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Sample records for rat colitis model

  1. Ozone enema: a model of microscopic colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, R; Karmeli, F; Rachmilewitz, D; Cohen, P; Zimran, A

    2001-11-01

    Ozone is one of the most powerful oxidants available, with many applications in industry and medicine. Medically relevant features of ozone include bacterial and virucidal properties, disinfection, sterilization, circulatory stimulation, and disruption of malignant cells. Ozone therapy is administered in various ways, including intravenously, intramuscularly, and intrarectally. The latter modality is used for the treatment of colitis and hepatitis. Our aim was to examine the effect of ozone water enema on normal and inflamed rat colonic mucosa. Ozone water (20 microg/ml) was prepared via ozone generator and administered intrarectally (0.5 ml) daily. Rats were killed one, three, and seven days after rectal ozone water administration, and their colons resected, rinsed, and weighed (grams per 10 cm). Damage was assessed macro- and microscopically and tissue processed for myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase activity. Rats receiving saline served as controls. In an additional experiment colitis was induced by intrarectal iodoacetamide. Ozone therapy caused no macroscopic damage. Ozone therapy induced microscopic colitis, which lasted for at least a week and was accompanied by increase in segmental weight, myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide activity, and prostaglandin E2 generation. Ozone therapy had no protective effect on inflamed mucosa. In conclusion, ozone water therapy had a deleterious effect on normal colonic mucosa, suggesting intrarectal administration be reevaluated. Ozone water enema may serve as a model of microscopic colitis.

  2. Sensory and inflammatory colonic changes induced by vincristine in distinct rat models of colitis.

    PubMed

    Viana-Cardoso, K V; Silva, M T B; Peixoto-Junior, A A; Marinho, L S; Matias, N S; Soares, P M G; Santos, A A; Brito, G A C; Rola, F H; Gondim, F de A A

    2015-04-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show that gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation can evoke sensory changes occasionally far from the original inflammatory site. Animal models of colitis with either trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) or mustard oil (MO) produce distinct patterns of somatic and visceral sensory changes. We evaluated the effects of four doses of i.v. vincristine 150 μg kg(-1) (total of 600 μg kg(-1) ) treatment on the somatic (thermal nociceptive threshold) and colonic (morphological) changes induced by TNBS or MO in rats. TNBS and MO groups were further submitted to vincristine or saline pretreatments. TNBS induced somatic hypersensitivity, while MO induced somatic hyposensitivity (P < 0.05) when compared to the saline and ethanol control groups. Vincristine per se induced somatic hypersensitivity (P < 0.05). This effect was enhanced by TNBS and reversed by MO treatments. Although vincristine increased the colitis area (colonic weight length(-1) ratio) and the Morris' score in TNBS-treated rats, it did not alter the colitis area and even lowered the Morris' score in MO-treated rats. Compared to the saline (control) group, vincristine did not alter the colonic microscopic pattern. However, such lesions scores are higher (P < 0.05) in colitis groups induced by TNBS and MO, pretreated or not with vincristine. In conclusion, the somatic changes induced by different models of experimental colitis are diverse and modulated differently by vincristine.

  3. Salvianolic Acid B Restored Impaired Barrier Function via Downregulation of MLCK by microRNA-1 in Rat Colitis Model.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Yongjian; Wang, Jingyu; Chu, Hongwei; Chen, Dapeng; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is isolated from the traditional Chinese medical herb Salvia miltiorrhiza and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Sal B on epithelial barrier dysfunction in rat colitis and to uncover related mechanisms. Rat colitis model was established by intracolonic administration of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The intestinal barrier function was evaluated by measuring the serum recovery of fluorescein isothiocyanate-4 kD dextran in vivo and transepithelial electrical resistance in vitro respectively. The protein expression related to intestinal barrier function was studied using western blotting. The effects of Sal B on inflammatory responses, oxidative damage and colitis recurrence were also studied in this study. The intestinal barrier dysfunction in colitis was reversed by Sal B, accompanied with the decrease of tight junction proteins, and the effect could be blocked by microRNA-1(miR-1) inhibition. The inflammatory responses, oxidative damage and colitis recurrence were also decreased by Sal B. The colitis symptoms and recurrences were ameliorated by Sal B, and restoration of impaired barrier function via downregulation of MLCK by miR-1 maybe involved in this effect. This study provides some novel insights into both of the pathological mechanisms and treatment alternatives of inflammatory bowel disease.

  4. Salvianolic Acid B Restored Impaired Barrier Function via Downregulation of MLCK by microRNA-1 in Rat Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, Yongjian; Wang, Jingyu; Chu, Hongwei; Chen, Dapeng; Guo, Huishu

    2016-01-01

    Salvianolic acid B (Sal B) is isolated from the traditional Chinese medical herb Salvia miltiorrhiza and is reported to have a wide range of therapeutic benefits. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of Sal B on epithelial barrier dysfunction in rat colitis and to uncover related mechanisms. Rat colitis model was established by intracolonic administration of 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The intestinal barrier function was evaluated by measuring the serum recovery of fluorescein isothiocyanate-4 kD dextran in vivo and transepithelial electrical resistance in vitro respectively. The protein expression related to intestinal barrier function was studied using western blotting. The effects of Sal B on inflammatory responses, oxidative damage and colitis recurrence were also studied in this study. The intestinal barrier dysfunction in colitis was reversed by Sal B, accompanied with the decrease of tight junction proteins, and the effect could be blocked by microRNA-1(miR-1) inhibition. The inflammatory responses, oxidative damage and colitis recurrence were also decreased by Sal B. The colitis symptoms and recurrences were ameliorated by Sal B, and restoration of impaired barrier function via downregulation of MLCK by miR-1 maybe involved in this effect. This study provides some novel insights into both of the pathological mechanisms and treatment alternatives of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:27303297

  5. Experimental and Pathalogical study of Pistacia atlantica, butyrate, Lactobacillus casei and their combination on rat ulcerative colitis model.

    PubMed

    Gholami, Mahdi; Ghasemi-Niri, Seyedeh Farnaz; Maqbool, Faheem; Baeeri, Maryam; Memariani, Zahra; Pousti, Iraj; Abdollahi, Mohammad

    2016-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of Pistacia atlantica (P. atlantica), butyrate, Lactobacillus casei (L. casei) and especially their combination therapy on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. Rats were divided into seven groups. Four groups received oral P. atlantica, butyrate, L. casei and the combination of three agents for 10 consecutive days. The remaining groups were negative and positive controls and a sham group. Macroscopic and histopathological examinations were carried out along with determination of the specific biomarker of colonic oxidative stress, the myeloperoxidase (MPO). Compared with controls, the combination therapy exhibited a significant alleviation of colitis in terms of pathological scores and reduction of MPO activity (55%, p=0.0009). Meanwhile, the macroscopic appearance such as stool consistency, tissue and histopathological scores (edema, necrosis and neutrophil infiltration) were improved. Although single therapy by each P. atlantica, butyrate, and L. casei was partially beneficial in reduction of colon oxidative stress markers, the combination therapy was much more effective. In conclusion, the combination therapy was able to reduce the severity of colitis that is clear from biochemical markers. Future studies have to focus on clinical effects of this combination in management of human ulcerative colitis. Further molecular and signaling pathway studies will help to understand the mechanisms involved in the treatment of colitis and inflammatory diseases.

  6. Effect of aqueous and particulate silk fibroin in a rat model of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Rodriguez-Nogales, A; Lozano-Pérez, A A; Aznar-Cervantes, S D; Algieri, F; Garrido-Mesa, J; Garrido-Mesa, N; Vezza, T; Utrilla, M P; Cenis, J L; Rodríguez-Cabezas, M E; Gálvez, J

    2016-09-10

    Silk fibroin (SF) has anti-inflammatory properties and promotes wound healing. Moreover, SF particles act as carriers of active drugs against intestinal inflammation due to their capacity to deliver the compound to the damaged colonic tissue. The present work assesses the effect of SF in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis that resembles human intestinal inflammation. SF (8mg/kg) was administered in aqueous solution orally and in two particulate formats by intrarectal route, following two technologies: spray drying to make microparticles and desolvation in organic solvent to produce nanoparticles. SF treatments ameliorated the colonic damage, reduced neutrophil infiltration and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. They also reduced the gene expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines like IL-1β and the anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10. Moreover, they improved the intestinal wall integrity by increasing the gene expression of some of its markers (villin, trefoil factor-3 and mucins), thus accelerating the healing. The immunomodulatory properties of SF particles were also tested in vitro in macrophages: they activated the immune response in basal conditions without increasing it after a pro-inflammatory insult. In conclusion, SF particles could be useful as carriers to deliver active drugs to the damaged intestinal colon with additional anti-inflammatory and healing properties.

  7. Bioefficacy of budesonide loaded crosslinked polyelectrolyte microparticles in rat model of induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Crcarevska, M Simonoska; Dodov, M Glavas; Petrusevska, G; Gjorgoski, I; Goracinova, K

    2009-12-01

    A targeted delivery system for inflammatory bowel diseases, chitosan-Ca-alginate microparticles efficiently loaded with budesonide (BDS), were designed using one-step spray-drying process. They were eudragit-coated and examined for in vivo efficacy. Experimental colitis was induced by rectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) into male Wistar rats. Drugs were administered by oral gavage daily for 5 days. Colon/body weight ratio, gross morphological and histological evaluation, and clinical activity score were determined as inflammatory indices. Individual clinical and histological evaluation showed that colitis severity was suppressed the most greatly in order BDS < BDS/C-Ca-A < E-BDS/C-Ca-A. Clinical activity score decreased in the same order. Statistical analyses of total score points indicate that the incorporation of BDS in microparticles had significant differences in favor of efficacy of designed delivery system with mucoadhesive and controlled release properties (one-way ANOVA, P < 0.05). The results established the prediction by previous in vitro studies.

  8. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of calcium pyruvate in the TNBS model of rat colitis: Comparison with ethyl pyruvate.

    PubMed

    Algieri, F; Rodriguez-Nogales, A; Garrido-Mesa, J; Camuesco, D; Vezza, T; Garrido-Mesa, N; Utrilla, P; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M E; Pischel, I; Galvez, J

    2016-03-01

    Pyruvate is a key intermediate of the carbohydrate metabolism with endogenous scavenger properties. However, it cannot be used in clinics due to its instability. Ethyl pyruvate (EP) has shown better stability as well as an antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity. Calcium pyruvate monohydrate (CPM) is another stable pyruvate derivative that could also provide the benefits from calcium, fundamental for bone health. Considering everything, we propose CPM as a therapeutic strategy to treat diseases with an immune component in which there is also a significant dysregulation of the skeletal homeostasis. This could be applicable to inflammatory bowel disease, which is characterized by over-production of pro-inflammatory mediators, including cytokines and reactive oxygen and nitrogen metabolites that induces intestinal mucosal damage and chronic inflammation, and extra-intestinal symptoms like osteopenia and osteoporosis. The effects of CPM and EP (20, 40 and 100mg/kg) were evaluated on the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of colitis in rats, after a 7-day oral treatment, with main focus on colonic histology and inflammatory mediators. Both pyruvates showed intestinal anti-inflammatory effects in the TNBS-induced colitis. They were evident both histologically, with a recovery of the mucosal cytoarchitecture and a reduction of the neutrophil infiltration, and through the profile of inflammatory mediators (IL-1, IL-6, IL-17, IL-23, iNOS). However, CPM appeared to be more effective than ethyl pyruvate. In conclusion, CPM exerts intestinal anti-inflammatory effect on the TNBS-induced colitis in rats, although further experiments are needed to explore its beneficial effects on bone health and osteoporosis.

  9. Protective effect of hydroalcoholic olive leaf extract on experimental model of colitis in rat: involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems.

    PubMed

    Fakhraei, Nahid; Abdolghaffari, Amir Hossein; Delfan, Bahram; Abbasi, Ata; Rahimi, Nastaran; Khansari, Azadeh; Rahimian, Reza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2014-09-01

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the possible protective effect of dry olive leaf extract (OLE) against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats, as well as the probable modulatory effect of nitrergic and opioidergic systems on this protective impact. Olive leaf extract was administered (250, 500 and 750 mg/kg) orally for two successive days, starting from the colitis induction. To assess the involvement of nitrergic and opioidergic systems in the possible protective effect of OLE, L-NG-Nitroarginine Methyl Ester (10 mg/kg) and naltrexone (5 mg/kg) intraperitoneal (i.p.) were applied 30 min before administration of the extract for two successive days, respectively. Colonic status was investigated 48 h following induction through macroscopic, histological and biochemical analyses. Olive leaf extract dose-dependently attenuated acetic acid-provoked chronic intestinal inflammation. The extract significantly reduces the severity of the ulcerative lesions and ameliorated macroscopic and microscopic scores. These observations were accompanied by a significant reduction in the elevated amounts of TNF-α and interlukin-2 markers. Moreover, both systems blockage reversed protective effects of OLE in the rat inflammatory bowel disease model. These finding demonstrated, for the first time, a possible role for nitrergic and opioidergic systems in the aforementioned protective effect, and the extract probably exerted its impact increasing nitric oxide and opioid tones.

  10. Acute experimental distal colitis alters colonic transit in rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, B S; Dempsey, D T; Yasar, S; Martin, J S; Parkman, H P; Ryan, J P

    1997-04-01

    Data from humans with active distal colitis suggest that the proximal colon exhibits increased contractile activity and delayed transit, whereas the distal colon shows decreased contractile activity and rapid transit. The present study used the acetic acid rat model of experimental colitis to determine the effect of distal colitis on total and regional colonic transit in vivo and on the in vitro contractility of circular smooth muscle from the proximal and distal colon. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 4% acetic acid; sham control rats received saline enemas. Control and colitic rats were studied 2 days postenemas. Total colon transit was determined by calculating the geometric center of distribution of a radiolabeled marker (51Cr) instilled into the proximal colon. Regional transit was assessed by expressing the radioactivity in the cecum, proximal and distal colon, and excreted stool as a percent of total radioactivity. Muscle strips from the proximal and distal colon were stimulated with 100 microM acetylcholine (ACh) and 60 mM KCl and the tension was expressed as kilograms per square centimeter. Distal colitis was characterized by decreased total colon transit, increased retention of marker in the cecum and proximal colon, and decreased retention of marker in the distal colon. In vitro contractility studies revealed that distal colitis increased proximal colon circular smooth muscle contractility and decreased distal colon circular smooth muscle contractility to both ACh and potassium. Distal colitis is associated with regional differences in colonic circular smooth muscle contractility, which may contribute to delayed transit in the proximal colon and rapid transit in the distal colon.

  11. Apical leptin induces chloride secretion by intestinal epithelial cells and in a rat model of acute chemotherapy-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Hoda, Raschid M.; Scharl, Michael; Keely, Stephen J.; McCole, Declan F.

    2010-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate whether luminal leptin alters ion transport properties of the intestinal epithelium under acute inflammatory conditions. Monolayers of human intestinal T84 epithelial cells and a rat model of chemotherapy-induced enterocolitis were used. Cells were treated with leptin and mounted in Ussing chambers to measure basal and secretagogue-induced changes in transepithelial short-circuit current (Isc). Furthermore, the role of MAPK and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase (PI3K) signaling pathways in mediating responses to leptin was investigated. Acute colitis in Sprague-Dawley rats was induced by intraperitoneal injection of 40 mg/kg methotrexate. Leptin (100 ng/ml) induced a time-dependent increase in basal Isc in T84 intestinal epithelial cells (P < 0.01). Moreover, pretreatment of T84 cells with leptin for up to 1 h significantly potentiated carbachol- and forskolin-induced increases in Isc. Pretreatment with an inhibitor of MAPK abolished the effect of leptin on basal, carbachol- and forskolin-induced chloride secretion (P < 0.05). However, the PI3K inhibitor, wortmannin, only blunted the effect of leptin on forskolin-induced increases in Isc. Furthermore, leptin treatment evoked both ERK1/2 and Akt1 phosphorylation in T84 cells. In the rat model, luminal leptin induced significant increases in Isc across segments of proximal and, to a lesser extent, distal colon (P < 0.05). We conclude that luminal leptin is likely an intestinal chloride secretagogue, particularly when present at elevated concentrations and/or in the setting of inflammation. Our findings may provide a mechanistic explanation, at least in part, for the clinical condition of secretory diarrhea both in hyperleptinemic obese patients and in patients with chemotherapy-induced intestinal inflammation. PMID:20203064

  12. Oral Feeding of Probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis: Colonic Morphological Changes in Rat Model of TNBS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Najma H.; Alsahly, Musaad B.; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. It has been proposed that modifying the bacterial flora in intestine with probiotics may decrease the inflammatory process and prevent relapses in UC. We investigated the possible protective and therapeutic effects of a single strand of probiotic, Bifidobacterium infantis (BI), on colonic inflammation, in rats with regular feedings. Two groups of Lewis rats were prepared (n = 8). The first group was the control, sham-fed group (n = 4). The other group was the experimental BI-fed group (n = 4). Colitis was induced in both groups by intrarectal administration of TNBS under light anesthesia. The sham-fed colitis induced groups received a daily oral gavage feeding of 1.0 mL distilled water, whereas the B. infantis-fed group received 0.205 g of B. infantis dissolved in 1.0 mL distilled water daily. The change in body weight and food and water intake was recorded over the course of each study and analyzed. The rats were euthanized and tissues from the descending colon were harvested and analyzed microscopically and histologically. Results of our study indicated significant reduction in inflammation, mucosal damage, and preservation of goblet cells, as compared to the control animals. Modulation of gastrointestinal (GI) flora suggests a promising field in developing strategies for prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases by dietary modifications. PMID:27127686

  13. Visceral and Somatic Hypersensitivity in TNBS induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2010-01-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200g–250g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n=40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n=40) or saline (n=25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von-Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex test were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2–28 days following TNBS (p<0.0001). The ethanol treated rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14–28 (p<0.0001) in response to somatic stimuli of the hind-paw. TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity. PMID:17703363

  14. Resveratrol Pretreatment Ameliorates TNBS Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yildiz, Gulserap; Yildiz, Yuksel; Ulutas, Pinar A; Yaylali, Asl; Ural, Muruvvet

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic intestinal inflammatory disease in humans constituting a major health concern today whose prevalence has been increasing over the world. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and disturbed capacity of antioxidant defense in IBD subjects have been reported. Antioxidants may play a significant role in IBD treatment. This study aimed at evaluating ameliorative effects of intraperitoneal resveratrol pretreatment on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Thirty five Wistar-Albino female rats were divided equally into five groups. Inflammation was induced by the intrarectal administration of TNBS under anesthesia. Intraperitoneal administration of resveratrol (RSV) at a concentration of 10mg/kg/day for 5 days before the induction of colitis significantly reduced microscopy score and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels and increased glutathione peroxidase (GSH Px) activity compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. Also an insignificant increase in catalase (CAT) activity was observed in the RSV treated group compared to TNBS and vehicle groups. In this paper, the most recent patent on the identification and treatment of IBD was indicated. In conclusion, antioxidant RSV proved to have a beneficial effect on TNBS colitis in rats. In light of these advantageous results, the RSV can be considered as adjuvant agent in IBD treatments.

  15. Efficacy of oral administration of lactic acid bacteria isolated from cocoa in a fermented milk preparation: reduction of colitis in an experimental rat model.

    PubMed

    Dos Santos, T F; Melo, T A; Santos, D S; Rezende, R P; Dias, J C T; Romano, C C

    2016-07-29

    We investigated the probiotic potential of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) obtained from cocoa fermentation using an experimental rat model of colitis. Cocoa beans were collected from fermentation boxes every 12 h for 5 days to isolate the microorganisms. Strains were isolated by serial dilution and plating on MRS agar. Gram-positive and catalase-negative rods were subjected to DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction, and sequencing. Ten strains were randomly pooled and used to prepare a fermented milk drink that was used to treat the experimental colitis. A parallel group was treated with a single strain drink. Serum concentrations of cytokines and IgA, total and differential counts of blood leukocytes, and histological appearance were compared with the untreated control colitis group. Eighty strains of LAB were identified as Lactobacillus fermentum (68) and Lactobacillus plantarum (12). The multi-strain LAB pool significantly reduced the total number of leukocytes. There was a significant reduction in the percentage of neutrophils and monocytes compared with the control colitis group. IFN-γ concentration was downregulated in animals treated with the LAB pool. IL-10 and IgA increased significantly in the group treated with the strains. Histological analysis showed that the LAB pool reduced the inflammatory infiltrate and restored tissue architecture. The group treated with the single strain LAB drink (L. fermentum) showed no signs of inflammation remission. The results confirm the probiotic action of cocoa-derived LAB in the treatment of experimental colitis. Studies using isogenic models and humans will clarify the mechanisms of immune response modulation in inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. Interleukin 10 gene transfer prevents experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Barbara, G; Xing, Z; Hogaboam, C; Gauldie, J; Collins, S

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—The development of colitis in interleukin 10 (IL-10) deficient mice, together with the known anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory properties of this cytokine have prompted consideration of IL-10 as a treatment for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, studies using hrIL-10 in IBD models have yielded inconsistent results.
AIMS—To examine the therapeutic potential of overexpressing the IL-10 gene before and after the induction of experimental colitis in rats.
METHODS—Gene transfer was achieved by intraperitoneal injection of non-replicating human type 5 adenovirus bearing the IL-10 gene, either 24 hours before or one hour after intrarectal administration of dinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in rats. Colonic damage and inflammation was assessed macroscopically and by measuring myeloperoxidase activity and leukotriene B4 concentrations.
RESULTS—Gene transfer increased IL-10 protein in serum for up to six days. IL-10 gene transfer prior to colitis improved colitis macroscopically and histologically, and significantly reduced colonic myeloperoxidase activity and leukotriene B4 concentrations. In contrast, IL-10 gene transfer after the onset of colitis had no beneficial effect.
CONCLUSIONS—Gene therapy using an adenovirus-IL-10 construct was successful in preventing but not in reversing experimental colitis in the rat.


Keywords: gene therapy; colitis; interleukin 10; adenovirus vector; leukotrienes; inflammatory bowel disease; maintenance therapy PMID:10673295

  17. The effect of methylsulfonylmethane on the experimental colitis in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Amirshahrokhi, K.; Bohlooli, S.; Chinifroush, M.M.

    2011-06-15

    Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM), naturally occurring in green plants, fruits and vegetables, has been shown to exert anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. MSM is an organosulfur compound and a normal oxidative metabolite of dimethyl sulfoxide. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of MSM in a rat model of experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 1 ml of 5% of acetic acid. Rats were treated with MSM (400 mg/kg/day, orally) for 4 days. Animals were euthanized and distal colon evaluated histologically and biochemically. Tissue samples were used to measurement of malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), catalase (CAT), glutathione (GSH) and proinflammatory cytokine (TNF-{alpha} and IL-1{beta}) levels. Results showed that MSM decreased macroscopic and microscopic colonic damage scores caused by administration of acetic acid. MSM treatment also significantly reduced colonic levels of MDA, MPO and IL-1{beta}, while increased the levels of GSH and CAT compared with acetic acid-induced colitis group. It seems that MSM as a natural product may have a protective effect in an experimental ulcerative colitis. - Research Highlights: > Methylsulfonylmethane occurs naturally in some green plants, fruits and vegetables. > Methylsulfonylmethane (MSM) has anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. > We evaluated the effects of MSM in a rat model of experimental ulcerative colitis. > MSM has protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rat.

  18. The dual anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities of natural honey promote cell proliferation and neural regeneration in a rat model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Nooh, Hanaa Z; Nour-Eldien, Nermeen M

    2016-07-01

    A decreased antioxidant capacity and excessive inflammation are well-known features in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). Recent evidence has suggested a role of honey in reducing colitis-induced inflammatory and oxidative stress markers. In this study, we examined whether the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties of honey have a beneficial effect on the enteric innervation and cellular proliferation of UC in rat. The colitis was induced in rats by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS). The effect of natural honey on induced colitis was assessed by the following parameters in colonic samples: tissue injury, inflammatory infiltration, interleukin-1β and -6, superoxide dismutase and reduced glutathione. In addition, the expression of tumour necrosis factor-α, inducible NO synthase, caspase-3, CD34, Ki67, S100, c-kit, and neuron-specific enolase were examined by immunohistochemistry. Compared to the DSS-induced colitis group, the honey-treated group had significantly improved macroscopic and microscopic scores and exhibited the down-regulation of oxidative, inflammatory, and apoptotic markers. In addition, up-regulation of intrinsic muscular innervation and epithelial cellular proliferation markers was detected. These results provide new insight into the beneficial role of natural honey in the treatment of DSS-induced colitis via the inhibition of colonic motor dysfunction and the inflammatory-oxidative-apoptotic cascade. In addition, the role of honey in epithelial regeneration was clarified.

  19. Intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of apigenin K in two rat colitis models induced by trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and dextran sulphate sodium.

    PubMed

    Mascaraque, Cristina; González, Raquel; Suárez, María Dolores; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Sánchez de Medina, Fermín; Martínez-Augustin, Olga

    2015-02-28

    Flavonoids are polyphenolic compounds that are widespread in nature, and consumed as part of the human diet in significant amounts. The aim of the present study was to test the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of apigenin K, a soluble form of apigenin, in two models of rat colitis, namely the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model and the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) model. Apigenin K (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg; by the oral route; n 4-6 per group) was administered as a pre-treatment to rats with TNBS and DSS colitis, and colonic status was checked by macroscopic and biochemical examination. Apigenin K pre-treatment resulted in the amelioration of morphological signs and biochemical markers in the TNBS model. The results demonstrated a reduction in the inflamed area, as well as lower values of score and colonic weight:length ratio compared with the TNBS group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was reduced by 30 % (P< 0·05). Moreover, apigenin K pre-treatment ameliorated morphological signs and biochemical markers in the DSS model. Thus, macroscopic damage was significantly reduced and the colonic weight:length ratio was lowered by approximately 10 %, while colonic MPO and alkaline phosphatase activities were decreased by 35 and 21 %, respectively (P< 0·05). Apigenin K pre-treatment also tended to normalise the expression of a number of colonic inflammatory markers (e.g. TNF-α, transforming growth factor-β, IL-6, intercellular adhesion molecule 1 or chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 2). In conclusion, apigenin K is found to have anti-inflammatory effects in two preclinical models of inflammatory bowel disease.

  20. Dietary intervention with narrow-leaved cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) prevents intestinal inflammation in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid model of rat colitis

    PubMed Central

    2012-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a chronic inflammation of the intestinal epithelium that is driven by the intestinal immune system, oxidative stress and the loss of tolerance to the luminal microbiota. The use of dietary products containing ingredients such as fibres and carbohydrates and/or antioxidant compounds have been used as a therapeutic strategy for intestinal diseases because these products are considered effective in the modulation of the immune system and colonic microbiota. We investigated the beneficial effects of cattail rhizome flour (Typha angustifolia L.) in the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. In addition, we investigated the effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone, which is a reference drug that is used for treatment of human IBD. Methods The present study included the preparation of flour from rhizomes of cattail (Typha angustifolia L.); an evaluation of the qualitative phytochemical profile of cattail rhizomes; an evaluation of the efficacy of cattail rhizome flour in TNBS-induced rat colitis; an evaluation of the synergistic effects of cattail rhizome flour on the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of prednisolone; and macroscopic, clinical, biochemical, histopathological and microbiological studies to assess the healing effects of cattail rhizome flour and its synergistic effects in TNBS-induced rat colitis. The data were analysed by ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis and χ2 tests. Results We tested several concentrations of cattail rhizome flour and found that dietary supplementation with 10% cattail rhizome flour showed the best effects at reducing the extension of the lesion, the colon weight ratio, adherences to adjacent organs and diarrhoea. These effects were related to inhibition of myeloperoxidase (MPO) and alkaline phosphatase (AP) activities and an attenuation of glutathione (GSH) depletion. The 10% cattail rhizome flour was as effective as

  1. Actions of Probiotics on Trinitrobenzenesulfonic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shiina, Takahiko; Shima, Takeshi; Naitou, Kiyotada; Nakamori, Hiroyuki; Sano, Yuuki; Horii, Kazuhiro; Shimakawa, Masaki; Ohno, Hiroshi; Shimizu, Yasutake

    2015-01-01

    We investigated the actions of probiotics, Streptococcus faecalis 129 BIO 3B (SF3B), in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis model in rats. After TNBS was administered into the colons of rats for induction of colitis, the rats were divided into two groups: one group was given a control diet and the other group was given a diet containing SF3B for 14 days. There were no apparent differences in body weight, diarrhea period, macroscopic colitis score, and colonic weight/length ratio between the control group and SF3B group, suggesting that induction of colitis was not prevented by SF3B. Next, we investigated whether SF3B-containing diet intake affects the restoration of enteric neurotransmissions being damaged during induction of colitis by TNBS using isolated colonic preparations. Recovery of the nitrergic component was greater in the SF3B group than in the control group. A compensatory appearance of nontachykininergic and noncholinergic excitatory components was less in the SF3B group than in the control group. In conclusion, the present study suggests that SF3B-containing diet intake can partially prevent disruptions of enteric neurotransmissions induced after onset of TNBS-induced colitis, suggesting that SF3B has therapeutic potential. PMID:26550572

  2. The effect of menthol on acute experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghasemi-Pirbaluti, Masoumeh; Motaghi, Ehsan; Bozorgi, Homan

    2017-03-18

    Menthol is an aromatic compound with high antiinflammatory activity. The purpose of the current research is to investigate the effectiveness of menthol on acetic acid induced acute colitis in rats. Animals were injected with menthol (20 and 50 and 80mg/kg, i.p.) 24h prior to induction of colitis for 3 consecutive days. Menthol at medium and higher doses similar to dexamethasone as a reference drug significantly reduced body weight loss, macroscopic damage score, ulcer area, colon weight, colon length and improved hematocrit in rats with colitis. The histopathological examination also confirmed anti-colitic effects of menthol. Menthol also reduced significantly the colonic levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 1β (IL-1β), interleukin 6 (IL-6) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in inflamed colons. Thus, the findings of the current study provide evidence that menthol may be beneficial in patients suffering from acute ulcerative colitis.

  3. Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... this page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001125.htm Colitis To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Colitis is swelling (inflammation) of the large intestine (colon). ...

  4. Protective Effect of Ocimum basilicum Essential Oil Against Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rashidian, Amir; Roohi, Parnia; Mehrzadi, Saeed; Ghannadi, Ali Reza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-10-01

    Ocimum basilicum L has been traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease in Iran. This study investigates the ameliorative effect of Ocimum basilicum essential oil on an acetic acid-induced colitis model in rats. Ocimum basilicum essential oil with 2 doses (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly ameliorated wet weight/length ratio of colonic tissue compared to the control group. Higher doses of essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg) significantly reduced ulcer severity, ulcer area, and ulcer index. On the other hand, histological examination revealed the diminution of total colitis index as a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration in the colonic segments of rats treated with Ocimum basilicum essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). The increased level of myeloperoxidase was significantly decreased after the treatment with the essential oil (200 and 400 μL/kg). These results suggest that Ocimum basilicum exhibits protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis.

  5. Protective effects of citicoline on TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ek, Rauf Onur; Serter, Mukadder; Ergin, Kemal; Cecen, Serpil; Unsal, Cengiz; Yildiz, Yuksel; Bilgin, Mehmet D

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of citicoline on the development of colitis and antioxidant parameters in rats subjected to tribenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Twenty four Wistar Albino female rats were divided into four subgroups (n=6) (control, colitis control, colitis + 50 mg/kg citicoline, colitis + 250 mg/kg citicoline). Colitis was induced using an enema of TNBS and ethanol; following which citicoline was administrated for 3 days and effects of citicoline was subsequently evaluated. Based on microscopic damage scores, there was no difference between rats of the TNBS-colitis and 50 mg/kg citicoline treated groups, whereas treatment with 250 mg/kg citicoline, caused significant reduction in colon injury compared to that observed in rats of TNBS-colitis group. In terms of the biochemical analyses, myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), reduced glutathione (GSH), and IL-6 levels in rats from 250 mg/kg citicoline group were significantly different from that TNBS-colitis group. The levels of MPO, MDA, GSH and IL-6 in control rats were also significantly different those of rats in the TNBS-colitis group. Citicoline may have a positive protective effect on the inflammatory bowel disease treatment process and could, therefore, be used as an adjunct therapy in colitis. These effects of citicoline may exist through anti-inflammatory and antioxidant mechanism.

  6. Dietary intervention with green dwarf banana flour (Musa sp AAA) prevents intestinal inflammation in a trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Scarminio, Viviane; Fruet, Andrea C; Witaicenis, Aline; Rall, Vera L M; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-03-01

    Dietary products are among the therapeutic approaches used to modify intestinal microflora and to promote protective effects during the intestinal inflammatory process. Because the banana plant is rich in resistant starch, which is used by colonic microbiota for the anaerobic production of the short-chain fatty acids that serve as a major fuel source for colonocytes: first, green dwarf banana flour produces protective effects on the intestinal inflammation acting as a prebiotic and, second, combination of this dietary supplementation with prednisolone presents synergistic effects. For this, we used the trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Our results revealed that the protective effect produced by a combination of 10% green dwarf banana flour with prednisolone was more pronounced than those promoted by a single administration of prednisolone or a diet containing 10% or 20% banana flour. This beneficial effect was associated with an improvement in the colonic oxidative status because the banana flour diet prevented the glutathione depletion and inhibited myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation. In addition, the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity was associated with an inhibition of alkaline phosphatase activity, a reduction in macroscopic and microscopic scores, and an extension of the lesions. In conclusion, the dietary use of the green dwarf banana flour constitutes an important dietary supplement and complementary medicine product to prevention and treatment of human inflammatory bowel disease.

  7. Healing Effect of Pistacia Atlantica Fruit Oil Extract in Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Masoumi, Samira; Hosseinzadeh, Massood; Safarpour, Ali Reza; Erjaee, Hoda; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Rahimikazerooni, Salar

    2014-01-01

    Background: Considering the anti-oxidant properties of Pistacia atlantica and lack of data regarding its efficacy in the treatment of ulcerative colitis, this study aims at investigating the effect of the Pistacia atlantica fruit extract in treating experimentally induced colitis in a rat model. Methods: Seventy male Sprague-Dawley rats (weighing 220±20 g) were used. All rats fasted 24 hours before the experimental procedure. The rats were randomly divided into 7 groups, each containing 10 induced colitis with 2ml acetic acid (3%). Group 1 (Asacol), group 2 (base gel) and group 7 (without treatment) were assigned as control groups. Group 3 (300 mg/ml) and group 4 (600 mg/ml) received Pistacia atlantica fruit orally. Group 5 (10% gel) and group 6 (20% gel) received Pistacia atlantica in the form of gel as enema. Macroscopic, histopathological examination and MDA measurement were carried out. Results: All groups revealed significant macroscopic healing in comparison with group 7 (P<0.001). Regarding microscopic findings in the treatment groups compared with group 7, the latter group differed significantly with groups 1, 2, 4 and 6 (P<0.001). There was a significant statistical difference in MDA scores of the seven treatment groups (F(5,54)=76.61, P<0.001). Post-hoc comparisons indicated that the mean±SD score of Asacol treated group (1.57±0.045) was not significantly different from groups 4 (1.62±0.024) and 6 (1.58±0.028). Conclusion: Our study showed that a high dose of Pistacia atlantica fruit oil extract, administered orally and rectally can improve colitis physiologically and pathologically in a rat model, and may be efficient for ulcerative colitis. PMID:25429174

  8. Relevance of TNBS-Colitis in Rats: A Methodological Study with Endoscopic, Histologic and Transcriptomic Characterization and Correlation to IBD

    PubMed Central

    Brenna, Øystein; Furnes, Marianne W.; Drozdov, Ignat; van Beelen Granlund, Atle; Flatberg, Arnar; Sandvik, Arne K.; Zwiggelaar, Rosalie T. M.; Mårvik, Ronald; Nordrum, Ivar S.; Kidd, Mark; Gustafsson, Björn I.

    2013-01-01

    Background Rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in ethanol is an established model for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to 1) set up a TNBS-colitis protocol resulting in an endoscopic and histologic picture resembling IBD, 2) study the correlation between endoscopic, histologic and gene expression alterations at different time points after colitis induction, and 3) compare rat and human IBD mucosal transcriptomic data to evaluate whether TNBS-colitis is an appropriate model of IBD. Methodology/Principal Findings Five female Sprague Daley rats received TNBS diluted in 50% ethanol (18 mg/0.6 ml) rectally. The rats underwent colonoscopy with biopsy at different time points. RNA was extracted from rat biopsies and microarray was performed. PCR and in situ hybridization (ISH) were done for validation of microarray results. Rat microarray profiles were compared to human IBD expression profiles (25 ulcerative colitis Endoscopic score demonstrated mild to moderate colitis after three and seven days, but declined after twelve days. Histologic changes corresponded with the endoscopic appearance. Over-represented Gene Ontology Biological Processes included: Cell Adhesion, Immune Response, Lipid Metabolic Process, and Tissue Regeneration. IL-1α, IL-1β, TLR2, TLR4, PRNP were all significantly up-regulated, while PPARγ was significantly down-regulated. Among genes with highest fold change (FC) were SPINK4, LBP, ADA, RETNLB and IL-1α. The highest concordance in differential expression between TNBS and IBD transcriptomes was three days after colitis induction. ISH and PCR results corresponded with the microarray data. The most concordantly expressed biologically relevant pathways included TNF signaling, Cell junction organization, and Interleukin-1 processing. Conclusions/Significance Endoscopy with biopsies in TNBS-colitis is useful to follow temporal changes of inflammation visually and histologically, and to acquire tissue for gene

  9. Validation and optimization of experimental colitis induction in rats using 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid

    PubMed Central

    Motavallian-Naeini, A.; Andalib, S.; Rabbani, M.; Mahzouni, P.; Afsharipour, M.; Minaiyan, M.

    2012-01-01

    Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis is one of the most common methods for studying inflammatory bowel disease in animal models. Several factors may, however, affect its reproducibility, rate of animal mortality, and macroscopic and histopathological outcomes. Our aim was to validate the main contributing factors to this method and compare the effects of different reference drugs upon remission of resultant colon injuries. TNBS was dissolved in 0.25 ml of ethanol (50% v/v) and instilled (25, 50, 100 and 150 mg/kg) intracolonically to the male Wistar rats. After determination of optimum dose of TNBS in male rats and assessment of this dose in female rats, they were treated with reference drugs including dexamethasone [1 mg/kg, intraperitoneally (i.p.) and 2 mg/kg, orally (p.o.)], Asacol (mesalazine, 100 mg/kg, p.o.; 150 mg/kg, enema) and hydrocortisone acetate (20 mg/kg, i.p.; 20 mg/kg, enema) which started 2 h after colitis induction and continued daily for 6 consecutive days. Thereafter, macroscopic and microscopic parameters and clinical features were assessed and compared in different groups. We found that the optimum dose of TNBS for the reproducibility of colonic damage with the least mortality rate was 50 mg/kg. Amongst studied reference drugs, hydrocortisone acetate (i.p.), dexamethasone (i.p. and p.o.) and Asacol (p.o.) significantly diminished the severity of macroscopic and microscopic injuries and could be considered effective for experimental colitis studies in rats . Our findings suggest that optimization of TNBS dose is essential for induction of colitis under the laboratory conditions; and gender exerts no impact upon macroscopic and histological characteristics of TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Furthermore, the enema forms of hydrocortisone and Asacol are not appropriate reference drugs. PMID:23181094

  10. Increased expression of transforming growth factor α precursors in acute experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Hoffmann, P; Zeeh, J; Lakshmanan, J; Wu, V; Procaccino, F; Reinshagen, M; McRoberts, J; Eysselein, V

    1997-01-01

    Background and aim—Epidermal growth factor (EGF) and transforming growth factor α (TGF-α), members of the EGF family of growth factors, protect rat gastric and colonic mucosa against injury. Having shown previously that exogenously applied EGF protects rat colonic mucosa against injury, the aim of the present study was to evaluate the endogenously expressed ligand mediating the protective effect of EGF/TGF-α in vivo. 
Methods—In an experimental model of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)/ ethanol induced colitis in rats EGF and TGF-α expression was evaluated using a ribonuclease protection assay, northern blot analysis, western blot analysis, and immunohistochemistry. 
Results—TGF-α mRNA increased 3-4 times at 4-8 hours after induction of colitis and returned to control levels within 24 hours. TGF-α immunoreactive protein with a molecular size of about 28kDa representing TGF-α precursors increased markedly after induction of colitis with a peak at 8-12 hours. No fully processed 5.6 kDa TGF-α protein was detected in normal or inflamed colon tissue. Only a weak signal for EGF mRNA expression was detected in the rat colon and no EGF protein was observed by immunohistochemistry or western blot analysis. 
Conclusions—TGF-α precursors are the main ligands for the EGF receptor in acute colitis. It is hypothesised that TGF-α precursors convey the biological activity of endogenous TGF-α peptides during mucosal defence and repair. 

 Keywords: transforming growth factor alpha (TGF-α); epidermal growth factor (EGF); precursor molecules; colitis; rat PMID:9301498

  11. Visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D; Caudle, Robert M; Verne, G Nicholas

    2008-02-01

    Inflammation of visceral structures in rats has been shown to produce visceral/somatic hyperalgesia. Our objectives were to determine if trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis in rats leads to visceral/somatic hypersensitivity. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (200-250 g) were treated with 20 mg of TNBS in 50% ethanol (n = 40) or an equivalent volume of ethanol (n = 40) or saline (n = 25) via the colon. Colonic distension, Von Frey, Hargreaves, and tail reflex tests were used to evaluate for visceral, mechanical, and thermal sensitivity. The rats demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity at 2-28 days following TNBS administration (P < 0.0001). The ethanol-treated rats also demonstrated visceral hypersensitivity that resolved after day 14. TNBS-treated rats demonstrated somatic hypersensitivity at days 14-28 (P < 0.0001) in response to somatic stimuli of the hind paw. TNBS colitis is associated with visceral and somatic hypersensitivity in areas of somatotopic overlap. This model of colitis should allow further investigation into the mechanisms of visceral and somatic hypersensitivity.

  12. Growth failure occurs through a decrease in insulin-like growth factor 1 which is independent of undernutrition in a rat model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ballinger, A; Azooz, O; El-Haj, T; Poole, S; Farthing, M

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Linear growth retardation is a frequent complication of inflammatory bowel disease in children. The precise mechanisms causing growth failure are not known.
AIMS—To determine the relative contribution of reduced calorie intake and inflammation to linear growth delay and to determine the effect of inflammation on the hypothalamic-pituitary-growth axis.
METHODS—Linear growth was assessed in prepubertal rats with trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis, in healthy free feeding controls, and in a pair-fed group (i.e. healthy animals whose daily food intake was matched to the colitic group thereby distinguishing between the effects of undernutrition and inflammation).
RESULTS—Changes in length over five days in the TNBS colitis and pair-fed groups were 30% and 56%, respectively, of healthy free feeding controls. Linear growth was significantly reduced in the colitic group compared with the pair-fed group. Nutritional supplementation in the colitic group increased weight gain to control values but did not completely reverse the growth deficit. Plasma interleukin 6 (IL-6) concentrations were sixfold higher in the colitic group compared with controls. Plasma concentrations of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) but not growth hormone (GH) were significantly lower in the colitic compared with the pair-fed group. Administration of IGF-1 to the colitic group increased plasma IGF-1 concentrations and linear growth by approximately 44-60%.
CONCLUSIONS—It seems likely that approximately 30-40% of linear growth impairment in experimental colitis occurs as a direct result of the inflammatory process which is independent of undernutrition. Inflammation acts principally at the hepatocyte/IGF-1 level to impair linear growth. Optimal growth in intestinal inflammation may only be achieved by a combination of nutritional intervention and anticytokine treatment.


Keywords: inflammatory bowel disease; TNBS colitis; growth retardation

  13. Boswellia serrata has beneficial anti-inflammatory and antioxidant properties in a model of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Hartmann, Renata Minuzzo; Fillmann, Henrique Sarubbi; Martins, Maria Isabel Morgan; Meurer, Luise; Marroni, Norma Possa

    2014-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is an inflammatory disease that involves only the colon and rectum, being characterized by leukocyte infiltrate and superficial ulcers in the intestinal mucosa. To evaluate the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of extract from the Boswellia serrata plant in an experimental rat model of acute ulcerative colitis induced by the administration of acetic acid (AA). An extract of B. serrata (34.2 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage for 2 days before and after the induction of colitis with 4 mL of 4% AA. The anal sphincter pressure in the colitis group showed a significant decrease compared to that of the control groups (p < 0.001). The analysis of the values of lipid peroxidation (LPO) obtained by substances that react with thiobarbituric acid (TBARS) showed a significantly increased LPO in the colitis group compared to the control groups (p < 0.001). The nitric oxide levels and the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) showed a significant increase in the colitis group compared to control groups (p < 0.01). Both pretreatment and treatment with B. serrata exhibited significantly reduced lipid peroxidation, nitric oxide and iNOS and showed improvements in tissue injury and anal sphincter pressure in animals with ulcerative colitis. The B. serrata extract has protective anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects that inhibit inflammatory mediators in acute experimental colitis.

  14. N-Succinyl-chitosan systems for 5-aminosalicylic acid colon delivery: in vivo study with TNBS-induced colitis model in rats.

    PubMed

    Mura, C; Nácher, A; Merino, V; Merino-Sanjuan, M; Carda, C; Ruiz, A; Manconi, M; Loy, G; Fadda, A M; Diez-Sales, O

    2011-09-15

    5-Aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) loaded N-Succinyl-chitosan (SucCH) microparticle and freeze-dried system were prepared as potential delivery systems to the colon. Physicochemical characterization and in vitro release and swelling studies were previously assessed and showed that the two formulations appeared to be good candidates to deliver the drug to the colon. In this work the effectiveness of these two systems in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease was evaluated. In vitro mucoadhesive studies showed excellent mucoadhesive properties of both the systems to the inflamed colonic mucosa. Experimental colitis was induced by rectal instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) into male Wistar rats. Colon/body weight ratio, clinical activity score system, myeloperoxidase activity and histological evaluation were determined as inflammatory indices. The two formulations were compared with drug suspension and SucCH suspension. The results showed that the loading of 5-ASA into SucCH polymer markedly improved efficacy in the healing of induced colitis in rats.

