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Sample records for rat brain coupled

  1. Connexin expression in electrically coupled postnatal rat brain neurons

    PubMed Central

    Venance, Laurent; Rozov, Andrei; Blatow, Maria; Burnashev, Nail; Feldmeyer, Dirk; Monyer, Hannah

    2000-01-01

    Electrical coupling by gap junctions is an important form of cell-to-cell communication in early brain development. Whereas glial cells remain electrically coupled at postnatal stages, adult vertebrate neurons were thought to communicate mainly via chemical synapses. There is now accumulating evidence that in certain neuronal cell populations the capacity for electrical signaling by gap junction channels is still present in the adult. Here we identified electrically coupled pairs of neurons between postnatal days 12 and 18 in rat visual cortex, somatosensory cortex, and hippocampus. Notably, coupling was found both between pairs of inhibitory neurons and between inhibitory and excitatory neurons. Molecular analysis by single-cell reverse transcription–PCR revealed a differential expression pattern of connexins in these identified neurons. PMID:10944183

  2. Electrical coupling between hippocampal astrocytes in rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    Meme, William; Vandecasteele, Marie; Giaume, Christian; Venance, Laurent

    2009-04-01

    Gap junctions in astrocytes play a crucial role in intercellular communication by supporting both biochemical and electrical coupling between adjacent cells. Despite the critical role of electrical coupling in the network organization of these glial cells, the electrophysiological properties of gap junctions have been characterized in cultures while no direct evidence has been sought in situ. In the present study, gap-junctional currents were investigated using simultaneous dual whole-cell patch-clamp recordings between astrocytes from rat hippocampal slices. Bidirectional electrotonic coupling was observed in 82% of the cell pairs with an average coupling coefficient of 5.1%. Double patch-clamp analysis indicated that junctional currents were independent of the transjunctional voltage over a range from -100 to +110 mV. Interestingly, astrocytic electrical coupling displayed weak low-pass filtering properties compared to neuronal electrical synapses. Finally, during uncoupling processes triggered by either the gap-junction inhibitor carbenoxolone or endothelin-1, an increase in the input resistance in the injected cell paralleled the decrease in the coupling coefficient. Altogether, these results demonstrate that hippocampal astrocytes are electrically coupled through gap-junction channels characterized by properties that are distinct from those of electrical synapses between neurons. In addition, gap-junctional communication is efficiently regulated by endogenous compounds. This is taken to represent a mode of communication that may have important implications for the functional role of astrocyte networks in situ.

  3. Automatic cropping of MRI rat brain volumes using pulse coupled neural networks.

    PubMed

    Murugavel, Murali; Sullivan, John M

    2009-04-15

    The Pulse Coupled Neural Network (PCNN) was developed by Eckhorn to model the observed synchronization of neural assemblies in the visual cortex of small mammals such as a cat. In this paper we show the use of the PCNN as an image segmentation strategy to crop MR images of rat brain volumes. We then show the use of the associated PCNN image 'signature' to automate the brain cropping process with a trained artificial neural network. We tested this novel algorithm on three T2 weighted acquisition configurations comprising a total of 42 rat brain volumes. The datasets included 40 ms, 48 ms and 53 ms effective TEs, acquisition field strengths of 4.7 T and 9.4 T, image resolutions from 64x64 to 256x256, slice locations ranging from +6 mm to -11 mm AP, two different surface coil manufacturers and imaging protocols. The results were compared against manually segmented gold standards and Brain Extraction Tool (BET) V2.1 results. The Jaccard similarity index was used for numerical evaluation of the proposed algorithm. Our novel PCNN cropping system averaged 0.93 compared to BET scores circa 0.84.

  4. Thiamine triphosphate synthesis in rat brain occurs in mitochondria and is coupled to the respiratory chain.

    PubMed

    Gangolf, Marjorie; Wins, Pierre; Thiry, Marc; El Moualij, Benaïssa; Bettendorff, Lucien

    2010-01-01

    In animals, thiamine deficiency leads to specific brain lesions, generally attributed to decreased levels of thiamine diphosphate, an essential cofactor in brain energy metabolism. However, another far less abundant derivative, thiamine triphosphate (ThTP), may also have a neuronal function. Here, we show that in the rat brain, ThTP is essentially present and synthesized in mitochondria. In mitochondrial preparations from brain (but not liver), ThTP can be produced from thiamine diphosphate and P(i). This endergonic process is coupled to the oxidation of succinate or NADH through the respiratory chain but cannot be energized by ATP hydrolysis. ThTP synthesis is strongly inhibited by respiratory chain inhibitors, such as myxothiazol and inhibitors of the H(+) channel of F(0)F(1)-ATPase. It is also impaired by disruption of the mitochondria or by depolarization of the inner membrane (by protonophores or valinomycin), indicating that a proton-motive force (Deltap) is required. Collapsing Deltap after ThTP synthesis causes its rapid disappearance, suggesting that both synthesis and hydrolysis are catalyzed by a reversible H(+)-translocating ThTP synthase. The synthesized ThTP can be released from mitochondria in the presence of external P(i). However, ThTP probably does not accumulate in the cytoplasm in vivo, because it is not detected in the cytosolic fraction obtained from a brain homogenate. Our results show for the first time that a high energy triphosphate compound other than ATP can be produced by a chemiosmotic type of mechanism. This might shed a new light on our understanding of the mechanisms of thiamine deficiency-induced brain lesions.

  5. Involvement of Proton-Coupled Organic Cation Antiporter in Varenicline Transport at Blood-Brain Barrier of Rats and in Human Brain Capillary Endothelial Cells.

    PubMed

    Kurosawa, Toshiki; Higuchi, Kei; Okura, Takashi; Kobayashi, Kazumasa; Kusuhara, Hiroyuki; Deguchi, Yoshiharu

    2017-09-01

    Varenicline is a selective partial α4β2 nicotinic acetylcholine receptor agonist, which is used to help achieve smoking cessation. Here, we investigated varenicline transport at the blood-brain barrier by means of in vivo microdialysis, in situ brain perfusion, and brain efflux index measurements in rats, and in vitro uptake studies in human brain capillary endothelial cells. Microdialysis demonstrated that varenicline is actively transported from blood to brain in rats. Blood-to-brain uptake transport of varenicline, as measured by the in situ brain perfusion technique, was strongly inhibited by diphenhydramine, a potent inhibitor of proton-coupled organic cation (H(+)/OC) antiporter. However, brain efflux index study showed that brain-to-blood efflux transport of varenicline was not inhibited by diphenhydramine. In human brain capillary endothelial cells, varenicline was taken up time- and concentration-dependently. The uptake was dependent on an oppositely directed proton gradient, but was independent of extracellular sodium and membrane potential. The uptake was inhibited by a metabolic inhibitor, and by substrates of H(+)/OC antiporter, but not by substrates or inhibitors of OCTs, OCTNs, PMAT, and MATE1, which are known organic cation transporters. The present results suggest that the H(+)/OC antiporter contributes predominantly to varenicline uptake at the blood-brain barrier. Copyright © 2017 American Pharmacists Association®. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Biofuel cell based on microscale nanostructured electrodes with inductive coupling to rat brain neurons.

    PubMed

    Andoralov, Viktor; Falk, Magnus; Suyatin, Dmitry B; Granmo, Marcus; Sotres, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir O; Schouenborg, Jens; Blum, Zoltan; Shleev, Sergey

    2013-11-20

    Miniature, self-contained biodevices powered by biofuel cells may enable a new generation of implantable, wireless, minimally invasive neural interfaces for neurophysiological in vivo studies and for clinical applications. Here we report on the fabrication of a direct electron transfer based glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) from genuinely three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured microscale gold electrodes, modified with suitable biocatalysts. We show that the process underlying the simple fabrication method of 3D nanostructured electrodes is based on an electrochemically driven transformation of physically deposited gold nanoparticles. We experimentally demonstrate that mediator-, cofactor-, and membrane-less EFCs do operate in cerebrospinal fluid and in the brain of a rat, producing amounts of electrical power sufficient to drive a self-contained biodevice, viz. 7 μW cm(-2) in vitro and 2 μW cm(-2) in vivo at an operating voltage of 0.4 V. Last but not least, we also demonstrate an inductive coupling between 3D nanobioelectrodes and living neurons.

  7. Biofuel Cell Based on Microscale Nanostructured Electrodes with Inductive Coupling to Rat Brain Neurons

    PubMed Central

    Andoralov, Viktor; Falk, Magnus; Suyatin, Dmitry B.; Granmo, Marcus; Sotres, Javier; Ludwig, Roland; Popov, Vladimir O.; Schouenborg, Jens; Blum, Zoltan; Shleev, Sergey

    2013-01-01

    Miniature, self-contained biodevices powered by biofuel cells may enable a new generation of implantable, wireless, minimally invasive neural interfaces for neurophysiological in vivo studies and for clinical applications. Here we report on the fabrication of a direct electron transfer based glucose/oxygen enzymatic fuel cell (EFC) from genuinely three-dimensional (3D) nanostructured microscale gold electrodes, modified with suitable biocatalysts. We show that the process underlying the simple fabrication method of 3D nanostructured electrodes is based on an electrochemically driven transformation of physically deposited gold nanoparticles. We experimentally demonstrate that mediator-, cofactor-, and membrane-less EFCs do operate in cerebrospinal fluid and in the brain of a rat, producing amounts of electrical power sufficient to drive a self-contained biodevice, viz. 7 μW cm−2 in vitro and 2 μW cm−2 in vivo at an operating voltage of 0.4 V. Last but not least, we also demonstrate an inductive coupling between 3D nanobioelectrodes and living neurons. PMID:24253492

  8. Angiotensin II receptor subtypes are coupled with distinct signal-transduction mechanisms in neurons and astrocytes from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sumners, C.; Wei Tang; Zelezna, B.; Raizada, M.K. )

    1991-09-01

    Both neurons and astrocytes contain specific receptors for angiotensin II (AII). The authors used selective ligands for the AT{sub 1} and AT{sub 2} types of AII receptors to investigate the expression of functional receptor subtypes in astrocyte cultures and neuron cultures from 1-day-old (neonatal) rat brain. In astrocyte cultures, competition of {sup 125}I-labeled AII ({sup 125}I-AII) specific binding with AT{sub 1} (DuP753) or AT{sub 2} {l brace}PD123177, CGP42112A, (Phe(p-NH{sub 2}){sup 6})AII{r brace} selective receptor ligands revealed a potency series of AII > DuP753 > > > CGP42112A > (Phe(p-NH{sub 2}){sup 6})AII > PD123177. These results suggest a predominance of the AT{sub 1} receptor subtype in neonatal astrocytes. {sup 125}I-AII specific binding to neonate neuronal cultures was reduced 73-84% by 1 {mu} MPD123177, and the residual {sup 125}I-AII specific binding was eliminated by DuP753. The results suggest that astrocyte cultures from neonatal rat brains contain predominantly AT{sub 1} receptors that are coupled to a stimulation of inositophospholipid hydrolysis. In contrast, neuron cultures from neonatal rat brain contain mostly AT{sub 2} receptors that are coupled to a reduction in basal cGMP levels, but a smaller population of AT{sub 1} receptors is also present in these neurons.

  9. Distribution of temperature changes and neurovascular coupling in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") exposure.

    PubMed

    Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G; Jiang, Lihong; Hyder, Fahmeed; Behar, Kevin L

    2015-10-01

    (+/-)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, "ecstasy") is an abused psychostimulant that produces strong monoaminergic stimulation and whole-body hyperthermia. MDMA-induced thermogenesis involves activation of uncoupling proteins (UCPs), primarily a type specific to skeletal muscle (UCP-3) and absent from the brain, although other UCP types are expressed in the brain (e.g. thalamus) and might contribute to thermogenesis. Since neuroimaging of brain temperature could provide insights into MDMA action, we measured spatial distributions of systemically administered MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in rat cortex and subcortex using a novel magnetic resonance method, Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation in Shifts (BIRDS), with an exogenous temperature-sensitive probe (thulium ion and macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (DOTMA(4-))). The MDMA-induced temperature rise was greater in the cortex than in the subcortex (1.6 ± 0.4 °C versus 1.3 ± 0.4 °C) and occurred more rapidly (2.0 ± 0.2 °C/h versus 1.5 ± 0.2 °C/h). MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in the cortex and body were correlated, although the body temperature exceeded the cortex temperature before and after MDMA. Temperature, neuronal activity, and blood flow (CBF) were measured simultaneously in the cortex and subcortex (i.e. thalamus) to investigate possible differences of MDMA-induced warming across brain regions. MDMA-induced warming correlated with increases in neuronal activity and blood flow in the cortex, suggesting that the normal neurovascular response to increased neural activity was maintained. In contrast to the cortex, a biphasic relationship was seen in the subcortex (i.e. thalamus), with a decline in CBF as temperature and neural activity rose, transitioning to a rise in CBF for temperature above 37 °C, suggesting that MDMA affected CBF and neurovascular coupling differently in subcortical regions

  10. Distribution of temperature changes and neurovascular coupling in rat brain following 3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA,‘ecstasy’) exposure

    PubMed Central

    Coman, Daniel; Sanganahalli, Basavaraju G.; Jiang, Lihong; Hyder, Fahmeed; Behar, Kevin L.

    2015-01-01

    (+/−)3,4-methylenedioxymethamphetamine (MDMA, ‘ecstasy’) is an abused psychostimulant producing strong monoaminergic stimulation and whole-body hyperthermia. MDMA-induced thermogenesis involves activation of uncoupling proteins (UCP), primarily a type specific to skeletal muscle (UCP-3) and which is absent in brain, although other UCP types are expressed in brain (e.g., thalamus) and might contribute to thermogenesis. Since neuroimaging of brain temperature could provide insights of MDMA action, we measured spatial distributions of systemically-administered MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in rat cortex and subcortex using a novel magnetic resonance method, Biosensor Imaging of Redundant Deviation of Shifts (BIRDS), with an exogenous temperature-sensitive probe (thulium ion and macrocyclic chelate 1,4,7,10-tetraazacyclododecane-1,4,7,10-tetramethyl-1,4,7,10-tetraacetate (DOTMA4−)). The MDMA-induced temperature rise in cortex was greater than in subcortex (1.6±0.4°C vs. 1.3±0.4°C) and occurred more rapidly (2.0±0.2°C/h vs. 1.5±0.2°C/h). MDMA-induced temperature changes and dynamics in cortex and body were correlated, although body temperature exceeded cortex before and after MDMA. Temperature, neuronal activity, and blood flow (CBF) were measured simultaneously in cortex and subcortex (i.e., thalamus) to investigate possible differences of MDMA-induced warming across brain regions. MDMA-induced warming correlated with increases in neuronal activity and blood flow in cortex, suggesting that the normal neurovascular response to increased neural activity was maintained. In contrast to cortex, a biphasic relationship was seen in subcortex (i.e., thalamus), with a decline in CBF as temperature and neural activity rose, transitioning to a rise in CBF for temperature >37°C, suggesting that MDMA affected CBF and neurovascular coupling differently in subcortical regions. Considering that MDMA effects on CBF and heat dissipation (as well as

  11. gamma. -Aminobutyric acid transport in reconstituted preparations from rat brain: coupled sodium and chloride fluxes

    SciTech Connect

    Keynan, S.; Kanner, B.I.

    1988-01-12

    Transport of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is electrogenic and completely depends on the presence of both sodium and chloride ions. These ions appear to be cotransported with ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid through its transporter. Using proteoliposomes into which a partially purified ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid transporter preparation was reconstituted. The authors have been able-for the first time-to provide direct evidence for sodium- and chloride-coupled ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid transport. This has been done by measuring the fluxes of /sup 22/Na/sup +/, /sup 36/Cl/sup -/, and (/sup 3/H)GABA. These fluxes have the following characteristics: There are components of the net fluxes of sodium and chloride that are ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid dependent. The sodium flux is chloride dependent. The chloride flux is sodium dependent. Thus, the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid dependent sodium and chloride fluxes appear to be catalyzed by the transporter. Using these fluxes they have attempted to determine the stoichiometry of the process. They measured the initial rate of sodium-dependent ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid fluxes and that of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid dependent sodium fluxes. Similarly, they measured the stoichiometry between chloride and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid. The half-maximal effect obtained when the ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid concentration dependence of Cl/sup -/ and Na/sup +/ transport is determined is much higher than the known K/sub m/ of this system. Reexamination of the kinetics of ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid transport reveals that there are two transport systems for it. The sodium, chloride, and ..gamma..-aminobutyric acid fluxes probably originate from the low-affinity transporter.

  12. Opening of Astrocytic Mitochondrial ATP-Sensitive Potassium Channels Upregulates Electrical Coupling between Hippocampal Astrocytes in Rat Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jiangping; Li, Zhongxia; Feng, Mei; Ren, Keming; Shen, Guoxia; Zhao, Congying; Jin, Xiaoming; Jiang, Kewen

    2013-01-01

    Astrocytes form extensive intercellular networks through gap junctions to support both biochemical and electrical coupling between adjacent cells. ATP-sensitive K+ (KATP) channels couple cell metabolic state to membrane excitability and are enriched in glial cells. Activation of astrocytic mitochondrial KATP (mitoKATP) channel regulates certain astrocytic functions. However, less is known about its impact on electrical coupling between directly coupled astrocytes ex vivo. By using dual patch clamp recording, we found that activation of mitoKATP channel increased the electrical coupling ratio in brain slices. The electrical coupling ratio started to increase 3 min after exposure to Diazoxide, a mitoKATP channel activator, peaked at 5 min, and maintained its level with little adaptation until the end of the 10-min treatment. Blocking the mitoKATP channel with 5-hydroxydecanoate, inhibited electrical coupling immediately, and by 10-min, the ratio dropped by 71% of the initial level. Activation of mitoKATP channel also decreased the latency time of the transjunctional currents by 50%. The increase in the coupling ratio resulting from the activation of the mitoKATP channel in a single astrocyte was further potentiated by the concurrent inhibiting of the channel on the recipient astrocyte. Furthermore, Meclofenamic acid, a gap-junction inhibitor which completely blocked the tracer coupling, hardly reversed the impact of mitoKATP channel's activation on electrical coupling (by 7%). The level of mitochondrial Connexin43, a gap junctional subunit, significantly increased by 70% in astrocytes after 10-min Diazoxide treatment. Phospho-ERK signals were detected in Connexin43 immunoprecipitates in the Diazoxide-treated astrocytes, but not untreated control samples. Finally, inhibiting ERK could attenuate the effects of Diazoxide on electrical coupling by 61%. These findings demonstrate that activation of astrocytic mitoKATP channel upregulates electrical coupling between

  13. Phase-amplitude coupling and infraslow (<1 Hz) frequencies in the rat brain: relationship to resting state fMRI

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Garth J.; Pan, Wen-Ju; Billings, Jacob C. W.; Grooms, Joshua K.; Shakil, Sadia; Jaeger, Dieter; Keilholz, Shella D.

    2014-01-01

    Resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) can identify network alterations that occur in complex psychiatric diseases and behaviors, but its interpretation is difficult because the neural basis of the infraslow BOLD fluctuations is poorly understood. Previous results link dynamic activity during the resting state to both infraslow frequencies in local field potentials (LFP) (<1 Hz) and band-limited power in higher frequency LFP (>1 Hz). To investigate the relationship between these frequencies, LFPs were recorded from rats under two anesthetics: isoflurane and dexmedetomidine. Signal phases were calculated from low-frequency LFP and compared to signal amplitudes from high-frequency LFP to determine if modulation existed between the two frequency bands (phase-amplitude coupling). Isoflurane showed significant, consistent phase-amplitude coupling at nearly all pairs of frequencies, likely due to the burst-suppression pattern of activity that it induces. However, no consistent phase-amplitude coupling was observed in rats that were anesthetized with dexmedetomidine. fMRI-LFP correlations under isoflurane using high frequency LFP were reduced when the low frequency LFP's influence was accounted for, but not vice-versa, or in any condition under dexmedetomidine. The lack of consistent phase-amplitude coupling under dexmedetomidine and lack of shared variance between high frequency and low frequency LFP as it relates to fMRI suggests that high and low frequency neural electrical signals may contribute differently, possibly even independently, to resting state fMRI. This finding suggests that researchers take care in interpreting the neural basis of resting state fMRI, as multiple dynamic factors in the underlying electrophysiology could be driving any particular observation. PMID:24904325

  14. Implanted, inductively-coupled, radiofrequency coils fabricated on flexible polymeric material: Application to in vivo rat brain MRI at 7 T

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ginefri, J.-C.; Rubin, A.; Tatoulian, M.; Woytasik, M.; Boumezbeur, F.; Djemaï, B.; Poirier-Quinot, M.; Lethimonnier, F.; Darrasse, L.; Dufour-Gergam, E.

    2012-11-01

    Combined with high-field MRI scanners, small implanted coils allow for high resolution imaging with locally improved SNR, as compared to external coils. Small flexible implantable coils dedicated to in vivo MRI of the rat brain at 7 T were developed. Based on the Multi-turn Transmission Line Resonator design, they were fabricated with a Teflon substrate using copper micromolding process and a specific metal-polymer adhesion treatment. The implanted coils were made biocompatible by PolyDimethylSiloxane (PDMS) encapsulation. The use of low loss tangent material achieves low dielectric losses within the substrate and the use of the PDMS layer reduces the parasitic coupling with the surrounding media. An implanted coil was implemented in a 7 T MRI system using inductive coupling and a dedicated external pick-up coil for signal transmission. In vivo images of the rat brain acquired with in plane resolution of (150 μm)2 thanks to the implanted coil revealed high SNR near the coil, allowing for the visualization of fine cerebral structures.

  15. Simultaneous determination of nicotine and its metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue using microdialysis coupled with liquid chromatography: pharmacokinetic application.

    PubMed

    Chang, Yuh-Lih; Tsai, Pi-Lo; Chou, Yueh-Ching; Tien, Jung-Hsiung; Tsai, Tung-Hu

    2005-09-23

    To elucidate the disposition of nicotine in the brain is important because the neuropharmacological effects from nicotine exposure are centrally predominated. The aim of the present study was to develop a rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of unbound nicotine and its main metabolite, cotinine, in rat blood and brain tissue. We coupled a multiple sites microdialysis sampling technique with HPLC-UV system to characterize the pharmacokinetics of both nicotine and cotinine. Microdialysis probes were inserted into the jugular vein/right atrium and brain striatum of Sprague-Dawley rats, and nicotine (2 mg/kg, i.v.) was administered via the femoral vein. Dialysates were collected every 10 min and injected directly into a HPLC system. Both nicotine and cotinine were separated by a phenyl-hexyl column (150 mm x 4.6 mm) from dialysates within 12 min. The mobile phase consisted of an acetonitrile-methanol-20 mM monosodium phosphate buffer (55:45:900, v/v/v, pH adjusted to 5.1) with a flow-rate of 1 ml/min. The wavelength of the UV detector was set at 260 nm. The limit of quantification for nicotine and cotinine were 0.25 microg/ml and 0.05 microg/ml, respectively. Intra- and inter-day precision and accuracy of both measurements fell well within the predefined limits of acceptability. The blood and brain concentration-time profile of nicotine and cotinine suggests that nicotine is easily to get into the central nervous system and cotinine exhibits a long retention time and accumulates in blood.

  16. Intracerebral microdialysis coupled to LC-MS/MS for the determination tramadol and its major pharmacologically active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol in rat brain microdialysates.

    PubMed

    Liu, Mingzhou; Wang, Peng; Yu, Xuming; Dong, Guicheng; Yue, Jiang

    2017-08-01

    A rapid and sensitive method involving liquid chromatography electrospray tandem mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS/MS) coupled to an intracerebral microdialysis technique was developed for the determination and pharmacokinetic investigation of tramadol and its major active metabolite O-desmethyltramadol (ODT) in rat brain. The microdialysis samples were separated on a C18 column and eluted with a mobile phase of acetonitrile-water-formic acid (50:50:0.1; v/v/v) at a flow rate of 0.3 mL/min. The ESI-MS/MS spectra were performed in electrospray positive ion mode, and the analytes were detected by multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) of the transitions m/z [M + H](+) 264.3 → 58.2 for tramadol, m/z [M + H](+) 250.3 → 58.3 for ODT, and m/z [M + H](+) 379.4 → 264.0 for ambroxol (internal standard; IS). The total run time was 4.0 min. A lower limit of quantitation (LLOQ) was achieved as 1 ng/mL for tramadol and 0.5 ng/mL for ODT, with excellent linearity over a concentration range of 1 ~ 500 ng/mL (r > 0.99) for tramadol and 0.5 ~ 50 ng/mL for ODT (r > 0.99), respectively. The proposed method was successfully applied to the pharmacokinetic studies of tramadol and ODT in rat brain. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2017 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  17. Reduction in LFP cross-frequency coupling between theta and gamma rhythms associated with impaired STP and LTP in a rat model of brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Xiaxia; Zheng, Chenguang; Zhang, Tao

    2013-01-01

    The theta-gamma cross-frequency coupling (CFC) in hippocampus was reported to reflect memory process. In this study, we measured the CFC of hippocampal local field potentials (LFPs) in a two-vessel occlusion (2VO) rat model, combined with both amplitude and phase properties and associated with short and long-term plasticity indicating the memory function. Male Wistar rats were used and a 2VO model was established. STP and LTP were recorded in hippocampal CA3-CA1 pathway after LFPs were collected in both CA3 and CA1. Based on the data of relative power spectra and phase synchronization, it suggested that both the amplitude and phase coupling of either theta or gamma rhythm were involved in modulating the neural network in 2VO rats. In order to determine whether the CFC was also implicated in neural impairment in 2VO rats, the coupling of CA3 theta-CA1 gamma was measured by both phase-phase coupling (n:m phase synchronization) and phase-amplitude coupling. The attenuated CFC strength in 2VO rats implied the impaired neural communication in the coordination of theta-gamma entraining process. Moreover, compared with modulation index (MI) a novel algorithm named cross frequency conditional mutual information (CF-CMI), was developed to focus on the coupling between theta phase and the phase of gamma amplitude. The results suggest that the reduced CFC strength probably attributed to the disruption of the phase of CA1 gamma envelop. In conclusion, it implied that the phase coupling and CFC of hippocampal theta and gamma played an important role in supporting functions of neural network. Furthermore, synaptic plasticity on CA3-CA1 pathway was reduced in line with the decreased CFC strength from CA3 to CA1. It partly supported our hypothesis that directional CFC indicator might probably be used as a measure of synaptic plasticity.

  18. Coupled heterocellular arrays in the brain.

    PubMed

    Fróes, M M; Menezes, J R L

    2002-11-01

    Gap junctions are transcellular pathways that enable a dynamic metabolic coupling and a selective exchange of biological signaling mediators. Throughout the course of the brain development these intercellular channels are assembled into regionally and temporally defined patterns. The present review summarizes the possibilities of heterocellular gap junctional pairing in the brain parenchyma, involving glial cells, neurons and neural precursors as well as it highlights on the meaningfulness of these coupled arrays to the concept of brain functional compartments.

  19. Transcranial Optical Imaging of Cold-Injured Brain in Rat

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shima, Katsuji; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-06-01

    We performed a transcranial optical imaging of a cold-injured brain in a rat. The rat skull was illuminated with a 633 nm HeNe laser, and the distribution of reflected light intensity was imaged with a cooled charge-coupled device (CCD) camera. An increase in reflected light intensity was observed in the injured area. The analysis of brain tissues perfused with India ink suggested that a reduced blood flow rate in the area of injury enhances reflection.

  20. Imaging of uranium on rat brain sections using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry: a new tool for the study of critical substructures affined to heavy metals in tissues.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Dobrowolska, Justina; Zoriy, Miroslav; Matusch, Andreas

    2008-09-01

    The specific toxicity of trace metals and compounds largely depends on their bioavailability in different organs or compartments of the organism considered. Imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) using laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) with a spatial resolution in the 100 microm range was developed and employed to study heavy metal distribution in brain tissues for toxicological screening. Rat brain post-mortem tissues were stained in an aqueous solution of either uranium or neodymium (metal concentration 100 microg g(-1)) for 3 h. The incubation of heavy metal in thin slices of brain tissue is followed by an imaging mass spectrometric LA-ICP-MS technique. Stained rat brain tissue (thickness 30 microm) were scanned with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 100 microm and laser power density 3 x 10(9) W cm(-2)). The ion intensities of (235)U(+), (238)U(+), (145)Nd(+) and (146)Nd(+) were measured by LA-ICP-MS within the ablated area. For quantification purposes, matrix-matched laboratory standards were prepared by dosing each analyte to the pieces of homogenized brain tissue. Imaging LA-ICP-MS allows structures of interest to be identified and the relevant dose range to be estimated.

  1. Divergent Developmental Expression and Function of the Proton-Coupled Oligopeptide Transporters PepT2 and PhT1 in Regional Brain Slices of Mouse and Rat

    PubMed Central

    Hu, Yongjun; Xie, Yehua; Keep, Richard F.; Smith, David E.

    2014-01-01

    This study evaluated the developmental gene and protein expression of proton-coupled oligopeptide transporters (POTs: PepT1, PepT2, PhT1 and PhT2) in different regions of rodent brain, and the age-dependent uptake of a POT substrate, glycylsarcosine, in brain slices. Slices were obtained from cerebral cortex, cerebellum and hypothalamus of wildtype and PepT2 null mice, and from rats at different ages. Gene and protein expression were determined by real-time PCR and immunoblot analyses. Brain slice uptakes of radiolabeled glycylsarcosine were determined in the absence and presence of excess unlabeled glycylsarcosine or L-histidine, the latter being an inhibitor of PhT1/2 but not PepT1/2. Whereas PepT2 and PhT1 transcripts were abundantly expressed in all three regions of mouse brain, little to no expression was observed for PepT1 and PhT2. PhT1 protein was present in brain regions of adult but not neonatal mice and expression levels increased with age in rats. Glycylsarcosine uptake, inhibition and transporter dominance did not show regional brain or species differences. However, there were clear age-related differences in functional activity, with PepT2 dominating in neonatal mice and rats, and PhT1 dominating in adult rodents. These developmental changes may markedly impact the neural activity of both endogenous and exogenous (drug) peptides/mimetics. PMID:24548120

  2. A rapid and simple method for the simultaneous determination of four endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters in rat brain using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Wenbin; Zhu, Bangjie; Liu, Feng; Lyu, Chunming; Zhang, Shen; Yan, Chao; Cheng, Yu; Wei, Hai

    2015-10-01

    Endogenous monoamine neurotransmitters play an essential role in neural communication in mammalians. Many quantitative methods for endogenous monoamines have been developed during recent decades. Yet, matrix effect was usually a challenge in the quantification, in many cases asking for tedious sample preparation or sacrificing sensitivity. In this work, a simple, fast and sensitive method with no matrix effect was developed to simultaneously determine four endogenous monoamines including serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in rat brain tissues, using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric-pressure chemical ionization tandem mass spectrometry. Various conditions, including columns, chromatographic conditions, ion source, MS/MS conditions, and brain tissue preparation methods, were optimized and validated. Pre-weighed 20mg brain sample could be effectively and reproducibly homogenized and protein-precipitated by 20 times value of 0.2% formic acid in cold organic solvents (methanol-acetonitrile, 10:90, v/v). This method exhibited excellent linearity for all analytes (regression coefficients>0.998 or 0.999). The precision, expressed as coefficients of variation, was less than 3.43% for intra-day analyses and ranged from 4.17% to 15.5% for inter-day analyses. Good performance was showed in limit of detection (between 0.3nM and 3.0nM for all analytes), recovery (90.8-120%), matrix effect (84.4-107%), accuracy (89.8-100%) and stability (88.3-104%). The validated method was well applied to simultaneously determine the endogenous serotonin, dopamine, epinephrine and norepinephrine in four brain sections of 18 Wistar rats. The quantification of four endogenous monoamines in rat brain performed excellently in the sensitivity, high throughput, simple sample preparation and matrix effect. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Pharmacokinetics and blood-brain barrier penetration of (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in rats by microdialysis sampling coupled to high-performance liquid chromatography with chemiluminescence detection.

    PubMed

    Wu, Liang; Zhang, Qun-Lin; Zhang, Xiao-Yue; Lv, Chen; Li, Jun; Yuan, Ye; Yin, Fang-Xiong

    2012-09-19

    (+)-Catechin (C) and (-)-epicatechin (EC), as the basic monomer units of flavanols, can be widely found in natural products or medicinal herbs. Recent pharmacological studies have revealed that C and EC exhibit good neuroprotective effects. However, there is little information about pharmacokinetic profiles in the brain and in vivo BBB penetration of C and EC. In this paper, an ultrasensitive method using high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with chemiluminescence (CL) detection was developed for the analysis of microdialysis samples. The detection limits for C and EC in Ringer's solution were 1.0 and 1.2 ng/mL, respectively. The intraday and interday accuracies for C and EC in Ringer's solution ranged from -3.0 to 4.4%, and the intraday and interday precisions were below 5.2%. The mean in vivo recoveries of C and EC in microdialysis probes were 33.7% and 26.5% in blood while 38.3% and 29.1% in brain. Pharmacokinetic parameters were estimated using the statistical moment method after iv administration (C and EC, 20 mg/kg of body weight) in rats. Brain-to-blood (AUC(brain)/AUC(blood)) distribution ratios were 0.0726 ± 0.0376 for C and 0.1065 ± 0.0531 for EC, indicating that C and EC could pass through the BBB, which is further evidence of their neuroprotective effects.

  4. The rat brain hippocampus proteome.

    PubMed

    Fountoulakis, Michael; Tsangaris, George T; Maris, Antony; Lubec, Gert

    2005-05-05

    The hippocampus is crucial in memory storage and retrieval and plays an important role in stress response. In humans, the CA1 area of hippocampus is one of the first brain areas to display pathology in Alzheimer's disease. A comprehensive analysis of the hippocampus proteome has not been accomplished yet. We applied proteomics technologies to construct a two-dimensional database for rat brain hippocampus proteins. Hippocampus samples from eight months old animals were analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and the proteins were identified by matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry. The database comprises 148 different gene products, which are in the majority enzymes, structural proteins and heat shock proteins. It also includes 39 neuron specific gene products. The database may be useful in animal model studies of neurological disorders.

  5. Inhibitory effects of omega-3 fatty acids on early brain injury after subarachnoid hemorrhage in rats: Possible involvement of G protein-coupled receptor 120/β-arrestin2/TGF-β activated kinase-1 binding protein-1 signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jia; Li, Haiying; Meng, Chengjie; Chen, Dongdong; Chen, Zhouqing; Wang, Yibin; Wang, Zhong; Chen, Gang

    2016-06-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids have been reported to improve neuron functions during aging and in patients affected by mild cognitive impairment, and mediate potent anti-inflammatory via G protein-coupled receptor 120 (GPR120) signal pathway. Neuron dysfunction and inflammatory response also contributed to the progression of subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH)-induced early brain injury (EBI). This study was to examine the effects of omega-3 fatty acids on SAH-induced EBI. Two weeks before SAH, 30% Omega-3 fatty acids was administered by oral gavage at 1g/kg body weight once every 24h. Specific siRNA for GPR120 was exploited. Terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase dUTP nick end labeling, fluoro-Jade B staining, and neurobehavioral scores and brain water content test showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced brain cell apoptosis and neuronal degradation, behavioral impairment, and brain edema. Western blot, immunoprecipitation, and electrophoretic mobility shift assays results showed that omega-3 fatty acids effectively suppressed SAH-induced elevation of inflammatory factors, including cyclooxygenase-2, monocyte chemoattractant protein-1, and inducible nitric oxide synthase. In addition, omega-3 fatty acids could inhibit phosphorylation of transforming growth factor β activated kinase-1 (TAK1), MEK4, c-Jun N-terminal kinase, and IkappaB kinase as well as activation of nuclear factor kappa B through regulating GPR120/β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1 pathway. Furthermore, siRNA-induced GPR120 silencing blocked the protective effects of omega-3 fatty acids. Here, we show that stimulation of GPR120 with omega-3 fatty acids pretreatment causes anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory effects via β-arrestin2/TAK1 binding protein-1/TAK1 pathway in the brains of SAH rats. Fish omega-3 fatty acids as part of a daily diet may reduce EBI in an experimental rat model of SAH.

  6. Modified brain death model for rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Shuijun; Cao, Shengli; Wang, Tao; Yan, Bing; Lu, Yantao; Zhao, Yongfu

    2014-10-01

    Experimental animal models of brain death that mimic human conditions may be useful for investigating novel strategies that increase quality and quantity of organs for transplant. Brain death was induced by increasing intracranial pressure by inflating an intracranial placed balloon catheter. Brain death was confirmed by flatline electroencephalogram, physical signs of apnea, and absence of brain stem reflexes. Donor management was done after brain death. Intracranial pressure and physiologic variables were continually monitored during 9 hours' follow-up. Ninety percent of brain dead animals showed typical signs of brain death such as diabetes insipidus, hypertensive, and hypotensive periods. Donor care was performed for 9 hours after brain death, and the mean arterial pressure was maintained above 60 mm Hg. We conclude that the rat model of brain death can be performed in a standardized, reproducible, and successful way.

  7. Comparative imaging of P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and C in thin sections of rat brain tumor as well as control tissues by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zoriy, Myroslav V.; Dehnhardt, Markus; Matusch, Andreas; Becker, J. Sabine

    2008-03-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) was used for quantitative imaging of selected elements (P, S, Fe, Cu, Zn and C) in thin sections of rat brain samples (thickness 20 μm). The sample surface was scanned (raster area ~ 2 cm 2) with a focused laser beam (wavelength 266 nm, diameter of laser crater 50 μm, and irradiance 1 × 10 9 W cm - 2 ). The laser ablation system was coupled to a double-focusing sector field. The possibility was evaluated of using carbon (via measurement of 13C +) as an internal standard element for imaging element distribution as part of this method. The LA-ICP-MS images obtained for P, S, Fe Cu and Zn were quantified using synthetically prepared matrix-matched laboratory standards. Depending on the sample analyzed, concentrations of Cu and Zn in the control tissue were found to be in the range of 8-10 μg g - 1 and 10-12 μg g - 1 , while in the tumor tissue these concentrations were in the range of 12-15 μg g - 1 and 15-17 μg g - 1 , respectively. The measurements of P, S and Fe distribution revealed the depletion of these elements in tumor tissue. In all the samples, the shape of the tumor could be clearly distinguished from the surrounding healthy tissue by the depletion in carbon. Additional experiments were performed in order to study the influence of the water content of the analyzed tissue on the intensity signal of the analyte. The results of these measurements show the linear correlation ( R2 = 0.9604) between the intensity of analyte and amount of water in the sample. The growth of a brain tumor was thus studied for the first time by imaging mass spectrometry.

  8. Isolation and characterization of intact mitochondria from neonatal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rajapakse, N; Shimizu, K; Payne, M; Busija, D

    2001-12-01

    Poor outcome after neonatal brain injury may be associated with alterations in mitochondrial function. Thus, isolated mitochondria have been a useful tool in understanding the underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction. However, isolation and characterization of mitochondria from neonatal rat brain are not fully described. Thus, the aim of this study was to develop a rapid method for the isolation and characterization of functional mitochondria from neonatal rat brain. Mitochondria were isolated from 7-day-old rat brain weighing approximately 500 mg using a discontinuous Percoll density gradient. Brains were homogenized in 12% Percoll/sucrose buffer and layered onto a 26% Percoll/40% Percoll gradient followed by centrifugation. Four methods were used for assessing mitochondrial integrity and function: (1) electron microscopy to assess the morphology of the mitochondria and to determine the relative purity of the preparation; (2) fluorescence of chloromethyl-X-rosamine (Mito Tracker Red) in mitochondria as an indicator of mitochondrial membrane potential (Delta psi(m)); (3) state 3 and 4 respiration; and (4) protein import into mitochondria using an in vitro-synthesized mitochondrial malate dehydrogenase (mMDH). These studies demonstrated that the morphology of mitochondria is maintained with intact outer membranes and well-developed cristae, and Delta psi(m) is preserved. Respiration measurements revealed tightly coupled mitochondria with a respiration control ratio (RCR) of 4.1+/-0.18 (n=6). Import of precursor mMDH into mitochondria increased in a time-dependent manner maximizing at 15 min. The results indicate that neonatal brain mitochondria isolated using this method are well coupled, morphologically intact and are capable of protein import across the outer and inner mitochondrial membranes.

  9. Deformation-based brain morphometry in rats.

    PubMed

    Gaser, Christian; Schmidt, Silvio; Metzler, Martin; Herrmann, Karl-Heinz; Krumbein, Ines; Reichenbach, Jürgen R; Witte, Otto W

    2012-10-15

    Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI)-based morphometry provides in vivo evidence for macro-structural plasticity of the brain. Experiments on small animals using automated morphometric methods usually require expensive measurements with ultra-high field dedicated animal MRI systems. Here, we developed a novel deformation-based morphometry (DBM) tool for automated analyses of rat brain images measured on a 3-Tesla clinical whole body scanner with appropriate coils. A landmark-based transformation of our customized reference brain into the coordinates of the widely used rat brain atlas from Paxinos and Watson (Paxinos Atlas) guarantees the comparability of results to other studies. For cross-sectional data, we warped images onto the reference brain using the low-dimensional nonlinear registration implemented in the MATLAB software package SPM8. For the analysis of longitudinal data sets, we chose high-dimensional registrations of all images of one data set to the first baseline image which facilitate the identification of more subtle structural changes. Because all deformations were finally used to transform the data into the space of the Paxinos Atlas, Jacobian determinants could be used to estimate absolute local volumes of predefined regions-of-interest. Pilot experiments were performed to analyze brain structural changes due to aging or photothrombotically-induced cortical stroke. The results support the utility of DBM based on commonly available clinical whole-body scanners for highly sensitive morphometric studies on rats.

  10. Alcohol induced changes in phosphoinositide signaling system in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Pandey, S.; Piano, M.; Schwertz, D.; Davis, J.; Pandey, G. )

    1991-03-11

    Agonist-induced phosphoinositide break down functions as a signal generating system in a manner similar to the C-AMP system. In order to examine if the changes produced by chronic ethanol treatment on membrane lipid composition and metabolism effect the cellular functions of the neuron, the authors have examined the effect of chronic ethanol exposure on norepinephrine (NE) serotonin (5HT) and calcium ionophore (CI) stimulated phosphoinositide (PI) hydrolysis in rat cortical slices. Rats were maintained on liber-decarli diet alcohol and control liquid diet containing isocaloric sucrose substitute for two months. They were then sacrificed and brain was removed for determination of PI turnover. 5HT stimulated {sup 3}H- inositol monophosphate ({sup 3}H-IPI) formation was significantly lower in the cortex of alcohol treated rats as compared to control rats. However, neither CI nor NE stimulated IP1 formation was significantly different from control rats. The results thus indicate that chronic exposure to ethanol decreases 5HT induced PI breakdown in rat cortex. In order to examine if this decrease is related to a decrease in 5HT2 receptors, or decreased in coupling of receptor to the effector pathway, the authors are currently determining the number and affinity of 5HT2 receptors in alcohol treated rats.

  11. Combined Effects of Primary and Tertiary Blast on Rat Brain: Characterization of a Model of Blast-induced Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2014-03-01

    changes following closely coupled repeated BOP exposures, but not single exposures. DTI provides powerful comprehensive, quantitative analysis of...Marmarou A, Foda MA, van den Brink W, Campbell J, Kita H, Demetriadou K. A new model of diffuse brain injury in rats. Part I: Pathophysiology and... analysis of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) revealed consistent patterns of white matter injury in brains of rats exposed to closely coupled repeated

  12. Laser scattering by transcranial rat brain illumination

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sousa, Marcelo V. P.; Prates, Renato; Kato, Ilka T.; Sabino, Caetano P.; Suzuki, Luis C.; Ribeiro, Martha S.; Yoshimura, Elisabeth M.

    2012-06-01

    Due to the great number of applications of Low-Level-Laser-Therapy (LLLT) in Central Nervous System (CNS), the study of light penetration through skull and distribution in the brain becomes extremely important. The aim is to analyze the possibility of precise illumination of deep regions of the rat brain, measure the penetration and distribution of red (λ = 660 nm) and Near Infra-Red (NIR) (λ = 808 nm) diode laser light and compare optical properties of brain structures. The head of the animal (Rattus Novergicus) was epilated and divided by a sagittal cut, 2.3 mm away from mid plane. This section of rat's head was illuminated with red and NIR lasers in points above three anatomical structures: hippocampus, cerebellum and frontal cortex. A high resolution camera, perpendicularly positioned, was used to obtain images of the brain structures. Profiles of scattered intensities in the laser direction were obtained from the images. There is a peak in the scattered light profile corresponding to the skin layer. The bone layer gives rise to a valley in the profile indicating low scattering coefficient, or frontal scattering. Another peak in the region related to the brain is an indication of high scattering coefficient (μs) for this tissue. This work corroborates the use of transcranial LLLT in studies with rats which are subjected to models of CNS diseases. The outcomes of this study point to the possibility of transcranial LLLT in humans for a large number of diseases.

  13. Genetic influence on brain catecholamines: high brain norepinephrine in salt-sensitive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Iwai, J; Friedman, R; Tassinari, L

    1980-01-01

    Rats genetically sensitive to salt-induced hypertension evinced higher levels of plasma norepinephrine and epinephrine than rats genetically resistant to hypertension. The hypertension-sensitive rats showed higher hypothalamic norepinephrine and lower epinephrine than resistant rats. In response to a high salt diet, brain stem norepinephrine increased in sensitive rats while resistant rats exhibited a decrease on the same diet.

  14. Development of a highly efficient 2-D system with a serially coupled long column and its application in identification of rat brain integral membrane proteins with ionic liquids-assisted solubilization and digestion.

    PubMed

    Tao, Dingyin; Qiao, Xiaoqiang; Sun, Liangliang; Hou, Chunyan; Gao, Liang; Zhang, Lihua; Shan, Yichu; Liang, Zhen; Zhang, Yukui

    2011-02-04

    Two dimensional high performance liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-tandem mass spectrometry (2D-HPLC-ESI-MS/MS) is one of the most powerful techniques for high resolution, efficiency, and throughput separation and identification of proteomes. For a bottom-up strategy-based proteome analysis, usually multistep salt elution was needed in the first dimension separation by SCX, to simplify the peptides for the further second dimensional separation by RPLC. Here, by using a 30 cm-long serially coupled long column (SCLC) in the second dimension, we reduced the salt steps of SCX from 13 to 5 to shorten the total analysis time. Compared to the commonly applied 2D-HPLC with over 10-step salt elution in SCX and microRPLC with a short column (SC), named as SC-2D, the peak capacity of 2D-HPLC with a SCLC column, named as SCLC-2D, was increased 3.3-folds while the analysis time was increased by only 1.17-folds. Therefore, the time-based protein identification efficiency was ∼55 protein groups/h, nearly 2-fold of that for SC-2D (∼28 protein groups/h). With the further combination of assisted solubilization by ionic liquids and SCLC-2D, 608 integral membrane proteins (IMPs) (27.66% of the total 2198 proteins, FDR < 1%) were identified from rat brain, more than those obtained by the traditional urea method (252 unique IMPs, occupying 17.03% of total 1480 proteins). All of these results demonstrate the promise of the developed technique for large-scale proteome analysis.

  15. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  16. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE (PFOS) IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    This study examined whether there is a differential distribution of PFOS within the brain, and compares adult rats with neonatal rats at an age when formation of the blood-brain barrier is not yet complete (postnatal day 7). Male and female Sprague-Dawley rats (60-70 day old, 4/...

  17. Secretin: specific binding to rat brain membranes

    SciTech Connect

    Fremeau, R.T. Jr.; Jensen, R.T.; Charlton, C.G.; Miller, R.L.; O'Donohue, T.L.; Moody, T.W.

    1983-08-01

    The binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin to rat brain membranes was investigated. Radiolabeled secretin bound with high affinity (KD . 0.2 nM) to a single class of noninteracting sites. Binding was specific, saturable, and reversible. Regional distribution studies indicated that the specific binding was greatest in the cerebellum, intermediate in the cortex, thalamus, striatum, hippocampus, and hypothalamus, and lowest in the midbrain and medulla/pons. Pharmacological studies indicated that only secretin, but not other peptides, inhibits binding of (/sup 125/I)secretin with high affinity. Also, certain guanine nucleotides inhibited high affinity binding. These data indicate that rat brain membranes possess high affinity binding sites specific for secretin and that with the use of (/sup 125/I) secretin the kinetics, stoichiometry, specificity, and distribution of secretin receptors can be directly investigated.

  18. Regulation of brain aromatase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Roselli, C.E.; Ellinwood, W.E.; Resko, J.A.

    1984-01-01

    The distribution and regulation of aromatase activity in the adult rat brain with a sensitive in vitro assay that measures the amount of /sup 3/H/sub 2/O formed during the conversion of (1 beta-/sup 3/H)androstenedione to estrone. The rate of aromatase activity in the hypothalamus-preoptic area (HPOA) was linear with time up to 1 h, and with tissue concentrations up to 5 mgeq/200 microliters incubation mixture. The enzyme demonstrated a pH optimum of 7.4 and an apparent Michaelis-Menten constant (Km) of 0.04 microns. The greatest amount of aromatase activity was found in amygdala and HPOA from intact male rats. The hippocampus, midbrain tegmentum, cerebral cortex, cerebellum, and anterior pituitary all contained negligible enzymatic activity. Castration produced a significant decrease in aromatase activity in the HPOA, but not in the amygdala or cerebral cortex. The HPOAs of male rats contained significantly greater aromatase activity than the HPOAs of female rats. In females, this enzyme activity did not change during the estrous cycle or after ovariectomy. Administration of testosterone to gonadectomized male and female rats significantly enhanced HPOA aromatase activities to levels approximating those found in HPOA from intact males. Therefore, the results suggest that testosterone, or one of its metabolites, is a major steroidal regulator of HPOA aromatase activity in rats.

  19. Neurovascular coupling develops alongside neural circuits in the postnatal brain.

    PubMed

    Kozberg, Mariel G; Hillman, Elizabeth M C

    2016-01-01

    In the adult brain, increases in local neural activity are accompanied by increases in regional blood flow. This relationship between neural activity and hemodynamics is termed neurovascular coupling and provides the blood flow-dependent contrast detected in functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI). Neurovascular coupling is commonly assumed to be consistent and reliable from birth; however, numerous studies have demonstrated markedly different hemodynamics in the early postnatal brain. Our recent study in J. Neuroscience examined whether different hemodynamics in the immature brain are driven by differences in the underlying spatiotemporal properties of neural activity during this period of robust neural circuit expansion. Using a novel wide-field optical imaging technique to visualize both neural activity and hemodynamics in the mouse brain, we observed longer duration and increasingly complex patterns of neural responses to stimulus as cortical connectivity developed over time. However, imaging of brain blood flow, oxygenation, and metabolism in the same mice demonstrated an absence of coupled blood flow responses in the newborn brain. This lack of blood flow coupling was shown to lead to oxygen depletions following neural activations - depletions that may affect the duration of sustained neural responses and could be important to the vascular patterning of the rapidly developing brain. These results are a step toward understanding the unique neurovascular and neurometabolic environment of the newborn brain, and provide new insights for interpretation of fMRI BOLD studies of early brain development.

  20. Effects of Acyzol on Zinc Content in Rat Brain and Blood Plasma.

    PubMed

    Yakimoskii, A F; Shantyr, I I; Vlasenko, M A; Yakovleva, M V

    2017-01-01

    Zinc level in the blood plasma and brain of rats was studied by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Maximum amount of zinc was observed in the cerebellum (15.0±5.5 μg/mg wet tissue). Single intraperitoneal administration of a zinc donor acyzol (24 mg/kg) did not change the content of this element in the tissues. Repeated injections of acyzol (7 injections over 14 days) significantly increased zinc level in rat plasma and brain. This elevation was most pronounced in the forebrain (cortex and subcortical structures). The rise in zinc concentration in blood plasma correlated with its level in the brain.

  1. Brain Structure-function Couplings (FY11)

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2012-01-01

    influence time-evolving models of global brain function and dynamic changes in cognitive performance. Both structural and functional connections change on...Artifact Resistant Measure to Detect Cognitive EEG Activity During Locomotion. Journal of NeuroEngineering and Rehabilitation, submitted. 10...Specifically, identifying the communication between brain regions that occurs during tasks may provide information regarding the cognitive processes involved in

  2. Immunochemical characterization of rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, K.P.; Huang, F.L.

    1986-11-05

    Polyclonal antibodies against rat brain protein kinase C (the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent enzyme) were raised in goat. These antibodies can neutralize completely the kinase activity in purified enzyme preparation as well as that in the crude homogenate. Immunoblot analysis of the purified and the crude protein kinase C preparations revealed a major immunoreactive band of 80 kDa. The antibodies also recognize the same enzyme from other rat tissues. Neuronal tissues (cerebral cortex, cerebellum, hypothalamus, and retina) and lymphoid organs (thymus and spleen) were found to be enriched in protein kinase C, whereas lung, kidney, liver, heart, and skeletal muscle contained relatively low amounts of this kinase. Limited proteolysis of the purified rat brain protein kinase C with trypsin results in an initial degradation of the kinase into two major fragments of 48 and 38 kDa. Both fragments are recognized by the antibodies. However, further digestion of the 48-kDa fragment to 45 kDa and the 38-kDa fragment to 33 kDa causes a loss of the immunoreactivity. Upon incubation of the cerebellar extract with Ca/sup 2 +/, the 48-kDa fragment was also identified as a major proteolytic product of protein kinase C. Proteolytic degradation of protein kinase C converts the Ca/sup 2 +//phospholipid-dependent kinase to an independent form without causing a large impairment of the binding of (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate. The two major proteolytic fragments were separated by ion exchange chromatography and one of them (45-48 kDa) was identified as a protein kinase and the other (33-38 kDa) as a phorbol ester-binding protein. These results demonstrate that rat brain protein kinase C is composed of two functionally distinct units, namely, a protein kinase and a Ca/sup 2 +/-independent/phospholipid-dependent phorbol ester-binding protein.

  3. Ethanol effects on rat brain phosphoinositide metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, H.M.

    1987-01-01

    An increase in acidic phospholipids in brain plasma and synaptic plasma membranes upon chronic ethanol administration was observed. Chronic ethanol administration resulted in an increase in {sup 32}P{sub i} incorporation into the acidic phospholipids in synaptosomes. Postdecapitative ischemic treatment resulted rapid degradation of poly-PI in rat brain. However, there was a rapid appearance of IP{sub 2} in ethanol group which indicated a more rapid turnover of IP{sub 3} in the ethanol-treated rats. Carbachol stimulated accumulation of labeled inositol phosphates in brain slices and synaptosomes. Carbachol-stimulated release of IP and IP{sub 2} was calcium dependent and was inhibited by EGTA and atropine. Adenosine triphosphates and 1 mM further enhanced carbachol-induced formation of IP and IP{sub 2}, but showed an increase and a decrease in IP{sub 3} at 1 mM and 0.01 mM, respectively. Guanosine triphosphate at 0.1 mM did not change in labeled IP, but there was a significant increase in labeled IP{sub 2} and decrease in IP{sub 3}. Mn and CMP greatly enhanced incorporation of ({sup 3}H)-inositol into PI, but not into poly-PI labeling in brain synaptosomes. Incubation of brain synaptosomes resulted in a Ca{sup 2+}, time-dependent release of labeled IP. However, the pool of PI labeled through this pathway is not susceptible to carbachol stimulation. When saponin permeabilized synaptosomal preparations were incubated with ({sup 3}H)-inositol-PI or ({sup 14}C)-arachidonoyl-PI, ATP enhanced the formation of labeled IP and DG.

  4. Studies of aluminum in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lipman, J.J.; Brill, A.B.; Som, P.; Jones, K.W.; Colowick, S.; Cholewa, M.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of high aluminum concentrations in rat brains were studied using /sup 14/C autoradiography to measure the uptake of /sup 14/C 2-deoxy-D-glucose (/sup 14/C-2DG) and microbeam proton-induced x-ray emission (microPIXE) with a 20-..mu..m resolution to measure concentrations of magnesium, aluminum, potassium, and calcium. The aluminum was introduced intracisternally in the form of aluminum tartrate (Al-T) while control animals were given sodium tartrate (Na-T). The /sup 14/C was administered intravenously. The animals receiving Al-T developed seizure disorders and had pathological changes that included cerebral cortical atrophy. The results showed that there was a decreased uptake of /sup 14/C-2DG in cortical regions in which increased aluminum levels were measured, i.e., there is a correlation between the aluminum in the rat brain and decreased brain glucose metabolism. A minimum detection limit of about 16 ppM (mass fraction) or 3 x 10/sup 9/ Al atoms was obtained for Al under the conditions employed. 14 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  5. [The expression of GFAP after brain concussion in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Chun-Bing; Li, Yong-Hong

    2006-04-01

    To study the expression of GFAP and pathologic changes after rats brain concussion, so that to provide evidence on brain concussion for forensic identification. Forty-five SD rats were divided into 3, 6, 12, 24 h and 2, 4, 7, 10 d and normal control groups in terms of different wounding time after brain concussion model established, and the expression of GFAP after rats brain concussion were then observed by using SP immunohistochemical method. In normal control brain, low-level GFAP expressions could be observed. After six hours' brain concussion, GFAP positive cells increased obviously. The trend reached to the peak at 7d, partly declined at 10d, then decreased gradually. Brain concussion induced the expression of GFAP. The detection of GFAP could be useful for diagnosis of brain concussion on forensic pathology, and could be a reference index for timing of injury after brain concussion.

  6. Coupled Harmonic Bases for Longitudinal Characterization of Brain Networks

    PubMed Central

    Hwang, Seong Jae; Adluru, Nagesh; Collins, Maxwell D.; Ravi, Sathya N.; Bendlin, Barbara B.; Johnson, Sterling C.; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in using large scale brain imaging studies to understand how brain connectivity evolves over time for an individual and how it varies over different levels/quantiles of cognitive function. To do so, one typically performs so-called tractography procedures on diffusion MR brain images and derives measures of brain connectivity expressed as graphs. The nodes correspond to distinct brain regions and the edges encode the strength of the connection. The scientific interest is in characterizing the evolution of these graphs over time or from healthy individuals to diseased. We pose this important question in terms of the Laplacian of the connectivity graphs derived from various longitudinal or disease time points — quantifying its progression is then expressed in terms of coupling the harmonic bases of a full set of Laplacians. We derive a coupled system of generalized eigenvalue problems (and corresponding numerical optimization schemes) whose solution helps characterize the full life cycle of brain connectivity evolution in a given dataset. Finally, we show a set of results on a diffusion MR imaging dataset of middle aged people at risk for Alzheimer’s disease (AD), who are cognitively healthy. In such asymptomatic adults, we find that a framework for characterizing brain connectivity evolution provides the ability to predict cognitive scores for individual subjects, and for estimating the progression of participant’s brain connectivity into the future. PMID:27812274

  7. Coupled Harmonic Bases for Longitudinal Characterization of Brain Networks.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Seong Jae; Adluru, Nagesh; Collins, Maxwell D; Ravi, Sathya N; Bendlin, Barbara B; Johnson, Sterling C; Singh, Vikas

    2016-01-01

    There is a great deal of interest in using large scale brain imaging studies to understand how brain connectivity evolves over time for an individual and how it varies over different levels/quantiles of cognitive function. To do so, one typically performs so-called tractography procedures on diffusion MR brain images and derives measures of brain connectivity expressed as graphs. The nodes correspond to distinct brain regions and the edges encode the strength of the connection. The scientific interest is in characterizing the evolution of these graphs over time or from healthy individuals to diseased. We pose this important question in terms of the Laplacian of the connectivity graphs derived from various longitudinal or disease time points - quantifying its progression is then expressed in terms of coupling the harmonic bases of a full set of Laplacians. We derive a coupled system of generalized eigenvalue problems (and corresponding numerical optimization schemes) whose solution helps characterize the full life cycle of brain connectivity evolution in a given dataset. Finally, we show a set of results on a diffusion MR imaging dataset of middle aged people at risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD), who are cognitively healthy. In such asymptomatic adults, we find that a framework for characterizing brain connectivity evolution provides the ability to predict cognitive scores for individual subjects, and for estimating the progression of participant's brain connectivity into the future.

  8. Manganese alters rat brain amino acids levels

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Dinamene; Batoreu, M. Camila; Almeida, Isabel; Ramos, Ruben; Sidoryk-Wegrzynowicz, M.; Aschner, Michael; Marreilha dos Santos, A.P.

    2012-01-01

    Manganese (Mn) is an essential element and it acts as a cofactor for a number of enzymatic reactions, including those involved in amino acid, lipid, protein and carbohydrate metabolism. Excessive exposure to Mn can lead to poisoning, characterized by psychiatric disturbances and an extrapyramidal disorder. Mn-induced neuronal degeneration is associated with alterations in amino acids metabolism. In the present study, we analyzed whole rat brain amino acid content subsequent to 4 or 8 intraperitoneal (ip) injections, with 25 mg MnCl2/kg/day, at 48-hour (h) intervals. We noted a significant increase in glycine brain levels after 4 or 8 Mn injections (p<0.05 and p<0.01, respectively) and arginine also after 4 or 8 injections (p<0.001). Significant increases were also noted in brain proline (p<0.01), cysteine (p<0.05), phenylalanine (p<0.01) and tyrosine (p<0.01) levels after 8 Mn injections vs. the control group. These findings suggest that Mn-induced alterations in amino acid levels secondary to Mn affect the neurochemical milieu. PMID:22971893

  9. [Expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Fang, Wei-Hua; Wang, Dong-Liang; Wang, Feng

    2006-10-15

    To study the changes of expression of c-myc protein on rats' brains after brain concussion. sixty rats were randomly divided into brain concussion groups and control group. The expression of c-myc protein was microscopically observed by immunohistochemical method. No expression of c-myc protein in control group were observed. However, positive expression of c-myc protein in some neurons was seen at 20 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 8h after brain concussion and then decreased gradually. These findings suggest that the detection of c-myc protein could be an index of diagnosis of brain concussion.

  10. Acute nitrogen dioxide inhalation induces mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yan, Wei; Ji, Xiaotong; Shi, Jing; Li, Guangke; Sang, Nan

    2015-04-01

    Recent epidemiological literatures imply that NO2 is a potential risk factor of neurological disorders. Whereas, the pathogenesis of various neurological diseases has been confirmed correlate to mitochondrial dysfunction, and mitochondria play the crucial roles in energy metabolism, free radicals production and apoptosis triggering in response to neuronal injury. Therefore, to clarify the possible mechanisms for NO2-induced neurotoxicity, in the present study, we investigated the possible effects of acute NO2 inhalation (5, 10 and 20mg/m(3) with 5h/day for 7 days) on energy metabolism and biogenesis in rat cortex, mainly including mitochondrial ultrastructure, mitochondrial membrane potential, cytochrome c oxidase activity, cytochrome c oxidase (CO) and ATP synthase subunits, ATP content, and transcription factors. The results showed that NO2 exposure induced mitochondrial morphological changes in rat cortex, and the alteration was coupled with the abnormality of mitochondrial energy metabolism, including decreased respiratory complexes, reduced ATP production and increased production of ROS. Also, increased ROS in turn caused mitochondrial membrane damage, energy production defect and mitochondrial biogenesis inhibition. It suggests the significantly damaged mitochondrial energy metabolism and impaired biogenesis in rat brain after NO2 exposure, and provides a new understanding of the pathophysiological mechanisms of NO2-induced neurological disorders. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain-to-Brain coupling: A mechanism for creating and sharing a social world

    PubMed Central

    Hasson, Uri; Ghazanfar, Asif A.; Galantucci, Bruno; Garrod, Simon; Keysers, Christian

    2012-01-01

    Cognition materializes in an interpersonal space. The emergence of complex behaviors requires the coordination of actions among individuals according to a shared set of rules. Despite the central role of other individuals in shaping our minds, most cognitive studies focus on processes that occur within a single individual. We call for a shift from a single-brain to a multi-brain frame of reference. We argue that in many cases the neural processes in one brain are coupled to the neural processes in another brain via the transmission of a signal through the environment. Brain-to-brain coupling constrains and simplifies the actions of each individual in a social network, leading to complex joint behaviors that could not have emerged in isolation. PMID:22221820

  12. Kappa opioid receptors stimulate phosphoinositide turnover in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Periyasamy, S.; Hoss, W. )

    1990-01-01

    The effects of various subtype-selective opioid agonists and antagonists on the phosphoinositide (PI) turnover response were investigated in the rat brain. The {kappa}-agonists U-50,488H and ketocyclazocine produced a concentration-dependent increase in the accumulation of IP's in hippocampal slices. The other {kappa}-agonists Dynorphin-A (1-13) amide, and its protected analog D(Ala){sup 2}-dynorphin-A (1-13) amide also produced a significant increase in the formation of ({sup 3}H)-IP's, whereas the {mu}-selective agonists (D-Ala{sup 2}-N-Me-Phe{sup 4}-Gly{sup 5}-ol)-enkephalin and morphine and the {delta}-selective agonist (D-Pen{sup 2,5})-enkephalin were ineffective. The increase in IP's formation elicited by U-50,488H was partially antagonized by naloxone and more completely antagonized by the {kappa}-selective antagonists nor-binaltorphimine and MR 2266. The formation of IP's induced by U-50,488H varies with the regions of the brain used, being highest in hippocampus and amygdala, and lowest in striatum and pons-medullar. The results indicate that brain {kappa}- but neither {mu}- nor {delta}- receptors are coupled to the PI turnover response.

  13. Changes in brain lipid composition in thiamine deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Okazaki, M; Sakamoto, H; Ohtsuki, A; Oguchi, K

    1990-10-01

    Brain lipid composition was studied in thiamine deficient rats treated with thiamine antimetabolites (oxythiamine: OT, and pyrithiamine: PT) and thiamine deficient diet (TDD). After intraperitoneal injection of OT (40 mg/kg/day) or TDD feeding for 6 days, body weight gain decreased. However, the PT (500 micrograms/kg/day) treated rats or the pair fed control (PFC: TDD + thiamine of 5 mg/kg, i.p.) showed no decrease in body weight gain compared with the regular diet control (C). Brain lipid levels (total lipid, total cholesterol, triglyceride, phospholipid, sphingomyelin and cerebroside) were examined in four brain regions (cerebral cortex, subcortical structure, brain stem and cerebellum). Total lipid level increased in four regions in OT or TDD treated rats, but total lipid level in the cerebellum in PT treated rats decreased. Total cholesterol level increased in all treated rats, while the triglyceride level in the brain stem decreased dramatically in OT or TDD treated rats. Cerebroside levels of four regions in the PT, OT or TDD group remarkably decreased, and PFC rats showed a significant improvement of the decrease in cerebroside level. It is conceivable that these changes in brain lipid composition provided some clues for the histological and morphological changes of the brain as manifested by the myelin degradation in acute thiamine deficiency.

  14. Hybridizable ribonucleic acid of rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Bondy, S. C.; Roberts, Sidney

    1968-01-01

    1. Cerebral RNA of adult and newborn rats was labelled in vivo by intracervical injection of [5-3H]uridine or [32P]phosphate. Hepatic RNA of similar animals was labelled by intraperitoneal administration of [6-14C]orotic acid. Nuclear and cytoplasmic fractions were isolated and purified by procedures involving extraction with phenol and repeated precipitation with ethanol. 2. The fraction of pulse-labelled RNA from cerebral nuclei that hybridized to homologous DNA exhibited a wide range of turnover values and was heterogeneous in sucrose density gradients. 3. Base composition of the hybridizable RNA was similar to that of the total pulse-labelled material; both were DNA-like. 4. Pulse-labelled cerebral nuclear RNA hybridized to a greater extent than cytoplasmic RNA for at least a week after administration of labelled precursor. This finding suggested that cerebral nuclei contained a hybridizable component that was not transferred to cytoplasm. 5. The rates of decay of the hybridizable fractions of cerebral nuclei and cytoplasm were faster in the newborn animal than in the adult. Presumably a larger proportion of labile messenger RNA molecules was present in the immature brain. 6. Cerebral nuclear and cytoplasmic RNA fractions from newborn or adult rats, labelled either in vivo for periods varying from 4min. to 7 days or in vitro by exposure to [3H]-dimethyl sulphate, uniformly hybridized more effectively than the corresponding hepatic preparation. These data suggested that a larger proportion of RNA synthesis was oriented towards messenger RNA formation in brain than in liver. PMID:5683505

  15. Neurovascular coupling and energy metabolism in the developing brain

    PubMed Central

    Kozberg, M.; Hillman, E.

    2016-01-01

    In the adult brain, increases in local neural activity are almost always accompanied by increases in local blood flow. However, many functional imaging studies of the newborn and developing human brain have observed patterns of hemodynamic responses that differ from adult responses. Among the proposed mechanisms for the observed variations is that neurovascular coupling itself is still developing in the perinatal brain. Many of the components thought to be involved in actuating and propagating this hemodynamic response are known to still be developing postnatally, including perivascular cells such as astrocytes and pericytes. Both neural and vascular networks expand and are then selectively pruned over the first year of human life. Additionally, the metabolic demands of the newborn brain are still evolving. These changes are highly likely to affect early postnatal neurovascular coupling, and thus may affect functional imaging signals in this age group. This chapter will discuss the literature relating to neurovascular development. Potential effects of normal and aberrant development of neurovascular coupling on the newborn brain will also be explored, as well as ways to effectively utilize imaging techniques that rely on hemodynamic modulation such as fMRI and NIRS in younger populations. PMID:27130418

  16. Neurovascular coupling and energy metabolism in the developing brain.

    PubMed

    Kozberg, M; Hillman, E

    2016-01-01

    In the adult brain, increases in local neural activity are almost always accompanied by increases in local blood flow. However, many functional imaging studies of the newborn and developing human brain have observed patterns of hemodynamic responses that differ from adult responses. Among the proposed mechanisms for the observed variations is that neurovascular coupling itself is still developing in the perinatal brain. Many of the components thought to be involved in actuating and propagating this hemodynamic response are known to still be developing postnatally, including perivascular cells such as astrocytes and pericytes. Both neural and vascular networks expand and are then selectively pruned over the first year of human life. Additionally, the metabolic demands of the newborn brain are still evolving. These changes are highly likely to affect early postnatal neurovascular coupling, and thus may affect functional imaging signals in this age group. This chapter will discuss the literature relating to neurovascular development. Potential effects of normal and aberrant development of neurovascular coupling on the newborn brain will also be explored, as well as ways to effectively utilize imaging techniques that rely on hemodynamic modulation such as fMRI and NIRS in younger populations. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Phenylalanine-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles for brain tumor targeting

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kharya, Parul; Jain, Ashish; Gulbake, Arvind; Shilpi, Satish; Jain, Ankit; Hurkat, Pooja; Majumdar, Subrata; Jain, Sanjay K.

    2013-11-01

    The purpose of this study is to investigate the targeting potential of amino acid (phenylalanine)-coupled solid lipid nanoparticles (SLN) loaded with ionically complexed doxorubicin HCl (Dox). Ionic complexation was used to enhance the loading efficiency and release characteristics of water soluble form of Dox. l-Type amino acid transporters (LAT1) are highly expressed on blood brain barrier as well as on many brain cancer cells, thus targeting LAT1 using phenylalanine improved anticancer activity of prepared nanocarrier. The phenylalanine-coupled SLN were characterized by fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, scanning electron microscope, transmission electron microscopy, particle size, zeta potential, entrapment efficiency and in vitro release. The particle size of the resulting SLN was found to be in the range of 163.3 ± 5.2 to 113.0 ± 2.6 nm, with a slightly negative surface charge. In ex vivo study on C6 glioma cell lines, the cellular cytotoxicity of the SLN was highly increased when coupled with phenylalanine. In addition, stealthing sheath of PEG present on the surface of the SLN enhanced the cellular uptake of the SLN on C6 glioma cell line. Results of biodistribution and fluorescence studies clearly revealed that phenylalanine-coupled SLN could deliver high amount of drug into the brain tumor cells and showed the brain-targeting potential.

