcy, Charles; Singh, Hemant K; Preethi, Jayakumar; Rajan, Koilmani Emmanuvel

    2012-10-01

    In this study, we examined the neuroprotective effect of standardized Bacopa monniera extract (BME: BESEB CDRI-08) against the D-galactose (D-gal)-induced brain aging in rats. Experimental groups were subjected to contextual-associative learning task. We found that the administration of BME in the D-gal-treated group attenuated contextual-associative learning deficits; the individuals showed more correct responses and retrieved the reward with less latency. Subsequent analysis showed that the BME administration significantly decreased advance glycation end product (AGE) in serum and increased the activity of antioxidant response element (ARE) and the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and nuclear transcription factor NF-E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), accompanied by a reduction in the level of serotonin (5-HT) in the hippocampus. The BME treatment also reversed D-gal-induced brain aging by upregulating the levels of the presynaptic proteins synaptotagmin I (SYT1) and synaptophysin (SYP) and the postsynaptic proteins Ca(2+) /calmodulin dependent protein kinase II (αCaMKII) and postsynaptic density protein-95 (PSD-95) in the hippocampus during synaptic plasticity. A significant finding is that the D-gal- + BME-treated rats exhibited more correct responses in contextual-associative learning than D-gal alone-treated rats. Our findings suggest that BME treatment attenuates D-gal-induced brain aging and regulates the level of antioxidant enzymes, Nrf2 expression, and the level of 5-HT, which was accompanied by concomitantly increased levels of synaptic proteins SYT1, SYP, αCaMKII, p-αCaMKII, and PSD-95.

  13. Resveratrol abrogates alcohol-induced cognitive deficits by attenuating oxidative-nitrosative stress and inflammatory cascade in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tiwari, Vinod; Chopra, Kanwaljit

    2013-05-01

    Chronic alcohol intake is known to induce permanent cognitive deficits along with enhanced oxidative-nitrosative stress and activation of neuroinflammatory cascade. In the present study, we investigated the protective effect of resveratrol, a natural polyphenolic phytoalexin against chronic alcohol-induced cognitive dysfunction and neuroiflammatory cascade in the brain of adult rats chronically administered ethanol. Male Wistar rats were adminstered ethanol (10g/kg; oral gavage) for ten weeks and treated with resveratrol (5, 10 and 20mg/kg) for the same duration. Ethanol-exposed rats showed impaired spatial navigation in the Morris water maze test and poor retention in the elevated plus maze task which was coupled with enhanced acetylcholinesterase activity, increased oxidative-nitrosative stress, cytokines (TNF-alpha and IL-1beta), NF-kappa β and caspase-3 levels in different brain regions (cerebral cortex and hippocampus) of ethanol-treated rats. Co-administration with resveratrol significantly and dose-dependently prevented all the behavioral, biochemical and molecular deficits. Correlatively, the results of the present study revealed that treatment with resveratrol significantly prevented cognitive deficits induced by chronic ethanol exposure not only by modulating oxido-nitrosative stress but also by attenuating the enhanced levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α and IL-1β), NF-kβ and caspase-3 in different brain regions of ethanol treated rats. Therefore, mechanism underlying the neuroprotective effects of resveratrol observed in our study may be due to its antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and neuromodulating activities. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Inhibitor of nuclear factor-Kappa B activation attenuates venular constriction, leukocyte rolling-adhesion and microvessel rupture induced by ethanol in intact rat brain microcirculation: relation to ethanol-induced brain injury.

    PubMed

    Altura, Burton M; Gebrewold, Asefa

    2002-12-06

    The present study was designed to test the hypothesis that acute, local administration of a specific inhibitor of nuclear factor-Kappa B activation (which prevents rapid proteolysis of IKB-alpha) will attenuate cerebral (cortical) venular constrictions, leukocyte-endothelial wall interactions and postcapillary damage induced by medium to high concentrations of ethanol in the intact rat brain. Perivascular or i.p. administration of ethanol (100, 250 mg/dl) to the intact rat brain resulted in concentration-dependent venular vasospasm, rolling and adherence of leukocytes to venular walls and rupture of postcapillary venules with focal hemorrhages. Superfusion of the in-situ brain with N(alpha)-L-tosyl-L-phenylalanine chloromethyl ketone (TPCK), a specific inhibitor of IKB-alpha proteolysis, attenuated greatly the spasmogenic, leukocyte rolling-endothelial cell adhesion and postcapillary hemorrhages induced by ethanol. These new data suggest that inhibition of alcohol-inducible degradation of IKB-alpha by TPKC can prevent much of the adverse microvascular actions of ethanol in the intact rat brain. Moreover, these new in-situ results suggest that activation of nuclear factor-Kappa B seems to play a major modulatory role in the adverse cerebral vascular actions of concentrations of alcohol found in the blood of alcohol-intoxicated subjects and human stroke victims.

  15. Maternal prenatal omega-3 fatty acid supplementation attenuates hyperoxia-induced apoptosis in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tuzun, Funda; Kumral, Abdullah; Ozbal, Seda; Dilek, Mustafa; Tugyan, Kazım; Duman, Nuray; Ozkan, Hasan

    2012-06-01

    Supraphysiologic amounts of oxygen negatively influences brain maturation and development. The aim of the present study was to evaluate whether maternal ω-3 long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acid (ω-3 FA) supplementation during pregnancy protects the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Thirty-six rat pups from six different dams were divided into six groups according to the diet modifications and hyperoxia exposure. The groups were: a control group (standard diet+room air), a hyperoxia group (standard diet+80% O₂ exposure), a hyperoxia+high-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a hyperoxia+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group, a room air+low-dose ω-3 FA-supplemented+group, and a room air+high dose ω-3 FA-supplemented group. The ω-3 FA's were supplemented as a mixture of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) from the second day of pregnancy until birth. Rat pups in the hyperoxic groups were exposed to 80% oxygen from birth until postnatal day 5 (P5). At P5, all animals were sacrificed. Neuronal cell death and apoptosis were evaluated by cell count, TUNEL, and active Caspase-3 immunohistochemistry. Histopathological examination showed that maternally ω-3 FA deficient diet and postnatal hyperoxia exposure were associated with significantly lower neuronal counts and significantly higher apoptotic cell death in the selected brain regions. Ω-3 FA treatment significantly diminished apoptosis, in the selected brain regions, in a dose dependent manner. Our results suggest that the maternal ω-3 FA supply may protect the developing brain against hyperoxic injury. Copyright © 2012 ISDN. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Neuroprotective Roles of l-Cysteine in Attenuating Early Brain Injury and Improving Synaptic Density via the CBS/H2S Pathway Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Tong; Wang, Lingxiao; Hu, Quan; Liu, Song; Bai, Xuemei; Xie, Yunkai; Zhang, Tiantian; Bo, Shishi; Gao, Xiangqian; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Gang; Wang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    l-Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid and substrate for cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the central nervous system. We previously reported that NaHS, an H2S donor, significantly alleviated brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. However, the potential therapeutic value of l-cysteine and the molecular mechanism supporting these beneficial effects have not been determined. This study was designed to investigate whether l-cysteine could attenuate early brain injury following SAH and improve synaptic function by releasing endogenous H2S. Male Wistar rats were subjected to SAH induced by cisterna magna blood injection, and l-cysteine was intracerebroventricularly administered 30 min after SAH induction. Treatment with l-cysteine stimulated CBS activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and H2S production. Moreover, l-cysteine treatment significantly ameliorated brain edema, improved neurobehavioral function, and attenuated neuronal cell death in the PFC; these effects were associated with a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the suppression of caspase-3 activation 48 h after SAH. Furthermore, l-cysteine treatment activated the CREB–brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway and intensified synaptic density by regulating synapse proteins 48 h after SAH. Importantly, all the beneficial effects of l-cysteine in SAH were abrogated by amino-oxyacetic acid, a CBS inhibitor. Based on these findings, l-cysteine may play a neuroprotective role in SAH by inhibiting cell apoptosis, upregulating CREB–BDNF expression, and promoting synaptic structure via the CBS/H2S pathway. PMID:28512446

  17. Neuroprotective Roles of l-Cysteine in Attenuating Early Brain Injury and Improving Synaptic Density via the CBS/H2S Pathway Following Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Tong; Wang, Lingxiao; Hu, Quan; Liu, Song; Bai, Xuemei; Xie, Yunkai; Zhang, Tiantian; Bo, Shishi; Gao, Xiangqian; Wu, Shuhua; Li, Gang; Wang, Zhen

    2017-01-01

    l-Cysteine is a semi-essential amino acid and substrate for cystathionine-β-synthase (CBS) in the central nervous system. We previously reported that NaHS, an H2S donor, significantly alleviated brain damage after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) in rats. However, the potential therapeutic value of l-cysteine and the molecular mechanism supporting these beneficial effects have not been determined. This study was designed to investigate whether l-cysteine could attenuate early brain injury following SAH and improve synaptic function by releasing endogenous H2S. Male Wistar rats were subjected to SAH induced by cisterna magna blood injection, and l-cysteine was intracerebroventricularly administered 30 min after SAH induction. Treatment with l-cysteine stimulated CBS activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and H2S production. Moreover, l-cysteine treatment significantly ameliorated brain edema, improved neurobehavioral function, and attenuated neuronal cell death in the PFC; these effects were associated with a decrease in the Bax/Bcl-2 ratio and the suppression of caspase-3 activation 48 h after SAH. Furthermore, l-cysteine treatment activated the CREB-brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) pathway and intensified synaptic density by regulating synapse proteins 48 h after SAH. Importantly, all the beneficial effects of l-cysteine in SAH were abrogated by amino-oxyacetic acid, a CBS inhibitor. Based on these findings, l-cysteine may play a neuroprotective role in SAH by inhibiting cell apoptosis, upregulating CREB-BDNF expression, and promoting synaptic structure via the CBS/H2S pathway.

  18. Attenuation of Acute Phase Injury in Rat Intracranial Hemorrhage by Cerebrolysin that Inhibits Brain Edema and Inflammatory Response.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Zhang, Yan; Wang, Zhaotao; Wang, Shanshan; Gao, Mou; Xu, Ruxiang; Liang, Chunyang; Zhang, Hongtian

    2016-04-01

    The outcome of intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is mainly determined by the volume of the hemorrhage core and the secondary brain damage to penumbral tissues due to brain swelling, microcirculation disturbance and inflammation. The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of cerebrolysin on brain edema and inhibition of the inflammation response surrounding the hematoma core in the acute stage after ICH. The ICH model was induced by administration of type VII bacterial collagenase into the stratum of adult rats, which were then randomly divided into three groups: ICH + saline; ICH + Cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) and sham. Cerebrolysin or saline was administered intraperitoneally 1 h post surgery. Neurological scores, extent of brain edema content and Evans blue dye extravasation were recorded. The levels of pro-inflammatory factors (IL-1β, TNF-α and IL-6) were assayed by Real-time PCR and Elisa kits. Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) and tight junction proteins (TJPs; claudin-5, occludin and zonula occluden-1) expression were measured at multiple time points. The morphological and intercellular changes were characterized by Electron microscopy. It is found that cerebrolysin (5 ml/kg) improved the neurological behavior and reduced the ipsilateral brain water content and Evans blue dye extravasation. After cerebrolysin treated, the levels of pro-inflammatory factors and AQP4 in the peri-hematomal areas were markedly reduced and were accompanied with higher expression of TJPs. Electron microscopy showed the astrocytic swelling and concentrated chromatin in the ICH group and confirmed the cell junction changes. Thus, early cerebrolysin treatment ameliorates secondary injury after ICH and promotes behavioral performance during the acute phase by reducing brain edema, inflammatory response, and blood-brain barrier permeability.

  19. Prostaglandin E2 EP4 Receptor Activation Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Early Brain Injury Induced by Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats.

    PubMed

    Xu, Jie; Xu, Zhen; Yan, Ai

    2017-02-27

    Activation of E prostanoid 4 receptor (EP4) shows neuroprotective effects in multiple central nervous system (CNS) lesions, but the roles of EP4 receptor in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) are not explored. This study was designed to research the effects of EP4 modulation on early brain injury (EBI) after experimental SAH in rats. We found that the administration of EP4 selective agonist AE1-329 significantly improved neurological dysfunction, blood brain barrier (BBB) damage and brain edema at 24 h after SAH. Furthermore, AE1-329 obviously reduced the number of activated microglia and the mRNA and protein levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, and increased Ser1177 phosphorylated endothelial nitric oxide synthase (Ser1177 p-eNOS). Moreover, AE1-329 significantly reduced the number of TUNEL-positive cells and active caspase-3 in cortex after SAH. The EP4 selective antagonist AE3-208 was also administrated and the opposite effects were achieved. Our results indicate that activation of EP4 protects brain from EBI through downregulating neuroinflammation reaction after SAH.

  20. MMP-9 inhibitor SB-3CT attenuates behavioral impairments and hippocampal loss after traumatic brain injury in rat.

    PubMed

    Jia, Feng; Yin, Yu Hua; Gao, Guo Yi; Wang, Yu; Cen, Lian; Jiang, Ji-Yao

    2014-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the potential efficacy of SB-3CT, a matrix metallopeptidase 9 inhibitor, on behavioral and histological outcomes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into three groups (n=15/group): TBI with SB-3CT treatment, TBI with saline, and sham injury. The TBI model was induced by a fluid percussion TBI device. SB-3CT (50 mg/kg in 10% dimethyl sulfoxide) was administered intraperitoneally at 30 min, 6 h, and 12 h after the TBI. Motor function (beam-balance/beam-walk tests) and spatial learning/memory (Morris water maze) were assessed on post-operative Days 1-5 and 11-15, respectively. Fluoro-Jade staining, immunofluorescence, and cresyl violet-staining were carried out for histopathological evaluation at 24 h, 72 h, and 15 days after TBI, respectively. It was shown that TBI can result in significant behavioral deficit induced by acute neurodegeneration, increased expression of cleaved caspase-3, and long-term neuronal loss. SB-3CT intervention via the current regime provides robust behavioral protection and hippocampal neurons preservation from the deleterious effects of TBI. Hence, the efficacy of SB-3CT on TBI prognosis could be ascertained. It is believed that the current study adds to the growing literature in identifying SB-3CT as a potential therapy for human brain injury.

  1. Pharmacological Inhibition of PERK Attenuates Early Brain Injury After Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats Through the Activation of Akt.

    PubMed

    Yan, Feng; Cao, Shenglong; Li, Jianru; Dixon, Brandon; Yu, Xiaobo; Chen, Jingyin; Gu, Chi; Lin, Wang; Chen, Gao

    2017-04-01

    Neuronal apoptosis is a central pathological process in subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury. Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was reported to have a vital role in the pathophysiology of neuronal apoptosis in the brain. The present study was designed to investigate the potential effects of ER stress and its downstream signals in early brain injury after SAH. One hundred thirty-four rats were subjected to an endovascular perforation model of SAH. The RNA-activated protein kinase-like ER kinase (PERK) inhibitor GSK2606414 and the Akt inhibitor MK2206 were injected intracerebroventricularly. SAH grade, neurologic scores, and brain water content were measured 72 h after subarachnoid hemorrhage. Expression of PERK and its downstream signals, Akt, Bcl-2, Bax, and cleaved caspase-3, were examined using Western blot analysis. Specific cell types that expressed PERK were detected with double immunofluorescence staining. Neuronal cell death was demonstrated with terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase (TdT)-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL). Our results showed that the expression of p-PERK and its downstream targets, p-eIF2α and ATF4, increased after SAH and peaked at 72 h after SAH. PERK was expressed mostly in neurons. The inhibition of PERK with GSK2606414 reduced p-PERK, p-eIF2α, and ATF4 expression. Furthermore, GSK2606414 treatment increased p-Akt levels and the Bcl-2/Bax ratio as well as decreased cleaved caspase-3 expression and neuronal death, thereby improving neurological deficits at 72 h after SAH. The selective Akt inhibitor MK2206 abolished the beneficial effects of GSK2606414. PERK, the major transducer of ER stress, is involved in neuronal apoptosis after SAH. The inhibition of PERK reduces early brain injury via Akt-related anti-apoptosis pathways. PERK may serve as a promising target for future therapeutic intervention.

  2. Adjunctive daptomycin attenuates brain damage and hearing loss more efficiently than rifampin in infant rat pneumococcal meningitis.

    PubMed

    Grandgirard, Denis; Burri, Melchior; Agyeman, Philipp; Leib, Stephen L

    2012-08-01

    Exacerbation of cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) inflammation in response to bacteriolysis by beta-lactam antibiotics contributes to brain damage and neurological sequelae in bacterial meningitis. Daptomycin, a nonlytic antibiotic acting on Gram-positive bacteria, lessens inflammation and brain injury compared to ceftriaxone. With a view to a clinical application for pediatric bacterial meningitis, we investigated the effect of combining daptomycin or rifampin with ceftriaxone in an infant rat pneumococcal meningitis model. Eleven-day-old Wistar rats with pneumococcal meningitis were randomized to treatment starting at 18 h after infection with (i) ceftriaxone (100 mg/kg of body weight, subcutaneously [s.c.], twice a day [b.i.d.]), (ii) daptomycin (10 mg/kg, s.c., daily) followed 15 min later by ceftriaxone, or (iii) rifampin (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally [i.p.], b.i.d.) followed 15 min later by ceftriaxone. CSF was sampled at 6 and 22 h after the initiation of therapy and was assessed for concentrations of defined chemokines and cytokines. Brain damage was quantified by histomorphometry at 40 h after infection and hearing loss was assessed at 3 weeks after infection. Daptomycin plus ceftriaxone versus ceftriaxone significantly (P < 0.04) lowered CSF concentrations of monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), MIP-1α, and interleukin 6 (IL-6) at 6 h and MIP-1α, IL-6, and IL-10 at 22 h after initiation of therapy, led to significantly (P < 0.01) less apoptosis, and significantly (P < 0.01) improved hearing capacity. While rifampin plus ceftriaxone versus ceftriaxone also led to lower CSF inflammation (P < 0.02 for IL-6 at 6 h), it had no significant effect on apoptosis and hearing capacity. Adjuvant daptomycin could therefore offer added benefits for the treatment of pediatric pneumococcal meningitis.

  3. The anti-inflammatory properties of Satureja khuzistanica Jamzad essential oil attenuate the effects of traumatic brain injuries in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abbasloo, Elham; Dehghan, Fatemeh; Khaksari, Mohammad; Najafipour, Hamid; Vahidi, Reza; Dabiri, Shahriar; Sepehri, Gholamreza; Asadikaram, Golamreza

    2016-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major health concern affecting the general public as well as military personnel. However, there is no FDA-approved therapy for the treatment of TBIs. In this work, we investigated the neurotherapeutic effects of the well-known natural Iranian medicine Satureja Khuzistanica Jamzad (SKJ) essential oil (SKEO) on the outcomes of diffused experimental TBI, with particular attention paid to its anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects. Male Wistar rats were treated with doses of 50, 100 and 200 (mg/kg, i.p) SKEO after induction of diffused TBIs. The results showed that injecting SKEO (200 mg/kg) 30 minutes after TBI significantly reduced brain oedema and damage to the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and limited the post-TBI increase in intracranial pressure. The veterinary coma scale (VCS) scores significantly improved in the treatment group. Also, inflammatory marker assays showed reduced levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 and increased IL-10 in the treated groups. Moreover, the immunohistochemical results indicated that SKEO not only reduced neuronal death and BBB permeability but also affected astrocytic activation. Overall, our data indicate potential clinical neurological applications for SKEO. PMID:27535591

  4. Administration of a PTEN inhibitor BPV(pic) attenuates early brain injury via modulating AMPA receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Yujie; Luo, Chunxia; Zhao, Mingyue; Li, Qiang; Hu, Rong; Zhang, John H; Liu, Zhi; Feng, Hua

    2015-02-19

    The aim of this study was to investigate whether the phosphatase and tensin homolog deleted on chromosome ten (PTEN) inhibitor dipotassium bisperoxo(pyridine-2-carboxyl) oxovanadate (BPV(pic)) attenuates early brain injury by modulating α-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxa-zolep-propionate (AMPA) receptor subunits after subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH). A standard intravascular perforation model was used to produce the experimental SAH in Sprague-Dawley rats. BPV(pic) treatment (0.2mg/kg) was evaluated for effects on neurological score, brain water content, Evans blue extravasation, hippocampal neuronal death and AMPA receptor subunits alterations after SAH. We found that BPV(pic) is effective in attenuating BBB disruption, lowering edema, reducing hippocampal neural death and improving neurological outcomes. In addition, the AMPA receptor subunit GluR1 protein expression at cytomembrane was downregulated, whereas the expression of GluR2 and GluR3 was upregulated after BPV(pic) treatment. Our results suggest that PTEN inhibited by BPV(pic) plays a neuroprotective role in SAH pathophysiology, possibly by alterations in glutamate AMPA receptor subunits.

  5. Varenicline attenuates nicotine-enhanced brain-stimulation reward by activation of α4β2 nicotinic receptors in rats

    PubMed Central

    Spiller, Krista; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Li, Xia; Ashby, Charles R.; Callahan, Patrick M.; Tehim, Ashok; Gardner, Eliot L.

    2009-01-01

    Varenicline, a partial α4β2 and full α7 nicotinic receptor agonist, has been shown to inhibit nicotine self-administration and nicotine-induced increases in extracellular dopamine in the nucleus accumbens. In the present study, we investigated whether varenicline inhibits nicotine-enhanced electrical brain-stimulation reward (BSR), and if so, which receptor subtypes are involved. Systemic administration of nicotine (0.25–1.0 mg/kg, i.p.) or varenicline (0.03–3 mg/kg, i.p.) produced biphasic effects, with low doses producing enhancement (e.g., decreased BSR threshold), and high doses inhibiting BSR. Pretreatment with low dose (0.03–1.0 mg/kg) varenicline dose-dependently attenuated nicotine (0.25 or 0.5 mg/kg)-enhanced BSR. The BSR-enhancing effect produced by varenicline was blocked by mecamylamine (a high affinity nicotinic receptor antagonist) or dihydro-β-erythroidine (a relatively selective nicotinic α4-containing receptor antagonist), but not methyllycaconitine (a selective α7 receptor antagonist), suggesting an effect mediated by activation of α4β2 receptors. This suggestion is supported by findings that the α4β2 receptor agonist SIB-1765F produced a dose-dependent enhancement of BSR, while pretreatment with SIB-1765F attenuated nicotine (0.5 mg/kg)-enhanced BSR. In contrast, the selective α7 receptor agonist ARR-17779, altered neither BSR itself nor nicotine-enhanced BSR, at any dose tested. These findings suggest that: 1) varenicline inhibits nicotine-enhanced BSR, supporting its use as a smoking cessation aid; and 2) varenicline-enhanced BSR by itself and varenicline's anti-nicotine effects are mediated by activation of α4β2, but not α7, receptors. PMID:19393252

  6. Amantadine preserves dopamine level and attenuates depression-like behavior induced by traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tan, Liang; Ge, Hongfei; Tang, Jun; Fu, Chuhua; Duanmu, Wangsheng; Chen, Yujie; Hu, Rong; Sui, Jianfeng; Liu, Xin; Feng, Hua

    2015-02-15

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) often results in multiple neuropsychiatric sequelae, including cognitive, emotional, and behavioral problems. Among them, depression is a common psychiatric symptom, and links to poorer recovery. Amantadine, as an antiparkinsonian, increases dopamine release, and blocks dopamine reuptake, but has recently received attention for its effectiveness as an antidepressant. In the present study, we first induced a post-TBI depression rat model to probe the efficacy of amantadine therapy in reducing post-TBI depression. The DA concentration in the striatum of the injured rats, as well as the degeneration and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the substantia nigra (SN), were checked along with the depression-like behavior. The results showed that amantadine therapy could significantly ameliorate the depression-like behavior, improving the DA level in the striatum and decreasing the degeneration and apoptosis of dopaminergic neurons in the SN. The results indicated that the anti-depression effect may result from the increase of extracellular DA concentration in the striatum and/or the indirect neuroprotection on the dopaminergic neurons in the SN. We conclude that DA plays a critical role in post-TBI depression, and that amantadine shows its potential value in anti-depression treatment for TBI.

  7. Topiramate attenuates early brain injury following subarachnoid haemorrhage in rats via duplex protection against inflammation and neuronal cell death.

    PubMed

    Tian, Yong; Guo, Song-Xue; Li, Jian-Ru; Du, Hang-Gen; Wang, Chao-Hui; Zhang, Jian-Min; Wu, Qun

    2015-10-05

    Early brain injury (EBI) following aneurysmal subarachnoid haemorrhage (SAH) insults contributes to the poor prognosis and high mortality observed in SAH patients. Topiramate (TPM) is a novel, broad-spectrum, antiepileptic drug with a reported protective effect against several brain injuries. The current study aimed to investigate the potential of TPM for neuroprotection against EBI after SAH and the possible dose-dependency of this effect. An endovascular perforation SAH model was established in rats, and TPM was administered by intraperitoneal injection after surgery at three different doses (20mg/kg, 40mg/kg, and 80mg/kg). The animals' neurological scores and brain water content were evaluated, and ELISA, Western blotting and immunostaining assays were conducted to assess the effect of TPM. The results revealed that TPM lowers the elevated levels of myeloperoxidase and proinflammatory mediators observed after SAH in a dose-related fashion, and the nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway is the target of neuroinflammation regulation. In addition, TPM ameliorated SAH-induced cortical neuronal apoptosis by influencing Bax, Bcl-2 and cleaved caspase-3 protein expression, and the effect of TPM was enhanced in a dose-dependent manner. Various dosages of TPM also upregulated the protein expression of the γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic signalling molecules, GABAA receptor (GABAAR) α1, GABAAR γ2, and K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 2 (KCC2) together and downregulated Na(+)-K(+)-Cl(-) co-transporter 1 (NKCC1) expression. Thus, TPM may be an effective neuroprotectant in EBI after SAH by regulating neuroinflammation and neuronal cell death.

  8. Post-Traumatic Stress Avoidance is Attenuated by Corticosterone and Associated with Brain Levels of Steroid Receptor Co-Activator-1 in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Whitaker, Annie M.; Farooq, Muhammad A.; Edwards, Scott; Gilpin, Nicholas W.

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) avoid trauma-related stimuli and exhibit blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation at the time of stress. Our laboratory has established a rodent model of stress that mimics the avoidance symptom cluster of PTSD. Rats are classified as ‘Avoiders’ or ‘Non-Avoiders’ post-stress based on avoidance of a predator-odor paired context. Previously, we demonstrated that Avoiders exhibit an attenuated HPA stress response to predator odor. We hypothesized that corticosterone administration prior to stress would reduce magnitude and incidence of avoidance of a stress-paired context. Furthermore, we predicted that Avoiders would exhibit altered expression of GR signaling machinery elements, such as steroid receptor co-activator (SRC)-1. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were pre-treated with corticosterone (25 mg/kg) or saline and exposed to predator odor stress paired with a context, and tested for avoidance 24 h later, A second group of corticosterone-naïve rats (n = 24) were stressed (or not stressed), indexed for avoidance 24 h later, and killed 48 h post-odor exposure for analysis of phosphorylated GR, FKBP51, and SRC-1 levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral hippocampus (VH), all brain sites that express high quantities of GRs and regulate HPA function. Rats pre-treated with corticosterone exhibited lower magnitude and incidence of avoidance. Predator odor exposure also reduced SRC-1 expression in the PVN and CeA of Avoiders, and increased SRC-1 expression in the VH of Avoiders. SRC-1 expression in PVN, CeA, and VH was predicted by prior avoidance behavior. These results suggest that blunted HPA stress response may contribute to stress-induced neuroadaptations in central SRC-1 levels and behavioral dysfunction in Avoider rats. PMID:26482332

  9. Post-traumatic stress avoidance is attenuated by corticosterone and associated with brain levels of steroid receptor co-activator-1 in rats.

    PubMed

    Whitaker, Annie M; Farooq, Muhammad A; Edwards, Scott; Gilpin, Nicholas W

    2016-01-01

    Individuals with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) avoid trauma-related stimuli and exhibit blunted hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal (HPA) axis activation at the time of stress. Our rodent model of stress mimics the avoidance symptom cluster of PTSD. Rats are classified as "Avoiders" or "Non-Avoiders" post-stress based on the avoidance of a predator-odor paired context. Previously, we found Avoiders exhibit an attenuated HPA stress response to predator odor. We hypothesized that corticosterone administration before stress would reduce the magnitude and incidence of stress-paired context avoidance. Furthermore, we also predicted that Avoiders would exhibit altered expression of glucocorticoid receptor (GR) signaling machinery elements, including steroid receptor co-activator (SRC)-1. Male Wistar rats (n = 16) were pretreated with corticosterone (25 mg/kg) or saline and exposed to predator-odor stress paired with a context and tested for avoidance 24 h later. A second group of corticosterone-naïve rats (n = 24) were stressed (or not), indexed for avoidance 24 h later, and killed 48 h post-odor exposure to measure phosphorylated GR, FKBP51 and SRC-1 levels in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), central amygdala (CeA) and ventral hippocampus (VH), all brain sites that highly express GRs and regulate HPA function. Corticosterone pretreatment reduced the magnitude and incidence of avoidance. In Avoiders, predator-odor exposure led to lower SRC-1 expression in the PVN and CeA, and higher SRC-1 expression in the VH. SRC-1 expression in PVN, CeA and VH was predicted by prior avoidance behavior. Hence, a blunted HPA stress response may contribute to stress-induced neuroadaptations in central SRC-1 levels and behavioral dysfunction in Avoider rats.

  10. Synthetic gelatinases inhibitor attenuates electromagnetic pulse-induced blood-brain barrier disruption by inhibiting gelatinases-mediated ZO-1 degradation in rats.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Lian-Bo; Zhou, Yan; Wang, Qi; Yang, Long-Long; Liu, Hai-Qiang; Xu, Sheng-Long; Qi, Yu-Hong; Ding, Gui-Rong; Guo, Guo-Zhen

    2011-07-11

    Previously we found that exposure to electromagnetic pulse (EMP) induced an increase in blood-brain-barrier (BBB) permeability and the degradation of tight junction protein ZO-1 in rats. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), in particular gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9), play a key role in degradation of tight junction proteins, are known mediators of BBB compromise. We hypothesized that the degradation of ZO-1 by gelatinases contributed to EMP-induced BBB opening. To test this hypothesis, the mRNA level of ZO-1, protein levels of MMP-2, MMP-9 and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinases (TIMP-1 and TIMP-2) were detected in rat cerebral cortex after exposing rats to EMP at 200 kV/m for 200 pulses. It was found that the mRNA level of ZO-1 was unaltered at different time points after EMP exposure. The protein levels of MMP-2 and MMP-9 significantly increased at 3 h and 0.5 h, respectively. However, TIMP-1 (inhibitor of MMP-9) and TIMP-2 (inhibitor of MMP-2) only moderately increased after EMP exposure. In addition, in situ zymography results showed that the gelatinase activity increased in cerebral microvessels at 3 h after EMP exposure. When rats were treated with gelatinases inhibitor (SB-3CT) before EMP exposure, the EMP-induced BBB opening was attenuated and the ZO-1 degradation was reversed. Our results suggested that EMP-induced BBB opening was related to gelatinase mediated ZO-1 degradation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Astaxanthin Activates Nuclear Factor Erythroid-Related Factor 2 and the Antioxidant Responsive Element (Nrf2-ARE) Pathway in the Brain after Subarachnoid Hemorrhage in Rats and Attenuates Early Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Qi; Zhang, Xiang-Sheng; Wang, Han-Dong; Zhang, Xin; Yu, Qing; Li, Wei; Zhou, Meng-Liang; Wang, Xiao-Liang

    2014-01-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) has been proven to ameliorate early brain injury (EBI) after experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) by modulating cerebral oxidative stress. This study was performed to assess the effect of ATX on the Nrf2-ARE pathway and to explore the underlying molecular mechanisms of antioxidant properties of ATX in EBI after SAH. A total of 96 male SD rats were randomly divided into four groups. Autologous blood was injected into the prechiasmatic cistern of the rat to induce an experimental SAH model. Rats in each group were sacrificed at 24 h after SAH. Expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) were measured by Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis. The mRNA levels of HO-1, NAD (P) H: quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO-1), and glutathione S-transferase-α1 (GST-α1) were determined by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). It was observed that administration of ATX post-SAH could up-regulate the cortical expression of these agents, mediated in the Nrf2-ARE pathway at both pretranscriptional and posttranscriptional levels. Meanwhile, oxidative damage was reduced. Furthermore, ATX treatment significantly attenuated brain edema, blood–brain barrier (BBB) disruption, cellular apoptosis, and neurological dysfunction in SAH models. This study demonstrated that ATX treatment alleviated EBI in SAH model, possibly through activating the Nrf2-ARE pathway by inducing antioxidant and detoxifying enzymes. PMID:25528957

  12. Stachybotrys microspora triprenyl phenol-7, a novel fibrinolytic agent, suppresses superoxide production, matrix metalloproteinase-9 expression, and thereby attenuates ischemia/reperfusion injury in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Akamatsu, Yosuke; Saito, Atsushi; Fujimura, Miki; Shimizu, Hiroaki; Mekawy, Moataz; Hasumi, Keiji; Tominaga, Teiji

    2011-10-03

    Stachybotrys microspora triprenyl phenol-7 (SMTP-7) is a novel fibrinolytic agent with anti-inflammatory effect. Previous study demonstrated that SMTP-7 further ameliorated infarction volume in a mouse embolic stroke model compared with tissue type plasminogen activator (tPA), but the reason SMTP-7 has more beneficial effect than tPA has not yet been determined. In the present study, we investigated whether SMTP-7 has an intrinsic neuroprotective effect against transient focal cerebral ischemia (tFCI). Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to tFCI by intraluminal middle cerebral artery occlusion for 2h. Following induction of tFCI, rats were randomized into two groups based on the agent administered: SMTP-7 group and vehicle group. We examined cerebral infarction volume 24h after reperfusion, and evaluated superoxide production, the expressions of nitrotyrosine and matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), which play major roles in secondary brain injury and hemorrhagic transformation. The findings showed that SMTP-7 significantly suppressed superoxide production, the expression of nitrotyrosine and MMP-9 after tFCI, and consequently attenuated ischemic neuronal damage. These results suggest that SMTP-7 has an intrinsic neuroprotective effect on ischemia/reperfusion injury through the suppression of oxidative stress and MMP-9 activation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  13. Spatial Working Memory Deficits in Male Rats Following Neonatal Hypoxic Ischemic Brain Injury Can Be Attenuated by Task Modifications

    PubMed Central

    Smith, Amanda L.; Hill, Courtney A.; Alexander, Michelle; Szalkowski, Caitlin E.; Chrobak, James J.; Rosenkrantz, Ted S.; Fitch, R. Holly

    2014-01-01

    Hypoxia-ischemia (HI; reduction in blood/oxygen supply) is common in infants with serious birth complications, such as prolonged labor and cord prolapse, as well as in infants born prematurely (<37 weeks gestational age; GA). Most often, HI can lead to brain injury in the form of cortical and subcortical damage, as well as later cognitive/behavioral deficits. A common domain of impairment is working memory, which can be associated with heightened incidence of developmental disorders. To further characterize these clinical issues, the current investigation describes data from a rodent model of HI induced on postnatal (P)7, an age comparable to a term (GA 36–38) human. Specifically, we sought to assess working memory using an eight-arm radial water maze paradigm. Study 1 used a modified version of the paradigm, which requires a step-wise change in spatial memory via progressively more difficult tasks, as well as multiple daily trials for extra learning opportunity. Results were surprising and revealed a small HI deficit only for the final and most difficult condition, when a delay before test trial was introduced. Study 2 again used the modified radial arm maze, but presented the most difficult condition from the start, and only one daily test trial. Here, results were expected and revealed a robust and consistent HI deficit across all weeks. Combined results indicate that male HI rats can learn a difficult spatial working memory task if it is presented in a graded multi-trial format, but performance is poor and does not appear to remediate if the task is presented with high initial memory demand. Male HI rats in both studies displayed impulsive characteristics throughout testing evidenced as reduced choice latencies despite more errors. This aspect of behavioral results is consistent with impulsiveness as a core symptom of ADHD—a diagnosis common in children with HI insult. Overall findings suggest that task specific behavioral modifications are crucial to

  14. Attenuation of lead-induced oxidative stress in rat brain, liver, kidney and blood of male Wistar rats by Moringa oleifera seed powder.

    PubMed

    Velaga, Manoj Kumar; Daughtry, Lucius K; Jones, Angelica C; Yallapragada, Prabhakara Rao; Rajanna, Sharada; Rajanna, Bettaiya

    2014-01-01

    Moringa oleifera is a tree belonging to Moringaceae family and its leaves and seeds are reported to have ameliorative effects against metal toxicity. In the present investigation, M. oleifera seed powder was tested against lead-induced oxidative stress and compared against meso-2, 3-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) treatment. Male Wistar rats (100-120 g) were divided into four groups: control (2000 ppm of sodium acetate for 2 weeks), exposed (2000 ppm of lead acetate for 2 weeks), Moringa treated (500 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure), and DMSA treated (90 mg/kg for 7 days after lead exposure). After exposure and treatment periods, rats were sacrificed and the brain was separated into cerebellum, hippocampus, frontal cortex, and brain stem; liver, kidney, and blood were also collected. The data indicated a significant (p<0.05) increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS), lipid perioxidation products (LPP), total protein carbonyl content (TPCC), and metal content of brain regions, liver, and kidney in the exposed group compared with their respective controls. In the blood, delta-amino levulinic acid dehydratase (ALAD) activity, RBC, WBC, hemoglobin, and hematocrit showed significant (p<0.05) decrease on lead exposure. However, administration of M. oleifera restored all the parameters back to control, tissue-specifically, and also showed improvement in restoration better than DMSA treatment, indicating reduction of the negative effects of lead-induced oxidative stress.

  15. Attenuation of working memory and spatial acquisition deficits after a delayed and chronic bromocriptine treatment regimen in rats subjected to traumatic brain injury by controlled cortical impact.

    PubMed

    Kline, Anthony E; Massucci, Jaime L; Marion, Donald W; Dixon, C Edward

    2002-04-01

    Cognitive impairments are pervasive and persistent sequelae of human traumatic brain injury (TBI). In vivo models of TBI, such as the controlled cortical impact (CCI) and fluid percussion (FP), are utilized extensively to produce deficits reminiscent of those seen clinically with the hope that empirical study will lead to viable therapeutic interventions. Both CCI and FP produce spatial learning acquisition deficits, but only the latter has been reported to impair working memory in rats tested in the Morris water maze (MWM). We hypothesized that a CCI injury would impair working memory similarly to that produced by FP, and that delayed and chronic treatment with the D2 receptor agonist bromocriptine would attenuate both working memory and spatial learning acquisition deficits. To test these hypotheses, isoflurane-anesthetized adult male rats received either a CCI (2.7 mm deformation, 4 m/sec) or sham injury, and 24 h later were administered bromocriptine (5 mg/kg, i.p.) or vehicle, with continued daily injections until all behavioral assessments were completed. Motor function was assessed on beam balance and beam walking tasks on postoperative days 1-5 and cognitive function was evaluated in the MWM on days 11-15 for working memory (experiment 1) and on days 14-18 for spatial learning acquisition (experiment 2). Histological examination (hippocampal CA1 and CA3 cell loss/survival and cortical lesion volume) was conducted 4 weeks after surgery. All injured groups exhibited initial impairments in motor function, working memory, and spatial learning acquisition. Bromocriptine did not affect motor function, but did ameliorate working memory and significantly attenuated spatial acquisition deficits relative to the injured vehicle-treated controls. Additionally, the injured bromocriptine-treated group exhibited significantly more morphologically intact CA3 neurons than the injured vehicle-treated group (55.60 +/- 3.10% vs. 38.34 +/- 7.78% [p = 0.03]). No significant

  16. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell attenuates cue-induced reinstatement of both cocaine and sucrose seeking in rats.

    PubMed

    Guercio, Leonardo A; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2015-03-15

    Stimuli previously associated with drug taking can become triggers that can elicit craving and lead to relapse of drug-seeking behavior. Here, we examined the influence of deep brain stimulation (DBS) in the nucleus accumbens shell on cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine seeking, an animal model of relapse. Rats were allowed to self-administer cocaine (0.254 mg, i.v.) for 2 h daily for 21 days, with each infusion of cocaine being paired with a cue light. After 21 days of self-administration, cocaine-taking behavior was extinguished by replacing cocaine with saline in the absence of the cue light. Next, during the reinstatement phase, DBS was administered bilaterally into the nucleus accumbens shell through bipolar stainless steel electrodes immediately prior to re-exposure to cues previously associated with cocaine reinforcement. DBS continued throughout the 2 h reinstatement session. Parallel studies examined the influence of accumbens shell DBS on reinstatement induced by cues previously associated with sucrose reinforcement. Results indicated that DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell significantly attenuated cue-induced reinstatement of cocaine and sucrose seeking. Together, these results indicate that DBS of the accumbens shell disrupts cue-induced reinstatement associated with both a drug and a natural reinforcer.

  17. boc-Aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone attenuates mitochondrial release of cytochrome c and delays brain tissue loss after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, Robert S B; Nathaniel, Paula D; Zhang, Xiaopeng; Dixon, C Edward; Alber, Sean M; Watkins, Simon C; Melick, John A; Kochanek, Patrick M; Graham, Steven H

    2007-02-01

    The pathobiology of traumatic brain injury (TBI) includes activation of multiple caspases followed by cell death with a spectrum of apoptotic phenotypes. There are initiator (e.g. caspase-2, -8, and -9) and effector (e.g. caspase-3 and -7) caspases. Recently, caspase-2 and -8 have been shown to regulate cell death via provoking cytochrome c release from the mitochondria upstream of caspase-9. Here, we show that an intracerebral injection of the pan-caspase inhibitor boc-Aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone (BAF; 1 micromol) 1 min after TBI in rats reduces caspase-3-like activity, terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick-end labeling (TUNEL) and tissue damage, and cytochrome c release in ipsilateral cortex at 24 h versus vehicle. To investigate whether either caspase-2 and/or caspase-8 activation may contribute to cytochrome release, the effect of BAF treatment on caspase-2 and caspase-8 proteolysis was also examined. boc-aspartyl(OMe)-fluoromethylketone treatment inhibited proteolysis of caspase-2 but not caspase-8 24 h after TBI in rats versus vehicle. However, BAF with or without nerve growth factor (12.5 ng/h x 14 days intracerebrally via osmotic pump) did not result in differences in motor function, Morris water maze performance, hippocampal neuron survival, nor contusion volume at 14 days. These data suggest that BAF treatment reduces acute cell death after TBI by inhibiting mitochondrial release of cytochrome c, possibly via a mechanism involving initiator caspases; however, BAF appears to delay cell death, rather than result in permanent protection.

  18. Serum metabolites from walnut-fed aged rats attenuate stress-induced neurotoxicity in brain cells in vitro

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The shift in equilibrium towards excess reactive oxygen or nitrogen species production from innate antioxidant defense in brain is a critical factor in the declining neural functions and cognitive deficits accompanying age. In aging, there are noticeable alterations in the membrane microenvironment,...

  19. Hyperbaric oxygen therapy or hydroxycobalamin attenuates surges in brain interstitial lactate and glucose; and hyperbaric oxygen improves respiratory status in cyanide-intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Lawson-Smith, P; Olsen, N V; Hyldegaard, O

    2011-01-01

    Cyanide (CN) intoxication inhibits cellular oxidative metabolism and may result in brain damage. Hydroxycobalamin (OHCob) is one among other antidotes that may be used following intoxication with CN. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO2) is recommended when supportive measures or antidotes fail. However, the effect of hydroxycobalamin or HBO2 on brain lactate and glucose concentrations during CN intoxication is unknown. We used intracerebral microdialysis to study the in vivo effect of hydroxycobalamin or HBO2 treatment on acute CN-induced deterioration in brain metabolism. Anesthetized rats were allocated to four groups receiving potassium CN (KCN) 5.4 mg/kg or vehicle intra-arterially: 1) vehicle-treated control rats; 2) KCN-poisoned rats; 3) KCN-poisoned rats receiving hydroxycobalamin (25 mg); and 4) KCN-poisoned rats treated with HBO2 (284 kPa for 90 minutes). KCN alone caused a prompt increase in interstitial brain lactate and glucose concentrations peaking at 60 minutes. Both hydroxycobalamin and HBO2 abolished KCN-induced increases in brain lactate and glucose concentration. However, whereas HBO2 treatment increased cerebral PtO2 and reduced respiratory distress and cyanosis, OHCob did not have this beneficial effect. In conclusion, CN intoxication in anesthetized rats produces specific uncoupling of cerebral oxidative metabolism resulting in interstitial lactate and glucose surges that may be ameliorated by treatment with either hydroxycobalamin or HBO2.

  20. Rose oil (from Rosa × damascena Mill.) vapor attenuates depression-induced oxidative toxicity in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Kozlu, Süleyman; Yorgancıgil, Emre; Uğuz, Abdülhadi Cihangir; Karakuş, Kadir

    2013-01-01

    Oxidative stress is a critical route of damage in various physiological stress-induced disorders, including depression. Rose oil may be a useful treatment for depression because it contains flavonoids which include free radical antioxidant compounds such as rutin and quercetin. We investigated the effects of absolute rose oil (from Rosa × damascena Mill.) and experimental depression on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant levels in the cerebral cortex of rats. Thirty-two male rats were randomly divided into four groups. The first group was used as control, while depression was induced in the second group using chronic mild stress (CMS). Oral (1.5 ml/kg) and vapor (0.15 ml/kg) rose oil were given for 28 days to CMS depression-induced rats, constituting the third and fourth groups, respectively. The sucrose preference test was used weekly to identify depression-like phenotypes during the experiment. At the end of the experiment, cerebral cortex samples were taken from all groups. The lipid peroxidation levels in the cerebral cortex in the CMS group were higher than in control whereas their levels were decreased by rose oil vapor exposure. The vitamin A, vitamin E, vitamin C and β-carotene concentrations in the cerebral cortex were lower in the CMS group than in the control group whereas their concentrations were higher in the rose oil vapor plus CMS group. The CMS-induced antioxidant vitamin changes were not modulated by oral treatment. Glutathione peroxidase activity and reduced glutathione did not change statistically in the four groups following CMS or either treatment. In conclusion, experimental depression is associated with elevated oxidative stress while treatment with rose oil vapor induced protective effects on oxidative stress in depression.

  1. Melatonin attenuates methamphetamine-induced reduction of tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin and growth-associated protein-43 levels in the neonatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kaewsuk, Sukit; Sae-ung, Kwankanit; Phansuwan-Pujito, Pansiri; Govitrapong, Piyarat

    2009-11-01

    Methamphetamine (METH) is a most commonly abused drug which damages nerve terminals by causing formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS), apoptosis, and finally neuronal damage. Fetal exposure to neurotoxic METH causes significant behavioral effects. The developing fetus is substantially deficient in most antioxidative enzymes, and may therefore be at high risk from both endogenous and drug-enhanced oxidative stress. Little is known about the effects of METH on vesicular proteins such as synaptophysin and growth-associated protein 43 (GAP-43) in the immature brain. The present study attempted to investigate the effects of METH-induced neurotoxicity in the dopaminergic system of the neonatal rat brain. Neonatal rats were subcutaneously exposed to 5-10mg/kg METH daily from postnatal day 4-10 for 7 consecutive days. The results showed that tyrosine hydroxylase enzyme levels were significantly decreased in the dorsal striatum, prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens and substantia nigra, synaptophysin levels decreased in the striatum and prefrontal cortex and growth-associated protein-43 (GAP-43) levels significantly decreased in the nucleus accumbens of neonatal rats. Pretreatment with 2mg/kg melatonin 30 min prior to METH administration prevented METH-induced reduction in tyrosine hydroxylase, synaptophysin and growth-associated protein-43 protein levels in different brain regions. These results suggest that melatonin provides a protective effect against METH-induced nerve terminal degeneration in the immature rat brain probably via its antioxidant properties.

  2. Quercetin attenuates cell apoptosis in focal cerebral ischemia rat brain via activation of BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yao, Rui-Qin; Qi, Da-Shi; Yu, Hong-Li; Liu, Jing; Yang, Li-Hua; Wu, Xiu-Xiang

    2012-12-01

    Many studies have demonstrated that apoptosis play an important role in cerebral ischemic pathogenesis and may represent a target for treatment. Neuroprotective effect of quercetin has been shown in a variety of brain injury models including ischemia/reperfusion. It is not clear whether BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway mediates the neuroprotection of quercetin, though there has been some reports on the quercetin increased brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) level in brain injury models. We therefore first examined the neurological function, infarct volume and cell apoptosis in quercetin treated middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) rats. Then the protein expression of BDNF, cleaved caspase-3 and p-Akt were evaluated in either the absence or presence of PI3K inhibitor (LY294002) or tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptor antagonist (K252a) by immunohistochemistry staining and western blotting. Quercetin significantly improved neurological function, while it decreased the infarct volume and the number of TdT mediated dUTP nick end labeling positive cells in MCAO rats. The protein expression of BDNF, TrkB and p-Akt also increased in the quercetin treated rats. However, treatment with LY294002 or K252a reversed the quercetin-induced increase of BDNF and p-Akt proteins and decrease of cleaved caspase-3 protein in focal cerebral ischemia rats. These results demonstrate that quercetin can decrease cell apoptosis in the focal cerebral ischemia rat brain and the mechanism may be related to the activation of BDNF-TrkB-PI3K/Akt signaling pathway.

  3. SGLT2-inhibitor and DPP-4 inhibitor improve brain function via attenuating mitochondrial dysfunction, insulin resistance, inflammation, and apoptosis in HFD-induced obese rats.

    PubMed

    Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Tanajak, Pongpan; Kerdphoo, Sasiwan; Jaiwongkam, Thidarat; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2017-10-15

    Dipeptidyl peptidase-4 inhibitor (vildagliptin) has been shown to exert beneficial effects on insulin sensitivity and neuroprotection in obese-insulin resistance. Recent studies demonstrated the neuroprotection of the sodium-glucose co-transporter 2 inhibitor (dapagliflozin) in diabetes. However, the comparative effects of both drugs and a combination of two drugs on metabolic dysfunction and brain dysfunction impaired by the obese-insulin resistance have never been investigated. Forty male Wistar rats were divided into two groups, and received either a normal-diet (ND, n=8) or a high-fat diet (HFD, n=32) for 16weeks. At week 13, the HFD-fed rats were divided into four subgroups (n=8/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle, vildagliptin (3mg/kg/day) dapagliflozin (1mg/kg/day) or combined drugs for four weeks. ND rats were given a vehicle for four weeks. Metabolic parameters and brain function were investigated. The results demonstrated that HFD rats developed obese-insulin resistance and cognitive decline. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy on improved peripheral insulin sensitivity and reduced weight gain than vildagliptin. Single therapy resulted in equally improved brain mitochondrial function, insulin signaling, apoptosis and prevented cognitive decline. However, only dapagliflozin improved hippocampal synaptic plasticity. A combination of the drugs had greater efficacy in improving brain insulin sensitivity and reducing brain oxidative stress than the single drug therapy. These findings suggested that dapagliflozin and vildagliptin equally prevented cognitive decline in the obese-insulin resistance, possibly through some similar mechanisms. Dapagliflozin had greater efficacy than vildagliptin for preserving synaptic plasticity, thus combined drugs could be the best therapeutic approach for neuroprotection in the obese-insulin resistance. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Cysteamine attenuates iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) induced dyskinesia in rats.

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Al-Deeb, S; Al-Moutairy, K; Ahmad Khan, H

    1995-12-01

    The present investigation was undertaken to study the effect of cysteamine on experimental dyskinesia in rats. The movement disorders were produced by intraperitoneal administration of iminodipropionitrile (IDPN) in the dose of 100 mg/kg per day for 11 days. Cysteamine was administered (i.p.), daily 30 minutes before IDPN in the doses of 25 mg/kg, 50 mg/kg and 100 mg/kg bodyweight in three different groups of rats. Twenty four hours after the last dose of IDPN, animals were observed for neurobehavioural changes including vertical and horizontal head weaving, circling, backwalking, grip strength and righting reflex. Immediately after behavioural studies brain specimens were collected for analysis of vitamin E and total glutathione levels. The results of behavioural studies showed that co-treatment with cysteamine protected rats against IDPN-induced dyskinesia. Our biochemical studies showed that IDPN produced a depletion of vitamin E in cerebrum, cerebellum and brain stem. Concomitant treatment with cysteamine in doses of 50 and 100 mg/kg attenuated IDPN-induced decrease in vitamin E in cerebrum and cerebellum. There was a significant decrease in cerebral glutathione in IDPN treated rats, which was attenuated by cysteamine. No significant change was observed in the glutathione levels in cerebellum and brain stem. Further studies are deemed necessary to elucidate the mode of action of cysteamine and to determine therapeutic and/or prophylactic value of this drug in the treatment of movement disorders.

  5. [Attenuation of inhibitory influence of hormones on adenylyl cyclase systems in the myocardium and brain of rats with obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus and effect of intranasal insulin on it].

    PubMed

    Kuznetsova, L A; Plesneva, S A; Sharova, T S; Pertseva, M N; Shpakov, A O

    2014-01-01

    The functional state of the adenylyl cyclase signaling system (ACSS) and its regulation by hormones, the inhibitors of adenylyl cyclase (AC)--somatostatin (SST) in the brain and myocardium and 5-nonyloxytryptamine (5-NOT) in the brain of rats of different ages (5- and 7-month-old) with experimental obesity and a combination of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM2), and the effect of long-term treatment of animals with intranasally administered insulin (II) on ACSS were studied. It was shown that the basal AC activity in rats with obesity and DM2 was increased in the myocardium, and to the lesser extent in the brain, the treatment with II reducing this parameter. The AC stimulating effects of forskolin are decreased in the myocardium, but not in the brain, of rats with obesity and DM2. The treatment with II restored the AC action of forskolin in the 7-month-old animals, but has little effect on it in the 5-month-old rats. In obesity the basal AC activity and its stimulation by forskolin varied insignificantly and weakly changed in treatment of animals with II. The AC inhibitory effects of SST and 5-NOT in the investigated pathology are essentially attenuated, the effect of SST to the greatest extent, which we believe to be associated with a reduction in the functional activity of Gi-proteins. The II treatment of animals with obesity and with a combination of obesity and DM2 restored completely or partially the AC inhibiting effects of hormones, to the greatest extent in the brain. Since impaired functioning of ACSS is one of the causes of the metabolic syndrome and DM2, their elimination by treatments with II can be an effective approach to treat these diseases and their CNS and cardiovascular system complications.

  6. The neurotoxicity of β-amyloid peptide toward rat brain is associated with enhanced oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptosis, all of which can be attenuated by scutellarin.

    PubMed

    Guo, Li-Li; Guan, Zhi-Zhong; Huang, Yong; Wang, Yong-Lin; Shi, Jin-Shan

    2013-07-01

    This study was designed to investigate the processes underlying the neurotoxicity induced by β-amyloid peptide (Aβ) in the rat brain, as well as to examine whether scutellarin (Scu) can prevent this neurotoxicity. Thirty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e., untreated (control), treated with Aβ and treated with both Aβ and Scu. The treated rats were subjected to bilateral intracerebroventricular injection of Aβ(25-35) with or without subsequent dietary exposure to Scu. Learning and memory were assessed with the Morris water maze test; the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and monoamine oxidase (MAO) were assayed biochemically; expression of the interleukin-1β (IL-1β), interleukin-6 (IL-6) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) proteins was determined by immunohistochemistry; and neuronal apoptosis was detected with Annexin staining followed by flow cytometry. The animals treated with Aβ exhibited impaired learning and memory; reduced SOD and elevated MAO activity, elevated protein levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α; and a higher percentage of apoptotic neurons in the brain. Interestingly, all of these effects were ameliorated by administration of Scu. These findings indicate that the deficits in learning and memory demonstrated by the rats receiving Aβ are due to elevated oxidative stress and inflammation, which result in apoptosis and that Scu may prevent these deleterious effects. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier GmbH. All rights reserved.

  7. C1q/Tumor Necrosis Factor-Related Protein-3 Attenuates Brain Injury after Intracerebral Hemorrhage via AMPK-Dependent Pathway in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shaohua; Zhou, Yang; Yang, Bo; Li, Lingyu; Yu, Shanshan; Chen, Yanlin; Zhu, Jin; Zhao, Yong

    2016-01-01

    C1q/tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-related protein-3 (CTRP3) is a recently discovered adiponectin paralog with established metabolic regulatory properties. However, the role of CTRP3 in intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH) is still mostly unresolved. The aim of the present report was to explore the possible neuroprotective effect of CTRP3 in an ICH rat model and to elucidate the fundamental mechanisms. ICH was induced in rats by intracerebral infusion of autologous arterial blood. The effects of exogenous CTRP3 (recombinant or lentivirus CTRP3) on brain injury were explored on day 7. Treatment with CTRP3 reduced brain edema, protected against disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB), improved neurological functions and promoted angiogenesis. Furthermore, CTRP3 greatly intensified phosphorylation of AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) in addition to expression of hypoxia inducing factor-1α (HIF-1α) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF). Finally, the protective effects of CTRP3 could be blocked by either AMPK or VEGF inhibitors. Our findings give the first evidence that CTRP3 is a new proangiogenic and neuroprotective adipokine, which may exert its protective effects at least partly through an AMPK/HIF-1α/ VEGF-dependent pathway, and suggest that CTRP3 may provide a new therapeutic strategy for ICH. PMID:27807406

  8. Nerve growth factor administration attenuates cognitive but not neurobehavioral motor dysfunction or hippocampal cell loss following fluid-percussion brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Sinson, G; Voddi, M; McIntosh, T K

    1995-11-01

    Lateral fluid-percussion brain injury in rats results in cognitive deficits, motor dysfunction, and selective hippocampal cell loss. Neurotrophic factors have been shown to have potential therapeutic applications in neurodegenerative diseases, and nerve growth factor (NGF) has been shown to be neuroprotective in models of excitotoxicity. This study evaluated the neuroprotective efficacy of intracerebral NGF infusion after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received lateral fluid-percussion brain injury of moderate severity (2.1-2.3 atm). A miniosmotic pump was implanted 24 h after injury to infuse NGF (n = 34) or vehicle (n = 16) directly into the region of maximal cortical injury. Infusions of NGF continued until the animal was killed at 72 h, 1 week, or 2 weeks after injury. Animals were evaluated for cognitive dysfunction (Morris Water Maze) and regional neuronal cell loss (Nissl staining) at each of the three time points. Animals surviving for 1 or 2 weeks were also evaluated for neurobehavioral motor function. Although an improvement in memory scores was not observed at 72 h after injury, animals receiving NGF infusions showed significantly improved memory scores when tested at 1 or 2 weeks after injury compared with injured animals receiving vehicle infusions (p < 0.05). Motor scores and CA3 hippocampal cell loss were not significantly different in any group of NGF-treated animals when compared with controls. These data suggest that NGF administration, in the acute, posttraumatic period following fluid-percussion brain injury, may have potential in improving post-traumatic cognitive deficits.