  15. Attenuation of colitis injury in rats using Garcinia cambogia extract.

    PubMed

    dos Reis, Samara Bonesso; de Oliveira, Caroline Candida; Acedo, Simone Coghetto; Miranda, Daniel Duarte da Conceição; Ribeiro, Marcelo Lima; Pedrazzoli, José; Gambero, Alessandra

    2009-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic enteropathies that probably result from a dysregulated mucosal immune response. These pathologies are characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress, leukocyte infiltration and up-regulation of pro-inflammatory substances. Current IBD treatment presents limitations in both efficacy and safety that stimulated the search for new active compounds. Garcinia cambogia extract has attracted interest due to its pharmacological properties, including gastroprotective effects. In this study, the antiinflammatory activity of a garcinia extract was assessed in TNBS-induced colitis rats. The results obtained revealed that garcinia administration to colitic rats significantly improved the macroscopic damage and caused substantial reductions in increases in MPO activity, COX-2 and iNOS expression. In addition, garcinia extract treatment was able to reduce PGE(2) and IL-1beta colonic levels. These antiinflammatory actions could be related to a reduction in DNA damage in isolated colonocytes, observed with the comet assay. Finally, garcinia extract caused neither mortality nor toxicity signals after oral administration. As such, the antiinflammatory effects provided by the Garcinia cambogia extract result in an improvement of several parameters analysed in experimental colitis and could provide a source for the search for new antiinflammatory compounds useful in IBD treatment.

  16. The diverse actions of nicotine and different extracted fractions from tobacco smoke against hapten-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ko, Joshua K S; Cho, Chi-Hin

    2005-09-01

    The etiology of ulcerative colitis (UC) remains unknown, although the risk of developing UC is apparently higher in non-smokers and ex-smokers. We have demonstrated in a colitis animal model that exposure to tobacco smoke could attenuate UC pathogenesis. The present study aimed to investigate and compare between the modes of action of nicotine and different fractions of tobacco smoke extract in the development of experimental colitis. The hapten 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) was used to induce colitis in Sprague-Dawley rats. Results indicated that both tobacco smoke exposure and subcutaneous nicotine differentially reduced colonic lesion size, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, luminol-amplified free radical generation, and leukotriene B4 formation in the inflamed colon of colitis animals. These phenomena were accompanied by the downregulation of colonic interleukin (IL)-1beta and monocyte chemoattractant protein (MCP)-1 protein expression. By treating the colitis animals with various tobacco extracts, we further discovered that ethanol extract from filtered tobacco smoke could attenuate DNBS-evoked colonic damage and the elevated MPO activity, while at the same time it downregulated colonic IL-1beta and MCP-1 protein expression. In contrast, the highest dose of the chloroform extract from the cigarette filter caused aggravating effects and overexpression of the pro-inflammatory cytokines and chemokines. These data suggest that effective attenuation of DNBS-induced colitis by tobacco smoke could be due to its nicotine content and possibly other flavonoid components found in the ethanol smoke extract.

  17. Nerol alleviates pathologic markers in the oxazolone-induced colitis model.

    PubMed

    González-Ramírez, Adriana Estrella; González-Trujano, María Eva; Orozco-Suárez, Sandra A; Alvarado-Vásquez, Noé; López-Muñoz, Francisco Javier

    2016-04-05

    Nerol is a natural monoterpene with antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory properties. Its possible beneficial effects in ulcerative colitis and its corresponding mechanism of action have not been determined to date. The aim of this study was to investigate whether nerol prevents the appearance of pathological markers and hyperalgesia in oxazolone-induced colitis, and protects against gastric damage produced by ethanol. The experimental design included groups of oxazolone-treated mice receiving nerol at 10-300 mg/kg, p.o., or a reference drug (sulfasalazine, 100 mg/kg, p.o.) compared to sham and untreated groups. Gastric damage was evaluated in the absolute ethanol-induced ulcer model in rats. Variables measured in animals with oxazolone-induced colitis included weight loss, stool consistency and macroscopic colon damage; mechanical nociception was determined by the use of von Frey filaments, whereas levels of inflammatory cytokines were assessed by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. Nerol (30-300 mg/kg, p.o.) prevented or significantly decreased the pathological alterations observed in the oxazolone- induced colitis model. It also showed antinociceptive effects and reduced the increased levels of inflammatory cytokines (IL-13 and TNF-α). Gastric damage was also prevented starting at 10 mg/kg, p.o. In conclusion, our results provide evidence for a beneficial effect of nerol after colitis induction involving tissue protection, antinociception and modulation of the immunological system, suggesting the therapeutic potential of this monoterpene as a novel alternative in controlling ulcerative colitis.

  18. BTZO-15, an ARE-activator, ameliorates DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yukitake, Hiroshi; Kimura, Haruhide; Suzuki, Hirobumi; Tajima, Yasukazu; Sato, Yoshimi; Imaeda, Toshihiro; Kajino, Masahiro; Takizawa, Masayuki

    2011-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a group of chronic inflammatory disorders that are primarily represented by ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. The etiology of IBD is not well understood; however, oxidative stress is considered a potential etiological and/or triggering factor for IBD. We have recently reported the identification of BTZO-1, an activator of antioxidant response element (ARE)-mediated gene expression, which protects cardiomyocytes from oxidative stress-induced insults. Here we describe the potential of BTZO-15, an active BTZO-1 derivative for ARE-activation with a favorable ADME-Tox profile, for the treatment of IBD. BTZO-15 induced expression of heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), an ARE-regulated cytoprotective protein, and inhibited NO-induced cell death in IEC-18 cells. Large intestine shortening, rectum weight gain, diarrhea, intestinal bleeding, and an increase in rectal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were observed in a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis rat model. Oral administration of BTZO-15 induced HO-1 expression in the rectum and attenuated DSS-induced changes. Furthermore BTZO-15 reduced the ulcerated area and rectal MPO activity in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rats without affecting rectal TNF-α levels. These results suggest that BTZO-15 is a promising compound for a novel IBD therapeutic drug with ARE activation properties.

  19. Effect of ulcerative colitis in the bursting strength of colonic anastomoses in rats.

    PubMed

    Remes-Troche, Jose Maria; Takahashi, Takeshi; Velasco, Liliana; Garcia-Osogobio, Sandra; Uscanga, Luis; Gamboa-Domínguez, Armando; Santillan-Doherty, Patricio

    2003-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease may have a deleterious effect on bowel healing, but its role is difficult to demonstrate in clinical practice because of the association of multiple factors. An experiment was conducted in rats. They were divided into two groups: group I, a model of acetic acid induced colitis, and group II, the control group. Both groups underwent a rectal resection and primary anastomosis. On postoperative day 7, the bursting strength of the anastomosis was evaluated. There were 44 rats in group I and 38 in group II. In 91% of group I rats there were histopathological changes compatible with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Mean bursting pressure was significantly reduced in rats with acetic-acid induced IBD (142.18 +/- 18.22 mm Hg in group I, and 208.85 +/- 14.8 mm Hg in group II; p < .05). These results suggest the deleterious effect of IBD on bowel healing.

  20. The effects of LED rectal irradiation on the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of light emitting diode(LED λ 632.8nm; power 4.0mw)applied directly to the colon on the experimental ulcerative colitis. 34 rats were divided into 3 groups, which was LED treatment group (n=12), model group (n=12), and normal control group (n=10). Given glacial acetic acid (5%) intra-anally so as to be replicated the rat model of ulcerative colitis. LED irradiation was used to curative group, with 30min each time, once per day. The period of treatment was one week. Then the activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and content of malondi-aldehyde (MDA) in the blood plasma were detected and the histopathological study in Colonic tissue was performed. The degree of the Colonic tissue injury in curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Comparing with model group, the Content of MDA in LED curative group was reductive and the activity of SOD was increased significantly. We concluded that the LED irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from acetic acid induced damage in rats and the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation of LED.

  1. Geniposide ameliorates TNBS-induced experimental colitis in rats via reducing inflammatory cytokine release and restoring impaired intestinal barrier function.

    PubMed

    Xu, Bin; Li, Yan-Li; Xu, Ming; Yu, Chang-Chun; Lian, Meng-Qiao; Tang, Ze-Yao; Li, Chuan-Xun; Lin, Yuan

    2017-03-06

    Geniposide is an iridoid glycosides purified from the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides Ellis, which is known to have antiinflammatory, anti-oxidative and anti-tumor activities. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of geniposide on experimental rat colitis and to reveal the related mechanisms. Experimental rat colitis was induced by rectal administration of a TNBS solution. The rats were treated with geniposide (25, 50 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) or with sulfasalazine (SASP, 100 mg·kg(-1)·d(-1), ig) as positive control for 14 consecutive days. A Caco-2 cell monolayer exposed to lipopolysaccharides (LPS) was used as an epithelial barrier dysfunction model. Transepithelial electrical resistance (TER) was measured to evaluate intestinal barrier function. In rats with TNBS-induced colitis, administration of geniposide or SASP significantly increased the TNBS-decreased body weight and ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental colitis and related symptoms. Geniposide or SASP suppressed inflammatory cytokine (TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6) release and neutrophil infiltration (myeloperoxidase activity) in the colon. In Caco-2 cells, geniposide (25-100 μmol/L) ameliorated LPS-induced endothelial barrier dysfunction via dose-dependently increasing transepithelial electrical resistance (TER). The results from both in vivo and in vitro studies revealed that geniposide down-regulated NF-κB, COX-2, iNOS and MLCK protein expression, up-regulated the expression of tight junction proteins (occludin and ZO-1), and facilitated AMPK phosphorylation. Both AMPK siRNA transfection and AMPK overexpression abrogated the geniposide-reduced MLCK protein expression, suggesting that geniposide ameliorated barrier dysfunction via AMPK-mediated inhibition of the MLCK pathway. In conclusion, geniposide ameliorated TNBS-induced experimental rat colitis by both reducing inflammation and modulating the disrupted epithelial barrier function via activating the AMPK signaling pathway..

  2. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa. PMID:26798415

  3. Obestatin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Konturek, Peter; Ambroży, Tadeusz; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Obestatin, a 23-amino acid peptide derived from the proghrelin, has been shown to exhibit some protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present study was to determine the effect of obestatin administration on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Obestatin was administered intraperitoneally twice a day at a dose of 8 nmol/kg, starting 24 h after the induction of colitis. Seven or 14 days after the induction of colitis, the healing rate of the colon was evaluated. Results. Treatment with obestatin after induction of colitis accelerated the healing of colonic wall damage and this effect was associated with a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase and content of interleukin-1β. Moreover, obestatin administration significantly reversed the colitis-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Conclusion. Administration of exogenous obestatin exhibits therapeutic effects in the course of acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect is related, at least in part, to the obestatin-evoked anti-inflammatory effect, an improvement of local blood flow, and an increase in cell proliferation in colonic mucosa.

  4. Baicalin attenuates TNBS-induced colitis in rats by modulating the Th17/Treg paradigm.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Dai, Shi-Xue; Chi, Hong-Gang; Li, Tao; He, Zhi-Wei; Wang, Jian; Ye, Cai-Guo; Huang, Guo-Liang; Zhao, Bing; Li, Wen-Yang; Wan, Zheng; Feng, Jin-Shan; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2015-10-01

    Baicalin, a flavonoid, has a wide range of pharmacological properties, including immunomodulation. The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of baicalin on the balance of T helper 17 (Th17) and regulatory T (Treg) cells in a colitis model. The rat colitis model was induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Baicalin (10 ml/kg, each) or mesalazine (positive control) was then administered orally for 7 days. Inflammatory and immunological responses were evaluated by pathology, enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, real-time polymerase chain reaction, western blot analysis, and flow cytometry. Our study showed that baicalin not only significantly attenuated TNBS-induced colitis by reducing the disease activity index as well as macroscopic and microscopic scores, but it also improved the weight loss and shortening of the colon. Baicalin treatment also induced a significant decrease in the levels of inflammatory mediators, including the myeloperoxidase activity, the levels of tumor necrosis factor α, IL-1β, and Th1-related cytokines IL-12 and IFN-γ. Furthermore, the beneficial effects of baicalin seem to be associated with regulation of the Th17 and Treg paradigm. We found that administration of baicalin significantly downregulated the number of Th17 cells and the levels of Th17-related cytokines (IL-17 and IL-6) and retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt. In contrast, there was an increase in Treg cells numbers, Treg-related cytokines transforming growth factor-β and IL-10, and forkhead box P3. Our results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effect of baicalin may be linked to modulation of the balance between Th17 and Treg cells in TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis.

  5. Plant-derived polysaccharide supplements inhibit dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in the rat.

    PubMed

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie; Jacoby, Henry I

    2010-05-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count.

  6. Plant-Derived Polysaccharide Supplements Inhibit Dextran Sulfate Sodium-Induced Colitis in the Rat

    PubMed Central

    Koetzner, Lee; Grover, Gary; Boulet, Jamie

    2009-01-01

    Several plant-derived polysaccharides have been shown to have anti-inflammatory activity in animal models. Ambrotose complex and Advanced Ambrotose are dietary supplements that include aloe vera gel, arabinogalactan, fucoidan, and rice starch, all of which have shown such activity. This study was designed to evaluate these formulations against dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis in rats and to confirm their short-term safety after 14 days of daily dosing. Rats were dosed daily orally with vehicle, Ambrotose or Advanced Ambrotose. On day six groups of rats received tap water or 5% Dextran Sulfate sodium. Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose significantly lowered the disease scores and partially prevented the shortening of colon length. An increase in monocyte count was induced by dextran sulfate sodium and inhibited by Ambrotose and Advanced Ambrotose. There were no observable adverse effects after 14-day daily doses. The mechanism of action of the formulations against DSS-induced colitis may be related to its effect on monocyte count. PMID:19513840

  7. The effects of konjac oligosaccharide on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Ruixue; Li, Yongchao; Zhang, Bo

    2016-11-01

    The purpose of the study was to assess the effects and the protective mechanism of konjac oligosaccharide (KOS) on the ulcerative colitis (UC) model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. KOS (1.0 and 4.0g/kg/day) was administered for 14days after the induction of colitis with TNBS. The status of the rats was assessed by morphological and biochemical methods. The effect of KOS on the colonic microflora was also assessed by studying the bacteria profile and short chain fatty acids (SCFAs) production in feces by standard culture techniques and gas chromatography, respectively. KOS administration improved rat weight, colonic length, damage score, structure of gut microbiota, production of SCFA, and reduced colon tissue levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), and interleukin-1β (IL-1β). Therefore, our results indicate that KOS is an anti-inflammatory and could be useful as a prebiotic to design functional foods for UC.

  8. Effects of mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Dong, Jiao; Zhang, Jian-Xin; Zhai, Jing; Ge, Bin

    2016-09-01

    The mimic of manganese superoxide dismutase (MnSODm) has been synthesized and reported to have anti-inflammatory properties. However, whether MnSODm has anti-inflammatory effects on colitis and any underlying mechanisms are poorly understood. This study was to investigate therapeutic effects and mechanism of MnSODm on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) induced colitis model in rats. Rats were intragastrically administered MnSODm (10, 20, and 40 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after colitis was induced by TNBS. After treated with MnSODm, the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and colonic weight/length ratios were significantly decreased compared with colitis model group. Myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, malonyldialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-1β, IL-6, and IL-8 levels in colon tissues were also significantly decreased in MnSODm treatment groups. However, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity significantly increased and phosphorylated inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), and nuclear factor-kappa Bp65 (NF-κBp65) as well as Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) and myeloid differentiation actor 88 (MyD88) in the colonic mucosa were significantly inhibited by MnSODm treatment. Thus, MnSODm was protective against colitis via antioxidant activity and by inhibiting inflammatory mediators by down-regulating TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signaling pathways. These data suggest a potential therapeutic effect of MnSODm in colitis.

  9. Effects of Malva sylvestris and Its Isolated Polysaccharide on Experimental Ulcerative Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Hamedi, Azadeh; Rezaei, Hossein; Azarpira, Negar; Jafarpour, Mehrnaz; Ahmadi, Fatemeh

    2016-01-01

    Malva sylvestris is an edible plant that is consumed as a herbal supplement for its antiulcer and colon cleansing properties in traditional Persian medicine. This study was designed to evaluate its effects on ulcerative colitis, which is a chronic gastrointestinal inflammation. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of acetic acid solution. Rats in different groups received aqueous, n-hexane, or ethanolic fractions of the plant before induction of colitis. Isolated polysaccharide of plant was also tested in 2 groups before and after induction of colitis. Macroscopic and microscopic evaluation of colitis showed that the aqueous fraction was very effective in preventing the inflammation and efficacy was lower for ethanolic and n-hexane fractions. Polysaccharide was effective in reducing signs of inflammation, especially as pretreatment. These beneficial effects provide evidences that this plant can be suggested for patients with this disease to improve their health condition or to reduce adverse effects of their medication.

  10. Anti-inflammatory effect of Helichrysum oligocephalum DC extract on acetic acid — Induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Ghassemi-Dehkordi, Nasrollah; Mahzouni, Parvin; Ahmadi, Najme-Sadat

    2014-01-01

    Background: Helichrysum oligocephalum DC. from Asteraceae family is an endemic plant growing wild in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of H. oligocephalum hydroalcoholic extract (HOHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by acetic acid (AA) in rats. Materials and Methods: Rats were grouped (n = 6) and fasted for 24 h before colitis induction. Treatments were started 2 h before the induction of colitis and continued for two consecutive days with different doses of HOHE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) orally (p.o.) and intraperitoneally (i.p.). The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Results: Among the examined doses of HOHE, 100 mg/kg was the most effective dose that reduced the extent of UC lesions and resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/length ratio as an index of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished in the treatment group administered HOHE at a dose of 100 mg/kg, and the results showed correlation with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that HOHE (100 mg/kg) administered either p.o. or i.p. was effective in diminishing inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis in a non–dose-related manner. Conclusions: H. oligocephalum could be considered as a suitable anticolitis alternative; however, further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting. PMID:24761395

  11. Impact of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 synthesis capacity on healing in rats with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ağış, Erol R; Savaş, Berna; Melli, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. This study evaluates the role of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) synthesis in an experimental rat model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls, DSS-induced colitis with no or vehicle therapy, misoprostol or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy groups. Disease severity and colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis was assessed specifically during the acute phase (day 5), chronic phase (day 15) and healing phases (day 19). Both misoprostol and 5-ASA reduced histopathologic score during the acute phase and reduced disease activity score at the healing phase. In addition, misoprostol reduced histopathologic score and colon weight/length ratio during the healing phase. Only misoprostol therapy increased colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis. Furthermore, LXA4 levels correlated negatively with disease progression (R=-0.953). Collectively, our findings suggest that misoprostol-induced LXA4 synthesis may be favorable for the healing of ulcerative colitis.

  12. Interaction of Lactobacillus fermentum BGHI14 with Rat Colonic Mucosa: Implications for Colitis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Lukic, Jovanka; Strahinic, Ivana; Milenkovic, Marina; Golic, Natasa; Kojic, Milan; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to test the colonic mucosal response of rats to oral supplementation with Lactobacillus fermentum BGHI14 and to correlate the tissue reaction to trinitrobenzenesulfonate (TNBS)-induced colitis with mucosal barrier alterations caused by bacterial ingestion. An immune cell-mediated reaction of healthy colonic tissue was noticed after bacterial feeding. After prolonged bacterial treatment, the observed reaction had retreated to normality, but the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) remained elevated. These data point to the chronic low-grade inflammation that could be caused by long-term probiotic consumption. Although no detrimental effects of bacterial pretreatment were noticed in colitic rats, at least in the acute state of disease, the results obtained in our study point to the necessity of reassessment of existing data on the safety of probiotic preparations. Additionally, probiotic effects in experimental colitis models might depend on time coordination of disease induction with treatment duration. PMID:23851097

  13. The influence of LED rectal irradiation on IL-1α and IL-4 of experimental ulcerative colitis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Zeng, Chang-Chun; Wang, Xian-Ju; Liu, Han-Ping; Guo, Zhou-Yi; Liu, Song-Hao

    2006-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is an inflammatory destructive disease of the large intestine occurred usually in the rectum and lower part of the colon as well as the entire colon. In this paper, the influence of IL-1α and IL-4 on the experimental ulcerative colitis by light emitting diode ( LED ) (λ: 632.8nm; power: 4.0mw) applied to colon directly were studied. Making 30 rats into 3 groups: LED curative group, model group, normal control group. There were 10 rats of each group. We used glacial acetic acid (5%) and trinitro-benzene-sulfonic acid (TNBS) (1%) intra-anally to replicate the rat model of ulcerative colitis. After a week treatment with administrating LED rectal irradiation to curative group, 30mm each time, once per day, the histopathological studies in colonic tissue were performed, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα and IL-4 in colonic tissues were investigated by immunohistochemical staining. The extent of the Colonic tissue injury in LED curative group was not as significant as that in the model group. Compared with model group, the content of MDA in LED curative group was reductived and the activity of SOD was increased significantly, and the expression and distribution of IL-lα in LED curative group was depressed significantly, however the expression and distribution of IL-4 in LED curative group was increased obviously. This results show that the LED rectal irradiation can protect colonic mucosa from the experimental ulcerative colitis in rats, and suggest that the effects may be related to the photobiomodulation and immunomodulation of LED.

  14. Effect of COX-2 inhibitor after TNBS-induced colitis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; de Oliveira Costa, Henrique; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Franco, Marcello

    2009-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a common chronic gastrointestinal disorder characterized by alternating periods of remission and active intestinal inflammation. Some studies suggest that antiinflammatory drugs are a promising alternative for treatment of the disease. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of lumiracoxib, a selective-cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. Wistar rats (n = 25) were randomized into four groups, as follows: Group (1) Sham group: sham induced-colitis rats; Group (2) TNBS group: nontreated induced-colitis rats; Group (3) Lumiracoxib control group; and Group (4) Lumiracoxib-treated induced-colitis rats. Our results showed that rats from groups 2 and 4 presented similar histopathological damage and macroscopic injury in the distal colon as depicted by significant statistically differences (P < 0.01; P < 0.05) compared to the other two groups. Weak expression of COX-2 mRNA was detected in normal colon cells, while higher levels of COX-2 mRNA were detected in group 2 and group 4. Therapy with lumiracoxib reduced COX-2 expression by 20-30%, but it was still higher and statistically significant compared to data obtained from the lumiracoxib control group. Treatment with the selective COX-2 inhibitor lumiracoxib did not reduce inflammation-associated colonic injury in TNBS-induced experimental colitis. Thus, the use of COX-2 inhibitors for treating IBD should be considered with caution and warrants further experimental investigation to elucidate their applicability.

  15. Aquaporin 3 and 8 are down-regulated in TNBS-induced rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Zhao, Guangxi; Li, Jing; Wang, Jiyao; Shen, Xizhong; Sun, Jianyong

    2014-01-03

    Aquaporins (AQPs) plays an important role in transcellular water movement, but the AQPs expression profile has not been demonstrated in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis which closely mimics human Crohn's disease (CD) histopathologically. To solve the problem, 30 female Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were randomly divided into a model group (n=18), an ethanol control group (n=6) and a normal control group (n=6). On day 1, the rats in the model group received TNBS+50% ethanol via the rectum, while the ethanol control rats received an equal volume of 50% ethanol and the normal control rats did not receive any treatment. All rats were sacrificed on day 7, and ileum, proximal colon and distal colon specimens were obtained to examine the alteration in AQP3 and AQP8 using real-time polymerase chain reaction, Western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. As a result, exposure to TNBS+ethanol resulted in a marked decrease in both the mRNA and protein expression of AQP3 and AQP8, with the exception of AQP8 protein which was negative in the distal colon in all three groups. These reductions in AQP3 and AQP8 were accompanied by an increase in intestinal inflammation and injury. The results obtained here implied that both AQP3 and AQP8 may be involved in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease.

  16. The effect of stinging nettle (Urtica dioica) seed oil on experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Genc, Zeynep; Yarat, Aysen; Tunali-Akbay, Tugba; Sener, Goksel; Cetinel, Sule; Pisiriciler, Rabia; Caliskan-Ak, Esin; Altıntas, Ayhan; Demirci, Betul

    2011-12-01

    This study investigated the effect of Urtica dioica, known as stinging nettle, seed oil (UDO) treatment on colonic tissue and blood parameters of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Experimental colitis was induced with 1 mL of TNBS in 40% ethanol by intracolonic administration with a 8-cm-long cannula with rats under ether anesthesia, assigned to a colitis group and a colitis+UDO group. Rats in the control group were given saline at the same volume by intracolonic administration. UDO (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the colitis+UDO group by oral administration throughout a 3-day interval, 5 minutes later than colitis induction. Saline (2.5 mL/kg) was given to the control and colitis groups at the same volume by oral administration. At the end of the experiment macroscopic lesions were scored, and the degree of oxidant damage was evaluated by colonic total protein, sialic acid, malondialdehyde (MDA), and glutathione levels, collagen content, tissue factor activity, and superoxide dismutase and myeloperoxidase activities. Colonic tissues were also examined by histological and cytological analysis. Pro-inflammatory cytokines (tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1β, and interleukin-6), lactate dehydrogenase activity, and triglyceride and cholesterol levels were analyzed in blood samples. We found that UDO decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, lactate dehydrogenase, triglyceride, and cholesterol, which were increased in colitis. UDO administration ameliorated the TNBS-induced disturbances in colonic tissue except for MDA. In conclusion, UDO, through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant actions, merits consideration as a potential agent in ameliorating colonic inflammation.

  17. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties.

  18. The Influence of Ghrelin on the Development of Dextran Sodium Sulfate-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Fyderek, Krzysztof; Gałązka, Krystyna; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Pihut, Małgorzata; Dembiński, Artur

    2015-01-01

    Ghrelin has protective and therapeutic effects in the gut. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the development of colitis evoked by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS). Methods. Studies have been performed on rats. Colitis was induced by adding 5% DSS to the drinking water for 5 days. During this period animals were treated intraperitoneally twice a day with saline or ghrelin given at the dose of 8 nmol/kg/dose. On the sixth day, animals were anesthetized and the severity of colitis was assessed. Results. Treatment with ghrelin during administration of DSS reduced the development of colitis. Morphological features of colonic mucosa exhibited a reduction in the area and deep of mucosal damage. Ghrelin reversed the colitis-induced decrease in blood flow, DNA synthesis, and superoxide dismutase activity in colonic mucosa. These effects were accompanied by a decrease in the colitis-evoked increase in mucosal concentration of interleukin-1β and malondialdehyde. Treatment with ghrelin reversed the DSS-induced reduction in body weight gain. Conclusions. Administration of ghrelin exhibits the preventive effect against the development of DSS-induced colitis. This effect seems to be related to ghrelin's anti-inflammatory and antioxidative properties. PMID:26713317

  19. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis.

  20. Exogenous Ghrelin Accelerates the Healing of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Matuszyk, Aleksandra; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Ceranowicz, Dagmara; Gałązka, Krystyna; Bonior, Joanna; Jaworek, Jolanta; Bartuś, Krzysztof; Gil, Krzysztof; Olszanecki, Rafał; Dembiński, Artur

    2016-01-01

    Previous studies have shown that ghrelin reduces colonic inflammation induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid and dextran sodium sulfate. In the present study we determined the effect of treatment with ghrelin on the course of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Rectal administration of 3% acetic acid solution led to induction of colitis in all animals. Damage of the colonic wall was accompanied by an increase in mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), as well mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Moreover, induction of colitis led to a reduction in colonic blood flow and DNA synthesis. Administration of ghrelin after induction of colitis led to faster regeneration of the colonic wall and reduction in colonic levels of IL-1β, TNF-α, and myeloperoxidase. In addition, treatment with ghrelin improved mucosal DNA synthesis and blood flow. Our study disclosed that ghrelin exhibits a strong anti-inflammatory and healing effect in acetic acid-induced colitis. Our current observation in association with previous findings that ghrelin exhibits curative effect in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- and dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis suggest that therapeutic effect of ghrelin in the colon is universal and independent of the primary cause of colitis. PMID:27598133

  1. Acute experimental colitis decreases colonic circular smooth muscle contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, B S; Martin, J S; Dempsey, D T; Parkman, H P; Thomas, R M; Ryan, J P

    1997-10-01

    Distal colitis decreases the contractility of the underlying circular smooth muscle. We examined how time after injury and lesion severity contribute to the decreased contractility and how colitis alters the calcium-handling properties of the affected muscle. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Contractile responses to acetylcholine, increased extracellular potassium, and the G protein activator NaF were determined for circular muscle strips from sham control and colitic rats at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 postenemas. Acetylcholine stimulation of tissues from day 3 colitic rats was performed in a zero calcium buffer, in the presence of nifedipine, and after depletion of intracellular stores of calcium. The colitis was graded macroscopically as mild, moderate, or severe. Regardless of agonist, maximal decrease in force developed 2 to 3 days posttreatment, followed by a gradual return to control by day 14. The inhibitory effect of colitis on contractility increased with increasing severity of inflammation. Limiting extracellular calcium influx had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from colitic rats; intracellular calcium depletion had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from control animals. The data suggest that both lesion severity and time after injury affect the contractile response of circular smooth muscle from the inflamed distal colon. Impaired utilization of intracellular calcium may contribute to the decreased contractility.

  2. Histomorphometric evaluation of experimentally induced colitis with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid in rats

    PubMed Central

    RABAU, MICHA; EYAL, AMI; DAYAN, DAN

    1996-01-01

    Colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene-sulphonic acid (TNB) in rats and a histomorphometric study was performed as a possible scoring system for disease activity. The affected colon was examined 10, 20, 40 and 60 days after TNB administration. Quantitative microscopic analysis was performed on the following histologic parameters: necrosis, mucosal epithelium, muscularis fibres, inflammation, granulation tissue and fibrosis. Clinically, the rats were sick, especially on days 10 and 20 after TNB injection. Concomitantly, a peak necrosis score involving the full thickness of the colonic wall was recorded on day 10. The inflammatory reaction was most intense 20 days after TNB injection. After 60 days, marked epithelial regeneration was seen and most of the inflammatory reaction had subsided. A good correlation was found between clinical features and quantitative histomorphometric characteristics of colitis. The criteria described allow a precise description and quantification of the inflammatory and healing process of TNB-induced colitis in rats. PMID:8943736

  3. A study of the effects of Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) on TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2012-04-01

    Cydonia oblonga Miller (Quince) from Rosaceae family is a fruit tree cultivated in many countries mainly in Iran. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of quince juice (QJ) and quince hydroalcoholic extract (QHE) on ulcerative colitis (UC) induced by TNBS (trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid) in rats. Rats were grouped (n=6) and fasted for 36 h before colitis induction. TNBS was instilled into the colon with a hydroalcoholic carrier and then treatments were made for 5 days starting 6 h after colitis induction with different doses of QJ (200, 400, 800 mg/kg), QHE (200, 500 & 800 mg/kg) orally, QJ (400 mg/kg) and QHE (200 and 500 mg/kg) intraperitoneally. The colon tissue was removed and tissue damages were scored after macroscopic and histopathologic assessments. Albeit the examined doses of QJ and QHE were apparently effective to reduce the extent of UC lesions, only the greatest doses (500 and 800 mg/kg) resulted in significant alleviation. Weight/Length ratio as an illustrative of tissue inflammation and extravasation was also diminished with quince treatments while the results correlated with macroscopic and histopathologic evaluations. These data suggest that QJ and QHE were effective to diminish inflammation and ulcer indices in this murine model of acute colitis. Although QHE with different doses was effective in induced colitis, the dose and/or route of administration dependency was not confirmed. So quince fractions could be considered as a suitable anticolitic alternative, however further studies are needed to support this hypothesis for clinical setting.

  4. Evaluation of the usefulness of colonoscopy with mucosal biopsies in the follow-up of TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Wendelbo, Ingvild Haukaas; Gundersen, Doris; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Hausken, Trygve

    2013-08-01

    Animal models are required for research regarding the pathogenesis and efficacy of anti-inflammatory agents in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis closely mimics Crohn's disease. The present study was undertaken in order to determine the reliability of following the inflammatory course of TNBS-induced colitis using colonoscopy together with biopsy samples obtained during the examination. In this study we used 20 adult male Wistar rats, with a mean weight of 201.9 g. The rats were divided into two groups, control and TNBS, with ten rats in each group. Following the induction of TNBS colitis, the rats underwent colonoscopy with mucosal biopsies. At the end of the experiment, the rats were sacrificed and whole-wall colonic samples were obtained. The degree of inflammation was assessed endoscopically, macroscopically and microscopically. There was no significant change in the body weight of the control group but significant weight loss was observed in the TNBS group. Examination of the control group did not reveal any inflammation. Severe colitis was observed in the TNBS-induced colitis rats, as assessed endoscopically, macroscopically and microscopically. The endoscopic inflammation score obtained through colonoscopy examinations correlated with that obtained macroscopically, and those obtained microscopically from the whole-wall colon and biopsy samples collected during the colonoscopy. Moreover, the inflammation scores obtained from the whole-wall colon and biopsy samples collected during colonoscopy correlated markedly. In conclusion, colonoscopy is a reliable method for following up the course of inflammation in experimentally induced colitis. Although biopsy samples collected during colonoscopies may be used to assess the degree of inflammation, whole-wall samples are superior in this regard.

  5. 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Inhibits Acute Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vigna, Steven R.

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits toxin A-induced generation of colonic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and toxin A colitis in rats. Isolated colonic segments in anesthetized rats were treated intraluminally with toxin A for 3 hours with or without 30 minutes of pretreatment with either 5-ASA or sulfapyridine and then colonic tissue levels of LTB4 were measured and inflammation was assessed. Separately, sulfasalazine was administered to rats in their drinking water for 5 days, isolated colonic segments were then prepared, toxin A was administered, and inflammation was assessed as before. Pretreatment with 5-ASA inhibited toxin A-induced increased tissue LTB4 concentration in the colon. Sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not sulfapyridine significantly inhibited toxin A colitis. However, pretreatment with 5-ASA did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by capsaicin. Toxin A stimulated the release of substance P (SP), and this effect was also inhibited by sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not by sulfapyridine. Thus, toxin A stimulates colonic LTB4 resulting in activation of TRPV1, release of SP, and colitis. Inhibition of 5-LO by 5-ASA disrupts this pathway and supports the concept that LTB4 activation of TRPV1 plays a role in toxin A colitis. PMID:25045574

  6. 5-Aminosalicylic Acid Inhibits Acute Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Steven R

    2014-01-01

    We tested the hypothesis that 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) inhibits toxin A-induced generation of colonic leukotriene B4 (LTB4) and toxin A colitis in rats. Isolated colonic segments in anesthetized rats were treated intraluminally with toxin A for 3 hours with or without 30 minutes of pretreatment with either 5-ASA or sulfapyridine and then colonic tissue levels of LTB4 were measured and inflammation was assessed. Separately, sulfasalazine was administered to rats in their drinking water for 5 days, isolated colonic segments were then prepared, toxin A was administered, and inflammation was assessed as before. Pretreatment with 5-ASA inhibited toxin A-induced increased tissue LTB4 concentration in the colon. Sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not sulfapyridine significantly inhibited toxin A colitis. However, pretreatment with 5-ASA did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by capsaicin. Toxin A stimulated the release of substance P (SP), and this effect was also inhibited by sulfasalazine and 5-ASA but not by sulfapyridine. Thus, toxin A stimulates colonic LTB4 resulting in activation of TRPV1, release of SP, and colitis. Inhibition of 5-LO by 5-ASA disrupts this pathway and supports the concept that LTB4 activation of TRPV1 plays a role in toxin A colitis.

  7. Alleviation of Antioxidant Defense System by Ozonized Olive Oil in DNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Bayoumi, Fatehia A.; Ahmed, Naglaa G.

    2014-01-01

    The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential protective effect of ozonized olive oil (OZO) in 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulphuric acid (DNBS) induced colitis in rats and to elucidate the role of some antioxidant defense system (superoxide dismutase “SOD,” glutathione peroxidase “GSH-Px,” and catalase “CAT”) in these effects. The physicochemical parameters including viscosity, peroxide, and acid values of olive oil and OZO were evaluated. The animals were divided into several groups and the colitis was induced in the rats by intracolonic instillation of DNBS at dose of 15 mg/rat. Olive oil (OO) at dose of 6 mg/kg and OZO at doses of 3 and 6 mg/kg was administered orally for 7 days, starting the day before induction of colitis. Our results showed that macroscopic and microscopic damage scores were significantly reduced in a dose response manner in rats pretreated with OZO only. In contrast, CAT, GSH-Px, and SOD activities were significantly increased in the distal colon of inflamed animals pretreated with OZO with respect to control group dose dependently. Results demonstrate that OZO pretreatment exerts protective effects in DNBS induced colitis in rats and provide evidence that the protective effects of OZO are mediated by stimulation of some antioxidant enzymes. PMID:25276059

  8. Ginsenoside Rd attenuates the inflammatory response via modulating p38 and JNK signaling pathways in rats with TNBS-induced relapsing colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Lai; Guo, Tian-Kang; Wang, Yan-Hong; Huang, Yan-Hui; Liu, Xia; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Li, Wan; Zhao, Xin; Wang, Li-Ping; Yan, Shuai; Wu, Di; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2012-02-01

    In this study, we investigated the effects and the protective mechanism of ginsenoside Rd (GRd) which has been identified as one of the effective compounds from ginseng on relapsing colitis model induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. After inducing relapsing colitis in experimental rats on two occasions by intracolonic injection of TNBS, GRd (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) was administered to experimental colitis rats for 7 days. The inflammatory degree was assessed by macroscopic score, histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. The levels of proinflammatory cytokines, such as TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were determined by ELISA. Mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) phosphorylation was analyzed by western blotting method. The results showed that GRd markedly attenuates the inflammatory response to TNBS-induced relapsing colitis, as evidenced by improved signs, increased body weight, decreased colonic weight/length ratio, reduced colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, inhibited the activity of MPO, lowered proinflammatory cytokine levels and suppressed phosphorylation of p38 and JNK. The possible mechanism of protection on experimental colitis after GRd administration was that it could reduce the accumulation of leukocytes and down-regulate multiple proinflammatory cytokines through modulation of JNK and p38 activation.

  9. Experimental colitis in rats induces de novo synthesis of cytokines at distant intestinal sites: role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferent fibers.

    PubMed

    Mourad, Fadi H; Hamdi, Tamim; Barada, Kassem A; Saadé, Nayef E

    2016-06-01

    Increased levels of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokines were observed in various segments of histologically-intact small intestine in animal models of acute and chronic colitis. Whether these cytokines are produced locally or spread from the inflamed colon is not known. In addition, the role of gut innervation in this upregulation is not fully understood. To examine whether cytokines are produced de novo in the small intestine in two rat models of colitis; and to investigate the role of capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents in the synthesis of these inflammatory cytokines. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of iodoacetamide (IA) or trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in adult Sprague-Dawley rats. Using reverse transcriptase (RT) and real-time PCR, TNF-α, and IL-10 mRNA expression was measured in mucosal scrapings of the duodenum, jejunum, ileum and colon at different time intervals after induction of colitis. Capsaicin-sensitive primary afferents (CSPA) were ablated using subcutaneous injections of capsaicin at time 0, 8 and 32 h, and the experiment was repeated at specific time intervals to detect any effect on cytokines expression. TNF-α mRNA expression increased by 3-40 times in the different intestinal segments (p<0.05 to p<0.001), 48h after IA-induced colitis. CSPA ablation completely inhibited this upregulation in the small intestine, but not in the colon. Similar results were obtained in TNBS-induced colitis at 24 h. Intestinal IL-10 mRNA expression significantly decreased at 12 h and then increased by 6-43 times (p<0.05 to p<0.001) 48h after IA administration. This increase was abolished in rats subjected to CSPA ablation except in the colon, where IL-10 further increased by twice (p<0.05). In the TNBS group, there was 4-12- and 4-7-fold increases in small intestinal IL-10 mRNA expression at 1 and 21 days after colitis induction, respectively (both p<0.01). This increase was not observed in rats pretreated with capsaicin. Capsaicin-treated and

  10. Enteroendocrine cells, stem cells and differentiation progenitors in rats with TNBS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Mazzawi, Tarek; Umezawa, Kazuo; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2016-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as animal models of human IBD have abnormal enteroendocrine cells. The present study aimed to identify the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the control group, the group with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with no treatment (TNBS group), the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G; an activator protein-1 inhibitor) (DTCM-G group), and the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ; a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) treatment (DHMEQ group). Three days following the administration of TNBS, the rats were treated as follows: those in the control and TNBS groups received 0.5 ml of the vehicle [0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)], those in the DTCM-G group received DTCM-G at 20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC, and those in the DHMEQ group received DHMEQ at 15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC. All injections were administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days. The rats were then sacrificed, and tissue samples were taken from the colon. The tissue sections were stained with hemotoxylin-eosin and immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, Musashi1 (Msi1), Math1, Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) and NeuroD1. The staining was quantified using image analysis software. The densities of CgA-, PYY-, PP-, Msi1-, Neurog3- and NeuroD1-positive cells were significantly lower in the TNBS group than those in the control group, while those of serotonin-, oxyntomodulin- and somatostatin-positive cells were significantly higher in the TNBS group than those in the control group. Treatment with either DTCM-G or DHMEQ restored the densities of enteroendocrine cells, stem cells and their progenitors to normal levels. It was thus concluded that the

  11. Enteroendocrine cells, stem cells and differentiation progenitors in rats with TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Mazzawi, Tarek; Umezawa, Kazuo; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2016-12-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), as well as animal models of human IBD have abnormal enteroendocrine cells. The present study aimed to identify the possible mechanisms underlying these abnormalities. For this purpose, 40 male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups as follows: the control group, the group with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis with no treatment (TNBS group), the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G; an activator protein-1 inhibitor) (DTCM-G group), and the group with TNBS-induced colitis treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ; a nuclear factor-κB inhibitor) treatment (DHMEQ group). Three days following the administration of TNBS, the rats were treated as follows: those in the control and TNBS groups received 0.5 ml of the vehicle [0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC)], those in the DTCM-G group received DTCM-G at 20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC, and those in the DHMEQ group received DHMEQ at 15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC. All injections were administered intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days. The rats were then sacrificed, and tissue samples were taken from the colon. The tissue sections were stained with hemotoxylin-eosin and immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, Musashi1 (Msi1), Math1, Neurogenin3 (Neurog3) and NeuroD1. The staining was quantified using image analysis software. The densities of CgA-, PYY-, PP-, Msi1-, Neurog3- and NeuroD1-positive cells were significantly lower in the TNBS group than those in the control group, while those of serotonin-, oxyntomodulin- and somatostatin-positive cells were significantly higher in the TNBS group than those in the control group. Treatment with either DTCM-G or DHMEQ restored the densities of enteroendocrine cells, stem cells and their progenitors to normal levels. It was thus

  12. Changes in enteroendocrine and immune cells following colitis induction by TNBS in rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar

    2016-01-01

    Approximately 3.6 million individuals suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the western world, with an annual global incidence rate of 3–20 cases/100,000 individuals. The etiology of IBD is unknown, and the currently available treatment options are not satifactory for long-term treatment. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease present with abnormalities in multiple intestinal endocrine cell types, and a number of studies have suggested that interactions between gut hormones and immune cells may serve a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of IBD. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in colonic endocrine cells in a rat model of IBD. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into control and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis groups. Colonoscopies were performed in the control and TNBS groups at day 3 following the induction of colitis, and colonic tissues were collected from all animals. Colonic endocrine and immune cells in the obtained tissue samples were immunostained and their densities were quantified. The densities of chromogranin A, peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide-producing cells were significantly lower in the TNBS group compared with the control group, whereas the densities of serotonin, oxyntomodulin, and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly higher in the TNBS group. The densities of mucosal leukocytes, B/T-lymphocytes, T-lymphocytes, B-lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells were significantly higher in the TNBS group compared with the controls, and these differences were strongly correlated with alterations in all endocrine cell types. In conclusion, the results suggest the presence of interactions between intestinal hormones and immune cells. PMID:27840918

  13. Changes in enteroendocrine and immune cells following colitis induction by TNBS in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar

    2016-12-01

    Approximately 3.6 million individuals suffer from inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in the western world, with an annual global incidence rate of 3‑20 cases/100,000 individuals. The etiology of IBD is unknown, and the currently available treatment options are not satifactory for long‑term treatment. Patients with inflammatory bowel disease present with abnormalities in multiple intestinal endocrine cell types, and a number of studies have suggested that interactions between gut hormones and immune cells may serve a pivotal role in the pathophysiology of IBD. The aim of the present study was to investigate alterations in colonic endocrine cells in a rat model of IBD. A total of 30 male Wistar rats were divided into control and trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)‑induced colitis groups. Colonoscopies were performed in the control and TNBS groups at day 3 following the induction of colitis, and colonic tissues were collected from all animals. Colonic endocrine and immune cells in the obtained tissue samples were immunostained and their densities were quantified. The densities of chromogranin A, peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide‑producing cells were significantly lower in the TNBS group compared with the control group, whereas the densities of serotonin, oxyntomodulin, and somatostatin‑producing cells were significantly higher in the TNBS group. The densities of mucosal leukocytes, B/T‑lymphocytes, T‑lymphocytes, B‑lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells were significantly higher in the TNBS group compared with the controls, and these differences were strongly correlated with alterations in all endocrine cell types. In conclusion, the results suggest the presence of interactions between intestinal hormones and immune cells.

  14. MAG-EPA reduces severity of DSS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Morin, Caroline; Blier, Pierre U; Fortin, Samuel

    2016-05-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic disease characterized by diffuse inflammation of the intestinal mucosa of the large bowel. Omega-3 (ω3) fatty acid supplementation has been associated with a decreased production of inflammatory cytokines involved in UC pathogenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the preventive and therapeutic potential of eicosapentaenoic acid monoglyceride (MAG-EPA) in an in vivo rats model of UC induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). DSS rats were untreated or treated per os with MAG-EPA. Morphological, histological, and biochemical analyses were performed following MAG-EPA administrations. Morphological and histological analyses revealed that MAG-EPA pretreatment (12 days pre-DSS) and treatment (6 days post-DSS) exhibited strong activity in reducing severity of disease in DSS rats. Following MAG-EPA administrations, tissue levels of the proinflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, and IL-6 were markedly lower compared with rats treated only with DSS. MAG-EPA per os administration decrease neutrophil infiltration in colon tissues, as depicted by myelohyperoxidase activity. Results also revealed a reduced activation of NF-κB pathways correlated with a decreased expression of COX-2 in colon homogenates derived from MAG-EPA-pretreated and treated rats. Tension measurements performed on colon tissues revealed that contractile responses to methacholine and relaxing effect induced by sodium nitroprusside were largely increased following MAG-EPA treatment. The combined treatment of MAG-EPA and vitamin E displayed an antagonistic effect on anti-inflammatory properties of MAG-EPA in DSS rats.