  18. The Extended Mind: Coupling Environment and Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Vrobel, Susie

    2010-11-01

    This paper describes embodiment and cognitive extension as examples of strong anticipation as defined by Dubois. Clark and Chalmers formulated a thesis which states that parts of the environment, if coupled successfully, can become part of the extended mind. This coupling, be it deliberate or unintentional, shifts the observer-world boundary outwards when the observer encompasses parts of his environment. The resulting extended observer forms a new systemic whole, which consists of both the assimilated context and the recalibrated version of the original observer. Recalibration occurs when conditioning and adaptation lead to corresponding changes on the neural level, for instance, when an agent compensates for delays in a control loop. Plasticity is a prerequisite for any successful incorporation of external structures. However, uncoupled parts of the observer must remain inviolate in order to preserve the boundary. Neither the extended mind nor the core observer are absolute concepts. Depending on whether we focus on local-scale interactions or on large-scale behaviour, boundaries are formed at different interfacial cuts, which lead to either an endo- or an exo-perspective or endo- or exo-anticipation, respectively. For biological extended agents which undergo a transition from exo- to endo-states, a tell-tale sign of a successful exo-endo transition is invisibility. This invisibility occurs when the agent is no longer aware of the delay originally introduced into the control loop by the assimilated part of the environment. Explaining the world in terms of effective causality is not sufficient to account for extended minds. The latter require explanations in terms of final causation. For extended minds, this ordering principle comes in the shape of nested hierarchical layers. The interfaces of these layers may have merged for an endo-observer, whereas an exo-observer can make out the detailed structure, including artificially introduced delays. A sufficient

  19. Cholinotoxic effects of aluminum in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gulya, K; Rakonczay, Z; Kása, P

    1990-03-01

    The in vivo and in vitro effects of Al on the cholinergic system of rat brain were studied. The amount of Al accumulated after the chronic, intraperitoneal administration of aluminium gluconate (Al-G) or AlCl3, both at a dose of 1 mg/ml/100 g of body weight, increased in the frontal and parietal cortices, the hippocampus, and the striatum. Significantly decreased choline acetyltransferase activities after chronic Al treatment were measured in the parietal cortex, the hippocampus, and the striatum, but not in the frontal cortex. The acetylcholinesterase activity was not changed significantly in any brain area investigated. Both Al-G and AlCl3 administrations resulted in a general decrease (to 40-70% of the control values) in the specific l-[3H]nicotine binding, involving all brain areas studied. The specific (-)-[3H]quinuclidinyl benzilate binding was reduced (to 40-60% of the control values) only after 25 days of Al treatment. Al-G and AlCl3 were equivalent in eliciting these reductions in vitro studies revealed different alterations of the cholinergic system in response to Al treatment. No changes were observed either in choline acetyltransferase activity or in cholinergic receptor bindings. Both Al-G and Al2(SO4)3 treatments, however, exhibited a biphasic effect on the acetylcholinesterase activity. At low Al concentrations (10(-8)-10(-6) M), the activity was slightly increased, whereas at higher concentrations (10(-6)-10(-4) M), it was inhibited by a maximum of 25% as compared to the controls. Thus, these cholinotoxic effects are probably due not to a direct interaction between the metal and the cholinergic marker proteins, but rather to a manifestation and consequence of its neurodegenerative effects.

  20. Brain adaptation to acute hyponatremia in young rats.

    PubMed

    Silver, S M; Schroeder, B M; Bernstein, P; Sterns, R H

    1999-06-01

    Brain swelling after acute hyponatremia in prepubescent rats, in contrast to adults, has recently been associated with an increase in brain sodium and a high mortality that could be prevented by preadministration of testosterone. To reexamine the effect of acute hyponatremia in young brain, we measured brain water and solute content in prepubescent rats after induction of hyponatremia over 4 h with water and arginine vasopressin. An 18% decrease in plasma sodium was associated with a 13% increase in brain water and a decrease in brain sodium and glutamate contents. No animals died. To assess the effect of sex hormones on brain adaptation, prepubescent rats were pretreated with estrogen or testosterone before acute hyponatremia. Brain sodium and potassium contents were significantly reduced in comparison to normonatremia in testosterone-pretreated but not estrogen-pretreated animals. However, there was no difference between estrogen-pretreated and testosterone-pretreated groups in mortality or in brain contents of water, electrolytes, or major organic osmolytes. In conclusion, we found that brain adaptation to acute hyponatremia in prepubescent rats is similar to that observed in adults.

  1. Brain Injury After Intracerebral Hemorrhage in Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wu, Gang; Bao, Xuhui; Xi, Guohua; Keep, Richard; Thompson, B. Gregory; Hua, Ya

    2011-01-01

    Object Hypertension is the main cause of spontaneous intracerebral hemorrhages (ICH), but the effects of hypertension on ICH-induced brain injury have not been well studied. In this study, we examined ICH-induced brain injury in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR). Methods This two-part study was performed on 12 weeks old male SHR and Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats. First, rats received an intracaudate injection of 0.3 units collagenase and hematoma sizes were determined at 24 hours. Second, rats were injected with 100-μL autologous whole blood into the right basal ganglia. Brain edema, neuronal death, ferritin expression, microglia activation, and neurological deficits were examined. Results Hematoma sizes were the same in SHR and WKY rats 24 hours after collagenase injection. SHR had greater neuronal death and neurological deficits after blood injection. ICH also resulted in higher brain ferritin levels and stronger activation of microglia in SHR. However, perihematomal brain edema was same in the SHR and WKY rats. Conclusion Moderate chronic hypertension resulted in more severe ICH-induced neuronal death and neurological deficits, but did not exaggerate hematoma enlargement and perihematomal brain edema in the rat ICH models. PMID:21294617

  2. Ceftriaxone attenuates hypoxic-ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background Perinatal brain injury is the leading cause of subsequent neurological disability in both term and preterm baby. Glutamate excitotoxicity is one of the major factors involved in perinatal hypoxic-ischemic encephalopathy (HIE). Glutamate transporter GLT1, expressed mainly in mature astrocytes, is the major glutamate transporter in the brain. HIE induced excessive glutamate release which is not reuptaked by immature astrocytes may induce neuronal damage. Compounds, such as ceftriaxone, that enhance the expression of GLT1 may exert neuroprotective effect in HIE. Methods We used a neonatal rat model of HIE by unilateral ligation of carotid artery and subsequent exposure to 8% oxygen for 2 hrs on postnatal day 7 (P7) rats. Neonatal rats were administered three dosages of an antibiotic, ceftriaxone, 48 hrs prior to experimental HIE. Neurobehavioral tests of treated rats were assessed. Brain sections from P14 rats were examined with Nissl and immunohistochemical stain, and TUNEL assay. GLT1 protein expression was evaluated by Western blot and immunohistochemistry. Results Pre-treatment with 200 mg/kg ceftriaxone significantly reduced the brain injury scores and apoptotic cells in the hippocampus, restored myelination in the external capsule of P14 rats, and improved the hypoxia-ischemia induced learning and memory deficit of P23-24 rats. GLT1 expression was observed in the cortical neurons of ceftriaxone treated rats. Conclusion These results suggest that pre-treatment of infants at risk for HIE with ceftriaxone may reduce subsequent brain injury. PMID:21933448

  3. Aluminium toxicity in the rat liver and brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Ohashi, H.; Nagai, H.; Kakimi, S.; Ishikawa, A.; Kobayashi, K.; Ogawa, Y.; Ishii, K.

    1993-04-01

    To investigate the etiology of Alzheimer's disease, we examined the brain and liver tissue uptake of aluminium 5-75 days after aluminium injection into healthy rats. Ten days after the last injection, Al was detected in the brain and the brain cell nuclei by particle-induced X-ray emission (PIXE) analysis. Al was also demonstrated in the liver and the liver cell nuclei by PIXE analysis and electron energy loss spectrometry (EELS). The morphological changes of the rat brain examined 75 days after the injection were similar to those which have been reportedly observed in the brain of patients with Alzheimer's disease. These results support the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium in the brain, as well as in the nuclei of brain cells.

  4. 26Al uptake and accumulation in the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yumoto, S.; Nagai, H.; Imamura, M.; Matsuzaki, H.; Hayashi, K.; Masuda, A.; Kumazawa, H.; Ohashi, H.; Kobayashi, K.

    1997-03-01

    To investigate the cause of Alzheimer's disease (senile dementia), 26Al incorporation in the rat brain was studied by accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). When 26Al was injected into healthy rats, a considerable amount of 26Al entered the brain (cerebrum) through the blood-brain barrier 5 days after a single injection, and the brain 26Al level remained almost constant from 5 to 270 days. On the other hand, the level of 26Al in the blood decreased remarkably 75 days after injection. Approximately 89% of the 26Al taken in by the brain cell nuclei bound to chromatin. This study supports the theory that Alzheimer's disease is caused by irreversible accumulation of aluminium (Al) in the brain, and brain cell nuclei.

  5. Action of AF64A on rat brain muscarinic receptors

    SciTech Connect

    Eva, C.; Costa, E.

    1986-03-01

    ICV administration of compound AF64A (ethylcholine mustard aziridium ion) induces a long-term selective cholinergic hypofunction; however, it does not modify the characteristics of muscarinic receptors. In brain muscarinic receptor activation can either stimulate phosphoinositide turnover or inhibit adenylate cyclase. ICV infusion of AF64A (5 nmol/side/2.5 ..mu..l) reduced the hippocampal ACh content 10 or 30 days after the treatment to 75% of the control values. Under these conditions neither in the striatum nor in the frontal cortex ACh levels were decreased. The carbachol dose-dependent stimulation in hippocampal slices differed from that observed in control rats. The carbachol efficacy was increased but its potency was unchanged by AF64A. In contrast, ICV administration of AF64A failed to alter the oxotremorine efficacy or potency in inhibiting the forskolin stimulated adenylate cyclase in rat hippocampal membranes. These results suggest the two transducer systems coupled to muscarinic receptors may be differentially regulatable by cholinergic input.

  6. Extremely low-frequency magnetic field induces manganese accumulation in brain, kidney and liver of rats.

    PubMed

    Çelik, Mustafa Salih; Güven, Kemal; Akpolat, Veysi; Akdağ, Mehmet Zulkuf; Nazıroğlu, Mustafa; Gül-Güven, Reyhan; Çelik, M Yusuf; Erdoğan, Sait

    2015-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to determine the effects of extremely low-frequency magnetic field (ELF-MF) on accumulation of manganese (Mn) in the kidney, liver and brain of rats. A total of 40 rats were randomly divided into eight groups. Four control groups received 0, 3.75, 15 and 60 mg Mn per kg body weight orally every 2 days for 45 days, respectively. The remaining four groups received same concentrations of Mn and were also exposed to ELF-MF (1.5 mT; 50 Hz) for 4 h for 5 days a week during 45 days. Following the last exposure, kidney, liver and brain were taken from all rats and they were analyzed for Mn accumulation levels using an inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometer. In result of the current study, we observed that Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were higher in Mn groups than in control groups. Mn levels in brain, kidney and liver were also higher in Mn plus ELF-MF groups than in Mn groups. In conclusion, result of the current study showed that the ELF-MF induced manganese accumulation in kidney, liver and brain of rats.

  7. Transcranial Photoacoustic Measurements of Cold-Injured Brains in Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ueda, Yoshinori; Sato, Shunichi; Hasegawa, Makoto; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Saitoh, Daizoh; Shima, Katsuji; Ashida, Hiroshi; Obara, Minoru

    2005-09-01

    We performed transcranial photoacoustic measurements of cold-injured brains in rats. Before inducing injury, a signal peak was observed at two locations corresponding to the surfaces of the skull and brain, while after injury, a third peak appeared at a location corresponding to the back surface of the skull; the third peak was found to be caused by subdural hematoma. The signal peak for the brain surface shifted to a deeper region with elapse of time after injury, indicating deformation of the brain. These findings suggest that small hemorrhage and morphological change of the brain can be transcranially detected by photoacoustic measurement.

  8. Cross-frequency coupling in real and virtual brain networks

    PubMed Central

    Jirsa, Viktor; Müller, Viktor

    2013-01-01

    Information processing in the brain is thought to rely on the convergence and divergence of oscillatory behaviors of widely distributed brain areas. This information flow is captured in its simplest form via the concepts of synchronization and desynchronization and related metrics. More complex forms of information flow are transient synchronizations and multi-frequency behaviors with metrics related to cross-frequency coupling (CFC). It is supposed that CFC plays a crucial role in the organization of large-scale networks and functional integration across large distances. In this study, we describe different CFC measures and test their applicability in simulated and real electroencephalographic (EEG) data obtained during resting state. For these purposes, we derive generic oscillator equations from full brain network models. We systematically model and simulate the various scenarios of CFC under the influence of noise to obtain biologically realistic oscillator dynamics. We find that (i) specific CFC-measures detect correctly in most cases the nature of CFC under noise conditions, (ii) bispectrum (BIS) and bicoherence (BIC) correctly detect the CFCs in simulated data, (iii) empirical resting state EEG show a prominent delta-alpha CFC as identified by specific CFC measures and the more classic BIS and BIC. This coupling was mostly asymmetric (directed) and generally higher in the eyes closed (EC) than in the eyes open (EO) condition. In conjunction, these two sets of measures provide a powerful toolbox to reveal the nature of couplings from experimental data and as such allow inference on the brain state dependent information processing. Methodological advantages of using CFC measures and theoretical significance of delta and alpha interactions during resting and other brain states are discussed. PMID:23840188

  9. Brain-Spleen Inflammatory Coupling: A Literature Review

    PubMed Central

    Rasouli, J; Lekhraj, R; Ozbalik, M; Lalezari, P; Casper, D

    2012-01-01

    Recent evidence suggests a link between brain injury and the autonomic release of pro-inflammatory cytokines by resident macrophages in the spleen. This phenomenon, termed “brain-spleen inflammatory coupling,” has garnered attention from scientific and medical communities interested in developing novel treatments for traumatic brain injury (TBI). Cholinergic stimulation of the α7-subunit nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7NAchR) on splenic macrophages has been shown to inhibit their release of pro-inflammatory cytokines. This inhibition, mediated by the parasympathetic nervous system, has been shown to improve outcomes in animal models of sepsis, stroke, and TBI. As evidence of a beneficial role of splenic inhibition grows, new treatment strategies might be applied to many medical conditions involving neuroinflammation, a process that contributes to further neurological deterioration. PMID:22611344

  10. Actin purification from a gel of rat brain extracts.

    PubMed

    Levilliers, N; Peron-Renner, M; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1984-01-01

    Actin, 99% pure, has been recovered from rat brain with a high yield (greater than 15 mg/100 g brain). We have shown that: 1. a low ionic strength extract from rat brain tissue is capable of giving rise to a gel; 2. actin is the main gel component and its proportion is one order of magnitude higher than in the original extract; 3. actin can be isolated from this extract by a three-step procedure involving gelation, dissociation of the gel in 0.6 M KCl, followed by one or two depolymerization-polymerization cycles.

  11. A simple method to induce focal brain hypothermia in rats.

    PubMed

    Clark, Darren L; Colbourne, Frederick

    2007-01-01

    Hypothermia reduces cell death and promotes recovery in models of cerebral ischemia, intracerebral hemorrhage and trauma. Clinical studies report significant benefit for treating cardiac arrest and studies are investigating hypothermia for stroke and related conditions. Both local (head) and generalized hypothermia have been used. However, selective brain cooling has fewer side effects than systemic cooling. In this study, we developed a method to induce local (hemispheric) brain hypothermia in rats. The method involves using a small metal coil implanted between the Temporalis muscle and adjacent skull. This coil is then cooled by flushing it with cold water. In our first experiment, we tested whether this method induces focal brain hypothermia in anesthetized rats. Brain temperature was assessed in the ipsilateral cortex and striatum, and contralateral striatum, while body temperature was kept normothermic. Focal, ipsilateral cooling was successfully produced, while the other locations remained normothermic. In the second experiment, we implanted the coil, and brain and body temperature telemetry probes. The coil was connected via overhead swivel to a cold-water source. Brain hypothermia was produced for 24 h, while body temperature remained normothermic. A third experiment measured brain and body temperature along with heart rate and blood pressure. Brain cooling was produced for 24 h without significant alterations in pressure, heart rate or body temperature. In summary, our simple method allows for focal brain hypothermia to be safely induced in anesthetized or conscious rats, and is, therefore, ideally suited to stroke and trauma studies.

  12. Effects of photoradiation therapy on normal rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Cheng, M.K.; McKean, J.; Boisvert, D.; Tulip, J.; Mielke, B.W.

    1984-12-01

    Laser photoradiation of the brain via an optical fiber positioned 5 mm above a burr hole was performed after the injection of hematoporphyrin derivative (HpD) in 33 normal rats and 6 rats with an intracerebral glioma. Normal rats received HpD, 5 or 10 mg/kg of body weight, followed by laser exposure at various doses or were exposed to a fixed laser dose after the administration of HpD, 2.5 to 20 mg/kg. One control group received neither HpD nor laser energy, and another was exposed to laser energy only. The 6 rats bearing an intracranial 9L glioma were treated with HpD, 5 mg/kg, followed by laser exposure at various high doses. The temperature in the cortex or tumor was measured with a probe during laser exposure. The rats were killed 72 hours after photoradiation, and the extent of necrosis of cerebral tissue was measured microscopically. In the normal rats, the extent of brain damage correlated with increases in the dose of both the laser and the HpD. In all 6 glioma-bearing rats, the high laser doses produced some focal necrosis in the tumors but also damaged adjacent normal brain tissue. The authors conclude that damage to normal brain tissue may be a significant complication of high dose photoradiation therapy for intracranial tumors.

  13. Acute stress and chronic stress change brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor (TrkB) expression in both young and aged rat hippocampus.

    PubMed

    Shi, Shou-Sen; Shao, Shu-Hong; Yuan, Bang-Ping; Pan, Fang; Li, Zun-Ling

    2010-09-01

    The purpose of this study is to explore the dynamic change of brainderived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) mRNA, protein, and tyrosine kinase-coupled receptor (TrkB) mRNA of the rat hippocampus under different stress conditions and to explore the influence of senescence on the productions expression. By using forced-swimming in 4 degrees C cold ice water and 25 degrees C warm water, young and aged male rats were randomly divided into acute stress (AS) and chronic mild repeated stress (CMRS) subgroups, respectively. BDNF productions and TrkB mRNA in the hippocampus were detected by using Western-blotting and reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), separately, at 15, 30, 60, 180, and 720 min after the last stress session. The short AS induced a significant increase in BDNF mRNA and protein in both age groups, but the changes in the young group were substantially greater than those of the aged group (p < 0.005). The CMRS resulted in a decrease in BDNF mRNA and protein, but a significant increase in TrkB mRNA in both young and age groups. The expression of BDNF mRNA and protein in the AS groups were higher than in the CMRS groups at 15, 30, and 60 min after stress. The results indicated that the up/down-regulation of BDNF and TrkB were affected by aging and the stimulus paradigm, which might reflect important mechanisms by which the hippocampus copes with stressful stimuli.

  14. Induction of oxidative stress in rat brain by acrylonitrile (ACN).

    PubMed

    Jiang, J; Xu, Y; Klaunig, J E

    1998-12-01

    Chronic treatment with acrylonitrile (ACN) has been shown to produce a dose-related increase in glial cell tumors (astrocytomas) in rats. The mechanism(s) for ACN-induced carcinogenicity remains unclear. While ACN has been reported to induce DNA damage in a number of short-term systems, evidence for a genotoxic mechanism of tumor induction is the brain is not strong. Other toxic mechanisms appear to participate in the induction of tumor or induce the astrocytomas solely. In particular, nongenotoxic mechanisms of carcinogen induction have been implicated in this ACN-induced carcinogenic effect in the rat brain. One major pathway of ACN metabolism is through glutathione (GSH) conjugation. Extensive utilization and depletion of GSH, an important intracellular antioxidant, by ACN may lead to cellular oxidative stress. The present study examined the ability of ACN to induce oxidative stress in male Sprague-Dawley rats. Rats were administered ACN at concentrations of 0, 5, 10, 100, or 200 ppm in the drinking water and sampled after 14, 28, or 90 days of continuous treatment. Oxidative DNA damage indicated by the presence of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine (OH8dG) and lipid peroxidation indicated by the presence of malondialdehyde (MDA), a lipid peroxidation product, in rat brains and livers were examined. The levels of reactive oxygen species (ROS) were also determined in different rat tissues. Both the levels of nonenzymatic antioxidants (GSH, vitamin E) and the activities of enzymatic antioxidants (catalase, superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase) in rat brains and livers were measured. Increased levels of OH8dG, MDA, and ROS were found in the brains of ACN-treated rats. Decreased levels of GSH and activities of catalase and SOD were also observed in the brains of ACN-treated rats compared to the control group. Interestingly, there were no changes of these indicators of oxidative stress in the livers of ACN-treated rats. Rat liver is not a target for ACN

  15. A Critical Role for the Vascular Endothelium in Functional Neurovascular Coupling in the Brain

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Brenda R.; Kozberg, Mariel G.; Bouchard, Matthew B.; Shaik, Mohammed A.; Hillman, Elizabeth M. C.

    2014-01-01

    Background The functional modulation of blood flow in the brain is critical for brain health and is the basis of contrast in functional magnetic resonance imaging. There is evident coupling between increases in neuronal activity and increases in local blood flow; however, many aspects of this neurovascular coupling remain unexplained by current models. Based on the rapid dilation of distant pial arteries during cortical functional hyperemia, we hypothesized that endothelial signaling may play a key role in the long‐range propagation of vasodilation during functional hyperemia in the brain. Although well characterized in the peripheral vasculature, endothelial involvement in functional neurovascular coupling has not been demonstrated. Methods and Results We combined in vivo exposed‐cortex multispectral optical intrinsic signal imaging (MS‐OISI) with a novel in vivo implementation of the light‐dye technique to record the cortical hemodynamic response to somatosensory stimulus in rats before and after spatially selective endothelial disruption. We demonstrate that discrete interruption of endothelial signaling halts propagation of stimulus‐evoked vasodilation in pial arteries, and that wide‐field endothelial disruption in pial arteries significantly attenuates the hemodynamic response to stimulus, particularly the early, rapid increase and peak in hyperemia. Conclusions Involvement of endothelial pathways in functional neurovascular coupling provides new explanations for the spatial and temporal features of the hemodynamic response to stimulus and could explain previous results that were interpreted as evidence for astrocyte‐mediated control of functional hyperemia. Our results unify many aspects of blood flow regulation in the brain and body and prompt new investigation of direct links between systemic cardiovascular disease and neural deficits. PMID:24926076

  16. Platonin preserves blood-brain barrier integrity in septic rats.

    PubMed

    Yeh, Chia-Tse; Kao, Ming-Chang; Chen, Cay-Huyen; Huang, Chun-Jen

    2015-03-01

    Platonin possesses potent anti-inflammatory and antioxidative capacities. Because systemic inflammation and oxidative stress are crucial in mediating sepsis-induced blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity loss, this study elucidated the effects of platonin on preserving BBB integrity in septic rats. A total of 72 adult male rats (200-250 g) were randomized to receive cecal ligation and puncture (CLP), CLP plus platonin, sham operation, or sham operation plus platonin (n = 18 in each group). Systemic inflammation and oxidation levels and BBB integrity in the surviving rats were determined after 24-hour monitoring. Plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6) and malondialdehyde (MDA)-markers of systemic inflammation and oxidation-and the grading of Evans blue staining of the brains, BBB permeability to Evans blue dye, and brain edema levels-markers of BBB integrity-in rats that received CLP were significantly higher than rats that received sham operation (all p < 0.001). By contrast, the plasma levels of IL-6 (p < 0.001) and MDA (p < 0.001), and the grading of Evans blue staining (p = 0.015), BBB permeability to Evans blue dye (p = 0.043), and brain edema levels (p = 0.034) in rats that received CLP plus platonin were significantly lower than rats that received CLP. Experimental data further revealed that the concentration of tight junction protein claudin-5, a major structural component of BBB, in rats that received CLP was significantly lower than rats that received CLP plus platonin (p = 0.023). Platonin could attenuate sepsis-induced BBB integrity loss in rats. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. Transport of 3-hydroxybutyrate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Stevenson, J.H.; Couto, R.; Caprio, F.J. )

    1990-02-26

    Studies by a number of investigators have shown that 3-hydroxybutyrate is a preferred energy substrate for brain during early development. Since recent studies by the authors group suggest that the utilization of oxidizable substrates by brain may be regulated in part by transport across the plasma membrane, the authors investigated the transport of ({sup 3}H) D- and L-3-hydroxybutyrate and 3-hydroxy-(3-{sup 14}C) butyrate by primary cultures of rat brain astrocytes. The data is consistent with the hypothesis that 3-hydroxybutyrate is taken up into cultured rat brain astrocytes by both diffusion and a carrier mediated transport system, and further support the concept that transport at the cellular level contributes to the regulation of substrate utilization by brain cells.

  18. Effect of carnosine on rats under experimental brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Gallant, S; Kukley, M; Stvolinsky, S; Bulygina, E; Boldyrev, A

    2000-06-01

    The effect of dietary carnosine on the behavioral and biochemical characteristics of rats under experimental ischemia was studied. Carnosine was shown to improve the animals orientation and learning in "Open Field" and "T-Maze" tests, and this effect was accompanied with an increase in glutamate binding to N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) receptors in brain synaptosomes. Long-term brain ischemia induced by both sides' occlusion of common carotid arteries resulted in 55% mortality of experimental rats, and those who survived were characterized by partial suppression of orientation in T-maze. In the group of rats treated with carnosine, mortality after ischemic attack was decreased (from 55% to 17%) and most of the learning parameters were kept at the pre-ischemic level. Monoamine oxidase B (MAO B) activity in brain of the carnosine treated rats was not changed by ischemia significantly (compared to that of ischemic untreated rats) but NMDA binding to brain synaptosomal membranes being increased by ischemic attack was significantly suppressed and reached the level characteristic of normal brain. The suggestion was made that carnosine possesses a dual effect on NMDA receptors resulting in increase in their amount after long-term treatment but decrease the capacity to bind NMDA after ischemic attack.

  19. Non-signalling energy use in the developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Engl, Elisabeth; Jolivet, Renaud; Hall, Catherine N; Attwell, David

    2017-03-01

    Energy use in the brain constrains its information processing power, but only about half the brain's energy consumption is directly related to information processing. Evidence for which non-signalling processes consume the rest of the brain's energy has been scarce. For the first time, we investigated the energy use of the brain's main non-signalling tasks with a single method. After blocking each non-signalling process, we measured oxygen level changes in juvenile rat brain slices with an oxygen-sensing microelectrode and calculated changes in oxygen consumption throughout the slice using a modified diffusion equation. We found that the turnover of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, followed by lipid synthesis, are significant energy drains, contributing 25%, 22% and 18%, respectively, to the rate of oxygen consumption. In contrast, protein synthesis is energetically inexpensive. We assess how these estimates of energy expenditure relate to brain energy use in vivo, and how they might differ in the mature brain.

  20. Non-signalling energy use in the developing rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Engl, Elisabeth; Jolivet, Renaud; Hall, Catherine N

    2016-01-01

    Energy use in the brain constrains its information processing power, but only about half the brain's energy consumption is directly related to information processing. Evidence for which non-signalling processes consume the rest of the brain's energy has been scarce. For the first time, we investigated the energy use of the brain's main non-signalling tasks with a single method. After blocking each non-signalling process, we measured oxygen level changes in juvenile rat brain slices with an oxygen-sensing microelectrode and calculated changes in oxygen consumption throughout the slice using a modified diffusion equation. We found that the turnover of the actin and microtubule cytoskeleton, followed by lipid synthesis, are significant energy drains, contributing 25%, 22% and 18%, respectively, to the rate of oxygen consumption. In contrast, protein synthesis is energetically inexpensive. We assess how these estimates of energy expenditure relate to brain energy use in vivo, and how they might differ in the mature brain. PMID:27170699

  1. SEROTONIN BINDING TO PREPARATIONS FROM RAT BRAIN,

    DTIC Science & Technology

    BRAIN , SEROTONIN, SEROTONIN, OXIDOREDUCTASES, LYSERGIC ACIDS, RESERPINE, CHLORPROMAZINE, ACETYLCHOLINE, FATTY ACIDS, NOREPINEPHRINE, LEARNING, PERMEABILITY, MITOCHONDRIA, MORPHOLOGY(BIOLOGY), DRUGS, PHYSIOLOGY.

  2. Hydrogen-rich water attenuates brain damage and inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, Runfa; Hou, Zonggang; Hao, Shuyu; Wu, Weichuan; Mao, Xiang; Tao, Xiaogang; Lu, Te; Liu, Baiyun

    2016-04-15

    Inflammation and oxidative stress are the two major causes of apoptosis after traumatic brain injury (TBI). Most previous studies of the neuroprotective effects of hydrogen-rich water on TBI primarily focused on antioxidant effects. The present study investigated whether hydrogen-rich water (HRW) could attenuate brain damage and inflammation after traumatic brain injury in rats. A TBI model was induced using a controlled cortical impact injury. HRW or distilled water was injected intraperitoneally daily following surgery. We measured survival rate, brain edema, blood-brain barrier (BBB) breakdown and neurological dysfunction in all animals. Changes in inflammatory cytokines, inflammatory cells and Cho/Cr metabolites in brain tissues were also detected. Our results demonstrated that TBI-challenged rats exhibited significant brain injuries that were characterized by decreased survival rate and increased BBB permeability, brain edema, and neurological dysfunction, while HRW treatment ameliorated the consequences of TBI. HRW treatment also decreased the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (TNF-α, IL-1β and HMGB1), inflammatory cell number (Iba1) and inflammatory metabolites (Cho) and increased the levels of an anti-inflammatory cytokine (IL-10) in the brain tissues of TBI-challenged rats. In conclusion, HRW could exert a neuroprotective effect against TBI and attenuate inflammation, which suggests HRW as an effective therapeutic strategy for TBI patients.

  3. Brain perfusion in acute and chronic hyperglycemia in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kikano, G.E.; LaManna, J.C.; Harik, S.I. )

    1989-08-01

    Recent studies show that acute and chronic hyperglycemia cause a diffuse decrease in regional cerebral blood flow and that chronic hyperglycemia decreases the brain L-glucose space. Since these changes can be caused by a decreased density of perfused brain capillaries, we used 30 adult male Wistar rats to study the effect of acute and chronic hyperglycemia on (1) the brain intravascular space using radioiodinated albumin, (2) the anatomic density of brain capillaries using alkaline phosphatase histochemistry, and (3) the fraction of brain capillaries that are perfused using the fluorescein isothiocyanate-dextran method. Our results indicate that acute and chronic hyperglycemia do not affect the brain intravascular space nor the anatomic density of brain capillaries. Also, there were no differences in capillary recruitment among normoglycemic, acutely hyperglycemic, and chronically hyperglycemic rats. These results suggest that the shrinkage of the brain L-glucose space in chronic hyperglycemia is more likely due to changes in the blood-brain barrier permeability to L-glucose.

  4. Electrical coupling of astrocytes in rat hippocampal slices under physiological and simulated ischemic conditions.

    PubMed

    Xu, Guangjin; Wang, Wei; Kimelberg, Harold K; Zhou, Min

    2010-03-01

    Mammalian protoplasmic astrocytes are extensively coupled through gap junction channels but the biophysical properties of these channels under physiological and ischemic conditions in situ are not well defined. Using confocal morphometric analysis of biocytin-filled astrocytic syncytia in rat hippocampal CA1 stratum radiatum we found that each astrocyte directly couples, on average, to 11 other astrocytes with a mean interastrocytic distance of 45 microm. Voltage-independent and bidirectional transjunctional currents were always measured between directly coupled astrocyte pairs in dual voltage-clamp recordings, but never from astrocyte-NG2 glia or astrocyte-interneuron pairs. The electrical coupling ratio varied considerably among astrocytes in developing postnatal day 14 rats (P14, 0.5-12.4%, mean = 3.6%), but became more constant in young adult P21 rats (0.18-3.9%, mean = 1.6%), and the coupling ratio declined exponentially with increasing pair distance. Electrical coupling was not affected by short-term oxygen-glucose deprivation (OGD) treatment, but showed delayed inhibition in an acidic extracellular pH of 6.4. Combination of acidic pH (6.4) and OGD, a condition that better represents cerebral ischemia in vivo, accelerated the inhibition of electrical coupling. Our results show that, under physiological conditions, 20.7-24.2% of K(+) induced currents can travel from any astrocytic soma in CA1 stratum radiatum to the gap junctions of the nearest neighbor astrocytes, but this should be severely inhibited as a consequence of the OGD and acidosis seen in the ischemic brain.

  5. Proinflammatory cytokines in injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia.

    PubMed

    Maślińska, Danuta; Laure-Kamionowska, Milena; Kaliszek, Agnieszka; Makarewicz, Dorota

    2002-01-01

    In contrast to astrogliosis, which is common to injuries of the adult CNS, in the developing brain this process is minimal. Reasons postulated for this include the relative immaturity of the immune system and the consequent insufficient production of cytokines to evoke astrogliosis. To explore this hypothesis, the study was undertaken to detect the presence of some proinflammatory cytokines in the injured rat brain following perinatal asphyxia (ischaemia/hypoxia). The localisation of TNF-alpha, IL-15, IL-17 and IL-17 receptors was visualised by means of immunohistochemistry. In numerous neurones of the rat brain, the IL-17 appeared to be constitutively expressed. In the early period of inflammation the IL-15 was produced mainly by the blood cells penetrating the injured brain but later it was synthesised also by reactive astrocytes surrounding brain cysts and forming dense astrogliosis around necrotic brain regions. The direct effect on astrogliosis of other estimated cytokines seems to be negligible. All the results lead to the conclusion that from all cytokines identified in the injured immature rat brain the IL-15 plays the most important role during inflammatory response and participates in the gliosis of reactive astrocytes.

  6. Thermal imaging of brain tumors in a rat glioma model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Papaioannou, Thanassis; Thompson, Reid C.; Kateb, Babak; Sorokoumov, Oleg; Grundfest, Warren S.; Black, Keith L.

    2002-05-01

    We have explored the capability of thermal imaging for the detection of brain tumors in a rat glioma mode. Fourteen Wistar rats were injected stereotactically with 100,000 C6 glioma cells. Approximately one and two weeks post implantation, the rats underwent bilateral craniotomy and the exposed brain surface was imaged with a short wave thermal camera. Thermal images were obtained at both low (approximately 28.7 degree(s)C) and high (approximately 38 degree(s)C) core temperatures. Temperature gradients between the tumor site and the contralateral normal brain were calculated. Overall, the tumors appeared cooler than normal brain, for both high and low core temperatures. Average temperature difference between tumor and normal brain were maximal in more advanced tumors (two weeks) and at higher core temperatures. At one week (N equals 6), the average temperature gradient between tumor and normal sites was 0.1 degree(s)C and 0.2 degree(s)C at low and high core temperatures respectively (P(greater than)0.05). At two weeks (N equals 8), the average temperature gradient was 0.3 degree(s)C and 0.7 degree(s)C at low and high core temperatures respectively (P<0.05). We conclude that thermal imaging can detect temperature differences between tumor and normal brain tissue in this model, particularly in more advanced tumors. Thermal imaging may provide a novel means to identify brain tumors intraoperatively.

  7. Neuropeptide Y receptors in rat brain: autoradiographic localization

    SciTech Connect

    Martel, J.C.; St-Pierre, S.; Quirion, R.

    1986-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y (NPY) receptor binding sites have been characterized in rat brain using both membrane preparations and receptor autoradiography. Radiolabelled NPY binds with high affinity and specificity to an apparent single class of sites in rat brain membrane preparations. The ligand selectivity pattern reveals strong similarities between central and peripheral NPY receptors. NPY receptors are discretely distributed in rat brain with high densities found in the olfactory bulb, superficial layers of the cortex, ventral hippocampus, lateral septum, various thalamic nuclei and area postrema. The presence of high densities of NPY and NPY receptors in such areas suggests that NPY could serve important functions as a major neurotransmitter/neuromodulator in the central nervous system.

  8. System for the measurement of blood flow and oxygenation in tissue applied to neurovascular coupling in brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kohl-Bareis, Matthias; Leithner, Christoph; Sellien, Heike; Guertler, Roland; Geraskin, Dmitri; Rohrer, Benjamin; Royl, Georg; Dirnagl, Ulrich; Lindauer, Ute

    2005-08-01

    We designed a system incorporating the independent measurement of blood flow and oxygenation of haemoglobin. This is based on laser-Doppler spectroscopy with NIR wavelengths which gives a measure for changes in blood flow or tissue perfusion as well as reflectance spectroscopy in the VIS wavelength range for the calculation of the oxygenated and deoxygenated haemoglobin components. The co-registration of these parameters allows the neurovascular coupling of brain to be investigated. This is demonstrated by recording functional activity of the rat brain during electrical forepaw stimulation.

  9. Hydrophilic solute transport across the rat blood-brain barrier

    SciTech Connect

    Lucchesi, K.J.

    1987-01-01

    Brain capillary permeability-surface area products (PS) of hydrophilic solutes ranging in size from 180 to 5,500 Daltons were measured in rats according to the method of Ohno, Pettigrew and Rapoport. The distribution volume of 70 KD dextran at 10 minutes after i.v. injection was also measured to determine the residual volume of blood in brain tissue at the time of sacrifice. Small test solutes were injected in pairs in order to elucidate whether their transfer into the brain proceeds by diffusion through water- or lipid-filled channels or by vesicular transport. This issue was examined in rats whose blood-brain barrier (BBB) was presumed to be intact (untreated) and in rats that received intracarotid infusions to open the BBB (isosmotic salt (ISS) and hyperosmolar arabinose). Ohno PS values of {sup 3}H-inulin and {sup 14}C-L-glucose in untreated rats were found to decrease as the labelling time was lengthened. This was evidence that a rapidly equilibrating compartment exists between blood and brain that renders the Ohno two-compartment model inadequate for computing true transfer rate constants. When the data were reanalyzed using a multi-compartment graphical analysis, solutes with different molecular radii were found to enter the brain at approximately equal rates. Furthermore, unidirectional transport is likely to be initiated by solute adsorption to a glycocalyx coat on the luminal surface of brain capillary endothelium. Apparently, more inulin than L-glucose was adsorbed, which may account for its slightly faster transfer across the BBB. After rats were treated with intracarotid infusions of ISS or hyperosmolar arabinose, solute PS values were significantly increased, but the ratio of PS for each of the solute pairs approached that of their free-diffusion coefficients.

  10. Simultaneous MRI and PET imaging of a rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Raylman, Raymond R.; Majewski, Stan; Lemieux, Susan K.; Sendhil Velan, S.; Kross, Brian; Popov, Vladimir; Smith, Mark F.; Weisenberger, Andrew G.; Zorn, Carl; Marano, Gary D.

    2006-12-01

    Multi-modality imaging is rapidly becoming a valuable tool in the diagnosis of disease and in the development of new drugs. Functional images produced with PET fused with anatomical structure images created by MRI will allow the correlation of form with function. Our group is developing a system to acquire MRI and PET images contemporaneously. The prototype device consists of two opposed detector heads, operating in coincidence mode. Each MRI-PET detector module consists of an array of LSO detector elements coupled through a long fibre optic light guide to a single Hamamatsu flat panel position-sensitive photomultiplier tube (PSPMT). The use of light guides allows the PSPMTs to be positioned outside the bore of a 3T MRI scanner where the magnetic field is relatively small. To test the device, simultaneous MRI and PET images of the brain of a male Sprague Dawley rat injected with FDG were successfully obtained. The images revealed no noticeable artefacts in either image set. Future work includes the construction of a full ring PET scanner, improved light guides and construction of a specialized MRI coil to permit higher quality MRI imaging.

  11. Spectral and lifetime domain measurements of rat brain tumors.

    PubMed

    Haidar, D Abi; Leh, B; Zanello, M; Siebert, R

    2015-04-01

    During glioblastoma surgery, delineation of the brain tumor margins is difficult because the infiltrated and normal tissues have the same visual appearance. We use a fiber-optical fluorescence probe for spectroscopic and time domain measurements to assist surgeon in differentiating the healthy and the infiltrated tissues. First study was performed on rats that were previously injected with tumorous cells. Measurements of endogenous tissue fluorescence were performed on fresh and fixed rat tumor brain slices. Spectral characteristics, fluorescence redox ratios and fluorescence lifetime measurements were analyzed. The study aimed at defining an optical index that can act as an indicator for discriminating healthy from tumorous tissue.

  12. Evaluation of the brain-specific delivery of radioiodinated (iodophenyl)alkyl-substituted amines coupled to a dihydropyridine carrier

    SciTech Connect

    Tedjamulia, M.L.; Srivastava, P.C.; Knapp, F.F. Jr.

    1985-11-01

    To evaluate the potential usefulness of radioiodinated phenylamines attached to dihydropyridine carriers as a means of brain-specific delivery of radiopharmaceuticals, 1-methyl-3-(N-(beta- (4-(125I)iodophenyl)ethyl)carbamoyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine ((125I)-9) and 1-methyl-3-(N-(4-(125I)iodophenyl)carbamoyl)-1,4-dihydropyridine ((125I)-13) have been prepared by dithionite reduction of the corresponding pyridinium precursors, (125I)-8 and (125I)-12, respectively. Formation of 8 involved coupling of (p-aminophenyl)ethylamine with N-succinimidyl (1-methyl-3-pyridinio)formate iodide (4) followed by transformation to the corresponding N-piperidinyl- (6) or (diethylamino)- (7) triazines that were converted to 8 by treatment with HI. Alternatively, 12 was prepared by initial conversion of (4-amino-phenyl)mercuric acetate (10) to 4-iodoaniline (11) by treatment with I2 and then coupling with 4. The radioiodinated quaternary products, 8 and 12, showed low brain uptake and low brain to blood ratios, whereas the dihydropyridine analogues, 9 and 13, showed comparatively good brain uptake and good brain to blood ratios in rats. These data demonstrate that dihydropyridine-coupled radiopharmaceuticals can cross the blood-brain barrier and the technique may be useful for the measurement of cerebral blood perfusion.

  13. The metabolism of malate by cultured rat brain astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    McKenna, M.C.; Tildon, J.T.; Couto, R.; Stevenson, J.H.; Caprio, F.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Since malate is known to play an important role in a variety of functions in the brain including energy metabolism, the transfer of reducing equivalents and possibly metabolic trafficking between different cell types; a series of biochemical determinations were initiated to evaluate the rate of 14CO2 production from L-(U-14C)malate in rat brain astrocytes. The 14CO2 production from labeled malate was almost totally suppressed by the metabolic inhibitors rotenone and antimycin A suggesting that most of malate metabolism was coupled to the electron transport system. A double reciprocal plot of the 14CO2 production from the metabolism of labeled malate revealed biphasic kinetics with two apparent Km and Vmax values suggesting the presence of more than one mechanism of malate metabolism in these cells. Subsequent experiments were carried out using 0.01 mM and 0.5 mM malate to determine whether the addition of effectors would differentially alter the metabolism of high and low concentrations of malate. Effectors studied included compounds which could be endogenous regulators of malate metabolism and metabolic inhibitors which would provide information regarding the mechanisms regulating malate metabolism. Both lactate and aspartate decreased 14CO2 production from malate equally. However, a number of effectors were identified which selectively altered the metabolism of 0.01 mM malate including aminooxyacetate, furosemide, N-acetylaspartate, oxaloacetate, pyruvate and glucose, but had little or no effect on the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate. In addition, alpha-ketoglutarate and succinate decreased 14CO2 production from 0.01 mM malate much more than from 0.5 mM malate. In contrast, a number of effectors altered the metabolism of 0.5 mM malate more than 0.01 mM. These included methionine sulfoximine, glutamate, malonate, alpha-cyano-4-hydroxycinnamate and ouabain.

  14. GABA(B) receptors: altered coupling to G-proteins in rats sensitized to amphetamine.

    PubMed

    Zhang, K; Tarazi, F I; Campbell, A; Baldessarini, R J

    2000-01-01

    Modified dopamine and glutamate neurotransmission in discrete brain regions is implicated in stimulant-induced behavioral sensitization. Release of both neurotransmitters is influenced by GABA(B) metabotropic receptors for the principal inhibitory neurotransmitter GABA. Accordingly, GABA(B) receptors were examined in rats sensitized to amphetamine by measuring receptor density and coupling to G-proteins indicated as [(3)H]baclofen binding and baclofen-mediated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding. Repeated treatment with (+)-amphetamine (5mg/kg per day, i.p., for five days) sensitized the rats to amphetamine challenge (1mg/kg) at 14 days, but not one day, later. GABA(B) receptor density was not altered at either time. Baclofen-mediated [(35)S]GTP gamma S binding, however, was selectively augmented in the prefrontal cortex and attenuated in the nucleus accumbens at 14 days, but not one day, after amphetamine treatment. Changes in GABA(B) receptor coupling to G-proteins in rats sensitized to amphetamine, but not in similarly treated but unsensitized rats, lead us to suggest that altered GABA(B) receptor functioning may contribute to the expression of amphetamine-induced behavioral sensitization.

  15. Nicotinamide reduces hypoxic ischemic brain injury in the newborn rat

    PubMed Central

    Feng, Yangzheng; Paul, Ian A.; LeBlanc, Michael H.

    2011-01-01

    Nicotinamide reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats. Can similar brain protection be seen in newborn animals? Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid artery permanently ligated followed by 2.5 h of 8% oxygen. Nicotinamide 250 or 500 mg/kg was administered i.p. 5 min after reoxygenation, with a second dose given at 6 h after the first. Brain damage was evaluated by weight deficit of the right hemisphere at 22 days following hypoxia. Nicotinamide 500 mg/kg reduced brain weight loss from 24.6 ± 3.6% in vehicle pups (n = 28) to 11.9 ± 2.6% in the treated pups (n = 29, P < 0.01), but treatment with 250 mg/kg did not affect brain weight. Nicotinamide 500 mg/kg also improved behavior in rotarod performance. Levels of 8-isoprostaglandin F2α measured in the cortex by enzyme immune assay 16 h after reoxygenation was 115 ± 7 pg/g in the shams (n = 6), 175 ± 17 pg/g in the 500 mg/kg nicotinamide treated (n = 7), and 320 ± 79 pg/g in the vehicle treated pups (n = 7, P < 0.05 versus sham, P < 0.05 versus nicotinamide). Nicotinamide reduced the increase in caspase-3 activity caused by hypoxic ischemia (P < 0.01). Nicotinamide reduces brain injury in the neonatal rat, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and caspase-3 activity. PMID:16533659

  16. Nicotinamide reduces hypoxic ischemic brain injury in the newborn rat.

    PubMed

    Feng, Yangzheng; Paul, Ian A; LeBlanc, Michael H

    2006-03-31

    Nicotinamide reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats. Can similar brain protection be seen in newborn animals? Seven-day-old rat pups had the right carotid artery permanently ligated followed by 2.5 h of 8% oxygen. Nicotinamide 250 or 500 mg/kg was administered i.p. 5 min after reoxygenation, with a second dose given at 6 h after the first. Brain damage was evaluated by weight deficit of the right hemisphere at 22 days following hypoxia. Nicotinamide 500 mg/kg reduced brain weight loss from 24.6 +/- 3.6% in vehicle pups (n = 28) to 11.9 +/- 2.6% in the treated pups (n = 29, P < 0.01), but treatment with 250 mg/kg did not affect brain weight. Nicotinamide 500 mg/kg also improved behavior in rotarod performance. Levels of 8-isoprostaglandin F2alpha measured in the cortex by enzyme immune assay 16 h after reoxygenation was 115 +/- 7 pg/g in the shams (n = 6), 175 +/- 17 pg/g in the 500 mg/kg nicotinamide treated (n = 7), and 320 +/- 79 pg/g in the vehicle treated pups (n = 7, P < 0.05 versus sham, P < 0.05 versus nicotinamide). Nicotinamide reduced the increase in caspase-3 activity caused by hypoxic ischemia (P < 0.01). Nicotinamide reduces brain injury in the neonatal rat, possibly by reducing oxidative stress and caspase-3 activity.

  17. Isatin, regional distribution in rat brain and tissues.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P; Clow, A; Glover, V; Halket, J; Przyborowska, A; Sandler, M

    1990-01-01

    Isatin has recently been identified in rat tissues and normal human urine, where it forms the major proportion of the endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor, tribulin. In this paper, we show that isatin, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, has a distinct regional distribution in rat tissues, with highest concentrations in seminal vesicles (1.6 ?g/g) and vas deferens (3.4 ?g/g). There was also a discontinuous distribution within rat brain, concentrations being highest in the hippocampus (0.13 ?g/g).

  18. Coupled water transport by rat proximal tubule.

    PubMed

    Green, R; Giebisch, G; Unwin, R; Weinstein, A M

    1991-12-01

    Simultaneous microperfusion of proximal tubules and peritubular capillaries in kidneys of rats anesthetized with Inactin was used to examine water reabsorption by this epithelium. Osmolality of the luminal solution was varied with changes in NaCl concentration and by the addition of raffinose. Capillary perfusates contained either low (2 g/dl) or high (16 g/dl) concentrations of albumin. We used low-bicarbonate perfusates for both lumen and capillary so that we might apply the nonequilibrium thermodynamic model of transport for a single solute (NaCl) to interpret our observations. Linear regression with the volume flux equation Jv = -Lp delta II - Lp sigma delta C + Jav (where Jv is volume flux, Lp is hydraulic conductance, delta II is oncotic force, sigma is osmotic reflection coefficient, delta C is salt concentration difference, and Jav is the component of Jv not attributed to transepithelial hydrostatic or osmotic forces) revealed a tubule water permeability (Pf = 0.11 +/- 0.01 cm/s) and a sigma (0.74 +/- 0.08) in agreement with previous determinations. These transport parameters were unaffected by changes in peritubular protein. We also found that Jav was substantial, approximately three-fourths of the rate of isotonic transport under these perfusion conditions. Further, this component of water transport nearly doubled with the transition from low- to high-protein peritubular capillary perfusion. When expressed as a capacity for water reabsorption against an osmotic gradient, the salt concentration differences required to null volume flux were 13.2 +/- 2.4 and 29.4 +/- 4.0 mosmol/kgH2O under low and high peritubular protein. Our data suggest that this protein effect is, most likely, an increase in solute transport by the tubule epithelial cells.

  19. Oxidative damage to rat brain in iron and copper overloads.

    PubMed

    Musacco-Sebio, Rosario; Ferrarotti, Nidia; Saporito-Magriñá, Christian; Semprine, Jimena; Fuda, Julián; Torti, Horacio; Boveris, Alberto; Repetto, Marisa G

    2014-08-01

    This study reports on the acute brain toxicity of Fe and Cu in male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 g) that received 0 to 60 mg kg(-1) (ip) FeCl2 or CuSO4. Brain metal contents and time-responses were determined for rat survival, in situ brain chemiluminescence and phospholipid and protein oxidation products. Metal doses hyperbolically defined brain metal content. Rat survival was 91% and 60% after Fe and Cu overloads. Brain metal content increased from 35 to 114 μg of Fe per g and from 3.6 to 34 μg of Cu per g. Brain chemiluminescence (10 cps cm(-2)) increased 3 and 2 times after Fe and Cu overloads, with half maximal responses (C50) of 38 μg of Fe per g of brain and 15 μg of Cu per g of brain, and with half time responses (t1/2) of 12 h for Fe and 20 h for Cu. Phospholipid peroxidation increased by 56% and 31% with C50 of 40 μg of Fe per g and 20 μg of Cu per g and with t1/2 of 9 h and 14 h. Protein oxidation increased by 45% for Fe with a C50 of 40 μg of Fe per g and 18% for Cu with a C50 of 10 μg of Cu per g and a t1/2 of 12 h for both metals. Fe and Cu brain toxicities are likely mediated by Haber-Weiss type HO˙ formation with subsequent oxidative damage.

  20. Regulation of atrial natriuretic peptide receptors in the rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Saavedra, J.M.

    1987-06-01

    We have studied the localization, kinetics, and regulation of receptors for the circulating form of the atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP; 99-126) in the rat brain. Quantitative autoradiographic techniques and a /sup 125/I-labeled ligand, /sup 125/I-ANP (99-126), were employed. After in vitro autoradiography, quantification was achieved by computerized microdensitometry followed by comparison with /sup 125/I-standards. ANP receptors were discretely localized in the rat brain, with the highest concentrations in circumventricular organs, the choroid plexus, and selected hypothalamic nuclei involved in the production of the antidiuretic hormone vasopressin and in blood-pressure control. Spontaneously (genetic) hypertensive rats showed much lower numbers of ANP receptors than normotensive controls in the subfornical organ, the area postrema, the nucleus of the solitary tract, and the choroid plexus. These changes are in contrast to those observed for receptors of angiotensin II, another circulating peptide with actions opposite to those of ANP. Under conditions of acute dehydration after water deprivation, as well as under conditions of chronic dehydration such as those present in homozygous Brattleboro rats, there was an up-regulation of ANP receptors in the subfornical organ. Our results indicate that in the brain, circumventricular organs contain ANP receptors which could respond to variations in the concentration of circulating ANP. In addition, brain areas inside the blood-brain barrier contain ANP receptors probably related to the endogenous, central ANP system. The localization of ANP receptors and the alterations in their regulation present in genetically hypertensive rats and after dehydration indicate that brain ANP receptors are probably related to fluid regulation, including the secretion of vasopressin, and to cardiovascular function.

  1. The First in Vivo Observation of 13C- 15N Coupling in Mammalian Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kanamori, Keiko; Ross, Brian D.

    2001-12-01

    [5-13C,15N]Glutamine, with 1J(13C-15N) of 16 Hz, was observed in vivo in the brain of spontaneously breathing rats by 13C MRS at 4.7 T. The brain [5-13C]glutamine peak consisted of the doublet from [5-13C,15N]glutamine and the center [5-13C,14N]glutamine peak, resulting in an apparent triplet with a separation of 8 Hz. The time course of formation of brain [5-13C,15N]glutamine was monitored in vivo with a time resolution of 20-35 min. This [5-13C,15N]glutamine was formed by glial uptake of released neurotransmitter [5-13C]glutamate and its reaction with 15NH3 catalyzed by the glia-specific glutamine synthetase. The neurotransmitter glutamate C5 was selectively13C-enriched by intravenous [2,5-13C]glucose infusion to 13C-label whole-brain glutamate C5, followed by [12C]glucose infusion to chase 13C from the small and rapidly turning-over glial glutamate pool, leaving 13C mainly in the neurotransmitter [5-13C]glutamate pool, which is sequestered in vesicles until release. Hence, the observed [5-13C,15N]glutamine arises from a coupling between 13C of neuronal origin and 15N of glial origin. Measurement of the rate of brain [5-13C,15N]glutamine formation provides a novel noninvasive method of studying the kinetics of neurotransmitter uptake into glia in vivo, a process that is crucial for protecting the brain from glutamate excitotoxicity.

  2. [Bcl-2 expression following the brain concussion in rats].

    PubMed

    Zhu, Xu-yang; Wang, Feng; Fang, Wei-hua; Wu, Mao-wang

    2007-02-15

    To evaluate the expression of Bcl-2 protein after brain concussion. Expression levels of Bel-2 protein in cortex, pontine and cerebellum of rats were investigated using immunohistochemistry. There was no expression of Bcl-2 protein in control group seen. The expression of Bcl-2 protein in brain concussion groups was detected at l hour, and the expression level reached its peak 4 days after the concussion and then declined gradually. Our findings suggest that the detection of Bel-2 protein could be an indicator for diagnosis of brain concussion and for estimation of the post injury time interval.

  3. Demonstration of endogenous imipramine like material in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Rehavi, M.; Ventura, I.; Sarne, Y.

    1985-02-18

    The extraction and partial purification of an endogenous imipramine-like material from rat brain is described. The endogenous factor obtained after gel filtration and silica chromatography inhibits (/sup 3/H) imipramine specific binding and mimics the inhibitory effect of imipramine on (/sup 3/H) serotonin uptake in both brain and platelet preparations. The effects of the endogenous material are dose-dependent and it inhibits (/sup 3/H) imipramine binding in a competitive fashion. The factor is unevenly distributed in the brain with high concentration in the hypothalamus and low concentration in the cerebellum.

  4. Brains in Competition: Improved Cognitive Performance and Inter-Brain Coupling by Hyperscanning Paradigm with Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy.

    PubMed

    Balconi, Michela; Vanutelli, Maria E

    2017-01-01

    Hyperscanning brain paradigm was applied to competitive task for couples of subjects. Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy (fNIRS) and cognitive performance were considered to test inter-brain and cognitive strategy similarities between subjects (14 couples) during a joint-action. We supposed increased brain-to-brain coupling and improved cognitive outcomes due to joint-action and the competition. As supposed, the direct interaction between the subjects and the observed external feedback of their performance (an experimentally induced fictitious feedback) affected the cognitive performance with decreased Error Rates (ERs), and Response Times (RTs). In addition, fNIRS measure (oxyhemoglobin, O2Hb) revealed an increased brain activity in the prefrontal cortex (PFC) in post-feedback more than pre-feedback condition. Moreover, a higher inter-brain similarity was found for the couples during the task, with higher matched brain response in post-feedback condition than pre-feedback. Finally, a significant increased prefrontal brain lateralization effect was observed for the right hemisphere. Indeed the right PFC was more responsive with similar modalities within the couple during the post-feedback condition. The joined-task and competitive context was adduced to explain these cognitive performance improving, synergic brain responsiveness within the couples and lateralization effects (negative emotions).

  5. Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging.

    PubMed

    Liao, Lun-De; Tsytsarev, Vassiliy; Delgado-Martínez, Ignacio; Li, Meng-Lin; Erzurumlu, Reha; Vipin, Ashwati; Orellana, Josue; Lin, Yan-Ren; Lai, Hsin-Yi; Chen, You-Yin; Thakor, Nitish V

    2013-04-30

    Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology.

  6. Neurovascular coupling: in vivo optical techniques for functional brain imaging

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Optical imaging techniques reflect different biochemical processes in the brain, which is closely related with neural activity. Scientists and clinicians employ a variety of optical imaging technologies to visualize and study the relationship between neurons, glial cells and blood vessels. In this paper, we present an overview of the current optical approaches used for the in vivo imaging of neurovascular coupling events in small animal models. These techniques include 2-photon microscopy, laser speckle contrast imaging (LSCI), voltage-sensitive dye imaging (VSDi), functional photoacoustic microscopy (fPAM), functional near-infrared spectroscopy imaging (fNIRS) and multimodal imaging techniques. The basic principles of each technique are described in detail, followed by examples of current applications from cutting-edge studies of cerebral neurovascular coupling functions and metabolic. Moreover, we provide a glimpse of the possible ways in which these techniques might be translated to human studies for clinical investigations of pathophysiology and disease. In vivo optical imaging techniques continue to expand and evolve, allowing us to discover fundamental basis of neurovascular coupling roles in cerebral physiology and pathophysiology. PMID:23631798

  7. Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Papp, Eszter A.; Leergaard, Trygve B.; Calabrese, Evan; Johnson, G. Allan; Bjaalie, Jan G.

    2014-01-01

    Three-dimensional digital brain atlases represent an important new generation of neuroinformatics tools for understanding complex brain anatomy, assigning location to experimental data, and planning of experiments. We have acquired a microscopic resolution isotropic MRI and DTI atlasing template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain with 39 µm isotropic voxels for the MRI volume and 78 µm isotropic voxels for the DTI. Building on this template, we have delineated 76 major anatomical structures in the brain. Delineation criteria are provided for each structure. We have applied a spatial reference system based on internal brain landmarks according to the Waxholm Space standard, previously developed for the mouse brain, and furthermore connected this spatial reference system to the widely used stereotaxic coordinate system by identifying cranial sutures and related stereotaxic landmarks in the template using contrast given by the active staining technique applied to the tissue. With the release of the present atlasing template and anatomical delineations, we provide a new tool for spatial orientation analysis of neuroanatomical location, and planning and guidance of experimental procedures in the rat brain. The use of Waxholm Space and related infrastructures will connect the atlas to interoperable resources and services for multilevel data integration and analysis across reference spaces. PMID:24726336

  8. Waxholm Space atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain.

    PubMed

    Papp, Eszter A; Leergaard, Trygve B; Calabrese, Evan; Johnson, G Allan; Bjaalie, Jan G

    2014-08-15

    Three-dimensional digital brain atlases represent an important new generation of neuroinformatics tools for understanding complex brain anatomy, assigning location to experimental data, and planning of experiments. We have acquired a microscopic resolution isotropic MRI and DTI atlasing template for the Sprague Dawley rat brain with 39 μm isotropic voxels for the MRI volume and 78 μm isotropic voxels for the DTI. Building on this template, we have delineated 76 major anatomical structures in the brain. Delineation criteria are provided for each structure. We have applied a spatial reference system based on internal brain landmarks according to the Waxholm Space standard, previously developed for the mouse brain, and furthermore connected this spatial reference system to the widely used stereotaxic coordinate system by identifying cranial sutures and related stereotaxic landmarks in the template using contrast given by the active staining technique applied to the tissue. With the release of the present atlasing template and anatomical delineations, we provide a new tool for spatial orientation analysis of neuroanatomical location, and planning and guidance of experimental procedures in the rat brain. The use of Waxholm Space and related infrastructures will connect the atlas to interoperable resources and services for multi-level data integration and analysis across reference spaces. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. Experimental induction of corpora amylacea in adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Schipper, H M

    1998-10-01

    Corpora amylacea (CA) are glycoproteinaceous inclusions that accumulate in astroglia and other brain cells as a function of advancing age and, to an even greater extent, in several human neurodegenerative conditions. The mechanisms responsible for their biogenesis and their subcellular origin(s) remain unclear. We previously demonstrated that the sulfhydryl agent, cysteamine (CSH), promotes the accumulation of CA-like inclusions in cultured rat astroglia. In the present study, we show that subcutaneous administration of CSH to adult rats (150 mg/kg for 6 weeks followed by a 5-week drug-washout period) elicits the accumulation of CA in many cortical and subcortical brain regions. As in the aging human brain and in CSH-treated rat astrocyte cultures, the inclusions are periodic acid-Schiff -positive and are consistently immunostained with antibodies directed against mitochondrial epitopes and ubiquitin. Our findings support our contention that mitochondria are important structural precursors of CA, and that CSH accelerates aging-like processes in rat astroglia both in vitro and in the intact brain.

  10. Thyroid insufficiency in developing rat brain: A genomic analysis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid Insufficiency in the Developing Rat Brain: A Genomic Analysis. JE Royland and ME Gilbert, Neurotox. Div., U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA. Endocrine disruption (ED) is an area of major concern in environmental neurotoxicity. Severe deficits in thyroid hormone (TH) levels have bee...

  11. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical that has been detected in humans and wildlife. PFOS is primarily distributed in liver and blood. The current study evaluated the level of PFOS in the adult and neonatal rat brain and determined whether t...

  12. EVALUATION OF PERFLUOROOCTANE SULFONATE IN THE RAT BRAIN

    EPA Science Inventory

    Perfluorooctane Sulfonate (PFOS) is an environmentally persistent chemical that has been detected in humans and wildlife. PFOS is primarily distributed in liver and blood. The current study evaluated the level of PFOS in the adult and neonatal rat brain and determined whether t...

  13. Effects of protein malnutrition on oxidative status in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Feoli, Ana M; Siqueira, Ionara R; Almeida, Lúcia; Tramontina, Ana C; Vanzella, Cláudia; Sbaraini, Sabrina; Schweigert, Ingrid D; Netto, Carlos A; Perry, Marcos L S; Gonçalves, Carlos A

    2006-02-01

    This study evaluated the effects of protein malnutrition on oxidative status in rat brain areas. We investigated various parameters of oxidative status, free radical content (dichlorofluorescein formation), indexes of damage to lipid (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances assay), and protein damage (tryptophan and tyrosine content) in addition to total antioxidant reactivity levels and antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase, glutathione peroxidase, and catalase in different cerebral regions (cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum) from rats subjected to prenatal and postnatal protein malnutrition (control 25% casein and protein malnutrition 7% casein). Protein malnutrition altered various parameters of oxidative stress, especially damage to macromolecules. Free radical content was unchanged by protein malnutrition. There was an increase in levels of thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, the index of lipid peroxidation, in the cerebellum and cerebral cortex (P < 0.05) from protein-malnourished rats. Moreover, significant decreases in tryptophan and tyrosine in all tested brain structures (P < 0.05) were observed. Catalase activity was significantly decreased in the cerebellum (P < 0.05). In addition, a significant decrease in total antioxidant reactivity levels (P < 0.05) was observed in the cerebral cortex from protein-malnourished rats. The present data indicated that protein malnutrition increased oxidative damage to lipids and proteins from the studied brain areas. These results may be an indication of an important mechanism for changes in brain development that are caused by protein malnutrition.

  14. Autoradiographic localization of relaxin binding sites in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Osheroff, P.L.; Phillips, H.S. )

    1991-08-01

    Relaxin is a member of the insulin family of polypeptide hormones and exerts its best understood actions in the mammalian reproductive system. Using a biologically active 32P-labeled human relaxin, the authors have previously shown by in vitro autoradiography specific relaxin binding sites in rat uterus, cervix, and brain tissues. Using the same approach, they describe here a detailed localization of human relaxin binding sites in the rat brain. Displaceable relaxin binding sites are distributed in discrete regions of the olfactory system, neocortex, hypothalamus, hippocampus, thalamus, amygdala, midbrain, and medulla of the male and female rat brain. Characterization of the relaxin binding sites in the subfornical organ and neocortex reveals a single class of high-affinity sites (Kd = 1.4 nM) in both regions. The binding of relaxin to two of the circumventricular organs (subfornical organ and organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis) and the neurosecretory magnocellular hypothalamic nuclei (i.e., paraventricular and supraoptic nuclei) provides the anatomical and biochemical basis for emerging physiological evidence suggesting a central role for relaxin in the control of blood pressure and hormone release. They conclude that specific, high-affinity relaxin binding sites are present in discrete regions of the rat brain and that the distribution of some of these sites may be consistent with a role for relaxin in control of vascular volume and blood pressure.

  15. Thyroid insufficiency in developing rat brain: A genomic analysis.

    EPA Science Inventory

    Thyroid Insufficiency in the Developing Rat Brain: A Genomic Analysis. JE Royland and ME Gilbert, Neurotox. Div., U.S. EPA, RTP, NC, USA. Endocrine disruption (ED) is an area of major concern in environmental neurotoxicity. Severe deficits in thyroid hormone (TH) levels have bee...

  16. FACS purification of immunolabeled cell types from adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Guez-Barber, Danielle; Fanous, Sanya; Harvey, Brandon K; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Becker, Kevin G; Picciotto, Marina R; Hope, Bruce T

    2012-01-15

    Molecular analysis of brain tissue is greatly complicated by having many different classes of neurons and glia interspersed throughout the brain. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been used to purify selected cell types from brain tissue. However, its use has been limited to brain tissue from embryos or transgenic mice with promoter-driven reporter genes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a FACS procedure for dissociating intact cell bodies from adult wild-type rat brains and sorting them using commercially available antibodies against intracellular and extracellular proteins. As an example, we isolated neurons using a NeuN antibody and confirmed their identity using microarray and real time PCR of mRNA from the sorted cells. Our FACS procedure allows rapid, high-throughput, quantitative assays of molecular alterations in identified cell types with widespread applications in neuroscience. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  17. FACS purification of immunolabeled cell types from adult rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Guez-Barber, Danielle; Fanous, Sanya; Harvey, Brandon K; Zhang, Yongqing; Lehrmann, Elin; Becker, Kevin G; Picciotto, Marina R; Hope, Bruce T

    2011-01-01

    Molecular analysis of brain tissue is greatly complicated by having many different classes of neurons and glia interspersed throughout the brain. Fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS) has been used to purify selected cell types from brain tissue. However, its use has been limited to brain tissue from embryos or transgenic mice with promoter-driven reporter genes. To overcome these limitations, we developed a FACS procedure for dissociating intact cell bodies from adult wild-type rat brains and sorting them using commercially available antibodies against intracellular and extracellular proteins. As an example, we isolated neurons using a NeuN antibody and confirmed their identity using microarray and real time PCR of mRNA from the sorted cells. Our FACS procedure allows rapid, high-throughput, quantitative assays of molecular alterations in identified cell types with widespread applications in neuroscience. PMID:21911005

  18. Effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Dong-fu; Zhu, Zhi-an; Lu, Yi-cheng

    2004-06-01

    To investigate the effects of magnesium sulfate on traumatic brain edema and explore its possible mechanism. Forty-eight Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into three groups: Control, Trauma and Treatment groups. In Treatment group, magnesium sulfate was intraperitoneally administered immediately after the induction of brain trauma. At 24 h after trauma, total tissue water content and Na(+), K(+), Ca(2+), Mg(2+) contents were measured. Permeability of blood-brain barrier (BBB) was assessed quantitatively by Evans Blue (EB) dye technique. The pathological changes were also studied. Water, Na(+), Ca(2+) and EB contents in Treatment group were significantly lower than those in Trauma group (P<0.05). Results of light microscopy and electron microscopy confirmed that magnesium sulfate can attenuate traumatic brain injury and relieve BBB injury. Treatment with MgSO4 in the early stage can attenuate traumatic brain edema and prevent BBB injury.