  9. N-acetylcysteine attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced impairment in lamination of Ctip2-and Tbr1- expressing cortical neurons in the developing rat fetal brain

    PubMed Central

    Chao, Ming-Wei; Chen, Chie-Pein; Yang, Yu-Hsiu; Chuang, Yu-Chen; Chu, Tzu-Yun; Tseng, Chia-Yi

    2016-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammatory insults are the major instigating events of bacterial intrauterine infection that lead to fetal brain injury. The purpose of this study is to investigate the remedial effects of N-acetyl-cysteine (NAC) for inflammation-caused deficits in brain development. We found that lipopolysaccharide (LPS) induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production by RAW264.7 cells. Macrophage-conditioned medium caused noticeable cortical cell damage, specifically in cortical neurons. LPS at 25 μg/kg caused more than 75% fetal loss in rats. An increase in fetal cortical thickness was noted in the LPS-treated group. In the enlarged fetal cortex, laminar positioning of the early born cortical cells expressing Tbr1 and Ctip2 was disrupted, with a scattered distribution. The effect was similar, but minor, in later born Satb2-expressing cortical cells. NAC protected against LPS-induced neuron toxicity in vitro and counteracted pregnancy loss and alterations in thickness and lamination of the neocortex in vivo. Fetal loss and abnormal fetal brain development were due to LPS-induced ROS production. NAC is an effective protective agent against LPS-induced damage. This finding highlights the key therapeutic impact of NAC in LPS-caused abnormal neuronal laminar distribution during brain development. PMID:27577752

  10. Resveratrol Attenuates Behavioral Impairments and Reduces Cortical and Hippocampal Loss in a Rat Controlled Cortical Impact Model of Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Richard H.; Yan, Hong Q.; Fellows-Mayle, Wendy

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Resveratrol (3,5,4′-trihydroxystilbene) is a plant-derived small molecule that is protective against multiple neurological and systemic insults. To date, no studies have explored the potential for resveratrol to provide behavioral protection in adult animals in the setting of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Using 50 male Sprague-Dawley rats, we employed the controlled cortical impact (CCI) model to ascertain whether post-injury administration of resveratrol would reduce the severity of the well-described cognitive and motor deficits associated with the model. Contusion volumes and hippocampal neuronal numbers were also measured to characterize the tissue and neuronal-sparing properties, respectively, of resveratrol. We found that 100 mg/kg, but not 10 mg/kg, of intraperitoneal resveratrol administered after injury provides significant behavioral protection in rats sustaining CCI. Specifically, rodents treated with 100 mg/kg of resveratrol showed improvements in motor performance (beam balance and beam walking) and testing of visuospatial memory (Morris water maze). Behavioral protection was correlated with significantly reduced contusion volumes, preservation of CA1 and CA3 hippocampal neurons, and protection from overt hippocampal loss as a result of incorporation into the overlying cortical contusion in resveratrol-treated animals. Although the mechanisms by which resveratrol mediates its neuroprotection is unclear, the current study adds to the growing literature identifying resveratrol as a potential therapy for human brain injury. PMID:20560755

  11. Pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures affect the levels of prolyl oligopeptidase, thimet oligopeptidase and glial proteins in rat brain regions, and attenuation by MK-801 pretreatment.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, M Mahiuddin; Arif, Mohammad; Chikuma, Toshiyuki; Kato, Takeshi

    2005-09-01

    The regulatory mechanisms of neuropeptide-metabolizing enzymes often play a critical role in the pathogenesis of neuronal damage. A systemic administration of pentylenetetrazol (PTZ), an antagonist of GABA(A) receptor ion channel binding site, causes generalized epilepsy in an animal model. In the present study, we examined the involvement of prolyl oligopeptidase (POP), thimet oligopeptidase/neurolysin (EP 24.15/16) and glial proteins in PTZ-treated rat brain regions, and the suppressive effect of MK-801, a non-competitive NMDA receptor antagonist, pretreatment for their proteins. The activity of POP significantly decreased in the hippocampus at 30min and 3h, and in the frontal cortex at 3h after PTZ treatment, and pretreatment with MK-801 recovered the activity in the cortex at 3h. The activity of EP 24.15/16 significantly decreased in the hippocampus at 3h and 1 day, and in the cortex at 3h after the PTZ administration, whereas pretreatment with MK-801 recovered the change of the activity. The Western blot analysis of EP 24.15 showed significant decrease of the protein level in the hippocampus 3h after the PTZ treatment, whereas pretreatment with MK-801 recovered. The expression of GFAP and CD11b immunohistochemically increased in the hippocampus of the PTZ-treated rat as compared with controls. Pretreatment with MK-801 also recovered the GFAP and CD11b expression. These data suggest that PTZ-induced seizures of the rats cause indirect activation of glutamate NMDA receptors, then decrease POP and EP 24.15/16 enzyme activities and EP 24.15 immunoreactivity in the neuronal cells of the hippocampal formation. We speculate that changes of those peptidases in the brain may be related to the levels of the neuropeptides regulating PTZ-induced seizures.

  12. Compensation for non-uniform attenuation in SPECT brain imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Glick, S.J.; King, M.A.; Pan, T.S.

    1994-05-01

    Photon attenuation is a major limitation in performing quantitative SPECT brain imaging. A number of methods have been proposed for compensation of attenuation in regions of the body that can be modelled as a uniform attenuator. The magnitude of the errors introduced into reconstructed brain images by assuming the head to be a uniform attenuator are uncertain (the skull, sinus cavities and head holder all have different attenuation properties than brain tissue). Brain imaging is unique in that the radioisotope, for the most part, is taken up within a uniform attenuation medium (i.e., brain tissue) which is surrounded by bone (i.e., the skull) of a different density. Using this observation, Bellini`s method for attenuation compensation (which is an exact solution to the exponential Radon transform) has been modified to account for the different attenuation properties of the skull. To test this modified Bellini method, a simple mathematical phantom was designed to model the brain and a skull of varying thickness less than 7.5 mm. To model brain imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO, the attenuation coefficient of the brain tissue and skull were set to 0.15 cm{sup -1} and 0.22 cm{sup -1} respectively. A ray-driven projector which accounted for non-uniform attenuation was used to simulate projection data from 128 views. The detector response and scatter were not simulated. It was observed that reconstructions processed with uniform attenuation compensation (i.e., where it was assumed that the brain tissue and the skull had the same attenuation coefficient) provided errors of 6-20%, whereas those processed with the non-uniform Bellini algorithm were biased by only 0-5%.

  13. Ampelopsin attenuates brain aging of D-gal-induced rats through miR-34a-mediated SIRT1/mTOR signal pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xianbing; Li, Jie; Yang, Xiaoqi; Fan, Jingjing; Yang, Yi; Chen, Ning

    2016-01-01

    The underlying molecular mechanisms for aging-related neurodegenerative diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) are not fully understood. Currently, growing evidences have revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) are involved in aging and aging-related diseases. The up-regulation of miR-34a has been reported to be associated with aging-related diseases, and thus it should be a promising therapeutic target. Ampelopsin, also called dihydromyricetin (DHM), a natural flavonoid from Chinese herb Ampelopsis grossedentata, has been reported to possess multiple pharmacological functions including anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-cancer functions. Meanwhile, it has also gained tremendous attention against neurodegenerative diseases as an anti-aging compound. In the present study, the model rats with D-gal-induced brain aging revealed an obvious expression of miR-34a; in contrast, it could be significantly suppressed upon DHM treatment. In addition, target genes associated with miR-34a in the presence of DHM treatment were also explored. DHM supplementation inhibited D-gal-induced apoptosis and rescued impaired autophagy of neurons in hippocampus tissue. Moreover, DHM activated autophagy through up-regulated SIRT1 and down-regulated mTOR signal pathways due to the down-regulated miR-34a. In conclusion, DHM can execute the prevention and treatment of D-gal-induced brain aging by miR-34a-mediated SIRT1-mTOR signal pathway. PMID:27780933

  14. Hyperforin attenuates brain damage induced by transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) in rats via inhibition of TRPC6 channels degradation.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yun; Zhang, Jian-Cheng; Fu, Jun; Chen, Fang; Wang, Jie; Wu, Zhi-Lin; Yuan, Shi-Ying

    2013-02-01

    Hyperforin, a lipophilic constituent of medicinal herb St John's wort, has been identified as the main active ingredient of St John's wort extract for antidepressant action by experimental and clinical studies. Hyperforin is currently known to activate transient receptor potential canonical (subtype) 6 (TRPC6) channel, increase the phosphorylated CREB (p-CREB), and has N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor-antagonistic effect that convert potential neuroprotective effects in vitro. However, the protective effects of hyperforin on ischemic stroke in vivo remain controversial and its neuroprotective mechanisms are still unclear. This study was designed to examine the effects of intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of hyperforin on transient focal cerebral ischemia in rats. Hyperforin, when applied immediately after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) onset, significantly reduced infarct volumes and apoptotic cells, and also increased neurologic scores at 24 hours after reperfusion accompanied by elevated TRPC6 and p-CREB activity and decreased SBDP145 activity. When MEK or CaMKIV activity was specifically inhibited, the neuroprotective effect of hyperforin was attenuated, and we observed a correlated decrease in CREB activity. In conclusion, our results clearly showed that i.c.v. injection of hyperforin immediately after MCAO onset blocked calpain-mediated TRPC6 channels degradation, and then to stimulate the Ras/MEK/ERK and CaMKIV pathways that converge on CREB activation, contributed to neuroprotection.

  15. Nanostructures of hydrated C60 fullerene (C60HyFn) protect rat brain against alcohol impact and attenuate behavioral impairments of alcoholized animals.

    PubMed

    Tykhomyrov, Artem A; Nedzvetsky, Victor S; Klochkov, Vladimir K; Andrievsky, Grigory V

    2008-04-18

    It is well known that chronic ethyl alcohol (EtOH) consumption is capable to injure brain cells and to cause essential abnormalities in behavioral characteristics of animals addicted to alcohol. In this work we for the first time have shown that administration of aqueous solutions of hydrated C60 fullerenes (C60HyFn) with C60 concentration of 30nM as a drinking water during chronic alcoholization of rats (a) protects the tissues of central nervous system (CNS) from damage caused by oxidative stress with high efficacy, (b) prevents the pathological loss of both astrocytes (the main cells of CNS) and astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic proteins (GFAP) and, as consequence, (c) due to their adaptogenic effects, C60HyFn significantly improves behavioral response and eliminates emotional deficits induced by chronic alcohol uptake. The wide range of beneficial biological effects, zero-toxicity, and efficacy even in super-small doses provide a rationale for the possible application of C60HyFn for the treatment of alcohol-induced encephalopathy as well as alcoholism prophylaxis.

  16. CT scanning phantom for normalization of infant brain attenuation.

    PubMed

    Thompson, J R; Triolo, P J; Moore, R J; Hinshaw, D B; Hasso, A N

    1984-01-01

    The x-ray attenuation values of brain studied with computed tomography (CT) are strikingly affected by the ages of the subjects. Premature neonates, for example, may have brain attenuation values 20-30 H below adult values. These lower attenuation values for developing compared with adult brain can be ascribed partly to machine-related effects (beam-hardening, adult algorithms, scanning geometry, etc.). A scanning phantom made from aluminum was developed that can be used to develop a nomogram for any particular scanner from which normalized brain attenuation may be derived for any small head size. Using this nomogram, predicted neonatal attenuations are still 10-15 H higher than those actually observed in scanning neonates. The model predicts that, at the most, 3-4 H of this discrepancy can be accounted for by less beam-hardening from the lower bone attenuation of the thinner developing skull. Presumably, the rest is from a lower brain density in neonates (higher water content). By normalizing to cerebrospinal fluid (water) with special care to avoid partial-volume artifacts, one can predict attenuation values for developing brain more accurately.

  17. G-CSF Attenuates Neuroinflammation and Stabilizes the Blood-Brain Barrier via the PI3K/Akt/GSK-3β Signaling Pathway Following Neonatal Hypoxia-Ischemia in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; McBride, W.; Doycheva, Desislava; Dixon, Brandon J.; Krafft, Paul R.; Zhang, John H.; Tang, Jiping

    2015-01-01

    Objective Neonatal hypoxia occurs in approximately 60% of premature births and is associated with a multitude of neurological disorders. While various treatments have been developed, translating them from bench to bedside has been limited. We previously showed G-CSF administration was neuroprotective in a neonatal hypoxia-ischemia rat pup model, leading us to hypothesize that G-CSF inactivation of GSK-3β via the PI3K/Akt pathway may attenuate neuroinflammation and stabilize the Blood-Brain Barrier (BBB). Methods P10 Sprague-Dawley rat pups were subjected to unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by hypoxia for 2.5 hours. We assessed inflammation by measuring expression levels of IKKβ, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-10, and IL-12, as well as neutrophil infiltration. BBB stabilization was evaluated by measuring Evans blue extravasation, and Western blot analysis of Claudin-3, Claudin-5, ICAM-1 and VCAM-1. Measurements and Main Results First, the time course study showed that p-β-Catenin/β-Catenin, IKKβ, and NF-κB expression levels peaked at 48 hours post-HI. Knockdown of GSK-3β with siRNA prevented the HI-induced increase of p-β-Catenin/β-Catenin, IKKβ, and NF-κB expression levels 48 hours after HI. G-CSF treatment reduced brain water content and neuroinflammation by downregulating IKKβ, NF-κB, TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-12 and upregulating IL-10, thereby reducing neutrophil infiltration. Additionally, G-CSF stabilizes the BBB by downregulating VCAM-1 and ICAM-1, as well as upregulating Claudins 3 and 5 in endothelial cells. G-CSFR knockdown by siRNA and Akt inhibition by Wortmannin reversed G-CSF’s neuroprotective effects. Conclusions We demonstrate G-CSF plays a pivotal role in attenuating neuroinflammation and BBB disruption following HI by inactivating GSK-3β through the PI3K/Akt pathway. PMID:25585014

  18. Onion (Allium cepa) extract attenuates brain edema.

    PubMed

    Hyun, Soo-Wang; Jang, Mi; Park, Se Won; Kim, Eun Joo; Jung, Yi-Sook

    2013-01-01

    This study investigated the potential beneficial effects of onion extract on brain ischemia-induced edema and blood-brain barrier (BBB) dysfunction. The possible underlying mechanisms are investigated, especially those linked to the antioxidant effects of the onion extract. Brain ischemia was induced by middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 2 h followed by reperfusion in mice. Mice were treated intravenously with onion extract 30 min before MCAO. Brain edema and BBB hyperpermeability were evaluated by the measurement of the brain water content and Evans blue extravasation, respectively. The disruption of tight junction proteins was examined by immunohistochemical staining. The level of malondialdehyde was determined using the thiobarbituric acid method. The activities of glutathione peroxidase and catalase were determined by spectrophotometric assay. Brain water content in the ischemic hemisphere was significantly reduced by treatment with onion extract. Onion extract also had a significant effect on both the decrease in Evans blue extravasation and the inhibition of zonula occludens-1 and occludin disruption caused by brain ischemia. In addition, onion extract significantly prevented brain ischemia-induced reduction in catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities and elevation of malondialdehyde level in the brain tissue. The results from this study demonstrate that onion extract prevents brain edema, BBB hyperpermeability, and tight junction proteins disruption, possibly through its antioxidant effects in the mouse MCAO model. This study suggests that onion extract may be a beneficial nutrient for the prevention of BBB function during brain ischemia. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  19. Backscatter and attenuation properties of mammalian brain tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wijekularatne, Pushpani Vihara

    Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a common category of brain injuries, which contributes to a substantial number of deaths and permanent disability all over the world. Ultrasound technology plays a major role in tissue characterization due to its low cost and portability that could be used to bridge a wide gap in the TBI diagnostic process. This research addresses the ultrasonic properties of mammalian brain tissues focusing on backscatter and attenuation. Orientation dependence and spatial averaging of data were analyzed using the same method resulting from insertion of tissue sample between a transducer and a reference reflector. Apparent backscatter transfer function (ABTF) at 1 to 10 MHz, attenuation coefficient and backscatter coefficient (BSC) at 1 to 5 MHz frequency ranges were measured on ovine brain tissue samples. The resulting ABTF was a monotonically decreasing function of frequency and the attenuation coefficient and BSC generally were increasing functions of frequency, results consistent with other soft tissues such as liver, blood and heart.

  20. Attenuation of the seizure-induced expression of BDNF mRNA in adult rat brain by an inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases.

    PubMed

    Murray, K D; Hayes, V Y; Gall, C M; Isackson, P J

    1998-01-01

    We have examined the potential involvement of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinases in the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in vivo following kainic acid (kainate)-induced seizure activity by in situ hybridization. KN-62, a specific inhibitor of calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II and IV, blocked the characteristic induction of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA seen following seizure activity. This blockade was specific to calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II and IV as inhibitors of both protein kinase C and cAMP-dependent protein kinase had no effect. Inhibition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA increases varied between brain regions; an almost complete inhibition was seen throughout cortical regions, whereas only partial inhibitory effects were noted within hippocampus. A similar inhibition of increased c-fos mRNA was observed throughout cortical, hippocampal and diencephalic regions. The two predominant brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts induced by kainate, containing exons I or III, were differentially affected by KN-62. The cortical induction of exon I was blocked by KN-62, whereas exon III was not, providing additional evidence for the differential regulation of individual brain-derived neurotrophic factor transcripts and demonstrating that inhibition of brain-derived neurotrophic factor induction was not due to general blockade of seizure activity throughout the neocortex. These data implicate calcium/calmodulin-dependent protein kinase type II or IV in the regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor mRNA in vivo and suggest regionally specific mechanisms occur throughout the brain.

  1. Effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dong-fu; Zhu, Zhi-an; Lu, Yi-cheng

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema and explore its possible mechanism. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control, Trauma and Treatment groups. In Treatment group, magnesium sulfate was intraperitoneally administered immediately after the induction of brain trauma. At 24 h after trauma, total tissue water content and Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) contents were measured. Permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) was assessed quantitatively by Evans Blue (EB) dye technique. The pathological changes were also studied. Water, Na(+), Ca(2+) and EB contents in Treatment group were significantly lower than those in Trauma group (P<0.05). Results of light microscopy and electron microscopy confirmed that magnesium sulfate can attenuate traumatic brain injury and relieve BBB injury. Treatment with MgSO4 in the early stage can attenuate traumatic brain edema and prevent BBB injury.

  2. MLKL inhibition attenuates hypoxia-ischemia induced neuronal damage in developing brain.

    PubMed

    Qu, Yi; Shi, Jing; Tang, Ying; Zhao, Fengyan; Li, Shiping; Meng, Junjie; Tang, Jun; Lin, Xuemei; Peng, Xiaodong; Mu, Dezhi

    2016-05-01

    Mixed lineage kinase domain-like protein (MLKL) is a critical molecule mediating cell necroptosis. However, its role in brain injury remains obscure. We first investigated the functions and mechanisms of MLKL in mediating neuronal damage in developing brain after hypoxia-ischemia. Neuronal necroptosis was induced by oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) plus caspase inhibitor zVAD treatment (OGD/zVAD). We found that two important necroptosis related proteins, receptor-interacting protein 1 and 3 (RIP1, RIP3) were upregulated. Furthermore, the interaction of RIP1-RIP3 with MLKL increased. Inhibition of MLKL through siRNA diminished RIP1-RIP3-MLKL interaction and attenuated neuronal death induced by OGD/zVAD. The translocation of oligomerized MLKL to the neuronal membrane leading to the injury of cellular membrane is the possible new mechanism of neuronal necroptosis. Animal experiment with neonatal rats further proved that MLKL inhibition attenuated brain damage induced by hypoxia-ischemia. These findings suggest that MLKL is a target to attenuate brain damage in developing brain.

  3. Geranylgeranylacetone preconditioning may attenuate heat-induced inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Yong-Qi; Gao, Jun-Tao; Liu, Shou-Hong; Wu, Yan; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Fan, Ming

    2010-01-01

    Geranylgeranylacetone, an acyclic isoprenoid, is a non-toxic inducer of heat shock protein (HSP)70. HSP70 overproduction is associated with heat tolerance in rats. This study aimed to investigate whether geranylgeranylacetone preconditioning of rats reduced heat-induced inflammation and multiple organ dysfunction. Anaesthetised rats were given vehicle or geranylgeranylacetone (800 mg/kg) orally. After 48 h they were exposed to ambient temperature of 43 degrees C for 70 min to induce heatstroke. Another group of rats kept at room temperature were used as normothermic controls. Vehicle-treated rats all succumbed to heat stress; their survival time was 25 +/- 4 min. Pretreatment with geranylgeranylacetone significantly increased survival time to 92 +/- 15 min. Compared with normothermic controls, all vehicle-treated heatstroke rats displayed hepatic and renal dysfunction (e.g. increased plasma levels of serum urea nitrogen, creatinine, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase and alkaline phosphatase) and active inflammation (e.g. increased plasma and brain levels of interleukin-1 beta, tumour necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin-6). These heat-stress response indicators were all significantly suppressed by geranylgeranylacetone pretreatment. In addition, the plasma and brain levels of interleukin-10 (an anti-inflammatory cytokine) and brain levels of HSP70 were significantly increased after geranylgeranylacetone preconditioning during heatstroke. Geranylgeranylacetone preconditioning attenuates heat-induced inflammation and multiorgan dysfunction in rats.

  4. Real-Ear Attenuation Testing System (RATS)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1991-01-01

    transmission of noise from outside the chamber through vibrations of the walls. The four walls of the new chamber are made up of two double layers of drywall ... drywall separated by 2’ x 10" joists and a layer of fiberglass blanket insulation. The edges of the new chamber and door frame are sealed with acoustic...amount of attenuation the Wil sonics attenuators must provide to obtain the minimum SPL is shown in row 9. Table 10 compares the maximum SPL required

  5. Platonin preserves blood-brain barrier integrity in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Tse; Kao, Ming-Chang; Chen, Cay-Huyen; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Platonin possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities. Because systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are crucial in mediating sepsis-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity loss, this study elucidated the effects of platonin on preserving BBB integrity in septic rats. A total of 72 adult male rats (200-250 g) were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), CLP plus platonin, sham operation, or sham operation plus platonin (n = 18 in each group). Systemic inflammation and oxidation levels and BBB integrity in the surviving rats were determined after 24-hour monitoring. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and malondialdehyde (MDA)-markers of systemic inflammation and oxidation-and the grading of Evans blue staining of the brains, BBB permeability to Evans blue dye, and brain edema levels-markers of BBB integrity-in rats that received CLP were significantly higher than rats that received sham operation (all p < 0.001). By contrast, the plasma levels of IL-6 (p < 0.001) and MDA (p < 0.001), and the grading of Evans blue staining (p = 0.015), BBB permeability to Evans blue dye (p = 0.043), and brain edema levels (p = 0.034) in rats that received CLP plus platonin were significantly lower than rats that received CLP. Experimental data further revealed that the concentration of tight junction protein claudin-5, a major structural component of BBB, in rats that received CLP was significantly lower than rats that received CLP plus platonin (p = 0.023). Platonin could attenuate sepsis-induced BBB integrity loss in rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  6. The rat brain hippocampus proteome.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Michael; Tsangaris, George T; Maris, Antony; Lubec, Gert

    2005-05-05

    The hippocampus is crucial in memory storage and retrieval and plays an important role in stress response. In humans, the CA1 area of hippocampus is one of the first brain areas to display pathology in Alzheimer's disease. A comprehensive analysis of the hippocampus proteome has not been accomplished yet. We applied proteomics technologies to construct a two-dimensional database for rat brain hippocampus proteins. Hippocampus samples from eight months old animals were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The database comprises 148 different gene products, which are in the majority enzymes, structural proteins and heat shock proteins. It also includes 39 neuron specific gene products. The database may be useful in animal model studies of neurological disorders.

  7. Prenatal tactile stimulation attenuates drug-induced behavioral sensitization, modifies behavior, and alters brain architecture.

    PubMed

    Muhammad, Arif; Kolb, Bryan

    2011-07-11

    Based on the findings of postnatal tactile stimulation (TS), a favorable experience in rats, the present study examined the influence of prenatal TS on juvenile behavior, adult amphetamine (AMPH) sensitization, and structural alteration in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) and the striatum. Female rats received TS through a baby hair brush throughout pregnancy, and the pups born were tested for open field locomotion, elevated plus maze (EPM), novel object recognition (NOR), and play fighting behaviors. Development and persistence of drug-induced behavioral sensitization in adults were tested by repeated AMPH administration and a challenge, respectively. Structural plasticity in the brain was assessed from the prefrontal cortical thickness and striatum size from serial coronal sections. The results indicate that TS females showed enhanced exploration in the open field. TS decreased the frequency of playful attacks whereas the response to face or evade an attack was not affected. Anxiety-like behavior and cognitive performance were not influenced by TS. AMPH administration resulted in gradual increase in locomotor activity (i.e., behavioral sensitization) that persisted at least for 2 weeks. However, both male and female TS rats exhibited attenuated AMPH sensitization compared to sex-matched controls. Furthermore, the drug-associated alteration in the prefrontal cortical thickness and striatum size observed in controls were prevented by TS experience. In summary, TS during prenatal development modified juvenile behavior, attenuated drug-induced behavioral sensitization in adulthood, and reorganized brain regions implicated in drug addiction. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Protocatechuic acid protects brain mitochondrial function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Semaming, Yoswaris; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Pintana, Hiranya; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in diabetic animals with neurodegeneration. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a major metabolite of anthocyanin, has been shown to exert glycemic control and oxidative stress reduction in the heart. However, its effects on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the brain under diabetic condition have never been investigated. We found that PCA exerted glycemic control, attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and contributes to the prevention of brain oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  9. A neurotensin analog, NT69L, attenuates intravenous nicotine self-administration in rats.

    PubMed

    Boules, Mona; Oliveros, Alfredo; Liang, Yanqi; Williams, Katrina; Shaw, Amanda; Robinson, Jessica; Fredrickson, Paul; Richelson, Elliott

    2011-02-01

    NT69L is a neurotensin analog that blocks nicotine-induced locomotor activity and has sustained efficacy in a rat model of nicotine-induced sensitization when administered peripherally. Additionally, NT69L attenuates food-reinforcement in rats. The present study tested the effect of acute administration of NT69L on nicotine self-infusion in Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were trained to self-infuse nicotine intravenously (0.03mg/kg per infusion) following operant training. Once the rats acquired stable responding to nicotine self-infusion they were pretreated with NT69L (1mg/kg, i.p.) or saline 30min before being assessed for nicotine self-infusion. Pretreatment with NT69L significantly attenuated nicotine self-infusion under FR1 (fixed ratio of 1) and FR5 schedule of reinforcement as compared to saline pretreatment. Control rats that were response-independent "yoked" as well as rats that self-infused saline or NT69L showed minimal responses, indicating that nicotine served as a reinforcer. Additionally, NT69L modulated serum corticosterone; brain norepinephrine serotonin; and dopamine receptors mRNA levels altered in the nicotine self-infused rats after a 24h withdrawal period. Pretreatment with NT69L significantly decreased the nicotine-induced increase in serum corticosterone levels and striatal norepinephrine and increased the nicotine-induced reduction in serotonin in both the striatum and the prefrontal cortex (PFC). NT69L might modulate dopamine neurotransmission implicated in the reinforcing effects of nicotine by modulating tyrosine hydroxylase and dopamine receptor mRNA levels in the PFC and striatum. These data support further study of the effects of NT analogs on attenuating the reinforcing effects of psychostimulants.

  10. Cerebrolysin attenuates cerebral and hepatic injury due to lipopolysaccharide in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Salam, O M E; Omara, E A; Mohammed, N A; Youness, E R; Khadrawy, Y A; Sleem, A A

    2013-12-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of cerebrolysin on oxidative stress in the brain and liver during systemic inflammation. Rats were intraperitoneally challenged with a single subseptic dose of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 300 μg/kg) without or with cerebrolysin at doses of 21.5, 43 or 86 mg/kg. After 4 h, rats were euthanized and the brain and liver tissues were subjected to biochemical and histopathological analyses. Cerebrolysin revealed inhibitory effects on the elevation of lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide induced by LPS. In contrast, the decrease in reduced glutathione level and paraoxonase activity induced by LPS was attenuated by an injection of cerebrolysin in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, cerebrolysin reduced LPS-induced activation of brain NF-κB and reversed LPS-induced decline of brain butyrylcholinesterase and acetylcholinesterase activities in a dose-dependent manner. Histopathological analyses revealed that neuronal damage and liver necrosis induced by LPS were ameliorated by cerebrolysin dose-dependently. Cerebrolysin treatment dose-dependently attenuated LPS-induced expressions in cyclooxygenase 2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, and caspase-3 in the cortex or striatum as well as the liver. These results suggest that cerebrolysin treatment might have beneficial therapeutic effects in cerebral inflammation. Cerebrolysin might also prove of value in liver disease and this possibility requires further exploration.

  11. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

    PubMed

    Okamura, Koichi; Tsubokawa, Tamiji; Johshita, Hiroo; Miyazaki, Hiroshi; Shiokawa, Yoshiaki

    2014-01-01

    Thrombolysis due to acute ischemic stroke is associated with the risk of hemorrhagic infarction, especially after reperfusion. Recent experimental studies suggest that the main mechanism contributing to hemorrhagic infarction is oxidative stress caused by disruption of the blood-brain barrier. Edaravone, a free radical scavenger, decreases oxidative stress, thereby preventing hemorrhagic infarction during ischemia and reperfusion. In this study, we investigated the effects of edaravone on hemorrhagic infarction in a rat model of hemorrhagic transformation. We used a previously established hemorrhagic transformation model of rats with hyperglycemia. Hyperglycemia was induced by intraperitoneal injection of glucose to all rats (n  =  20). The rats with hyperglycemia showed a high incidence of hemorrhagic infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) for 1.5 hours followed by reperfusion for 24 hours was performed in edaravone-treated rats (n  =  10) and control rats (n  =  10). Upon completion of reperfusion, both groups were evaluated for infarct size and hemorrhage volume and the results obtained were compared. Edaravone significantly decreased infarct volume, with the average infarct volume in the edaravone-treated rats (227.6 mm(3)) being significantly lower than that in the control rats (264.0 mm(3)). Edaravone treatment also decreased the postischemic hemorrhage volumes (53.4 mm(3) in edaravone-treated rats vs 176.4 mm(3) in controls). In addition, the ratio of hemorrhage volume to infarct volume was lower in the edaravone-treated rats (23.5%) than in the untreated rats (63.2%). Edaravone attenuates cerebral infarction and hemorrhagic infarction in rats with hyperglycemia.

  12. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain.

    PubMed

    Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C; Page, Michelle E

    2008-05-15

    The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) have previously been shown to be important neural substrates involved in the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. The hypothesis that low dose naltrexone treatment attenuates noradrenergic hyperactivity typically associated with opiate withdrawal was examined in the present study by assessing norepinephrine tissue content and norepinephrine efflux using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ED). The frontal cortex (FC), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cerebellum were analyzed for tissue content of norepinephrine following withdrawal in morphine dependent rats. Naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal elicited a significant decrease in tissue content of norepinephrine in the BNST and amygdala. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the BNST of rats that received low dose naltrexone pre-treatment compared to controls. No significant difference was observed in the other brain regions examined. In a separate group of rats, norepinephrine efflux was assessed with in vivo microdialysis in the BNST or the FC of morphine dependent rats or placebo treated rats subjected to naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal that received either naltrexone in their drinking water (5 mg/L) or unadulterated water. Following baseline dialysate collection, withdrawal was precipitated by injection of naltrexone and sample collection continued for an additional 4 h. At the end of the experiment

  13. Low dose naltrexone administration in morphine dependent rats attenuates withdrawal-induced norepinephrine efflux in forebrain

    PubMed Central

    Van Bockstaele, Elisabeth J.; Qian, Yaping; Sterling, Robert C.; Page, Michelle E.

    2009-01-01

    The administration of low dose opioid antagonists has been explored as a potential means of detoxification in opiate dependence. Previous results from our laboratory have shown that concurrent administration of low dose naltrexone in the drinking water of rats implanted with subcutaneous morphine pellets attenuates behavioral and biochemical signs of withdrawal in brainstem noradrenergic nuclei. Noradrenergic projections originating from the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and the locus coeruleus (LC) have previously been shown to be important neural substrates involved in the somatic expression of opiate withdrawal. The hypothesis that low dose naltrexone treatment attenuates noradrenergic hyperactivity typically associated with opiate withdrawal was examined in the present study by assessing norepinephrine tissue content and norepinephrine efflux using in vivo microdialysis coupled to high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with electrochemical detection (ED). The frontal cortex (FC), amygdala, bed nucleus of the stria terminalis (BNST) and cerebellum were analyzed for tissue content of norepinephrine following withdrawal in morphine dependent rats. Naltrexone precipitated withdrawal elicited a significant decrease in tissue content of norepinephrine in the BNST and amygdala. This decrease was significantly attenuated in the BNST of rats that received low dose naltrexone pretreatment compared to controls. No significant difference was observed in the other brain regions examined. In a separate group of rats, norepinephrine efflux was assessed with in vivo microdialysis in the BNST or the FC of morphine dependent rats or placebo treated rats subjected to naltrexone-precipitated withdrawal that received either naltrexone in their drinking water (5 mg/L) or unadulterated water. Following baseline dialysate collection, withdrawal was precipitated by injection of naltrexone and sample collection continued for an additional four hours. At the end of the

  14. Attenuated cold defense responses in orexin neuron-ablated rats

    PubMed Central

    Mohammed, Mazher; Yanagisawa, Masashi; Blessing, William; Ootsuka, Youichirou

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Recent reports of the use of transgenic mice targeting orexin neurons show that the ablation of orexin neurons in the hypothalamus causes hypothermia during cold exposure. This suggests the importance of orexin neurons for cold-induced autonomic and physiological defense responses, including brown adipose tissue (BAT) thermogenesis and vasoconstriction in thermoregulatory cutaneous vascular bed. The present study investigated whether the ablation of orexin neurons attenuated cold-elicited BAT thermogenesis and cutaneous vasoconstriction. The study took advantage of our established conscious rat experimental model of direct measurement of BAT and body temperature and tail cutaneous blood flow. The study used transgenic orexin neurons-ablated (ORX-AB) rats and wild type (WT) rats. BAT temperature and tail artery blood flow with pre-implanted probes were measured, as well as behavioral locomotor activity under conscious free-moving condition. Gradually, the ambient temperature was decreased to below 5°C. ORX-AB rats showed an attenuated cold-induced BAT thermogenesis and behavioral activity, and delayed tail vasoconstriction. An ambient temperature that initiated BAT thermogenesis and established full cutaneous vasoconstriction was 14.1 ± 1.9 °C, which was significantly lower than 20.5 ± 1.9 °C, the corresponding value in WT rats (n = 10, P < 0.01). The results from this study suggest that the integrity of orexin-synthesising neurons in thermoregulatory networks is important for full expression of the cold defense responses. PMID:28349086

  15. Inhibition of thromboxane synthesis attenuates insulin hypertension in rats.

    PubMed

    Keen, H L; Brands, M W; Smith, M J; Shek, E W; Hall, J E

    1997-10-01

    Chronic insulin infusion in rats increases mean arterial pressure (MAP) and reduces glomerular filtration rate (GFR), but the mechanisms for these actions are not known. This study tested whether thromboxane synthesis inhibition (TSI) would attenuate the renal and blood pressure responses to sustained hyperinsulinemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were instrumented with arterial and venous catheters, and MAP was measured 24 h/day. After 4 days of baseline measurements, endogenous synthesis of thromboxane was suppressed in 7 rats by infusing the thromboxane synthetase inhibitor, U63557A, intravenously (30 microg/kg/min) for the remainder of the experiment; 7 other rats received vehicle. Baseline MAP was not significantly different between vehicle and TSI rats (96 +/- 1 v 99 +/- 1 mm Hg). After 3 days of U63557A or vehicle, a 5-day control period was started, followed by a 7-day infusion of insulin (1.5 mU/kg/min, intravenously). Glucose (22 mg/kg/min, intravenously) was infused along with insulin to prevent hypoglycemia. In the control period, MAP was not different between vehicle and TSI rats (99 +/- 2 v 100 +/- 1 mm Hg), but MAP increased throughout the 7-day infusion period only in the vehicle rats with an average increase in blood pressure of 7 +/- 2 mm Hg. In the control period, GFR was lower in vehicle rats compared with TSI rats (2.5 +/- 0.1 v 3.1 +/- 0.2 mL/min, P = .06), and the decrease to 81% +/- 4% and 91% +/- 6% of control, respectively, during insulin was significant only in the vehicle rats. All variables returned toward control during a 6-day recovery period. These results suggest that full expression of hypertension and renal vasoconstriction during hyperinsulinemia in rats is dependent on a normal ability to synthesize thromboxane.

  16. Improved attenuation correction for freely moving animal brain PET studies using a virtual scanner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, Georgios I.; Ryder, William J.; Kyme, Andre Z.; Fulton, Roger R.; Meikle, Steven R.

    2014-03-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals can be very challenging since the body of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible atten- uating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the convex hull of the animal's head based on the reconstructed emission images. However, this approach ignores the potential attenuation introduced by the animal's body. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry, which moves in synchrony with the animal's head and discriminates between those events that traverse only the animal's head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal's body. For each pose a new virtual scanner geometry was defined and therefore a new system matrix was calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made rat phantom. Results showed that when the animal's body is within the FOV and not accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10%. On the contrary, at- tenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias <2%), without the need to account for the animal's body.

  17. Pre-existing interleukin 10 in cerebral arteries attenuates subsequent brain injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Liang, Qiu-Juan; Jiang, Mei; Wang, Xin-Hong; Le, Li-Li; Xiang, Meng; Sun, Ning; Meng, Dan; Chen, Si-Feng

    2015-09-01

    Recurrent stroke is difficult to treat and life threatening. Transfer of anti-inflammatory gene is a potential gene therapy strategy for ischemic stroke. Using recombinant adeno-associated viral vector 1 (rAAV1)-mediated interleukin 10 (IL-10), we investigated whether transfer of beneficial gene into the rat cerebral vessels during interventional treatment for initial stroke could attenuate brain injury caused by recurrent stroke. Male Wistar rats were administered rAAV1-IL-10, rAAV1-YFP, or saline into the left cerebral artery. Three weeks after gene transfer, rats were subjected to occlusion of the left middle cerebral artery (MCAO) for 45 min followed by reperfusion for 24 h. IL-10 levels in serum were significantly elevated 3 weeks after rAAV1-IL-10 injection, and virus in the cerebral vessels was confirmed by in situ hybridization. Pre-existing IL-10 but not YFP decreased the neurological dysfunction scores, brain infarction volume, and the number of injured neuronal cells. AAV1-IL-10 transduction increased heme oxygenase (HO-1) mRNA and protein levels in the infarct boundary zone of the brain. Thus, transduction of the IL-10 gene in the cerebral artery prior to ischemia attenuates brain injury caused by ischemia/reperfusion in rats. This preventive approach for recurrent stroke can be achieved during interventional treatment for initial stroke. © 2015 International Union of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology.

  18. Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: role of brain-derived neurotrophic factor.

    PubMed

    McFadden, Lisa M; Vieira-Brock, Paula L; Hanson, Glen R; Fleckenstein, Annette E

    2014-08-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that prior treatment with escalating doses of methamphetamine (METH) attenuates the persistent deficits in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) transporter (SERT) function resulting from a subsequent 'binge' METH exposure. Previous work also demonstrates that brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. The current study investigated changes in hippocampal BDNF protein and SERT function in rats exposed to saline or METH self-administration prior to a binge exposure to METH or saline. Results revealed that METH self-administration increased hippocampal mature BDNF (mBDNF) immunoreactivity compared to saline-treated rats as assessed 24 h after the start of the last session. Further, mBDNF immunoreactivity was increased and SERT function was not altered in rats that self-administered METH prior to the binge METH exposure as assessed 24 h after the binge exposure. These results suggest that prior exposure to contingent METH increases hippocampal mBDNF, and this may contribute to attenuated deficits in SERT function.

  19. Methamphetamine self-administration attenuates hippocampal serotonergic deficits: Role of brain derived neurotrophic factor

    PubMed Central

    McFadden, Lisa M.; Vieira-Brock, Paula L.; Hanson, Glen R.; Fleckenstein, Annette E.

    2014-01-01

    Preclinical studies suggest that prior treatment with escalating doses of methamphetamine (METH) attenuates the persistent deficits in hippocampal serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5HT) transporter (SERT) function resulting from a subsequent “binge” METH exposure. Previous work also demonstrates that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) exposure increases SERT function. The current study investigated changes in hippocampal BDNF protein and SERT function in rats exposed to saline or METH self-administration prior to a binge exposure to METH or saline. Results revealed that METH self-administration increased hippocampal mature BDNF (mBDNF) immunoreactivity compared to saline-treated rats as assessed 24 h after the start of the last session. Further, mBDNF immunoreactivity was increased and SERT function was not altered at this timepoint in rats that self-administered METH prior to the binge METH exposure. These results suggest that prior exposure to contingent METH increases hippocampal mBDNF, and this may contribute to attenuated deficits in SERT function. PMID:24650575

  20. Aromatized testosterone attenuates contextual generalization of fear in male rats.

    PubMed

    Lynch, Joseph F; Vanderhoof, Tyler; Winiecki, Patrick; Latsko, Maeson S; Riccio, David C; Jasnow, Aaron M

    2016-08-01

    Generalization is a common symptom of many anxiety disorders, and females are 60% more likely to suffer from an anxiety disorder than males. We have previously demonstrated that female rats display significantly accelerated rates of contextual fear generalization compared to male rats; a process driven, in part, by activation of ERβ. The current study was designed to determine the impact of estrogens on contextual fear generalization in male rats. For experiment 1, adult male rats were gonadectomized (GDX) and implanted with a capsule containing testosterone proprionate, estradiol, dihydrotestosterone proprionate (DHT), or an empty capsule. Treatment with testosterone or estradiol maintained memory precision when rats were tested in a different (neutral) context 1day after training. However, male rats treated with DHT or empty capsules displayed significant levels of fear generalization, exhibiting high levels of fear in the neutral context. In Experiment 2, we used acute injections of gonadal hormones at a time known to elicit fear generalization in female rats (e.g. 24h before testing). Injection treatment followed the same pattern of results seen in Experiment 1. Finally, animals given daily injections of the aromatase inhibitor, Fadrozole, displayed significant fear generalization. These data suggest that testosterone attenuates fear generalization likely through the aromatization testosterone into estradiol as animals treated with the non-aromatizable androgen, DHT, or animals treated with Fadrozole, displayed significant generalized fear. Overall, these results demonstrate a sex-dependent effect of estradiol on the generalization of contextual fear. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Paeoniflorin attenuates hippocampal damage in a rat model of vascular dementia

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ying; Wang, Li-Li; Wu, Yan; Wang, Ning; Wang, Shang-Ming; Zhang, Bin; Shi, Cui-Ge; Zhang, Shu-Cheng

    2016-01-01

    Paeoniflorn (PF), the principal bioactive component of Paeoniae radix prescribed in traditional Chinese medicine, possesses a wide range of biological effects and exhibits neuroprotective effects in numerous diseases. Previous studies have demonstrated that PF significantly attenuates memory impairment in rats with vascular dementia (VD). In the present study, a bilateral common carotid artery occlusion (BCCAO) rat model was used to explore the underlying mechanisms of PF. The expression levels of neuron-specific enolase (NSE), S100β, B-cell lymphoma 2 (Bcl-2), Bcl-2 associated X protein, cytochrome c and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in the hippocampus were measured by western blot analysis. The results showed that administration of PF for 28 days significantly decreased the expression levels of NSE and S100β, both sensitive markers for brain damage, in vascular dementia (VD) model rats. In addition, PF inhibited the initiation of apoptotic cell death and attenuated the decreased expression levels of BDNF induced by bilateral common carotid artery occlusion. These data confirm the neuroprotective effects of PF on VD and provide a novel insight into the long-term use of PF as a potential treatment in the stages of early cognitive impairment in VD. PMID:28101164

  2. Exercise pretraining attenuates endotoxin-induced hemodynamic alteration in type I diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Hung, Ching-Hsia; Chen, Yu-Wen; Shao, Dong-Zi; Chang, Che-Ning; Tsai, Yung-Yuh; Cheng, Juei-Tang

    2008-10-01

    Higher expression of heat shock protein 72 (HSP72) reduces the mortality rate and organ damage in septic shock and prevents cardiac mitochondrial dysfunction due to lipopolysaccharide (LPS). Our hypothesis is that exercise preconditioning may increase the expression of HSP72 in heart and the nucleus tractus solitarii (NTS) of the brain to alleviate the cardiovascular dysfunction in type I diabetic rats receiving endotoxin. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to the following groups: sedentary normal, sedentary type I diabetic rats, and type I diabetic rats with exercise training. The trained rats ran on a treadmill 5 d.week-1, 30-60 min.d-1, at an intensity of 1.0 mile.h-1 (1 mile = 1.6 km) over a 3 week period. Twenty-four hours after the last training session, we compared the temporal profiles of mean arterial pressure, heart rate, cardiac output, stroke volume, and serum tumor necrosis factor alpha level in rats receiving an injection of LPS. In addition, HSP72 expression in heart and NTS from each group was determined. We found that HSP72 expression in the heart and NTS was significantly increased in diabetic rats with exercise training. After administration of LPS, the survival time was significantly longer in diabetic rats with exercise training. Additionaly, serum tumor necrosis factor alpha levels decreased as compared with those rats not receiving exercise training. Exercise training also diminished cardiovascular dysfunction in diabetic rats during endotoxemia. These data suggest that exercise may increase the expression of HSP72 in the heart and NTS to protect against the high mortality rate and attenuate cardiovascular dysfunction in diabetic rats during endotoxemia.

  3. Simvastatin Attenuates Astrogliosis after Traumatic Brain Injury through the Modulation of EGFR in Lipid Rafts

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Hongtao; Mahmood, Asim; Lu, Dunyue; Jiang, Hao; Xiong, Ye; Zhou, Dong; Chopp, Michael

    2010-01-01

    Objective Our previous studies demonstrated that simvastatin treatment promotes neuronal survival and reduces inflammatory cytokine release from astrocytes after traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Since reactive astrocytes produce inflammation mediators, in the current study we investigated the effect of simvastatin on astrocyte activation after TBI and its underlying signaling mechanisms. Methods Saline or simvastatin (1 mg/kg) was orally administered to rats starting at Day 1 after TBI and then daily for 14 days. Rats were sacrificed at 1, 3, 7, 14 days after treatment. Brain sections and tissues were prepared for immunohistochemical staining and Western blot analysis, respectively. Cultured astrocytes were subjected to oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) and followed by immunocytochemical staining with GFAP/caveolin-1 and Western blot analysis. Lipid rafts were isolated from the cell lysate and Western blot was carried out to detect the changes in epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) expression and phosphorylation in the lipid rafts. Results Simvastatin significantly promoted neuronal survival after TBI and attenuated activation of astrocytes. Simvastatin modified the caveolin-1 expression in lipid rafts in astrocyte cell membrane, suppressed the phosphorylation of EGFR in lipid rafts of astrocytes after OGD, and inhibited the OGD-induced interleukin-1 (IL-1) production. Conclusions These data suggest that simvastatin reduces reactive astrogliosis and rescues neuronal cells after TBI. These beneficial effects of simvastatin may be mediated by inhibiting astrocyte activation after TBI through modifying the caveolin-1 expression in lipid rafts and the subsequent modulation of EGFR phosphorylation in lipid rafts. PMID:19895202

  4. Modified brain death model for rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuijun; Cao, Shengli; Wang, Tao; Yan, Bing; Lu, Yantao; Zhao, Yongfu

    2014-10-01

    Experimental animal models of brain death that mimic human conditions may be useful for investigating novel strategies that increase quality and quantity of organs for transplant. Brain death was induced by increasing intracranial pressure by inflating an intracranial placed balloon catheter. Brain death was confirmed by flatline electroencephalogram, physical signs of apnea, and absence of brain stem reflexes. Donor management was done after brain death. Intracranial pressure and physiologic variables were continually monitored during 9 hours' follow-up. Ninety percent of brain dead animals showed typical signs of brain death such as diabetes insipidus, hypertensive, and hypotensive periods. Donor care was performed for 9 hours after brain death, and the mean arterial pressure was maintained above 60 mm Hg. We conclude that the rat model of brain death can be performed in a standardized, reproducible, and successful way.

  5. Helium preconditioning attenuates hypoxia/ischemia-induced injury in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yi; Xue, Feng; Liu, Guoke; Shi, Xin; Liu, Yun; Liu, Wenwu; Luo, Xu; Sun, Xuejun; Kang, Zhimin

    2011-02-28

    Recent studies show helium may be one kind of neuroprotective gas. This study aimed to examine the short and long-term neuroprotective effects of helium preconditioning in an established neonatal cerebral hypoxia-ischemia (HI) model. Seven-day-old rat pups were subjected to left common carotid artery ligation and then 90 min of hypoxia (8% oxygen at 37°C). The preconditioning group inhaled 70% helium-30% oxygen for 5 min three times with an interval of 5 min 24h before HI insult. Pups were decapitated 24h after HI and brain morphological injury was assessed by 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining, Nissl and TUNEL staining. Caspase-3 activity in the brain was measured. Five weeks after HI, postural reflex testing and Morris water maze testing were conducted. Our results showed that helium preconditioning reduced the infarct ratio, increased the number of survival neurons, and inhibited apoptosis at the early stage of HI insult. Furthermore, the sensorimotor function and the cognitive function were improved significantly in rats with helium preconditioning. The results indicate that helium preconditioning attenuates HI induced brain injury. Copyright © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of magnesium administration on brain edema and blood-brain barrier breakdown after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Esen, Figen; Erdem, Tulin; Aktan, Damla; Kalayci, Rivaze; Cakar, Nahit; Kaya, Mehmet; Telci, Lutfi

    2003-04-01

    injury in rats. These results also indicate that a blood-brain barrier permeability defect occurs after this model of diffuse traumatic brain injury, and magnesium seems to attenuate this defect.

  7. Citrate attenuates vascular calcification in chronic renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Ou, Yan; Liu, Zengying; Li, Shuiqin; Zhu, Xiaojing; Lin, Yan; Han, Jin; Duan, Zhaoyang; Jia, Lining; Gui, Baosong

    2017-05-01

    Vascular calcification (VC) is a major contributor of cardiovascular dysfunction in chronic renal failure (CRF). Citrate binds calcium and inhibits the growth of calcium crystals. This present study intends to evaluate the effect of citrate on VC in adenine-induced CRF rats. The rats were randomly divided into five groups: the control group, the citrate control group, model group, model rats with low-dose treatment of citrate (216 mg/kg) and model rats with high-dose treatment of citrate (746 mg/kg). The rats were euthanized at 5 weeks with their blood and aorta in detection. The results showed that serum level of blood urea nitrogen, serum creatinine, phosphorus, calcium, and related renal failure function marker were elevated in the model group. Furthermore, the aortic calcium accumulation and alkaline phosphatase activity were significantly increased in the model group compared with control groups. Additionally, hematoxylin-eosin staining results demonstrated that the vascular calcification in aorta is significantly increased in the model group. Finally, the expression of VC-related proteins including bone morphogenetic protein and osteocalcin were increased in the model group, whereas alpha-smooth muscle actin was decreased in the model group compared with the control group. However, treatment with citrate caused a reversal effect of all the above events in a dose-dependent manner. In conclusion, citrate may attenuate vascular calcification in adenine-induced CRF rats. © 2017 APMIS. Published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Aerobic exercise attenuates inhibitory avoidance memory deficit induced by paradoxical sleep deprivation in rats.

    PubMed

    Fernandes, Jansen; Baliego, Luiz Guilherme Zaccaro; Peixinho-Pena, Luiz Fernando; de Almeida, Alexandre Aparecido; Venancio, Daniel Paulino; Scorza, Fulvio Alexandre; de Mello, Marco Tulio; Arida, Ricardo Mario

    2013-09-05

    The deleterious effects of paradoxical sleep deprivation (SD) on memory processes are well documented. Physical exercise improves many aspects of brain functions and induces neuroprotection. In the present study, we investigated the influence of 4 weeks of treadmill aerobic exercise on both long-term memory and the expression of synaptic proteins (GAP-43, synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95) in normal and sleep-deprived rats. Adult Wistar rats were subjected to 4 weeks of treadmill exercise training for 35 min, five times per week. Twenty-four hours after the last exercise session, the rats were sleep-deprived for 96 h using the modified multiple platform method. To assess memory after SD, all animals underwent training for the inhibitory avoidance task and were tested 24h later. The aerobic exercise attenuated the long-term memory deficit induced by 96 h of paradoxical SD. Western blot analysis of the hippocampus revealed increased levels of GAP-43 in exercised rats. However, the expression of synapsin I, synaptophysin, and PSD-95 was not modified by either exercise or SD. Our results suggest that an aerobic exercise program can attenuate the deleterious effects of SD on long-term memory and that this effect is not directly related to changes in the expression of the pre- and post-synaptic proteins analyzed in the study.

  9. Over-dose insulin and stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157. Attenuated gastric ulcers, seizures, brain lesions, hepatomegaly, fatty liver, breakdown of liver glycogen, profound hypoglycemia and calcification in rats.

    PubMed

    Ilic, S; Brcic, I; Mester, M; Filipovic, M; Sever, M; Klicek, R; Barisic, I; Radic, B; Zoricic, Z; Bilic, V; Berkopic, L; Brcic, L; Kolenc, D; Romic, Z; Pazanin, L; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2009-12-01

    We focused on over-dose insulin (250 IU/kg i.p.) induced gastric ulcers and then on other disturbances that were concomitantly induced in rats, seizures (eventually fatal), severely damaged neurons in cerebral cortex and hippocampus, hepatomegaly, fatty liver, increased AST, ALT and amylase serum values, breakdown of liver glycogen with profound hypoglycemia and calcification development. Calcium deposits were present in the blood vessel walls, hepatocytes surrounding blood vessels and sometimes even in parenchyma of the liver mainly as linear and only occasionally as granular accumulation. As an antidote after insulin, we applied the stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (10 microg/kg) given (i) intraperitoneally or (ii) intragastrically immediately after insulin. Controls received simultaneously an equivolume of saline (5 ml/kg). Those rats that survived till the 180 minutes after over-dose application were further assessed. Interestingly, pentadecapeptide BPC 157, as an antiulcer peptide, may besides stomach ulcer consistently counteract all insulin disturbances and fatal outcome. BPC 157 rats showed no fatal outcome, they were mostly without hypoglycemic seizures with apparently higher blood glucose levels (glycogen was still present in hepatocytes), less liver pathology (i.e., normal liver weight, less fatty liver), decreased ALT, AST and amylase serum values, markedly less damaged neurons in brain and they only occasionally had small gastric lesions. BPC 157 rats exhibited mostly only dot-like calcium presentation. In conclusion, the success of BPC 157 therapy may indicate a likely role of BPC 157 in insulin controlling and BPC 157 may influence one or more causative process(es) after excessive insulin application.

  10. Tetramethylpyrazine-2'-O-sodium ferulate attenuates blood-brain barrier disruption and brain oedema after cerebral ischemia/reperfusion.

    PubMed

    Xu, S-H; Yin, M-S; Liu, B; Chen, M-L; He, G-W; Zhou, P-P; Cui, Y-J; Yang, D; Wu, Y-L

    2016-07-06

    Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and subsequent oedema are major causes of the pathogenesis in ischaemic stroke with which the current clinical therapy remains unsatisfied. In this study, we examined the therapeutic effect of tetramethylpyrazine-2'-O-sodium ferulate (TSF)-a novel analogue of tetramethylpyrazine in alleviating BBB breakdown and brain oedema after cerebral ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R). Then, we explored the potential mechanism of the protection on BBB disruption in cerebral I/R rat models. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-300 g) were subjected to 120 min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO), followed by 48 h reperfusion. TSF (10.8, 18 and 30 mg kg(-1)) and ozagrel (18 mg kg(-1)) were administrated by intravenous injection immediately for the first time and then received the same dose every 24 h for 2 days. We found that TSF treatment significantly attenuated the cerebral water content, infarction volume and improved neurological outcomes in MCAO rats compared to I/R models. Moreover, we investigated the effect of TSF on the BBB for that cerebral oedema is closely related to the permeability of the BBB. We found that the permeability of BBB was improved significantly in TSF groups compared to I/R model group by Evans blue leakage testing. Furthermore, the expressions of tight junction (TJ) proteins junction adhesion molecule-1 and occludin significantly decreased, but the protein expression of matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) increased after cerebral I/R, all of which were alleviated by TSF treatment. In conclusion, TSF significantly reduced BBB permeability and brain oedema, which were correlated with regulating the expression of TJ proteins, MMP-9 and AQP4. These findings provide a novel approach to the treatment of ischaemic stroke.

  11. Psychotropic drugs attenuate lipopolysaccharide-induced hypothermia by altering hypothalamic levels of inflammatory mediators in rats.

    PubMed

    Nassar, Ahmad; Sharon-Granit, Yael; Azab, Abed N

    2016-07-28

    Recent evidence suggests that inflammation may contribute to the pathophysiology of mental disorders and that psychotropic drugs exert various effects on brain inflammation. The administration of bacterial endotoxin (lipopolysaccharide, LPS) to mammals is associated with robust production of inflammatory mediators and pathological changes in body temperature. The objective of the present study was to examine the effects of four different psychotropic drugs on LPS-induced hypothermia and production of prostaglandin (PG) E2, tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and phosphorylated-p65 (P-p65) levels in hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. Rats were treated once daily with lithium (100mg/kg), carbamazepine (40mg/kg), haloperidol (2mg/kg), imipramine (20mg/kg) or vehicle (NaCl 0.9%) for 29 days. On day 29, rats were injected with LPS (1mg/kg) or saline. At 1.5h post LPS injection body temperature was measured, rats were sacrificed, blood was collected and their hypothalami were excised, homogenized and centrifuged. PGE2, TNF-α and nuclear P-p65 levels were determined by specific ELISA kits. We found that lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine significantly attenuated LPS-induced hypothermia, resembling the effect of classic anti-inflammatory drugs. Moreover, lithium, carbamazepine, haloperidol and imipramine differently but significantly affected the levels of PGE2, TNF-α and P-p65 in plasma and hypothalamus of LPS-treated rats. The results suggest that psychotropic drugs attenuate LPS-induced hypothermia by reducing hypothalamic production of inflammatory constituents, particularly PGE2. The effects of psychotropic drugs on brain inflammation may contribute to their therapeutic mechanism but also to their toxicological profile. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Attenuation of arsenic neurotoxicity by curcumin in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Yadav, Rajesh S.; Sankhwar, Madhu Lata; Shukla, Rajendra K.; Chandra, Ramesh; Pant, Aditya B.; Islam, Fakhrul; Khanna, Vinay K.

    2009-11-01

    In view of continued exposure to arsenic and associated human health risk including neurotoxicity, neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin, a polyphenolic antioxidant, has been investigated in rats. A significant decrease in locomotor activity, grip strength (26%) and rota-rod performance (82%) was observed in rats treated with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) as compared to controls. The arsenic treated rats also exhibited a decrease in the binding of striatal dopamine receptors (32%) and tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) immunoreactivity (19%) in striatum. Increased arsenic levels in corpus striatum (6.5 fold), frontal cortex (6.3 fold) and hippocampus (7.0 fold) associated with enhanced oxidative stress in these brain regions, as evident by an increase in lipid perioxidation, protein carbonyl and a decrease in the levels of glutathione and activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase with differential effects were observed in arsenic treated rats compared to controls. Simultaneous treatment with arsenic (sodium arsenite, 20 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) and curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) caused an increase in locomotor activity and grip strength and improved the rota-rod performance in comparison to arsenic treated rats. Binding of striatal dopamine receptors and TH expression increased while arsenic levels and oxidative stress decreased in these brain regions in co-treated rats as compared to those treated with arsenic alone. No significant effect on any of these parameters was observed in rats treated with curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight, p.o., 28 days) alone compared to controls. A significant protection in behavioral, neurochemical and immunohistochemical parameters in rats simultaneously treated with arsenic and curcumin suggest the neuroprotective efficacy of curcumin.

  13. Quantification of light attenuation in optically cleared mouse brains

    PubMed Central

    d’Esposito, Angela; Nikitichev, Daniil; Desjardins, Adrien; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2015-01-01

    Optical clearing, in combination with recently developed optical imaging techniques, enables visualization and acquisition of high resolution, three-dimensional images of biological structures deep within tissue. Many different approaches can be used to reduce light absorption and scattering within the tissue, but there is a paucity of research on the quantification of clearing efficacy. With the use of a custom-made spectroscopy system, we developed a way to quantify the quality of clearing in biological tissue, and applied it to the mouse brain. Three clearing techniques were compared: BABB (Murray’s clear), pBABB (a modification of BABB which includes the use of hydrogen peroxide) and passive CLARITY. Despite being limited to autofluorescence studies, we found that pBABB produced the highest degree of optical clearing. Furthermore, the approach allows regional measurement of light attenuation to be performed, and. our results show that light is most attenuated in regions with high lipid content. This work provides a way to choose between the multiple clearing protocols available, and it could prove useful for evaluating images that are acquired with cleared tissues. PMID:26277988

  14. Nebivolol Attenuates Maladaptive Proximal Tubule Remodeling in Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hayden, Melvin R.; Habibi, Javad; Whaley-Connell, Adam; Sowers, Dilek; Johnson, Megan; Tilmon, Roger; Jain, Deepika; Ferrario, Carlos; Sowers, James R.