  15. Diagnostic imaging advances in murine models of colitis.

    PubMed

    Brückner, Markus; Lenz, Philipp; Mücke, Marcus M; Gohar, Faekah; Willeke, Peter; Domagk, Dirk; Bettenworth, Dominik

    2016-01-21

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis are chronic-remittent inflammatory disorders of the gastrointestinal tract still evoking challenging clinical diagnostic and therapeutic situations. Murine models of experimental colitis are a vital component of research into human IBD concerning questions of its complex pathogenesis or the evaluation of potential new drugs. To monitor the course of colitis, to the present day, classical parameters like histological tissue alterations or analysis of mucosal cytokine/chemokine expression often require euthanasia of animals. Recent advances mean revolutionary non-invasive imaging techniques for in vivo murine colitis diagnostics are increasingly available. These novel and emerging imaging techniques not only allow direct visualization of intestinal inflammation, but also enable molecular imaging and targeting of specific alterations of the inflamed murine mucosa. For the first time, in vivo imaging techniques allow for longitudinal examinations and evaluation of intra-individual therapeutic response. This review discusses the latest developments in the different fields of ultrasound, molecularly targeted contrast agent ultrasound, fluorescence endoscopy, confocal laser endomicroscopy as well as tomographic imaging with magnetic resonance imaging, computed tomography and fluorescence-mediated tomography, discussing their individual limitations and potential future diagnostic applications in the management of human patients with IBD.

  16. Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Keshavarz, A.; Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Mahzouni, P.

    2013-01-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 μl/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 μl/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration. PMID:24459470

  17. Effects of Carum carvi L. (Caraway) extract and essential oil on TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Keshavarz, A; Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Mahzouni, P

    2013-01-01

    Carum carvi L. (Apiaceae family) or caraway is a common household plant grown around the world including Iran. Caraway fruits are used as flavoring agent in foods and beverages, and have various traditional uses in ethnomedicine. Anti-inflammatory, spasmolytic, antimicrobial, antioxidant, carminative and immunomodulatory properties of caraway suggest that it might exert beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, this study was carried out to investigate the effects of caraway hydroalcoholic extract (CHE) and its essential oil (CEO) in an immunological model of colitis in rats induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Different doses of CHE (100, 200, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 200, 400 μl/kg) were administered orally (p.o.) and also doses of CHE (100, 400 mg/kg) and CEO (100, 400 μl/kg) were given intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the separate groups of male Wistar rats (n=6). Administration of the doses started 6 h after induction of colitis and continued daily for 5 consecutive days. Wet colon weight/length ratio was measured and tissue damage scores as well as indices of colitis were evaluated both macroscopically and histopathologically. CHE and CEO at all doses tested were effective in reducing colon tissue lesions and colitis indices and the efficacy was nearly the same when different doses of plant fractions were administered p.o. or i.p. Administration of prednisolone (p.o., 4 mg/kg), Asacol® (mesalazine microgranules, p.o., 100 mg/kg) and hydrocortisone acetate (i.p., 20 mg/kg) as references were effective in reducing colon tissue injures as well. These data suggest that caraway fractions are both effective and possess anti-colitic activity irrespective of the dose and route of administration.

  18. Comparison of anti-inflammatory activities of an anthocyanin-rich fraction from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.) and 5-aminosalicylic acid in a TNBS-induced colitis rat model

    PubMed Central

    Pereira, Sónia R.; Pereira, Rita; Figueiredo, Isabel; Freitas, Victor; Dinis, Teresa C. P.; Almeida, Leonor M.

    2017-01-01

    Despite the actual therapeutic approaches for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), efficient and secure alternative options remain a research focus. In this context, anthocyanins seem promising natural anti-inflammatory agents, but their action mechanisms and efficacy as compared with established drugs still require more clarification. The main aim of this study was to compare the anti-inflammatory action of a chemically characterized anthocyanin-rich fraction (ARF), obtained from Portuguese blueberries (Vaccinium corymbosum L.), with that of 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), a first-line drug in IBD, in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis rat model. Such fraction showed a high content and great molecular diversity of anthocyanins, with malvidin-3-galactoside and petunidin-3-arabinoside in the highest concentrations. After daily administration by intragastric infusion for 8 days, ARF, at a molar anthocyanin concentration about 30 times lower than 5-ASA, showed a higher effectiveness in counteracting the intestinal inflammation, as assessed by i) body weight variation and colon damage score, ii) reduction in leukocyte infiltration, iii) increase in antioxidant defenses and iv) by downregulation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) in colon tissue homogenates. The strong inhibition of COX-2 expression seems to be a crucial anti-inflammatory mechanism common to both ARF and 5-ASA, but the additional higher abilities of anthocyanins to downregulate iNOS and to decrease leukocytes infiltration and to increase antioxidant defenses in colon may account for the much higher anti-inflammatory action of anthocyanins. These data may contribute to the development of a promising natural approach in IBD management. PMID:28329021

  19. Curcumin improves TNBS-induced colitis in rats by inhibiting IL-27 expression via the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Zhaojing; Zhan, Lingling; Liao, Hui; Chen, Lan; Lv, Xiaoping

    2013-01-01

    Curcumin is a widely used spice with anti-inflammatory and anticancer properties. It has been reported to have beneficial effects in experimental colitis. This study explored whether curcumin improves colonic inflammation in a rat colitis model through inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and IL-27 expression. After induction of colitis with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, rats were intragastrically administered with curcumin or sulfasalazine daily for one week. Rat intestinal mucosa was collected for evaluation of the disease activity index, colonic mucosa damage index, and histological score. Myeloperoxidase activity was detected by immunohistochemistry, and mRNA and protein expression levels of TLR4, NF-κB, and IL-27 in colonic mucosa were detected by RT-PCR and Western blot. Compared with the untreated colitis group, the curcumin-treated group showed significant decreases in the disease activity index, colonic mucosa damage index, histological score, myeloperoxidase activity, and expressions of NF-κB mRNA, IL-27 mRNA, TLR4 protein, NF-κB p65 protein, and IL-27 p28 protein (p < 0.05). TLR4 mRNA expression did not differ between groups. Disease activity index decreased more rapidly in the curcumin-treated group than in the sulfasalazine-treated group (p < 0.05). There was no significant difference in TLR4, NF-κB, and IL-27 mRNA and proteins between curcumin-treated and sulfasalazine-treated groups. Curcumin shows significant therapeutic effects on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis that are comparable to sulfasalazine. The anti-inflammatory actions of curcumin on colitis may involve inhibition of the TLR4/NF-κB signaling pathway and of IL-27 expression.

  20. Nicotine Inhibits Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis but Not Ileitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Vigna, Steven R.

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease of the small intestine, but little is known about the effects of nicotine on Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Isolated ileal or colonic segments in anesthetized rats were pretreated with nicotine bitartrate or other pharmacological agents before intraluminal injection of toxin A. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed. Nicotine biphasically inhibited toxin A colitis but not ileitis. Pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, blocked the effects of nicotine. Pretreating the colonic segments with hexamethonium before toxin A administration resulted in more inflammation than seen with toxin A alone, suggesting that a tonic nicotinic anti-inflammatory condition exists in the colon. Nicotine also inhibited toxin A-induced increased colonic concentrations of the TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) agonist, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and release of the proinflammatory neuropeptide, substance P. Pretreatment with nicotine did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by intraluminal capsaicin. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors tonically protect the colon against inflammation and nicotine inhibits toxin A colitis but not toxin A ileitis in rats in part by inhibition of toxin A-induced activation of TRPV1 by endogenous TRPV1 agonists such as LTB4. PMID:26881175

  1. Nicotine Inhibits Clostridium difficile Toxin A-Induced Colitis but Not Ileitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Vigna, Steven R

    2016-01-01

    Nicotine is protective in ulcerative colitis but not Crohn's disease of the small intestine, but little is known about the effects of nicotine on Clostridium difficile toxin A-induced enteritis. Isolated ileal or colonic segments in anesthetized rats were pretreated with nicotine bitartrate or other pharmacological agents before intraluminal injection of toxin A. After 3 hours, the treated segments were removed and inflammation was assessed. Nicotine biphasically inhibited toxin A colitis but not ileitis. Pretreatment with the nicotinic receptor antagonist, hexamethonium, blocked the effects of nicotine. Pretreating the colonic segments with hexamethonium before toxin A administration resulted in more inflammation than seen with toxin A alone, suggesting that a tonic nicotinic anti-inflammatory condition exists in the colon. Nicotine also inhibited toxin A-induced increased colonic concentrations of the TRPV1 (transient receptor potential vanilloid subtype 1) agonist, leukotriene B4 (LTB4), and release of the proinflammatory neuropeptide, substance P. Pretreatment with nicotine did not protect against direct TRPV1-mediated colitis caused by intraluminal capsaicin. Nicotinic cholinergic receptors tonically protect the colon against inflammation and nicotine inhibits toxin A colitis but not toxin A ileitis in rats in part by inhibition of toxin A-induced activation of TRPV1 by endogenous TRPV1 agonists such as LTB4.

  2. Monochloramine induces acute and protracted colitis in the rat: response to pharmacological treatment.

    PubMed

    Ballester, Isabel; González, Raquel; Nieto, Ana; Zarzuelo, Antonio; de Medina, Fermín Sánchez

    2005-05-06

    Monochloramine is a powerful oxidative molecule that is produced in inflammatory sites. We investigated the effect of intrarectally administered monochloramine (3.2 mg) in the rat. A single enema induced after 24 h an intense inflammatory reaction characterized by mucosal necrosis, submucosal edema, hemorrhage and colonic thickening, as well as induction of nitric oxide synthase and tumor necrosis factor and an increase in the interferon gamma/interleukin 4 ratio. The inflammatory response peaked 3-5 days after monochloramine administration and then followed a extended recovery phase. At 1 week there was substantial but incomplete mucosal repair, submucosal edema, neutrophil/macrophage infiltration and increased myeloperoxydase and alkaline phosphatase activities. Oxidative stress, as determined by malonyldialdehyde levels, was prominent only in the acute phase (3-5 days). Monochloramine colitis was amenable to pharmacological treatment with sulphasalazine or prednisolone, suggesting that it may be used as an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease. In conclusion, monochloramine induces acute and protracted colonic inflammation in the rat. Locally produced monochloramine might contribute to the perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease.

  3. Prebiotic and synbiotic fructooligosaccharide administration fails to reduce the severity of experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Geier, Mark S; Butler, Ross N; Giffard, Philip M; Howarth, Gordon S

    2007-07-01

    Opposing effects of the prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide, have been reported in experimental colitis. We compared the effects of the prebiotic, fructooligosaccharide, alone and in synbiotic combination with Lactobacillus fermentum BR11, on the development of dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis in rats. Rats consumed an 18 percent casein-based diet or diet supplemented with 6 percent fructooligosaccharide or maltodextrin for 14 days. The synbiotic group was gavaged 1 ml of L. fermentum BR11 (1x10(9) cfu/ml) twice daily. From Days 7 to 14, colitis was induced via 3 percent dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water. Disease activity was assessed daily, and at killing, gastrointestinal organs were measured, weighed, and examined by quantitative histology, proliferating cell nuclear antigen immunohistochemistry, and colonic myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of dextran sulfate sodium resulted in an increased colitic disease activity, and an increased colon and cecum weight compared with normal controls. Colon and cecum weights were further increased in dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide (colon: 19 percent; cecum: 48 percent) and dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide/L. fermentum BR11-treated rats (16 and 62 percent) compared with dextran sulfate sodium+vehicle-treatment. Dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide-treated rats displayed an 81 percent increase in colonic myeloperoxidase activity compared with dextran sulfate sodium-treated controls. Histologic damage severity scores increased in dextran sulfate sodium+vehicle, dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide, and dextran sulfate sodium+fructooligosaccharide/L. fermentum BR11-treated rats compared with normal controls (P<0.05). Crypt depth increased in all treatments compared with normal controls (P<0.01). No protection from dextran sulfate sodium-colitis was accorded by fructooligosaccharide alone or in synbiotic combination with L. fermentum BR11, whereas fructooligosaccharide

  4. Paradoxical regulation of ChAT and nNOS expression in animal models of Crohn's colitis and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Winston, John H; Li, Qingjie; Sarna, Sushil K

    2013-08-15

    Morphological and functional changes in the enteric nervous system (ENS) have been reported in inflammatory bowel disease. We examined the effects of inflammation on the expression of choline acetyltransferase (ChAT) and nNOS in the muscularis externae of two models of colonic inflammation, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis, which models Crohn's disease-like inflammation, and DSS-induced colitis, which models ulcerative Colitis-like inflammation. In TNBS colitis, we observed significant decline in ChAT, nNOS, and protein gene product (PGP) 9.5 protein and mRNA levels. In DSS colitis, ChAT and PGP9.5 were significantly upregulated while nNOS levels did not change. The nNOS dimer-to-monomer ratio decreased significantly in DSS- but not in TNBS-induced colitis. No differences were observed in the percentage of either ChAT (31 vs. 33%)- or nNOS (37 vs. 41%)-immunopositive neurons per ganglia or the mean number of neurons per ganglia (55 ± 5 vs. 59 ± 5, P > 0.05). Incubation of the distal colon muscularis externae in vitro with different types of inflammatory mediators showed that cytokines decreased ChAT and nNOS expression, whereas H₂O₂, a component of oxidative stress, increased their expression. NF-κB inhibitor MG-132 did not prevent the IL-1β-induced decline in either ChAT or nNOS expression. These findings showed that TNBS- and DSS-induced inflammation differentially regulates the expression of two critical proteins expressed in the colonic myenteric neurons. These differences are likely due to the exposure of the myenteric plexus neurons to different combinations of Th1-type inflammatory mediators and H₂O₂ in each model.

  5. BMP signaling in rats with TNBS-induced colitis following BMP7 therapy.

    PubMed

    Maric, Ivana; Kucic, Natalia; Turk Wensveen, Tamara; Smoljan, Ivana; Grahovac, Blazenka; Zoricic Cvek, Sanja; Celic, Tanja; Bobinac, Dragica; Vukicevic, Slobodan

    2012-05-15

    Beyond stimulating bone formation, bone morphogenetic proteins (BMPs) are important in development, inflammation, and malignancy of the gut. We have previously shown that BMP7 has a regenerative, anti-inflammatory, and antiproliferative effect on experimental inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) in rats. To further investigate the BMP signaling pathway we monitored the effect of BMP7 therapy on the BMP signaling components in the rat colon during different stages of experimentally induced colitis by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). The results showed a significantly decreased BMP7 expression in the acute phase, followed by a significantly increased BMP2 and decreased BMP6 expression during the chronic phase of colitis. BMP7 therapy influenced the expression of several BMPs with the most prominent effect on downregulation of BMP2 and upregulation of BMP4 in the chronic phase of colitis. Importantly, connective tissue growth factor and noggin expression were elevated in the acute stage and significantly decreased upon BMP7 therapy. BMP receptor I expression was unchanged, whereas BMP receptor II was decreased at day 2 and increased at days 14 and 30 of TNBS inflammation. However, an opposite pattern of expression following BMP7 therapy has been observed. BMP7 increased the expression of BR-Smad including Smad3 and Smad4. Inhibitory Smads were increased in colitis and significantly decreased following BMP7 therapy at later stages of the disease. We suggest that BMP signaling was altered during TNBS-induced colitis and was recovered with BMP7 administration, suggesting that IBD is a reversible process.

  6. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester, a polymeric colon-specific prodrug releasing 5-aminosalicylic acid and benzocaine, ameliorates TNBS-induced rat colitis.

    PubMed

    Nam, Joon; Kim, Wooseong; Lee, Sunyoung; Jeong, Seongkeun; Yoo, Jin-Wook; Kim, Min-Soo; Jung, Yunjin

    2016-01-01

    Local anesthetics have beneficial effects on colitis. Dextran-5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid ester (Dex-5-ESA), designed as a polymeric colon-specific prodrug liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the large intestine, was prepared and its therapeutic activity against colitis was evaluated using a TNBS-induced rat colitis model. Dex-5-ESA liberated 5-ASA and benzocaine in the cecal contents while (bio)chemically stable in the small intestinal contents and mucosa. Oral administration of Dex-5-ESA (equivalent to 10 mg 5-ASA/kg, twice a day) alleviated colonic injury and reduced MPO activity in the inflamed colon. In parallel, pro-inflammatory mediators, COX-2, iNOS and CINC-3, elevated by TNBS-induced colitis, were substantially diminished in the inflamed colon. Dex-5-ESA was much more effective for the treatment of colitis than 5-(4-ethoxycarbonylphenylazo)salicylic acid (5-ESA) that may not deliver benzocaine to the large intestine. Our data suggest that Dex-5-ESA is a polymeric colon-specific prodrug, liberating 5-ASA and benzocaine in the target site (large intestine), probably exerting anti-colitic effects by combined action of 5-ASA and benzocaine.

  7. Nadroparin sodium activates Nrf2/HO-1 pathway in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yalniz, Mehmet; Demirel, Ulvi; Orhan, Cemal; Bahcecioglu, Ibrahim Halil; Ozercan, Ibrahim Hanefi; Aygun, Cem; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Sahin, Kazim

    2012-06-01

    Effects of nadroparin sodium, a low molecular weight heparin, in colitis was investigated by analyzing proteins implicated in nuclear factor E2-related factor-2/heme oxygenase-1 (Nrf2/HO-1) and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) pathways. Twenty-eight rats were used. Colitis was induced by acetic acid (AA). Nadroparin sodium was given to prevention and treatment groups in addition to AA. Colitis was assessed histologically and levels of proteins were analyzed with Western blot. Nadroparin not only prevented and ameliorated the AA-induced colitis histopathologically but also decreased expression of colon NF-κB, activator protein-1, cyclooxygenase-2, tumor necrosis factor-alpha, and IL-6, which were significantly increased in group AA compared to control. The accumulation of Nrf2 in nuclear fraction and HO-1 found low in group AA was increased with nadroparin (p < 0.05). The mean malondialdehyde level increased with AA and was decreased significantly with nadroparin prevention and treatment (p < 0.001). Nadroparin sodium has both protective and therapeutic effects against colonic inflammation via exerting anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects by modulating Nrf2/HO-1 and NF-κB pathways.

  8. Dietary protocatechuic acid ameliorates dextran sulphate sodium-induced ulcerative colitis and hepatotoxicity in rats.

    PubMed

    Farombi, Ebenezer O; Adedara, Isaac A; Awoyemi, Omolola V; Njoku, Chinonye R; Micah, Gabriel O; Esogwa, Cynthia U; Owumi, Solomon E; Olopade, James O

    2016-02-01

    The present study investigated the antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects of dietary protocatechuic acid (PCA), a simple hydrophilic phenolic compound commonly found in many edible vegetables, on dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis and its associated hepatotoxicity in rats. PCA was administered orally at 10 mg kg(-1) to dextran sulphate sodium exposed rats for five days. The result revealed that administration of PCA significantly (p < 0.05) prevented the incidence of diarrhea and bleeding, the decrease in the body weight gain, shortening of colon length and the increase in colon mass index in DSS-treated rats. Furthermore, PCA prevented the increase in the plasma levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, markers of liver toxicity and markedly suppressed the DSS-mediated elevation in colonic nitric oxide concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the treated rats. Administration of PCA significantly protected against colonic and hepatic oxidative damage by increasing the antioxidant status and concomitantly decreased hydrogen peroxide and lipid peroxidation levels in the DSS-treated rats. Moreover, histological examinations confirmed PCA chemoprotection against colon and liver damage. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that PCA significantly inhibited cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) protein expression in the colon of DSS-treated rats. In conclusion, the effective chemoprotective role of PCA in colitis and the associated hepatotoxicity is related to its intrinsic anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative properties.

  9. Hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis exerts protective effects on acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in a rodent model.

    PubMed

    Barbosa Bezerra, Gislaine; de Menezes de Souza, Luana; Dos Santos, Adailma Santana; de Almeida, Grace Kelly Melo; Souza, Marília Trindade Santana; Santos, Sandra Lauton; Aparecido Camargo, Enilton; Dos Santos Lima, Bruno; de Souza Araújo, Adriano Antunes; Cardoso, Juliana Cordeiro; Gomes, Silvana Vieira Floresta; Gomes, Margarete Zanardo; de Albuquerque, Ricardo Luiz Cavalcanti

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common intestinal inflammatory disease with an etiology that is not well understood. Although the anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) have been reported in various experimental models, its protective effect in models of UC have not been evaluated. The purpose of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Brazilian red propolis (HERP) in acetic acid-induced colitis (AAIC) using a rodent model. The HERP was chemically characterised by HPLC/DAD analyses. Male rats were randomly assigned into four groups: sham, vehicle (with AAIC, treated with vehicle), P10 (with AAIC, treated with 10mg/kg HERP), and P100 (with AAIC, treated with 100mg/kg HERP). Treatments were performed for 7days, and colitis was induced on day seven. Animals were euthanized 24h after colitis induction and body weight, colon length, gross and histological scores, malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) concentrations in colon tissue, and the immunohistochemical expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were assessed. The major compounds found in HERP were liquiritigenin (68.8mg/g), formononetin (54.29mg/g), biochanin A (30.97mg/g), and daidzein (19.90mg/g). Rats treated with 10mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO concentrations, gross and histological scores of tissue damage, and iNOS expression (p<0.05). Similarly, rats treated with 100mg/kg HERP demonstrated significant decreases in MPO levels (p<0.05) and histological scores of tissue damage (p<0.05). The results of this study indicate that oral administration of HERP attenuates AAIC in rats, which may be due to anti-inflammatory effects related to iNOS inhibition.

  10. Adenosine A2A receptors and uric acid mediate protective effects of inosine against TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Rahimian, Reza; Fakhfouri, Gohar; Daneshmand, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza

    2010-12-15

    Inflammatory bowel disease comprises chronic recurrent inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to investigate inosine, a potent immunomodulator, in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic model of experimental colitis, and contribution of adenosine A(2A) receptors and the metabolite uric acid as possible underlying mechanisms. Experimental colitis was rendered in rats by a single colonic administration of 10 mg of TNBS. Inosine, potassium oxonate (a hepatic uricase inhibitor), SCH-442416 (a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist), inosine+potassium oxonate, or inosine+SCH-442416 were given twice daily for 7 successive days. At the end of experiment, macroscopic and histopathologic scores, colonic malondialdehyde (MDA), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. Plasma uric acid level was measured throughout the experiment. Both macroscopic and histological features of colonic injury were markedly ameliorated by either inosine, oxonate or inosine+oxonate. Likewise, the elevated amounts of MPO and MDA abated as well as those of TNF-α and IL-1β (P<0.05). SCH-442416 partially reversed the effect of inosine on theses markers, while inosine+oxonate showed a higher degree of protection than each treatment alone (P<.0.05). No significant difference was observed between TNBS and SCH-442416 groups. Uric acid levels were significantly higher in inosine or oxonate groups compared to control. Inosine+oxonate resulted in an even more elvelated uric acid level than each treatment alone (P<0.05). Inosine elicits notable anti-inflammatory effects on TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Uric acid and adenosine A(2A) receptors contribute to these salutary properties.

  11. Proanthocyanidins from grape seeds modulates the nuclear factor-kappa B signal transduction pathways in rats with TNBS-induced recurrent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wang, Yan-Hong; Ge, Bin; Yang, Xiao-Lai; Zhai, Jing; Yang, Li-Ning; Wang, Xiao-Xia; Liu, Xia; Shi, Jin-Cheng; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE) on recurrent ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. GSPE in doses of 100, 200, and 400mg/kg were intragastrically administered per day for 7 days after recurrent colitis was twice-induced by TNBS. The levels of GSH, as well as the activity of GSH-Px and SOD in colon tissues were measured by biochemical methods. The expression levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) and the nuclear translocation levels of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) in the colon tissues were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay methods. Western blotting analysis was used to determine the protein expression levels of inhibitory kappa B-alpha (IκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IKKα/β), phosphorylated IκBα and phosphorylated IKKα/β. GSPE treatment was associated with a remarkable increased the activity of GSH-Px and SOD with GSH levels in TNBS-induced recurrent colitis rats as compared to the model group. GSPE also significantly reduced the expression levels of TNF-α, p-IKKα/β, p-IκBα and the translocation of NF-κB in the colon mucosa. GSPE exerted a protective effect on recurrent colitis in rats by modifying the inflammatory response and promoting damaged tissue repair to improve colonic oxidative stress. Moreover, GSPE inhibited the TNBS-induced inflammatory of recurrent colitis though blocking NF-κB signaling pathways.

  12. Anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidant activities of olmesartan medoxomil ameliorate experimental colitis in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Nagib, Marwa M.; Tadros, Mariane G.; ELSayed, Moushira I.; Khalifa, Amani E.

    2013-08-15

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) driven through altered immune responses with production of proinflammatory cytokines. Many therapies are used, but side effects and loss of response limit long-term effectiveness. New therapeutic strategies are thus needed for patients who don't respond to current treatments. Recently, there is suggested involvement of the proinflammatory hormone angiotensin II in inflammatory bowel disease. The aim of this study was to investigate the possible role of olmesartan medoxomil (OLM-M), an angiotensin II receptor blocker in ameliorating ulcerative colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by administration of 5% dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) in drinking water for 5 days. OLM-M (1, 3 and 10 mg/kg) was administered orally during 21 days prior to the induction of colitis, and for 5 days after. Sulfasalazine (500 mg/kg) was used as reference drug. All animals were tested for changes in colon length, disease activity index (DAI) and microscopic damage. Colon tissue concentration/activity of tumor necrosis alpha (TNF-α), myeloperoxidase (MPO), prostaglandin E2 (PGE2), reduced glutathione (GSH) and malondialdehyde (MDA) were assessed. Results showed that the OLM-M dose-dependently ameliorated the colonic histopathological and biochemical injuries, an effect that is comparable or even better than that of the standard sulfasalazine. These results suggest that olmesartan medoxomil may be effective in the treatment of UC through its anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects. - Highlights: • Olmesartan medoximil reduced dextran sodium sulphate- induced colitis. • Mechanism involved anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects dose- dependently. • It suppressed malondialdehyde and restored reduced glutathione levels. • It reduced inflammatory markers levels and histological changes.

  13. The effect of chemically induced colitis, psychological stress and their combination on visceral pain in female Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Deiteren, Annemie; Vermeulen, Wim; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Man, Joris G; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2014-09-01

    Visceral sensitivity is of pathophysiological importance in abdominal pain disorders and can be modulated by inflammation and stress. However, it is unclear whether inflammation and stress alter visceral perception independently of each other or in conjunction through neuroendocrine interactions. Therefore, we compared the short- and long-term effects of experimental colitis and water avoidance stress (WAS), alone or in combination, on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats. Colitis was induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and colonoscopically confirmed. During WAS, rats were placed on a platform surrounded by water for 1 h. Visceral sensitivity was assessed by quantifying the visceromotor responses (VMRs) to colorectal distension. Activation of the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis was determined by measuring serum corticosterone in a separate protocol. TNBS instillation resulted in overt colitis, associated with significant visceral hypersensitivity during the acute inflammatory phase (3 days post-TNBS; n = 8/group); after colitis had subsided (28 days post-TNBS), hypersensitivity was resolved (n = 4-8/group). Single WAS was associated with increased VMRs of a magnitude comparable to acute TNBS-induced hypersensitivity (n = 8/group). However, after repetitive WAS no significant hypersensitivity was present (n = 8/group). No additive effect of colitis and stress was seen on visceral pain perception (n = 6-8/group). Corticosterone levels were only increased in acute TNBS-colitis, acute WAS and their combination. To conclude, both colitis and stress successfully induced short-term visceral hypersensitivity and activated the hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis, but long-term effects were absent. In addition, our current findings do not support an additive effect of colitis and stress on visceral sensitivity in female Wistar rats.

  14. Curcumin inhibits trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats by activation of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ming; Deng, Changsheng; Zheng, Jiaju; Xia, Jian; Sheng, Dan

    2006-08-01

    Curcumin is a widely used spice with anti-inflammatory and anti-cancer properties. It has been reported that curcumin held therapeutic effects on experimental colitis by inhibition of nuclear factor kappa B (NF-kappaB). The peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma) is a nuclear receptor with anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects and its activation may inhibit the nuclear translocation of NF-kappaB. Several studies have shown that PPARgamma ligands had an important therapeutic effect in colitis. However there is no report about the alteration of PPARgamma in trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis treated with curcumin. In this study, we administered curcumin (30 mg/kg/day) by intraperitoneal injection immediately after colitis was induced and the injection lasted for two weeks. have evaluated the effects of curcumin on the colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS). Curcumin (30 mg/kg d) was administered by intraperitoneal just after colitis was induced and lasted for two weeks. Therapeutic effects of dexamethasone (Dex, 2 mg/kg d) alone and the combined effects of curcumin+Dex were also examined. We found that curcumin improved long-term survival rate of disease-bearing rats, promoted rat body weight recovery, and decreased macroscopic scores of the colitis. The expression levels of PPARgamma, 15-deoxy-D12,14-prostaglandin J(2) (15d-PGJ(2)) and prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) were all increased, but the expression level of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) was decreased in rats after administration of curcumin. Treatment with Dex improved PPARgamma expression and inhibited the expression of COX-2, 15d-PGJ(2) and PGE(2). Combined effects of curcumin+Dex were similar to that of Dex. In summary, curcumin showed therapeutic effects on TNBS-induced colitis and the mechanisms by which curcumin exerts its effects may involve activation of PPARgamma and its ligands.

  15. Resveratrol abrogates adhesion molecules and protects against TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdallah, Dalaal M; Ismael, Naglaa R

    2011-11-01

    Resveratrol, a polyphenol compound with anti-inflammatory properties, has been previously evaluated for its beneficial effects in several ulcerative colitis models. However, the current study elucidates the effect of resveratrol on adhesion molecules, as well as its antioxidant efficacy in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced ulcerative-colitis model. Colitis was induced by rectal instillation of TNBS, followed by daily per os administration of either sulphasalazine (300 mg/kg) or resveratrol (2 and 10 mg/kg) for 7 days. Administration of resveratrol decreased the ulcerative area and colon mass index; these effects were further supported by the reduction in colon inflammation grades, as well as histolopathological changes, and reflected by the stalling of body mass loss. The anti-inflammatory effects of resveratrol were indicated by lowered myeloperoxidase activity, and by suppressing ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 levels in the colon and serum. In addition, it restored a reduced colonic nitric oxide level and reinstated its redox balance, as evidenced by the suppression of lipid peroxides and prevention of glutathione depletion. The anti-ulcerative effect of the higher dose of resveratrol was comparable with those of sulphasalazine. The study confirms the anti-ulcerative effect of resveratrol in TNBS-induced experimental colitis via reduction of neutrophil infiltration, inhibition of adhesive molecules, and restoration of the nitric oxide level, as well as the redox status.

  16. Comparative Protective Effect of Hawthorn Berry Hydroalcoholic Extract, Atorvastatin, and Mesalamine on Experimentally Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Shafie-Irannejad, Vahid; Hobbenaghi, Rahim; Tabatabaie, Seyed Hamed; Moshtaghion, Seyed-Mehdi

    2013-01-01

    Abstract The protective effect of hydroalcoholic extract of hawthorn berries (HBE) on acetic acid (AA)–induced colitis in rats was investigated. Forty-two Wistar rats were divided into seven groups, including control and test groups (n=6). The control animals received saline, and the test animals were treated with saline (sham group), mesalamine (50 mg/kg; M group), atorvastatin (20 mg/kg; A group), HBE (100 mg/kg; H group), mesalamine and HBE (HM group), or atorvastatin plus HBE (HA group), 3 days before and a week after colitis induction. Colitis was induced by administration of 1 mL AA (4%) via a polyethylene catheter intrarectally. High-performance liquid chromatography analyses showed that HBE contained 0.13% and 0.5% oleanolic acid and ursolic acid, respectively. Elevated myeloperoxidase activity and lipid peroxidation were attenuated in the HA group. The H and HM groups showed marked reductions in colitis-induced decreases in total thiol molecules and body weight. The histopathological studies revealed that HBE decreased colitis-induced edema and infiltration of neutrophils. Our data suggest the anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects of HBE and atorvastatin protect against AA-induced colitis. The anti-inflammatory effect of HBE may be attributable to its ability to decrease myeloperoxidase activity as a biomarker of neutrophil infiltration. PMID:23875899

  17. The effects of Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol and cannabidiol alone and in combination on damage, inflammation and in vitro motility disturbances in rat colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jamontt, JM; Molleman, A; Pertwee, RG; Parsons, ME

    2010-01-01

    Background and purpose: Cannabis is taken as self-medication by patients with inflammatory bowel disease for symptomatic relief. Cannabinoid receptor agonists decrease inflammation in animal models of colitis, but their effects on the disturbed motility is not known. (-)-Cannabidiol (CBD) has been shown to interact with Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) in behavioural studies, but it remains to be established if these cannabinoids interact in vivo in inflammatory disorders. Therefore the effects of CBD and THC alone and in combination were investigated in a model of colitis. Experimental approach: The 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis in rats was used to assess damage, inflammation (myeloperoxidase activity) and in vitro colonic motility. Sulphasalazine was used as an active control drug. Key results: Sulphasalazine, THC and CBD proved beneficial in this model of colitis with the dose–response relationship for the phytocannabinoids showing a bell-shaped pattern on the majority of parameters (optimal THC and CBD dose, 10 mg·kg−1). THC was the most effective drug. The effects of these phytocannabinoids were additive, and CBD increased some effects of an ineffective THC dose to the level of an effective one. THC alone and in combination with CBD protected cholinergic nerves whereas sulphasalazine did not. Conclusions and implications: In this model of colitis, THC and CBD not only reduced inflammation but also lowered the occurrence of functional disturbances. Moreover the combination of CBD and THC could be beneficial therapeutically, via additive or potentiating effects. This article is part of a themed issue on Cannabinoids. To view the editorial for this themed issue visit http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1476-5381.2010.00831.x PMID:20590574

  18. Effects of dexpanthenol on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Cagin, Yasir Furkan; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Vardi, Nigar; Polat, Alaadin; Atayan, Yahya; Erdogan, Mehmet Ali; Tanbek, Kevser

    2016-01-01

    While the pathogenesis of acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis is unclear, reactive oxygen species are considered to have a significant effect. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the therapeutic potential of dexpanthenol (Dxp) on the amelioration of colitis in rats. Group I (n=8; control group) was intrarectally administered 1 ml saline solution (0.9%); group II [n=8; AA] was administered 4% AA into the colon via the rectum as a single dose for three consecutive days; group III (n=8; AA + Dxp) was administered AA at the same dosage as group II from day 4, and a single dose of Dxp was administered intraperitoneally; and group IV (n=8; Dxp) was administered Dxp similarly to Group III. Oxidative stress and colonic damage were assessed via biochemical and histologic examination methods. AA treatment led to an increase in oxidative parameters and a decrease in antioxidant systems. Histopathological examination showed that AA treatment caused tissue injury and increased caspase-3 activity in the distal colon and triggered apoptosis. Dxp treatment caused biochemical and histopathological improvements, indicating that Dxp may have an anti-oxidant effect in colitis; therefore, Dxp may be a potential therapeutic agent for the amelioration of IBD. PMID:27882101

  19. Effects of dexpanthenol on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Cagin, Yasir Furkan; Parlakpinar, Hakan; Vardi, Nigar; Polat, Alaadin; Atayan, Yahya; Erdogan, Mehmet Ali; Tanbek, Kevser

    2016-11-01

    While the pathogenesis of acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis is unclear, reactive oxygen species are considered to have a significant effect. The aim of the present study was to elucidate the therapeutic potential of dexpanthenol (Dxp) on the amelioration of colitis in rats. Group I (n=8; control group) was intrarectally administered 1 ml saline solution (0.9%); group II [n=8; AA] was administered 4% AA into the colon via the rectum as a single dose for three consecutive days; group III (n=8; AA + Dxp) was administered AA at the same dosage as group II from day 4, and a single dose of Dxp was administered intraperitoneally; and group IV (n=8; Dxp) was administered Dxp similarly to Group III. Oxidative stress and colonic damage were assessed via biochemical and histologic examination methods. AA treatment led to an increase in oxidative parameters and a decrease in antioxidant systems. Histopathological examination showed that AA treatment caused tissue injury and increased caspase-3 activity in the distal colon and triggered apoptosis. Dxp treatment caused biochemical and histopathological improvements, indicating that Dxp may have an anti-oxidant effect in colitis; therefore, Dxp may be a potential therapeutic agent for the amelioration of IBD.

  20. Effect of hydroalcoholic extract of Hibiscus rosa sinensis Linn. leaves in experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kandhare, Amit D; Raygude, Kiran S; Ghosh, Pinaki; Ghule, Arvindkumar E; Gosavi, Tejas P; Badole, Sachin L; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2012-01-01

    Objective To elucidate the ameliorative effect of hydroalcoholic extract of leaves of Hibiscus rosa sinensis (HRS) in acetic acid induced experimental colitis in male wistar rats. Methods The animals were administered with 2 mL acetic acid (4%) via intra rectal. The animals were divided into various treatment groups (n=6). Prednisolone was used as standard drug and HRS was administered at a dose of 50, 100 and 200 mg/kg p.o. The control group of animals received 1 mL of vehicle (distilled water). Ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, macroscopic score, haematological parameters, colonic superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), myeloperoxidase (MPO), malondialdehyde (MDA), tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), nitric oxide (NO) and histological changes were recorded after the treatment regimen of 11 days. Results Intrarectal instillation of acetic acid caused enhanced ulcer area, ulcer index, spleen weight, colon weight to length ratio, colonic MPO, MDA, NO and TNF-α It caused significant decreased level of SOD and GSH. Pretreatment with HRS for 7 days exhibited significant effect in lowering of oxidative stress, colonic NO, TNF-α and elevation of SOD and GSH at a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg in acetic acid induced colitis. Conclusions The present investigation demonstrates HRS is of potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by inhibiting the proinflammatory mediator like NO and TNF-α. PMID:23569927

  1. Preventive effect of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana on the acute phase of experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Avila-Román, Javier; Talero, Elena; Alcaide, Antonio; Reyes, Carolina de Los; Zubía, Eva; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Motilva, Virginia

    2014-10-14

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of intestinal mucosa. Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for IBD. Microalgae are rich sources of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins. Oxylipins are lipid mediators involved in the resolution of many inflammatory disorders. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of the oxylipin-containing biomass of the microalga Chlamydomonas debaryana and its major oxylipin constituent, (9Z,11E,13S,15Z)-13-hydroxyoctadeca-9,11,15-trienoic acid ((13S)-HOTE), on acute 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. Lyophilised microalgal biomass and (13S)-HOTE were administered by oral route 48, 24 and 1 h before the induction of colitis and 24 h later, and the rats were killed after 48 h. The treatment with the lyophilised microalga and (13S)-HOTE improved body-weight loss and colon shortening, as well as attenuated the extent of colonic damage and increased mucus production. Cellular neutrophil infiltration, with the subsequent increase in myeloperoxidase levels induced by TNBS, were also reduced after the administration of the lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE. The anti-inflammatory effects of these treatments were confirmed by the inhibition of colonic TNF-α production. Moreover, lyophilised microalga or (13S)-HOTE down-regulated cyclo-oxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression. The present study was the first to show the prophylactic effects of a lyophilised biomass sample of the microalga C. debaryana and the oxylipin (13S)-HOTE on TNBS-induced acute colitis in rats. Our findings suggest that the microalga C. debaryana or derived oxylipins could be used as nutraceuticals in the treatment of the active phase of IBD.

  2. Moxibustion regulates inflammatory mediators and colonic mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tie-Ming; Xu, Na; Ma, Xian-De; Bai, Zeng-Hua; Tao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Chi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy and mechanism of grain-sized moxibustion at different acupoints in a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, UC model, grain-sized moxibustion at a single acupoint (CV 12), grain-sized moxibustion at two acupoints (CV 12 and CV 4), grain-sized moxibustion at three acupoints (CV 12, CV 4, and ST 36), and medication groups (n = 8/group). The UC model was established by enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Direct moxibustion was used once a day for 7 d. Disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated before and after the treatment. Morphologic changes of intestinal tissue were observed under an optical microscope. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in colonic tissue was detected using Western blot, and the levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNAs were detected using reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intestinal mucosae were incomplete in the model group, glandular structures were irregular, and submucosae were edematous, hyperemic, and infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The DAI scores and expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were increased significantly in the model group compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced significantly (Ps < 0.01). Compared with the model group, colonic mucosa and the arrangement of glands were complete and regular in the treatment groups. DAI scores and the expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were reduced significantly in moxibustion groups compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were increased significantly (Ps < 0.01). The improvements in the above indices in the three acupoints group and the medication group were superior to those in the single and two acupoints groups (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Reduction of TNF-α and p38MAPK and increased expression of

  3. Protective effect of melatonin on myenteric neuron damage in experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Shang, Boxin; Shi, Haitao; Wang, Xiaoyan; Guo, Xiaoyan; Wang, Nan; Wang, Yan; Dong, Lei

    2016-04-01

    Inflammation of the colon in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC) causes pain and altered motility, at least in part through the damage of the myenteric neurons (MNs). Thus, it is important to evaluate new drugs for UC treatment that could also protect myenteric neurons efficiently. As a well-known neural protective and anti-inflammatory agent, melatonin could protect neurons from damage through the activation of the nuclear factor erythroid 2-related factor 2 and antioxidant responsive element (Nrf2-ARE) signaling pathway. Therefore, we investigated the potential protective effect of melatonin against MN damage during colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (DNBS) in rats. Colitis was induced by intracolonic (i.c.) instillation of DNBS and treated with melatonin at a dose of 2.5 mg/kg for 4 days. The damage of MN in the left colon was immunohistochemically evaluated in different groups. Ulcerations and inflammation in the colon were semiquantitatively observed. Myeloperoxidase (MPO), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were detected to evaluate the inflammatory and oxidative stress status. The protein and mRNA expressions of Nrf2 and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1) in the colon were detected by Western blot and quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), respectively. Melatonin partially prevented the loss of MN and alleviated the inflammation and oxidative stress induced by DNBS. In addition, melatonin markedly increased the Nrf2 and HO-1 level in the colitis. These results indicate that melatonin protects MN from damage by reducing inflammation and oxidative stress, effects that are partly mediated by the Nrf2-ARE pathway.

  4. Effect of traditional Chinese medicinal enemas on ulcerative colitis of rats

    PubMed Central

    Guo, Song-Ming; Tong, Hong-Bin; Bai, Lian-Song; Yang, Wei

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effects of traditional Chinese medicinal enema (TCME) on inflammatory and immune response of colonic mucosa of rats with ulcerative colitis (UC), and to observe the pathogenic mechanism. METHODS: Thirty UC rats, induced by intestinal enema together with 2.4-dinitrochlorobenzene (DNCB) and acetic acid, were randomly divided into 3 groups, i.e., G I, G II and G III. Groups G I and G II were administered with TCME and salazosulfapyridine enema (SASPE), respectively. Group G III was clystered with only normal saline (NSE), served as control. Group G IV was taken from normal rats as reference, once daily, from the 7th day after the establishment of UC for total 28 d. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) in the colonic mucosa was assayed by 3H-TdR incorporation assay. Colonic mucosal lymphocyte subpopulation adhesive molecules, CD4+CD11a+, CD4+CD18+, CD8+CD11a+, CD8+CD18+ (LSAM), tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, and interferon-γ (IFN-γ), were detected by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Moreover, the expression of TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA in colonic mucosa were detected by polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Before therapies, in model groups, G I, G II and G III, levels of IL-6, TNF-α, IFN-γ, CD8+CD11a+ and CD8+CD18+ were significantly different (38.29 ± 2.61 U/mL, 16.54 ± 1.23 ng/L, 8.61 ± 0.89 ng/L, 13.51% ± 2.31% and 12.22% ± 1.13%, respectively) compared to those in G IV group (31.56 ± 2.47 U/mL, 12.81 ± 1.38 ng/L, 5.28 ± 0.56 ng/L, 16.68% ± 1.41% and 16.79% ± 1.11%, respectively). After therapeutic enemas, in G I group, the contents of IL-6 (32.48 ± 2.53 U/m), TNF-α (13.42 ± 1.57 ng/L) and IFN-γ (5.87 ± 0.84 ng/L) were reduced; then, the contents of CD8+CD11a+ (16.01% ± 1.05 %) and CD8+CD18+ (16.28% ± 0.19%) were raised. There was no significant difference between groups G I and G IV, but the difference between groups G I and G II was quite obvious (P < 0.05). The expressions of TNF-α mRNA and IFN-γ mRNA in group G

  5. Inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides have divergent effects on colitis and commensal microbiota in HLA-B27 transgenic rats.

    PubMed

    Koleva, Petya T; Valcheva, Rosica S; Sun, Xu; Gänzle, Michael G; Dieleman, Levinus A

    2012-11-14

    Modulation of intestinal microbiota by non-digestible carbohydrates may reduce inflammation in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The aim of the present study was to assess the effects of inulin and fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) on intestinal microbiota and colitis in HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a well-validated rodent model for IBD. In this study, 4-week-old rats were fed 8 g/kg body weight inulin or FOS for 12 weeks, or not. Faeces were collected at 4 and 16 weeks of age; and caecal samples were collected at necropsy. The effects of inulin and FOS on chronic intestinal inflammation were assessed using a gross gut score, histology score and levels of mucosal IL-1β. Intestinal microbiota were characterised by quantitative PCR and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Colitis was significantly reduced in all FOS-fed rats compared to the control diet, whereas inulin decreased chronic intestinal inflammation in only half the number of animals. Quantitative analysis of caecal microbiota demonstrated that inulin increased the numbers of total bacteria and the Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, FOS increased bifidobacteria, and both fructans decreased Clostridium cluster XI. In the faecal samples, both inulin and FOS decreased total bacteria, Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group, and Clostridium clusters XI and XIVa. FOS increased Bifidobacterium spp., and mediated a decrease of gene copies of Enterobacteriaceae and Clostridium difficile toxin B in faeces. SCFA concentrations in the faecal and caecal samples were unaffected by the diets. In conclusion, FOS increased the abundance of Bifidobacterium spp., whereas both fructans reduced Clostridium cluster XI and C. difficile toxin gene expression, correlating with a reduction of chronic intestinal inflammation.