  19. Effects of magnesium administration on brain edema and blood-brain barrier breakdown after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Esen, Figen; Erdem, Tulin; Aktan, Damla; Kalayci, Rivaze; Cakar, Nahit; Kaya, Mehmet; Telci, Lutfi

    2003-04-01

    In this study, we examined the effects of magnesium sulfate administration on brain edema and blood-brain barrier breakdown after experimental traumatic brain injury in rats. Seventy-one adult male Sprague-Dawley rats were anesthetized, and experimental closed head trauma was induced by allowing a 450-g weight to fall from a 2-m height onto a metallic disk fixed to the intact skull. Sixty-eight surviving rats were randomly assigned to receive an intraperitoneal bolus of either 750 micromol/kg magnesium sulfate (group 4; n = 30) or 1 mL of saline (group 2; n = 30) 30 minutes after induction of traumatic brain injury; 39 nontraumatized animals received saline (group 1; n = 21) or magnesium sulfate (group 3; n = 18) with an identical protocol of administration. Brain water content and brain tissue specific gravity, as indicators of brain edema, were measured 24 hours after traumatic brain injury. Blood-brain barrier integrity was evaluated quantitatively 24 hours after injury by spectrophotometric assay of Evans blue dye extravasations. In the magnesium-treated injured group, brain water content was significantly reduced (left hemisphere: group 2, 83.2 +/- 0.8; group 4, 78.4 +/- 0.7 [P <.05]; right hemisphere: group 2, 83.1 +/- 0.7; group 4, 78.4 +/- 0.5. [P <.05]) and brain tissue specific gravity was significantly increased (left hemisphere: group 2, 1.0391 +/- 0.0008; group 4, 1.0437 +/- 0.001 [P <.05]; right hemisphere, group 2, 1.0384 +/- 0.001; group 4, 1.0442 +/- 0.005 [P <.05]) compared with the saline-treated injured group. Evans blue dye content in the brain tissue was significantly decreased in the magnesium-treated injured group (left hemisphere: group 2, 0.0204 +/- 0.03; group 4, 0.0013 +/- 0.0002 [P <.05]; right hemisphere: group 2, 0.0064 +/- 0.0009; group 4, 0.0013 +/- 0.0003 [P <.05]) compared with the saline-treated injured group. The findings of the present study support that beneficial effects of magnesium sulfate exist after severe traumatic brain

  20. Perinatal manganese exposure and hydroxyl radical formation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bałasz, Michał; Szkilnik, Ryszard; Brus, Ryszard; Malinowska-Borowska, Jolanta; Kasperczyk, Sławomir; Nowak, Damian; Kostrzewa, Richard M; Nowak, Przemysław

    2015-01-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of pre- and postnatal manganese (Mn) exposure on hydroxyl radical (HO(•)) formation in the brains of dopamine (DA) partially denervated rats (Parkinsonian rats). Wistar rats were given tap water containing 10,000 ppm manganese chloride during the duration of pregnancy and until the time of weaning. Control rat dams consumed tap water without added Mn. Three days after birth, rats of both groups were treated with 6-hydroxydopamine at one of three doses (15, 30, or 67 µg, intraventricular on each side), or saline vehicle. We found that Mn content in the brain, kidney, liver, and bone was significantly elevated in dams exposed to Mn during pregnancy. In neonates, the major organs that accumulated Mn were the femoral bone and liver. However, Mn was not elevated in tissues in adulthood. To determine the possible effect on generation of the reactive species, HO(•) in Mn-induced neurotoxicity, we analyzed the contents of 2.3- and 2.5-dihydroxybenzoic acid (spin trap products of salicylate; HO(•) being an index of in vivo HO(•) generation), as well as antioxidant enzyme activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) isoenzymes and glutathione S-transferase (GST). 6-OHDA-depletion of DA produced enhanced HO(•) formation in the brain tissue of newborn and adulthood rats that had been exposed to Mn, and the latter effect did not depend on the extent of DA denervation. Additionally, the extraneuronal, microdialysate, content of HO(•) in neostriatum was likewise elevated in 6-OHDA-lesioned rats. Interestingly, there was no difference in extraneuronal HO(•) formation in the neostriatum of Mn-exposed versus control rats. In summary, findings in this study indicate that Mn crosses the placenta but in contrast to other heavy metals, Mn is not deposited long term in tissues. Also, damage to the dopaminergic system acts as a "trigger mechanism," initiating a cascade of adverse events leading to a protracted increase in

  1. Prenatal ethanol exposure increases brain cholesterol content in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Barceló-Coblijn, Gwendolyn; Wold, Loren E; Ren, Jun; Murphy, Eric J

    2013-11-01

    Fetal alcohol syndrome is the most severe expression of the fetal alcohol spectrum disorders (FASD). Although alterations in fetal and neonate brain fatty acid composition and cholesterol content are known to occur in animal models of FASD, the persistence of these alterations into adulthood is unknown. To address this question, we determined the effect of prenatal ethanol exposure on individual phospholipid class fatty acid composition, individual phospholipid class mass, and cholesterol mass in brains from 25-week-old rats that were exposed to ethanol during gestation beginning at gestational day 2. While total phospholipid mass was unaffected, phosphatidylinositol and cardiolipin mass was decreased 14 and 43 %, respectively. Exposure to prenatal ethanol modestly altered brain phospholipid fatty acid composition, and the most consistent change was a significant 1.1-fold increase in total polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA), in the n-3/n-6 ratio, and in the 22:6n-3 content in ethanolamine glycerophospholipids and in phosphatidylserine. In contrast, prenatal ethanol consumption significantly increased brain cholesterol mass 1.4-fold and the phospholipid to cholesterol ratio was significantly increased 1.3-fold. These results indicate that brain cholesterol mass was significantly increased in adult rats exposed prenatally to ethanol, but changes in phospholipid mass and phospholipid fatty acid composition were extremely limited. Importantly, suppression of postnatal ethanol consumption was not sufficient to reverse the large increase in cholesterol observed in the adult rats.

  2. Inducible Gene Manipulations in Brain Serotonergic Neurons of Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tews, Björn; Bartsch, Dusan

    2011-01-01

    The serotonergic (5-HT) system has been implicated in various physiological processes and neuropsychiatric disorders, but in many aspects its role in normal and pathologic brain function is still unclear. One reason for this might be the lack of appropriate animal models which can address the complexity of physiological and pathophysiological 5-HT functioning. In this respect, rats offer many advantages over mice as they have been the animal of choice for sophisticated neurophysiological and behavioral studies. However, only recently technologies for the targeted and tissue specific modification of rat genes - a prerequisite for a detailed study of the 5-HT system - have been successfully developed. Here, we describe a rat transgenic system for inducible gene manipulations in 5-HT neurons. We generated a Cre driver line consisting of a tamoxifen-inducible CreERT2 recombinase under the control of mouse Tph2 regulatory sequences. Tissue-specific serotonergic Cre recombinase expression was detected in four transgenic TPH2-CreERT2 rat founder lines. For functional analysis of Cre-mediated recombination, we used a rat Cre reporter line (CAG-loxP.EGFP), in which EGFP is expressed after Cre-mediated removal of a loxP-flanked lacZ STOP cassette. We show an in-depth characterisation of this rat Cre reporter line and demonstrate its applicability for monitoring Cre-mediated recombination in all major neuronal subpopulations of the rat brain. Upon tamoxifen induction, double transgenic TPH2-CreERT2/CAG-loxP.EGFP rats show selective and efficient EGFP expression in 5-HT neurons. Without tamoxifen administration, EGFP is only expressed in few 5-HT neurons which confirms minimal background recombination. This 5-HT neuron specific CreERT2 line allows Cre-mediated, inducible gene deletion or gene overexpression in transgenic rats which provides new opportunities to decipher the complex functions of the mammalian serotonergic system. PMID:22140568

  3. Enzyme markers of maternal malnutrition in fetal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Shambaugh, G E; Mankad, B; Derecho, M L; Koehler, R R

    1987-01-01

    The impact of maternal starvation in late gestation on development of some enzymatic mechanisms concerned with neurotransmission and polyamine synthesis was studied in fetal rat brain. Between 17 and 20 d, acetylcholinesterase and choline acetyltransferase activity increased in fetal brains of fed dams, whereas maternal starvation from day 17 to day 20 resulted in heightened acetylcholinesterase but not choline acetyltransferase activity. Ornithine decarboxylase activity on a per-gram wet-weight basis fell between 17 and 20 d in fetal brain from fed dams. Increasing the duration of maternal starvation resulted in a progressive increase in fetal brain ornithine decarboxylase. Arginine and putrescine levels in the brain were lower in fetuses of starved mothers while spermidine and spermine concentrations were unchanged. Since the Km of ornithine decarboxylase for ornithine was found to vary directly with levels of putrescine in fetal brain, lower concentrations of putrescine and greater ornithine decarboxylase activity in fetal brains from starved mothers suggested that levels of this enzyme may be controlled in part by putrescine. Changes in the maternal nutritional state had no effect on the activity of glutamate decarboxylase in fetal brain, and tissue levels of the product, gamma-aminobutyric acid, were unchanged. Thus changes in ornithine decarboxylase and acetylcholinesterase activity in fetal brain may uniquely reflect biochemical alterations consequent to maternal starvation.

  4. Anesthesia-induced neurodegeneration in fetal rat brains

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Shouping; Peretich, Kelly; Zhao, Yifan; Liang, Ge; Meng, Qingcheng; Wei, Huafeng

    2011-01-01

    Summary We investigated the extent of isoflurane induced neurodegeneration on the fetuses of pregnant rats exposed in utero. Pregnant rats at gestational day 21 were divided into three experimental groups. Rats in the control group spontaneously breathed 100% oxygen for one hour. Rats in the treatment groups breathed either 1.3% or 3% isoflurane in 100% oxygen through an endotracheal tube with mechanical ventilation for one hour. Rat pups were delivered by Caesarian section six hours after treatment and fetal blood was sampled from the left ventricle of each fetal heart and evaluated for S100β. Fetal brains were then evaluated for apoptosis using caspase-3 immunohistochemistry in the CA1 region of the hippocampus and the retrosplenial cortex (RS). The 3% isoflurane treatment group showed significantly higher levels of S100β levels and significantly increased average densities of total caspase-3 positive cells in the CA1 hippocampus and RS cortex as compared to the control and 1.3% isoflurane groups. There were no differences in S100β levels or densities of caspase-3 positive cells between the control and 1.3% isoflurane groups. Isoflurane at a concentration of 3% for one hour increased neurodegeneration in the hippocampal CA1 area and the retrosplenial cortex in the developing brain of fetal rats. PMID:20016413

  5. Inadequate Antioxidative Responses in Kidneys of Brain-Dead Rats.

    PubMed

    Hoeksma, Dane; Rebolledo, Rolando A; Hottenrott, Maximilia; Bodar, Yves S; Wiersema-Buist, Janneke J; Van Goor, Harry; Leuvenink, Henri G D

    2017-04-01

    Brain death (BD)-related lipid peroxidation, measured as serum malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, correlates with delayed graft function in renal transplant recipients. How BD affects lipid peroxidation is not known. The extent of BD-induced organ damage is influenced by the speed at which intracranial pressure increases. To determine possible underlying causes of lipid peroxidation, we investigated the renal redox balance by assessing oxidative and antioxidative processes in kidneys of brain-dead rats after fast and slow BD induction. Brain death was induced in 64 ventilated male Fisher rats by inflating a 4.0F Fogarty catheter in the epidural space. Fast and slow inductions were achieved by an inflation speed of 0.45 and 0.015 mL/min, respectively, until BD confirmation. Healthy non-brain-dead rats served as reference values. Brain-dead rats were monitored for 0.5, 1, 2, or 4 hours, after which organs and blood were collected. Increased MDA levels became evident at 2 hours of slow BD induction at which increased superoxide levels, decreased glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity, decreased glutathione levels, increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme-oxygenase 1 expression, and increased plasma creatinine levels were evident. At 4 hours after slow BD induction, superoxide, MDA, and plasma creatinine levels increased further, whereas GPx activity remained decreased. Increased MDA and plasma creatinine levels also became evident after 4 hours fast BD induction. Brain death leads to increased superoxide production, decreased GPx activity, decreased glutathione levels, increased inducible nitric oxide synthase and heme-oxygenase 1 expression, and increased MDA and plasma creatinine levels. These effects were more pronounced after slow BD induction. Modulation of these processes could lead to decreased incidence of delayed graft function.

  6. Pharmacological modulation of blood-brain barrier increases permeability of doxorubicin into the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Sardi, Iacopo; la Marca, Giancarlo; Cardellicchio, Stefania; Giunti, Laura; Malvagia, Sabrina; Genitori, Lorenzo; Massimino, Maura; de Martino, Maurizio; Giovannini, Maria G

    2013-01-01

    Our group recently demonstrated in a rat model that pretreatment with morphine facilitates doxorubicin delivery to the brain in the absence of signs of increased acute systemic toxicity. Morphine and other drugs such as dexamethasone or ondansetron seem to inhibit MDR proteins localized on blood-brain barrier, neurons and glial cells increasing the access of doxorubicin to the brain by efflux transporters competition. We explored the feasibility of active modification of the blood-brain barrier protection, by using morphine dexamethasone or ondansetron pretreatment, to allow doxorubicin accumulation into the brain in a rodent model. Rats were pretreated with morphine (10 mg/kg, i.p.), dexamethasone (2 mg/kg, i.p.) or ondansetron (2 mg/kg, i.p.) before injection of doxorubicin (12 mg/kg, i.p.). Quantitative analysis of doxorubicin was performed by mass spectrometry. Acute hearth and kidney damage was analyzed by measuring doxorubicin accumulation, LDH activity and malondialdehyde plasma levels. The concentration of doxorubicin was significantly higher in all brain areas of rats pretreated with morphine (P < 0.001) or ondansetron (P < 0.05) than in control tissues. The concentration of doxorubicin was significantly higher in cerebral hemispheres and brainstem (P < 0.05) but not in cerebellum of rats pretreated with dexamethasone than in control tissues. Pretreatment with any of these drugs did not increase LDH activity or lipid peroxidation compared to controls. Our data suggest that morphine, dexamethasone or ondansetron pretreatment is able to allow doxorubicin penetration inside the brain by modulating the BBB. This effect is not associated with acute cardiac or renal toxicity. This finding might provide the rationale for clinical applications in the treatment of refractory brain tumors and pave the way to novel applications of active but currently inapplicable chemotherapeutic drugs.

  7. Sex matters: repetitive mild traumatic brain injury in adolescent rats.

    PubMed

    Wright, David K; O'Brien, Terence J; Shultz, Sandy R; Mychasiuk, Richelle

    2017-09-01

    Whether sex differences contribute to the heterogeneity of mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) and repeated mTBI (RmTBI) outcomes in adolescents is unknown. Therefore, this study examined changes in, and differences between, male and female rats following single mTBI and RmTBI. Rats were given a single mTBI, RmTBI (i.e., 3x), or sham injuries. Injuries were administered using a lateral impact model that mimics forces common in human mTBI. After the final injury, rats underwent extensive behavioral testing to examine cognition, motor function, and anxiety- and depressive-like behavior. Postmortem analyses investigated gene expression and structural changes in the brain. Many of the outcomes exhibited a sex-dependent response to RmTBI. While all rats given RmTBI had deficits in balance, motor coordination, locomotion, and anxiety-like behavior, only male rats given RmTBI had short-term working memory deficits, whereas only females given RmTBI had increased depressive-like behavior. Volumetric and diffusion weighted MRI analyses found that while RmTBI-induced atrophy of the prefrontal cortex was greater in female rats, only the male rats exhibited worse white matter integrity in the corpus callosum following RmTBI. Sex-dependent changes in brain expression of mRNA for glial fibrillary acidic protein, myelin basic protein, and tau protein were also observed following injury. These findings suggest that in adolescent mTBI, sex matters; and future studies incorporating both male and females are warranted to provide a greater understanding of injury prognosis and better inform clinical practice.

  8. Rat umbilical cord blood cells attenuate hypoxic–ischemic brain injury in neonatal rats

    PubMed Central

    Nakanishi, Keiko; Sato, Yoshiaki; Mizutani, Yuka; Ito, Miharu; Hirakawa, Akihiro; Higashi, Yujiro

    2017-01-01

    Increasing evidence has suggested that human umbilical cord blood cells (hUCBC) have a favorable effect on hypoxic–ischemic (HI) brain injury. However, the efficacy of using hUCBCs to treat this injury has been variable and the underlying mechanism remains elusive. Here, we investigated its effectiveness using stereological analysis in an allogeneic system to examine whether intraperitoneal injection of cells derived from UCBCs of green fluorescent protein (GFP)-transgenic rats could ameliorate brain injury in neonatal rats. Three weeks after the HI event, the estimated residual brain volume was larger and motor function improved more in the cell-injected rats than in the control (PBS-treated) rats. The GFP-positive cells were hardly detectable in the brain (0.0057% of injected cells) 9 days after injection. Although 60% of GFP-positive cells in the brain were Iba1-positive, none of these were positive for NeuroD or DCX. While the number of proliferating cells increased in the hippocampus, that of activated microglia/macrophages decreased and a proportion of M2 microglia/macrophages increased in the ipsilateral hemisphere of cell-injected rats. These results suggest that intraperitoneal injection of cells derived from UCBCs could ameliorate HI injury, possibly through an endogenous response and not by supplying differentiated neurons derived from the injected stem cells. PMID:28281676

  9. Brain pyruvate recycling and peripheral metabolism: an NMR analysis ex vivo of acetate and glucose metabolism in the rat.

    PubMed

    Serres, Sébastien; Bezancon, Eric; Franconi, Jean-Michel; Merle, Michel

    2007-06-01

    The occurrence of pyruvate recycling in the rat brain was studied in either pentobarbital anesthetized animals or awake animals receiving a light analgesic dose of morphine, which were infused with either [1-13C]glucose + acetate or glucose + [2-13C]acetate for various periods of time. Metabolite enrichments in the brain, blood and the liver were determined from NMR analyses of tissue extracts. They indicated that: (i) Pyruvate recycling was revealed in the brain of both the anesthetized and awake animals, as well as from lactate and alanine enrichments as from glutamate isotopomer composition, but only after infusion of glucose + [2-13C]acetate. (ii) Brain glucose was labelled from [2-13C]acetate at the same level in anaesthetized and awake rats (approximately 4%). Comparing its enrichment with that of blood and liver glucose indicated that brain glucose labelling resulted from hepatic gluconeogenesis. (iii) Analysing glucose 13C-13C coupling in the brain, blood and the liver confirmed that brain glucose could be labelled in the liver through the activities of both pyruvate recycling and gluconeogenesis. (iv) The rate of appearance and the amount of brain glutamate C4-C5 coupling, a marker of pyruvate recycling when starting from [2-13C]acetate, were lower than those of brain glucose labelling from hepatic metabolism. (v) The evaluation of the contributions of glucose and acetate to glutamate metabolism revealed that more than 60% of brain glutamate was synthesized from glucose whereas only 7% was from acetate and that glutamate C4-C5 coupling was mainly due to the metabolism of glucose labelled through hepatic gluconeogenesis. All these results indicate that, under the present conditions, the pyruvate recycling observed through the labelling of brain metabolites mainly originates from peripheral metabolism.

  10. Advanced in vitro approach to study neurovascular coupling mechanisms in the brain microcirculation

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ki Jung; Filosa, Jessica A

    2012-01-01

    An understanding of the signalling events underlying neurovascular coupling mechanisms in the brain is a crucial step in the development of novel therapeutic approaches for the treatment of cerebrovascular-associated disorders. In this study we present an enhanced in vitro brain slice preparation from male Wistar rat cortical slices that incorporates haemodynamic variables (flow and pressure) into parenchymal arterioles resulting in the development of myogenic tone (28% from maximum dilatation). Moreover, we characterized flow-induced vascular responses, resulting in various degrees of vasoconstrictions and the response to 10 mm K+ or astrocytic activation with the mGluR agonist, t-ACPD (100 μm), resulting in vasodilatations of 33.6 ± 4.7% and 38.6 ± 4.6%, respectively. Using fluorescence recovery, we determined perfusate velocity to calculate diameter changes under different experimental pH conditions. Using this approach, we demonstrate no significant differences between diameter changes measured using video microscopy or predicted from the velocity values obtained using fluorescence recovery after photobleaching. The model is further validated by demonstrating our ability to cannulate arterioles in two brain regions (cortex and supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus). Altogether, we believe this is the first study demonstrating successful cannulation and perfusion of parenchymal arterioles while monitoring/estimating luminal diameter and pressure under conditions where flow rates are controlled. PMID:22310311

  11. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thanos, Panayotis K.; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J.; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A.; Grant, Samuel C.; Gold, Mark S.; Cadet, Jean Lud; Volkow, Nora D.

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  12. Chronic Methamphetamine Effects on Brain Structure and Function in Rats.

    PubMed

    Thanos, Panayotis K; Kim, Ronald; Delis, Foteini; Ananth, Mala; Chachati, George; Rocco, Mark J; Masad, Ihssan; Muniz, Jose A; Grant, Samuel C; Gold, Mark S; Cadet, Jean Lud; Volkow, Nora D

    2016-01-01

    Methamphetamine (MA) addiction is a growing epidemic worldwide. Chronic MA use has been shown to lead to neurotoxicity in rodents and humans. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) studies in MA users have shown enlarged striatal volumes and positron emission tomography (PET) studies have shown decreased brain glucose metabolism (BGluM) in the striatum of detoxified MA users. The present study examines structural changes of the brain, observes microglial activation, and assesses changes in brain function, in response to chronic MA treatment. Rats were randomly split into three distinct treatment groups and treated daily for four months, via i.p. injection, with saline (controls), or low dose (LD) MA (4 mg/kg), or high dose (HD) MA (8 mg/kg). Sixteen weeks into the treatment period, rats were injected with a glucose analog, [18F] fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), and their brains were scanned with micro-PET to assess regional BGluM. At the end of MA treatment, magnetic resonance imaging at 21T was performed on perfused rats to determine regional brain volume and in vitro [3H]PK 11195 autoradiography was performed on fresh-frozen brain tissue to measure microglia activation. When compared with controls, chronic HD MA-treated rats had enlarged striatal volumes and increases in [3H]PK 11195 binding in striatum, the nucleus accumbens, frontal cortical areas, the rhinal cortices, and the cerebellar nuclei. FDG microPET imaging showed that LD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in insular and somatosensory cortices, face sensory nucleus of the thalamus, and brainstem reticular formation, while HD MA-treated rats had higher BGluM in primary and higher order somatosensory and the retrosplenial cortices, compared with controls. HD and LD MA-treated rats had lower BGluM in the tail of the striatum, rhinal cortex, and subiculum and HD MA also had lower BGluM in hippocampus than controls. These results corroborate clinical findings and help further examine the mechanisms behind MA

  13. Effects of environmental tobacco smoke on adult rat brain biochemistry.

    PubMed

    Fuller, Brian F; Gold, Mark S; Wang, Kevin K W; Ottens, Andrew K

    2010-05-01

    Environmental tobacco smoke (ETS) has been linked to deleterious health effects, particularly pulmonary and cardiac disease; yet, the general public considers ETS benign to brain function in adults. In contrast, epidemiological data have suggested that ETS impacts the brain and potentially modulates neurodegenerative disease. The present study begins to examine yet unknown biochemical effects of ETS on the adult mammalian brain. In the developed animal model, adult male rats were exposed to ETS 3 h a day for 3 weeks. Biochemical data showed altered glial fibrillary acid protein levels as a main treatment effect of ETS, suggestive of reactive astrogliosis. Yet, markers of oxidative and cell stress were unaffected by ETS exposure in the brain regions examined. Increased proteolytic degradation of alphaII-spectrin by caspase-3 and the dephosphorylation of serine(116) on PEA-15 indicated greater apoptotic cell death modulated by the extrinsic pathway in the brains of ETS-exposed animals. Further, beta-synuclein was upregulated by ETS, a neuroprotective protein previously reported to exhibit anti-apoptotic and anti-fibrillogenic properties. These findings demonstrate that ETS exposure alters the neuroproteome of the adult rat brain, and suggest modulation of inflammatory and cell death processes.

  14. [Effect of oxythiamine and pyrithiamine on rat brain--morphological changes in the thiamine deficient rat brain (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Oguchi, E; Okazaki, M; Hobara, R; Toyoshima, Y; Sakamoto, K

    1978-11-01

    We observed under light and electron microscopes morphological changes in the brains of rats in a thiamine deficient state as induced by an oxythiamine, pyrithiamine and thiamine deficient diet (OT, PT and TDD). We simultaneously determined thiamine levels in the whole brain of rats. The rats were separated into six groups-normal control, OT or PT treated rats (OT or PT group), OT or PT treated rats fed a TDD (OTD or PTD group), rats fed a TDD (TDD group)-. Microscopically, there were symmetrically distributed lesions containing spongy reticulation mainly in the vestibular nucleus. Electron microscopically, we found more advanced lesions in the OTD and PTD groups than in the TDD group. These ultrastructural changes were seen in the vicinity of capillaries and such consisted of abnormal endothelial cells and pericytes, excrescence of microglias, swelling or vacuolation of astrocytes, nerve cells containing distorted organelle and myelin degeneration, besides extracellular edema. The thiamine level in the TDD group decreased to 56% that of control. No effect of OT on the thiamine level was observed either in case of ingestion of a regular diet or when TDD was given. On the other hand, the thiamine level decreased to 43% in the PT group and to 17-23 in PTD. These results suggest that encephalopathy caused by the OT or PT-induced thiamine deficiency has the same selective vulnerable site as does the TDD-induced deficiency, however cellular sensitivity may differ slightly with the various ultrastructural changes.

  15. Rapamycin suppresses brain aging in senescence-accelerated OXYS rats.

    PubMed

    Kolosova, Nataliya G; Vitovtov, Anton O; Muraleva, Natalia A; Akulov, Andrey E; Stefanova, Natalia A; Blagosklonny, Mikhail V

    2013-06-01

    Cellular and organismal aging are driven in part by the MTOR (mechanistic target of rapamycin) pathway and rapamycin extends life span inC elegans, Drosophila and mice. Herein, we investigated effects of rapamycin on brain aging in OXYS rats. Previously we found, in OXYS rats, an early development of age-associated pathological phenotypes similar to several geriatric disorders in humans, including cerebral dysfunctions. Behavioral alterations as well as learning and memory deficits develop by 3 months. Here we show that rapamycin treatment (0.1 or 0.5 mg/kg as a food mixture daily from the age of 1.5 to 3.5 months) decreased anxiety and improved locomotor and exploratory behavior in OXYS rats. In untreated OXYS rats, MRI revealed an increase of the area of hippocampus, substantial hydrocephalus and 2-fold increased area of the lateral ventricles. Rapamycin treatment prevented these abnormalities, erasing the difference between OXYS and Wister rats (used as control). All untreated OXYS rats showed signs of neurodegeneration, manifested by loci of demyelination. Rapamycin decreased the percentage of animals with demyelination and the number of loci. Levels of Tau and phospho-Tau (T181) were increased in OXYS rats (compared with Wistar). Rapamycin significantly decreased Tau and inhibited its phosphorylation in the hippocampus of OXYS and Wistar rats. Importantly, rapamycin treatment caused a compensatory increase in levels of S6 and correspondingly levels of phospo-S6 in the frontal cortex, indicating that some downstream events were compensatory preserved, explaining the lack of toxicity. We conclude that rapamycin in low chronic doses can suppress brain aging.

  16. Effects of Treating Old Rats with an Aqueous Agaricus blazei Extract on Oxidative and Functional Parameters of the Brain Tissue and Brain Mitochondria

    PubMed Central

    de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis B.; Soares, Andréia A.; de Oliveira, Andrea Luiza; Fernando Comar, Jurandir; Peralta, Rosane M.; Bracht, Adelar

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increased oxidative stress is a striking phenomenon in the brain of aged individuals. For this reason there has been a constant search for drugs and natural products able to prevent or at least to mitigate these problems. In the present study the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state and on the functionality of mitochondria from the brain of old rats (21 months) were conducted. The extract was administered intragastrically during 21 days at doses of 200 mg/kg. The administration of the A. blazei extract was protective to the brain of old rats against oxidative stress by decreasing the lipid peroxidation levels and the reactive oxygen species content and by increasing the nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidant capacities. Administration of the A. blazei extract also increased the activity of several mitochondrial respiratory enzymes and, depending on the substrate, the mitochondrial coupled respiration. PMID:24876914

  17. Effects of treating old rats with an aqueous Agaricus blazei extract on oxidative and functional parameters of the brain tissue and brain mitochondria.

    PubMed

    de Sá-Nakanishi, Anacharis B; Soares, Andréia A; de Oliveira, Andrea Luiza; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Peralta, Rosane M; Bracht, Adelar

    2014-01-01

    Dysfunction of the mitochondrial respiratory chain and increased oxidative stress is a striking phenomenon in the brain of aged individuals. For this reason there has been a constant search for drugs and natural products able to prevent or at least to mitigate these problems. In the present study the effects of an aqueous extract of Agaricus blazei, a medicinal mushroom, on the oxidative state and on the functionality of mitochondria from the brain of old rats (21 months) were conducted. The extract was administered intragastrically during 21 days at doses of 200 mg/kg. The administration of the A. blazei extract was protective to the brain of old rats against oxidative stress by decreasing the lipid peroxidation levels and the reactive oxygen species content and by increasing the nonenzymic and enzymic antioxidant capacities. Administration of the A. blazei extract also increased the activity of several mitochondrial respiratory enzymes and, depending on the substrate, the mitochondrial coupled respiration.

  18. Human and rat brain lipofuscin proteome

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    The accumulation of an autofluorescent pigment called lipofuscin in neurons is an invariable hallmark of brain aging. So far, this material has been considered to be waste material without particular relevance for cellular pathology. However, two lines of evidence argue that lipofuscin may have yet ...

  19. Alterations of amino Acid level in depressed rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yang, Pei; Li, Xuechun; Ni, Jian; Tian, Jingchen; Jing, Fu; Qu, Changhai; Lin, Longfei; Zhang, Hui

    2014-10-01

    Amino-acid neurotransmitter system dysfunction plays a major role in the pathophysiology of depression. Several studies have demonstrated the potential of amino acids as a source of neuro-specific biomarkers could be used in future diagnosis of depression. Only partial amino acids such as glycine and asparagine were determined from certain parts of rats' brain included hippocampi and cerebral cortex in previous studies. However, according to systematic biology, amino acids in different area of brain are interacted and interrelated. Hence, the determination of 34 amino acids through entire rats' brain was conducted in this study in order to demonstrate more possibilities for biomarkers of depression by discovering other potential amino acids in more areas of rats' brain. As a result, 4 amino acids (L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine and γ-amino-n-butyric acid) among 34 were typically identified as potentially primary biomarkers of depression by data statistics. Meanwhile, an antidepressant called Fluoxetine was employed to verify other potential amino acids which were not identified by data statistics. Eventually, we found L-α-amino-adipic acid could also become a new potentially secondary biomarker of depression after drug validation. In conclusion, we suggested that L-aspartic acid, L-glutamine, taurine, γ-amino-n-butyric acid and L-α-amino-adipic acid might become potential biomarkers for future diagnosis of depression and development of antidepressant.

  20. Effect of acute thioacetamide administration on rat brain phospholipid metabolism

    SciTech Connect

    Osada, J.; Aylagas, H.; Miro-Obradors, M.J.; Arce, C.; Palacios-Alaiz, E.; Cascales, M. )

    1990-09-01

    Brain phospholipid composition and the ({sup 32}P)orthophosphate incorporation into brain phospholipids of control and rats treated for 3 days with thioacetamide were studied. Brain phospholipid content, phosphatidylcholine, phosphatidylethanolamine, lysolecithin and phosphatidic acid did not show any significant change by the effect of thioacetamide. In contrast, thioacetamide induced a significant decrease in the levels of phosphatidylserine, sphingomyelin, phosphatidylinositol and diphosphatidylglycerol. After 75 minutes of intraperitoneal label injection, specific radioactivity of all the above phospholipids with the exception of phosphatidylethanolamine and phosphatidylcholine significantly increased. After 13 hours of isotope administration the specific radioactivity of almost all studied phospholipid classes was elevated, except for phosphatidic acid, the specific radioactivity of which did not change and for diphosphatidylglycerol which showed a decrease in specific radioactivity. These results suggest that under thioacetamide treatment brain phospholipids undergo metabolic transformations that may contribute to the hepatic encephalopathy induced by thioacetamide.

  1. Regional development of glutamate dehydrogenase in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Leong, S F; Clark, J B

    1984-07-01

    The development of glutamate dehydrogenase enzyme activity in rat brain regions has been followed from the late foetal stage to the adult and through to the aged (greater than 2 years) adult. In the adult brain the enzyme activity was greatest in the medulla oblongata and pons greater than midbrain = hypothalamus greater than cerebellum = striatum = cortex. In the aged adult brain, glutamate dehydrogenase activity was significantly lower in the medulla oblongata and pons when compared to the 90-day-old adult value, but not in other regions. The enzyme-specific activity of nonsynaptic (free) mitochondria purified from the medulla oblongata and pons of 90-day-old animals was about twice that of mitochondria purified from the striatum and the cortex. The specific activity of the enzyme in synaptic mitochondria purified from the above three brain regions, however, remained almost constant.

  2. Effect of glycolysis inhibition on mitochondrial function in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Cano-Ramírez, D; Torres-Vargas, C E; Guerrero-Castillo, S; Uribe-Carvajal, S; Hernández-Pando, R; Pedraza-Chaverri, J; Orozco-Ibarra, M

    2012-05-01

    Inhibition of the glycolytic enzyme glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase enhances the neural vulnerability to excitotoxicity both in vivo and in vitro through an unknown mechanism possibly related to mitochondrial failure. However, as the effect of glycolysis inhibition on mitochondrial function in brain has not been studied, the aim of the present work was to evaluate the effect of glycolysis inhibition induced by iodoacetate on mitochondrial function and oxidative stress in brain. Mitochondria were isolated from brain cortex, striatum and cerebellum of rats treated systemically with iodoacetate (25 mg/kg/day for 3 days). Oxygen consumption, ATP synthesis, transmembrane potential, reactive oxygen species production, lipoperoxidation, glutathione levels, and aconitase activity were assessed. Oxygen consumption and aconitase activity decreased in the brain cortex and striatum, showing that glycolysis inhibition did not trigger severe mitochondrial impairment, but a slight mitochondrial malfunction and oxidative stress were present.

  3. Determination of boron distribution in rat's brain, kidney and liver.

    PubMed

    Pazirandeh, Ali; Jameie, Behnam; Zargar, Maysam

    2009-07-01

    To determine relative boron distribution in rat's brain, liver and kidney, a mixture of boric acid and borax, was used. After transcardial injection of the solution, the animals were sacrificed and the brain, kidney and liver were removed. The coronal sections of certain areas of the brain were prepared by freezing microtome. The slices were sandwiched within two pieces of CR-39. The samples were bombarded in a thermal neutron field of the TRR pneumatic facility. The alpha tracks are registered on CR-39 after being etched in NaOH. The boron distribution was determined by counting these alpha tracks CR-39 plastics. The distribution showed non-uniformity in brain, liver and kidney.

  4. Differential expression of sirtuins in the aging rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Braidy, Nady; Poljak, Anne; Grant, Ross; Jayasena, Tharusha; Mansour, Hussein; Chan-Ling, Tailoi; Smythe, George; Sachdev, Perminder; Guillemin, Gilles J.

    2015-01-01

    Although there are seven mammalian sirtuins (SIRT1-7), little is known about their expression in the aging brain. To characterize the change(s) in mRNA and protein expression of SIRT1-7 and their associated proteins in the brain of “physiologically” aged Wistar rats. We tested mRNA and protein expression levels of rat SIRT1-7, and the levels of associated proteins in the brain using RT-PCR and western blotting. Our data shows that SIRT1 expression increases with age, concurrently with increased acetylated p53 levels in all brain regions investigated. SIRT2 and FOXO3a protein levels increased only in the occipital lobe. SIRT3-5 expression declined significantly in the hippocampus and frontal lobe, associated with increases in superoxide and fatty acid oxidation levels, and acetylated CPS-1 protein expression, and a reduction in MnSOD level. While SIRT6 expression declines significantly with age acetylated H3K9 protein expression is increased throughout the brain. SIRT7 and Pol I protein expression increased in the frontal lobe. This study identifies previously unknown roles for sirtuins in regulating cellular homeostasis and healthy aging. PMID:26005404

  5. HEPES prevents edema in rat brain slices.

    PubMed

    MacGregor, D G; Chesler, M; Rice, M E

    2001-05-11

    Brain slices gain water when maintained in bicarbonate-buffered artificial cerebro-spinal fluid (ACSF) at 35 degrees C. We previously showed that this edema is linked to glutamate receptor activation and oxidative stress. An additional factor that may contribute to swelling is acidosis, which arises from high CO2 tension in brain slices. To examine the role of acidosis in slice edema, we added N-2-hydroxyethylpiperazine-N'-2-ethanesulfonic acid (HEPES) to osmotically balanced ACSF (HEPES-ACSF), thereby increasing buffering capacity beyond that provided by bicarbonate/CO2. Water gain was markedly inhibited in HEPES-ACSF. After 3 h incubation in HEPES-ACSF at 35 degrees C, water gain was limited to that of fresh slices after 1 h recovery in ACSF at room temperature. The effect of HEPES in decreasing slice water gain was concentration dependent from 0.3 to 20 mM. The inhibition of water gain by HEPES suggests that tissue acidosis is a contributing factor in brain slice edema.

  6. Rat brains also have a default mode network

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Hanbing; Zou, Qihong; Gu, Hong; Raichle, Marcus E.; Stein, Elliot A.; Yang, Yihong

    2012-01-01

    The default mode network (DMN) in humans has been suggested to support a variety of cognitive functions and has been implicated in an array of neuropsychological disorders. However, its function(s) remains poorly understood. We show that rats possess a DMN that is broadly similar to the DMNs of nonhuman primates and humans. Our data suggest that, despite the distinct evolutionary paths between rodent and primate brain, a well-organized, intrinsically coherent DMN appears to be a fundamental feature in the mammalian brain whose primary functions might be to integrate multimodal sensory and affective information to guide behavior in anticipation of changing environmental contingencies. PMID:22355129

  7. Spectral and lifetime domain measurements of rat brain tumours

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Abi Haidar, D.; Leh, B.; Allaoua, K.; Genoux, A.; Siebert, R.; Steffenhagen, M.; Peyrot, D.; Sandeau, N.; Vever-Bizet, C.; Bourg-Heckly, G.; Chebbi, I.; Collado-Hilly, M.

    2012-02-01

    During glioblastoma surgery, delineation of the brain tumour margins remains difficult especially since infiltrated and normal tissues have the same visual appearance. This problematic constitutes our research interest. We developed a fibre-optical fluorescence probe for spectroscopic and time domain measurements. First measurements of endogenous tissue fluorescence were performed on fresh and fixed rat tumour brain slices. Spectral characteristics, fluorescence redox ratios and fluorescence lifetime measurements were analysed. Fluorescence information collected from both, lifetime and spectroscopic experiments, appeared promising for tumour tissue discrimination. Two photon measurements were performed on the same fixed tissue. Different wavelengths are used to acquire two-photon excitation-fluorescence of tumorous and healthy sites.

  8. Lose dose genistein inhibits glucocorticoid receptor and ischemic brain injury in female rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Rengfei; Wang, Shunli; Qi, Xiang; Chen, Si; Chen, Peijie; Zhang, Quanguang

    2014-01-01

    Although acute bolus of genistein treatment has been shown to protect against neuronal damage in experimental brain injury animal models, chronic continuous low dose treatment of genistein on ischemic brain injury has not been well elucidated. In the present study, female rats were received either pure genistein (0.1mg/kg/day via osmotic minipumps) or placebo at the time of ovariectomy, and transient forebrain ischemia was induced 7days later. Results demonstrated that genistein treatment for 14days significantly improved ischemic neuronal survival in hippocampal CA1 region of ovariectomized rats. Glucocorticoid receptor (GR) is a member of the adrenal steroid hormone receptor, which is highly expressed in the rat hippocampus. Activation of the GR plays a critical role in the neuronal stress responses, including ischemic brain damage. This study therefore examined the potential mechanisms by which genistein regulates GR signaling, including the protein distribution and receptor activation in hippocampus following ischemic reperfusion (I/R). Results showed that GR expression in the ovariectomized rats was excessively increased both in neurons (I/R 6h) and activated microglial cells (I/R 7d) in hippocampal CA1 region. Genistein treatment significantly attenuated GR induction and the enhanced GR nuclear translocation and DNA-binding capacity. The effects of genistein on the GR levels was accompanied with decreased blood plasma levels of corticosterone (primary glucocorticoid in rodents) and coupled to an E3 ubiquitin ligase Mdm2 targeted proteasomal degradation of GR, because genistein treatment could enhance the GR-Mdm2 interaction and the ubiquitination level of GR protein. In addition, our results indicated that genistein markedly prevented the excessive activation of microglia in CA1 sector. These results demonstrate the neuroprotective action of chronic low dose genistein replacement against ischemic brain damage, and a potential mechanism associated with the

  9. Cloning and expression of a rat brain GABA transporter

    SciTech Connect

    Guastella, J.; Czyzyk, L.; Davidson, N.; Lester, H.A. ); Nelson, N.; Nelson, H.; Miedel, M.C. ); Keynan, S.; Kanner, B.I. )

    1990-09-14

    A complementary DNA clone (designated GAT-1) encoding a transporter for the neurotransmitter {gamma}-aminobutyric acid (GABA) has been isolated from rat brain, and its functional properties have been examined in Xenopus oocytes. Oocytes injected with GAT-1 synthetic messenger RNA accumulated ({sup 3}H)GABA to levels above control values. The transporter encoded by GAT-1 has a high affinity for GABA, is sodium- and chloride-dependent, and is pharmacologically similar to neuronal GABA transporters. The GAT-1 protein shares antigenic determinants with a native rat brain GABA transporter. The nucleotide sequence of GAT-1 predicts a protein of 599 amino acids with a molecular weight of 67 kilodaltons. Hydropathy analysis of the deduced protein suggests multiple transmembrane regions, a feature shared by several cloned transporters; however, database searches indicate that GAT-1 is not homologous to any previously identified proteins. Therefore, GAT-1 appears to be a member of a previously uncharacterized family of transport molecules.

  10. Brain and behavioral perturbations in rats following Western diet access.

    PubMed

    Hargrave, Sara L; Davidson, Terry L; Lee, Tien-Jui; Kinzig, Kimberly P

    2015-10-01

    Energy dense "Western" diets (WD) are known to cause obesity as well as learning and memory impairments, blood-brain barrier damage, and psychological disturbances. Impaired glucose (GLUT1) and monocarboxylate (MCT1) transport may play a role in diet-induced dementia development. In contrast, ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to be neuroprotective. We assessed the effect of 10, 40 and 90 days WD, KD and Chow maintenance on spontaneous alternation (SA) and vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors in male rats, then analyzed blood glucose, insulin, and ketone levels; and hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 mRNA. Compared to Chow and KD, rats fed WD had increased 90 day insulin levels. SA was decreased in WD rats at 10, but not 40 or 90 days. VTE was perturbed in WD-fed rats, particularly at 10 and 90 days, indicating hippocampal deficits. WD rats had lower hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 expression compared to Chow and KD, and KD rats had increased 90 day MCT1 expression compared to Chow and WD. These data suggest that WD reduces glucose and monocarboxylate transport at the hippocampus, which may result in learning and memory deficits. Further, KD consumption may be useful for MCT1 transporter recovery, which may benefit cognition. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. Brain and behavioral perturbations in rats following Western diet access

    PubMed Central

    Hargrave, Sara L.; Davidson, Terry L.; Lee, Tien-Jui; Kinzig, Kimberly P.

    2015-01-01

    Energy dense “Western” diets (WD) are known to cause obesity as well as learning and memory impairments, blood-brain barrier damage, and psychological disturbances. Impaired glucose (GLUT1) and monocarboxylate (MCT1) transport may play a role in diet-induced dementia development. In contrast, ketogenic diets (KD) have been shown to be neuroprotective. We assessed the effect of 10, 40 and 90 days WD, KD and Chow maintenance on spontaneous alternation (SA) and vicarious trial and error (VTE) behaviors in male rats, then analyzed blood glucose, insulin, and ketone levels; and hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 mRNA. Compared to Chow and KD, rats fed WD had increased 90 day insulin levels. SA was decreased in WD rats at 10, but not 40 or 90 days. VTE was perturbed in WD-fed rats, particularly at 10 and 90 days, indicating hippocampal deficits. WD rats had lower hippocampal GLUT1 and MCT1 expression compared to Chow and KD, and KD rats had increased 90 day MCT1 expression compared to Chow and WD. These data suggest that WD reduces glucose and monocarboxylate transport at the hippocampus, which may result in learning and memory deficits. Further, KD consumption may be useful for MCT1 transporter recovery, which may benefit cognition PMID:25862980

  12. Microwave effects on energy metabolism of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Sanders, A.P.; Schaefer, D.J.; Joines, W.T.

    1980-01-01

    Rat brain was exposed to 591-MHz, continuous-wave (CW) microwaves at 13.8 or 5.0 mW/cm2 to determine the effect on nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide, reduced (NADH), adenosine triphosphate (ATP) and creatine phosphate (CP) levels. On initiation of the in vivo microwave exposures, fluorimetrically determined NADH rapidly increased to a maximum of 4.0%-12.5% above pre-exposure control levels at one-half minute, than decreased slowly to 2% above control at three minutes, finally increasing slowly to 5% above control level at five minutes. ATP and CP assays were performed on sham- and microwave-exposed brain at each exposure time. At 13.8 mW/cm2, brain CP level was decreased an average of 39.4%, 41.1%, 18.2%, 13.1%, and 36.4% of control at exposure points one-half, one, two three, and five minutes, respectively, and brain ATP concentration was decreased an average of 25.2%, 15.2%, 17.8%, 7.4%, and 11.2% of control at the corresponding exposure periods. ATP and CP levels of rat brain exposed to 591-MHz cw microwaves at 5mW/cm2 for one-half and one minute were decreased significantly below control levels at these exposure times, but were not significantly different from the 13.8 mW/cm2 exposures. For all exposures, rectal temperature remained constant. Heat loss through the skull aperture caused brain temperature to decrease during the five-minute exposures. This decrease was the same in magnitude for experimental and control subjects. Changes in NADH, ATP, and CP levels during microwave exposure cannot be attributed to general tissue hyperthermia. The data support the hypothesis that microwave exposure inhibits mitochondrial electron transport chain function, which results in decreased ATP and CP levels in brain.

  13. Psilocybin: reaction with a fraction of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gilmour, L P; O'Brien, R D

    1967-01-13

    Psilocybin, a hallucinogen, formed a blue color with a subfraction of rat-brain mitochondria believed to contain nerve-ending particles. Color formation increased with pH, did not require oxygen, and involved a component that could not be solubilized. The effect was not shown by chemically related neuroactive compounds, such as bufotenine and serotonin, and was antagonized by only tyramine or ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid.

  14. Identification of rat brain opioid (enkephalin) receptor by photoaffinity labeling

    SciTech Connect

    Yeung, C.W.

    1986-01-01

    A photoreactive, radioactive enkephalin derivative was prepared and purified by high performance liquid chromatography. Rat brain and spinal cord plasma membranes were incubated with this radioiodinated photoprobe and were subsequently photolysed. Autoradiography of the sodium dodecyl sulfate gel electrophoresis of the solubilized and reduced membranes showed that a protein having an apparent molecular weight of 46,000 daltons was specifically labeled, suggesting that this protein may be the opioid (enkephalin) receptor.

  15. [Effect of phenibut on interhemispheric transmission in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Borodkina, L E; Molodavkin, G M; Tiurenkov, I N

    2009-01-01

    Effects of the nootropic drug phenibut on the transcallosal potential amplitude in the sensomotor brain cortex have been studied in rats. It is established that a single administration of phenibut in a dose of 25 mg/kg (i.p.) increases the transcallosal response amplitude, thus improving the interhemispheric transmission. This effect, being an objective evidence of the nootrope activity, confirms the drug status and corroborates the positive action of phenibut on the learning and memory processes.

  16. Oxidative changes in brain of aniline-exposed rats

    SciTech Connect

    Kakkar, P.; Awasthi, S.; Viswanathan, P.N. )

    1992-10-01

    Oxidative stress in rat cerebellum, cortex and brain stem after a short-term high-dose exposure to aniline vapors under conditions akin to those after major chemical accidents, was studied. Significant increases in superoxide dismutase isozyme activities and formation of thiobarbituric acid reactive material along with depletion of ascorbic acid and non-protein sulfhydryl content suggest impairment of antioxidant defenses 24 h after single exposure to 15,302 ppm aniline vapors for 10 min.

  17. Development of specificity and stereoselectivity of rat brain dopamine receptors.

    PubMed

    Miller, J C; Friedhoff, A J

    1986-01-01

    Prenatal exposure to the neuroleptic haloperidol has been reported to produce an enduring decrement in the number of dopamine D2 receptors in rat striatum and a persistent diminution of a dopamine dependent behavior, stereotypy. The ontogeny of rat brain dopamine binding sites has been studied in terms of the kinetic properties and phenotypic specificity in rat fetal brain through early postnatal development. Sites showing some properties of the D2 binding site can be found prior to gestational day (GD) 18, can be labeled with [3H]dopamine or [3H]spiroperidol and can be displaced with dopaminergic agonists and antagonists. Saturation kinetics for specific [3H]spiroperidol has previously been found to occur on or about GD 18. It is of interest that the critical period for the prenatal effect of haloperidol to reduce striatal D2 binding sites, GD's 15-18, coincides with the period during which dopamine binding sites lack true specificity, but can be labeled with dopaminergic ligands. In these experiments the development of stereoselectivity of brain dopamine binding sites has been examined. When rat mothers were given either the neuroleptic (+)-butaclamol or its therapeutically inactive isomer (-)-butaclamol during the critical period GD's 15-18, the number of [3H]spiroperidol binding sites in striata of offspring was significantly reduced by both stereoisomers. This is in marked contrast to the postnatal treatment effect by a neuroleptic in which upregulation of striatal D2 binding sites occurs only by treatment with the therapeutically active isomer (+)-butaclamol. In vitro studies of the direct effect of the stereoisomers of butaclamol indicate that the recognition sites detected during fetal brain development with [3H]spiroperidol do not distinguish between the isomers of butaclamol.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  18. Multiple opiate receptors in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Das, S.; Bhargava, H.N.

    1986-03-01

    The characteristics of ..mu.., delta and kappa -opiate receptors in the brain of spontaneously hypertensive (SH) and normotensive Wistar-Kyoto (WKY) rats were determined using the receptor binding assays. The ligands used were /sup 3/H-naltrexone (..mu..), /sup 3/H-ethylketocyclazocine (EKC, kappa) and /sup 3/H-Tyr-D-Ser-Gly-Phe-Leu-Thr (DSTLE, delta). Since EKC binds to ..mu.. and delta receptors in addition to kappa, the binding was done in the presence of 100 nM each of DAGO and DADLE to suppress ..mu.. and delta sites, respectively. All three ligands bound to brain membranes of WKY rats at a single high affinity site with the following B/sub max/ (fmol/mg protein) and K/sub d/ (nM) values: /sup 3/H-naltrexone (130.5; 0.43) /sup 3/H-EKC (19.8, 1.7) and /sup 3/H-DSTLE (139, 2.5). The binding of /sup 3/H-naltrexone and /sup 3/H-DSTLE in the brain of WKY and SH did not differ. A consistent increase (22%) in B/sub max/ of /sup 3/H-EKC was found in SHR compared to WKY rats. However, the K/sub d/ values did not differ. The increase in B/sub max/ was due to increases in hypothalamus and cortex. It is concluded that SH rats have higher density of kappa-opiate receptors, particularly in hypothalamus and cortex, compared to WKY rats, and that kappa-opiate receptors may be involved in the pathophysiology of hypertension.

  19. Neuroprotection of Selective Brain Cooling After Penetrating Ballistic-like Brain Injury in Rats.

    PubMed

    Wei, Guo; Lu, Xi-Chun M; Shear, Deborah A; Yang, Xiaofang; Tortella, Frank C

    2011-01-01

    Induced hypothermia has been reported to provide neuroprotection against traumatic brain injury. We recently developed a novel method of selective brain cooling (SBC) and demonstrated its safety and neuroprotection efficacy in a rat model of ischemic brain injury. The primary focus of the current study was to evaluate the potential neuroprotective efficacy of SBC in a rat model of penetrating ballistic-like brain injury (PBBI) with a particular focus on the acute cerebral pathophysiology, neurofunction, and cognition. SBC (34°C) was induced immediately after PBBI, and maintained for 2 hours, followed by a spontaneous re-warming. Intracranial pressure (ICP) and regional cerebral blood flow were monitored continuously for 3 hours, and the ICP was measured again at 24 hours postinjury. Brain swelling, blood-brain barrier permeability, intracerebral hemorrhage, lesion size, and neurological status were assessed at 24 hours postinjury. Cognitive abilities were evaluated in a Morris water maze task at 12-16 days postinjury. Results showed that SBC significantly attenuated PBBI-induced elevation of ICP (PBBI = 33.2 ± 10.4; PBBI + SBC = 18.8 ± 6.7 mmHg) and reduced brain swelling, blood-brain barrier leakage, intracerebral hemorrhage, and lesion volume by 40%-45% for each matrix, and significantly improved neurologic function. However, these acute neuroprotective benefits of SBC did not translate into improved cognitive performance in the Morris water maze task. These results indicate that 34°C SBC is effective in protecting against acute brain damage and related neurological dysfunction. Further studies are required to establish the optimal treatment conditions (i.e., duration of cooling and/or combined therapeutic approaches) needed to achieve significant neurocognitive benefits.

  20. Ketone-body utilization by homogenates of adult rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Lopes-Cardozo, M.; Klein, W.

    1982-06-01

    The regulation of ketone-body metabolism and the quantitative importance of ketone bodies as lipid precursors in adult rat brain has been studied in vitro. Utilization of ketone bodies and of pyruvate by homogenates of adult rat brain was measured and the distribution of /sup 14/C from (3-/sup 14/C)ketone bodies among the metabolic products was analysed. The rate of ketone-body utilization was maximal in the presence of added Krebs-cycle intermediates and uncouplers of oxidative phosphorylation. The consumption of acetoacetate was faster than that of D-3-hydroxybutyrate, whereas, pyruvate produced twice as much acetyl-CoA as acetoacetate under optimal conditions. Millimolar concentrations of ATP in the presence of uncoupler lowered the consumption of ketone bodies but not of pyruvate. Indirect evidence is presented suggesting that ATP interferes specifically with the mitochondrial uptake of ketone bodies. Interconversion of ketone bodies and the accumulation of acid-soluble intermediates (mainly citrate and glutamate) accounted for the major part of ketone-body utilization, whereas only a small part was oxidized to CO/sub 2/. Ketone bodies were not incorporated into lipids or protein. We conclude that adult rat-brain homogenates use ketone bodies exclusively for oxidative purposes.

  1. Gelation and fodrin purification from rat brain extracts.

    PubMed

    Levilliers, N; Péron-Renner, M; Coffe, G; Pudles, J

    1986-06-03

    Extracts from rat brain tissue have been shown to give rise to a gel which exhibits the following features. It is mainly enriched in actin and in a high-molecular-weight protein with polypeptide chains of 235 and 240 kDa, which we identified as fodrin. Tubulin is also a major component of the gel but it appears to be trapped non-specifically during the gelation process. Gelation is pH-, ionic strength- and Ca2+-concentration-dependent, and is optimal under the conditions which promote the interaction between polymerized actin and fodrin. In a similar way to that described for the purification of rat brain actin (Levilliers, N., Péron-Renner, M., Coffe, G. and Pudles, J. (1984) Biochimie 66, 531-537), we used the gelation system as a selective means of recovering fodrin from the mixture of a low-ionic-strength extract from whole rat brain and a high-ionic-strength extract of the particulate fraction. From this gel, fodrin was purified with a good yield by a simple procedure involving gel dissociation in 0.5 M KCl and depolymerization in 0.7 M KI, Bio-Gel A-15m chromatography, followed by ammonium sulfate precipitation.

  2. Brain oxidative stress induced by obstructive jaundice in rats.

    PubMed

    Chroni, Elisabeth; Patsoukis, Nikolaos; Karageorgos, Nikolaos; Konstantinou, Dimitris; Georgiou, Christos

    2006-02-01

    The effect of experimental obstructive jaundice on the oxidative status of brain tissues in rats was examined. Twenty-four male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups: Group I was the control, group II was the sham operated, and groups III and IV were bile duct ligated and killed on the 5th and the 10th day, respectively. Oxidative stress was assessed by measuring the thiol redox state (protein and nonprotein components) and lipid peroxidation level variations in samples from the cerebral cortex, midbrain, and cerebellar tissue in all animals. Results indicated the presence of oxidative stress in the jaundiced animals that was more pronounced on the 10th day as indicated by a decrease in reduced glutathione and protein thiol and an increase in protein disulphide and lipid peroxidation. A dramatic elevation of the level of total nonprotein mixed disulphide level was found specifically in the midbrain in the 10th day group. This suggests an accumulation of nonprotein disulfides other than oxidized glutathione, which remained unchanged, in this particular brain area. This study showed a correlation between experimental obstructive jaundice and the oxidative stress in the rats' brain, implying that a similar pathogenetic mechanism may play a key role in cholestatic liver disease, resulting in hepatic encephalopathy in humans.

  3. A 3D digital map of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Toga, A W; Santori, E M; Hazani, R; Ambach, K

    1995-01-01

    A three dimensional (3D) computerized map of rat brain anatomy created with digital imaging techniques is described. Six male Sprague-Dawley rats, weighing 270-320 g, were used in the generation of this atlas. Their heads were frozen, and closely spaced cryosectional images were digitally captured. Each serial data set was organized into a digital volume, reoriented into a flat skull position, and brought into register with each other. A volume representative of the group following registration was chosen based on its anatomic correspondence with the other specimens as measured by image correlation coefficients and landmark matching. Mean positions of lambda, bregma, and the interaural plane of the group within the common coordinate system were used to transform the representative volume into a 3D map of rat neuroanatomy. images reconstructed from this 3D map are available to the public via Internet with an anonymous file transfer protocol (FTP) and World Wide Web. A complete description of the digital map is provided in a comprehensive set of sagittal planes (up to 0.031 mm spacing) containing stereotaxic reference grids. Sets of coronal and horizontal planes, resampled at the same increment, also are included. Specific anatomic features are identified in a second collection of images. Stylized anatomic boundaries and structural labels were incorporated into selected orthogonal planes. Electronic sharing and interactive use are benefits afforded by a digital format, but the foremost advantage of this 3D map is its whole brain integrated representation of rat in situ neuroanatomy.

  4. Outer brain barriers in rat and human development

    PubMed Central

    Brøchner, Christian B.; Holst, Camilla B.; Møllgård, Kjeld

    2015-01-01

    Complex barriers at the brain's surface, particularly in development, are poorly defined. In the adult, arachnoid blood-cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) barrier separates the fenestrated dural vessels from the CSF by means of a cell layer joined by tight junctions. Outer CSF-brain barrier provides diffusion restriction between brain and subarachnoid CSF through an initial radial glial end feet layer covered with a pial surface layer. To further characterize these interfaces we examined embryonic rat brains from E10 to P0 and forebrains from human embryos and fetuses (6–21st weeks post-conception) and adults using immunohistochemistry and confocal microscopy. Antibodies against claudin-11, BLBP, collagen 1, SSEA-4, MAP2, YKL-40, and its receptor IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were used to describe morphological characteristics and functional aspects of the outer brain barriers. Claudin-11 was a reliable marker of the arachnoid blood-CSF barrier. Collagen 1 delineated the subarachnoid space and stained pial surface layer. BLBP defined radial glial end feet layer and SSEA-4 and YKL-40 were present in both leptomeningeal cells and end feet layer, which transformed into glial limitans. IL-13Rα2 and EAAT1 were present in the end feet layer illustrating transporter/receptor presence in the outer CSF-brain barrier. MAP2 immunostaining in adult brain outlined the lower border of glia limitans; remnants of end feet were YKL-40 positive in some areas. We propose that outer brain barriers are composed of at least 3 interfaces: blood-CSF barrier across arachnoid barrier cell layer, blood-CSF barrier across pial microvessels, and outer CSF-brain barrier comprising glial end feet layer/pial surface layer. PMID:25852456

  5. Intrinsic optical signals of brains in rats during loss of tissue viability: effect of brain temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Noninvasive, real-time monitoring of brain tissue viability is crucial for the patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury, etc. For this purpose, measurement of intrinsic optical signal (IOS) is attractive because it can provide direct information about the viability of brain tissue noninvasively. We performed simultaneous measurements of IOSs that are related to morphological characteristics, i.e., light scattering, and energy metabolism for rat brains during saline infusion as a model with temporal loss of brain tissue viability. The results showed that the scattering signal was steady in an initial phase but showed a drastic, triphasic change in a certain range of infusion time, during which the reduction of CuA in cytochrome c oxidase started and proceeded rapidly. The start time of triphasic scattering change was delayed for about 100 s by lowering brain temperature from 29°C to 24°C, demonstrating the optical detection of cerebroprotection effect by brain cooling. Electron microscopic observation showed morphological changes of dendrite and mitochondria in the cortical surface tissue after the triphasic scattering change, which was thought to be associated with the change in light scattering we observed. These findings suggest that the simultaneous measurement of the intrinsic optical signals related to morphological characteristics and energy metabolism is useful for monitoring tissue viability in brain.

  6. Encoding-based brain-computer interface controlled by non-motor area of rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lang, Yiran; Du, Ping; Shin, Hyung-Cheul

    2011-09-01

    As the needs of disabled patients are increasingly recognized in society, researchers have begun to use single neuron activity to construct brain-computer interfaces (BCI), designed to facilitate the daily lives of individuals with physical disabilities. BCI systems typically allow users to control computer programs or external devices via signals produced in the motor or pre-motor areas of the brain, rather than producing actual motor movements. However, impairments in these brain areas can hinder the application of BCI. The current paper demonstrates the feasibility of a one-dimensional (1D) machine controlled by rat prefrontal cortex (PFC) neurons using an encoding method. In this novel system, rats are able to quench thirst by varying neuronal firing rate in the PFC to manipulate a water dish that can rotate in 1D. The results revealed that control commands generated by an appropriate firing frequency in rat PFC exhibited performance improvements with practice, indicated by increasing water-drinking duration and frequency. These results demonstrated that it is possible for rats to understand an encoding-based BCI system and control a 1D machine using PFC activity to obtain reward.

  7. Astaxanthin reduces ischemic brain injury in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Shen, Hui; Kuo, Chi-Chung; Chou, Jenny; Delvolve, Alice; Jackson, Shelley N; Post, Jeremy; Woods, Amina S; Hoffer, Barry J; Wang, Yun; Harvey, Brandon K

    2009-06-01

    Astaxanthin (ATX) is a dietary carotenoid of crustaceans and fish that contributes to their coloration. Dietary ATX is important for development and survival of salmonids and crustaceans and has been shown to reduce cardiac ischemic injury in rodents. The purpose of this study was to examine whether ATX can protect against ischemic injury in the mammalian brain. Adult rats were injected intracerebroventricularly with ATX or vehicle prior to a 60-min middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAo). ATX was present in the infarction area at 70-75 min after onset of MCAo. Treatment with ATX, compared to vehicle, increased locomotor activity in stroke rats and reduced cerebral infarction at 2 d after MCAo. To evaluate the protective mechanisms of ATX against stroke, brain tissues were assayed for free radical damage, apoptosis, and excitoxicity. ATX antagonized ischemia-mediated loss of aconitase activity and reduced glutamate release, lipid peroxidation, translocation of cytochrome c, and TUNEL labeling in the ischemic cortex. ATX did not alter physiological parameters, such as body temperature, brain temperature, cerebral blood flow, blood gases, blood pressure, and pH. Collectively, our data suggest that ATX can reduce ischemia-related injury in brain tissue through the inhibition of oxidative stress, reduction of glutamate release, and antiapoptosis. ATX may be clinically useful for patients vulnerable or prone to ischemic events.

  8. Photoacoustic imaging for transvascular drug delivery to the rat brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Watanabe, Ryota; Sato, Shunichi; Tsunoi, Yasuyuki; Kawauchi, Satoko; Takemura, Toshiya; Terakawa, Mitsuhiro

    2015-03-01

    Transvascular drug delivery to the brain is difficult due to the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Thus, various methods for safely opening the BBB have been investigated, for which real-time imaging methods are desired both for the blood vessels and distribution of a drug. Photoacoustic (PA) imaging, which enables depth-resolved visualization of chromophores in tissue, would be useful for this purpose. In this study, we performed in vivo PA imaging of the blood vessels and distribution of a drug in the rat brain by using an originally developed compact PA imaging system with fiber-based illumination. As a test drug, Evans blue (EB) was injected to the tail vein, and a photomechanical wave was applied to the targeted brain tissue to increase the permeability of the blood vessel walls. For PA imaging of blood vessels and EB distribution, nanosecond pulses at 532 nm and 670 nm were used, respectively. We clearly visualized blood vessels with diameters larger than 50 μm and the distribution of EB in the brain, showing spatiotemporal characteristics of EB that was transvascularly delivered to the target tissue in the brain.

  9. Residual infection of 15 toxoplasma strains in the brain of rats fed cysts.

    PubMed

    Freyre, A; Falcón, J; Correa, O; Mendez, J; González, M; Venzal, J M

    2001-11-01

    Thirty-seven groups of 4-32 Wistar rats were 2-10(3) cysts of 15 Toxoplasma strains. After 2 months, the rats were euthanized and their brains screened for Toxoplasma cysts and bioassayed in mice if negative. The brains of 323 of 411 rats (78.6%) were found to be infected 2 months after inoculation with Toxoplasma cysts. Two hundred cysts were necessary to infect nearly 90% of the rats. With lower doses, only 60% of the rats had residual brain infection. Brain cysts were formed only in 146 of 411 rats (35.5%). The numbers of cysts formed were in the order of tens to hundreds, only occasionally one or two thousands. The mean percentage of rats with brain cysts, and the number of cysts formed in rat brains by different inocula, increased with higher doses of cysts and then declined. This pattern is difficult to explain and similar results regarding the number of cysts formed have been published. In relation to the mean percentage of rats infected, there appears to be a plateau in infection with the higher inocula. Neither the number of rats with cysts in their brains nor the numbers of cysts formed were dependent on the Toxoplasma strain used, with the exception of one strain. Instead, individual variations were marked, and are presumably related to variations in the individual genetic resistance to Toxoplasma infection in the rat. The information gathered is considered a preliminary step for a rat model of immunity against acquired toxoplasmosis.

  10. Mass spectrometry imaging of rat brain lipid profile changes over time following traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Roux, Aurelie; Muller, Ludovic; Jackson, Shelley N; Post, Jeremy; Baldwin, Katherine; Hoffer, Barry; Balaban, Carey D; Barbacci, Damon; Schultz, J Albert; Gouty, Shawn; Cox, Brian M; Woods, Amina S

    2016-10-15

    Mild traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a common public health issue that may contribute to chronic degenerative disorders. Membrane lipids play a key role in tissue responses to injury, both as cell signals and as components of membrane structure and cell signaling. This study demonstrates the ability of high resolution mass spectrometry imaging (MSI) to assess sequences of responses of lipid species in a rat controlled cortical impact model for concussion. A matrix of implanted silver nanoparticles was implanted superficially in brain sections for matrix-assisted laser desorption (MALDI) imaging of 50μm diameter microdomains across unfixed cryostat sections of rat brain. Ion-mobility time-of-flight MS was used to analyze and map changes over time in brain lipid composition in a rats after Controlled Cortical Impact (CCI) TBI. Brain MS images showed changes in sphingolipids near the CCI site, including increased ceramides and decreased sphingomyelins, accompanied by changes in glycerophospholipids and cholesterol derivatives. The kinetics differed for each lipid class; for example ceramides increased as early as 1 day after the injury whereas other lipids changes occurred between 3 and 7 days post injury. Silver nanoparticles MALDI matrix is a sensitive new tool for revealing previously undetectable cellular injury response and remodeling in neural, glial and vascular structure of the brain. Lipid biochemical and structural changes after TBI could help highlighting molecules that can be used to determine the severity of such injuries as well as to evaluate the efficacy of potential treatments. Copyright © 2016. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Modifications of 5-HT4 receptor expression in rat brain during memory consolidation.

    PubMed

    Manuel-Apolinar, L; Rocha, L; Pascoe, D; Castillo, E; Castillo, C; Meneses, A

    2005-04-25

    Pharmacological evidence indicates a specific role of 5-HT(4) receptors on memory function. These receptors are members of G-protein-coupled 7-transmembrane domain receptor superfamily, are positively coupled to adenylyl cyclase, and are heterogeneously located in some structures important for memory, such as the hippocampus and cortical regions. To further clarify 5-HT(4) receptors' role in memory, the expression of these receptors in passive (P3) untrained and autoshaping (A3) trained (3 sessions) adult (3 months) and old (P9 or A9; 9 months) male rats was determined by autoradiography. Adult trained (A3) rats showed a better memory respect to old trained (A9). Using [(3)H] GR113808 as ligand (0.2 nM specific activity 81 Ci/mmol) for 5-HT(4) receptor expression, 29 brain areas were analyzed, 16 areas of A3 and 17 of A9 animals displayed significant changes. The medial mammillary nucleus of A3 group showed diminished 5-HT(4) receptor expression, and in other 15 brain areas of A3 or 10 of A9 animals, 5-HT(4) receptors were increased. Thus, for A3 rats, 5-HT(4) receptors were augmented in olfactory lobule, caudate putamen, fundus striatum, CA2, retrosplenial, frontal, temporal, occipital, and cingulate cortex. Also, 5-HT(4) receptors were increased in olfactory tubercule, hippocampal CA1, parietal, piriform, and cingulate cortex of A9. However, hippocampal CA2 and CA3 areas, and frontal, parietal, and temporal cortex of A9 rats, expressed less 5-HT(4) receptors. These findings suggest that serotonergic activity, via 5-HT(4) receptors in hippocampal, striatum, and cortical areas, mediates memory function and provides further evidence for a complex and regionally specific regulation over 5-HT receptor expression during memory formation.

  12. Microbubbles coupled to methotrexate-loaded liposomes for ultrasound-mediated delivery of methotrexate across the blood-brain barrier.

    PubMed

    Wang, Xiang; Liu, Ping; Yang, Weixiao; Li, Lu; Li, Peijing; Liu, Zheng; Zhuo, Zhongxiong; Gao, Yunhua

    2014-01-01

    Methotrexate (MTX) is the single most effective agent for the treatment of primary central nervous system lymphoma. Currently, the delivery of MTX to the brain is achieved by high systemic doses, which cause severe long-term neurotoxicity, or intrathecal administration, which is highly invasive and may lead to infections or hemorrhagic complications. Acoustically active microbubbles have been developed as drug carriers for the noninvasive and brain-targeted delivery of therapeutics. However, their application is limited by their low drug-loading capacity. To overcome this limitation, we prepared microbubbles coupled to MTX-loaded liposomes using ZHIFUXIAN, a novel type of microbubbles with a superior safety profile and long circulation time. MTX-liposome-coupled microbubbles had a high drug-loading capacity of 8.91%± 0.86%, and their size (2.64 ± 0.93 μm in diameter) was suitable for intravenous injection. When used with ultrasound, they showed more potent in vitro cytotoxicity against Walker-256 cancer cells than MTX alone or MTX-loaded liposomes. When Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to sonication, administration of these MTX-liposome-coupled microbubbles via the tail vein led to targeted disruption of the blood-brain barrier without noticeable tissue or capillary damage. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis of the brain MTX concentration showed that MTX delivery to the brain followed the order of MTX-liposome-coupled microbubbles + ultrasound (25.3 ± 2.4 μg/g) > unmodified ZHIFUXIAN + MTX + ultrasound (18.6 ± 2.2 μg/g) > MTX alone (6.97 ± 0.75 μg/g) > MTX-liposome-coupled microbubbles (2.92 ± 0.39 μg/g). Therefore, treatment with MTX-liposome-coupled microbubbles and ultrasound resulted in a significantly higher brain MTX concentration than all other treatments (P<0.01). These results suggest that MTX-liposome-coupled microbubbles may hold great promise as new and effective therapies for primary central nervous system lymphoma and other

  13. Environmental enrichment reduces brain damage in hydrocephalic immature rats.

    PubMed

    Catalão, Carlos Henrique Rocha; Shimizu, Glaucia Yuri; Tida, Jacqueline Atsuko; Garcia, Camila Araújo Bernardino; Dos Santos, Antonio Carlos; Salmon, Carlos Ernesto Garrido; Rocha, Maria José Alves; da Silva Lopes, Luiza

    2017-06-01

    We investigate the effects of environmental enrichment (EE) on morphological alterations in different brain structures of pup rats submitted to hydrocephalus condition. Hydrocephalus was induced in 7-day-old pup rats by injection of 20% kaolin into the cisterna magna. Ventricular dilatation and magnetization transfer to analyze myelin were assessed by magnetic resonance. Hydrocephalic and control rats exposed to EE (n = 10 per group) were housed in cages with a tunnel, ramp, and colored plastic balls that would emit sound when touched. The walls of the housing were decorated with colored adhesive tape. Moreover, tactile and auditory stimulation was performed daily throughout the experiment. Hydrocephalic and control rats not exposed to EE (n = 10 per group) were allocated singly in standard cages. All animals were weighed daily and exposed to open-field conditions every 2 days until the end of the experiment when they were sacrificed and the brains removed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Solochrome cyanine staining was performed to assess the thickness of the corpus callosum. The glial fibrillary acidic protein method was used to evaluate reactive astrocytes, and the Ki67 method to assess cellular proliferation in the subventricular zone. The hydrocephalic animals exposed to EE showed better performance in Open Field tests (p < 0.05), while presenting lower weight gain. In addition, these animals showed better myelination as revealed by magnetization transfer (p < 0.05). Finally, the EE group showed a reduction in reactive astrocytes by means of glial fibrillary acidic protein immunostaining and preservation of the proliferation potential of progenitor cells. The results suggest that EE can protect the developing brain against damaging effects caused by hydrocephalus.