    2010-01-01

    Background/Aims The impact of nebivolol therapy on the renal proximal tubular cell (PTC) structure and function was investigated in a transgenic (TG) rodent model of hypertension and the cardiometabolic syndrome. The TG Ren2 rat develops nephropathy with proteinuria, increased renal angiotensin II levels and oxidative stress, and PTC remodeling. Nebivolol, a β1-antagonist, has recently been shown to reduce albuminuria, in part, through reductions in renal oxidative stress. Accordingly, we hypothesized that nebivolol therapy would attenuate PTC damage and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. Methods Young Ren2 (R2-N) and SD (SD-N) rats were treated with nebivolol (10 mg/kg/day) or vehicle (R2-C; SD-C) for 3 weeks. PTC structure and function were tested using transmission electron microscopy and functional measurements. Results Nebivolol treatment decreased urinary N-acetyl-β-D-glucosaminidase, tubulointerstitial ultrastructural remodeling and fibrosis, NADPH oxidase activity, 3-nitrotyrosine levels, and increased megalin and lysosomal-associated membrane protein-2 immunostaining in PTCs. Ultrastructural abnormalities that were improved with therapy included altered canalicular structure, reduced endosomes/lysosomes and PTC vacuoles, basement membrane thickening, and mitochondrial remodeling/fragmentation. Conclusion These observations support the notion that nebivolol may improve PTC reabsorption of albumin and other glomerular filtered small molecular weight proteins in association with the attenuation of oxidative stress, tubulointerstitial injury and fibrosis in this rat model of metabolic kidney disease. PMID:20110666

  15. Berberine attenuates intestinal disaccharidases in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Deng, Yuanxiong; Yu, Sen; Lu, Shousi; Xie, Lin; Liu, Xiaodong

    2008-05-01

    Previous studies demonstrated anti-diabetic effects of berberine. However, the facts that berberine had low bioavailability and poor absorption through the gut wall indicated that berberine might exert its antihyperglycaemic effect in the intestinal tract before absorption. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether berberine attenuates disaccharidase activities and beta-glucuronidase activity in the small intestine of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. Two groups of STZ-induced diabetic rats were treated with protamine zinc insulin (10 U/Kg) subcutaneously twice daily and berberine (100 mg/Kg) orally once daily for 4 weeks, respectively. Both age-matched normal rats and diabetic control rats received physiological saline only. Fasting blood glucose levels, body weight, intestinal disaccharidase and beta-glucuronidase activities in duodenum, jejunum and ileum were assessed for changes. Our findings suggested that berberine treatment significantly decreases the activities of intestinal disaccharidases and beta-glucuronidase in STZ-induced diabetic rats. The results demonstrated that the inhibitory effect on intestinal disaccharidases and beta-glucuronidase of berberine might be one of the mechanisms for berberine as an antihyperglycaemic agent.

  16. Genistein attenuates vascular endothelial impairment in ovariectomized hyperhomocysteinemic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhen, Panpan; Zhao, Qian; Hou, Dandan; Liu, Teng; Jiang, Dongqiao; Duan, Jinhong; Lu, Lingqiao; Wang, Wen

    2012-01-01

    Hyperhomocysteinemia (HHcy) is a well-known independent risk factor for vascular diseases in the general population. This study was to explore the effect of genistein (GST), a natural bioactive compound derived from legumes, on HHcy-induced vascular endothelial impairment in ovariectomized rats in vivo. Thirty-two adult female Wistar rats were assigned randomly into four groups (n = 8): (a) Con: control; (b) Met: 2.5% methionine diet; (c) OVX + Met: ovariectomy + 2.5% methionine diet; (d) OVX + Met + GST: ovariectomy + 2.5% methionine diet + supplementation with genistein. After 12 wk of different treatment, the rats' blood, toracic aortas and liver samples were collected for analysis. Results showed that high-methionine diet induced both elevation of plasma Hcy and endothelial dysfunction, and ovariectomy deteriorated these injuries. Significant improvement of both functional and morphological changes of vascular endothelium was observed in OVX + Met + GST group; meanwhile the plasma Hcy levels decreased remarkably. There were significant elevations of plasma ET-1 and liver MDA levels in ovariectomized HHcy rats, and supplementation with genistein could attenuate these changes. These results implied that genistein could lower the elevated Hcy levels, and prevent the development of endothelial impairment in ovariectomized HHcy rats. This finding may shed a novel light on the anti-atherogenic activities of genistein in HHcy patients.

  17. Erythropoietin attenuates loss of potassium chloride co-transporters following prenatal brain injury.

    PubMed

    Jantzie, L L; Getsy, P M; Firl, D J; Wilson, C G; Miller, R H; Robinson, S

    2014-07-01

    Therapeutic agents that restore the inhibitory actions of γ-amino butyric acid (GABA) by modulating intracellular chloride concentrations will provide novel avenues to treat stroke, chronic pain, epilepsy, autism, and neurodegenerative and cognitive disorders. During development, upregulation of the potassium-chloride co-transporter KCC2, and the resultant switch from excitatory to inhibitory responses to GABA guide the formation of essential inhibitory circuits. Importantly, maturation of inhibitory mechanisms is also central to the development of excitatory circuits and proper balance between excitatory and inhibitory networks in the developing brain. Loss of KCC2 expression occurs in postmortem samples from human preterm infant brains with white matter lesions. Here we show that late gestation brain injury in a rat model of extreme prematurity impairs the developmental upregulation of potassium chloride co-transporters during a critical postnatal period of circuit maturation in CA3 hippocampus by inducing a sustained loss of oligomeric KCC2 via a calpain-dependent mechanism. Further, administration of erythropoietin (EPO) in a clinically relevant postnatal dosing regimen following the prenatal injury protects the developing brain by reducing calpain activity, restoring oligomeric KCC2 expression and attenuating KCC2 fragmentation, thus providing the first report of a safe therapy to address deficits in KCC2 expression. Together, these data indicate it is possible to reverse abnormalities in KCC2 expression during the postnatal period, and potentially reverse deficits in inhibitory circuit formation central to cognitive impairment and epileptogenesis.

  18. Endotoxemia in newborn rats attenuates acute pancreatitis at adult age.

    PubMed

    Jaworek, J; Konturek, S J; Macko, M; Kot, M; Szklarczyk, J; Leja-Szpak, A; Nawrot-Porabka, K; Stachura, J; Tomaszewska, R; Siwicki, A; Pawlik, W W

    2007-03-01

    . Pretreatment of suckling rats with LPS at dose of 10 mg/kg-day x 5 days resulted in the most prominent attenuation of acute pancreatitis at adult age, whereas LPS at dose of 5 mg/kg-day x 5 days given to the neonatal rats failed to affect significantly acute pancreatitis induced in these animals 2 months later. We conclude that: 1/ Prolonged exposition of suckling rats to bacterial endotoxin attenuated acute pancreatitis induced in these animals at adult age. 2/ This effect could be related to the increased concentration of antioxidative enzyme SO in the pancreatic tissue and to the modulation of cytokines production in these animals.

  19. Intranasal basic fibroblast growth factor attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and brain injury in neonatal hypoxic-ischaemic injury

    PubMed Central

    Lin, Zhenlang; Hu, Yingying; Wang, Zhouguang; Pan, Shulin; Zhang, Hao; Ye, Libing; Zhang, Hongyu; Fang, Mingchu; Jiang, Huai; Ye, Junming; Xiao, Jian; Liu, Li

    2017-01-01

    Brain injury secondary to birth asphyxia is the major cause of death and long-term disability in newborns. Intranasal drug administration enables agents to bypass the blood-brain barrier (BBB) and enter the brain directly. In this study, we determined whether intranasal basic fibroblast growth factor (bFGF) could exert neuroprotective effects in neonatal rats after hypoxic-ischaemic (HI) brain injury and assessed whether attenuation of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress was associated with these neuroprotective effects. Rats were subjected to HI brain injury via unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2.5 h of hypoxia and then treated with intranasal bFGF or vehicle immediately after HI injury. We found that the unfolded protein response (UPR) was strongly activated after HI injury and that bFGF significantly reduced the levels of the ER stress signalling proteins GRP78 and PDI. bFGF also decreased brain infarction volumes and conferred long-term neuroprotective effects against brain atrophy and neuron loss after HI brain injury. Taken together, our results suggest that intranasal bFGF provides neuroprotection function partly by inhibiting HI injury-induced ER stress. bFGF may have potential as a therapy for human neonates after birth asphyxia. PMID:28337259

  20. Captopril and Valsartan May Improve Cognitive Function Through Potentiation of the Brain Antioxidant Defense System and Attenuation of Oxidative/Nitrosative Damage in STZ-Induced Dementia in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Arjmand Abbassi, Yasaman; Mohammadi, Mohammad Taghi; Sarami Foroshani, Mahsa; Raouf Sarshoori, Javad

    2016-01-01

    Purpose: Previous findings have shown the crucial roles of brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in pathogenesis of Alzheimer’s disease (AD). Since RAS inhibitors may have beneficial effects on dementia and cognitive function in elderly people, the aim of present study was to examine the neuroprotective actions of captopril and valsartan on memory function and neuronal damage in experimental model of AD. Methods: Adult forty male Wistar rats (220-280g) were randomly divided into 5 groups; Control, Vehicle, Alzheimer and treatment groups. AD was induced by the injections of streptozotocin (3mg/kg, bilateral intracerebroventricular) at days 1&3. Treated rats received orally captopril (50mg/kg/day) and valsartan (30mg/kg/day). Memory function and histological assessments were done at termination of experiment. Finally, superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) activities as well as malondialdehyde (MDA) and NOx contents were determined. Results: There was a significant increase in the mean value of latency in Alzheimer group (66%). Captopril and valsartan considerably decreased this value in both treatment groups (45% and 72%, respectively). In Alzheimer group the activities of brain’s SOD and CAT reduced (40% and 47%, respectively) in accompany with an increase in MDA and NOx contents (49% and 50%, respectively). Captopril and valsartan significantly increased the activities of brain’s SOD and CAT concomitant reduction in MDA and NOx contents. Also, histopathological damages noticeably decreased in both treatment groups. Conclusion: Our findings indicate that RAS inhibition by using captopril and valsartan potentiates the antioxidant defense system of brain and reduces oxidative/nitrosative stress in accompany with neuronal damage during AD. PMID:28101460

  1. Magnesium nitrate attenuates blood pressure rise in SHR rats.

    PubMed

    Vilskersts, Reinis; Kuka, Janis; Liepinsh, Edgars; Cirule, Helena; Gulbe, Anita; Kalvinsh, Ivars; Dambrova, Maija

    2014-01-01

    The administration of magnesium supplements and nitrates/nitrites decreases arterial blood pressure and attenuates the development of hypertension-induced complications. This study was performed to examine the effects of treatment with magnesium nitrate on the development of hypertension and its complications in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) rats. Male SHR rats with persistent hypertension at the age of 12-13 weeks were allocated to two groups according to their arterial blood pressure. Rats from the control group received purified water, while the experimental animals from the second group received magnesium nitrate dissolved in purified water at a dose of 50 mg/kg. After four weeks of treatment, blood pressure was measured, the anatomical and functional parameters of the heart were recorded using an ultrasonograph, vascular reactivity was assayed in organ bath experiments and the cardioprotective effects of magnesium nitrate administration was assayed in an ex vivo experimental heart infarction model. Treatment with magnesium nitrate significantly increased the nitrate concentration in the plasma (from 62 ± 8 μmol/l to 111 ± 8 μmol/L), and attenuated the increase in the arterial blood pressure. In the control and magnesium nitrate groups, the blood pressure rose by 21 ± 3 mmHg and 6 ± 4 mmHg, respectively. The administration of magnesium nitrate had no effect on the altered vasoreactivity, heart function or the size of the heart infarction. In conclusion, our results demonstrate that magnesium nitrate effectively attenuates the rise in arterial blood pressure. However, a longer period of administration or earlier onset of treatment might be needed to delay the development of complications due to hypertension.

  2. Sesamin attenuates neurotoxicity in mouse model of ischemic brain stroke.

    PubMed

    Ahmad, Saif; Elsherbiny, Nehal M; Haque, Rizwanul; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Ishrat, Tauheed; Shah, Zahoor A; Khan, Mohammad M; Ali, Mehboob; Jamal, Arshad; Katare, Deepshikha Pande; Liou, Gregory I; Bhatia, Kanchan

    2014-12-01

    Stroke is a severe neurological disorder characterized by the abrupt loss of blood circulation into the brain resulting into wide ranging brain and behavior abnormalities. The present study was designed to evaluate molecular mechanism by which sesamin (SES) induces neuroprotection in mouse model of ischemic stroke. The results of this study demonstrate that SES treatment (30 mg/kg bwt) significantly reduced infarction volume, lipid per-oxidation, cleaved-caspase-3 activation, and increased GSH activity following MCAO in adult male mouse. SES treatment also diminished iNOS and COX-2 protein expression, and significantly restored SOD activity and protein expression level in the ischemic cortex of the MCAO animals. Furthermore, SES treatment also significantly reduced inflammatory and oxidative stress markers including Iba1, Nox-2, Cox-2, peroxynitrite compared to placebo MCAO animals. Superoxide radical production, as studied by DHE staining method, was also significantly reduced in the ischemic cortex of SES treated compared to placebo MCAO animals. Likewise, downstream effects of superoxide free radicals i.e. MAPK/ERK and P38 activation was also significantly attenuated in SES treated compared to placebo MCAO animals. In conclusion, these results suggest that SES induces significant neuroprotection, by ameliorating many signaling pathways activated/deactivated following cerebral ischemia in adult mouse. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Brain derived neurotrophic factor and insulin like growth factor-1 attenuate upregulation of nitric oxide synthase and cell injury following trauma to the spinal cord. An immunohistochemical study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sharma, H S; Nyberg, F; Westman, J; Alm, P; Gordh, T; Lindholm, D

    1998-01-01

    The possibility that brain derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF) induced neuroprotection is influenced by mechanisms involving nitric oxide was examined in a rat model of focal spinal cord injury. BDNF or IGF-I (0.1 microgram/10 microliters in phosphate buffer saline) was applied topically 30 min before injury on the exposed spinal cord followed by repeated doses of growth factors immediately before and 30 min after injury. Thereafter application of BDNF or IGF was carried out at every 1 h interval until sacrifice. Five hours after injury, the tissue pieces from the T9 segment were processed for nNOS immunostaining, edema and cell injury. Untreated injured rats showed a profound upregulation of nNOS which was most pronounced in the nerve cells of the ipsilateral side. A marked increase in the blood-spinal cord barrier (BSCB) permeability to 125I-albumin, water content and cell injury in these perifocal segments was also found. Pretreatment with BDNF and IGF significantly reduced the upregulation of nNOS in the spinal cord. This effect of the growth factors was most pronounced in the contralateral side. Rats treated with these neurotrophic factors showed much less signs of BSCB damage, edema and cell injury. These results suggest that BDNF and IGF pretreatment is neuroprotective in spinal cord injury and that these neurotrophic factors have the capacity to down regulate nNOS expression following trauma to the spinal cord. Our data provide new experimental evidences which suggest that BDNF and IGF may exert their potential neuroprotective effects probably via regulation of NOS activity.

  4. Lesion of the tuberomammillary nucleus E2-region attenuates postictal seizure protection in rats.

    PubMed

    Jin, Chun-Lei; Zhuge, Zheng-Bing; Wu, Deng-Chang; Zhu, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Shuang; Luo, Jian-Hong; Chen, Zhong

    2007-03-01

    Postictal seizure protection (PSP) is an endogenous anticonvulsant phenomenon that follows an epileptic seizure and inhibits the induction of further seizures. The tuberomammillary nucleus (TM), located in the posterior hypothalamus, consists of five subregions and is the sole source of histaminergic neurons in the brain. To determine whether the TM is involved in PSP in rats, we tested the effects of bilateral electrolytic lesions of the TM E2-region on seizures induced by intermittent maximal electroshock (MES). The TM E2-region lesions significantly attenuated PSP during the intermittent MES procedure. Furthermore, intracerebroventricular injection of alpha-fluoromethylhistidine (100 microg), a selective and irreversible histidine decarboxylase inhibitor, mimicked the attenuation of PSP induced by the lesion of TM E2-region. In addition, neurochemical experiments revealed that the TM E2-region lesions markedly decreased basal histamine levels in the cortex, hippocampus, brainstem and hypothalamus, but had no significant effect on basal glutamate and GABA levels. Moreover, intermittent MES induced a persistent decrease of brain histamine levels in both sham-operated and lesioned rats. These results indicate that through its intrinsic histaminergic system, the TM may exert powerful inhibitory function during the intermittent MES procedure and actively participate in the mechanisms of PSP.

  5. Betaxolol attenuates retinal ischemia/reperfusion damage in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cheon, Eun Woo; Park, Chang Hwan; Kang, Sang Soo; Cho, Gyeong Jae; Yoo, Ji Myong; Song, Joon Kyung; Choi, Wan Sung

    2003-10-27

    This study was performed to elucidate the protection afforded by post-treatment with Betoptic (0.25% betaxolol) against neuronal cell damage after ischemia/reperfusion insult in rats. Betaxolol was applied topically after the start of reperfusion and its effect was evaluated by morphometry and choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity of retinas at 7 days after reperfusion. In non-treated eyes, the thickness of the inner plexiform layer decreased markedly after a reperfusion period of both 3 and 7 days. However, when eyes were treated with betaxolol after ischemia/reperfusion injury, both the reduction of the inner plexiform layer thickness and the retinal choline acetyltransferase immunoreactivity were significantly attenuated. These findings suggest that betaxolol is an efficient neuroprotective agent and prevents the retinal cell damage induced by ischemic injury in rats.

  6. Salvianolic acid B attenuates apoptosis and inflammation via SIRT1 activation in experimental stroke rats.

    PubMed

    Lv, Hongdi; Wang, Ling; Shen, Jinchang; Hao, Shaojun; Ming, Aimin; Wang, Xidong; Su, Feng; Zhang, Zhengchen

    2015-06-01

    Silent information regulator 1 (SIRT1), a histone deacetylase, has been suggested to be effective in ischemic brain diseases. Salvianolic acid B (SalB) is a polyphenolic and one of the active components of Salvia miltiorrhiza Bunge. Previous studies suggested that SalB is protective against ischemic stroke. However, the role of SIRT1 in the protective effect of SalB against cerebral ischemia has not been explored. In this study, the rat brain was subjected to middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Before this surgery, rats were intraperitoneally administrated SalB with or without EX527, a specific SIRT1 inhibitor. The infarct volume, neurological score and brain water content were assessed. In addition, levels of TNF-α and IL-1β in the brain tissues were detected by commercial ELISA kits. And the expression levels of SIRT, Ac-FOXO1, Bcl-2 and Bax were detected by Western blot. The results suggested that SalB exerted a cerebral-protective effect, as shown by reduced infarct volume, lowered brain edema and increased neurological scores. SalB also exerted anti-inflammatory effects as indicated by the decreased TNF-α and IL-1β levels in the brain tissue. Moreover, SalB upregulated the expression of SIRT1 and Bcl-2 and downregulated the expression of Ac-FOXO1 and Bax. These effects of SalB were abolished by EX527 treatment. In summary, our results demonstrate that SalB treatment attenuates brain injury induced by ischemic stoke via reducing apoptosis and inflammation through the activation of SIRT1 signaling.

  7. Rutaecarpine attenuates hypoxia-induced right ventricular remodeling in rats.

    PubMed

    Li, Wen-Qun; Li, Xiao-Hui; Du, Jie; Zhang, Wang; Li, Dai; Xiong, Xiao-Ming; Li, Yuan-Jian

    2016-07-01

    Rutaecarpine has been shown to exhibit wide pharmacological effects in the cardiovascular system via stimulation of calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) release. In the present study, the effect of rutaecarpine on hypoxia-induced right ventricular (RV) remodeling and the underlying mechanisms were evaluated. RV remodeling was induced by hypoxia (10 % O2, 3 weeks) in rats. Rats were treated with rutaecarpine (20 or 40 mg/kg) by intragastric administration. Proliferation of cardiac fibroblasts was induced by TGF-β1 (5 ng/mL) and determined by MTS and EdU incorporation method. Cardiac fibroblasts were treated with exogenous CGRP (10 or 100 nM). The concentrations of CGRP and TGF-β1 in plasma were measured by ELISA. The expression of eIF3a, p27, α-SMA, collagen-I/III, ANP, and BNP were measured by real-time PCR or western blot. Hypoxia induced an increase of right ventricle systolic pressure (RVSP), ration of RV/LV+S, and RV/tibial length in rats, while cardiac hypertrophy, apoptosis, and fibrosis were detected. The expression of ANP, BNP, α-SMA, collagen-I, collagen-III, eIF3a, and TGF-β1 was up-regulated, and the expression of p27 was down-regulated in the right ventricle of hypoxia-treated rats. The plasma concentration of CGRP was decreased and TGF-β1 was increased in hypoxia-treated rats. All of these effects induced by hypoxia were attenuated by rutaecarpine in a dose-dependent manner. In cultured cardiac fibroblasts, TGF-β1 significantly promoted the proliferation and up-regulated the expression of α-SMA and collagen-I/III, while the expression of eIF3a was up-regulated and the expression of p27 was down-regulated. The effects of TGF-β1 were attenuated by CGRP. CGRP8-37, a selective CGRP receptor antagonist, abolished the effects of CGRP. Rutaecarpine attenuates hypoxia-induced RV remodeling via stimulation of CGRP release, and the effects of rutaecarpine involve the eIF3a/p27 pathway.

  8. Chronic central serotonin depletion attenuates ventilation and body temperature in young but not adult Tph2 knockout rats.

    PubMed

    Kaplan, Kara; Echert, Ashley E; Massat, Ben; Puissant, Madeleine M; Palygin, Oleg; Geurts, Aron M; Hodges, Matthew R

    2016-05-01

    Genetic deletion of brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice leads to ventilatory deficits and increased neonatal mortality during development. However, it is unclear if the loss of the 5-HT neurons or the loss of the neurochemical 5-HT led to the observed physiologic deficits. Herein, we generated a mutant rat model with constitutive central nervous system (CNS) 5-HT depletion by mutation of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in dark agouti (DA(Tph2-/-)) rats. DA(Tph2-/-) rats lacked TPH immunoreactivity and brain 5-HT but retain dopa decarboxylase-expressing raphe neurons. Mutant rats were also smaller, had relatively high mortality (∼50%), and compared with controls had reduced room air ventilation and body temperatures at specific postnatal ages. In adult rats, breathing at rest and hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflexes were unaltered in adult male and female DA(Tph2-/-) rats. Body temperature was also maintained in adult DA(Tph2-/-) rats exposed to 4°C, indicating unaltered ventilatory and/or thermoregulatory control mechanisms. Finally, DA(Tph2-/-) rats treated with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) partially restored CNS 5-HT and showed increased ventilation (P < 0.05) at a developmental age when it was otherwise attenuated in the mutants. We conclude that constitutive CNS production of 5-HT is critically important to fundamental homeostatic control systems for breathing and temperature during postnatal development in the rat. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  9. Chronic central serotonin depletion attenuates ventilation and body temperature in young but not adult Tph2 knockout rats

    PubMed Central

    Kaplan, Kara; Echert, Ashley E.; Massat, Ben; Puissant, Madeleine M.; Palygin, Oleg; Geurts, Aron M.

    2016-01-01

    Genetic deletion of brain serotonin (5-HT) neurons in mice leads to ventilatory deficits and increased neonatal mortality during development. However, it is unclear if the loss of the 5-HT neurons or the loss of the neurochemical 5-HT led to the observed physiologic deficits. Herein, we generated a mutant rat model with constitutive central nervous system (CNS) 5-HT depletion by mutation of the tryptophan hydroxylase 2 (Tph2) gene in dark agouti (DATph2−/−) rats. DATph2−/− rats lacked TPH immunoreactivity and brain 5-HT but retain dopa decarboxylase-expressing raphe neurons. Mutant rats were also smaller, had relatively high mortality (∼50%), and compared with controls had reduced room air ventilation and body temperatures at specific postnatal ages. In adult rats, breathing at rest and hypoxic and hypercapnic chemoreflexes were unaltered in adult male and female DATph2−/− rats. Body temperature was also maintained in adult DATph2−/− rats exposed to 4°C, indicating unaltered ventilatory and/or thermoregulatory control mechanisms. Finally, DATph2−/− rats treated with the 5-HT precursor 5-hydroxytryptophan (5-HTP) partially restored CNS 5-HT and showed increased ventilation (P < 0.05) at a developmental age when it was otherwise attenuated in the mutants. We conclude that constitutive CNS production of 5-HT is critically important to fundamental homeostatic control systems for breathing and temperature during postnatal development in the rat. PMID:26869713

  10. Catechin attenuates behavioral neurotoxicity induced by 6-OHDA in rats.

    PubMed

    Teixeira, M D A; Souza, C M; Menezes, A P F; Carmo, M R S; Fonteles, A A; Gurgel, J P; Lima, F A V; Viana, G S B; Andrade, G M

    2013-09-01

    This study was designed to investigate the beneficial effect of catechin in a model of Parkinson's disease. Unilateral, intrastriatal 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-lesioned rats were pretreated with catechin (10 and 30 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection 2h before surgery and for 14 days afterwards. After treatments, apomorphine-induced rotations, locomotor activity, working memory and early and late aversive memories were evaluated. The mesencephalon was used to determine the levels of monoamines and measurement of glutathione (GSH). Immunohistochemical staining was also used to evaluate the expression of tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) in mesencephalic and striatal tissues. Catechin administration attenuated the increase in rotational behavior and the decrease in locomotor activity observed in lesioned rats. Although catechin did not rescue the impairment of late aversive memory, it protected the animals against 6-OHDA-induced working memory deficits. Furthermore, catechin treatment restored GSH levels, and significantly increased dopamine and DOPAC content, and TH-immunoreactivity in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Catechin protected 6-OHDA-lesioned rats due to its antioxidant action, indicating that it could be useful as an adjunctive therapy for the treatment of Parkinson's disease.

  11. Sodium benzoate attenuates iminodipropionitrile-induced behavioral syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Tariq, M; Khan, H A; Al Moutaery, K; Al Deeb, S

    2004-12-01

    This study reports the effects of the antioxidant sodium benzoate (SB) on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced excitation with choreiform and circling (ECC) syndrome in adult female Wistar rats. Rats in four different groups (n=8) received i.p. injections of SB (0, 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg) daily for 10 days. IDPN (100 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered daily 30 min before SB for the first 8 days. Two additional groups served as control (vehicle) and SB alone (200 mg/kg) groups. The animals were observed daily for neurobehavioral abnormalities, including dyskinetic head movements, circling, tail hanging, righting reflex and contact inhibition of the righting reflex, characterized as the ECC syndrome. In the IDPN-alone treated group, the onset of ECC syndrome occurred on day 9 (2 out of 8 rats), whereas none of the animals treated with IDPN plus SB (100 or 200 mg/kg) showed any signs of ECC syndrome on that day. All the animals in the IDPN-alone group developed severe dyskinesia on day 11. Treatment of rats with SB significantly and dose-dependently attenuated IDPN-induced behavioral deficits.

  12. Neuroprotection of Selective Brain Cooling After Penetrating Ballistic-like Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Lu, Xi-Chun M; Shear, Deborah A; Yang, Xiaofang; Tortella, Frank C

    2011-01-01

    Induced hypothermia has been reported to provide neuroprotection against traumatic brain injury. We recently developed a novel method of selective brain cooling (SBC) and demonstrated its safety and neuroprotection efficacy in a rat model of ischemic brain injury. The primary focus of the current study was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective efficacy of SBC in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) with a particular focus on the acute cerebral pathophysiology, neurofunction, and cognition. SBC (34°C) was induced immediately after PBBI, and maintained for 2 hours, followed by a spontaneous re-warming. Intracranial pressure (ICP) and regional cerebral blood flow were monitored continuously for 3 hours, and the ICP was measured again at 24 hours postinjury. Brain swelling, blood-brain barrier permeability, intracerebral hemorrhage, lesion size, and neurological status were assessed at 24 hours postinjury. Cognitive abilities were evaluated in a Morris water maze task at 12-16 days postinjury. Results showed that SBC significantly attenuated PBBI-induced elevation of ICP (PBBI = 33.2 ± 10.4; PBBI + SBC = 18.8 ± 6.7 mmHg) and reduced brain swelling, blood-brain barrier leakage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and lesion volume by 40%-45% for each matrix, and significantly improved neurologic function. However, these acute neuroprotective benefits of SBC did not translate into improved cognitive performance in the Morris water maze task. These results indicate that 34°C SBC is effective in protecting against acute brain damage and related neurological dysfunction. Further studies are required to establish the optimal treatment conditions (i.e., duration of cooling and/or combined therapeutic approaches) needed to achieve significant neurocognitive benefits.

  13. Lidocaine attenuates cognitive impairment after isoflurane anesthesia in old rats.

    PubMed

    Lin, Daowei; Cao, Lin; Wang, Zhi; Li, Jiejie; Washington, Jacqueline M; Zuo, Zhiyi

    2012-03-17

    Post-operative cognitive dysfunction (POCD) is a clinical phenomenon that has drawn significant attention from the public and scientific community. Age is a risk factor for POCD. However, the contribution of general anesthesia/anesthetics to POCD and the underlying neuropathology are not clear. Here, we showed that 18-month-old male Fisher 344 rats exposed to 1.2% isoflurane, a general anesthetic, for 2h had significant learning and memory impairments assessed at 2-4 weeks after isoflurane exposure. These isoflurane effects were attenuated by intravenous lidocaine (1.5mg/kg as a bolus and then 2mg/kg/h during isoflurane exposure), a local anesthetic that has neuroprotective effect. Exposure to isoflurane or isoflurane plus lidocaine did not change the neuronal and synaptic density as well as the expression of NeuN (a neuronal protein), drebrin (a dendritic spine protein), synaptophysin (a synaptic protein), activated caspase 3 and caspase-activated DNase in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure when cognitive impairment was present. Isoflurane and lidocaine did not affect the amount of β-amyloid peptide, total tau and phospho-tau in the cerebral cortex as well as interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α in the hippocampus at 29 days after isoflurane exposure. Thus, isoflurane induces learning and memory impairment in old rats. Lidocaine attenuates these isoflurane effects. Isoflurane may not cause long-lasting neuropathological changes.

  14. Astaxanthin intake attenuates muscle atrophy caused by immobilization in rats.

    PubMed

    Shibaguchi, Tsubasa; Yamaguchi, Yusuke; Miyaji, Nobuyuki; Yoshihara, Toshinori; Naito, Hisashi; Goto, Katsumasa; Ohmori, Daijiro; Yoshioka, Toshitada; Sugiura, Takao

    2016-08-01

    Astaxanthin is a carotenoid pigment and has been shown to be an effective inhibitor of oxidative damage. We tested the hypothesis that astaxanthin intake would attenuate immobilization-induced muscle atrophy in rats. Male Wistar rats (14-week old) were fed for 24 days with either astaxanthin or placebo diet. After 14 days of each experimental diet intake, the hindlimb muscles of one leg were immobilized in plantar flexion position using a plaster cast. Following 10 days of immobilization, both the atrophic and the contralateral plantaris muscles were removed and analyzed to determine the level of muscle atrophy along with measurement of the protein levels of CuZn-superoxide dismutase (CuZn-SOD) and selected proteases. Compared with placebo diet animals, the degree of muscle atrophy in response to immobilization was significantly reduced in astaxanthin diet animals. Further, astaxanthin supplementation significantly prevented the immobilization-induced increase in the expression of CuZn-SOD, cathepsin L, calpain, and ubiquitin in the atrophied muscle. These results support the postulate that dietary astaxanthin intake attenuates the rate of disuse muscle atrophy by inhibiting oxidative stress and proteolysis via three major proteolytic pathways. © 2016 The Authors. Physiological Reports published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of the American Physiological Society and The Physiological Society.

  15. Scatter and attenuation correction for brain SPECT using attenuation distributions inferred from a head atlas.

    PubMed

    Stodilka, R Z; Kemp, B J; Prato, F S; Kertesz, A; Kuhl, D; Nicholson, R L

    2000-09-01

    Sequential transmission scanning (TS)/SPECT is impractical for neurologically impaired patients who are unable to keep their heads motionless for the extended duration of the combined scans. To provide an alternative to TS, we have developed a method of inferring-attenuation distributions (IADs), from SPECT data, using a head atlas and a registration program. The validity of replacing TS with IAD was tested in 10 patients with mild dementia. TS was conducted with each patient using a collimated 99mTc line source and fanbeam collimator; this was followed by hexamethyl propyleneamine oxime-SPECT. IAD was derived by deformably registering the brain component of a digital head atlas to a preliminary SPECT reconstruction and then applying the resulting spatial transformation to the full head atlas. SPECT data were reconstructed with scatter and attenuation correction. Relative regional cerebral blood flow was quantified in 12 threshold-guided anatomic regions of interest, with cerebellar normalization. SPECT reconstructions using IAD were compared with those using TS (which is the "gold standard") in terms of these regions of interest. When we compared all regions of interest across the population, the correlation between IAD-guided and TS-guided SPECT scans was 0.92 (P < 0.0001), whereas the mean absolute difference between the scans was 7.5%. On average, IAD resulted in slight underestimation of relative regional cerebral blood flow; however, this underestimation was statistically significant for only the left frontal and left central sulcus regions (P = 0.001 and 0.002, respectively). Error analysis indicated that approximately 10.0% of the total error was caused by IAD scatter correction, 36.6% was caused by IAD attenuation correction, 27.0% was caused by discrepancies in region-of-interest demarcation from quantitative errors in IAD-guided reconstructions, and 26.5% was caused by patient motion throughout the imaging procedure. SPECT reconstructions guided by IAD

  16. Carnosine Reduces Oxidative Stress and Reverses Attenuation of Righting and Postural Reflexes in Rats with Thioacetamide-Induced Liver Failure.

    PubMed

    Milewski, Krzysztof; Hilgier, Wojciech; Fręśko, Inez; Polowy, Rafał; Podsiadłowska, Anna; Zołocińska, Ewa; Grymanowska, Aneta W; Filipkowski, Robert K; Albrecht, Jan; Zielińska, Magdalena

    2016-02-01

    Cerebral oxidative stress (OS) contributes to the pathogenesis of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). Existing evidence suggests that systemic administration of L-histidine (His) attenuates OS in brain of HE animal models, but the underlying mechanism is complex and not sufficiently understood. Here we tested the hypothesis that dipeptide carnosine (β-alanyl-L-histidine, Car) may be neuroprotective in thioacetamide (TAA)-induced liver failure in rats and that, being His metabolite, may mediate the well documented anti-OS activity of His. Amino acids [His or Car (100 mg/kg)] were administrated 2 h before TAA (i.p., 300 mg/kg 3× in 24 h intervals) injection into Sprague-Dawley rats. The animals were thus tested for: (i) brain prefrontal cortex and blood contents of Car and His, (ii) amount of reactive oxygen species (ROS), total antioxidant capacity (TAC), GSSG/GSH ratio and thioredoxin reductase (TRx) activity, and (iii) behavioral changes (several models were used, i.e. tests for reflexes, open field, grip test, Rotarod). Brain level of Car was reduced in TAA rats, and His administration significantly elevated Car levels in control and TAA rats. Car partly attenuated TAA-induced ROS production and reduced GSH/GSSG ratio, whereas the increase of TRx activity in TAA brain was not significantly modulated by Car. Further, Car improved TAA-affected behavioral functions in rats, as was shown by the tests of righting and postural reflexes. Collectively, the results support the hypothesis that (i) Car may be added to the list of neuroprotective compounds of therapeutic potential on HE and that (ii) Car mediates at least a portion of the OS-attenuating activity of His in the setting of TAA-induced liver failure.

  17. Levetiracetam attenuates rotenone-induced toxicity: A rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Erbaş, Oytun; Yılmaz, Mustafa; Taşkıran, Dilek

    2016-03-01

    Levetiracetam (LEV), a second-generation anti-epileptic drug, is used for treatment of both focal and generalized epilepsy. Growing body of evidence suggests that LEV may have neuroprotective effects. The present study was undertaken to investigate the neuroprotective effects of LEV on rotenone-induced Parkinson's disease (PD) in rats. Twenty-four adult Sprague-Dawley rats were infused with rotenone (3 μg/μl in DMSO) or vehicle (1 μl DMSO) into the left substantia nigra pars compacta (SNc) under stereotaxic surgery. PD model was assessed by rotational test ten days after drug infusion. The valid PD rats were randomly distributed into two groups; Group 1 (n=8) and Group 2 (n=8) were administered saline (1 ml/kg/day, i.p.) and LEV (600 mg/kg/day, i.p.) through 21 days, respectively. The effects of LEV treatment were evaluated by behavioral (rotation score), biochemical (brain homovalinic acid level and oxidant/antioxidant status) and immunohistochemical (tyrosine hydroxylase) parameters. Apomorphine-induced rotations in PD rats were significantly suppressed by LEV treatment. While unilateral rotenone lesion induced a dramatic loss of dopaminergic neurons both in the striatum and SNc, LEV treatment significantly attenuated the degenerative changes in dopaminergic neurons. Furthermore, LEV significantly decreased lipid peroxide levels, a marker of lipid peroxidation, and induced glutathione levels, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity in PD rats compared with saline group. We conclude that LEV may have beneficial effects on dopaminergic neurons against rotenone-induced injury. The underlying mechanism may be associated with the attenuation of oxidative stress. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  18. TRANSGENIC OVEREXPRESSION OF NEUROGLOBIN ATTENUATES FORMATION OF SMOKE INHALATION-INDUCED OXIDATIVE DNA DAMAGE, IN VIVO, IN THE MOUSE BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Heung Man; Greeley, George H.; Englander, Ella W.

    2011-01-01

    Acute inhalation of combustion smoke causes neurological deficits in survivors. Inhaled smoke includes carbon monoxide, noxious gases and hypoxic environment, which disrupt oxygenation and generate free radicals. To replicate a smoke inhalation scenario, we developed experimental model of acute exposure to smoke for the awake mouse/rat and detected induction of biomarkers of oxidative stress. These include inhibition of mitochondrial respiratory complexes and formation of oxidative DNA damage in the brain. DNA damage is likely to contribute to neuronal dysfunction and progression of brain injury. In search for strategies to attenuate the smoke initiated brain injury, we produced a transgenic mouse overexpressing the neuronal globin protein, neuroglobin. Neuroglobin was found neuroprotective in diverse models of ischemic/hypoxic/toxic brain injuries. Here, we report lesser inhibition of respiratory complex I and reduced formation of smoke-induced DNA damage in neuroglobin transgene when compared to the wild-type mouse brain. DNA damage was assessed using the standard comet assay, as well as a modified comet assay done in conjunction with an enzyme, which excises oxidized guanines that form readily under conditions of oxidative stress. Both comet assays revealed that overexpressed neuroglobin attenuates the formation of oxidative DNA damage, in vivo, in the brain. These findings suggest that elevated neuroglobin exerts neuroprotection in part, by decreasing the impact of acute smoke inhalation on integrity of neuronal DNA. PMID:22001746

  19. Fluoxetine and sertraline attenuate postischemic brain injury in mice.

    PubMed

    Shin, Tae Kyeong; Kang, Mi Sun; Lee, Ho Youn; Seo, Moo Sang; Kim, Si Geun; Kim, Chi Dae; Lee, Won Suk

    2009-06-01

    This study aimed to investigate whether selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) attenuate brain injury and facilitate recovery following photothrombotic cortical ischemia in mice. Male ICR mice were anesthetized and systemically administered Rose Bengal. Permanent focal ischemia was induced in the medial frontal and somatosensory cortices by irradiating the skull with cold light laser. The animals were treated with fluoxetine or sertraline once a day for 14 d starting 1 h after ischemic insult. Treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline significantly reduced the infarct size. The Evans blue extravasation indices of the fluoxetine- and sertraline-treated groups were significantly lower than that of the vehicle group. Treatment with fluoxetine and sertraline shifted the lower limit of the mean arterial blood pressure for cerebral blood flow autoregulation toward normal, and significantly increased the expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) and hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1alpha) proteins in the ischemic region. These results suggest that SSRIs, such as fluoxetine and sertraline, facilitate recovery following photothrombotic cortical ischemia via enhancement of HO-1 and HIF-1alpha proteins expression, thereby providing a benefit in therapy of cerebral ischemia.

  20. Low-dose memantine attenuated morphine addictive behavior through its anti-inflammation and neurotrophic effects in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Shiou-Lan; Tao, Pao-Luh; Chu, Chun-Hsien; Chen, Shih-Heng; Wu, Hsiang-En; Tseng, Leon F; Hong, Jau-Shyong; Lu, Ru-Band

    2012-06-01

    Opioid abuse and dependency are international problems. Studies have shown that neuronal inflammation and degeneration might be related to the development of opioid addiction. Thus, using neuroprotective agents might be beneficial for treating opioid addiction. Memantine, an Alzheimer's disease medication, has neuroprotective effects in vitro and in vivo. In this study, we evaluated whether a low dose of memantine prevents opioid-induced drug-seeking behavior in rats and analyzed its mechanism. A conditioned-place-preference test was used to investigate the morphine-induced drug-seeking behaviors in rats. We found that a low-dose (0.2-1 mg/kg) of subcutaneous memantine significantly attenuated the chronic morphine-induced place-preference in rats. To clarify the effects of chronic morphine and low-dose memantine, serum and brain levels of cytokines and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) were measured. After 6 days of morphine treatment, cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6) levels had significantly increased in serum; IL-1β and IL-6 mRNA levels had significantly increased in the nucleus accumbens and medial prefrontal cortex, both addiction-related brain areas; and BDNF levels had significantly decreased, both in serum and in addiction-related brain areas. Pretreatment with low-dose memantine significantly attenuated chronic morphine-induced increases in serum and brain cytokines. Low-dose memantine also significantly potentiated serum and brain BDNF levels. We hypothesize that neuronal inflammation and BDNF downregulation are related to the progression of opioid addiction. We hypothesize that the mechanism low-dose memantine uses to attenuate morphine-induced addiction behavior is its anti-inflammatory and neurotrophic effects.

  1. Deformation-based brain morphometry in rats.

    PubMed

    Gaser, Christian; Schmidt, Silvio; Metzler, Martin; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krumbein, Ines; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Witte, Otto W

    2012-10-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based morphometry provides in vivo evidence for macro-structural plasticity of the brain. Experiments on small animals using automated morphometric methods usually require expensive measurements with ultra-high field dedicated animal MRI systems. Here, we developed a novel deformation-based morphometry (DBM) tool for automated analyses of rat brain images measured on a 3-Tesla clinical whole body scanner with appropriate coils. A landmark-based transformation of our customized reference brain into the coordinates of the widely used rat brain atlas from Paxinos and Watson (Paxinos Atlas) guarantees the comparability of results to other studies. For cross-sectional data, we warped images onto the reference brain using the low-dimensional nonlinear registration implemented in the MATLAB software package SPM8. For the analysis of longitudinal data sets, we chose high-dimensional registrations of all images of one data set to the first baseline image which facilitate the identification of more subtle structural changes. Because all deformations were finally used to transform the data into the space of the Paxinos Atlas, Jacobian determinants could be used to estimate absolute local volumes of predefined regions-of-interest. Pilot experiments were performed to analyze brain structural changes due to aging or photothrombotically-induced cortical stroke. The results support the utility of DBM based on commonly available clinical whole-body scanners for highly sensitive morphometric studies on rats.

  2. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2014-01-01

    Objective: The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica leaves against cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity. Materials and Methods: Female Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (control); a single intraperitoneal 5 mg/kg CP (CP group); neem leaves (orally 500 mg/kg) for 5 and 10 days, N5 and N10 groups, respectively; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days after CP injection, collagenous protein nitrogen (CPN) group; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days before CP injection, noncollagenous protein group and neem leaves in a dose of 500 mg/kg for 5 days before and after CP injection, noncollagenous protein nitrogen group. Rats were sacrificed 5 days after CP injection to determine neural lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The neuronal antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in brain homogenates. Results: CP injection increased LPO, NO levels and decreased GSH level, whereas neem reversed these effects. Morphological brain damage and apoptosis induction were apparent in the CP group. In the CPN group, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by CP was improved, whereas morphological findings of neem before and after CP injection implied a well preserved brain tissue. No changes, in biochemical parameters were observed with neem treated groups. Conclusion: This study suggests that methanolic extract of neem leaves may be of therapeutic benefit when used with CP. PMID:24987180

  3. Azadirachta indica attenuates cisplatin-induced neurotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdel Moneim, Ahmed Esmat

    2014-01-01

    The objective of this study is to investigate the neuroprotective effects of Azadirachta indica leaves against cisplatin (CP)-induced neurotoxicity. Female Wistar rats were treated with vehicle (control); a single intraperitoneal 5 mg/kg CP (CP group); neem leaves (orally 500 mg/kg) for 5 and 10 days, N5 and N10 groups, respectively; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days after CP injection, collagenous protein nitrogen (CPN) group; neem leaves (500 mg/kg) for 5 days before CP injection, noncollagenous protein group and neem leaves in a dose of 500 mg/kg for 5 days before and after CP injection, noncollagenous protein nitrogen group. Rats were sacrificed 5 days after CP injection to determine neural lipid peroxidation (LPO), nitric oxide (NO), and glutathione (GSH) levels. The neuronal antioxidant enzymes were evaluated in brain homogenates. CP injection increased LPO, NO levels and decreased GSH level, whereas neem reversed these effects. Morphological brain damage and apoptosis induction were apparent in the CP group. In the CPN group, the histological damage and apoptosis induction caused by CP was improved, whereas morphological findings of neem before and after CP injection implied a well preserved brain tissue. No changes, in biochemical parameters were observed with neem treated groups. This study suggests that methanolic extract of neem leaves may be of therapeutic benefit when used with CP.

  4. Pentoxifylline attenuates iminodipropionitrile-induced behavioral abnormalities in rats.

    PubMed

    Al Kadasah, Saeed; Al Mutairy, Ahmad; Siddiquei, Mairaj; Khan, Haseeb Ahmad; Abdulwahid Arif, Ibrahim; Al Moutaery, Khalaf; Tariq, Mohammad

    2009-07-01

    This investigation was undertaken to study the effect of pentoxifylline (PTX) on iminodipropionitrile (IDPN)-induced behavioral abnormalities [excitation with choreiform and circling movements (ECC) syndrome] in rats. The animals were intraperitoneally injected with IDPN (100 mg/kg) daily for 7 days. PTX was administered daily 30 min before IDPN in the doses of 25, 50, and 100 mg/kg for 9 days. The animals were observed for neurobehavioral abnormalities including dyskinetic head movements, circling, tail hanging, air righting reflex, and contact inhibition of the righting reflex. The onset of ECC syndrome was observed on day 8 in the group treated with IDPN alone; all animals in this group became dyskinetic on day 10. Co-treatment with PTX dose dependently delayed the onset time and significantly reduced the incidence and severity of IDPN-induced ECC syndrome; high dose of PTX completely inhibited the abnormal behavioral signs in IDPN-treated rats. Administration of IDPN caused significant depletions in cerebral glutathione and vitamin E levels. Treatment with PTX dose dependently attenuated IDPN-induced oxidative stress in rats. The beneficial effects of PTX against IDPN toxicity may be attributed to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties.

  5. Taurine attenuates cold ischemia-reoxygenation injury in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Wettstein, M; Häussinger, D

    2000-06-15

    Taurine, betaine, and inositol were recently identified as osmolytes in liver cells interfering with cell volume regulation and cell function. In this study, the effect of osmolytes on cold ischemia-reoxygenation injury was investigated in rat liver. Isolated rat livers were flushed for 15 min with Krebs-Henseleit buffer (KHB), then stored for 16 hr in KHB at 4 degrees C, and thereafter reperfused with oxygenated KHB for 180 min. When taurine, betaine, and inositol (2 mmol/L, each) were added to the preperfusion and storage buffer, lactate dehydrogenase, aspartate amino transferase, and glutathione S-transferase leakage into the effluent perfusate during the reoxygenation period were less than half compared to controls without osmolytes and bile flow was higher. The effect of taurine (2 mmol/L) was similar to a mixture of all three osmolytes, indicating that taurine is the most important constituent. When livers were stored for 24 hr in University of Wisconsin solution, osmolyte addition to the storage solution also decreased lactate dehydrogenase and aspartate aminotransferase leakage during reoxygenation. Increasing liver taurine content by a 7-day taurine supplementation of drinking water attenuated reoxygenation injury in cold and warm ischemia in rat livers, whereas taurine depletion by beta-alanine feeding had the opposite effect. The data show that taurine protects livers from ischemia-reoxygenation. Taurine addition to perfusion and storage solutions in low millimolar concentrations or taurine supplementation of the donor may be useful to protect transplanted organs.

  6. Gastrin attenuates ischemia-reperfusion-induced intestinal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Zhihao; Luo, Yongli; Cheng, Yunjiu; Zou, Dezhi; Zeng, Aihong; Yang, Chunhua

    2016-01-01

    Intestinal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a devastating complication when the blood supply is reflowed in ischemic organs. Gastrin has critical function in regulating acid secretion, proliferation, and differentiation in the gastric mucosa. We aimed to determine whether gastrin has an effect on intestinal I/R damage. Intestinal I/R injury was induced by 60-min occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery followed by 60-min reperfusion, and the rats were induced to be hypergastrinemic by pretreated with omeprazole or directly injected with gastrin. Some hypergastrinemic rats were injected with cholecystokinin-2 (CCK-2) receptor antagonist prior to I/R operation. After the animal surgery, the intestine was collected for histological analysis. Isolated intestinal epithelial cells or crypts were harvested for RNA and protein analysis. CCK-2 receptor expression, intestinal mucosal damage, cell apoptosis, and apoptotic protein caspase-3 activity were measured. We found that high gastrin in serum significantly reduced intestinal hemorrhage, alleviated extensive epithelial disruption, decreased disintegration of lamina propria, downregulated myeloperoxidase activity, tumor necrosis factor-α, and caspase-3 activity, and lead to low mortality in response to I/R injury. On the contrary, CCK-2 receptor antagonist L365260 could markedly impair intestinal protection by gastrin on intestinal I/R. Severe edema of mucosal villi with severe intestinal crypt injury and numerous intestinal villi disintegrated were observed again in the hypergastrinemic rats with L365260. The survival in the hypergastrinemic rats after intestinal I/R injury was shortened by L365260. Finally, gastrin could remarkably upregulated intestinal CCK-2 receptor expression. Our data suggest that gastrin by omeprazole remarkably attenuated I/R induced intestinal injury by enhancing CCK-2 receptor expression and gastrin could be a potential mitigator for intestinal I/R damage in the clinical setting. PMID

  7. Laser scattering by transcranial rat brain illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2012-06-01

    Due to the great number of applications of Low-Level-Laser-Therapy (LLLT) in Central Nervous System (CNS), the study of light penetration through skull and distribution in the brain becomes extremely important. The aim is to analyze the possibility of precise illumination of deep regions of the rat brain, measure the penetration and distribution of red (λ = 660 nm) and Near Infra-Red (NIR) (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light and compare optical properties of brain structures. The head of the animal (Rattus Novergicus) was epilated and divided by a sagittal cut, 2.3 mm away from mid plane. This section of rat's head was illuminated with red and NIR lasers in points above three anatomical structures: hippocampus, cerebellum and frontal cortex. A high resolution camera, perpendicularly positioned, was used to obtain images of the brain structures. Profiles of scattered intensities in the laser direction were obtained from the images. There is a peak in the scattered light profile corresponding to the skin layer. The bone layer gives rise to a valley in the profile indicating low scattering coefficient, or frontal scattering. Another peak in the region related to the brain is an indication of high scattering coefficient (μs) for this tissue. This work corroborates the use of transcranial LLLT in studies with rats which are subjected to models of CNS diseases. The outcomes of this study point to the possibility of transcranial LLLT in humans for a large number of diseases.

  8. Mycophenolate mofetil attenuates pulmonary arterial hypertension in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Suzuki, Chihiro; Takahashi, Masafumi . E-mail: masafumi@sch.md.shinshu-u.ac.jp; Morimoto, Hajime; Izawa, Atsushi; Ise, Hirohiko; Hongo, Minoru; Hoshikawa, Yasushi; Ito, Takayuki; Miyashita, Hiroshi; Kobayashi, Eiji; Shimada, Kazuyuki; Ikeda, Uichi

    2006-10-20

    Pulmonary arterial hypertension (PAH) is characterized by abnormal proliferation of smooth muscle cells (SMCs), leading to occlusion of pulmonary arterioles, right ventricular (RV) hypertrophy, and death. We investigated whether mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), a potent immunosuppresssant, prevents the development of monocrotaline (MCT)-induced PAH in rats. MMF effectively decreased RV systolic pressure and RV hypertrophy, and reduced the medial thickness of pulmonary arteries. MMF significantly inhibited the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA)-positive cells, infiltration of macrophages, and expression of P-selectin and interleukin-6 on the endothelium of pulmonary arteries. The infiltration of T cells and mast cells was not affected by MMF. In vitro experiments revealed that mycophenolic acid (MPA), an active metabolite of MMF, dose-dependently inhibited proliferation of human pulmonary arterial SMCs. MMF attenuated the development of PAH through its anti-inflammatory and anti-proliferative properties. These findings provide new insight into the potential role of immunosuppressants in the treatment of PAH.

  9. Minocycline attenuates noise-induced hearing loss in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jing; Song, Yong-Li; Tian, Ke-Yong; Qiu, Jian-Hua

    2017-02-03

    Noise-induced hearing loss (NIHL) is a serious health concern and prevention of hair cell death or therapeutic intervention at the early stage of NIHL is critical to preserve hearing. Minocycline is a semi-synthetic derivative of tetracycline and has been shown to have otoprotective effects in ototoxic drug-induced hearing impairment, however, whether minocycline can protect against NIHL has not been investigated. The present study demonstrated elevated ABR (auditory brainstem response) thresholds and outer hair cell loss following traumatic noise exposure, which was mitigated by intraperitoneal administration of minocycline (45mg/kg/d) for 5 consecutive days. In conclusion, the present study demonstrated that minocycline, a clinically approved drug with a good safety profile, can attenuate NIHL in rats and may potentially be used for treatment of hearing loss in clinic.

  10. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J; Friedman, R; Tassinari, L

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  11. A methamphetamine vaccine attenuates methamphetamine-induced disruptions in thermoregulation and activity in rats.

    PubMed

    Miller, Michelle L; Moreno, Amira Y; Aarde, Shawn M; Creehan, Kevin M; Vandewater, Sophia A; Vaillancourt, Brittani D; Wright, M Jerry; Janda, Kim D; Taffe, Michael A

    2013-04-15

    There are no approved pharmacotherapies for d-methamphetamine (METH) addiction and existing therapies have limited efficacy. Advances in using immunotherapeutic approaches for cocaine and nicotine addiction have stimulated interest in creating a similar approach for METH addiction. This study investigated whether active vaccination against METH could potentially attenuate responses to METH in vivo. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32) received a four-boost series with one of three candidate anti-METH vaccines (MH2[R], MH6, and MH7) or a control keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine. Effects of METH on rectal temperature and wheel activity at 27°C ambient temperature were determined. The most efficacious vaccine, MH6, was then contrasted with keyhole limpet hemocyanin conjugate vaccine in a subsequent experiment (n = 16), wherein radiotelemetry determined home cage locomotor activity and body temperature at 23°C ambient temperature. The MH6 vaccine produced high antibody titers with nanomolar affinity for METH and sequestered METH in the periphery of rats. In experiment 1, the thermoregulatory and psychomotor responses produced by METH at 27°C were blocked in the MH6 group. In experiment 2, METH-induced decreases in body temperature and locomotor activity at 23°C were also attenuated in the MH6 group. A pharmacokinetic study in experiment 2 showed that MH6-vaccinated rats had higher METH serum concentrations, yet lower brain METH concentrations, than control rats, and METH concentrations correlated with individual antibody titer. These data demonstrate that active immunopharmacotherapy provides functional protection against physiological and behavioral disruptions induced by METH. Copyright © 2013 Society of Biological Psychiatry. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Anti-RAGE antibody attenuates isoflurane-induced cognitive dysfunction in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Chengmei; Yi, Duan; Li, Zhengqian; Zhou, Yongde; Cao, Yiyun; Sun, Yan; Chui, Dehua; Guo, Xiangyang

    2017-03-30

    Several animal studies demonstrated that the volatile anesthetic isoflurane could influence the blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity, which involved the cognitive impairment. Increasing evidence has also shown that the receptor for advanced glycation end-products (RAGE) played a major role in maintaining the integrity of BBB. The present study aimed to determine whether the RAGE-specific antibody protects against BBB disruption and cognitive impairment induced by isoflurane exposure in aged rats. 108 aged rats were randomly divided into four groups: (1) control group (Control); (2) 4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (ISO); (3) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated+4h of 2% isoflurane exposure group (anti-RAGE+ISO); (4) RAGE antibody (20μL, 2.5μg/μL) treated group (anti-RAGE). The isoflurane anesthesia resulted in the upregulation of hippocampal RAGE expression, disruption of BBB integrity, neuroinflammation, and beta-amyloid (Aβ) accumulation in aged rats. In addition, significant cognitive deficits in the Morris water maze test was also observed. The antibody pretreatment resulted in significant improvements in BBB integrity. Furthermore, the expression of RAGE and proinflammatory mediators, as well as, Aβ accumulation were attenuated. Moreover, the antibody administration attenuated the isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment in aged rats. These results demonstrate that RAGE signaling is involved in BBB damage after isoflurane exposure. Thus, the RAGE antibody represents a novel therapeutic intervention to prevent isoflurane-induced cognitive impairment. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  13. Ziprasidone and aripiprazole attenuate olanzapine-induced hyperphagia in rats.

    PubMed

    Snigdha, S; Thumbi, C; Reynolds, G P; Neill, J C

    2008-07-01

    Weight gain induced by some second-generation anti-psychotics such as olanzapine has emerged as a most debilitating side-effect. This study investigates whether co-administration with either ziprasidone or aripiprazole, which have little propensity to induce weight gain, can attenuate the hyperphagic effect of olanzapine. Female hooded-Lister rats (n=8 per group) were treated acutely with either vehicle, olanzapine (1 mg/kg), ziprasidone (1 mg/kg), aripiprazole (2 mg/kg) or olanzapine in combination with ziprasidone or aripiprazole and placed in automated locomotor activity (LMA) boxes with preweighed palatable mash. Food intake and LMA were measured for 60 min postdrug treatment. All olanzapine-treated groups demonstrated significant increases in food intake (P<0.001). This effect was attenuated following co-administration of olanzapine with either ziprasidone or aripiprazole (P<0.001), neither of which affected food intake alone. The lack of hyperphagia induced by aripiprazole and ziprasidone may reflect an inherent pharmacological mechanism preventing weight gain.

  14. Arctigenin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced acute lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianbao; Sun, Hongzhi; Zhou, Dun; Xi, Huanjiu; Shan, Lina

    2015-04-01

    Arctigenin (ATG) has been reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties. However, the effects of ATG on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced acute lung injury (ALI) remains not well understood. In the present study, our investigation was designed to reveal the effect of ATG on LPS-induced ALI in rats. We found that ATG pretreatment attenuated the LPS-induced ALI, as evidenced by the reduced histological scores, myeloperoxidase activity, and wet-to-dry weight ratio in the lung tissues. This was accompanied by the decreased levels of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-1 (IL-6) in the bronchoalveolar lavage fluid. Furthermore, ATG downregulated the expression of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) p65, promoted the phosphorylation of inhibitor of nuclear factor-κB-α (IκBα) and activated the adenosine 5'-monophosphate (AMP)-activated protein kinase (AMPKα) in the lung tissues. Our results suggested that ATG attenuates the LPS-induced ALI via activation of AMPK and suppression of NF-κB signaling pathway.

  15. Deep brain stimulation of the nucleus accumbens shell attenuates cocaine reinstatement through local and antidromic activation.