  6. SPECT-computed tomography in rats with TNBS-induced colitis: A first step toward functional imaging

    PubMed Central

    Marion-Letellier, Rachel; Bohn, Pierre; Modzelewski, Romain; Vera, Pierre; Aziz, Moutaz; Guérin, Charlène; Savoye, Guillaume; Savoye-Collet, Céline

    2017-01-01

    AIM To assess the feasibility of SPECT-computed tomography (CT) in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced acute colitis and confront it with model inflammatory characteristics. METHODS Colitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intrarectal injection of TNBS (n = 10) while controls received vehicle (n = 10). SPECT-CT with intravenous injection of 10 MBq of 67Ga-Citrate was performed at day 2. SPECT-CT criteria were colon wall thickness and maximal wall signal intensity. Laboratory parameters were assessed: colon weight:length ratio, colon cyclooxygenase-2 expression by western blot and histological inflammatory score. RESULTS Colon weight/length ratio, colon COX-2 expression and histological inflammatory score were significantly higher in the TNBS group than in the control group (P = 0.0296, P < 0.0001, P = 0.0007 respectively). Pixel max tend to be higher in the TNBS group than in the control group but did not reach statistical significance (P = 0.0662). Maximal thickness is significantly increased in the TNBS group compared to the control group (P = 0.0016) while colon diameter is not (P = 0.1904). Maximal thickness and colon diameter were correlated to colon COX-2 expression (P = 0.0093, P = 0.009 respectively) while pixel max was not (P = 0.22). Maximal thickness was significantly increased when inflammation was histologically observed (P = 0.0043) while pixel max and colon diameter did not (P = 0.2452, P = 0.3541, respectively). CONCLUSION SPECT-CT is feasible and easily distinguished control from colitic rats. PMID:28127195

  7. Effect of royal jelly on experimental colitis induced by acetic acid and alteration of mast cell distribution in the colon of rats

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, T.; Bayiroglu, F.; Yoruk, M.; Kaya, M.S.; Uslu, S.; Comba, B.; Mis, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Twenty adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into four treatment groups of 5 animals each, including a control group (Group I); Group II was treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg−1 body weight); Group III had acetic acid-induced colitis; and Group IV had acetic acid-induced colitis treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg−1 body weight) for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid; the control group received physiological saline (10 mL kg−1). Colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from animals in all groups. Tissues were fixed in 10% formalin neutral buffer solution for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Six-micrometre-thick sections were stained with Mallory’s triple stain and toluidine blue in 1% aqueous solution at pH 1.0 for 5 min (for Mast Cells). RJ was shown to protect the colonic mucosa against the injurious effect of acetic acid. Colitis (colonic damage) was confirmed histomorphometrically as significant increases in the number of mast cells (MC) and colonic erosions in rats with acetic acid-induced colitis. The RJ treatment significantly decreased the number of MC and reduced the area of colonic erosion in the colon of RJ-treated rats compared with rats with untreated colitis. The results suggest that oral treatment with RJ could be used to treat colitis. PMID:21263740

  8. Dietary medium-chain triglycerides prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ishii, Kenichi; Hosomura, Naohiro; Ogiku, Masahito

    2010-03-01

    The effects of dietary medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) on experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) were investigated in rats. Male Wistar rats were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS and were then fed liquid diets containing MCTs or corn oil (AIN93) as controls. Serum and tissue samples were collected 1 week after TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity was measured. Furthermore, messenger RNA (mRNA) and protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively. In another set of experiments, the protein expression of Toll-like receptor (TLR)-4 in the colon was measured 1 week after feeding of liquid diets. To investigate the effects of MCTs on macrophages, RAW246.7 macrophages were incubated with media containing albumin conjugated with MCT or linoleic acid, which is the major component of corn oil. Then, the production of tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) was measured. Dietary MCTs blunted significantly the protein levels of TLR-4 in the colon. Furthermore, the expression of TLR-4 was significantly blunted in RAW264.7 cells incubated with MCTs compared with cells incubated with linoleic acid. Induction of interleukin 1beta (IL-1beta), TNF-alpha, and macrophage inflammatory protein-2 (MIP-2) in the colon was attenuated by dietary MCT. Furthermore, MPO activities in the colonic tissue were significantly blunted in animals fed the MCT diets compared with those fed the control diets. As a result, dietary MCTs improved chemically induced colitis significantly. MCTs most likely are useful for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as an anti-inflammatory immunomodulating nutrient.

  9. Role of TRPV1 and TRPA1 in visceral hypersensitivity to colorectal distension during experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Vermeulen, Wim; De Man, Joris G; De Schepper, Heiko U; Bult, Hidde; Moreels, Tom G; Pelckmans, Paul A; De Winter, Benedicte Y

    2013-01-05

    The aim of the present study is to investigate the effects of TRPV1 and TRPA1 receptor antagonists and their synergism on the visceromotor responses during experimental colitis in rats. Colitis was induced in rats by a TNBS/ethanol enema at day 0 and was assessed at day 3 using endoscopy, histology and a myeloperoxidase assay. The visceromotor response to colorectal distension (10-80 mmHg) was evaluated in conscious rats before (control condition) and 3 days after 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) administration (colitis condition). At day 3, visceromotor responses were assessed before and after treatment with a TRPV1 (BCTC) or TRPA1 (TCS-5861528) receptor antagonist either alone or in combination and either after intraperitoneal or intrathecal administration. Endoscopy, microscopy and myeloperoxidase activity indicated severe colonic tissue damage 3 days after TNBS administration. Colorectal distension-evoked visceromotor responses demonstrated a 2.9-fold increase during acute colitis (day 3) compared to control conditions. Intraperitoneal and intrathecal administration of BCTC or TCS-5861528 partially reversed the colitis-induced increase in visceromotor responses compared to control conditions (P<0.05). Intraperitoneal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1 further decreased the enhanced visceromotor responses at high distension pressures (40-80 mmHg) compared to blockade of either TRPV1 or TRPA1 alone. This synergistic effect was not seen after combined intrathecal blockade of TRPA1 plus TRPV1. The present study demonstrates that in the rat, TRPV1 and TRPA1 play a pivotal role in visceral hypersensitivity at the peripheral and spinal cord level during acute TNBS colitis. Target interaction, however, is presumably mediated via a peripheral site of action.

  10. Dual effect of chronic nicotine administration: augmentation of jejunitis and amelioration of colitis induced by iodoacetamide in rats.

    PubMed

    Eliakim, R; Karmeli, F; Cohen, P; Heyman, S N; Rachmilewitz, D

    2001-02-01

    Smoking has a dichotomous effect on inflammatory bowel disease, ameliorating disease activity in ulcerative colitis but having a deleterious effect on Crohn's disease. This effect is thought to be due to nicotine. We investigated the effect of chronic nicotine administration on the small and large bowel in iodoacetamide-induced jejunitis and colitis. Jejunitis was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats by intrajejunal administration of 0.1 ml 2% iodoacetamide and colitis by intrarectal administration of 0.1 ml 3% iodoacetamide. Nicotine was dissolved in drinking water (12.5 or 250 micrograms/ml), rats drinking ad libitum. Nicotine administration started 10 days prior to damage induction and throughout the experiment and had no effect on weight gain or daily food intake of rats. Rats were killed 5 days after iodoacetamide-induced colitis and 7 days after induction of jejunitis. The jejunum and colon were resected, rinsed, weighed, damage assessed macroscopically and microscopically and tissue processed for myeloperoxidase and nitric oxide synthase (NOS) activities and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) generation. Effects of nicotine on gut microcirculation were also assessed. Nicotine by itself caused no damage to the colon. Nicotine had a dichotomous effect on jejunitis and colitis. At a dose of 12.5 micrograms/ml nicotine improved the macroscopic damage of colitis from 252 +/- 66 to 70 +/- 31 mm2, and segmental weight also declined significantly in the colon (from 1.7 +/- 0.2 to 1.2 +/- 0.1 g/10 cm). In contrast, the same dose of nicotine had a deleterious effect on iodoacetamide-induced jejunitis, increasing the macroscopic damage from 368 +/- 38 to 460 +/- 97 mm2 in rats treated with injury escalating to 970 +/- 147 in rats treated with 250 micrograms/ml nicotine. Nicotine treatment also significantly increased jejunal segmental weight. By itself nicotine did not change NOS activity or PGE2 generation compared to control rats, but it enhanced microcirculation in the colon

  11. Protective effects of Pogostemon cablin Bentham water extract on inflammatory cytokine expression in TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Young; Neupane, Ganesh Prasad; Lee, Sung Ok; Lee, Jong Suk; Kim, Mi-Young; Kim, Sun Yeou; Park, Byung Chul; Park, Young-Joon; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2014-02-01

    In inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), colon epithelial cells express a variety of inflammatory mediators, including chemokines, which perpetuate inflammatory response. In the current study, we report that water extract of Pogostemon cablin Bentham aerial parts (PCW), which has traditionally been used for treatment of the common cold and infectious disease, suppressed colon inflammation. Treatment with PCW resulted in effective inhibition of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α-induced adhesion of monocytes to HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells. In a trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat model of IBD, PCW suppressed clinical signs of colitis, including weight loss, colon tissue myeloperoxidase activity, a marker for inflammatory cell infiltration, and cyclooxygenase-2 expression in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, PCW suppressed TNBS-induced mRNA expression of IL-8, MCP-1, and IL-6 in rat colon. The nuclear level of NF-κB in TNBS-treated rat colon and NF-κB luciferase reporter gene activity in TNF-α-treated HT-29 cells were significantly inhibited by PCW. Taken together, the results of this study suggest that PCW suppressed colon inflammation via suppression of NF-κB-dependent expression of pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  12. Efficacy of use of colonoscopy in dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in rats: the evaluation of the effects of antioxidant by colonoscopy.

    PubMed

    Ahn, B O; Ko, K H; Oh, T Y; Cho, H; Kim, W B; Lee, K J; Cho, S W; Hahm, K B

    2001-06-01

    The goals in developing animal models of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are to determine the underlying mechanisms and the action of currently available drugs and to evaluate the value of new therapeutic approaches. Because of the difficulty in determining the severity of colitis in living animals, it has been necessary to kill the experimental animals at varying stages in the studies. If colonoscopic evaluation or endoscopic biopsy is feasible in these experimental animals, continuous observations could be possible, thus avoiding the need to kill them. The aims of the current study were to assess the efficacy of endoscopic examination as a monitoring tool for the severity of colitis in rats and to the efficacy of DA-9601, an extract from Artemisia asiatica which has both antioxidative and cytoprotective actions, on dextran sulfate sodium induced ulcerative colitis in rats endoscopically. Sprague-Dawley rats received 4% DSS in drinking water for 5 consecutive days. Either DA-9601 or sulfasalazine was administered twice a day for 8 days, starting 3 days before DSS administration. After the colonoscopic evaluations on days 2, 4, and 5 after DSS administration the rats were also killed for gross and histopathological evaluations. Simultaneous measurements of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities were performed. There was a statistically significant correlation between the scores evaluated by the gross examination and colonoscopic scores, between the colonoscopic scores and the levels of MDA or mucosal MPO activities, and between colonoscopic scores and histopathological activity index. DA-9601 showed excellent improvement in gross lesion scores, decreased MDA amounts and MPO activities compared to sulfasalazine. In conclusion, the introduction of appropriate colonoscopic examination in animal models of IBD could avoid the sacrifice of experimental animals for interim evaluation and provide the valuable information on the course and efficacy of

  13. Establishing the colitis-associated cancer progression mouse models.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Haiming; Lu, Zhanjun; Wang, Ruhua; Chen, Niwei; Zheng, Ping

    2016-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) has been reported as an important inducer of colorectal cancer (CRC). The most malignant IBD-associated CRC type has been highlighted as colitis-associated cancer (CAC). However, lack of CAC cases and difficulties of the long follow-up research have challenged researchers in molecular mechanism probing. Here, we established pre-CAC mouse models (dextran sulfate sodium [DSS] group and azoxymethane [AOM] group) and CAC mouse model (DSS/AOM group) to mimic human CAC development through singly or combinational treatment with DSS and AOM followed by disease activity index analysis. We found that these CAC mice showed much more severe disease phenotype, including serious diarrhea, body weight loss, rectal prolapse and bleeding, bloody stool, tumor burden, and bad survival. By detecting expression patterns of several therapeutic targets-Apc, p53, Kras, and TNF-α-in these mouse models through western blot, histology analysis, qRT-PCR, and ELISA methods, we found that the oncogene Kras expression remained unchanged, while the tumor suppressors-Apc and p53 expression were both significantly downregulated with malignancy progression from pre-CAC to CAC, and TNF-α level was elevated the most in CAC mice blood which is of potential clinical use. These data indicated the successful establishment of CAC development mouse models, which mimics human CAC well both in disease phenotype and molecular level, and highlighted the promoting role of inflammation in CAC progression. This useful tool will facilitate the further study in CAC molecular mechanism.

  14. Pseudomembranous colitis

    MedlinePlus

    Antibiotic-associated colitis; Colitis - pseudomembranous; Necrotizing colitis; C difficile - pseudomembranous ... of these bacteria may grow when you take antibiotics. The bacteria give off a strong toxin that ...

  15. Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Minaiyan, M; Ghannadi, A; Asadi, M; Etemad, M; Mahzouni, P

    2014-01-01

    Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal instillation of 50 mg/kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in male Wistar rats. Treatments were started 6 h after colitis induction and continued every 24 h for 5 days. Apricot kernel extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o. and 100, 400 mg/kg i.p.) and apricot kernel extract/oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o.) were used as experimental treatments and prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.) was used as reference drug. On the day 6, colon tissue was removed and macroscopic and pathologic parameters were evaluated. Ulcer index and total colitis index as representative of macroscopic and histologic parameters respectively showed ameliorating effects in experimental groups especially those treated by intraperitoneal administration route. Results also demonstrated that oil fraction was not able to potentiate the effects of extract. These data suggest that apricot kernel extracts (with or without oil) can be introduced for further mechanistic and clinical studies as a complementary medicine for inflammatory bowel disorders.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) extracts ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, M.; Ghannadi, A.; Asadi, M.; Etemad, M.; Mahzouni, P.

    2014-01-01

    Prunus armeniaca L. (Apricot) is a tree cultivated in different parts of the world. Apricot kernel as a good dietary supplement has shown antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and other pharmacologic properties which suggest that it may be functional as an anticolitis agent. In this study we evaluated the effects of apricot kernel extract and oil on ulcerative colitis in rats. Rats were fasted for 36 h before the experiment. Colitis was induced by intra-rectal instillation of 50 mg/kg trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid in male Wistar rats. Treatments were started 6 h after colitis induction and continued every 24 h for 5 days. Apricot kernel extract (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o. and 100, 400 mg/kg i.p.) and apricot kernel extract/oil (100, 200, 400 mg/kg p.o.) were used as experimental treatments and prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o. or i.p.) was used as reference drug. On the day 6, colon tissue was removed and macroscopic and pathologic parameters were evaluated. Ulcer index and total colitis index as representative of macroscopic and histologic parameters respectively showed ameliorating effects in experimental groups especially those treated by intraperitoneal administration route. Results also demonstrated that oil fraction was not able to potentiate the effects of extract. These data suggest that apricot kernel extracts (with or without oil) can be introduced for further mechanistic and clinical studies as a complementary medicine for inflammatory bowel disorders. PMID:25657793

  17. Statins in the chemoprevention of colorectal cancer in established animal models of sporadic and colitis-associated cancer.

    PubMed

    Pikoulis, Emmanouil; Margonis, Georgios A; Angelou, Anastasios; Zografos, George C; Antoniou, Efstathios

    2016-03-01

    Despite the availability of effective surveillance for colorectal cancer with colonoscopy, chemoprevention might be an acceptable alternative. Statins are potent inhibitors of cholesterol biosynthesis. In clinical trials, statins have been found to be beneficial in the primary and secondary prevention of coronary heart disease. However, the overall benefits observed with statins appear to be greater than what might be expected from changes in lipid levels alone, suggesting effects beyond cholesterol lowering. This systematic review aimed to gather information on the possible chemopreventive role of statins in preventing carcinogenesis and tumor promotion by a diverse array of mechanisms in both sporadic and colitis-associated cancer in animal models. The MEDLINE database was thoroughly searched using the following keywords: 'statin, HMG-CoA reductase inhibitor, colon cancer, mice, rats, chemoprevention, colitis-associated cancer'. Additional articles were gathered and evaluated. There are a lot of clinical studies and meta-analyses, as well as a plethora of basic research studies implementing cancer cell lines and animal models, on the chemopreventive role of statins in colorectal cancer (CRC). However, data derived from clinical studies are inconclusive, yet they show a tendency toward a beneficial role of statins against CRC pathogenesis. Thus, more research on the molecular pathways of CRC tumorigenesis as related to statins is warranted to uncover new mechanisms and compare the effect of statins on both sporadic and colitis-associated cancer in animal models. Basic science results could fuel exclusive colitis-associated cancer clinical trials to study the chemopreventive effects of statins and to differentiate between their effects on the two types of CRCs in humans.

  18. The influence of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic-acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Maduzia, D; Matuszyk, A; Ceranowicz, D; Warzecha, Z; Ceranowicz, P; Fyderek, K; Galazka, K; Dembinski, A

    2015-12-01

    Ghrelin has been primarily shown to exhibit protective and therapeutic effect in the gut. Pretreatment with ghrelin inhibits the development of acute pancreatitis and accelerates pancreatic recovery in the course of this disease. In the stomach, ghrelin reduces gastric mucosal damage induced by ethanol, stress or alendronate, as well as accelerates the healing of acetic acid-induced gastric and duodenal ulcer. The aim of present studies was to investigate the effect of pretreatment with ghrelin on the development of acetic acid-induced colitis. Studies have been performed on male Wistar rats. Animals were treated intraperitoneally with saline (control) or ghrelin (4, 8 or 16 nmol/kg/dose). Saline or ghrelin was given twice: 8 and 1 h before induction of colitis. Colitis was induced by a rectal enema with 1 ml of 4% solution of acetic acid and the severity of colitis was assessed 1 or 24 hours after induction of inflammation. Rectal administration of acetic acid induced colitis in all animals. Damage of colonic wall was seen at the macroscopic and microscopic level. This effect was accompanied by a reduction in colonic blood flow and mucosal DNA synthesis. Moreover, induction of colitis significantly increased mucosal concentration of pro-inflammatory interleukin-1β (IL-1β), activity of myeloperoxidase and concentration of malondialdehyde (MDA). Mucosal activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD) was reduced. Pretreatment with ghrelin reduced the area and grade of mucosal damage. This effect was accompanied by an improvement of blood flow, DNA synthesis and SOD activity in colonic mucosa. Moreover, ghrelin administration reduced mucosal concentration of IL-1β and MDA, as well as decreased mucosal activity of myeloperoxidase. Administration of ghrelin protects the large bowel against the development of the acetic acid-induced colitis and this effect seems to be related to the ghrelin-evoked anti-inflammatory and anti-oxidative effects.

  19. Protective Effect of the Methanolic Extract of Malva parviflora L. leaves on Acetic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Dugani, Aisha; Dakhil, Bushra; Treesh, Soad

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a general term describing chronic, idiopathic relapsing, inflammatory conditions of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology. Previous studies have indicated that Malva parviflora leaf extract possesses anti-inflammatory, antioxidant, and antiulcerogenic activity. activity. This work aimed to investigatee the anti-inflammatory effect of the methanolic (MEMP) and aqueous (AEMP) extracts of M. parviflora leaves on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Materials and Methods: 42 male Wistar albino rats were divided into seven groups (n = 6). Group I: Normal saline control group with no colitis; Group II: Acetic acid colitis group; Group III: 100 mg/kg/5 d MEMP; Group IV: 200 mg/kg/5 d.MEMP; Group V: 100 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VI: 200 mg/kg/5 d AEMP; Group VII: Prednisolone group (2 mg/kg/5 d). Treatments were followed by induction of colitis using intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% acetic acid. Colon damage was evaluated macroscopically (spleen weight/body weight, colon weight/length ratio) and the histological changes were also recorded. Results: The results of this study showed that acetic acid caused severe inflammation of the colon and a significant increase in spleen weight/body weight, and an increase in colon weight/length ratio compared with normal control group. Pretreatment with MEMP and AEMP for 5 days followed by induction of colitis resulted in a significant attenuation of spleen weight and colon weight/length ratio compared with acetic acid control group. Methanolic extract provided better anticolitic effect than aqueous extract; the effect was prominent at the dose of 200 mg/kg. Histopathological findings confirmed the protective effect of the MEMP. Conclusion: In conclusion, MEMP could ameliorate mucosal damage in experimentally induced colitis when given orally. PMID:27184642

  20. Study on the physicochemical properties and anti-inflammatory effects of paeonol in rats with TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Zong, Shi-Yu; Pu, Yi-Qiong; Xu, Ben-Liang; Zhang, Tong; Wang, Bing

    2017-01-01

    Paeonol, an active component from Paeonia suffruticosa Andr., has a variety of biological activities, such as vascular endothelial cell protection, anti-oxidation, and anti-inflammation. The aim of this study was to investigate the basic physicochemical properties of paeonol, including solubility, oil-water partition coefficient, and permeability. Then evaluated the anti-inflammatory effects of paeonol were evaluated on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats. The rats were divided randomly into 6 groups, namely, normal, model, paeonol-treated (100, 200, and 400mg/kg), and positive. Each group had 10 rats. Inhibition effects were evaluated by the disease activity index (DAI), colon weight/length ratio, as well as macroscopical and histological evaluations. Serum interleukin (IL)-17, IL-6 and transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) levels were determined by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. The solubility and oil-water partition coefficient of paeonol in different phosphate buffer solutions were 284.06-598.23 and 461.97-981.17μg/mL, respectively. The effective passive permeability value Pe was 23.49×10(-6)cm/s. In terms of anti-inflammatory results, compared with the model group, treatment with 200 and 400mg/kg doses of paeonol had significantly decreased DAI, colon weight/length ratio, and macroscopic and histopathological scores. Furthermore, the serum levels of IL-17 and IL-6 were significantly reduced, whereas the TGF-β1 level was increased in the two paeonol-treated groups (medium- and high-dose group). Therefore, paeonol had poor water solubility, but oral absorption was good. In addition, paeonol had therapeutic effects on ulcerative colitis, and the therapeutic efficacy was dose dependent. The results presented in this study provide evidence for the development of a novel therapeutic agent in the treatment of UC. However, whether this agent could have therapeutic benefit or adverse effects in human IBD remains to be

  1. Hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus stimulation reduces intestinal injury in rats with ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Quan-Jun; Deng, Ding-Jing; Che, Jin; Zhao, Hai-Rong; Yu, Jun-Jie; Lu, Yong-Yu

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effect and mechanism of stimulation of the hypothalamic paraventricular nucleus with glutamate acid in rats with ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: The rats were anesthetized with 10% chloral hydrate via abdominal injection and treated with an equal volume of TNBS + 50% ethanol enema, injected into the upper section of the anus with the tail facing up. Colonic damage scores were calculated after injecting a certain dose of glutamic acid into the paraventricular nucleus (PVN), and the effect of the nucleus tractus solitarius (NTS) and vagus nerve in alleviating UC injury through chemical stimulation of the PVN was observed in rats. Expression changes of C-myc, Apaf-1, caspase-3, interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-17 during the protection against UC injury through chemical stimulation of the PVN in rats were detected by Western blot. Malondialdehyde (MDA) content and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity in colon tissues of rats were measured by colorimetric methods. RESULTS: Chemical stimulation of the PVN significantly reduced UC in rats in a dose-dependent manner. The protective effects of the chemical stimulation of the PVN on rats with UC were eliminated after chemical damage to the PVN. After glutamate receptor antagonist kynurenic acid was injected into the PVN, the protective effects of the chemical stimulation of the PVN were eliminated in rats with UC. After AVP-Vl receptor antagonist ([Deamino-penl, val4, D-Arg8]-vasopressin) was injected into NTS or bilateral chemical damage to NTS, the protective effect of the chemical stimulation of PVN on UC was also eliminated. After chemical stimulation of the PVN, SOD activity increased, MDA content decreased, C-myc protein expression significantly increased, caspase-3 and Apaf-1 protein expression significantly decreased, and IL-6 and IL-17 expression decreased in colon tissues in rats with UC. CONCLUSION: Chemical stimulation of the hypothalamic PVN provides a protective effect against UC injury in

  2. Anti-inflammatory Effect of Amitriptyline on Ulcerative Colitis in Normal and Reserpine-Induced Depressed Rats

    PubMed Central

    Fattahian, Ehsan; Hajhashemi, Valiollah; Rabbani, Mohammad; Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2016-01-01

    Depressive disorders are more common among persons with chronic diseases such as inflammatory bowel disease and anti-inflammatory effect of some antidepressants such as amitriptyline has been reported. Acetic acid colitis was induced in both reserpinised (depressed) and non-reserpinised (normal) rats. Reserpinised groups received reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) one hour prior to colitis induction. Then Amitriptyline (5, 10, 20 mg/kg, i.p.) was administered to separate groups of male Wistar rats. All treatments were carried out two hours after colitis induction and continued daily for four days. Dexamethasone (1 mg/kg) and normal saline (1 mL/kg) were used in reference and control groups, respectively. At day five, animals were euthanized and colonic tissue injuries were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Myeloperoxidase activity as a marker of neutrophil infiltration was also measured in colonic tissues. Results showed that reserpine (6 mg/kg, i.p.) intensified colitic condition. Compared to control, amitriptyline (10, 20 mg/kg) and dexamethasone significantly decreased weight of colon and ulcer index in normal and reserpine-induced depressed rats. Myeloperoxidase activity and pathological assessments also proved anti-inflammatory effect of amitriptyline. Our results suggest that amitriptyline, a tricyclic antidepressant, could reduce inflammatory and ulcerative injuries of colon both in normal and depressed rats. So among the wide spread anti-depressant drugs, amitriptyline is a good choice to treat depression comorbidities in patients with IBD. PMID:28228811

  3. Intestinal anti-inflammatory effects of RGD-functionalized silk fibroin nanoparticles in trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced experimental colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Algieri, Francesca; De Matteis, Laura; Lozano-Perez, A. Abel; Garrido-Mesa, Jose; Vezza, Teresa; de la Fuente, J M.; Cenis, Jose Luis; Gálvez, Julio; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena

    2016-01-01

    Background Current treatment of inflammatory bowel disease is based on the use of immunosuppressants or anti-inflammatory drugs, which are characterized by important side effects that can limit their use. Previous research has been performed by administering these drugs as nanoparticles that target the ulcerated intestinal regions and increase their bioavailability. It has been reported that silk fibroin can act as a drug carrier and shows anti-inflammatory properties. Purpose This study was designed to enhance the interaction of the silk fibroin nanoparticles (SFNs) with the injured intestinal tissue by functionalizing them with the peptide motif RGD (arginine–glycine–aspartic acid) and to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties of these RGD-functionalized silk fibroin nanoparticles (RGD-SFNs) in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis. Materials and methods SFNs were prepared by nanoprecipitation in methanol, and the linear RGD peptide was linked to SFNs using glutaraldehyde as the crosslinker. The SFNs (1 mg/rat) and RGD-SFNs (1 mg/rat) were administered intrarectally to TNBS-induced colitic rats for 7 days. Results The SFN treatments ameliorated the colonic damage, reduced neutrophil infiltration, and improved the compromised oxidative status of the colon. However, only the rats treated with RGD-SFNs showed a significant reduction in the expression of different pro-inflammatory cytokines (interleukin [IL]-1β, IL-6, and IL-12) and inducible nitric oxide synthase in comparison with the TNBS control group. Moreover, the expression of both cytokine-induced neutrophil chemoattractant-1 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 was significantly diminished by the RGD-SFN treatment. However, both treatments improved the intestinal wall integrity by increasing the gene expression of some of its markers (trefoil factor-3 and mucins). Conclusion SFNs displayed intestinal anti-inflammatory properties in the TNBS model of colitis in rats

  4. Catechin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside isolated from the seed of Phaseolus calcaratus Roxburgh ameliorates experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kook, Sung-Ho; Choi, Ki Choon; Cho, Seong-Wan; Cho, Hyoung-Kwon; Lee, Kyung Dong; Lee, Jeong-Chae

    2015-12-01

    The seeds of Phaseolus calcaratus Roxburgh (PHCR) are common legumes that comprise part of the daily diet in Chinese and Korean culture. Recent findings highlight anti-inflammatory and anti-septic potentials of catechin-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (CGP) isolated from PHCR seeds. We investigated the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity and associated mechanisms of CGP using a rat model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Oral treatment with CGP (10mg/kg body weight) suppressed body weight loss and intestinal inflammatory damages in TNBS-induced colitic rats. This treatment reduced myeloperoxidase activity and malondialdehyde level, but increased glutathione level in the TNBS colitic rats. CGP treatment also inhibited the TNBS-mediated increases in nitric oxide synthase, cyclooxygenase-2, interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α, intercellular adhesion molecule-1, and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 proteins or mRNA levels. This inhibition was accompanied by the increased mRNA levels of mucins MUC2 and MUC3. The CGP treatment prevented phosphorylation of p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase, IκB-α, and DNA-nuclear factor-κB binding, all of which were increased in the inflamed colons of TNBS-treated rats. Furthermore, oral administration with a crude PHCR butanol extract (100mg/kg body weight) which contains 1.5% of CGP showed intestinal anti-inflammatory potentials similar to that of CGP. Collectively, our current findings suggest that CGP or CGP-containing PHCR seeds may have favorable effects on intestinal inflammatory diseases.

  5. Effect of Coriandrum sativum hydroalcoholic extract and its essential oil on acetic acid- induced acute colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Heidari, Bahareh; Sajjadi, Seyed Ebrahim; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2016-01-01

    Objective: The aim of this study was to determine the protective effects of Coriandrum sativum on acetic acid-inducedcolitis in rats. C. sativum (Coriander) has long been used in Iranian traditional medicine and its use as an anti-inflammatory agent is still common in some herbal formulations. Materials and Methods: Colitis was induced by intra-rectal administration of 2ml acetic acid 4% in fasted male Wistar rats. Treatment was carried out using three increasing doses of extract (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.25, 0.5, 1 ml/kg) of coriander started 2 h before colitis induction and continued for a five-day period. Colon biopsies were taken for weighting, macroscopic scoring of injured tissue, histopathological examination and measuring myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Results: Colon weight was decreased in the groups treated with extract (500 and 1000 mg/kg) and essential oil (0.5 ml/kg) compared to the control group. Regarding MPO levels, ulcer severity and area as well as the total colitis index, same results indicating meaningful alleviation of colitis was achieved after treatment with oral extract and essential oil. Conclusion: Since the present experiment was made by oral fractions of coriander thus the resulting effects could be due to both the absorption of the active ingredients and/or the effect of non-absorbable materials on colitis after reaching the colon. In this regard, we propose more toxicological and clinical experiments to warranty its beneficial application in human inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27222834

  6. Pretreatment of Gymnema sylvestre revealed the protection against acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Background Overproduction of free radicals and decreased antioxidant capacity are well-known risk factors for inflammatory bowel diseases. Gymnema sylvestre (GS) leaves extract is distinguished for its anti-diabetic, antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. Present study is designed to evaluate the preventative activities of GS against acetic acid (AA)-induced ulcerative colitis in Wistar rats. Methods Experimentally ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by AA in animals pretreated with three different doses of GS leaves extract (50, 100, 200 mg/kg/day) and a single dose of mesalazine (MES, 300 mg/kg/day) for seven days. Twenty four hours later, animals were sacrificed and the colonic tissues were collected. Colonic mucus content was determined using Alcian blue dye binding technique. Levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), total glutathione sulfhydryl group (T-GSH) and non-protein sulfhydryl group (NPSH) as well as the activity of the antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT) were estimated in colon tissues. Colonic nucleic acids (DNA and RNA) and total protein (TP) concentrations were also determined. Levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines including interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) as well as prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) were estimated in colonic tissues. The histopathological changes of the colonic tissues were also observed. Results In AA administered group TBARS levels were increased, while colonic mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH, SOD and CAT were reduced in colon. Pretreatment with GS inhibited TBARS elevation as well as mucus content, T-GSH and NP-SH reduction. Enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were brought back to their normal levels in GS pretreated group. A significant reduction in DNA, RNA and TP levels was seen following AA administration and this inhibition was significantly eliminated by GS treatment. GS pretreatment also inhibited

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of diosmectite in hapten-induced colitis in the rat

    PubMed Central

    González, Raquel; Sánchez de Medina, Fermin; Martínez-Augustin, Olga; Nieto, Ana; Gálvez, Julio; Risco, Severiano; Zarzuelo, Antonio

    2004-01-01

    Diosmectite is a natural silicate effectively used in the treatment of infectious diarrhoea. Its antidiarrhoeal properties involve adsorption of toxins and bacteria and modifications of the rheological characteristics of gastrointestinal mucus. Hence, the aim of this study was to test the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of diosmectite. Diosmectite (500 mg kg−1 day−1, p.o.) was administered as a post-treatment to rats with chronic trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid colitis. Colonic status was checked 1 and 2 weeks after colitis induction by macroscopic, histological and biochemical examination. Diosmectite post-treatment resulted in amelioration of the morphological signs (intestinal weight, macroscopic damage, necrosed area, histology) and biochemical markers (myeloperoxidase activity, glutathione levels, MUC2 expression, inducible nitric oxide synthase and interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and leukotriene B4 synthesis), as well as in the reduction of the severity of diarrhoea. The effect of the clay was comparable to that of sulphasalazine (50 mg kg−1 day−1). Diosmectite exhibited a dose-dependent capacity to adsorb proteins in vitro as well as a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on the basolateral secretion of IL-8 by lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-stimulated HT29 cells. Diosmectite had a dose-dependent inhibitory effect on IL-1β production by LPS-stimulated THP-1 cells. The effect of diosmectite on MUC2 was post-transcriptional, since mRNA levels were unaffected. However, diosmectite is able to upregulate MUC2 mRNA levels in HT29-MTX cells. Diosmectite has anti-inflammatory activity administered as a post-treatment. Possible mechanisms include adsorption of luminal antigens, increase of colonic mucin levels and possibly a direct modulatory action of cytokine production by mucosal cells. PMID:14993105

  8. Abnormalities in endocrine and immune cells are correlated in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Hatlebakk, Jan Gunnar; Gilja, Odd Helge

    2016-01-01

    The interaction between the gut hormones and the immune system has been suggested to serve an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease. The aims of the present study were to elucidate the possible abnormalities in the colonic endocrine cells in rats with dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis, and to determine whether they are correlated with alterations in the immune cells. A total of 24 male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: Control and DSS-induced colitis. Colonic tissues were harvested via postmortem laparotomy from all of the animals at the end of the experimental period, and fixed and sectioned for histology. The colonic endocrine and immune cells in those tissue samples were immunostained and their densities quantified by computerized image analysis. The densities of chromogranin A, serotonin, peptide YY and oxyntomodulin cells were significantly higher, and those of pancreatic peptide and somatostatin cells were lower in rats with DSS-induced colitis than in the controls. The densities of mucosal leukocytes, T and B lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes, and mast cells were significantly higher than in the controls, and these changes were closely associated with the aforementioned changes in all endocrine cell types. These observations indicate an interaction between intestinal hormones and the immune system as represented by immune cells. PMID:27959399

  9. Healing Acceleration of Acetic Acid-induced Colitis by Marigold (Calendula officinalis) in Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tanideh, Nader; Jamshidzadeh, Akram; Sepehrimanesh, Masood; Hosseinzadeh, Masood; Koohi-Hosseinabadi, Omid; Najibi, Asma; Raam, Mozhdeh; Daneshi, Sajad; Asadi-Yousefabad, Seyedeh-Leili

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aim: Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a type of chronic inflammatory bowel disease with unknown etiology. Several therapeutic strategies such as consumption of medicinal plants have been used for its treatment. The aim of this study was to evaluate healing effects of Calendula officinalis hydroalcoholic extract in experimentally induced UC in rat. Materials and Methods: Ninety-six rats, weighing 200 ± 20 g, were randomly divided into eight equal groups. UC induced by 3% acetic acid and oral doses of C. officinalis extract, 1500 and 3000 mg/kg, and enema (gel 10% and 20%) were given. Two groups as positive controls were given asacol (enema) and oral mesalamine. Negative control groups were given normal saline and base gel. On days 3 and 7, intestinal histopathology and weight changes, plus oxidative stress indices including malondialdehyde (MDA) level and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assayed. Results: A significant increase in the body weight of rats was seen in the group given C. officinalis extract 3000 mg/kg orally, oral mesalamine, and 20% intracolonic gel form of marigold extract compared with negative control and base gel groups during the experimental period. Acute inflammation and granular atrophy after UC induction were resolved completely completely by both 20% intracolonic gel and 3000 mg/kg orally. An increase in MPO activity and a decrease in MDA level in response to oral and intracolonic gel form of C. officinalis were observed 3 and and 7 days after treatment (P < 0.05). Conclusion: Our results indicate that oral and enema forms of hydroalcoholic extract of C. officinalis can be offered as are potential therapeutic agents for UC induced in rats. PMID:26831607

  10. Is Coenzyme Q10 Effective in Protection against Ulcerative Colitis? An Experimental Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ewees, Mohamed Gamal; Messiha, Basim Anwar Shehata; Abo-Saif, Ali Ahmed; Abd El-Latif, Hekma Abd El-Tawab

    2016-01-01

    Coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10) is a vitamin-like supplement which appears to be safe, with minimal side effects and low drug interaction potential. Co-Q10 is used in the treatment of a variety of disorders related primarily to suboptimal cellular energy metabolism and oxidative injury. Studies supporting the efficacy of Co-Q10 appear most promising for a variety of diseases, including ulcerative colitis (UC). The present investigation aims to elucidate the possible protective effects of Co-Q10 against UC, as induced by the administration of iodoacetamide to adult male albino rats. In our study, Co-Q10 showed potent anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory activities through a significant increase in catalase activity and glutathione content. In addition, it significantly decreased myeloperoxidase activity, malondialdehyde content and nitrate/nitrite production. These results suggest that Co-Q10 protects against UC in rats via anti-oxidant and anti-inflammatory potentials, and therefore seems promising for use in further clinical trials.

  11. Therapeutic effect of ginsenoside Rd in rats with TNBS-induced recurrent ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao-Lai; Guo, Tian-Kang; Wang, Yan-Hong; Gao, Ming-Tang; Qin, Hong; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2012-07-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is characterized by oxidative and nitrosative stress and neutrophil infiltration. In the present study, we aimed to investigate the therapeutic effect of ginsenoside Rd (GRd) in rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced recurrent UC. After UC was twice-induced by intracolonic injection of TNBS, rats were intragastrically administered different doses of GRd per day for 7 days. The colonic lesions and inflammation were evaluated both histologically and biochemically. Compared with the TNBS group, GRd treatment facilitated recovery of pathologic changes in the colon after induction of recurrent UC, as evidenced by a significant reduction of colonic weight/length ratio and macroscopic and microscopic damage scores (p < 0.01). The myeloperoxidase and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities with malonyldialdehyde and nitric oxide levels in colonic tissues were significantly decreased in the GRd group compared with those in the TNBS group (p < 0.01). GRd treatment was associated with remarkably increased superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase activities. Results showed a valuable effect of GRd against TNBS-induced recurrent UC by inhibiting neutrophil infiltration and promoting the antioxidant capacity of the damaged colonic tissue.

  12. Effect of acute and chronic DSS induced colitis on plasma eicosanoid and oxylipin levels in the rat.

    PubMed

    Willenberg, Ina; Ostermann, Annika I; Giovannini, Samoa; Kershaw, Olivia; von Keutz, Anne; Steinberg, Pablo; Schebb, Nils Helge

    2015-07-01

    Eicosanoids and oxylipins are potent lipid mediators involved in the regulation of inflammation. In order to evaluate their role and suitability as biomarkers in colitis, we analyzed their systemic levels in the acute and chronic phase of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) induced colitis. Male Fischer 344 rats were treated in three cycles with 4% DSS in the drinking water (4 days followed by 10 days recovery) and blood was drawn 3 days prior to the first DSS treatment and on days 4, 11, 32 and 39. Histopathological evaluation of the colon tissue after 42 days showed that the animals developed a mild to severe chronic colitis. Consistently, prostaglandin levels were massively (twofold) elevated in the colonic tissue. LC-MS based targeted metabolomics was used to determine plasma oxylipin levels at the different time points. In the acute phase of inflammation directly after DSS treatment, epoxy-fatty acid (FA), dihydroxy-FA and hydroxy-FA plasma concentrations were uniformly elevated. With each treatment cycle the increase in these oxylipin levels was more pronounced. Our data suggest that in the acute phase of colitis release of polyunsaturated FAs from membranes in the inflamed tissue is reflected by a uniform increase of oylipins formed in different branches of the arachidonic acid cascade. However, during the recovery phases the systemic oxylipin pattern is not or only moderately altered and does not allow to evaluate the onset of chronic inflammation in the colon.

  13. Effects of dosmalfate, a new cytoprotective agent, on acute and chronic trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Villegas, Isabel; La Casa, Carmen; Orjales, Aurelio; Alarcón de la Lastra, Catalina

    2003-01-24

    Activated neutrophils and proinflammatory cytokines, such as tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) are clearly involved in the pathogenesis of bowel disease. Increased expression of epidermal growth factor-receptor (EGF receptor) has been reported for the colon mucosa surrounding areas of ulceration, suggesting a pivotal role in mucosal defence and repair. In this study, we examined the effects of dosmalfate, a new flavonoid derivative compound (diosmin heptakis) with antioxidant and cytoprotective properties, on acute and chronic experimental trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. The inflammation response was assessed by neutrophil infiltration as evaluated by histology and myeloperoxidase activity. Mucosal TNF-alpha production and histological analysis of the lesions was also carried out. In addition, we studied the expression of the EGF receptor inmunohistochemically during the healing of TNBS-induced chronic colitis. A 2-day treatment with 400 or 800 mg/kg of dosmalfate ameliorated the colon damage score and the incidence of adhesions. It also significantly (P<0.05) decreased myeloperoxidase activity and colonic mucosal production of TNF-alpha. Chronic treatment (14 days) with 800 mg/kg/day of dosmalfate also had significant protective effects on TNBS-induced colitis which were reflected by significant attenuation (P<0.05) of the damage score while the inflammatory indicators were not improved. The chronic beneficial effect of dosmalfate was apparently related to the enhancement of EGF receptor expression. These findings confirm the protective effects of dosmalfate in acute and chronic experimental colitis.

  14. Ameliorating effects of short-chain inulin-like fructans on the healing stage of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Hino, Shingo; Ito, Hiroyuki; Bito, Hiroyuki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Morita, Tatsuya

    2011-01-01

    We evaluated the ameliorating effects of short-chain inulin-like fructans (SIF) with different degrees of polymerization (DP) on the healing stage of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. The rats were assigned to 3 groups 10 d after the colitis induction, and fed for 24 d on a control diet or diet including 60 g of DP4 or DP8/kg. The fecal myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and IgA concentration were monitored every 7 d. The colonic MPO activities and cecal concentrations of organic acids, lactobacilli, bifidobacteria, mucin and IgA were measured at the end of the study. DP4, but not DP8, significantly reduced the colonic inflammation accompanied by higher cecal concentrations of short-chain fatty acids, propionate in particular, and lactic acid-producing bacteria. DP4 therefore accelerated the healing process of TNBS-induced colitis, even when the treatment was initiated after inducing colitis.

  15. An α-linolenic acid-rich formula reduces oxidative stress and inflammation by regulating NF-κB in rats with TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Hassan, Aktham; Ibrahim, Ayman; Mbodji, Khaly; Coëffier, Moïse; Ziegler, Frédéric; Bounoure, Frédéric; Chardigny, Jean-Michel; Skiba, Mohamed; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2010-10-01

    We have previously shown that α-linolenic acid (ALA), a (n-3) PUFA exerts in vitro antiinflammatory effects in the intestine. In this study, we aimed to evaluate its effect on inflammatory and oxidative stress in a colitis model. Colitis was induced in 2 groups at d 0 by intrarectal injection of 2-4-6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS), whereas the control group received the vehicle. Rats we fed 450 mg . kg(-1) . d(-1) of ALA (TNBS+ALA) while the other colitic group (TNBS) and the control group were fed an isocaloric corn oil formula for 14 d (from d -7 to d 7). RBC fatty acid composition was assessed. Oxidative stress was studied by measuring urinary 8-isoprostanes (8-IP) and colon glutathione (GSH) concentration and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression. Colitis was assessed histologically, by production of proinflammatory mediators, including cytokines, leukotrienes B(4) (LTB(4)), and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) and by nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation. The ALA-rich diet significantly increased the RBC levels of ALA, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosapentaenoic acid (n-3) compared with the TNBS group (P < 0.01 for all). The beneficial effect of ALA supplementation on oxidative stress was reflected by lower urinary 8-IP levels (P < 0.05), a normalized colon GSH concentration (P < 0.01), and reduced colon iNOS expression (P < 0.05) compared with the TNBS group. ALA also protected against colon inflammation as assessed by lower tumor necrosis factor-α secretion and mRNA level (P < 0.05), reduced NF-κB activation (P = 0.01), and lower colon lipid mediator concentrations such as LTB(4) and COX-2 (P < 0.05) compared with the TNBS group. These findings show that an ALA-rich formula is beneficial to TNBS-induced colitic rats via inhibition of oxidative and inflammatory stress.