  14. Metabolic imaging of rat brain during pharmacologically-induced tinnitus.

    PubMed

    Paul, A K; Lobarinas, E; Simmons, R; Wack, D; Luisi, John C; Spernyak, J; Mazurchuk, R; Abdel-Nabi, H; Salvi, R

    2009-01-15

    Although much is known about the perceptual characteristics of tinnitus, its neural origins remain poorly understood. We investigated the pattern of neural activation in central auditory structures using positron emission tomography (PET) imaging in a rat model of salicylate-induced tinnitus. Awake rats were injected with the metabolic tracer, fluorine-18 fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG), once in a quiet state (baseline) and once during salicylate-induced tinnitus. Tinnitus was verified using a behavioral technique. Brain imaging was performed using a high-resolution microPET scanner. Rats underwent magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and reconstructed MRI and microPET images were fused to identify brain structures. FDG activity in brain regions of interest were quantified and compared. MicroPET imaging showed that FDG activity in the frontal pole was stable between baseline and tinnitus conditions, suggesting it was metabolically inert during tinnitus. Inferior colliculi (p=0.03) and temporal cortices (p=0.003) showed significantly increased FDG activity during tinnitus relative to baseline; activity in the colliculi and temporal cortices increased by 17%+/-21% and 29%+/-20%, respectively. FDG activity in the thalami also increased during tinnitus, but the increase did not reach statistical significance (p=0.07). Our results show increased metabolic activity consistent with neuronal activation in inferior colliculi and auditory cortices of rats during salicylate-induced tinnitus. These results are the first to show that microPET imaging can be used to identify central auditory structures involved in tinnitus and suggest that microPET imaging might be used to evaluate the therapeutic potential of drugs to treat tinnitus.

  15. Effects of tetrahydrocannabinol on glucose uptake in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Miederer, I; Uebbing, K; Röhrich, J; Maus, S; Bausbacher, N; Krauter, K; Weyer-Elberich, V; Lutz, B; Schreckenberger, M; Urban, R

    2017-02-20

    Δ(9)-Tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) is the psychoactive component of the plant Cannabis sativa and acts as a partial agonist at cannabinoid type 1 and type 2 receptors in the brain. The goal of this study was to assess the effect of THC on the cerebral glucose uptake in the rat brain. 21 male Sprague Dawley rats (12-13 w) were examined and received five different doses of THC ranging from 0.01 to 1 mg/kg. For data acquisition a Focus 120 small animal PET scanner was used and 24.1-28.0 MBq of [(18)F]-fluoro-2-deoxy-d-glucose were injected. The data were acquired for 70 min and arterial blood samples were collected throughout the scan. THC, THC-OH and THC-COOH were determined at 55 min p.i. Nine volumes of interest were defined, and the cerebral glucose uptake was calculated for each brain region. Low blood THC levels of < 1 ng/ml (injected dose: ≤ 0.01 mg/kg) corresponded to an increased glucose uptake (6-30 %), particularly in the hypothalamus (p = 0.007), while blood THC levels > 10 ng/ml (injected dose: ≥ 0.05 mg/kg) coincided with a decreased glucose uptake (-2 to -22 %), especially in the cerebellar cortex (p = 0.008). The effective concentration in this region was estimated 2.4 ng/ml. This glucose PET study showed that stimulation of CB1 receptors by THC affects the glucose uptake in the rat brain, whereby the effect of THC is regionally different and dependent on dose - an effect that may be of relevance in behavioural studies.

  16. Global profiling of influence of intra-ischemic brain temperature on gene expression in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kobayashi, Megumi Sugahara; Asai, Satoshi; Ishikawa, Koichi; Nishida, Yayoi; Nagata, Toshihito; Takahashi, Yasuo

    2008-06-01

    Mild to moderate differences in brain temperature are known to greatly affect the outcome of cerebral ischemia. The impact of brain temperature on ischemic disorders has been mainly evaluated through pathological analysis. However, no comprehensive analyses have been conducted at the gene expression level. Using a high-density oligonucleotide microarray, we screened 24000 genes in the hippocampus under hypothermic (32 degrees C), normothermic (37 degrees C), and hyperthermic (39 degrees C) conditions in a rat ischemia-reperfusion model. When the ischemic group at each intra-ischemic brain temperature was compared to a sham-operated control group, genes whose expression levels changed more than three-fold with statistical significance could be detected. In our screening condition, thirty-three genes (some of them novel) were obtained after screening, and extensive functional surveys and literature reviews were subsequently performed. In the hypothermic condition, many neuroprotective factor genes were obtained, whereas cell death- and cell damage-associated genes were detected as the brain temperature increased. At all intra-ischemic brain temperatures, multiple molecular chaperone genes were obtained. The finding that intra-ischemic brain temperature affects the expression level of many genes related to neuroprotection or neurotoxicity coincides with the different pathological outcomes at different brain temperatures, demonstrating the utility of the genetic approach.

  17. A simple implantation method for flexible, multisite microelectrodes into rat brains

    PubMed Central

    Richter, Anja; Xie, Yijing; Schumacher, Anett; Löffler, Susanne; Kirch, Robert D.; Al-Hasani, Jaafar; Rapoport, Daniel H.; Kruse, Charli; Moser, Andreas; Tronnier, Volker; Danner, Sandra; Hofmann, Ulrich G.

    2013-01-01

    A long term functional and reliable coupling between neural tissue and implanted microelectrodes is the key issue in acquiring neural electrophysiological signals or therapeutically excite neural tissue. The currently often used rigid micro-electrodes are thought to cause a severe foreign body reaction resulting in a thick glial scar and consequently a poor tissue-electrode coupling in the chronic phase. We hypothesize, that this adverse effect might be remedied by probes compliant to the soft brain tissue, i.e., replacing rigid electrodes by flexible ones. Unfortunately, this flexibility comes at the price of a low stiffness, which makes targeted low trauma implantation very challenging. In this study, we demonstrate an adaptable and simple method to implant extremely flexible microprobes even to deep areas of rat's brain. Implantation of flexible probes is achieved by rod supported stereotactic insertion fostered by a hydrogel (2% agarose in PBS) cushion on the exposed skull. We were thus able to implant very flexible micro-probes in 70 rats as deep as the rodent's subthalamic nucleus. This work describes in detail the procedures and steps needed for minimal invasive, but reliable implantation of flexible probes. PMID:23898266

  18. A simple implantation method for flexible, multisite microelectrodes into rat brains.

    PubMed

    Richter, Anja; Xie, Yijing; Schumacher, Anett; Löffler, Susanne; Kirch, Robert D; Al-Hasani, Jaafar; Rapoport, Daniel H; Kruse, Charli; Moser, Andreas; Tronnier, Volker; Danner, Sandra; Hofmann, Ulrich G

    2013-01-01

    A long term functional and reliable coupling between neural tissue and implanted microelectrodes is the key issue in acquiring neural electrophysiological signals or therapeutically excite neural tissue. The currently often used rigid micro-electrodes are thought to cause a severe foreign body reaction resulting in a thick glial scar and consequently a poor tissue-electrode coupling in the chronic phase. We hypothesize, that this adverse effect might be remedied by probes compliant to the soft brain tissue, i.e., replacing rigid electrodes by flexible ones. Unfortunately, this flexibility comes at the price of a low stiffness, which makes targeted low trauma implantation very challenging. In this study, we demonstrate an adaptable and simple method to implant extremely flexible microprobes even to deep areas of rat's brain. Implantation of flexible probes is achieved by rod supported stereotactic insertion fostered by a hydrogel (2% agarose in PBS) cushion on the exposed skull. We were thus able to implant very flexible micro-probes in 70 rats as deep as the rodent's subthalamic nucleus. This work describes in detail the procedures and steps needed for minimal invasive, but reliable implantation of flexible probes.

  19. Light-sheet microscopy imaging of a whole cleared rat brain with Thy1-GFP transgene

    PubMed Central

    Stefaniuk, Marzena; Gualda, Emilio J.; Pawlowska, Monika; Legutko, Diana; Matryba, Paweł; Koza, Paulina; Konopka, Witold; Owczarek, Dorota; Wawrzyniak, Marcin; Loza-Alvarez, Pablo; Kaczmarek, Leszek

    2016-01-01

    Whole-brain imaging with light-sheet fluorescence microscopy and optically cleared tissue is a new, rapidly developing research field. Whereas successful attempts to clear and image mouse brain have been reported, a similar result for rats has proven difficult to achieve. Herein, we report on creating novel transgenic rat harboring fluorescent reporter GFP under control of neuronal gene promoter. We then present data on clearing the rat brain, showing that FluoClearBABB was found superior over passive CLARITY and CUBIC methods. Finally, we demonstrate efficient imaging of the rat brain using light-sheet fluorescence microscopy. PMID:27312902

  20. Changes in Brain Metallome/Metabolome Pattern due to a Single i.v. Injection of Manganese in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Neth, Katharina; Lucio, Marianna; Walker, Alesia; Zorn, Julia; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Michalke, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of Manganese (Mn) is known to potentially induce an accumulation in the brain, leading to a Parkinson related disease, called manganism. Versatile mechanisms of Mn-induced brain injury are discussed, with inactivation of mitochondrial defense against oxidative stress being a major one. So far, studies indicate that the main Mn-species entering the brain are low molecular mass (LMM) compounds such as Mn-citrate. Applying a single low dose MnCl2 injection in rats, we observed alterations in Mn-species pattern within the brain by analysis of aqueous brain extracts by size-exclusion chromatography—inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). Additionally, electrospray ionization—ion cyclotron resonance-Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (ESI-ICR/FT-MS) measurement of methanolic brain extracts revealed a comprehensive analysis of changes in brain metabolisms after the single MnCl2 injection. Major alterations were observed for amino acid, fatty acid, glutathione, glucose and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. The power of this metabolomic approach is the broad and detailed overview of affected brain metabolisms. We also correlated results from the metallomic investigations (Mn concentrations and Mn-species in brain) with the findings from metabolomics. This strategy might help to unravel the role of different Mn-species during Mn-induced alterations in brain metabolism. PMID:26383269

  1. Changes in Brain Metallome/Metabolome Pattern due to a Single i.v. Injection of Manganese in Rats.

    PubMed

    Neth, Katharina; Lucio, Marianna; Walker, Alesia; Zorn, Julia; Schmitt-Kopplin, Philippe; Michalke, Bernhard

    2015-01-01

    Exposure to high concentrations of Manganese (Mn) is known to potentially induce an accumulation in the brain, leading to a Parkinson related disease, called manganism. Versatile mechanisms of Mn-induced brain injury are discussed, with inactivation of mitochondrial defense against oxidative stress being a major one. So far, studies indicate that the main Mn-species entering the brain are low molecular mass (LMM) compounds such as Mn-citrate. Applying a single low dose MnCl2 injection in rats, we observed alterations in Mn-species pattern within the brain by analysis of aqueous brain extracts by size-exclusion chromatography--inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (SEC-ICP-MS). Additionally, electrospray ionization--ion cyclotron resonance-Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (ESI-ICR/FT-MS) measurement of methanolic brain extracts revealed a comprehensive analysis of changes in brain metabolisms after the single MnCl2 injection. Major alterations were observed for amino acid, fatty acid, glutathione, glucose and purine/pyrimidine metabolism. The power of this metabolomic approach is the broad and detailed overview of affected brain metabolisms. We also correlated results from the metallomic investigations (Mn concentrations and Mn-species in brain) with the findings from metabolomics. This strategy might help to unravel the role of different Mn-species during Mn-induced alterations in brain metabolism.

  2. Gonadal steroid action and brain sex differentiation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Sakuma, Y

    2009-03-01

    Gonadal steroids that establish sexually dimorphic characteristics of brain morphology and physiology act at a particular stage of ontogeny. Testosterone secreted by the testes during late gestational and neonatal periods causes significant brain sexual dimorphism in the rat. This results in both sex-specific behaviour and endocrinology in adults. Sexual differentiation may be due to neurogenesis, migration or survival. Each mechanism appears to be uniquely regulated in a site-specific manner. Thus, the volume of an aggregate of neurones in the rat medial preoptic area (POA), termed the sexually dimorphic nucleus of the POA (SDN-POA), is larger in males than in females. The anteroventral periventricular nucleus (AVPV) is packed with neurones containing oestrogen receptor (ER)beta in female rats but, in males, ERbeta-positive neurones scatter into the more lateral portion of the POA. POA neurones are born up to embryonic days 16-17 and not after parturition. Therefore, neurogenesis is unlikely to contribute to the larger SDN-POA in males. DNA microarray analysis for oestrogen-responsive genes and western blotting demonstrated site-specific regulation of apoptosis- and migration-related genes in the SDN-POA and AVPV.

  3. Dorsal raphe nucleus of brain in the rats flown in space inflight and postflight alteration of structure

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Krasnov, I.

    The structure of brain dorsal raphe nucleus (DRN) was studied in the rats flown in space aboard Space Shuttle "Columbia" (STS-58, SLS-2 program) and dissected on day 13 of the mission ("inflight" rats) and in 5-6 hours after finishing 14-day flight ("postflight" rats). The brain of "inflight" rats were excised after decapitation, sectioned sagitally halves of brain were fixed by immersion in 2,5 % glutaraldehyde in 0.1 M cacodylate buffer pH 7.3 at 4°C and kept in the flight at 4°C. After landing the brain frontal 0.5 mm sections from DRN area were osmificated and embedded in araldite at NASA ARC. The brains of "postflight": and control rats were underwent to the same procedure. Electronmicroscopical analysis, computer morphometry and glial cell count were performed at Moscow. In DRN neuropil of "inflight" rats the most part of axo-dendritic synapses were surrounded by glia cell processes and had decreased electron density of pre- and postsynaptic membrane and pronounced diminution of synaptic vesicle amount while dendrites were characterized by decrease in matrix electron density and microtubule quantity that in total indicates the decline of afferent flow reaching DRN neurons in microgravity. In DRN neurons of "inflight" rats all mitochondria were characterized by evenly increased dimensions, decreased matrix electron density, small amount of short and far- between located cristae and enlarged intermembrane and intercristae spaces, that in total points out low level of coupling of oxidation to phosphorilation, decrease in energy supply of neuron. Amount of ribosome in cytoplasm was significantly decreased indicating lower lever of biosynthetic processes. The last is supported by diminished dimensions of neuronal body, nucleus and nucleolus (place of r RNA synthesis), cross section area of that were reduced in DRN neurons of "inflight" rats by 18.8 % (p < 0.01), 11.1 % and 26.6 % (p <0,005) correspondingly. Ultrastructure and dimensions of intracellular

  4. Pharmacologically induced hypothermia attenuates traumatic brain injury in neonatal rats.

    PubMed

    Gu, Xiaohuan; Wei, Zheng Zachory; Espinera, Alyssa; Lee, Jin Hwan; Ji, Xiaoya; Wei, Ling; Dix, Thomas A; Yu, Shan Ping

    2015-05-01

    Neonatal brain trauma is linked to higher risks of mortality and neurological disability. The use of mild to moderate hypothermia has shown promising potential against brain injuries induced by stroke and traumatic brain injury (TBI) in various experimental models and in clinical trials. Conventional methods of physical cooling, however, are difficult to use in acute treatments and in induction of regulated hypothermia. In addition, general anesthesia is usually required to mitigate the negative effects of shivering during physical cooling. Our recent investigations demonstrate the potential therapeutic benefits of pharmacologically induced hypothermia (PIH) using the neurotensin receptor (NTR) agonist HPI201 (formerly known as ABS201) in stroke and TBI models of adult rodents. The present investigation explored the brain protective effects of HPI201 in a P14 rat pediatric model of TBI induced by controlled cortical impact. When administered via intraperitoneal (i.p.) injection, HPI201 induced dose-dependent reduction of body and brain temperature. A 6-h hypothermic treatment, providing an overall 2-3°C reduction of brain and body temperature, showed significant effect of attenuating the contusion volume versus TBI controls. Attenuation occurs whether hypothermia is initiated 15min or 2h after TBI. No shivering response was seen in HPI201-treated animals. HPI201 treatment also reduced TUNEL-positive and TUNEL/NeuN-colabeled cells in the contusion area and peri-injury regions. TBI-induced blood-brain barrier damage was attenuated by HPI201 treatment, evaluated using the Evans Blue assay. HPI201 significantly decreased MMP-9 levels and caspase-3 activation, both of which are pro-apototic, while it increased anti-apoptotic Bcl-2 gene expression in the peri-contusion region. In addition, HPI201 prevented the up-regulation of pro-inflammatory tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and IL-6. In sensorimotor activity assessments, rats in the HPI201

  5. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mendelsohn, F.A.O.; Quirion, R.; Saavedra, J.M.; Aguilera, G.; Catt, K.J.

    1984-03-01

    The /sup 125/I-labeled agonist analog (1-sarcosine)-angiotensin II ((Sar/sup 1/)AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (K/sub a/ = 2 x 10/sup 9/ M/sup -1/) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. 75 references, 2 figures.

  6. Autoradiographic localization of angiotensin II receptors in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Mendelsohn, F A; Quirion, R; Saavedra, J M; Aguilera, G; Catt, K J

    1984-01-01

    The 125I-labeled agonist analog [1-sarcosine]-angiotensin II ( [Sar1]AII) bound with high specificity and affinity (Ka = 2 X 10(9) M-1) to a single class of receptor sites in rat brain. This ligand was used to analyze the distribution of AII receptors in rat brain by in vitro autoradiography followed by computerized densitometry and color coding. A very high density of AII receptors was found in the subfornical organ, paraventricular and periventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus, nucleus of the tractus solitarius, and area postrema. A high concentration of receptors was found in the suprachiasmatic nucleus of the hypothalamus, lateral olfactory tracts, nuclei of the accessory and lateral olfactory tracts, triangular septal nucleus, subthalamic nucleus, locus coeruleus, and inferior olivary nuclei. Moderate receptor concentrations were found in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, median preoptic nucleus, medial habenular nucleus, lateral septum, ventroposterior thalamic nucleus, median eminence, medial geniculate nucleus, superior colliculus, subiculum, pre- and parasubiculum, and spinal trigeminal tract. Low concentrations of sites were seen in caudate-putamen, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, and gray matter of the spinal cord. These studies have demonstrated that AII receptors are distributed in a highly characteristic anatomical pattern in the brain. The high concentrations of AII receptors at numerous physiologically relevant sites are consistent with the emerging evidence for multiple roles of AII as a neuropeptide in the central nervous system. Images PMID:6324205

  7. RATS: Rapid Automatic Tissue Segmentation in rodent brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ipek; Zhang, Honghai; Rumple, Ashley; Sonka, Milan

    2014-01-15

    High-field MRI is a popular technique for the study of rodent brains. These datasets, while similar to human brain MRI in many aspects, present unique image processing challenges. We address a very common preprocessing step, skull-stripping, which refers to the segmentation of the brain tissue from the image for further processing. While several methods exist for addressing this problem, they are computationally expensive and often require interactive post-processing by an expert to clean up poorly segmented areas. This further increases total processing time per subject. We propose a novel algorithm, based on grayscale mathematical morphology and LOGISMOS-based graph segmentation, which is rapid, robust and highly accurate. Comparative results obtained on two challenging in vivo datasets, consisting of 22 T1-weighted rat brain images and 10 T2-weighted mouse brain images illustrate the robustness and excellent performance of the proposed algorithm, in a fraction of the computational time needed by existing algorithms. In comparison to current state-of-the-art methods, our approach achieved average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 and average Hausdorff distance of 13.6 ± 5.2 voxels (vs. 0.85 ± 0.20, p<0.05 and 42.6 ± 22.9, p < 0.001) for the rat dataset, and 0.96 ± 0.01 and average Hausdorff distance of 21.6 ± 12.7 voxels (vs. 0.93 ± 0.01, p <0.001 and 33.7 ± 3.5, p <0.001) for the mouse dataset. The proposed algorithm took approximately 90s per subject, compared to 10-20 min for the neural-network based method and 30-90 min for the atlas-based method. RATS is a robust and computationally efficient method for accurate rodent brain skull-stripping even in challenging data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  8. Heat synch: inter- and independence of body-temperature fluctuations and brain-state alternations in urethane-anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Whitten, Tara A; Martz, Laura J; Guico, Anthony; Gervais, Nicole; Dickson, Clayton T

    2009-09-01

    During sleep, warm-blooded animals exhibit cyclic alternations between rapid-eye-movement (REM) and nonrapid-eye-movement (non-REM) states, characterized by distinct patterns of brain activity apparent in electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings coupled with corresponding changes in physiological measures, including body temperature. Recently we have shown that urethane-anesthetized rats display cyclic alternations between an activated state and a deactivated state that are highly similar in both EEG and physiological characteristics to REM and non-REM sleep states, respectively. Here, using intracranial local field potential recordings from urethane-anesthetized rats, we show that brain-state alternations were correlated to core temperature fluctuations induced using a feedback-controlled heating system. Activated (REM-like) states predominated during the rising phase of the temperature cycle, whereas deactivated (non-REM-like) states predominated during the falling phase. Brain-state alternations persisted following the elimination of core temperature fluctuations by the use of a constant heating protocol, but the timing and rhythmicity of state alternations were altered. In contrast, thermal fluctuations applied to the ventral surface (and especially the scrotum) of rats in the absence or independently of core temperature fluctuations appeared to induce brain-state alternations. Heating brought about activated patterns, whereas cooling produced deactivated patterns. This shows that although alternations of sleeplike brain states under urethane anesthesia can be independent of imposed temperature variations, they can also be entrained through the activation of peripheral thermoreceptors. Overall, these results imply that brain state and bodily metabolism are highly related during unconsciousness and that the brain mechanisms underlying sleep cycling and thermoregulation likely represent independent, yet coupled oscillators.

  9. Ytterbium and trace element distribution in brain and organic tissues of offspring rats after prenatal and postnatal exposure to ytterbium.

    PubMed

    Feng, Liuxing; He, Xiao; Xiao, Haiqing; Li, Zijie; Li, Fuliang; Liu, Nianqing; Chai, Zhifang; Zhao, Yuliang; Zhang, Zhiyong

    2007-01-01

    Lanthanides, because of their diversified physical and chemical effects, have been widely used in a number of fields. As a result, more and more lanthanides are entering the environment and eventually accumulating in the human body. Previous studies indicate that the impact of lanthanides on brain function cannot be neglected. Although neurological studies of trace elements are of paramount importance, up to now, little data are provided regarding the status of micronutritional elements in rats after prenatal and long-term exposure to lanthanide. The aim of this study is to determine the ytterbium (Yb) and trace elements distribution in brain and organic tissues of offspring rats after prenatal and long-term exposure to Yb. Wistar rats were exposed to Yb through oral administration at 0,0.1, 2, and 40 mg Yb/kg concentrations from gestation day 0 through 5 mo of age. Concentrations of Yb and other elements (Mg, Ca, Fe, Cu, Mn, and Zn) in the serum, liver, femur, and brain regions (cerebral cortex, hippocampus, cerebellum, and the rest) of offspring rats at the age of 0 d, 25 d, and 5 mo were analyzed by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. The accumulation of Yb in the brain, liver, and femur is observed; moreover, the levels of Fe, Cu, Mn, Zn, Ca, and Mg in the brain and organic tissues of offspring rats are also altered after Yb exposure. This disturbance of the homeostasis of trace elements might induce adverse effects on normal physiological functions of the brain and other organs.

  10. Perception of social synchrony induces mother-child gamma coupling in the social brain.

    PubMed

    Levy, Jonathan; Goldstein, Abraham; Feldman, Ruth

    2017-04-11

    The recent call to move from focus on one brain's functioning to two-brain communication initiated a search for mechanisms that enable two humans to coordinate brain response during social interactions. Here, we utilized the mother-child context as a developmentally salient setting to study two-brain coupling. Mothers and their 9-year-old children were videotaped at home in positive and conflictual interactions. Positive interactions were microcoded for social synchrony and conflicts for overall dialogical style. Following, mother and child underwent magnetoencephalography while observing the positive vignettes. Episodes of behavioral synchrony, compared to non-synchrony, increased gamma-band power in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), hub of social cognition, mirroring and mentalizing. This neural pattern was coupled between mother and child. Brain-to-brain coordination was anchored in behavioral synchrony; only during episodes of behavioral synchrony, but not during non-synchronous moments, mother's and child's STS gamma power was coupled. Importantly, neural synchrony was not found during observation of unfamiliar mother-child interaction Maternal empathic/dialogical conflict style predicted mothers' STS activations whereas child withdrawal predicted attenuated STS response in both partners. Results define a novel neural marker for brain-to-brain synchrony, highlight the role of rapid bottom-up oscillatory mechanisms for neural coupling and indicate that behavior-based processes may drive synchrony between two brains during social interactions.

  11. Rat brain pro-oxidant effects of peripherally administered 5 nm ceria 30 days after exposure.

    PubMed

    Hardas, Sarita S; Sultana, Rukhsana; Warrier, Govind; Dan, Mo; Florence, Rebecca L; Wu, Peng; Grulke, Eric A; Tseng, Michael T; Unrine, Jason M; Graham, Uschi M; Yokel, Robert A; Butterfield, D Allan

    2012-10-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the residual pro-or anti-oxidant effects in rat brain 30 days after systemic administration of a 5 nm citrate-stabilized ceria dispersion. A ∼4% aqueous ceria dispersion was iv-infused (0 or 85 mg/kg) into rats which were terminated 30 days later. Ceria concentration, localization, and chemical speciation in the brain was assessed by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS), light and electron microscopy (EM), and electron energy loss spectroscopy (EELS), respectively. Pro- or anti-oxidant effects were evaluated by measuring levels of protein carbonyls (PC), 3-nitrotyrosine (3NT), and protein-bound-4-hydroxy-2-trans-nonenal (HNE) in the hippocampus, cortex, and cerebellum. Glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase levels and activity were measured in addition to levels of inducible nitric oxide (iNOS), and heat shock protein-70 (Hsp70). The blood brain barrier (BBB) was visibly intact and no ceria was seen in the brain cells. Ceria elevated PC and Hsp70 levels in hippocampus and cerebellum, while 3NT and iNOS levels were elevated in the cortex. Whereas glutathione peroxidase and catalase activity were decreased in the hippocampus, GR levels were decreased in the cortex, and GPx and catalase levels were decreased in the cerebellum. The GSH:GSSG ratio, an index of cellular redox status, was decreased in the hippocampus and cerebellum. The results are in accordance with the observation that this nanoscale material remains in this mammal model up to 30 days after its administration and the hypothesis that it exerts pro-oxidant effects on the brain without crossing the BBB. These results have important implications on the potential use of ceria ENM as therapeutic agents.

  12. Cyst burden in the brains of Wistar rats fed Toxoplasma oocysts.

    PubMed

    Freyre, A; Falcón, J; Correa, O; Mendez, J; González, M; Venzal, J M; Morgades, D

    2003-03-01

    Six strains of Toxoplasma oocysts were used to infect groups of 4-24 Wistar rats, with each rat being fed 10(1)-10(4) oocysts from a single strain. After 2 months, the rats were killed, their brains screened for Toxoplasma cysts and then bioassayed in mice if negative. Toxoplasma was either observed in the form of brain cysts or was recovered using the bioassay, from 113 out of 138 (82%) rat brains. As few as ten oocysts were capable of initiating a brain infection that lasted for at least 2 months in eight of the nine rats inoculated. However, judging from bioassay 10(2)-10(4) oocysts did not give rise to progressively higher rates of infection. Brain cysts were seen in only 68 of 138 rats (49%). The number of Toxoplasma cysts formed in the brains of rats was generally in the order of tens to hundreds. The frequency of infection in the brains with Toxoplasma and the number of brain cysts formed appeared to be influenced by the individual resistance of the rats as well as by the doses of oocysts and the Toxoplasma strains used. The information gathered is considered to be a basis for a rat model of immunity against acquired toxoplasmosis.

  13. Magnetic Micelles for DNA delivery to rat brains after mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Das, Mahasweta; Wang, Chunyan; Bedi, Raminder; Mohapatra, Shyam S.; Mohapatra, Subhra

    2014-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) causes significant mortality, long term disability and psychological symptoms. Gene therapy is a promising approach for treatment of different pathological conditions. Here we tested chitosan and polyethyleneimine (PEI)-coated magnetic micelles (CPmag micelles or CPMMs), a potential MRI contrast agent, to deliver a reporter DNA to the brain after mild TBI (mTBI). CPMM - tomato plasmid (ptd) conjugate expressing a red-fluorescent protein (RFP) was administered intranasally immediately after mTBI or sham surgery in male SD rats. Evans blue extravasation following mTBI suggested CPMM-ptd entry into the brain via the compromised blood-brain barrier. Magnetofection increased the concentration of CPMMs in the brain. RFP expression was observed in the brain (cortex and hippocampus), lung and liver 48 hours after mTBI. CPMM did not evoke any inflammatory response by themselves and were excreted from the body. These results indicate the possibility of using intranasally administered CPMM as a theranostic vehicle for mTBI. PMID:24486465

  14. Adropin acts in brain to inhibit water drinking: potential interaction with the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR19.

    PubMed

    Stein, Lauren M; Yosten, Gina L C; Samson, Willis K

    2016-03-15

    Adropin, a recently described peptide hormone produced in the brain and liver, has been reported to have physiologically relevant actions on glucose homeostasis and lipogenesis, and to exert significant effect on endothelial function. We describe a central nervous system action of adropin to inhibit water drinking and identify a potential adropin receptor, the orphan G protein-coupled receptor, GPR19. Reduction in GPR19 mRNA levels in medial basal hypothalamus of male rats resulted in the loss of the inhibitory effect of adropin on water deprivation-induced thirst. The identification of a novel brain action of adropin and a candidate receptor for the peptide should extend and accelerate the study of the potential therapeutic value of adropin or its mimetics for the treatment of metabolic disorders.

  15. Two-photon microscopy as a tool to study blood flow and neurovascular coupling in the rodent brain

    PubMed Central

    Shih, Andy Y; Driscoll, Jonathan D; Drew, Patrick J; Nishimura, Nozomi; Schaffer, Chris B; Kleinfeld, David

    2012-01-01

    The cerebral vascular system services the constant demand for energy during neuronal activity in the brain. Attempts to delineate the logic of neurovascular coupling have been greatly aided by the advent of two-photon laser scanning microscopy to image both blood flow and the activity of individual cells below the surface of the brain. Here we provide a technical guide to imaging cerebral blood flow in rodents. We describe in detail the surgical procedures required to generate cranial windows for optical access to the cortex of both rats and mice and the use of two-photon microscopy to accurately measure blood flow in individual cortical vessels concurrent with local cellular activity. We further provide examples on how these techniques can be applied to the study of local blood flow regulation and vascular pathologies such as small-scale stroke. PMID:22293983

  16. Hyperthyroidism differentially regulates neuropeptide S system in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    González, Carmen R; Martínez de Morentin, Pablo B; Martínez-Sánchez, Noelia; Gómez-Díaz, Consuelo; Lage, Ricardo; Varela, Luis; Diéguez, Carlos; Nogueiras, Rubén; Castaño, Justo P; López, Miguel

    2012-04-23

    Thyroid hormones play an important role in the regulation of energy balance, sleep and emotional behaviors. Neuropeptide S (NPS) is a recently discovered neuropeptide, regulating feeding, sleep and anxiety. Here, we examined the effect of hyperthyroidism on the gene and protein expression of neuropeptide S and its receptor (NPS-R) in the hypothalamus, brainstem and amygdala of rats. Our results showed that the expression of NPS and NPS-R was differentially modulated by hyperthyroidism in the rat brain. NPS and NPS-R mRNA and protein levels were decreased in the hypothalamus of hyperthyroid rats. Conversely NPS-R expression was highly increased in the brainstem and NPS and NPS-R expression were unchanged in the amygdala of these rats. These data suggest that changes in anxiety and food intake patterns observed in hyperthyroidism could be associated with changes in the expression of NPS and NPS-R. Thus, the NPS/NPS-R system may be involved in several hyperthyroidism-associated comorbidities. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  17. Detection of cocaine induced rat brain activation by photoacoustic tomography

    PubMed Central

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-01-01

    Photoacoustic tomography (PAT) was used to detect the progressive changes on the cerebral cortex of Sprague Dawley rats after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Different concentrations (0, 2.5, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution were injected into Sprague Dawley rats through tail veins. Cerebral cortex images of the animals were continuously acquired by PAT. For continuous observation, PAT system used multi-transducers to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The obtained photoacoustic images were compared with each other and confirmed that changes in blood volume were induced by cocaine hydrochloride injection. The results demonstrate that PAT may be used to detect the effects of drug abuse-induced brain activation. PMID:21163301

  18. Pathophysiology of microwave radiation: effect on rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2012-01-01

    The study aims to investigate the effect of 2.45 GHz microwave radiation on Wistar rats. Rats of 35 days old with 130 ± 10 g body weight were selected for this study. Animals were divided into two groups: sham exposed and experimental (six animals each). Animals were exposed for 2 h a day for 45 days at 2.45 GHz frequency (power density, 0.21 mW/cm(2)). The whole body specific absorption rate was estimated to be 0.14 W/kg. Exposure took place in a ventilated plexiglas cage and kept in an anechoic chamber under a horn antenna. After completion of the exposure period, rats were killed, and pineal gland and whole brain tissues were isolated for the estimation of melatonin, creatine kinase, caspase 3, and calcium ion concentration. Experiments were performed in a blind manner and repeated. A significant decrease (P < 0.05) was recorded in the level of pineal melatonin of exposed group as compared with sham exposed. A significant increase (P < 0.05) in creatine kinase, caspase 3, and calcium ion concentration was observed in whole brain of exposed group of animals as compared to sham exposed. One-way analysis of variance method was adopted for statistical analysis. The study concludes that a reduction in melatonin or an increase in caspase-3, creatine kinase, and calcium ion may cause significant damage in brain due to chronic exposure of these radiations. These biomarkers clearly indicate possible health implications of such exposures.

  19. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  20. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue. PMID:27456312

  1. 2-hydroxyestradiol modifies serotonergic processes in the male rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kowalik, S.

    1985-01-01

    The effects of chronic (5 day) 2-hydroxyestradiol or estradiol on catecholaminergic and serotonergic neurons in the male rat brain were studied. The results indicate estrogen to be specific is inducing changes in dopaminergic systems; whereas its hydroxymetabolite appears to have a preference for serotonergic processes. In particular, in vitro 2-hydroxyestradiol appears to be a potent inhibitor of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in brain; this inhibition is especially potent in the cortex, where it is equal in potency to serotonin. However, unlike serotonin, which is a competitive inhibitor of imipramine, 2-hydroxyestradiol is an uncompetitive inhibitor of /sup 3/H-imipramine binding in cortex and hypothalamus and a noncompetitive inhibitor in the striatum; this suggests that the inhibition of binding takes place at a point other than the site of serotonin uptake. In vitro 2-hydroxyestradiol also appears to increase the uptake of serotonin into these tissues, a change which would be expected if the imipramine binding is blocked.

  2. The impact of chronic stress on the rat brain lipidome

    PubMed Central

    Oliveira, Tiago Gil; Chan, Robin B.; Bravo, Francisca Vaz; Miranda, André; Silva, Rita Ribeiro; Zhou, Bowen; Marques, Fernanda; Pinto, Vítor; Cerqueira, João José; Di Paolo, Gilbert; Sousa, Nuno

    2015-01-01

    Chronic stress is a major risk factor for several human disorders that affect modern societies. The brain is a key target of chronic stress. In fact, there is growing evidence indicating that exposure to stress affects learning and memory, decision making and emotional responses, and may even predispose for pathological processes, such as Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and depression. Lipids are a major constituent of the brain, and specifically signaling lipids have been shown to regulate brain function. Here, we used a mass spectrometry-based lipidomic approach to evaluate the impact of a chronic unpredictable stress paradigm on the rat brain in a region-specific manner. We found that the prefrontal cortex (PFC) was the area with the highest degree of changes induced by chronic stress. Although the hippocampus presented relevant lipidomic changes, the amygdala and to a more extent, the cerebellum, presented few lipid changes upon chronic stress exposure. The sphingolipid and phospholipid metabolism were profoundly affected, showing an increase in ceramide and a decrease in sphingomyelin and dihydrosphingomyelin levels, and decreased phosphatidylethanolamine and ether phosphatidylcholine and increased lysophosphatidylethanolamine levels, respectively. Furthermore, the fatty acyl profile of phospholipids and diacylglycerol revealed that chronic stressed rats had higher 38 carbon(38C)-lipid levels in the hippocampus and a decrease in 36C-lipid levels in the PFC. Finally, lysophosphatidylcholine levels in the PFC were found to be correlated with blood corticosterone levels. In summary, lipidomic profiling of the effect of chronic stress allowed for the identification of dysregulated lipid pathways, revealing putative targets for pharmacological intervention that may potentially be used to modulate stress-induced deficits. PMID:25754084

  3. Neuroanatomical distribution of galectin-3 in the adult rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yoo, Hong-Il; Kim, Eu-Gene; Lee, Eun-Jin; Hong, Sung-Young; Yoon, Chi-Sun; Hong, Min-Ju; Park, Sang-Jin; Woo, Ran-Sook; Baik, Tai-Kyoung; Song, Dae-Yong

    2017-04-01

    Galectin-3 is a member of the lectin subfamily that enables the specific binding of β-galactosides. It is expressed in a broad spectrum of species and organs, and is known to have various functions related to cell adhesion, signal transduction, and proinflammatory responses. Although, expression of galectin-3 in some activated neuroglia under neuroinflammation has been well documented in the central nervous system, little is known about the neuronal expression and distribution of galectin-3 in normal brain. To describe the cellular and neuroanatomical expression map of galectin-3, we performed galectin-3 immunohistochemistry on the entire normal rat brain and subsequently analyzed the neuronal distribution. Galectin-3 expression was observed not only in some neuroglia but also in neurons. Neuronal expression of galectin-3 was observed in many functional parts of the cerebral cortex and various other subcortical nuclei in the hypothalamus and brainstem. Neuroanatomical analysis revealed that robust galectin-3 immuno-signals were present in many hypothalamic nuclei related to a variety of physiological functions responsible for mediating anxiety responses, energy balance, and neuroendocrine regulation. In addition, the regions highly connected with these hypothalamic nuclei also showed intense galectin-3 expression. Moreover, multiple key regions involved in regulating autonomic functions exhibited high levels of galectin-3 expression. In contrast, the subcortical nuclei responsible for the control of voluntary motor functions and limbic system exhibited no galectin-3 immunoreactivity. These observations suggest that galectin-3 expression in the rat brain seems to be regulated by developmental cascades, and that functionally and neuroanatomically related brain nuclei constitutively express galectin-3 in adulthood.

  4. 900-MHz microwave radiation promotes oxidation in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kesari, Kavindra Kumar; Kumar, Sanjay; Behari, Jitendra

    2011-12-01

    Recently, there have been several reports referring to detrimental effects due to radio frequency electromagnetic fields (RF-EMF) exposure. Special attention was given to investigate the effect of mobile phone exposure on the rat brain. Since the integrative mechanism of the entire body lies in the brain, it is suggestive to analyze its biochemical aspects. For this, 35-day old Wistar rats were exposed to a mobile phone for 2 h per day for a duration of 45 days where specific absorption rate (SAR) was 0.9 W/Kg. Animals were divided in two groups: sham exposed (n = 6) and exposed group (n = 6). Our observations indicate a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of glutathione peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and an increase in catalase activity. Moreover, protein kinase shows a significant decrease in exposed group (P < 0.05) of hippocampus and whole brain. Also, a significant decrease (P < 0.05) in the level of pineal melatonin and a significant increase (P < 0.05) in creatine kinase and caspase 3 was observed in exposed group of whole brain as compared with sham exposed. Finally, a significant increase in the level of ROS (reactive oxygen species) (P < 0.05) was also recorded. The study concludes that a reduction or an increase in antioxidative enzyme activities, protein kinase C, melatonin, caspase 3, and creatine kinase are related to overproduction of reactive oxygen species (ROS) in animals under mobile phone radiation exposure. Our findings on these biomarkers are clear indications of possible health implications.

  5. Flow cytometric analysis of inflammatory cells in ischemic rat brain.

    PubMed

    Campanella, Marilena; Sciorati, Clara; Tarozzo, Glauco; Beltramo, Massimiliano

    2002-02-01

    Inflammation plays a key role in cerebral ischemia through activation of microglia and infiltration by leukocytes. Flow cytometry is a well-established method for quantitative and qualitative analysis of inflammatory cells. However, this technique has not been applied to the study of cerebral ischemia inflammation. The aim of this study was to establish a flow cytometric method to measure inflammatory cells in ischemic brain. To perform flow cytometry on brain tissue, we developed 2 cell-isolation methods based on different mechanical dissociation and Percoll gradient separation techniques. The methods were tested on a rat model of permanent middle cerebral artery occlusion. Morphological and immunophenotypic analyses, with the use of anti-CD11b, anti-CD45, and alphabeta T-cell receptor antibodies, were employed to identify and quantify inflammatory cells. Both methods gave consistent results in terms of yield and reproducibility. The cell suspension contained granulocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, and neural cells. Morphological and immunophenotypic analyses enabled the identification of a cell-scatter gate (R1a) enriched in inflammatory cells. With both methods, a higher number of events in R1a were recorded in the ischemic hemisphere than in the nonischemic hemisphere (P< or =0.001). CD11b, CD45, and alphabeta T-cell receptor staining confirmed that this augmentation was a reflection of the increase in the number of granulocytes, cells of the monocytic lineage, and lymphocytes. Quantitative flow cytometric analysis of ischemic rat brain is feasible and provides a reliable and rapid assay to assess neuroinflammation in experimental models of brain ischemia.

  6. Gene Transfer into Rat Brain Using Adenoviral Vectors

    PubMed Central

    Puntel, Mariana; Kroeger, Kurt M.; Sanderson, Nicholas S.R.; Thomas, Clare E.; Castro, Maria G.; Lowenstein, Pedro R.

    2010-01-01

    Viral vector–mediated gene delivery is an attractive procedure for introducing genes into the brain, both for purposes of basic neuroscience research and to develop gene therapy for neurological diseases. Replication-defective adenoviruses possess many features which make them ideal vectors for this purpose—efficiently transducing terminally differentiated cells such as neurons and glial cells, resulting in high levels of transgene expression in vivo. Also, in the absence of anti-adenovirus immunity, these vectors can sustain very long-term transgene expression within the brain parenchyma. This unit provides protocols for the stereotactic injection of adenoviral vectors into the brain, followed by protocols to detect transgene expression or infiltrates of immune cells by immunocytochemistry or immunofluorescence. ELISPOT and neutralizing antibody assay methodologies are provided to quantitate the levels of cellular and humoral immune responses against adenoviruses. Quantitation of adenoviral vector genomes within the rat brain using qPCR is also described. Curr. Protoc. Neurosci. 50:4.24.1–4.24.49. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc. PMID:20066657

  7. 19-Hydroxylation of androgens in the rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, E F; Miyairi, S; Fishman, J

    1985-01-01

    Aromatization of androgens in the central nervous system is linked with sexual differentiation of the brain and, thus, determines the nature of sexual behavior and the control of gonadotropin secretion. The process of aromatization, as determined in the human placenta, proceeds through two successive hydroxylations at C-19, the products of which are then virtually completely converted via a third hydroxylation at C-2 to estrogens. We now report that in the rat brain, 19-hydroxylation of androgens greatly exceeds aromatization and the 19-hydroxy- and 19-oxoandrogen products accumulate in quantities 5 times greater than the estrogens. This relationship implies that the aromatization sequence in the brain is deficient in the terminal hydroxylase, and the process is distinct from that in other tissues. The function of 19-hydroxy- and 19-oxotestosterone in the central nervous system is unknown but, unlike the reduced or aromatized metabolites of the male hormone, these substances cannot be delivered from the circulation and their presence in the brain is totally dependent on in situ formation, making them logical candidates for modulators of neuronal functions. PMID:3857612

  8. Repetitive Transcranial Magnetic Stimulation Activates Specific Regions in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ji, Ru-Rong; Schlaepfer, Thomas E.; Aizenman, Carlos D.; Epstein, Charles M.; Qiu, Dike; Huang, Justin C.; Rupp, Fabio

    1998-12-01

    Repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation (rTMS) is a noninvasive technique to induce electric currents in the brain. Although rTMS is being evaluated as a possible alternative to electroconvulsive therapy for the treatment of refractory depression, little is known about the pattern of activation induced in the brain by rTMS. We have compared immediate early gene expression in rat brain after rTMS and electroconvulsive stimulation, a well-established animal model for electroconvulsive therapy. Our result shows that rTMS applied in conditions effective in animal models of depression induces different patterns of immediate-early gene expression than does electroconvulsive stimulation. In particular, rTMS evokes strong neural responses in the paraventricular nucleus of the thalamus (PVT) and in other regions involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms. The response in PVT is independent of the orientation of the stimulation probe relative to the head. Part of this response is likely because of direct activation, as repetitive magnetic stimulation also activates PVT neurons in brain slices.

  9. Imaging separation of neuronal from vascular effects of cocaine on rat cortical brain in vivo

    SciTech Connect

    Yuan, Z.; Du, C.; Yuan, Z.; Luo, Z.; Volkow, N.D.; Pan, Y.; Du, C.

    2010-09-08

    MRI techniques to study brain function assume coupling between neuronal activity, metabolism and flow. However, recent evidence of physiological uncoupling between neuronal and cerebrovascular events highlights the need for methods to simultaneously measure these three properties. We report a multimodality optical approach that integrates dual-wavelength laser speckle imaging (measures changes in blood flow, blood volume and hemoglobin oxygenation), digital-frequency-ramping optical coherence tomography (images quantitative 3D vascular network) and Rhod2 fluorescence (images intracellular calcium for measure of neuronal activity) at high spatiotemporal resolutions (30 {micro}m, 10 Hz) and over a large field of view (3 x 5 mm{sup 2}). We apply it to assess cocaine's effects in rat cortical brain and show an immediate decrease 3.5 {+-} 0.9 min, phase (1) in the oxygen content of hemoglobin and the cerebral blood flow followed by an overshoot 7.1 {+-} 0.2 min, phase (2) lasting over 20 min whereas Ca{sup 2+} increased immediately (peaked at t = 4.1 {+-} 0.4 min) and remained elevated. This enabled us to identify a delay (2.9 {+-} 0.5 min) between peak neuronal and vascular responses in phase 2. The ability of this multimodality optical approach for simultaneous imaging at high spatiotemporal resolutions permits us to distinguish the vascular versus cellular changes of the brain, thus complimenting other neuroimaging modalities for brain functional studies (e. g., PET, fMRI).

  10. Perception of social synchrony induces mother–child gamma coupling in the social brain

    PubMed Central

    Levy, Jonathan; Goldstein, Abraham

    2017-01-01

    Abstract The recent call to move from focus on one brain’s functioning to two-brain communication initiated a search for mechanisms that enable two humans to coordinate brain response during social interactions. Here, we utilized the mother–child context as a developmentally salient setting to study two-brain coupling. Mothers and their 9-year-old children were videotaped at home in positive and conflictual interactions. Positive interactions were microcoded for social synchrony and conflicts for overall dialogical style. Following, mother and child underwent magnetoencephalography while observing the positive vignettes. Episodes of behavioral synchrony, compared to non-synchrony, increased gamma-band power in the superior temporal sulcus (STS), hub of social cognition, mirroring and mentalizing. This neural pattern was coupled between mother and child. Brain-to-brain coordination was anchored in behavioral synchrony; only during episodes of behavioral synchrony, but not during non-synchronous moments, mother’s and child's STS gamma power was coupled. Importantly, neural synchrony was not found during observation of unfamiliar mother-child interaction Maternal empathic/dialogical conflict style predicted mothers’ STS activations whereas child withdrawal predicted attenuated STS response in both partners. Results define a novel neural marker for brain-to-brain synchrony, highlight the role of rapid bottom-up oscillatory mechanisms for neural coupling and indicate that behavior-based processes may drive synchrony between two brains during social interactions. PMID:28402479

  11. Protective effect of selenium on protein-undernutrition-induced brain damage in rats.

    PubMed

    Adebayo, Olusegun Lateef; Adenuga, Gbenga Adebola

    2007-05-01

    The effect of ad libitum ingestion of selenium (Se) in drinking water (0.15 mg SeO2/L) for 3 wk on the brain weight, total brain protein, glutathione (GSH) level, catalase activity, and lipid peroxidation in the brain of protein-undernourished (PU) rats was investigated, in an attempt to determine whether antioxidants alone can reverse some of the neuropathological changes associated with protein undernutrition in rats. Feeding on a normal diet (16% casein) by well-fed rats or a low-protein diet (5% casein) by PU rats and Se-treated PU rats lasted 14 wk. Se-treated PU rats were given Se in drinking water during the last 3 wk of the experiment. Results show that protein undernutrition induced significant reductions (p < 0.001) in brain weight, total brain protein, and catalase activity (p < 0.05) while it induced a significant increase (p < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation when compared with well-nourished rats; but no significant effect was observed for the GSH level. However, the ingestion of Se in drinking water by PU rats for 3 wk resulted in significant increases (p < 0.05) in brain weight, catalase activity, and total brain protein but induced a significant reduction (p < 0.05) in lipid peroxidation when compared with PU rats given water. The values obtained for Se-treated PU rats are comparable with those obtained for well-nourished rats. The GSH level was, however, not affected by Se ingestion. We suggest that Se, by inducing increases in the concentration of certain proteins, including catalase, in the brain, abolished some of the pathological changes associated with protein undernutrition in the brain, and appears as a promising antioxidant in the prevention and management of pro-oxidant-induced brain damage.

  12. Correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain exposed to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Light scattering signal is a potential indicator of tissue viability in brain because cellular and subcellular structural integrity should be associated with cell viability in brain tissue. We previously performed multiwavelength diffuse reflectance measurement for a rat global ischemic brain model and observed a unique triphasic change in light scattering at a certain time after oxygen and glucose deprivation. This triphasic scattering change (TSC) was shown to precede cerebral ATP exhaustion, suggesting that loss of brain tissue viability can be predicted by detecting scattering signal. In the present study, we examined correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain in vivo. We performed transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement for rat brain; under spontaneous respiration, hypoxia was induced for the rat by nitrogen gas inhalation and reoxygenation was started at various time points. We observed a TSC, which started at 140 +/- 15 s after starting nitrogen gas inhalation (mean +/- SD, n=8). When reoxygenation was started before the TSC, all rats survived (n=7), while no rats survived when reoxygenation was started after the TSC (n=8). When reoxygenation was started during the TSC, rats survived probabilistically (n=31). Disability of motor function was not observed for the survived rats. These results indicate that TSC can be used as an indicator of loss of tissue reversibility in brains, providing useful information on the critical time zone for treatment to rescue the brain.

  13. Gallic acid improved behavior, brain electrophysiology, and inflammation in a rat model of traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Sarkaki, Alireza; Farbood, Yaghoub; Gharib-Naseri, Mohammad Kazem; Badavi, Mohammad; Mansouri, Mohammad Taghi; Haghparast, Abbas; Mirshekar, Mohammad Ali

    2015-08-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is one of the main causes of intellectual and cognitive disabilities. In the clinic it is essential to limit the development of cognitive impairment after TBI. In this study, the effects of gallic acid (GA; 100 mg/kg, per oral, from 7 days before to 2 days after TBI induction) on neurological score, passive avoidance memory, long-term potentiation (LTP) deficits, and levels of proinflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6), and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) in the brain have been evaluated. Brain injury was induced following Marmarou's method. Data were analyzed by one-way and repeated measures ANOVA followed by Tukey's post-hoc test. The results indicated that memory was significantly impaired (p < 0.001) in the group treated with TBI + vehicle, together with deterioration of the hippocampal LTP and increased brain tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α. GA treatment significantly improved memory and LTP in the TBI rats. The brain tissue levels of IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α were significantly reduced (p < 0.001) in the group treated with GA. The results suggest that GA has neuroprotective properties against TBI-induced behavioral, electrophysiological, and inflammatory disorders, probably via the decrease of cerebral proinflammatory cytokines.

  14. In vitro effect of antipsychotics on brain energy metabolism parameters in the brain of rats.

    PubMed

    Scaini, Giselli; Rochi, Natália; Morais, Meline O S; Maggi, Débora D; De-Nês, Bruna T; Quevedo, João; Streck, Emilio L

    2013-02-01

    Typical and atypical antipsychotic drugs have been shown to have different clinical, biochemical and behavioural profiles. It is well described that impairment of metabolism, especially in the mitochondria, leads to oxidative stress and neuronal death and has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of diseases in the brain. In this context, we investigated the in vitro effect of antipsychotic drugs on energy metabolism parameters in the brain of rats. Clozapine (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml), olanzapine (0.1, 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml) and aripiprazole (0.05, 0.15 and 0.3 mg/ml) were suspended in buffer and added to the reaction medium containing rat tissue homogenates and the respiratory chain complexes, succinate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase (CK) activities were evaluated. Our results showed that olanzapine and aripriprazole increased the activities of respiratory chain complexes. On the other hand, complex IV activity was inhibited by clozapine, olanzapine and aripriprazole. CK activity was increased by clozapine at 0.5 and 1.0 mg/ml in prefrontal cortex, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus and posterior cortex of rats. Moreover, olanzapine and aripiprazole did not affect CK activity. In this context, if the hypothesis that metabolism impairment is involved in the pathophysiology of neuropsychiatric disorders is correct and these results also occur in vivo, we suggest that olanzapine may reverse a possible diminution of metabolism.

  15. [Effect of disulfiram on energy metabolism (redox potential shift) coupled to paradoxical sleep episodes in rat cerebral cortex].

    PubMed

    Shvets-Ténéta-Guriĭ, T B; Dubinin, A G; Troshin, G I

    2012-01-01

    Disulfiram (DS) is widely used to treat patients with chronic alcoholism. DS treatment multiplies PS episodes. In this work, DS effect on the number of PS episodes and on the energy metabolism changes in the cerebral cortex (coupled to PS episodes) was investigated for the first time in rats. Polygraphic recording of the redox potential E (with platinum electrodes implanted in several cortical sites), electrocorticogram, neck electromyogram, and general motor activity were made in sleep-wake cycles. Rats received DS (100 mg/kg) with meals for two nights, after which the number of PS episodes increased almost twice during two subsequent sessions (prior to receiving DS). This was evidence of an increase in PS pressure coupled to a decrease of norepinephrine level in the brain. DS also evoked sharp decrease in the amount of the positive E shifts related to PS, which were replaced by the negative E shifts or by the two-phase E shifts (negative-positive waves). The absolute mean amplitude decreased both for the positive E shifts and the negative E shifts. These findings demonstrate prevailing glycolytic compartment as a source of fuel supporting PS and the inhibition in all brain energetic compartments. The data presented well agree with the conception that glycolysis becomes the main source for the brain activity under pathology conditions.

  16. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Karimzadeh, Fariba; Hosseini, Mahmoud; Mangeng, Diana; Alavi, Hassan; Hassanzadeh, Gholam Reza; Bayat, Mohamad; Jafarian, Maryam; Kazemi, Hadi; Gorji, Ali

    2012-06-18

    Essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae (anise oil) has been widely used in traditional Persian medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study was aimed to test the possible anti-seizure and anti-hypoxia effects of anise oil. The effects of different concentrations of anise oil were tested on seizure attacks induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection and neuronal hypoxia induced by oxygen withdrawal as well as on production of dark neurons and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in in vivo and in vitro experimental models of rat brain. Anise oil significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the amplitude and duration of epileptiform burst discharges induced by injection of intraperitoneal PTZ. In addition, anise oil significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the brain in epileptic rats. Anise oil also significantly enhanced the duration of the appearance of anoxic terminal negativity induced by oxygen withdrawal and inhibited induction of LTP in hippocampal slices. Our data indicate the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of anise oil, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity. Further evaluation of anise oil to use in the treatment of neurological disorders is suggested.

  17. Anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of Pimpinella anisum in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Essential oil of Pimpinella anisum L. Apiaceae (anise oil) has been widely used in traditional Persian medicine to treat a variety of diseases, including some neurological disorders. This study was aimed to test the possible anti-seizure and anti-hypoxia effects of anise oil. Methods The effects of different concentrations of anise oil were tested on seizure attacks induced by pentylenetetrazol (PTZ) injection and neuronal hypoxia induced by oxygen withdrawal as well as on production of dark neurons and induction of long-term potentiation (LTP) in in vivo and in vitro experimental models of rat brain. Results Anise oil significantly prolonged the latency of seizure attacks and reduced the amplitude and duration of epileptiform burst discharges induced by injection of intraperitoneal PTZ. In addition, anise oil significantly inhibited production of dark neurons in different regions of the brain in epileptic rats. Anise oil also significantly enhanced the duration of the appearance of anoxic terminal negativity induced by oxygen withdrawal and inhibited induction of LTP in hippocampal slices. Conclusions Our data indicate the anticonvulsant and neuroprotective effects of anise oil, likely via inhibition of synaptic plasticity. Further evaluation of anise oil to use in the treatment of neurological disorders is suggested. PMID:22709243

  18. Oral branched-chain amino acid supplements that reduce brain serotonin during exercise in rats also lower brain catecholamines.

    PubMed

    Choi, Sujean; Disilvio, Briana; Fernstrom, Madelyn H; Fernstrom, John D

    2013-11-01

    Exercise raises brain serotonin release and is postulated to cause fatigue in athletes; ingestion of branched-chain amino acids (BCAA), by competitively inhibiting tryptophan transport into brain, lowers brain tryptophan uptake and serotonin synthesis and release in rats, and reputedly in humans prevents exercise-induced increases in serotonin and fatigue. This latter effect in humans is disputed. But BCAA also competitively inhibit tyrosine uptake into brain, and thus catecholamine synthesis and release. Since increasing brain catecholamines enhances physical performance, BCAA ingestion could lower catecholamines, reduce performance and thus negate any serotonin-linked benefit. We therefore examined in rats whether BCAA would reduce both brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Sedentary and exercising rats received BCAA or vehicle orally; tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis rates were measured 1 h later in brain. BCAA reduced brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations, and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. These reductions in tyrosine concentrations and catecholamine synthesis, but not tryptophan or serotonin synthesis, could be prevented by co-administering tyrosine with BCAA. Complete essential amino acid mixtures, used to maintain or build muscle mass, were also studied, and produced different effects on brain tryptophan and tyrosine concentrations and serotonin and catecholamine synthesis. Since pharmacologically increasing brain catecholamine function improves physical performance, the finding that BCAA reduce catecholamine synthesis may explain why this treatment does not enhance physical performance in humans, despite reducing serotonin synthesis. If so, adding tyrosine to BCAA supplements might allow a positive action on performance to emerge.

  19. NO-Tryptophan: A New Small Molecule Located in the Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Mangas, A.; Yajeya, J.; González, N.; Duleu, S.; Geffard, M.; Coveñas, R.

    2016-01-01

    A highly specific monoclonal antibody directed against nitric oxide-tryptophan (NO-W) with good affinity (10-9 M) and specificity was developed. In the rat brain, using an indirect immunoperoxidase technique, cell bodies containing NO-W were exclusively found in the intermediate and dorsal parts of the lateral septal nucleus. No immunoreactive fibres were found in the rat brain. This work reports the first visualization and the morphological characteristics of cell bodies containing NO-W in the mammalian brain. The restricted distribution of NO-W in the rat brain suggests that this molecule could be involved in specific physiological mechanisms. PMID:27734994

  20. Functional MRI during Hippocampal Deep Brain Stimulation in the Healthy Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Van Den Berge, Nathalie; Vanhove, Christian; Descamps, Benedicte; Dauwe, Ine; van Mierlo, Pieter; Vonck, Kristl; Keereman, Vincent; Raedt, Robrecht; Boon, Paul; Van Holen, Roel

    2015-01-01

    Deep Brain Stimulation (DBS) is a promising treatment for neurological and psychiatric disorders. The mechanism of action and the effects of electrical fields administered to the brain by means of an electrode remain to be elucidated. The effects of DBS have been investigated primarily by electrophysiological and neurochemical studies, which lack the ability to investigate DBS-related responses on a whole-brain scale. Visualization of whole-brain effects of DBS requires functional imaging techniques such as functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (fMRI), which reflects changes in blood oxygen level dependent (BOLD) responses throughout the entire brain volume. In order to visualize BOLD responses induced by DBS, we have developed an MRI-compatible electrode and an acquisition protocol to perform DBS during BOLD fMRI. In this study, we investigate whether DBS during fMRI is valuable to study local and whole-brain effects of hippocampal DBS and to investigate the changes induced by different stimulation intensities. Seven rats were stereotactically implanted with a custom-made MRI-compatible DBS-electrode in the right hippocampus. High frequency Poisson distributed stimulation was applied using a block-design paradigm. Data were processed by means of Independent Component Analysis. Clusters were considered significant when p-values were <0.05 after correction for multiple comparisons. Our data indicate that real-time hippocampal DBS evokes a bilateral BOLD response in hippocampal and other mesolimbic structures, depending on the applied stimulation intensity. We conclude that simultaneous DBS and fMRI can be used to detect local and whole-brain responses to circuit activation with different stimulation intensities, making this technique potentially powerful for exploration of cerebral changes in response to DBS for both preclinical and clinical DBS. PMID:26193653

  1. New protein extraction/solubilization protocol for gel-based proteomics of rat (female) whole brain and brain regions.

    PubMed

    Hirano, Misato; Rakwal, Randeep; Shibato, Junko; Agrawal, Ganesh Kumar; Jwa, Nam-Soo; Iwahashi, Hitoshi; Masuo, Yoshinori

    2006-08-31

    The rat is an accepted model for studying human psychiatric/neurological disorders. We provide a protocol for total soluble protein extraction using trichloroacetic acid/acetone (TCA/A) from rat (female) whole brain, 10 brain regions and the pituitary gland, and show that two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DGE) using pre-cast immobilized pH (4-7) gradient (IPG) strip gels (13 cm) in the first dimension yields clean silver nitrate stained protein profiles. Though TCA/A precipitation may not be "ideal", the important choice here is the selection of an appropriate lysis buffer (LB) for solubilizing precipitated proteins. Our results reveal enrichment of protein spots by use of individual brain regions rather than whole brain, as well as the presence of differentially expressed spots in their proteomes. Thus individual brain regions provide improved protein coverage and are better suited for differential protein detection. Moreover, using a phosphoprotein-specific dye, in-gel detection of phosphoproteins was demonstrated. Representative high-resolution silver nitrate stained proteome profiles of rat whole brain total soluble protein are presented. Shortcomings apart (failure to separate membrane proteins), gel-based proteomics remains a viable option, and 2-DGE is the method of choice for generating high-resolution proteome maps of rat brain and brain regions.

  2. Turtles and rats: a biochemical comparison of anoxia-tolerant and anoxia-sensitive brains.

    PubMed

    Suarez, R K; Doll, C J; Buie, A E; West, T G; Funk, G D; Hochachka, P W

    1989-11-01

    When temperature differences are taken into account, turtle brains use glucose at one-sixth the rate reported in rat brains. Na+-K+-ATPase activities are 2- to 2.5-fold higher in rat than in turtle brains. Maximal activities of hexokinase and lactate dehydrogenase are similar, whereas citrate synthase activities are two- to threefold higher in rat than turtle brains at the respective biological temperatures. Voltage-dependent Ca2+ channel densities, when compared between the two species, showed no consistent pattern. These data, along with the threefold differences in density of voltage-dependent Na+ channels reported by Lutz et al., are consistent with the idea that lower rates of channel and pump-mediated Na+ and K+ fluxes result in lower rates of aerobic energy metabolism in turtle brains compared with rat brains.

  3. Anticancer and antioxidant properties of terpinolene in rat brain cells.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Elanur; Türkez, Hasan; Taşdemir, Sener

    2013-09-01

    Terpinolene (TPO) is a natural monoterpene present in essential oils of many aromatic plant species. Although various biological activities of TPO have been demonstrated, its neurotoxicity has never been explored. In this in vitro study we investigated TPO's antiproliferative and/or cytotoxic properties using the 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5 diphenyltetrazolium bromide (MTT) test, genotoxic damage potential using the single-cell gel electrophoresis (SCGE), and oxidative effects through total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total oxidative stress (TOS) in cultured primary rat neurons and N2a neuroblastoma cells. Dose-dependent effects of TPO (at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), 50 mg L(-1), 100 mg L(-1), 200 mg L(-1), and 400 mg L(-1)) were tested in both cell types. Significant (P<0.05) decrease in cell proliferation were observed in cultured primary rat neurons starting with the dose of 100 mg L(-1) and in N2a neuroblastoma cells starting with 50 mg L(-1). TPO was not genotoxic in either cell type. In addition, TPO treatment at 10 mg L(-1), 25 mg L(-1), and 50 mg L(-1) increased TAC in primary rat neurons, but not in N2a cells. However, at concentrations above 50 mg L(-1) it increased TOS in both cell types. Our findings clearly demonstrate that TPO is a potent antiproliferative agent for brain tumour cells and may have potential as an anticancer agent, which needs to be further studied.

  4. Brain polyphosphoinositide metabolism during focal ischemia in rat cortex

    SciTech Connect

    Lin, T.N.; Liu, T.H.; Xu, J.; Hsu, C.Y.; Sun, G.Y. )

    1991-04-01

    Using a rat model of stroke, we examined the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the metabolism of polyphosphoinositides by injecting {sup 32}Pi into both the left and right cortices. After equilibration of the label for 2-3 hours, ischemia induced a significant decrease (p less than 0.001) in the concentrations of labeled phosphatidyl 4,5-bisphosphates (66-78%) and phosphatidylinositol 4-phosphate (64-67%) in the right middle cerebral artery cortex of four rats. The phospholipid labeling pattern in the left middle cerebral artery cortex, which sustained only mild ischemia and no permanent tissue damage, was not different from that of two sham-operated controls. However, when {sup 32}Pi was injected 1 hour after the ischemic insult, there was a significant decrease (p less than 0.01) in the incorporation of label into the phospholipids in both cortices of four ischemic rats compared with four sham-operated controls. Furthermore, differences in the phospholipid labeling pattern were observed in the left cortex compared with the sham-operated controls. The change in labeling pattern was attributed to the partial reduction in blood flow following ligation of the common carotid arteries. We provide a sensitive procedure for probing the effects of focal cerebral ischemia on the polyphosphoinositide signaling pathway in the brain, which may play an important role in the pathogenesis of tissue injury.

  5. Gene Expression Profiling during Pregnancy in Rat Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Phyllis E.

    2014-01-01

    The neurophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal have led to the coining of the phrases “expectant brain” and “maternal brain”. Although much is known of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, alterations in neurotransmitter gene expression have not been well-studied. We examined gene expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) during pregnancy based on the fact that this nucleus not only modulates the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy but is also involved in the development of maternal behavior. This study was designed to identify genes that are differentially expressed between mid- and late-pregnancy in order to determine which genes may be associated with the onset and display of maternal behavior and the development of the maternal brain. A commercially available PCR array containing 84 neurotransmitter receptor and regulator genes (RT2 Profiler PCR array) was used. Brains were harvested from rats on days 12 and 21 of gestation, frozen, and micropunched to obtain the VMH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA prepared, and SYBR Green qPCR was performed. In the VMH, expression of five genes were reduced on day 21 of gestation compared to day 12 (Chrna6, Drd5, Gabrr2, Prokr2, and Ppyr1) whereas Chat, Chrm5, Drd4, Gabra5, Gabrg2, LOC289606, Nmu5r2, and Npy5r expression was elevated. Five genes were chosen to be validated in an additional experiment based on their known involvement in maternal behavior onset. This experiment confirmed that gene expression for both the CCK-A receptor and the GABAAR γ2 receptor increases at the end of pregnancy. In general, these results identify genes possibly involved in the establishment of the maternal brain in rats and indicate possible new genes to be investigated. PMID:24961703

  6. Citrobacter koseri brain abscess in the neonatal rat: survival and replication within human and rat macrophages.

    PubMed

    Townsend, Stacy M; Pollack, Harvey A; Gonzalez-Gomez, Ignacio; Shimada, Hiroyuki; Badger, Julie L

    2003-10-01

    A unique feature of Citrobacter koseri is the extremely high propensity to initiate brain abscesses during neonatal meningitis. Previous clinical reports and studies on infant rats have documented many Citrobacter-filled macrophages within the ventricles and brain abscesses. It has been hypothesized that intracellular survival and replication within macrophages may be a mechanism by which C. koseri subverts the host response and elicits chronic infection, resulting in brain abscess formation. In this study, we showed that C. koseri causes meningitis and brain abscesses in the neonatal rat model, and we utilized histology and magnetic resonance imaging technology to visualize brain abscess formation. Histology and electron microscopy (EM) revealed that macrophages (and not fibroblasts, astrocytes, oligodendrocytes, or neurons) were the primary target for long-term C. koseri infection. To better understand C. koseri pathogenesis, we have characterized the interactions of C. koseri with human macrophages. We found that C. koseri survives and replicates within macrophages in vitro and that uptake of C. koseri increases in the presence of human pooled serum in a dose-dependent manner. EM studies lend support to the hypothesis that C. koseri uses morphologically different methods of uptake to enter macrophages. FcgammaRI blocking experiments show that this receptor primarily facilitates the entry of opsonized C. koseri into macrophages. Further, confocal fluorescence microscopy demonstrates that C. koseri survives phagolysosomal fusion and that more than 90% of intracellular C. koseri organisms are colocalized within phagolysosomes. The ability of C. koseri to survive phagolysosome fusion and replicate within macrophages may contribute to the establishment of chronic central nervous system infection including brain abscesses.

  7. Inhibition of lipid peroxidation in rat brain by nifedipine and clorazepate after electrically induced seizures.

    PubMed

    Kułak, W; Sobaniec, W; Sobaniec-Lotowska, M

    1993-01-01

    The effect of nifedipine and clorazepate on the concentration of lipid peroxides (LP) in rat brain, and the characteristics of electrically induced seizures were assessed. A significant increase in the concentration of brain LP after electroshock was found. Both nifedipine (1.00 mg/kg per os) and clorazepate (20 mg/kg intraperitoneally) decreased the levels of LP in the rat brain after electroshock. Nifedipine combined with clorazepate brought an inhibition of LP formation and an additive anticonvulsant activity.

  8. Magnetic-resonance-imaging-coupled broadband near-infrared tomography system for small animal brain studies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Xu, Heng; Springett, Roger; Dehghani, Hamid; Pogue, Brian W.; Paulsen, Keith D.; Dunn, Jeff F.