    PubMed

    Vassoler, Fair M; White, Samantha L; Hopkins, Thomas J; Guercio, Leonardo A; Espallergues, Julie; Berton, Olivier; Schmidt, Heath D; Pierce, R Christopher

    2013-09-04

    Accumbal deep brain stimulation (DBS) is a promising therapeutic modality for the treatment of addiction. Here, we demonstrate that DBS in the nucleus accumbens shell, but not the core, attenuates cocaine priming-induced reinstatement of drug seeking, an animal model of relapse, in male Sprague Dawley rats. Next, we compared DBS of the shell with pharmacological inactivation. Results indicated that inactivation using reagents that influenced (lidocaine) or spared (GABA receptor agonists) fibers of passage blocked cocaine reinstatement when administered into the core but not the shell. It seems unlikely, therefore, that intrashell DBS influences cocaine reinstatement by inactivating this nucleus or the fibers coursing through it. To examine potential circuit-wide changes, c-Fos immunohistochemistry was used to examine neuronal activation following DBS of the nucleus accumbens shell. Intrashell DBS increased c-Fos induction at the site of stimulation as well as in the infralimbic cortex, but had no effect on the dorsal striatum, prelimbic cortex, or ventral pallidum. Recent evidence indicates that accumbens DBS antidromically stimulates axon terminals, which ultimately activates GABAergic interneurons in cortical areas that send afferents to the shell. To test this hypothesis, GABA receptor agonists (baclofen/muscimol) were microinjected into the anterior cingulate, and prelimbic or infralimbic cortices before cocaine reinstatement. Pharmacological inactivation of all three medial prefrontal cortical subregions attenuated the reinstatement of cocaine seeking. These results are consistent with DBS of the accumbens shell attenuating cocaine reinstatement via local activation and/or activation of GABAergic interneurons in the medial prefrontal cortex via antidromic stimulation of cortico-accumbal afferents.

  16. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Servatius, Richard J; Marx, Christine E; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Pang, Kevin C H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  17. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Servatius, Richard J.; Marx, Christine E.; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  18. Intermedin attenuates LPS-induced inflammation in the rat testis.

    PubMed

    Li, Lei; Ma, Ping; Liu, Yongjun; Huang, Chen; O, Wai-sum; Tang, Fai; Zhang, Jian V

    2013-01-01

    First reported as a vasoactive peptide in the cardiovascular system, intermedin (IMD), also known as adrenomedullin 2 (ADM2), is a hormone with multiple potent roles, including its antioxidant action on the pulmonary, central nervous, cardiovascular and renal systems. Though IMD may play certain roles in trophoblast cell invasion, early embryonic development and cumulus cell-oocyte interaction, the role of IMD in the male reproductive system has yet to be investigated. This paper reports our findings on the gene expression of IMD, its receptor components and its protein localization in the testes. In a rat model, bacterial lippolysaccharide (LPS) induced atypical orchitis, and LPS treatment upregulated the expression of IMD and one of its receptor component proteins, i.e. receptor activity modifying protein 2 (RAMP2). IMD decreased both plasma and testicular levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) production, attenuated the increase in the gene expression of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNFα), interleukin 6 (IL6) and interleukin 1 beta (IL1β), rescued spermatogenesis, and prevented the decrease in plasma testosterone levels caused by LPS. The restorative effect of IMD on steroidogenesis was also observed in hydrogen peroxide-treated rat primary Leydig cells culture. Our results indicate IMD plays an important protective role in spermatogenesis and steroidogenesis, suggesting therapeutic potential for IMD in pathological conditions such as orchitis.

  19. Resveratrol attenuates hepatotoxicity of rats exposed to arsenic trioxide.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Weiqian; Xue, Jiangdong; Ge, Ming; Yu, Meiling; Liu, Lian; Zhang, Zhigang

    2013-01-01

    Arsenic trioxide (As(2)O(3)) is an environmental pollutant and potent toxicant to humans. However, it also shows substantial anti-cancer activity in individuals with acute promyelocytic leukemia (APL). Unfortunately, As(2)O(3)-treated leukemia patients suffer hepatotoxicity. Resveratrol has been demonstrated to have efficient antioxidant and antineoplastic activities. The study that how As(2)O(3) in combination with resveratrol affects hepatotoxicity and arsenic accumulation in the liver is lacking, and the present study tackles this question. Wistar rats were injected with 3mg/kg As(2)O(3) on alternate days; resveratrol (8mg/kg) was administered 1h before As(2)O(3). Rats were killed on the 8th day to determine histological liver damage, the antioxidant enzymes in serum, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH) to oxidized glutathione (GSSG), and arsenic accumulation in the liver. In the resveratrol+As(2)O(3) group, activities of superoxide dismutase, catalase in serum and GSH/GSSG were significantly increased, histopathological effects were reduced, and arsenic accumulation markedly decreased in the liver, compared with the As(2)O(3)-treated group. Thus, resveratrol attenuated As(2)O(3)-induced hepatotoxicity by decreasing oxidative stress and arsenic accumulation in the liver. These data suggest that use of resveratrol as post-remission therapy of APL and adjunctive therapy in patients with chronic exposure to arsenic may decrease arsenic hepatotoxicity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Salicylic acid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Randjelovic, Pavle; Veljkovic, Slavimir; Stojiljkovic, Nenad; Jankovic-Velickovic, Ljubinka; Sokolovic, Dusan; Stoiljkovic, Milan; Ilic, Ivan

    2012-01-01

    Gentamicin (GM) is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections, but its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine the protective effect of salicylic acid (SA) in gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. Quantitative evaluation of gentamicin-induced structural alterations and degree of functional alterations in the kidneys were performed by histopathological and biochemical analyses in order to determine potential beneficial effects of SA coadministration with gentamicin. Gentamicin was observed to cause a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevation of serum urea and creatinine levels. The significant increases in malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and protein carbonyl groups indicated that GM-induced tissue injury was mediated through oxidative reactions. On the other hand, simultaneous SA administration protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by GM treatment. Exposure to GM caused necrosis of tubular epithelial cells. Necrosis of tubules was found to be prevented by SA pretreatment. The results from our study indicate that SA supplement attenuates oxidative-stress associated renal injury by reducing oxygen free radicals and lipid peroxidation in gentamicin-treated rats.

  1. Diallyl disulfide attenuates acetaminophen-induced renal injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Shin, Jin-Young; Han, Ji-Hee; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Jung, Tae-Yang; Kim, Hyun-A; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Shin, In-Sik; Kim, Jong-Choon

    2016-12-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced acute renal injury in male rats. We also investigated the effects of DADS on kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which are novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in renal tissues, in response to AAP treatment. The following four experimental groups were evaluated: (1) vehicle control, (2) AAP (1,000 mg/kg), (3) AAP&DADS, and (4) DADS (50 mg/kg/day). AAP treatment caused acute kidney injury evidenced by increased serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and histopathological alterations. Additionally, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed increased expression of KIM-1 and NGAL proteins in renal tissues of AAP-treated rats. In contrast, DADS pretreatment significantly attenuated the AAP-induced nephrotoxic effects, including serum BUN level and expression of KIM-1 and NGAL proteins. Histopathological studies confirmed the renoprotective effect of DADS. The results suggest that DADS prevents AAP-induced acute nephrotoxicity, and that KIM-1 and NGAL may be useful biomarkers for the detection and monitoring of acute kidney injury associated with AAP exposure.

  2. Diallyl disulfide attenuates acetaminophen-induced renal injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Shin, Jin-Young; Han, Ji-Hee; Ko, Je-Won; Park, Sung-Hyeuk; Shin, Na-Rae; Jung, Tae-Yang; Kim, Hyun-A; Kim, Sung-Hwan; Shin, In-Sik

    2016-01-01

    This study investigated the protective effects of diallyl disulfide (DADS) against acetaminophen (AAP)-induced acute renal injury in male rats. We also investigated the effects of DADS on kidney injury molecule-1 (KIM-1) and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), which are novel biomarkers of nephrotoxicity in renal tissues, in response to AAP treatment. The following four experimental groups were evaluated: (1) vehicle control, (2) AAP (1,000 mg/kg), (3) AAP&DADS, and (4) DADS (50 mg/kg/day). AAP treatment caused acute kidney injury evidenced by increased serum blood urea nitrogen (BUN) levels and histopathological alterations. Additionally, Western blot and immunohistochemistry analysis showed increased expression of KIM-1 and NGAL proteins in renal tissues of AAP-treated rats. In contrast, DADS pretreatment significantly attenuated the AAP-induced nephrotoxic effects, including serum BUN level and expression of KIM-1 and NGAL proteins. Histopathological studies confirmed the renoprotective effect of DADS. The results suggest that DADS prevents AAP-induced acute nephrotoxicity, and that KIM-1 and NGAL may be useful biomarkers for the detection and monitoring of acute kidney injury associated with AAP exposure. PMID:28053613

  3. Pharmacological attenuation of chronic alcoholic pancreatitis induced hypersensitivity in rats

    PubMed Central

    McIlwrath, Sabrina L; Westlund, Karin N

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To characterize an alcohol and high fat diet induced chronic pancreatitis rat model that mimics poor human dietary choices. METHODS: Experimental rats were fed a modified Lieber-DeCarli alcohol (6%) and high-fat (65%) diet (AHF) for 10 wk while control animals received a regular rodent chow diet. Weekly behavioral tests determined mechanical and heat sensitivity. In week 10 a fasting glucose tolerance test was performed, measuring blood glucose levels before and after a 2 g/kg bodyweight intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection of glucose. Post mortem histological analysis was performed by staining pancreas and liver tissue sections with hematoxylin and eosin. Pancreas sections were also stained with Sirius red and fast green to quantify collagen content. Insulin-expressing cells were identified immunohistochemically in separate sections. Tissue staining density was quantified using Image J software. After mechanical and heat sensitivity became stable (weeks 6-10) in the AHF-fed animals, three different drugs were tested for their efficacy in attenuating pancreatitis associated hypersensitivity: a Group II metabotropic glutamate receptor specific agonist (2R,4R)-4-Aminopyrrolidine-2,4-dicarboxylate (APDC, 3 mg/kg, ip; Tocris, Bristol, United Kingdom), nociceptin (20, 60, 200 nmol/kg, ip; Tocris), and morphine sulfate (3 mg/kg, μ-opioid receptor agonist; Baxter Healthcare, Deerfield, IL, United States). RESULTS: Histological analysis of pancreas and liver determined that unlike control rats, AHF fed animals had pancreatic fibrosis, acinar and beta cell atrophy, with steatosis in both organs. Fat vacuolization was significantly increased in AHF fed rats (6.4% ± 1.1% in controls vs 23.8% ± 4.2%, P < 0.05). Rats fed the AHF diet had reduced fasting glucose tolerance in week 10 when peak blood glucose levels reached significantly higher concentrations than controls (127.4 ± 9.2 mg/dL in controls vs 161.0 ± 8.6 mg/dL, P < 0.05). This concurred with a 3.5 fold higher

  4. Curcumin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity Induced by Zinc Oxide Nanoparticles in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Khorsandi, Layasadat; Mansouri, Esrafil; Orazizadeh, Mahmoud; Jozi, Zahra

    2016-01-01

    Background: Zinc oxide nanoparticles (NZnO) are increasingly used in modern life. Most metal nanoparticles have adverse effects on the liver. Aims: To explore the protective action of curcumin (Cur) against hepatotoxicity induced by NZnO in rats. Study Design: Animal experimentation. Methods: Control group animals received normal saline, while the Cur group animals were treated with 200 mg/kg of Cur orally for 21 days. NZnO-intoxicated rats received 50 mg/kg of NZnO for 14 days by gavage method. In the NZnO+Cur group, rats were pretreated with Cur for 7 days before NZnO administration. Plasma activities of Alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST) and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were measured as biomarkers of hepatotoxicity. Hepatic levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activities were measured for detection of oxidative stress in liver tissue. Histological changes and apoptosis in liver tissue were studied by using Hematoxylin-eosin staining and the transferase dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method. Results: NZnO induced a significant increase in plasma AST (2.8-fold), ALT (2.7-fold) and ALP (1.97-fold) activity in comparison to the control group (p<0.01). NZnO increased MDA content and reduced SOD and GPx activities. NZnO caused liver damage including centrilobular necrosis and microvesicular steatosis. The percentage of apoptosis in hepatocytes was increased in NZnO-treated rats (p<0.01). Pre-treatment of Cur significantly reduced lipid peroxidation (39%), increased SOD (156%) and GPx (26%) activities, and attenuated ALT (47%), AST (41%) and ALP (30%) activities. Pre-treatment with Cur also decreased the histology changes and apoptotic index of hepatocytes (p<0.05). Conclusion: These findings indicate that Cur effectively protects against NZnO-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. However, future studies are required to propose Cur as a potential protective agent against hepatotoxicity

  5. Flavocoxid attenuates gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Kashef, Dalia H; El-Kenawi, Asmaa E; Suddek, Ghada M; Salem, Hatem A

    2015-12-01

    Gentamicin is a widely used antibiotic against serious and life-threatening infections; however, its usefulness is limited by the development of nephrotoxicity. The present study was designed to determine whether flavocoxid has a protective effect against gentamicin-induced nephrotoxicity in rats. For this purpose, we quantitatively evaluated gentamicin-induced renal structural and functional alterations using histopathological and biochemical approaches. Furthermore, the effect of flavocoxid on gentamicin induced hypersensitivity of urinary bladder rings to acetylcholine (ACh) was determined. Twenty-four male Wistar albino rats were randomly divided into three groups, namely control, gentamicin (100 mg/kg, i.p.) and gentamicin plus flavocoxid (20 mg/kg, orally). At the end of the study, all rats were sacrificed and then blood, urine samples and kidneys were collected for further analysis. Gentamicin administration caused a severe nephrotoxicity which was evidenced by an elevated renal somatic index (RSI), serum creatinine, blood urea nitrogen, serum lactate dehydrogenase, and protein in urine with a concomitant reduction in serum albumin and normalized creatinine clearance value as compared with the controls. Moreover, a significant increase in renal contents of malondialdehyde, myeloperoxidase, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha with a significant decrease in renal reduced glutathione and superoxide dismutase activities was detected upon gentamicin administration together with increasing the sensitivity of isolated urinary bladder rings to ACh. Exposure to gentamicin induced necrosis of renal tubular epithelial cells. Flavocoxid protected kidney tissue against the oxidative damage and the nephrotoxic effect caused by gentamicin treatment. In addition, flavocoxid significantly reduced the responses of isolated bladder rings to ACh. The results from our study indicate that flavocoxid supplement attenuates gentamicin-induced renal injury via the amelioration of

  6. Binge-like intake of HFD attenuates alcohol intake in rats.

    PubMed

    Sirohi, Sunil; Van Cleef, Arriel; Davis, Jon F

    2017-09-01

    Binge eating and binge alcohol intake are behavioral manifestations of pathological feeding and alcohol use disorder (AUD), respectively. Binge-feeding and AUD have high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders such as depression, which could have important implications for the management of these conditions. Importantly, these behaviors share many common features suggesting a singular etiology. However, the nature by which binge-feeding affects the development or maintenance of AUD is unclear. The present study examined the impact of a binge-feeding from a nutritionally complete high-fat diet (HFD) on initiation and maintenance of alcohol intake, anxiolytic behavior and central genetic changes in brain regions that control alcohol-reinforced behaviors. To do this, male Long-Evans rats received chow (controls) or HFD every three days (HFD-3D) or every day (HFD-ED) for 5weeks. Rodent chow and water were available ad-libitum to all groups throughout the experiment. Following 5weeks of HFD cycling, 20.0% ethanol or 2.0% sucrose intake was evaluated. In addition, anxiety-like behavior was measured using a light-dark box apparatus. Both HFD-3D and -ED groups of rats consumed significantly large amount of food during 2h HFD access sessions and reduced their chow intake in the next 22h. Surprisingly, binge-fed rats displayed attenuated acquisition of alcohol intake whereas sucrose consumption was unaffected. Rats exposed to HFD spent more time in the light side compared to chow controls, indicating that binge-feeding induced anxiolytic effects. In addition, alterations in the brain neurotensin system were observed following HFD exposure. These data indicate that binge-feeding behavior induces behavioral and genetic changes that help explain how alcohol intake is influenced by co-morbid eating disorders. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Glycyrrhizin Attenuates Toll Like Receptor-2, -4 and Experimental Vasospasm in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Chih-Zen; Wu, Shu-Chuan; Kwan, Aij-Lie

    2014-01-01

    Upregulated TLRs are observed in the serum of animals following experimental subarachnoid hemorrhage. This study was to examine glycyrrhizin's effect on proinflammatory cytokines and TLRs in SAH rats. Administration with glycyrrhizin was initiated 24 hr before and 1 hr later using osmotic minipump. Basilar arteries were harvested to examine TLRs mRNA and protein (rt-PCR and western blot) and CSF cytokines (rt-PCR). Morphologically, deformed endothelium, tortuous elastic lamina, and smooth muscle necrosis were observed in the SAH rats, but were absent in the glycyrrhizin pretreatment group. The TLR-3 protein level was not increased in SAH animals, compared with the controls, while that of TLR-2 and -4 in the SAH only and SAH plus vehicle groups was significantly elevated (P < 0.01). Pretreatment and treatment with glycyrrhizin reduced TLR-2 and -4 by 28 ± 8% and 33.4 ± 9.2%, respectively. Likewise, glycyrrhizin was able to reduce the IL-1β and MCP-1 mRNA levels. This study shows glycyrrhizin exerts anti-inflammatory effects on SAH induced vasospasm and attenuates the ultrashort time expression of TLRs, like TLR-2 and -4. It corresponds to SAH induced early brain injury. These findings offer credit to the antivasospastic effect of glycyrrhizin and its effect on SAH induced early brain injury. PMID:25152897

  8. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  9. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  10. Astrocyte activation and neurotoxicity: A study in different rat brain regions and in rat C6 astroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Poonam; Gupta, Sonam; Joshi, Neeraj; Sharma, Sharad; Singh, Sarika

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of rotenone on astrocytes activation, their viability and its effect on neuronal death in different brain regions. Rotenone was injected in rat brain by intracerebroventricularly (bilateral) route at dose of 6 μg and 12 μg. In vitro C6 cells were treated with rotenone at concentration of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 μM. Rotenone administration to rat brain caused significant astrocytes activation in frontal cortex, cerebellum, cerebellar nucleus, substantia nigra, hypothalamus and hippocampus regions of the rat brain. Rotenone administration also led to significant degeneration of cells in all the studied regions along with altered nuclear morphology assessed by hematoxylin-eosin and cresyl violet staining. Histological staining showed the significantly decreased number of cells in all the studied regions except cerebellar nucleus in dose and time dependant manner. Rotenone administration in the rat brain also caused significant decrease in glutathione levels and augmented nitrite levels. In vitro treatment of rotenone to astrocytic C6 cells caused significantly increased expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) and decreased viability in dose and time dependent manner. Rotenone treatment to C6 cells exhibited significant generation of reactive oxygen species, augmented nitrite level, impaired mitochondrial activity, apoptotic chromatin condensation and DNA damage in comparison to control cells. Findings showed that oxidative stress play a considerable role in rotenone induced astrocyte death that was attenuated with co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin. In conclusion, results showed that rotenone caused significant astrocytes activation, altered nuclear morphology, biochemical alteration and apoptotic cell death in different rat brain regions. In vitro observations in C6 cells showed that rotenone treatment exhibited oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death, which was attenuated with co

  11. Predatory Bacteria Attenuate Klebsiella pneumoniae Burden in Rat Lungs.

    PubMed

    Shatzkes, Kenneth; Singleton, Eric; Tang, Chi; Zuena, Michael; Shukla, Sean; Gupta, Shilpi; Dharani, Sonal; Onyile, Onoyom; Rinaggio, Joseph; Connell, Nancy D; Kadouri, Daniel E

    2016-11-08

    Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus are predatory bacteria that naturally-and obligately-prey on other Gram-negative bacteria, and their use has been proposed as a potential new approach to control microbial infection. The ability of predatory bacteria to prey on Gram-negative human pathogens in vitro is well documented; however, the in vivo safety and efficacy of predatory bacteria have yet to be fully assessed. In this study, we examined whether predatory bacteria can reduce bacterial burden in the lungs in an in vivo mammalian system. Initial safety studies were performed by intranasal inoculation of rats with predatory bacteria. No adverse effects or lung pathology were observed in rats exposed to high concentrations of predatory bacteria at up to 10 days postinoculation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the immune response revealed a slight increase in inflammatory cytokine levels at 1 h postinoculation that was not sustained by 48 h. Additionally, dissemination experiments showed that predators were efficiently cleared from the host by 10 days postinoculation. To measure the ability of predatory bacteria to reduce microbial burden in vivo, we introduced sublethal concentrations of Klebsiella pneumoniae into the lungs of rats via intranasal inoculation and followed with multiple doses of predatory bacteria over 24 h. Predatory bacteria were able to reduce K. pneumoniae bacterial burden, on average, by more than 3.0 log10 in the lungs of most rats as measured by CFU plating. The work presented here provides further support for the idea of developing predatory bacteria as a novel biocontrol agent. A widely held notion is that antibiotics are the greatest medical advance of the last 50 years. However, the rise of multidrug-resistant (MDR) bacterial infections has become a global health crisis over the last decade. As we enter the postantibiotic era, it is crucial that we begin to develop new strategies to combat bacterial

  12. Secretin: specific binding to rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Fremeau, R.T. Jr.; Jensen, R.T.; Charlton, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Moody, T.W.

    1983-08-01

    The binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin to rat brain membranes was investigated. Radiolabeled secretin bound with high affinity (KD . 0.2 nM) to a single class of noninteracting sites. Binding was specific, saturable, and reversible. Regional distribution studies indicated that the specific binding was greatest in the cerebellum, intermediate in the cortex, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, and lowest in the midbrain and medulla/pons. Pharmacological studies indicated that only secretin, but not other peptides, inhibits binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin with high affinity. Also, certain guanine nucleotides inhibited high affinity binding. These data indicate that rat brain membranes possess high affinity binding sites specific for secretin and that with the use of (/sup 125/I) secretin the kinetics, stoichiometry, specificity, and distribution of secretin receptors can be directly investigated.

  13. IL-1 receptor antagonist attenuates neonatal lipopolysaccharide-induced long-lasting learning impairment and hippocampal injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Lan, Kuo-Mao; Tien, Lu-Tai; Pang, Yi; Bhatt, Abhay J; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2015-04-02

    We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an anti-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against the neonatal LPS exposure-induced inflammatory responses, hippocampal injury, and long-lasting learning deficits in adult rats. LPS (1 mg/kg) or LPS plus IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intracerebrally to Sprague-Dawley male rat pups at postnatal day 5 (P5). Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on P21, P49, and P70, while neuropathological studies were conducted on P71. Our results showed that neonatal LPS exposure resulted in learning deficits in rats at both developmental and adult ages, as demonstrated by a significantly impaired performance in the passive avoidance task (P21, P49, and P70), reduced hippocampal volume, and reduced number of Nissl+ cells in the CA1 region of the middle dorsal hippocampus of P71 rat brain. Those neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations by LPS exposure were associated with a sustained inflammatory response in the P71 rat hippocampus, indicated by increased number of activated microglia as well as elevated levels of IL-1β. Neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced long-lasting learning deficits, hippocampal injury, and sustained inflammatory responses in P71 rats. Our study demonstrates that neonatal LPS exposure leads to a persistent injury to the hippocampus, resulting in long-lasting learning disabilities related to chronic inflammation in rats, and these effects can be attenuated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist.

  14. IL-1 receptor antagonist attenuates neonatal lipopolysaccharide-induced long-lasting learning impairment and hippocampal injury in adult rats

    PubMed Central

    Pang, Yi; Bhatt, Abhay J.; Fan, Lir-Wan

    2015-01-01

    We have previously reported that neonatal lipopolysaccharide (LPS) exposure resulted in an increase in interleukin-1β (IL-1β) content, injury to the hippocampus, and cognitive deficits in juvenile male and female rats, as well as female adult rats. The present study aimed to determine whether an antiinflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1 receptor antagonist (IL-1ra), protects against the neonatal LPS exposure-induced inflammatory responses, hippocampal injury, and long-lasting learning deficits in adult rats. LPS (1 mg/kg) or LPS plus IL-1ra (0.1 mg/kg) was injected intracerebrally to Sprague-Dawley male rat pups at postnatal day 5 (P5). Neurobehavioral tests were carried out on P21, P49, and P70, while neuropathological studies were conducted on P71. Our results showed that neonatal LPS exposure resulted in learning deficits in rats at both developmental and adult ages, as demonstrated by a significantly impaired performance in the passive avoidance task (P21, P49, and P70), reduced hippocampal volume, and reduced number of Nissl+ cells in the CA1 region of the middle dorsal hippocampus of P71 rat brain. Those neuropathological and neurobehavioral alterations by LPS exposure were associated with a sustained inflammatory response in the P71 rat hippocampus, indicated by increased number of activated microglia as well as elevated levels of IL-1β. Neonatal administration of IL-1ra significantly attenuated LPS-induced long-lasting learning deficits, hippocampal injury, and sustained inflammatory responses in P71 rats. Our study demonstrates that neonatal LPS exposure leads to a persistent injury to the hippocampus, resulting in long-lasting learning disabilities related to chronic inflammation in rats, and these effects can be attenuated with an IL-1 receptor antagonist. PMID:25665855

  15. Embelin Attenuates Intracerebroventricular Streptozotocin-Induced Behavioral, Biochemical, and Neurochemical Abnormalities in Rats.

    PubMed

    Arora, Rimpi; Deshmukh, Rahul

    2016-10-15

    Embelin, the main active constituent of Embelia ribes, has been reported to possess various pharmacological actions, including anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, anticonvulsant, and neuroprotective. The present study was designed to investigate neuroprotective mechanisms and therapeutic potential of embelin against intracerebroventricular streptozotocin (ICV-STZ)-induced experimental sporadic dementia in rats. STZ was infused bilaterally at the dose of (3 mg/kg/1 μl/1 min) ICV on day first and third. Spatial and non-spatial memory was evaluated using Morris water maze and object recognition task in rats. Embelin (2.5, 5, and 10 mg/kg, i.p.) was administrated for 14 days from seventh day onwards after first ICV-STZ infusion in rats. On day 22, rats were sacrificed and hippocampal brain regions were used to identify biochemical, neurochemical, and neuroinflammatory alterations. STZ-infused rats showed significant learning and memory deficit which was associated with an increase in oxidative stress (lipid peroxidation and nitrite), compromised antioxidant defense (reduced glutathione), neurotransmitter alterations (AChE, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine, gama amino butyric acid, and glutamate), and elevation in neuroinflammatory cytokine (IL-1 β, IL-6, and TNF-α) levels. Embelin dose dependently attenuated STZ-induced cognitive deficit and biochemical alterations and restored hippocampal neurochemical levels. The observed protective effect might be attributed to the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory potential of embelin and its ability to restore hippocampal neurochemistry. Thus, the outcomes of the current study suggest therapeutic potential of embelin in cognitive disorders such as sporadic Alzheimer's disease (SAD).

  16. Minocycline Attenuates Neonatal Germinal-Matrix-Hemorrhage-Induced Neuroinflammation and Brain Edema by Activating Cannabinoid Receptor 2.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Chen, Qianwei; Guo, Jing; Yang, Liming; Tao, Yihao; Li, Lin; Miao, Hongping; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang

    2016-04-01

    Germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) is the most common neurological disease of premature newborns leading to detrimental neurological sequelae. Minocycline has been reported to play a key role in neurological inflammatory diseases by controlling some mechanisms that involve cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R). The current study investigated whether minocycline reduces neuroinflammation and protects the brain from injury in a rat model of collagenase-induced GMH by regulating CB2R activity. To test this hypothesis, the effects of minocycline and a CB2R antagonist (AM630) were evaluated in male rat pups that were post-natal day 7 (P7) after GMH. We found that minocycline can lead to increased CB2R mRNA expression and protein expression in microglia. Minocycline significantly reduced GMH-induced brain edema, microglial activation, and lateral ventricular volume. Additionally, minocycline enhanced cortical thickness after injury. All of these neuroprotective effects of minocycline were prevented by AM630. A cannabinoid CB2 agonist (JWH133) was used to strengthen the hypothesis, which showed the identical neuroprotective effects of minocycline. Our study demonstrates, for the first time, that minocycline attenuates neuroinflammation and brain injury in a rat model of GMH, and activation of CBR2 was partially involved in these processes.

  17. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

  18. Ligand activation of cannabinoid receptors attenuates hypertrophy of neonatal rat cardiomyocytes.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yan; Akinwumi, Bolanle C; Shao, Zongjun; Anderson, Hope D

    2014-11-01

    : Endocannabinoids are bioactive amides, esters, and ethers of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Evidence suggests that activation of the endocannabinoid pathway offers cardioprotection against myocardial ischemia, arrhythmias, and endothelial dysfunction of coronary arteries. As cardiac hypertrophy is a convergence point of risk factors for heart failure, we determined a role for endocannabinoids in attenuating endothelin-1-induced hypertrophy and probed the signaling pathways involved. The cannabinoid receptor ligand anandamide and its metabolically stable analog, R-methanandamide, suppressed hypertrophic indicators including cardiomyocyte enlargement and fetal gene activation (ie, the brain natriuretic peptide gene) elicited by endothelin-1 in isolated neonatal rat ventricular myocytes. The ability of R-methanandamide to suppress myocyte enlargement and fetal gene activation was mediated by CB2 and CB1 receptors, respectively. Accordingly, a CB2-selective agonist, JWH-133, prevented only myocyte enlargement but not brain natriuretic peptide gene activation. A CB1/CB2 dual agonist with limited brain penetration, CB-13, inhibited both hypertrophic indicators. CB-13 activated AMP-activated protein kinase (AMPK) and, in an AMPK-dependent manner, endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Disruption of AMPK signaling, using compound C or short hairpinRNA knockdown, and eNOS inhibition using L-NIO abolished the antihypertrophic actions of CB-13. In conclusion, CB-13 inhibits cardiomyocyte hypertrophy through AMPK-eNOS signaling and may represent a novel therapeutic approach to cardioprotection.

  19. Baicalin Attenuates Subarachnoid Hemorrhagic Brain Injury by Modulating Blood-Brain Barrier Disruption, Inflammation, and Oxidative Damage in Mice.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xianqing; Fu, Yongjian; Zhang, SongSong; Ding, Hao; Chen, Jin

    2017-01-01

    In subarachnoid hemorrhagic brain injury, the early crucial events are edema formation due to inflammatory responses and blood-brain barrier disruption. Baicalin, a flavone glycoside, has antineuroinflammatory and antioxidant properties. We examined the effect of baicalin in subarachnoid hemorrhagic brain injury. Subarachnoid hemorrhage was induced through filament perforation and either baicalin or vehicle was administered 30 min prior to surgery. Brain tissues were collected 24 hours after surgery after evaluation of neurological scores. Brain tissues were processed for water content, real-time PCR, and immunoblot analyses. Baicalin improved neurological score and brain water content. Decreased levels of tight junction proteins (occludin, claudin-5, ZO-1, and collagen IV) required for blood-brain barrier function were restored to normal level by baicalin. Real-time PCR data demonstrated that baicalin attenuated increased proinflammatory cytokine (IL-1β, IL-6, and CXCL-3) production in subarachnoid hemorrhage mice. In addition to that, baicalin attenuated microglial cell secretion of IL-1β and IL-6 induced by lipopolysaccharide (100 ng/ml) dose dependently. Finally, baicalin attenuated induction of NOS-2 and NOX-2 in SAH mice at the mRNA and protein level. Thus, we demonstrated that baicalin inhibited microglial cell activation and reduced inflammation, oxidative damage, and brain edema.

  20. Maternal voluntary physical activity attenuates delayed neurodevelopment in malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Fragoso, Jéssica; Lira, Allan de Oliveira; Chagas, Guilherme Souza; Lucena Cavalcanti, Carolina Cadete; Beserra, Renata; de Santana-Muniz, Gisélia; Bento-Santos, Adriano; Martins, Gerffeson; Pirola, Luciano; da Silva Aragão, Raquel; Leandro, Carol Góis

    2017-08-18

    This study evaluated the effects of maternal voluntary physical activity (VPA) during pregnancy and lactation on somatic growth (SG), reflex ontogeny (RO) and locomotor activity (LA) of rats whose mothers were protein-restricted. Virgin female Wistar rats were divided into six groups: Control Normal Protein (C-NP, n = 4); Control Low Protein (C-LP, n = 4), Inactive Normal Protein (I-NP, n = 8), Inactive Low Protein (I-LP, n = 7), Very Active Normal Protein (VA-NP, n = 8) and Very Active Low Protein (VA-LP, n = 6). VPA was recorded daily in dams. LP groups were fed an 8% casein diet, and controls were fed 17% casein diet during pregnancy and lactation. Offspring were evaluated in terms of SG (body weight and length, latero-lateral skull axis and anteroposterior head axis) and RO (palmar grasp, righting, free-fall righting, negative-geotaxis, cliff-avoidance, auditory-startle response and vibrissa-placing). LA was evaluated at 23, 45 and 60 days old in the open field. VPA was reduced during pregnancy and lactation independent of the maternal diet. Pups from LP dams showed delayed SG, reflex maturation and patterns of LA when compared with controls. C-LP and I-LP pups showed a delayed SG, RO and LA. Pups from VA-LP mothers showed no delay in SG and RO and presented a faster development of patterns of LA. Maternal VPA attenuated the effects of LP diet on indicators of neurodevelopment and patterns of LA of offspring. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  1. Luteolin attenuates endotoxin-induced uveitis in Lewis rats

    PubMed Central

    KANAI, Kazutaka; HATTA, Takuya; NAGATA, Sho; SUGIURA, Yuichi; SATO, Kazuaki; YAMASHITA, Yohei; KIMURA, Yuya; ITOH, Naoyuki

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the efficacy of luteolin on endotoxin-induced uveitis (EIU) in rats. EIU was induced in Lewis rats by subcutaneous injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS). One hr before the LPS injection, 0.1, 1 or 10 mg/kg luteolin or 1 mg/kg prednisolone was intraperitoneally injected. We investigated its effect upon clinical scores, cellular infiltration and protein leakage, as well as on the level of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, nitric oxide (NO) and prostaglandin (PG) E2 in the aqueous humor (AqH). Histologic examination and immunohistochemical analysis in the iris-ciliary body (ICB) were performed to determine the expressions of cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 and inducible NO synthase (iNOS), and then the activated nuclear factor (NF)-κB p65, I kappa B (IκB)-α degradation, phosphorylated (p)-IκB kinase (IKK) α/β and activator protein (AP)-1 c-Jun. Luteolin suppressed, in a dose-dependent manner, the clinical scores, number of inflammatory cells, the protein concentration, and the TNF-α, NO and PGE2 levels in the AqH and improved the histiologic status of the ocular tissue. Luteolin suppressed the expression of iNOS and COX-2 and the activated NF-κB p65, IκB-α degradation, p-IKKα/β and AP-1 p-c-Jun in the ICB. The anti-inflammatory potency of 10 mg/kg luteolin was as strong as that observed with 1 mg/kg prednisolone. These results demonstrate that luteolin attenuates ocular inflammation by inhibiting expression and release of inflammatory markers, along with the inhibition of the activated NF-κB pathway and at least partly AP-1 activity in the ICB. PMID:27098110

  2. Duloxetine attenuated morphine withdrawal syndrome in the rat.

    PubMed

    Charkhpour, M; Jafari, R M; Ghavimi, H; Ghanbarzadeh, S; Parvizpur, A

    2014-08-01

    Long term exposure to morphine can induce dependence. The exact mechanisms of dependence are not yet fully understood. Many studies have been conducted to find new drugs that can prevent dependence. This study examined the effects of the chronic administration of duloxetine on the morphine withdrawal syndrome in rats. To this end, male Wistar rats (170-220 g) were randomly divided into 5 groups including one saline treated group (non-depend­ent group) and 4 morphine dependent groups. The experimental groups received additive doses of morphine for 9 days in order to induce dependence according to the following protocol: day 1:5 mg/kg/12 h, days 2 and 3: 10 mg/kg/12 h, days 4, 5:15 mg/kg/12 h, days 6 and 7: 20 mg/kg/12 h and days 8 and 9: 25 mg/kg/12 h. On the ninth day, the morning dose of morphine was only injected. It is worth noting that 30 min before the morning dose of morphine, duloxetine (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) was injected intraperitoneally. In addition, 2 h after the last injection of morphine, the morphine withdrawal was precipitated by naloxone. The withdrawal signs were recorded for 30 min; these signs included jumping, rearing, genital grooming, abdominal writhing, wet dog shaking, and teeth grinding. The results of the study revealed that the chronic administration of duloxetine decreased all the withdrawal signs. Besides, it attenuated the total withdrawal scores significantly. Results indicate that the regulatory effects on serotonergic and noradrenergic parameters might be associated with the amelioration of the withdrawal symptoms. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  3. Hyperbaric oxygen preconditioning attenuates postoperative cognitive impairment in aged rats.

    PubMed

    Sun, Li; Xie, Keliang; Zhang, Changsheng; Song, Rui; Zhang, Hong

    2014-06-18

    Cognitive decline after surgery in the elderly population is a major clinical problem with high morbidity. Hyperbaric oxygen (HBO) preconditioning can induce significant neuroprotection against acute neurological injury. We hypothesized that HBO preconditioning would prevent the development of postoperative cognitive impairment. Elderly male rats (20 months old) underwent stabilized tibial fracture operation under general anesthesia after HBO preconditioning (once a day for 5 days). Separate cohorts of animals were tested for cognitive function with fear conditioning and Y-maze tests, or euthanized at different times to assess the blood-brain barrier integrity, systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines, and caspase-3 activity. Animals exhibited significant cognitive impairment evidenced by a decreased percentage of freezing time and an increased number of learning trials on days 1, 3, and 7 after surgery, which were significantly prevented by HBO preconditioning. Furthermore, HBO preconditioning significantly ameliorated the increase in serum and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 β (IL-1β), IL-6, and high-mobility group protein 1 in surgery-challenged animals. Moreover, HBO preconditioning markedly improved blood-brain barrier integrity and caspase-3 activity in the hippocampus of surgery-challenged animals. These findings suggest that HBO preconditioning could significantly mitigate surgery-induced cognitive impairment, which is strongly associated with the reduction of systemic and hippocampal proinflammatory cytokines and caspase-3 activity.

  4. Imaging of sialidase activity in rat brain sections by a highly sensitive fluorescent histochemical method.

    PubMed

    Minami, Akira; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Meguro, Yuko; Shibata, Naoki; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Sialidase (EC 3.2.1.18) removes sialic acid from sialoglycoconjugates. Since sialidase extracellularly applied to the rat hippocampus influences many neural functions, including synaptic plasticity and innervations of glutamatergic neurons, endogenous sialidase activities on the extracellular membrane surface could also affect neural functions. However, the distribution of sialidase activity in the brain remains unknown. To visualize extracellular sialidase activity on the membrane surface in the rat brain, acute brain slices were incubated with 5-bromo-4-chloroindol-3-yl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (X-Neu5Ac) and Fast Red Violet LB (FRV LB) at pH 7.3. After 1h, myelin-abundant regions showed intense fluorescence in the rat brain. Although the hippocampus showed weak fluorescence in the brain, mossy fiber terminals in the hippocampus showed relatively intense fluorescence. These fluorescence intensities were attenuated with a sialidase-specific inhibitor, 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA, 1mM). Additionally, the fluorescence intensities caused by X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB were correlated with the sialidase activity measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac), a classical substrate for quantitative measurement of sialidase activity, in each brain region. Therefore, staining with X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB is specific for sialidase and useful for quantitative analysis of sialidase activities. The results suggest that white matter of the rat brain has intense sialidase activity.

  5. Resveratrol can only partially attenuate ethanol-induced oxidative stress in embryonic chick brains.

    PubMed

    Hancock, Minna L; Miller, Robert R

    2006-01-01

    Ethanol (EtOH) exposure promotes increased levels of reactive oxygen species that degrade unsaturated long-chain membrane fatty acids within embryonic chick brains and is associated with apoptosis and reduced embryo viability. In vitro studies have demonstrated that resveratrol, a known antioxidant, attenuated EtOH-induced damage. In order to test whether or not resveratrol can attenuate EtOH-induced embryonic damage, fertile chicken eggs were injected daily with EtOH (6.05 mmol/kg egg) and various concentrations of trans-resveratrol (0-29.5 mmol/kg egg) during the first three days of embryonic development. At 11 days of embryonic development, viable embryos were collected, brains isolated, and brain membrane fatty acid composition analyzed. Embryonic EtOH exposure promoted fewer viable embryos at 11 days of development as compared to controls. Embryonic EtOH exposure also promoted reduced levels of unsaturated long-chain membrane fatty acids, increased levels of saturated short-chain membrane fatty acids, and elevated brain lipid hydroperoxides (LPO) levels. Embryonic exposure to moderate (2.95 nmol/kg egg) and high (29.5 nmol/kg egg) levels of trans-resveratrol attenuated EtOH-induced changes in brain membrane fatty acid composition but failed to attenuate EtOH-induced increases in brain LPO levels and increased brain Casp-3 activities.

  6. Daily exercise attenuates the development of arterial blood pressure related cardiovascular risk factors in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Collins, H L; Rodenbaugh, D W; DiCarlo, S E

    2000-02-01

    This study was designed to test the hypothesis that daily spontaneous running (DSR) attenuates the development of blood pressure-related cardiovascular disease risk factors (BP-related CVD risk factors) in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). After 8 weeks of DSR or sedentary control, rats were chronically instrumented with arterial catheters. Daily exercise attenuated the development of all measures of BP-related CVD risk factors. Specifically DSR attenuated the increase in systolic blood pressure (delta--22 mmHg), systolic blood pressure variability (delta--2.5 mmHg), and systolic blood pressure load (delta--27%). Similarly, DSR attenuated the increase in diastolic blood pressure (delta--15 mmHg), diastolic blood pressure variability (delta--1.19 mmHg), and diastolic blood pressure load (delta--17%). Finally, DSR attenuated the development of tachycardia (delta--63 bpm). These data demonstrate that daily exercise attenuates the development of hypertension and tachycardia in animals predisposed to hypertension.

  7. Cerebralcare Granule® attenuates cognitive impairment in rats continuously overexpressing microRNA-30e

    PubMed Central

    XU, YONG; LIU, ZHIFEN; SONG, XI; ZHANG, KERANG; LI, XINGRONG; LI, JIANHONG; YAN, XU; LI, YUAN; XIE, ZHONGCHEN; ZHANG, HUI

    2015-01-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated that dysregulation of micro (mi)RNAs is associated with the etiology of various neuropsychiatric disorders, including depression and schizophrenia. Cerebralcare Granule® (CG) is a Chinese herbal medicine, which has been reported to have an ameliorative effect on brain injury by attenuating blood-brain barrier disruption and improving hippocampal neural function. The present study aimed to evaluate the cognitive behavior of rats continuously overexpressing miRNA-30e (lenti-miRNA-30e), prior to and following the administration of CG. In addition, the mechanisms underlying the ameliorative effects of CG were investigated. The cognitive ability of the rats was assessed using an open-field test and a Morris water maze spatial reference/working memory test. A terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling assay was used to detect neuronal apoptosis in the dentate gyrus of the hippocampus. Immunohistochemical analysis and western blotting were conducted to detect the expression levels of B-cell lymphoma 2 (BCL-2) and ubiquitin-conjugating enzyme 9 (UBC9), in order to examine neuronal apoptosis. The lenti-miRNA-30e rats exhibited increased signs of anxiety, depression, hyperactivity and schizophrenia, which resulted in a severe impairment in cognitive ability. Furthermore, in the dentate gyrus of these rats, the expression levels of BCL-2 and UBC9 were reduced and apoptosis was increased. The administration of CG alleviated cognitive impairment, enhanced the expression levels of BCL-2 and UBC9, and reduced apoptosis in the dentate gyrus in the lenti-miRNA-30e rats. No significant differences were detected in behavioral indicators between the lenti-miRNA-30e rats treated with CG and the normal controls. These findings suggested that CG exerts a potent therapeutic effect, conferred by its ability to enhance the expression levels of BCL-2 and UBC9, which inhibits the apoptotic process in neuronal cells. Therefore, CG may be

  8. Royal jelly attenuates azathioprine induced toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Walaa M S; Khalaf, A A; Moselhy, Walaa A; Safwat, Ghada M

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated the potential protective effects of royal jelly against azathioprine-induced toxicity in rat. Intraperitoneal administration of azathioprine (50 mg/kgB.W.) induced a significant decrease in RBCs count, Hb concentration, PCV%, WBCs count, differential count and platelet count, hepatic antioxidant enzymes (reduced glutathione and glutathione s-transferase) and increase of serum transaminases (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase enzymes) activities, alkaline phosphatase and malondialdehyde formation. Azathioprine induced hepatotoxicity was reflected by marked pathological changes in the liver. Oral administration of royal jelly (200 mg/kgB.W.) was efficient in counteracting azathioprine toxicity whereas it altered the anemic condition, leucopenia and thrombocytopenia induced by azathioprine. Furthermore, royal jelly exerted significant protection against liver damage induced by azathioprine through reduction of the elevated activities of serum hepatic enzymes. Moreover, royal jelly blocked azathioprine-induced lipid peroxidation through decreasing the malondialdehyde formation. In conclusion, royal jelly possesses a capability to attenuate azathioprine-induced toxicity.

  9. Sulodexide pretreatment attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jianyong; Chen, Weibin; Ma, Fenfen; Lu, Zeyuan; Wu, Rui; Zhang, Guangyuan; Wang, Niansong; Wang, Feng

    2017-02-07

    Sulodexide is a potent antithrombin agent, however, whether it has beneficial effects on renal ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) remains unknown. In the present study, we assessed the therapeutic effects of sulodexide in renal IRI and tried to investigate the potential mechanism. One dose of sulodexide was injected intravenously in Sprague-Dawley rats 30 min before bilateral kidney ischemia for 45 min. The animals were sacrificed at 3h and 24h respectively. Our results showed that sulodexide pretreatment improved renal dysfunction and alleviated tubular pathological injury at 24h after reperfusion, which was accompanied with inhibition of oxidative stress, inflammation and cell apoptosis. Moreover, we noticed that antithrombin III (ATIII) was activated at 3h after reperfusion, which preceded the alleviation of renal injury. For in vitro study, hypoxia/reoxygenation (H/R) injury model for HK2 cells was carried out and apoptosis and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels were evaluated after sulodexide pretreatment. Consistently, sulodexide pretreatment could reduce apoptosis and ROS level in HK2 cells under H/R injury. Taken together, sulodexide pretreatment might attenuate renal IRI through inhibition of inflammation, oxidative stress and apoptosis, and activation of ATIII.

  10. Sevoflurane attenuates systemic inflammation compared with propofol, but does not modulate neuro-inflammation: A laboratory rat study.

    PubMed

    Beck-Schimmer, Beatrice; Baumann, Lukas; Restin, Tanja; Eugster, Philipp; Hasler, Melanie; Booy, Christa; Schläpfer, Martin

    2017-11-01

    Septic encephalopathy is believed to be a result of neuro-inflammation possibly triggered by endotoxins, such as lipopolysaccharides (LPS). Modulation of the immune system is a property of volatile anaesthetics. We aimed to investigate the systemic and cerebral inflammatory response in a LPS-induced sepsis model in rats. We compared two different sedation strategies, intravenous propofol and the volatile anaesthetic sevoflurane, with the hypothesis that the latter may attenuate neuro-inflammatory processes. Laboratory rat study. Basic research laboratories at the University Hospital Zurich and University Zurich Irchel between August 2014 and June 2016. A total of 32 adult male Wistar rats. After tracheotomy and mechanical ventilation, the anaesthetised rats were monitored before sepsis was induced by using intravenous LPS or phosphate-buffered saline as control. Rats were sedated with propofol (10 mg kg h) or sevoflurane (2 vol%) continuously for 12 h. Systemic inflammatory markers such as cytokine-induced neutrophil chemo-attractant protein 1, monocyte chemo-tactic protein-1 and IL-6 were determined. The same cytokines were measured in brain tissue. Cellular response in the brain was assessed by defining neutrophil accumulation with myeloperoxidase and also activation of microglia with ionised calcium-binding adaptor molecule-1 and astrocytes with glial fibrillary acidic protein. Finally, brain injury was determined. Animals were haemodynamically stable in both sedation groups treated with LPS. Blood cytokine peak values were lower in the sevoflurane-LPS compared with propofol-LPS animals. In brain tissue of LPS animals, chemoattractant protein-1 was the only significantly increased cytokine (P = 0.003), however with no significance between propofol and sevoflurane. After LPS challenge, cerebral accumulation of neutrophils was observed. Microglia activation was pronounced in the hippocampus of animals treated with LPS (P = 0.006). LPS induced

  11. Attenuation correction for the large non-human primate brain imaging using microPET

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Naidoo-Variawa, S.; Lehnert, W.; Kassiou, M.; Banati, R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2010-04-01

    Assessment of the biodistribution and pharmacokinetics of radiopharmaceuticals in vivo is often performed on animal models of human disease prior to their use in humans. The baboon brain is physiologically and neuro-anatomically similar to the human brain and is therefore a suitable model for evaluating novel CNS radioligands. We previously demonstrated the feasibility of performing baboon brain imaging on a dedicated small animal PET scanner provided that the data are accurately corrected for degrading physical effects such as photon attenuation in the body. In this study, we investigated factors affecting the accuracy and reliability of alternative attenuation correction strategies when imaging the brain of a large non-human primate (papio hamadryas) using the microPET Focus 220 animal scanner. For measured attenuation correction, the best bias versus noise performance was achieved using a 57Co transmission point source with a 4% energy window. The optimal energy window for a 68Ge transmission source operating in singles acquisition mode was 20%, independent of the source strength, providing bias-noise performance almost as good as for 57Co. For both transmission sources, doubling the acquisition time had minimal impact on the bias-noise trade-off for corrected emission images, despite observable improvements in reconstructed attenuation values. In a [18F]FDG brain scan of a female baboon, both measured attenuation correction strategies achieved good results and similar SNR, while segmented attenuation correction (based on uncorrected emission images) resulted in appreciable regional bias in deep grey matter structures and the skull. We conclude that measured attenuation correction using a single pass 57Co (4% energy window) or 68Ge (20% window) transmission scan achieves an excellent trade-off between bias and propagation of noise when imaging the large non-human primate brain with a microPET scanner.

  12. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.P.; Huang, F.L.

    1986-11-05

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca/sup 2 +/, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein.

  13. Yulangsan polysaccharide attenuates withdrawal symptoms and regulates the NO pathway in morphine-dependent rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Chunxia; Nong, Zhihuan; Huang, Jiangchun; Chen, Zhaoni; Zhang, Shijun; Jiao, Yang; Chen, Xiaoyu; Huang, Renbin

    2014-06-06

    Yulangsan polysaccharide (YLSP) has been utilized as a phytomedicine to managing nervous dysfunction in China. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the potential YLSP-mediated detoxification role against morphine dependence in rats. The results indicated that the morphine dependence model significantly increased withdrawal symptoms, levels of NO and NOS (P<0.05). Furthermore, monoaminergic neurotransmitters, including DA and NE, were detected at elevated levels in the ventral tegmental area (VTA), hippocampus (HIP) and prefrontal cortex (PFC), respectively, while the level of DA was decreased and NE was increased in the nucleus accumbens (NAc). Conversely, YLSP administration significantly reversed naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms, expression of brain NO and NOS, and monoaminergic neurotransmitters (P<0.05). Interestingly, YLSP shows an even more effective trend in attenuating withdrawal symptoms than does clonidine, although without a significant difference. These findings indicate that YLSP attenuation of the naloxone-induced withdrawal symptoms of morphine dependence may be mediated by regulation of the NO pathway and modulation of monoaminergic neurotransmitters.

  14. Pharmacological induction of hemeoxygenase-1 activity attenuates intracerebroventricular streptozotocin induced neurocognitive deficit and oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Bhardwaj, Manveen; Deshmukh, Rahul; Kaundal, Madhu; Krishna Reddy, B V

    2016-02-05

    Under conditions of oxidative stress associated with neurodegenerative disorders, alterations in hemeoxygenase-1 (HO-1) activity have been reported. In the present study we have investigated the role of HO-1 pathway in intracerebroventricular (ICV) streptozotocin (STZ) induced neurocognitive deficits and oxidative stress in rats. STZ was infused ICV bilaterally (3mg/Kg) on the alternate days in rats. Hemin was used as a pharmacological inducer of HO-1 activity and tin-protoporphyrin (SnPP) as HO-1 inhibitor. Hemin was administered with or without SnPP from day to 21 following 1st STZ infusion in rats. The cognitive functions were assessed by Morris water maze (MWM) and object recognition task (ORT) in rats. Biochemically, rat hippocampal and cortical brain homogenate was used to assess the levels of oxidative stress markers and acetylcholinesterase and HO-1 activity. Infusion of STZ caused significant elevation HO-1 activity on day 7 following 1st STZ infusion, however it was decreased on day 21, indicating its oxidative modification. Hemin caused significant elevation in HO-1 activity and attenuated STZ-induced oxidative stress. Moreover, hemin restored acetylcholinesterase activity and cognitive functions in STZ infused rats. Pre-administration of SnPP completely abrogated beneficial effects of hemin in STZ rats, indicating HO-1 dependency. The observed beneficial effects of hemin on spatial memory may be due to its ability to favorably modulate HO-1 pathway and antioxidant mechanisms.

  15. Caffeic acid attenuates oxidative stress, learning and memory deficit in intra-cerebroventricular streptozotocin induced experimental dementia in rats.

    PubMed

    Deshmukh, Rahul; Kaundal, Madhu; Bansal, Vikas; Samardeep

    2016-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in cognitive decline as seen during normal aging and in sporadic Alzheimer's disease (AD). Caffeic acid, a polyphenolic compound, has been reported to possess potent antioxidant and neuroprotective properties. The role of caffeic acid in experimental dementia is not fully understood. Thus the present study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in streptozotocin (STZ)-induced experimental dementia of Alzheimer's type in rats. Streptozotocin (STZ) was administered intracerebroventrically (ICV) on day 1 and 3 (3mg/kg, ICV bilaterally) in Wistar rats. Caffeic acid was administered (10, 20 and 40mg/kg/day p.o.) 1h following STZ infusion upto 21st day. Morris water maze and object recognition task were used to assess learning and memory in rats. Terminally, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity and the levels of oxido-nitrosative stress markers were determined in cortical and hippocampal brain regions of rats. STZ produced significant (p<0.001) learning and memory impairment, oxido-nitrosative stress and cholinergic deficit in rats. Whereas, caffeic acid treatment significantly (p<0.001) and dose dependently attenuated STZ induced behavioral and biochemical abnormalities in rats. The observed cognitive improvement following caffeic acid in STZ treated rats may be due to its antioxidant activity and restoration of cholinergic functions. Our results suggest the therapeutic potential of caffeic acid in cognitive disorders such as AD.

  16. The edaravone and 3-n-butylphthalide ring-opening derivative 10b effectively attenuates cerebral ischemia injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hua, Kai; Sheng, Xiao; Li, Ting-ting; Wang, Lin-na; Zhang, Yi-hua; Huang, Zhang-jian; Ji, Hui

    2015-01-01

    Aim: Compound 10b is a hybrid molecule of edaravone and a ring-opening derivative of 3-n-butylphthalide (NBP). The aim of this study was to examine the effects of compound 10b on brain damage in rats after focal cerebral ischemia. Methods: SD rats were subjected to 2-h-middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). At the onset of reperfusion, the rats were orally treated with NBP (60 mg/kg), edaravone (3 mg/kg), NBP (60 mg/kg)+edaravone (3 mg/kg), or compound 10b (70, 140 mg/kg). The infarct volume, motor behavior deficits, brain water content, histopathological alterations, and activity of GSH, SOD, and MDA were analyzed 24 h after reperfusion. The levels of relevant proteins in the ipsilateral striatum were examined using immunoblotting. Results: Administration of compound 10b (70 or 140 mg/kg) significantly reduced the infarct volume and neurological deficits in MCAO rats. The neuroprotective effects of compound 10b were more pronounced compared to NBP, edaravone or NBP+edaravone. Furthermore, compound 10b significantly upregulated the protein levels of the cytoprotective molecules Bcl-2, HO-1, Nrf2, Trx, P-NF-κB p65, and IκB-α, while decreasing the expression of Bax, caspase 3, caspase 9, Txnip, NF-κB p65, and P-IκB-α. Conclusion: Oral administration of compound 10b effectively attenuates rat cerebral ischemia injury. PMID:26073328

  17. Exercise training attenuates anaphylactic venoconstriction in rat perfused liver, but does not affect anaphylactic hypotension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Cui, Sen; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Zhang, Wei; Kurata, Yasutaka; Kashimura, Osamu; Miyamae, Shunichi

    2010-09-01

    1. Exercise training attenuates circulatory shock due to haemorrhage, endotoxin or heatstroke. However, it remains unknown whether exercise training attenuates anaphylactic shock. Hepatic venoconstriction is involved in rat anaphylactic hypotension. In the present study, we determined the effects of exercise training on both anaphylaxis-induced segmental venoconstriction in rat perfused livers and systemic anaphylaxis in conscious rats. The role of nitric oxide (NO) in the effect of exercise on the venoconstriction of perfused livers was also examined. 2. Rats were subjected to running training on a motorized treadmill for 4 weeks. Two weeks prior to the anaphylaxis experiment, Sprague-Dawley rats were actively sensitized with the antigen ovalbumin. In isolated livers perfused portally with blood, the portal venous pressure (P(pv)) and sinusoidal pressure were measured to determine the pre- and post-sinusoidal resistances (R(pre) and R(post), respectively). In conscious rats, systemic arterial pressure (SAP) and P(pv) were determined. 3. In the perfused livers of sedentary rats, antigen administration led to a predominant presinusoidal constriction, as evidenced by 4.6- and 1.7-fold increases in R(pre) and R(post), respectively. The anaphylaxis-induced increase in R(pre) was significantly attenuated by 24% by exercise training. Inhibition of NO synthase with N(G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (100 micromol/L) 10 min prior to the injection of antigen enhanced anaphylactic venoconstriction, but did not alter the effect of exercise training on the increase in R(pre). In contrast, exercise training did not attenuate either anaphylactic hypotension or portal hypertension in conscious rats. 4. In conclusion, exercise training attenuates the anaphylaxis-induced presinusoidal constriction in rat isolated perfused livers, independent of NO production. However, this action is not evident in conscious rats and exercise training does not affect anaphylactic hypotension in

  18. Ethanol effects on rat brain phosphoinositide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in acidic phospholipids in brain plasma and synaptic plasma membranes upon chronic ethanol administration was observed. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in an increase in {sup 32}P{sub i} incorporation into the acidic phospholipids in synaptosomes. Postdecapitative ischemic treatment resulted rapid degradation of poly-PI in rat brain. However, there was a rapid appearance of IP{sub 2} in ethanol group which indicated a more rapid turnover of IP{sub 3} in the ethanol-treated rats. Carbachol stimulated accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in brain slices and synaptosomes. Carbachol-stimulated release of IP and IP{sub 2} was calcium dependent and was inhibited by EGTA and atropine. Adenosine triphosphates and 1 mM further enhanced carbachol-induced formation of IP and IP{sub 2}, but showed an increase and a decrease in IP{sub 3} at 1 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Guanosine triphosphate at 0.1 mM did not change in labeled IP, but there was a significant increase in labeled IP{sub 2} and decrease in IP{sub 3}. Mn and CMP greatly enhanced incorporation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol into PI, but not into poly-PI labeling in brain synaptosomes. Incubation of brain synaptosomes resulted in a Ca{sup 2+}, time-dependent release of labeled IP. However, the pool of PI labeled through this pathway is not susceptible to carbachol stimulation. When saponin permeabilized synaptosomal preparations were incubated with ({sup 3}H)-inositol-PI or ({sup 14}C)-arachidonoyl-PI, ATP enhanced the formation of labeled IP and DG.

  19. CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with uniform attenuation correction in brain perfusion SPECT imaging for dementia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gillen, Rebecca; Firbank, Michael J.; Lloyd, Jim; O'Brien, John T.

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated if the appearance and diagnostic accuracy of HMPAO brain perfusion SPECT images could be improved by using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction compared with the uniform attenuation correction method. A cohort of subjects who were clinically categorized as Alzheimer’s Disease (n=38 ), Dementia with Lewy Bodies (n=29 ) or healthy normal controls (n=30 ), underwent SPECT imaging with Tc-99m HMPAO and a separate CT scan. The SPECT images were processed using: (a) correction map derived from the subject’s CT scan or (b) the Chang uniform approximation for correction or (c) no attenuation correction. Images were visually inspected. The ratios between key regions of interest known to be affected or spared in each condition were calculated for each correction method, and the differences between these ratios were evaluated. The images produced using the different corrections were noted to be visually different. However, ROI analysis found similar statistically significant differences between control and dementia groups and between AD and DLB groups regardless of the correction map used. We did not identify an improvement in diagnostic accuracy in images which were corrected using CT-based attenuation and scatter correction, compared with those corrected using a uniform correction map.