  16. Anti-inflammatory effect of recreational exercise in TNBS-induced colitis in rats: role of NOS/HO/MPO system.

    PubMed

    Szalai, Zita; Szász, András; Nagy, István; Puskás, László G; Kupai, Krisztina; Király, Adél; Berkó, Anikó Magyariné; Pósa, Anikó; Strifler, Gerda; Baráth, Zoltán; Nagy, Lajos I; Szabó, Renáta; Pávó, Imre; Murlasits, Zsolt; Gyöngyösi, Mariann; Varga, Csaba

    2014-01-01

    There are opposite views in the available literature: Whether physical exercise has a protective effect or not on the onset of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore, we investigated the effects of recreational physical exercise before the induction of colitis. After 6 weeks of voluntary physical activity (running wheel), male Wistar rats were treated with TNBS (10 mg). 72 hrs after trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) challenge we measured colonic gene (TNF-α, IL-1β, CXCL1 and IL-10) and protein (TNF-α) expressions of various inflammatory mediators and enzyme activities of heme oxygenase (HO), nitric oxide synthase (NOS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) enzymes. Wheel running significantly increased the activities of HO, constitutive NOS (cNOS) isoform. Furthermore, 6 weeks of running significantly decreased TNBS-induced inflammatory markers, including extent of lesions, severity of mucosal damage, and gene expression of IL-1β, CXCL1, and MPO activity, while IL-10 gene expression and cNOS activity were increased. iNOS activity decreased and the activity of HO enzyme increased, but not significantly, compared to the sedentary TNBS-treated group. In conclusion, recreational physical exercise can play an anti-inflammatory role by downregulating the gene expression of proinflammatory mediators, inducing anti-inflammatory mediators, and modulating the activities of HO and NOS enzymes in a rat model of colitis.

  17. Enteral diets enriched with medium-chain triglycerides and N-3 fatty acids prevent chemically induced experimental colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Kono, Hiroshi; Fujii, Hideki; Ogiku, Masahito; Tsuchiya, Masato; Ishii, Kenichi; Hara, Michio

    2010-11-01

    The specific purpose of this study was to evaluate the significant effects of medium-chain triglycerides (MCTs) and N-3 fatty acids on chemically induced experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats. Male Wistar rats were fed liquid diets enriched with N-6 fatty acid (control diets), N-3 fatty acid (MCT- diets), and N-3 fatty acid and MCT (MCT+ diets) for 2 weeks and then were given an intracolonic injection of TNBS. Serum and tissue samples were collected 5 days after ethanol or TNBS enema. The severity of colitis was evaluated pathologically, and tissue myeloperoxidase activity was measured in colonic tissues. Furthermore, protein levels for inflammatory cytokines and a chemokine were assessed by an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay in colonic tissues. Induction of proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1β in the colon by TNBS enema was markedly attenuated by the MCT+ diet among the 3 diets studied. Furthermore, the induction of chemokines macrophage inflammatory protein-2 and monocyte chemotactic protein-1 also was blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets. As a result, MPO activities in the colonic tissue also were blunted significantly in animals fed the MCT+ diets compared with those fed the control diets or the MCT- diets. Furthermore, the MCT+ diet improved chemically induced colitis significantly among the 3 diets studied. Diets enriched with both MCTs and N-3 fatty acids may be effective for the therapy of inflammatory bowel disease as antiinflammatory immunomodulating nutrients.

  18. Anti-inflammatory intestinal activity of Combretum duarteanum Cambess. in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid colitis model

    PubMed Central

    de Morais Lima, Gedson Rodrigues; Machado, Flavia Danniele Frota; Périco, Larissa Lucena; de Faria, Felipe Meira; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia Akiko; Tavares, Josean Fechine; Barbosa Filho, José Maria; Batista, Leônia Maria

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the anti-inflammatory intestinal effect of the ethanolic extract (EtOHE) and hexane phase (HexP) obtained from the leaves of Combretum duarteanum (Cd). METHODS Inflammatory bowel disease was induced using trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid in acute and relapsed ulcerative colitis in rat models. Damage scores, and biochemical, histological and immunohistochemical parameters were evaluated. RESULTS Both Cd-EtOHE and Cd-HexP caused significant reductions in macroscopic lesion scores and ulcerative lesion areas. The vegetable samples inhibited myeloperoxidase increase, as well as pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α and IL-1β. Anti-inflammatory cytokine IL-10 also increased in animals treated with the tested plant samples. The anti-inflammatory intestinal effect is related to decreased expression of cyclooxygenase-2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, and an increase in superoxide dismutase. CONCLUSION The data indicate anti-inflammatory intestinal activity. The effects may also involve participation of the antioxidant system and principal cytokines relating to inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:28293082

  19. Novel insights on the effect of nicotine in a murine colitis model.

    PubMed

    AlSharari, Shakir D; Akbarali, Hamid I; Abdullah, Rehab A; Shahab, Omer; Auttachoat, Wimolnut; Ferreira, Gabriela A; White, Kimber L; Lichtman, Aron H; Cabral, Guy A; Damaj, M Imad

    2013-01-01

    Studies showed that nicotine has a positive influence on symptoms of ulcerative colitis. In the present study, we explored the effect of nicotine treatment using different routes of administration in the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) colitis mouse model. We also investigated the effects of cotinine, a major metabolite of nicotine, in the model. C57BL6 adult male mice were given DSS solution freely in the drinking water for seven consecutive days, and tap water was given thereafter. Disease severity, length of the colon, colon tissue histology, and inflammatory markers, including colonic myeloperoxidase activity and colonic tumor necrosis factor-α levels, were evaluated. The effect of nicotine and cotinine treatments via various different routes of administration were examined the DSS model. In addition, we measured the plasma levels of nicotine and cotinine in our treatment protocols. Administration of low, but not high, doses of oral nicotine in DSS-treated mice resulted in a significant decrease in disease severity, histologic damage scores, as well as colonic level of tumor necrosis factor-α. However, the anti-inflammatory effect of nicotine was not seen after chronic s.c. or minipump infusion of the drug. Differences in plasma levels of nicotine and cotinine do not seem to account for this lack of effect. Finally, oral cotinine alone failed to show a significant effect in the DSS model of colitis. These results highlight that dose and route of administration play a critical role in the protective effect of nicotine in the DSS mouse colitis model.

  20. Impact of probiotics on toll-like receptor 4 expression in an experimental model of ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xia; Fu, Yu; Liu, Jun; Ren, Hong-yu

    2013-10-01

    Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are key components of the innate immune system which trigger antimicrobial host defense responses. This study aimed to investigate the impact of probiotics (Lactobacillus, Bifidobacterium) on the expression of TLR4 and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) in the colon mucosa of rat experimental ulcerative colitis model induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)/ethanol and immune complexes. The gross and histological changes of the colonic mucosa were observed and assessed by the means-standard deviation and independent samples t-test. The protein expression levels of TLR4 and TNF-α were detected by using immunohistochemistry and Western blotting, respectively. It was revealed that there was visible infiltration of inflammatory cells, formation of crypt abscess, and the reduction of goblet cells in the colon tissue of experimental models. As compared with the control group, the levels of TLR4 and TNF-α protein were significantly increased in the model group (P<0.01 for both). No significant difference was found in the expression of TLR4 and TNF-α between the two-week probiotics treatment group and the model group (P>0.05), whereas significant reductions were shown in rats which were treated with probiotics for four weeks as compared with the model group (P<0.01). There was no significant difference between two probiotics-treated groups. Our results implied that probiotics were likely to play a key role in protecting ulcerative colitis by reducing the inflammatory factor TNF-α expression through inhibiting the TLR4 expression in the colon tissue of experimental models.

  1. Antiinflammatory Effect of Phytosterols in Experimental Murine Colitis Model: Prevention, Induction, Remission Study

    PubMed Central

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25268769

  2. Antiinflammatory effect of phytosterols in experimental murine colitis model: prevention, induction, remission study.

    PubMed

    Aldini, Rita; Micucci, Matteo; Cevenini, Monica; Fato, Romana; Bergamini, Christian; Nanni, Cristina; Cont, Massimiliano; Camborata, Cecilia; Spinozzi, Silvia; Montagnani, Marco; Roda, Giulia; D'Errico-Grigioni, Antonia; Rosini, Francesca; Roda, Aldo; Mazzella, Giuseppe; Chiarini, Alberto; Budriesi, Roberta

    2014-01-01

    Phytosterols, besides hypocholesterolemic effect, present anti-inflammatory properties. Little information is available about their efficacy in Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD). Therefore, we have evaluated the effect of a mixture of phytosterols on prevention/induction/remission in a murine experimental model of colitis. Phytosterols were administered x os before, during and after colitis induction with Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS) in mice. Disease Activity Index (DAI), colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress in the intestinal tissue (ileum and colon) and gallbladder ileum and colon spontaneous and carbachol (CCh) induced motility, plasma lipids and plasma, liver and biliary bile acids (BA) were evaluated. A similar longitudinal study was performed in a DSS colitis control group. Mice treated with DSS developed severe colitis as shown by DAI, colon length, histopathology score, 18F-FDG microPET, oxidative stress. Both spontaneous and induced ileal and colonic motility were severely disturbed. The same was observed with gallbladder. DSS colitis resulted in an increase in plasma cholesterol, and a modification of the BA pattern. Phytosterols feeding did not prevent colitis onset but significantly reduced the severity of the disease and improved clinical and histological remission. It had strong antioxidant effects, almost restored colon, ileal and gallbladder motility. Plasmatic levels of cholesterol were also reduced. DSS induced a modification in the BA pattern consistent with an increase in the intestinal BA deconjugating bacteria, prevented by phytosterols. Phytosterols seem a potential nutraceutical tool for gastrointestinal inflammatory diseases, combining metabolic systematic and local anti-inflammatory effects.

  3. Th17 Responses Are Not Induced in Dextran Sodium Sulfate Model of Acute Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Yoon Suk; Lee, Min Ho; Ju, Ahn Seung

    2011-01-01

    Dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) is a widely used chemical model for inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is thought that imbalances in the T helper (Th) cell subsets contribute to IBD. Recent studies suggest that the acute DSS-colitis model is polarized toward a Th1/Th17 profile based on RT-PCR analysis of colonic tissues. In the current study we determined whether colonic Th cells from DSS-colitis mice were skewed toward the Th17 profile. Mice were treated with 5% DSS for 7 days and colonic T cells isolated and examined for production of IFN-γ (Th1 cell), IL-4 (Th2 cell) and IL-17 (Th17 cell) by intracellular flow cytometry. We found that the percentage of colonic Th17 cells were similar to non-treated controls but the percentage of Th1 cells were elevated in DSS-colitis mice. These results suggest that in the acute DSS-colitis model the colonic Th cells exhibit a Th1 profile and not a Th17 profile. PMID:22346784

  4. Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction Ameliorates Dextran Sulphate Sodium-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Rats by Downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 Axis-Mediated Inflammatory Response

    PubMed Central

    Mao, Tang-you; Shi, Rui; Zhao, Wei-han; Guo, Yi; Gao, Kang-li; Chen, Chen; Xie, Tian-hong; Li, Jun-xiang

    2016-01-01

    Qingchang Wenzhong Decoction (QCWZD) is an effective traditional Chinese medicine prescription. Our previous studies have shown that QCWZD has significant efficacy in patients with mild-to-moderate ulcerative colitis (UC) and in colonic mucosa repair in UC rat models. However, the exact underlying mechanism remains unknown. Thus, this study was conducted to determine QCWZD's efficacy and mechanism in dextran sulphate sodium- (DSS-) induced UC rat models, which were established by 7-day administration of 4.5% DSS solution. QCWZD was administered daily for 7 days, after which the rats were euthanized. Disease activity index (DAI), histological score (HS), and myeloperoxidase (MPO) level were determined to evaluate UC severity. Serum interferon gamma-induced protein 10 (IP10) levels were determined using ELISA kits. Western blotting and real-time polymerase chain reaction were, respectively, used to determine colonic protein and gene expression of IP10, chemokine (cys-x-cys motif) receptor (CXCR)3, and nuclear factor- (NF-) κB p65. Intragastric QCWZD administration ameliorated DSS-induced UC, as evidenced by decreased DAI, HS, and MPO levels. Furthermore, QCWZD decreased the protein and gene expression of IP10, CXCR3, and NF-κB p65. Overall, these results suggest that QCWZD ameliorates DSS-induced UC in rats by downregulating the IP10/CXCR3 axis-mediated inflammatory response and may be a novel UC therapy. PMID:27413386

  5. Syndecan-1 deficiency promotes tumor growth in a murine model of colitis-induced colon carcinoma

    PubMed Central

    Binder Gallimidi, Adi; Nussbaum, Gabriel; Hermano, Esther; Weizman, Barak; Meirovitz, Amichay; Vlodavsky, Israel; Götte, Martin; Elkin, Michael

    2017-01-01

    Syndecan-1 (Sdc1) is an important member of the cell surface heparan sulfate proteoglycan family, highly expressed by epithelial cells in adult organisms. Sdc1 is involved in the regulation of cell migration, cell-cell and cell-matrix interactions, growth-factor, chemokine and integrin activity, and implicated in inflammatory responses and tumorigenesis. Gastrointestinal tract represents an important anatomic site where loss of Sdc1 expression was reported both in inflammation and malignancy. However, the biological significance of Sdc1 in chronic colitis-associated tumorigenesis has not been elucidated. To the best of our knowledge, this study is the first to test the effects of Sdc1 loss on colorectal tumor development in inflammation-driven colon tumorigenesis. Utilizing a mouse model of colitis-related colon carcinoma induced by the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM), followed by the inflammatory agent dextran sodium sulfate (DSS), we found that Sdc1 deficiency results in increased susceptibility to colitis-associated tumorigenesis. Importantly, colitis-associated tumors developed in Sdc1-defficient mice were characterized by increased local production of IL-6, activation of STAT3, as well as induction of several STAT3 target genes that act as important effectors of colonic tumorigenesis. Altogether, our results highlight a previously unknown effect of Sdc1 loss in progression of inflammation-associated cancer and suggest that decreased levels of Sdc1 may serve as an indicator of colon carcinoma progression in the setting of chronic inflammation. PMID:28350804

  6. Protective effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Mannasaheb, Basheerahmed A.A.; Kulkarni, Preeti V.; Sangreskopp, Mashood Ahmed; Savant, Chetan; Mohan, Anjana

    2015-01-01

    Introduction: Natural plants always provide core compounds for new drug development. In the present life and food style, inflammatory bowel disease has become common and needs a lead compound for its drug development. Aim: To evaluate the effect of Agave americana Linn. leaf extract in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis in rats based on its traditional anti-inflammatory use. Materials and Methods: Male Wistar rats were pretreated with A. americana leaf extract in the dose of 200 and 400 mg/kg p.o. daily for 7 days. On 8th day, 2 ml of 4% v/v acetic acid in saline was instilled into rats’ rectum. Prednisolone was used as standard drug and it was administered on the day of acetic acid instillation and continued for 3 days. Extract treatment was continued till 11th day. Body weight, ulcer score, colonic muscle contraction, antioxidant activity and histopathology were studied. Statistical analysis was performed using Parametric one-way analysis of variance followed by Tukey's posttest. Results: A. americana have retained total body weight significantly (P < 0.01) and decreased colon weight/length ratio. Extract have shown a significant decrease (P < 0.001) in ulcer scores, myeloperoxidase, lipid peroxidase activity. Further, extract have shown significant improvement in colonic muscle contraction, histopathology of colon etc., which is comparable with standard drug. Conclusion: A. americana possess protective effect against acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:26730148

  7. St. John's wort may ameliorate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid colitis off rats through the induction of pregnane X receptors and/or P-glycoproteins.

    PubMed

    Sehirli, A O; Cetinel, S; Ozkan, N; Selman, S; Tetik, S; Yuksel, M; Dulger, F G A

    2015-04-01

    It is reported that deficiencies of the pregnane X receptor (PXR) and P-glycoprotein (P-gp), the latter of which is encoded by the MDR1 gene, are important factors in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). It is also known that the activation of PXR is protective of IBD due to the mutual repression between PXR and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) expression and because NF-κB was reported to play a pivotal role in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis. The goal of this study was to investigate whether St. John's wort (SJW) and spironolactone (SPL), both known to have strong inducing effects on cytochrome P 450 (CYP) enzymes as well as PXR and P-gp, have ameliorating effects on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) colitis of rats through induction of PXR and/or P-gp. Wistar albino rats (250 - 300 g) were divided into control and TNBS-colitis groups. Each group was then divided into a) control (saline), b) SJW (300 mg/kg p.o. bid), and c) SPL (80 mg/kg p.o.) groups. Drugs were given for 7 days. Both treatments ameliorated the clinical hallmarks of colitis, as determined by body weight loss and assessment of diarrhea, colon length, and bowel histology. Plasma levels of NF-κB, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and tissue myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the oxidative stress markers that increased during colitis, decreased significantly after both treatments. The PXR and P-gp expression in the intestinal tissues was diminished in the colitis group but increased after drug treatments. Both drugs appeared to have significant antioxidant and anti-inflammatory effects and ameliorated the TNBS colitis of the rats, most likely through their PXR- and P-gp-inducing properties.

  8. Effects of Rhizophora mangle on Experimental Colitis Induced by TNBS in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Faria, Felipe Meira; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; Socca, Eduardo Augusto Rabelo; de Almeida, Ana Cristina Alves; Dunder, Ricardo José; Manzo, Luis Paulo; da Silva, Marcelo Aparecido; Vilegas, Wagner; Rozza, Ariane Leite; Pellizzon, Cláudia Helena; Dos Santos, Lourdes Campaner; Souza Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro

    2012-01-01

    Male Unib-WH rats were pretreated for two weeks with butanolic (BuOH) and ethyl acetate (EtOAc) fractions. Colitis was induced by rectal administration of TNBS, the treatment continued, and animals were sacrificed on day 7 after the TNBS administration. Phytochemical studies were performed in order to provide the characterization of the tannins present in the bark of R. mangle. Results showed that EtOAc fraction increased the levels of IL-10 (∗∗P < 0.01) and diminished the levels of TNF-α (∗∗∗P < 0.001) and IL-6 (∗∗P < 0.01). BuOH fraction reduced the MPO activity (∗∗P < 0.01) and levels of TBARS (∗∗∗P < 0.001); it also increased COX-1 expression, diminished the levels of TNF-α (∗∗∗P < 0.001), and increased the levels of IL-12 (∗∗∗P < 0.001). Besides, both treatments augmented the levels of GSH (∗P < 0.05), the activity of GSH-Px (∗∗P < 0.01 for BuOH fraction and ∗∗∗P < 0.001 for EtOAc fraction), and CAT (∗∗P < 0.01). In conclusion, both treatments ameliorated the injury induced by TNBS through different mechanisms, probably by their chemical composition which directed its activity into an antioxidant or anti-inflammatory response, leading to an immune modulation.

  9. 1,3-Diphenylpropenone ameliorates TNBS-induced rat colitis through suppression of NF-κB activation and IL-8 induction.

    PubMed

    Park, Su-Young; Ku, Sae Kwang; Lee, Eung Seok; Kim, Jung-Ae

    2012-03-05

    In the present study, we examined whether newly synthesized phenylpropenone derivatives, by inhibiting NF-κB activity, would inhibit IL-8 expression, inflammation and abnormal angiogenesis, resulting in amelioration of disease conditions. The phenylpropenone derivatives inhibited NF-κB transcriptional activity, which correlated with their suppressive activity against TNF-α-induced adhesion of U937 human monocytic cells to HT-29 human colonic epithelial cells, an in vitro model of IBD. Among the derivatives, 1,3-diphenylpropenone (DPhP) was most efficacious, and it significantly suppressed TNF-α-induced production of IL-8 which is a proinflammatory and proangiogenic cytokine. The anti-inflammatory activity of DPhP was also confirmed in the trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced rat colitis model. DPhP was protective against the TNBS-induced inflammatory responses, which included weight loss, increased myeloperoxidase activity and mucosal damage. In the colon tissue, DPhP inhibited TNBS-induced NF-κB nuclear translocation, IL-8 and TNF-α expressions, and abnormal angiogenesis. In addition, DPhP also suppressed IL-8-induced angiogenesis, which was revealed by an in vivo assay using chick chorioallantoic membrane. Furthermore, the level of IL-6, a pleiotropic cytokine which is implicated in the pathogenesis of IBD and colitis-associated cancer, was suppressed by DPhP in rat colon tissue and serum. In conclusion, the results suggest that DPhP is a potential dual-acting IBD drug candidate targeting both inflammation and abnormal angiogenesis, possibly through the NF-κB and IL-8 signaling pathway.

  10. Effect of COX-2 inhibitor lumiracoxib and the TNF-α antagonist etanercept on TNBS-induced colitis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Marchi, Patrícia; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Franco, Marcello

    2012-06-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with gut barrier dysfunction. Besides the baseline barrier defect, a subgroup of patients also expresses an intestinal barrier hyperresponsiveness to nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs. On the other hand, the anti-tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) treatment has brought benefits to these patients. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of lumiracoxib, a selective-cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor, and Etanercept (ETC), a TNF-α antagonist on the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. A total of 47 Wistar rats were randomized into seven groups, as follows: (1) Sham: sham induced-colitis; (2) TNBS: nontreated induced-colitis; (3) Lumiracoxib control; (4) Lumiracoxib-treated induced-colitis; (5) ETC control; (6) ETC-treated induced-colitis; (7) Lumiracoxib-ETC-treated induced-colitis. Rats from groups 6 and 7 presented significant improvement of macroscopic and histopathological damages in the distal colon. The gene expression of COX-2 mRNA, as well of TNF-α mRNA, decreased significantly in groups 6 and 7 compared to the TNBS nontreated and lumiracoxib-treated groups. The treatment only with lumiracoxib did not reduce the inflammation on TNBS-induced experimental colitis. ETC attenuated the damage seen in the colon and reduced the inflammation caused by TNBS. Our results suggest that down-regulation of TNF-α and COX-2 resulted in a decrease in inflammation caused by TNBS and thus provided some protection from the colonic damage caused by TNBS.

  11. Lessons from probiotic-host interaction studies in murine models of experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Claes, Ingmar J J; De Keersmaecker, Sigrid C J; Vanderleyden, Jos; Lebeer, Sarah

    2011-10-01

    In inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), it is known that besides genetic and environmental factors (e.g. diet, drugs, stress), the microbiota play an important role in the pathogenesis. Patients with IBD have an altered microbiota (dysbiosis) and therefore, probiotics, defined as 'live micro-organisms that when administered in adequate amounts can confer a health benefit on the host', have been suggested as nutritional supplements to restore these imbalances. The best response on probiotics among the different types of IBD appears to be in the case of ulcerative colitis. Although probiotics show promise in IBD in both clinical and animal studies, further mechanistic studies are necessary to optimize the use of probiotics as supporting therapy in IBD. Murine models of experimental colitis have been used for decades to study this pathology, and these models have been proven useful to search for new therapeutic approaches. The purpose of this review is to summarize probiotic-host interaction studies in murine models of experimental colitis and to evaluate how these models can further help in understanding these complex interactions. Unraveling the molecular mechanisms behind the beneficial effects will assist in better and possibly more efficient probiotic formulations.

  12. Synergic Interaction of Rifaximin and Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) in the Treatment of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gałązka, Krystyna; Konturek, Peter Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (109 CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day. The severity of colitis was assessed at the 8th day after induction of inflammation. Results. Treatment with rifaximin significantly accelerated the healing of colonic damage. This effect was associated with significant reversion of the acetic acid-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Moreover, administration of rifaximin significantly reduced concentration of proinflammatory TNF-α and activity of myeloperoxidase in colonic mucosa. Mutaflor given alone was without significant effect on activity of colitis. In contrast, Mutaflor given in combination with rifaximin significantly enhanced therapeutic effect of rifaximin. Moreover, Mutaflor led to settle of the colon by EcN and this effect was augmented by pretreatment with rifaximin. Conclusion. Rifaximin and Mutaflor exhibit synergic anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effect in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. PMID:27433160

  13. Short-chain inulin-like fructans reduce endotoxin and bacterial translocations and attenuate development of TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ito, Hiroyuki; Tanabe, Hiroki; Kawagishi, Hirokazu; Tadashi, Wada; Yasuhiko, Tomono; Sugiyama, Kimio; Kiriyama, Shuhachi; Morita, Tatsuya

    2009-10-01

    Anti-inflammatory effects of short-chain inulin-like fructans (SCF) on trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis were investigated in rats, focusing specifically on endotoxin and bacterial translocations. SCF with degrees of polymerization (DP) of 4 and 8 were used. Rats were fed either control diet or diets including 60 g DP4 or DP8 per kilogram for 7 days, and then received intracolonic TNBS and were fed the respective diets for a further 10 days. DP4 and DP8 significantly reduced colonic injuries as assessed by damage score, but the reduction of colonic myeloperoxidase activity was manifest solely with DP8. At 3 days after colitis induction, bacterial translocation to the mesenteric lymph node was significantly lower in the DP4 and DP8 groups, but significant reduction in the portal endotoxin concentration was achieved solely in the DP8 group. Immediately prior to colitis induction, cecal immunoglobulin A and mucin concentrations were higher in the DP4 and DP8 groups, but these changes were abolished at 10 days post colitis induction. The data suggest that SCF exert prophylactic effects against TNBS colitis, presumably as a result of inhibitory effects on endotoxin and bacterial translocations.

  14. Synergic Interaction of Rifaximin and Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917) in the Treatment of Acetic Acid-Induced Colitis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dembiński, Artur; Warzecha, Zygmunt; Ceranowicz, Piotr; Dembiński, Marcin; Cieszkowski, Jakub; Gosiewski, Tomasz; Bulanda, Małgorzata; Kuśnierz-Cabala, Beata; Gałązka, Krystyna; Konturek, Peter Christopher

    2016-01-01

    Background. Inflammatory bowel disease results from the dysregulation of immune response to environmental and microbial agents in genetically susceptible individuals. The aim of the present study was to examine the effect of rifaximin and/or Mutaflor (Escherichia coli Nissle 1917, EcN) administration on the healing of acetic acid-induced colitis. Methods. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by rectal enema with 3.5% acetic acid solution. Rifaximin (50 mg/kg/dose) and/or Mutaflor (10(9) CFU/dose) were given intragastrically once a day. The severity of colitis was assessed at the 8th day after induction of inflammation. Results. Treatment with rifaximin significantly accelerated the healing of colonic damage. This effect was associated with significant reversion of the acetic acid-evoked decrease in mucosal blood flow and DNA synthesis. Moreover, administration of rifaximin significantly reduced concentration of proinflammatory TNF-α and activity of myeloperoxidase in colonic mucosa. Mutaflor given alone was without significant effect on activity of colitis. In contrast, Mutaflor given in combination with rifaximin significantly enhanced therapeutic effect of rifaximin. Moreover, Mutaflor led to settle of the colon by EcN and this effect was augmented by pretreatment with rifaximin. Conclusion. Rifaximin and Mutaflor exhibit synergic anti-inflammatory and therapeutic effect in acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

  15. Therapeutic effects of human amnion-derived mesenchymal stem cell transplantation and conditioned medium enema in rats with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Miyamoto, Shuichi; Ohnishi, Shunsuke; Onishi, Reizo; Tsuchiya, Ikuki; Hosono, Hidetaka; Katsurada, Takehiko; Yamahara, Kenichi; Takeda, Hiroshi; Sakamoto, Naoya

    2017-01-01

    Cell therapy with mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) is expected to provide a new strategy for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Large amounts of MSCs can be obtained from human amnion. Therefore, we investigated the effect of transplantation of human amnion-derived MSCs (hAMSCs) or enema of conditioned medium (CM) from hAMSCs into rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. In the first experiment, 10-week-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with hAMSCs (1 × 106 cells) 3 h after rectal administration of TNBS (45 mg/kg). In the second experiment, rats with TNBS-induced colitis received CM by enema into the colon for 3 days. Colitis was investigated by endoscopy, histology, immunohistochemistry, and by measuring mRNA expression of inflammatory mediators. Administration of hAMSCs or CM enema significantly improved the endoscopic score. In addition, these two interventions resulted in significantly decreased infiltration of neutrophils and monocytes/macrophages and decreased expression levels of TNF-α, CXCL1, and CCL2. In conclusion, transplantation of hAMSCs and CM enema provided significant improvement in rats with TNBS-induced colitis. CM from hAMSCs and hAMSCs may be new strategies for the treatment of IBD. PMID:28386323

  16. Investigation of mitigating effect of colon-specific prodrugs of boswellic acid on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in Wistar rats: Design, kinetics and biological evaluation

    PubMed Central

    Sarkate, Ajinkya; Dhaneshwar, Suneela S

    2017-01-01

    AIM To develop a colon-targeting bioreversible delivery system for β-boswellic acid (BBA) and explore utility of its prodrugs in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in rats. METHODS Synthesis of 4 co-drugs of BBA with essential amino acids was achieved by CDI coupling, followed by their spectral characterization. In vitro kinetics were studied by HPLC in aqueous buffers, homogenates of gastrointestinal tract and fecal matter. In vivo kinetic studies were performed in Wistar rat plasma, urine and feces. The prodrugs were screened in TNBS-induced colitis modeled Wistar rats. Statistical significance was assumed at P < 0.05, P < 0.01, P < 0.001 when compared with disease controls using one-way and two-way ANOVAs. RESULTS Prodrugs were stable in 0.05 mol/L HCl buffer (pH 1.2) and stomach homogenates. Negligible hydrolysis was observed in phosphate buffer and intestinal homogenates. Substantial release (55%-72% and 68%-86%) of BBA was achieved in rat fecal matter and homogenates of colon. In vivo studies of BBA with L-tryptophan (BT) authenticated colon-specific release of BBA. But, surprisingly substantial concentration of BBA was seen to reach the systemic circulation due to probable absorption through colonic mucosa. Site-specifically enhanced bioavailability of BBA could be achieved in colon, which resulted in demonstration of significant mitigating effect on TNBS-induced colitis in rats without inducing any adverse effects on stomach, liver and pancreas. Prodrug of BT was found to be 1.7% (P < 0.001) superior than sulfasalazine in reducing the inflammation to colon among all prodrugs tested. CONCLUSION The outcome of this study strongly suggests that these prodrugs might have dual applicability to inflammatory bowel disease and chronotherapy of rheumatoid arthritis. PMID:28275295

  17. Plecanatide and dolcanatide, novel guanylate cyclase-C agonists, ameliorate gastrointestinal inflammation in experimental models of murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Shailubhai, Kunwar; Palejwala, Vaseem; Arjunan, Krishna Priya; Saykhedkar, Sayali; Nefsky, Bradley; Foss, John A; Comiskey, Stephen; Jacob, Gary S; Plevy, Scott E

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To evaluate the effect of orally administered plecanatide or dolcanatide, analogs of uroguanylin, on amelioration of colitis in murine models. METHODS: The cyclic guanosine monophosphate (cGMP) stimulatory potency of plecanatide and dolcanatide was measured using a human colon carcinoma T84 cell-based assay. For animal studies all test agents were formulated in phosphate buffered saline. Sulfasalazine or 5-amino salicylic acid (5-ASA) served as positive controls. Effect of oral treatment with test agents on amelioration of acute colitis induced either by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in drinking water or by rectal instillation of trinitrobenzene sulfonic (TNBS) acid, was examined in BALB/c and/or BDF1 mice. Additionally, the effect of orally administered plecanatide on the spontaneous colitis in T-cell receptor alpha knockout (TCRα-/-) mice was also examined. Amelioration of colitis was assessed by monitoring severity of colitis, disease activity index and by histopathology. Frozen colon tissues were used to measure myeloperoxidase activity. RESULTS: Plecanatide and dolcanatide are structurally related analogs of uroguanylin, which is an endogenous ligand of guanylate cyclase-C (GC-C). As expected from the agonists of GC-C, both plecanatide and dolcanatide exhibited potent cGMP-stimulatory activity in T84 cells. Once-daily treatment by oral gavage with either of these analogs (0.05-0.5 mg/kg) ameliorated colitis in both DSS and TNBS-induced models of acute colitis, as assessed by body weight, reduction in colitis severity (P < 0.05) and disease activity index (P < 0.05). Amelioration of colitis by either of the drug candidates was comparable to that achieved by orally administered sulfasalazine or 5-ASA. Plecanatide also effectively ameliorated colitis in TCRα-/- mice, a model of spontaneous colitis. As dolcanatide exhibited higher resistance to proteolysis in simulated gastric and intestinal juices, it was selected for further studies. CONCLUSION: This is

  18. Effects of Boswellia serrata in mouse models of chemically induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Kiela, Pawel R; Midura, Anna J; Kuscuoglu, Nesrin; Jolad, Shivanand D; Sólyom, Anikó M; Besselsen, David G; Timmermann, Barbara N; Ghishan, Fayez K

    2005-04-01

    Extracts from Boswellia serrata have been reported to have anti-inflammatory activity, primarily via boswellic acid-mediated inhibition of leukotriene synthesis. In three small clinical trials, boswellia was shown to improve symptoms of ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, and because of its alleged safety, boswellia was considered superior over mesalazine in terms of a benefit-risk evaluation. The goal of this study was to evaluate the effectiveness of boswellia extracts in controlled settings of dextran sulfate- or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in mice. Our results suggest that boswellia is ineffective in ameliorating colitis in these models. Moreover, individual boswellic acids were demonstrated to increase the basal and IL-1beta-stimulated NF-kappaB activity in intestinal epithelial cells in vitro as well as reverse proliferative effects of IL-1beta. We also observed hepatotoxic effect of boswellia with pronounced hepatomegaly and steatosis. Hepatotoxity and increased lipid accumulation in response to boswellia were further confirmed in vitro in HepG2 cells with fluorescent Nile red binding/resazurin reduction assay and by confocal microscopy. Microarray analyses of hepatic gene expression demonstrated dysregulation of a number of genes, including a large group of lipid metabolism-related genes, and detoxifying enzymes, a response consistent with that to hepatotoxic xenobiotics. In summary, boswellia does not ameliorate symptoms of colitis in chemically induced murine models and, in higher doses, may become hepatotoxic. Potential implications of prolonged and uncontrolled intake of boswellia as an herbal supplement in inflammatory bowel disease and other inflammatory conditions should be considered in future clinical trials with this botanical.

  19. Suppression of TNBS-induced colitis in rats by 4-methylesculetin, a natural coumarin: comparison with prednisolone and sulphasalazine.

    PubMed

    Witaicenis, Aline; Luchini, Ana C; Hiruma-Lima, Clélia A; Felisbino, Sérgio L; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Utrilla, Pilar; Gálvez, Julio; Di Stasi, Luiz C

    2012-01-05

    The aim of the present study was to compare the effects of the 4-methylesculetin with those produced by prednisolone and sulphasalazine and to elucidate the mechanisms involved in its action. Colitis was induced in rat by instillation of trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS). The colon damage was evaluated using macroscopic, microscopic and biochemical analysis. In addition, in vitro studies were performed to evaluate cytokine production in cell cultures using the murine macrophage cell line RAW264.7, mouse splenocytes and the human colonic epithelial cell line Caco-2. 4-Methylesculetin produced a reduction of the macroscopic damage score and the recovery of the intestinal cytoarchitecture. These effects were associated with a prevention of the GSH depletion and an inhibition in AP activity. After colitis relapse, 4-methylesculetin improved the colonic inflammatory status as evidenced by histological findings, with a reduction in apoptosis, as well as biochemically by inhibition of colonic myeloperoxidase, alkaline phosphatase and metalloproteinase 9 activities. Paired with this inhibitive activity, there was a decrease in malondialdehyde content and in IL-1β levels. In vitro assays revealed that 4-methylesculetin promoted an inhibition in IL-1β, IL-8, IL-2 and IFN-γ production in cell cultures. In conclusion, 4-methylesculetin showed similar efficacy to that obtained with either prednisolone or sulphasalazine, both in the acute phase of colitis as well as following a curative protocol. The intestinal anti-inflammatory activity by 4-methylesculetin is likely related to its ability in reduce colonic oxidative stress and inhibit pro-inflammatory cytokine production.

  20. Blocking TNF-α by combination of TNF-α- and TNFR-binding cyclic peptide ameliorates the severity of TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Yin, Bingjiao; Hu, Xin; Wang, Jing; Liang, Huifang; Li, Xiaoyan; Niu, Nin; Li, Baihua; Jiang, Xiaodan; Li, Zhuoya

    2011-04-10

    Tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of Crohn's disease. TNF antagonists are effectively used to treat these patients, although the efficiency of different antagonists varies. In the present study we combined TNF-α binding cyclic peptide (TBCP) and TNFR1 binding cyclic peptide (TRBCP) to treat TNBS-induced colitis in rats for one week. The symptoms of colitis including bloody diarrhea, rectal prolapse, and a profound and sustained weight loss were significantly ameliorated and the colon inflammatory damage, both macroscopic and histological scores, MPO activity, and NO production were markedly decreased in rats by neutralization of TNF-α and blocking TNFR1, as compared with those in rats treated with irrelevant peptide or normal saline (P<0.05). The transcripts of IL-1β and IL-8, and the protein expression of TNF-α in rats treated with both TBCP and TRBCP were also down-regulated (P<0.05), while these proinflammatory cytokines remained unchanged in rats treated with irrelevant peptide or normal saline. These findings suggest that the combination of TNF-α- and TNFR1-binding peptide effectively improves the symptoms of TNBS-induced colitis and alleviates colonic pathological damages in rats. This combination may be a potent candidate for clinical treatment of the inflammatory bowel disease.

  1. Camel's milk ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis in rats via downregulation of inflammatory cytokines and oxidative stress.

    PubMed

    Arab, Hany H; Salama, Samir A; Eid, Ahmed H; Omar, Hany A; Arafa, El-Shaimaa A; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A

    2014-07-01

    Current treatment strategies for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are associated with several adverse effects, and thus, the search for effective agents with minimal side effects merits attention. Camel's milk (CM) is endowed with antioxidant/anti-inflammatory features and has been reported to protect against diabetes and hepatic injury, however, its effects on IBD have not been previously explored. In the current study, we aimed to investigate the potential alleviating effects of CM against TNBS-induced colitis in rats. CM (10 ml/kg b.i.d. by oral gavage) effectively suppressed the severity of colon injury as evidenced by amelioration of macroscopic damage, colon weight/length ratio, histopathological alterations, leukocyte influx and myeloperoxidase activity. Administration of CM mitigated the colonic levels of TNF-α and IL-10 cytokines. The attenuation of CM to colon injury was also associated with suppression of oxidative stress via reduction of lipid peroxides and nitric oxide along with boosting the antioxidant defenses through restoration of colon glutathione and total anti-oxidant capacity. In addition, caspases-3 activity, an apoptotic marker, was inhibited. Together, our study highlights evidences for the promising alleviating effects of CM in colitis. Thus, CM may be an interesting complementary approach for the management of IBD.

  2. Animal models of ulcerative colitis and their application in drug research

    PubMed Central

    Low, Daren; Nguyen, Deanna D; Mizoguchi, Emiko

    2013-01-01

    The specific pathogenesis underlying inflammatory bowel disease is complex, and it is even more difficult to decipher the pathophysiology to explain for the similarities and differences between two of its major subtypes, Crohn’s disease and ulcerative colitis (UC). Animal models are indispensable to pry into mechanistic details that will facilitate better preclinical drug/therapy design to target specific components involved in the disease pathogenesis. This review focuses on common animal models that are particularly useful for the study of UC and its therapeutic strategy. Recent reports of the latest compounds, therapeutic strategies, and approaches tested on UC animal models are also discussed. PMID:24250223

  3. L-arginine and aminoguanidine reduce colonic damage of acetic acid-induced colitis in rats: potential modulation of nuclear factor-κB/p65.

    PubMed

    Farghaly, Hanan S M; Thabit, Romany H

    2014-10-01

    The transcription factor, nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) is a key inducer of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) gene expression. The aim of the present study was to investigate the potential protective effect of l-arginine (Arg; nitric oxide precursor) and aminoguanidine (inducible nitric oxide synthase inhibitor) against acetic acid (AA)-induced colitis in rats, and the potential role of NF-κB. Colitis was induced by intrarectal inoculation of rats with 4% acetic acid for three consecutive days. The effect of Arg and aminoguanidine on nitric oxide levels was assessed by Greiss assay and protein expression of NF-κB/p65, and inducible nitric oxide synthase was also investigated by immunohistochemistry. Slides were examined using ImageJ, and results reported as the percent area positive for each marker. Intrarectal AA caused a significant increase in bodyweight loss and colon weights. Arg at 100 mg/day for 7 days before induction of colitis diminished the changes in both bodyweight loss and colon weights. Furthermore, Arg attenuated the colonic tissues macroscopic and microscopic damage induced by acetic acid. In addition, i.p. AG 100 mg/kg given during and after induction of colitis recovered the colonic ulcerative lesion induced by AA. Arg can protect against colonic inflammation; an effect that probably be attributed to its nitric oxide-donating property, resulting in modulatory effects on the expression of NF-κB/p65 in the colon tissues. The results suggested that Arg might reduce the inflammation associated with colitis as confirmed by histopathological investigations. Arg might inhibit AA-induced colitis through the NF-κB/nitric oxide pathway.

  4. The Attenuation of Scutellariae radix Extract on Oxidative Stress for Colon Injury in Lipopolysaccharide-induced RAW264.7 Cell and 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene Sulfonic Acid-induced Ulcerative Colitis Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jin, Yu; Yang, Jun; Lin, Lianjie; Lin, Yan; Zheng, Changqing

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress (OS) has been regarded as one of the major pathogeneses of ulcerative colitis (UC) through damaging colon. It has been shown that Scutellariae radix (SR) extract has a beneficial effect for the prevention and treatment of UC. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate whether SR had a potential capacity on oxidant damage for colon injury both in vivo and in vitro. Materials and Methods: The 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) was used to induce UC rats model while 1 μg/ml lipopolysaccharide (LPS) was for RAW264.7 cell damage. Disease activity index (DAI) was determined to response the severity of colitis. The myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in rat colon was also estimated. The 2,2’-azino-bis-3-ethylbenzthiazoline-6-sulfonic acid assay was performed to evaluate the total antioxidant capacity of SR. Furthermore, the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX), catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), and lipid peroxidation malondialdehyde (MDA) in cell supernatant and rat serum were detected by appropriate kits. In addition, an immunohistochemical assay was applied to examine transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) protein expression in colon tissue. Results: The treatment with SR could significantly increase the activity of GSH-PX, CAT, and SOD associated with OS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell damage and TNBS-induced UC rats. However, the level of MDA was markedly reduced both in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, SR significantly decreased DAI and reversed the increased MPO activity. Thus, SR could decrease the severity of acute TNBS-induced colitis in rats. Immunohistochemical assay showed that SR significantly downregulated TGF-β1 protein expression in colon tissue. Conclusion: Our data provided evidence to support this fact that SR attenuated OS in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cell and also in TNBS-induced UC rats. Thus, SR may be an interesting candidate drug for the management of UC. SUMMARY Scutellariae radix (SR

  5. [Microscopic colitis].

    PubMed

    Bohr, Johan

    2002-02-11

    Microscopic colitis is an umbrella term for a newly described group of colitides, belonging to the inflammatory bowel diseases, which are only diagnosable by microscopic evaluation of a macroscopically normal colon mucosa. Collagenous colitis and lymphocytic colitis are the most common of these colitides. Microscopic colitis is characterised clinically by chronic non-bloody watery diarrhoea. Crampy abdominal pain, nocturnal diarrhoea, urgency, and initial weight loss are usual. Concomitant diseases of autoimmune origin and arthralgia are commonly seen. Treatment of microscopic colitis follows the guidelines for treatment of other inflammatory bowel diseases, but a substantial part of the patients with microscopic colitis enter spontaneous remission after some years. A minor part, however, have very troublesome symptoms and are almost refractory to treatment. Microscopic colitis has apparently no malignant potential.

  6. Modeling Colitis-Associated Cancer with Azoxymethane (AOM) and Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)

    PubMed Central

    Thaker, Ameet I.; Shaker, Anisa; Rao, M. Suprada; Ciorba, Matthew A.

    2012-01-01

    Individuals with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), such as Crohn's disease (CD) or ulcerative colitis (UC) are at increased risk of developing colorectal cancer (CRC) over healthy individuals. This risk is proportional to the duration and extent of disease, with a cumulative incidence as high as 30% in individuals with longstanding UC with widespread colonic involvement.1 Colonic dysplasia in IBD and colitis associated cancer (CAC) are believed to develop as a result of repeated cycles of epithelial cell injury and repair while these cells are bathed in a chronic inflammatory cytokine milieu.2 While spontaneous and colitis-associated cancers share the quality of being adenocarcinomas, the sequence of underlying molecular events is believed to be different.3 This distinction argues the need for specific animal models of CAC. Several mouse models currently exist for the study of CAC. Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS), an agent with direct toxic effects on the colonic epithelium, can be administered in drinking water to mice in multiple cycles to create a chronic inflammatory state. With sufficient duration, some of these mice will develop tumors.4 Tumor development is hastened in this model if administered in a pro-carcinogenic setting. These include mice with genetic mutations in tumorigenesis pathways (APC, p53, Msh2), as well as mice pre-treated with genotoxic agents (azoxymethane [AOM], 1,2-dimethylhydrazine [DMH]).5 The combination of DSS with AOM as a model for colitis associated cancer has gained popularity for its reproducibility, potency, low price, and ease of use. Though they have a shared mechanism, AOM has been found to be more potent and stable in solution than DMH. While tumor development in other models generally requires several months, mice injected with AOM and subsequently treated with DSS develop adequate tumors in as little as 7-10 weeks.6, 7 Finally, AOM and DSS can be administered to mice of any genetic background (knock out, transgenic, etc

  7. Anti-inflammatory effect of volatile oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Latifi, Ghazal; Ghannadi, Alireza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena is a small plant belonging to Rosaceae family which has been used for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases and digestive disorders in the Iranian folk medicine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract (RDHE) and R. damascena volatile oil (RDVO) on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid in rats. Different doses of RDHE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and RDVO (100, 200, 400 µl/kg) were given orally (p.o.) and doses of RDHE (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the male Wistar rats (n=6) 2 h before induction of colitis which continued daily for 4 successive days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o.) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg i.p.) were used in the reference groups. Weight/length ratios of wet colon were measured and the tissues were assessed macroscopically, histopathologically, and biochemically via measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Oral RDHE at all doses examined, and the lowest dose of RDVO given p.o. or RDHE administered i.p. reduced all indices of colitis measured in different assays as well as the MPO activity. These results provide encouraging support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena in relieving alimentary inflammatory conditions and reinforce the use of this plant to develop new agents for treating ulcerative colitis.