    2005-04-01

    A novel magnetic-resonance-coupled broadband near-infrared (NIR) tomography system for small animal brain studies is described. Several features of the image formation approach are new in NIR tomography and represent major advances in the path to recovering high-resolution hemoglobin and oxygen saturation images of tissue. The NIR data were broadband and continuous wave and were used along with a second-derivative-based estimation of the path length from water absorption. The path length estimation from water was then used along with the attenuation spectrum to recover absorption and reduced scattering coefficient images at multiple wavelengths and then to recover images of total hemoglobin and oxygen saturation. Going beyond these basics of NIR tomography, software has been developed to allow inclusion of structures derived from MR imaging (MRI) for the external and internal tissue boundaries, thereby improving the accuracy and spatial resolution of the properties in each tissue type. The system has been validated in both tissue-simulating phantoms, with 10% accuracy observed, and in a rat cranium imaging experiment. The latter experiment used variation in inspired oxygen (FiO2) to vary the observed hemoglobin and oxygen saturation images. Quantitative agreement was observed between the changes in deoxyhemoglobin values derived from NIR and the changes predicted with blood-oxygen-level-dependent (BOLD) MRI. This system represents the initial stage in what will likely be a larger role for NIR tomography, coupled to MRI, and illustrates that the technological challenges of using continuous-wave broadband data and inclusion of a priori structural information can be met with careful phantom studies.

  9. Quantitative Cortical Mapping of Fractional Anisotropy in Developing Rat Brains

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hao; Yamamoto, Akria; Hossain, Mir Ahamed; Younes, Laurent; Mori, Susumu

    2010-01-01

    Cortical development is associated with a series of events that involve axon and dendrite growth and synaptic formation. Although these developmental processes have been investigated in detail with histology, three-dimensional and quantitative imaging methods for rodent brains may be useful for genetic and pharmacological studies in which cortical developmental abnormalities are suspected. It has been shown that diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) can delineate the columnar organization of the fetal and early neonatal cortex based on a high degree of diffusion anisotropy along the columnar structures. This anisotropy is known to decrease during brain development. In this study, we applied DTI to developing rat brains at five developmental stages, postnatal days 0, 3, 7, 11 and 19, and used diffusion anisotropy as an index to characterize the structural change. Statistical analysis reveals four distinctive cortical areas that demonstrate a characteristic time course of anisotropy loss. This method may provide a means to delineate specific cortical areas and a quantitative method to detect abnormalities in cortical development in rodent pathological models. PMID:18256263

  10. Actin- and myosin-like filaments in rat brain pericytes.

    PubMed

    Le Beux, Y J; Willemot, J

    1978-04-01

    Heavy meromyosin (HMM) labeling was used to identify the nature of the filaments which form bundles in the cytoplasm of the pericytes in brain tissue. Rat brain tissue pieces were incubated in glycerol solutions at 4 degrees and then transferred into buffer (pH 7.0), (1) without HMM, (2) with HMM, (3) with HMM + 5 mM ATP, and (4) with HMM + 2.5 mM Na+ pyrophosphate. In pericytes from untreated tissue, smooth-surfaced microfilaments, averaging 6 nm in diameter, appear to branch and anastomose and to anchor on the plasma membrane. After exposure to HMM, the number and the density of the microfilaments are strikingly increased. These tightly-packed microfilaments are now heavily coated with exogeneous HMM thus increasing in width to 18-20 mm. They intertwine in closely-woven networks. After incubation in HMM solutions containing ATP or Na+ phosphate, they are no longer coated with thick sidearms. It can thus be concluded that these microfilaments are of actin-like nature. In addition, after incubation in ATP, they are intermingled with, and converge onto the surfaces of, thick, tapered filaments, which we have tentatively identified as of myosin-like nature. Thus, it appears that certain of the major elements necessary for contraction are present in brain pericytes.

  11. Couples' happiness and its relationship to functioning in everyday life after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Eriksson, Gunilla; Tham, Kerstin; Fugl-Meyer, Axel R

    2005-03-01

    The objective of this survey was to identify couples' joint perception of their satisfaction with life as a whole when one of the persons in the couple had acquired brain injury between one and five years earlier. The focus was on the influence that functioning and disability in everyday life have on the couple's joint life satisfaction after brain injury. The sample consisted of 55 couples, and the mean age of the brain-injured persons was 51 years. Both persons in the couple answered a mailed questionnaire encompassing questions concerning perceived impairments, activity limitations, participation restrictions, and life satisfaction. The results showed that in 16 of the 55 couples both partners were satisfied with life as a whole. The joint experience of life satisfaction was significantly related to the couple's functioning in everyday life, and specifically to perceived participation in leisure time and in their social life, and in their ability to wash clothes. Important implications from this study, showing that only one-third of the couples were satisfied, are that the partners should be included to a greater extent in the rehabilitation process and the couple's perspective of what they find difficult to deal with should serve as a guide during rehabilitation.

  12. Bioimaging of metals in brain tissue by laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) and metallomics.

    PubMed

    Becker, J Sabine; Matusch, Andreas; Palm, Christoph; Salber, Dagmar; Morton, Kathryn A; Becker, J Susanne

    2010-02-01

    Laser ablation inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (LA-ICP-MS) has been developed and established as an emerging technique in the generation of quantitative images of metal distributions in thin tissue sections of brain samples (such as human, rat and mouse brain), with applications in research related to neurodegenerative disorders. A new analytical protocol is described which includes sample preparation by cryo-cutting of thin tissue sections and matrix-matched laboratory standards, mass spectrometric measurements, data acquisition, and quantitative analysis. Specific examples of the bioimaging of metal distributions in normal rodent brains are provided. Differences to the normal were assessed in a Parkinson's disease and a stroke brain model. Furthermore, changes during normal aging were studied. Powerful analytical techniques are also required for the determination and characterization of metal-containing proteins within a large pool of proteins, e.g., after denaturing or non-denaturing electrophoretic separation of proteins in one-dimensional and two-dimensional gels. LA-ICP-MS can be employed to detect metalloproteins in protein bands or spots separated after gel electrophoresis. MALDI-MS can then be used to identify specific metal-containing proteins in these bands or spots. The combination of these techniques is described in the second section.

  13. Involvement of a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter in the blood-brain barrier transport of amantadine.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, Toyofumi; Aoyama, Takahiko; Suzuki, Naoto; Kobayashi, Masaru; Fukami, Toshiro; Matsumoto, Yoshiaki; Tomono, Kazuo

    2016-09-01

    The blood-to-brain transport of amantadine, a weak N-methyl-d-aspartate (NMDA) antagonist, has been shown previously to participate in the cationic drug-sensitive transport system across the mouse blood-brain barrier (BBB). The purpose of the present study was to characterize the influx transport system by means of both an in situ mouse brain perfusion technique and in vitro studies using rat immortalized brain capillary endothelial cells (GPNT). The observed concentration-dependent initial uptake rate of [(3) H]amantadine suggested the involvement of a carrier-mediated transport mechanism. The normal uptake at physiological pH 7.4 was decreased by 72.9% in acidic perfusate, while it was increased by 35.3% in alkaline perfusate. These results suggest that pH-dependent transport is regulated by utilizing an oppositely directed proton gradient as a driving force. In addition, the [(3) H]amantadine uptake was moderately inhibited by the adamantane structural analogs (rimantadine and memantine) and other cationic drugs (pyrilamine, clonidine, nicotine, etc.), but not by substrates or inhibitors of the well-characterized organic cation transporters (tetraethylammonium, l-carnitine and choline). A similar inhibition pattern was observed between the in vivo studies and the in vitro experiments. These results indicate that the influx transport for amantadine across the BBB involves a proton-coupled organic cation antiporter. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  14. Plasma metabolomics profiles in rats with acute traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Zheng, Fei; Xia, Zi-An; Zeng, Yi-Fu; Luo, Jie-Kun; Sun, Peng; Cui, Han-Jin; Tang, Tao; Zhou, Yan-Tao

    2017-01-01

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of mortality and disability worldwide. We validated the utility of plasma metabolomics analysis in the clinical diagnosis of acute TBI in a rat model of controlled cortical impact (CCI) using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups of 15 rats each: the CCI group and sham group. Blood samples were obtained from the rats within the first 24 h after TBI injury. GC/MS measurements were performed to evaluate the profile of acute TBI-induced metabolic changes, resulting in the identification of 45 metabolites in plasma. Principal component analysis, partial least squares-discriminant analysis, orthogonal partial least square discriminant analysis using hierarchical clustering and univariate/multivariate analyses revealed clear differences in the plasma metabolome between the acute CCI group and the sham group. CCI induced distinctive changes in metabolites including linoleic acid metabolism, amino acid metabolism, galactose metabolism, and arachidonic acid metabolism. Specifically, the acute CCI group exhibited significant alterations in proline, phosphoric acid, β-hydroxybutyric acid, galactose, creatinine, L-valine, linoleic acid and arachidonic acid. A receiver operating characteristic curve analysis showed that the above 8 metabolites in plasma could be used as the potential biomarkers for the diagnosis of acute TBI. Furthermore, this study is the first time to identify the galactose as a biomarker candidate for acute TBI. This comprehensive metabolic analysis complements target screening for potential diagnostic biomarkers of acute TBI and enhances predictive value for the therapeutic intervention of acute TBI. PMID:28771528

  15. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Zhang, Ruiying; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-03-01

    We demonstrate, by means of internal light delivery, photoacoustic imaging of the deep brain of rats in vivo. With fiber illumination via the oral cavity, we delivered light directly into the bottom of the brain, much more than can be delivered by external illumination. The study was performed using a photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) system equipped with a 512-element full-ring transducer array, providing a full two-dimensional view aperture. Using internal illumination, the PACT system provided clear cross sectional photoacoustic images from the palate to the middle brain of live rats, revealing deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  16. Continuous and simultaneous electrochemical measurements of glucose, lactate, and ascorbate in rat brain following brain ischemia.

    PubMed

    Lin, Yuqing; Yu, Ping; Hao, Jie; Wang, Yuexiang; Ohsaka, Takeo; Mao, Lanqun

    2014-04-15

    Developing new tools and technologies to enable recording the dynamic changes of multiple neurochemicals is the essence of better understanding of the molecular basis of brain functions. This study demonstrates a microfluidic chip-based online electrochemical system (OECS) for in vivo continuous and simultaneous monitoring of glucose, lactate, and ascorbate in rat brain. To fabricate the microfluidic chip-based detecting system, a microfluidic chip with patterned channel is developed into an electrochemical flow cell by incorporating the chip with three surface-modified indium-tin oxide (ITO) electrodes as working electrodes, a Ag/AgCl wire as reference electrode, and a stainless steel tube as counter electrode. Selective detection of ascorbate is achieved by the use of single-walled carbon nanotubes (SWNTs) to largely facilitate the electrochemical oxidation of ascorbate, while a dehydrogenase-based biosensing mechanism with methylene green (MG) adsorbed onto SWNTs as an electrocatalyst for the oxidation of dihydronicotiamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) is employed for biosensing of glucose and lactate. To avoid the crosstalk among three sensors, the sensor alignment is carefully designed with the SWNT-modified electrode in the upstream channel and paralleled glucose and lactate biosensors in the downstream channels. With the microfluidic chip-based electrochemical flow cell as the detector, an OECS is successfully established by directly integrating the microfluidic chip-based electrochemical flow cell with in vivo microdialysis. The OECS exhibits a good linear response toward glucose, lactate, and ascorbate with less crosstalk. This property, along with the high stability and selectivity, enables the OECS for continuously monitoring three species in rat brain following brain ischemia.

  17. Multiple mild traumatic brain injury in the rat produces persistent pathological alterations in the brain.

    PubMed

    Brooks, Diane M; Patel, Sarjubhai A; Wohlgehagen, Eric D; Semmens, Erin O; Pearce, Alan; Sorich, Edmond A; Rau, Thomas F

    2017-11-01

    Multiple mild traumatic brain injury (mmTBI), in certain cases, produces persistent symptoms. However, the molecular mechanisms underlying these symptoms remain unclear. Here, we demonstrate extended pathological changes in the rat brain following mmTBI. Using the lateral fluid percussion (LFP) technique we exposed adult male Wistar rats to a mild TBI (mTBI) once a week for four weeks and compared them to surgical shams. At 90days following the last TBI or sham procedure the animals were cognitively tested in the Morris Water Maze (MWM), euthanized, and the brains removed for immunohistochemistry. At 90days following the last mTBI, NRF-2 staining was significantly decreased in the hilus of the hippocampus and cortex on the injured side, but did not significantly differ from shams on the un-injured side. CD68 positive microglia were significantly increased in the ipsilateral corpus callosum, cortex, and internal capsule of injured animals. Reactive astrocytosis, determined by increased GFAP staining, was also evident in the corpus callosum, cortex, internal capsule and thalamus on the injured side. Interestingly, the corpus callosum thickness at the midline was decreased in injured animals and had evident demyelination when compared to sham animals. Despite these findings, there were no significant differences in neurological assessments at 90days following the last injury. In MWM testing there were not significant differences in the training phase, the time spent in the thigmotaxia zone, or the target quadrant during the probe trial. However, there were significant differences between shams and injured animals in platform zone crossings during the probe trial. These results demonstrate that repetitive head trauma may produce persistent, long-term pathological alterations in brain architecture that may be difficult to detect using standard cognitive and neurological assessments. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Reduction in brain immunoreactive corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) in spontaneously hypertensive rats

    SciTech Connect

    Hashimoto, K.; Hattori, T.; Murakami, K.; Suemaru, S.; Kawada, Y.; Kageyama, J.; Ota, Z.

    1985-02-18

    The brain CRF concentration of spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wistar Kyoto rats (WKY) was examined by rat CRF radioimmunoassay. Anti-CRF serum was developed by immunizing rabbits with synthetic rat CRF. Synthetic rat CRF was also used as tracer and standard. The displacement of /sup 125/I-rat CRF by serially diluted extracts of male Wistar rats hypothalamus, thalamus, midbrain, pons, medulla oblongata, cerebral cortex, cerebellum and neurointermediate lobe was parallel to the displacement of synthetic rat CRF. In both WKY and SHR the highest levels of CRF immunoreactivity were shown by the hypothalamus and neurointermediate lobe, and considerable CRF immunoreactivity was also detected in other brain regions. The CRF immunoreactivity in the hypothalamus, neurointermediate lobe, midbrain, medulla oblongata and cerebral cortex was significantly reduced in SHR and it may suggest that CRF abnormality may be implicated in the reported abnormalities in the pituitary-adrenal axis, autonomic response and behavior of SHR.

  19. Dietary choline deprivation impairs rat brain mitochondrial function and behavioral phenotype.

    PubMed

    Pacelli, Consiglia; Coluccia, Addolorata; Grattagliano, Ignazio; Cocco, Tiziana; Petrosillo, Giuseppe; Paradies, Giuseppe; De Nitto, Emanuele; Massaro, Antonio; Persichella, Michele; Borracci, Pietro; Portincasa, Piero; Carratù, Maria Rosaria

    2010-06-01

    Dietary choline deprivation (CD) is associated with behavioral changes, but mechanisms underlying these detrimental effects are not well characterized. For instance, no literature data are available concerning the CD effects on brain mitochondrial function related to impairment in cognition. Therefore, we investigated brain mitochondrial function and redox status in male Wistar rats fed a CD diet for 28 d. Moreover, the CD behavioral phenotype was characterized. Compared with rats fed a control diet (CTRL), CD rats showed lower NAD-dependent mitochondrial state III and state IV respiration, 40% lower complex I activity, and significantly higher reactive oxygen species production. Total glutathione was oxidatively consumed more in CD than in CTRL rats and the rate of protein oxidation was 40% higher in CD than in CTRL rats, reflecting an oxidative stress condition. The mitochondrial concentrations of cardiolipin, a phospholipid required for optimal activity of complex I, was 20% lower in CD rats than in CTRL rats. Compared with CTRL rats, the behavioral phenotype of CD rats was characterized by impairment in motor coordination and motor learning assessed with the rotarod/accelerod test. Furthermore, compared with CTRL rats, CD rats were less capable of learning the active avoidance task and the number of attempts they made to avoid foot shock was fewer. The results suggest that CD-induced dysfunction in brain mitochondria may be responsible for impairment in cognition and underline that, similar to the liver, the brain also needs an adequate choline supply for its normal functioning.

  20. Increased ubiquinone concentration after intracerebroventricularly-administered ubiquinol to selected rat brain regions.

    PubMed

    Gvozdjáková, Anna; Mravec, Boris; Kucharská, Jarmila; Lackovičová, Lubica; Ondičová, Katarína; Tkačov, Martin; Singh, Ram B

    2012-12-01

    Brain coenzyme Q10 (CoQ10) concentration can influence the activity of several brain regions, including those which participate in the regulation of cardiovascular circadian rhythms, food intake, neuroendocrine stress response, activity and sleep regulation. However, the effect of supplemented ubiquinol (reduced CoQ) into brain regions is not known. This study determined baseline levels of ubiquinone (oxidized CoQ) in various rat brain regions and proved the bioavailability of the liposomal ubiquinol to selected brain regions after its administration into right brain ventricle. Our data indicate that administration of ubiquinol may create the basis for modulation of neuronal activities in specific brain regions.

  1. Delayed cytokine expression in rat brain following experimental contusion.

    PubMed

    Holmin, S; Schalling, M; Höjeberg, B; Nordqvist, A C; Skeftruna, A K; Mathiesen, T

    1997-03-01

    Proinflammatory cytokines mediate brain injury in experimental studies. This study was undertaken to analyze the production of proinflammatory cytokines in experimental contusion. A brain contusion causing delayed edema was mimicked experimentally in rats using a weight-drop model. Intracerebral expression of the cytokines interleukin (IL)-1 beta, tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF alpha), IL-6, and interferon-gamma (IFN gamma) was studied by in situ hybridization and immunohistochemistry. The animals were killed at 6 hours or 1, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 16 days postinjury. In the injured area, no messenger (m)RNA expression was seen during the first 2 days after the trauma. On Days 4 to 6 posttrauma, however, strong IL-1 beta, TNF alpha, and IL-6 mRNA expression was detected in mononuclear cells surrounding the contusion. Expression of IFN gamma was not detected. Immunohistochemical double labeling confirmed the in situ hybridization results and demonstrated that mononuclear phagocytes and astrocytes produced IL-1 beta and that mainly astrocytes produced TNF alpha. The findings showed, somewhat unexpectedly, a late peak of intracerebral cytokine production in the injured area and in the contralateral corpus callosum, allowing for both local and global effects on the brain. An unexpected difference in the cellular sources of TNF alpha and IL-1 beta was detected. The cytokine pattern differs from that seen in other central nervous system inflammatory diseases and trauma models, suggesting that the intracerebral immune response is not a uniform event. The dominance of late cytokine production indicates that many cytokine effects are late events in an experimental contusion: Different pathogenic mechanisms may thus be operative at different times after brain injury.

  2. MALDI imaging and in situ identification of integral membrane proteins from rat brain tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Nicklay, Joshua J.; Harris, Glenn A.; Schey, Kevin L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins are greatly underrepresented in data generated by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) because of analytical challenges related to their size and solubility. Here we present the first example of MALDI IMS of two highly modified multi-transmembrane domain proteins, myelin proteolipid protein (PLP, 30 kDa) and DM-20 (26 kDa), from various regions of rat brain, namely the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla. We utilize a novel tissue pre-treatment aimed at transmembrane protein enrichment to show the in situ distribution of fatty acylation of these proteins, particularly of post-translational palmitoylation. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of protease-encapsulated hydrogels for spatially localized on-tissue protein digestion and peptide extraction for subsequent direct coupling to LC-MS/MS for protein identification. PMID:23829295

  3. Biocompatibility of silicon-based arrays of electrodes coupled to organotypic hippocampal brain slice cultures.

    PubMed

    Kristensen, B W; Noraberg, J; Thiébaud, P; Koudelka-Hep, M; Zimmer, J

    2001-03-30

    In this study we examined the passive biocompatibility of a three-dimensional microelectrode array (MEA), designed to be coupled to organotypic brain slice cultures for multisite recording of electrophysiological signals. Hippocampal (and corticostriatal) brain slices from 1-week-old (and newborn) rats were grown for 4-8 weeks on the perforated silicon chips with silicon nitride surfaces and 40 microm sized holes and compared with corresponding tissue slices grown on conventional semiporous membranes. In terms of preservation of the basic cellular and connective organization, as visualized by Nissl staining, Timm sulphide silver-staining, microtubule-associated protein 2 (MAP2) and glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) immunostaining, the slice cultures grown on chips did not differ from conventionally grown slice cultures. Neither were there any signs of astrogliosis or neurodegeneration around the upper recording part of the 47-microm-high platinum-tip electrodes. Slice cultures grown on a separate set of chips with platinum instead of silicon nitride surfaces also displayed normal MAP2 and GFAP immunostaining. The width of the GFAP-rich zone (glia limitans) at the bottom surface of the slice cultures was the same ( approximately 20 microm) in cultures grown on chips with silicon nitride and platinum surfaces and on conventional insert membranes. The slice cultures grown on chips maintained a normal, subfield differentiated susceptibility to the glutamate receptor agonist N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) and the neurotoxin trimethyltin (TMT), as demonstrated by the cellular uptake of propidium iodide (PI), which was used as a reproducible and quantifiable marker for neuronal degeneration. We conclude that organotypic brain slice cultures can grow on silicon-based three-dimensional microelectrode arrays and develop normally with display of normal subfield differentiated susceptibilities to known excito- and neurotoxins. From this it is anticipated that the set

  4. New insights into coupling and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain.

    PubMed

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2016-06-30

    The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied. The neurovascular unit is a conceptual model encompassing the anatomical and metabolic interactions between the neurons, vascular components, and glial cells in the brain. It is compromised under disease states such as stroke, diabetes, hypertension, dementias, and with aging, all of which trigger a cascade of inflammatory responses that exacerbate brain damage. Hence, tight regulation and maintenance of neurovascular coupling is central for brain homeostasis. This review article also discusses the waste clearance pathways in the brain such as the glymphatic system. The glymphatic system is a functional waste clearance pathway that removes metabolic wastes and neurotoxins from the brain along paravascular channels. Disruption of the glymphatic system burdens the brain with accumulating waste and has been reported in aging as well as several neurological diseases.

  5. New insights into coupling and uncoupling of cerebral blood flow and metabolism in the brain

    PubMed Central

    Venkat, Poornima; Chopp, Michael; Chen, Jieli

    2016-01-01

    The brain has high metabolic and energy needs and requires continuous cerebral blood flow (CBF), which is facilitated by a tight coupling between neuronal activity, CBF, and metabolism. Upon neuronal activation, there is an increase in energy demand, which is then met by a hemodynamic response that increases CBF. Such regional CBF increase in response to neuronal activation is observed using neuroimaging techniques such as functional magnetic resonance imaging and positron emission tomography. The mechanisms and mediators (eg, nitric oxide, astrocytes, and ion channels) that regulate CBF-metabolism coupling have been extensively studied. The neurovascular unit is a conceptual model encompassing the anatomical and metabolic interactions between the neurons, vascular components, and glial cells in the brain. It is compromised under disease states such as stroke, diabetes, hypertension, dementias, and with aging, all of which trigger a cascade of inflammatory responses that exacerbate brain damage. Hence, tight regulation and maintenance of neurovascular coupling is central for brain homeostasis. This review article also discusses the waste clearance pathways in the brain such as the glymphatic system. The glymphatic system is a functional waste clearance pathway that removes metabolic wastes and neurotoxins from the brain along paravascular channels. Disruption of the glymphatic system burdens the brain with accumulating waste and has been reported in aging as well as several neurological diseases. PMID:27374823

  6. Expression of connexin36 in the adult and developing rat brain.

    PubMed

    Belluardo, N; Mudò, G; Trovato-Salinaro, A; Le Gurun, S; Charollais, A; Serre-Beinier, V; Amato, G; Haefliger, J A; Meda, P; Condorelli, D F

    2000-05-19

    The distribution of connexin36 (Cx36) in the adult rat brain and retina has been analysed at the protein (immunofluorescence) and mRNA (in situ hybridization) level. Cx36 immunoreactivity, consisting primarily of round or elongated puncta, is highly enriched in specific brain regions (inferior olive and the olfactory bulb), in the retina, in the anterior pituitary and in the pineal gland, in agreement with the high levels of Cx36 mRNA in the same regions. A lower density of immunoreactive puncta can be observed in several brain regions, where only scattered subpopulations of cells express Cx36 mRNA. By combining in situ hybridization for Cx36 mRNA with immunohistochemistry for a general neuronal marker (NeuN), we found that neuronal cells are responsible for the expression of Cx36 mRNA in inferior olive, cerebellum, striatum, hippocampus and cerebral cortex. Cx36 mRNA was also demonstrated in parvalbumin-containing GABAergic interneurons of cerebral cortex, striatum, hippocampus and cerebellar cortex. Analysis of developing brain further revealed that Cx36 reaches a peak of expression in the first two weeks of postnatal life, and decreases sharply during the third week. Moreover, in these early stages of postnatal development Cx36 is detectable in neuronal populations that are devoid of Cx36 mRNA at the adult stage. The developmental changes of Cx36 expression suggest a participation of this connexin in the extensive interneuronal coupling which takes place in several regions of the early postnatal brain.

  7. [Osmotic regulation of the sodium pump in rat brain synaptosomes].

    PubMed

    Mongin, A A; Aksentsev, S L; Rakovich, A A; Okun', N M; Konev, S V; Orlov, S N

    1992-01-01

    Effect of medium osmolarity on 3H-ouabain binding and the rate of ouabain-sensitive 86Rb+ transport in the rat brain synaptosomes was studied. A decrease in tonicity to 230 mOsm increases both parameters indicating the activation of the sodium pump upon synaptosome swelling. The effect is retained in the absence of inside-oriented Na+ gradient, i. e. a rise in Na(in) is not responsible for hypoosmotic activation. Colchicine (5mM) decreased and cytochalasin B (40 microM) increased the ouabain binding. In the presence of cytochalasin B the inhibition of binding observed under hypotonic conditions was shifted to higher osmolarity values. It is suggested that volume regulation of the sodium pump is controlled by the cytoskeleton elements.

  8. Sex Differences in Serotonin 1 Receptor Binding in Rat Brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Fischette, Christine T.; Biegon, Anat; McEwen, Bruce S.

    1983-10-01

    Male and female rats exhibit sex differences in binding by serotonin 1 receptors in discrete areas of the brain, some of which have been implicated in the control of ovulation and of gonadotropin release. The sex-specific changes in binding, which occur in response to the same hormonal (estrogenic) stimulus, are due to changes in the number of binding sites. Castration alone also affects the number of binding sites in certain areas. The results lead to the conclusion that peripheral hormones modulate binding by serotonin 1 receptors. The status of the serotonin receptor system may affect the reproductive capacity of an organism and may be related to sex-linked emotional disturbances in humans.

  9. Cholecystokinin octapeptide-like immunoreactivity: histochemical localization in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Innis, R B; Corrêa, F M; Uhl, G R; Schneider, B; Snyder, S H

    1979-01-01

    Cholecystokinin octapeptide-like (CCK-OP-like) immunoreactivity was localized in the rat brain by using the indirect immunofluorescence method. Specificity in immunohistochemical studies was demonstrated by the virtual elimination of staining with either preimmune sera or sera preadsorbed with CCK-OP and by the achievement of similar fluorescent patterns with two different primary anti-CCK-OP sera. CCK-OP-like fluorescence was localized in neuronal cell bodies, fibers, and varicose terminals. The most dense collections of CCK-OP cells occurred in the periaqueductal gray and in the dorsomedial hypothalamus. Substantial numbers of cells and fibers also were present in the medial/dorsal and perirhinal cortex; more limited groups of cells were found in the pyramidal layer of the hippocampus and in the dorsal raphe. Images PMID:284371

  10. Label-Free Dopamine Imaging in Live Rat Brain Slices

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Dopaminergic neurotransmission has been investigated extensively, yet direct optical probing of dopamine has not been possible in live cells. Here we image intracellular dopamine with sub-micrometer three-dimensional resolution by harnessing its intrinsic mid-ultraviolet (UV) autofluorescence. Two-photon excitation with visible light (540 nm) in conjunction with a non-epifluorescent detection scheme is used to circumvent the UV toxicity and the UV transmission problems. The method is established by imaging dopamine in a dopaminergic cell line and in control cells (glia), and is validated by mass spectrometry. We further show that individual dopamine vesicles/vesicular clusters can be imaged in cultured rat brain slices, thereby providing a direct visualization of the intracellular events preceding dopamine release induced by depolarization or amphetamine exposure. Our technique opens up a previously inaccessible mid-ultraviolet spectral regime (excitation ∼ 270 nm, emission < 320 nm) for label-free imaging of native molecules in live tissue. PMID:24661118

  11. Kinetic characteristics of nitric oxide synthase from rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Knowles, R G; Palacios, M; Palmer, R M; Moncada, S

    1990-01-01

    The relationship between the rate of synthesis of nitric oxide (NO) and guanylate cyclase stimulation was used to characterize the kinetics of the NO synthase from rat forebrain and of some inhibitors of this enzyme. The NO synthase had an absolute requirement for L-arginine and NADPH and did not require any other cofactors. The enzyme had a Vmax. of 42 pmol of NO formed.min-1.mg of protein-1 and a Km for L-arginine of 8.4 microM. Three analogues of L-arginine, namely NG-monomethyl-L-arginine, NG-nitro-L-arginine and NG-iminoethyl-L-ornithine inhibited the brain NO synthase. All three compounds were competitive inhibitors of the enzyme with Ki values of 0.7, 0.4 and 1.2 microM respectively. PMID:1695842

  12. Antioxidant effects of calcium antagonists in rat brain homogenates.

    PubMed

    Yao, K; Ina, Y; Nagashima, K; Ohmori, K; Ohno, T

    2000-06-01

    We studied the antioxidant activities of calcium antagonists against autoxidation in rat brain homogenates. The homogenates were incubated for 30 min at 37 degrees C with or without a calcium antagonist and subsequently assayed for lipid peroxide content. Percent inhibition of the lipid peroxidation was used as an index of the antioxidant effect. Dihydropyridine calcium antagonists exhibited concentration-dependent (3-300 micromol/l) inhibitory effects against lipid peroxidation. The relative order of antioxidant potency and associated IC50 values (micromol/l) of the calcium antagonists for inhibition of the lipid peroxidation were as follows: nifedipine (51.5)>barnidipine (58.6)>benidipine (71.2)>nicardipine (129.3)>amlodipine (135.5)>nilvadipine (167.3)>nitrendipine (252.1)> diltiazem (>300)=verapamil (>300). These results suggest that some dihydropyridine calcium antagonists show antioxidant properties. The antioxidant effects of the calcium antagonists may contribute to their pharmacological actions.

  13. Localization and labeling of rat brain in MR image based on Paxinos-Watson atlas

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Cao, Jie; Cai, Chao; Ding, Mingyue; Zhou, Chengping

    2006-03-01

    Localization and labeling of function regions in brain is an important topic in experimental brain sciences because the huge amount of data collected by neuroscientists will become meaningless if we cannot give them a precise description of their locations. In this paper, we proposed a localization and labelling method of 3D MR image of rat brain based on Paxinos-Watson atlas. Our objective is to use the specific atlas to accomplish localization and labeling of specified tissue of interest (TOI) to mimic a veteran expert such that invisible or unclear anatomic function regions in the MR images of rat brain can be automatically identified and marked. We proposed a multi-step method to locate and label the TOIs from the MR image of rat brain. Firstly, pre-processing. It aims at the digitization and 3D reconstruction of the atlas and MRI of rat brain. Secondly, two-step registration. The global registration is to eliminate the big misalign and section angle offset as well as the scale between the MRI and atlas. We can choose some unambiguous and characteristic points manually, and based on these correspondences a coarse registration is obtained using affine model. The local registration is to address individual variability of rat brain that can be performed by using Snake model. Thirdly, post-processing. The goal is to locate and label the TOIs in the selected MR image of rat brain slice guided by well-registered atlas. The experiments demonstrated the feasibility of our method.

  14. Molecular characterization of a new member of the protein 4.1 family (brain 4.1) in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yamakawa, H; Ohara, R; Nakajima, D; Nakayama, M; Ohara, O

    1999-07-05

    In addition to the well-known erythroid 4.1 gene, two human genes (KIAA0338 and 4.1G) have recently been identified as members of the protein 4.1 family of genes. We compared the expression levels of these three genes and found that the KIAA0338 gene was predominantly expressed in human brain. To further characterize this novel protein 4.1, called brain 4.1, we isolated rat brain 4.1 cDNA and analyzed its gene products in rat brain. The results indicated that the mRNA and protein products of the brain 4.1 gene were more abundant in brain compared to any other tissues examined. The brain 4.1 mRNA appeared as multiple bands with estimated sizes of 3.9 kb, 6.2 kb and 8.7 kb on RNA blotting analysis, and was found to consist of various alternative forms as reported previously for the erythroid 4. 1 gene. As for the brain 4.1 gene product, many isoforms discernible by immunoblotting analysis were also observed depending on the tissue type and the brain region. The existence of multiple forms of the brain 4.1 implies that it has multiple and diverse functions like the erythroid 4.1 gene product. Copyright 1999 Elsevier Science B.V.

  15. Methylglyoxal can mediate behavioral and neurochemical alterations in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hansen, Fernanda; Pandolfo, Pablo; Galland, Fabiana; Torres, Felipe Vasconcelos; Dutra, Márcio Ferreira; Batassini, Cristiane; Guerra, Maria Cristina; Leite, Marina Concli; Gonçalves, Carlos-Alberto

    2016-10-01

    Diabetes is associated with loss of cognitive function and increased risk for Alzheimer's disease (AD). Advanced glycation end products (AGEs) are elevated in diabetes and AD and have been suggested to act as mediators of the cognitive decline observed in these pathologies. Methylglyoxal (MG) is an extremely reactive carbonyl compound that propagates glycation reactions and is, therefore, able to generate AGEs. Herein, we evaluated persistent behavioral and biochemical parameters to explore the hypothesis that elevated exogenous MG concentrations, induced by intracerebroventricular (ICV) infusion, lead to cognitive decline in Wistar rats. A high and sustained administration of MG (3μmol/μL; subdivided into 6days) was found to decrease the recognition index of rats, as evaluated by the object-recognition test. However, MG was unable to impair learning-memory processes, as shown by the habituation in the open field (OF) and Y-maze tasks. Moreover, a single high dose of MG induced persistent alterations in anxiety-related behavior, diminishing the anxiety-like parameters evaluated in the OF test. Importantly, MG did not alter locomotion behavior in the different tasks performed. Our biochemical findings support the hypothesis that MG induces persistent alterations in the hippocampus, but not in the cortex, related to glyoxalase 1 activity, AGEs content and glutamate uptake. Glial fibrillary acidic protein and S100B content, as well as S100B secretion (astroglial-related parameters of brain injury), were not altered by ICV MG administration. Taken together, our data suggest that MG interferes directly in brain function and that the time and the levels of exogenous MG determine the different features that can be seen in diabetic patients.

  16. [Expression of c-jun protein after experimental rat brain concussion].

    PubMed

    Wang, Feng; Li, Yong-hong

    2010-02-01

    To observe e-jun protein expression after rat brain concussion and explore the forensic pathologic markers following brain concussion. Fifty-five rats were randomly divided into brain concussion group and control group. The expression of c-jun protein was observed by immunohistochemistry. There were weak positive expression of c-jun protein in control group. In brain concussion group, however, some neutrons showed positive expression of c-jun protein at 15 min after brain concussion, and reach to the peak at 3 h after brain concussion. The research results suggest that detection of c-jun protein could be a marker to determine brain concussion and estimate injury time after brain concussion.

  17. Purification of the high-Km aldehyde reductase from rat brain and liver and from ox brain.

    PubMed Central

    Rivett, A J; Smith, I L; Tipton, K F

    1981-01-01

    A procedure is described that yields an apparently homogeneous preparation of the high-Km aldehyde reductase from rat brain. This procedure is also applicable to the purification of this enzyme from rat liver and ox brain. In the latter case, however, the purified preparation could be resolved into two protein bands, both of which had enzyme activity, by polyacrylamide-gel electrophoresis. Since a sample of the ox brain enzyme from an earlier step in the purification procedure only showed the presence of a single band of activity after electrophoresis, this apparent multiplicity probably results from modification of the enzyme, possibly by oxidation, during the final step of the purification. A number of properties of the rat brain enzyme were determined and these were compared with those of the enzyme from rat liver. The two preparations were similar in their stabilities, behaviour during purification, kinetic properties, electrophoretic mobilities and amino acid compositions. Antibodies to the rat liver enzyme cross-reacted with that from brain and the inhibition of both these preparations by the antiserum was similar, further supporting the view that the enzymes from these two sources were closely similar if not identical. PMID:6798966

  18. The effects of chronic imidazoline drug treatment on glial fibrillary acidic protein concentrations in rat brain.

    PubMed Central

    Olmos, G.; Alemany, R.; Escriba, P. V.; García-Sevilla, J. A.

    1994-01-01

    1. The concentration of the astrocytic marker, glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) was quantitated by immunoblotting (western blotting) in the rat brain after treatment with various imidazoline drugs and other agents. 2. Chronic (7 days) but not acute (1 day) treatment with the imidazoline drugs, cirazoline (1 mg kg-1, i.p.) and idazoxan (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), but not with the structurally related alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonists, RX821002 (2-methoxy idazoxan) (10 mg kg-1, i.p.) and efaroxan (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), markedly increased (45%) GFAP immunoreactivity in the rat cerebral cortex. Chronic treatment (7 days) with yohimbine (10 mg kg-1, i.p.), a non-imidazoline alpha 2-adrenoceptor antagonist, did not significantly modify GFAP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex. 3. Chronic treatment (7 days) with cirazoline and idazoxan did not alter the density of brain monoamine oxidase (MAO)-B sites labelled by [3H]-Ro 19-6327 (lazabemide), another relevant astroglial marker. Moreover, these imidazoline drug treatments did not modify the levels of alpha-tubulin in the cerebral cortex. These negative results reinforced the specificity of the effects of imidazoline drugs on GFAP. 4. Irreversible inactivation of brain alpha 2-adrenoceptors (and other neurotransmitters receptors) after treatment with an optimal dose of the peptide-coupling agent EEDQ (1.6 mg kg-1, i.p., for 6-24 h) did not alter GFAP immunoreactivity in the cerebral cortex. These results further disproved the involvement of these receptors on astroglial cells in the tonic control of GFAP levels.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) Images Figure 4 PMID:8032628

  19. Expression of GABA receptor rho subunits in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Boue-Grabot, E; Roudbaraki, M; Bascles, L; Tramu, G; Bloch, B; Garret, M

    1998-03-01

    The GABA receptor rho1, rho2, and rho3 subunits are expressed in the retina where they form bicuculline-insensitive GABA(C) receptors. We used northern blot, in situ hybridization, and RT-PCR analysis to study the expression of rho subunits in rat brains. In situ hybridization allowed us to detect rho-subunit expression in the superficial gray layer of the superior colliculus and in the cerebellar Purkinje cells. RT-PCR experiments indicated that (a) in retina and in domains that may contain functional GABA(C) receptors, rho2 and rho1 subunits are expressed at similar levels; and (b) in domains and in tissues that are unlikely to contain GABA(C) receptors, rho2 mRNA is enriched relative to rho1 mRNA. These results suggest that both rho1 and rho2 subunits are necessary to form a functional GABA(C) receptor. The use of RT-PCR also showed that, except in the superior colliculus, rho3 is expressed along with rho1 and rho2 subunits. We also raised an antibody against a peptide sequence unique to the rho1 subunit. The use of this antibody on cerebellum revealed the rat rho1 subunit in the soma and dendrites of Purkinje neurons. The allocation of GABA(C) receptor subunits to identified neurons paves the way for future electrophysiological studies.

  20. Sleep deprivation has a neuroprotective role in a traumatic brain injury of the rat.

    PubMed

    Martinez-Vargas, Marina; Estrada Rojo, Francisco; Tabla-Ramon, Erika; Navarro-Argüelles, Hilda; Ortiz-Lailzon, Nathan; Hernández-Chávez, Alejandro; Solis, Barbara; Martínez Tapia, Ricardo; Perez Arredondo, Adan; Morales-Gomez, Julio; Gonzalez-Rivera, Ruben; Nava-Talavera, Karen; Navarro, Luz

    2012-11-07

    During the process of a brain injury, responses to produce damage and cell death are activated, but self-protective responses that attempt to maintain the integrity and functionality of the brain are also activated. We have previously reported that the recovery from a traumatic brain injury (TBI) is better in rats if it occurs during the dark phase of the diurnal cycle when rats are in the waking period. This suggests that wakefulness causes a neuroprotective role in this type of injury. Here we report that 24h of total sleep deprivation after a TBI reduces the morphological damage and enhances the recovery of the rats, as seen on a neurobiological scale.

  1. Effects of beta-hydroxybutyrate on brain vascular permeability in rats with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Orhan, Nurcan; Ugur Yilmaz, Canan; Ekizoglu, Oguzhan; Ahishali, Bulent; Kucuk, Mutlu; Arican, Nadir; Elmas, Imdat; Gürses, Candan; Kaya, Mehmet

    2016-01-15

    This study investigates the effect of beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) on blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity during traumatic brain injury (TBI) in rats. Evans blue (EB) and horseradish peroxidase (HRP) were used as determinants of BBB permeability. Glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were estimated in the right (injury side) cerebral cortex of animals. The gene expression levels for occludin, glucose transporter (Glut)-1, aquaporin4 (AQP4) and nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-κB) were performed, and Glut-1 and NF-κB activities were analyzed. BHB treatment decreased GSH and MDA levels in intact animals and in those exposed to TBI (P<0.05). Glut-1 protein levels decreased in sham, BHB and TBI plus BHB groups (P<0.05). NF-κB protein levels increased in animals treated with BHB and/or exposed to TBI (P<0.05). The expression levels of occludin and AQP4 did not significantly change among experimental groups. Glut-1 expression levels increased in BHB treated and untreated animals exposed to TBI (P<0.05). While NF-κB expression levels increased in animals in TBI (P<0.01), a decrease was noticed in these animals upon BHB treatment (P<0.01). In animals exposed to TBI, EB extravasation was observed in the ipsilateral cortex regardless of BHB treatment. Ultrastructurally, BHB attenuated but did not prevent the presence of HRP in brain capillary endothelial cells of animals with TBI; moreover, the drug also led to the observation of the tracer when used in intact rats (P<0.01). Altogether, these results showed that BHB not only failed to provide overall protective effects on BBB in TBI but also led to BBB disruption in healthy animals.

  2. Neurovascular and neuroimaging effects of the hallucinogenic serotonin receptor agonist psilocin in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Spain, Aisling; Howarth, Clare; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A; Sharp, Trevor; Sibson, Nicola R; Martin, Chris

    2015-12-01

    The development of pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) has presented the opportunity for investigation of the neurophysiological effects of drugs in vivo. Psilocin, a hallucinogen metabolised from psilocybin, was recently reported to evoke brain region-specific, phMRI signal changes in humans. The present study investigated the effects of psilocin in a rat model using phMRI and then probed the relationship between neuronal and haemodynamic responses using a multimodal measurement preparation. Psilocin (2 mg/kg or 0.03 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle was administered to rats (N=6/group) during either phMRI scanning or concurrent imaging of cortical blood flow and recording of local field potentials. Compared to vehicle controls psilocin (2 mg/kg) evoked phMRI signal increases in a number of regions including olfactory and limbic areas and elements of the visual system. PhMRI signal decreases were seen in other regions including somatosensory and motor cortices. Investigation of neurovascular coupling revealed that whilst neuronal responses (local field potentials) to sensory stimuli were decreased in amplitude by psilocin administration, concurrently measured haemodynamic responses (cerebral blood flow) were enhanced. The present findings show that psilocin evoked region-specific changes in phMRI signals in the rat, confirming recent human data. However, the results also suggest that the haemodynamic signal changes underlying phMRI responses reflect changes in both neuronal activity and neurovascular coupling. This highlights the importance of understanding the neurovascular effects of pharmacological manipulations for interpreting haemodynamic neuroimaging data. Copyright © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  3. Neurovascular and neuroimaging effects of the hallucinogenic serotonin receptor agonist psilocin in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Spain, Aisling; Howarth, Clare; Khrapitchev, Alexandre A.; Sharp, Trevor; Sibson, Nicola R.; Martin, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The development of pharmacological magnetic resonance imaging (phMRI) has presented the opportunity for investigation of the neurophysiological effects of drugs in vivo. Psilocin, a hallucinogen metabolised from psilocybin, was recently reported to evoke brain region-specific, phMRI signal changes in humans. The present study investigated the effects of psilocin in a rat model using phMRI and then probed the relationship between neuronal and haemodynamic responses using a multimodal measurement preparation. Psilocin (2 mg/kg or 0.03 mg/kg i.v.) or vehicle was administered to rats (N = 6/group) during either phMRI scanning or concurrent imaging of cortical blood flow and recording of local field potentials. Compared to vehicle controls psilocin (2 mg/kg) evoked phMRI signal increases in a number of regions including olfactory and limbic areas and elements of the visual system. PhMRI signal decreases were seen in other regions including somatosensory and motor cortices. Investigation of neurovascular coupling revealed that whilst neuronal responses (local field potentials) to sensory stimuli were decreased in amplitude by psilocin administration, concurrently measured haemodynamic responses (cerebral blood flow) were enhanced. The present findings show that psilocin evoked region-specific changes in phMRI signals in the rat, confirming recent human data. However, the results also suggest that the haemodynamic signal changes underlying phMRI responses reflect changes in both neuronal activity and neurovascular coupling. This highlights the importance of understanding the neurovascular effects of pharmacological manipulations for interpreting haemodynamic neuroimaging data. PMID:26192543

  4. Protocatechuic acid protects brain mitochondrial function in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Semaming, Yoswaris; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Sa-Nguanmoo, Piangkwan; Pintana, Hiranya; Pannangpetch, Patchareewan; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-10-01

    Brain mitochondrial dysfunction has been demonstrated in diabetic animals with neurodegeneration. Protocatechuic acid (PCA), a major metabolite of anthocyanin, has been shown to exert glycemic control and oxidative stress reduction in the heart. However, its effects on oxidative stress and mitochondrial function in the brain under diabetic condition have never been investigated. We found that PCA exerted glycemic control, attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction, and contributes to the prevention of brain oxidative stress in diabetic rats.

  5. Cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations in studying motivation and emotion.

    PubMed

    Schutter, Dennis J L G; Knyazev, Gennady G

    2012-03-01

    Research has shown that brain functions are realized by simultaneous oscillations in various frequency bands. In addition to examining oscillations in pre-specified bands, interactions and relations between the different frequency bandwidths is another important aspect that needs to be considered in unraveling the workings of the human brain and its functions. In this review we provide evidence that studying interdependencies between brain oscillations may be a valuable approach to study the electrophysiological processes associated with motivation and emotional states. Studies will be presented showing that amplitude-amplitude coupling between delta-alpha and delta-beta oscillations varies as a function of state anxiety and approach-avoidance-related motivation, and that changes in the association between delta-beta oscillations can be observed following successful psychotherapy. Together these studies suggest that cross-frequency coupling of brain oscillations may contribute to expanding our understanding of the neural processes underlying motivation and emotion.

  6. Propagation of damage in brain tissue: coupling the mechanics of oedema and oxygen delivery.

    PubMed

    Lang, Georgina E; Vella, Dominic; Waters, Sarah L; Goriely, Alain

    2015-11-01

    Brain tissue swelling, or oedema, is a dangerous consequence of traumatic brain injury and stroke. In particular, a locally swollen region can cause the injury to propagate further through the brain: swelling causes mechanical compression of the vasculature in the surrounding tissue and so can cut off that tissue's oxygen supply. We use a triphasic mathematical model to investigate this propagation, and couple tissue mechanics with oxygen delivery. Starting from a fully coupled, finite elasticity, model, we show that simplifications can be made that allow us to express the volume of the propagating region of damage analytically in terms of key parameters. Our results show that performing a craniectomy, to alleviate pressure in the brain and allow the tissue to swell outwards, reduces the propagation of damage; this finding agrees with experimental observations.

  7. Are soluble and membrane-bound rat brain acetylcholinesterase different

    SciTech Connect

    Andres, C.; el Mourabit, M.; Stutz, C.; Mark, J.; Waksman, A. )

    1990-11-01

    Salt-soluble and detergent-soluble acetylcholinesterases (AChE) from adult rat brain were purified to homogeneity and studied with the aim to establish the differences existing between these two forms. It was found that the enzymatic activities of the purified salt-soluble AChE as well as the detergent-soluble AChE were dependent on the Triton X-100 concentration. Moreover, the interaction of salt-soluble AChE with liposomes suggests amphiphilic behaviour of this enzyme. Serum cholinesterase (ChE) did not bind to liposomes but its activity was also detergent-dependent. Detergent-soluble AChE remained in solution below critical micellar concentrations of Triton X-100. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis of purified, Biobeads-treated and iodinated detergent-soluble 11 S AChE showed, under non reducing conditions, bands of 69 kD, 130 kD and greater than 250 kD corresponding, respectively, to monomers, dimers and probably tetramers of the same polypeptide chain. Under reducing conditions, only a 69 kD band was detected. It is proposed that an amphiphilic environment stabilizes the salt-soluble forms of AChE in the brain in vivo and that detergent-soluble Biobeads-treated 11 S AChE possess hydrophobic domain(s) different from the 20 kD peptide already described.

  8. Regional and temporal differences in leptin signaling in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Burgos-Ramos, Emma; Chowen, Julie A; Argente, Jesús; Barrios, Vicente

    2010-05-15

    Leptin regulates energy homeostasis through activation of different hypothalamic pathways. Evidence indicates that leptin is a pleiotropic hormone that acts on many brain areas, altering food intake, metabolism, and locomotion, among other functions. Because short-term effects of leptin infusion and intracellular pathways in other brain areas involved in food regulation have not been thoroughly analysed, we have studied the acute effect of intracerebroventricular leptin administration on the levels of the long form of leptin receptor (Ob-Rb), as well as on activation of Janus kinase 2 (JAK2)-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (STAT3), protein kinase B (Akt), extracellular regulated kinases (ERKs) and levels of suppressor of cytokine signaling-3 (SOCS3) in the hypothalamus, hippocampus, frontal cortex and cerebellum of adult male Wistar rats at 15min, 1 and 6h. The levels of Ob-Rb increased at 6h in hypothalamus only. Leptin activated the JAK2/STAT3 pathway in all areas, although in a temporally specific pattern. In contrast, this hormone decreased Akt activation in hypothalamus, hippocampus and cerebellum and ERK activation in frontal cortex, while it increased ERK activation in hypothalamus and hippocampus. These differences in modulation of Ob-Rb levels and signaling indicate that the rapid effects of leptin in non-hypothalamic areas are mediated, at least in part, through the intracellular pathways involved in hypothalamic energy balance, but in a temporally specific manner. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  9. [Lipids from gray and white rat brain matter in autolysis].

    PubMed

    Gribanov, G A; Il'iashenko, D V

    1993-01-01

    A decrease in relative content of phospholipids and cholesterol simultaneously with increase in cholesterol esters and free fatty acids were detected in tissues of rat brain gray and white matters during autolysis at 37 degrees within 6-7 min, 1, 4 and 24 hrs; the most distinct alterations were observed in lipids of the gray matter especially at early (6-7 min) and late (24 hrs) stages of autolysis. In the gray matter, relative content of all the lipid fractions studied was restored to initial level within 4 hrs of incubation. In the white matter, during autolysis the content of cholesterol varied, the content of phospholipids was only slightly increased, while the level of free fatty acids was increased only at 24 hrs of incubation with synchronous decrease in content of triacylglycerols, cholesterol and, partially, phospholipids. These experimental data are of importance in resuscitation. Both common and dissimilar mechanisms of these lipid alterations are discussed. Not only the complex of hydrolase reactions but also that of transacylase and other reactions, involved in the degradation and biotransformation of brain lipids in autolysis, were noted.

  10. Brain Metabolic Changes in Rats following Acoustic Trauma.

    PubMed

    He, Jun; Zhu, Yejin; Aa, Jiye; Smith, Paul F; De Ridder, Dirk; Wang, Guangji; Zheng, Yiwen

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic trauma is the most common cause of hearing loss and tinnitus in humans. However, the impact of acoustic trauma on system biology is not fully understood. It has been increasingly recognized that tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma is unlikely to be generated by a single pathological source, but rather a complex network of changes involving not only the auditory system but also systems related to memory, emotion and stress. One obvious and significant gap in tinnitus research is a lack of biomarkers that reflect the consequences of this interactive "tinnitus-causing" network. In this study, we made the first attempt to analyse brain metabolic changes in rats following acoustic trauma using metabolomics, as a pilot study prior to directly linking metabolic changes to tinnitus. Metabolites in 12 different brain regions collected from either sham or acoustic trauma animals were profiled using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics platform. After deconvolution of mass spectra and identification of the molecules, the metabolomic data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis showed that metabolic patterns varied among different brain regions; however, brain regions with similar functions had a similar metabolite composition. Acoustic trauma did not change the metabolite clusters in these regions. When analyzed within each brain region using the orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis sub-model, 17 molecules showed distinct separation between control and acoustic trauma groups in the auditory cortex, inferior colliculus, superior colliculus, vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), and cerebellum. Further metabolic pathway impact analysis and the enrichment overview with network analysis suggested the primary involvement of amino acid metabolism, including the alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolic pathways, the arginine and proline metabolic pathways and the purine

  11. Brain Metabolic Changes in Rats following Acoustic Trauma

    PubMed Central

    He, Jun; Zhu, Yejin; Aa, Jiye; Smith, Paul F.; De Ridder, Dirk; Wang, Guangji; Zheng, Yiwen

    2017-01-01

    Acoustic trauma is the most common cause of hearing loss and tinnitus in humans. However, the impact of acoustic trauma on system biology is not fully understood. It has been increasingly recognized that tinnitus caused by acoustic trauma is unlikely to be generated by a single pathological source, but rather a complex network of changes involving not only the auditory system but also systems related to memory, emotion and stress. One obvious and significant gap in tinnitus research is a lack of biomarkers that reflect the consequences of this interactive “tinnitus-causing” network. In this study, we made the first attempt to analyse brain metabolic changes in rats following acoustic trauma using metabolomics, as a pilot study prior to directly linking metabolic changes to tinnitus. Metabolites in 12 different brain regions collected from either sham or acoustic trauma animals were profiled using a gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC/MS)-based metabolomics platform. After deconvolution of mass spectra and identification of the molecules, the metabolomic data were processed using multivariate statistical analysis. Principal component analysis showed that metabolic patterns varied among different brain regions; however, brain regions with similar functions had a similar metabolite composition. Acoustic trauma did not change the metabolite clusters in these regions. When analyzed within each brain region using the orthogonal projection to latent structures discriminant analysis sub-model, 17 molecules showed distinct separation between control and acoustic trauma groups in the auditory cortex, inferior colliculus, superior colliculus, vestibular nucleus complex (VNC), and cerebellum. Further metabolic pathway impact analysis and the enrichment overview with network analysis suggested the primary involvement of amino acid metabolism, including the alanine, aspartate and glutamate metabolic pathways, the arginine and proline metabolic pathways and the purine

  12. Housing conditions influence motor functions and exploratory behavior following focal damage of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Gornicka-Pawlak, Elzbieta; Jabłońska, Anna; Chyliński, Andrzej; Domańska-Janik, Krystyna

    2009-01-01

    The present study investigated influence of housing conditions on motor functions recovery and exploratory behavior following ouabain focal brain lesion in the rat. During 30 days post-surgery period rats were housed individually in standard cages (IS) or in groups in enriched environment (EE) and behaviorally tested. The EE lesioned rats showed enhanced recovery from motor impairments in walking beam task, comparing with IS animals. Contrarily, in the open field IS rats (both lesioned and control) traveled a longer distance, showed less habituation and spent less time resting at the home base than the EE animals. Unlike the EE lesioned animals, the lesioned IS rats, presented a tendency to hyperactivity in postinjury period. Turning tendency was significantly affected by unilateral brain lesion only in the EE rats. We can conclude that housing conditions distinctly affected the rat's behavior in classical laboratory tests.

  13. Cordycepin attenuates traumatic brain injury-induced impairments of blood-brain barrier integrity in rats.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Jing; Wang, Aihua; He, Yan; Si, Zhihua; Xu, Shan; Zhang, Shanchao; Wang, Kun; Wang, Dawei; Liu, Yiming

    2016-10-01

    Loss of blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity is a downstream event caused by traumatic brain injury (TBI). BBB integrity is affected by certain physiological conditions, including inflammation and oxidative stress. Cordycepin is a susbtance with anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects. Therefore, it is necessary to investigate whether cordycepin affects TBI-induced impairments of BBB integrity. Using TBI rats as the in vivo model and applying multiple techniques, including stroke severity evaluation, Evans blue assessment, quantitative real-time PCR, Western blotting and ELISA, we investigated the dose-dependent protective effects of cordycepin on the TBI-induced impairments of BBB integrity. Cordycepin treatment attenuated the TBI-induced impairments in a dose-dependent manner, and played a role in protecting BBB integrity. Cordycepin was able to alleviate TBI-induced loss of tight junction proteins zonula occludens protein-1 (ZO-1) and occludin, which are important for BBB integrity. Moreover, cordycepin suppressed pro-inflammatory factors, including IL-1β, iNOS, MPO and MMP-9, and promoted anti-inflammation-associated factors arginase 1 and IL-10. Furthermore, cordycepin inhibited NADPH oxidase (NOX) expression and activity following TBI, probably through NOX1, but not NOX2 and NOX4. Cordycepin has protective effects against brain damages induced by TBI. The protection of cordycepin on BBB integrity was probably achieved through recovery of tight junction proteins, inhibition of local inflammation, and prevention of NOX activity. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Expression and Distribution of TRPV2 in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Nedungadi, Thekkethil Prashant; Dutta, Mayurika; Bathina, Chandra Sekhar; Caterina, Michael J; Cunningham, J. Thomas

    2012-01-01

    Transient receptor potential (TRP) proteins are non-selective cation channels that mediate sensory transduction. The neuroanatomical localization and the physiological roles of isoform TRPV2 in the rodent brain are largely unknown. We report here the neuroanatomical distribution of TRPV2 in the adult male rat brain focusing on hypothalamus and hindbrain regions involved in osmoregulation, autonomic function and energy metabolism. For this we utilized immunohistochemistry combined with brighfield microscopy. In the forebrain, the densest immunostaining was seen in both the supraoptic nucleus (SON) and the magnocellular division of the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of the hypothalamus. TRPV2 immunoreactivity was also seen in the organum vasculosum of the lamina terminalis, the median preoptic nucleus and the subfornical organ, in addition to the arcuate nucleus of the hypothalamus (ARH), the medial forebrain bundle, the cingulate cortex and the globus pallidus to name a few. In the hindbrain, intense staining was seen in the nucleus of the solitary tract, hypoglossal nucleus, nucleus ambiguous, and the rostral division of the ventrolateral medulla (RVLM) and some mild staining in the area prostrema. To ascertain the specificity of the TRPV2 antibody used in this paper, we compared the TRPV2 immunoreactivity of wildtype (WT) and knockout (KO) mouse brain tissue. Double immunostaining with arginine vasopressin (AVP) using confocal microscopy showed a high degree of colocalization of TRPV2 in the magnocellular SON and PVN. Using laser capture microdissection (LCM) we also show that AVP neurons in the SON contain TRPV2 mRNA. TRPV2 was also co-localized with dopamine beta hydroxylase (DBH) in the NTS and the RVLM of the hindbrain. Based on our results, TRPV2 may play an important role in several CNS networks that regulate body fluid homeostasis, autonomic function, and metabolism. PMID:22750329

  15. Simulated weightlessness affects the expression and activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Yoon, Nara; Na, Kiyong; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-01-01

    Spaceflight induces pathophysiological alterations in various organs. To study pathophysiological adaptations to weightlessness on the ground, the tail suspension (TS) rat model has been used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. There is currently little information on the effect of TS on the expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the brain. In this study, we examined time-dependent alterations in the expression and activity of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in the brains of TS rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were tail-suspended for 1 (TS1), 7 (TS7), and 14 (TS14) days or rested on the ground for 3 days after 14 days of TS. TS1 and TS7 rats exhibited no significant alterations in the expression of nNOS compared to control rats, whereas nNOS expression in TS14 rats was significantly upregulated compared to control rats. Normalized expression of nNOS mRNA and protein in TS14 rats (1.86 ± 0.48 and 1.84 ± 0.29, respectively) were significantly higher than that of control rats (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Consistent with these results, significant elevations in NOS activity and NO production were observed in TS14 rats. Thus, we demonstrated a significant upregulation of nNOS expression, accompanied by significant increases in NOS activity and NO production, in the brain of rats exposed to simulated weightlessness. PMID:28430607

  16. Simulated weightlessness affects the expression and activity of neuronal nitric oxide synthase in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yoon, Nara; Na, Kiyong; Kim, Hyun-Soo

    2017-05-09

    Spaceflight induces pathophysiological alterations in various organs. To study pathophysiological adaptations to weightlessness on the ground, the tail suspension (TS) rat model has been used to simulate the effects of weightlessness. There is currently little information on the effect of TS on the expression and activity of nitric oxide synthase (NOS) in the brain. In this study, we examined time-dependent alterations in the expression and activity of neuronal NOS (nNOS) in the brains of TS rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were tail-suspended for 1 (TS1), 7 (TS7), and 14 (TS14) days or rested on the ground for 3 days after 14 days of TS. TS1 and TS7 rats exhibited no significant alterations in the expression of nNOS compared to control rats, whereas nNOS expression in TS14 rats was significantly upregulated compared to control rats. Normalized expression of nNOS mRNA and protein in TS14 rats (1.86 ± 0.48 and 1.84 ± 0.29, respectively) were significantly higher than that of control rats (P < 0.001 and P < 0.001, respectively). Consistent with these results, significant elevations in NOS activity and NO production were observed in TS14 rats. Thus, we demonstrated a significant upregulation of nNOS expression, accompanied by significant increases in NOS activity and NO production, in the brain of rats exposed to simulated weightlessness.

  17. Determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Devane, W A; Dysarz, F A; Johnson, M R; Melvin, L S; Howlett, A C

    1988-11-01

    The determination and characterization of a cannabinoid receptor from brain are reported. A biologically active bicyclic cannabinoid analgetic CP-55,940 was tritium-labeled to high specific activity. Conditions for binding to rat brain P2 membranes and synaptosomes were established. The pH optimum was between 7 and 8, and specific binding could be eliminated by heating the membranes to 60 degrees. Binding to the P2 membranes was linear within the range of 10 to 50 micrograms of protein/ml. Specific binding (defined as total binding displaced by 1 microM delta 9-tetrahydrocannabinol (delta 9-THC) or 100 nM desacetyllevonantradol) was saturable. The Kd determined from Scatchard analysis was 133 pM, and the Bmax for rat cortical P2 membranes was 1.85 pmol/mg of protein. The Hill coefficient for [3H]CP-55,940 approximated 1, indicating that, under the conditions of assay, a single class of binding sites was determined that did not exhibit cooperativity. The binding was rapid (kon approximately 2.6 x 10(-4) pM-1 min-1) and reversible (Koff approximately 0.016 min-1) and (koff' greater than 0.06 min-1). The two Kd values estimated from the kinetic constants approximately 55 pM and exceeded 200 pM, respectively. The binding of the agonist ligand [3H]CP-55,940 was decreased by the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanylylimidodiphosphate. The guanine nucleotide induced a more rapid dissociation of the ligand from the binding site, consistent with an allosteric regulation of the putative receptor by a G protein. The binding was also sensitive to MgCl2 and CaCl2. Binding of [3H]CP-55,940 was displaced by cannabinoid drugs in the following order of potency: CP-55,940 greater than or equal to desacetyllevonantradol greater than 11-OH-delta 9-THC = delta 9-THC greater than cannabinol. Cannabidiol and cannabigerol displaced [3H]CP-55,940 by less than 50% at 1 microM concentrations. The (-)-isomer of CP-55,940 displaced with 50-fold greater potency than the (+)-isomer. This

  18. Impact of lead toxicity on brain metabolisms of nucleic acid and catecholamine in protein malnourished rats.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, S; Chatterjee, A K; Gupta, M

    1992-10-01

    The brain biochemistry in terms of certain key substances of brain were studied in 18% protein and 6% protein-fed rats following lead ingestion at a level of 1% in the diet. Lead ingestion diminished the protein and increased the RNA content of brain, and, consequently reduced the protein/RNA ratio. The RNA/DNA ratio in brain was elevated in lead toxicity, while the protein/DNA ratio remained unaltered. The RNase and DNase activities of brain were decreased. Lead treatment diminished the glutathione (GSH) level of blood but the GSH level of brain was not altered significantly by the lead treatment. The plasma protein level was also diminished after lead treatment. The effects of lead on some of these parameters were found to be more pronounced in rats receiving the 6% protein diet. The serotonin (5-HT) level of brain was reduced, while the norepinephrine (NE) and dopamine (DA) levels of brain were elevated following lead treatment. The monoamine oxidase (MAO) and tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) activities and 5-hydroxy-indole acetic acid (5-HIAA) content of brain were elevated in lead-ingested rats. The effects of lead on these parameters were found to be potentiated when the rats were fed on a 6% protein diet. These studies suggest that lead at the present dose affects brain biochemistry in terms of both nucleic acids and amine metabolism, and protein deficiency potentiates some of these lead-induced changes.

  19. Garlic extract attenuates brain mitochondrial dysfunction and cognitive deficit in obese-insulin resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Sripetchwandee, Jirapas; Supakul, Luerat; Apaijai, Nattayaporn; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn

    2014-12-01

    Oxidative stress in the obese-insulin resistant condition has been shown to affect cognitive as well as brain mitochondrial functions. Garlic extract has exerted a potent antioxidant effect. However, the effects of garlic extract on the brain of obese-insulin resistant rats have never been investigated. We hypothesized that garlic extract improves cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function in obese-insulin resistant rats induced by long-term high-fat diet (HFD) consumption. Male Wistar rats were fed either normal diet or HFD for 16 weeks (n = 24/group). At week 12, rats in each dietary group received either vehicle or garlic extract (250 and 500 mg·kg(-1)·day(-1)) for 28 days. Learning and memory behaviors, metabolic parameters, and brain mitochondrial function were determined at the end of treatment. HFD led to increased body weight, visceral fat, plasma insulin, cholesterol, and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, indicating the development of insulin resistance. Furthermore, HFD rats had cognitive deficit and brain mitochondrial dysfunction. HFD rats treated with both doses of garlic extract had decreased body weight, visceral fat, plasma cholesterol, and MDA levels. Garlic extract also improved cognitive function and brain mitochondrial function, which were impaired in obese-insulin resistant rats caused by HFD consumption.

  20. Body and brain temperature coupling: the critical role of cerebral blood flow

    PubMed Central

    Ackerman, Joseph J. H.; Yablonskiy, Dmitriy A.

    2010-01-01

    Direct measurements of deep-brain and body-core temperature were performed on rats to determine the influence of cerebral blood flow (CBF) on brain temperature regulation under static and dynamic conditions. Static changes of CBF were achieved using different anesthetics (chloral hydrate, CH; α-chloralose, αCS; and isoflurane, IF) with αCS causing larger decreases in CBF than CH and IF; dynamic changes were achieved by inducing transient hypercapnia (5% CO2 in 40% O2 and 55% N2). Initial deep-brain/body-core temperature differentials were anesthetic-type dependent with the largest differential observed with rats under αCS anesthesia (ca. 2°C). Hypercapnia induction raised rat brain temperature under all three anesthesia regimes, but by different anesthetic-dependent amounts correlated with the initial differentials—αCS anesthesia resulted in the largest brain temperature increase (0.32 ± 0.08°C), while CH and IF anesthesia lead to smaller increases (0.12 ± 0.03 and 0.16 ± 0.05°C, respectively). The characteristic temperature transition time for the hypercapnia-induced temperature increase was 2–3 min under CH and IF anesthesia and ~4 min under αCS anesthesia. We conclude that both, the deep-brain/body-core temperature differential and the characteristic temperature transition time correlate with CBF: a lower CBF promotes higher deep-brain/body-core temperature differentials and, upon hypercapnia challenge, longer characteristic transition times to increased temperatures. PMID:19277681

  1. Glucose and amino acid metabolism in rat brain during sustained hypoglycemia

    SciTech Connect

    Wong, K.L.; Tyce, G.M.

    1983-04-01

    The metabolism of glucose in brains during sustained hypoglycemia was studied. (U-/sup 14/C)Glucose (20 microCi) was injected into control rats, and into rats at 2.5 hr after a bolus injection of 2 units of insulin followed by a continuous infusion of 0.2 units/100 g rat/hr. This regimen of insulin injection was found to result in steady-state plasma glucose levels between 2.5 and 3.5 mumol per ml. In the brains of control rats carbon was transferred rapidly from glucose to glutamate, glutamine, gamma-aminobutyric acid and aspartate and this carbon was retained in the amino acids for at least 60 min. In the brains of hypoglycemic rats, the conversion of carbon from glucose to amino acids was increased in the first 15 min after injection. After 15 min, the specific activity of the amino acids decreased in insulin-treated rats but not in the controls. The concentrations of alanine, glutamate, and gamma-amino-butyric acid decreased, and the concentration of aspartate increased, in the brains of the hypoglycemic rats. The concentration of pyridoxal-5'-phosphate, a cofactor in many of the reactions whereby these amino acids are formed from tricarboxylic acid cycle intermediates, was less in the insulin-treated rats than in the controls. These data provide evidence that glutamate, glutamine, aspartate, and GABA can serve as energy sources in brain during insulin-induced hypoglycemia.

  2. Cloning and expression of an A1 adenosine receptor from rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Mahan, L.C.; McVittie, L.D.; Smyk-Randall, E.M.; Nakata, H.; Monsma, F.J. Jr.; Gerfen, C.R.; Sibley, D.R. )

    1991-07-01

    The authors have used the polymerase chain reaction technique to selectively amplify guanine nucleotide-binding regulatory protein (G protein)-coupled receptor cDNA sequences from rat striatal mRNA, using sets of highly degenerate primers derived from transmembrane sequences of previously cloned G protein-coupled receptors. A novel cDNA fragment was identified, which exhibits considerable homology to various members of the G protein-coupled receptor family. This fragment was used to isolate a full-length cDNA from a rat striatal library. A 2.2-kilobase clone was obtained that encodes a protein of 326 amino acids with seven transmembrane domains, as predicted by hydropathy analysis. Stably transfected mouse A9-L cells and Chinese hamster ovary cells that expressed mRNA for this clone were screened with putative receptor ligands. Saturable and specific binding sites for the A1 adenosine antagonist (3H)-1,3-dipropyl-8-cyclopentylxanthine were identified on membranes from transfected cells. The rank order of potency and affinities of various adenosine agonist and antagonist ligands confirmed the identity of this cDNA clone as an A1 adenosine receptor. The high affinity binding of A1 adenosine agonists was shown to be sensitive to the nonhydrolyzable GTP analog guanylyl-5{prime}-imidodiphosphate. In adenylyl cyclase assays, adenosine agonists inhibited forskolin-stimulated cAMP production by greater than 50%, in a pharmacologically specific fashion. Northern blot and in situ hybridization analyses of receptor mRNA in brain tissues revealed two transcripts of 5.6 and 3.1 kilobases, both of which were abundant in cortex, cerebellum, hippocampus, and thalamus, with lower levels in olfactory bulb, striatum, mesencephalon, and retina. These regional distribution data are in good agreement with previous receptor autoradiographic studies involving the A1 adenosine receptor.

  3. Yawning and Stretching Predict Brain Temperature Changes in Rats: Support for the Thermoregulatory Hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Shoup-Knox, Melanie L.; Gallup, Andrew C.; Gallup, Gordon G.; McNay, Ewan C.