  20. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  1. Cannabinoid receptor 2 attenuates microglial accumulation and brain injury following germinal matrix hemorrhage via ERK dephosphorylation in vivo and in vitro.

    PubMed

    Tang, Jun; Tao, Yihao; Tan, Liang; Yang, Liming; Niu, Yin; Chen, Qianwei; Yang, Yunfeng; Feng, Hua; Chen, Zhi; Zhu, Gang

    2015-08-01

    Microglia accumulation plays detrimental roles in the pathology of germinal matrix hemorrhage (GMH) in the immature preterm brain. However, the underlying mechanisms remain poorly defined. Here, we investigated the effects of a cannabinoid receptor 2 (CB2R) agonist on microglia proliferation and the possible involvement of the mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family pathway in a collagenase-induced GMH rat model and in thrombin-induced rat microglia cells. We demonstrated that activation of CB2R played a key role in attenuating brain edema, neuronal degeneration, microglial accumulation and the phosphorylated extracellular signal-regulated kinase (p-ERK) protein level 24 h following GMH. In vitro, Western blot analysis and immunostaining indicated that ERK and P38 phosphorylation levels in microglia stimulated by thrombin were decreased after JWH-133 (CB2R selective agonist) treatment in a concentration-dependent manner. Microglia proliferation (EDU + microglia) and inflammatory and oxidative stress responses were attenuated by UO126 (ERK pathway inhibitor) 24 h after thrombin stimulation, an activity that was prevented by AM630 (CB2R selective antagonist). Overall, these findings suggest that activation of the endocannabinoid system might attenuate inflammation-induced secondary brain injury after GMH in rats by reducing microglia accumulation through a mechanism involving ERK dephosphorylation. Enhancing CB2R activation is a potential treatment to slow down the course of GMH in preterm newborns.

  2. Sesamin attenuates behavioral, biochemical and histological alterations induced by reversible middle cerebral artery occlusion in the rats.

    PubMed

    Khan, Mohd Moshahid; Ishrat, Tauheed; Ahmad, Ajmal; Hoda, Md Nasrul; Khan, M Badruzzaman; Khuwaja, Gulrana; Srivastava, Pallavi; Raza, Syed Shadab; Islam, Fakhrul; Ahmad, Saif

    2010-01-05

    Restoration of blood flow to an ischemic brain region is associated with generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) with consequent reperfusion injury. ROS cause lipid peroxidation, protein oxidation, and DNA damage, all of which are deleterious to cells. So diminishing the production of free radicals and scavenging them may be a successful therapeutic strategy for the protection of brain tissue in cerebral stroke. The present study investigated the neuroprotective effect of sesamin (Sn) to reduce brain injury after middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). The middle cerebral artery (MCA) of adult male Wistar rat was occluded for 2h and reperfused for 22h. Sesamin is the most abundant lignan in sesame seed oil is a potent antioxidant. Sesamin (30 mg/kg) was given orally twice, 30 min before the onset of ischemia and 12h after reperfusion. The initial investigations revealed that sesamin reduced the neurological deficits in terms of behavior and reduced the level of thiobarbituric acid reactive species (TBARS), and protein carbonyl (PC) in the different areas of the brain when compared with the MCAO group. A significantly depleted level of glutathione and its dependent enzymes (glutathione peroxidase [GPx] and glutathione reductase [GR]) in MCAO group were protected significantly in MCAO group treated with sesamin. The present study suggests that sesamin may be able to attenuate the ischemic cell death and plays a crucial role as a neuroprotectant in regulating levels of reactive oxygen species in the rat brain. Thus, sesamin may be a potential compound in stroke therapy.

  3. Sodium alginate oligosaccharides attenuate hypertension in spontaneously hypertensive rats fed a low-salt diet.

    PubMed

    Ueno, Mai; Tamura, Yuki; Toda, Natsuko; Yoshinaga, Mariko; Terakado, Shouko; Otsuka, Kie; Numabe, Atsushi; Kawabata, Yukari; Murota, Itsuki; Sato, Nobuyuki; Uehara, Yoshio

    2012-01-01

    We investigated the effects of sodium alginate oligosaccharides (alginate) on the development of spontaneous hypertension in rats. Spontaneous hypertensive rats were treated with alginate for 7 weeks. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) and cardiovascular and kidney damage were assessed. Systolic blood pressure increased in SHRs and this elevation was attenuated with alginate treatment. The heart weight tended to decline. Alginate did not change plasma cholesterol levels or urinary sodium excretions. The slightly higher urinary protein excretion in SHRs was not changed with the treatment; however, morphologic glomerular damage was significantly attenuated. Sodium alginate oligosaccharide attenuates spontaneous hypertension in SHRs, and may help prevent early-stage kidney injury.

  4. Blockade of dopamine d4 receptors attenuates reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior in rats.

    PubMed

    Yan, Yijin; Pushparaj, Abhiram; Le Strat, Yann; Gamaleddin, Islam; Barnes, Chanel; Justinova, Zuzana; Goldberg, Steven R; Le Foll, Bernard

    2012-02-01

    Since cloning of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), its role in the brain has remained unclear. It has been reported that polymorphism of the DRD4 gene in humans is associated with reactivity to cues related to tobacco smoking. However, the role of DRD4 in animal models of nicotine addiction has seldom been explored. In our study, male Long-Evans rats learned to intravenously self-administer nicotine under a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement. Effects of the selective DRD4 antagonist L-745,870 were evaluated on nicotine self-administration behavior and on reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior induced by nicotine-associated cues or by priming injections of nicotine. L-745,870 was also tested on reinstatement of extinguished food-seeking behavior as a control. In addition, the selective DRD4 agonist PD 168,077 was tested for its ability to reinstate extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. Finally, L-745,870 was tested in Sprague Dawley rats trained to discriminate administration of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine from vehicle under an FR schedule of food delivery. L-745,870 significantly attenuated reinstatement of nicotine-seeking induced by both nicotine-associated cues and nicotine priming. In contrast, L-745,870 did not affect established nicotine self-administration behavior or reinstatement of food-seeking behavior induced by food cues or food priming. L-745,870 did not produce nicotine-like discriminative-stimulus effects and did not alter discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine. PD 168,077 did not reinstate extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. As DRD4 blockade by L-745,870 selectively attenuated both cue- and nicotine-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, without affecting cue- or food-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior, DRD4 antagonists are potential therapeutic agents against tobacco smoking relapse.

  5. Blockade of Dopamine D4 Receptors Attenuates Reinstatement of Extinguished Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yan, Yijin; Pushparaj, Abhiram; Le Strat, Yann; Gamaleddin, Islam; Barnes, Chanel; Justinova, Zuzana; Goldberg, Steven R; Le Foll, Bernard

    2012-01-01

    Since cloning of the dopamine receptor D4 (DRD4), its role in the brain has remained unclear. It has been reported that polymorphism of the DRD4 gene in humans is associated with reactivity to cues related to tobacco smoking. However, the role of DRD4 in animal models of nicotine addiction has seldom been explored. In our study, male Long-Evans rats learned to intravenously self-administer nicotine under a fixed-ratio (FR) schedule of reinforcement. Effects of the selective DRD4 antagonist L-745,870 were evaluated on nicotine self-administration behavior and on reinstatement of extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior induced by nicotine-associated cues or by priming injections of nicotine. L-745,870 was also tested on reinstatement of extinguished food-seeking behavior as a control. In addition, the selective DRD4 agonist PD 168,077 was tested for its ability to reinstate extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. Finally, L-745,870 was tested in Sprague Dawley rats trained to discriminate administration of 0.4 mg/kg nicotine from vehicle under an FR schedule of food delivery. L-745,870 significantly attenuated reinstatement of nicotine-seeking induced by both nicotine-associated cues and nicotine priming. In contrast, L-745,870 did not affect established nicotine self-administration behavior or reinstatement of food-seeking behavior induced by food cues or food priming. L-745,870 did not produce nicotine-like discriminative-stimulus effects and did not alter discriminative-stimulus effects of nicotine. PD 168,077 did not reinstate extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. As DRD4 blockade by L-745,870 selectively attenuated both cue- and nicotine-induced reinstatement of nicotine-seeking behavior, without affecting cue- or food-induced reinstatement of food-seeking behavior, DRD4 antagonists are potential therapeutic agents against tobacco smoking relapse. PMID:22030716

  6. [The expression of GFAP after brain concussion in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Bing; Li, Yong-Hong

    2006-04-01

    To study the expression of GFAP and pathologic changes after rats brain concussion, so that to provide evidence on brain concussion for forensic identification. Forty-five SD rats were divided into 3, 6, 12, 24 h and 2, 4, 7, 10 d and normal control groups in terms of different wounding time after brain concussion model established, and the expression of GFAP after rats brain concussion were then observed by using SP immunohistochemical method. In normal control brain, low-level GFAP expressions could be observed. After six hours' brain concussion, GFAP positive cells increased obviously. The trend reached to the peak at 7d, partly declined at 10d, then decreased gradually. Brain concussion induced the expression of GFAP. The detection of GFAP could be useful for diagnosis of brain concussion on forensic pathology, and could be a reference index for timing of injury after brain concussion.

  7. Scutellarin Attenuates Hypertension-Induced Expression of Brain Toll-Like Receptor 4/Nuclear Factor Kappa B

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xingyong; Shi, Xiaogeng; Zhang, Xu; Lei, Huixin; Long, Simei; Su, Huanxing; Pei, Zhong; Huang, Ruxun

    2013-01-01

    Hypertension is associated with low-grade inflammation, and Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) has been shown to be linked to the development and maintenance of hypertension. This study aimed to investigate the effects of scutellarin (administered by oral gavage daily for 2 weeks) on brain TLR4/nuclear factor kappa B-(NF-κB-) mediated inflammation and blood pressure in renovascular hypertensive (using the 2-kidney, 2-clip method) rats. Immunofluorescence and western immunoblot analyses revealed that hypertension contributed to the activation of TLR4 and NF-κB, accompanied by significantly enhanced expression of proinflammatory mediators, such as tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β), and interleukin-18 (IL-18). Furthermore, expression of the antiapoptotic protein, myeloid cell leukemia-1 (Mcl1), was decreased, and the pro-apoptotic proteins, Bax and cleavedcaspase-3 p17 were increased in combined cerebral cortical/striatal soluble lysates. Scutellarin significantly lowered blood pressure and attenuated the number of activated microglia and macrophages in brains of hypertensive rats. Furthermore, scutellarin significantly reduced the expression of TLR4, NF-κB p65, TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-18, Bax and cleaved-caspase-3 p17, and increased the expression of Mcl1. Overall, these results revealed that scutellarin exhibits anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic properties and decreases blood pressure in hypertensive rats. Therefore, scutellarin may be a potential therapeutic agent in hypertension-associated diseases. PMID:24223475

  8. Errors in MR-based attenuation correction for brain imaging with PET/MR scanners

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Rota Kops, Elena; Herzog, Hans

    2013-02-01

    AimAttenuation correction of PET data acquired by hybrid MR/PET scanners remains a challenge, even if several methods for brain and whole-body measurements have been developed recently. A template-based attenuation correction for brain imaging proposed by our group is easy to handle and delivers reliable attenuation maps in a short time. However, some potential error sources are analyzed in this study. We investigated the choice of template reference head among all the available data (error A), and possible skull anomalies of the specific patient, such as discontinuities due to surgery (error B). Materials and methodsAn anatomical MR measurement and a 2-bed-position transmission scan covering the whole head and neck region were performed in eight normal subjects (4 females, 4 males). Error A: Taking alternatively one of the eight heads as reference, eight different templates were created by nonlinearly registering the images to the reference and calculating the average. Eight patients (4 females, 4 males; 4 with brain lesions, 4 w/o brain lesions) were measured in the Siemens BrainPET/MR scanner. The eight templates were used to generate the patients' attenuation maps required for reconstruction. ROI and VOI atlas-based comparisons were performed employing all the reconstructed images. Error B: CT-based attenuation maps of two volunteers were manipulated by manually inserting several skull lesions and filling a nasal cavity. The corresponding attenuation coefficients were substituted with the water's coefficient (0.096/cm). ResultsError A: The mean SUVs over the eight templates pairs for all eight patients and all VOIs did not differ significantly one from each other. Standard deviations up to 1.24% were found. Error B: After reconstruction of the volunteers' BrainPET data with the CT-based attenuation maps without and with skull anomalies, a VOI-atlas analysis was performed revealing very little influence of the skull lesions (less than 3%), while the filled nasal

  9. N-acetylcysteine attenuates dimethylnitrosamine induced oxidative stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Sathish, Priya; Paramasivan, Vijayalakshmi; Palani, Vivekanandan; Sivanesan, Karthikeyan

    2011-03-05

    Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathogenesis and progression of various hepatic disorders and hence screening for a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent is the need of the hour. The present study was aimed to investigate the hepatoprotective and antioxidant property of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) against dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage in male Wistar albino rats. Administration of single dose of DMN (5mg/kg b.w.; i.p.) resulted in significant elevation in the levels of serum aspartate transaminase and alanine transaminase, indicating hepatocellular damage. Oxidative stress induced by DMN treatment was confirmed by an elevation in the status of lipid peroxidation (LPO) and reduction in the activities of enzymic antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase and glutathione-S-transferase and in the levels of non-enzymic antioxidants, reduced glutathione, vitamin-C and vitamin-E in the liver tissue. DMN induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular membrane instability was further substantiated by a decline in the status of the membrane bound ATPases in the liver tissue. Post-treatment with NAC (50mg/kg b.w.; p.o.) for 7days effectively protected against the DMN induced insult to liver by preventing the elevation in the status of the serum marker enzymes and LPO, and restoring the activities of both the enzymic and non-enzymic antioxidants and membrane bound ATPases towards normalcy. These results demonstrate that NAC acts as a good hepatoprotective and antioxidant agent in attenuating DMN induced oxidative stress and hepatocellular damage.

  10. Intralipid Vehicle Does Not Interfere with the Efficacy of Progesterone in Attenuating Edema following Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Wali, Bushra; Stein, Donald G; Sayeed, Iqbal

    2017-02-27

    The recent disappointing results of phase III trials for progesterone (PROG) in traumatic brain injury (TBI) have triggered speculation about reasons for the negative outcomes. One confounding factor may have been the vehicle used to administer PROG. Virtually all of the many pre-clinical experiments informing the clinical trials and reporting beneficial PROG effects used more soluble 2-hydroxypropyl-b-cyclodextrin as a vehicle given intraperitoneally or subcutaneously rather than a lipid formulation given intravenously (IV). The present investigation compared the effect of PROG infusion with that of lipid emulsion (Intralipid(®)) as a carrier/vehicle on edema following TBI in rats. Eight-mg/kg doses of PROG with 20% Intralipid were given IV via central venous catheter beginning 1 h post-injury over a 1 h duration (1.2 mL/h). Animals were killed and brains removed at 24 h post-injury. All the brain-injured groups showed more edema compared with the control group. However, PROG+Intralipid significantly attenuated cerebral swelling compared with Intralipid alone. No difference was observed between the TBI-alone and Intralipid groups. Although this study used much a smaller volume and shorter duration of Intralipid infusion than the clinical trials (up to 5 days of continuous infusion), our results suggest that the use of Intralipid in rats did not prevent or mask the beneficial effect of PROG.

  11. Minocycline ameliorates prenatal valproic acid induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-01-01

    Autism is a neurodevelopment disorder. One percent worldwide population suffers with autism and males suffer more than females. Microglia plays an important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. The present study has been designed to investigate the role of minocycline in prenatal valproic acid induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have reduced social interaction (three chamber social behaviour apparatus), spontaneous alteration (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complexes I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Treatment with minocycline significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, minocycline has also attenuated prenatal valproic acid induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behaviour, biochemistry and blood brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by minocycline. Minocycline should be explored further for its therapeutic benefits in autism.

  12. Forebrain and brain stem neural circuits contribute to altered sympathetic responses to heating in senescent rats.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Michael J; Fels, Richard J

    2003-11-01

    Acute heating in young rats increases visceral sympathetic nerve discharge (SND); however, renal and splanchnic SND responses to hyperthermia are attenuated in senescent compared with young Fischer 344 (F344) rats (Kenney MJ and Fels RJ. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R513-R520, 2002). Central mechanisms by which aging alters visceral SND responses to heating are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that forebrain neural circuits are involved in suppressing sympathoexcitatory responses to heating in chloralose-anesthetized, senescent F344 rats. Renal and splanchnic SND responses to increased (38 degrees C-41 degrees C) internal temperature were determined in midbrain-transected (MT) and sham-MT young (3-mo-old), mature (12-mo-old), and senescent (24-mo-old) F344 rats and in cervical-transected (CT) and sham-CT senescent rats. Renal SND remained unchanged during heating in MT and sham-MT senescent rats but was increased in CT senescent rats. Splanchnic SND responses to heating were higher in MT vs. sham-MT senescent rats and in CT vs. MT senescent rats. SND responses to heating were similar in MT and sham-MT young and mature rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was increased during heating in MT but not in sham-MT senescent rats, whereas heating-induced increases in MAP were higher in sham-MT vs. MT young rats. These data suggest that in senescent rats suppression of splanchnic SND to heating involves forebrain and brain stem neural circuits, whereas renal suppression is mediated solely by brain stem neural circuits. These results support the concept that aging alters the functional organization of pathways regulating SND and arterial blood pressure responses to acute heating.

  13. Acute ethanol administration reduces the cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Janis, L S; Hoane, M R; Conde, D; Fulop, Z; Stein, D G

    1998-02-01

    The present study was designed to determine whether a low dose of acute ethanol administration could attenuate cognitive deficits associated with traumatic brain injury. Adult male rats received oral administration of ethanol or drinking water 2 h prior to surgery to produce a blood ethanol concentration of 100 mg% and then received bilateral contusion injuries of the medial prefrontal cortex. Seven days after surgery, the rats began 10 days of testing for acquisition of spatial localization in the Morris water maze where they were required to find a hidden platform to escape from the water. The results indicate that the rats given ethanol at the time of injury later spent significantly less time searching for the hidden platform than their water-treated counterparts. On a memory probe test given on the final day of testing, in which the platform was removed from the pool, rats given the ethanol spent more time in the area where the platform had been located indicating that they learned its location better than the lesion/water controls. In addition, acute ethanol treatment reduced some of the histopathology that typically occurs following severe contusion of the medial frontal cortex but did not attenuate post-traumatic formation of edema. These results indicate that acute ethanol intoxication can reduce the severity of cognitive impairments caused by contusive traumatic brain injury and support the contention that there is a dose-response relationship of acute ethanol intoxication in the setting of traumatic brain injury.

  14. Brain-targeted ACE2 overexpression attenuates neurogenic hypertension by inhibiting COX mediated inflammation

    PubMed Central

    Sriramula, Srinivas; Xia, Huijing; Xu, Ping; Lazartigues, Eric

    2014-01-01

    Overactivity of the renin angiotensin system (RAS), oxidative stress, and cyclooxygenases (COX) in the brain are implicated in the pathogenesis of hypertension. We previously reported that Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme 2 (ACE2) overexpression in the brain attenuates the development of DOCA-salt hypertension, a neurogenic hypertension model with enhanced brain RAS and sympathetic activity. To elucidate the mechanisms involved, we investigated whether oxidative stress, mitogen activated protein kinase signaling and cyclooxygenase (COX) activation in the brain are modulated by ACE2 in neurogenic hypertension. DOCA-salt hypertension significantly increased expression of Nox-2 (+61 ±5 %), Nox-4 (+50 ±13 %) and nitrotyrosine (+89 ±32 %) and reduced activity of the antioxidant enzymes, catalase (−29 ±4 %) and SOD (−31 ±7 %), indicating increased oxidative stress in the brain of non-transgenic mice. This increased oxidative stress was attenuated in transgenic mice overexpressing ACE2 in the brain. DOCA-salt-induced reduction of nNOS expression (−26 ±7 %) and phosphorylated eNOS/total eNOS (−30 ±3 %), and enhanced phosphorylation of Akt and ERK1/2 in the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), were reversed by ACE2 overexpression. In addition, ACE2 overexpression blunted the hypertension-mediated increase in gene and protein expression of COX-1 and COX-2 in the PVN. Furthermore, gene silencing of either COX-1 or COX-2 in the brain, reduced microglial activation and accompanied neuro-inflammation, ultimately attenuating DOCA-salt hypertension. Together, these data provide evidence that brain ACE2 overexpression reduces oxidative stress and COX-mediated neuro-inflammation, improves anti-oxidant and nitric oxide signaling, and thereby attenuates the development of neurogenic hypertension. PMID:25489058

  15. Platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye, is effective for attenuation of heatstroke in rats.

    PubMed

    Tsai, Cheng-Chia; Lin, Mao-Tsun; Yang, Chia-Chang; Liao, Jyh-Fei; Lee, Jie-Jen

    2006-12-01

    The present study was performed to assess the prophylactic effect of platonin, a cyanine photosensitizing dye and an inhibitor of proinflammatory cytokines, in an animal model of heatstroke. Anesthetized rats were immediately divided into 2 major groups after the start of heat stress and administered either isotonic sodium chloride solution (dose, 1 mL/kg of body weight i.v.) or platonin (dose, 12.5-50 microg/mL per kilogram of body weight i.v.). They were exposed to ambient temperature of 43 degrees C to induce heatstroke. Another group of rats were exposed to room temperature (26 degrees C) and used as normothermic controls. Their physiological and biochemical parameters were continuously monitored. When the isotonic sodium chloride solution-pretreated rats underwent heat stress, their survival time values were found to be from 20 to 24 min. Pretreatment with intravenous doses of platonin (12.5-50 microg/mL per kilogram of body weight) immediately after the start of heat exposure significantly improved survival time during heatstroke (duration, 63-185 min). As compared with normothermic controls, all vehicle-pretreated heatstroke animals displayed higher levels of creatinine, serum urea nitrogen, alkaline phosphatase, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, tumor necrosis factor alpha, prothrombin time, activated partial thromboplastin time and D-dimer in the plasma, cellular ischemia and injury markers in striatum, and intracranial pressure. In contrast, all vehicle-pretreated heatstroke animals had lower levels of mean arterial pressure, cerebral perfusion pressure, cerebral blood flow, brain Po2, and platelet count and protein C in the plasma. Immediately after the start of heat exposure, the previous administration of platonin significantly improved survival time by reducing the systemic inflammation, hypercoagulable state, and tissue ischemia and damage during heatstroke. The results demonstrate that platonin is effective for attenuation of

  16. Early malnutrition attenuates the impairing action of naloxone on spreading depression in young rats.

    PubMed

    Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Rocha-de-Melo, Ana Paula; de Lima, Kalina Rimena; de Albuquerque, Juliana da Mota Silveira; Francisco, Elian da Silva

    2013-07-01

    Malnutrition early in life can disrupt neurotransmitter systems in the brain, affecting its electrophysiological function. The opioid receptor antagonist naloxone can affect the electroencephalogram (EEG) and behavior in animals and humans, and patients under drug-abuse treatment use it as a therapy. The goal of this work in the rat is to determine whether malnutrition early in life modulates the action of naloxone on the excitability-related phenomenon known as cortical spreading depression (CSD). Malnutrition was induced by feeding the dams during the gestation and lactation with a low-protein diet (8% protein). Their male pups received a single daily subcutaneous injection of naloxone (10 mg/kg/day) from the 7th to the 28th postnatal day, and were subsequently (30-40 days of life) submitted to a 4-hours CSD recording session, with electrodes at two points at a fixed distance apart on the parietal cortical surface. Compared to well-nourished rats receiving a 23% protein diet, malnourished animals displayed lower body weights and higher CSD velocities of propagation, confirming the facilitating effect of malnutrition on CSD. Naloxone treatment reduced in well-nourished rats the CSD propagation velocity, as compared to saline-injected controls. In contrast, the naloxone effect was less intense in the malnourished condition, and the CSD velocity difference between malnourished-naloxone and malnourished-saline groups did not reach statistical significance. Data strongly support the involvement of opioid-based mechanisms in excitability-related neural processes, which probably influence CSD propagation, and indicate that early malnutrition attenuates the impairing action of naloxone on CSD.

  17. The effects of Tanshinone IIA on blood-brain barrier and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Chao; Xue, Hongli; Bai, Changlin; Fu, Rong; Wu, Anhua

    2010-12-01

    Disruption of blood-brain barrier (BBB) and edema formation play a key role in the development of neurological dysfunction after cerebral ischemia. In this study, the effects of Tanshinone IIA (Tan IIA), one of the active ingredients of Salvia miltiorrhiza root, on the BBB and brain edema after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in rats were examined. Our study demonstrated that Tan IIA reduced brain infarct area, water content in the ischemic hemisphere. Furthermore, Tan IIA significantly decreased BBB permeability to Evans blue, suppressed the expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 (ICAM-1), matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), inhibited the degradation of tight junction proteins zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) and Occludin. These results demonstrated that Tan IIA was effective for attenuating the extent of brain edema formation in response to ischemia injury in rats, partly by Tan IIA's protective effect on the BBB. Our results may have implications in the treatment of brain edema in cerebral ischemia.

  18. Oxymatrine attenuated isoproterenol-induced heart failure in rats via regulation of COX-2/PGI2 pathway.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Ru; Xu, Qingbin; Xu, Yehua; Xiong, Aiqin; Wang, Yang; Ma, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Oxymatrine (OMT) is an active constituent of traditional Chinese herb Sophora japonica Ait which has been shown to exert potent anti-inflammatory,anti-oxidant and anti-fibrosis properties. Our previous studies have demonstrated that OMT has protective effects on isoproterenol-induced heart failure in rats through regulation of DDAH/ADMA metabolism pathway.In this study,we further investigated whether OMT could attenuate isoproterenol-induced heart failure through the regulation of COX-2/PGI2 pathway. Heart failure was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by 5mg/kg isoproterenol subcutaneous injection for 7days. The rats were maintained on normal diet and randomly divided into five groups: control, isoproterenol, isoproterenol with OMT (50, 100mg/kg), and OMT alone groups (n=12 in each group). Serum brain natruretic peptide (BNP, a heart failure biomarker), histopathological variables, expression of Cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2), cyclooxygenase-1 (COX-1), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and Prostacyclin synthase (PGIS) were analysed. Administration of OMT significantly reduced the increased BNP in plasm of isoproterenol-induced rats, attenuated cardiac fibrosis,suppressed overexpression of myocardial COX-1 expression, up-regulated COX-2 and PGIS expression, but had no effects on isoproterenol-induced elevated protein cPLA2. And compared with control group, any indexes in sham rats treated with OMT (100mg/kg) alone were unaltered. These results demonstrated that OMT has cardioprotective effects on isoproterenol-induced heart failure in rats by regulating COX-2/PGI2 pathway.

  19. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on brain vascular permeability in rats with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nurcan; Ugur Yilmaz, Canan; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Ahishali, Bulent; Kucuk, Mutlu; Arican, Nadir; Elmas, Imdat; Gürses, Candan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-15

    This study investigates the effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity during traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Evans blue (EB) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used as determinants of BBB permeability. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in the right (injury side) cerebral cortex of animals. The gene expression levels for occludin, glucose transporter (Glut)-1, aquaporin4 (AQP4) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were performed, and Glut-1 and NF-κB activities were analyzed. BHB treatment decreased GSH and MDA levels in intact animals and in those exposed to TBI (P<0.05). Glut-1 protein levels decreased in sham, BHB and TBI plus BHB groups (P<0.05). NF-κB protein levels increased in animals treated with BHB and/or exposed to TBI (P<0.05). The expression levels of occludin and AQP4 did not significantly change among experimental groups. Glut-1 expression levels increased in BHB treated and untreated animals exposed to TBI (P<0.05). While NF-κB expression levels increased in animals in TBI (P<0.01), a decrease was noticed in these animals upon BHB treatment (P<0.01). In animals exposed to TBI, EB extravasation was observed in the ipsilateral cortex regardless of BHB treatment. Ultrastructurally, BHB attenuated but did not prevent the presence of HRP in brain capillary endothelial cells of animals with TBI; moreover, the drug also led to the observation of the tracer when used in intact rats (P<0.01). Altogether, these results showed that BHB not only failed to provide overall protective effects on BBB in TBI but also led to BBB disruption in healthy animals.

  20. Hydrogen-Rich Saline Attenuates Cardiac and Hepatic Injury in Doxorubicin Rat Model by Inhibiting Inflammation and Apoptosis

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    Doxorubicin (DOX) remains the most effective anticancer agent which is widely used in several adult and pediatric cancers, but its application is limited for its cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity. Hydrogen, as a selective antioxidant, is a promising potential therapeutic option for many diseases. In this study, we found that intraperitoneal injection of hydrogen-rich saline (H2 saline) ameliorated the mortality, cardiac dysfunction, and histopathological changes caused by DOX in rats. Meanwhile, serum brain natriuretic peptide (BNP), aspartate transaminase (AST), alanine transaminase (ALT), albumin (ALB), tissue reactive oxygen species (ROS), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were also attenuated after H2 saline treatment. What is more, we further demonstrated that H2 saline treatment could inhibit cardiac and hepatic inflammation and apoptosis relative proteins expressions by western blotting test. In conclusion, our results revealed a protective effect of H2 saline on DOX-induced cardiotoxicity and hepatotoxicity in rats by inhibiting inflammation and apoptosis. PMID:28104928

  1. EEG Neurofeedback therapy: Can it attenuate brain changes in TBI?

    PubMed

    Munivenkatappa, Ashok; Rajeswaran, Jamuna; Indira Devi, Bhagavatula; Bennet, Niranjana; Upadhyay, Neeraj

    2014-01-01

    Electroencephalogram Neurofeedback therapy (EEG-NFT) has several potential beneficial effects in terms of improving cognition and electrophysiological regulation among patients with brain injury. However, in vivo structural and functional changes remain less explored. The aim of the present study is to explore EEG-NFT induced in vivo changes in traumatic brain injury (TBI) patients. Two patients with mean age of 15 years with moderate head injury who had more than seven post concussion symptoms and poor cognitive performances (<5 percentile) were subjected to 20 sessions of EEG-NFT. The neuropsychological test scores, post concussion symptoms and MRI scan of the brain were recorded pre-post to EEG-NFT. During EEG-NFT the cognitive scores and concussion symptoms improved significantly (p < 0.05). The EEG-NFT has shown significant increase in cortical grey matter (GM) volumes (p < 0.0001) and fractional anisotropy (FA) of cortical white matter (WM) tracts (p < 0.0001, voxel max 60 and above). There was a significant decrease in global, local efficiency, cost and clustering coefficient of functional connectivity (Wilcoxon Sign Rank Test p < 0.05). Interestingly there was a significant increase in thalamo-cortical connection (increase FA value) after EEG-NFT. The EEG-NFT therapy has shown significant changes in structural and functional connectivity among young moderately injured TBI patients.

  2. Manganese alters rat brain amino acids levels

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, M. Camila; Almeida, Isabel; Ramos, Ruben; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M.; Aschner, Michael; Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated with alterations in amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed whole rat brain amino acid content subsequent to 4 or 8 intraperitoneal (ip) injections, with 25 mg MnCl2/kg/day, at 48-hour (h) intervals. We noted a significant increase in glycine brain levels after 4 or 8 Mn injections (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and arginine also after 4 or 8 injections (p<0.001). Significant increases were also noted in brain proline (p<0.01), cysteine (p<0.05), phenylalanine (p<0.01) and tyrosine (p<0.01) levels after 8 Mn injections vs. the control group. These findings suggest that Mn-induced alterations in amino acid levels secondary to Mn affect the neurochemical milieu. PMID:22971893

  3. Prolonged maternal separation attenuates BDNF-ERK signaling correlated with spine formation in the hippocampus during early brain development.

    PubMed

    Ohta, Ken-Ichi; Suzuki, Shingo; Warita, Katsuhiko; Kaji, Tomohiro; Kusaka, Takashi; Miki, Takanori

    2017-04-01

    Maternal separation (MS) is known to affect hippocampal function such as learning and memory, yet the molecular mechanism remains unknown. We hypothesized that these impairments are attributed to abnormities of neural circuit formation by MS, and focused on brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) as key factor because BDNF signaling has an essential role in synapse formation during early brain development. Using rat offspring exposed to MS for 6 h/day during postnatal days (PD) 2-20, we estimated BDNF signaling in the hippocampus during brain development. Our results show that MS attenuated BDNF expression and activation of extracellular signal-regulated kinase (ERK) around PD 7. Moreover, plasticity-related immediate early genes, which are transcriptionally regulated by BDNF-ERK signaling, were also reduced by MS around PD 7. Interestingly, detailed analysis revealed that MS particularly reduced expression of BDNF gene and immediate early genes in the cornu ammonis 1 (CA1) of hippocampus at PD 7. Considering that BDNF-ERK signaling is involved in spine formation, we next evaluated spine formation in the hippocampus during the weaning period. Our results show that MS particularly reduced mature spine density in proximal apical dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons at PD 21. These results suggest that MS could attenuate BDNF-ERK signaling during primary synaptogenesis with a region-specific manner, which is likely to lead to decreased spine formation and maturation observed in the hippocampal CA1 region. It is speculated that this incomplete spine formation during early brain development has an influence on learning capabilities throughout adulthood.

  4. Amantadine attenuates levodopa-induced dyskinesia in mice and rats preventing the accompanying rise in nigral GABA levels.

    PubMed

    Bido, Simone; Marti, Matteo; Morari, Michele

    2011-09-01

    Amantadine is the only drug marketed for treating levodopa-induced dyskinesia. However, its impact on basal ganglia circuitry in the dyskinetic brain, particularly on the activity of striatofugal pathways, has not been evaluated. We therefore used dual probe microdialysis to investigate the effect of amantadine on behavioral and neurochemical changes in the globus pallidus and substantia nigra reticulata of 6-hydroxydopamine hemi-lesioned dyskinetic mice and rats. Levodopa evoked abnormal involuntary movements (AIMs) in dyskinetic mice, and simultaneously elevated GABA release in substantia nigra reticulata (∼3-fold) but not globus pallidus. Glutamate levels were unaffected in both areas. Amantadine (40 mg/kg, i.p.), ineffective alone, attenuated (∼50%) AIMs expression and prevented the GABA rise. Moreover, it unraveled a facilitatory effect of levodopa on pallidal glutamate levels. Levodopa also evoked AIMs expression and a GABA surge (∼2-fold) selectively in the substantia nigra of dyskinetic rats. However, different from mice, glutamate levels rose simultaneously. Amantadine, ineffective alone, attenuated (∼50%) AIMs expression preventing amino acid increase and leaving unaffected pallidal glutamate. Overall, the data provide neurochemical evidence that levodopa-induced dyskinesia is accompanied by activation of the striato-nigral pathway in both mice and rats, and that the anti-dyskinetic effect of amantadine partly relies on the modulation of this pathway.

  5. [Expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Dong-Liang; Wang, Feng

    2006-10-15

    To study the changes of expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion. sixty rats were randomly divided into brain concussion groups and control group. The expression of c-myc protein was microscopically observed by immunohistochemical method. No expression of c-myc protein in control group were observed. However, positive expression of c-myc protein in some neurons was seen at 20 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 8h after brain concussion and then decreased gradually. These findings suggest that the detection of c-myc protein could be an index of diagnosis of brain concussion.

  6. Lesion of the Subfornical Organ attenuates Neuronal Activation of the Paraventricular Nucleus in response to Angiotensin II in normal rats.

    PubMed

    Meehan, Jessica; Collister, John P

    2011-09-23

    The subfornical organ, one of the central circumventricular organs, has been shown to mediate many of the effects of circulating angiotensin II (AngII). Where these signals are processed downstream is not fully understood. The SFO does indeed project to prominent cardiovascular regulatory centers such as the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), of whose neurons are activated by central AngII. We reasoned that AngII sensed at the SFO would cause neuronal activation at downstream hypothalamic areas such as the median preoptic nucleus and paraventricular nucleus, and as such would be diminished in animals with lesions of the SFO. To test this hypothesis, groups of rats underwent either SFO lesion (SFOx) or sham operation. Five days later rats were instrumented with radiotelemetry transducers for monitoring of mean arterial pressure (MAP) and venous catheters for infusions. MAP and heart rate were measured continuously. After a 4 day control period, infusion of AngII (0.575 µg/kg/min) was begun for a period of 2 hours. Rats were then sacrificed and brains were processed for neuronal Fos expression. AngII produced Fos expression in the SFO, MnPO and PVN of sham rats. Fos expression was greatly attenuated in the PVN of SFOx rats. These results support our hypothesis, suggesting that AngII sensitive neurons of the SFO can mediate neuronal activation in the PVN.

  7. Pretreatment with curcumin attenuates anxiety while strengthens memory performance after one short stress experience in male rats.

    PubMed

    Haider, Saida; Naqvi, Fizza; Batool, Zehra; Tabassum, Saiqa; Sadir, Sadia; Liaquat, Laraib; Naqvi, Faizan; Zuberi, Nudrat Anwer; Shakeel, Hina; Perveen, Tahira

    2015-06-01

    It is observed that memories are more strengthened in a stressful condition. Studies have also demonstrated an association between stressful events and the onset of depression and anxiety. Considering the nootropic, anxiolytic and antidepressant-like properties of curcumin in various experimental approaches, we appraised the beneficial effects of this herb on acute immobilization stress-induced behavioral and neurochemical alterations. Rats in test group were administrated with curcumin (200mg/kg/day), dissolved in neutral oil, for 1 week. Both control and curcumin-treated rats were divided into unstressed and stressed groups. Rats in the stressed group were subjected to immobilization stress for 2h. After stress, the animals were subjected to behavioral tests. Immobilization stress induced an anxiogenic behavior in rats subjected to elevated plus maze test (EPM). Locomotor activity was also significantly increased following the acute immobilization stress. Pre-administration of curcumin prevented the stress-induced behavioral deficits. Highest memory performance was observed in stressed rats that were pre-treated with curcumin in Morris water maze (MWM). Brain malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were also estimated. Present study suggests a role of antioxidant enzymes in the attenuation of acute stress induced anxiety by curcumin. The findings therefore suggest that supplementation of curcumin may be beneficial in the treatment of acute stress induced anxiety and enhancement of memory function. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Effect of soluble complement receptor-1 on neutrophil accumulation after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaczorowski, S L; Schiding, J K; Toth, C A; Kochanek, P M

    1995-09-01

    As part of the acute inflammatory response, neutrophils accumulate in the central nervous system after injury. Recently, a soluble human recombinant complement receptor (sCR1; BRL 55730; T Cell Sciences, Inc., Cambridge, MA, U.S.A.) has been developed that inhibits the activation of both the classical and the alternative pathways of complement. sCR1 attenuates the effects of the acute inflammatory response in several models of injury outside the central nervous system. The role of complement in traumatic brain injury, however, remains undefined. We hypothesized that treatment with sCR1 would attenuate neutrophil accumulation in the brain after cerebral trauma. Using a randomized, blinded protocol, 18 anesthetized Sprague-Dawley rats were pre-treated with sCR1 or saline (control) at both 2 h and 2 min before trauma (weight drop) to the exposed right parietal cortex. A third dose of sCR1 (or saline) was given 6 h after trauma. Coronal brain sections centered on the site of trauma were obtained at 24 h after trauma and analyzed for myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity as a marker of neutrophil accumulation. Complete blood counts with differential were obtained before treatment with sCR1 and at 24 h after trauma. At 24 h after trauma, brain MPO activity was reduced by 41% in sCR1-treated rats compared with control rats [0.1599 +/- 0.102 versus 0.2712 +/- 0.178 U/g (mean +/- SD); p = 0.02]. The neutrophil count in peripheral blood increased approximately twofold in both groups. Neutrophil accumulation occurring in the brain after trauma is inhibited by sCR1 treatment. This suggests that complement activation is involved in the local inflammatory response to traumatic brain injury and plays an important role in neutrophil accumulation in the injured brain.

  9. Thoracic duct ligation in the rat attenuates lung injuries in acute pancreatitis.

    PubMed

    Zhang, D; Tsui, N; Li, Y; Wang, F

    2013-09-01

    In acute pancreatitis (AP), inflammatory cells and products disseminated in abdominal lymph and blood induce systemic inflammation. Interruption of abdominal lymph flow, and thereby reduction of lymphatic dissemination, could alter the course of the disease. Therefore, we investigated whether thoracic duct ligation (TDL) in a rat model of cerulein-induced AP results in reduced lung damage as a marker for reduction of systemic dissemination through the lymphatic system. Thirty-four male rats were assigned to TDL (TDL-rats, n=8), AP (AP-rats, n=8), TDL+AP (TDL+AP-rats, n=9) or sham TDL (Ctr-rats, n=9) groups. TDL and sham TDL were established first. Two days later, AP was induced in AP- and TDL+AP-rats by a series of subcutaneous injections of cerulein. Vehicle was injected in the same manner in Ctr- and TDL-rats as controls. Rats were sacrificed six hours after the end of the serial injections. Histological examination showed that AP-induced damage to the pancreas and ileum were similar in AP- and TDL+AP-rats whereas lung damage was less severe in TDL+AP-rats than in AP-rats. Assays demonstrated that: hepatic and pulmonary myeloperoxidase activities were increased in AP-rats but not in the TDL+AP-rats; more Il-6 was found in AP-rat than TDL+AP-rat lungs; and lung-lavage fluid from AP-rats yielded more angiopoietin-2 than TDL+AP-rats. In conclusion, prior TDL in the rat attenuates lung damage in acute pancreatitis.

  10. Ceftriaxone attenuates glutamate-mediated neuro-inflammation and restores BDNF in MPTP model of Parkinson's disease in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaur, Baninder; Prakash, Atish

    2017-06-01

    The present study is designed to investigate the role of glutamate transporter in neuroprotection of ceftriaxone against MPTP induced PD animal model. Young male Wistar rats were subjected to intra-nigral administration of MPTP for the induction of Parkinson's disease. Glutamate modulators like ceftriaxone (CFX), Memantine (MEM) and Dihydrokainate (DHK) were administered to MPTP-lesioned rats. Different behavioral alterations were assessed in between the study period. Animals were sacrificed immediately after behavioral session, and different biochemical parameters were measured. Intranigral administration of MPTP showed significant impairment of motor behavior and marked increase in inflammatory mediators and oxidative stress parameters in rats. In addition, MPTP also produced significant decrease in brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) in striatum of rats. However, chronic administration of ceftriaxone (200mg/kg) has shown significant improvement in motor behavioral deficits and oxidative damage. In addition, Ceftriaxone also attenuated the marked increase of NFκB, TNF-α and IL-1β in MPTP treated rats thus, conferring its neuro-inflammatory property. Further, Ceftriaxone significantly restored the decreased activity of BDNF in striatum of MPTP treated rats. Moreover, pre-treatment of memantine (20mg/kg) with sub-therapeutic dose of ceftriaxone (100mg/kg) potentiated the protective effect of ceftriaxone. Furthermore, intra-nigral injection of DHK (200 nmol) with lower dose of ceftriaxone (100mg/kg) reversed the protective effect of ceftriaxone in MPTP treated rats. The present study concluded that ceftriaxone produce beneficial effect against MPTP induced PD like symptoms rats through glutamatergic pathways. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  11. R-Modafinil Attenuates Nicotine-Taking and Nicotine-Seeking Behavior in Alcohol-Preferring Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xiao-Fei; Bi, Guo-Hua; He, Yi; Yang, Hong-Ju; Gao, Jun-Tao; Okunola-Bakare, Oluyomi M; Slack, Rachel D; Gardner, Eliot L; Xi, Zheng-Xiong; Newman, Amy Hauck

    2015-01-01

    (±)-Modafinil (MOD) is used clinically for the treatment of sleep disorders and has been investigated as a potential medication for the treatment of psychostimulant addiction. However, the therapeutic efficacy of (±)-MOD for addiction is inconclusive. Herein we used animal models of self-administration and in vivo microdialysis to study the pharmacological actions of R-modafinil (R-MOD) and S-modafinil (S-MOD) on nicotine-taking and nicotine-seeking behavior, and mechanisms underlying such actions. We found that R-MOD is more potent and effective than S-MOD in attenuating nicotine self-administration in Long–Evans rats. As Long–Evans rats did not show a robust reinstatement response to nicotine, we used alcohol-preferring rats (P-rats) that display much higher reinstatement responses to nicotine than Long–Evans rats. We found that R-MOD significantly inhibited intravenous nicotine self-administration, nicotine-induced reinstatement, and nicotine-associated cue-induced drug-seeking behavior in P-rats. R-MOD alone neither sustained self-administration in P-rats previously self-administering nicotine nor reinstated extinguished nicotine-seeking behavior. The in vivo brain microdialysis assays demonstrated that R-MOD alone produced a slow-onset moderate increase in extracellular DA. Pretreatment with R-MOD dose-dependently blocked nicotine-induced dopamine (DA) release in the nucleus accumbens (NAc) in both naive and nicotine self-administrating rats, suggesting a DA-dependent mechanism underlying mitigation of nicotine's effects. In conclusion, the present findings support further investigation of R-MOD for treatment of nicotine dependence in humans. PMID:25613829

  12. Nafamostat mesilate attenuates transient focal ischemia/reperfusion-induced brain injury via the inhibition of endoplasmic reticulum stress.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Sun Kwan; Ahn, Moonsang; Song, Hee-Jung; Kang, Shin Kwang; Jung, Saet-Byel; Harsha, Nagar; Jee, Sungju; Moon, Jae Young; Suh, Kwang-Sun; Lee, Sang Do; Jeon, Byeong Hwa; Kim, Dong Woon; Kim, Cuk-Seong

    2015-11-19

    Nafamostat mesilate (NM), a serine protease inhibitor, has a broad range of clinical applications that include use as an anticoagulant during hemodialysis in cerebral hemorrhage patients, as a hemoperfusion anticoagulant for patients with intravascular coagulation, hemorrhagic lesions, and hemorrhagic tendencies, and for the improvement of acute pancreatitis. However, the effects of NM on acute cerebral ischemia have yet to be investigated. Thus, the present study utilized a rat model in which transient middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) was used to induce ischemic injury to investigate the effects of NM on infarct volume and histological and biological changes. NM (1mg/kg) was intravenously administered prior to and after the MCAO procedure. Compared to control rats, the administration of NM significantly decreased infarct size and the extent of brain edema after the induction of focal ischemia via MCAO. Additionally, NM treatment attenuated MCAO-induced neuronal degeneration and activation of microglia and astrocytes. NM treatment also inhibited the MCAO-induced expression levels of glucose-regulated protein 78 (GRP78), CATT/EBP homologous protein (CHOP), and p-eukaryotic initiation factor 2α (eIF2α), which are endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress markers, in the cerebral cortex. The present findings demonstrate that NM exerts neuroprotective effects in the brain following focal ischemia via, at least in part, the inhibition of ER stress.

  13. Changes in brain lipid composition in thiamine deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, M; Sakamoto, H; Ohtsuki, A; Oguchi, K

    1990-10-01

    Brain lipid composition was studied in thiamine deficient rats treated with thiamine antimetabolites (oxythiamine: OT, and pyrithiamine: PT) and thiamine deficient diet (TDD). After intraperitoneal injection of OT (40 mg/kg/day) or TDD feeding for 6 days, body weight gain decreased. However, the PT (500 micrograms/kg/day) treated rats or the pair fed control (PFC: TDD + thiamine of 5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed no decrease in body weight gain compared with the regular diet control (C). Brain lipid levels (total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, sphingomyelin and cerebroside) were examined in four brain regions (cerebral cortex, subcortical structure, brain stem and cerebellum). Total lipid level increased in four regions in OT or TDD treated rats, but total lipid level in the cerebellum in PT treated rats decreased. Total cholesterol level increased in all treated rats, while the triglyceride level in the brain stem decreased dramatically in OT or TDD treated rats. Cerebroside levels of four regions in the PT, OT or TDD group remarkably decreased, and PFC rats showed a significant improvement of the decrease in cerebroside level. It is conceivable that these changes in brain lipid composition provided some clues for the histological and morphological changes of the brain as manifested by the myelin degradation in acute thiamine deficiency.

  14. Stress-sensitive arterial hypertension, hemodynamic changes and brain metabolites in hypertensive ISIAH rats: MRI investigation.

    PubMed

    Seryapina, A A; Shevelev, O B; Moshkin, M P; Markel, A L; Akulov, A E

    2017-03-08

    The study of early development of the arterial hypertension in association with emotional stress is of great importance for better understanding of etiolody and pathogenesis of the hypertensive disease. MRI technique was applied to evaluate the hemodynamic and brain metabolites changes in 1- and 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats (10 male rats) with stress-sensitive arterial hypertension and in control normotensive WAG rats (8 male rats). In the 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, age-dependent increase in the blood pressure was associated with increased blood flow through the renal arteries and decreased blood flow in the lower part of abdominal aorta. The renal vascular resistance in the ISIAH rats decreased while aging, though, at both ages it remained higher than the renal vascular resistance in WAG rats. Integral metabolome portrait demonstrated that hypertension development in the ISIAH rats was associated with attenuation of excitatory and energetic activity in the prefrontal cortex, whereas in the WAG rats, the opposite age-dependent changes were observed. In contrast, in hypothalamus of 3-Mo-old ISIAH rats, an increase in energetic activity and prevalence of excitatory neurotransmitters over inhibitory was noticed. The blood flow through the main arteries showed positive correlation with glutamate and glutamine levels in hypothalamus, and negative one - with hypothalamic GABA level. The blood pressure values positively correlated with hypothalamic choline levels. Thus, the early development of the stress-sensitive hypertension in the ISIAH rats is accompanied by considerable changes both in brain metabolite ratios and in the parameters of blood flow through the main arteries. This article is protected by copyright. All rights reserved.

  15. Attenuation correction for freely moving small animal brain PET studies based on a virtual scanner geometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Angelis, G. I.; Kyme, A. Z.; Ryder, W. J.; Fulton, R. R.; Meikle, S. R.

    2014-10-01

    Attenuation correction in positron emission tomography brain imaging of freely moving animals is a very challenging problem since the torso of the animal is often within the field of view and introduces a non negligible attenuating factor that can degrade the quantitative accuracy of the reconstructed images. In the context of unrestrained small animal imaging, estimation of the attenuation correction factors without the need for a transmission scan is highly desirable. An attractive approach that avoids the need for a transmission scan involves the generation of the hull of the animal’s head based on the reconstructed motion corrected emission images. However, this approach ignores the attenuation introduced by the animal’s torso. In this work, we propose a virtual scanner geometry which moves in synchrony with the animal’s head and discriminates between those events that traversed only the animal’s head (and therefore can be accurately compensated for attenuation) and those that might have also traversed the animal’s torso. For each recorded pose of the animal’s head a new virtual scanner geometry is defined and therefore a new system matrix must be calculated leading to a time-varying system matrix. This new approach was evaluated on phantom data acquired on the microPET Focus 220 scanner using a custom-made phantom and step-wise motion. Results showed that when the animal’s torso is within the FOV and not appropriately accounted for during attenuation correction it can lead to bias of up to 10% . Attenuation correction was more accurate when the virtual scanner was employed leading to improved quantitative estimates (bias < 2%), without the need to account for the attenuation introduced by the extraneous compartment. Although the proposed method requires increased computational resources, it can provide a reliable approach towards quantitatively accurate attenuation correction for freely moving animal studies.

  16. Optical clearing of the mouse brain and light attenuation quantitation

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    d'Esposito, Angela; Nikitichev, Daniil; Desjardins, Adrien; Walker-Samuel, Simon; Lythgoe, Mark F.

    2015-03-01

    Optical clearing allows the reduction of light scattering in biological tissue, enabling 3D morphological information to be obtained deep within tissue using techniques such as optical projection tomography and light sheet microscopy. However, the extent of the clearing is dependent on the technique that is used. There is therefore a need for methods to quantify the quality of the clearing process and thereby to compare clearing techniques. In this study, we developed such a method using a custom spectroscopy system and applied it to compare three techniques that were applied to mouse brain: BABB (Murray's clear), pBABB (a modification of BABB which includes the use of hydrogen peroxide), and passive CLARITY.

  17. Hybridizable ribonucleic acid of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Bondy, S. C.; Roberts, Sidney

    1968-01-01

    1. Cerebral RNA of adult and newborn rats was labelled in vivo by intracervical injection of [5-3H]uridine or [32P]phosphate. Hepatic RNA of similar animals was labelled by intraperitoneal administration of [6-14C]orotic acid. Nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were isolated and purified by procedures involving extraction with phenol and repeated precipitation with ethanol. 2. The fraction of pulse-labelled RNA from cerebral nuclei that hybridized to homologous DNA exhibited a wide range of turnover values and was heterogeneous in sucrose density gradients. 3. Base composition of the hybridizable RNA was similar to that of the total pulse-labelled material; both were DNA-like. 4. Pulse-labelled cerebral nuclear RNA hybridized to a greater extent than cytoplasmic RNA for at least a week after administration of labelled precursor. This finding suggested that cerebral nuclei contained a hybridizable component that was not transferred to cytoplasm. 5. The rates of decay of the hybridizable fractions of cerebral nuclei and cytoplasm were faster in the newborn animal than in the adult. Presumably a larger proportion of labile messenger RNA molecules was present in the immature brain. 6. Cerebral nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions from newborn or adult rats, labelled either in vivo for periods varying from 4min. to 7 days or in vitro by exposure to [3H]-dimethyl sulphate, uniformly hybridized more effectively than the corresponding hepatic preparation. These data suggested that a larger proportion of RNA synthesis was oriented towards messenger RNA formation in brain than in liver. PMID:5683505

  18. Transferring Xenogenic Mitochondria Provides Neural Protection Against Ischemic Stress in Ischemic Rat Brains.

    PubMed

    Huang, Po-Jui; Kuo, Chi-Chung; Lee, Hsiu-Chin; Shen, Ching-I; Cheng, Fu-Chou; Wu, Shih-Fang; Chang, Jui-Chih; Pan, Hung-Chuan; Lin, Shinn-Zong; Liu, Chin-San; Su, Hong-Lin

    2016-01-01

    Transferring exogenous mitochondria has therapeutic effects on damaged heart, liver, and lung tissues. Whether this protective effect requires the symbiosis of exogenous mitochondria in host cells remains unknown. Here xenogenic mitochondria derived from a hamster cell line were applied to ischemic rat brains and rat primary cortical neurons. Isolated hamster mitochondria, either through local intracerebral or systemic intra-arterial injection, significantly restored the motor performance of brain-ischemic rats. The brain infarct area and neuronal cell death were both attenuated by the exogenous mitochondria. Although internalized mitochondria could be observed in neurons and astrocytes, the low efficacy of mitochondrial internalization could not completely account for the high rate of rescue of the treated neural cells. We further illustrated that disrupting electron transport or ATPase synthase in mitochondria significantly attenuated the protective effect, suggesting that intact respiratory activity is essential for the mitochondrial potency on neural protection. These results emphasize that nonsymbiotic extracellular mitochondria can provide an effective cell defense against acute injurious ischemic stress in the central nervous system.

  19. Possible alteration of tryptophan metabolism following repeated administration of sertraline in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Nakayama, Kazuhiko; Katsu, Hisatoshi; Ando, Tomomichi; Nakajo, Ryutaro

    2003-01-15

    The levels of tryptophan and the serotonin (5-HT) turnover were examined in various brain regions of rats after single or repeated treatment with the selective 5-HT uptake inhibitor, sertraline. A single administration of sertraline (10mg/kg, i.p.) increased tryptophan and 5-HT levels in all the brain regions investigated. The levels of 5-hydroxyindolacetic acid (5-HIAA) decreased in various brain regions. The 5-HIAA/5-HT ratio as turnover index was significantly decreased by a single administration of sertraline in all the brain regions investigated. Daily treatment with sertraline (10mg/kg) for 21 days did not affect tryptophan and 5-HT levels in various brain regions 1h after last injection. The 5-HT turnover was not changed in any of the brain regions investigated by a repeated administration of sertraline. In conclusion, the data show that the increase in tryptophan levels and the decrease in 5-HT turnover in rat brain are attenuated by repeated treatment of sertraline.

  20. Hydrogen inhalation decreases lung graft injury in brain-dead donor rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Huacheng; Fu, Zhijie; Wei, Yuting; Liu, Jinfeng; Cui, Xiaoguang; Yang, Wanchao; Ding, Wengang; Pan, Peng; Li, Wenzhi

    2013-02-01

    The process of brain death induces acute lung injury in donors and aggravates ischemia-reperfusion injury (IRI) in grafts. Hydrogen, a new anti-oxidant, attenuates IRI in several organ transplant models. We examined whether 2% inhaled hydrogen would show favorable effects on lung grafts from brain-dead donor rats. Brain-dead donor rats inhaled mixed gases with either 50% oxygen and 50% nitrogen or mixed gases with 2% hydrogen, 50% oxygen and 48% nitrogen for 2 hours. The recipients inhaled the same gas as the donors and were euthanized 2 hours after lung transplantation. Hydrogen improved PaO(2)/FIO(2) and PVO(2)/FIO(2) from the arterial and pulmonary venous blood in recipients and decreased the lung injury score in grafts from brain-dead donors. Hydrogen decreased the amount of IL-8 and TNF-α in serum, inhibited the activity of malondialdehyde and myeloperoxidase, and increased the activity of superoxide dismutase in the lung grafts from brain-dead donors. Furthermore, hydrogen decreased the apoptotic index of the cells and inhibited the protein expression of intercellular adhesion molecule-1 and caspase-3 in lung grafts from brain-dead donors. Hydrogen can exert protective effects on lung grafts from brain-dead donors through anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic mechanisms. Copyright © 2013 International Society for Heart and Lung Transplantation. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Combined treatment with progesterone and magnesium sulfate positively affects traumatic brain injury in immature rats.

    PubMed

    Uysal, Nazan; Baykara, Basak; Kiray, Muge; Cetin, Ferihan; Aksu, Ilkay; Dayi, Ayfer; Gurpinar, Tugba; Ozdemir, Durgul; Arda, M Nuri

    2013-01-01

    It is well known that head trauma results in damage in hippocampal and cortical areas of the brain and impairs cognitive functions. The aim of this study is to explore the neuroprotective effect of combination therapy with magnesium sulphate (MgSO4) and progesterone in the 7-days-old rat pups subjected to contusion injury. Progesterone (8 mg/kg) and MgSO4 (150 mg/kg) were injected intraperitoneally immediately after induction of traumatic brain injury. Half of groups were evaluated 24 hours later, the remaining animals 3 weeks after trauma or sham surgery. Anxiety levels were assessed with open field activity and elevated plus maze; learning and memory performance were evaluated with Morris Water maze in postnatal 27 days. Combined therapy with progesterone and magnesium sulfate significantly attenuated trauma-induced neuronal death, increased brain VEGF levels and improved spatial memory deficits that appear later in life. Brain VEGF levels were higher in rats that received combined therapy compared to rats that received either medication alone. Moreover, rats that received combined therapy had reduced hipocampus and prefrontal cortex apoptosis in the acute period. These results demonstrate that combination of drugs with different mechanisms of action may be preferred in the treatment of head trauma.

  2. Orchiectomy attenuates oxidative stress induced by aluminum in rats.

    PubMed

    Contini, María Del Carmen; Millen, Néstor; González, Marcela; Benmelej, Adriana; Fabro, Ana; Mahieu, Stella

    2016-08-01

    The aim of this work was to study whether the increase in antioxidant defenses associated with orchiectomy may account for the reduced susceptibility to aluminum (Al) in male kidney and also to examine whether the reduced antioxidant defenses are associated with androgen levels in orchiectomized (ORX) rats treated with testosterone propionate (TP). Rats were divided into nine groups, namely, intact males (without treatment, treated with sodium lactate, and treated with Al), sham males, ORX males (without treatment, treated with sodium lactate, treated with TP, treated with Al, and treated with TP and Al). Al groups were chronically treated with aluminum lactate for 12 weeks (0.575 mg Al/100 g of body weight, intraperitoneally, three times per week). We reported that ORX rats treated with Al had significantly less lipid peroxidation and an increased level of reduced glutathione (GSH) and GSH/oxidized glutathione ratio in the kidney when compared with intact and TP-treated ORX rats. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase in ORX rats was much greater than in intact or TP-administered ORX rats. Castration reduced the glomerular alterations caused by Al as well as the number of necrotic tubular cells and nuclear abnormalities. However, we observed a slight alteration in brush border, dilation of proximal tubules, mononuclear infiltrates, and interstitial fibrosis. Castrated males treated with TP showed that this intervention cancels the protective effect of the ORX. This finding suggests that androgens contribute to the development of renal alterations and proteinuria in rats treated with Al. Our results showed that ORX rats are protected against the induction of oxidative stress by Al, but the morphological damage to the kidney tissue induced by the cation was only reduced. Male intact rats treated with Al had more severe glomerulosclerosis, tubular damage, and proteinuria than ORX rats. © The Author(s) 2015.