  8. Anti-inflammatory effect of volatile oil and hydroalcoholic extract of Rosa damascena Mill. on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Latifi, Ghazal; Ghannadi, Alireza; Minaiyan, Mohsen

    2015-01-01

    Rosa damascena is a small plant belonging to Rosaceae family which has been used for the treatment of some inflammatory diseases and digestive disorders in the Iranian folk medicine. This study was performed to investigate the effect of R. damascena hydroalcoholic extract (RDHE) and R. damascena volatile oil (RDVO) on ulcerative colitis induced by acetic acid in rats. Different doses of RDHE (250, 500, 1000 mg/kg) and RDVO (100, 200, 400 µl/kg) were given orally (p.o.) and doses of RDHE (125, 250, 500 mg/kg) were administrated intraperitoneally (i.p.) to the male Wistar rats (n=6) 2 h before induction of colitis which continued daily for 4 successive days. Prednisolone (4 mg/kg p.o.) and dexamethasone (1 mg/kg i.p.) were used in the reference groups. Weight/length ratios of wet colon were measured and the tissues were assessed macroscopically, histopathologically, and biochemically via measuring the myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity. Oral RDHE at all doses examined, and the lowest dose of RDVO given p.o. or RDHE administered i.p. reduced all indices of colitis measured in different assays as well as the MPO activity. These results provide encouraging support for the use of hydroalcoholic extract of R. damascena in relieving alimentary inflammatory conditions and reinforce the use of this plant to develop new agents for treating ulcerative colitis. PMID:26779271

  9. Effects of Herb-Partitioned Moxibustion on the miRNA Expression Profiles in Colon from Rats with DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Yan; Ma, Zhe; Cui, Yun-hua; Dong, Hong-sheng; Dou, Chuan-zi

    2017-01-01

    Objective. This study explored the mechanism of herb-partitioned moxibustion (HM) on dextran sulfate sodium- (DSS-) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) from the miRNA perspective. Methods. Rats were randomly divided into 3 groups [normal control (NC) group, UC model (UC) group, and herb-partitioned moxibustion (UCHM) group]. The UC and UCHM groups were administered 4% DSS for 7 days. The UCHM group received HM at the Tianshu (bilateral, ST25). The effect of HM on UC was observed and the miRNA expression profile in the colon tissues was analyzed. Results. Compared with the UC group, the body weights were significantly higher in the UCHM group on day 14 (P < 0.001); the macroscopic colon injury scores and microscopic histopathology scores in the UCHM group decreased (P < 0.05); and there were 15 differentially expressed miRNAs in the UCHM group. The changes in miR-184 and miR-490-5p expression levels on the UC were reversed by HM intervention. Validation using qRT-PCR showed that two miRNAs expression trend was consistent with the sequencing results. Conclusion. HM at ST25 might regulate miR-184 and miR-490-5p expression, act on the transcription of their target genes to regulate inflammatory signaling pathways, and attenuate inflammation and tissue injury in the colons of rats with DSS-induced UC. PMID:28246536

  10. Time to Integrate to Nest Test Evaluation in a Mouse DSS-Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Häger, Christine; Keubler, Lydia M.; Biernot, Svenja; Dietrich, Jana; Buchheister, Stephanie; Buettner, Manuela; Bleich, André

    2015-01-01

    Severity assessment in laboratory animals is an important issue regarding the implementation of the 3R concept into biomedical research and pivotal in current EU regulations. In mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease severity assessment is usually undertaken by clinical scoring, especially by monitoring reduction of body weight. This requires daily observance and handling of each mouse, which is time consuming, stressful for the animal and necessitates an experienced observer. The time to integrate to nest test (TINT) is an easily applicable test detecting disturbed welfare by measuring the time interval mice need to integrate nesting material to an existing nest. Here, TINT was utilized to assess severity in a mouse DSS-colitis model. TINT results depended on the group size of mice maintained per cage with most consistent time intervals measured when co-housing 4 to 5 mice. Colitis was induced with 1% or 1.5% DSS in group-housed WT and Cd14-deficient mice. Higher clinical scores and loss of body weight were detected in 1.5% compared to 1% DSS treated mice. TINT time intervals showed no dose dependent differences. However, increased clinical scores, body weight reductions, and increased TINT time intervals were detected in Cd14-/- compared to WT mice revealing mouse strain related differences. Therefore, TINT is an easily applicable method for severity assessment in a mouse colitis model detecting CD14 related differences, but not dose dependent differences. As TINT revealed most consistent results in group-housed mice, we recommend utilization as an additional method substituting clinical monitoring of the individual mouse. PMID:26637175

  11. Time to Integrate to Nest Test Evaluation in a Mouse DSS-Colitis Model.

    PubMed

    Häger, Christine; Keubler, Lydia M; Biernot, Svenja; Dietrich, Jana; Buchheister, Stephanie; Buettner, Manuela; Bleich, André

    2015-01-01

    Severity assessment in laboratory animals is an important issue regarding the implementation of the 3R concept into biomedical research and pivotal in current EU regulations. In mouse models of inflammatory bowel disease severity assessment is usually undertaken by clinical scoring, especially by monitoring reduction of body weight. This requires daily observance and handling of each mouse, which is time consuming, stressful for the animal and necessitates an experienced observer. The time to integrate to nest test (TINT) is an easily applicable test detecting disturbed welfare by measuring the time interval mice need to integrate nesting material to an existing nest. Here, TINT was utilized to assess severity in a mouse DSS-colitis model. TINT results depended on the group size of mice maintained per cage with most consistent time intervals measured when co-housing 4 to 5 mice. Colitis was induced with 1% or 1.5% DSS in group-housed WT and Cd14-deficient mice. Higher clinical scores and loss of body weight were detected in 1.5% compared to 1% DSS treated mice. TINT time intervals showed no dose dependent differences. However, increased clinical scores, body weight reductions, and increased TINT time intervals were detected in Cd14-/- compared to WT mice revealing mouse strain related differences. Therefore, TINT is an easily applicable method for severity assessment in a mouse colitis model detecting CD14 related differences, but not dose dependent differences. As TINT revealed most consistent results in group-housed mice, we recommend utilization as an additional method substituting clinical monitoring of the individual mouse.

  12. Identification of gene expression changes from colitis to CRC in the mouse CAC model.

    PubMed

    Li, Xin; Gao, Yuyan; Yang, Ming; Zhao, Qi; Wang, Guangyu; Yang, Yan Mei; Yang, Yue; Liu, Hui; Zhang, Yanqiao

    2014-01-01

    A connection between colorectal carcinogenesis and inflammation is well known, but the underlying molecular mechanisms have not been elucidated. Chemically induced colitis-associated cancer (CAC) is an outstanding mouse model for studying the link between inflammation and cancer. Additionally, the CAC model is used for examining novel diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers for use in clinical practice. Here, a CAC model was established in less than 100 days using azoxymethane (AOM) with dextran sulfate sodium salt (DSS) in BALB/c mice. We examined the mRNA expression profiles of three groups: control untreated mice (K), DSS-induced chronic colitis mice (D), and AOM/DSS-induced CAC (AD) mice. We identified 6301 differentially expressed genes (DEGs) among the three groups, including 93 persistently upregulated genes and 139 persistently downregulated genes. Gene Ontology (GO) and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG) pathway analyses revealed that the most persistent DEGs were significantly enriched in metabolic or inflammatory components in the tumor microenvironment. Furthermore, several associated DEGs were identified as potential DEGs by protein-protein interaction (PPI) network analysis. We selected 14 key genes from the DEGs and potential DEGs for further quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) verification. Six persistently upregulated, 3 persistently downregulated DEGs, and the other 3 genes showed results consistent with the microarray data. We demonstrated the regulation of 12 key genes specifically involved in Wnt signaling, cytokine and cytokine receptor interactions, homeostasis, and tumor-associated metabolism during colitis-associated CRC. Our results suggest that a close relationship between metabolic and inflammatory mediators of the tumor microenvironment is present in CAC.

  13. Therapeutic effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds in rats with TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao-Li; Cai, Yong-Qing; Qin, Hong; Wu, Yong-Jie

    2008-12-01

    The aim of the study was to investigate the therapeutic effect and mechanism of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE) in the treatment of ulcerative colitis (UC). Rats were intragastrically administered different doses of GSPE (100, 200, and 400 mg/kg) per day for 7 days after UC was twice-induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP) at 200 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. Macroscopic and microscopic damage scores and changes in weight/length ratio (mg/mm) of colon segments were analyzed. The levels of malonyldialdehyde (MDA), interleukin (IL)-1beta, IL-2, IL-4, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in the colon tissues and MPO activity in the serum were all measured by biochemical methods or double antibody sandwich ELISA methods. Compared with the TNBS control group, GSPE treatment facilitated recovery of pathologic changes in the colon after insult with TNBS, as demonstrated by increased body weight (p < 0.01) and decreased colonic weight/length ratio (p < 0.01); GSPE also notably reduced the colonic macroscopic and microscopic damage scores (p < 0.01). The MPO activity in colon tissues and serum of rats treated with GSPE was significantly lower than that in the TNBS control group. The MDA and IL-1beta levels of colon tissues were also decreased in GSPE groups. The intestinal antiinflammatory effect of GSPE was accompanied by a significant improvement of IL-2 and IL-4 levels in the colon tissues of rats in the high-dose GSPE group (p < 0.05). Compared with the SASP group, GSPE groups had no significant difference in the therapeutic effect (p > 0.05). GSPE exerts a beneficial antiinflammatory effect in the acute phase of TNBS-induced colitis in rats by downregulating some of the mediators involved in the intestinal inflammatory response, inhibiting inflammatory cell infiltration and antioxidation damage, promoting damaged tissue repair to improve colonic oxidative stress

  14. Experimental colitis models: Insights into the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease and translational issues.

    PubMed

    Valatas, Vassilis; Bamias, Giorgos; Kolios, George

    2015-07-15

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, ulcerative colitis and Crohn׳s disease are characterized by chronic relapsing inflammation of the gastrointestinal tract of unknown etiology that seems to be the consequence of a genetically driven dysregulated immune response against various local and environmental triggers through a defective epithelial barrier. During the last decades, a large number of animal experimental models of intestinal inflammation have been generated and provided valuable insights into the mechanisms that either maintain mucosal homeostasis or drive intestinal inflammation. Their study enabled the identification of various treatment targets and the development a large pipeline of new drugs, mostly biologics. Safety and therapeutic efficacy of these agents have been evaluated in a large number of clinical trials but only a minority has reached the clinic so far. Translational successes but mostly translational failures have prompted to re-evaluate results of efficacy and safety generated by pre-clinical testing and to re-examine the way to interpret experimental in vivo data. This review examines the contribution of the most popular experimental colitis models to our understanding of the pathogenesis of human inflammatory bowel diseases and their translational input in drug development and discusses ways to improve translational outcome.

  15. The effect of pentoxifylline and its metabolite-1 on inflammation and fibrosis in the TNBS model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Peterson, Theresa C; Peterson, Marc R; Raoul, Jennifer M

    2011-07-15

    TNBS-induced colitis has characteristics resembling human Crohn's disease including transmural inflammation, ulceration, and fibrosis. Current treatments target acute symptoms but do not necessarily prevent fibrotic complications of the disease. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of pentoxifylline and its primary metabolite (M-1) on fibrosis in the TNBS-induced colitis model. Myeloperoxidase activity and interleukin-18 are indicators of inflammation and were elevated in the TNBS model. The morphology damage score assesses colon damage and was also elevated in the TNBS model. Collagen as the indicator of fibrosis was quantified and visualized by the Sirius Red/Fast Green staining technique and collagen type I was assessed by Western analysis. Collagen was elevated in the TNBS-induced model. Pentoxifylline and M-1 treatment significantly attenuated colon damage and inflammation in TNBS-colitis (P<0.05). M-1 treatment significantly reduced the TNBS-induced increase in colon weight, colon thickness and total collagen content (P<0.05). Results suggest that pentoxifylline and M-1 inhibit intestinal fibrosis in this experimental model and may prove beneficial in the treatment of intestinal fibrosis associated with human Crohn's disease with the added benefit of inhibiting inflammation and ulceration. This is the first study to examine the effects of racemic M-1 in vivo and one of the few studies to examine the effect of drugs on both inflammation and fibrosis in an experimental model of colitis.

  16. Local Treatment with Lactate Prevents Intestinal Inflammation in the TNBS-Induced Colitis Model.

    PubMed

    Iraporda, Carolina; Romanin, David E; Bengoa, Ana A; Errea, Agustina J; Cayet, Delphine; Foligné, Benoit; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Garrote, Graciela L; Abraham, Analía G; Rumbo, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Lactate has long been considered as a metabolic by-product of cells. Recently, this view has been changed by the observation that lactate can act as a signaling molecule and regulates critical functions of the immune system. We previously identified lactate as the component responsible for the modulation of innate immune epithelial response of fermented milk supernatants in vitro. We have also shown that lactate downregulates proinflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells. So far, in vivo effects of lactate on intestinal inflammation have not been reported. We evaluated the effect of intrarectal administration of lactate in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The increase in lactate concentration in colon promoted protective effects against TNBS-induced colitis preventing histopathological damage, as well as bacterial translocation and rise of IL-6 levels in serum. Using intestinal epithelial reporter cells, we found that flagellin treatment induced reporter gene expression, which was abrogated by lactate treatment as well as by glycolysis inhibitors. Furthermore, lactate treatment modulated glucose uptake, indicating that high levels of extracellular lactate can impair metabolic reprograming induced by proinflammatory activation. These results suggest that lactate could be a potential beneficial microbiota metabolite and may constitute an overlooked effector with modulatory properties.

  17. Local Treatment with Lactate Prevents Intestinal Inflammation in the TNBS-Induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Iraporda, Carolina; Romanin, David E.; Bengoa, Ana A.; Errea, Agustina J.; Cayet, Delphine; Foligné, Benoit; Sirard, Jean-Claude; Garrote, Graciela L.; Abraham, Analía G.; Rumbo, Martín

    2016-01-01

    Lactate has long been considered as a metabolic by-product of cells. Recently, this view has been changed by the observation that lactate can act as a signaling molecule and regulates critical functions of the immune system. We previously identified lactate as the component responsible for the modulation of innate immune epithelial response of fermented milk supernatants in vitro. We have also shown that lactate downregulates proinflammatory responses of macrophages and dendritic cells. So far, in vivo effects of lactate on intestinal inflammation have not been reported. We evaluated the effect of intrarectal administration of lactate in a murine model of colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The increase in lactate concentration in colon promoted protective effects against TNBS-induced colitis preventing histopathological damage, as well as bacterial translocation and rise of IL-6 levels in serum. Using intestinal epithelial reporter cells, we found that flagellin treatment induced reporter gene expression, which was abrogated by lactate treatment as well as by glycolysis inhibitors. Furthermore, lactate treatment modulated glucose uptake, indicating that high levels of extracellular lactate can impair metabolic reprograming induced by proinflammatory activation. These results suggest that lactate could be a potential beneficial microbiota metabolite and may constitute an overlooked effector with modulatory properties. PMID:28082985

  18. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    EL-SALHY, MAGDY; UMEZAWA, KAZUO

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS-G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecyl thiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS-Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer-aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS-G, DSS-Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti-inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the clinical manifestation of

  19. Treatment with novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors restores the colonic endocrine cells to normal levels in rats with DSS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effects of two anti-inflammatory agents on the abnormalities in colonic endocrine cells in dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats (n=45) using DSS; a further 15 rats without colitis were included in a healthy control group. The animals with DSS-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 treatment groups as follows: i) DSS group, rats were treated with 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC); ii) DSS‑G group, rats were treated with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]‑glutarimide (DTCM‑G), a novel activator protein 1 (AP-1) inhibitor, 20 mg/kg in CMC; and iii) DSS‑Q group, rats were treated with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin, a nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) inhibitor, 15 mg/kg in CMC. The treatments were administered intraperitoneally, twice daily for 5 days, after which the animals were sacrificed and tissue samples from the colon were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), enteroglucagon, pancreatic polypeptide (PP), somatostatin, leukocytes, B/T lymphocytes, B lymphocytes, T lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The densities of these endocrine and immune cells were quantified by computer‑aided image analysis. The densities of CgA-, serotonin-, PYY- and enteroglucagon-producing cells were significantly higher, and those of PP- and somatostatin-producing cells were significantly lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all the immune cells were lower in the DSS‑G, DSS‑Q and control groups than in the DSS group. The densities of all endocrine cell types and immune cells in both the DSS groups treated with anti‑inflammatory agents were restored to control levels. In conclusion, our data demonstrate that there is an interaction between endocrine and immune cells during inflammation. This interaction with subsequent changes in endocrine cells is responsible for the

  20. Anti-inflammatory Mechanisms of Enteric Heligmosomoides polygyrus Infection on TNBS-Induced Colitis in a Murine Model

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    To model the protective mechanism of helminth infection on colitis-induced changes in immune and epithelial cell function, BALB/c mice received intra-rectal saline or TNBS (2 mg/mouse; 40% ETOH) and were studied 4 days (d) later. Separate groups of mice received oral Heligmosomoides polygyrus follow...

  1. Rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma ligand, modulates signal transduction pathways during the development of acute TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Sánchez-Hidalgo, Marina; Martín, Antonio Ramon; Villegas, Isabel; de la Lastra, Catalina Alarcón

    2007-05-21

    Recent studies have shown that peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), a highly nuclear receptor expressed in the colon, may participate in the control of inflammation, especially in regulating the production of immunomodulatory and inflammatory mediators, cellular proliferation and apoptosis. In order to delve into the anti-inflammatory mechanisms and signalling pathways of PPARgamma agonists, we have studied the effects of rosiglitazone, a PPARgamma agonist on the extent and severity of acute ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 2,4,6-trinitribenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. The inflammatory response was assessed by gross appearance, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-alpha) levels and a histological study of the lesions. We determined prostaglandin E2 production as well as the cyclooxygenases (COX)-1 and -2 expressions by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting. The nuclear factor kappa (NF-kappaB) p65 and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) expression levels were also measured by Western blotting. Finally, since PPARgamma agonists modulate apoptosis, we tried to clarify its effects under early acute inflammatory conditions. Inflammation following TNBS induction was characterized by increased colonic wall thickness, edema, diffuse inflammatory cells infiltration, necrosis reaching an ulcer index (UI) of 9.66+/-0.66 cm(2) and increased MPO activity and TNF-alpha colonic levels. Rosiglitazone treatment significantly reduced the morphological alteration associated with TNBS administration and the UI with the highest dose. In addition, the degree of neutrophil infiltration and the cytokine levels were significantly ameliorated. Rosiglitazone significantly reduced the rise in the prostaglandin (PG) E(2) generation compared with TNBS group. The COX-1 levels remained stable throughout the treatment in all groups. The COX-2 expression was elevated in TNBS group; however

  2. Iron supplementation promotes gut microbiota metabolic activity but not colitis markers in human gut microbiota-associated rats.

    PubMed

    Dostal, Alexandra; Lacroix, Christophe; Pham, Van T; Zimmermann, Michael B; Del'homme, Christophe; Bernalier-Donadille, Annick; Chassard, Christophe

    2014-06-28

    The global prevalence of Fe deficiency is high and a common corrective strategy is oral Fe supplementation, which may affect the commensal gut microbiota and gastrointestinal health. The aim of the present study was to investigate the impact of different dietary Fe concentrations on the gut microbiota and gut health of rats inoculated with human faecal microbiota. Rats (8 weeks old, n 40) were divided into five (n 8 each) groups and fed diets differing only in Fe concentration during an Fe-depletion period (12 weeks) and an Fe-repletion period (4 weeks) as follows: (1) Fe-sufficient diet throughout the study period; (2) Fe-sufficient diet followed by 70 mg Fe/kg diet; (3) Fe-depleted diet throughout the study period; (4) Fe-depleted diet followed by 35 mg Fe/kg diet; (5) Fe-depleted diet followed by 70 mg Fe/kg diet. Faecal and caecal samples were analysed for gut microbiota composition (quantitative PCR and pyrosequencing) and bacterial metabolites (HPLC), and intestinal tissue samples were investigated histologically. Fe depletion did not significantly alter dominant populations of the gut microbiota and did not induce Fe-deficiency anaemia in the studied rats. Provision of the 35 mg Fe/kg diet after feeding an Fe-deficient diet significantly increased the abundance of dominant bacterial groups such as Bacteroides spp. and Clostridium cluster IV members compared with that of an Fe-deficient diet. Fe supplementation increased gut microbial butyrate concentration 6-fold compared with Fe depletion and did not affect histological colitis scores. The present results suggest that Fe supplementation enhances the concentration of beneficial gut microbiota metabolites and thus may contribute to gut health.

  3. Hyaluronan Synthase 3 Null Mice Exhibit Decreased Intestinal Inflammation and Tissue Damage in the DSS-Induced Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kessler, Sean P.; Obery, Dana R.; de la Motte, Carol

    2015-01-01

    Hyaluronan (HA) overproduction is a hallmark of multiple inflammatory diseases, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Hyaluronan can act as a leukocyte recruitment molecule and in the most common mouse model of intestinal inflammation, the chemically induced dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) experimental colitis model, we previously determined that changes in colon distribution of HA occur before inflammation. Therefore, we hypothesized that, during a pathologic challenge, HA promotes inflammation. In this study, we tested the progression of inflammation in mice null for the hyaluronan synthase genes (HAS1, HAS3, or both HAS1 and HAS3) in the DSS-colitis model. Our data demonstrate that both the HAS1/HAS3 double and the HAS3 null mice are protected from colitis, compared to wild-type and HAS1 null mice, as determined by measurement of weight loss, disease activity, serum IL-6 levels, histologic scoring, and immunohistochemistry. Most notable is the dramatic increase in submucosal microvasculature, hyaluronan deposition, and leukocyte infiltration in the inflamed colon tissue of wild-type and HAS1 null mice. Our data suggest, HAS3 plays a crucial role in driving gut inflammation. Developing a temporary targeted therapeutic intervention of HAS3 expression or function in the microcirculation may emerge as a desirable strategy toward tempering colitis in patients undergoing flares of IBD. PMID:26448758

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of novel AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors in dextran-sulfate-sodium-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to elucidate the anti-inflammatory effects of the two novel anti-inflammatory substances, 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)‑methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G) and dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ), on DSS-induced colitis in rats. For this purpose, rats with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis were randomly divided into 3 groups with 10 animals in each group as follows: i) the control group, which received 0.5 ml of 0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose (CMC; vehicle), ii) rats that received DTCM-G (20 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DTCM-G group), and iii) rats that received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight in 0.5% CMC; the DHMEQ group). The animals were sacrificed after the 5-day treatment period, and tissue samples were taken from their colons and sectioned for histological evaluation. The tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and immunostained for leukocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells. The disease activity index (DAI), histological grading of colitis, and densities of several types of submucosal immune cells were compared between the controls, and the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups. The DAI values were significantly lower in both the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The total scores for the histological grading of colitis were also significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. The submucosal densities of leucocytes, lymphocytes, macrophages/monocytes and mast cells were significantly lower in the DTCM-G and DHMEQ groups than in the control group. Our findings indicate that the anti-inflammatory and anticancer effects of DTCM-G and DHMEQ, and the absence of any associated toxicity render them excellent therapeutic candidates for clinical use in the treatment of colitis.

  5. Ferulic acid ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis through modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, iNOs, COX-2, and apoptosis in laboratory rats

    PubMed Central

    Sadar, Smeeta S.; Vyawahare, Niraj S.; Bodhankar, Subhash L.

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder characterized by oxido-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound is considered to possess potent antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim is to evaluate possible mechanism of action of FA against trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. UC was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) by intrarectal administration of TNBS (100 mg/kg). FA was administered (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days after colitis was induced. Various biochemical, molecular and histological changes were assessed in the colon. Intrarectal administration of TNBS caused significant induction of ulcer in the colon with an elevation of oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase and hydroxyproline activity in the colon. Administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decrease oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline activities. Up-regulated mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOs, as well as down-regulated IL-10 mRNA expressions after TNBS administration, were significantly inhibited by FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that intrarectal administration of TNBS-induced significantly enhanced the colonic apoptosis whereas administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly restored the elevated apoptosis. FA administration also significantly restored the histopathological aberration induced by TNBS. The findings of the present study demonstrated that FA ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis via inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokines production, and down- regulation of COX-2 synthesis. Graphical Abstract: TNBS caused activation of T cells which interact with CD40 on antigen presenting cells i.e. dendritic cells (DC) that induce the key Interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Th1 T cell immune

  6. Ferulic acid ameliorates TNBS-induced ulcerative colitis through modulation of cytokines, oxidative stress, iNOs, COX-2, and apoptosis in laboratory rats.

    PubMed

    Sadar, Smeeta S; Vyawahare, Niraj S; Bodhankar, Subhash L

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic immune-inflammatory disorder characterized by oxido-nitrosative stress, the release of pro-inflammatory cytokines and apoptosis. Ferulic acid (FA), a phenolic compound is considered to possess potent antioxidant, anti-apoptotic and anti-inflammatory activities. The aim is to evaluate possible mechanism of action of FA against trinitrobenzensulfonic acid (TNBS) induced ulcerative colitis (UC) in rats. UC was induced in Sprague-Dawley rats (150-200 g) by intrarectal administration of TNBS (100 mg/kg). FA was administered (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg, p.o.) for 14 days after colitis was induced. Various biochemical, molecular and histological changes were assessed in the colon. Intrarectal administration of TNBS caused significant induction of ulcer in the colon with an elevation of oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase and hydroxyproline activity in the colon. Administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly decrease oxido-nitrosative stress, myeloperoxidase, and hydroxyproline activities. Up-regulated mRNA expression of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, COX-2, and iNOs, as well as down-regulated IL-10 mRNA expressions after TNBS administration, were significantly inhibited by FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment. Flow cytometric analysis revealed that intrarectal administration of TNBS-induced significantly enhanced the colonic apoptosis whereas administration of FA (20 and 40 mg/kg) significantly restored the elevated apoptosis. FA administration also significantly restored the histopathological aberration induced by TNBS. The findings of the present study demonstrated that FA ameliorates TNBS-induced colitis via inhibition of oxido-nitrosative stress, apoptosis, proinflammatory cytokines production, and down- regulation of COX-2 synthesis.Graphical Abstract: TNBS caused activation of T cells which interact with CD40 on antigen presenting cells i.e. dendritic cells (DC) that induce the key Interleukin 12 (IL-12)-mediated Th1 T cell immune

  7. Huang Qi Jian Zhong Pellet Attenuates TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats via Mechanisms Involving Improvement of Energy Metabolism.

    PubMed

    Liu, Duan-Yong; Pan, Chun-Shui; Liu, Yu-Ying; Wei, Xiao-Hong; Zhou, Chang-Man; Sun, Kai; He, Ke; Li, Chong; Yan, Li; Fan, Jing-Yu; Wang, Chuan-She; Hibi, Toshifumi; Liu, Hong-Ning; Han, Jing-Yan

    2013-01-01

    Huang Qi Jian Zhong Pellet (HQJZ) is a famous Chinese medicine formula for treatment of various gastrointestinal tract diseases. This study investigated the role of HQJZ in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid- (TNBS-) induced colitis and its underlying mechanism. Colonic mucosal injury was induced by TNBS in the Sprague-Dawley rats. In the HQJZ treatment group, HQJZ was administered (2 g/kg) for 14 days starting from day 1 after TNBS infusion. Colonic mucosal injury occurred obviously 1 day after TNBS challenge and did not recover distinctively until day 15, including an increase in macro- and microscopic scores, a colonic weight index, a decrease in colonic length, a number of functional capillaries, and blood flow. Inverted intravital microscopy and ELISA showed colonic microcirculatory disturbances and inflammatory responses after TNBS stimulation, respectively. TNBS decreased occludin, RhoA, and ROCK-I, while increasing Rac-1, PAK-1, and phosphorylated myosin light chain. In addition, ATP content and ATP5D expression in colonic mucosa decreased after TNBS challenge. Impressively, treatment with HQJZ significantly attenuated all of the alterations evoked by TNBS, promoting the recovery of colonic injury. The present study demonstrated HQJZ as a multitargeting management for colonic mucosal injury, which set in motion mechanisms involving improvement of energy metabolism.

  8. Citrobacter rodentium-induced colitis: A robust model to study mucosal immune responses in the gut.

    PubMed

    Koroleva, Ekaterina P; Halperin, Sydney; Gubernatorova, Ekaterina O; Macho-Fernandez, Elise; Spencer, Cody M; Tumanov, Alexei V

    2015-06-01

    Citrobacter rodentium is a natural mouse pathogen which reproducibly infects mice and causes intestinal disease. The C. rodentium model of infection is very useful for investigating host-pathogen immune interactions in the gut, and can also be used to understand the pathogenesis of several important human intestinal disorders, including Crohn's disease, ulcerative colitis, dysbiosis and colon tumorigenesis. Both innate and adaptive immune responses play a critical role in protection against C. rodentium. Here, we summarize the role of immune components in protection against C. rodentium and describe techniques for the analysis of innate and adaptive mucosal immune responses, including setting up the infection, analysis of colonic hyperplasia and bacterial dissemination, evaluation of antibody responses, and purification and analysis of intestinal epithelial and lymphoid cells.

  9. Effects of increase in fish oil intake on intestinal eicosanoids and inflammation in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are chronic intestinal inflammatory diseases affecting about 1% of western populations. New eating behaviors might contribute to the global emergence of IBD. Although the immunoregulatory effects of omega-3 fatty acids have been well characterized in vitro, their role in IBD is controversial. Methods The aim of this study was to assess the impact of increased fish oil intake on colonic gene expression, eicosanoid metabolism and development of colitis in a mouse model of IBD. Rag-2 deficient mice were fed fish oil (FO) enriched in omega-3 fatty acids i.e. EPA and DHA or control diet for 4 weeks before colitis induction by adoptive transfer of naïve T cells and maintained in the same diet for 4 additional weeks. Onset of colitis was monitored by colonoscopy and further confirmed by immunological examinations. Whole genome expression profiling was made and eicosanoids were measured by HPLC-MS/MS in colonic samples. Results A significant reduction of colonic proinflammatory eicosanoids in FO fed mice compared to control was observed. However, neither alteration of colonic gene expression signature nor reduction in IBD scores was observed under FO diet. Conclusion Thus, increased intake of dietary FO did not prevent experimental colitis. PMID:23725086

  10. Naringin ameliorates acetic acid induced colitis through modulation of endogenous oxido-nitrosative balance and DNA damage in rats

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, Venkatashivam Shiva; Rajmane, Anuchandra Ramchandra; Adil, Mohammad; Kandhare, Amit Dattatraya; Ghosh, Pinaki; Bodhankar, Subhash Laxman

    2014-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of naringin on experimentally induced inflammatory bowel disease in rats. Naringin (20, 40 and 80 mg/kg) was given orally for 7 days to Wistar rats before induction of colitis by intrarectal instillation of 2 mL of 4% (v/v) acetic acid solution. The degree of colonic mucosal damage was analyzed by examining mucosal damage, ulcer area, ulcer index and stool consistency. Intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid resulted in significant modulation of serum alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) content along with colonic nitric oxide (NO), xanthine oxidase (XO) level and protein carbonyl content in the colonic tissue as well as in blood. Naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg) exerted a dose dependent (P < 0.05) ameliorative effect, as it significantly increased hematological parameter as well as colonic SOD and GSH. There was a significant (P < 0.05) and dose dependant inhibition of macroscopical score, ulcer area along with colonic MDA, MPO activity by the 7 days of pretreatment of naringin (40 and 80 mg/kg). Biochemical studies revealed a significant (P < 0.05) dose dependant inhibition in serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) levels by pretreatment of naringin. Increased levels of colonic NO, XO, protein carbonyl content and DNA damage were also significantly decreased by naringin pretreatment. The findings of the present investigation propose that naringin has an anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidant and anti-apoptotic potential effect at colorectal sites as it modulates the production and expression of oxidative mediators such as MDA, MPO, NO and XO, thus reducing DNA damage. PMID:24683411

  11. High vitamin D3 diet administered during active colitis negatively affects bone metabolism in an adoptive T cell transfer model

    PubMed Central

    Larmonier, C. B.; McFadden, R.-M. T.; Hill, F. M.; Schreiner, R.; Ramalingam, R.; Besselsen, D. G.; Ghishan, F. K.

    2013-01-01

    Decreased bone mineral density (BMD) represents an extraintestinal complication of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Vitamin D3 has been considered a viable adjunctive therapy in IBD. However, vitamin D3 plays a pleiotropic role in bone modeling and regulates the bone formation-resorption balance, depending on the physiological environment, and supplementation during active IBD may have unintended consequences. We evaluated the effects of vitamin D3 supplementation during the active phase of disease on colonic inflammation, BMD, and bone metabolism in an adoptive IL-10−/− CD4+ T cell transfer model of chronic colitis. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation for 12 days during established disease had negligible effects on mucosal inflammation. Plasma vitamin D3 metabolites correlated with diet, but not disease, status. Colitis significantly reduced BMD. High-dose vitamin D3 supplementation did not affect cortical bone but led to a further deterioration of trabecular bone morphology. In mice fed a high vitamin D3 diet, colitis more severely impacted bone formation markers (osteocalcin and bone alkaline phosphatase) and increased bone resorption markers, ratio of receptor activator of NF-κB ligand to osteoprotegrin transcript, plasma osteoprotegrin level, and the osteoclast activation marker tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (ACp5). Bone vitamin D receptor expression was increased in mice with chronic colitis, especially in the high vitamin D3 group. Our data suggest that vitamin D3, at a dose that does not improve inflammation, has no beneficial effects on bone metabolism and density during active colitis or may adversely affect BMD and bone turnover. These observations should be taken into consideration in the planning of further clinical studies with high-dose vitamin D3 supplementation in patients with active IBD. PMID:23639807

  12. Expression Levels of Proinflammatory Cytokines and NLRP3 Inflammasome in an Experimental Model of Oxazolone-induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Zherebiatiev, Aleksandr; Kamyshnyi, Aleksandr

    2016-02-01

    IL-1β and IL-17A are two cytokines with strong proinflammatory activities and are now known to be involved in a number of chronic inflammatory disorders. High-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1) is a nuclear protein regulating the expression of these proinflammatory cytokines. The NLRP3 inflammasome promotes the maturation of the IL-1β and its activation has been shown as a critical mechanism in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, underlying mechanisms to modulate their production in IBD are still unclear. The aim of this study was to investigate the expression levels of mRNA for the NLRP3 inflammasome, HMGB1 and proinflammatory cytokines, IL-1β, IL-17A in the inflamed colon of rats with experimental oxazolone-induced colitis. Experiments were carried out on male wistar rats. IL-1β, IL-17A, HMGB1 and NLRP3 inflammasome mRNA expression were analyzed by real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction. Our results indicated that the expression levels of IL-1β, IL-17A, NLRP3 and HMGB1 were elevated in the inflamed colon of rats with oxazolone-induced colitis.

  13. Ulcerative colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... proctocolectomy - discharge Types of ileostomy Ulcerative colitis - discharge Review Date 8/14/2015 Updated by: Subodh K. ... gastroenterologist at Gastrointestinal Specialists of Georgia, Austell, GA. Review provided by VeriMed Healthcare Network. Internal review and ...

  14. Microscopic colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ianiro, Gianluca; Cammarota, Giovanni; Valerio, Luca; Annicchiarico, Brigida Eleonora; Milani, Alessandro; Siciliano, Massimo; Gasbarrini, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    Microscopic colitis may be defined as a clinical syndrome, of unknown etiology, consisting of chronic watery diarrhea, with no alterations in the large bowel at the endoscopic and radiologic evaluation. Therefore, a definitive diagnosis is only possible by histological analysis. The epidemiological impact of this disease has become increasingly clear in the last years, with most data coming from Western countries. Microscopic colitis includes two histological subtypes [collagenous colitis (CC) and lymphocytic colitis (LC)] with no differences in clinical presentation and management. Collagenous colitis is characterized by a thickening of the subepithelial collagen layer that is absent in LC. The main feature of LC is an increase of the density of intra-epithelial lymphocytes in the surface epithelium. A number of pathogenetic theories have been proposed over the years, involving the role of luminal agents, autoimmunity, eosinophils, genetics (human leukocyte antigen), biliary acids, infections, alterations of pericryptal fibroblasts, and drug intake; drugs like ticlopidine, carbamazepine or ranitidine are especially associated with the development of LC, while CC is more frequently linked to cimetidine, non-steroidal antiinflammatory drugs and lansoprazole. Microscopic colitis typically presents as chronic or intermittent watery diarrhea, that may be accompanied by symptoms such as abdominal pain, weight loss and incontinence. Recent evidence has added new pharmacological options for the treatment of microscopic colitis: the role of steroidal therapy, especially oral budesonide, has gained relevance, as well as immunosuppressive agents such as azathioprine and 6-mercaptopurine. The use of anti-tumor necrosis factor-α agents, infliximab and adalimumab, constitutes a new, interesting tool for the treatment of microscopic colitis, but larger, adequately designed studies are needed to confirm existing data. PMID:23180940

  15. Effects of AP-1 and NF-κB inhibitors on colonic endocrine cells in rats with TNBS-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo

    2016-01-01

    Interactions between intestinal neuroendocrine peptides/amines and the immune system appear to have an important role in the pathophysiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). The present study investigated the effects of activator protein (AP)-1 and nuclear factor (NF)-κB inhibitors on inflammation-induced alterations in enteroendocrine cells. A total of 48 male Wistar rats were divided into the following four groups (n=12 rats/group): Control, trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis only (TNBS group), TNBS-induced colitis with 3-[(dodecylthiocarbonyl)-methyl]-glutarimide (DTCM-G) treatment (DTCM-G group), and TNBS-induced colitis with dehydroxymethylepoxyquinomicin (DHMEQ) treatment (DHMEQ group). A total of 3 days following administration of TNBS, the rats were treated as follows: The control and TNBS groups received 0.5 ml vehicle (0.5% carboxymethyl cellulose; CMC), respectively; the DTCM-G group received DTCM-G (20 mg/kg body weight) in 0.5% CMC; and the DHMEQ group received DHMEQ (15 mg/kg body weight) in 0.5% CMC. All injections were performed intraperitoneally twice daily for 5 days. The rats were sacrificed, and tissue samples obtained from the colon were examined histopathologically and immunohistochemically. Inflammation was evaluated using a scoring system. In addition, the sections were immunostained for chromogranin A (CgA), serotonin, peptide YY (PYY), oxyntomodulin, pancreatic polypeptide (PP) and somatostatin, and immunostaining was quantified using image-analysis software. The density of cells expressing CgA, PYY and PP was significantly lower in the TNBS group compared with in the control group, whereas the density of cells expressing serotonin, oxyntomodulin and somatostatin was significantly higher in the TNBS group compared with in the control group. None of the endocrine cell types differed significantly between the control group and either the DTCM-G or DHMEQ groups. All of the colonic endocrine cell types were affected in

  16. Pseudomembranous Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Farooq, Priya D.; Urrunaga, Nathalie H.; Tang, Derek M.; von Rosenvinge, Erik C.

    2015-01-01

    Pseudomembranous colitis is an inflammatory condition of the colon characterized by elevated yellow-white plaques that coalesce to form pseudomembranes on the mucosa. Patients with the condition commonly present with abdominal pain, diarrhea, fever, and leukocytosis. Because pseudomembranous colitis is often associated with C. difficile infection, stool testing and empiric antibiotic treatment should be initiated when suspected. When results of C. difficile testing are negative and symptoms persist despite escalating empiric treatment, early gastroenterology consultation and lower endoscopy would be the next step in the appropriate clinical setting. If pseudomembranous colitis is confirmed endoscopically, colonic biopsies should be obtained, as histology can offer helpful clues to the underlying diagnosis. The less common non-C. difficile causes of pseudomembranous colitis should be entertained, as a number of etiologies can result in this condition. Examples include Behcet’s disease, collagenous colitis, inflammatory bowel disease, ischemic colitis, other infections organisms (e.g. bacteria, parasites, viruses), and a handful of drugs and toxins. Pinpointing the correct underlying etiology would better direct patient care and disease management. Surgical specialists would be most helpful in colonic perforation, gangrenous colon, or severe disease. PMID:25769243

  17. Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 ameliorates experimental colitis by modulating intestinal permeability, the inflammatory response and clinical signs in a faecal transplantation model.

    PubMed

    Souza, Éricka L; Elian, Samir D; Paula, Laís M; Garcia, Cristiana C; Vieira, Angélica T; Teixeira, Mauro M; Arantes, Rosa M; Nicoli, Jacques R; Martins, Flaviano S

    2016-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are a group of inflammatory conditions of the gut that include ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease. Probiotics are live micro-organisms that may be used as adjuvant therapy for patients with IBD. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of prophylactic ingestion of Escherichia coli strain Nissle 1917 (EcN) in a murine model of colitis. For induction of colitis, mice were given a 3.5% dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) solution for 7 days in drinking water. EcN administration to mice subjected to DSS-induced colitis resulted in significant reduction in clinical and histopathological signs of disease and preservation of intestinal permeability. We observed reduced inflammation, as assessed by reduced levels of neutrophils, eosinophils, chemokines and cytokines. We observed an increase in the number of regulatory T-cells in Peyer's patches. Germ-free mice received faecal content from control or EcN-treated mice and were then subjected to DSS-induced colitis. We observed protection from colitis in animals that were colonized with faecal content from EcN-treated mice. These results suggest that preventative oral administration of EcN or faecal microbiota transplantation with EcN-containing microbiota ameliorates DSS-induced colitis by modifying inflammatory responsiveness to DSS.

  18. Adjunct therapy of n-3 fatty acids to 5-ASA ameliorates inflammatory score and decreases NF-κB in rats with TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Mbodji, Khaly; Charpentier, Cloé; Guérin, Charlène; Querec, Coraline; Bole-Feysot, Christine; Aziz, Moutaz; Savoye, Guillaume; Déchelotte, Pierre; Marion-Letellier, Rachel

    2013-04-01

    5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) is widely used for the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Recent studies have evaluated the potential of nutritional intervention as adjunct therapy to 5-ASA in IBD. N-3 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) have shown potent anti-inflammatory properties in gut inflammation. Therefore, we aimed to evaluate the efficacy of the dual therapy (n-3 PUFA plus 5-ASA) in rats with 2, 4, 6-trinitrobenzen sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Colitis was induced by intrarectal injection of TNBS while control rats received the vehicle. Rats received by gavage a fish oil-rich formula (n-3 groups) or an isocaloric and isolipidic oil formula supplemented with 5-ASA for 14 days. A dose response of 5-ASA (5-75 mg. suppression mg kg(-1) d(-1)) was tested. Colitis was evaluated and several inflammatory markers were quantified in the colon. COX-2 expression (P<.05) and pro-inflammatory eicosanoids production of prostaglandin E2 (P<.001) and leukotriene B4 (P<.001) were significantly inhibited by n-3 PUFA or 5-ASA therapy. 5-ASA also reduces mRNA levels of tumor necrosis factor α (P<.05). n-3 PUFA or 5-ASA significantly inhibits nuclear factor κB (NF-κB) activation (P<.01 and P<.05, respectively). The dual therapy n-3 PUFA plus 5-ASA also inhibited inflammatory response by lowering NF-κB activation (P<.01) or inducing peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPARγ) expression (P<.05). These results indicate that 5-ASA plus n-3 PUFAs are more effective than a higher dose of 5-ASA alone to reduce NF-κB activation and to induce PPARγ. By contrast, the dual therapy did not improve the effects of individual treatments on eicosanoids or cytokine production. Use of n-3 PUFA in addition to 5-ASA may reduce dose of standard therapy.

  19. Antimicrobial Peptides and Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Ho, Samantha; Pothoulakis, Charalabos; Koon, Hon Wai

    2013-01-01

    Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) are important components of innate immunity. They are often expressed in response to colonic inflammation and infection. Over the last several years, the roles of several antimicrobial peptides have been explored. Gene expression of many AMPs (beta defensin HBD2-4 and cathelicidin) is induced in response to invasion of gut microbes into the mucosal barrier. Some AMPs are expressed in a constitutive manner (alpha defensin HD 5-6 and beta defensin HBD1), while others (defensin and bactericidal/permeability increasing protein BPI) are particularly associated with Inflammatory Bowel Disease (IBD) due to altered defensin expression or development of autoantibodies against Bactericidal/permeability increasing protein (BPI). Various AMPs have different spectrum and strength of antimicrobial effects. Some may play important roles in modulating the colitis (cathelicidin) while others (lactoferrin, hepcidin) may represent biomarkers of disease activity. The use of AMPs for therapeutic purposes is still at an early stage of development. A few natural AMPs were shown to be able to modulate colitis when delivered intravenously or intracolonically (cathelicidin, elafin and SLPI) in mouse colitis models. New AMPs (synthetic or artificial non-human peptides) are being developed and may represent new therapeutic approaches against colitis. This review discusses the latest research developments in the AMP field with emphasis in innate immunity and pathophysiology of colitis. PMID:22950497

  20. Rat Endovascular Perforation Model

    PubMed Central

    Sehba, Fatima A.

    2014-01-01

    Experimental animal models of aneurysmal subarachnoid hemorrhage (SAH) have provided a wealth of information on the mechanisms of brain injury. The Rat endovascular perforation model (EVP) replicates the early pathophysiology of SAH and hence is frequently used to study early brain injury following SAH. This paper presents a brief review of historical development of the EVP model, details the technique used to create SAH and considerations necessary to overcome technical challenges. PMID:25213427

  1. Effects of Dietary Plant Sterols and Stanol Esters with Low- and High-Fat Diets in Chronic and Acute Models for Experimental Colitis.

    PubMed

    te Velde, Anje A; Brüll, Florence; Heinsbroek, Sigrid E M; Meijer, Sybren L; Lütjohann, Dieter; Vreugdenhil, Anita; Plat, Jogchum

    2015-10-15

    In this study, we evaluated the effects of dietary plant sterols and stanols as their fatty acid esters on the development of experimental colitis. The effects were studied both in high- and low-fat diet conditions in two models, one acute and another chronic model of experimental colitis that resembles gene expression in human inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). In the first experiments in the high fat diet (HFD), we did not observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols and stanols on the development of acute dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) colitis. In the chronic CD4CD45RB T cell transfer colitis model, we mainly observed an effect of the presence of high fat on the development of colitis. In this HFD condition, the presence of plant sterol or stanol did not result in any additional effect. In the second experiments with low fat, we could clearly observe a beneficial effect of the addition of plant sterols on colitis parameters in the T cell transfer model, but not in the DSS model. This positive effect was related to the gender of the mice and on Treg presence in the colon. This suggests that especially dietary plant sterol esters may improve intestinal inflammation in a T cell dependent manner.