    2010-01-01

    Recent research suggests that yawning is an adaptive behavior that functions to promote brain thermoregulation among homeotherms. To explore the relationship between brain temperature and yawning we implanted thermocoupled probes in the frontal cortex of rats to measure brain temperature before, during and after yawning. Temperature recordings indicate that yawns and stretches occurred during increases in brain temperature, with brain temperatures being restored to baseline following the execution of each of these behaviors. The circulatory changes that accompany yawning and stretching may explain some of the thermal similarities surrounding these events. These results suggest that yawning and stretching may serve to maintain brain thermal homeostasis. PMID:21031034

  4. Complex modulation of the expression of PKC isoforms in the rat brain during chronic type 1 diabetes mellitus.

    PubMed

    Vetri, Francesco; Chavez, Rafael; Xu, Hao-Liang; Paisansathan, Chanannait; Pelligrino, Dale A

    2013-01-15

    We previously demonstrated that chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental influence on neurovascular coupling in the brain-an effect linked to an alteration in the protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation pattern. Moreover, the activity of PKC was increased, in diabetic rat brain, in a tissue fraction composed primarily of the superficial glia limitans and pial vessels, but trended toward a decrease in cerebral cortical gray matter. However, that study did not examine the expression patterns of PKC isoforms in the rat brain. Thus, in a rat model of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced chronic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and in non-diabetic (ND) controls, two hypotheses were addressed. First, chronic T1DM is accompanied by changes in the expression of PKC-α, βII, γ, δ, and ε Second, those changes differ when comparing cerebral cortex and glio-pial tissue. In addition, we analyzed the expression of a form of PKC-γ, phosphorylated on threonine 514 (pT514-PKC-γ), as well as the receptor for activated C kinase 1 (RACK1). The expression pattern of different PKC isoforms was altered in a complex and tissue-specific manner during chronic hyperglycemia. Notably, in the gray matter, PKC-α expression significantly decreased, while pT514-PKC-γ expression increased. However, PKC-βII, -γ, -δ, -ε, and RACK1 expressions did not change. Conversely, in glio-pial tissue, PKC-α and RACK1 were upregulated, whereas PKC-γ, pT514-PKC-γ, and PKC-ε were downregulated. PKC-βII, and PKC-δ, were unchanged. These findings suggest that the PKC activity increase previously seen in the glio-pial tissue of diabetic rats may be due to the selective upregulation of PKC-α, and ultimately lead to the impairment of neurovascular coupling.

  5. [The effect of various amines on TRH contents in rat brain (author's transl)].

    PubMed

    Mitsuma, T; Hirooka, Y; Nihei, N

    1976-08-20

    To study the effect of vatious amines on TRH contents in rat brain, various amines or inhibitor of synthesis of amines were injected into rat through i.v. or i.p.. Rats were decapitated and brain was frozen in dry ice and aceton. TRH contents in hypothalamus(H), cerebrum(C) and cerebellum and brain stem (C and S) were measured by TRH radioimmunoassay. TRH contents in normal rats were 3.9+/-0.5ng in H, 2.6+/-0.5NG IN C and 1.6+/-0.3ng in C and S. TRH contents in all parts of brain were increased in L-DOPA treated group and did not change in T3 or T4 treated group. TRH contents in all parts of brain were decreased in alpha-methyl-DOPA, alpha-methyl-para-tyrosine, fusaric acid and 5-HTP treated groups. In D,L-p-chlorophenylalanine treated group TRH contents in brain were increased only in hypothalamus. In L-DOPA or 5-HTP treated group with T4 or T3 preadministration, TRH contents in all parts of brain were same levels of L-DOPA or 5-HTP treated group. The above data suggested the TRH contents in rat brain were increased with increase of dopamine level in rat brain and decreased with increase of serotonine level or decrease of noradrenaline level in rat brain and inhibitory effect of T4 or T3 on TRH release might be mediated through dopaminergic and serotonergic mechanism.

  6. Protein-energy malnutrition during pregnancy alters caffeine's effect on brain tissue of neonate rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, M; Wilber, J F; Nakamoto, T

    1984-12-17

    We studied whether protein-energy malnutrition changed brain susceptibility to a small dose of caffeine in newborn rats. Since we had demonstrated previously that caffeine intake during lactation increased the brain neuropeptide on newborns, we investigated further the effects of the prenatal administration of caffeine on TRH and cyclo (His-Pro). From day 13 of gestation to delivery day, pregnant rats in one group were fed either a 20% or a 6% protein diet ad libitum, and those in the other group were pair-fed with each protein diet supplemented with caffeine at an effective dose of 2 mg/100 g body weight. Upon delivery, brain weight, brain protein, RNA, DNA and the neuropeptides thyrotropin-releasing hormone (TRH) and cyclo (His-Pro) were measured in the newborn rats. A 6% protein without caffeine diet caused reductions in brain weights and brain protein, RNA and DNA contents, but did not alter brain TRH and cyclo (His-Pro) concentrations in the newborn animals. In the offspring from dams fed a 6% protein diet, caffeine administration significantly elevated brain weights and brain contents of protein, RNA and DNA. In contrast, these values were similar between noncaffeine and caffeine-supplemented animals in a 20% protein diet group. Brain TRH and cyclo (His-Pro) concentrations were not changed by caffeine administration. These data suggest that caffeine augments protein synthesis in the newborn rat brain when malnourished, but that the same dose of caffeine did not affect protein synthesis in brains of newborn rats from normally nourished dams. Therefore, the present findings indicate that the nutritional status of mothers during pregnancy has important implication in the impact of caffeine on their offspring's brains.

  7. Detecting event-related changes of multivariate phase coupling in dynamic brain networks.

    PubMed

    Canolty, Ryan T; Cadieu, Charles F; Koepsell, Kilian; Ganguly, Karunesh; Knight, Robert T; Carmena, Jose M

    2012-04-01

    Oscillatory phase coupling within large-scale brain networks is a topic of increasing interest within systems, cognitive, and theoretical neuroscience. Evidence shows that brain rhythms play a role in controlling neuronal excitability and response modulation (Haider B, McCormick D. Neuron 62: 171-189, 2009) and regulate the efficacy of communication between cortical regions (Fries P. Trends Cogn Sci 9: 474-480, 2005) and distinct spatiotemporal scales (Canolty RT, Knight RT. Trends Cogn Sci 14: 506-515, 2010). In this view, anatomically connected brain areas form the scaffolding upon which neuronal oscillations rapidly create and dissolve transient functional networks (Lakatos P, Karmos G, Mehta A, Ulbert I, Schroeder C. Science 320: 110-113, 2008). Importantly, testing these hypotheses requires methods designed to accurately reflect dynamic changes in multivariate phase coupling within brain networks. Unfortunately, phase coupling between neurophysiological signals is commonly investigated using suboptimal techniques. Here we describe how a recently developed probabilistic model, phase coupling estimation (PCE; Cadieu C, Koepsell K Neural Comput 44: 3107-3126, 2010), can be used to investigate changes in multivariate phase coupling, and we detail the advantages of this model over the commonly employed phase-locking value (PLV; Lachaux JP, Rodriguez E, Martinerie J, Varela F. Human Brain Map 8: 194-208, 1999). We show that the N-dimensional PCE is a natural generalization of the inherently bivariate PLV. Using simulations, we show that PCE accurately captures both direct and indirect (network mediated) coupling between network elements in situations where PLV produces erroneous results. We present empirical results on recordings from humans and nonhuman primates and show that the PCE-estimated coupling values are different from those using the bivariate PLV. Critically on these empirical recordings, PCE output tends to be sparser than the PLVs, indicating fewer

  8. Changing numbers of neuronal and non-neuronal cells underlie postnatal brain growth in the rat

    PubMed Central

    Bandeira, Fabiana; Lent, Roberto; Herculano-Houzel, Suzana

    2009-01-01

    The rat brain increases >6× in mass from birth to adulthood, presumably through the addition of glial cells and increasing neuronal size, without the addition of neurons. To test this hypothesis, here we investigate quantitatively the postnatal changes in the total number of neuronal and non-neuronal cells in the developing rat brain, and examine how these changes correlate with brain growth. Total numbers of cells were determined with the isotropic fractionator in the brains of 53 Wistar rats, from birth to young adulthood. We find that at birth, >90% of the cells in the rat brain are neurons. Following a dormant period of ≈3 days after birth, the net number of neurons in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and remaining tissue (excluding cerebellum and olfactory bulb) doubles during the first week, then is reduced by 70% during the second postnatal week, concurrently with net gliogenesis. A second round of net addition of 6 million neurons is observed in the cerebral cortex over the following 2 weeks. During the first postnatal week, brain growth relates mainly to increased numbers of neurons of larger average size. In the second and third weeks, it correlates with increased numbers of non-neuronal cells that are smaller in size than the preexisting neurons. Postnatal rat brain development is thus characterized by dramatic changes in the cellular composition of the brain, whose growth is governed by different combinations of cell addition and loss, and changes in average cell size during the first months after birth. PMID:19666520

  9. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats.

    PubMed

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Simonsen, Mette; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Sørensen, Michael

    2014-03-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine, and aspartate and incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into glutamine in all tissues. It did not affect alanine concentrations in any of the tissues but plasma alanine concentration increased; incorporation of (15)NH(4)(+) into alanine was increased in brain in sham and BDL rats and in kidney in sham rats. It inhibited GS in all tissues examined but only in brain was an increased incorporation of (15)N-ammonia into alanine observed. Liver and kidney were important for metabolizing blood-borne ammonia.

  10. Effect of glutamine synthetase inhibition on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in bile duct ligated rats

    PubMed Central

    Fries, Andreas W; Dadsetan, Sherry; Keiding, Susanne; Bak, Lasse K; Schousboe, Arne; Waagepetersen, Helle S; Simonsen, Mette; Ott, Peter; Vilstrup, Hendrik; Sørensen, Michael

    2014-01-01

    Ammonia has a key role in the development of hepatic encephalopathy (HE). In the brain, glutamine synthetase (GS) rapidly converts blood-borne ammonia into glutamine which in high concentrations may cause mitochondrial dysfunction and osmolytic brain edema. In astrocyte-neuron cocultures and brains of healthy rats, inhibition of GS by methionine sulfoximine (MSO) reduced glutamine synthesis and increased alanine synthesis. Here, we investigate effects of MSO on brain and interorgan ammonia metabolism in sham and bile duct ligated (BDL) rats. Concentrations of glutamine, glutamate, alanine, and aspartate and incorporation of 15NH4+ into these amino acids in brain, liver, muscle, kidney, and plasma were similar in sham and BDL rats treated with saline. Methionine sulfoximine reduced glutamine concentrations in liver, kidney, and plasma but not in brain and muscle; MSO reduced incorporation of 15NH4+ into glutamine in all tissues. It did not affect alanine concentrations in any of the tissues but plasma alanine concentration increased; incorporation of 15NH4+ into alanine was increased in brain in sham and BDL rats and in kidney in sham rats. It inhibited GS in all tissues examined but only in brain was an increased incorporation of 15N-ammonia into alanine observed. Liver and kidney were important for metabolizing blood-borne ammonia. PMID:24346692

  11. Expression of constitutive and inducible cytochrome P450 2E1 in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Yadav, Sanjay; Dhawan, Alok; Singh, Ram L; Seth, Prahlad K; Parmar, Devendra

    2006-06-01

    Studies initiated to investigate the expression of cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP2E1) in rat brain demonstrated low but detectable protein and mRNA expression in control rat brain. Though mRNA and protein expression of CYP2E1 in brain was several fold lower as compared to liver, relatively high activity of N-nitrosodimethylamine demethylase (NDMA-d) was observed in control rat brain microsomes. Like liver, pretreatment with CYP2E1 inducers such as ethanol or pyrazole or acetone significantly increased the activity of brain microsomal NDMA-d. Kinetic studies also showed an increase in the Vmax and affinity (Km) of the substrate towards the brain enzyme due to increased expression of CYP2E1 in microsomes of brain isolated from ethanol pretreated rats. In vitro studies using organic inhibitors, specific for CYP2E1 and anti-CYP2E1 significantly inhibited the brain NDMA-d activity indicating that like liver, NDMA-d activity in rat brain is catalyzed by CYP2E1. Olfactory lobes exhibited the highest CYP2E1 expression and catalytic activity in control rats. Furthermore, several fold increase in the mRNA expression and activity of CYP2E1 in cerebellum and hippocampus while a relatively small increase in the olfactory lobes and no significant change in other brain regions following ethanol pretreatment have indicated that CYP2E1 induction maybe involved in selective sensitivity of these brain areas to ethanol induced free radical damage and neuronal degeneration.

  12. Effects of radiofrequency radiation exposure on blood-brain barrier permeability in male and female rats.

    PubMed

    Sirav, Bahriye; Seyhan, Nesrin

    2011-12-01

    During the last several decades, numerous studies have been performed aiming at the question of whether or not exposure to radiofrequency radiation (RFR) influences the permeability of the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of RFR on the permeability of BBB in male and female Wistar albino rats. Right brain, left brain, cerebellum, and total brain were analyzed separately in the study. Rats were exposed to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz continuous-wave (CW) RFR for 20 min (at SARs of 4.26 mW/kg and 1.46 mW/kg, respectively) while under anesthesia. Control rats were sham-exposed. Disruption of BBB integrity was detected spectrophotometrically using the Evans-blue dye, which has been used as a BBB tracer and is known to be bound to serum albumin. Right brain, left brain, cerebellum, and total brain were evaluated for BBB permeability. In female rats, no albumin extravasation was found in in the brain after RFR exposure. A significant increase in albumin was found in the brains of the RF-exposed male rats when compared to sham-exposed male brains. These results suggest that exposure to 0.9 and 1.8 GHz CW RFR at levels below the international limits can affect the vascular permeability in the brain of male rats. The possible risk of RFR exposure in humans is a major concern for the society. Thus, this topic should be investigated more thoroughly in the future.

  13. Concentration and persistence of tin in rat brain and blood following dibutyltin exposure during development.

    PubMed

    Moser, V C; McGee, J K; Ehman, K D

    2009-01-01

    Dibutyltin (DBT), a widely used plastic stabilizer, has been detected in the environment as well as human tissues. Although teratological and developmental effects are well documented, there are no published reports of DBT effects on the developing nervous system. As part of a developmental neurotoxicity study of DBT, tissue samples were periodically collected to determine the distribution of total tin (Sn) in brain and whole blood. Pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats were exposed to 0, 10, or 25 ppm DBT in drinking water from gestational day (GD) 6 to weaning at postnatal day (PND) 21. Beginning on PND 3, half of the litters were directly dosed every 2 to 3 d via oral gavage with 0, 1, or 2.5 mg/kg DBT such that the dose level matched the water concentration (for example, litters with 25 ppm DBT in the water received 2.5 mg/kg). For Sn analysis, brain and blood samples were collected from culled pups on PND2 (males and females pooled), from pups (males and females separately) as well as dams at weaning (PND21), and from adult offspring (males and females) at PND93. Total Sn was quantified using inductively coupled plasma-mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS). At all ages, brain Sn levels were higher than blood. At culling, in the directly dosed pups at weaning, and in dams at weaning, Sn levels in both tissues were linearly related to dose. Weanling pups without direct dosing showed lower levels than either culled pups or dams, indicating that lactational exposure was minimal or negligible even while maternal exposure is ongoing. In the adults, Sn levels persisted in brains of directly dosed rats, and the high-dose females had higher levels than did high-dose males. No Sn was detected in adult blood. Thus, during maternal exposure to DBT in drinking water, Sn is placentally transferred to the offspring, but lactational transfer is minimal, if any. Furthermore, Sn is concentrated in brain compared to blood, and its elimination is protracted, on the order of days to months after

  14. Rate of utilization of glucose and `compartmentation' of α-oxoglutarate and glutamate in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Gaitonde, M. K.

    1965-01-01

    1. The rate of incorporation of 14C into pyruvate, α-oxoglutarate, lactate and glucose of rat tissues was measured after the subcutaneous injection of uniformly labelled glucose. 2. In rat brain the specific radioactivities of lactate and glucose were similar to that of alanine. In liver the specific radioactivity of glucose was considerably higher than that of lactate or alanine. 3. The specific radioactivities of α-oxo acids of rat brain were lower than those of corresponding amino acids, alanine and glutamate. These findings have been explained in relation to metabolic compartments in vivo. 4. The approximate estimated rate of glucose utilization in rat brain in vivo is 0·96μmole/g. of brain/min. PMID:14342519

  15. Neonatal hypothyroidism affects the adenine nucleotides metabolism in astrocyte cultures from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Braganhol, Elizandra; Bruno, Alessandra Nejar; Bavaresco, Luci; Barreto-Chaves, Maria Luiza M; Sarkis, João José Freitas; Battastini, Ana Maria Oliveira

    2006-04-01

    Neonatal hypothyroidism is associated with multiple and severe brain alterations. We recently demonstrated a significant increase in hydrolysis of AMP to adenosine in brain of hypothyroid rats at different ages. However, the origin of this effect was unclear. Considering the effects of adenine nucleotides to brain functions and the harmful effects of neonatal hypothyroidism to normal development of the central nervous system, in this study we investigated the metabolism of adenine nucleotides in hippocampal, cortical and cerebellar astrocyte cultures from rats submitted to neonatal hypothyroidism. ATP and AMP hydrolysis were enhanced by 52 and 210%, respectively, in cerebellar astrocytes from hypothyroid rats. In hippocampus of hypothyroid rats, the 47% increase in AMP hydrolysis was significantly reverted when the astrocytes were treated with T3. Therefore, the imbalance in the ATP and adenosine levels in astrocytes, during brain development, may contribute to some of the effects described in neonatal hypothyroidism.

  16. Aluminum Nanoparticles Induce ERK and p38MAPK Activation in Rat Brain.

    PubMed

    Kwon, Jung-Taek; Seo, Gyun-Baek; Jo; Lee, Mimi; Kim, Hyun-Mi; Shim, Ilseob; Lee, Byung-Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-09-01

    Aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterial in cosmetics and medical materials. For this reason, Al-NP exposure is very likely to occur via inhalation in the environment and the workplace. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanism of Al-NP neurotoxicity via inhalation exposure. In this study, we investigated the effect AL-NPs on the brain. Rats were exposed to Al-NPs by nasal instillation at 1 mg/kg body weight (low exposure group), 20 mg/kg body weight (moderate exposure group), and 40 mg/kg body weight (high exposure group), for a total of 3 times, with a 24-hr interval after each exposure. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated that the presence of aluminum was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the olfactory bulb (OFB) and the brain. In microarray analysis, the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity (GO: 0043405), including Ptprc, P2rx7, Map2k4, Trib3, Trib1, and Fgd4 was significantly over-expressed in the treated mice than in the controls (p = 0.0027). Moreover, Al-NPs induced the activation of ERK1 and p38 MAPK protein expression in the brain, but did not alter the protein expression of JNK, when compared to the control. These data demonstrate that the nasal exposure of Al-NPs can permeate the brain via the olfactory bulb and modulate the gene and protein expression of MAPK and its activity.

  17. Aluminum Nanoparticles Induce ERK and p38MAPK Activation in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Seo, Gyun-Baek; Jo; Lee, Mimi; Shim, Ilseob; Lee, Byung-Woo; Yoon, Byung-Il; Kim, Pilje; Choi, Kyunghee

    2013-01-01

    Aluminum nanoparticles (Al-NPs) are one of the most widely used nanomaterial in cosmetics and medical materials. For this reason, Al-NP exposure is very likely to occur via inhalation in the environment and the workplace. Nevertheless, little is known about the mechanism of Al-NP neurotoxicity via inhalation exposure. In this study, we investigated the effect AL-NPs on the brain. Rats were exposed to Al-NPs by nasal instillation at 1 mg/kg body weight (low exposure group), 20 mg/kg body weight (moderate exposure group), and 40 mg/kg body weight (high exposure group), for a total of 3 times, with a 24-hr interval after each exposure. Inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) analysis indicated that the presence of aluminum was increased in a dose-dependent manner in the olfactory bulb (OFB) and the brain. In microarray analysis, the regulation of mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) activity (GO: 0043405), including Ptprc, P2rx7, Map2k4, Trib3, Trib1, and Fgd4 was significantly over-expressed in the treated mice than in the controls (p = 0.0027). Moreover, Al-NPs induced the activation of ERK1 and p38 MAPK protein expression in the brain, but did not alter the protein expression of JNK, when compared to the control. These data demonstrate that the nasal exposure of Al-NPs can permeate the brain via the olfactory bulb and modulate the gene and protein expression of MAPK and its activity. PMID:24386518

  18. Impairment of neurovascular coupling in type 1 diabetes mellitus in rats is linked to PKC modulation of BK(Ca) and Kir channels.

    PubMed

    Vetri, Francesco; Xu, Haoliang; Paisansathan, Chanannait; Pelligrino, Dale A

    2012-03-15

    We hypothesized that chronic hyperglycemia has a detrimental effect on neurovascular coupling in the brain and that this may be linked to protein kinase C (PKC)-mediated phosphorylation. Therefore, in a rat model of streptozotocin-induced chronic type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM), and in nondiabetic (ND) controls, we monitored pial arteriole diameter changes during sciatic nerve stimulation and topical applications of the large-conductance Ca(2+)-operated K(+) channel (BK(Ca)) opener, NS-1619, or the K(+) inward rectifier (Kir) channel agonist, K(+). In the T1DM vs. ND rats, the dilatory response associated with sciatic nerve stimulation was decreased by ∼30%, whereas pial arteriolar dilations to NS-1619 and K(+) were largely suppressed. These responses were completely restored by the acute topical application of a PKC antagonist, calphostin C. Moreover, the suffusion of a PKC activator, phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate, in ND rats was able to reproduce the vascular reactivity impairments found in T1DM rats. Assay of PKC activity in brain samples from T1DM vs. ND rats revealed a significant gain in activity only in specimens harvested from the pial and superficial glia limitans tissue, but not in bulk cortical gray matter. Altogether, these findings suggest that the T1DM-associated impairment of neurovascular coupling may be mechanistically linked to a readily reversible PKC-mediated depression of BK(Ca) and Kir channel activity.

  19. Expression of aquaporin-4 and pathological characteristics of brain injury in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    ZHANG, CHENGCHENG; CHEN, JIANQIANG; LU, HONG

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin 4 (AQP4) is a widely distributed membrane protein, which is found in glial cells, ependymocytes and capillary endothelial cells in the brain, and particularly in the choroid plexus. AQP4 is a key regulator of water metabolism, and changes in its expression following brain injury are associated with pathological changes in the damaged side of the brain; however, the effects of brain injury on AQP4 and injury-induced pathological changes in the contralateral non-damaged side of the brain remain to be fully elucidated. In the present study, male Sprague-Dawley rats were subjected to traumatic brain injury (TBI) and changes in brain water content, the expression of AQP4 expression and pathological characteristics in the damaged and contralateral non-damaged sides of the brain were examined. In the damaged side of the brain, vasogenic edema appeared first, followed by cellular edema. The aggravated cellular edema in the damaged side of the brain resulted in two periods of peak edema severity. Pathological changes in the contralateral non-damaged side of the brain occurred later than those in the damaged side; cellular edema appeared first, followed by vasogenic edema, which was alleviated earlier than the cellular edema. AQP4 was downregulated during vasogenic edema, and upregulated during cellular edema. Taken together, these results suggested that the downregulation of AQP4 was a result of vasogenic edema and that the upregulation of AQP4 may have induced cellular edema. PMID:26459070

  20. Serum and Brain Metabolomic Variations Reveal Perturbation of Sleep Deprivation on Rats and Ameliorate Effect of Total Ginsenoside Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Cen, Fang; Fan, Zi-quan; Shen, Hong-yi

    2017-01-01

    Sleep loss or sleep deprivation (SD) refers to shorter sleep than average baseline need, and SD has been a serious problem of modern societies which affects health and well-being. Panax ginseng is a well-known traditional Chinese medicine (TCM). Our previous study has demonstrated that total ginsenosides (GS), the extracts from Panax ginseng, could effectively improve cognition and behavior on SD rats. However, little is known about its metabolomic study. In this study, serum and brain metabolomic method based on gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry (GC/MS) was employed to evaluate the efficacy and study the mechanism of GS on a rat model of SD. With pattern recognition analysis of serum and brain tissue metabolite profile, a clear separation of the model group and control group was acquired for serum and brain tissue samples; the MGS (model + GS) group showed a tendency of recovering when compared to control group, which was consistent with behavioral and biochemical parameters. 39 and 40 potential biomarkers of brain tissues and serum samples, respectively, were identified and employed to explore the possible mechanism. Our work revealed that GS has significant protective effects on SD, and metabolomics is a useful tool for evaluating efficacy and elucidating mechanism in TCM. PMID:28900617

  1. Reduced G-protein coupling to the GABAB receptor in the nucleus accumbens and the medial prefrontal cortex of the rat after chronic treatment with nicotine.

    PubMed

    Amantea, Diana; Tessari, Michela; Bowery, Norman G

    2004-01-30

    The effect of repeated administration of nicotine (0.4 mg/kg, daily, s.c., for 14 days) on GABAB receptor density, affinity and G-protein coupling was investigated in the mesocorticolimbic system of the rat brain. Baclofen-stimulated [35S]GTPgammaS binding autoradiography revealed that the level of G-protein coupling to GABAB receptors was significantly reduced in the medial prefrontal cortex and the nucleus accumbens of nicotine-treated rats as compared to vehicle-injected controls. By contrast, GABAB receptor density and affinity, as revealed by [3H]GABA saturation binding autoradiography, were not altered by the nicotine exposure in any of the regions examined. Reduced G-protein coupling to the GABAB receptor may result in disinhibition of mesocorticolimbic dopaminergic neurones, which would contribute to the development of sensitised dopaminergic responses to repeated administration of nicotine.

  2. MRI reveals edema in larynx (but not in brain) during anaphylactic hypotension in anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Toyota, Ichiro; Tanida, Mamoru; Shibamoto, Toshishige; Wang, Mofei; Kurata, Yasutaka; Tonami, Hisao

    2013-11-01

    Anaphylactic shock is sometimes accompanied by local interstitial edema due to increased vascular permeability. We performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to compare edema in the larynx and brain of anesthetized rats during anaphylactic hypotension versus vasodilator-induced hypotension. Male Sprague Dawley rats were subjected to hypotension induced by the ovalbumin antigen (n=7) or a vasodilator sodium nitroprusside (SNP; n=7). Apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) and T2-relaxation time (T2RT) were quantified on MRI performed repeatedly for up to 68 min after the injection of either agent. The presence of laryngeal edema was also examined by histological examination. Separately, the occurrence of brain edema was assessed by measuring brain water content using the wet/dry method in rats with anaphylaxis (n=5) or SNP (n=5) and the non-hypotensive control rats (n=5). Mast cells in hypothalamus were morphologically examined. Mean arterial blood pressure similarly decreased to 35 mmHg after an injection of the antigen or SNP. Hyperintensity on T2-weighted images (as reflected by elevated T2RT) was found in the larynx as early as 13 min after an injection of the antigen, but not SNP. A postmortem histological examination revealed epiglottic edema in the rats with anaphylaxis, but not SNP. In contrast, no significant changes in T2RT or ADC were detectable in the brains of any rats studied. In separate experiments, the quantified brain water content did not increase in either anaphylaxis or SNP rats, as compared with the non-hypotensive control rats. The numbers of mast cells with metachromatic granules in the hypothalamus were not different between rats with anaphylaxis and SNP, suggesting the absence of anaphylactic reaction in hypothalamus. Edema was detected using the MRI technique in the larynx during rat anaphylaxis, but not in the brain.

  3. Large litters rearing changes brain expression of GLUT3 and acetylcholinesterase activity in adult rats.

    PubMed

    de Vasconcelos, Vivian Sarmento; Machado, Sonia Salgueiro; Guedes, Rubem Carlos Araújo; Bandeira, Bruno Carneiro; Ximenes-da-Silva, Adriana

    2012-09-06

    Effects of malnutrition in the brain are more pronounced during the period of growth spurt, corresponding to the suckling in rodents. Neuronal glucose transporter GLUT3 expression and acetylcholinesterase activity were studied in the brain of adult young rats (84 days old) suckled in litters formed by 6 (control group) or 12 pups (malnourished group). In the adult rats, brain weight, blood glucose levels and GLUT3 expression were decreased in malnourished group (5%, 18%, 58%, respectively, P<0.001, Student's t test) compared to the control. Increased activity of acetylcholinesterase was found in cerebral cortex homogenates and a significant interaction (P=0.019, ANOVA two-way, Tukey's test) was found between nutritional state and homogenate fraction. In summary, malnutrition during suckling period decreased GLUT3 expression and increased acetylcholinesterase activity in the rat brain that could contribute to possible cognitive deficits and changes of brain metabolic activity. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  4. Effect of naturally mouldy wheat or fungi administration on metallothioneins level in brain tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine level of metallothioneins (MTs) in brain tissues of rats administered by feed mixtures with different content of mouldy wheat or fungi. Selected male laboratory rats of Wistar albino at age of 28 days were used in our experiments. The rats were administered by feed mixtures with different content of vitamins, naturally mouldy wheat or fungi for 28 days. At the very end of the experiment, the animals were put to death and brains were sampled. MT level was determined by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. We found that MTs' level in brain tissues from rats administered by standard feed mixtures was significantly higher compared to the level of MTs in rats supplemented by vitamins. Further we studied the effect of supplementation of naturally mouldy wheat on MTs level in rats. In mouldy wheat we detected the presence of following fungi species: Mucor spp., Absidia spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Moreover we also identified and quantified following mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T2-toxin and aflatoxins. Level of MTs determined in rats treated with 33 or 66% of mouldy wheat was significantly lower compared to control ones. On the other hand rats treated with 100% of mouldy wheat had less MTs but not significantly. Supplementation of vitamins to rats fed by mouldy wheat had adverse effect on MTs level compared to rats with no other supplementation by vitamins. Moreover vitamins supplementation has no effect on MTs level in brain tissues of rats treated or non-treated with Ganoderma lucidum L. Both mycotoxins and vitamins have considerable effect on level of MTs in brain tissues. It can be assumed that the administered substances markedly influence redox metabolism, which could negatively influence numerous biochemical pathways including those closely related with MTs.

  5. KiSS-1 expression and metastin-like immunoreactivity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Brailoiu, G Cristina; Dun, Siok L; Ohsawa, Masahiro; Yin, Deling; Yang, Jun; Chang, Jaw Kang; Brailoiu, Eugen; Dun, Nae J

    2005-01-17

    Metastin, the gene product of metastasis suppressor gene KiSS-1, is the endogenous ligand for the G-protein-coupled receptor GPR54 (or AXOR12, or OT7T175). The expression of KiSS-1 gene and peptide and the distribution of metastin were studied in the rat central nervous system by reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction, Western blotting, and immunohistochemical methods. KiSS-1 gene and peptide expression was higher in the hypothalamus than in the brainstem and spinal cord. In the brain, metastin-like immunoreactivity (irMT) was found mainly in three groups of cells: dorsomedial hypothalamic nucleus, nucleus of the solitary tract, and caudal ventrolateral medulla. Immunoreactive fibers of varying density were noted in bed nucleus of stria terminalis, septal nuclei, nucleus accumbens, caudate putamen, diagonal band, amygdala, hypothalamus, zona incerta, thalamus, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, lateral parabrachial nucleus, locus coeruleus, spinal trigeminal tract, rostral ventrolateral medulla, and medullary reticular nucleus. Preabsorption of the antiserum with metastin peptide fragment (45-54)-NH2 (1 microg/ml) resulted in no staining in any of the sections. The biological activity of metastin was assessed by monitoring intracellular calcium [Ca2+]i in cultured hippocampal neurons, which are known to express GPR54. Metastin increased [Ca2+]i in a population of cultured hippocampal neurons. The results show that metastin is biologically active in rat central neurons, and its anatomical distribution suggests a possible role in nociception and autonomic and neuroendocrine functions.

  6. Glutaric acid moderately compromises energy metabolism in rat brain.

    PubMed

    da C Ferreira, Gustavo; Viegas, Carolina M; Schuck, Patrícia F; Latini, Alexandra; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S; Wyse, Angela T S; Wannmacher, Clóvis M D; Vargas, Carmen R; Wajner, Moacir

    2005-12-01

    Glutaric acidemia type I is an inherited metabolic disorder biochemically characterized by tissue accumulation of predominantly glutaric acid (GA). Affected patients present frontotemporal hypotrophy, as well as caudate and putamen injury following acute encephalopathic crises. Considering that the underlying mechanisms of basal ganglia damage in this disorder are poorly known, in the present study we tested the effects of glutaric acid (0.2-5mM) on critical enzyme activities of energy metabolism, namely the respiratory chain complexes I-IV, succinate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase in midbrain of developing rats. Glutaric acid significantly inhibited creatine kinase activity (up to 26%) even at the lowest dose used in the assays (0.2mM). We also observed that CK inhibition was prevented by pre-incubation of the homogenates with reduced glutathione, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of GA was possibly mediated by oxidation of essential thiol groups of the enzyme. In addition, the activities of the respiratory chain complex I-III and of succinate dehydrogenase were also significantly inhibited by 20 and 30%, respectively, at the highest glutaric acid concentration tested (5mM). In contrast, complexes II-III and IV activities of the electron transport chain were not affected by the acid. The effect of glutaric acid on the rate of oxygen consumption in intact mitochondria from the rat cerebrum was also investigated. Glutaric acid (1mM) significantly lowered the respiratory control ratio (state III/state IV) up to 40% in the presence of the respiratory substrates glutamate/malate or succinate. Moreover, state IV respiration linked to NAD and FAD substrates was significantly increased in GA-treated mitochondria while state III was significantly diminished. The results indicate that the major metabolite accumulating in glutaric acidemia type I moderately compromises brain energy metabolism in vitro.

  7. Lipid mapping of the rat brain for models of disease.

    PubMed

    Martínez-Gardeazabal, J; González de San Román, E; Moreno-Rodríguez, M; Llorente-Ovejero, A; Manuel, I; Rodríguez-Puertas, R

    2017-02-21

    Lipids not only constitute the primary component of cellular membranes and contribute to metabolism but also serve as intracellular signaling molecules and bind to specific membrane receptors to control cell proliferation, growth and convey neuroprotection. Over the last several decades, the development of new analytical techniques, such as imaging mass spectrometry (IMS), has contributed to our understanding of their involvement in physiological and pathological conditions. IMS allows researchers to obtain a wide range of information about the spatial distribution and abundance of the different lipid molecules that is crucial to understand brain functions. The primary aim of this study was to map the spatial distribution of different lipid species in the rat central nervous system (CNS) using IMS to find a possible relationship between anatomical localization and physiology. The data obtained were subsequently applied to a model of neurological disease, the 192IgG-saporin lesion model of memory impairment. The results were obtained using a LTQ-Orbitrap XL mass spectrometer in positive and negative ionization modes and analyzed by ImageQuest and MSIReader software. A total of 176 different molecules were recorded based on the specific localization of their intensities. However, only 34 lipid species in negative mode and 51 in positive were assigned to known molecules with an error of 5ppm. These molecules were grouped by different lipid families, resulting in: Phosphatidylcholines (PC): PC (34: 1)+K(+) and PC (32: 0)+K(+) distributed primarily in gray matter, and PC (36: 1)+K(+) and PC (38: 1)+Na(+) distributed in white matter. Phosphatidic acid (PA): PA (38: 3)+K(+) in white matter, and PA (38: 5)+K(+) in gray matter and brain ventricles. Phosphoinositol (PI): PI (18: 0/20: 4)-H(+) in gray matter, and PI (O-30: 1) or PI (P-30: 0)-H(+) in white matter. Phosphatidylserines (PS): PS (34: 1)-H(+) in gray matter, and PS (38: 1)-H(+) in white matter. Sphingomyelin (SM

  8. Population-averaged diffusion tensor imaging atlas of the Sprague Dawley rat brain.

    PubMed

    Veraart, Jelle; Leergaard, Trygve B; Antonsen, Bjørnar T; Van Hecke, Wim; Blockx, Ines; Jeurissen, Ben; Jiang, Yi; Van der Linden, Annemie; Johnson, G Allan; Verhoye, Marleen; Sijbers, Jan

    2011-10-15

    Rats are widely used in experimental neurobiological research, and rat brain atlases are important resources for identifying brain regions in the context of experimental microsurgery, tissue sampling, and neuroimaging, as well as comparison of findings across experiments. Currently, most available rat brain atlases are constructed from histological material derived from single specimens, and provide two-dimensional or three-dimensional (3D) outlines of diverse brain regions and fiber tracts. Important limitations of such atlases are that they represent individual specimens, and that finer details of tissue architecture are lacking. Access to more detailed 3D brain atlases representative of a population of animals is needed. Diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) is a unique neuroimaging modality that provides sensitive information about orientation structure in tissues, and is widely applied in basic and clinical neuroscience investigations. To facilitate analysis and assignment of location in rat brain neuroimaging investigations, we have developed a population-averaged three-dimensional DTI atlas of the normal adult Sprague Dawley rat brain. The atlas is constructed from high resolution ex vivo DTI images, which were nonlinearly warped into a population-averaged in vivo brain template. The atlas currently comprises a selection of manually delineated brain regions, the caudate-putamen complex, globus pallidus, entopeduncular nucleus, substantia nigra, external capsule, corpus callosum, internal capsule, cerebral peduncle, fimbria of the hippocampus, fornix, anterior commisure, optic tract, and stria terminalis. The atlas is freely distributed and potentially useful for several purposes, including automated and manual delineation of rat brain structural and functional imaging data.

  9. Astrocytic Insulin Signaling Couples Brain Glucose Uptake with Nutrient Availability.

    PubMed

    García-Cáceres, Cristina; Quarta, Carmelo; Varela, Luis; Gao, Yuanqing; Gruber, Tim; Legutko, Beata; Jastroch, Martin; Johansson, Pia; Ninkovic, Jovica; Yi, Chun-Xia; Le Thuc, Ophelia; Szigeti-Buck, Klara; Cai, Weikang; Meyer, Carola W; Pfluger, Paul T; Fernandez, Ana M; Luquet, Serge; Woods, Stephen C; Torres-Alemán, Ignacio; Kahn, C Ronald; Götz, Magdalena; Horvath, Tamas L; Tschöp, Matthias H

    2016-08-11

    We report that astrocytic insulin signaling co-regulates hypothalamic glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism. Postnatal ablation of insulin receptors (IRs) in glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP)-expressing cells affects hypothalamic astrocyte morphology, mitochondrial function, and circuit connectivity. Accordingly, astrocytic IR ablation reduces glucose-induced activation of hypothalamic pro-opio-melanocortin (POMC) neurons and impairs physiological responses to changes in glucose availability. Hypothalamus-specific knockout of astrocytic IRs, as well as postnatal ablation by targeting glutamate aspartate transporter (GLAST)-expressing cells, replicates such alterations. A normal response to altering directly CNS glucose levels in mice lacking astrocytic IRs indicates a role in glucose transport across the blood-brain barrier (BBB). This was confirmed in vivo in GFAP-IR KO mice by using positron emission tomography and glucose monitoring in cerebral spinal fluid. We conclude that insulin signaling in hypothalamic astrocytes co-controls CNS glucose sensing and systemic glucose metabolism via regulation of glucose uptake across the BBB.

  10. Structural and functional effects of social isolation on the hippocampus of rats with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Khodaie, Babak; Lotfinia, Ahmad Ali; Ahmadi, Milad; Lotfinia, Mahmoud; Jafarian, Maryam; Karimzadeh, Fariba; Coulon, Philippe; Gorji, Ali

    2015-02-01

    Social isolation has significant long-term psychological and physiological consequences. Both social isolation and traumatic brain injury (TBI) alter normal brain function and structure. However, the influence of social isolation on recovery from TBI is unclear. This study aims to evaluate if social isolation exacerbates the anatomical and functional deficits after TBI in young rats. Juvenile male rats were divided into four groups; sham operated control with social contacts, sham control with social isolation, TBI with social contacts, and TBI with social isolation. During four weeks after brain injury in juvenile rats, we evaluated the animal behaviors by T-maze and open-field tests, recorded brain activity with electrocorticograms and assessed structural changes by histological procedures in the hippocampal dentate gyrus, CA1, and CA3 areas. Our findings revealed significant memory impairments and hyperactivity conditions in rats with TBI and social isolation compared to the other groups. Histological assessments showed an increase of the mean number of dark neurons, apoptotic cells, and caspase-3 positive cells in all tested areas of the hippocampus in TBI rats with and without social isolation compared to sham rats. Furthermore, social isolation significantly increased the number of dark cells, apoptotic neurons, and caspase-3 positive cells in the hippocampal CA3 region in rats with TBI. This study indicates the harmful effect of social isolation on anatomical and functional deficits induced by TBI in juvenile rats. Prevention of social isolation may improve the outcome of TBI.

  11. Effect of Cyclosporin A on the Uptake of D3-Selective PET Radiotracers in Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Tu, Zhude; Li, Shihong; Xu, Jinbin; Chu, Wenhua; Jones, Lynne A.; Luedtke, Robert R.; Mach, Robert H.

    2011-01-01

    Introduction Four benzamide analogs having a high affinity and selectivity for D3 versus D2 receptors were radiolabeled with 11C or 18F for in vivo evaluation. Methods Precursors were synthesized and the four D3 selective benzamide analogs were radiolabeled. The tissue distribution and brain uptake of the four compounds were evaluated in control rats and rats pretreated with cyclosporin A, a modulator of P-glycoprotein and an inhibitor of other ABC efflux transporters that contribute to the blood brain barrier. MicroPET imaging was carried out for [11C]6 in a control and a cyclosporin A pre-treated rat. Results All four compounds showed low brain uptake in control rats at 5 and 30 min post-injection; despite recently reported rat behavioral studies conducted on analogs 6 (WC-10) and 7 (WC-44). Following administration of cyclosporin A, increased brain uptake was observed with all four PET radiotracers at both 5 and 30 min post-i.v. injection. An increase in brain uptake following modulation/inhibition of the ABC transporters was also observed in the microPET study. Conclusions These data suggest that D3 selective conformationally-flexible benzamide analogs which contain a N-2-methoxyphenylpiperazine moiety are substrates for P-glycoprotein or other ABC transporters expressed at the blood-brain barrier, and that PET radiotracers containing this pharmacophore may display low brain uptake in rodents due to the action of these efflux transporters. PMID:21718948

  12. Genomic responses in rat cerebral cortex after traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    von Gertten, Christina; Morales, Amilcar Flores; Holmin, Staffan; Mathiesen, Tiit; Nordqvist, Ann-Christin Sandberg

    2005-01-01

    Background Traumatic brain injury (TBI) initiates a complex sequence of destructive and neuroprotective cellular responses. The initial mechanical injury is followed by an extended time period of secondary brain damage. Due to the complicated pathological picture a better understanding of the molecular events occurring during this secondary phase of injury is needed. This study was aimed at analysing gene expression patterns following cerebral cortical contusion in rat using high throughput microarray technology with the goal of identifying genes involved in an early and in a more delayed phase of trauma, as genomic responses behind secondary mechanisms likely are time-dependent. Results Among the upregulated genes 1 day post injury, were transcription factors and genes involved in metabolism, e.g. STAT-3, C/EBP-δ and cytochrome p450. At 4 days post injury we observed increased gene expression of inflammatory factors, proteases and their inhibitors, like cathepsins, α-2-macroglobulin and C1q. Notably, genes with biological function clustered to immune response were significantly upregulated 4 days after injury, which was not found following 1 day. Osteopontin and one of its receptors, CD-44, were both upregulated showing a local mRNA- and immunoreactivity pattern in and around the injury site. Fewer genes had decreased expression both 1 and 4 days post injury and included genes implicated in transport, metabolism, signalling, and extra cellular matrix formation, e.g. vitronectin, neuroserpin and angiotensinogen. Conclusion The different patterns of gene expression, with little overlap in genes, 1 and 4 days post injury showed time dependence in genomic responses to trauma. An early induction of factors involved in transcription could lead to the later inflammatory response with strongly upregulated CD-44 and osteopontin expression. An increased knowledge of genes regulating the pathological mechanisms in trauma will help to find future treatment targets. Since

  13. Dynamic coupling of complex brain networks and dual-task behavior.

    PubMed

    Alavash, Mohsen; Thiel, Christiane M; Gießing, Carsten

    2016-04-01

    Multi-tasking is a familiar situation where behavioral performance is often challenged. To date, fMRI studies investigating the neural underpinning of dual-task interference have mostly relied on local brain activation maps or static brain connectivity networks. Here, based on task fMRI we explored how fluctuations in behavior during concurrent performance of a visuospatial and a speech task relate to alternations in the topology of dynamic brain connectivity networks. We combined a time-resolved functional connectivity and complex network analysis with a sliding window approach applied to the trial by trial behavioral responses to investigate the coupling between dynamic brain networks and dual-task behavior at close temporal proximity. Participants showed fluctuations in their dual-task behavior over time, with the accuracy in the component tasks being statistically independent from one another. On the global level of brain networks we found that dynamic changes of network topology were differentially coupled with the behavior in each component task during the course of dual-tasking. While momentary decrease in the global efficiency of dynamic brain networks correlated with subsequent increase in visuospatial accuracy, better speech performance was preceded by higher global network efficiency and was followed by an increase in between-module connectivity over time. Additionally, dynamic alternations in the modular organization of brain networks at the posterior cingulate cortex were differentially predictive for the visuospatial as compared to the speech accuracy over time. Our results provide the first evidence that, during the course of dual-tasking, each component task is supported by a distinct topological configuration of brain connectivity networks. This finding suggests that the failure of functional brain connectivity networks to adapt to an optimal topology supporting the performance in both component tasks at the same time contributes to the moment to

  14. Robust automatic rodent brain extraction using 3-D pulse-coupled neural networks (PCNN).

    PubMed

    Chou, Nigel; Wu, Jiarong; Bai Bingren, Jordan; Qiu, Anqi; Chuang, Kai-Hsiang

    2011-09-01

    Brain extraction is an important preprocessing step for further processing (e.g., registration and morphometric analysis) of brain MRI data. Due to the operator-dependent and time-consuming nature of manual extraction, automated or semi-automated methods are essential for large-scale studies. Automatic methods are widely available for human brain imaging, but they are not optimized for rodent brains and hence may not perform well. To date, little work has been done on rodent brain extraction. We present an extended pulse-coupled neural network algorithm that operates in 3-D on the entire image volume. We evaluated its performance under varying SNR and resolution and tested this method against the brain-surface extractor (BSE) and a level-set algorithm proposed for mouse brain. The results show that this method outperforms existing methods and is robust under low SNR and with partial volume effects at lower resolutions. Together with the advantage of minimal user intervention, this method will facilitate automatic processing of large-scale rodent brain studies.

  15. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury.

    PubMed

    Servatius, Richard J; Marx, Christine E; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D; Naylor, Jennifer C; Pang, Kevin C H

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration.

  16. Brain and Serum Androsterone Is Elevated in Response to Stress in Rats with Mild Traumatic Brain Injury

    PubMed Central

    Servatius, Richard J.; Marx, Christine E.; Sinha, Swamini; Avcu, Pelin; Kilts, Jason D.; Naylor, Jennifer C.; Pang, Kevin C. H.

    2016-01-01

    Exposure to lateral fluid percussion (LFP) injury consistent with mild traumatic brain injury (mTBI) persistently attenuates acoustic startle responses (ASRs) in rats. Here, we examined whether the experience of head trauma affects stress reactivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were matched for ASRs and randomly assigned to receive mTBI through LFP or experience a sham surgery (SHAM). ASRs were measured post injury days (PIDs) 1, 3, 7, 14, 21, and 28. To assess neurosteroids, rats received a single 2.0 mA, 0.5 s foot shock on PID 34 (S34), PID 35 (S35), on both days (2S), or the experimental context (CON). Levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone (PREG), allopregnanolone (ALLO), and androsterone (ANDRO) were determined for the prefrontal cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum. For 2S rats, repeated blood samples were obtained at 15, 30, and 60 min post-stressor for determination of corticosterone (CORT) levels after stress or context on PID 34. Similar to earlier work, ASRs were severely attenuated in mTBI rats without remission for 28 days after injury. No differences were observed between mTBI and SHAM rats in basal CORT, peak CORT levels or its recovery. In serum and brain, ANDRO levels were the most stress-sensitive. Stress-induced ANDRO elevations were greater than those in mTBI rats. As a positive allosteric modulator of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABAA) receptors, increased brain ANDRO levels are expected to be anxiolytic. The impact of brain ANDRO elevations in the aftermath of mTBI on coping warrants further elaboration. PMID:27616978

  17. Exploring neuro-vascular and neuro-metabolic coupling in rat somatosensory cortex

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Mesquita, R. C.; Huppert, T. J.; Boas, D. A.

    2009-01-01

    The existence of a coupling between changes in neuronal activity, cerebral blood flow and blood oxygenation is well known. The explicit relationship between these systems, however, is complex and remains a subject of intense research. Here, we use direct electrophysiological recordings to predict blood flow and oxygenation changes measured with optical methods during parametric stimulation applied to the somatosensory cortex in rat brain. Using a multimodal model of the cerebral functional unit, we estimate a neuro-vascular and a neuro-metabolic transfer function relating the experimentally measured neural responses with the inputs to a vascular model predicting hemodynamic and blood oxygenation changes. We show that our model can accurately predict experimentally measured parametric hemodynamic evoked responses by using a single linear transfer function relationship with a reduced number of state parameters to relate the level of neural activity to evoked cerebral blood flow and oxygen metabolism changes. At the same time, we characterize the metabolic and vascular neural response functions and interpret their physiological significance.

  18. Low intensity ultrasound inhibits brain oedema formation in rats: potential action on AQP4 membrane localization.

    PubMed

    Karmacharya, Mrigendra Bir; Kim, Kil Hwan; Kim, See Yoon; Chung, Joonho; Min, Byoung-Hyun; Park, So Ra; Choi, Byung Hyune

    2015-06-01

    Brain oedema is a major contributing factor to the morbidity and mortality of a variety of brain disorders. Although there has been considerable progress in our understanding of pathophysiological and molecular mechanisms associated with brain oedema so far, more effective treatment is required and is still awaited. Here we intended to study the effects of low intensity ultrasound (LIUS) on brain oedema. We prepared the rat hippocampal slice in vitro and acute water intoxication in vivo models of brain oedema. We applied LIUS stimulation in these models and studied the molecular mechanisms of LIUS action on brain oedema. We found that LIUS stimulation markedly inhibited the oedema formation in both of these models. LIUS stimulation significantly reduced brain water content and intracranial pressure resulting in increased survival of the rats. Here, we showed that the AQP4 localization was increased in the astrocytic foot processes in the oedematous hippocampal slices, while it was significantly reduced in the LIUS-stimulated hippocampal slices. In the in vivo model too, AQP4 expression was markedly increased in the microvessels of the cerebral cortex and hippocampus after water intoxication but was reduced in the LIUS-stimulated rats. These data show that LIUS has an inhibitory effect on cytotoxic brain oedema and suggest its therapeutic potential to treat brain oedema. We propose that LIUS reduces the AQP4 localization around the astrocytic foot processes thereby decreasing water permeability into the brain tissue. © 2014 British Neuropathological Society.

  19. Neuronal networks and mediators of cortical neurovascular coupling responses in normal and altered brain states.

    PubMed

    Lecrux, C; Hamel, E

    2016-10-05

    Brain imaging techniques that use vascular signals to map changes in neuronal activity, such as blood oxygenation level-dependent functional magnetic resonance imaging, rely on the spatial and temporal coupling between changes in neurophysiology and haemodynamics, known as 'neurovascular coupling (NVC)'. Accordingly, NVC responses, mapped by changes in brain haemodynamics, have been validated for different stimuli under physiological conditions. In the cerebral cortex, the networks of excitatory pyramidal cells and inhibitory interneurons generating the changes in neural activity and the key mediators that signal to the vascular unit have been identified for some incoming afferent pathways. The neural circuits recruited by whisker glutamatergic-, basal forebrain cholinergic- or locus coeruleus noradrenergic pathway stimulation were found to be highly specific and discriminative, particularly when comparing the two modulatory systems to the sensory response. However, it is largely unknown whether or not NVC is still reliable when brain states are altered or in disease conditions. This lack of knowledge is surprising since brain imaging is broadly used in humans and, ultimately, in conditions that deviate from baseline brain function. Using the whisker-to-barrel pathway as a model of NVC, we can interrogate the reliability of NVC under enhanced cholinergic or noradrenergic modulation of cortical circuits that alters brain states.This article is part of the themed issue 'Interpreting BOLD: a dialogue between cognitive and cellular neuroscience'.

  20. Cell-free DNA as a marker for prediction of brain damage in traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ohayon, Sharon; Boyko, Matthew; Saad, Amit; Douvdevani, Amos; Gruenbaum, Benjamin F; Melamed, Israel; Shapira, Yoram; Teichberg, Vivian I; Zlotnik, Alexander

    2012-01-20

    Traumatic brain injury (TBI) is a major cause of morbidity and mortality, and early predictors of neurological outcomes are of great clinical importance. Cell free DNA (CFD), a biomarker used for the diagnosis and monitoring of several diseases, has been implicated as a possible prognostic indicator after TBI. The purpose of this study was to determine the pattern and timing of CFD levels after TBI, and whether a relationship exists between the level of CFD and brain edema and neurological outcomes. Thirty-nine Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to two groups: rats in group 1 (sham group) were anesthetized and had a scalp incision without TBI, and rats in group 2 were anesthetized and had a scalp incision with TBI, which was induced by using a weight drop model that causes diffuse brain injury. A neurological severity score (NSS) was assessed at 1, 24, and 48 h after TBI. CFD was measured via blood samples drawn at t=0 (baseline), 12, 24, 48, 72, and 120 h after TBI. At 48 h after TBI, brain edema was determined in a subgroup of 11 rats by calculating the difference between rats' wet and dry brain weight. The significance of comparisons between and within groups (CFD levels, brain water content, and NSS) were determined using the Kruskal-Wallis, Mann-Whitney and Student t test. The correlation between CFD levels and the NSS, as well as between CFD levels and the extent of brain edema, was calculated using the Spearman and Pearson tests, respectively. Compared with baseline levels, the CFD levels in rats subjected to TBI were significantly increased at 24 and 48 h after TBI (p<0.01 and p<0.05, respectively). A positive correlation was demonstrated between CFD levels 24 h following TBI and the extent of brain edema (r=0.63, p<0.05), as well as between CFD levels and the NSS (r=0.79, p<0.005). In this study, we demonstrated an increase in CFD levels after TBI, as well as a correlation between CFD levels and brain edema and NSS. CFD levels may provide a

  1. Spatial embedding of fMRI for investigating local coupling in human brain

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Deshpande, Gopikrishna; LaConte, Stephen M.; Peltier, Scott; Hu, Xiaoping

    2005-04-01

    In this paper, we have investigated local spatial couplings in the human brain by applying nonlinear dynamical techniques on fMRI data. We have recorded BOLD-contrast echo-planar fMRI data along with high-resolution T1-weighted anatomical images from the resting brain of healthy human subjects and performed physiological correction on the functional data. The corrected data from resting subjects is spatially embedded into its phase space and the largest Lyapunov exponent of the resulting attractor is calculated and whole slice maps are obtained. In addition, we segment the high-resolution anatomical image and obtain a down sampled mask corresponding to gray and white matter, which is used to obtain mean indices of the exponents for both the tissues separately. The results show the existence of local couplings, its tissue specificity (more local coupling in gray matter than white matter) and dependence on the size of the neighborhood (larger the neighborhood, lesser the coupling). We believe that these techniques capture the information of a nonlinear and evolving system like the brain that may not be evident from static linear methods. The results show that there is evidence of spatio-temporal chaos in the brain, which is a significant finding hitherto not reported in literature to the best of our knowledge. We try to interpret our results from healthy resting subjects based on our knowledge of the native low frequency fluctuations in the resting brain and obtain a better understanding of the local spatial behavior of fMRI. This exploratory study has demonstrated the utility of nonlinear dynamical techniques like spatial embedding in analyzing fMRI data to gain meaningful insights into the working of human brain.

  2. Does Aldosterone Upregulate the Brain Renin-Angiotensin System in Rats with Heart Failure?

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Yang; Wei, Shun-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Hua; Gomez-Sanchez, Elise; Weiss, Robert M; Felder, Robert B

    2009-01-01

    The brain renin-angiotensin system (RAS) contributes to increased sympathetic drive in heart failure (HF). The factors upregulating the brain RAS in HF remain unknown. We hypothesized that aldosterone (ALDO), a downstream product of the systemic RAS that crosses the blood-brain barrier, signals the brain to increase RAS activity in HF. We examined the relationship between circulating and brain ALDO in normal intact rats, in adrenalectomized rats receiving subcutaneous infusions of ALDO, and in rats with ischemia-induced HF and sham-operated controls (SHAM). Brain ALDO levels were proportional to plasma ALDO levels across the spectrum of rats studied. Compared with SHAM rats, HF rats had higher plasma and hypothalamic tissue levels of ALDO. HF rats also had higher expression of mRNA and protein for angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE) and angiotensin type 1 receptors (AT1-R) in hypothalamus, increased reduced nicotinamide-adenine dinucleotide phosphate (NAD(P)H) oxidase activity and superoxide generation in paraventricular nucleus (PVN) of hypothalamus, increased excitation of PVN neurons, and increased plasma norepinephrine (NE). HF rats treated for 4 weeks with intracerebroventricular RU28318 (1 μg/hr), a selective mineralocorticoid receptor antagonist, had less hypothalamic ACE and AT1-R mRNA and protein, less NAD(P)H-induced superoxide in PVN, fewer excited PVN neurons, and lower plasma NE. RU28318 had no effect on plasma ALDO, or on ACE or AT1-R mRNA expression in brain cortex. The data demonstrate that ALDO of adrenal origin enters the hypothalamus in direct proportion to plasma levels, and suggest that ALDO contributes to the upregulation of hypothalamic RAS activity and sympathetic drive in heart failure. PMID:18227408

  3. Amplified respiratory–sympathetic coupling in the spontaneously hypertensive rat: does it contribute to hypertension?

    PubMed Central

    Simms, Annabel E; Paton, Julian F R; Pickering, Anthony E; Allen, Andrew M

    2009-01-01

    Sympathetic nerve activity (SNA) is elevated in established hypertension. We tested the hypothesis that SNA is elevated in neonate and juvenile spontaneously hypertensive (SH) rats prior to the development of hypertension, and that this may be due to augmented respiratory–sympathetic coupling. Using the working heart–brainstem preparation, perfusion pressure, phrenic nerve activity and thoracic (T8) SNA were recorded in male SH rats and normotensive Wistar–Kyoto (WKY) rats at three ages: neonates (postnatal day 9–16), 3 weeks old and 5 weeks old. Perfusion pressure was higher in SH rats at all ages reflecting higher vascular resistance. The amplitude of respiratory-related bursts of SNA was greater in SH rats at all ages (P < 0.05). This was reflected in larger Traube–Hering pressure waves in SH rats (1.4 ± 0.8 versus 9.8 ± 1.5 mmHg WKY versus SH rat, 5 weeks old, n= 5 per group, P < 0.01). Recovery from hypocapnic-induced apnoea and reinstatement of Traube–Hering waves produced a significantly greater increase in perfusion pressure in SH rats (P < 0.05). Differences in respiratory–sympathetic coupling in the SH rat were not secondary to changes in central or peripheral chemoreflex sensitivity, nor were they related to altered arterial baroreflex function. We have shown that increased SNA is already present in SH rats in early postnatal life as revealed by augmented respiratory modulation of SNA. This is reflected in an increased magnitude of Traube–Hering waves resulting in elevated perfusion pressure in the SH rat. We suggest that the amplified respiratory-related bursts of SNA seen in the neonate and juvenile SH rat may be causal in the development of their hypertension. PMID:19064613

  4. In vivo deep brain imaging of rats using oral-cavity illuminated photoacoustic computed tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lin, Li; Xia, Jun; Wong, Terence T. W.; Li, Lei; Wang, Lihong V.

    2015-01-01

    Using internal illumination with an optical fiber in the oral cavity, we demonstrate, for the first time, photoacoustic computed tomography (PACT) of the deep brain of rats in vivo. The experiment was performed on a full-ring-array PACT system, with the capability of providing high-speed cross-sectional imaging of the brain. Compared with external illumination through the cranial skull, internal illumination delivers more light to the base of the brain. Consequently, in vivo photoacoustic images clearly reveal deep brain structures such as the hypothalamus, brain stem, and cerebral medulla.

  5. Enzymatic activities in brains of diabetic rats treated with vanadyl sulphate and sodium tungstate.

    PubMed

    Lemberg, A; Fernández, M A; Ouviña, G; Rodríguez, R R; Peredo, H A; Susemihl, C; Villarreal, I; Filinger, E J

    2007-12-01

    The hypothesis of the present study was that diabetes mellitus might affect brain metabolism. Streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats, treated with vanadyl sulphate (V) and sodium tungstate (T) were employed to observe the aspartate aminotransferase (AST), alanine aminotransferase (ALT) and creatine kinase (CK) activities in brain homogenates. Significant increases in AST, ALT and CK activities were found in diabetic brain homogenates against controls, suggesting increments of transamination in brain and/or increases in cell membrane permeability to these enzymes. The increase in brain CK possibly expresses alterations in energy production. The decrease in CK activity caused by V and T treatment in diabetic rats suggests that both agents tend to normalize energy consumption. It is also possible that V and T-induced hypoglycemic effects cause metabolic alterations in brain.

  6. (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Houghten, R.A.; Johnson, N.; Pasternak, G.W.

    1984-10-01

    The binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to rat brain homogenates is complex. Although Scatchard analysis of saturation studies yields a straight line, detailed competition studies are multiphasic, suggesting that even at low concentrations of the compound, the /sup 3/H-ligand is binding to more than one class of site. A portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding is sensitive to low concentrations of morphine or D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin (less than 5 nM). The inhibition observed with each compound alone (5 nM) is the same as that seen with both together (each at 5 nM). Thus, the binding remaining in the presence of both morphine and the enkephalin does not correspond to either mu or delta sites. The portion of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding that is inhibited under these conditions appears to be equally sensitive to both morphine and the enkephalin and may correspond to mu1 sites. Treating membrane homogenates with naloxonazine, a mu1 selective antagonist, lowers (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin binding to the same degree as morphine and D-Ala2-Leu5-enkephalin alone or together. This possible binding of (/sup 3/H)-beta-endorphin to mu1 sites is consistent with the role of mu1 sites in beta-endorphin analgesia and catalepsy in vivo.

  7. Presynaptic localization of histamine H3-receptors in rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Fujimoto, K.; Mizuguchi, H.; Fukui, H.; Wada, H. )

    1991-06-28

    The localization of histamine H3-receptors in subcellular fractions from the rat brain was examined in a (3H) (R) alpha-methylhistamine binding assay and compared with those of histamine H1- and adrenaline alpha 1- and alpha 2-receptors. Major (3H)(R) alpha-methylhistamine binding sites with increased specific activities ((3H)ligand binding vs. protein amount) were recovered from the P2 fraction by differential centrifugation. Minor (3H)(R)alpha-methylhistamine binding sites with increased specific activities were also detected in the P3 fraction. Further subfractionation of the P2 fraction by discontinuous sucrose density gradient centrifugation showed major recoveries of (3H)(R)alpha-methylhistamine binding in myelin (MYE) and synaptic plasma membrane (SPM) fractions. A further increase in specific activity was observed in the MYE fraction, but the SPM fraction showed no significant increase in specific activity. Adrenaline alpha 2-receptors, the pre-synaptic autoreceptors, in a (3H) yohimbine binding assay showed distribution patterns similar to histamine H3-receptors. On the other hand, post-synaptic histamine H1- and adrenaline alpha 1-receptors were closely localized and distributed mainly in the SPM fraction with increased specific activity. Only a negligible amount was recovered in the MYE fraction, unlike the histamine H3- and adrenaline alpha 2-receptors.

  8. ISOLATION AND STRUCTURAL STUDIES ON SYNAPTIC COMPLEXES FROM RAT BRAIN

    PubMed Central

    Cotman, Carl W.; Taylor, Dwan

    1972-01-01

    A fraction enriched in synaptic complexes has been isolated from rat brain. The major structural elements of synaptic complexes after isolation are a sector of pre- and postsynaptic plasma membranes joined together by a synaptic cleft and a postsynaptic density (PSD) located on the inner surface of the postsynaptic membrane. On its outer surface, the postsynaptic membrane has a series of projections which extend about halfway into the cleft and which occur along the entire length of the PSD. Proteolytic enzymes at high concentrations remove the PSD and open the synaptic cleft; at low concentrations the PSD is selectively destroyed. By contrast, the structural integrity of the PSD is resistant to treatment with NaCl, EGTA, and low concentrations of urea. Pre- and postsynaptic membranes also remain joined by the synaptic cleft after NaCl, EGTA, or mild urea treatment. High concentrations of urea cause the partial dissociation of the PSD. We conclude that polypeptides are probably one of the major components of the PSD and that the structural integrity of the PSD depends on polypeptides because disruption of the covalent or hydrophobic bonding of these polypeptides leads to a progressive loss of PSD structure. PMID:4656707

  9. Xenon preconditioning reduces brain damage from neonatal asphyxia in rats.

    PubMed

    Ma, Daqing; Hossain, Mahmuda; Pettet, Garry K J; Luo, Yan; Lim, Ta; Akimov, Stanislav; Sanders, Robert D; Franks, Nicholas P; Maze, Mervyn

    2006-02-01

    Xenon attenuates on-going neuronal injury in both in vitro and in vivo models of hypoxic-ischaemic injury when administered during and after the insult. In the present study, we sought to investigate whether the neuroprotective efficacy of xenon can be observed when administered before an insult, referred to as 'preconditioning'. In a neuronal-glial cell coculture, preexposure to xenon for 2 h caused a concentration-dependent reduction of lactate dehydrogenase release from cells deprived of oxygen and glucose 24 h later; xenon's preconditioning effect was abolished by cycloheximide, a protein synthesis inhibitor. Preconditioning with xenon decreased propidium iodide staining in a hippocampal slice culture model subjected to oxygen and glucose deprivation. In an in vivo model of neonatal asphyxia involving hypoxic-ischaemic injury to 7-day-old rats, preconditioning with xenon reduced infarction size when assessed 7 days after injury. Furthermore, a sustained improvement in neurologic function was also evident 30 days after injury. Phosphorylated cAMP (cyclic adenosine 3',5'-monophosphate)-response element binding protein (pCREB) was increased by xenon exposure. Also, the prosurvival proteins Bcl-2 and brain-derived neurotrophic factor were upregulated by xenon treatment. These studies provide evidence for xenon's preconditioning effect, which might be caused by a pCREB-regulated synthesis of proteins that promote survival against neuronal injury.

  10. Purification and properties of choline kinase from rat brain.

    PubMed

    Uchida, T; Yamashita, S

    1990-04-17

    A blue-dye column separated rat brain choline kinase (EC 2.7.1.32) into two peaks, very likely corresponding to distinct isozymes. The major-peak enzyme was purified 15,000-fold to homogeneity. The final specific activity was approx. 40 mumol.min-1.mg-1. This is 10-times higher than that reported for the enzymes from lung and kidney. The purified enzyme gave a single 44 kDa protein band on sodium dodecyl sulfate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Analytical gel-filtration showed that the native enzyme had a molecular weight of 90,000 and a Stokes radius of 4.2 nm. The sedimentation coefficient was deduced to be 4.8 S and the molecular weight 87,600 by sucrose-density-gradient centrifugation. Hence, the native enzyme appears to be a dimer. The apparent Km values for ATP and choline were 1.0 mM and 14 microM, respectively. At high choline concentrations, the enzyme showed deviation from Michaelis-Menten kinetics. The enzyme was active in a high pH range and utilized a variety of amino alcohols structurally related to choline, including ethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine and N,N-dimethylethanolamine as substrates. Spermine and spermidine stimulated the enzyme by decreasing the apparent Km for ATP and increasing Vmax. Although less efficiently, monovalent cations such as NH4+, K+, Li+ and Na+ and quaternary amines such as carpronium, chlorocholine and acetylcholine were also stimulatory.

  11. Presence of corticotropin in brain of normal and hypophysectomized rats.

    PubMed Central

    Krieger, D T; Liotta, A; Brownstein, M J

    1977-01-01

    Immunoreactive and bioreactive corticotropin (ACTH-like) activities have been detected in the median eminence and remaining medial basal hypothalamus of both normal and hypophysectomized adult male rats: bioreactive ACTH (pg/100 mug of protein) 1028 in median eminence and 1289 in medial basal hypothalamus; immunoreactive ACTH (midportion ACTH antibody), 1554 in median eminence and 1887 in medial basal hypothalamus. By use of appropriate antibodies and bioassay, it was demonstrated that immunoreactivity was not due solely to alpha-melanotropin, which has previously been reported to be present in the brain of hypophysectomized animals. The Sephadex G-50 gel filtration patterns determined by immunoassay of column eluates obtained from hypothalamic extracts of normal or hypophysectomized animals were similar but were not identical to the pattern derived from whole pituitary. Immunoreactive (midportion ACTH antibody) ACTH concentrations (pg/100 mug of protein) of other central nervous system areas in normal animals were: cerebellum 34.3, cortex 46.3, thalamus 23.8, and hippocampus 116.3. The total amount of bioreactive ACTH present in the median eminence and medial basal hypothalamus is approximately 1% of that present in the pituitary. The present data suggest that such ACTH may have a diencephalic rather than pituitary origin and raise the question of the functional significance of such ACTH. Images PMID:191820

  12. Brain neuronal chromatin responses in acute soman intoxicated rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, L J; Doebler, J A; Wall, T J; Shih, T M; Anthony, A

    1986-08-01

    Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200 g) were injected subcutaneously with soman, a potent neuronal acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, at doses of 0.5, 0.8 and 1.0 LD50 (1 LD50 = 135 micrograms/kg) before decapitation at 1 and 24 h post-exposure. Correlative data were obtained on the severity of brain AChE inactivation and physicochemical changes in nuclear chromatin of cerebrocortical (layer V) and striatal neurons using Feulgen-DNA (F-DNA) cytophotometry and ocular filar micrometry. Decreased lability of neurons to F-DNA acid hydrolysis (reduced F-DNA yield), nuclear shrinkage and chromatin aggregation (decreased chromophore area) were used as indices of suppression of genomic template activity; conversely, increases in F-DNA yield and chromophore area signify enhanced neuroexcitation. At 1 hr post-soman there was a dose-dependent inactivation of AChE with a moderate increase in chromatin activation, i.e., nuclear hypertrophy and chromatin dispersion. At 24 hr post-soman there was a partial restoration of AChE activity, notably in striatal neurons, with a suppression in chromatin template activity. These data indicate that actions of soman on neuronal functioning are time-dependent. The absence of any dose-related neuronal chromatin changes may signify existence of non-cholinergic mediated events.

  13. Cannabinoids: influence on neurotransmitter uptake in rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Banerjee, S P; Snyder, S H; Mechoulam, R

    1975-07-01

    We have examined the effect of Delta1-tetrahydrocannabinol (delat1-THC) and 12 of its derivatives on the uptake of 3H-labeled norepinephrine (NE), dopamine (DA), serotonin (5-HT) gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) into synaptosomes in homogenates of various regions of rat brain. Delta1-THC inhibits the accumulation of NE and 5-HT into hypothalamic preparations and DA into the corpus striatum with Ki values of about 12 to 25 muM while GABA uptake into cerebral cortical preparations is inhibited less (Ki = 140 muM). The affinities of delta6-THC, 7-hydroxy-delta1-THC, 7-hydroxy-delta6-THC and cannabidiol for 5-HT, NE and GABA transports are similar to values for delta1-THC, while cannabigerol, cannabinol and delta6-THC-7-oic acid have substantially less affinity. Thus, hydroxylation of C-7 in delta6-THC does not alter inhibitory potency, but its oxidation to an acid and aromatization of ring A greatly reduce affinity. The hydroxyl at C-3(1) of ring C is critical for inhibition of NE, 5-HT and GABA uptake, since its acetylation or methylation abolishes activity. Inhibition of NE, DA, 5-HT and GABA uptake by all cannabinoids examined is noncompetitive. Only about 1% of delta1-THC and delta6-THC and 5% of cannabidiol are fully soluble under our experimental conditions.