  3. Treatment with dexamethasone and vitamin D3 attenuates neuroinflammatory age-related changes in rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Moore, Michelle; Piazza, Alessia; Nolan, Yvonne; Lynch, Marina A

    2007-10-01

    Among the changes which occur in the brain with age is an increase in hippocampal concentration of proinflammatory cytokines like interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and an increase in IL-1beta-induced signaling. Here we demonstrate that the increase in IL-1beta concentration is accompanied by an increase in expression of IL-1 type I receptor (IL-1RI) and an age-related increase in microglial activation, as shown by increased expression of the cell surface marker, major histocompatibility complex II (MHCII) and increased MHCII staining. The evidence indicates that these age-related changes were abrogated in hippocampus of aged rats treated with dexamethasone and vitamin D3. Similarly, the age-related increases in activation of the stress-activated protein kinase, c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), as well as caspase-3 and PARP were all attenuated in hippocampal tissue prepared from rats that received dexamethasone and vitamin D3. The data indicate that dexamethasone and vitamin D3 ameliorated the age-related increase in IFNgamma and suggest that IFNgamma may be the trigger leading to microglial activation, since it increases MHCII mRNA and IL-1beta release from cultured glia. In parallel with its ability to decrease microglial activation in vivo, we report that treatment of cultured glia with dexamethasone and vitamin D3 blocked the lipopolysaccharide increased MHCII mRNA and IL-1beta concentration, while the IL-1beta-induced increases in activation of JNK and caspase 3 in cultured neurons were also reversed by treatment with dexamethasone and vitamin D3. The data suggest that the antiinflammatory effect of dexamethasone and vitamin D3 derives from their ability to downreguate microglial activation.

  4. β-Lactamase inhibitor, clavulanic acid, attenuates ethanol intake and increases glial glutamate transporters expression in alcohol preferring rats.

    PubMed

    Hakami, Alqassem Y; Sari, Youssef

    2017-09-14

    Studies from our laboratory showed that upregulation of glutamate transporter 1 (GLT-1) and cystine-glutamate exchanger (xCT) expression with ceftriaxone, β-lactam antibiotic, in the brain was associated with attenuation of ethanol consumption. In this study, we tested clavulanic acid, which is another β-lactam compound with negligible antimicrobial activity, on ethanol consumption and expression of GLT-1, xCT and glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST) in male alcohol-preferring (P) rats. Clavulanic acid has the central β-lactam pharmacophore that is critical for the upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression. We found that clavulanic acid, at 5mg/kg (i.p.) dose, significantly attenuated ethanol consumption and ethanol preference in P rats as compared to vehicle-treated group. This effect was associated with a significant increase in water intake in clavulanic acid treated group. Importantly, we found that clavulanic acid increased the expression of GLT-1 and xCT in nucleus accumbens. However, there was no effect of clavulanic acid on GLAST expression in the nucleus accumbens. Clavulanic acid treatment did not upregulate the expression of GLT-1, xCT and GLAST in prefrontal cortex. These findings revealed that clavulanic acid at 20-40 fold lower dose than ceftriaxone can attenuate ethanol consumption, in part through upregulation of GLT-1 and xCT expression in the nucleus accumbens. Thus, we suggest that clavulanic acid might be used as an alternative option to ceftriaxone to attenuate ethanol drinking behavior. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Cholinotoxic effects of aluminum in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gulya, K; Rakonczay, Z; Kása, P

    1990-03-01

    The in vivo and in vitro effects of Al on the cholinergic system of rat brain were studied. The amount of Al accumulated after the chronic, intraperitoneal administration of aluminium gluconate (Al-G) or AlCl3, both at a dose of 1 mg/ml/100 g of body weight, increased in the frontal and parietal cortices, the hippocampus, and the striatum. Significantly decreased choline acetyltransferase activities after chronic Al treatment were measured in the parietal cortex, the hippocampus, and the striatum, but not in the frontal cortex. The acetylcholinesterase activity was not changed significantly in any brain area investigated. Both Al-G and AlCl3 administrations resulted in a general decrease (to 40-70% of the control values) in the specific l-[3H]nicotine binding, involving all brain areas studied. The specific (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding was reduced (to 40-60% of the control values) only after 25 days of Al treatment. Al-G and AlCl3 were equivalent in eliciting these reductions in vitro studies revealed different alterations of the cholinergic system in response to Al treatment. No changes were observed either in choline acetyltransferase activity or in cholinergic receptor bindings. Both Al-G and Al2(SO4)3 treatments, however, exhibited a biphasic effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. At low Al concentrations (10(-8)-10(-6) M), the activity was slightly increased, whereas at higher concentrations (10(-6)-10(-4) M), it was inhibited by a maximum of 25% as compared to the controls. Thus, these cholinotoxic effects are probably due not to a direct interaction between the metal and the cholinergic marker proteins, but rather to a manifestation and consequence of its neurodegenerative effects.

  6. Oxymatrine attenuates diabetes-associated cognitive deficits in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Suo-bin; Jia, Jian-ping

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Oxymatrine (OMT) is the major quinolizidine alkaloid extracted from the root of Sophora flavescens Ait (the Chinese herb Kushen) and exhibits diverse pharmacological actions. In this work we investigated the effects of OMT on diabetes-associated cognitive decline (DACD) in a rat model of diabetes and explored the mechanisms of action. Methods: Male Wistar rats were injected with streptozotocin (65 mg/kg, ip) once to induce diabetes. The rats were then treated with vehicle or OMT (60 or 120 mg/kg per day, ip) for 7 weeks. Memory function was assessed using Morris water maze test. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β and caspase-3 in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus were quantified. Results: The diabetic rats exhibited markedly reduced body weight and increased plasma glucose level. The memory function of the rats assessed using Morris water maze test showed significant reduction in the percentage of time spent in the target quadrant and the number of times crossing the platform, coupled with markedly prolongation of escape latency and mean path length. Moreover, the rats showed oxidative stress (significantly increased MDA, decreased SOD and reduced GSH levels), as well as significant increases of NF-κB p65 unit, TNF-α, IL-1β and caspase-3 levels in the cerebral cortex and hippocampus. Chronic treatment with OMT dose-dependently reversed these behavioral, biochemical and molecular changes in the diabetic rats. However, the swimming speed had no significant difference among the control, diabetic and OMT-treated diabetic rats. Conclusion: Chronic treatment with OMT alleviates diabetes-associated cognitive decline in rats, which is associated with oxidative stress, inflammation and apoptotic cascades. PMID:24442148

  7. HIF-1α inhibition ameliorates neonatal brain injury in a rat pup hypoxic-ischemic model

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Wanqiu; Jadhav, Vikram; Tang, Jiping; Zhang, John H.

    2008-01-01

    Hypoxia-inducible factor-1alpha (HIF-1α) has been considered as a regulator of both prosurvival and prodeath pathways in the nervous system. The present study was designed to elucidate the role of HIF-1α in neonatal hypoxic-ischemic (HI) brain injury. Rice-Vannucci model of neonatal hypoxic-ischemic brain injury was used in seven-day-old rats, by subjecting unilateral carotid artery ligation followed by 2h of hypoxia (8% O2 at 37°C). HIF-1α activity was inhibited by 2-methoxyestradiol (2ME2) and enhanced by dimethyloxalylglycine (DMOG). Results showed that 2ME2 exhibited dose-dependent neuroprotection by decreasing infarct volume and reducing brain edema at 48 h post HI. The neuroprotection was lost when 2ME2 was administered 3 h post HI. HIF-1α upregulation by DMOG increased the permeability of the BBB and brain edema compared with HI group. 2ME2 attenuated the increase in HIF-1α and VEGF 24 h after HI. 2ME2 also had a long-term effect of protecting against the loss of brain tissue. The study showed that the early inhibition of HIF-1α acutely after injury provided neuroprotection after neonatal hypoxia-ischemia which was associated with preservation of BBB integrity, attenuation of brain edema, and neuronal death. PMID:18602008

  8. Brain adaptation to acute hyponatremia in young rats.

    PubMed

    Silver, S M; Schroeder, B M; Bernstein, P; Sterns, R H

    1999-06-01

    Brain swelling after acute hyponatremia in prepubescent rats, in contrast to adults, has recently been associated with an increase in brain sodium and a high mortality that could be prevented by preadministration of testosterone. To reexamine the effect of acute hyponatremia in young brain, we measured brain water and solute content in prepubescent rats after induction of hyponatremia over 4 h with water and arginine vasopressin. An 18% decrease in plasma sodium was associated with a 13% increase in brain water and a decrease in brain sodium and glutamate contents. No animals died. To assess the effect of sex hormones on brain adaptation, prepubescent rats were pretreated with estrogen or testosterone before acute hyponatremia. Brain sodium and potassium contents were significantly reduced in comparison to normonatremia in testosterone-pretreated but not estrogen-pretreated animals. However, there was no difference between estrogen-pretreated and testosterone-pretreated groups in mortality or in brain contents of water, electrolytes, or major organic osmolytes. In conclusion, we found that brain adaptation to acute hyponatremia in prepubescent rats is similar to that observed in adults.

  9. Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Bao, Xuhui; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard; Thompson, B. Gregory; Hua, Ya

    2011-01-01

    Object Hypertension is the main cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH), but the effects of hypertension on ICH-induced brain injury have not been well studied. In this study, we examined ICH-induced brain injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods This two-part study was performed on 12 weeks old male SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. First, rats received an intracaudate injection of 0.3 units collagenase and hematoma sizes were determined at 24 hours. Second, rats were injected with 100-μL autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. Brain edema, neuronal death, ferritin expression, microglia activation, and neurological deficits were examined. Results Hematoma sizes were the same in SHR and WKY rats 24 hours after collagenase injection. SHR had greater neuronal death and neurological deficits after blood injection. ICH also resulted in higher brain ferritin levels and stronger activation of microglia in SHR. However, perihematomal brain edema was same in the SHR and WKY rats. Conclusion Moderate chronic hypertension resulted in more severe ICH-induced neuronal death and neurological deficits, but did not exaggerate hematoma enlargement and perihematomal brain edema in the rat ICH models. PMID:21294617

  10. TIMP-1/MMP-9 Imbalance in Brain Edema in Rats With Fulminant Hepatic Failure1

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Satoshi; Nguyen, Justin H.

    2009-01-01

    Background Fulminant hepatic failure (FHF) is a devastating disease. When coma sets in, brain edema develops, changing FHF into a lethal condition. Liver transplantation is the definitive treatment. However, a third of these patients die as the result of brain edema before a donor becomes available. Tissue inhibitor of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP), or TIMP, and MMP-9 are implicated in ischemic brain edema. We thus hypothesized that an imbalance in TIMP-1/MMP-9 relationship plays a role in the development of increased brain extravasation and edema in FHF. Materials and methods FHF was induced with a single intraperitoneal injection of D-galactosamine (250 mg/kg). Control rats received saline. GM6001, a synthetic MMP inhibitor, was administered (30 mg/kg) every 12 h for 3 doses starting at 12 h after D-galactosamine injection. MMP-9 was assayed with standard gelatin zymography. Brain extravasation, a measurement of the blood–brain barrier permeability, was determined with Evans blue. Brain edema was determined using specific gravity method. Results The active MMP-9 in the systemic circulation was significantly increased in the comatose FHF as compared to the precoma FHF and control animals (6.5 ± 0.7 versus 4.6 ± 0.4 versus 2.6 ± 0.5 pg/µg, respectively; P < 0.05). Conversely, TIMP-1 was steadily decreased in precoma and coma FHF rats by 35% and 45%, respectively. Blocking MMP-9 activity with GM6001 significantly attenuated brain extravasation and edema in rats with FHF. Conclusions Our study strongly supports that the perturbation of decreased TIMP-1 and increased MMP-9 contributes to the pathogenesis of brain edema in FHF. Our findings present a potential therapeutic approach to effectively increase the window of opportunity for life-saving liver transplantation. PMID:16488444

  11. Sodium selenate treatment mitigates reduction of bone volume following traumatic brain injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Brady, R.D.; Grills, B.L.; Romano, T.; Wark, J.D.; O’Brien, T.J.; Shultz, S.R.; McDonald, S.J.

    2016-01-01

    Objectives: Administration of sodium selenate to rats given traumatic brain injury (TBI) attenuates brain damage and improves long-term behavioural outcomes. We have previously provided evidence that TBI causes bone loss in rats, however the effect of sodium selenate treatment on bone quantity following TBI is unknown. Methods: Rats were randomly assigned into sham injury or fluid percussion injury (FPI) groups and administered saline or sodium selenate for 12 weeks post-injury. Femora were analysed using histomorphometry, peripheral quantitative computed tomography (pQCT) and biomechanical testing. Results: Distal metaphyseal trabecular bone volume fraction of FPI-selenate rats was higher than FPI-vehicle rats (41.8%; p<0.01), however, femora from selenate-treated groups were shorter in length (4.3%; p<0.01) and had increased growth plate width (22.1%; p<0.01), indicating that selenate impaired long bone growth. pQCT analysis demonstrated that distal metaphyseal cortical thickness was decreased in TBI rats compared to shams (11.7%; p<0.05), however selenate treatment to TBI animals offset this reduction (p<0.05). At the midshaft we observed no differences in biomechanical measures. Conclusion: These are the first findings to indicate that mitigating TBI-induced neuropathology may have the added benefit of preventing osteoporosis and associated fracture risk following TBI. PMID:27973389

  12. Simvastatin attenuates sepsis-induced blood-brain barrier integrity loss.

    PubMed

    Yang, Chen-Hsien; Kao, Ming-Chan; Shih, Ping-Cheng; Li, Kuang-Yao; Tsai, Pei-Shan; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2015-04-01

    Systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are crucial in mediating blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity loss during sepsis. Simvastatin possess potent anti-inflammation and antioxidation capacity. We sought to elucidate whether an acute bolus of simvastatin could mitigate BBB integrity loss in a rodent model of polymicrobial sepsis. A total of 96 adult male rats (200-250 g) were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), CLP plus simvastatin, sham operation, or sham operation plus simvastatin (n = 24 in each group). After maintaining for 24 h, BBB integrity in the surviving rats was determined. CLP significantly induced BBB integrity loss, as grading of Evans blue staining of the brains, BBB permeability to Evans blue dye, and brain edema levels in rats receiving CLP were significantly higher than those receiving sham operation. In contrast, grading of Evans blue staining (P = 0.020), BBB permeability to Evans blue dye (P = 0.031), and brain edema levels (P = 0.009) in rats receiving CLP plus simvastatin were significantly lower than those receiving CLP alone. Tight junction proteins claudin-3 and claudin-5 in endothelial cells are major structural components of BBB. Our data revealed that concentrations of claudin-3 and claudin-5 in rats receiving CLP were significantly lower than those receiving CLP plus simvastatin (P = 0.010 and 0.007). Immunohistochemistry further revealed significant fragmentation of claudin-3 and claudin-5 in rats receiving CLP. Moreover, levels of claudin-3 and claudin-5 fragmentation in rats receiving CLP plus simvastatin were significantly lower than those receiving CLP. Simvastatin mitigates BBB integrity loss in a rodent model of polymicrobial sepsis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  13. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1993-04-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells.

  14. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  15. Motor intention determines sensory attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds.

    PubMed

    Timm, Jana; SanMiguel, Iria; Keil, Julian; Schröger, Erich; Schönwiesner, Marc

    2014-07-01

    One of the functions of the brain is to predict sensory consequences of our own actions. In auditory processing, self-initiated sounds evoke a smaller brain response than passive sound exposure of the same sound sequence. Previous work suggests that this response attenuation reflects a predictive mechanism to differentiate the sensory consequences of one's own actions from other sensory input, which seems to form the basis for the sense of agency (recognizing oneself as the agent of the movement). This study addresses the question whether attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds can be explained by brain activity involved in movement planning rather than movement execution. We recorded ERPs in response to sounds initiated by button presses. In one condition, participants moved a finger to press the button voluntarily, whereas in another condition, we initiated a similar, but involuntary, finger movement by stimulating the corresponding region of the primary motor cortex with TMS. For involuntary movements, no movement intention (and no feeling of agency) could be formed; thus, no motor plans were available to the forward model. A portion of the brain response evoked by the sounds, the N1-P2 complex, was reduced in amplitude following voluntary, self-initiated movements, but not following movements initiated by motor cortex stimulation. Our findings demonstrate that movement intention and the corresponding feeling of agency determine sensory attenuation of brain responses to self-initiated sounds. The present results support the assumptions of a predictive internal forward model account operating before primary motor cortex activation.

  16. Xenon preconditioning reduces brain damage from neonatal asphyxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daqing; Hossain, Mahmuda; Pettet, Garry K J; Luo, Yan; Lim, Ta; Akimov, Stanislav; Sanders, Robert D; Franks, Nicholas P; Maze, Mervyn

    2006-02-01

    Xenon attenuates on-going neuronal injury in both in vitro and in vivo models of hypoxic-ischaemic injury when administered during and after the insult. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of xenon can be observed when administered before an insult, referred to as 'preconditioning'. In a neuronal-glial cell coculture, preexposure to xenon for 2 h caused a concentration-dependent reduction of lactate dehydrogenase release from cells deprived of oxygen and glucose 24 h later; xenon's preconditioning effect was abolished by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Preconditioning with xenon decreased propidium iodide staining in a hippocampal slice culture model subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. In an in vivo model of neonatal asphyxia involving hypoxic-ischaemic injury to 7-day-old rats, preconditioning with xenon reduced infarction size when assessed 7 days after injury. Furthermore, a sustained improvement in neurologic function was also evident 30 days after injury. Phosphorylated cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-response element binding protein (pCREB) was increased by xenon exposure. Also, the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were upregulated by xenon treatment. These studies provide evidence for xenon's preconditioning effect, which might be caused by a pCREB-regulated synthesis of proteins that promote survival against neuronal injury.

  17. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN
    Cynthia Wolf1,2, Gerald LeBlanc2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Jonathan Furr1, L Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC 27711, 2Dept. Molecular and En...

  18. MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    MASCULINIZATION OF FEMALE RATS BY PRENATAL TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE IS PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY VINCLOZOLIN
    Cynthia Wolf1,2, Gerald LeBlanc2, Andrew Hotchkiss3, Jonathan Furr1, L Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1USEPA, Reproductive Toxicology Division, RTP, NC 27711, 2Dept. Molecular and En...

  19. DIBROMOACETIC ACID ATTENUATES A DIMETHYLDITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE RAT LH SURGE

    EPA Science Inventory

    DIBROMOACETIC ACID ATTENUATES A DITHIOCARBAMATE-INDUCED SUPPRESSION OF THE LH SURGE IN THE RAT. Jerome M. Goldman, Ashley S. Murr, Angela R. Buckelew, W. Keith McElroy and Janet M. Ferrell. Repro. Toxicol. Div., NHEERL, ORD, US EPA, RTP, NC

    At elevated concentrations, the ...

  20. ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE

    Cynthia Wolf1,2 , Joe Ostby1, Jonathan Furr 1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1 US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2 Departmen...

  1. ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE

    EPA Science Inventory

    ANTIANDROGENIC EFFECTS OF VINCLOZOLIN ON MALE RATS ARE PARTIALLY ATTENUATED BY TESTOSTERONE PROPIONATE

    Cynthia Wolf1,2 , Joe Ostby1, Jonathan Furr 1, Gerald A. LeBlanc2, and L. Earl Gray, Jr.1
    1 US Environmental Protection Agency, NHEERL, RTD, RTP, NC 27711, 2 Departmen...

  2. Dimethyl fumarate attenuates cerebral edema formation by protecting the blood-brain barrier integrity.

    PubMed

    Kunze, Reiner; Urrutia, Andrés; Hoffmann, Angelika; Liu, Hui; Helluy, Xavier; Pham, Mirko; Reischl, Stefan; Korff, Thomas; Marti, Hugo H

    2015-04-01

    Brain edema is a hallmark of various neuropathologies, but the underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. We aim to characterize how tissue hypoxia, together with oxidative stress and inflammation, leads to capillary dysfunction and breakdown of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). In a mouse stroke model we show that systemic treatment with dimethyl fumarate (DMF), an antioxidant drug clinically used for psoriasis and multiple sclerosis, significantly prevented edema formation in vivo. Indeed, DMF stabilized the BBB by preventing disruption of interendothelial tight junctions and gap formation, and decreased matrix metalloproteinase activity in brain tissue. In vitro, DMF directly sustained endothelial tight junctions, inhibited inflammatory cytokine expression, and attenuated leukocyte transmigration. We also demonstrate that these effects are mediated via activation of the redox sensitive transcription factor NF-E2 related factor 2 (Nrf2). DMF activated the Nrf2 pathway as shown by up-regulation of several Nrf2 target genes in the brain in vivo, as well as in cerebral endothelial cells and astrocytes in vitro, where DMF also increased protein abundance of nuclear Nrf2. Finally, Nrf2 knockdown in endothelial cells aggravated subcellular delocalization of tight junction proteins during ischemic conditions, and attenuated the protective effect exerted by DMF. Overall, our data suggest that DMF protects from cerebral edema formation during ischemic stroke by targeting interendothelial junctions in an Nrf2-dependent manner, and provide the basis for a completely new approach to treat brain edema.

  3. Berberine attenuates cardiac dysfunction in hyperglycemic and hypercholesterolemic rats.

    PubMed

    Dong, Shi-Fen; Hong, Ying; Liu, Ming; Hao, Ying-Zhi; Yu, Hai-Shi; Liu, Yang; Sun, Jian-Ning

    2011-06-25

    The positive effects of berberine (30 mg/kg/day, i.g. for 6 weeks) on cardiac dysfunction were evaluated in the rat model of hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. Hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia were induced by feeding high-sucrose/fat diet (HSFD) consisting of 20% sucrose, 10% lard, 2.5% cholesterol, 1% bile salt for 12 weeks and streptozotocin (30 mg/kg, i.p.). The plasma sugar, total cholesterol, and triglyceride levels were significantly increased (422, 194 and 82%, respectively) in the HSFD/streptozotocin-treated rats, when compared with control animals receiving normal diet and vehicle. Berberine treatment reduced the plasma sugar and lipid levels by 24-69% in the rat model of hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. Cardiac functions signed as values of cardiac output, left ventricular systolic pressure, the maximum rate of myocardial contraction (+dp/dtmax), left ventricular end diastolic pressure and the maximum rate of myocardial diastole (-dp/dtmax) were injured by 16-55% in the hyperglycemic/hypercholesterolemic rats. Berberine increased cardiac output, left ventricular systolic pressure and +dp/dtmax by 64, 16 and 79%, but decreased left ventricular end diastolic pressure and -dp/dtmax by 121 and 61% in the rats receiving HSFD/streptozotocin, respectively, when compared with the drug-untreated rats of hyperglycemia and hypercholesterolemia. Berberine caused significant increase in cardiac fatty acid transport protein-1 (159%), fatty acid transport proteins (56%), fatty acid beta-oxidase (52%), as well as glucose transporter-4 and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ), but decrease in PPARα mRNA and protein expression in hyperglycemic/hypercholesterolemic rats. These results indicated that berberine exerted protective effects on cardiac dysfunction induced by hyperglycemia/hypercholesterolemia through alleviating cardiac lipid accumulation and promoting glucose transport.

  4. Transcranial Optical Imaging of Cold-Injured Brain in Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shima, Katsuji; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-06-01

    We performed a transcranial optical imaging of a cold-injured brain in a rat. The rat skull was illuminated with a 633 nm HeNe laser, and the distribution of reflected light intensity was imaged with a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An increase in reflected light intensity was observed in the injured area. The analysis of brain tissues perfused with India ink suggested that a reduced blood flow rate in the area of injury enhances reflection.

  5. Hesperidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, prevents acrylonitrile-induced oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    El-Sayed, El-Sayed M; Abo-Salem, Osama M; Abd-Ellah, Mohamed F; Abd-Alla, Gamil M

    2008-01-01

    Acrylonitrile (ACN) is a volatile, toxic liquid used as a monomer in the manufacture of synthetic rubber, styrene plastics, acrylic fiber, and adhesives. ACN is a potent neurotoxin. A role for free radical mediated lipid peroxidation in the toxicity of ACN has been suggested. We examined the ability of hesperidin, an antioxidant flavonoid, to attenuate ACN-induced alterations in lipid peroxidation in rat brains. The daily oral administration of ACN to male albino rats in a dose of 50 mg/kg bwt for a period of 28 days produced a significant elevation in brain lipid peroxides measured as malondialdehyde (MDA) amounting to 107%, accompanied by a marked decrease in brain-reduced glutathione (GSH) content reaching 63%. In addition, ACN administration resulted in significant reductions in the enzymatic antioxidant parameters of brain; superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px), and glutathione-S-transferase (GST) recording 43%, 64%, 52%, and 43%, respectively. On the other hand, pretreatment with hesperidin and its coadministration with ACN once daily in a dose of 200 mg/kg bwt i.p. for 28 days ameliorated ACN-induced alterations in brain lipid peroxidation. These results suggest that hesperidin may have a beneficial role against ACN-induced oxidative stress in the brain; an effect that is mainly attributed to the antioxidant property of hesperidin.

  6. Propentofylline attenuates vincristine-induced peripheral neuropathy in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sweitzer, S M; Pahl, J L; DeLeo, J A

    2006-06-12

    The development of painful peripheral neuropathy is a dose-limiting side effect of numerous cancer chemotherapeutic agents. The present study utilized a rodent model of vincristine-induced neuropathy to determine whether a glial modulating agent, propentofylline, could attenuate vincristine-induced mechanical allodynia. Intravenous vincristine administered on days 1 through 5 and days 8 through 11 produced mechanical allodynia using 2 and 12 g von Frey filaments. Lumbar spinal cord from animals on day 15 expressed mild bilateral microglial and astrocytic activation as compared to saline-treated animals. Daily intraperitoneal propentofylline at 10 mg/kg attenuated mechanical allodynia induced by vincristine administration. In addition, propentofylline was found to decrease spinal microglial and astrocytic activation on day 15. These data suggest that central glial cells may play an important role in the development of painful neuropathy following vincristine administration.

  7. Topical ethosomal capsaicin attenuates edema and nociception in arthritic rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar Sarwa, Khomendra; Rudrapal, Mithun; Mazumder, Bhaskar

    2015-12-01

    In this study, topical ethosomal formulation of capsaicin was prepared and evaluated for bio-efficacy in arthritic rats. Physical and biological characterizations of prepared capsaicin-loaded nano vesicular systems were also carried out. Ethosomal capsaicin showed significant reduction of rat paw edema along with promising antinociceptive action. The topical antiarthritic efficacy of prepared formulation of capsaicin was found more than that of Thermagel, a marketed gel of capsaicin. From toxicological study, no predictable signs of toxicity such as skin irritation (of experimental rats) were observed. Based on this finding, ethosomal capsaicin could be proposed as an effective as well as a safe topical delivery system for the long-term treatment of arthritis and associated inflammo-musculoskeletal disorders. Such exciting result would eventually enlighten the analgesic and anti-inflammatory potential of capsaicin for topical remedy.

  8. Ibuprofen attenuates nephropathy in streptozotocin‑induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yao-Wu; Zhu, Xia; Cheng, Ya-Qin; Lu, Qian; Zhang, Fan; Guo, Hao; Yin, Xiao-Xing

    2016-06-01

    Ibuprofen, a commonly administered nonsteroidal anti‑inflammatory therapeutic agent, is also a partial agonist of peroxisome proliferator‑activated receptor γ (PPARγ). The present study investigated the effects of ibuprofen on type 1 diabetic nephropathy (DN) in rats, and the potential mechanisms associated with the activation of PPARγ. Diabetic rats were induced through a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin before oral treatment with ibuprofen or pioglitazone for 8 weeks. The 24‑h urine collection was performed for measurement of total protein content. The kidney was fixed in 10% formalin for periodic acid‑Schiff and Masson's trichrome staining. Blood and residual kidney tissue samples were collected to measure the associated biochemical parameters. Chronic ibuprofen treatment decreased urinary protein excretion, blood urea nitrogen, glomerular basement membrane thickening and renal fibrosis, which were accompanied by increases in PPARγ protein expression, glutathione (GSH) level, and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity, decreases in cyclooxygenase 2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase protein expressions, as well as a decreased interleukin 1β (IL‑1β) level in the renal cortex of DN rats. Furthermore, the reduced IL‑1β level, increased GSH quantities and stronger SOD activity in the rat serum were evaluated in ibuprofen‑treated diabetic rats and were compared with untreated diabetic rats. Regarding GSH and IL‑1β levels, ibuprofen was identified to be superior to the positive control, pioglitazone, while levels of the other indices were identified to be similar. Thus, ibuprofen was observed to prevent the development of DN, caused by type 1 diabetes, by anti‑inflammatory and anti‑oxidative action, potentially via PPARγ activation.

  9. Simvastatin attenuates chromium-induced nephrotoxicity in rats

    PubMed Central

    Goodarzi, Zahra; Karami, Esmaeil; Ahmadizadeh, Massumeh

    2017-01-01

    Background Hexavalent Chromium (Cr (VI)) compounds are extremely toxic and have been demonstrated to induce nephrotoxicity associated with oxidative stress in humans and animals. The wide environmental distribution of these agents lead to an increase interest of preventive effects of its adverse effects. Objectives The propose of the present study was to determine the potential protective effects of simvastatin (SIMV) on Cr (VI)-induced nephrotoxicity in rat. Materials and Methods Forty-eight adult male Wistar rats (180-220 g BW) were randomly assigned to eight groups (n = 6). Group one received SIMV 20 mg/kg/day. Group two was given vehicle only. Groups three, five and seven received intraperitoneally (i.p) sodium dichromate (Cr (VI)) at doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg body weight. Groups four, six and eight pretreated with the 20 mg/kg SIMV 30 minutes to prior administration of Cr (VI) at doses of 8, 12 and 16 mg/kg, respectively. The experiment repeated for eight consecutive days. Twenty-four hours after the last administration, animals were killed with overdose of sodium pentobarbital. Kidney tissues were excised for measuring malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH) and histopathological examination. Results Chromium induced a dose dependent elevation of MDA and reduction of GSH levels. Histopathological manifestations were observed in Cr (VI)-treated rats. SIMV administration restored Cr (VI) produced biochemical and morphological changes in rat kidney. SIMV decreased MDA values and increased GSH levels in Cr (VI)-treated rats. SIMV clearly reversed the microscopic damage, demonstrating its protective effects against Cr (VI)-induced kidney injury. Conclusions This observation suggests that SIMV may have a protective effect against Cr (VI)-induced oxidative stress in rat kidney. PMID:28042547

  10. Restoring Spinal Noradrenergic Inhibitory Tone Attenuates Pain Hypersensitivity in a Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Bing; Chen, Li-Hua

    2016-01-01

    In the present study, we investigated whether restoring descending noradrenergic inhibitory tone can attenuate pain in a PD rat model, which was established by stereotaxic infusion of 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) into the bilateral striatum (CPu). PD rats developed thermal and mechanical hypersensitivity at the 4th week after surgery. HPLC analysis showed that NE content, but not dopamine or 5-HT, significantly decreased in lumbar spinal cord in PD rats. Additional noradrenergic depletion by injection of N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP-4) aggravated pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. At the 5th week after injection of 6-OHDA, systemic treatment with pharmacological norepinephrine (NE) precursor droxidopa (L-DOPS) or α2 adrenoceptor agonist clonidine significantly attenuated thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Furthermore, application of norepinephrine (NE) and 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) reuptake inhibitors duloxetine, but not 5-HT selective reuptake inhibitors sertraline, significantly inhibited thermal and mechanical pain hypersensitivity in PD rats. Systemic administration of Madopar (L-DOPA) or the D2/D3 agonist pramipexole slightly inhibited the thermal, but not mechanical, hypersensitivity in PD rats. Thus, our study revealed that impairment of descending noradrenergic system may play a key role in PD-associated pain and restoring spinal noradrenergic inhibitory tone may serve as a novel strategy to manage PD-associated pain. PMID:27747105

  11. Acute and chronic tianeptine treatments attenuate ethanol withdrawal syndrome in rats.

    PubMed

    Uzbay, Tayfun; Kayir, Hakan; Celik, Turgay; Yüksel, Nevzat

    2006-05-01

    Effects of acute and chronic tianeptine treatments on ethanol withdrawal syndrome were investigated in rats. Ethanol (7.2% v/v) was given to adult male Wistar rats by a liquid diet for 30 days. Acute or chronic (twice daily) tianeptine (5, 10 and 20 mg/kg) and saline were administered to rats intraperitoneally. Acute and last chronic tianeptine injections and saline were done 30 min before ethanol withdrawal testing. After 2nd, 4th and 6th hours of ethanol withdrawal, rats were observed for 5 min, and withdrawal signs which included locomotor hyperactivity, agitation, tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behavior and audiogenic seizures were recorded or rated. Locomotor activity in naive (no ethanol-dependent rats) was also tested after acute tianeptine treatments. Acute but not chronic tianeptine treatment attenuated locomotor hyperactivity and agitation in ethanol-dependent rats. Both acute and chronic tianeptine treatment produced some significant inhibitory effects on tremor, wet dog shakes, stereotyped behaviors and audiogenic seizures during the ethanol withdrawal. Our results suggest that acute or chronic tianeptine treatment attenuates ethanol withdrawal syndrome in ethanol-dependent rats and this drug may be useful for treatment of ethanol-type dependence.

  12. Seeding of recipient-originated epithelial cells attenuates epithelial to mesenchymal transition in rat tracheal allotransplantation.

    PubMed

    Huang, Xun; Yan, Xiaolong; Zhang, Zhipei; Li, Xiaofei

    2015-06-01

    The specific role and mechanism of epithelium in the progression of obliterative airway disease (OAD) after tracheal allotransplantation remain poorly understood. In this study, we used rat heterotopic tracheal transplantation to investigate the mechanism of epithelial cell seeding during the process of OAD. Prospective, basic science. Research laboratory. In total, 120 Sprague Dawley (SD) rats and 90 Wistar rats were used. Tracheas from SD rats were implanted into SD rats (syngeneic, n = 30) or Wistar rats (allogeneic, n = 30), and SD rat tracheas (seeded with Wistar rat-derived epithelial cells 6 days after transplantation) were transplanted into Wistar rats (seeded allogeneic, n = 30). Grafts were harvested at 7, 14, or 30 days after transplantation for histologic, quantitative reverse transcriptional polymerase chain reaction or Western blot analyses. Syngrafts retained normal histologic structures, while the corresponding allografts demonstrated less ciliated epithelia and more lumenal occlusion. Seeding of epithelial cells ameliorated the histologic changes, reduced the expression of epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT)-related transcriptional factors and mesenchymal markers, and dampened the expression of transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1) and phosphorylation of smad3. Seeding of recipient epithelial cells inhibits the progression of OAD by attenuating EMT via TGF-β-Smad signaling in rat heterotopic tracheal allografts. Clinically, the injection of recipient-originated epithelial cells might provide new insights into the treatment for OAD after tracheal allotransplantation. © American Academy of Otolaryngology—Head and Neck Surgery Foundation 2015.

  13. Effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam on neurotransmitters in brain regions after microsphere embolism in rats

    PubMed Central

    Takeo, Satoshi; Hayashi, Hideki; Miyake, Keiko; Takagi, Kaori; Tadokoro, Mina; Takagi, Norio; Oshikawa, Sayuri

    1997-01-01

    The effects of delayed treatment with nebracetam, a novel nootropic drug, on neurotransmitters of brain regions were examined in rats with microsphere embolism-induced cerebral ischaemia. Cerebral ischaemia was induced by administration of 900 microspheres (48 μm) into the internal carotid artery. The rats with stroke-like symptoms were treated p.o. with 30 mg kg−1 nebracetam twice daily. The levels of acetylcholine, dopamine, noradrenaline, 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and their metabolites in the cerebral cortex, striatum and hippocampus of animals with microsphere embolism were determined by high performance liquid chromatography (h.p.l.c.) on the 3rd and 7th days after the operation. Although the microsphere embolism induced significant changes in most of the neurotransmitters and some of their metabolites in the brain regions, the delayed treatment with nebracetam partially restored only the hippocampal 5-HT and the striatal dopamine metabolite contents on the 3rd day. The hippocampal in vivo 5-HT synthesis, but not the striatal dopamine synthesis, was attenuated in rats with microsphere embolism on the 3rd day, but was restored by treatment with nebracetam. In vivo striatal dopamine turnover rate of the rats with microsphere embolism was inhibited on the 3rd day irrespective of treatment with nebracetam. The present study provides evidence for a possible action of nebracetam on 5-HT metabolism in the ischaemic brain. PMID:9179389

  14. Testosterone attenuates and the selective estrogen receptor modulator, raloxifene, potentiates amphetamine-induced locomotion in male rats.

    PubMed

    Purves-Tyson, Tertia D; Boerrigter, Danny; Allen, Katherine; Zavitsanou, Katerina; Karl, Tim; Djunaidi, Vanezha; Double, Kay L; Desai, Reena; Handelsman, David J; Weickert, Cynthia Shannon

    2015-04-01

    Although sex steroids are known to modulate brain dopamine, it is still unclear how testosterone modifies locomotor behaviour controlled, at least in part, by striatal dopamine in adolescent males. Our previous work suggests that increasing testosterone during adolescence may bias midbrain neurons to synthesise more dopamine. We hypothesised that baseline and amphetamine-induced locomotion would differ in adult males depending on testosterone exposure during adolescence. We hypothesised that concomitant stimulation of estrogen receptor signaling, through a selective estrogen receptor modulator (SERM), raloxifene, can counter testosterone effects on locomotion. Male Sprague-Dawley rats at postnatal day 45 were gonadectomised (G) or sham-operated (S) prior to the typical adolescent testosterone increase. Gonadectomised rats were either given testosterone replacement (T) or blank implants (B) for six weeks and sham-operated (i.e. intact or endogenous testosterone group) were given blank implants. Subgroups of sham-operated, gonadectomised and gonadectomised/testosterone-replaced rats were treated with raloxifene (R, 5mg/kg) or vehicle (V), daily for the final four weeks. There were six groups (SBV, GBV, GTV, SBR, GBR, GTR). Saline and amphetamine-induced (1.25mg/kg) locomotion in the open field was measured at PND85. Gonadectomy increased amphetamine-induced locomotion compared to rats with endogenous or with exogenous testosterone. Raloxifene increased amphetamine-induced locomotion in rats with either endogenous or exogenous testosterone. Amphetamine-induced locomotion was negatively correlated with testosterone and this relationship was abolished by raloxifene. Lack of testosterone during adolescence potentiates and testosterone exposure during adolescence attenuates amphetamine-induced locomotion. Treatment with raloxifene appears to potentiate amphetamine-induced locomotion and to have an opposite effect to that of testosterone in male rats.

  15. Acupuncture Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behavior by Normalizing Amygdaloid Catecholamines during Ethanol Withdrawal in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Zheng Lin; Zhao, Guang Wen; Li, Hou Zhong; Yang, Xu Dong; Wu, Yi Yan; Lin, Feng; Guan, Li Xin; Zhai, Feng Guo; Liu, Jia Qi; Yang, Chae Ha; Kim, Sang Chan; Kim, Kee Won; Zhao, Rong Jie

    2011-01-01

    Previously, we demonstrated acupuncture at acupoint HT7 (Shen-Men) attenuated ethanol withdrawal syndrome by normalizing the dopamine release in nucleus accumbens shell. In the present study, we investigated the effect of acupuncture on anxiety-like behavior in rats and its relevant mechanism by studying neuro-endocrine parameters during ethanol withdrawal. Rats were treated with 3 g kg−1day−1 of ethanol (20%, w/v) or saline by intraperitoneal injections for 28 days. The rats undergoing ethanol withdrawal exhibited anxiety-like behavior 72 h after the last dose of ethanol characterized by the decrease of time spent in the open arms of the elevated plus maze compared with the saline-treated rats (P < .05). Radioimmunoassay exhibited there were notably increased concentrations of plasma corticosterone in ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .05). Additionally, high performance liquid chromatography analysis also showed the levels of norepinephrine and 3-methoxy-4-hydroxy-phenylglycol were markedly increased while the levels of dopamine and 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid were significantly decreased in the central nucleus of the amygdala of ethanol-withdrawn rats compared with saline-treated rats (P < .01). Acupuncture groups were treated with acupuncture at acupoint HT7 or PC6 (Nei-Guan). Acupuncture at HT7 but not PC6 greatly attenuated the anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal as evidenced by significant increases in the percentage of time spent in open arms (P < .05). In the meantime, acupuncture at HT7 also markedly inhibited the alterations of neuro-endocrine parameters induced by ethanol withdrawal (P < .05). These results suggest that acupuncture may attenuate anxiety-like behavior during ethanol withdrawal through regulation of neuro-endocrine system. PMID:21869897

  16. Bupropion Attenuates Methamphetamine Self-Administration in Adult Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Reichel, Carmela M.; Murray, Jennifer E.; Grant, Kathleen M.; Bevins, Rick A.

    2010-01-01

    Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule. A separate group of rats was trained to press a lever for sucrose. Once responding stabilized, rats were pretreated with bupropion (0, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg IP) 5 min before chamber placement in a unique testing order. Following acute testing, rats were then repeatedly pretreated with 30 and 60 mg/kg bupropion. Acute treatments of bupropion dose dependently reduced drug intake for 0.025 to 0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine; sucrose deliveries were only reduced with the high bupropion dose. Repeated exposure to 60 mg/kg bupropion before the session resulted in a consistent decrease in methamphetamine intake (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and sucrose deliveries. Considered together, this pattern of findings demonstrates that bupropion decreases responding for methamphetamine, but the effects are only somewhat specific. PMID:19010609

  17. Bupropion attenuates methamphetamine self-administration in adult male rats.

    PubMed

    Reichel, Carmela M; Murray, Jennifer E; Grant, Kathleen M; Bevins, Rick A

    2009-02-01

    Bupropion is a promising candidate medication for methamphetamine use disorder. As such, we used a preclinical model of drug-taking to determine the effects of bupropion on the reinforcing effects of methamphetamine (0.025, 0.05 or 0.1 mg/kg/infusion). Specificity was determined by investigating the effects of bupropion on responding maintained by sucrose. In the self-administration study, rats were surgically prepared with indwelling jugular catheters and trained to self-administer methamphetamine under an FR5 schedule. A separate group of rats was trained to press a lever for sucrose. Once responding stabilized, rats were pretreated with bupropion (0, 10, 30 and 60 mg/kg i.p.) 5 min before chamber placement in a unique testing order. Following acute testing, rats were then repeatedly pretreated with 30 and 60 mg/kg bupropion. Acute treatments of bupropion dose dependently reduced drug intake for 0.025-0.1 mg/kg methamphetamine; sucrose deliveries were only reduced with the high bupropion dose. Repeated exposure to 60 mg/kg bupropion before the session resulted in a consistent decrease in methamphetamine intake (0.05 and 0.1 mg/kg) and sucrose deliveries. Considered together, this pattern of findings demonstrates that bupropion decreases responding for methamphetamine, but the effects are only somewhat specific.

  18. Anandamide attenuates haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements in rats.

    PubMed

    Röpke, Jivago; Busanello, Alcindo; Leal, Caroline Queiroz; de Moraes Reis, Elizete; de Freitas, Catiuscia Molz; Villarinho, Jardel Gomes; Figueira, Fernanda Hernandes; Mello, Carlos Fernando; Ferreira, Juliano; Fachinetto, Roselei

    2014-10-03

    Antipsychotics may cause tardive dyskinesia in humans and orofacial dyskinesia in rodents. Although the dopaminergic system has been implicated in these movement disorders, which involve the basal ganglia, their underlying pathomechanisms remain unclear. CB1 cannabinoid receptors are highly expressed in the basal ganglia, and a potential role for endocannabinoids in the control of basal ganglia-related movement disorders has been proposed. Therefore, this study investigated whether CB1 receptors are involved in haloperidol-induced orofacial dyskinesia in rats. Adult male rats were treated for four weeks with haloperidol decanoate (38mg/kg, intramuscularly - i.m.). The effect of anandamide (6nmol, intracerebroventricularly - i.c.v.) and/or the CB1 receptor antagonist SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) on haloperidol-induced vacuous chewing movements (VCMs) was assessed 28days after the start of the haloperidol treatment. Anandamide reversed haloperidol-induced VCMs; SR141716A (30μg, i.c.v.) did not alter haloperidol-induced VCM per se but prevented the effect of anandamide on VCM in rats. These results suggest that CB1 receptors may prevent haloperidol-induced VCMs in rats, implicating CB1 receptor-mediated cannabinoid signaling in orofacial dyskinesia. Copyright © 2014. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  19. Effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart.

    PubMed

    Kansal, Sunil Kumar; Jyoti, Uma; Sharma, Samridhi; Kaura, Arun; Deshmukh, Rahul; Goyal, Sandeep

    2015-06-01

    Hyperlipidemia is regarded as independent risk factor in the development of ischemic heart disease, and it can increase the myocardial susceptibility to ischemia-/reperfusion (I/R)-induced injury. Hyperlipidemia attenuates the cardioprotective response of ischemic preconditioning (IPC). The present study investigated the effect of zinc supplements in the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat hearts. Hyperlipidemia was induced in rat by feeding high-fat diet (HFD) for 6 weeks then the serum lipid profile was observed. In experiment, the isolated Langendorff rat heart preparation was subjected to 4 cycles of ischemic preconditioning (IPC), then 30 min of ischemia followed by 120 min of reperfusion. Myocardial infarct size was elaborated morphologically by triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining and biochemically by lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) and creatine kinase-MB (CK-MB) release from coronary effluent and left ventricular collagen content. However, the effect of zinc supplement, i.e., zinc pyrithione (10 μM) perfused during reperfusion for 120 min, significantly abrogated the attenuated cardioprotective effect of ischemic preconditioning in hyperlipidemic rat heart whereas administration of chelator of this zinc ionophore, i.e., N,N,N',N'-tetrakis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethylene diamine (TPEN; 10 μM), perfused during reperfusion 2 min before the perfusion of zinc pyrithione abrogated the cardioprotective effect of zinc supplement during experiment in hyperlipidemic rat heart. Thus, the administration of zinc supplements limits the infarct size, LDH, and CK-MB and enhanced the collagen level which suggests that the attenuated cardioprotective effect of IPC in hyperlipidemic rat is due to zinc loss during reperfusion caused by ischemia/reperfusion.

  20. Transcranial Photoacoustic Measurements of Cold-Injured Brains in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Sato, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shima, Katsuji; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-09-01

    We performed transcranial photoacoustic measurements of cold-injured brains in rats. Before inducing injury, a signal peak was observed at two locations corresponding to the surfaces of the skull and brain, while after injury, a third peak appeared at a location corresponding to the back surface of the skull; the third peak was found to be caused by subdural hematoma. The signal peak for the brain surface shifted to a deeper region with elapse of time after injury, indicating deformation of the brain. These findings suggest that small hemorrhage and morphological change of the brain can be transcranially detected by photoacoustic measurement.

  1. Blast traumatic brain injury in the rat using a blast overpressure model.

    PubMed

    Yarnell, Angela M; Shaughness, Michael C; Barry, Erin S; Ahlers, Stephen T; McCarron, Richard M; Grunberg, Neil E

    2013-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a serious health concern for civilians and military populations, and blast-induced TBI (bTBI) has become an increasing problem for military personnel over the past 10 years. To understand the biological and psychological effects of blast-induced injuries and to examine potential interventions that may help to prevent, attenuate, and treat effects of bTBI, it is valuable to conduct controlled animal experiments. This unit discusses available paradigms to model traumatic brain injury in animals, with an emphasis on the relevance of these various models to study blast-induced traumatic brain injury (bTBI). This paper describes the detailed methods of a blast overpressure (BOP) paradigm that has been used to conduct experiments with rats to model blast exposure. This particular paradigm models the pressure wave created by explosions, including improvised explosive devices (IEDs).

  2. Dai-Kenchu-To, a Herbal Medicine, Attenuates Colorectal Distention-induced Visceromotor Responses in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakaya, Kumi; Nagura, Yohko; Hasegawa, Ryoko; Ito, Hitomi; Fukudo, Shin

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Dai-kenchu-to (DKT), a traditional Japanese herbal medicine, is known to increase gastrointestinal motility and improve ileal function. We tested our hypotheses that (1) pretreatment with DKT would block the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor response in rats, and (2) pretreatment with DKT would attenuate colorectal distention-induced adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) release and anxiety-related behavior. Methods Rats were pretreated with vehicle or DKT (300 mg/kg/5 mL, per os). Visceromotor responses were analyzed using electromyography in response to colorectal distention (10, 20, 40, 60, and 80 mmHg for 20 seconds at 3-minutes intervals). Anxiety-related behavior was measured during exposure to an elevated-plus maze after colorectal distention. Plasma ACTH and serum corticosterone levels were measured after exposure to the elevated-plus maze. Results Colorectal distention produced robust contractions of the abdominal musculature, graded according to stimulus intensity, in vehicle-treated rats. At 40, 60, and 80 mmHg of colorectal distention, the visceromotor responses of DKT-treated rats was significantly lower than that of vehicle-treated rats. At 80 mmHg, the amplitude was suppressed to approximately one-third in DKT-treated rats, compared with that in vehicle-treated rats. Smooth muscle compliance and the velocity of accommodation to 60 mmHg of stretching did not significantly differ between the vehicle-treated and DKT-treated rats. Similarly, the DKT did not influence colorectal distention-induced ACTH release, corticosterone levels, or anxiety-related behavior in rats. Conclusions Our results suggest that DKT attenuates the colorectal distention-induced visceromotor responses, without increasing smooth muscle compliance, ACTH release or anxiety-related behavior in rats. PMID:27095743

  3. Intravoxel distribution of DWI decay rates reveals C6 glioma invasion in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bennett, Kevin M; Hyde, James S; Rand, Scott D; Bennett, Raoqiong; Krouwer, Hendrikus G J; Rebro, Kelly J; Schmainda, Kathleen M

    2004-11-01

    The hypothesis was tested that the intravoxel distribution of water diffusion rates, as measured with a stretched-exponential model of diffusion-weighted imaging (DWI), is a marker of brain tumor invasion. Eight rats underwent intracerebral inoculation of C6 glioma cells. In three rats, cells were labeled with a fluorescent dye for microscopy. One rat was inoculated with a saline solution, and five more rats were imaged without inoculation as controls. Five healthy uninoculated rats were also imaged. DWI was performed 14-15 days after inoculation, with diffusion-weighting factor b = 500 to 6500 sec/mm2, and the resulting signal attenuation was fitted with the stretched-exponential model. The heterogeneity index values were significantly lower (P < 0.05) in the peritumor ROI than in normal gray matter and significantly higher than in normal white matter. The distributed diffusion coefficient values were significantly lower than in normal white matter or normal gray matter. Fluorescence microscopy confirmed the presence of tumors in the peritumor region that could be histologically distinguished from the main tumor mass. There was no change in proton density or T2-weighted images in the peritumor region, making vasogenic edema unlikely as a source of contrast. It is therefore thought that the heterogeneity parameter alpha is a marker of brain tumor invasion. (c) 2004 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  4. Apelin-13 attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced damage by suppressing autophagy.

    PubMed

    Bao, Hai-Jun; Zhang, Lin; Han, Wen-Can; Dai, Ding-Kun

    2015-01-01

    The adipocytokine apelin is a peptide, Apelin and its receptor are abundantly expressed in the nervous and cardiovascular systems. Previous studies had found apelin-13 reduces brain injuries and postischemic cerebral edema through blocking programmed cell death, Apelin-13 is also able to inhibit glucose deprivation induced cardiomyocyte autophagy in a concentration dependent fashion. To observe the effect of Apelin-13 on the brain injury induced by traumatic brain injury (TBI), and explore the effect of Apelin-13 on autophagy in TBI, We performed The neurological test, and the numbers of TBI-induced neural cell death were also counted by propidium iodide labeling. At last, the autophagy associated proteins LC3, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, p62 were also assessed with western-blotting. Compared with saline vehicle groups, the neural cell death, lesion volume, and neural dysfunction were attenuated by apelin-13 after TBI. In additionally, Apelin-13 also reversed TBI induced downregulation of LC3, Beclin-1, Bcl-2, p62 expression, compared with saline vehicle groups, at 24 and 48 h post TBI. Apelin-13 attenuates TBI induced brain damage by suppressing autophagy. All these results revealed that Apelin-13 suppressed autophagy. The autophagy may be involved in the mechanism of Apelin-13 rescue the subsequent damaged neuron in TBI.

  5. Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain.

    PubMed

    Clayton, Erik H; Genin, Guy M; Bayly, Philip V

    2012-11-07

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by acceleration of the skull or exposure to explosive blast, but the processes by which mechanical loads lead to neurological injury remain poorly understood. We adapted motion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging methods to measure the motion of the human brain in vivo as the skull was exposed to harmonic pressure excitation (45, 60 and 80 Hz). We analysed displacement fields to quantify the transmission, attenuation and reflection of distortional (shear) waves as well as viscoelastic material properties. Results suggest that internal membranes, such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, play a key role in reflecting and focusing shear waves within the brain. The skull acts as a low-pass filter over the range of frequencies studied. Transmissibility of pressure waves through the skull decreases and shear wave attenuation increases with increasing frequency. The skull and brain function mechanically as an integral structure that insulates internal anatomic features; these results are valuable for building and validating mathematical models of this complex and important structural system.

  6. Fuel not fun: Reinterpreting attenuated brain responses to reward in obesity.

    PubMed

    Kroemer, Nils B; Small, Dana M

    2016-08-01

    There is a well-established literature linking obesity to altered dopamine signaling and brain response to food-related stimuli. Neuroimaging studies frequently report enhanced responses in dopaminergic regions during food anticipation and decreased responses during reward receipt. This has been interpreted as reflecting anticipatory "reward surfeit", and consummatory "reward deficiency". In particular, attenuated response in the dorsal striatum to primary food rewards is proposed to reflect anhedonia, which leads to overeating in an attempt to compensate for the reward deficit. In this paper, we propose an alternative view. We consider brain response to food-related stimuli in a reinforcement-learning framework, which can be employed to separate the contributions of reward sensitivity and reward-related learning that are typically entangled in the brain response to reward. Consequently, we posit that decreased striatal responses to milkshake receipt reflect reduced reward-related learning rather than reward deficiency or anhedonia because reduced reward sensitivity would translate uniformly into reduced anticipatory and consummatory responses to reward. By re-conceptualizing reward deficiency as a shift in learning about subjective value of rewards, we attempt to reconcile neuroimaging findings with the putative role of dopamine in effort, energy expenditure and exploration and suggest that attenuated brain responses to energy dense foods reflect the "fuel", not the fun entailed by the reward. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Transmission, attenuation and reflection of shear waves in the human brain

    PubMed Central

    Clayton, Erik H.; Genin, Guy M.; Bayly, Philip V.

    2012-01-01

    Traumatic brain injuries (TBIs) are caused by acceleration of the skull or exposure to explosive blast, but the processes by which mechanical loads lead to neurological injury remain poorly understood. We adapted motion-sensitive magnetic resonance imaging methods to measure the motion of the human brain in vivo as the skull was exposed to harmonic pressure excitation (45, 60 and 80 Hz). We analysed displacement fields to quantify the transmission, attenuation and reflection of distortional (shear) waves as well as viscoelastic material properties. Results suggest that internal membranes, such as the falx cerebri and the tentorium cerebelli, play a key role in reflecting and focusing shear waves within the brain. The skull acts as a low-pass filter over the range of frequencies studied. Transmissibility of pressure waves through the skull decreases and shear wave attenuation increases with increasing frequency. The skull and brain function mechanically as an integral structure that insulates internal anatomic features; these results are valuable for building and validating mathematical models of this complex and important structural system. PMID:22675163

  8. Inhomogeneity in optical properties of rat brain: a study for LLLT dosimetry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Yoshimura, Tania M.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Magalhães, Ana C.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.; Ribeiro, Martha S.

    2013-03-01

    Over the last few years, low-level light therapy (LLLT) has shown an incredible suitability for a wide range of applications for central nervous system (CNS) related diseases. In this therapeutic modality light dosimetry is extremely critical so the study of light propagation through the CNS organs is of great importance. To better understand how light intensity is delivered to the most relevant neural sites we evaluated optical transmission through slices of rat brain point by point. We experimented red (λ = 660 nm) and near infrared (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light analyzing the light penetration and distribution in the whole brain. A fresh Wistar rat (Rattus novergicus) brain was cut in sagittal slices and illuminated with a broad light beam. A high-resolution digital camera was employed to acquire data of transmitted light. Spatial profiles of the light transmitted through the sample were obtained from the images. Peaks and valleys in the profiles show sites where light was less or more attenuated. The peak intensities provide information about total attenuation and the peak widths are correlated to the scattering coefficient at that individual portion of the sample. The outcomes of this study provide remarkable information for LLLT dose-dependent studies involving CNS and highlight the importance of LLLT dosimetry in CNS organs for large range of applications in animal and human diseases.

  9. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed Central

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-01-01

    Aim: The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. Materials and Methods: A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Results: Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa’s concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms’ numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats

  10. Can Urtica dioica supplementation attenuate mercury intoxication in Wistar rats?

    PubMed

    Siouda, Wafa; Abdennour, Cherif

    2015-12-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate the possible protective role of nettle Urtica dioica (UD) against Hg-induced toxicity. A total of 28 rats were equally divided into four groups: the control, the Hg (0.8 g HgCl2/kg in the diet), the UD (1.5 ml UD/rat by gavage), and the Hg+UD group. HgCl2 was daily dissolved in distilled water and immediately mixed with the standard diet. A solution of daily infused fresh nettle leaves in boiling water (16 g in 25 ml) was obtained and then it was administrated by gavage. Biochemical and reproductive markers, in addition to glutathione (GSH) level (liver, kidney and testis) and the histological profiles (testis and epididymis) were evaluated after 1 month exposure. Compared to the control, the levels of glucose, triglycerides, urea, creatinine, alanine aminotransferase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), and alkaline phosphatase (ALP) were significantly raised in the Hg group. In the latter group, the concentrations of Mg, Fe, and Ca were significantly decreased. Besides, Hg+UD group has only showed raised AST activity and reduced Mg level. Concerning the fertility markers, Hg has provoked a significant decrease in the spermatozoa's concentration and motility and in plasma testosterone level as well. Furthermore, hepatic, renal and testicular GSH concentrations have declined significantly in the Hg treated rat compared to the control. A remarkable enhancement of the GSH level was observed in all organs of the UD group. The histological examinations of the Hg group have revealed marked testicular degeneration of the most seminiferous tubules, and showed few sperms in the lumen of epididymis ducts. However, the Hg+UD rats have demonstrated an improved histological structure with the presence of important numbers of sperms in the lumen. In addition, a clear stabilization of organized seminiferous tubules and an increased sperms' numbers were noted in the UD supplemented rats. Nettle leaves have not only played a clear

  11. Chronic sleep restriction elevates brain interleukin-1 beta and tumor necrosis factor-alpha and attenuates brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression.

    PubMed

    Zielinski, Mark R; Kim, Youngsoo; Karpova, Svetlana A; McCarley, Robert W; Strecker, Robert E; Gerashchenko, Dmitry

    2014-09-19

    Acute sleep loss increases pro-inflammatory and synaptic plasticity-related molecules in the brain, including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF). These molecules enhance non-rapid eye movement sleep slow wave activity (SWA), also known as electroencephalogram delta power, and modulate neurocognitive performance. Evidence suggests that chronic sleep restriction (CSR), a condition prevalent in today's society, does not elicit the enhanced SWA that is seen after acute sleep loss, although it cumulatively impairs neurocognitive functioning. Rats were continuously sleep deprived for 18h per day and allowed 6h of ad libitum sleep opportunity for 1 (SR1), 3 (SR3), or 5 (SR5) successive days (i.e., CSR). IL-1β, TNF-α, and BDNF mRNA levels were determined in the somatosensory cortex, frontal cortex, hippocampus, and basal forebrain. Largely, brain IL-1β and TNF-α expression were significantly enhanced throughout CSR. In contrast, BDNF mRNA levels were similar to baseline values in the cortex after 1 day of SR and significantly lower than baseline values in the hippocampus after 5 days of SR. In the basal forebrain, BDNF expression remained elevated throughout the 5 days of CSR, although IL-1β expression was significantly reduced. The chronic elevations of IL-1β and TNF-α and inhibition of BDNF might contribute to the reported lack of SWA responses reported after CSR. Further, the CSR-induced enhancements in brain inflammatory molecules and attenuations in hippocampal BDNF might contribute to neurocognitive and vigilance detriments that occur from CSR.