  2. Amelioration of severe TNBS induced colitis by novel AP-1 and NF- κ B inhibitors in rats.

    PubMed

    El-Salhy, Magdy; Umezawa, Kazuo; Gilja, Odd Helge; Hatlebakk, Jan G; Gundersen, Doris; Hausken, Trygve

    2014-01-01

    AP-1 and NF-κ B inhibitors, namely, DTCM-G and DHMEQ, were investigated in male Wistar rats with severe colitis, induced by TNBS. The animals were randomized into 3 groups. The control group received 0.5 mL of 0.5% of the vehicle i.p., the DTCM-G group received 22.5 mg/kg body weight DTCM-G in 0.5% i.p., and the DHMEQ group received 15 mg/kg body weight DHMEQ i.p., all twice daily for 5 days. The body weight losses and mortality rates were significantly higher in the control group than those in DTCM-G-treated and DHMEQ-treated groups. The endoscopic inflammation scores in the control, DTCM-G-treated, and DHMEQ-treated groups were 6.3 ± 0.7, 1.0 ± 0.3, and 0.7 ± 0.3, respectively (P = 0.004 and 0.02, resp.). The inflammation scores as assessed by the macroscopic appearance were 4.3 ± 0.8, 0.7 ± 0.3, and 1.2 ± 0.4 in the control, DTCM-G-treated, and DHMEQ-treated groups, respectively (P = 0.01 and 0.009, resp.). The histopathological inflammation scores were 6.4 ± 0.7, 2.0 ± 1.0, and 2.2 ± 0.6 in the control, DTCM-G-treated, and DHMEQ-treated groups, respectively (P = 0.03 and 0.01, resp.). It was concluded that DTCM-G and DHMEQ exhibit strong anti-inflammatory and anticancer activities with no apparent toxicity, which make them excellent drug candidates for clinical use in inflammatory bowel diseases.

  3. Anti-inflammatory effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from a microalga in a murine recurrent colitis model.

    PubMed

    Ávila-Román, Javier; Talero, Elena; Rodríguez-Luna, Azahara; García-Mauriño, Sofía; Motilva, Virginia

    2016-12-01

    Diet and nutritional factors have emerged as possible interventions for inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which are characterised by chronic uncontrolled inflammation of the intestinal mucosa. Microalgal species are a promising source of n-3 PUFA and derived oxylipins, which are lipid mediators with a key role in the resolution of inflammation. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised biomass from Chlamydomonas debaryana on a recurrent 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis mice model. Moderate chronic inflammation of the colon was induced in BALB/c mice by weekly intracolonic instillations of low dose of TNBS. Administration of the lyophilised microalgal biomass started 2 weeks before colitis induction and was continued throughout colitis development. Mice were killed 48 h after the last TNBS challenge. Oral administration of the microalgal biomass reduced TNBS-induced intestinal inflammation, evidenced by an inhibition of body weight loss, an improvement in colon morphology and a decrease in pro-inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6 and IL-17. This product also down-regulated colonic expressions of inducible nitric oxide, cyclo-oxygenase 2 and NF-κB, as well as increased PPAR-γ. In addition, lyophilised microalgal biomass up-regulated the expressions of the antioxidant transcription factor nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 and the target gene heme oxygenase 1. This study describes for the first time the prophylactic effects of an oxylipin-containing lyophilised microalgae biomass from C. debaryana in the acute phase of a recurrent TNBS-induced colitis model in mice. These findings suggest the potential use of this microalga, or derived oxylipins, as a nutraceutical in the treatment of IBD.

  4. Proanthocyanidins from Grape Seeds Modulate the NF-κB Signal Transduction Pathways in Rats with TNBS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiaoli; Yang, Xiaolai; Cai, Yongqing; Qin, Hong; Wang, Li; Wang, Yanhong; Huang, Yanhui; Wang, Xiaoxia; Yan, Shuai; Wang, Liping; Zhao, Xin; Li, Wan; Li, Sijia; Chen, Jiajia; Wu, Yongjie

    2011-08-08

    To elucidate the molecular mechanisms involved in the therapeutic effects of proanthocyanidins from grape seeds (GSPE), we explore whether GSPE regulates the inflammatory response of TNBS-induced colitis in rats at the levels of NF-κB signal transduction pathway. Rats were intragastrically administered of different doses of GSPE (100, 200 and 400 mg·kg-1) per day for seven days after ulcerative colitis (UC) was induced by intracolonic injection of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) dissolved in 50% ethanol. Sulfasalazine (SASP) at 400 mg/kg was used as a positive control drug. The expression of nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB), phospho-I kappaB-alpha (pIκBα), inhibitor kappa B kinase (IκK) in the colon tissues were all measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) methods. Treatment with GSPE reduced the expression of NF-κB, pIκBα and IκK in the colon. The results of this study show that GSPE exerts beneficial effects in inflammatory bowel disease by inhibition of NF-κB signal transduction pathways.

  5. Comparison of anti-inflammatory mechanisms of mango (Mangifera Indica L.) and pomegranate (Punica Granatum L.) in a preclinical model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemee; Banerjee, Nivedita; Ivanov, Ivan; Pfent, Catherine M.; Prudhomme, Kalan R.; Bisson, William H.; Dashwood, Rodrick H.; Talcott, Stephen T.; Mertens-Talcott, Susanne U.

    2016-01-01

    Scope Tannin-rich fruits have been evaluated as alternative prevention strategies for colorectal cancer based on their anti-inflammatory properties. This study compared tannin-rich preparations from mango (rich in gallotannins) and pomegranate (rich in ellagitannins) in the dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis model. Methods and results In rats, mango and pomegranate beverages decreased intestinal inflammation and the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines in mucosa and serum. The mango beverage suppressed the ratio of phosphorylated/total protein expression of the IGF-1R-AKT/mTOR axis and down-regulated mRNA expression of Igf1, Insr, and pik3cv. Pomegranate decreased p70S6K and RPS6, as well as Rps6ka2, Map2k2, and Mapk1 mRNA. In silico modeling indicated a high binding-docked of gallic acid to the catalytic domain of IGF-1R, which may suppress the activity of the enzyme. Ellagic acid docked effectively into the catalytic domains of both IGF-1R and EGFR. In vitro assays with lipopolysaccharide-treated CCD-18Co cells using polyphenolic extracts from each beverage, as well as pure compounds, corroborated the predictions made in silico. Conclusion Mango polyphenols inhibited the IGF-1R- AKT/mTOR axis, and pomegranate polyphenols downregulate the mTOR downstream pathway through reductions in ERK1/2. These results suggest that extracts rich in gallo- and ellagitannins act on different molecular targets in the protection against ulcerative colitis. PMID:27028006

  6. Anti-inflammatory effects of enemas containing an oily extract of curcumin in an experimental model of diversion colitis.

    PubMed

    Kadri, Caled Jaoudat; Pereira, José Aires; Campos, Fábio Guilherme; Ortega, Manoela Marques; Bragion, Celene Benediti; Martinez, Carlos Augusto Real

    2017-02-01

    Curcumin has powerful anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects and it has been used for treatment of distal ulcerative colitis. The therapeutic effects of curcumin have not yet been evaluated in diversion colitis. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of curcumin on colonic mucosa devoid of a faecal stream. Thirty-six rats were subjected to a proximal colostomy and distal colonic fistulation. They were divided into two groups, which were sacrificed two or four weeks after the intervention. Each group was divided into three subgroups treated with the daily application of enemas containing saline or an oily extract of curcumin at 50 mg/kg/day or 200 mg/kg/day. Colitis was diagnosed by histological analysis. Inflammatory grades were assessed using a previously validated scoring system. The infiltration of neutrophils was evaluated based on the tissue expression of myeloperoxidase (MPO), as determined by immunohistochemistry, and a computer-assisted image analysis program. The Mann-Whitney test was used to compare inflammation grades and myeloperoxidase levels among groups, and ANOVA was used to verify the variance over time, with the level of significance set at 5% (p<0.05) for both tests. Enemas containing curcumin improved the inflammation of the mucosa without a faecal stream and reduced the tissue contents of MPO. MPO tissue levels did not vary with time or between the concentrations of curcumin used. Enemas with curcumin improved the inflammation of the colonic mucosa, reduced the inflammatory grade and decreased the tissue content of MPO in colon segments without a faecal stream.

  7. Food-grade titanium dioxide exposure exacerbates tumor formation in colitis associated cancer model.

    PubMed

    Urrutia-Ortega, Ismael M; Garduño-Balderas, Luis G; Delgado-Buenrostro, Norma L; Freyre-Fonseca, Verónica; Flores-Flores, José O; González-Robles, Arturo; Pedraza-Chaverri, José; Hernández-Pando, Rogelio; Rodríguez-Sosa, Miriam; León-Cabrera, Sonia; Terrazas, Luis I; van Loveren, Henk; Chirino, Yolanda I

    2016-07-01

    Colorectal cancer is the fourth worldwide cause of death and even if some dietary habits are consider risk factors, the contribution of food additives including foodgrade titanium dioxide (TiO2), designated as E171, has been poorly investigated. We hypothesized that oral E171 intake could have impact on the enhancement of colorectal tumor formation and we aimed to investigate if E171 administration could enhance tumor formation in a colitis associated cancer (CAC) model. BALB/c male mice were grouped as follows: a) control, b) E171, c) CAC and d) CAC + E171 group (n = 6). E171 used in this study formed agglomerates of 300 nm in water. E171 intragastric administration (5 mg/kg body weight/5 days/10 weeks) was unable to induce tumor formation but dysplastic alterations were observed in the distal colon but enhanced the tumor formation in distal colon (CAC + E171 group) measured by tumor progression markers. Some E171 particles were internalized in colonic cells of the E171 and CAC + E171 groups and both groups showed a decrease in goblet cells in the distal colon. However the CAC + E171 group showed a higher decrease of these cells that act as protection barrier in colon. These results suggest that E171 could worsen pre-existent intestinal diseases.

  8. Profiles of microRNA networks in intestinal epithelial cells in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Juneyoung; Park, Eun Jeong; Yuki, Yoshikazu; Ahmad, Shandar; Mizuguchi, Kenji; Ishii, Ken J.; Shimaoka, Motomu; Kiyono, Hiroshi

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) accompany a critical loss of the frontline barrier function that is achieved primarily by intestinal epithelial cells (IECs). Although the gene-regulation pathways underlying these host-defense roles of IECs presumably are deranged during IBD pathogenesis, the quantitative and qualitative alterations of posttranscriptional regulators such as microRNAs (miRNAs) within the cells largely remain to be defined. We aimed to uncover the regulatory miRNA–target gene relationships that arise differentially in inflamed small- compared with large-IECs. Whereas IBD significantly increased the expression of only a few miRNA candidates in small-IECs, numerous miRNAs were upregulated in inflamed large-IECs. These marked alterations might explain why the large, as compared with small, intestine is more sensitive to colitis and shows more severe pathology in this experimental model of IBD. Our in-depth assessment of the miRNA–mRNA expression profiles and the resulting networks prompts us to suggest that miRNAs such as miR-1224, miR-3473a, and miR-5128 represent biomarkers that appear in large-IECs upon IBD development and co-operatively repress the expression of key anti-inflammatory factors. The current study provides insight into gene-regulatory networks in IECs through which dynamic rearrangement of the involved miRNAs modulates the gene expression–regulation machinery between maintaining and disrupting gastrointestinal homeostasis. PMID:26647826

  9. A short treatment with an antibody to sclerostin can inhibit bone loss in an ongoing model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Eddleston, Alison; Marenzana, Massimo; Moore, Adrian R; Stephens, Paul; Muzylak, Mariusz; Marshall, Diane; Robinson, Martyn K

    2009-10-01

    Chronic inflammation leads to bone loss, and increased fracture rates have been reported in a number of human chronic inflammatory conditions. The study reported here investigates the skeletal effects of dosing a neutralizing antibody to the bone regulatory protein sclerostin in a mouse model of chronic colitis. When dosed prophylactically, an antibody to sclerostin (Scl-AbI) did not reduce the weight loss or histological changes associated with colitis but did prevent inflammation-induced bone loss. At the end of the experiment, Scl-AbI-treated animals had a significantly higher femoral BMD (+27%, p < 0.05) than control antibody (Cntrl-Ab)-treated animals. In a second experiment, treatment with Scl-AbI was delayed until colitis had developed, by which time the mechanical properties of femurs in colitic animals were significantly worse than those of healthy age-matched control mice (maximum load, -26%, p < 0.05; energy, -37%, p < 0.05; ultimate strength, -33%, p < 0.05; elastic modulus, -17%, p < 0.05). A short treatment with Scl-AbI halted bone loss and reversed the decline of both intrinsic and extrinsic mechanical properties of the femur such that, after 19 days of treatment, the bone mechanical properties in the Scl-AbI-treated animals were not significantly different from those of noncolitic age-matched controls. Serum markers of bone formation and resorption suggested that the antibody to sclerostin stimulated osteoblast activity and inhibited osteoclast-mediated bone resorption.

  10. Toll-like receptor 2 signaling protects mice from tumor development in a mouse model of colitis-induced cancer.

    PubMed

    Lowe, Emily L; Crother, Timothy R; Rabizadeh, Shervin; Hu, Bing; Wang, Hanlin; Chen, Shuang; Shimada, Kenichi; Wong, Michelle H; Michelsen, Kathrin S; Arditi, Moshe

    2010-09-27

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is a disorder of chronic inflammation with increased susceptibility to colorectal cancer. The etiology of IBD is unclear but thought to result from a dysregulated adaptive and innate immune response to microbial products in a genetically susceptible host. Toll-like receptor (TLR) signaling induced by intestinal commensal bacteria plays a crucial role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis, innate immunity and the enhancement of intestinal epithelial cell (IEC) integrity. However, the role of TLR2 in the development of colorectal cancer has not been studied. We utilized the AOM-DSS model for colitis-associated colorectal cancer (CAC) in wild type (WT) and TLR2(-/-) mice. Colons harvested from WT and TLR2(-/-) mice were used for histopathology, immunohistochemistry, immunofluorescence and cytokine analysis. Mice deficient in TLR2 developed significantly more and larger colorectal tumors than their WT controls. We provide evidence that colonic epithelium of TLR2(-/-) mice have altered immune responses and dysregulated proliferation under steady-state conditions and during colitis, which lead to inflammatory growth signals and predisposition to accelerated neoplastic growth. At the earliest time-points assessed, TLR2(-/-) colons exhibited a significant increase in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), resulting in tumors that developed earlier and grew larger. In addition, the intestinal microenvironment revealed significantly higher levels of IL-6 and IL-17A concomitant with increased phospho-STAT3 within ACF. These observations indicate that in colitis, TLR2 plays a protective role against the development of CAC.

  11. A new model for the discrimination between ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease

    PubMed Central

    Shen, Zhe; Ma, Wei-Ping; Shao, Xiao-Na; Yu, Chao-Hui; Du, Juan; Xiang, Zun; Guo, Gan-Hua; Zhang, Hong; Li, You-Ming; Yue, Min

    2015-01-01

    Distinguishing ulcerative colitis (UC) from Crohn’s disease (CD) is sometimes difficult in a clinical setting. The purpose of this study was to identify a series of independent serum markers capable of distinguishing between UC and CD. 140 UC and 174 CD patients hospitalized at The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Zhejiang University were recruited into this study. A panel of serum markers was quantified for each patient and the Bayesian information criterion (BIC) was used to determine a discrimination model. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) was used to evaluate the performance of the model, and the area under the ROC curve (AUC) was used to evaluate the accuracy of the model. Serum albumin (Alb), total cholesterol (TC), total calcium (TCa), platelet (Plt), glycyl proline dipeptidyl aminopeptidase (GPDA) and their ratios (Alb: Plt, Alb: GPDA, TCa: TC, and Plt: GPDA) were selected into the diagnosis model using BIC. The resulting CD/UC Index (CUI) is CUI = 1.901 + 0.425 Alb - 3.324 TC - 7.444 TCa + 0.018 Plt + 0.087 GPDA - 0.0007 Alb: Plt - 0.004 Alb: GPDA + 1.839 TC: TCa + 0.003 Plt: GPDA, with CUI > 0 incrementally favored a diagnosis of UC, while CUI < 0 corresponded to a higher likelihood of a diagnosis of CD. An average value of the AUC for the CUI model is 0.73 (95% confidence interval: 0.67-0.80). The CUI, derived from commonly available serum biomarkers, could try to differentiate UC from CD in patients with unclear clinical features as a new approach to diagnosis. PMID:25785066

  12. Collagenous colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Kingham, J G; Levison, D A; Morson, B C; Dawson, A M

    1986-01-01

    Clinical and pathological aspects of six patients with collagenous colitis are presented. These patients have been observed for between four and 15 years and the evolution of the condition is documented in three (cases 1, 3 and 5). Management and possible pathogenetic mechanisms of this enigmatic condition are discussed. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 PMID:3699567

  13. Netrin-1 regulates colon-kidney cross talk through suppression of IL-6 function in a mouse model of DSS-colitis.

    PubMed

    Ranganathan, Punithavathi; Jayakumar, Calpurnia; Santhakumar, Manicassamy; Ramesh, Ganesan

    2013-05-01

    Organ cross talk is increasingly appreciated in human disease, and inflammatory mediators are shown to mediate distant organ injury in many disease models. Colitis and intestinal injury are known to be mediated by infiltrating immune cells and their secreted cytokines. However, its effect on other organs, such as the kidney, has never been studied. In the current study, we examined the effect of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis on kidney injury and inflammation. In addition, we hypothesized that netrin-1 could modulate colon-kidney cross talk through regulation of inflammation and apoptosis. Consistent with our hypothesis, DSS-colitis induced acute kidney injury in mice. Epithelial-specific overexpression of netrin-1 suppressed both colitis and colitis-induced acute kidney injury, which was associated with reduced weight loss, neutrophil infiltration into colon mucosa, intestinal permeability, epithelial cell apoptosis, and cytokine and chemokine production in netrin-1 transgenic mice colon and kidney. To determine whether netrin-1-protective effects were mediated through suppression of IL-6, IL-6 knockout mice were treated with DSS and acute kidney injury was determined. IL-6 knockout was resistant to colitis and acute kidney injury. Moreover, administration of IL-6 to netrin-1 transgenic mice did not affect the netrin-1-protective effects on the colon and kidney, suggesting that netrin-1 may reduce both IL-6 production and its activity. The present study identifies previously unrecognized cross talk between the colon and kidney, and netrin-1 may limit distant organ injury by suppressing inflammatory mediators and apoptosis.

  14. Medical therapy for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Hanauer, S B

    2000-07-01

    Last year was not a banner year for developments in medical therapy for ulcerative colitis. In contrast to the expansion of therapies for Crohn disease, treatment for ulcerative colitis was evolutionary, at best, leading many patients to seek alternative medical approaches. Nevertheless, there have been advances in the application of aminosalicylates and immune modifiers for ulcerative colitis. Additional, nonconventional approaches include nicotine, probiotics, dietary therapies, and heparins. Several novel approaches have arisen from animal models, including additional means of inhibiting nuclear factor-kappaB and targeting of tumor necrosis factor-alpha.

  15. Retrotransposition of long interspersed nucleotide element-1 is associated with colitis but not tumors in a murine colitic cancer model.

    PubMed

    Otsubo, Takeshi; Okamura, Tadashi; Hagiwara, Teruki; Ishizaka, Yukihito; Dohi, Taeko; Kawamura, Yuki I

    2015-01-01

    Long interspersed element-1 (L1) is a transposable element that can move within the genome, potentially leading to genome diversity and modified gene function. Although L1 activity in somatic cells is normally suppressed through DNA methylation, some L1s are activated in tumors including colorectal carcinoma. However, how L1-retrotransposition (L1-RTP) is involved in gastrointestinal disorders remains to be elucidated. We hypothesized that L1-RTP in somatic cells might contribute to colitis-associated cancer (CAC). To address this, we employed an experimental model of CAC using transgenic L1-reporter mice carrying a human L1-EGFP reporter gene. Mice were subjected to repeated cycles of colitis induced by administration of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) in drinking water with injection of carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). L1-RTP levels were measured by a quantitative polymerase chain reaction targeting the newly inserted reporter EGFP in various tissues and cell types, including samples obtained by laser microdissection and cell sorting with flow cytometry. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter were analyzed by bisulfite pyrosequencing. AOM+DSS-treated mice exhibited significantly higher levels of L1-RTP in whole colon tissue during the acute phase of colitis when compared with control naïve mice. L1-RTP levels in whole colon tissue were positively correlated with the histological severity of colitis and degree of neutrophil infiltration into the lamina propria (LP), but not with tumor development in the colon. L1-RTP was enriched in LP mesenchymal cells rather than epithelial cells (ECs), myeloid, or lymphoid cells. DNA methylation levels of the human L1 promoter region showed a negative correlation with L1-RTP levels. L1-RTP was absent from most tumors found in 22-week-old mice. In conclusion, we demonstrated that L1-RTP was induced in the mouse CAC mucosa in accordance with the acute inflammatory response; however, retrotransposition appears not to have

  16. CMV - gastroenteritis/colitis

    MedlinePlus

    Colitis - cytomegalovirus; Gastroenteritis - cytomegalovirus; Gastrointestinal CMV disease ... or after bone marrow or organ transplant Ulcerative colitis or Crohn disease Rarely, serious CMV infection involving ...

  17. Ischemic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    FitzGerald, James F.; Hernandez III, Luis O.

    2015-01-01

    Most clinicians associate ischemic colitis with elderly patients who have underlying cardiovascular comorbidities. While the majority of cases probably occur in this population, the disease can present in younger patients as a result of different risk factors, making the diagnosis challenging. While a majority of patients respond to medical management, surgery is required in approximately 20% of the cases and is associated with high morbidity and mortality. PMID:26034405

  18. Colonic and Hepatic Modulation by Lipoic Acid and/or N-Acetylcysteine Supplementation in Mild Ulcerative Colitis Induced by Dextran Sodium Sulfate in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Moura, Fabiana Andréa; de Andrade, Kívia Queiroz; de Araújo, Orlando Roberto Pimentel; Santos, Juliana Célia de Farias

    2016-01-01

    Lipoic acid (LA) and N-acetylcysteine (NAC) are antioxidant and anti-inflammatory agents that have not yet been tested on mild ulcerative colitis (UC). This study aims to evaluate the action of LA and/or NAC, on oxidative stress and inflammation markers in colonic and hepatic rat tissues with mild UC, induced by dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) (2% w/v). LA and/or NAC (100 mg·kg·day−1, each) were given, once a day, in the diet, in a pretreatment phase (7 days) and during UC induction (5 days). Colitis induction was confirmed by histological and biochemical analyses (high performance liquid chromatography, spectrophotometry, and Multiplex®). A redox imbalance occurred before an immunological disruption in the colon. NAC led to a decrease in hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and myeloperoxidase activity. In the liver, DSS did not cause damage but treatments with both antioxidants were potentially harmful, with LA increasing MDA and LA + NAC increasing H2O2, tumor necrosis factor alpha, interferon gamma, and transaminases. In summary, NAC exhibited the highest colonic antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activity, while LA + NAC caused hepatic damage. PMID:27957238

  19. Flavonoids Extracted from Licorice Prevents Colitis-Associated Carcinogenesis in AOM/DSS Mouse Model

    PubMed Central

    Huo, Xiaowei; Liu, Dongyu; Gao, Li; Li, Liyong; Cao, Li

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is generally considered as a major risk factor in the progression of colitis-associated carcinogenesis (CAC). Thus, it is well accepted that ameliorating inflammation creates a potential to achieve an inhibitory effect on CAC. Licorice flavonoids (LFs) possess strong anti-inflammatory activity, making it possible to investigate its pharmacologic role in suppressing CAC. The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the anti-tumor potential of LFs, and further explore the underlying mechanisms. Firstly, an azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced mouse model was established and administered with or without LFs for 10 weeks, and then the severity of CAC was examined macroscopically and histologically. Subsequently, the effects of LFs on expression of proteins associated with apoptosis and proliferation, levels of inflammatory cytokine, expression of phosphorylated-Janus kinases 2 (p-Jak2) and phosphorylated-signal transducer and activator of transcription 3 (p-Stat3), and activation of nuclear factor-κB (NFκB) and P53 were assessed. We found that LFs could significantly reduce tumorigenesis induced by AOM/DSS. Further study revealed that LFs treatment substantially reduced activation of NFκB and P53, and subsequently suppressed production of inflammatory cytokines and phosphorylation of Jak2 and Stat3 in AOM/DSS-induced mice. Taken together, LFs treatment alleviated AOM/DSS induced CAC via P53 and NFκB/IL-6/Jak2/Stat3 pathways, highlighting the potential of LFs in preventing CAC. PMID:27563884

  20. Elevated fecal peptidase D at onset of colitis in Galphai2-/- mice, a mouse model of IBD

    PubMed Central

    Kruse, Robert; Sapnara, Maria; Halfvarson, Jonas; Hörnquist, Elisabeth Hultgren

    2017-01-01

    Background The identification of novel fecal biomarkers in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) is hampered by the complexity of the human fecal proteome. On the other hand, in experimental mouse models there is probably less variation. We investigated the fecal protein content in mice to identify possible biomarkers and pathogenic mechanisms. Methods Fecal samples were collected at onset of inflammation in Galphai2-/- mice, a well-described spontaneous model of chronic colitis, and from healthy littermates. The fecal proteome was analyzed by two-dimensional electrophoresis and quantitative mass spectrometry and results were then validated in a new cohort of mice. Results As a potential top marker of disease, peptidase D was found at a higher ratio in Galphai2-/- mouse feces relative to controls (fold change 27; p = 0.019). Other proteins found to be enriched in Gαi2-/- mice were mainly pancreatic proteases, and proteins from plasma and blood cells. A tendency of increased calprotectin, subunit S100-A8, was also observed (fold change 21; p = 0.058). Proteases are potential activators of inflammation in the gastrointestinal tract through their interaction with the proteinase-activated receptor 2 (PAR2). Accordingly, the level of PAR2 was found to be elevated in both the colon and the pancreas of Galphai2-/- mice at different stages of disease. Conclusions These findings identify peptidase D, an ubiquitously expressed intracellular peptidase, as a potential novel marker of colitis. The elevated levels of fecal proteases may be involved in the pathogenesis of colitis and contribute to the clinical phenotype, possibly by activation of intestinal PAR2. PMID:28323866

  1. Inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-alpha and cyclooxigenase-2 by Isatin: a molecular mechanism of protection against TNBS-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Socca, Eduardo Augusto Rabelo; Luiz-Ferreira, Anderson; de Faria, Felipe Meira; de Almeida, Ana Cristina; Dunder, Ricardo José; Manzo, Luis Paulo; Brito, Alba Regina Monteiro Souza

    2014-02-25

    Isatin, an indole alkaloid has been shown to have anti-microbial, anti-tumor and anti-inflammatory effects. Due to its findings, we evaluated whether this alkaloid would have any effect on TNBS-induced colitis. Animals (male Unib:WH rats, aged 8 weeks old) were induced colitis through a rectal administration of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid using a catheter inserted 8 cm into the rectum of the animals. The rats were divided into two major groups: non-colitic and colitic. The colitic group was sub-divided into 6 groups (10 animals per group): colitic non-treated, Isatin 3; 6; 12.5; 18.75 and 25 mg/kg. Our main results showed that the oral treatment with Isatin 6 and 25 mg/kg were capable of avoiding the increase in TNF-α, COX-2 and PGE₂ levels when compared to the colitic non-treated group. Interestingly, the same doses (6 and 25 mg/kg) were also capable of preventing the decrease in IL-10 levels comparing with the colitic non-treated group. The levels of MPO, (an indirect indicator of neutrophil presence), were also maintained lower than those of the colitic non-treated group. Isatin also prevented the decrease of SOD activity and increase of GSH-Px and GSH-Rd activity as well as the depletion of GSH levels. In conclusion, both pre-treatments (6 and 25 mg/kg) were capable of protecting the gut mucosa against the injury caused by TNBS, through the combination of antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties, which, together, showed a protective activity of the indole alkaloid Isatin.

  2. Experimental colitis is ameliorated by inhibition of nitric oxide synthase activity.

    PubMed Central

    Rachmilewitz, D; Karmeli, F; Okon, E; Bursztyn, M

    1995-01-01

    Enhanced nitric oxide (NO) generation by stimulated NO synthase (NOS) activity may, through its oxidative metabolism contribute to tissue injury in experimental colitis. In this study the possible amelioration of experimental colitis by NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME), an inhibitor of NOS activity, was evaluated. Colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 30 mg trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNB) dissolved in 0.25 ml 50% ethanol or by flushing the colon of capsaicin pretreated rats with 2 ml of 5% acetic acid. In several experiments, L-NAME 0.1 mg/ml was added to the drinking water at the time of colitis induction with TNB or seven days before acetic acid treatment. Rats were killed at various time intervals after induction of colitis. A 10 cm distal colonic segment was isolated, weighed, lesion area measured, and explants organ cultured for 24 hours for determination of NO generation by the Greiss reaction. The rest of the mucosa was scraped for determination of myeloperoxidase and NOS activities and leukotriene generation. In TNB treated rats mean arterial pressure was also determined up to 72 hours after damage induction, with or without cotreatment with nitroprusside. L-NAME significantly decreased the extent of tissue injury in TNB treated rats. Seven days after TNB treatment lesion area was reduced by 55%, colonic weight by 37%, and myeloperoxidase and NOS activity by 59% and 42%, respectively. Acetic acid induced colitis in capsaicin pretreated rats was also significantly decreased by L-NAME. Twenty four hours after acetic acid treatment lesion area was reduced by 61%, colonic weight by 21% and NOS activity by 39%. Mean (SEM) arterial blood pressure in TNB+L-NAME treated rats was 37.6 (8.1) mm Hg higher than in TNB treated rats, an effect that was only partially abolished by nitroprusside. These results show that inhibition of NO synthesis by an L-arginine analogue significantly ameliorates the extent of tissue injury in two

  3. Id1 Deficiency Protects against Tumor Formation in Apc(Min/+) Mice but Not in a Mouse Model of Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ning; Subbaramaiah, Kotha; Yantiss, Rhonda K; Zhou, Xi Kathy; Chin, Yvette; Benezra, Robert; Dannenberg, Andrew J

    2015-04-01

    Different mechanisms contribute to the development of sporadic, hereditary and colitis-associated colorectal cancer. Inhibitor of DNA binding/differentiation (Id) proteins act as dominant-negative antagonists of basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors. Id1 is a promising target for cancer therapy, but little is known about its role in the development of colon cancer. We used immunohistochemistry to demonstrate that Id1 is overexpressed in human colorectal adenomas and carcinomas, whether sporadic or syndromic. Furthermore, elevated Id1 levels were found in dysplasia and colon cancer arising in patients with inflammatory bowel disease. Because levels of PGE2 are also elevated in both colitis and colorectal neoplasia, we determined whether PGE2 could induce Id1. PGE2 via EP4 stimulated protein kinase A activity resulting in enhanced pCREB-mediated Id1 transcription in human colonocytes. To determine the role of Id1 in carcinogenesis, two mouse models were used. Consistent with the findings in humans, Id1 was overexpressed in tumors arising in both Apc(Min) (/+) mice, a model of familial adenomatous polyposis, and in experimental colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia. Id1 deficiency led to significant decrease in the number of intestinal tumors in Apc(Min) (/+) mice and prolonged survival. In contrast, Id1 deficiency did not affect the number or size of tumors in the model of colitis-associated colorectal neoplasia, likely due to exacerbation of colitis associated with Id1 loss. Collectively, these results suggest that Id1 plays a role in gastrointestinal carcinogenesis. Our findings also highlight the need for different strategies to reduce the risk of colitis-associated colorectal cancer compared with sporadic or hereditary colorectal cancer.

  4. An experimental model of colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium from acute progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6: correlation between conditions of mice and the environment

    PubMed Central

    Taghipour, Niloofar; Molaei, Mahsa; Mosaffa, Nariman; Rostami-Nejad, Mohammad; Asadzadeh Aghdaei, Hamid; Anissian, Ali; Azimzadeh, Pedram; Zali, Mohammad Reza

    2016-01-01

    Aim: To induce acute colitis progresses to chronicity in C57BL/6 mice by dextran sulfate sodium. Background: Murine models are essential tools to understand IBD pathogenesis. Among different types of chemically induced colitis models, the dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis model is the most common model of IBD, due to its simplicity. Patients and methods: Male C57BL/6 mice 6–8 weeks old, were collected and matched by age with controls. C57BL/6 mice treated with 2 cycles of 3.5% DSS for 4 days and 4 days of pure water between each cycle. After that, mice were sacrificed and the entire colon was removed. Small sections of the colon were fixed in formaldehyde, embedded in paraffin and sectioned with a microtome. Sections were stained with hematoxylin eosin to analyses the degree of inflammation. Results: After the first cycle oral administration of DSS, mice with severe and visible rectal bleeding and diarrhea entered into the acute phase. After day 4-5, bleeding and diarrhea were improved and mice entered into the chronic phase with peak levels of weight loss. Macroscopically, the inflammation was predominantly located in the distal colon. Microscopically, examination of the distal colon sections showed a decrease number of goblet cells, loss of crypts, signs of surface epithelial regeneration and moderate to severe infiltration of inflammatory cells in the mucosa. Conclusion: In order to achieve an experimental colitis model, our protocol is recommended for future therapies in IBD experimental modeling. PMID:26744614

  5. A new therapeutic association to manage relapsing experimental colitis: Doxycycline plus Saccharomyces boulardii.

    PubMed

    Garrido-Mesa, José; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Utrilla, Maria Pilar; Rodriguez-Cabezas, Maria Elena; Zarzuelo, Antonio; Ocete, Maria Angeles; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Galvez, Julio

    2015-07-01

    Immunomodulatory antibiotics have been proposed for the treatment of multifactorial conditions such as inflammatory bowel disease. Probiotics are able to attenuate intestinal inflammation, being considered as safe when chronically administered. The aim of the study was to evaluate the anti-inflammatory effects of doxycycline, a tetracycline with immunomodulatory properties, alone and in association with the probiotic Saccharomyces boulardii CNCMI-745. Doxycycline was assayed both in vitro (Caco-2 epithelial cells and RAW 264.7 macrophages) and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS) model of rat colitis and the dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) model of mouse colitis. In addition, the anti-inflammatory effect of the association of doxycycline and the probiotic was evaluated in vitro and in vivo in a DSS model of reactivated colitis in mice. Doxycycline displayed immunomodulatory activity in vitro, reducing IL-8 production by intestinal epithelial cells and nitric oxide by macrophages. Doxycycline administration to TNBS-colitic rats (5, 10 and 25 mg/kg) ameliorated the intestinal inflammatory process, being its efficacy comparable to that previously showed by minocycline. Doxycycline treatment was also effective in reducing acute intestinal inflammation in the DSS model of mouse colitis. The association of doxycycline and S. boulardii helped managing colitis in a reactivated model of colitis, by reducing intestinal inflammation and accelerating the recovery and attenuating the relapse. This was evidenced by a reduced disease activity index, colonic tissue damage and expression of inflammatory mediators. This study confirms the intestinal anti-inflammatory activity of doxycycline and supports the potential use of its therapeutic association with S. boulardii for the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases, in which doxycycline is used to induce remission and long term probiotic administration helps to prevent the relapses.

  6. Combined Therapy with Rheum tanguticum Polysaccharide and Low-dose 5-ASA Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Colitis in Rats by Suppression of NF-κB.

    PubMed

    Liu, Linna; Liu, Zhenxiong; Zhang, Tian; Shi, Lei; Zhang, Wenjuan; Zhang, Yan

    2015-06-01

    The most common conventional therapy for inflammatory bowel disease in clinical practice involves the use of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs, such as 5-amino salicylic acid. However, a high dose of 5-amino salicylic acid may bring about severe side effects. Chinese people have used Rheum tanguticum as a folk remedy for gastrointestinal disease for two thousand years. Our group has isolated R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 from R. tanguticum and verified that it can attenuate 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis in murines/rats. The present study aims to evaluate whether the addition of R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 can improve efficacy and limit subsequent side effects of conventional treatment (5-amino salicylic acid) in rats with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced colitis. Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats were randomized into five groups and treated with (1) saline (saline, 0.2 mL/day × 5, p. o.), (2) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid alone (saline, 0.2 mL/day × 5, p. o.), (3) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid + 5-amino salicylic acid (5-amino salicylic acid, 75 mg/kg/day × 5, p.o), (4) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid + R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 (R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1, 200 mg/kg/day × 5, p. o.), and (5) 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid + 5-amino salicylic acid + R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1 (5-amino salicylic acid, 25 mg/kg/day × 5, p.o; R. tanguticum polysaccharide 1, 200 mg/kg/day × 5, p. o.). All the rats were sacrificed on the 6th day after treatment using an overdose of anesthesia. A histological assessment was performed using semiquantitative scores; nuclear factor-kappa B and tumor necrosis factor-α were measured with Western blot, cyclooxygenase 1 and cyclooxygenase 2 protein expressions were investigated by RT-polymerase chain reaction, and prostoglandin E2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase productions were investigated by ELISA. The extent and

  7. Anti-Inflammatory Properties of the Enaminone E121 in the Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS) Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Khajah, Maitham A.; Ananthalakshmi, Kethireddy V.; Edafiogho, Ivan

    2016-01-01

    Background Enaminones are synthetic compounds with an established role in the prevention of various forms of seizures. Recent evidence suggests potent anti-tussive, bronchodilation and anti-inflammatory properties. Pre-treatment with particularly E121 compound resulted in a decrease in leukocyte recruitment in the ovalbumin induced-model of asthma, immune cell proliferation and cytokine release in vitro. We hypothesize that E121 might serve as a therapeutic potential in intestinal inflammation through modulating immune cell functions. Methods Colitis was induced by daily dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) administration for 5 days, and its severity was determined by gross and histological assessments. The plasma level of various cytokines was measured using flow cytometry-based assay. The colonic expression/ phosphorylation level of various molecules was determined by immunofluorescence and western blotting. The effects of E121 treatment on in vitro neutrophil chemotaxis (under-agarose assay), superoxide release (luminol oxidation assay) and apoptosis (annexin V/7AAD) were also determined. Results DSS-induced colitis in mice was significantly reduced by daily E121 treatment (30–100 mg/kg) at gross and histological levels. This effect was due to modulated plasma levels of interleukin (IL-2) and colonic expression levels of various signaling molecules and proteins involved in apoptosis. In vitro neutrophil survival, chemotaxis, and superoxide release were also reduced by E121 treatment. Conclusion Our results indicate important anti-inflammatory actions of E121 in the pathogenesis of IBD. PMID:27997590

  8. Fucoidan Extracts Ameliorate Acute Colitis.

    PubMed

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D; Fitton, J Helen; Patel, Rahul P; Gueven, Nuri

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), such as ulcerative colitis and Crohn's disease, are an important cause of morbidity and impact significantly on quality of life. Overall, current treatments do not sustain a long-term clinical remission and are associated with adverse effects, which highlight the need for new treatment options. Fucoidans are complex sulphated, fucose-rich polysaccharides, found in edible brown algae and are described as having multiple bioactivities including potent anti-inflammatory effects. Therefore, the therapeutic potential of two different fucoidan preparations, fucoidan-polyphenol complex (Maritech Synergy) and depyrogenated fucoidan (DPF) was evaluated in the dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) mouse model of acute colitis. Mice were treated once daily over 7 days with fucoidans via oral (Synergy or DPF) or intraperitoneal administration (DPF). Signs and severity of colitis were monitored daily before colons and spleens were collected for macroscopic evaluation, cytokine measurements and histology. Orally administered Synergy and DPF, but not intraperitoneal DPF treatment, significantly ameliorated symptoms of colitis based on retention of body weight, as well as reduced diarrhoea and faecal blood loss, compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon and spleen weight in mice treated with oral fucoidan was also significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and oedema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice confirmed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and oedema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral fucoidan. Importantly, in this model, the macroscopic changes induced by oral fucoidan correlated significantly with substantially decreased production of at least 15 pro-inflammatory cytokines by the colon tissue. Overall, oral fucoidan preparations significantly reduce the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis and could therefore represent

  9. Comparison of prophylactic and therapeutic use of short‐chain fatty acid enemas in diversion colitis: a study in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    de Oliveira, Ariano José Freitas; Júnior, Francisco Edilson Leite Pinto; Formiga, Maria Célia Carvalho; da Costa Melo, Syomara Pereira; Brandão‐Neto, José; de Oliveira Ramos, Ana Maria

    2010-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: To study the effect of short‐chain fatty‐acids on atrophy and inflammation of excluded colonic segments before and after the development of diversion colitis. INTRODUCTION: Diversion colitis is a chronic inflammatory process affecting the dysfunctional colon, possibly evolving with mucous and blood discharge. The most favored hypotheses to explain its development is short‐chain fatty‐acid deficiency in the colon lumen. METHODS: Wistar rats were submitted to colostomy with distal colon exclusion. Two control groups (A1 and B1) received rectally administered physiological saline, whereas two experimental groups (A2 and B2) received rectally administered short‐chain fatty‐acids. The A groups were prophylactically treated (5th to 40th days postoperatively), whereas the B groups were therapeutically treated (after post‐operative day 40). The mucosal thickness of the excluded colon was measured histologically. The inflammatory reaction of the mucosal lamina propria and the lymphoid tissue response were quantified through established scores. RESULTS: There was a significant thickness recovery of the colonic mucosa in group B2 animals (p  =  0.0001), which also exhibited a significant reduction in the number of eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria (p  =  0.0126) and in the intestinal lumen (p  =  0.0256). Group A2 showed no mucosal thickness recovery and significant increases in the numbers of lymphocytes (p  =  0.0006) and eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cells in the lamina propria of the mucosa (p  =  0.0022). CONCLUSION: Therapeutic use of short‐chain fatty‐acids significantly reduced eosinophilic polymorphonuclear cell numbers in the intestinal wall and in the colonic lumen; it also reversed the atrophy of the colonic mucosa. Prophylactic use did not impede the development of mucosal atrophy. PMID:21340226

  10. N-nitroso compounds in the gastrointestinal tract of rats and in the feces of mice with induced colitis or fed hot dogs or beef.

    PubMed

    Mirvish, Sidney S; Haorah, James; Zhou, Lin; Hartman, Melissa; Morris, Chantey R; Clapper, Marge L

    2003-03-01

    Because colonic N-nitroso compounds (NOC) may be a cause of colon cancer, we determined total NOC levels by Walters' method in the gastrointestinal tract and feces of rodents: (i) feces of C57BL mice fed chow and semi-purified diets contained 3.2 +/- 0.4 and 0.46 +/- 0.06 NOC/g, respectively (P < 0.01, mean +/- SD). (ii) NOC levels for gastrointestinal contents of three groups of Sprague-Dawley rats fed chow diet were 0.9 +/- 0.05 (diet), 0.2 +/- 0 (stomach), 0.3-0.4 (small intestine), 0.7-1.6 (cecum and colon) and 2.6 +/- 0.6 (feces) nmol/g. NOC precursor (NOCP) levels (measured as NOC after mild nitrosation) for two rat groups fed chow diet showed a 16-fold increase from stomach to proximal small intestine (mean, 6.2 micromol/g), and a 1.7-fold increase from distal colon to feces (mean, 11.6 micromol/g). (iii) Eight Min and five C57BL/6J mice received 4% dextran sulfate sodium in drinking water on days 1-4 to induce acute colitis. This increased fecal NOC levels 1.9-fold on day 5 in both strains (P < or = 0.04), probably due to NO synthase-derived nitrosating agents in the colon. (iv) Following studies on humans fed beef [Hughes et al. (2001) Carcinogenesis, 22, 199], Swiss mice received semi-purified diets mixed with 18% of beef plus pork hot dogs or sautéed beef for 7 days. On day 7, individual 24-h fecal NOC outputs were determined. In three hot dog and two beef groups with 5 mice/group, mean fecal NOC output/day was 3.7-5.0 (hot dog) and 2.0-2.9 (beef) times that for control groups fed semi-purified diet alone (P < 0.002 for each of combined groups). These groups showed little change in fecal NOCP output. (v) Initial purification of rat fecal NOCP by adsorption-desorption and HPLC is described. Results should help evaluate the view that colonic NOC causes colon cancer associated with colitis and ingestion of red and nitrite-preserved meat.

  11. Implication of TNF-alpha convertase (TACE/ADAM17) in inducible nitric oxide synthase expression and inflammation in an experimental model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Colón, A L; Menchén, L A; Hurtado, O; De Cristóbal, J; Lizasoain, I; Leza, J C; Lorenzo, P; Moro, M A

    2001-12-21

    Tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) is a pro-inflammatory cytokine which is shed in its soluble form by a disintegrin and metalloproteinase (ADAM) called TNF-alpha convertase (TACE; ADAM17). TNF-alpha plays a role in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) and is involved in the expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) which has also been implicated in IBD. The study was designed to investigate whether colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS) in rats produces an increase in TACE activity and/or expression and whether its pharmacological inhibition reduces TNF-alpha levels, iNOS expression and colonic damage in this model. TNBS (30 mg in 0.4 ml of 50% ethanol) was instilled into the colon of female Wistar rats. Saline or TACE inhibitor BB1101 (10 mg/kg/day) was administered intraperitoneally 5 days after TNBS instillation. On day 10, colons were removed and assessed for pathological score, myeloperoxidase (MPO), NO synthase (NOS), TACE enzymatic activity and protein levels, colonic TNF-alpha and NOx- levels. Instillation of TNBS caused an increase in TACE activity and expression and the release of TNF-alpha. TNBS also resulted in iNOS expression and colonic damage. BB1101 blocked TNBS-induced increase in TACE activity, TNF-alpha release and iNOS expression. Concomitantly, BB1101 ameliorated TNBS-induced colonic damage and inflammation. TNBS causes TNF-alpha release by an increase in TACE activity and expression and this results in the expression of iNOS and subsequent inflammation, suggesting that TACE inhibition may prove useful as a therapeutic means in IBD.