  14. Toxicological aspects of interesterified fat: Brain damages in rats.

    PubMed

    D'avila, Lívia Ferraz; Dias, Verônica Tironi; Vey, Luciana Taschetto; Milanesi, Laura Hautrive; Roversi, Karine; Emanuelli, Tatiana; Bürger, Marilise Escobar; Trevizol, Fabíola; Maurer, H Luana

    2017-07-05

    In recent years, interesterified fat (IF) has been used to replace hydrogenated vegetable fat (HVF), rich in trans isomers, being found in processed foods. Studies involving IF have shown deleterious influences on the metabolic system, similarly to HVF, whereas no studies regarding its influence on the central nervous system (CNS) were performed. Rats from first generation born and maintained under supplementation (3g/Kg, p.o.) of soybean-oil or IF until adulthood were assessed on memory, biochemical and molecular markers in the hippocampus. IF group showed higher saturated fatty acids and linoleic acid and lower docosahexaenoic acid incorporation in the hippocampus. In addition, IF supplementation impaired short and long-term memory, which were related to increased reactive species generation and protein carbonyl levels, decreased catalase activity, BDNF and TrkB levels in the hippocampus. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study to show that lifelong IF consumption may be related to brain oxidative damage, memory impairments and neurotrophins modifications, which collectively may be present indifferent neurological disorders. In fact, the use of IF in foods was intended to avoid damage from HVF consumption; however this substitute should be urgently reviewed, since this fat can be as harmful as trans fat. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Maternal low protein diet decreases brain-derived neurotrophic factor expression in the brains of the neonatal rat offspring

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Prenatal exposure to a maternal low protein diet has been known to cause cognitive impairment, learning and memory deficits. However, the underlying mechanisms have not been identified. Herein, we demonstrate that a maternal low protein (LP) diet causes, in the brains of the neonatal rat offspring, ...

  16. Antenatal taurine supplementation for improving brain ultrastructure in fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction.

    PubMed

    Liu, J; Liu, L; Chen, H

    2011-05-05

    Changes in brain ultrastructure of fetal rats with intrauterine growth restriction (IUGR) were explored and the effects of antenatal taurine supplementation on their brain ultrastructure were determined. Fifteen pregnant rats were randomly divided into three groups: control group, IUGR model group and IUGR group given antenatal taurine supplements. Taurine was added to the diet of the taurine group at a dose of 300 mg/kg/d from 12 days after conception until natural delivery. Transmission electron microscopy was used to observe ultrastructural changes in the brains of the newborn rats. At the same time, brain cellular apoptosis was detected using TUNEL, and the changes in protein expression of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein were analyzed using immunohistochemistry. The results showed that: 1) The average body weight and cerebral weight were significantly lower in the IUGR group than in the control group (p<0.01) and both of them were less so after taurine was supplemented (p<0.01). 2) Transmission electron microscopy revealed that brain cortex structures were sparse IUGR rats, showing many scattered apoptotic cells, decreased numbers of synapses, lower glial cell proliferation, and fewer neurons, more sparsely arranged, while these factors were significantly improved with taurine supplementation. 3) The results of TUNEL showed that the counts of apoptotic brain cells in IUGR groups were significantly increased from those in control groups and that taurine could significantly decrease brain cell apoptosis (p<0.001). 4) The results of immunohistochemistry showed that antenatal taurine-supplementation could significantly increase the counts of neuron specific enolase and glial fibrillary acidic protein immunoreactive cells in fetal rats with IUGR (p<0.001). It can be concluded that it IUGR has a significant detrimental influence on the development of fetal rat brains, and antenatal supplement of taurine can significantly improve the IUGR

  17. Anti-oxidant defences and peroxidation in liver and brain of aged rats.

    PubMed Central

    Barja de Quiroga, G; Pérez-Campo, R; López Torres, M

    1990-01-01

    Old rats (28 months), when compared with young adults (9 months), did not show differences in activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) or selenium-dependent and -independent glutathione peroxidases (GPx), or in levels of GSH, GSSG, GSSG/GSH and endogenous peroxidation in liver and brain. Rates of stimulated peroxidation in vitro were decreased in the livers of old rats. Old animals showed decreased levels of hepatic catalase and glutathione reductase. Nevertheless, when enzyme activities were referred to cytochrome oxidase activity these decreases disappeared, and GPx and SOD (brain) were even increased in old rats. PMID:2176082

  18. Effect of three anorectic drugs on brain GABA levels and synthesis in the Zucker rat.

    PubMed

    Orosco, M; Bremond, J; Jacquot, C; Cohen, Y

    1983-01-01

    1. Genetically obese Zucker rats and their lean littermates were submitted to a subchronic treatment with fenfluramine, mazindol and amphetamine. GABA levels and synthesis index were measured in different brain areas. 2. GABA levels, similar in obese and lean controls, were not changed after the three treatments. 3. A higher synthesis index of GABA was found in lean rats, in the striatum after mazindol and in the hypothalamus after amphetamine. 4. The three drugs increased the synthesis index of GABA in the remainder of the brain of both obese and lean rats.

  19. [Semax prevents elevation of nitric oxide generation caused by incomplete global ischemia in the rat brain].

    PubMed

    Fadiukova, O E; Alekseev, A A; Bashkatova, V G; Tolordava, I A; Kuzenkov, V S; Mikoian, V D; Vanin, A F; Koshelev, V B; Raevskiĭ, K S

    2001-01-01

    A twofold increase in the nitric oxide (NO) production and a moderate increase in the content of secondary products of lipid peroxidation was observed in Wistar rats with incomplete global ischemia model induced by the bilateral occlusion of common carotid arteries. A clear correlation was observed between the NO content in the rat brain and the level of neurological disturbance manifestations in the ischemized animals. The synthetic peptide semax (a fragment of ACTH4-7 Pro-Gly-Pro) in a dose of 0.3 mg/kg prevented from the development of both neurological disturbances and excess NO production in the rat brain cortex.

  20. Neuroanatomical mapping of juvenile rat brain regions with prominent basal signal in [(35)S]GTPgammaS autoradiography.

    PubMed

    Aaltonen, Niina; Palomäki, Ville A B; Lecklin, Anne; Laitinen, Jarmo T

    2008-03-01

    [(35)S]GTPgammaS autoradiography represents a powerful functional approach to detect receptor-dependent G(i/o) protein activity in anatomically defined brain structures. Inherent to this technique, however, is the notable basal signal evident in several brain regions in the absence of receptor stimulation by exogenously added agonist. In the rat brain, much of this basal labelling derives from tonic activation of adenosine A(1) and lysophosphatidic acid LPA(1) receptors in the gray and white matter regions, respectively. Despite the elimination of the two receptor activities, prominent basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS labelling is still evident in discrete brain structures, possibly reflecting regional enrichment of G(i/o) and/or constitutive receptor activity or the presence of still unknown endogenous ligands activating their orphan receptors. Here, the anatomical distribution of the enhanced basal signal was systematically mapped in brain sections of 4-week-old male Wistar rats. Regions with prominent basal [(35)S]GTPgammaS labelling represented neuroanatomically distinct structures, in particular various thalamic and hypothalamic nuclei. For instance, the paraventricular thalamic nucleus, the bed nucleus of the stria terminalis and the subfornical organ were highly labelled, as were the periaqueductal gray and the nucleus of the solitary tract. Pre-treatment with N-ethylmaleimide (NEM), an alkylating agent preventing all known receptor-driven G protein activity in cryostat sections markedly decreased the basal binding in all examined regions. In preliminary screening, selective antagonists for various brain-enriched G(i/o)-coupled receptors failed to suppress the basal signal in any of the studied regions.

  1. Amplitude and phase coupling measures for feature extraction in an EEG-based brain computer interface

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wei, Qingguo; Wang, Yijun; Gao, Xiaorong; Gao, Shangkai

    2007-06-01

    Most of the feature extraction methods in existing brain-computer interfaces (BCIs) are based on the dynamic behavior of separate signals, without using the coupling information between different brain regions. In this paper, amplitude and phase coupling measures, quantified by a nonlinear regressive coefficient and phase locking value respectively, were used for feature extraction. The two measures were based on three different coupling methods determined by neurophysiological a priori knowledge, and applied to a small number of electrodes of interest, leading to six feature vectors for classification. Five subjects participated in an online BCI experiment during which they were asked to imagine a movement of either the left or right hand. The electroencephalographic (EEG) recordings from all subjects were analyzed offline. The averaged classification accuracies of the five subjects ranged from 87.4% to 92.9% for the six feature vectors and the best classification accuracies of the six feature vectors ranged between 84.4% and 99.6% for the five subjects. The performance of coupling features was compared with that of the autoregressive (AR) feature. Results indicated that coupling measures are appropriate methods for feature extraction in BCIs. Furthermore, the combination of coupling and AR feature can effectively improve the classification accuracy due to their complementarities.

  2. Effect of domoic acid on metabolism of 5-hydroxytryptamine in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Arias, B; Arufe, M; Alfonso, M; Duran, R

    1995-04-01

    Domoic acid (Dom) is a neurotoxic secondary amino acid that interacts with the glutamate receptors, producing neurological problems. In the present work, we study the effects of Dom on the levels of serotonin (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) in discrete rat brain regions. The effects of Dom on the brain metabolism of serotonin are also discussed in this paper. Dom stimulates the rat brain serotoninergic system, increasing differentially the synthesis and the catabolism of 5-HT and the elimination of 5-HIAA.

  3. Effects of nanoparticle zinc oxide on emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Amara, Salem; Slama, Imen Ben; Omri, Karim; El Ghoul, Jaber; El Mir, Lassaad; Rhouma, Khemais Ben; Abdelmelek, Hafedh; Sakly, Mohsen

    2015-12-01

    Over recent years, nanotoxicology and the potential effects on human body have grown in significance, the potential influences of nanosized materials on the central nervous system have received more attention. The aim of this study was to determine whether zinc oxide (ZnO) nanoparticles (NPs) exposure cause alterations in emotional behavior and trace elements homeostasis in rat brain. Rats were treated by intraperitoneal injection of ZnO NPs (20-30 nm) at a dose of 25 mg/kg body weight. Sub -: acute ZnO NPs treatment induced no significant increase in the zinc content in the homogenate brain. Statistically significant decreases in iron and calcium concentrations were found in rat brain tissue compared to control. However, sodium and potassium contents remained unchanged. Also, there were no significant changes in the body weight and the coefficient of brain. In the present study, the anxiety-related behavior was evaluated using the plus-maze test. ZnO NPs treatment modulates slightly the exploratory behaviors of rats. However, no significant differences were observed in the anxious index between ZnO NP-treated rats and the control group (p > 0.05). Interestingly, our results demonstrated minimal effects of ZnO NPs on emotional behavior of animals, but there was a possible alteration in trace elements homeostasis in rat brain.

  4. Immune response of rats to subcellular fractions of isologous brain and liver

    PubMed Central

    Shek, Raymond P. N.; MacPherson, Catherine F. C.

    1971-01-01

    The titres of complement fixing antibodies in the sera of rats injected with the soluble fraction of rat brain emulsified in Freunds' complete adjuvant (FCA) were usually below 10. In contrast, injections of the nuclear, mitochondrial or microsomal fractions of rat brain in FCA were followed by the appearances of heat stable complement fixing and haemagglutinating antibodies within a few days, the highest antibody levels being attained about 6 days after the first injection of a particulate fraction. The microsomal fraction was the most efficient particulate antigen. After 2 weeks of immunization about 60 per cent of the complement fixing activity of the antisera was due to 19S antibody and the remainder to 7S antibody. The response to injections of the nuclear and microsomal fractions of rat liver followed a similar time course but produced levels of complement fixing antibodies that were consistently lower than those engendered by the corresponding brain antigens. PMID:5571540

  5. Carnosine pretreatment protects against hypoxia-ischemia brain damage in the neonatal rat model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiangmin; Song, Lili; Cheng, Xiuyong; Yang, Yi; Luan, Bin; Jia, Liting; Xu, Falin; Zhang, Zhan

    2011-09-30

    Perinatal hypoxia-ischemia brain injury is a major cause of mortality and morbidity in neonates and lacks an effective treatment thus far. Carnosine has been demonstrated to play a neuroprotective role in the adult brain injuries. However, there is no information available concerning its neuroprotective role in the immature brains after hypoxia-ischemia insults. Therefore, we investigated whether carnosine could also confer neuroprotective effects in a neonatal rat hypoxia-ischemia model. Hypoxia-ischemia was induced in rats on postnatal day 7 (P7). Carnosine (250 mg/kg) was administered intraperitoneally, 30 min prior to hypoxia-ischemia induction. Morphological brain injury and biochemical markers of apoptosis and oxidative stress were evaluated 24 h after hypoxia-ischemia induction. Cognitive performance was evaluated by the Morris Water Maze test on P28-P33. We found that pretreatment with carnosine significantly reduced the infarct volume and the number of terminal-deoxynucleotidyl transferase-mediated dUTP nick end labeling (TUNEL)-positive cells in the hypoxia-ischemia brain. Carnosine also inhibited mRNA expression of apoptosis-inducing factor(AIF) and caspase-3, which was accompanied by an increase in superoxide dismutase(SOD)activity and a decrease in the malondialdehyde(MDA)level in carnosine-treated rats. Furthermore, carnosine also improved the spatial learning and memory abilities of rats declined due to hypoxia-ischemia. These results demonstrate that carnosine can protect rats against hypoxia-ischemia-induced brain damage by antioxidation.

  6. Oxidative damage is ameliorated by curcumin treatment in brain and sciatic nerve of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Acar, Abdullah; Akil, Esref; Alp, Harun; Evliyaoglu, Osman; Kibrisli, Erkan; Inal, Ali; Unan, Fatma; Tasdemir, Nebahat

    2012-07-01

    To date, there have not been enough studies about the effects of curcumin against oxidative stress on sciatic nerves caused by streptozotocin (STZ) in diabetic rats. Therefore, this study was undertaken to determine whether curcumin, by virtue of its antioxidant properties, could affect the oxidant/antioxidant balance in the sciatic nerve and brain tissues of streptozotocin (STZ)-induced diabetic rats. A total of 28 rats were randomly divided into four groups of seven rats each: normal controls, only curcumin treated, diabetic controls, and diabetics treated with curcumin. Biomarkers-malondialdehyde (MDA), total oxidant status (TOS), total antioxidant status (TAS), oxidative stress index (OSI), and NO levels-for oxidative stress in the brain and sciatic nerve tissues of the rats were measured. We found a significant increase in MDA, NO, TOS, and OSI, along with a reduction in TAS levels in the brains and sciatic nerves of the STZ-induced diabetic rats (for both parameters p < 0.05). The MDA, TOS, OSI, and NO levels in these tissues were significantly reduced in the curcumin-treated diabetic group compared to the untreated diabetic group. In conclusion, the results of this study suggested that curcumin exhibits neuroprotective effects against oxidative damage in the brain and sciatic tissues of diabetic rats.

  7. Volumetric changes in the aging rat brain and its impact on cognitive and locomotor functions.

    PubMed

    Hamezah, Hamizah Shahirah; Durani, Lina Wati; Ibrahim, Nor Faeizah; Yanagisawa, Daijiro; Kato, Tomoko; Shiino, Akihiko; Tanaka, Sachiko; Damanhuri, Hanafi Ahmad; Ngah, Wan Zurinah Wan; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2017-09-14

    Impairments in cognitive and locomotor functions usually occur with advanced age, as do changes in brain volume. This study was conducted to assess changes in brain volume, cognitive and locomotor functions, and oxidative stress levels in middle- to late-aged rats. Forty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into four groups: 14, 18, 23, and 27months of age. (1)H magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was performed using a 7.0-Tesla MR scanner system. The volumes of the lateral ventricles, medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), hippocampus, striatum, cerebellum, and whole brain were measured. Open field, object recognition, and Morris water maze tests were conducted to assess cognitive and locomotor functions. Blood was taken for measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA), protein carbonyl content, and antioxidant enzyme activity. The lateral ventricle volumes were larger, whereas the mPFC, hippocampus, and striatum volumes were smaller in 27-month-old rats than in 14-month-old rats. In behavioral tasks, the 27-month-old rats showed less exploratory activity and poorer spatial learning and memory than did the 14-month-old rats. Biochemical measurements likewise showed increased MDA and lower glutathione peroxidase (GPx) activity in the 27-month-old rats. In conclusion, age-related increases in oxidative stress, impairment in cognitive and locomotor functions, and changes in brain volume were observed, with the most marked impairments observed in later age. Copyright © 2017. Published by Elsevier Inc.

  8. Effect of neonatal body temperature on postanoxic, potentially neurotoxic iron accumulation in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Justyna; Danielisova, Viera; Caputa, Michał

    2006-01-30

    In asphyxiated newborns iron, released from heme and ferritin and deposited in the brain, contributes to neurodegeneration. Because hypothermia provides neuroprotection, newborn mammals, showing spontaneously reduced body temperature, might avoid the iron-mediated neurotoxicity. Therefore, we decided to study the effects of body temperature and chelation of iron with deferoxamine on iron accumulation in the brain of three weeks old rats exposed neonatally to a critical anoxia. At the age of two days, newborn rats were exposed to anoxia in 100% nitrogen atmosphere. Rectal temperature was kept at 33 degrees C (typical of the rat neonates), or elevated to a level typical of febrile (39 degrees C) adults. Control rats were exposed to atmospheric air in the respective thermal conditions. Half of the rats exposed to anoxia under hyperthermic conditions were injected with deferoxamine (DF), immediately after anoxia and 24 h later. Regional changes in cerebral iron deposition were examined in the frontal cortex, the hippocampus and the striatum, using iron histochemistry, when the rats reached the age of three weeks. Increased iron staining was found in neurons of each of the three cerebral regions in rats exposed to neonatal anoxia under hyperthermic conditions and the iron accumulation was prevented by postanoxic DF injection. In conclusion, febrile body temperature amplifies cerebral hyperferremia, which might induce neurodegenerative disturbances in the brain. On the other hand, a protection against the brain hyperferremia can be achieved by both the reduced physiological neonatal body temperature and by postasphyxic DF administration.

  9. Imaging brain activity during seizures in freely behaving rats using a miniature multi-modal imaging system

    PubMed Central

    Sigal, Iliya; Koletar, Margaret M.; Ringuette, Dene; Gad, Raanan; Jeffrey, Melanie; Carlen, Peter L.; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-01-01

    We report on a miniature label-free imaging system for monitoring brain blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in awake, freely behaving rats. The device, weighing 15 grams, enables imaging in a ∼ 2 × 2 mm field of view with 4.4 μm lateral resolution and 1 − 8 Hz temporal sampling rate. The imaging is performed through a chronically-implanted cranial window that remains optically clear between 2 to > 6 weeks after the craniotomy. This imaging method is well suited for longitudinal studies of chronic models of brain diseases and disorders. In this work, it is applied to monitoring neurovascular coupling during drug-induced absence-like seizures 6 weeks following the craniotomy. PMID:27699123

  10. Imaging brain activity during seizures in freely behaving rats using a miniature multi-modal imaging system.

    PubMed

    Sigal, Iliya; Koletar, Margaret M; Ringuette, Dene; Gad, Raanan; Jeffrey, Melanie; Carlen, Peter L; Stefanovic, Bojana; Levi, Ofer

    2016-09-01

    We report on a miniature label-free imaging system for monitoring brain blood flow and blood oxygenation changes in awake, freely behaving rats. The device, weighing 15 grams, enables imaging in a ∼ 2 × 2 mm field of view with 4.4 μm lateral resolution and 1 - 8 Hz temporal sampling rate. The imaging is performed through a chronically-implanted cranial window that remains optically clear between 2 to > 6 weeks after the craniotomy. This imaging method is well suited for longitudinal studies of chronic models of brain diseases and disorders. In this work, it is applied to monitoring neurovascular coupling during drug-induced absence-like seizures 6 weeks following the craniotomy.

  11. Focused ultrasound-induced blood-brain barrier disruption enhances the delivery of cytarabine to the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Han-Qing; Lü, Lin; Wang, Feng; Luo, Yun; Lou, Shi-Feng

    2012-12-01

    To investigate the feasibility of using focused ultrasound (FUS) with microbubbles for targeted delivery of cytarabine to the brain. Sprague-Dawly rats (weighing 200-250 g) received focused ultrasound with intravenous injection microbubbles. At 0, 2, 4, 8, and 24 hours (n=5 for each time point) after sonication, animals received intravenous administration of cytarabine at a normal dose of 4 mg/kg body weight. Additional five rats were given with a high dose (50 mg/kg body weight) of cytarabine alone. Blood-brain barrier (BBB) permeability and cerebral cytarabine were determined. FUS in conjunction with microbubbles caused a transient BBB opening. Sonication exposure promoted cytarabine accumulation at the sonicated site. Animals injected with a normal dose of cytarabine 2 hours after sonication had similar concentrations of cerebral cytarabine compared to those with higher cytarabine without sonication. FUS can temporarily open the BBB and thus facilitate the penetration of systemic cytarabine into the brain.

  12. Optimization of choline administration regimen for correction of cognitive functions in rats after brain injury.

    PubMed

    Guseva, M V; Kamenskii, A A; Gusev, V B

    2013-06-01

    Choline diet promotes improvement of the brain cognitive functions in rats with moderate-to-severe traumatic brain injury. In previous studies, the rats received choline being standard (0.2%) or choline-supplemented (2%) diet for 2 weeks prior to and 2 weeks after experimental brain injury. To the end of the experiments (in 4 weeks), the post-traumatic disturbances in the cognitive functions were observed in both groups, although they were less pronounced than in the rats kept on the choline-supplemented diet. Based on original mathematical model, this paper proposes a method to calculate the most efficient use of choline to correct the brain cognitive functions. In addition to evaluating the cognitive functions, the study assessed expression of α7 nicotinic acetylcholine receptors, the amount of consumed food and water, and the dynamics of body weight.

  13. Lithium Visibility in Rat Brain and Muscle in Vivoby 7Li NMR Imaging

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Komoroski, Richard A.; Pearce, John M.; Newton, Joseph E. O.

    1998-07-01

    The apparent concentration of lithium (Li)in vivowas determined for several regions in the brain and muscle of rats by7Li NMR imaging at 4.7 T with inclusion of an external standard of known concentration and visibility. The average apparent concentrations were 10.1 mM for muscle, and 4.2-5.3 mM for various brain regions under the dosing conditions used. The results were compared to concentrations determinedin vitroby high-resolution7Li NMR spectroscopy of extracts of brain and muscle tissue from the same rats. The comparison provided estimates of the7Li NMR visibility of the Li cation in each tissue region. Although there was considerable scatter of the calculated visibilities among the five rats studied, the results suggested essentially full visibility (96%) for Li in muscle, and somewhat reduced visibility (74-93%) in the various brain regions.

  14. Quantification of Synthetic Cathinones in Rat Brain Using HILIC-ESI-MS/MS.

    PubMed

    Peters, Jacob R; Keasling, Robert; Brown, Stacy D; Pond, Brooks B

    2016-11-01

    The abuse of synthetic cathinones, formerly marketed as "bath salts", has emerged over the last decade. Three common drugs in this class include 3,4-methylenedioxypyrovalerone (MDPV), 4-methylmethcathinone (mephedrone), and 3,4-methylenedioxymethcathinone (methylone). An LC-MS/MS method has been developed and validated for the simultaneous quantification of MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone in brain tissue. Briefly, MDPV, mephedrone, methylone, and their deuterium-labeled analogs were subjected to solid phase extraction (SPE) and separated using an HILIC Silica Column. The HPLC was coupled to a Shimadzu IT-TOF (ion trap-time of flight) system with the electrospray source running in positive mode (+ESI). The method was validated for precision, accuracy, and extraction efficiency. All inter-day and intra-day % RSD (percent relative standard deviation) and % error values were less than 15% and extraction efficiency exceeded 80%. These conditions allowed for limits of detection of 1ng/mL for MDPV, and 5 ng/mL for both mephedrone and methylone. The limits of quantification were determined to be 5ng/mL for MDPV and 10 ng/mL for mephedrone and methylone. The method was utilized to evaluate the pharmacokinetics of these drugs in adult male rats following administration of a drug cocktail including MDPV, mephedrone, and methylone. All three compounds reached peak concentrations in the brain within 15 min. Although methylone and mephedrone were administered at the same dose, the peak concentration (Cmax) of mephedrone in the brain was significantly higher than that for methylone, as was the area under the curve (AUC). In summary, this quick and sensitive method for measuring synthetic cathinones may be used for future pharmacokinetic investigations of these drugs in target tissue. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please email: journals.permissions@oup.com.

  15. Insulin-like growth factor I signaling for brain recovery and exercise ability in brain ischemic rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Heng-Chih; Yang, Yea-Ru; Wang, Paulus S; Kuo, Chia-Hua; Wang, Ray-Yau

    2011-12-01

    Exercise increases neuron survival and plasticity in the adult brain by enhancing the uptake of insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I). Exercise also reduces the infarct volume in the ischemic brain and improves motor function after such a brain insult. However, the underlying mechanisms are not fully known. The purpose of this study was to investigate the involvement of IGF-I signaling in neuroprotection after exercise. Rats were assigned to one of four groups: middle cerebral artery occlusion (MCAO) without exercise training (MC), MCAO with exercise training (ME), MCAO with IGF-I receptor inhibitor and without exercise training (MAg), and MCAO with IGF-I receptor inhibitor and exercise training (MEAg). Rats in the ME and MEAg groups underwent treadmill training for 14 d, and rats in the MC and MAg groups served as controls. After the final intervention, rats were sacrificed under anesthesia, and samples were collected from the affected motor cortex, striatum, and plasma. IGF-I and p-Akt levels in the affected motor cortex and the striatum of the ME group were significantly higher than those in the MC group, with significant decreases in infarct volume and improvements in motor function. However, IGF-I receptor inhibitor eliminated these effects and decreased the exercise ability. The brain IGF-I signaling strongly correlated with exercise ability. Exercise-enhanced IGF-I entrance into ischemic brain and IGF-I signaling was related to exercise-mediated neuroprotection. IGF-1 signaling also affected the ability to exercise after brain ischemia.

  16. Regional Volume Decreases in the Brain of Pax6 Heterozygous Mutant Rats: MRI Deformation-Based Morphometry

    PubMed Central

    Hiraoka, Kotaro; Sumiyoshi, Akira; Nonaka, Hiroi; Kikkawa, Takako; Kawashima, Ryuta; Osumi, Noriko

    2016-01-01

    Pax6 is a transcription factor that pleiotropically regulates various developmental processes in the central nervous system. In a previous study, we revealed that Pax6 heterozygous mutant (rSey2/+) adult rats exhibit abnormalities in social interaction. However, the brain malformations underlying the behavioral abnormality are unknown. To elucidate the brain malformations in rSey2/+ rats, we morphometrically analyzed brains of rSey2/+ and wild type rats using small-animal magnetic resonance imaging (MRI). Sixty 10-week-old rats underwent brain MRI (29 rSey2/+ rats and 31 wild type rats). SPM8 software was used for image preprocessing and statistical image analysis. Normalized maps of the Jacobian determinant, a parameter for the expansion and/or contraction of brain regions, were obtained for each rat. rSey2/+ rats showed significant volume decreases in various brain regions including the neocortex, corpus callosum, olfactory structures, hippocampal formation, diencephalon, and midbrain compared to wild type rats. Among brain regions, the anterior commissure showed significant interaction between genotype and sex, indicating the effect of genotype difference on the anterior commissure volume was more robust in females than in males. The rSey2/+ rats exhibited decreased volume in various gray and white matter regions of the brain, which may contribute to manifestation of abnormal social behaviors. PMID:27355350

  17. Nose-to-brain transport of melatonin from polymer gel suspensions: a microdialysis study in rats.

    PubMed

    Jayachandra Babu, R; Dayal, Pankaj Patrick; Pawar, Kasturi; Singh, Mandip

    2011-11-01

    Exogenous melatonin (MT) has significant neuroprotective roles in Alzheimer's and Parkinson's diseases. This study investigates the delivery MT to brain via nasal route as a polymeric gel suspension using central brain microdialysis in anesthetized rats. Micronized MT suspensions using polymers [carbopol, carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)] and polyethylene glycol 400 (PEG400) were prepared and characterized for nasal administration. In vitro permeation of the formulations was measured across a three-dimensional tissue culture model EpiAirway(™). The central brain delivery into olfactory bulb of nasally administered MT gel suspensions was studied using brain microdialysis in male Wistar rats. The MT content of microdialysis samples was analyzed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) using electrochemical detection. The nose-to-brain delivery of MT formulations was compared with intravenously administered MT solution. MT suspensions in carbopol and CMC vehicles have shown significantly higher permeability across Epiairway(™) as compared to control, PEG400 (P < 0.05). The brain (olfactory bulb) levels of MT after intranasal administration were 9.22, 6.77 and 4.04-fold higher for carbopol, CMC and PEG400, respectively, than that of intravenous MT in rats. In conclusion, microdialysis studies demonstrated increased brain levels of MT via nasal administration in rats.

  18. Radioimmunoassay of met-enkephalin in microdissected areas of paraformaldehyde-fixed rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Correa, F.M.A.; Saavedra, J.M.

    1984-02-27

    The effects were studied of various sample preparation procedures on rat brain met-enkephalin content, measured by radioimmunoassay. Whole brain met-enkephalin content of rats killed by decapitation followed by immediate tissue freezing was similar to that of rats killed by microwave irradiation and to those of rats anesthetized with pentobarbital or halothane before killing, whether previously perfused with paraformaldehyde or not. In contrast, a decrease (up to 80%) in met-enkephalin concentrations was observed when brain samples were frozen and thawed to mimic the procedure utilized in the ''punch'' technique for analysis of discrete brain nuclei. This decrease was totally prevented by paraformaldehyde perfusion of the brain prior to sacrifice. Brain perfusion did not alter the amount of immunoassayable met-enkephalin extracted from tissue or its profile after Sephadex chromatography. Paraformaldehyde perfusion results in better morphological tissue preservation and facilitates the ''punch'' dissecting technique. Paraformaldehyde perfusion may be the procedure of choice for the measurement of neuropeptides in specific brain nuclei dissected by the ''punch'' technique.

  19. Imaging of sialidase activity in rat brain sections by a highly sensitive fluorescent histochemical method.

    PubMed

    Minami, Akira; Shimizu, Hirotaka; Meguro, Yuko; Shibata, Naoki; Kanazawa, Hiroaki; Ikeda, Kiyoshi; Suzuki, Takashi

    2011-09-01

    Sialidase (EC 3.2.1.18) removes sialic acid from sialoglycoconjugates. Since sialidase extracellularly applied to the rat hippocampus influences many neural functions, including synaptic plasticity and innervations of glutamatergic neurons, endogenous sialidase activities on the extracellular membrane surface could also affect neural functions. However, the distribution of sialidase activity in the brain remains unknown. To visualize extracellular sialidase activity on the membrane surface in the rat brain, acute brain slices were incubated with 5-bromo-4-chloroindol-3-yl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (X-Neu5Ac) and Fast Red Violet LB (FRV LB) at pH 7.3. After 1h, myelin-abundant regions showed intense fluorescence in the rat brain. Although the hippocampus showed weak fluorescence in the brain, mossy fiber terminals in the hippocampus showed relatively intense fluorescence. These fluorescence intensities were attenuated with a sialidase-specific inhibitor, 2,3-dehydro-2-deoxy-N-acetylneuraminic acid (DANA, 1mM). Additionally, the fluorescence intensities caused by X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB were correlated with the sialidase activity measured with 4-methylumbelliferyl-α-d-N-acetylneuraminic acid (4MU-Neu5Ac), a classical substrate for quantitative measurement of sialidase activity, in each brain region. Therefore, staining with X-Neu5Ac and FRV LB is specific for sialidase and useful for quantitative analysis of sialidase activities. The results suggest that white matter of the rat brain has intense sialidase activity.

  20. Dichloroacetate increases glucose use and decreases lactate in developing rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Miller, A.L.; Hatch, J.P.; Prihoda, T.J. )

    1990-12-01

    Dichloroacetate (DCA) activates pyruvate dehydrogenase (PDH) by inhibiting PDH kinase. Neutralized DCA (100 mg/kg) or saline was intravenously administered to 20 to 25-day-old rats (50-75g). Fifteen minutes later a mixture of {sup 6-14}C glucose and {sup 3}H fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) was administered intravenously and the animals were sacrificed by microwave irradiation (2450 MHz, 8.0 kW, 0.6-0.8 sec) after 2 or 5 min. Brain regional rates of glucose use and metabolite levels were determined. DCA-treated rats had increased rates of glucose use in all regions studied (cortex, thalamus, striatum, and brain stem), with an average increase of 41%. Lactate levels were lower in all regions, by an average of 35%. There were no significant changes in levels of ATP, creatine phosphate, or glycogen in any brain region. Blood levels of lactate did not differ significantly between the DCA- and the saline-treated groups. Blood glucose levels were higher in the DCA group. In rats sacrificed by freeze-blowing, DCA treatment caused lower brain levels of both lactate and pyruvate. These results cannot be explained by any systemic effect of DCA. Rather, it appears that in the immature rat, DCA treatment results in activation of brain PDH, increased metabolism of brain pyruvate and lactate, and a resulting increase in brain glycolytic rate.

  1. Brain Insulin Administration Triggers Distinct Cognitive and Neurotrophic Responses in Young and Aged Rats.

    PubMed

    Haas, Clarissa B; Kalinine, Eduardo; Zimmer, Eduardo R; Hansel, Gisele; Brochier, Andressa W; Oses, Jean P; Portela, Luis V; Muller, Alexandre P

    2016-11-01

    Aging is a major risk factor for cognitive deficits and neurodegenerative disorders, and impaired brain insulin receptor (IR) signaling is mechanistically linked to these abnormalities. The main goal of this study was to investigate whether brain insulin infusions improve spatial memory in aged and young rats. Aged (24 months) and young (4 months) male Wistar rats were intracerebroventricularly injected with insulin (20 mU) or vehicle for five consecutive days. The animals were then assessed for spatial memory using a Morris water maze. Insulin increased memory performance in young rats, but not in aged rats. Thus, we searched for cellular and molecular mechanisms that might account for this distinct memory response. In contrast with our expectation, insulin treatment increased the proliferative activity in aged rats, but not in young rats, implying that neurogenesis-related effects do not explain the lack of insulin effects on memory in aged rats. Furthermore, the expression levels of the IR and downstream signaling proteins such as GSK3-β, mTOR, and presynaptic protein synaptophysin were increased in aged rats in response to insulin. Interestingly, insulin treatment increased the expression of the brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) and tropomyosin receptor kinase B (TrkB) receptors in the hippocampus of young rats, but not of aged rats. Our data therefore indicate that aged rats can have normal IR downstream protein expression but failed to mount a BDNF response after challenge in a spatial memory test. In contrast, young rats showed insulin-mediated TrkB/BDNF response, which paralleled with improved memory performance.

  2. Zinc supplementation ameliorates electromagnetic field-induced lipid peroxidation in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Bediz, Cem Seref; Baltaci, Abdulkerim Kasim; Mogulkoc, Rasim; Oztekin, Esma

    2006-02-01

    Extremely low-frequency (0-300 Hz) electromagnetic fields (EMFs) generated by power lines, wiring and home appliances are ubiquitous in our environment. All populations are now exposed to EMF, and exposure to EMF may pose health risks. Some of the adverse health effects of EMF exposure are lipid peroxidation and cell damage in various tissues. This study has investigated the effects of EMF exposure and zinc administration on lipid peroxidation in the rat brain. Twenty-four male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly allocated to three groups; they were maintained untreated for 6 months (control, n = 8), exposed to low-frequency (50 Hz) EMF for 5 minutes every other day for 6 months (n = 8), or exposed to EMF and received zinc sulfate daily (3 mg/kg/day) intraperitoneally (n = 8). We measured plasma levels of zinc and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), and levels of reduced glutathione (GSH) in erythrocytes. TBARS and GSH levels were also determined in the brain tissues. TBARS levels in the plasma and brain tissues were higher in EMF-exposed rats with or without zinc supplementation, than those in controls (p < 0.001). In addition, TBARS levels were significantly lower in the zinc-supplemented rats than those in the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.001). GSH levels were significantly decreased in the brain and erythrocytes of the EMF-exposed rats (p < 0.01), and were highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). Plasma zinc was significantly lower in the EMF-exposed rats than those in controls (p < 0.001), while it was highest in the zinc-supplemented rats (p < 0.001). The present study suggests that long-term exposure to low-frequency EMF increases lipid peroxidation in the brain, which may be ameliorated by zinc supplementation.

  3. Effect of manganese on the concentration of amino acids in different regions of the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Lipe, G W; Duhart, H; Newport, G D; Slikker, W; Ali, S F

    1999-01-01

    The present study was designed to determine if chronic exposure of weanlings and adult rats to Mn produces significant alterations in amino acid concentrations in different regions of the rat brain. Weanling (30 day old) and adult (90 day old) male rats were exposed to 10 and 20 mg Mn/kg body weight per day, by gavage, for 30 days. Forty-eight hours after the last dose, animals were sacrificed by decapitation and brains were dissected into different regions to determine the concentration of amino acids by HPLC/EC. A dose dependent decrease in body weight gain was found in the adult, but not in the weanling rats. Significant increases occurred in concentrations of aspartate, glutamate, glutamine, taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in the cerebellum of the adult rats dosed with 20 mg/kg per day, Mn. A significant decrease in the concentration of glutamine was observed in caudate nucleus and hippocampus of weanling rats dosed with 10 mg/kg, Mn. These data suggest that chronic Mn exposure can produce a decrease in body weight gain in adult rats and alterations in amino acids in different regions of weanling and adult rat brains.

  4. Involvement of Nuclear Related Factor 2 Signaling Pathway in the Brain of Obese Rats and Obesity-Resistant Rats Induced by High-Fat Diet.

    PubMed

    Ma, Wei-Wei; Ding, Bing-Jie; Wang, Li-Jing; Shao, Yi; Xiao, Rong

    2016-04-01

    We aimed to investigate the mechanism of brain damage in diet-induced obese (DIO) rats and diet-resistant (DR) rats from the viewpoint of redox state and nuclear related factor 2 (Nrf2) signaling pathway. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with a high-fat diet for 10 weeks to obtain the DIO and DR rats. d-Galactose was injected subcutaneously through the back of the neck for 10 weeks to establish oxidative stress model rats. Then, the ratio of reduced glutathione (GSH)/oxidized glutathione (GSSG) and the level of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-Px) in serum and brain tissue were measured by using enzymatic assay kits. The levels of cholecystokinin and peptide YY in the brain tissue were detected by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. In addition, the protein expression of Nrf2 and its downstream factors such as heme oxygenase 1, manganese superoxide dismutase, and NAD(P)H quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) in the brain tissue were measured by Western blotting. In the brain of DIO rats, the level of GSH and ratio of GSH/GSSG were lower, whereas the GSH-Px concentration was higher compared with DR rats significantly. On the other hand, the GSSG level was higher in the serum of DIO rats compared with the DR rats. The oxidative stress state in the brain of DIO rats, but not in DR rats, were observed. In addition, the protein expressions of Nrf2 and NQO1 were downregulated in the brain of DR rats compared with that in DIO rats. Our data suggest that the Nrf2/NQO1 signaling pathway and redox state were involved in the pathogenesis of the rats prone to obesity, but not the DR rats resistant to obesity.

  5. Astrocyte activation and neurotoxicity: A study in different rat brain regions and in rat C6 astroglial cells.

    PubMed

    Goswami, Poonam; Gupta, Sonam; Joshi, Neeraj; Sharma, Sharad; Singh, Sarika

    2015-07-01

    The present study was conducted to investigate the effect of rotenone on astrocytes activation, their viability and its effect on neuronal death in different brain regions. Rotenone was injected in rat brain by intracerebroventricularly (bilateral) route at dose of 6 μg and 12 μg. In vitro C6 cells were treated with rotenone at concentration of 0.1, 0.25, 0.5, 1 and 2 μM. Rotenone administration to rat brain caused significant astrocytes activation in frontal cortex, cerebellum, cerebellar nucleus, substantia nigra, hypothalamus and hippocampus regions of the rat brain. Rotenone administration also led to significant degeneration of cells in all the studied regions along with altered nuclear morphology assessed by hematoxylin-eosin and cresyl violet staining. Histological staining showed the significantly decreased number of cells in all the studied regions except cerebellar nucleus in dose and time dependant manner. Rotenone administration in the rat brain also caused significant decrease in glutathione levels and augmented nitrite levels. In vitro treatment of rotenone to astrocytic C6 cells caused significantly increased expression of glial fibrillar acidic protein (GFAP) and decreased viability in dose and time dependent manner. Rotenone treatment to C6 cells exhibited significant generation of reactive oxygen species, augmented nitrite level, impaired mitochondrial activity, apoptotic chromatin condensation and DNA damage in comparison to control cells. Findings showed that oxidative stress play a considerable role in rotenone induced astrocyte death that was attenuated with co-treatment of antioxidant melatonin. In conclusion, results showed that rotenone caused significant astrocytes activation, altered nuclear morphology, biochemical alteration and apoptotic cell death in different rat brain regions. In vitro observations in C6 cells showed that rotenone treatment exhibited oxidative stress mediated apoptotic cell death, which was attenuated with co

  6. Real-time monitoring of brain tissue oxygen using a miniaturized biotelemetric device implanted in freely moving rats.

    PubMed

    Bazzu, Gianfranco; Puggioni, Giulia G M; Dedola, Sonia; Calia, Giammario; Rocchitta, Gaia; Migheli, Rossana; Desole, Maria S; Lowry, John P; O'Neill, Robert D; Serra, Pier A

    2009-03-15

    A miniaturized biotelemetric device for the amperometric detection of brain tissue oxygen is presented. The new system, derived from a previous design, has been coupled with a carbon microsensor for the real-time detection of dissolved O(2) in the striatum of freely moving rats. The implantable device consists of a single-supply sensor driver, a current-to-voltage converter, a microcontroller, and a miniaturized data transmitter. The oxygen current is converted to a digital value by means of an analog-to-digital converter integrated in a peripheral interface controller (PIC). The digital data is sent to a personal computer using a six-byte packet protocol by means of a miniaturized 434 MHz amplitude modulation (AM) transmitter. The receiver unit is connected to a personal computer (PC) via a universal serial bus. Custom developed software allows the PC to store and plot received data. The electronics were calibrated and tested in vitro under different experimental conditions and exhibited high stability, low power consumption, and good linear response in the nanoampere current range. The in vivo results confirmed previously published observations on oxygen dynamics in the striatum of freely moving rats. The system serves as a rapid and reliable model for studying the effects of different drugs on brain oxygen and brain blood flow and it is suited to work with direct-reduction sensors or O(2)-consuming biosensors.

  7. Brain and heart sodium channel subtype mRNA expression in rat cerebral cortex.

    PubMed Central

    Yarowsky, P J; Krueger, B K; Olson, C E; Clevinger, E C; Koos, R D

    1991-01-01

    The expression of mRNAs coding for the alpha subunit of rat brain and rat heart sodium channels has been studied in adult and neonatal rat cerebral cortex using the reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). Rat brain sodium channel subtype I, II, IIA, and III sequences were simultaneously amplified in the same PCR using a single oligonucleotide primer pair matched to all four subtype sequences. Identification of each subtype-specific product was inferred from the appearance of unique fragments when the product was digested with specific restriction enzymes. By using this RT-PCR method, products arising from mRNAs for all four brain sodium channel subtypes were identified in RNA extracted from adult rat cerebral cortex. The predominant component was type IIA with lesser levels of types I, II, and III. In contrast, the type II and IIA sequences were the predominant RT-PCR products in neonatal rat cortex, with slightly lower levels of type III and undetectable levels of type I. Thus, from neonate to adult, type II mRNA levels decrease relative to type IIA levels. Using a similar approach, we detected mRNA coding for the rat heart sodium channel in neonatal and adult rat cerebral cortex and in adult rat heart. These results reveal that mRNAs coding for the heart sodium channel and all four previously sequenced rat brain sodium channel subtypes are expressed in cerebral cortex and that type II and IIA channels may be differentially regulated during development. Images PMID:1658783

  8. Circumventing the blood-brain barrier: Local delivery of cyclosporin A stimulates stem cells in stroke-injured rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tuladhar, Anup; Morshead, Cindi M; Shoichet, Molly S

    2015-10-10

    Drug delivery to the central nervous system is limited by the blood-brain barrier, which can be circumvented by local delivery. In applications of stroke therapy, for example, stimulation of endogenous neural stem/progenitor cells (NSPCs) by cyclosporin A (CsA) is promising. However, current strategies rely on high systemic drug doses to achieve small amounts of CsA in the brain tissue, resulting in systemic toxicity and undesirable global immunosuppression. Herein we describe the efficacy of local CsA delivery to the stroke-injured rat brain using an epi-cortically injected hydrogel composed of hyaluronan and methylcellulose (HAMC). CsA was encapsulated in poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) microparticles dispersed in HAMC, allowing for its sustained release over 14days in vivo. Tissue penetration was sufficient to provide sustained CsA delivery to the sub-cortical NSPC niche. In comparison to systemic delivery using an osmotic minipump, HAMC achieved higher CsA concentrations in the brain while significantly reducing drug exposure in other organs. HAMC alone was beneficial in the stroke-injured rat brain, significantly reducing the stroke infarct volume relative to untreated stroke-injured controls. The combination of HAMC and local CsA release increased the number of proliferating cells in the lateral ventricles - the NSPC niche in the adult brain. Thus, we demonstrate a superior method of drug delivery to the rat brain that provides dual benefits of tissue protection and endogenous NSPC stimulation after stroke. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Coupling between spontaneous pupillary fluctuations and brain activity relates to inattentiveness.

    PubMed

    Breeden, A L; Siegle, G J; Norr, M E; Gordon, E M; Vaidya, C J

    2017-01-01

    Autonomic activity in neurological and psychiatric disorders is often dysregulated, particularly in the context of attentional behaviors. This suggests that interplay between the autonomic nervous system and aspects of the central nervous system subserving attention may be disrupted in these conditions. Better understanding these interactions and their relationship with individual variation in attentional behaviors could facilitate development of mechanistic biomarkers. We identified brain regions defined by trait-sensitive central-autonomic coupling as a first step in this process. As spontaneous neural activity measured during the resting state is sensitive to phenotypic variability, unconfounded by task performance, we examined whether spontaneous fluctuations in brain activity and an autonomic measure, pupil diameter, were coupled during the resting state, and whether that coupling predicted individual differences in attentional behavior. By employing concurrent pupillometry and fMRI during the resting state, we observed positive coupling in regions comprising cingulo-opercular, default mode, and fronto-parietal networks, as well as negative coupling with visual and sensorimotor regions. Individuals less prone to distractibility in everyday behavior demonstrated stronger positive coupling in cingulo-opercular regions often associated with sympathetic activity. Overall, our results suggest that individuals less prone to distractibility have tighter intrinsic coordination between specific brain areas and autonomic systems, which may enable adaptive autonomic shifts in response to salient environmental cues. These results suggest that incorporating autonomic indices in resting-state studies should be useful in the search for biomarkers for neurological and psychiatric disorders. © 2016 Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitor improves brain insulin sensitivity, but fails to prevent cognitive impairment in orchiectomy obese rats.

    PubMed

    Pintana, Hiranya; Pongkan, Wanpitak; Pratchayasakul, Wasana; Chattipakorn, Nipon; Chattipakorn, Siriporn C

    2015-08-01

    It is unclear whether the dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP4) inhibitor can counteract brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived obese rats. We hypothesized that DPP4 inhibitor vildagliptin improves cognitive function in testosterone-deprived obese rats by restoring brain insulin sensitivity, brain mitochondrial function and hippocampal synaptic plasticity. Thirty male Wistar rats received either a sham-operated (S, n=6) or bilateral orchiectomy (ORX, n=24). ORX rats were divided into two groups and fed with either a normal diet (ND (NDO)) or a high-fat diet (HFO) for 12 weeks. Then, ORX rats in each dietary group were divided into two subgroups (n=6/subgroup) to receive either a vehicle or vildagliptin (3 mg/kg per day, p.o.) for 4 weeks. After treatment, cognitive function, metabolic parameters, brain insulin sensitivity, hippocampal synaptic plasticity and brain mitochondrial function were determined in each rat. We found that HFO rats exhibited peripheral and brain insulin resistance, brain mitochondrial dysfunction, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline. NDO rats did not develop peripheral and brain insulin resistance. However, impaired hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline occurred. Vildagliptin significantly improved peripheral insulin sensitivity, restored brain insulin sensitivity and decreased brain mitochondrial reactive oxygen species production in HFO rats. However, vildagliptin did not restore hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive function in both NDO and HFO rats. These findings suggest that vildagliptin could not counteract the impairment of hippocampal synaptic plasticity and cognitive decline in testosterone-deprived subjects, despite its effects on improved peripheral and brain insulin sensitivity as well as brain mitochondrial function.

  11. Photoacoustic imaging to detect rat brain activation after cocaine hydrochloride injection

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Jo, Janggun; Yang, Xinmai

    2011-03-01

    Photoacoustic imaging (PAI) was employed to detect small animal brain activation after the administration of cocaine hydrochloride. Sprague Dawley rats were injected with different concentrations (2.5, 3.0, and 5.0 mg per kg body) of cocaine hydrochloride in saline solution through tail veins. The brain functional response to the injection was monitored by photoacoustic tomography (PAT) system with horizontal scanning of cerebral cortex of rat brain. Photoacoustic microscopy (PAM) was also used for coronal view images. The modified PAT system used multiple ultrasonic detectors to reduce the scanning time and maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio (SNR). The measured photoacoustic signal changes confirmed that cocaine hydrochloride injection excited high blood volume in brain. This result shows PAI can be used to monitor drug abuse-induced brain activation.

  12. Influence of silver nanoparticles on neurons and blood-brain barrier via subcutaneous injection in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tang, Jinglong; Xiong, Ling; Wang, Shuo; Wang, Jianyu; Liu, Li; Li, Jiage; Wan, Ziyi; Xi, Tingfei

    2008-11-01

    Nanosilver has been widely used in medical biology; however, the distribution and interaction of nanosilver with cells is still unclear. There have been some reports demonstrating that nanoparticles can cross the blood-brain barrier (BBB). The present study investigated the accumulation of silver nanoparticles in the brain, and the effects of silver nanoparticles on BBB. Nanosilver and microsilver (62.8 mg/kg) particles were subcutaneously injected into rats. The rats were sacrificed at predetermined time points and the brains were obtained for ultrastructural observation and silver level detection. The results showed that silver nanoparticles could traverse the BBB and move into the brain in the form of particle. The silver nanoparticles can induce neuronal degeneration and necrosis by accumulating in the brain over a long period of time.

  13. Effects of methylmercury on neurotransmitter release from rat brain synaptosomes.

    PubMed

    Minnema, D J; Cooper, G P; Greenland, R D

    1989-07-01

    Although the effects of methylmercury (MeHg) at the neuromuscular junction have been well characterized, similar studies employing CNS preparations and transmitters have been limited. We found that MeHg (0.5-5.0 microM) produced a concentration-dependent increase in the spontaneous release of [3H]dopamine. gamma-[3H]aminobutyric acid, and [3H]acetylcholine from synaptosomes isolated from rat brain striatum, cortex, and hippocampus, respectively. At these same concentrations MeHg did not attenuate calcium-dependent depolarization-evoked 3H-transmitter release. MeHg did not appear to induce calcium influx into the nerve terminal since the increase in release persists in the absence of extrasynaptosomal calcium. The increase in spontaneous transmitter release induced by MeHg persisted in the presence of low extrasynaptosomal sodium, suggesting that MeHg's effects on release are not mediated by either Na+, K+-ATPase inhibition or selective increases in membrane sodium permeability. MeHg produced only a very small increase in 45Ca efflux from synaptosomes preloaded with 45Ca, whereas these same MeHg concentrations produced large increases in 45Ca efflux from preloaded isolated mitochondria. MeHg did increase the efflux of [3H]deoxyglucose phosphate from synaptosomes. An increase in the efflux of [3H]deoxyglucose phosphate is believed to reflect an increase in neuronal membrane permeability. The quantitative and temporal aspects of the MeHg-induced [3H]-deoxyglucose phosphate efflux were similar to those observed for MeHg-induced neurotransmitter release. These data suggest that the increase in spontaneous transmitter release induced by MeHg is mainly the result of transmitter leakage that occurs subsequent to MeHg-induced increases in synaptosomal membrane permeability. However, these results cannot exclude possible effects of MeHg on intrasynaptosomal calcium homeostasis.

  14. Monoclonal antibodies against type II rat brain protein kinase

    SciTech Connect

    Nakabayashi, C.H.; Huang, K.P.

    1987-05-01

    Three monoclonal antibodies (8/1, 10/10, and 25/3) against rat brain type II protein kinase C (PKC) were used to carry out the immunochemical characterization of this kinase. These antibodies immunoprecipitated the type II PKC in a dose-dependent manner but did neither to type I nor type III isozyme. Purified type II PKC has a molecular weight of 82,000 and consists of heterogeneous isoelectric point species, all of which are cross reactive with these antibodies. Immunoblot analysis of the tryptic fragments from PKC revealed that all three antibodies recognized the 33-38-KDa fragments, the phospholipid/phorbol ester-binding domain, but not the 45-48-KDa fragments, the kinase catalytic domain. The immune complexes of the kinase and the antibodies retained the kinase activity which was dependent on Ca/sup 2 +/ and phosphatidylserine (PS) and further activated by diacylglycerol. With antibody 8/1, the apparent Km values of the kinase for Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS were not influenced. The initial rate and final extent of autophosphorylation were reduced. The concentration of PS required for half-maximal (/sup 3/H)phorbol 12,13-dibutyrate (PDBu) binding was increased and the total PDBu binding was reduced. In the presence of optimum concentrations of Ca/sup 2 +/ and PS, the Kd of PDBu was unaffected by the antibody but the total binding was reduced. These results demonstrate that the PS/PDBu-binding domain contains the major epitope for the antibodies and the antibody mainly influences the PS/PDBu binding to the kinase.

  15. Localization of Brain Natriuretic Peptide Immunoreactivity in Rat Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    Abdelalim, Essam M.; Bellier, Jean-Pierre; Tooyama, Ikuo

    2016-01-01

    Brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) exerts its functions through NP receptors. Recently, BNP has been shown to be involved in a wide range of functions. Previous studies reported BNP expression in the sensory afferent fibers in the dorsal horn (DH) of the spinal cord. However, BNP expression and function in the neurons of the central nervous system are still controversial. Therefore, in this study, we investigated BNP expression in the rat spinal cord in detail using reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and immunohistochemistry. RT-PCR analysis showed that BNP mRNA was present in the spinal cord and dorsal root ganglion (DRG). BNP immunoreactivity was observed in different structures of the spinal cord, including the neuronal cell bodies and neuronal processes. BNP immunoreactivity was observed in the DH of the spinal cord and in the neurons of the intermediate column (IC) and ventral horn (VH). Double-immunolabeling showed a high level of BNP expression in the afferent fibers (laminae I–II) labeled with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), suggesting BNP involvement in sensory function. In addition, BNP was co-localized with CGRP and choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) in the motor neurons of the VH. Together, these results indicate that BNP is expressed in sensory and motor systems of the spinal cord, suggesting its involvement in several biological actions on sensory and motor neurons via its binding to NP receptor-A (NPR-A) and/or NP receptor-B (NPR-B) at the spinal cord level. PMID:27994541

  16. The effects of perinatal protein malnutrition on spatial learning and memory behaviour and brain-derived neurotrophic factor concentration in the brain tissue in young rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Ling; Xu, Ruo-Jun

    2007-01-01

    This study aimed to investigate the effects of perinatal protein malnutrition on brain derived-neurotrophic factor (BDNF) concentration in brain tissue and spatial learning and memory performance in young rats. Nine pregnant Wistar rats were assigned into three groups. Rats in one group were fed with a control diet containing 20% protein. Rats in remaining two groups were fed with a diet containing 6% protein from gestation day eight and day 15 respectively till four weeks after birth. At four weeks of age, the rat pups were evaluated for spatial learning ability using Morris Water Maze (MWM) task. At the end of the behaviour tests, rat pups were sacrificed and the brain tissue samples were collected for measurement of total protein and BDNF concentrations. It was found that rat pups fed the low protein diet had lower body weight and slightly lighter brain compared to the control pups. Total protein levels in hippocampus and cerebral cortex were significantly lower in malnourished pups than the controls. The concentration of BDNF in the hippocampus was also significantly lower in rat pups suffered protein malnutrition from early pregnancy than in the controls. MWM tests showed that perinatal protein deprivation, particularly from early pregnancy, significantly impaired learning and memory ability. The results of the present study indicate that perinatal protein malnutrition had adverse influence on spatial navigation and brain BDNF levels in rats. The decreased hippocampal BDNF concentration might partially contribute to the poor learning memory performance in the protein deprived rats.

  17. Nose to brain delivery in rats: Effect of surface charge of rhodamine B labeled nanocarriers on brain subregion localization.

    PubMed

    Bonaccorso, A; Musumeci, T; Serapide, M F; Pellitteri, R; Uchegbu, I F; Puglisi, G

    2017-03-18

    Nose to brain delivery and nanotechnology are the combination of innovative strategies for molecules to reach the brain and to bypass blood brain barriers. In this work we investigated the fate of two rhodamine B labeled polymeric nanoparticles (Z-ave <250nm) of opposite surface charge in different areas of the brain after intranasal administration in rats. A preliminary screening was carried out to select the suitable positive (chitosan/poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide) nanocarrier through photon correlation spectroscopy and turbiscan. Physico-chemical and technological characterizations of poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide (negative) and chitosan/poly-l-lactide-co-glycolide (positive) fluorescent labeled nanoparticles were performed. The animals were allocated to three groups receiving negative and positive polymeric nanoparticles via single intranasal administration or no treatment. The localization of both nanocarriers in different brain areas was detected using fluorescent microscopy. Our data revealed that both nanocarriers reach the brain and are able to persist in the brain up to 48h after intranasal administration. Surface charge influenced the involved pathways in their translocation from the nasal cavity to the central nervous system. The positive charge of nanoparticles slows down brain reaching and the trigeminal pathway is involved, while the olfactory pathway may be responsible for the transport of negatively charged nanoparticles, and systemic pathways are not excluded.

  18. A simple rat model of mild traumatic brain injury: a device to reproduce anatomical and neurological changes of mild traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Ho Jeong

    2017-01-01

    Mild traumatic brain injury typically involves temporary impairment of neurological function. Previous studies used water pressure or rotational injury for designing the device to make a rat a mild traumatic brain injury model. The objective of this study was to make a simple model of causing mild traumatic brain injury in rats. The device consisted of a free-fall impactor that was targeted onto the rat skull. The weight (175 g) was freely dropped 30 cm to rat’s skull bregma. We installed a safety device made of acrylic panel. To confirm a mild traumatic brain injury in 36 Sprague-Dawley rats, we performed magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of the brain within 24 h after injury. We evaluated behavior and chemical changes in rats before and after mild traumatic brain injury. The brain MRI did not show high or low signal intensity in 34 rats. The mobility on grid floor was decreased after mild traumatic brain injury. The absolute number of foot-fault and foot-fault ratio were decreased after mild traumatic brain injury. However, the difference of the ratio was a less than absolute number of foot-fault. These results show that the device is capable of reproducing mild traumatic brain injury in rats. Our device can reduce the potential to cause brain hemorrhage and reflect the mechanism of real mild traumatic brain injury compared with existing methods and behaviors. This model can be useful in exploring physiology and management of mild traumatic brain injury. PMID:28070456

  19. St. John's Wort increases brain serotonin synthesis by inhibiting hepatic tryptophan 2, 3 dioxygenase activity and its gene expression in stressed rats.

    PubMed

    Bano, Samina; Ara, Iffat; Saboohi, Kausar; Moattar, Tariq; Chaoudhry, Bushra

    2014-09-01

    We aimed to investigate the effects of herbal St. John's Wort (SJW) on transcriptional regulation of hepatic tryptophan 2, 3 - dioxygenase (TDO) enzyme activity and brain regional serotonin (5-HT) levels in rats exposed to forced swim test (FST). TDO mRNA expression was quantified using real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain (RT-PCR) reaction and brain regional indoleamines were determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to fluorescence detector. Behavioral analysis shows significant reduction in immobility time in SJW (500mg/kg/ml) administered rats. It was found that pretreatment of SJW to rats did not prevent stress-induced elevation in plasma corticosterone levels however it increases serotonin synthesis by virtue of inhibiting hepatic TDO enzyme activity and its gene expression, ascertaining the notion that there exists an inverse relationship between hepatic TDO enzyme activity and brain 5-HT. The drug also decreases serotonin turnover in all the brain areas (hypothalamus, hippocampus amygdala) in stressed rats endorsing its monoamine oxidase inhibition property. Inhibition of TDO enzyme activity and its gene expression by the drug provides new insights for the development of therapeutic interventions for stress related mental illnesses.

  20. Permittivity coupling across brain regions determines seizure recruitment in partial epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Proix, Timothée; Bartolomei, Fabrice; Chauvel, Patrick; Bernard, Christophe; Jirsa, Viktor K

    2014-11-05

    Brain regions generating seizures in patients with refractory partial epilepsy are referred to as the epileptogenic zone (EZ). During a seizure, paroxysmal activity is not restricted to the EZ, but may recruit other brain regions and propagate activity through large brain networks, which comprise brain regions that are not necessarily epileptogenic. The identification of the EZ is crucial for candidates for neurosurgery and requires unambiguous criteria that evaluate the degree of epileptogenicity of brain regions. To obtain such criteria and investigate the mechanisms of seizure recruitment and propagation, we develop a mathematical framework of coupled neural populations, which can interact via signaling through a slow permittivity variable. The permittivity variable captures effects evolving on slow timescales, including extracellular ionic concentrations and energy metabolism, with time delays of up to seconds as observed clinically. Our analyses provide a set of indices quantifying the degree of epileptogenicity and predict conditions, under which seizures propagate to nonepileptogenic brain regions, explaining the responses to intracerebral electric stimulation in epileptogenic and nonepileptogenic areas. In conjunction, our results provide guidance in the presurgical evaluation of epileptogenicity based on electrographic signatures in intracerebral electroencephalograms. Copyright © 2014 the authors 0270-6474/14/3415009-13$15.00/0.

  1. Standardized Environmental Enrichment Supports Enhanced Brain Plasticity in Healthy Rats and Prevents Cognitive Impairment in Epileptic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kouchi, Hayet Y.; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S.; Bezin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories. PMID:23342033

  2. Standardized environmental enrichment supports enhanced brain plasticity in healthy rats and prevents cognitive impairment in epileptic rats.

    PubMed

    Fares, Raafat P; Belmeguenai, Amor; Sanchez, Pascal E; Kouchi, Hayet Y; Bodennec, Jacques; Morales, Anne; Georges, Béatrice; Bonnet, Chantal; Bouvard, Sandrine; Sloviter, Robert S; Bezin, Laurent

    2013-01-01

    Environmental enrichment of laboratory animals influences brain plasticity, stimulates neurogenesis, increases neurotrophic factor expression, and protects against the effects of brain insult. However, these positive effects are not constantly observed, probably because standardized procedures of environmental enrichment are lacking. Therefore, we engineered an enriched cage (the Marlau™ cage), which offers: (1) minimally stressful social interactions; (2) increased voluntary exercise; (3) multiple entertaining activities; (4) cognitive stimulation (maze exploration), and (5) novelty (maze configuration changed three times a week). The maze, which separates food pellet and water bottle compartments, guarantees cognitive stimulation for all animals. Compared to rats raised in groups in conventional cages, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited increased cortical thickness, hippocampal neurogenesis and hippocampal levels of transcripts encoding various genes involved in tissue plasticity and remodeling. In addition, rats housed in Marlau™ cages exhibited better performances in learning and memory, decreased anxiety-associated behaviors, and better recovery of basal plasma corticosterone level after acute restraint stress. Marlau™ cages also insure inter-experiment reproducibility in spatial learning and brain gene expression assays. Finally, housing rats in Marlau™ cages after severe status epilepticus at weaning prevents the cognitive impairment observed in rats subjected to the same insult and then housed in conventional cages. By providing a standardized enriched environment for rodents during housing, the Marlau™ cage should facilitate the uniformity of environmental enrichment across laboratories.

  3. Forebrain and brain stem neural circuits contribute to altered sympathetic responses to heating in senescent rats.

    PubMed

    Kenney, Michael J; Fels, Richard J

    2003-11-01

    Acute heating in young rats increases visceral sympathetic nerve discharge (SND); however, renal and splanchnic SND responses to hyperthermia are attenuated in senescent compared with young Fischer 344 (F344) rats (Kenney MJ and Fels RJ. Am J Physiol Regul Integr Comp Physiol 283: R513-R520, 2002). Central mechanisms by which aging alters visceral SND responses to heating are unknown. We tested the hypothesis that forebrain neural circuits are involved in suppressing sympathoexcitatory responses to heating in chloralose-anesthetized, senescent F344 rats. Renal and splanchnic SND responses to increased (38 degrees C-41 degrees C) internal temperature were determined in midbrain-transected (MT) and sham-MT young (3-mo-old), mature (12-mo-old), and senescent (24-mo-old) F344 rats and in cervical-transected (CT) and sham-CT senescent rats. Renal SND remained unchanged during heating in MT and sham-MT senescent rats but was increased in CT senescent rats. Splanchnic SND responses to heating were higher in MT vs. sham-MT senescent rats and in CT vs. MT senescent rats. SND responses to heating were similar in MT and sham-MT young and mature rats. Mean arterial pressure (MAP) was increased during heating in MT but not in sham-MT senescent rats, whereas heating-induced increases in MAP were higher in sham-MT vs. MT young rats. These data suggest that in senescent rats suppression of splanchnic SND to heating involves forebrain and brain stem neural circuits, whereas renal suppression is mediated solely by brain stem neural circuits. These results support the concept that aging alters the functional organization of pathways regulating SND and arterial blood pressure responses to acute heating.

  4. Methylene blue improves brain oxidative metabolism and memory retention in rats.

    PubMed

    Callaway, Narriman Lee; Riha, Penny D; Bruchey, Aleksandra K; Munshi, Zeenat; Gonzalez-Lima, F

    2004-01-01

    Methylene blue (MB) increases mitochondrial oxygen consumption and restores memory retention in rats metabolically impaired by inhibition of cytochrome c oxidase. This study tested two related hypotheses using biochemical and behavioral techniques: (1) that low-level MB would enhance brain cytochrome c oxidation, as tested in vitro in brain homogenates and after in vivo administration to rats and (2) that corresponding low-dose MB would enhance spatial memory retention in normal rats, as tested 24 h after rats were trained in a baited holeboard maze for 5 days with daily MB posttraining injections. The biochemical in vitro studies showed an increased rate of brain cytochrome c oxidation with the low but not the high MB concentrations tested. The in vivo administration studies showed that the corresponding MB low dose (1 mg/kg) increased brain cytochrome c oxidation 24 h after intraperitoneal injection, but not after 1 or 2 h postinjection. In the behavioral studies, spatial memory retention in probe trials (percentage of visits to training-baited holes compared to total visits) was significantly better for MB-treated than saline control groups (66% vs. 31%). Together the findings suggest that low-dose MB enhances spatial memory retention in normal rats by increasing brain cytochrome c oxidase activity.

  5. Hydroxysafflor yellow A exerts antioxidant effects in a rat model of traumatic brain injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Yang; Zhang, Chunhu; Peng, Weijun; Xia, Zian; Gan, Pingping; Huang, Wei; Shi, Yafei; Fan, Rong

    2016-01-01

    Free radical-induced oxidative damage occurs rapidly and is of primary importance during the secondary pathophysiological cascades of traumatic brain injury (TBI). Hydroxysafflor yellow A (HSYA) is a constituent of the flower petals of Carthamus tinctorius (safflower) and may represent a potential therapeutic strategy to improve outcomes following TBI. The present study aimed to identify HSYA in the brain tissues of rats exposed to TBI to determine its absorption and to investigate the underlying effects of HSYA on antioxidant enzymes in the brain tissues of TBI rats. To determine the absorption of HSYA for the investigation of the underlying antioxidant effects of HSYA in TBI, the presence of HSYA in the brain tissues of the TBI rats was identified using an ultra performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry method. Subsequently, the state of oxidative stress in the TBI rat model following the administration of HSYA was investigated by determining the levels of antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA) and catalase (CAT), and the ratio of glutathione (GSH)/glutathione disulfide (GSSG). The data obtained demonstrated that HSYA was absorbed in the brain tissues of the TBI rats. HSYA increased the activities of SOD and CAT, the level of GSH and the GSH/GSSG ratio. However, HSYA concomitantly decreased the levels of MDA and GSSG. These preliminary data suggest that HSYA has the potential to be utilized as a neuroprotective drug in cases of TBI. PMID:27599591

  6. Neuroanatomy-based matrix-guided trimming protocol for the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Defazio, Rossella; Criado, Ana; Zantedeschi, Valentina; Scanziani, Eugenio

    2015-02-01

    Brain trimming through defined neuroanatomical landmarks is recommended to obtain consistent sections in rat toxicity studies. In this article, we describe a matrix-guided trimming protocol that uses channels to reproduce coronal levels of anatomical landmarks. Both setup phase and validation study were performed on Han Wistar male rats (Crl:WI(Han)), 10-week-old, with bodyweight of 298 ± 29 (SD) g, using a matrix (ASI-Instruments(®), Houston, TX) fitted for brains of rats with 200 to 400 g bodyweight. In the setup phase, we identified eight channels, that is, 6, 8, 10, 12, 14, 16, 19, and 21, matching the recommended landmarks midway to the optic chiasm, frontal pole, optic chiasm, infundibulum, mamillary bodies, midbrain, middle cerebellum, and posterior cerebellum, respectively. In the validation study, we trimmed the immersion-fixed brains of 60 rats using the selected channels to determine how consistently the channels reproduced anatomical landmarks. Percentage of success (i.e., presence of expected targets for each level) ranged from 89 to 100%. Where 100% success was not achieved, it was noted that the shift in brain trimming was toward the caudal pole. In conclusion, we developed and validated a trimming protocol for the rat brain that allow comparable extensiveness, homology, and relevance of coronal sections as the landmark-guided trimming with the advantage of being quickly learned by technicians.

  7. N-acetylcysteine attenuates copper overload-induced oxidative injury in brain of rat.

    PubMed

    Ozcelik, Dervis; Uzun, Hafize; Nazıroglu, Mustafa

    2012-06-01

    Copper is an integral part of many important enzymes involved in a number of vital biological processes. Even though it is essential to life, at elevated tissue concentrations, copper can become toxic to cells. Recent studies have reported oxidative damage due to copper in various tissues. Considering the vulnerability of the brain to oxidative stress, this study was undertaken to explore possible beneficial antioxidant effects of N-acetylcysteine on oxidative stress induced by copper overload in brain tissue of rats. Thirty-two Wistar rats were equally divided into four groups. The first group was used as control. The second, third, and fourth groups were given 1 g/L copper in their drinking water for 1 month. At the end of this period, the group 2 rats were sacrificed. During the next 2 weeks, the rats in group 3 were injected intraperitoneally with physiological saline and those in group 4 with 20 mg/kg intraperitoneal injections of N-acetylcysteine. In group 2 the lipid peroxidation and nitric oxide levels were increased in the brain cortex while the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase and the concentration of glutathione were decreased. In rats treated with N-acetylcysteine, lipid peroxidation decreased and the activities of antioxidant enzyme improved in the brain cortex. In conclusion, treatment with N-acetylcysteine modulated the antioxidant redox system and reduced brain oxidative stress induced by copper.