  12. Actin purification from a gel of rat brain extracts.

    PubMed

    Levilliers, N; Peron-Renner, M; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1984-01-01

    Actin, 99% pure, has been recovered from rat brain with a high yield (greater than 15 mg/100 g brain). We have shown that: 1. a low ionic strength extract from rat brain tissue is capable of giving rise to a gel; 2. actin is the main gel component and its proportion is one order of magnitude higher than in the original extract; 3. actin can be isolated from this extract by a three-step procedure involving gelation, dissociation of the gel in 0.6 M KCl, followed by one or two depolymerization-polymerization cycles.

  13. Vanillin Attenuated Behavioural Impairments, Neurochemical Deficts, Oxidative Stress and Apoptosis Against Rotenone Induced Rat Model of Parkinson's Disease.

    PubMed

    Dhanalakshmi, Chinnasamy; Janakiraman, Udaiyappan; Manivasagam, Thamilarasan; Justin Thenmozhi, Arokiasamy; Essa, Musthafa Mohamed; Kalandar, Ameer; Khan, Mohammed Abdul Sattar; Guillemin, Gilles J

    2016-08-01

    Vanillin (4-hydroxy-3-methoxybenzaldehyde), a pleasant smelling organic aromatic compound, is widely used as a flavoring additive in food, beverage, cosmetic and drug industries. It is reported to cross the blood brain barrier and also displayed antioxidant and neuroprotective activities. We previously reported the neuroprotective effect of vanillin against rotenone induced in in vitro model of PD. The present experiment was aimed to analyze the neuroprotective effect of vanillin on the motor and non-motor deficits, neurochemical variables, oxidative, anti-oxidative indices and the expression of apoptotic markers against rotenone induced rat model of Parkinson's disease (PD). Rotenone treatment exhibited motor and non-motor impairments, neurochemical deficits, oxidative stress and apoptosis, whereas oral administration of vanillin attenuated the above-said indices. However further studies are needed to explore the mitochondrial protective and anti-inflammatory properties of vanillin, as these processes play a vital role in the cause and progression of PD.

  14. Fenbendazole treatment may influence lipopolysaccharide effects in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hunter, Randy L; Choi, Dong-Young; Kincer, Jeanie F; Cass, Wayne A; Bing, Guoying; Gash, Don M

    2007-10-01

    In evaluating discrepant results between experiments in our laboratory, we collected data that challenge the notion that anthelminthic drugs like FBZ do not alter inflammatory responses. We found that FBZ significantly modulates inflammation in F344 rats intrastriatally injected with LPS. FBZ treatment of LPS-injected rats significantly increased weight loss, microglial activation, and dopamine loss; in addition, FBZ attenuated the LPS-induced loss of astrocytes. Therefore, FBZ treatment altered the effects of LPS injection. Caution should be used in interpreting data collected from rats treated with LPS and FBZ.

  15. Binge-like eating attenuates nisoxetine feeding suppression, stress activation, and brain norepinephrine activity.

    PubMed

    Bello, Nicholas T; Yeh, Chung-Yang; Verpeut, Jessica L; Walters, Amy L

    2014-01-01

    Stress is often associated with binge eating. A critical component of the control of stress is the central norepinephrine system. We investigated how dietary-induced binge eating alters central norepinephrine and related behaviors. Young male Sprague Dawley rats received calorie deprivation (24 h) and /or intermittent sweetened fat (vegetable shortening with sucrose; 30 min) twice a week for 10 weeks. The groups were Restrict Binge (calorie deprivation/sweetened fat), Binge (sweetened fat), Restrict (calorie deprivation), and Naive (no calorie deprivation/no sweetened fat). Dietary-induced binge eating was demonstrated by Restrict Binge and Binge, which showed an escalation in 30-min intake over time. Feeding suppression following nisoxetine (3 mg/kg; IP), a selective norepinephrine reuptake inhibitor, was not evident in Restrict Binge (Restrict Binge: 107±13, Binge: 52±9, Restrict: 80±8, Naive: 59±13% of saline injection at 1 h). In subsequent experiments with Restrict Binge and Naive, Restrict Binge had reduced corticosterone (Restrict Binge: 266±25; Naive: 494±36 ng/ml) and less feeding suppression (Restrict Binge: 81±12, Naive: 50±11% of non-restraint intake at 30 min) following restraint stress (1 h). Dietary-induced binge eating in Restrict Binge was not altered by a dorsal noradrenergic bundle lesion caused by N-(2-chloroethyl)-N-ethyl-2-bromobenzylamine (DSP4), but frontal cortex norepinephrine was positively correlated with the average 30-min intake post-lesion (0.69; p<0.01). In a separate set of animals, single-unit in vivo electrophysiological recording of locus coeruleus-norepinephrine neural activity demonstrated reduced sensory-evoked response as a consequence of the Restrict Binge schedule (Restrict Binge: 8.1±0.67, Naive: 11.9±1.09 Hz). These results, which suggest that a consequence of dietary-induced binge eating is to attenuate the responsiveness of the brain norepinephrine system, will further our understanding of how highly palatable

  16. Bisphenol A attenuates phenylbiguanide-induced cardio-respiratory reflexes in anaesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Pant, Jayanti; Pant, Mahendra K; Deshpande, Shripad B

    2012-11-14

    Bisphenol A (BPA), a toxic chemical released from plastics, produces respiratory arrest and hypotension after a latency. The latency was similar to the reflex apnoea induced by the vagal C fibre stimulation. Therefore, the present study was undertaken to examine the effects of chronic and acute exposure to BPA on cardio-respiratory reflexes elicited by phenylbiguanide (PBG). Acute and chronic experiments were performed on adult female rats. In chronic experiments, the animals were ingested with pellets containing BPA (2 μg/kg body weight) or without BPA (time-matched control) for 30 days. Subsequently, the animals were anaesthetized and prepared for recording blood pressure, ECG and respiratory excursions. PBG was injected through jugular vein to evoke reflexes in these animals. In acute experiments, the PBG reflexes were obtained before and after injecting BPA/ethanol. Also vagal afferent activity was recorded in some rats. In time-matched control rats, PBG produced bradycardia, hypotension and tachypnoea over a period of time. The maximal changes were around 50-65%. In BPA treated group, the PBG-induced heart rate and respiratory frequency changes were attenuated significantly. Acute exposure of animals to BPA (35 mg/kg body weight) for 30 min also attenuated the PBG-induced responses significantly. The attenuation of the PBG reflex responses by BPA in acute experiments was associated with decreased vagal afferent activity. The present results indicate that BPA attenuates the protective cardio-respiratory reflexes due to decreased vagal afferent activity.

  17. Inhibition of TLR4 attenuates vascular dysfunction and oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Carrillo-Sepulveda, Maria Alicia; Spitler, Kathryn; Pandey, Deepesh; Berkowitz, Dan E; Matsumoto, Takayuki

    2015-12-01

    Hyperglycemia-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) production plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetic vascular dysfunction. However, the underlying mechanisms remain unclear. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4), a key component of innate immunity, is known to be activated during diabetes. Therefore, we hypothesize that hyperglycemia activates TLR4 signaling in vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) that triggers ROS production and causes vascular dysfunction. Rat mesenteric VSMCs exposed to high glucose (25 mmol/l) increased TLR4 expression and activated TLR4 signaling via upregulation of myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88). TLR4 inhibitor CLI-095 significantly attenuated elevated levels of ROS and nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) activity in VSMCs exposed to high glucose. Mesenteric arteries from streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats treated with CLI-095 (2 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally for 2 weeks exhibited reduced ROS generation and attenuated noradrenaline-induced contraction. These results suggest that hyperglycemia-induced ROS generation and NF-κB activation in VSMCs are at least, in part, mediated by TLR4 signaling. Therefore, strategies to block TLR4 signaling pathways pose a promising avenue to alleviate diabetic-induced vascular complications. High glucose-induced TLR4 activation in vascular smooth muscle cells. Inhibition of TLR4 attenuated high glucose-induced ROS production and NF-κB activity in VSMC. Suppression of TLR4 signaling attenuated mesenteric contraction in diabetic rat.

  18. Estradiol attenuates down-regulation of PEA-15 and its two phosphorylated forms in ischemic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Estradiol exerts a neuroprotective effect against focal cerebral ischemic injury through the inhibition of apoptotic signals. Phosphoprotein enriched in astrocytes 15 (PEA-15) is mainly expressed in brain that perform anti-apoptotic functions. This study investigated whether estradiol modulates the expression of PEA-15 and two phosphorylated forms of PEA-15 (Ser 104 and Ser 116) in middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO)-induced injury and glutamate exposure-induced neuronal cell death. Adult female rats were ovariectomized to remove endogenous estradiol and treated with vehicle or estradiol prior to MCAO. Focal cerebral ischemia was induced by MCAO and cerebral cortices were collected 24 h after MCAO. Western blot analysis indicated that estradiol prevents the MCAO-induced decrease in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116). Glutamate exposure induced a reduction in PEA-15, phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 104), phospho-PEA-15 (Ser 116) in cultured neurons, whereas estradiol treatment attenuated the glutamate toxicity-induced decrease in the expression of these proteins. It has been known that phosphorylation of PEA-15 is an important step in carrying out its anti-apoptotic function. Thus, these findings suggest that the regulation of PEA-15 phosphorylation by estradiol contributes to the neuroprotective function of estradiol in ischemic brain injury. PMID:25806082

  19. Memantine ameliorates autistic behavior, biochemistry & blood brain barrier impairments in rats.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Hariom; Sharma, Bhupesh

    2016-06-01

    Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder, commonly characterized by altered social behavior, communication, biochemistry and pathological conditions. One percent of the worldwide population suffers from autism and males suffer more than females. NMDA receptors have the important role in neurodevelopment, neuropsychiatric and neurodegenerative disorders. This study has been designed to investigate the role of memantine, a NMDA receptor modulator, in prenatal valproic acid-induced autism in rats. Animals with prenatal valproic acid have shown the reduction in social interaction (three-chamber social behavior apparatus), spontaneous alternation (Y-Maze), exploratory activity (Hole board test), intestinal motility, serotonin levels (both in prefrontal cortex and ileum) and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity (complex I, II, IV). Furthermore, prenatal valproic acid-treated animals have shown an increase in locomotion (actophotometer), anxiety (elevated plus maze), brain oxidative stress (thiobarbituric acid reactive species, glutathione, catalase), nitrosative stress (nitrite/nitrate), inflammation (both in brain and ileum myeloperoxidase activity), calcium and blood-brain barrier permeability. Treatment with memantine has significantly attenuated prenatal valproic acid-induced reduction in social interaction, spontaneous alteration, exploratory activity intestinal motility, serotonin levels and prefrontal cortex mitochondrial complex activity. Furthermore, memantine has also attenuated the prenatal valproic acid-induced increase in locomotion, anxiety, brain oxidative and nitrosative stress, inflammation, calcium and blood-brain barrier permeability. Thus, it may be concluded that prenatal valproic acid has induced autistic behavior, biochemistry and blood-brain barrier impairment in animals, which were significantly attenuated by memantine. NMDA receptor modulators like memantine should be explored further for the therapeutic

  20. A simple method to induce focal brain hypothermia in rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, Darren L; Colbourne, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Hypothermia reduces cell death and promotes recovery in models of cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage and trauma. Clinical studies report significant benefit for treating cardiac arrest and studies are investigating hypothermia for stroke and related conditions. Both local (head) and generalized hypothermia have been used. However, selective brain cooling has fewer side effects than systemic cooling. In this study, we developed a method to induce local (hemispheric) brain hypothermia in rats. The method involves using a small metal coil implanted between the Temporalis muscle and adjacent skull. This coil is then cooled by flushing it with cold water. In our first experiment, we tested whether this method induces focal brain hypothermia in anesthetized rats. Brain temperature was assessed in the ipsilateral cortex and striatum, and contralateral striatum, while body temperature was kept normothermic. Focal, ipsilateral cooling was successfully produced, while the other locations remained normothermic. In the second experiment, we implanted the coil, and brain and body temperature telemetry probes. The coil was connected via overhead swivel to a cold-water source. Brain hypothermia was produced for 24 h, while body temperature remained normothermic. A third experiment measured brain and body temperature along with heart rate and blood pressure. Brain cooling was produced for 24 h without significant alterations in pressure, heart rate or body temperature. In summary, our simple method allows for focal brain hypothermia to be safely induced in anesthetized or conscious rats, and is, therefore, ideally suited to stroke and trauma studies.

  1. Effects of photoradiation therapy on normal rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.K.; McKean, J.; Boisvert, D.; Tulip, J.; Mielke, B.W.

    1984-12-01

    Laser photoradiation of the brain via an optical fiber positioned 5 mm above a burr hole was performed after the injection of hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) in 33 normal rats and 6 rats with an intracerebral glioma. Normal rats received HpD, 5 or 10 mg/kg of body weight, followed by laser exposure at various doses or were exposed to a fixed laser dose after the administration of HpD, 2.5 to 20 mg/kg. One control group received neither HpD nor laser energy, and another was exposed to laser energy only. The 6 rats bearing an intracranial 9L glioma were treated with HpD, 5 mg/kg, followed by laser exposure at various high doses. The temperature in the cortex or tumor was measured with a probe during laser exposure. The rats were killed 72 hours after photoradiation, and the extent of necrosis of cerebral tissue was measured microscopically. In the normal rats, the extent of brain damage correlated with increases in the dose of both the laser and the HpD. In all 6 glioma-bearing rats, the high laser doses produced some focal necrosis in the tumors but also damaged adjacent normal brain tissue. The authors conclude that damage to normal brain tissue may be a significant complication of high dose photoradiation therapy for intracranial tumors.

  2. Recombinant adenovirus encoding NLRP3 RNAi attenuate inflammation and brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Bangqing; Shen, Hanchao; Lin, Li; Su, Tonggang; Zhong, Shanchuan; Yang, Zhao

    2015-10-15

    Numerous evidence have shown that microglia mediated inflammation plays a pivotal role in the development of brain injury after intracerebral hemorrhage (ICH). Therefore anti-inflammation therapy represents a potentially promising approach to ICH. Recently, NLRP3 inflammasome was discovered to facilitate the inflammatory response. However, the effect of NLRP3 inflammasome after ICH has not been fully studied. To explore the potential of NLRP3 inflammasome, we detected NLRP3 expression, inflammation, brain edema and neurological functions in vitro and in vivo. We found that ICH activated the NLRP3 inflammasome and inflammation. However, NLRP3 RNAi could attenuate inflammation and brain injury after ICH. Therefore, the findings suggested that recombinant adenovirus encoding NLRP3 RNAi might be valuable as a potential strategy for anti-inflammation therapy in ICH. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Predatory Bacteria Attenuate Klebsiella pneumoniae Burden in Rat Lungs

    PubMed Central

    Singleton, Eric; Tang, Chi; Zuena, Michael; Shukla, Sean; Gupta, Shilpi; Dharani, Sonal; Onyile, Onoyom; Rinaggio, Joseph; Connell, Nancy D.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Bdellovibrio bacteriovorus and Micavibrio aeruginosavorus are predatory bacteria that naturally—and obligately—prey on other Gram-negative bacteria, and their use has been proposed as a potential new approach to control microbial infection. The ability of predatory bacteria to prey on Gram-negative human pathogens in vitro is well documented; however, the in vivo safety and efficacy of predatory bacteria have yet to be fully assessed. In this study, we examined whether predatory bacteria can reduce bacterial burden in the lungs in an in vivo mammalian system. Initial safety studies were performed by intranasal inoculation of rats with predatory bacteria. No adverse effects or lung pathology were observed in rats exposed to high concentrations of predatory bacteria at up to 10 days postinoculation. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) of the immune response revealed a slight increase in inflammatory cytokine levels at 1 h postinoculation that was not sustained by 48 h. Additionally, dissemination experiments showed that predators were efficiently cleared from the host by 10 days postinoculation. To measure the ability of predatory bacteria to reduce microbial burden in vivo, we introduced sublethal concentrations of Klebsiella pneumoniae into the lungs of rats via intranasal inoculation and followed with multiple doses of predatory bacteria over 24 h. Predatory bacteria were able to reduce K. pneumoniae bacterial burden, on average, by more than 3.0 log10 in the lungs of most rats as measured by CFU plating. The work presented here provides further support for the idea of developing predatory bacteria as a novel biocontrol agent. PMID:27834203

  4. Losartan attenuates paraquat-induced pulmonary fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, F; Sun, Y B; Su, L; Li, S; Liu, Z F; Li, J; Hu, X T; Li, J

    2015-05-01

    Paraquat (PQ) is one of the most widely used herbicides in the world and can cause pulmonary fibrosis in the cases with intoxication. Losartan, an angiotensin II type 1 receptor antagonist, has beneficial effects on the treatment of fibrosis. The aim of this study was to examine the effect of losartan on pulmonary fibrosis in PQ-intoxicated rats. Adult male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 32, 180-220 g) were randomly assigned to four groups: (i) control group; (ii) PQ group; (iii) PQ + losartan 7d group; and (iv) PQ + losartan 14d group. Losartan treatment (intragastrically (i.g.), 10 mg/kg) was performed for 7 and 14 days after a single i.g. dose of 40 mg/kg PQ. All rats were killed on the 16th day, and hematoxylin-eosin and Masson's trichrome staining were used to examine lung injury and fibrosis. The levels of hydroxyproline and transforming growth factor β1 (TGF-β1), matrix metallopeptidase 9 (Mmp9), and tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase 1 (TIMP-1) messenger RNA (mRNA) expression and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III were also detected. PQ caused a significant increase in hydroxyproline content, mRNA expression of TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1, and relative expression levels of collagen type I and III ( p < 0.05), while losartan significantly decreased the amount of hydroxyproline and downregulated TGF-β1, Mmp9, and TIMP-1 mRNA and collagen type I and III expressions ( p < 0.05). Histological examination of PQ-treated rats showed lung injury and widespread inflammatory cell infiltration in the alveolar space and pulmonary fibrosis, while losartan could markedly reduce such damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis. The results of this study indicated that losartan could reduce lung damage and prevent pulmonary fibrosis induced by PQ.

  5. Exercise training attenuates the pressor response evoked by peripheral chemoreflex in rats with heart failure.

    PubMed

    Calegari, Leonardo; Mozzaquattro, Bruna B; Rossato, Douglas D; Quagliotto, Edson; Ferreira, Janaina B; Rasia-Filho, Alberto; Dal Lago, Pedro

    2016-09-01

    The effects of exercise training (ExT) on the pressor response elicited by potassium cyanide (KCN) in the rat model of ischemia-induced heart failure (HF) are unknown. We evaluated the effects of ExT on chemoreflex sensitivity and its interaction with baroreflex in rats with HF. Wistar rats were divided into four groups: trained HF (Tr-HF), sedentary HF (Sed-HF), trained sham (Tr-Sham), and sedentary sham (Sed-Sham). Trained animals underwent to a treadmill running protocol for 8 weeks (60 m/day, 5 days/week, 16 m/min). After ExT, arterial pressure (AP), baroreflex sensitivity (BRS), peripheral chemoreflex (KCN: 100 μg/kg body mass), and cardiac function were evaluated. The results demonstrate that ExT induces an improvement in BRS and attenuates the pressor response to KCN relative to the Sed-HF group (P < 0.05). The improvement in BRS was associated with a reduction in the pressor response following ExT in HF rats (P < 0.05). Moreover, ExT induced a reduction in left ventricular end-diastolic pressure and pulmonary congestion compared with the Sed-HF group (P < 0.05). The pressor response to KCN in the hypotensive state is decreased in sedentary HF rats. These results suggest that ExT improves cardiac function and BRS and attenuates the pressor response evoked by KCN in HF rats.

  6. Berberine Attenuates Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Gong, Jing; Hu, Meilin; Huang, Zhaoyi; Fang, Ke; Wang, Dingkun; Chen, Qingjie; Li, Jingbin; Yang, Desen; Zou, Xin; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Kaifu; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Berberine (BBR), a kind of isoquinoline alkaloid, is widely known to be effective for both DM and diarrhea. Here, we explored whether the anti-diabetic effect of BBR was related to the intestine mucosal barrier. Methods and Results: The rat model of T2DM was established by high glucose and fat diet feeding and intravenous injection of streptozocin. Then, those diabetic rats were treated with BBR at different concentrations for 9 weeks. The results showed, in addition to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, diabetic rats were also characterized by proinflammatory intestinal changes, altered gut-derived hormones, and 2.77-fold increase in intestinal permeability. However, the treatment with BBR significantly reversed the above changes in diabetic rats, presenting as the improvement of the high glucose and triglyceride levels, the relief of the inflammatory changes of intestinal immune system, and the attenuation of the intestinal barrier damage. BBR treatment at a high concentration also decreased the intestinal permeability by 27.5% in diabetic rats. Furthermore, BBR regulated the expressions of the molecules involved in TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways in intestinal tissue of diabetic rats. Conclusion: The hypoglycemic effects of BBR might be related to the improvement in gut-derived hormones and the attenuation of intestinal mucosal mechanic and immune barrier damages.

  7. Berberine Attenuates Intestinal Mucosal Barrier Dysfunction in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Gong, Jing; Hu, Meilin; Huang, Zhaoyi; Fang, Ke; Wang, Dingkun; Chen, Qingjie; Li, Jingbin; Yang, Desen; Zou, Xin; Xu, Lijun; Wang, Kaifu; Dong, Hui; Lu, Fuer

    2017-01-01

    Background: Intestinal mucosal barrier dysfunction plays an important role in the development of diabetes mellitus (DM). Berberine (BBR), a kind of isoquinoline alkaloid, is widely known to be effective for both DM and diarrhea. Here, we explored whether the anti-diabetic effect of BBR was related to the intestine mucosal barrier. Methods and Results: The rat model of T2DM was established by high glucose and fat diet feeding and intravenous injection of streptozocin. Then, those diabetic rats were treated with BBR at different concentrations for 9 weeks. The results showed, in addition to hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia, diabetic rats were also characterized by proinflammatory intestinal changes, altered gut-derived hormones, and 2.77-fold increase in intestinal permeability. However, the treatment with BBR significantly reversed the above changes in diabetic rats, presenting as the improvement of the high glucose and triglyceride levels, the relief of the inflammatory changes of intestinal immune system, and the attenuation of the intestinal barrier damage. BBR treatment at a high concentration also decreased the intestinal permeability by 27.5% in diabetic rats. Furthermore, BBR regulated the expressions of the molecules involved in TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways in intestinal tissue of diabetic rats. Conclusion: The hypoglycemic effects of BBR might be related to the improvement in gut-derived hormones and the attenuation of intestinal mucosal mechanic and immune barrier damages. PMID:28217099

  8. Exercise training attenuates placental ischemia induced hypertension and angiogenic imbalance in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Banek, Christopher T; Bauer, Ashley J; Gingery, Anne; Needham, Karen

    2013-01-01

    An imbalance between pro-angiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor, VEGF) and anti-angiogenic (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase-1, sFlt-1) factors plays an important role in hypertension associated with reduced utero-placental perfusion (RUPP). Exercise has been shown to stimulate pro-angiogenic factors such as VEGF in both the pregnant and non-pregnant state, thus we hypothesized exercise training would attenuate both angiogenic imbalance and hypertension due to RUPP. Four groups of animals were studied: RUPP and normal pregnant (NP) controls and NP and RUPP + exercise training (NP or RUPP+EX). Exercise training attenuated RUPP-induced: hypertension (P<0.05); increased sFlt-1(P<0.05); decreased VEGF (P<0.05), and elevated sFlt-1:VEGF ratio. The positive effects of exercise on angiogenic balance in the RUPP rats were confirmed by restoration (P<0.05) of the RUPP-induced decrease in endothelial tube formation in HUVECs treated with serum from each of the experimental groups. Placental prolyl hydroxylase-1 (PHD1) was increased (P<0.05) in RUPP+Ex rats. Decreased trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in the placenta, amniotic fluid and kidney of the RUPP rats was reversed by exercise. RUPP induced increase in renal TBARS was attenuated by exercise. The present data show exercise training before and during pregnancy attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension, angiogenic imbalance and oxidative stress in the RUPP rat and reveals that increased PHD1 is associated with decreased sFlt-1 thus revealing several potential pathways for exercise training to mitigate the effects of placental ischemia-induced hypertension. Lastly, the present study demonstrates exercise training may be a useful approach to attenuate the development of placental ischemia-induced hypertension during pregnancy. PMID:23090773

  9. Exercise training attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension and angiogenic imbalance in the rat.

    PubMed

    Gilbert, Jeffrey S; Banek, Christopher T; Bauer, Ashley J; Gingery, Anne; Needham, Karen

    2012-12-01

    An imbalance between proangiogenic (vascular endothelial growth factor) and antiangiogenic (soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1) factors plays an important role in hypertension associated with reduced uteroplacental perfusion (RUPP). Exercise has been shown to stimulate proangiogenic factors, such as vascular endothelial growth factor, in both the pregnant and nonpregnant state; thus, we hypothesized that exercise training would attenuate both angiogenic imbalance and hypertension attributed to RUPP. Four groups of animals were studied, RUPP and normal pregnant controls and normal pregnant and RUPP+exercise training. Exercise training attenuated RUPP-induced hypertension (P<0.05), decreased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1 (P<0.05), increased VEGF (P<0.05), and elevated the soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1:vascular endothelial growth factor ratio. The positive effects of exercise on angiogenic balance in the RUPP rats were confirmed by restoration (P<0.05) of the RUPP-induced decrease in endothelial tube formation in human umbilical vascular endothelial cells treated with serum from each of the experimental groups. Placental prolyl hydroxylase 1 was increased (P<0.05) in RUPP+exercise training rats. Decreased trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity in the placenta, amniotic fluid, and kidney of the RUPP rats was reversed by exercise. RUPP-induced increase in renal thiobarbituric acid reactive species was attenuated by exercise. The present data show that exercise training before and during pregnancy attenuates placental ischemia-induced hypertension, angiogenic imbalance, and oxidative stress in the RUPP rat and reveals that increased prolyl hydroxylase 1 is associated with decreased soluble fms-like tyrosine kinase 1, thus revealing several potential pathways for exercise training to mitigate the effects of placental ischemia-induced hypertension. Lastly, the present study demonstrates that exercise training may be a useful approach to attenuate the development

  10. Efficacy of buspirone for attenuating cocaine and methamphetamine reinstatement in rats.

    PubMed

    Shelton, Keith L; Hendrick, Elizabeth S; Beardsley, Patrick M

    2013-05-01

    There are no approved pharmacotherapies for preventing psychomotor stimulant relapse. The operant reinstatement model has been suggested as a screen for identifying candidate medications. The present study examined if the anxiolytic buspirone could attenuate reinstatement of extinguished responding in Long-Evans rats that previously self-administered intravenous cocaine or methamphetamine. Rats were trained in 2-h daily sessions to self-administer 0.5mg/kg cocaine or 0.1mg/kg methamphetamine infusions followed by 12 days of instrumental extinction. Reinstatement was evoked by 17mg/kg i.p. cocaine primes or response-contingent cocaine-paired cues in cocaine-reinforced rats, and by 1mg/kg i.p. methamphetamine primes or response-contingent methamphetamine-paired cues in methamphetamine-reinforced rats. Buspirone (1 and 3mg/kg) significantly (p<0.05) attenuated cocaine cue but not cocaine prime reinstatement. Buspirone (1 and 3mg/kg) also significantly attenuated methamphetamine cue reinstatement. Buspirone (3mg/kg) significantly attenuated methamphetamine prime reinstatement. During all reinstatement tests, 3mg/kg buspirone reduced levels of inactive lever pressing relative to those of vehicle, significantly so during the cocaine cue-induced reinstatement tests. Given the complexity of buspirone's neuropharmacology consisting of serotonin 5-HT1A receptor partial agonist activity, and dopamine D2, D3 and D4 receptor antagonist effects, it is uncertain which of these activities or their combination is responsible for the present results. Overall, these results suggest that buspirone may reduce the likelihood of relapse to cocaine and methamphetamine use under some conditions, although this speculation must be interpreted with caution given buspirone's similar potency to attenuate inactive-lever responding. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. In vivo evidence of methamphetamine induced attenuation of brain tissue oxygenation as measured by EPR oximetry.

    PubMed

    Weaver, John; Yang, Yirong; Purvis, Rebecca; Weatherwax, Theodore; Rosen, Gerald M; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-03-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a major and significant societal problem in the US, as a number of studies have suggested that METH is associated with increased cerebrovascular events, hemorrhage or vasospasm. Although cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH-induced toxicity are not completely understood, changes in brain O₂ may play an important role and contribute to METH-induced neurotoxicity including dopaminergic receptor degradation. Given that O₂ is the terminal electron acceptor for many enzymes that are important in brain function, the impact of METH on brain tissue pO₂ in vivo remains largely uncharacterized. This study investigated striatal tissue pO₂ changes in male C57BL/6 mice (16-20 g) following METH administration using EPR oximetry, a highly sensitive modality to measure pO₂ in vivo, in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that 20 min after a single injection of METH (8 mg/kg i.v.), the striatal pO₂ was reduced to 81% of the pretreatment level and exposure to METH for 3 consecutive days further attenuated striatal pO₂ to 64%. More importantly, pO₂ did not recover fully to control levels even 24 h after administration of a single dose of METH and continual exposure to METH exacerbates the condition. We also show a reduction in cerebral blood flow associated with a decreased brain pO₂ indicating an ischemic condition. Our findings suggests that administration of METH can attenuate brain tissue pO₂, which may lead to hypoxic insult, thus a risk factor for METH-induced brain injury and the development of stroke in young adults. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Fingolimod against endotoxin-induced fetal brain injury in a rat model.

    PubMed

    Yavuz, And; Sezik, Mekin; Ozmen, Ozlem; Asci, Halil

    2017-08-17

    Fingolimod is a sphingosine-1-phosphate receptor modulator used for multiple sclerosis treatment and acts on cellular processes such as apoptosis, endothelial permeability, and inflammation. We hypothesized that fingolimod has a positive effect on alleviating preterm fetal brain injury. Sixteen pregnant rats were divided into four groups of four rats each. On gestational day 17, i.p. endotoxin was injected to induce fetal brain injury, followed by i.p. fingolimod (4 mg/kg maternal weight). Hysterotomy for preterm delivery was performed 6 h after fingolimod. The study groups included (i) vehicle controls (i.p. normal saline only); (ii) positive controls (endotoxin plus saline); (iii) saline plus fingolimod; and (iv) endotoxin plus fingolimod treatment. Brain tissues of the pups were dissected for evaluation of interleukin (IL)-6, caspase-3, and S100β on immunohistochemistry. Maternal fingolimod treatment attenuated endotoxin-related fetal brain injury and led to lower immunoreactions for IL-6, caspase-3, and S100β compared with endotoxin controls (P < 0.0001 for all comparisons). Antenatal maternal fingolimod therapy had fetal neuroprotective effects by alleviating preterm birth-related fetal brain injury with inhibitory effects on inflammation and apoptosis. © 2017 Japan Society of Obstetrics and Gynecology.

  13. Brain tumor specifies intermediate progenitor cell identity by attenuating β-catenin/Armadillo activity.

    PubMed

    Komori, Hideyuki; Xiao, Qi; McCartney, Brooke M; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    During asymmetric stem cell division, both the daughter stem cell and the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell inherit cytoplasm from their parental stem cell. Thus, proper specification of intermediate progenitor cell identity requires an efficient mechanism to rapidly extinguish the activity of self-renewal factors, but the mechanisms remain unknown in most stem cell lineages. During asymmetric division of a type II neural stem cell (neuroblast) in the Drosophila larval brain, the Brain tumor (Brat) protein segregates unequally into the immature intermediate neural progenitor (INP), where it specifies INP identity by attenuating the function of the self-renewal factor Klumpfuss (Klu), but the mechanisms are not understood. Here, we report that Brat specifies INP identity through its N-terminal B-boxes via a novel mechanism that is independent of asymmetric protein segregation. Brat-mediated specification of INP identity is critically dependent on the function of the Wnt destruction complex, which attenuates the activity of β-catenin/Armadillo (Arm) in immature INPs. Aberrantly increasing Arm activity in immature INPs further exacerbates the defects in the specification of INP identity and enhances the supernumerary neuroblast mutant phenotype in brat mutant brains. By contrast, reducing Arm activity in immature INPs suppresses supernumerary neuroblast formation in brat mutant brains. Finally, reducing Arm activity also strongly suppresses supernumerary neuroblasts induced by overexpression of klu. Thus, the Brat-dependent mechanism extinguishes the function of the self-renewal factor Klu in the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell by attenuating Arm activity, balancing stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell specification.

  14. Brain tumor specifies intermediate progenitor cell identity by attenuating β-catenin/Armadillo activity

    PubMed Central

    Komori, Hideyuki; Xiao, Qi; McCartney, Brooke M.; Lee, Cheng-Yu

    2014-01-01

    During asymmetric stem cell division, both the daughter stem cell and the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell inherit cytoplasm from their parental stem cell. Thus, proper specification of intermediate progenitor cell identity requires an efficient mechanism to rapidly extinguish the activity of self-renewal factors, but the mechanisms remain unknown in most stem cell lineages. During asymmetric division of a type II neural stem cell (neuroblast) in the Drosophila larval brain, the Brain tumor (Brat) protein segregates unequally into the immature intermediate neural progenitor (INP), where it specifies INP identity by attenuating the function of the self-renewal factor Klumpfuss (Klu), but the mechanisms are not understood. Here, we report that Brat specifies INP identity through its N-terminal B-boxes via a novel mechanism that is independent of asymmetric protein segregation. Brat-mediated specification of INP identity is critically dependent on the function of the Wnt destruction complex, which attenuates the activity of β-catenin/Armadillo (Arm) in immature INPs. Aberrantly increasing Arm activity in immature INPs further exacerbates the defects in the specification of INP identity and enhances the supernumerary neuroblast mutant phenotype in brat mutant brains. By contrast, reducing Arm activity in immature INPs suppresses supernumerary neuroblast formation in brat mutant brains. Finally, reducing Arm activity also strongly suppresses supernumerary neuroblasts induced by overexpression of klu. Thus, the Brat-dependent mechanism extinguishes the function of the self-renewal factor Klu in the presumptive intermediate progenitor cell by attenuating Arm activity, balancing stem cell maintenance and progenitor cell specification. PMID:24257623

  15. Induction of oxidative stress in rat brain by acrylonitrile (ACN).

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J E

    1998-12-01

    Chronic treatment with acrylonitrile (ACN) has been shown to produce a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas) in rats. The mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unclear. While ACN has been reported to induce DNA damage in a number of short-term systems, evidence for a genotoxic mechanism of tumor induction is the brain is not strong. Other toxic mechanisms appear to participate in the induction of tumor or induce the astrocytomas solely. In particular, nongenotoxic mechanisms of carcinogen induction have been implicated in this ACN-induced carcinogenic effect in the rat brain. One major pathway of ACN metabolism is through glutathione (GSH) conjugation. Extensive utilization and depletion of GSH, an important intracellular antioxidant, by ACN may lead to cellular oxidative stress. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were administered ACN at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 ppm in the drinking water and sampled after 14, 28, or 90 days of continuous treatment. Oxidative DNA damage indicated by the presence of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG) and lipid peroxidation indicated by the presence of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product, in rat brains and livers were examined. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined in different rat tissues. Both the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (GSH, vitamin E) and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in rat brains and livers were measured. Increased levels of OH8dG, MDA, and ROS were found in the brains of ACN-treated rats. Decreased levels of GSH and activities of catalase and SOD were also observed in the brains of ACN-treated rats compared to the control group. Interestingly, there were no changes of these indicators of oxidative stress in the livers of ACN-treated rats. Rat liver is not a target for ACN

  16. Heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of extensor digitorum longus in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nonaka, K; Une, S; Akiyama, J

    2015-09-01

    To investigate whether heat stress attenuates skeletal muscle atrophy of the extensor digitorum longus (EDL) muscle in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, 12-week-old male Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups (n = 6 per group): control (Con), heat stress (HS), diabetes mellitus (DM), and diabetes mellitus/heat stress (DM + HS). Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (50 mg/kg). Heat stress was induced in the HS and DM + HS groups by immersion of the lower half of the body in hot water at 42 °C for 30 min; it was initiated 7 days after injection of streptozotocin, and was performed once a day, five times a week for 3 weeks. The muscle fiber cross-sectional area of EDL muscles from diabetic and non-diabetic rats was determined; heat stress protein (HSP) 72 and HSP25 expression levels were also analyzed by western blotting. Diabetes-induced muscle fiber atrophy was attenuated upon heat stress treatment in diabetic rats. HSP72 and HSP25 expression was upregulated in the DM + HS group compared with the DM group. Our findings suggest that heat stress attenuates atrophy of the EDL muscle by upregulating HSP72 and HSP25 expression.

  17. Histone deacetylase inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Eunjo; Song, Min-ji; Lee, Hae-Ahm; Kang, Seol-Hee; Kim, Mina; Yang, Eun Kyoung; Lee, Do Young; Ro, Seonggu; Cho, Joong Myung

    2016-01-01

    CG200745 is a novel inhibitor of histone deacetylases (HDACs), initially developed for treatment of various hematological and solid cancers. Because it is water-soluble, it can be administered orally. We hypothesized that the HDAC inhibitor, CG200745, attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in deoxycorticosterone acetate (DOCA)-induced hypertensive rats. For establishment of hypertension, 40 mg/kg of DOCA was subcutaneously injected four times weekly into Sprague-Dawley rats. All the rats used in this study including those in the sham group had been unilaterally nephrectomized and allowed free access to drinking water containing 1% NaCl. Systolic blood pressure was measured by the tail-cuff method. Blood chemistry including sodium, potassium, glucose, triglyceride, and cholesterol levels was analyzed. Sections of the heart were visualized after trichrome and hematoxylin and eosin stain. The expression of hypertrophic genes such as atrial natriuretic peptide A (Nppa) and atrial natriuretic peptide B (Nppb) in addition to fibrotic genes such as Collagen-1, Collagen-3, connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), and Fibronectin were measured by quantitative real-time PCR (qRT-PCR). Injection of DOCA increased systolic blood pressure, heart weight, and cardiac fibrosis, which was attenuated by CG200745. Neither DOCA nor CG200745 affected body weight, vascular contraction and relaxation responses, and blood chemistry. Injection of DOCA increased expression of both hypertrophic and fibrotic genes, which was abrogated by CG200745. These results indicate that CG200745 attenuates cardiac hypertrophy and fibrosis in DOCA-induced hypertensive rats. PMID:27610034

  18. Curcumin attenuates hyperglycaemia-mediated AMPK activation and oxidative stress in cerebrum of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rat.

    PubMed

    Lakshmanan, Arun Prasath; Watanabe, Kenichi; Thandavarayan, Rajarajan A; Sari, Flori R; Meilei, Harima; Soetikno, Vivian; Arumugam, Somasundaram; Giridharan, Vijayasree V; Suzuki, Kenji; Kodama, Makoto

    2011-07-01

    Oxidative stress has been strongly implicated in the pathogenesis of diabetic encephalopathy (DE). Numerous studies have demonstrated a close relationship between oxidative stress and AMPK activation in various disorders, including diabetes-related brain disorders. Since curcumin has powerful antioxidant properties, this study investigated its effects on hyperglycaemia-mediated oxidative stress and AMPK activation in rats with DE. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ-55 mg/kg BW). The diabetic rats were then orally administered curcumin (100 mg/kg BW) or vehicle for 8 weeks. The cerebra of the diabetic rats displayed upregulated protein expression of AdipoR1, p-AMPKα1, Tak1, GLUT4, NADPH oxidase sub-units, caspase-12 and 3-NT and increased lipid peroxidation in comparison with the controls and all of these effects were significantly attenuated with curcumin treatment, except for the increase in AdipoR1 expressions. These results provide a new insight into the beneficial effects of curcumin on hyperglycaemia-mediated DE, which are produced through the down-regulation of AMPK-mediated gluconeogenesis associated with its anti-oxidant property.

  19. Chronic Valproate Treatment Blocks D2-like Receptor-Mediated Brain Signaling via Arachidonic Acid in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramadan, Epolia; Basselin, Mireille; Taha, Ameer Y.; Cheon, Yewon; Chang, Lisa; Chen, Mei; Rapoport, Stanley I.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objective Hyperdopaminergic signaling and an upregulated brain arachidonic acid (AA) cascade may contribute to bipolar disorder (BD). Lithium and carbamazepine, FDA-approved for the treatment of BD, attenuate brain dopaminergic D2-like (D2, D3, and D4) receptor signaling involving AA when given chronically to awake rats. We hypothesized that valproate (VPA), with mood-stabilizing properties, would also reduce the D2-like-mediated signaling via AA. Methods An acute dose of quinpirole (1 mg/kg) or saline was administered to unanesthetized rats that had been treated for 30 days with a therapeutically relevant dose of VPA (200 mg/kg/day) or vehicle. Regional brain AA incorporation coefficients, k*, and incorporation rates, Jin, markers of AA signaling and metabolism, were measured by quantitative autoradiography after intravenous [1-14C]AA infusion. Whole brain concentrations of prostaglandin (PG)E2 and thromboxane (TX)B2 also were measured. Results Quinpirole compared to saline significantly increased k* in 40 of 83 brain regions, and increased brain concentrations of PGE2 in chronic vehicle-treated rats. VPA treatment by itself reduced concentrations of plasma unesterified AA and whole brain PGE2 and TXB2, and blocked the quinpirole-induced increments in k* and PGE2. Conclusion These results further support our hypothesis that similar to lithium and carbamazepine, VPA downregulates brain dopaminergic D2-like receptor-signaling involving AA. PMID:21839100

  20. Tumor necrosis factor-α inhibition attenuates middle cerebral artery remodeling but increases cerebral ischemic damage in hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Pires, Paulo W; Girgla, Saavia S; Moreno, Guillermo; McClain, Jonathon L; Dorrance, Anne M

    2014-09-01

    Hypertension causes vascular inflammation evidenced by an increase in perivascular macrophages and proinflammatory cytokines in the arterial wall. Perivascular macrophage depletion reduced tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α expression in cerebral arteries of hypertensive rats and attenuated inward remodeling, suggesting that TNF-α might play a role in the remodeling process. We hypothesized that TNF-α inhibition would improve middle cerebral artery (MCA) structure and reduce damage after cerebral ischemia in hypertensive rats. Six-week-old male stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHRSP) were treated with the TNF-α inhibitor etanercept (ETN; 1.25 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1) ip daily) or PBS (equivolume) for 6 wk. The myogenic tone generation, postischemic dilation, and passive structure of MCAs were assessed by pressure myography. Cerebral ischemia was induced by MCA occlusion (MCAO). Myogenic tone was unchanged, but MCAs from SHRSP + ETN had larger passive lumen diameter and reduced wall thickness and wall-to-lumen ratio. Cerebral infarct size was increased in SHRSP + ETN after transient MCAO, despite an improvement in dilation of nonischemic MCA. The increase in infarct size was linked to a reduction in the number of microglia in the infarct core and upregulation of markers of classical macrophage/microglia polarization. There was no difference in infarct size after permanent MCAO or when untreated SHRSP subjected to transient MCAO were given ETN at reperfusion. Our data suggests that TNF-α inhibition attenuates hypertensive MCA remodeling but exacerbates cerebral damage following ischemia/reperfusion injury likely due to inhibition of the innate immune response of the brain.

  1. Autophagy activation attenuates renal ischemia-reperfusion injury in rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Ya-Li; Cui, Li-Yan; Yang, Shuo

    2015-01-01

    Ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) injury is a leading cause of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is a common clinical complication but lacks effective therapies. This study investigated the role of autophagy in renal I/R injury and explored potential mechanisms in an established rat renal I/R injury model. Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into four groups: Sham, I/R, I/R pretreated with 3-methyladenine (3-MA, autophagy inhibitor), or I/R pretreated with rapamycin (autophagy activator). All rats were subjected to clamping of the left renal pedicle for 45 min after right nephrectomy, followed by 24 h of reperfusion. The Sham group underwent the surgical procedure without ischemia. 3-MA and rapamycin were injected 15 min before ischemia. Renal function was indicated by blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine. Tissue samples from the kidneys were scored histopathologically. Autophagy was indicated by light chain 3 (LC3), Beclin-1, and p62 levels and the number of autophagic vacuoles. Apoptosis was evaluated by the terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL) method and expression of caspase-3. Autophagy was activated after renal I/R injury. Inhibition of autophagy by 3-MA before I/R aggravated renal injury, with worsened renal function, higher renal tissue injury scores, and more tubular apoptosis. In contrast, rapamycin pretreatment ameliorated renal injury, with improved renal function, lower renal tissue injury scores, and inhibited apoptosis based on fewer TUNEL-positive cells and lower caspase-3 expression. Our results demonstrate that autophagy could be activated during I/R injury and play a protective role in renal I/R injury. The mechanisms were involved in the regulation of several autophagy and apoptosis-related genes. Furthermore, autophagy activator may be a promising therapy for I/R injury and AKI in the future. PMID:25898836

  2. Lithium attenuates peripheral neuropathy induced by paclitaxel in rats.

    PubMed

    Pourmohammadi, Nasir; Alimoradi, Houman; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei; Hassanzadeh, Gholamreza; Hadian, Mohammad Reza; Sharifzadeh, Mohammad; Bakhtiarian, Azam; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2012-03-01

    As a cancer chemotherapeutic agent, paclitaxel (Taxol® ) causes dose-related peripheral neuropathy in human beings. The mechanisms underlying this toxicity are currently unknown, and there are no validated treatments for its prevention or control. To assess whether lithium as a pre-treatment and at subtherapeutic dose could prevent the peripheral neuropathy produced by it, rats were treated with paclitaxel (2 mg/kg i.p. every other day for a total of 16 times) and/or lithium chloride (300 mg/l) via water supply. General toxicity and body-weight were measured regularly during the experiment. To evaluate the sensory and motor neuropathy hot-plate, open-field test and nerve conduction velocity were used. In rats treated with only paclitaxel, there was behavioural, electrophysiological and histological evidence of a mixed sensorimotor neuropathy after 16 injections. Lithium robustly reduced the rate of mortality and general toxicity. Paclitaxel-induced sensorimotor neuropathy was significantly improved as indicated by changes in hotplate latency, total distance moved and a significant increase in sciatic, sural and tail sensory or motor nerve conduction velocity. The same results were observed in histopathological examinations; however, dorsal root ganglion neurons did not significantly change in the paclitaxel-treated groups. These results suggest that lithium, at subtherapeutic doses, can prevent both motor and sensory components of paclitaxel neuropathy in rats. Thus, lithium at these doses, as an inexpensive and relatively safe salt, may be useful clinically in preventing the neuropathy induced by paclitaxel treatment. © 2011 The Authors. Basic & Clinical Pharmacology & Toxicology © 2011 Nordic Pharmacological Society.

  3. Evaluation of MLACF based calculated attenuation brain PET imaging for FDG patient studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bal, Harshali; Panin, Vladimir Y.; Platsch, Guenther; Defrise, Michel; Hayden, Charles; Hutton, Chloe; Serrano, Benjamin; Paulmier, Benoit; Casey, Michael E.

    2017-04-01

    Calculating attenuation correction for brain PET imaging rather than using CT presents opportunities for low radiation dose applications such as pediatric imaging and serial scans to monitor disease progression. Our goal is to evaluate the iterative time-of-flight based maximum-likelihood activity and attenuation correction factors estimation (MLACF) method for clinical FDG brain PET imaging. FDG PET/CT brain studies were performed in 57 patients using the Biograph mCT (Siemens) four-ring scanner. The time-of-flight PET sinograms were acquired using the standard clinical protocol consisting of a CT scan followed by 10 min of single-bed PET acquisition. Images were reconstructed using CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) and used as a gold standard for comparison. Two methods were compared with respect to CTAC: a calculated brain attenuation correction (CBAC) and MLACF based PET reconstruction. Plane-by-plane scaling was performed for MLACF images in order to fix the variable axial scaling observed. The noise structure of the MLACF images was different compared to those obtained using CTAC and the reconstruction required a higher number of iterations to obtain comparable image quality. To analyze the pooled data, each dataset was registered to a standard template and standard regions of interest were extracted. An SUVr analysis of the brain regions of interest showed that CBAC and MLACF were each well correlated with CTAC SUVrs. A plane-by-plane error analysis indicated that there were local differences for both CBAC and MLACF images with respect to CTAC. Mean relative error in the standard regions of interest was less than 5% for both methods and the mean absolute relative errors for both methods were similar (3.4%  ±  3.1% for CBAC and 3.5%  ±  3.1% for MLACF). However, the MLACF method recovered activity adjoining the frontal sinus regions more accurately than CBAC method. The use of plane-by-plane scaling of MLACF images was found to be a

  4. Transport of 3-hydroxybutyrate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Stevenson, J.H.; Couto, R.; Caprio, F.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Studies by a number of investigators have shown that 3-hydroxybutyrate is a preferred energy substrate for brain during early development. Since recent studies by the authors group suggest that the utilization of oxidizable substrates by brain may be regulated in part by transport across the plasma membrane, the authors investigated the transport of ({sup 3}H) D- and L-3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxy-(3-{sup 14}C) butyrate by primary cultures of rat brain astrocytes. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that 3-hydroxybutyrate is taken up into cultured rat brain astrocytes by both diffusion and a carrier mediated transport system, and further support the concept that transport at the cellular level contributes to the regulation of substrate utilization by brain cells.

  5. KCC2 expression changes in Diazepam-treated neonatal rats with hypoxia-ischaemia brain damage.

    PubMed

    Ma, Jun-Yuan; Zhang, Su-Pei; Guo, Liu-Bin; Li, Yong-Mei; Li, Qiang; Wang, Sai-Qi; Liu, Hong-Min; Wang, Cong

    2014-05-14

    Hypoxia-ischaemia brain damage (HIBD) is a major type of perinatal brain injury in newborns. In this study, we investigate the short- and long-term neuroprotective effects of Diazepam on neonatal rats with HIBD and the potential mechanisms underlying its protective effects. Seven-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to left carotid artery ligation followed by a 2-h exposure to 8% oxygen and 92% nitrogen. Diazepam was administered immediately via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection after inducing HIBD at a dose of 10 mg kg(-1)8h(-1) for three consecutive days. Three days after HIBD, rats were decapitated, and the extent of brain injury was evaluated using 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining. Additionally, the expression of Potassium-chloride cotransporter-2 (KCC2) was analysed using real-time PCR, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Three weeks after HIBD, rats were subjected to the Morris water maze (MWM) test and the locomotor activity test to determine the long-term therapeutic effects of Diazepam. We observed that the volume of infarction in the Diazepam group was significantly less (P<0.01) compared with the HIBD group. We also observed that the learning and memory abilities of the Diazepam rats improved significantly compared with the untreated rats (P<0.05) and that the decrease in KCC2 expression was prevented (P<0.01). Early treatment with Diazepam appears to attenuate HIBD and can efficiently improve the long-term learning and memory capabilities of the animal. A potential mechanism underlying these effects may involve preventing the decrease in KCC2 expression. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  6. Attenuation and cross-attenuation in taste aversion learning in the rat: Studies with ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol

    SciTech Connect

    Rabin, B.M.; Hunt, W.A.; Lee, J.

    1988-12-01

    The preexposure paradigm was utilized to evaluate the similarity of ionizing radiation, lithium chloride and ethanol as unconditioned stimuli for the acquisition of a conditioned taste aversion. Three unpaired preexposures to lithium chloride (3.0 mEq/kg, IP) blocked the acquisition of a taste aversion when a novel sucrose solution was paired with either the injection of the same dose of lithium chloride or exposure to ionizing radiation (100 rad). Similar pretreatment with radiation blocked the acquisition of a radiation-induced aversion, but had no effect on taste aversions produced by lithium chloride (3.0 or 1.5 mEq/kg). Preexposure to ethanol (4 g/kg, PO) disrupted the acquisition of an ethanol-induced taste aversion, but not radiation- or lithium chloride-induced aversions. In contrast, preexposure to either radiation or lithium chloride attenuated an ethanol-induced taste aversion in intact rats, but not in rats with lesions of the area postrema. The results are discussed in terms of relationships between these three unconditioned stimuli and in terms of implications of these results for understanding the nature of the proximal unconditioned stimulus in taste aversion learning.

  7. Rutin Attenuates Hepatotoxicity in High-Cholesterol-Diet-Fed Rats.

    PubMed

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Al-Rejaie, Salim S; Abuohashish, Hatem M; Ahmed, Mohamed M; Hafez, Mohamed M

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective. High-cholesterol diet (HCD) intends to increase the oxidative stress in liver tissues inducing hepatotoxicity. Rutin is a natural flavonoid (vitamin p) which is known to have antioxidative properties. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential effects of Rutin on hypercholesterolemia-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Materials and Methods. Male Wistar rats were divided into four groups: G-I control, G-II Rutin, G-III HCD, and G-IV Rutin + HCD. The liver functions and lipid profile were used to evaluate the HCD-induced hepatotoxicity. Quantitative real time-PCR was carried out to evaluate the expression levels of genes in TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway. Results. Rutin in combination with HCD showed a significant protective effect against hepatotoxicity. HCD caused significant increase in the mRNA expression of transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 2 (Smad-2), Mothers Against Decapentaplegic Homolog 4 (Smad-4), Bcl-2-binding component 3 (Bbc3), caspase-3, P53 and Interleukin-6 (IL-6) and decrease in the expression levels of Cyclin depended kinase inhibitor (P21) and Interleukin-3 (IL-3) in hepatic cells. Conclusion. TGF-β/Smad signaling pathway is involved in HCD-induced hepatotoxicity and Rutin inhibits the hepatotoxicity via suppressing this pathway. Therefore, Rutin might be considered as a protective agent for hepatotoxicity.

  8. Propolis attenuates doxorubicin-induced testicular toxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Rizk, Sherine M; Zaki, Hala F; Mina, Mary A M

    2014-05-01

    Doxorubicin (Dox), an effective anticancer agent, can impair testicular function leading to infertility. The present study aimed to explore the protective effect of propolis extract on Dox-induced testicular injury. Rats were divided into four groups (n=10). Group I (normal control), group II received propolis extract (200 mg kg(-1); p.o.), for 3 weeks. Group III received 18 mg kg(-1) total cumulative dose of Dox i.p. Group IV received Dox and propolis extract. Serum and testicular samples were collected 48 h after the last treatment. In addition, the effects of propolis extract and Dox on the growth of solid Ehrlich carcinoma in mice were investigated. Dox reduced sperm count, markers of testicular function, steroidogenesis and gene expression of testicular 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (3β-HSD), 17β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase (17β-HSD) and steroidogenic acute regulatory protein (StAR). In addition, it increased testicular oxidative stress, inflammatory and apoptotic markers. Morphometric and histopathologic studies supported the biochemical findings. Treatment with propolis extract prevented Dox-induced changes without reducing its antitumor activity. Besides, administration of propolis extract to normal rats increased serum testosterone level coupled by increased activities and gene expression of 3ß-HSD and 17ß-HSD. Propolis extract may protect the testis from Dox-induced toxicity without reducing its anticancer potential. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  9. Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Samara Bonesso; de Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; Miranda, Daniel Duarte da Conceição; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Pedrazzoli, José; Gambero, Alessandra

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic enteropathies that probably result from a dysregulated mucosal immune response. These pathologies are characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leukocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory substances. Current IBD treatment presents limitations in both efficacy and safety that stimulated the search for new active compounds. Garcinia cambogia extract has attracted interest due to its pharmacological properties, including gastroprotective effects. In this study, the antiinflammatory activity of a garcinia extract was assessed in TNBS-induced colitis rats. The results obtained revealed that garcinia administration to colitic rats significantly improved the macroscopic damage and caused substantial reductions in increases in MPO activity, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In addition, garcinia extract treatment was able to reduce PGE(2) and IL-1beta colonic levels. These antiinflammatory actions could be related to a reduction in DNA damage in isolated colonocytes, observed with the comet assay. Finally, garcinia extract caused neither mortality nor toxicity signals after oral administration. As such, the antiinflammatory effects provided by the Garcinia cambogia extract result in an improvement of several parameters analysed in experimental colitis and could provide a source for the search for new antiinflammatory compounds useful in IBD treatment.

  10. Effect of carnosine on rats under experimental brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gallant, S; Kukley, M; Stvolinsky, S; Bulygina, E; Boldyrev, A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary carnosine on the behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats under experimental ischemia was studied. Carnosine was shown to improve the animals orientation and learning in "Open Field" and "T-Maze" tests, and this effect was accompanied with an increase in glutamate binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in brain synaptosomes. Long-term brain ischemia induced by both sides' occlusion of common carotid arteries resulted in 55% mortality of experimental rats, and those who survived were characterized by partial suppression of orientation in T-maze. In the group of rats treated with carnosine, mortality after ischemic attack was decreased (from 55% to 17%) and most of the learning parameters were kept at the pre-ischemic level. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) activity in brain of the carnosine treated rats was not changed by ischemia significantly (compared to that of ischemic untreated rats) but NMDA binding to brain synaptosomal membranes being increased by ischemic attack was significantly suppressed and reached the level characteristic of normal brain. The suggestion was made that carnosine possesses a dual effect on NMDA receptors resulting in increase in their amount after long-term treatment but decrease the capacity to bind NMDA after ischemic attack.

  11. Non-signalling energy use in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Engl, Elisabeth; Jolivet, Renaud; Hall, Catherine N; Attwell, David

    2017-03-01

    Energy use in the brain constrains its information processing power, but only about half the brain's energy consumption is directly related to information processing. Evidence for which non-signalling processes consume the rest of the brain's energy has been scarce. For the first time, we investigated the energy use of the brain's main non-signalling tasks with a single method. After blocking each non-signalling process, we measured oxygen level changes in juvenile rat brain slices with an oxygen-sensing microelectrode and calculated changes in oxygen consumption throughout the slice using a modified diffusion equation. We found that the turnover of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, followed by lipid synthesis, are significant energy drains, contributing 25%, 22% and 18%, respectively, to the rate of oxygen consumption. In contrast, protein synthesis is energetically inexpensive. We assess how these estimates of energy expenditure relate to brain energy use in vivo, and how they might differ in the mature brain.

  12. Non-signalling energy use in the developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Engl, Elisabeth; Jolivet, Renaud; Hall, Catherine N

    2016-01-01

    Energy use in the brain constrains its information processing power, but only about half the brain's energy consumption is directly related to information processing. Evidence for which non-signalling processes consume the rest of the brain's energy has been scarce. For the first time, we investigated the energy use of the brain's main non-signalling tasks with a single method. After blocking each non-signalling process, we measured oxygen level changes in juvenile rat brain slices with an oxygen-sensing microelectrode and calculated changes in oxygen consumption throughout the slice using a modified diffusion equation. We found that the turnover of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, followed by lipid synthesis, are significant energy drains, contributing 25%, 22% and 18%, respectively, to the rate of oxygen consumption. In contrast, protein synthesis is energetically inexpensive. We assess how these estimates of energy expenditure relate to brain energy use in vivo, and how they might differ in the mature brain. PMID:27170699

  13. Resveratrol attenuates peripheral and brain inflammation and reduces ischemic brain injury in aged female mice.

    PubMed

    Jeong, Sae Im; Shin, Jin A; Cho, Sunghee; Kim, Hye Won; Lee, Ji Yoon; Kang, Jihee Lee; Park, Eun-Mi

    2016-08-01

    Resveratrol is known to improve metabolic dysfunction associated with obesity. Visceral obesity is a sign of aging and is considered a risk factor for ischemic stroke. In this study, we investigated the effects of resveratrol on inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and the brain and its effects on ischemic brain injury in aged female mice. Mice treated with resveratrol (0.1 mg/kg, p.o.) for 10 days showed reduced levels of interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α, as well as a reduction in the size of adipocytes in visceral adipose tissue. Resveratrol also reduced interleukin-1β and tumor necrosis factor-α protein levels and immunoglobulin G extravasation in the brain. Mice treated with resveratrol demonstrated smaller infarct size, improved neurological function, and blunted peripheral inflammation at 3 days postischemic stroke. These results showed that resveratrol counteracted inflammation in visceral adipose tissue and in the brain and reduced stroke-induced brain injury and peripheral inflammation in aged female mice. Therefore, resveratrol administration can be a valuable strategy for the prevention of age-associated and disease-provoked inflammation in postmenopausal women. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Repeated exposure attenuates the behavioral response of rats to static high magnetic fields

    PubMed Central

    Houpt, Thomas A.; Cassell, Jennifer A.; Hood, Alison; DenBleyker, Megan; Janowitz, Ilana; Mueller, Kathleen; Ortega, Breyda; Smith, James C.

    2010-01-01

    Exposure of rats to high strength static magnetic fields of 7 T or above has behavioral effects such as the induction of locomotor circling, the suppression of rearing, and the acquisition of conditioned taste aversion (CTA). To determine if habituation occurs across magnetic field exposures, rats were pre-exposed two times to a 14 T static magnetic field for 30 min on two consecutive days; on the third day, rats were given access to a novel 0.125% saccharin prior to a third 30-min exposure to the 14 T magnetic field. Compared to sham-exposed rats, pre-exposed rats showed less locomotor circling and an attenuated CTA. Rearing was suppressed in all magnet-exposed groups regardless of pre-exposure, suggesting that the suppression of rearing is more sensitive than other behavioral responses to magnet exposure. Habituation was also observed when rats under went pre-exposures at 2–3 hour intervals on a single day. Components of the habituation were also long lasting; a diminished circling response was observed when rats were exposed to magnetic field 36 days after 2 pre-exposures. To control for possible effects of unconditioned stimulus pre-exposure, rats were also tested in a similar experimental design with two injections of LiCl prior to the pairing of saccharin with a third injection of LiCl. Pre-exposure to LiCl did not attenuate the LiCl-induced CTA, suggesting that 2 pre-exposures to an unconditioned stimulus are not sufficient to explain the habituation to magnet exposure. Because the effects of magnetic field exposure are dependent on an intact vestibular apparatus, and because the vestibular system can habituate to many forms of perturbation, habituation to magnetic field exposure is consistent with mediation of magnetic field effects by the vestibular system. PMID:20045422

  15. SEROTONIN BINDING TO PREPARATIONS FROM RAT BRAIN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BRAIN , SEROTONIN, SEROTONIN, OXIDOREDUCTASES, LYSERGIC ACIDS, RESERPINE, CHLORPROMAZINE, ACETYLCHOLINE, FATTY ACIDS, NOREPINEPHRINE, LEARNING, PERMEABILITY, MITOCHONDRIA, MORPHOLOGY(BIOLOGY), DRUGS, PHYSIOLOGY.

  16. 4-Phenylbutyrate Benefits Traumatic Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats by Attenuating Oxidative Stress, Not by Attenuating Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress.

    PubMed

    Yang, Guangming; Peng, Xiaoyong; Hu, Yi; Lan, Dan; Wu, Yue; Li, Tao; Liu, Liangming

    2016-07-01

    Vascular dysfunction such as vascular hyporeactivity following severe trauma and shock is a major cause of death in injured patients. Oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress play an important role in vascular dysfunction. The objective of the present study was to determine whether or not 4-phenylbutyrate can improve vascular dysfunction and elicit antishock effects by inhibiting oxidative and endoplasmic reticulum stress. Prospective, randomized, controlled laboratory experiment. State key laboratory of trauma, burns, and combined injury. Five hundred and fifty-two Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were anesthetized, and a model of traumatic hemorrhagic shock was established by left femur fracture and hemorrhage. The effects of 4-phenylbutyrate (5, 20, 50, 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg) on vascular reactivity, animal survival, hemodynamics, and vital organ function in traumatic hemorrhagic shock rats and cultured vascular smooth muscle cells, and the relationship to oxidative stress and endoplasmic reticulum stress was observed. Lower doses of 4-phenylbutyrate significantly improved the vascular function, stabilized the hemodynamics, and increased the tissue blood flow and vital organ function in traumatic hemorrhagic shock rats, and markedly improved the survival outcomes. Among all dosages observed in the present study, 20 mg/kg of 4-phenylbutyrate had the best effect. Further results indicated that 4-phenylbutyrate significantly inhibited the oxidative stress, decreased shock-induced oxidative stress index such as the production of reactive oxygen species, increased the antioxidant enzyme levels such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione, and improved the mitochondrial function by inhibiting the opening of the mitochondrial permeability transition pore in rat artery and vascular smooth muscle cells. In contrast, 4-phenylbutyrate did not affect the changes of endoplasmic reticulum stress markers following traumatic hemorrhagic shock. Furthermore, 4

  17. Intraspinal transplantation of GABAergic neural progenitors attenuates neuropathic pain in rats: a pharmacologic and neurophysiological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Jergova, Stanislava; Hentall, Ian D.; Gajavelli, Shyam; Varghese, Mathew S.; Sagen, Jacqueline

    2012-01-01

    Dysfunctional γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-ergic inhibitory neurotransmission is hypothesized to underlie chronic neuropathic pain. Intraspinal transplantation of GABAergic neural progenitor cells (NPCs) may reduce neuropathic pain by restoring dorsal horn inhibition. Rat NPCs pre-differentiated to a GABAergic phenotype were transplanted into the dorsal horn of rats with unilateral chronic constriction injury (CCI) of the sciatic nerve. GABA signaling in antinociceptive effects of NPC grafts was tested with the GABAA receptor antagonist bicuculline (BIC), GABAB receptor antagonist CGP35348 (CGP) and GABA reuptake inhibitor SKF 89976A (SKF). NPC-treated animals showed decreased hyperalgesia and allodynia 1-3 week post-transplantation; vehicle-injected CCI rats continued displaying pain behaviors. Intrathecal application of BIC or CGP attenuated the antinociceptive effects of the NPC transplants while SKF injection induced analgesia in control rats. Electrophysiological recordings in NPC treated rats showed reduced responses of wide dynamic range (WDR) neurons to peripheral stimulation compared to controls. A spinal application of BIC or CGP increased wind-up response and post-discharges of WDR neurons in NPC treated animals. Results suggest that transplantation of GABAergic NPCs attenuate pain behaviors and reduce exaggerated dorsal horn neuronal firing induced by CCI. The effects of GABA receptor inhibitors suggest participation of continuously released GABA in the grafted animals. PMID:22193109

  18. Pleurotus tuber-regium Polysaccharides Attenuate Hyperglycemia and Oxidative Stress in Experimental Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hui-Yu; Korivi, Mallikarjuna; Chaing, Ying-Ying; Chien, Ting-Yi; Tsai, Ying-Chieh

    2012-01-01

    Pleurotus tuber-regium contains polysaccharides that are responsible for pharmacological actions, and medicinal effects of these polysaccharides have not yet been studied in diabetic rats. We examined the antidiabetic, antihyperlipidemic, and antioxidant properties of P. tuber-regium polysaccharides in experimental diabetic rats. Forty rats were equally assigned as diabetic high-fat (DHF) diet and polysaccharides treated DHF groups (DHF+1P, DHF+2P, and DHF+3P, 20 mg/kg bodyweight/8-week). Diabetes was induced by chronic low-dose streptozotocin injections and a high-fat diet to mimic type 2 diabetes. Polysaccharides (1P, 2P, and 3P) were extracted from three different strains of P. tuber-regium. Fasting blood glucose and glycosylated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels substantially decreased, while serum insulin levels were restored by polysaccharides treatment compared to DHF. Furthermore, plasma total cholesterol, triglycerides, and low-density lipoprotein levels were significantly (P < 0.01) lower in polysaccharide groups. High-density lipoprotein levels were attenuated with polysaccharides against diabetes condition. Polysaccharides inhibited (P < 0.01) the lipid peroxidation index (malondialdehyde), and restored superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities in the liver of diabetic rats. The antihyperglycemic property of polysaccharides perhaps boosts the antioxidant system that attenuates oxidative stress. We emphasize that P. tuber-regium polysaccharides can be considered as an alternative medicine to treat hyperglycemia and oxidative stress in diabetic rats. PMID:22973406

  19. Magnesium sulphate treatment decreases blood-brain barrier permeability during acute hypertension in pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Euser, Anna G; Bullinger, Lisa; Cipolla, Marilyn J

    2008-02-01

    Eclampsia is associated with increased blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and formation of cerebral oedema. Magnesium sulphate is used to treat eclampsia despite an unclear mechanism of action. This study was to determine the effect of magnesium sulphate on in vivo BBB permeability and formation of cerebral oedema during acute hypertension and on brain aquaporin-4 (AQP4) protein expression. An in vivo model of hypertensive encephalopathy was used in late-pregnant (LP) rats following magnesium sulphate treatment, 270 mg kg(-1) i.p. injection every 4 h for 24 h. Permeability of the BBB was determined by in situ brain perfusion of Evan's Blue (EB) and sodium fluorescein (NaFl), and dye clearance determined by fluorescence spectrophotometry. Cerebral oedema was determined following acute hypertension by measuring brain water content. The effect of magnesium treatment on AQP4 expression was determined by Western blot analysis. Acute hypertension with autoregulatory breakthrough increased BBB permeability to EB in both brain regions studied (P < 0.05). Magnesium attenuated BBB permeability to EB during acute hypertension by 41% in the posterior cerebrum (P < 0.05) but had no effect in the anterior cerebrum (P > 0.05). Treatment with magnesium did not change NaFl permeability, cerebral oedema formation or AQP4 expression. In summary, BBB permeability to Evan's Blue was increased by acute hypertension in LP rats, and this was attenuated by treatment with magnesium sulphate. The greatest effect on BBB permeability to EB was in the posterior cerebrum, an area particularly susceptible to oedema formation during eclampsia.

  20. Lipocalin-2 deficiency attenuates neuroinflammation and brain injury after transient middle cerebral artery occlusion in mice.

    PubMed

    Jin, Myungwon; Kim, Jong-Heon; Jang, Eunha; Lee, Young Mi; Soo Han, Hyung; Woo, Dong Kyun; Park, Dong Ho; Kook, Hyun; Suk, Kyoungho

    2014-08-01

    Lipocalin-2 (LCN2) is a secreted protein of the lipocalin family, but little is known about the expression or the role of LCN2 in the central nervous system. Here, we investigated the role of LCN2 in ischemic stroke using a rodent model of transient cerebral ischemia. Lipocalin-2 expression was highly induced in the ischemic brain and peaked at 24 hours after reperfusion. After transient middle cerebral artery occlusion, LCN2 was predominantly expressed in astrocytes and endothelial cells, whereas its receptor (24p3R) was mainly detected in neurons, astrocytes, and endothelial cells. Brain infarct volumes, neurologic scores, blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeabilities, glial activation, and inflammatory mediator expression were significantly lower in LCN2-deficient mice than in wild-type animals. Lipocalin-2 deficiency also attenuated glial neurotoxicity in astrocyte/neuron cocultures after oxygen-glucose deprivation. Our results indicate LCN2 has a critical role in brain injury after ischemia/reperfusion, and that LCN2 may contribute to neuronal cell death in the ischemic brain by promoting neurotoxic glial activation, neuroinflammation, and BBB disruption.

  1. Amygdala central nucleus lesions attenuate acoustic startle stimulus-evoked heart rate changes in rats.

    PubMed

    Young, B J; Leaton, R N

    1996-04-01

    Amygdala central nucleus (CNA) lesions were used to test the hypothesis that stimulus-evoked heart rate changes can reflect the development of fear during acoustic startle testing. A 120-dB white noise startle stimulus produced freezing as well as phasic heart rate accelerations and decelerations, and an abrupt decrease in tonic heart rate, in sham-operated rats. These responses were all significantly reduced in CNA-lesioned rats. In contrast, an 87-dB stimulus elicited only significant phasic decelerations that were similarly attenuated by the CNA lesions. In a follow-up experiment, the CNA lesions also attenuated phasic cardiac decelerations evoked by a conditioned stimulus-like, 85-dB pure tone. The results support the contention (B. J. Young & R.N. Leaton, 1994) that heart rate changes can reflect fear conditioned during acoustic startle testing and, in addition, suggest that the amygdala mediates responses to nonsignal acoustic stimuli.

  2. Protective function of nicotinamide against ketamine-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration in the infant rat brain.

    PubMed

    Ullah, Najeeb; Ullah, Ikram; Lee, Hae Young; Naseer, Muhammad Imran; Seok, Park Moon; Ahmed, Jawad; Kim, Myeong Ok

    2012-05-01

    During development, anesthetics activate neuroapoptosis and produce damage in the central nervous system that leads to several types of neurological disorders. A single dose of ketamine (40 mg/kg) during synaptogenesis in a 7-day-old rat brain activated the apoptotic cascade and caused extensive neuronal cell death in the forebrain. In this study, we investigated the protective effect of nicotinamide against ketamine-induced apoptotic neurodegeneration. After 4 h, neuronal cell death induced by ketamine was associated with the induction of Bax, release of cytochrome c into the cytosol, and activation of caspase-3. One single dose of 1 mg/g nicotinamide was administered to a developing rat and was found to inhibit ketamine-induced neuroapoptosis by downregulating Bax, inhibiting cytochrome c release from mitochondria into cytosol, and inhibiting the expression of activated caspase-3. TUNEL and immunohistochemical analyses showed that ketamine-induced cell death occurred through apoptosis and that it was inhibited by nicotinamide. Fluoro-Jade-B staining demonstrated an increased number of dead cells in the cortex and thalamus after ketamine treatment; treatment with nicotinamide reduced the number of dead cells in these brain regions. Our findings suggest that nicotinamide attenuated ketamine-induced neuronal cell loss in the developing rat brain and is a promising therapeutic and neuroprotective agent for the treatment of neurodevelopmental disorders.

  3. Postconditioning by mild hypoxic exposures reduces rat brain injury caused by severe hypoxia.

    PubMed

    Rybnikova, Elena; Vorobyev, Maksim; Pivina, Svetlana; Samoilov, Mikhail

    2012-03-28

    A potent neuroprotective effect of ischemic postconditioning has previously been described using cerebral artery occlusion but this is not a practical therapeutic option. The present study has been performed to determine whether postconditioning by mild episodes of hypobaric hypoxia (hypoxic postconditioning, HP) can reduce post-hypoxic brain injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were submitted to severe hypobaric hypoxia (180 Torr, 3 h) followed by HP (360 Torr, 2 h, 3 trials spaced at 24 h) starting either 3h (early HP) or 24 h (delayed HP) after severe hypoxia. The structural and functional brain injury was assessed by a complex of histological techniques, behavioral methods, and by testing the functions of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis (HPA). It was found that early and delayed HP considerably attenuated post-hypoxic injury, reducing pyknosis, hyperchromatosis, and interstitial brain edema, as well as the rates of neuronal loss in hippocampus and neocortex. Delayed HP produced prominent anxiolytic effect on rat behavior, preventing development of post-hypoxic anxiety. Both modes of HP had beneficial effect on the functioning of HPA, but only delayed HP normalized completely the baseline HPA activity and its reactivity to stress. The results obtained demonstrate that postconditioning by using repetitive episodes of mild hypobaric hypoxia may provide a powerful neuroprotective procedure that can be easily adopted for clinical practice and recommended as a research tool for identification of endogenous mechanisms involved in post-ischemic neuroprotection. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Bergamot Essential Oil Attenuates Anxiety-Like Behaviour in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rombolà, Laura; Tridico, Laura; Scuteri, Damiana; Sakurada, Tsukasa; Sakurada, Shinobu; Mizoguchi, Hirokazu; Avato, Pinarosa; Corasaniti, Maria Tiziana; Bagetta, Giacinto; Morrone, Luigi Antonio

    2017-04-11

    Preclinical studies have recently highlighted that bergamot essential oil (BEO) is endowed with remarkable neurobiolological effects. BEO can affect synaptic transmission, modulate electroencephalographic activity and it showed neuroprotective and analgesic properties. The phytocomplex, along with other essential oils, is also widely used in aromatherapy to minimize symptoms of stress-induced anxiety and mild mood disorders. However, only limited preclinical evidences are actually available. This study examined the anxiolytic/sedative-like effects of BEO using an open field task (OFT), an elevated plus-maze task (EPM), and a forced swimming task (FST) in rats. This study further compared behavioural effects of BEO to those of the benzodiazepine diazepam. Analysis of data suggests that BEO induces anxiolytic-like/relaxant effects in animal behavioural tasks not superimposable to those of the DZP. The present observations provide further insight to the pharmacological profile of BEO and support its rational use in aromatherapy.

  5. Palmitate attenuates osteoblast differentiation of fetal rat calvarial cells

    SciTech Connect

    Yeh, Lee-Chuan C.; Ford, Jeffery J.; Lee, John C.; Adamo, Martin L.

    2014-07-18

    Highlights: • Palmitate inhibits osteoblast differentiation. • Fatty acid synthase. • PPARγ. • Acetyl Co-A carboxylase inhibitor TOFA. • Fetal rat calvarial cell culture. - Abstract: Aging is associated with the accumulation of ectopic lipid resulting in the inhibition of normal organ function, a phenomenon known as lipotoxicity. Within the bone marrow microenvironment, elevation in fatty acid levels may produce an increase in osteoclast activity and a decrease in osteoblast number and function, thus contributing to age-related osteoporosis. However, little is known about lipotoxic mechanisms in intramembraneous bone. Previously we reported that the long chain saturated fatty acid palmitate inhibited the expression of the osteogenic markers RUNX2 and osteocalcin in fetal rat calvarial cell (FRC) cultures. Moreover, the acetyl CoA carboxylase inhibitor TOFA blocked the inhibitory effect of palmitate on expression of these two markers. In the current study we have extended these observations to show that palmitate inhibits spontaneous mineralized bone formation in FRC cultures in association with reduced mRNA expression of RUNX2, alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin, and bone sialoprotein and reduced alkaline phosphatase activity. The effects of palmitate on osteogenic marker expression were inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate also inhibited the mRNA expression of fatty acid synthase and PPARγ in FRC cultures, and as with osteogenic markers, this effect was inhibited by TOFA. Palmitate had no effect on FRC cell proliferation or apoptosis, but inhibited BMP-7-induced alkaline phosphatase activity. We conclude that palmitate accumulation may lead to lipotoxic effects on osteoblast differentiation and mineralization and that increases in fatty acid oxidation may help to prevent these lipotoxic effects.

  6. Tissue Probability-Based Attenuation Correction for Brain PET/MR by Using SPM8

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Teuho, J.; Linden, J.; Johansson, J.; Tuisku, J.; Tuokkola, T.; Teräs, M.

    2016-10-01

    Bone attenuation remains a methodological challenge in hybrid PET/MR, as bone is hard to visualize via magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Therefore, novel methods for taking into account bone attenuation in MR-based attenuation correction (MRAC) are needed. In this study, we propose a tissue-probability based attenuation correction (TPB-AC), which employs the commonly available neurological toolbox SPM8, to derive a subject-specific μ-map by segmentation of T1-weighted MR images. The procedures to derive a μ-map representing soft tissue, air and bone from the New Segment function in SPM8 and MATLAB are described. Visual and quantitative comparisons against CT-based attenuation correction (CTAC) data were performed using two μ-values ( 0.135 cm-1 and 0.145 cm-1) for bone. Results show improvement of visual quality and quantitative accuracy of positron emission tomography (PET) images when TPB-AC μ-map is used in PET/MR image reconstruction. Underestimation in PET images was decreased by an average of 5 ±2 percent in the whole brain across all patients. In addition, the method performed well when compared to CTAC, with maximum differences (mean ± standard deviation) of - 3 ±2 percent and 2 ±4 percent in two regions out of 28. Finally, the method is simple and computationally efficient, offering a promising platform for further development. Therefore, a subject-specific MR-based μ-map can be derived only from the tissue probability maps from the New Segment function of SPM8.

  7. Ramelteon attenuates age-associated hypertension and weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Oxenkrug, Gregory F; Summergrad, Paul

    2010-06-01

    The neuroendocrine theory of aging suggests the common mechanisms of developmental (prereproductive) and aging (postreproductive) processes and identified a cluster of conditions (hypertension, obesity, dyslipidemia, type 2 diabetes, menopause, late onset depression, vascular cognitive impairment, impairment of immune defense, and some forms of cancer) as age-associated neuroendocrine disorders (AAND). Obesity, dyslipidemia, hypertension, and type 2 diabetes were later described as metabolic syndrome (MetS). Because melatonin attenuated development of MetS is age-dependent, that is, in young and old, but not in middle-aged rats, we studied the effect of the selective melatonin agonist, Ramelteon, on the two core symptoms of MetS/AAND: hypertension and body weight gain in spontaneously hypertensive (SHR) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto male rats (WKY). SHR rats developed hypertension at the time of maximal weight gain that coincided with the onset of reproductive activity (8-10 weeks old). Chronic (but not acute) administration of Ramelteon (in drinking water, 8 mg/kg/day, from 4 to 12 weeks of age) attenuated age-associated increase of systolic blood pressure (tail-cuff method) by 45%, and age-associated body weight gain by 30%. Acute and chronic Ramelteon did not affect blood pressure and body weight in normotensive WKY rats. Ramelteon-induced attenuation of age-associated hypertension and weight gain suggests that Ramelteon might attenuate the other symptoms of MetS/AAND and might be useful in the treatment of MetS/AAND during puberty, menopause, and old age.

  8. Effects of methylmercury on neurotransmitter release from rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Minnema, D J; Cooper, G P; Greenland, R D

    1989-07-01

    Although the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) at the neuromuscular junction have been well characterized, similar studies employing CNS preparations and transmitters have been limited. We found that MeHg (0.5-5.0 microM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in the spontaneous release of [3H]dopamine. gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid, and [3H]acetylcholine from synaptosomes isolated from rat brain striatum, cortex, and hippocampus, respectively. At these same concentrations MeHg did not attenuate calcium-dependent depolarization-evoked 3H-transmitter release. MeHg did not appear to induce calcium influx into the nerve terminal since the increase in release persists in the absence of extrasynaptosomal calcium. The increase in spontaneous transmitter release induced by MeHg persisted in the presence of low extrasynaptosomal sodium, suggesting that MeHg's effects on release are not mediated by either Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition or selective increases in membrane sodium permeability. MeHg produced only a very small increase in 45Ca efflux from synaptosomes preloaded with 45Ca, whereas these same MeHg concentrations produced large increases in 45Ca efflux from preloaded isolated mitochondria. MeHg did increase the efflux of [3H]deoxyglucose phosphate from synaptosomes. An increase in the efflux of [3H]deoxyglucose phosphate is believed to reflect an increase in neuronal membrane permeability. The quantitative and temporal aspects of the MeHg-induced [3H]-deoxyglucose phosphate efflux were similar to those observed for MeHg-induced neurotransmitter release. These data suggest that the increase in spontaneous transmitter release induced by MeHg is mainly the result of transmitter leakage that occurs subsequent to MeHg-induced increases in synaptosomal membrane permeability. However, these results cannot exclude possible effects of MeHg on intrasynaptosomal calcium homeostasis.

  9. Mepivacaine attenuates vasodilation induced by ATP-sensitive potassium channels in rat aorta.

    PubMed

    Baik, Jiseok; Ok, Seong-Ho; Kim, Eun-Jin; Kang, Dawon; Hong, Jeong-Min; Shin, Il-Woo; Lee, Heon Keun; Chung, Young-Kyun; Cho, Youngil; Lee, Soo Hee; Kang, Sebin; Sohn, Ju-Tae

    2016-07-05

    The goal of this in vitro study was to investigate the effect of mepivacaine on vasodilation induced by the ATP-sensitive potassium (KATP) channel opener levcromakalim in isolated endothelium-denuded rat aortas. The effects of mepivacaine and the KATP channel inhibitor glibenclamide, alone or in combination, on levcromakalim-induced vasodilation were assessed in the isolated aortas. The effects of mepivacaine or combined treatment with a protein kinase C (PKC) inhibitor, GF109203X, and mepivacaine on this vasodilation were also investigated. Levcromakalim concentration-response curves were generated for isolated aortas precontracted with phenylephrine or a PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu). Further, the effects of mepivacaine and glibenclamide on levcromakalim-induced hyperpolarization were assessed in rat aortic vascular smooth muscle cells. Mepivacaine attenuated levcromakalim-induced vasodilation, whereas it had no effect on this vasodilation in isolated aortas pretreated with glibenclamide. Combined treatment with GF109203X and mepivacaine enhanced levcromakalim-induced vasodilation compared with pretreatment with mepivacaine alone. This vasodilation was attenuated in aortas precontracted with PDBu compared with those precontracted with phenylephrine. Mepivacaine and glibenclamide, alone or in combination, attenuated levcromakalim-induced membrane hyperpolarization. Taken together, these results suggest that mepivacaine attenuates vasodilation induced by KATP channels, which appears to be partly mediated by PKC.

  10. Brain perfusion in acute and chronic hyperglycemia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kikano, G.E.; LaManna, J.C.; Harik, S.I. )

    1989-08-01

    Recent studies show that acute and chronic hyperglycemia cause a diffuse decrease in regional cerebral blood flow and that chronic hyperglycemia decreases the brain L-glucose space. Since these changes can be caused by a decreased density of perfused brain capillaries, we used 30 adult male Wistar rats to study the effect of acute and chronic hyperglycemia on (1) the brain intravascular space using radioiodinated albumin, (2) the anatomic density of brain capillaries using alkaline phosphatase histochemistry, and (3) the fraction of brain capillaries that are perfused using the fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran method. Our results indicate that acute and chronic hyperglycemia do not affect the brain intravascular space nor the anatomic density of brain capillaries. Also, there were no differences in capillary recruitment among normoglycemic, acutely hyperglycemic, and chronically hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that the shrinkage of the brain L-glucose space in chronic hyperglycemia is more likely due to changes in the blood-brain barrier permeability to L-glucose.

  11. Overexpression of caveolin-1 attenuates brain edema by inhibiting tight junction degradation

    PubMed Central

    Choi, Kang-Ho; Lee, Eun-Bin; Lee, Jung-Kil; Kim, Joon-Tae; Kim, Ja-Hae; Lee, Min-Cheol; Lee, Hong-Joon; Cho, Ki-Hyun

    2016-01-01

    Cerebral edema from the disruption of the blood-brain barrier (BBB) after cerebral ischemia is a major cause of morbidity and mortality as well as a common event in patients with stroke. Caveolins (Cavs) are thought to regulate BBB functions. Here, we report for the first time that Cav-1 overexpression (OE) decreased brain edema from BBB disruption following ischemic insult. Edema volumes and Cav-1 expression levels were measured following photothrombosis and middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO). Endothelial cells that were transduced with a Cav-1 lentiviral expression vector were transplanted into rats. BBB permeability was quantified with Evans blue extravasation. Edema volume was determined from measures of the extravasation area, brain water content, and average fluorescence intensity after Cy5.5 injections. Tight junction (TJ) protein expression was measured with immunoblotting. Cav-1 expression levels and vasogenic brain edema correlated strongly after ischemic insult. Cav-1 expression and BBB disruption peaked 3 d after the MCAO. In addition, intravenous administration of endothelial cells expressing Cav-1 effectively increased the Cav-1 levels 3 d after the MCAO ischemic insult. Importantly, Cav-1 OE ameliorated the vasogenic edema by inhibiting the degradation of TJ protein expression in the acute phase of ischemic stroke. These results suggested that Cav-1 OE protected the integrity of the BBB mainly by preventing the degradation of TJ proteins in rats. These findings need to be confirmed in a clinical setting in human subjects. PMID:27708218

  12. Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff attenuates thromboembolic brain injury, possibly due to its Z-ligustilide content.

    PubMed

    Barzegar-Fallah, Niloofar; Baery, Nasrin; Soleymankhani, Majid; Malekmohammadi, Nafiseh; Alimoradi, Houman; Parsa, Abdolhamid; Barzegar-Fallah, Anita

    2016-01-01

    Essential oil (EO) of Kelussia odoratissima Mozaff, whose main composition is Z-ligustilide, has been shown to have strong antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and potent neuroprotective properties. This study examined whether or not the EO could ameliorate brain damage and behavioural dysfunction in a thromboembolic model of stroke in rats and compare its effects to that of the purified Z-ligustilide. Stroke was induced in rats by middle cerebral artery occlusion using an autologous pre-formed clot. EO (10 mg kg(-1) and 45 mg kg(-1)) and Z-ligustilide (20 mg kg(-1)) were injected intraperitoneally 1 h prior to embolization. Behavioural scores, infarct size and brain oedema, as well as the level of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), malondialdehyde, glutathione, catalase and superoxide dismutase activity were determined in the ipsilateral cortex 24 hours following stroke induction. EO (45 mg kg(-1)), statistically similar to Z-ligustilide (20 mg kg(-1)), curtailed brain infarction and oedema, improved behavioural scores and prevented enhanced oxidative stress and TNF-α level in the ischaemic brain tissues. The findings provide the first evidence of effectiveness of the extract in a thromboembolic model of stroke, whose action can be mediated, at least in part, by the antioxidative and anti-inflammatory mechanisms.

  13. Proinflammatory cytokines in injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Kaliszek, Agnieszka; Makarewicz, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to astrogliosis, which is common to injuries of the adult CNS, in the developing brain this process is minimal. Reasons postulated for this include the relative immaturity of the immune system and the consequent insufficient production of cytokines to evoke astrogliosis. To explore this hypothesis, the study was undertaken to detect the presence of some proinflammatory cytokines in the injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia (ischaemia/hypoxia). The localisation of TNF-alpha, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-17 receptors was visualised by means of immunohistochemistry. In numerous neurones of the rat brain, the IL-17 appeared to be constitutively expressed. In the early period of inflammation the IL-15 was produced mainly by the blood cells penetrating the injured brain but later it was synthesised also by reactive astrocytes surrounding brain cysts and forming dense astrogliosis around necrotic brain regions. The direct effect on astrogliosis of other estimated cytokines seems to be negligible. All the results lead to the conclusion that from all cytokines identified in the injured immature rat brain the IL-15 plays the most important role during inflammatory response and participates in the gliosis of reactive astrocytes.

  14. Thermal imaging of brain tumors in a rat glioma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Thompson, Reid C.; Kateb, Babak; Sorokoumov, Oleg; Grundfest, Warren S.; Black, Keith L.

    2002-05-01

    We have explored the capability of thermal imaging for the detection of brain tumors in a rat glioma mode. Fourteen Wistar rats were injected stereotactically with 100,000 C6 glioma cells. Approximately one and two weeks post implantation, the rats underwent bilateral craniotomy and the exposed brain surface was imaged with a short wave thermal camera. Thermal images were obtained at both low (approximately 28.7 degree(s)C) and high (approximately 38 degree(s)C) core temperatures. Temperature gradients between the tumor site and the contralateral normal brain were calculated. Overall, the tumors appeared cooler than normal brain, for both high and low core temperatures. Average temperature difference between tumor and normal brain were maximal in more advanced tumors (two weeks) and at higher core temperatures. At one week (N equals 6), the average temperature gradient between tumor and normal sites was 0.1 degree(s)C and 0.2 degree(s)C at low and high core temperatures respectively (P(greater than)0.05). At two weeks (N equals 8), the average temperature gradient was 0.3 degree(s)C and 0.7 degree(s)C at low and high core temperatures respectively (P<0.05). We conclude that thermal imaging can detect temperature differences between tumor and normal brain tissue in this model, particularly in more advanced tumors. Thermal imaging may provide a novel means to identify brain tumors intraoperatively.

  15. Neuropeptide Y receptors in rat brain: autoradiographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, J.C.; St-Pierre, S.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor binding sites have been characterized in rat brain using both membrane preparations and receptor autoradiography. Radiolabelled NPY binds with high affinity and specificity to an apparent single class of sites in rat brain membrane preparations. The ligand selectivity pattern reveals strong similarities between central and peripheral NPY receptors. NPY receptors are discretely distributed in rat brain with high densities found in the olfactory bulb, superficial layers of the cortex, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, various thalamic nuclei and area postrema. The presence of high densities of NPY and NPY receptors in such areas suggests that NPY could serve important functions as a major neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system.

  16. Bees' Honey Attenuation of Metanil-Yellow-Induced Hepatotoxicity in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Malki, Abdulrahman L.; Sayed, Ahmed Amir Radwan

    2013-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effect of bees' honey against metanil-yellow-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Rats were divided into 7 groups: control group; three groups treated with 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg metanil yellow, and three groups treated with metanil yellow plus 2.5 mg · kg−1 · day−1 bees' honey for 8 weeks. The obtained data showed that the antioxidant/anti-inflammatory activity of bees' honey reduced the oxidative stress in the liver tissue and downregulated the inflammatory markers. In addition, the elevated levels of AGE and the activated NF-κB in the metanil-yellow-treated animals were significantly attenuated. Moreover, the levels of TNF-α and IL-1β were significantly attenuated as a result of bees' honey administration. Furthermore, the histopathological examination of the liver showed that bees' honey reduced fatty degeneration, cytoplasmic vacuolization, and necrosis in metanil-yellow-treated rats. In conclusion, the obtained data suggest that bees' honey has hepatoprotective effect on acute liver injuries induced by metanil-yellow in vivo, and the results suggested that the effect of bees' honey against metanil yellow-induced liver damage is related to its antioxidant/anti-inflammatory properties which attenuate the activation of NF-κB and its controlled genes like TNF-α and IL-1β. PMID:23818929

  17. Prenatal choline supplementation attenuates spatial learning deficits of offspring rats exposed to low-protein diet during fetal period.

    PubMed

    Zhu, Cui-Hong; Wu, Ting; Jin, Yu; Huang, Bi-Xia; Zhou, Rui-Fen; Wang, Yi-Qin; Luo, Xiao-Lin; Zhu, Hui-Lian

    2016-06-01

    Prenatal intake of choline has been reported to lead to enhanced cognitive function in offspring, but little is known about the effects on spatial learning deficits. The present study examined the effects of prenatal choline supplementation on developmental low-protein exposure and its potential mechanisms. Pregnant female rats were fed either a normal or low-protein diet containing sufficient choline (1.1g/kg choline chloride) or supplemented choline (5.0g/kg choline chloride) until delivery. The Barnes maze test was performed at postnatal days 31-37. Choline and its metabolites, the synaptic structural parameters of the CA1 region in the brain of the newborn rat, were measured. The Barnes maze test demonstrated that prenatal low-protein pups had significantly greater error scale values, hole deviation scores, strategy scores and spatial search strategy and had lesser random search strategy values than normal protein pups (all P<.05). These alterations were significantly reversed by choline supplementation. Choline supplementation increased the brain levels of choline, betaine, phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine of newborns by 51.35% (P<.05), 33.33% (P<.001), 28.68% (P<.01) and 23.58% (P<.05), respectively, compared with the LPD group. Prenatal choline supplementation reversed the increased width of the synaptic cleft (P<.05) and decreased the curvature of the synaptic interface (P<.05) induced by a low-protein diet. Prenatal choline supplementation could attenuate the spatial learning deficits caused by prenatal protein malnutrition by increasing brain choline, betaine and phospholipids and by influencing the hippocampus structure.

  18. Petroselinum crispum extract attenuates hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet.

    PubMed

    Nair, V Yuneesha; Balakrishanan, N; Antony Santiago, J Victor

    2015-01-01

    Non alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is the most common chronic liver disease and ongoing research efforts are focused on understanding the underlying pathophysiology of hepatic steatosis with the anticipation that these efforts will identify novel therapeutic targets. This study investigated the Petroselinum crispum extract in hepatic steatosis in rats fed with fructose enriched diet. Rats were divided into the 4 groups: Group 1 rats received standard pellet diet with corn starch for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 2 rats received standard pellet diet and 2 gm/kg body weight crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract for the entire experimental period of 8 weeks. Group 3 rats received modified fructose diet. Group 4 rats received modified fructose diet and 2gm/kg crude Parsley leaf ethanol extract. Hepatic function and structure was evaluated in these rats. Modified fructose diet produced dyslipidemia, hepatic steatosis and infiltration of inflammatory cells in the liver and higher plasma hepatic markers. Petroselinum crispum extract reversed metabolic changes such as abnormal crispum extract attenuated chronic changes in modified fructose diet induced NAFLD (Tab. 2, Fig. 3, Ref. 43).

  19. Selenium Nanoparticles Attenuate Oxidative Stress and Testicular Damage in Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Dkhil, Mohamed A; Zrieq, Rafat; Al-Quraishy, Saleh; Abdel Moneim, Ahmed E

    2016-11-19

    We investigated the protective and antioxidative effects of selenium nanoparticles (SeNPs) in streptozotocin STZ-induced diabetic rats. STZ-diabetic rats were exposed daily to treatments with SeNPs and/or insulin and then the effect of these treatments on the parameters correlated to oxidative damage of the rat testes were assessed. Biochemical analysis revealed that SeNPs are able to ameliorate the reduction in the serum testosterone caused by STZ-induced diabetes. Furthermore, SeNPs could significantly decrease testicular tissue oxidative stress markers, namely lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide. In contrast, treatment of the STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs increased the glutathione content and antioxidant enzyme activities in testicular tissues. Moreover, microscopic analysis proved that SeNPs are able to prevent histological damage in the testes of STZ-diabetic rats. Molecular analysis revealed that the mRNA level of Bcl-2 (B-cell lymphoma 2) is significantly upregulated. On the contrary, the mRNA level of Bax (Bcl-2 Associated X Protein) was significantly downregulated. Furthermore, treatment of STZ-diabetic rats with SeNPs led to an elevation in the expression of PCNA (Proliferating Cell Nuclear Antigen Gene). Interestingly, the insulin treatment also exhibited a significant improvement in the testicular function in STZ-diabetic rats. Collectively, our results demonstrated the possible effects of SeNPs in attenuating diabetes-induced oxidative damage, in particular in testicular tissue.

  20. Chronic Glibenclamide Treatment Attenuates Walker-256 Tumour Growth in Prediabetic Obese Rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva Franco, Claudinéia Conationi; Previate, Carina; de Barros Machado, Kátia Gama; Piovan, Silvano; Miranda, Rosiane Aparecida; Prates, Kelly Valério; Moreira, Veridiana Mota; de Oliveira, Júlio Cezar; Barella, Luiz Felipe; Gomes, Rodrigo Mello; Francisco, Flávio Andrade; Martins, Isabela Peixoto; Pavanello, Audrei; Ribeiro, Tatiane Aparecida; Tófolo, Laize Peron; Malta, Ananda; de Souza, Aline Amenencia; Alves, Vander Silva; da Silva Silveira, Sandra; Marçal Natali, Maria Raquel; Fernando Besson, Jean Carlos; de Morais, Hely; de Souza, Helenir Medri; de Sant Anna, Juliane Rocha; Alves de Castro Prado, Marialba Avezum; de Freitas Mathias, Paulo Cezar

    2017-01-01

    The sulphonylurea glibenclamide (Gli) is widely used in the treatment of type 2 diabetes. In addition to its antidiabetic effects, low incidences of certain types of cancer have been observed in Gli-treated diabetic patients. However, the mechanisms underlying this observation remain unclear. The aim of the present work was to evaluate whether obese adult rats that were chronically treated with an antidiabetic drug, glibenclamide, exhibit resistance to rodent breast carcinoma growth. Neonatal rats were treated with monosodium L-glutamate (MSG) to induce prediabetes. Control and MSG groups were treated with Gli (2 mg/kg body weight/day) from weaning to 100 days old. After Gli treatment, the control and MSG rats were grafted with Walker-256 tumour cells. After 14 days, grafted rats were euthanized, and tumour weight as well as glucose homeostasis were evaluated. Treatment with Gli normalized tissue insulin sensitivity and glucose tolerance, suppressed fasting hyperinsulinaemia, reduced fat tissue accretion in MSG rats, and attenuated tumour growth by 27% in control and MSG rats. Gli treatment also resulted in a large reduction in the number of PCNA-positive tumour cells. Although treatment did improve the metabolism of pre-diabetic MSG-rats, tumour growth inhibition may be a more direct effect of glibenclamide. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel.

  1. Quetiapine attenuates cognitive impairment and decreases seizure susceptibility possibly through promoting myelin development in a rat model of malformations of cortical development.

    PubMed

    Ma, Lei; Yang, Feng; Zhao, Rui; Li, Li; Kang, Xiaogang; Xiao, Lan; Jiang, Wen

    2015-10-05

    Developmental delay, cognitive impairment, and refractory epilepsy are the most frequent consequences found in patients suffering from malformations of cortical development (MCD). However, therapeutic options for these psychiatric and neurological comorbidities are currently limited. The development of white matter undergoes dramatic changes during postnatal brain maturation, thus myelination deficits resulting from MCD contribute to its comorbid diseases. Consequently, drugs specifically targeting white matter are a promising therapeutic option for the treatment of MCD. We have used an in utero irradiation rat model of MCD to investigate the effects of postnatal quetiapine treatment on brain myelination as well as neuropsychological and cognitive performances and seizure susceptibility. Fatally irradiated rats were treated with quetiapine (10mg/kg, i.p.) or saline once daily from postnatal day 0 (P0) to P30. We found that postnatal administration of quetiapine attenuated object recognition memory impairment and improved long-term spatial memory in the irradiated rats. Quetiapine treatment also reduced the susceptibility and severity of pentylenetetrazol-induced seizures. Importantly, quetiapine treatment resulted in an inhibition of irradiation-induced myelin breakdown in the cerebral cortex and corpus callosum. These findings suggest that quetiapine may have beneficial, postnatal effects in the irradiated rats, strongly suggesting that improving MCD-derived white matter pathology is a possible underlying mechanism. Collectively, these results indicate that brain myelination represents an encouraging pharmacological target to improve the prognosis of patients with MCD.

  2. Riboflavin attenuates lipopolysaccharide-induced lung injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Al-Harbi, Naif O; Imam, Faisal; Nadeem, Ahmed; Al-Harbi, Mohammed M; Korashy, Hesham M; Sayed-Ahmed, Mohammed M; Hafez, Mohamed M; Al-Shabanah, Othman A; Nagi, Mahmoud N; Bahashwan, Saleh

    2015-01-01

    Riboflavin (vitamin B2) is an easily absorbed micronutrient with a key role in maintaining health in humans and animals. It is the central component of the cofactors flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) and flavin mononucleotide (FMN) and is therefore required by all flavoproteins. Riboflavin also works as an antioxidant by scavenging free radicals. The present study was designed to evaluate the effects of riboflavin against acute lungs injury induced by the administration of a single intranasal dose (20 μg/rat) of lipopolysaccharides (LPS) in experimental rats. Administration of LPS resulted in marked increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) level (p < 0.01) and MPO activity (p < 0.001), whereas marked decrease in glutathione (GSH) content (p < 0.001), glutathione reductase (GR) (p < 0.001) and glutathione peroxidase (p < 0.01) activity. These changes were significantly (p < 0.001) improved by treatment with riboflavin in a dose-dependent manner (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively). Riboflavin (100 mg/kg, p.o.) showed similar protective effects as dexamethasone (1 mg/kg, p.o.). Administration of LPS showed marked cellular changes including interstitial edema, hemorrhage, infiltration of PMNs, etc., which were reversed by riboflavin administration. Histopathological examinations showed normal morphological structures of lungs tissue in the control group. These biochemical and histopathological examination were appended with iNOS and CAT gene expression. The iNOS mRNA expression was increased significantly (p < 0.001) and levels of CAT mRNA expression was decreased significantly (p < 0.001) in the animals exposed to LPS, while treatment with riboflavin significantly (p < 0.01) improved expression of both gene. In conclusion, the present study clearly demonstrated that riboflavin caused a protective effect against LPS-induced ALI. These results suggest that riboflavin may be used to protect against toxic effect of LPS in lungs.

  3. Effect of Hemin on Brain Alterations and Neuroglobin Expression in Water Immersion Restraint Stressed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ragy, Merhan; Ali, Fatma; Ramzy, Maggie M.

    2016-01-01

    In the brain, the heme oxygenase (HO) system has been reported to be very active and its modulation seems to play a crucial role in the pathophysiology of neurodegenerative disorders. Hemin as HO-1 inducer has been shown to attenuate neuronal injury so the goal of this study was to assess the effect of hemin therapy on the acute stress and how it would modulate neurological outcome. Thirty male albino rats were divided into three groups: control group and stressed group with six-hour water immersion restraint stress (WIRS) and stressed group, treated with hemin, in which each rat received a single intraperitoneal injection of hemin at a dose level of 50 mg/kg body weight at 12 hours before exposure to WIRS. Stress hormones, oxidative stress markers, malondialdehyde (MDA), and total antioxidant capacity (TAC) were measured and expressions of neuroglobin and S100B mRNA in brain tissue were assayed. Our results revealed that hemin significantly affects brain alterations induced by acute stress and this may be through increased expression of neuroglobin and through antioxidant effect. Hemin decreased blood-brain barrier damage as it significantly decreased the expression of S100B. These results suggest that hemin may be an effective therapy for being neuroprotective against acute stress. PMID:27073715

  4. An Aminopyridazine Inhibitor of Death Associated Protein Kinase Attenuates Hypoxia-Ischemia Induced Brain Damage

    SciTech Connect

    Velentza, A.V.; Wainwright, M.S.; Zasadzki, M.; Mirzoeva, S.; Haiech, J.; Focia, P.J.; Egli, M.; Watterson, D.M.

    2010-03-08

    Death associated protein kinase (DAPK) is a calcium and calmodulin regulated enzyme that functions early in eukaryotic programmed cell death, or apoptosis. To validate DAPK as a potential drug discovery target for acute brain injury, the first small molecule DAPK inhibitor was synthesized and tested in vivo. A single injection of the aminopyridazine-based inhibitor administered 6 h after injury attenuated brain tissue or neuronal biomarker loss measured, respectively, 1 week and 3 days later. Because aminopyridazine is a privileged structure in neuropharmacology, we determined the high-resolution crystal structure of a binary complex between the kinase domain and a molecular fragment of the DAPK inhibitor. The co-crystal structure describes a structural basis for interaction and provides a firm foundation for structure-assisted design of lead compounds with appropriate molecular properties for future drug development.

  5. MR-guided joint reconstruction of activity and attenuation in brain PET-MR.

    PubMed

    Mehranian, Abolfazl; Zaidi, Habib; Reader, Andrew J

    2017-09-13

    structural boundaries and at the same time improving the quantitative accuracy of the PET images. Our clinical reconstruction results showed that the MLEM-MRAC, P-MLEM-MRAC, MLAA, P-MLAA(+) and P-MLAA(++) algorithms result in, on average, quantification errors of -13.5 ± 3.1%, -13.4 ± 3.1%, -2.0 ± 6.5%, -3.0 ± 3.5% and -4.2 ± 3.6%, respectively, in different regions of the brain. In conclusion, whilst the P-MLAA(+) algorithm showed the best overall quantification performance, the proposed P-MLAA(++) algorithm provided simultaneous partial volume and attenuation corrections with only a minor compromise of PET quantification. Copyright © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Estrogen attenuates chronic volume overload induced structural and functional remodeling in male rat hearts.

    PubMed

    Gardner, Jason D; Murray, David B; Voloshenyuk, Tetyana G; Brower, Gregory L; Bradley, Jessica M; Janicki, Joseph S

    2010-02-01

    We have previously reported gender differences in ventricular remodeling and development of heart failure using the aortocaval fistula model of chronic volume overload in rats. In contrast to males, female rats exhibited no adverse ventricular remodeling and less mortality in response to volume overload. This gender-specific cardioprotection was lost following ovariectomy and was partially restored using estrogen replacement. However, it is not known if estrogen treatment would be as effective in males. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the structural and functional effects of estrogen in male rats subjected to chronic volume overload. Four groups of male rats were studied at 3 days and 8 wk postsurgery as follows: fistula and sham-operated controls, with and without estrogen treatment. Biochemical and histological studies were performed at 3 days postsurgery, with chronic structural and functional effects studied at 8 wk. Measurement of systolic and diastolic pressure-volume relationships was obtained using a blood-perfused isolated heart preparation. Both fistula groups developed significant ventricular hypertrophy after 8 wk of volume overload. Untreated rats with fistula exhibited extensive ventricular dilatation, which was coupled with a loss of systolic function. Estrogen attenuated left ventricular dilatation and maintained function in treated rats. Estrogen treatment was also associated with a reduction in oxidative stress and circulating endothelin-1 levels, as well as prevention of matrix metalloproteinase-2 and -9 activation and breakdown of ventricular collagen in the early stage of remodeling. These data demonstrate that estrogen attenuates ventricular remodeling and disease progression in male rats subjected to chronic volume overload.

  7. Role of AT1 receptors in permeability of the blood-brain barrier in diabetic hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Awad, Azza S

    2006-09-01

    The precise mechanisms of vascular diseases in patients with diabetic hypertensive are not clearly understood. There are evidences of alteration in permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) in diabetic hypertensive rats. This study sought to examine the effect of candesartan on the systolic blood pressure and the brain endothelial barrier function and antioxidant enzymes in rat brain. Five groups of eight male Sprague-Dawley rats include: control group (gpI), diabetic hypertensive group (gpII), diabetic hypertensive group treated with candesartan (gpIII), diabetic hypertensive rats with epinephrine (gpIV) and diabetic hypertensive rats with epinephrine treated with candesartan (gpV). Diabetes was induced by single injection of 55 mg kg(-1) streptozotocin (STZ) i.p. Blood glucose was measured, rats with blood glucose higher than 300 mg/dl were identified as diabetic. After induction of diabetes, rats received L-NAME (0.5 mg/ml in drinking water for 1 week) starting on the day 4 after STZ injection. Systolic blood pressure (SBP) was recorded two times, at day 0 (before starting L-NAME) and at day 7 (after L-NAME treatment). Also, body weight was measured two times, at initial time (before STZ injection) and terminal (at the last day in the experiment). On the day of acute experiment, rats were anesthetized with sodium pentobarbital (35 mg/kg, i.p.). The integrity of the BBB was investigated using Evans blue (EB) dye (4 ml/kg, 2%). Epinephrine was used (40 micro g/kg) to increase the permeability of the brain. After decapitation, first the brain was removed, next homogenized and then the content of EB dye in the brain was measured. Another five groups of rats manipulated with the same manner except EB dye injection. These second group to evaluate antioxidant enzymes, reduced glutathione (GSH), lipid peroxides and superoxide dismutase (SOD) in brain homogenate. This study indicates that, in diabetic hypertensive rats, epinephrine administration leads to increase in

  8. Attenuated glomerular arginine transport prevents hyperfiltration and induces HIF-1α in the pregnant uremic rat.

    PubMed

    Schwartz, Idit F; Grupper, Ayelet; Soetendorp, Hila; Hillel, Oren; Laron, Ido; Chernichovski, Tamara; Ingbir, Merav; Shtabski, Allexander; Weinstein, Talia; Chernin, Gil; Shashar, Moshe; Hershkoviz, Rami; Schwartz, Doron

    2012-08-01

    Pregnancy worsens renal function in females with chronic renal failure (CRF) through an unknown mechanism. Reduced nitric oxide (NO) generation induces renal injury. Arginine transport by cationic amino acid transporter-1 (CAT-1), which governs endothelial NO generation, is reduced in both renal failure and pregnancy. We hypothesize that attenuated maternal glomerular arginine transport promotes renal damage in CRF pregnant rats. In uremic rats, pregnancy induced a significant decrease in glomerular arginine transport and cGMP generation (a measure of NO production) compared with CRF or pregnancy alone and these effects were prevented by l-arginine. While CAT-1 abundance was unchanged in all experimental groups, protein kinase C (PKC)-α, phosphorylated PKC-α (CAT-1 inhibitor), and phosphorylated CAT-1 were significantly augmented in CRF, pregnant, and pregnant CRF animals; phenomena that were prevented by coadministrating l-arginine. α-Tocopherol (PKC inhibitor) significantly increased arginine transport in both pregnant and CRF pregnant rats, effects that were attenuated by ex vivo incubation of glomeruli with PMA (a PKC stimulant). Renal histology revealed no differences between all experimental groups. Inulin and p-aminohippurate clearances failed to augment and renal cortical expression of hypoxia inducible factor-1α (HIF-1α) significantly increased in CRF pregnant rat, findings that were prevented by arginine. These studies suggest that in CRF rats, pregnancy induces a profound decrease in glomerular arginine transport, through posttranslational regulation of CAT-1 by PKC-α, resulting in attenuated NO generation. These events provoke renal damage manifested by upregulation of renal HIF-1α and loss of the ability to increase glomerular filtration rate during gestation.

  9. Diosgenin attenuates vascular calcification in chronic renal failure rats.

    PubMed

    Manivannan, Jeganathan; Barathkumar, T R; Sivasubramanian, Jeganathan; Arunagiri, Pandian; Raja, Boobalan; Balamurugan, Elumalai

    2013-06-01

    Vascular calcification due to elevated phosphate levels is the major contributor of cardiovascular dysfunction. The oxidative stress and gene expression events modulate the transdifferentiation of vascular smooth muscle cells into osteogenic phenotype. This present study intends to evaluate the dose-dependent effect of diosgenin, an antioxidant on high phosphate induced vascular calcification in adenine-induced chronic renal failure rats. High phosphate environment causes elevated calcium accumulation with related histological changes and alkaline phosphatase activity in aorta. Further it downregulates the activity of enzymatic antioxidants and elevates the level of lipid peroxidative markers. Moreover, the renal failure leads to reduced nitric oxide production. But, treatment with diosgenin at a dose of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg given via oral gavages causes reversion of all the above events in a dose-dependent manner. The highest dose has shown more potential activity than other two doses, which has the ability to protect the alteration of liver markers and red blood cell antioxidant system without any adverse effects and it does not alter the kidney associated changes too. Finally, the Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy study strongly supports its ability to protect the macromolecules from oxidative stress. All the above evidences show that diosgenin has overall benefits against renal failure-induced vascular calcification-associated oxidative stress.

  10. Isoflurane anesthesia initiated at the onset of reperfusion attenuates oxidative and hypoxic-ischemic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sosunov, Sergey A; Ameer, Xavier; Niatsetskaya, Zoya V; Utkina-Sosunova, Irina; Ratner, Veniamin I; Ten, Vadim S

    2015-01-01

    This study demonstrates that in mice subjected to hypoxia-ischemia (HI) brain injury isoflurane anesthesia initiated upon reperfusion limits a release of mitochondrial oxidative radicals by inhibiting a recovery of complex-I dependent mitochondrial respiration. This significantly attenuates an oxidative stress and reduces the extent of HI brain injury. Neonatal mice were subjected to HI, and at the initiation of reperfusion were exposed to isoflurane with or without mechanical ventilation. At the end of HI and isoflurane exposure cerebral mitochondrial respiration, H2O2 emission rates were measured followed by an assessment of cerebral oxidative damage and infarct volumes. At 8 weeks after HI navigational memory and brain atrophy were assessed. In vitro, direct effect of isoflurane on mitochondrial H2O2 emission was compared to that of complex-I inhibitor, rotenone. Compared to controls, 15 minutes of isoflurane anesthesia inhibited recovery of the compex I-dependent mitochondrial respiration and decreased H2O2 production in mitochondria supported with succinate. This was associated with reduced oxidative brain injury, superior navigational memory and decreased cerebral atrophy compared to the vehicle-treated HI-mice. Extended isoflurane anesthesia was associated with sluggish recovery of cerebral blood flow (CBF) and the neuroprotection was lost. However, when isoflurane anesthesia was supported with mechanical ventilation the CBF recovery improved, the event associated with further reduction of infarct volume compared to HI-mice exposed to isoflurane without respiratory support. Thus, in neonatal mice brief isoflurane anesthesia initiated at the onset of reperfusion limits mitochondrial release of oxidative radicals and attenuates an oxidative stress. This novel mechanism contributes to neuroprotective action of isoflurane. The use of mechanical ventilation during isoflurane anesthesia counterbalances negative effect of isoflurane anesthesia on recovery of

  11. Hydrophilic solute transport across the rat blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchesi, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brain capillary permeability-surface area products (PS) of hydrophilic solutes ranging in size from 180 to 5,500 Daltons were measured in rats according to the method of Ohno, Pettigrew and Rapoport. The distribution volume of 70 KD dextran at 10 minutes after i.v. injection was also measured to determine the residual volume of blood in brain tissue at the time of sacrifice. Small test solutes were injected in pairs in order to elucidate whether their transfer into the brain proceeds by diffusion through water- or lipid-filled channels or by vesicular transport. This issue was examined in rats whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) was presumed to be intact (untreated) and in rats that received intracarotid infusions to open the BBB (isosmotic salt (ISS) and hyperosmolar arabinose). Ohno PS values of {sup 3}H-inulin and {sup 14}C-L-glucose in untreated rats were found to decrease as the labelling time was lengthened. This was evidence that a rapidly equilibrating compartment exists between blood and brain that renders the Ohno two-compartment model inadequate for computing true transfer rate constants. When the data were reanalyzed using a multi-compartment graphical analysis, solutes with different molecular radii were found to enter the brain at approximately equal rates. Furthermore, unidirectional transport is likely to be initiated by solute adsorption to a glycocalyx coat on the luminal surface of brain capillary endothelium. Apparently, more inulin than L-glucose was adsorbed, which may account for its slightly faster transfer across the BBB. After rats were treated with intracarotid infusions of ISS or hyperosmolar arabinose, solute PS values were significantly increased, but the ratio of PS for each of the solute pairs approached that of their free-diffusion coefficients.

  12. Swimming attenuates D-galactose-induced brain aging via suppressing miR-34a-mediated autophagy impairment and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics.

    PubMed

    Kou, Xianjuan; Li, Jie; Liu, Xingran; Chang, Jingru; Zhao, Qingxia; Jia, Shaohui; Fan, Jingjing; Chen, Ning

    2017-03-16

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) have been reported to be involved in many neurodegenerative diseases. In order to explore the regulatory role of miR-34a in aging-related diseases such as Alzheimer's disease (AD) during exercise intervention, we constructed a rat model with (D-galactose) D-gal-induced oxidative stress and cognitive impairment coupled with dysfunctional autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics, determined the mitigation of cognitive impairment of D-gal-induced aging rats during swimming intervention, and evaluated miR-34a-mediated functional status of autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics. Meanwhile, whether the up-regulation of miR-34a can lead to dysfunctional autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics was confirmed in human SH-SY5Y cells with silenced miR-34a by the transfection of miR-34a inhibitor. Results indicated that swimming intervention could significantly attenuate cognitive impairment, rescue the up-regulation of miR-34a, mitigate the dysfunctional autophagy, and inhibit the increase of Drp1 in D-gal-induced aging model rats. In contrast, miR-34a inhibitor in cell model not only attenuated D-gal-induced autophagy impairment, but also decreased the expression of Drp1 and Mfn2. Therefore, swimming training can attenuate the impairment of miR-34a-mediated autophagy and abnormal mitochondrial dynamics during D-gal-induced aging process in rat hippocampal tissue, which may be one of the mechanisms for delaying brain aging through swimming training, and miR-34a could be the novel therapeutic target for aging-related diseases such as AD.

  13. In vivo evidence of methamphetamine induced attenuation of brain tissue oxygenation as measured by EPR oximetry

    SciTech Connect

    Weaver, John; Yang, Yirong; Purvis, Rebecca; Weatherwax, Theodore; Rosen, Gerald M.; Liu, Ke Jian

    2014-03-01

    Abuse of methamphetamine (METH) is a major and significant societal problem in the US, as a number of studies have suggested that METH is associated with increased cerebrovascular events, hemorrhage or vasospasm. Although cellular and molecular mechanisms involved in METH-induced toxicity are not completely understood, changes in brain O{sub 2} may play an important role and contribute to METH-induced neurotoxicity including dopaminergic receptor degradation. Given that O{sub 2} is the terminal electron acceptor for many enzymes that are important in brain function, the impact of METH on brain tissue pO{sub 2}in vivo remains largely uncharacterized. This study investigated striatal tissue pO{sub 2} changes in male C57BL/6 mice (16–20 g) following METH administration using EPR oximetry, a highly sensitive modality to measure pO{sub 2}in vivo, in situ and in real time. We demonstrate that 20 min after a single injection of METH (8 mg/kg i.v.), the striatal pO{sub 2} was reduced to 81% of the pretreatment level and exposure to METH for 3 consecu