  8. L-histidine but not D-histidine attenuates brain edema following cryogenic injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Ikeda, Y; Mochizuki, Y; Matsumoto, H; Nakamura, Y; Dohi, K; Jimbo, H; Shimazu, M; Hayashi, M; Matsumoto, K

    2000-01-01

    Oxygen free radicals have been implicated in the genesis of traumatic brain injury and brain edema (BE). Recent studies have suggested that hydroxyl radical can initiate lipid peroxidation, thus producing lipid-free radicals that may become important sources of singlet oxygen. L-histidine, a singlet oxygen scavenger, potentially can be used to treat BE. In this study we investigated the effects of L-histidine and D-histidine on BE following cryogenic injury in rats. Male Wistar rats were anaesthetized with chloral hydrate. Vasogenic BE was produced by a cortical freezing lesion. Generation of singlet oxygen from photoactivation of rose bengal was studied by electron spin resonance (ESR). Animals were separated into four groups: sham rats (n = 5), saline-treated rats (n = 10), L-histidine treated rats (n = 6) and D-histidine treated rats (n = 7). Each agent (100 mg/kg) was administered intravenously at 30 minutes before lesion production. Animals were sacrificed at 24 hours after lesion production and the brain water content was determined by the dry-wet weight method. L-histidine had no effect on rectal and brain temperature. Election Spin Resonance studies demonstrated that L-histidine is a singlet oxygen scavenger. L-histidine but not D-histidine significantly attenuated BE following cryogenic injury (p < 0.05). In conclusion, L-histidine is useful in the treatment of traumatic BE.

  9. Probing Intrinsic Resting-State Networks in the Infant Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Bajic, Dusica; Craig, Michael M.; Borsook, David; Becerra, Lino

    2016-01-01

    Resting-state functional magnetic resonance imaging (rs-fMRI) measures spontaneous fluctuations in blood oxygenation level-dependent (BOLD) signal in the absence of external stimuli. It has become a powerful tool for mapping large-scale brain networks in humans and animal models. Several rs-fMRI studies have been conducted in anesthetized and awake adult rats, reporting consistent patterns of brain activity at the systems level. However, the evolution to adult patterns of resting-state activity has not yet been evaluated and quantified in the developing rat brain. In this study, we hypothesized that large-scale intrinsic networks would be easily detectable but not fully established as specific patterns of activity in lightly anesthetized 2-week-old rats (N = 11). Independent component analysis (ICA) identified 8 networks in 2-week-old-rats. These included Default mode, Sensory (Exteroceptive), Salience (Interoceptive), Basal Ganglia-Thalamic-Hippocampal, Basal Ganglia, Autonomic, Cerebellar, as well as Thalamic-Brainstem networks. Many of these networks consisted of more than one component, possibly indicative of immature, underdeveloped networks at this early time point. Except for the Autonomic network, infant rat networks showed reduced connectivity with subcortical structures in comparison to previously published adult networks. Reported slow fluctuations in the BOLD signal that correspond to functionally relevant resting-state networks in 2-week-old rats can serve as an important tool for future studies of brain development in the settings of different pharmacological applications or disease. PMID:27803653

  10. Acetaldehyde metabolism by brain mitochondria from UChA and UChB rats.

    PubMed

    Quintanilla, M E; Tampier, L

    1995-01-01

    The acetaldehyde (AcH) oxidizing capacity of total brain homogenates from the genetically high-ethanol consumer (UChB) appeared to be greater than that of the low-ethanol consumer (UChA) rats. To gain further information about this strain difference, the activity of aldehyde dehydrogenase (AIDH) in different subcellular fractions of whole brain homogenates from naive UChA and UChB rat strains of both sexes has been studied by measuring the rate of AcH disappearance and by following the reduction of NAD to NADH. The results demonstrated that the higher capacity of brain homogenates from UChB rats to oxidize AcH when compared to UChA ones was because the UChB mitochondrial low Km AIDH exhibits a much greater affinity for NAD than that of the UChA rats, as evidenced by four-to fivefold differences in the Km values for NAD. But the dehydrogenases from both strains exhibited a similar maximum rate at saturating NAD concentrations. Because intact brain mitochondria isolated from UChB rats oxidized AcH at a higher rate than did mitochondria from UChA rats only in state 4, but not in state 3, this strain difference in AIDH activity might be restricted in vivo to NAD disposition.

  11. Extremely low frequency magnetic fields induce oxidative stress in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Manikonda, Pavan K; Rajendra, Pilankatta; Devendranath, D; Gunasekaran, B; Channakeshava; Aradhya, Shivakumara R S; Sashidhar, Rao B; Subramanyam, Chivukula

    2014-01-01

    The present investigation was conducted to understand the influence of long-term exposure of rats to extremely low frequency magnetic fields (ELF-MF), focusing on oxidative stress (OS) on different regions of rat's brain. Male Wistar rats (21-day-old) were exposed to ELF-MF (50 Hz; 50 and 100 µT) for 90 days continuously; hippocampal, cerebellar and cortical regions from rats were analyzed for (i) reactive oxygen species (ROS), (ii) metabolites indicative of OS and (iii) antioxidant enzymes. In comparison to control group rats, the rats that were continuously exposed to ELF-MF caused OS and altered glutathione (GSH/GSSG) levels in dose-dependent manner in all the regions of the brain. Accumulation of ROS, lipid peroxidation end products and activity of superoxide dismutase in different regions was in the descending order of cerebellum < hippocampus < cortex. Decrement in GSH/GSSG levels and increment in glutathione peroxidase activity were in the descending order of hippocampus < cerebellum < cortex. The continuous exposure to ELF-MF caused OS in all the examined regions of brain more significantly at 100 µT than at 50 µT. Varied influences observed in different regions of the brain, as documented in this study, may contribute to altered metabolic patterns in its related regions of the central nervous system, leading to aberrant neuronal functions.

  12. Thymoquinone ameliorates lead-induced brain damage in Sprague Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Radad, Khaled; Hassanein, Khaled; Al-Shraim, Mubarak; Moldzio, Rudolf; Rausch, Wolf-Dieter

    2014-01-01

    The present study aims to investigate the protective effects of thymoquinone, the major active ingredient of Nigella sativa seeds, against lead-induced brain damage in Sprague-Dawley rats. In which, 40 rats were divided into four groups (10 rats each). The first group served as control. The second, third and fourth groups received lead acetate, lead acetate and thymoquinone, and thymoquinone only, respectively, for one month. Lead acetate was given in drinking water at a concentration of 0.5 g/l (500 ppm). Thymoquinone was given daily at a dose of 20mg/kg b.w. in corn oil by gastric tube. Control and thymoquinone-treated rats showed normal brain histology. Treatment of rats with lead acetate was shown to produce degeneration of endothelial lining of brain blood vessels with peri-vascular cuffing of mononuclear cells consistent to lymphocytes, congestion of choroid plexus blood vessels, ischemic brain infarction, chromatolysis and neuronal degeneration, microglial reaction and neuronophagia, degeneration of hippocampal and cerebellar neurons, and axonal demyelination. On the other hand, co-administration of thymoquinone with lead acetate markedly decreased the incidence of lead acetate-induced pathological lesions. Thus the current study shed some light on the beneficial effects of thymoquinone against neurotoxic effects of lead in rats.

  13. Preventive effect of safranal against oxidative damage in aged male rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Samini, Fariborz

    2014-01-01

    An imbalance between production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and its elimination by antioxidant defense system in the body has been implicated for causes of aging and neurodegenerative diseases. This study was design to assess the changes in activities of antioxidant enzymes (superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase), lipid peroxidation and reduced glutathione (GSH) levels in the brain of 2, 10 and 20 month old rats, and to determine the effect of safranal on the status of selected oxidative stress indices in the 10 and 20 month old rats. The aged rats (10 and 20 months) were given intraperitoneal injections of safranal (0.5 mg/kg day) daily for one month. The results of this study demonstrated that aging caused significant increase in the level of lipid peroxidation as well decrease in the GSH level and activities of SOD and GST in the brain of aging rats. The results of this study showed that safranal ameliorated the increased lipid peroxidation level as well as decreased GSH content of the brain of 10 and 20 month old rats. In addition, safranal treatment to the 20 month old rats, which restored the SOD and GST activities. In conclusion, safranal can be effective to protect susceptible aged brain from oxidative damage by increasing antioxidant defenses. PMID:25312506

  14. Using on-line solid phase extraction for in vivo speciation of diffusible ferrous and ferric iron in living rat brain extracellular fluid.

    PubMed

    Su, Cheng-Kuan; Chen, Yi-Ting; Sun, Yuh-Chang

    2017-02-08

    Exploration of brain extracellular non-protein-bound/diffusible iron species remains a critically important issue in investigations of free radical biology and neurodegenerative diseases. In this study, a facile sample pretreatment scheme, involving poly(vinyl chloride)-metal ion interactions as a selective extraction procedure, was optimized in conjunction with microdialysis (MD) sampling and inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS) in cool-plasma mode for in vivo online monitoring of rat brain extracellular Fe(II) and Fe(III) species. Optimization of the system provided detection limits in the range 0.9-6.9 μg Fe L(-1), based on a 12-μL microdialysate, for the tested iron species; relative standard deviations of the signal intensities during 7.8 h of continuous measurement were less than 9.4%-sufficient to determine the basal concentrations of rat brain extracellular Fe(II) and Fe(III) species and to describe their dynamic actions. The method's applicability was verified through (i) spike analyses of offline-collected rat brain microdialysates, (ii) determination of the basal Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations of living rat brain extracellular fluids, and (iii) monitoring of the dynamic changes in the Fe(II) and Fe(III) concentrations in response to perfusion of a high-K(+) medium. This proposed sample pretreatment scheme, based on polymer-metal ion interactions and hyphenation to an MD sampling device and an ICP-MS system, appears to have great practicality for the online monitoring of rat brain extracellular diffusible iron species.

  15. Positron Spectroscopy Investigation of Normal Brain Section and Brain Section with Glioma Derived from a Rat Glioma Model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yang, SH.; Ballmann, C.; Quarles, C. A.

    2009-03-01

    The application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) to the study of animal or human tissue has only recently been reported [G. Liu, et al. phys. stat. sol. (C) 4, Nos. 10, 3912-3915 (2007)]. We have initiated a study of normal brain section and brain section with glioma derived from a rat glioma model. For the rat glioma model, 200,000 C6 cells were implanted in the basal ganglion of adult Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were sacrificed at 21 days after implantation. The brains were harvested, sliced into 2 mm thick coronal sections, and fixed in 4% formalin. PALS lifetime runs were made with the samples soaked in formalin, and there was not significant evaporation of formalin during the runs. The lifetime spectra were analyzed into two lifetime components. While early results suggested a small decrease in ortho-Positronium (o-Ps) pickoff lifetime between the normal brain section and brain section with glioma, further runs with additional samples have showed no statistically significant difference between the normal and tumor tissue for this type of tumor. The o-Ps lifetime in formalin alone was lower than either the normal tissue or glioma sample. So annihilation in the formalin absorbed in the samples would lower the o-Ps lifetime and this may have masked any difference due to the glioma itself. DBS was also used to investigate the difference in positronium formation between tumor and normal tissue. Tissue samples are heterogeneous and this needs to be carefully considered if PALS and DBS are to become useful tools in distinguishing tissue samples.

  16. Positron Spectroscopy Investigation of Normal Brain Section and Brain Section with Glioma Derived from a Rat Glioma Model

    SciTech Connect

    Yang, SH.; Ballmann, C.; Quarles, C. A.

    2009-03-10

    The application of positron annihilation lifetime spectroscopy (PALS) and Doppler broadening spectroscopy (DBS) to the study of animal or human tissue has only recently been reported [G. Liu, et al. phys. stat. sol. (C) 4, Nos. 10, 3912-3915 (2007)]. We have initiated a study of normal brain section and brain section with glioma derived from a rat glioma model. For the rat glioma model, 200,000 C6 cells were implanted in the basal ganglion of adult Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were sacrificed at 21 days after implantation. The brains were harvested, sliced into 2 mm thick coronal sections, and fixed in 4% formalin. PALS lifetime runs were made with the samples soaked in formalin, and there was not significant evaporation of formalin during the runs. The lifetime spectra were analyzed into two lifetime components. While early results suggested a small decrease in ortho-Positronium (o-Ps) pickoff lifetime between the normal brain section and brain section with glioma, further runs with additional samples have showed no statistically significant difference between the normal and tumor tissue for this type of tumor. The o-Ps lifetime in formalin alone was lower than either the normal tissue or glioma sample. So annihilation in the formalin absorbed in the samples would lower the o-Ps lifetime and this may have masked any difference due to the glioma itself. DBS was also used to investigate the difference in positronium formation between tumor and normal tissue. Tissue samples are heterogeneous and this needs to be carefully considered if PALS and DBS are to become useful tools in distinguishing tissue samples.

  17. An autoradiographic map of (3H)diprenorphine binding in rat brain: effects of social interaction

    SciTech Connect

    Panksepp, J.; Bishop, P.

    1981-10-01

    (3H)Diprenorphine binding was analyzed autoradiographically in the brains of 33 day old rat pups. A photographic atlas of diprenorphine binding in the coronal plane is provided to highlight the dispersion of opioid receptor systems through the brain. To determine whether brain opioid release may be induced by social interactions, half the animals were sacrificed following a 30 min period of social interaction while the other half were sacrificed following 30 min of social isolation. Opioid binding was higher in isolate-tested animals than socially-tested ones, suggesting that social interaction may promote endogenous brain opioid release.

  18. Indomethacin improves locomotor deficit and reduces brain concentrations of neuroinhibitory steroids in rats following portacaval anastomosis.

    PubMed

    Ahboucha, S; Jiang, W; Chatauret, N; Mamer, O; Baker, G B; Butterworth, R F

    2008-08-01

    Hepatic encephalopathy (HE) is a neuropsychiatric complication of both acute and chronic liver failure characterized by progressive neuronal inhibition. Some neurosteroids are potent positive allosteric modulators of the gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)-A receptor complex, and 'increased GABAergic tone' has been proposed to explain the neuroinhibition characteristics of HE. Brain levels of the neurosteroids pregnenolone, allopregnanolone and tetrahydrodesoxycorticosterone (THDOC) and the functional status of the GABA-A receptor complex were assessed in rats following portacaval anastomosis (PCA). Effects of indomethacin, an inhibitor of the 3alpha-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase enzyme involved in neurosteroid synthesis, on PCA rat locomotor activity and brain neurosteroid levels were also assessed. Significant increases of the neurosteroid pregnenolone (2.6-fold), allopregnanolone (1.7-fold) and THDOC (4.7-fold) were observed in brains of PCA rats. Brain levels of these neurosteroids were in the nanomolar range, sufficient to exert positive allosteric modulatory effects at the GABA-A receptor. Indomethacin (0.1-5 mg kg(-1)) ameliorated dose-dependently the locomotor deficit of PCA rats and concomitantly normalized brain levels of allopregnanolone and THDOC. Increased brain levels of neurosteroids with positive allosteric modulatory actions at the neuronal GABA-A receptor offer a cogent explanation for the notion of 'increased GABAergic tone' in HE. Pharmacological approaches using agents that either reduce neurosteroid synthesis or modulate the neurosteroid site on GABA-A receptor could offer new therapeutic tools for the management and treatment of HE.

  19. Chlorpromazine Protects Against Apoptosis Induced by Exogenous Stimuli in the Developing Rat Brain

    PubMed Central

    Li, Yujun; Zhang, Qingmeng; Chen, Yang; Fu, Yingmei; Fang, Wenjuan; Wang, Jindong; Zhong, Zhaohua; Ling, Hong; Zhang, Liming; Zhang, Fengmin

    2011-01-01

    Background Chlorpromazine (CPZ), a commonly used antipsychotic drug, was found to play a neuroprotective role in various models of toxicity. However, whether CPZ has the potential to affect brain apoptosis in vivo is still unknown. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential effect of CPZ on the apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli. Methodology The ethanol treated infant rat was utilized as a valid apoptotic model, which is commonly used and could trigger robust apoptosis in brain tissue. Prior to the induction of apoptosis by subcutaneous injection of ethanol, 7-day-old rats were treated with CPZ at several doses (5 mg/kg, 10 mg/kg and 20 mg/kg) by intraperitoneal injection. Apoptotic cells in the brain were measured using TUNEL analysis, and the levels of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c, the pro-apoptotic factor Bax and the anti-apoptotic factor Bcl-2 were assessed by immunostaining or western blot. Findings Compared to the group injected with ethanol only, the brains of the CPZ-pretreated rats had fewer apoptotic cells, lower expression of cleaved caspase-3, cytochrome c and Bax, and higher expression of Bcl-2. These results demonstrate that CPZ could prevent apoptosis in the brain by regulating the mitochondrial pathway. Conclusions CPZ exerts an inhibitory effect on apoptosis induced by ethanol in the rat brain, intimating that it may offer a means of protecting nerve cells from apoptosis induced by exogenous stimuli. PMID:21779358

  20. Sexual differentiation of the adolescent rat brain: A longitudinal voxel-based morphometry study.

    PubMed

    Sumiyoshi, Akira; Nonaka, Hiroi; Kawashima, Ryuta

    2017-03-06

    The sexual differentiation of the rat brain during the adolescent period has been well documented in post-mortem histological studies. However, to further understand the morphological changes occurring in the entire brain, a noninvasive neuroimaging method allowing an unbiased, comprehensive, and longitudinal investigation of brain morphology should be used. In this study, we investigated the sexual differentiation of the rat brain during the adolescent period using longitudinal voxel-based morphometry (VBM) analysis. Male and female Wistar rats (n=12 of each) were scanned in a 7.0-T MRI scanner at five time points from 6 to 10 weeks of age. The T2-weighted MRI images were segmented using the rat brain tissue priors that have been published by our laboratory. At the global level, the results of the VBM analysis showed greater increases in total gray matter volume in the males during the adolescent period, although we did not find significant differences in total white matter volume. At the voxel level, we found significant increases in the regional gray matter volume of the occipital cortex, amygdala, hippocampal formation, and cerebellum. At the regional level, only the occipital cortex in the females exhibited decreases during the adolescent period. These results were, at least in part, consistent with those of previous longitudinal VBM studies in humans, thus providing translational evidence of the sexual differentiation of the developing brain between rodents and humans. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  1. Manganese leads to an increase in markers of oxidative stress as well as to a shift in the ratio of Fe(II)/(III) in rat brain tissue.

    PubMed

    Fernsebner, Katharina; Zorn, Julia; Kanawati, Basem; Walker, Alesia; Michalke, Bernhard

    2014-04-01

    Occupationally or environmentally caused chronic exposure to Manganese (Mn) can lead to a degeneration of dopaminergic neurons inducing a Parkinson-like complaint called manganism. Deciphering the ongoing neurodegenerative mechanisms in the affected brain is still a major task for understanding the complex modes of action. Therefore, we applied a non-toxic, oral feeding in rats simulating a chronic exposure to Mn. Analysis of brain extracts by electrospray ionization Fourier transform resonance mass spectrometry (ESI-FT-ICR-MS) revealed an increase in markers of oxidative stress like glutathione disulfide (GSSG), prostaglandins, and 15(S)-HETE, a marker of lipid peroxidation. Furthermore, acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity and glutamate concentrations were elevated in brain samples of Mn-supplemented rats, suggesting oxidative stress in the brain tissue. Application of ion chromatography coupled to inductively coupled plasma-optical emission spectrometry (IC-ICP-OES) further showed a shift of Fe(III) towards Fe(II) in the brain samples enabling for example the action of the Fenton reaction. This is the first time that changes in the Fe-species distribution could be related to Mn-induced neuroinflammation and is therefore enlarging the knowledge of this complex neurodegenerative condition. The combination of our findings provides substantial evidence that Mn-induced neuroinflammation leads to oxidative stress triggered by multifactorial pathophysiological processes.

  2. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation reduces cortical phase-amplitude coupling in Parkinson's disease

    PubMed Central

    de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole; Ostrem, Jill L.; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S.; Luciano, Marta San; Galifianakis, Nicholas; Starr, Philip A.

    2015-01-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly applied to the treatment of brain disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here, we evaluate the effect of basal ganglia DBS on cortical function using invasive cortical recordings in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery. In the primary motor cortex of PD patients neuronal population spiking is excessively synchronized to the phase of network oscillations. This manifests in brain surface recordings as exaggerated coupling between the phase of the β rhythm and the amplitude of broadband activity. We show that acute therapeutic DBS reversibly reduces phase-amplitude interactions over a similar time course as reduction in parkinsonian motor signs. We propose that DBS of the basal ganglia improves cortical function by alleviating excessive β phase locking of motor cortex neurons. PMID:25867121

  3. Therapeutic deep brain stimulation reduces cortical phase-amplitude coupling in Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    de Hemptinne, Coralie; Swann, Nicole C; Ostrem, Jill L; Ryapolova-Webb, Elena S; San Luciano, Marta; Galifianakis, Nicholas B; Starr, Philip A

    2015-05-01

    Deep brain stimulation (DBS) is increasingly applied for the treatment of brain disorders, but its mechanism of action remains unknown. Here we evaluate the effect of basal ganglia DBS on cortical function using invasive cortical recordings in Parkinson's disease (PD) patients undergoing DBS implantation surgery. In the primary motor cortex of PD patients, neuronal population spiking is excessively synchronized to the phase of network oscillations. This manifests in brain surface recordings as exaggerated coupling between the phase of the beta rhythm and the amplitude of broadband activity. We show that acute therapeutic DBS reversibly reduces phase-amplitude interactions over a similar time course as that of the reduction in parkinsonian motor signs. We propose that DBS of the basal ganglia improves cortical function by alleviating excessive beta phase locking of motor cortex neurons.

  4. Age-dependent differential expression profile of a novel intergenic long noncoding RNA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2015-12-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are ≥ 200 nt long, abundant class of non-protein coding RNAs that are transcribed in complex, sense- and antisense patterns from the intergenic and intronic regions of mammalian genome. Mammalian central nervous system constitutes the largest repertoire of noncoding transcripts that are known to be expressed in developmentally regulated and cell-type specific manners. Although many lncRNAs, functioning in the brain development and diseases are known, none involved in brain aging has been reported so far. Here, we report involvement of a novel, repeat sequence (simple repeats and SINES)-containing, trans-spliced, long intergenic non-protein coding RNA (lincRNA), named as LINC-RBE (rat brain expressed transcript) involved in maturation and aging of mammalian brain. The LINC-RBE is strongly expressed in the rat brain and the upstream/downstream sequences of its DNA in the chromosome 5 contain binding sites for many cell growth, survival and development-specific transcriptional factors. Through RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, LINC-RBE was found to be expressed in an age-dependent manner with significantly higher level of expression in the brain of adult (16 week) compared to both immature (4 week) and old (70 week) rats. Moreover, the expression pattern of the LINC-RBE showed distinct association with the specific neuro-anatomical regions, cell types and sub-cellular compartments of the rat brain in an age-related manner. Thus, its expression increased from immature stage to adulthood and declined further in old age. This is a first-time report of involvement of an intergenic repeat sequence-containing lncRNA in different regions of the rat brain in an age-dependent manner. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Age-dependent differential expression profile of a novel intergenic long noncoding RNA in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Kour, Sukhleen; Rath, Pramod C

    2015-11-01

    Long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) are ≥200 nt long, abundant class of non-protein coding RNAs that are transcribed in complex, sense- and antisense patterns from the intergenic and intronic regions of mammalian genome. Mammalian central nervous system constitutes the largest repertoire of noncoding transcripts that are known to be expressed in developmentally regulated and cell-type specific manners. Although many lncRNAs, functioning in the brain development and diseases are known, none involved in brain aging has been reported so far. Here, we report involvement of a novel, repeat sequence (simple repeats and SINES)-containing, trans-spliced, long intergenic non-protein coding RNA (lincRNA), named as LINC-RBE (rat brain expressed transcript) involved in maturation and aging of mammalian brain. The LINC-RBE is strongly expressed in the rat brain and the upstream/downstream sequences of its DNA in the chromosome 5 contain binding sites for many cell growth, survival and development-specific transcriptional factors. Through RT-PCR and RNA in situ hybridization, LINC-RBE was found to be expressed in an age-dependent manner with significantly higher level of expression in the brain of adult (16 weeks) compared to both immature (4 weeks) and old (70 weeks) rats. Moreover, the expression pattern of the LINC-RBE showed distinct association with the specific neuro-anatomical regions, cell types and sub-cellular compartments of the rat brain in an age-related manner. Thus, its expression increased from immature stage to adulthood and declined further in old age. This is a first-time report of involvement of an intergenic repeat sequence-containing lncRNA in different regions of the rat brain in an age-dependent manner.

  6. Large-Scale Brain Network Coupling Predicts Total Sleep Deprivation Effects on Cognitive Capacity

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Lubin; Zhai, Tianye; Zou, Feng; Ye, Enmao; Jin, Xiao; Li, Wuju; Qi, Jianlin; Yang, Zheng

    2015-01-01

    Interactions between large-scale brain networks have received most attention in the study of cognitive dysfunction of human brain. In this paper, we aimed to test the hypothesis that the coupling strength of large-scale brain networks will reflect the pressure for sleep and will predict cognitive performance, referred to as sleep pressure index (SPI). Fourteen healthy subjects underwent this within-subject functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) study during rested wakefulness (RW) and after 36 h of total sleep deprivation (TSD). Self-reported scores of sleepiness were higher for TSD than for RW. A subsequent working memory (WM) task showed that WM performance was lower after 36 h of TSD. Moreover, SPI was developed based on the coupling strength of salience network (SN) and default mode network (DMN). Significant increase of SPI was observed after 36 h of TSD, suggesting stronger pressure for sleep. In addition, SPI was significantly correlated with both the visual analogue scale score of sleepiness and the WM performance. These results showed that alterations in SN-DMN coupling might be critical in cognitive alterations that underlie the lapse after TSD. Further studies may validate the SPI as a potential clinical biomarker to assess the impact of sleep deprivation. PMID:26218521

  7. Enalapril attenuates ischaemic brain oedema and protects the blood-brain barrier in rats via an anti-oxidant action.

    PubMed

    Panahpour, Hamdollah; Dehghani, Gholam Abbas; Bohlooli, Shahab

    2014-03-01

    1. In the present study, we investigated the effects of postischaemic angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibition with enalapril on vasogenic oedema formation and blood-brain barrier (BBB) integrity following transient focal cerebral ischaemia in rats. 2. Cerebral ischaemia was induced by 60 min occlusion of the right middle cerebral artery, followed by 24 h reperfusion. Vehicle and a non-hypotensive dose of enalapril (0.03 mg/kg) were administered at the beginning of the reperfusion period. A neurological deficit score (NDS) was determined for all rats at the end of the reperfusion period. Then, brain oedema formation was investigated using the wet-dry weight method and BBB permeability was evaluated on the basis of extravasation of Evans blue (EB) dye. In addition, oxidative stress was assessed by measuring reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in brain homogenates. 3. Inhibition of ACE by enalapril significantly reduced NDS and decreased brain oedema formation (P < 0.05 for both). Disruption of the BBB following ischaemia resulted in considerable leakage of EB dye into the brain parenchyma of the ipsilateral hemispheres of vehicle-treated rats. Enalapril significantly (P < 0.05) decreased EB extravasation into the lesioned hemisphere. Enalapril also augmented anti-oxidant activity in ischaemic brain tissue by increasing GSH concentrations and significantly (P < 0.05) attenuating the increased MDA levels in response to ischaemia. 4. In conclusion, inhibition of ACE with a non-hypotensive dose of enalapril may protect BBB function and attenuate oedema formation via anti-oxidant actions.

  8. Azotemia (48 h) decreases the risk of brain damage in rats after correction of chronic hyponatremia.

    PubMed

    Soupart, A; Penninckx, R; Stenuit, A; Decaux, G

    2000-01-03

    Brain myelinolysis complicates excessive correction of chronic hyponatremia in man. Myelinolysis appear in rats for correction levels deltaSNa) > 20 mEq/l/24 h. We previously showed in rats that when chronic hyponatremia was corrected with urea, the incidence and the severity of brain lesions were significantly reduced compared to hypertonic saline. In man, hyponatremia is frequently associated with azotemia and hemo-dialysis usually corrects rapidly the serum sodium (SNa) but only few patients apparently develop demyelination. We hypothesize that uremic state protects brain against myelinolysis. This hypothesis was evaluated in rats developing azotemia by administration of mercuric chloride (HgCl2, 1.5 mg/kg). Severe (SNa < 120 mEq/l) hyponatremia (3 days) was induced by S.C. AVP and i.p. 2.5% D-glucose for 3 days. HgCl2 was injected on day 2. Hyponatremia was corrected on day 4 by i.p. injections of 5% NaCl in order to obtain a correction level largely above the toxic threshold for brain (deltaSNA approximately 30 mEq/l/24 h). Surviving rats were decapitated on day 10 for brain analysis. In the group with renal failure (Group I, n = 15, urea 59 mmol/l) the outcome was remarkably favourable with only three rats (3/15) dying before day 10 and only one of them (1/3) presenting myelinolysis-related neurologic symptoms. The 12 other rats (80%) survived in Group I without symptoms and brain analysis was normal in all of them despite large correction level (deltaSNa: 32 mEq/l/24 h). On the contrary in nine rats in which HgCl, did not produce significant azotemia (control 1, n = 9, urea: 11 mmol/l), all the rats developed severe neurologic symptoms and eight of them died before day 10. Similar catastrophic outcome was observed in the non-azotemic controls (control 2, no HgCl2 administration, n = 15, urea: 5 mmol/l). All of them developed myelinolysis-related neurologic symptoms and only four of them survived with severe brain lesions (survival 12/15 in Group I vs. 5

  9. Acute neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields after traumatic brain injury in rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Yang; Li, Ling; Wang, Yan-Gang; Fei, Zhou; Zhong, Jun; Wei, Li-Zhou; Long, Qian-Fa; Liu, Wei-Ping

    2012-05-10

    Traumatic brain injury commonly has a result of a short window of opportunity between the period of initial brain injury and secondary brain injury, which provides protective strategies and can reduce damages of brain due to secondary brain injury. Previous studies have reported neuroprotective effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields. However, the effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neural damage after traumatic brain injury have not been reported yet. The present study aims to investigate effects of extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields on neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were used for the model of lateral fluid percussion injury, which were placed in non-electromagnetic fields and 15 Hz (Hertz) electromagnetic fields with intensities of 1 G (Gauss), 3 G and 5 G. At various time points (ranging from 0.5 to 30 h) after lateral fluid percussion injury, rats were treated with kainic acid (administered by intraperitoneal injection) to induce apoptosis in hippocampal cells. The results were as follows: (1) the expression of hypoxia-inducible factor-1α was dramatically decreased during the neuroprotective time window. (2) The kainic acid-induced apoptosis in the hippocampus was significantly decreased in rats exposed to electromagnetic fields. (3) Electromagnetic fields exposure shortened the escape time in water maze test. (4) Electromagnetic fields exposure accelerated the recovery of the blood-brain barrier after brain injury. These findings revealed that extremely low-frequency electromagnetic fields significantly prolong the window of opportunity for brain protection and enhance the intensity of neuroprotection after traumatic brain injury. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Relationship between orientation to a blast and pressure wave propagation inside the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Chavko, Mikulas; Watanabe, Tomas; Adeeb, Saleena; Lankasky, Jason; Ahlers, Stephen T; McCarron, Richard M

    2011-01-30

    Exposure to a blast wave generated during an explosion may result in brain damage and related neurological impairments. Several mechanisms by which the primary blast wave can damage the brain have been proposed, including: (1) a direct effect of the shock wave on the brain causing tissue damage by skull flexure and propagation of stress and shear forces; and (2) an indirect transfer of kinetic energy from the blast, through large blood vessels and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF), to the central nervous system. To address a basic question related to the mechanisms of blast brain injury, pressure was measured inside the brains of rats exposed to a low level of blast (~35kPa), while positioned in three different orientations with respect to the primary blast wave; head facing blast, right side exposed to blast and head facing away from blast. Data show different patterns and durations of the pressure traces inside the brain, depending on the rat orientation to blast. Frontal exposures (head facing blast) resulted in pressure traces of higher amplitude and longer duration, suggesting direct transmission and reflection of the pressure inside the brain (dynamic pressure transfer). The pattern of the pressure wave inside the brain in the head facing away from blast exposures assumes contribution of the static pressure, similar to hydrodynamic pressure to the pressure wave inside the brain. Published by Elsevier B.V.

  11. Rapamycin alleviates brain edema after focal cerebral ischemia reperfusion in rats.

    PubMed

    Guo, Wei; Feng, Guoying; Miao, Yanying; Liu, Guixiang; Xu, Chunsheng

    2014-06-01

    Brain edema is a major consequence of cerebral ischemia reperfusion. However, few effective therapeutic options are available for retarding the brain edema progression after cerebral ischemia. Recently, rapamycin has been shown to produce neuroprotective effects in rats after cerebral ischemia reperfusion. Whether rapamycin could alleviate this brain edema injury is still unclear. In this study, the rat stroke model was induced by a 1-h left transient middle cerebral artery occlusion using an intraluminal filament, followed by 48 h of reperfusion. The effects of rapamycin (250 μg/kg body weight, intraperitoneal; i.p.) on brain edema progression were evaluated. The results showed that rapamycin treatment significantly reduced the infarct volume, the water content of the brain tissue and the Evans blue extravasation through the blood-brain barrier (BBB). Rapamycin treatment could improve histological appearance of the brain tissue, increased the capillary lumen space and maintain the integrity of BBB. Rapamycin also inhibited matrix metalloproteinase 9 (MMP9) and aquaporin 4 (AQP4) expression. These data imply that rapamycin could improve brain edema progression after reperfusion injury through maintaining BBB integrity and inhibiting MMP9 and AQP4 expression. The data of this study provide a new possible approach for improving brain edema after cerebral ischemia reperfusion by administration of rapamycin.

  12. Brain allopregnanolone in the fetal and postnatal rat in response to uteroplacental insufficiency.

    PubMed

    Westcott, Kerryn T; Hirst, Jonathan J; Ciurej, Isabella; Walker, David W; Wlodek, Mary E

    2008-01-01

    Allopregnanolone suppresses central nervous system activity and has neuroprotective actions in hypoxia-induced brain injury. In pregnant sheep allopregnanolone concentrations are high during fetal life and decline rapidly after birth. We investigated brain allopregnanolone concentrations of fetal and postnatal rats derived from normal and growth restricted pregnancies. Bilateral uterine vessel ligation (or sham) was performed at gestation day 18 to induce uteroplacental insufficiency in WKY rats (n = 7-8 per group). Brain allopregnanolone was measured by radioimmunoassay at 2 study ages, gestation day 20 (n = 6 per group) and postnatal day 6 (n = 6-8 per group), from control and growth-restricted pups. Fetal brain allopregnanolone concentrations were higher in growth-restricted fetuses compared to control (p < 0.05). Allopregnanolone concentrations decreased at birth with a greater decline in growth restriction (p < 0.05). Postnatal day 6 brain allopregnanolone concentrations were lower in growth restriction (p < 0.05). Growth restriction is a potent stimulus for neurosteroid synthesis in the fetal brain in late pregnancy. The low concentrations of allopregnanolone in the growth-restricted postnatal brain suggest a delay in the capacity of the adrenal gland or brain to synthesize pregnane steroids or their precursors and may render the postnatal brain vulnerable to hypoxia-induced injury. Copyright 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  13. Mitochondrial dysfunction in rat brain with aging Involvement of complex I, reactive oxygen species and cardiolipin.

    PubMed

    Petrosillo, G; Matera, M; Casanova, G; Ruggiero, F M; Paradies, G

    2008-11-01

    Reactive oxygen species (ROS) are considered a key factor in brain aging process. Mitochondrial respiration is an important site of ROS production and hence a potential contributor to brain functional changes with aging. In this study we examined the effect of aging on complex I activity, oxygen consumption, ROS production and phospholipid composition in rat brain mitochondria. The activity of complex I was reduced by 30% in brain mitochondria from 24 months aged rats relative to young animals. These changes in complex I activity were associated with parallel changes in state 3 respiration. H(2)O(2) generation was significantly increased in mitochondria isolated from aged rats. The mitochondrial content of cardiolipin, a phospholipid required for optimal activity of complex I, decreased by 31% as function of aging, while there was a significant increase in the level of peroxidized cardiolipin. The age-related decrease in complex I activity in brain mitochondria could be reversed by exogenously added cardiolipin. This effect of cardiolipin could not be replaced by other phospholipids. It is proposed that aging causes brain mitochondrial complex I dysfunction which can be attributed to ROS-induced cardiolipin oxidation. These findings may prove useful in elucidating the mechanism underlying mitochondrial dysfunction associated with brain aging.

  14. MRI relaxation in the presence of fictitious fields correlates with myelin content in normal rat brain.

    PubMed

    Hakkarainen, Hanne; Sierra, Alejandra; Mangia, Silvia; Garwood, Michael; Michaeli, Shalom; Gröhn, Olli; Liimatainen, Timo

    2016-01-01

    Brain myelin plays an important role in normal brain function. Demyelination is involved in many degenerative brain diseases, thus quantitative imaging of myelin has been under active investigation. In previous work, we demonstrated the capability of the method known as Relaxation Along a Fictitious Field (RAFF) in the rotating frame of rank n (RAFFn) to provide image contrast between white and gray matter in human and rat brains. Here, we provide evidence pointing to myelin being the major source of this contrast. RAFFn relaxation time constant (TRAFFn) was mapped in rat brain ex vivo. TRAFFn was quantified in 12 different brain areas. TRAFFn values were compared with multiple other MRI metrics (T1, T2 , continuous wave T1ρ, adiabatic T1ρ and T2ρ, magnetization transfer ratio), and with histologic measurements of cell density, myelin and iron content. Highest contrast between white and grey matter was obtained with TRAFFn in the rotating frames of ranks n = 4 and 5. TRAFFn values correlated strongly with myelin content, whereas no associations between TRAFFn and iron content or cell density were found. TRAFFn with n = 4 or 5 provides a high sensitivity for selective myelin mapping in the rat brain. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  15. Dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation downregulates arachidonate but upregulates docosahexaenoate metabolizing enzymes in rat brain

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyung-Wook; Rao, Jagadeesh S; Rapoport, Stanley I.; Igarashi, Miki

    2010-01-01

    Background Dietary n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA) deprivation increases expression of arachidonic acid (AA 20:4n-6)-selective cytosolic phospholipase A2 (cPLA2) IVA and cyclooxygenase (COX)-2 in rat brain, while decreasing expression of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA 22:6n-3)-selective calcium-independent iPLA2 VIA. Assuming that these enzyme changes represented brain homeostatic responses to deprivation, we hypothesized that dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation would produce changes in the opposite directions. Methods Brain expression of PUFA-metabolizing enzymes and their transcription factors was quantified in male rats fed an n-6 PUFA adequate or deficient diet for 15 weeks post-weaning. Results The deficient compared with adequate diet increased brain mRNA, protein and activity of iPLA2 VIA and 15-lipoxygenase (LOX), but decreased cPLA2 IVA and COX-2 expression. The brain protein level of the iPLA2 transcription factor SREBP-1 was elevated, while protein levels were decreased for AP-2α and NF-κB p65, cPLA2 and COX-2 transcription factors, respectively. Conclusions With dietary n-6 PUFA deprivation, rat brain PUFA metabolizing enzymes and some of their transcription factors change in a way that would homeostatically dampen reductions in brain n-6 PUFA concentrations and metabolism, while n-3 PUFA metabolizing enzyme expression is increased. The changes correspond to reported in vitro enzyme selectivities for AA compared with DHA. (198 words) PMID:21070866

  16. Metabolism and disposition of 3,6-dibutanoylmorphine in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Tasker, R A; Nakatsu, K

    1986-09-01

    In previous studies from this laboratory it was found that dibutanoylmorphine (DBM) was more potent than morphine as an analgesic in rats and that it was less active than acetyl esters of morphine on behaviour. As DBM is a morphine prodrug, the aim of this work was to determine if rat brain homogenates were capable of deacylating DBM and monobutanoylmorphine (MBM) and to determine relative proportions of parent drug to metabolites in the brain in vivo. In 10% (w/v) brain homogenates, DBM was eliminated with a half-life of about 70 min (corrected for dilution), while MBM was eliminated 10 times as quickly. DBM and its metabolites were found in both blood and brain as early as 1 min after i.v. administration of DBM. After 5 min, the predominant form in blood was MBM and in brain it was DBM. Thus, rat brain possesses the capacity to metabolize DBM by deesterification and the parent drug, MBM, and morphine were found in blood and brain in vivo.

  17. Comparison of trazodone, diazepame and dibenzepine influences on rat brain beta-endorphins content.

    PubMed

    Jadrić, Radivoj; Hasić, Sabaheta; Kiseljaković, Emina; Winterhalter-Jadrić, Mira

    2007-08-01

    The aim of our study was to establish the extent of influence of different psychotropic drugs to brain Beta-endorphins in experimental animals. The study was performed on albino Wistar rats (weight 250 g), treated with different psychoactive drugs. RIA technique was employed for quantification of brain beta-endorphins. Brain beta-endorphins were higher in experiment group treated with trazodone (929 pg/g +/- 44,43; X+/-SD), and dibenzepine (906,63 pg/g +/- 74,06), yet with lower brain content in rats treated with diazepam (841,55 pg/g +/- 68,47), compared to brain beta-endorphins content of control group treated with saline solution (0,95% NaCl) (873,5 pg/g +/- 44,89). Significant differences were obtained comparing brain beta-endorphins of trazodone vs. diazepam treated animals, with diazepam group having lower values (p<0,02). This study showed differences in changes of rat brain beta-endorphins contents when different psychoactive drugs are used. Therefore, we consider that beta-endorphins could be used for evaluation of effects of psychoactive drugs, as a useful parameter in therapy with these psycho-pharmaceuticals.

  18. Liver and brain tryptophan metabolism following hydrocortisone administration to rats and gerbils.

    PubMed

    Green, A R; Sourkes, T L; Young, S N

    1975-02-01

    1 Liver tryptophan pyrrolase activity is low in the mongolian gerbil (Meriones unguiculatus) and is not induced by hydrocortisone (5 mg/kg). In contrast, there is measurable activity in the rat liver and this is induced by hydrocortisone. In vivo measurements confirmed the absence of induction in gerbils but suggested that they were able to metabolize tryptophan. However no detectable pyrrolase activity was found in any other tissues either before or after hydrocortisone. 2 In agreement with previous observations hydrocortisone decreased rat brain 5-hydroxytryptamine (5-HT) and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid (5-HIAA) 6 h after administration. Brain tryptophan concentrations were also decreased at this time. In contrast, hydrocortisone did not alter gerbil brain 5-HT, 5-HIAA or trytophan. alpha-Methyltryptophan activated hepatic tryptophan pyrrolase and decreased brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA in both animals. 3 Results suggest that the decrease in rat brain 5-HT and 5-HIAA following hydrocortisone may be associated with the rise in liver tryptophan pyrrolase and that the brain amine changes are mediated through the decrease in brain tryptophan concentration.

  19. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats.

    PubMed

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨ m ), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress.

  20. Avocado Oil Improves Mitochondrial Function and Decreases Oxidative Stress in Brain of Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ortiz-Avila, Omar; Esquivel-Martínez, Mauricio; Olmos-Orizaba, Berenice Eridani; Saavedra-Molina, Alfredo; Rodriguez-Orozco, Alain R.; Cortés-Rojo, Christian

    2015-01-01

    Diabetic encephalopathy is a diabetic complication related to the metabolic alterations featuring diabetes. Diabetes is characterized by increased lipid peroxidation, altered glutathione redox status, exacerbated levels of ROS, and mitochondrial dysfunction. Although the pathophysiology of diabetic encephalopathy remains to be clarified, oxidative stress and mitochondrial dysfunction play a crucial role in the pathogenesis of chronic diabetic complications. Taking this into consideration, the aim of this work was to evaluate the effects of 90-day avocado oil intake in brain mitochondrial function and oxidative status in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats (STZ rats). Avocado oil improves brain mitochondrial function in diabetic rats preventing impairment of mitochondrial respiration and mitochondrial membrane potential (ΔΨm), besides increasing complex III activity. Avocado oil also decreased ROS levels and lipid peroxidation and improved the GSH/GSSG ratio as well. These results demonstrate that avocado oil supplementation prevents brain mitochondrial dysfunction induced by diabetes in association with decreased oxidative stress. PMID:26180820

  1. Brain-derived neurotrophic factor-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell transplantation improves neurological deficits in rats with traumatic brain injury.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Yuan; Pan, Shumao; Sun, Zhaoming; Dan, Qiqin; Liu, Jia

    2014-07-01

    This study explored the effect of brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) gene-modified umbilical cord mesenchymal stem cell (UCMSC) transplantation on neurological functional improvement in rats after brain trauma. A rat model of cerebral contusion in the motor-sensory cortex was established by the weight hammer-falling method. UCMSCs were cultured and transferred with BDNF gene. After determining BDNF expression and activity, the BDNF gene-modified UCMSCs were implanted into brains of rats receiving the brain injury. The neurological function was evaluated 1 and 2 weeks after brain injury. BDNF expression was then determined by immunohistochemistry. Severe neurological dysfunction was observed in animals subjected to contusion brain injury (10.50 ± 0.53). A significant improvement in neurological function was found in the UCMSC transplantation animals (7.75 ± 0.71) compared with the brain injury only group (p < 0.01). Rats with BDNF gene-modified UCMSCs showed the highest improvement in behavior (5.50 ± 0.76; p < 0.01). BDNF gene-modified UCMSCs can survive and migrate in rat cerebral tissues. The transplantation of these UCMSCs can improve the neurological functions of rats with traumatic brain injury.

  2. Effects of atrial and brain natriuretic peptides upon cyclic GMP levels, potassium transport, and receptor binding in rat astrocytes

    SciTech Connect

    Beaumont, K.; Tan, P.K. )

    1990-02-01

    The ability of atrial natriuretic peptide (ANP) and brain natriuretic peptide (BNP) to alter cyclic GMP levels and NaKCl cotransport in rat neocortical astrocytes was determined. At concentrations of 10(-9)-10(-6) M, rat ANP99-126 (rANF), rat ANP102-126 (auriculin B), and rat ANP103-126 (atriopeptin III) stimulated 6- to 100-fold increases in cyclic GMP levels. Porcine BNP (pBNP) and rat BNP (rBNP) were 20%-90% as effective as rANF over most of this concentration range, although 10(-6) M pBNP produced a greater effect than rANF. NaKCl cotransport as measured by bumetanide-sensitive 86Rb+ influx was not altered by exposure of astrocytes to 10(-6)M rANF, pBNP, or rBNP. Both pBNP and rBNP, as well as rat ANP103-123 (atriopeptin I) and des(gl18, ser19, gly20, leu21, gly22) ANF4-23-NH2 (C-ANF4-23) strongly competed for specific 125I-rANF binding sites in astrocyte membranes with affinities ranging from 0.03 to 0.4 nM, suggesting that virtually all binding sites measured at subnanomolar concentrations of 125I-rANF were of the ANP-C (ANF-R2) receptor subtype. These receptors are thought to serve a clearance function and may be linked to a guanylate cyclase activity that is chemically and pharmacologically distinct from that coupled to ANP-A (ANF-R1) receptors. ANP receptors on astrocytes may function in limiting the access of ANP and BNP to neurons involved in body fluid and cardiovascular regulation.

  3. Comparison of (/sup 125/I)beta-endorphin binding to rat brain and NG108-15 cells using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor

    SciTech Connect

    Bidlack, J.M.; O'Malley, W.E.; Schulz, R.

    1988-02-01

    The properties of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin-binding sites from rat brain membranes and membranes from the NG108-15 cell line were compared using a monoclonal antibody directed against the opioid receptor and opioid peptides as probes. The binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to both rat brain and NG108-15 membranes yielded linear Scatchard plots with Kd values of 1.2 nM and 1.5 nM, respectively, and Bmax values of 865 fmol/mg rat brain membrane protein and 1077 fmol/mg NG108-15 membrane protein. A monoclonal antibody, OR-689.2.4, capable of inhibiting mu and delta binding but not kappa binding to rat brain membranes, noncompetitively inhibited the binding of 1 nM (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to rat brain and NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 405 nM for rat brain membranes and 543 nM for NG108-15 membranes. The monoclonal antibody also inhibited the binding of 3 nM (/sup 3/H) (D-penicillamine2, D-penicillamine5) enkephalin to NG108-15 membranes with an IC50 value of 370 nM. In addition to blocking the binding of (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin to brain membranes, the antibody also displaced (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin from membranes. Site-specific opioid peptides had large variations in their IC50 values depending on whether they were inhibiting (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to rat brain or the NG108-15 membranes. When the peptides were tested with the monoclonal antibody for their combined ability to inhibit (/sup 125/I)beta h-endorphin binding to both membrane preparations, the peptides and antibody blocked binding as though they were acting at allosterically coupled sites, not two totally independent sites. These studies suggest that mu-, delta-, and beta-endorphin-binding sites share some sequence homology with the 35,000-dalton protein that the antibody is directed against.

  4. Conditioned feeding suppression in rats produced by cross-coupled and simple motions

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Fox, R. A.; Daunton, N. G.

    1982-01-01

    Results are presented of an experiment on the induction of motion sickness in rats by the use of cross-coupled accelerations of magnitudes similar to those used in human experiments. Accelerations were produced in a seesaw apparatus with rotating disks supporting the animal cages mounted on each seesaw arm, and motion sickness was assessed according to the consumption of a sweet food previously offered to the animals immediately before the motion treatment. During a 1-hour test session 72 h after motion treatment and after a 24-h fast, rats having undergone cross-coupled vertical sinusoidal and rotational motion are observed to consume less food than those having experienced either type of motion alone, or no motion. The ordering of the conditioned suppressive feeding effects is consistent with the amounts of vestibular stimulation produced by the respective motions. The results support the existence of motion sickness effects in rats, even though they are unable to vomit.

  5. Prospective microglia and brain macrophage distribution pattern in normal rat brain shows age sensitive dispersal and stabilization with development.

    PubMed

    Ghosh, Payel; Mukherjee, Nabanita; Ghosh, Krishnendu; Mallick, Suvadip; Pal, Chiranjib; Laskar, Aparna; Ghosh, Anirban

    2015-09-01

    The monocytic lineage cells in brain, generally speaking brain macrophage and/or microglia show some dissimilar distribution patterns and disagreement regarding their origin and onset in brain. Here, we investigated its onset and distribution/colonization pattern in normal brain with development. Primarily, early and late embryonic stages, neonate and adult brains were sectioned for routine H/E staining; a modified silver-gold staining was used for discriminating monocytic lineage cells in brain; and TEM to deliver ultramicroscopic details of these cells in brain. Immunofluorescence study with CD11b marker revealed the distribution of active microglia/macrophage like cells. Overall, in early embryonic day 12, the band of densely stained cells are found at the margin of developing ventricles and cells sprout from there dispersed towards the outer edge. However, with development, this band shrunk and the dispersion trend decreased. The deeply stained macrophage like cell population migration from outer cortex to ventricle observed highest in late embryonic days, continued with decreased amount in neonates and settled down in adult. In adult, a few blood borne macrophage like cells were observed through the vascular margins. TEM study depicted less distinguishable features of cells in brain in early embryo, whereas from late embryo to adult different neuroglial populations and microglia/macrophages showed distinctive features and organization in brain. CD11b expression showed some similarity, though not fully, with the distribution pattern depending on the differentiation/activation status of these macrophage lineage cells. This study provides some generalized spatial and temporal pattern of macrophage/microglia distribution in rat brain, and further indicates some intrigue areas that need to be addressed.

  6. Distribution of lacosamide in the rat brain assessed by in vitro slice technique.

    PubMed

    Gáll, Zsolt; Vancea, Szende

    2017-10-10

    Lacosamide is a newer anticonvulsant and is the only one that enhances the slow inactivation of voltage gated sodium channels. It is also claimed to have disease-modifying potential, but its pharmacokinetic properties have been much less discussed in the literature. In rats, lacosamide shows restricted distribution to tissues, and the brain-to-plasma partition coefficient (Kp) is only 0.553. In this study, the brain disposition of lacosamide was evaluated in rat brains, and its neuropharmacokinetic parameters (i.e., protein binding and intracellular accumulation) were assessed using in vitro methods. Brain slice experiments and brain homogenate binding studies were performed for several drugs acting on the central nervous system, and drugs were assayed by using a liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry system. By applying a combined approach, it was found that (1) the unbound volume of distribution in the brain for lacosamide (Vu,brain = 1.37) was lower than that of other classical anticonvulsants; (2) the unbound fraction of lacosamide in the brain (0.899) was slightly lower than its unbound fraction in plasma (0.96); (3) the unbound intracellular-to-extracellular concentration ratio of lacosamide was 1.233, meaning that lacosamide was accumulated in the intracellular space because of its physicochemical properties and zwitterionic structure; and (4) the unbound brain-to-plasma concentration ratio of lacosamide was lower than the total brain-to-plasma concentration ratio (Kp,uu,brain = 0.42 vs. Kp = 0.553). In conclusion, the limited brain distribution of lacosamide is not related to its nonspecific protein-binding capacity; rather, an active transport mechanism across the blood-brain barrier may be involved, which reduces the anticonvulsant and/or antiepileptogenic actions of this drug.

  7. Maternal marginal iodine deficiency affects the expression of relative proteins during brain development in rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Liu, Yuhui; Zhang, Le; Li, Jing; Shan, Zhongyan; Teng, Weiping

    2013-04-01

    Marginal iodine deficiency is a major health problem in pregnant women, but its impact on nerve and intelligence development in offspring has been rarely reported. Our study aimed to investigate the effects of maternal marginal iodine deficiency on nerve and cognitive development in offspring and the related mechanisms. Marginal iodine-deficient rats were given 3  μg iodine per day, while normal control rats were given 4  μg iodine daily. Western blot was used to detect the amounts of brain-derived neurotropic factor (BDNF) and early growth response protein 1 (EGR1) in the hippocampus of each group. Immunohistochemistry was used to measure c-jun and c-fos expression in the hippocampal CA1 region. Finally, the water maze method was used to measure spatial performance. Free thyroxine (FT₄) levels in marginal iodine-deficient rats decreased by about 30%. Seven days after birth, EGR1 and BDNF protein levels significantly decreased in the hippocampus of marginal iodine deficiency rats compared with the normal control group. In addition, c-jun and c-fos expression in the hippocampus of 40-day-old rats was decreased in marginal iodine-deficient rats, compared with control. The spatial learning and memory ability of 40-day-old marginal iodine-deficient rats had a downward trend compared with the normal control group. FT₄ significantly decreased after pregnancy in rats with marginal iodine deficiency, affecting the expression of related proteins in the brain of offspring.

  8. Anti-oxidative effects of safranal on immobilization-induced oxidative damage in rat brain.

    PubMed

    Samarghandian, Saeed; Samini, Fariborz; Azimi-Nezhad, Mohsen; Farkhondeh, Tahereh

    2017-09-01

    Safranal, a major constituent of saffron, possesses antioxidant and anti-apoptotic properties showing considerable neuroprotective effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effects of safranal against restraint stress induced oxidative damage in the rat brain. For inducing the chronic restraint stress, rats were kept in the restrainers for 1h every day, for 21 consecutive days, then, the animals received systemic administrations of vehicle (0.1% DMSO) acted as the control group or safranal daily for 21days. Results indicated that the rats submitted to restraint stress showed an increase in the immobility time versus the non-stress rats. In addition, stress decreased number of crossing in the rats submitted to restraint stress versus the non-stress animals. Treatment with safranal (0.75mg/kg) showed a significant reduction in the immobility time compared to the non-treated stress group, while, the treatment improved the number of crossing in rats submitted to restraint stress versus the vehicle-treated stress rats. In the stressed animals that received vehicle, the MDA level was significantly higher and the levels of GSH and antioxidant enzymes were significantly lower than the non-stressed rats. Safranal ameliorated the changes in the stressed animals as compared with the control groups. The present findings indicate that safranal might be effective against depressant-like effects induced by chronic stress via modulating brain oxidative response. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  9. Influence of volatile anesthetics on muscarinic receptor adenylate cyclase coupling in brain and heart

    SciTech Connect

    Anthony, B.L.

    1988-01-01

    In the present study, the influence of four volatile anesthetics (enflurane, isoflurane, diethyl ether, and chloroform) on (1) muscarinic receptor binding parameters and (2) muscarnic regulation of adenylate cyclase activity was examined using membranes isolated from rat brain and heart. Membranes were equilibrated with each of the four anesthetics for 30 minutes and then during the binding assay. The data obtained can be summarized as follows: (1) volatile anesthetics increased receptor affinity for a radiolabeled antagonists, ({sup 3}H)N-methylscopolamine (({sup 3}H)MS), by decreasing its rate of dissociation in brain stem, but not in cardiac, membranes, (2) volatile anesthetics decreased high affinity ({sup 3}H)Oxotremorine-M binding, (3) volatile anesthetics depressed or eliminated the guanine nucleotide sensitivity of agonist binding. The influence of volatile anesthetics on muscarinic regulation of adenylate cyclase enzyme activity was studied using {alpha}({sup 32}P)ATP as the substrate.

  10. Effect of Piper betle leaf extract on alcoholic toxicity in the rat brain.

    PubMed

    Saravanan, R; Rajendra Prasad, N; Pugalendi, K V

    2003-01-01

    The protective effect of Piper betle, a commonly used masticatory, has been examined in the brain of ethanol-administered Wistar rats. Brain of ethanol-treated rats exhibited increased levels of lipids, lipid peroxidation, and disturbances in antioxidant defense. Subsequent to the experimental induction of toxicity (i.e., the initial period of 30 days), aqueous P. betle extract was simultaneously administered in three different doses (100, 200, and 300 mg kg(-1)) for 30 days along with the daily dose of alcohol. P. betle coadministration resulted in significant reduction of lipid levels (free fatty acids, cholesterol, and phospholipids) and lipid peroxidation markers such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and hydroperoxides. Further, antioxidants, like reduced glutathione, vitamin C, vitamin E, superoxide dismutase, catalase, and glutathione peroxidase, were increased in P. betle-coadministered rats. The higher dose of extract (300 mg kg(-1)) was more effective, and these results indicate the neuroprotective effect of P. betle in ethanol-treated rats.

  11. Metabolic brain activity suggestive of persistent pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Thompson, Scott J; Millecamps, Magali; Aliaga, Antonio; Seminowicz, David A; Low, Lucie A; Bedell, Barry J; Stone, Laura S; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2014-05-01

    Persistent pain is a central characteristic of neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Knowing whether rodent models of neuropathic pain produce persistent pain is therefore crucial to their translational applicability. We investigated the spared nerve injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin pain model in rats using positron emission tomography (PET) with the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to determine if there is ongoing brain activity suggestive of persistent pain. For the formalin model, under brief anesthesia we injected one hindpaw with 5% formalin and the FDG tracer into a tail vein. We then allowed the animals to awaken and observed pain behavior for 30min during the FDG uptake period. The rat was then anesthetized and placed in the scanner for static image acquisition, which took place between minutes 45 and 75 post-tracer injection. A single reference rat brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) was used to align the PET images with the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. Increased glucose metabolism was observed in the somatosensory region associated with the injection site (S1 hindlimb contralateral), S1 jaw/upper lip and cingulate cortex. Decreases were observed in the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Second, SNI rats were scanned 3weeks post-surgery using the same scanning paradigm, and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased metabolic activity in the contralateral S1 hindlimb. Finally, a second cohort of SNI rats was scanned while anesthetized during the tracer uptake period, and the S1 hindlimb increase was not observed. Increased brain activity in the somatosensory cortex of SNI rats resembled the activity produced with the injection of formalin, suggesting that the SNI model may produce persistent pain. The lack of increased activity in S1 hindlimb with general anesthetic demonstrates that this effect can be blocked, as well as highlights the importance of investigating brain activity in awake and behaving rodents.

  12. Metabolic brain activity suggestive of persistent pain in a rat model of neuropathic pain

    PubMed Central

    Thompson, Scott J; Millecamps, Magali; Aliaga, Antonio; Seminowicz, David A; Low, Lucie A; Bedell, Barry J; Stone, Laura S; Schweinhardt, Petra; Bushnell, M Catherine

    2014-01-01

    Persistent pain is a central characteristic of neuropathic pain conditions in humans. Knowing whether rodent models of neuropathic pain produce persistent pain is therefore crucial to their translational applicability. We investigated the Spared Nerve Injury (SNI) model of neuropathic pain and the formalin pain model in rats using Positron Emission Tomography (PET) with the metabolic tracer [18F]fluorodeoxyglucose (FDG) to determine if there is ongoing brain activity suggestive of persistent pain. For the formalin model, under brief anesthesia we injected one hindpaw with 5% formalin and the FDG tracer into a tail vein. We then allowed the animals to awaken and observed pain behavior for 30 min during the FDG uptake period. The rat was then anesthetized and placed in the scanner for static image acquisition, which took place between minutes 45 and 75 post-tracer injection. A single reference rat brain magnetic resonance image (MRI) was used to align the PET images with the Paxinos and Watson rat brain atlas. Increased glucose metabolism was observed in the somatosensory region associated with the injection site (S1 hindlimb contralateral), S1 jaw/upper lip and cingulate cortex. Decreases were observed in the prelimbic cortex and hippocampus. Second, SNI rats were scanned 3 weeks post-surgery using the same scanning paradigm, and region-of-interest analyses revealed increased metabolic activity in the contralateral S1 hindlimb. Finally, a second cohort of SNI rats were scanned while anesthetized during the tracer uptake period, and the S1 hindlimb increase was not observed. Increased brain activity in the somatosensory cortex of SNI rats resembled the activity produced with the injection of formalin, suggesting that the SNI model may produce persistent pain. The lack of increased activity in S1 hindlimb with general anesthetic demonstrates that this effect can be blocked, as well as highlights the importance of investigating brain activity in awake and behaving

  13. Dopamine release in rat striatum - Physiological coupling to tyrosine supply

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    During, Matthew J.; Acworth, Ian N.; Wurtman, Richard J.

    1989-01-01

    Intracerebral microdialysis was used to monitor dopamine release in rat striatal extracellular fluid following the intraperitoneal administration of dopamine's precursor amino acid, L-tyrosine. Dopamine concentrations in dialysates increased transiently after tyrosine (50-100 mg/kg) administration. Pretreatment with haloperidol or the partial lesioning of nigrostriatal neurons enhanced the effect of tyrosine on dopamine release, and haloperidol also prolonged this effect. These data suggest that nigrostriatal dopaminergic neurons are responsive to changes in precursor availability under basal conditions, but that receptor-mediated feedback mechanisms limit the magnitude and duration of this effect.

  14. Comparison of brain network models using cross-frequency coupling and attack strategies.

    PubMed

    Antonakakis, Marios; Dimitriadis, Stavros I; Zervakis, Michalis; Rezaie, Roozbeh; Babajani-Feremi, Abbas; Micheloyannis, Sifis; Zouridakis, George; Papanicolaou, Andrew C

    2015-01-01

    Several neuroimaging studies have suggested that functional brain connectivity networks exhibit "small-world" characteristics, whereas recent studies based on structural data have proposed a "rich-club" organization of brain networks, whereby hubs of high connection density tend to connect among themselves compared to nodes of lower density. In this study, we adopted an "attack strategy" to compare the rich-club and small-world organizations and identify the model that describes best the topology of brain connectivity. We hypothesized that the highest reduction in global efficiency caused by a targeted attack on each model's hubs would reveal the organization that better describes the topology of the underlying brain networks. We applied this approach to magnetoencephalographic data obtained at rest from neurologically intact controls and mild traumatic brain injury patients. Functional connectivity networks were computed using phase-to-amplitude cross-frequency coupling between the δ and β frequency bands. Our results suggest that resting state MEG connectivity networks follow a rich-club organization.

  15. Image segmentation by EM-based adaptive pulse coupled neural networks in brain magnetic resonance imaging.

    PubMed

    Fu, J C; Chen, C C; Chai, J W; Wong, S T C; Li, I C

    2010-06-01

    We propose an automatic hybrid image segmentation model that integrates the statistical expectation maximization (EM) model and the spatial pulse coupled neural network (PCNN) for brain magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) segmentation. In addition, an adaptive mechanism is developed to fine tune the PCNN parameters. The EM model serves two functions: evaluation of the PCNN image segmentation and adaptive adjustment of the PCNN parameters for optimal segmentation. To evaluate the performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN, we use it to segment MR brain image into gray matter (GM), white matter (WM) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). The performance of the adaptive EM-PCNN is compared with that of the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and Bias Corrected Fuzzy C-Means (BCFCM) algorithms. The result is four sets of boundaries for the GM and the brain parenchyma (GM+WM), the two regions of most interest in medical research and clinical applications. Each set of boundaries is compared with the golden standard to evaluate the segmentation performance. The adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the non-adaptive EM-PCNN, EM, and BCFCM algorithms in gray mater segmentation. In brain parenchyma segmentation, the adaptive EM-PCNN significantly outperforms the BCFCM only. However, the adaptive EM-PCNN is better than the non-adaptive EM-PCNN and EM on average. We conclude that of the three approaches, the adaptive EM-PCNN yields the best results for gray matter and brain parenchyma segmentation.

  16. Intracellular pathways regulating ciliary beating of rat brain ependymal cells

    PubMed Central

    Nguyen, Thien; Chin, Wei-Chun; O’Brien, Jennifer A; Verdugo, Pedro; Berger, Albert J

    2001-01-01

    The mammalian brain ventricles are lined with ciliated ependymal cells. As yet little is known about the mechanisms by which neurotransmitters regulate cilia beat frequency (CBF). Application of 5-HT to ependymal cells in cultured rat brainstem slices caused CBF to increase. 5-HT had an EC50 of 30 μM and at 100 μM attained a near-maximal CBF increase of 52.7 ± 4.1 % (mean ± s.d.) (n= 8). Bathing slices in Ca2+-free solution markedly reduced the 5-HT-mediated increase in CBF. Fluorescence measurements revealed that 5-HT caused a marked transient elevation in cytosolic Ca2+ ([Ca2+]c) that then slowly decreased to a plateau level. Analysis showed that the [Ca2+]c transient was due to release of Ca2+ from inositol 1,4,5-trisphosphate (IP3)-sensitive stores; the plateau was probably due to extracellular Ca2+ influx through Ca2+ release-activated Ca2+ (CRAC) channels. Application of ATP caused a sustained decrease in CBF. ATP had an EC50 of about 50 μM and 100 μM ATP resulted in a maximal 57.5 ± 6.5 % (n= 12) decrease in CBF. The ATP-induced decrease in CBF was unaffected by lowering extracellular [Ca2+], and no changes in [Ca2+]c were observed. Exposure of ependymal cells to forskolin caused a decrease in CBF. Ciliated ependymal cells loaded with caged cAMP exhibited a 54.3 ± 7.5 % (n= 9) decrease in CBF following uncaging. These results suggest that ATP reduces CBF by a Ca2+-independent cAMP-mediated pathway. Application of 5-HT and adenosine-5′-O-3-thiotriphosphate (ATP-γ-S) to acutely isolated ciliated ependymal cells resulted in CBF responses similar to those of ependymal cells in cultured slices suggesting that these neurotransmitters act directly on these cells. The opposite response of ciliated ependymal cells to 5-HT and ATP provides a novel mechanism for their active involvement in central nervous system signalling. PMID:11179397

  17. DWI and complex brain network analysis predicts vascular cognitive impairment in spontaneous hypertensive rats undergoing executive function tests

    PubMed Central

    López-Gil, Xavier; Amat-Roldan, Iván; Tudela, Raúl; Castañé, Anna; Prats-Galino, Alberto; Planas, Anna M.; Farr, Tracy D.; Soria, Guadalupe

    2014-01-01

    The identification of biomarkers of vascular cognitive impairment is urgent for its early diagnosis. The aim of this study was to detect and monitor changes in brain structure and connectivity, and to correlate them with the decline in executive function. We examined the feasibility of early diagnostic magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to predict cognitive impairment before onset in an animal model of chronic hypertension: Spontaneously Hypertensive Rats. Cognitive performance was tested in an operant conditioning paradigm that evaluated learning, memory, and behavioral flexibility skills. Behavioral tests were coupled with longitudinal diffusion weighted imaging acquired with 126 diffusion gradient directions and 0.3 mm3 isometric resolution at 10, 14, 18, 22, 26, and 40 weeks after birth. Diffusion weighted imaging was analyzed in two different ways, by regional characterization of diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) indices, and by assessing changes in structural brain network organization based on Q-Ball tractography. Already at the first evaluated times, DTI scalar maps revealed significant differences in many regions, suggesting loss of integrity in white and gray matter of spontaneously hypertensive rats when compared to normotensive control rats. In addition, graph theory analysis of the structural brain network demonstrated a significant decrease of hierarchical modularity, global and local efficacy, with predictive value as shown by regional three-fold cross validation study. Moreover, these decreases were significantly correlated with the behavioral performance deficits observed at subsequent time points, suggesting that the diffusion weighted imaging and connectivity studies can unravel neuroimaging alterations even overt signs of cognitive impairment become apparent. PMID:25100993

  18. Ghrelin Modulates the fMRI BOLD Response of Homeostatic and Hedonic Brain Centers Regulating Energy Balance in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Deli, Levente; Gajári, Dávid; Dávid, Szabolcs; Pozsgay, Zsófia; Hegedűs, Nikolett; Tihanyi, Károly; Liposits, Zsolt

    2014-01-01

    The orexigenic gut-brain peptide, ghrelin and its G-protein coupled receptor, the growth hormone secretagogue receptor 1a (GHS-R1A) are pivotal regulators of hypothalamic feeding centers and reward processing neuronal circuits of the brain. These systems operate in a cooperative manner and receive a wide array of neuronal hormone/transmitter messages and metabolic signals. Functional magnetic resonance imaging was employed in the current study to map BOLD responses to ghrelin in different brain regions with special reference on homeostatic and hedonic regulatory centers of energy balance. Experimental groups involved male, ovariectomized female and ovariectomized estradiol-replaced rats. Putative modulation of ghrelin signaling by endocannabinoids was also studied. Ghrelin-evoked effects were calculated as mean of the BOLD responses 30 minutes after administration. In the male rat, ghrelin evoked a slowly decreasing BOLD response in all studied regions of interest (ROI) within the limbic system. This effect was antagonized by pretreatment with GHS-R1A antagonist JMV2959. The comparison of ghrelin effects in the presence or absence of JMV2959 in individual ROIs revealed significant changes in the prefrontal cortex, nucleus accumbens of the telencephalon, and also within hypothalamic centers like the lateral hypothalamus, ventromedial nucleus, paraventricular nucleus and suprachiasmatic nucleus. In the female rat, the ghrelin effects were almost identical to those observed in males. Ovariectomy and chronic estradiol replacement had no effect on the BOLD response. Inhibition of the endocannabinoid signaling by rimonabant significantly attenuated the response of the nucleus accumbens and septum. In summary, ghrelin can modulate hypothalamic and mesolimbic structures controlling energy balance in both sexes. The endocannabinoid signaling system contributes to the manifestation of ghrelin's BOLD effect in a region specific manner. In females, the estradiol milieu does

  19. Ionizing Radiation Alters the Properties of Sodium Channels in Rat Brain Synaptosomes