  12. Anti-inflammatory effects of Lacto-Wolfberry in a mouse model of experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Philippe, David; Brahmbhatt, Viral; Foata, Francis; Saudan, Yen; Serrant, Patrick; Blum, Stephanie; Benyacoub, Jalil; Vidal, Karine

    2012-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the anti-inflammatory properties of Lacto-Wolfberry (LWB), both in vitro and using a mouse model of experimental colitis. METHODS: The effects of LWB on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced reactive oxygen species (ROS) and interleukin (IL)-6 secretion were assessed in a murine macrophage cell line. in vitro assessment also included characterizing the effects of LWB on the activation of NF-E2 related 2 pathway and inhibition of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α)-induced nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) activation, utilizing reporter cell lines. Following the in vitro assessment, the anti-inflammatory efficacy of an oral intervention with LWB was tested in vivo using a preclinical model of intestinal inflammation. Multiple outcomes including body weight, intestinal histology, colonic cytokine levels and anti-oxidative measures were investigated. RESULTS: LWB reduced the LPS-mediated induction of ROS production [+LPS vs 1% LWB + LPS, 1590 ± 188.5 relative luminescence units (RLU) vs 389 ± 5.9 RLU, P < 0.001]. LWB was more effective than wolfberry alone in reducing LPS-induced IL-6 secretion in vitro (wolfberry vs 0.5% LWB, 15% ± 7.8% vs 64% ± 5%, P < 0.001). In addition, LWB increased reporter gene expression via the anti-oxidant response element activation (wolfberry vs LWB, 73% ± 6.9% vs 148% ± 28.3%, P < 0.001) and inhibited the TNF-α-induced activation of the NF-κB pathway (milk vs LWB, 10% ± 6.7% vs 35% ± 3.3%, P < 0.05). Furthermore, oral supplementation with LWB resulted in a reduction of macroscopic (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.39 ± 0.61 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0445) and histological scores (-LWB vs +LWB, 5.44 ± 0.32 vs 3.66 ± 0.59, P = 0.0087) in colitic mice. These effects were associated with a significant decrease in levels of inflammatory cytokines such as IL-1β (-LWB vs +LWB, 570 ± 245 μg/L vs 89 ± 38 μg/L, P = 0.0106), keratinocyte-derived chemokine/growth regulated protein-α (-LWB vs +LWB, 184 ± 49 μg/L vs 75 ± 20 μg/L, P = 0

  13. Expression profiles of proliferative and antiapoptotic genes in sporadic and colitis-related mouse colon cancer models

    PubMed Central

    Švec, Jiří; Ergang, Peter; Mandys, Václav; Kment, Milan; Pácha, Jiří

    2010-01-01

    Elevated levels of survivin, telomerase catalytic subunit (TERT), integrin-linked kinase (ILK), cyclooxygenase 2 (COX-2), inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and the regulatory factors c-MYB and Tcf-4 are often found in human cancers including colorectal cancer (CRC) and have been implicated in the development and progression of tumorigenesis. The aim of this study was to determine the expression of these genes in mouse models of sporadic and colitis-associated CRC. To address these issues, we used qRT-PCR approach to determine changes in gene expression patterns of neoplastic cells (high-grade dysplasia/intramucosal carcinoma) and surrounding normal epithelial cells in A/J and ICR mouse strains using laser microdissection. Both strains were injected with azoxymethane and ICR mice were also given drinking water that contained 2% dextran sodium sulphate. In both sporadic (A/J mice) and colitis-associated (ICR mice) models of CRC, the levels of TERT mRNA, COX-2 mRNA and Tcf-4 mRNA were higher in neoplastic cells than in surrounding normal epithelial cells. In contrast, survivin mRNA was upregulated only in neoplastic cells from A/J mice and ILK mRNA was upregulated only in neoplastic cells from ICR mice. However, the expression of iNOS mRNA was similar in normal and neoplastic cells in both models and c-MYB mRNA was actually downregulated in neoplastic cells compared with normal cells in both models. These findings suggest that the genetic background and/or the molecular mechanisms of tumorigenesis associated with genotoxic insults and colonic inflammation influence the gene expression of mTERT, COX-2, Tcf-4, c-MYB, ILK and survivin in colon epithelial neoplasia. PMID:20096072

  14. Tropisetron suppresses colitis-associated cancer in a mouse model in the remission stage.

    PubMed

    Amini-Khoei, Hossein; Momeny, Majid; Abdollahi, Alireza; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza; Amiri, Shayan; Haj-Mirzaian, Arya; Tavangar, Seyed Mohammad; Ghaffari, Seyed Hamid; Rahimian, Reza; Mehr, Shahram Ejtemaei

    2016-07-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) have a high risk for development of colitis-associated cancer (CAC). Serotonin is a neurotransmitter produced by enterochromaffin cells of the intestine. Serotonin and its receptors, mainly 5-HT3 receptor, are overexpressed in IBD and promote development of CAC through production of inflammatory cytokines. In the present study, we demonstrated the in vivo activity of tropisetron, a 5-HT3 receptor antagonist, against experimental CAC. CAC was induced by azoxymethane (AOM)/dextran sodium sulfate (DDS) in BALB/c mice. The histopathology of colon tissue was performed. Beta-catenin and Cox-2 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry as well as quantitative reverse transcription-PCR (qRT-PCR). Alterations in the expression of 5-HT3 receptor and inflammatory-associated genes such as Il-1β, Tnf-α, Tlr4 and Myd88 were determined by qRT-PCR. Our results showed that tumor development in tropisetron-treated CAC group was significantly lower than the controls. The qRT-PCR analysis demonstrated that the expression of 5-HT3 receptor was significantly increased following CAC induction. In addition, tropisetron reduced expression of β-catenin and Cox-2 in the CAC experimental group. The levels of Il-1β, Tnf-α, Tlr4 and Myd88 were significantly decreased upon tropisetron treatment in the AOM/DSS group. Taken together, our data show that tropisetron inhibits development of CAC probably by attenuation of inflammatory reactions in the colitis.

  15. IMMUNOLOGICAL STUDIES IN ULCERATIVE COLITIS

    PubMed Central

    Lagercrantz, R.; Hammarström, S.; Perlmann, P.; Gustafsson, B. E.

    1968-01-01

    The incidence and height of antibody titers to colon, assayed by indirect hemagglutination with a heat stable colon extract from germ free rats, is significantly higher in sera from patients with ulcerative colitis than in those from healthy controls or from patients with amebic liver abscess or dysentery. While sera from ulcerative colitis patients and controls are indistinguishable in regard to incidence and height of antibody titers to Forsman antigen, Staphylococcus aureus S 209, Clostridium difficile, and several common strains of E. coli, they have elevated titers and increased incidence of antibodies to a heat stable antigen of E. coli O14. Patients with amebic dysentery have normal titers of such antibodies. Absorption of patients' sera with E. coli O14 antigen inhibits the colon directed hemagglutination reaction in approximately 30% of the cases tested. Likewise, the anti-E. coli O14 reaction can sometimes be inhibited with the colon extract. Other E. coli strains and other bacteria are inactive or have only weak inhibitory activity. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments show that germ free rat colon and E. coli O14 contain common structures, depicted by antibodies in the patients' sera. This pattern of reactivity closely resembles that seen in rats made autoimmune to colon by injection of newborn rabbit colon. E. coli O14 is known to carry a heterogenetic antigen present in lower concentration (or activity) in most Enterobacteriaceae. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments with rabbit antisera to E. coli O14 suggest that the antigen common for E. coli O14 and colon is related to this heterogenetic antigen. The findings imply that this antigen, which is constantly present in low concentrations in the human colon, may give rise to anticolon antibody formation in ulcerative colitis through breakage of tolerance. Since this antigen is present in healthy individuals as well, additional factors are required to explain the induction of anti

  16. Impairment of skin barrier function via cholinergic signal transduction in a dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis mouse model.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Satoshi; Hiramoto, Keiichi; Koyama, Mayu; Ooi, Kazuya

    2015-10-01

    Dry skin has been clinically associated with visceral diseases, including liver disease, as well as for our previously reported small intestinal injury mouse model, which have abnormalities in skin barrier function. To clarify this disease-induced skin disruption, we used a dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis mouse model. Following treatment with DSS, damage to the colon and skin was monitored using histological and protein analysis methods as well as the detection of inflammatory mediators in the plasma. Notably, transepidermal water loss was higher, and skin hydration was lower in DSS-treated mice compared to controls. Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α), interleukin 6 and NO2-/NO3- levels were also upregulated in the plasma, and a decrease in body weight and colon length was observed in DSS-treated mice. However, when administered TNF-α antibody or an iNOS inhibitor, no change in skin condition was observed, indicating that another signalling mechanism is utilized. Interestingly, the number of tryptase-expressing mast cells, known for their role in immune function via cholinergic signal transduction, was elevated. To evaluate the function of cholinergic signalling in this context, atropine (a muscarinic cholinoceptor antagonist) or hexamethonium (a nicotinic cholinergic ganglion-blocking agent) was administered to DSS-treated mice. Our data indicate that muscarinic acetylcholine receptors (mAChRs) are the primary receptors functioning in colon-to-skin signal transduction, as DSS-induced skin disruption was suppressed by atropine. Thus, skin disruption is likely associated with DSS-induced colitis, and the activation of mast cells via mAChRs is critical to this association.

  17. Maternal exposure to low levels of corticosterone during lactation protects adult rat progeny against TNBS-induced colitis: A study on GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effect and prokineticin system

    PubMed Central

    Marconi, Veronica; Petrella, Carla; Fusco, Ilaria; Giuli, Chiara; Canu, Nadia; Severini, Cinzia; Broccardo, Maria; Theodorou, Vassilia; Lattanzi, Roberta; Casolini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The early phase of life represents a critical period for the development of an organism. Interestingly, early life experiences are able to influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the reactivity to colonic inflammatory stress. We recently demonstrated that adult male rats exposed to low doses of corticosterone during lactation (CORT-nursed rats) are protected against experimental colitis induced by the intracolonic infusion of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Based on these interesting results, we wanted to better investigate which cellular actors could be involved in the protection of CORT-nursed rats from TNBS-induced experimental colitis. Therefore, in the present work, we focused our attention on different factors implicated in GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effect. To address this issue, colonic tissues, collected from control and CORT-nursed healthy animals and from control and CORT-nursed colitic rats, were processed and the following inflammatory factors were evaluated: the expression of (i) glucocorticoid receptors (GR), (ii) glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), (iii) phospho-p65NF-κB, (iv) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, (v) the prokineticins PK2 and PK2L and (vi) their receptors PKR1 and PKR2. We found that adult CORT-nursed rats, in comparison to controls, showed increased expression of colonic GR and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, TNF-α, PK2 and PK2L) in response to inflammatory colitis. The observed changes were associated with an increase in GILZ colonic expression and with a reduction in phospo-p65NF-κB colonic expression. PMID:28267767

  18. Maternal exposure to low levels of corticosterone during lactation protects adult rat progeny against TNBS-induced colitis: A study on GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effect and prokineticin system.

    PubMed

    Zinni, Manuela; Zuena, Anna Rita; Marconi, Veronica; Petrella, Carla; Fusco, Ilaria; Giuli, Chiara; Canu, Nadia; Severini, Cinzia; Broccardo, Maria; Theodorou, Vassilia; Lattanzi, Roberta; Casolini, Paola

    2017-01-01

    The early phase of life represents a critical period for the development of an organism. Interestingly, early life experiences are able to influence the development of the gastrointestinal tract and the reactivity to colonic inflammatory stress. We recently demonstrated that adult male rats exposed to low doses of corticosterone during lactation (CORT-nursed rats) are protected against experimental colitis induced by the intracolonic infusion of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). Based on these interesting results, we wanted to better investigate which cellular actors could be involved in the protection of CORT-nursed rats from TNBS-induced experimental colitis. Therefore, in the present work, we focused our attention on different factors implicated in GR-mediated anti-inflammatory effect. To address this issue, colonic tissues, collected from control and CORT-nursed healthy animals and from control and CORT-nursed colitic rats, were processed and the following inflammatory factors were evaluated: the expression of (i) glucocorticoid receptors (GR), (ii) glucocorticoid-induced leucine zipper (GILZ), (iii) phospho-p65NF-κB, (iv) the pro-inflammatory cytokines IL-1β and TNF-α, (v) the prokineticins PK2 and PK2L and (vi) their receptors PKR1 and PKR2. We found that adult CORT-nursed rats, in comparison to controls, showed increased expression of colonic GR and reduced expression of pro-inflammatory molecules (IL-1β, TNF-α, PK2 and PK2L) in response to inflammatory colitis. The observed changes were associated with an increase in GILZ colonic expression and with a reduction in phospo-p65NF-κB colonic expression.

  19. Immunomodulation of Rheum tanguticum polysaccharide (RTP) on the immunosuppressive effects of dexamethasone (DEX) on the treatment of colitis in rats induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid.

    PubMed

    Liu, Li; Yuan, Shifang; Long, Yin; Guo, Zhenjun; Sun, Yang; Li, Yuhua; Niu, Yinbo; Li, Chen; Mei, Qibing

    2009-12-01

    Dexamethasone (DEX) is still the main choice for colitis, although the immunosuppressive side effects are still the troublesome problems to overcome. In our previous study, Rheum tanguticum polysaccharide (RTP), extracted from traditional Chinese medicine rhubarb, targeted mannose receptor, showed immunoregulatory effect on the balance of Th1 and Th2 polarization in colitis rats. For the present study, we hypothesized that RTP could regulate the immunosuppressive effects of DEX. Taking advantage of the colon delivery ability of the polysaccharide, we prepared the double emulsion of RTP microsphere containing DEX to investigate the potential immunoregulatory effects of RTP on DEX immunosuppression in TNBS-induced colitis in rats. As expected, DEX-RTP microsphere showed not only significant immunomodulatory effects, but also strong anti-inflammation. The microsphere balanced enteric bacteria disorder, decreased TLR4 activation and promoted the balance of Th1 and Th2 polarization, inhibited NF-kappaB activity. Especially, DEX-RTP showed significant colon injury reparation. DEX alone exhibited a strong anti-inflammatory effect by suppressing MPO activity, down-regulate NF-kappaB activity and Th1 cytokines production. However, DEX showed severe immunosuppressive effects. It aggravated the intestinal commensal bacteria disorder, induced thymus atrophy and the further imbalance of Th1/Th1 cytokine polarization. RTP showed significant immunoregulatory effects. A significant protection on the intestinal bacterial balance, TLR4 and NF-kappaB activation decreased, and Th1/Th2 cytokine production balance were showed in RTP. In conclusion, DEX-RTP microsphere delivered DEX directly to the colon avoiding the absorption at the upper intestinal tract and showed synergistic effects on colitis both from the strong anti-inflammatory effects of DEX and from the immunoregulation of RTP.

  20. Dextran Sulfate Sodium (DSS)-Induced Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Chassaing, Benoit; Aitken, Jesse D.; Malleshappa, Madhu; Vijay-Kumar, Matam

    2014-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) mainly comprised of Ulcerative Colitis and Crohn's Disease are complex and multifactorial disease with unknown etiology. For the past 20 years, to study human IBD mechanistically, number of murine models of colitis has been developed. These models are indispensable tools to decipher underlying mechanisms of IBD pathogenesis as well as to evaluate number potential therapeutics. Among various chemical induced colitis models, DSS-induced colitis model is widely used because of its simplicity and many similarities with human ulcerative colitis. This model has both advantages and disadvantages that need to be considered when employed. The current protocol aimed to extensively describe the DSS-induced colitis model, focusing on its detailed protocol as well as factors that could affect DSS-induced pathology. PMID:24510619

  1. Nicotine suppresses acute colitis and colonic tumorigenesis associated with chronic colitis in mice.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Shusaku; Hamada, Takayuki; Zaidi, Syed Faisal; Oshiro, Momoe; Lee, Jaemin; Yamamoto, Takeshi; Ishii, Yoko; Sasahara, Masakiyo; Kadowaki, Makoto

    2014-11-15

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease that frequently progresses to colon cancer. The tumor-promoting effect of inflammation is now widely recognized and understood. Recent studies have revealed that treatment with nicotine ameliorates colitis in humans and experimental murine models, whereas the effect of nicotine on colitis-associated colonic tumorigenesis remains unclear. In the present study, we examined the effect of nicotine on the development of acute colitis and colitis-associated cancer (CAC). The acute colitis model was induced by treatment with 3% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7 days, whereas the CAC model was induced by a combination of azoxymethane and repeated DSS treatment. Nicotine and a selective agonist of the α7-nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (α7-nAChR) reduced the severity of DSS-induced acute colonic inflammation. In addition, the suppressive effect of nicotine on acute colitis was attenuated by an antagonist of α7-nAChR. Furthermore, nicotine inhibited the IL-6 production of CD4 T cells in the DSS-induced inflamed colonic mucosa. We found that nicotine significantly reduced the number and size of colonic tumors in mice with CAC. Nicotine markedly inhibited the elevation of TNF-α and IL-6 mRNA as well as phosphorylated signal transducer and activator of transcription (Stat) 3 expression in the colons of the tumor model mice. These results demonstrate that nicotine suppresses acute colitis and colitis-associated tumorigenesis, and this effect may be associated with the activation of α7-nAChR. Furthermore, it is presumed that nicotine downregulates the expression of inflammatory mediators such as IL-6/Stat3 and TNF-α, thereby reducing the colonic tumorigenesis associated with chronic colitis.

  2. Effects of Glutamine and Omega-3 Fatty Acids on Erythrocyte Deformability and Oxidative Damage in Rat Model of Enterocolitis

    PubMed Central

    Cehreli, Ruksan; Akpinar, Hale; Artmann, Aysegul Temiz; Sagol, Ozgul

    2015-01-01

    Background The aim of the study was to investigate preventive effects of glutamine (Gln), omega-3 fatty acids (FA) on erythrocyte deformability (EDEF) in rat model of indomethacin-induced enterocolitis. Methods Nineteen Wistar albino male rats were divided into three groups: control group, colitis induced by indomethacin and were fed with a standard laboratory diet (group 1), and colitis induced by indomethacin and were also fed with Gln, omega-3 FA (group 2). An investigation was performed in a rat model of experimental colitis induced by subcutaneous injections of 2 mL intdomethacine solution applied at 24 and 48 hours intervals to male Wistar rats for 14 days. Gln and omega-3 FA were added to the daily standard diets of the animals during 14 days of injections. During the study, changes in body weight were evaluated. The intestines were examined, and colitis was macroscopic and histologically scored. The circulating tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) and interleukine-1β (IL-1β), erythrocyte transit time (ETT) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) levels were determined in addition to calculation of EDEF indices in all groups. Results No significant differences in body weight changes could be determined between the standard diet and special diet groups at the end of the experiment. After macroscopic and microscopic scoring, in all of the groups that colitis was found induced, the lowest microscopic score was observed in the group 2. But Gln and omega-3 FA supplemented diet did not change the mean macroscopic and histological scores in all rats. The proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) levels were significantly higher in group 1 and group 2 compared to the control group. Effects of the diet on circulating TNF-α and IL-1β levels were found correlated with inflammation but statistically significant differences were not found in the group 1 and group 2 (P < 0.05). The ETT and TBARS levels in standard and special diet groups were significantly

  3. Crohn's & Colitis Foundation of America

    MedlinePlus

    ... Events Search: What are Crohn's & Colitis? What is Crohn's Disease What is Ulcerative Colitis Types of Medications What’s ... Our Mission Learn about our mission: to cure Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, and to improve the quality ...

  4. Effects of arachidonic acid intake on inflammatory reactions in dextran sodium sulphate-induced colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Naito, Yukiko; Ji, Xu; Tachibana, Shigehiro; Aoki, Satoko; Furuya, Mami; Tazura, Yoshiyuki; Miyazawa, Daisuke; Harauma, Akiko; Moriguchi, Toru; Nagata, Tomoko; Iwai, Naoharu; Ohara, Naoki

    2015-09-14

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of the administration of oral arachidonic acid (AA) in rats with or without dextran sulphate sodium (DSS)-induced inflammatory bowel disease. Male Wistar rats were administered AA at 0, 5, 35 or 240 mg/kg daily by gavage for 8 weeks. Inflammatory bowel disease was induced by replacing drinking water with 3 % DSS solution during the last 7 d of the AA dosing period. These animals passed loose stools, diarrhoea and red-stained faeces. Cyclo-oxygenase-2 concentration and myeloperoxidase activity in the colonic tissue were significantly increased in the animals given AA at 240 mg/kg compared with the animals given AA at 0 mg/kg. Thromboxane B2 concentration in the medium of cultured colonic mucosae isolated from these groups was found to be dose-dependently increased by AA, and the increase was significant at 35 and 240 mg/kg. Leukotriene B4 concentration was also significantly increased and saturated at 5 mg/kg. In addition, AA at 240 mg/kg promoted DSS-induced colonic mucosal oedema with macrophage infiltration. In contrast, administration of AA for 8 weeks, even at 240 mg/kg, showed no effects on the normal rats. These results suggest that in rats with bowel disease AA metabolism is affected by oral AA, even at 5 mg/kg per d, and that excessive AA may aggravate inflammation, whereas AA shows no effects in rats without inflammatory bowel disease.

  5. Embelin lipid nanospheres for enhanced treatment of ulcerative colitis - Preparation, characterization and in vivo evaluation.

    PubMed

    Badamaranahalli, Shivaram Shivakumar; Kopparam, Manjunath; Bhagawati, Siddalingappa Tippanna; Durg, Sharanbasappa

    2015-08-30

    Aim of the present study is to develop embelin lipid nanospheres (LNE) for better treatment of ulcerative colitis. Embelin LNs were developed using soya bean oil/virgin coconut oil as liquid lipid carrier and soya/egg lecithin as stabilizer by hot homogenization followed by ultrasonication technique. The particle size of LNEs ranged from 196.1±3.57 to 269.2±1.05nm with narrow polydispersity index values whereas zeta potential was from -36.6 to -62.0mV. Embelin was successfully incorporated into lipid nanospheres with entrapment efficiency about 99%. There was no interaction between embelin and selected liquid lipids which was confirmed by FTIR studies. In vitro drug release studies performed using Franz diffusion cell and results showed sustained release of embelin. Embelin LNs were stabilized with egg and soya lecithin, embelin release from these LNs followed Higuchi model and first order model, respectively, however mechanism of drug release in both LNs was non-Fickian. In vivo studies were carried out using acetic acid induced ulcerative colitis rat model and results revealed that treatment with embelin LNs significantly reduced clinical activity and macroscopic scores compared to embelin conventional suspension. Treatment with embelin LNs decreased MPO, LDH and LPO levels, increased reduced GSH levels which indicated better treatment of ulcerative colitis was achieved. This was also confirmed by improved histopathological conditions. Thus embelin LNs could be favourably used for treatment of ulcerative colitis.

  6. Preventive Therapy of Experimental Colitis with Selected iron Chelators and Anti-oxidants

    PubMed Central

    Minaiyan, Mohsen; Mostaghel, Elahe; Mahzouni, Parvin

    2012-01-01

    Objectives: Iron chelators, such as maltol and kojic acid, have antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. They may have beneficial effects on inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) because iron can develop and aggravate inflammation in IBD. In the present study, the effect of selected iron chelators and anti-oxidants were evaluated on a model of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Methods: Colitis was induced with instillation of 75 mg/kg TNBS in 0.25 ml ethanol 50% via the anus in fasted male Wistar rats. The animals were assigned randomly to 12 groups (n = 6) and treated once daily, started 2 hours before colitis induction, with normal saline (5 ml/kg), maltol (70, 140, 280 mg/kg), kojic acid (75, 150, 300 mg/kg), vitamin E (400 mg/kg), deferiprone (L1) (150 mg/kg) and prednisolone (4 mg/kg) orally and deferoxamine (50 mg/kg) intraperitoneally for 5 days. In the sixth day, rats were scarified and colon tissues were assessed macroscopically and pathologically. Results: Maltol (280 mg/kg) was able to reduce colon weight / length ratio, ulcer index and total colitis index similar to prednisolone, deferoxamine and deferiprone as positive controls. However, kojic acid and vitamin E could not significantly alleviate macroscopic and/or pathologic features of inflammation in comparison to normal saline. Conclusions: Maltol with the highest test dose was capable to protect against experimentally induced colitis. Kojic acid and vitamin E were not effective in this animal model of colon inflammation. More detailed studies are warranted to explore the mechanisms involved in anti-colitic property of maltol and to explain ineffectiveness of kojic acid and vitamin E. PMID:22826760

  7. Metabolite profiling of plasma and urine from rats with TNBS-induced acute colitis using UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS-based metabonomics--a pilot study.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Xiaojun; Choi, Franky F K; Zhou, Yan; Leung, Feung P; Tan, Shun; Lin, Shuhai; Xu, Hongxi; Jia, Wei; Sung, Joseph J Y; Cai, Zongwei; Bian, Zhaoxiang

    2012-07-01

    The incidence of inflammatory bowel disease, a relapsing intestinal condition whose precise etiology is still unclear, has continually increased over recent years. Metabolic profiling is an effective method with high sample throughput that can detect and identify potential biomarkers, and thus may be useful in investigating the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. In this study, using a metabonomics approach, a pilot study based on ultra-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (UPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS) was performed to characterize the metabolic profile of plasma and urine samples of rats with experimental colitis induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Acquired metabolic profile data were processed by multivariate data analysis for differentiation and screening of potential biomarkers. Five metabolites were identified in urine: two tryptophan metabolites [4-(2-aminophenyl)-2,4-dioxobutanoic acid and 4,6-cihydroxyquinoline], two gut microbial metabolites (phenyl-acetylglycine and p-cresol glucuronide), and the bile acid 12α-hydroxy-3-oxocholadienic acid. Seven metabolites were identified in plasma: three members of the bile acid/alcohol group (cholic acid, 12α-hydroxy-3-oxocholadienic acid and cholestane-3,7,12,24,25-pentol) and four lysophosphatidylcholines [LysoPC(20:4), LysoPC(16:0), LysoPC(18:1) and LysoPC(18:0)]. These metabolites are associated with damage of the intestinal barrier function, microbiota homeostasis, immune modulation and the inflammatory response, and play important roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease. Our results positively support application of the metabonomic approach in study of the pathophysiological mechanism of inflammatory bowel disease.

  8. Metabolic phenotyping of an adoptive transfer mouse model of experimental colitis and impact of dietary fish oil intake.

    PubMed

    Martin, Francois-Pierre J; Lichti, Pia; Bosco, Nabil; Brahmbhatt, Viral; Oliveira, Manuel; Haller, Dirk; Benyacoub, Jalil

    2015-04-03

    Inflammatory bowel diseases are acute and chronic disabling inflammatory disorders with multiple complex etiologies that are not well-defined. Chronic intestinal inflammation has been linked to an energy-deficient state of gut epithelium with alterations in oxidative metabolism. Plasma-, urine-, stool-, and liver-specific metabonomic analyses are reported in a naïve T cell adoptive transfer (AT) experimental model of colitis, which evaluated the impact of long-chain n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (PUFA)-enriched diet. Metabolic profiles of AT animals and their controls under chow diet or fish oil supplementation were compared to describe the (i) consequences of inflammatory processes and (ii) the differential impact of n-3 fatty acids. Inflammation was associated with higher glycoprotein levels (related to acute-phase response) and remodeling of PUFAs. Low triglyceride levels and enhanced PUFA levels in the liver suggest activation of lipolytic pathways that could lead to the observed increase of phospholipids in the liver (including plasmalogens and sphingomyelins). In parallel, the increase in stool excretion of most amino acids may indicate a protein-losing enteropathy. Fecal content of glutamine was lower in AT mice, a feature exacerbated under fish oil intervention that may reflect a functional relationship between intestinal inflammatory status and glutamine metabolism. The decrease in Krebs cycle intermediates in urine (succinate, α-ketoglutarate) also suggests a reduction in the glutaminolytic pathway at a systemic level. Our data indicate that inflammatory status is related to this overall loss of energy homeostasis.

  9. Protective immunity by oral immunization with heat-killed Shigella strains in a guinea pig colitis model.

    PubMed

    Barman, Soumik; Koley, Hemanta; Ramamurthy, Thandavarayan; Chakrabarti, Manoj Kumar; Shinoda, Sumio; Nair, Gopinath Balakrish; Takeda, Yoshifumi

    2013-11-01

    The protective efficacy of and immune response to heat-killed cells of monovalent and hexavalent mixtures of six serogroups/serotypes of Shigella strains (Shigella dysenteriae 1, Shigella flexneri 2a, S. flexneri 3a, S. flexneri 6, Shigella boydii 4, and Shigella sonnei) were examined in a guinea pig colitis model. A monovalent or hexavalent mixture containing 1 × 10(7) of each serogroup/serotype of heat-killed Shigella cells was administered orally on Days 0, 7, 14 and 21. On Day 28, the immunized animals were challenged rectally with 1 × 10(9) live virulent cells of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes. In all immunized groups, significant levels of protection were observed after these challenges. The serum titers of IgG and IgA against the lipopolysaccharide of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes increased exponential during the course of immunization. High IgA titers against the lipopolysaccharide of each of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes were also observed in intestinal lavage fluid from all immunized animals. These data indicate that a hexavalent mixture of heat-killed cells of the six Shigella serogroups/serotypes studied would be a possible broad-spectrum candidate vaccine against shigellosis.

  10. Network modelling reveals the mechanism underlying colitis-associated colon cancer and identifies novel combinatorial anti-cancer targets.

    PubMed

    Lu, Junyan; Zeng, Hanlin; Liang, Zhongjie; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Liyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Bairong; Huang, Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Spiegel, Sarah; Luo, Cheng

    2015-10-08

    The connection between inflammation and tumourigenesis has been well established. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-associated tumourigenesis remains unknown because this process involves a complex interplay between immune microenvironments and epithelial cells. To obtain a more systematic understanding of inflammation-associated tumourigenesis as well as to identify novel therapeutic approaches, we constructed a knowledge-based network describing the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) by integrating the extracellular microenvironment and intracellular signalling pathways. Dynamic simulations of the CAC network revealed a core network module, including P53, MDM2, and AKT, that may govern the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells in a pro-tumor inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, in silico mutation studies and experimental validations led to a novel finding that concurrently targeting ceramide and PI3K/AKT pathway by chemical probes or marketed drugs achieves synergistic anti-cancer effects. Overall, our network model can guide further mechanistic studies on CAC and provide new insights into the design of combinatorial cancer therapies in a rational manner.

  11. Network modelling reveals the mechanism underlying colitis-associated colon cancer and identifies novel combinatorial anti-cancer targets

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Junyan; Zeng, Hanlin; Liang, Zhongjie; Chen, Limin; Zhang, Liyi; Zhang, Hao; Liu, Hong; Jiang, Hualiang; Shen, Bairong; Huang, Ming; Geng, Meiyu; Spiegel, Sarah; Luo, Cheng

    2015-01-01

    The connection between inflammation and tumourigenesis has been well established. However, the detailed molecular mechanism underlying inflammation-associated tumourigenesis remains unknown because this process involves a complex interplay between immune microenvironments and epithelial cells. To obtain a more systematic understanding of inflammation-associated tumourigenesis as well as to identify novel therapeutic approaches, we constructed a knowledge-based network describing the development of colitis-associated colon cancer (CAC) by integrating the extracellular microenvironment and intracellular signalling pathways. Dynamic simulations of the CAC network revealed a core network module, including P53, MDM2, and AKT, that may govern the malignant transformation of colon epithelial cells in a pro-tumor inflammatory microenvironment. Furthermore, in silico mutation studies and experimental validations led to a novel finding that concurrently targeting ceramide and PI3K/AKT pathway by chemical probes or marketed drugs achieves synergistic anti-cancer effects. Overall, our network model can guide further mechanistic studies on CAC and provide new insights into the design of combinatorial cancer therapies in a rational manner. PMID:26446703

  12. Diterpenoid alkaloids of Aconitum laciniatum and mitigation of inflammation by 14-O-acetylneoline in a murine model of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wangchuk, Phurpa; Navarro, Severine; Shepherd, Catherine; Keller, Paul A.; Pyne, Stephen G.; Loukas, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Aconitum laciniatum is used in Bhutanese traditional medicine for treating various chronic infections and inflammatory conditions. We carried out in-depth isolation and characterization of the phytochemicals from the root component and determined the anti-inflammatory effects of the isolated compounds against chemically-induced colitis in mice. Five diterpenoid alkaloids - pseudaconitine, 14-veratroylpseudaconine, 14-O-acetylneoline, neoline, and senbusine A - were isolated from A. laciniatum for the first time. Two of the alkaloids were tested for anti-inflammatory properties in the TNBS-induced colitis model in mice. Various parameters were measured to assess pathology including weight loss, clinical and macroscopic scores, histological structure and IFN-γ production in the gut. Of the two alkaloids tested, 14-O-acetylneoline showed significant protection against different parameters of colitic inflammation. Compared to control mice that received TNBS alone, mice treated with 14-O-acetylneoline experienced significantly less weight loss and had significantly lower clinical scores, macroscopic pathology and grades of histological inflammation. Moreover, colonic IFN-γ mRNA levels were significantly reduced in mice that received 14-O-acetylneoline compared to control mice that received TNBS alone. This alkaloid is now considered a novel anti-colitis drug lead compound. PMID:26240038

  13. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of the marijuana plant Cannabis sativa, is protective in a murine model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Borrelli, Francesca; Aviello, Gabriella; Romano, Barbara; Orlando, Pierangelo; Capasso, Raffaele; Maiello, Francesco; Guadagno, Federico; Petrosino, Stefania; Capasso, Francesco; Di Marzo, Vincenzo; Izzo, Angelo A

    2009-11-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease affects millions of individuals; nevertheless, pharmacological treatment is disappointingly unsatisfactory. Cannabidiol, a safe and non-psychotropic ingredient of marijuana, exerts pharmacological effects (e.g., antioxidant) and mechanisms (e.g., inhibition of endocannabinoids enzymatic degradation) potentially beneficial for the inflamed gut. Thus, we investigated the effect of cannabidiol in a murine model of colitis. Colitis was induced in mice by intracolonic administration of dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Inflammation was assessed both macroscopically and histologically. In the inflamed colon, cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) were evaluated by Western blot, interleukin-1beta and interleukin-10 by ELISA, and endocannabinoids by isotope dilution liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. Human colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells were used to evaluate the effect of cannabidiol on oxidative stress. Cannabidiol reduced colon injury, inducible iNOS (but not cyclooxygenase-2) expression, and interleukin-1beta, interleukin-10, and endocannabinoid changes associated with 2,4,6-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid administration. In Caco-2 cells, cannabidiol reduced reactive oxygen species production and lipid peroxidation. In conclusion, cannabidiol, a likely safe compound, prevents experimental colitis in mice.

  14. Experimental mammary carcinogenesis - Rat models.

    PubMed

    Alvarado, Antonieta; Faustino-Rocha, Ana I; Colaço, Bruno; Oliveira, Paula A

    2017-03-15

    Mammary cancer is one of the most common cancers, victimizing more than half a million of women worldwide every year. Despite all the studies in this field, the current therapeutic approaches are not effective and have several devastating effects for patients. In this way, the need to better understand the mammary cancer biopathology and find effective therapies led to the development of several rodent models over years. With this review, the authors intended to provide the readers with an overview of the rat models used to study mammary carcinogenesis, with a special emphasis on chemically-induced models.

  15. Effect of toll-like receptor 3 agonist poly I:C on intestinal mucosa and epithelial barrier function in mouse models of acute colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Hong-Wei; Yue, Yue-Hong; Han, Hua; Chen, Xiu-Li; Lu, Yong-Gang; Zheng, Ji-Min; Hou, Hong-Tao; Lang, Xiao-Meng; He, Li-Li; Hu, Qi-Lu; Dun, Zi-Qian

    2017-01-01

    AIM To investigate potential effects of poly I:C on mucosal injury and epithelial barrier disruption in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced acute colitis. METHODS Thirty C57BL/6 mice were given either regular drinking water (control group) or 2% (w/v) DSS drinking water (model and poly I:C groups) ad libitum for 7 d. Poly I:C was administrated subcutaneously (20 μg/mouse) 2 h prior to DSS induction in mice of the poly I:C group. Severity of colitis was evaluated by disease activity index, body weight, colon length, histology and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, as well as the production of proinflammatory cytokines, including tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin 17 (IL-17) and interferon-γ (IFN-γ). Intestinal permeability was analyzed by the fluorescein isothiocyanate labeled-dextran (FITC-D) method. Ultrastructural features of the colon tissue were observed under electron microscopy. Expressions of tight junction (TJ) proteins, including zo-1, occludin and claudin-1, were measured by immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, Western blot and real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR). RESULTS DSS caused significant damage to the colon tissue in the model group. Administration of poly I:C dramatically protected against DSS-induced colitis, as demonstrated by less body weight loss, lower disease activity index score, longer colon length, colonic MPO activity, and improved macroscopic and histological scores. It also ameliorated DSS-induced ultrastructural changes of the colon epithelium, as observed under scanning electron microscopy, as well as FITC-D permeability. The mRNA and protein expressions of TJ protein, zo-1, occludin and claudin-1 were also found to be significantly enhanced in the poly I:C group, as determined by immunohistochemistry/immunofluorescence, Western blot and RT-qPCR. By contrast, poly I:C pretreatment markedly reversed the DSS-induced up-regulated expressions of the inflammatory cytokines TNF-α, IL-17 and IFN

  16. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy.

    PubMed

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoro, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2015-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: 'phenotype to gene' and 'gene to phenotype'. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies.

  17. Advances on genetic rat models of epilepsy

    PubMed Central

    Serikawa, Tadao; Mashimo, Tomoji; Kuramoto, Takashi; Voigt, Birger; Ohno, Yukihiro; Sasa, Masashi

    2014-01-01

    Considering the suitability of laboratory rats in epilepsy research, we and other groups have been developing genetic models of epilepsy in this species. After epileptic rats or seizure-susceptible rats were sporadically found in outbred stocks, the epileptic traits were usually genetically-fixed by selective breeding. So far, the absence seizure models GAERS and WAG/Rij, audiogenic seizure models GEPR-3 and GEPR-9, generalized tonic-clonic seizure models IER, NER and WER, and Canavan-disease related epileptic models TRM and SER have been established. Dissection of the genetic bases including causative genes in these epileptic rat models would be a significant step toward understanding epileptogenesis. N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis provides a systematic approach which allowed us to develop two novel epileptic rat models: heat-induced seizure susceptible (Hiss) rats with an Scn1a missense mutation and autosomal dominant lateral temporal epilepsy (ADLTE) model rats with an Lgi1 missense mutation. In addition, we have established episodic ataxia type 1 (EA1) model rats with a Kcna1 missense mutation derived from the ENU-induced rat mutant stock, and identified a Cacna1a missense mutation in a N-Methyl-N-nitrosourea (MNU)-induced mutant rat strain GRY, resulting in the discovery of episodic ataxia type 2 (EA2) model rats. Thus, epileptic rat models have been established on the two paths: ‘phenotype to gene’ and ‘gene to phenotype’. In the near future, development of novel epileptic rat models will be extensively promoted by the use of sophisticated genome editing technologies. PMID:25312505

  18. Insight into the pharmacokinetic behavior of tanshinone IIA in the treatment of Crohn's disease: comparative data for tanshinone IIA and its two glucuronidated metabolites in normal and recurrent colitis models after oral administration.

    PubMed

    Wang, Qiong; Jiang, Chao; Zheng, Xiao; Zhu, Xuanxuan; Yan, Shihai; Wang, Haidan; Fu, Rui; Fan, Hongwei; Chen, Yugen

    2017-01-01

    1. Previous reports implied that tanshinone IIA (TSA) may offer potential benefits for Crohn's disease (CD). However, the detailed pharmacokinetic behavior of TSA in the treatment of colitis remain unclear. Herein, a recurrent trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-colitis mouse model was used to investigate whether TSA possesses favorable pharmacokinetic and colonic distribution profiles to serve as a candidate drug. 2. Although the systemic TSA exposures were low (AUC0-t approximately 330 ng*h/ml) in both the normal and colitis models after oral administration TSA 20 mg/kg, high levels of TSA were found in the gastrointestinal tract (GI). Such a GI exposure of TSA in colitis mice is adequate to exert anti-inflammatory effects as observed in various in vitro studies. 3. Interestingly, colonic TSA exposure in the colitis mouse model was much lower than that in the normal mice, which may be explained by a significant upregulation of colonic UDP-glucuronosyltransferase (Ugt)1a9 expression and a higher plasma concentration of TSA glucuronides in the model mice at 0.5, 1 and 2 h after TSA administration. 4. Together, these results reveal high accumulation at the site of inflammation and minimal systemic concentration of TSA, which are favorable pharmacokinetic behaviors to meet the requirements for CD treatment.

  19. 3-(3-Pyridylmethylidene)-2-indolinone Reduces the Severity of Colonic Injury in a Murine Model of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Kun-Ping; Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Shou-Guo; Liu, En-Dong; Dong, Lan; Kong, Xiang-Zhen; Cao, Peng; Hu, Chun-Ping; Zhao, Ke; Zhan, Yi-Qun; Dong, Xiao-Ming; Ge, Chang-Hui; Yu, Miao; Chen, Hui; Wang, Lin; Yang, Xiao-Ming; Li, Chang-Yan

    2015-01-01

    Nrf2 is the key transcription factor regulating the antioxidant response which is crucial for cytoprotection against extracellular stresses. Numerous in vivo studies indicate that Nrf2 plays a protective role in anti-inflammatory response. 3-(3-Pyridylmethylidene)-2-indolinone (PMID) is a synthesized derivative of 2-indolinone compounds. Our previous study suggested that PMID induces the activation of Nrf2/ARE pathway, then protecting against oxidative stress-mediated cell death. However, little is known regarding the anti-inflammatory properties of PMID in severe inflammatory phenotypes. In the present study we determined if PMID treatment protects mice from dextran sodium sulphate- (DSS-) induced colitis. The result suggests that treatment with PMID prior to colitis induction significantly reduced body weight loss, shortened colon length, and decreased disease activity index compared to control mice. Histopathological analysis of the colon revealed attenuated inflammation in PMID pretreated animals. The levels of inflammatory markers in colon tissue and serum were reduced associated with inhibition of NF-κB activation. The expression levels of Nrf2-dependent genes such as HO-1, NQO1, and Nrf2 were increased in PMID pretreated mice. However, PMID pretreatment did not prevent DSS-induced colitis in Nrf2 knockout mice. These data indicate that PMID pretreatment in mice confers protection against DSS-induced colitis in Nrf2-dependent manner, suggesting a potential role of PMID in anti-inflammatory response. PMID:25874026

  20. The Healing Effect of Teucrium polium in Acetic Acid-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in the Dog as an Animal Model

    PubMed Central

    Mehrabani, Davood; Bahrami, Faranak; Hosseini, Seyed Vahid; Ashraf, Mohammad Javad; Tanideh, Nader; Rezaianzadeh, Abbas; Amini, Masoud; Amini, Afshin

    2012-01-01

    BACKGROUND Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD), which include ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn’s disease (CD), are debilitating and chronic disorders with unpredictable courses and complicated treatment measures. Therefore, an efficient treatment protocol seems necessary as therapeutic prophylaxis for these disorders. This study aims to determine the healing effect of Teucrium polium (T. polium) in acetic acid-induced UC in an experimental dog model. METHODS From September to December 2010, eight male (20-25 kg) crossbred dogs were used for induction of UC by 6% acetic acid, transrectally. After one week, three biopsies (10, 20 and 30 cm proximal to the anal verge) were taken from the colon of each animal for histological studies. In the presence of UC, 400 mg/kg/day of T. polium extract was administered orally and transrectally (via enema) for 30 days in six of the dogs. The remaining two dogs were used as controls and did not receive T. polium. Multiple biopsies were taken 7, 14, and 30 days after discontinuation of T. polium in the same manner as before treatment. RESULTS After administration of acetic acid, we noted the presence of multiple ulcers, diffuse inflammation, PMN infiltration in the lamina propria, glandular destruction and goblet cell depletion. Treatment with T. polium restored the colonic architecture with an increased number of healthy cells and a reduction in inflammatory cells. Damage of the surface epithelial cells and mucosal layer of the lumen were reversed, which lead to faster ulcer healing. CONCLUSION T. polium may be a treatment choice for UC and can broaden the current therapy options for UC. PMID:24829634

  1. A novel model of colitis-associated cancer in SAMP1/YitFc mice with Crohn’s disease-like ileitis

    PubMed Central

    Menghini, Paola; Di Martino, Luca; Lopetuso, Loris R.; Corridoni, Daniele; Webster, Joshua C.; Xin, Wei; Arseneau, Kristen O.; Lam, Minh; Pizarro, Theresa T.

    2017-01-01

    Patients with inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) are at increased risk for developing colorectal cancer. Evidence suggests that colonic dysplasia and colitis-associated cancer (CAC) are often linked to repeated cycles of epithelial cell injury and repair in the context of chronic production of inflammatory cytokines. Several mouse models of CAC have been proposed, including chemical induction through exposure to dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) with the genotoxic agents azoxymethane (AOM), 1,2-dymethylhydrazine (DHM) or targeted genetic mutations. However, such models are usually performed on healthy animals that usually lack the underlying genetic predisposition, immunological dysfunction and dysbiosis characteristic of IBD. We have previously shown that inbred SAMP1/YitFc (SAMP) mice develop a progressive Crohn’s disease (CD)-like ileitis in the absence of spontaneous colitis. We hypothesize that SAMP mice may be more susceptible to colonic tumorigenesis due to their predisposition to IBD. To test this hypothesis, we administered AOM/DSS to IBD-prone SAMP and their non-inflamed parental control strain, AKR mice. Our results showed that AOM/DSS treatment enhanced the susceptibility of colitis in SAMP compared to AKR mice, as assessed by endoscopic and histologic inflammatory scores, daily weight loss and disease activity index (DAI), during and after DSS administration. SAMP mice also showed increased colonic tumorigenesis, resulting in the occurrence of intramucosal carcinoma and a higher incidence of high-grade dysplasia and tumor burden. These phenomena occurred even in the absence of AOM and only upon repeated cycles of DSS. Taken together, our data demonstrate a heightened susceptibility to colonic inflammation and tumorigenesis in AOM/DSS-treated SAMP mice with CD-like ileitis. This novel model represents a useful tool to investigate relevant mechanisms of CAC, as well as for pre-clinical testing of potential IBD and colon cancer therapeutics. PMID:28301579

  2. Adenosine Receptor Stimulation by Polydeoxyribonucleotide Improves Tissue Repair and Symptomology in Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Pallio, Giovanni; Bitto, Alessandra; Pizzino, Gabriele; Galfo, Federica; Irrera, Natasha; Squadrito, Francesco; Squadrito, Giovanni; Pallio, Socrate; Anastasi, Giuseppe P.; Cutroneo, Giuseppina; Macrì, Antonio; Altavilla, Domenica

    2016-01-01

    Activation of the adenosine receptor pathway has been demonstrated to be effective in improving tissue remodeling and blunting the inflammatory response. Active colitis is characterized by an intense inflammatory reaction resulting in extensive tissue damage. Symptomatic improvement requires both control of the inflammatory process and repair and remodeling of damaged tissues. We investigated the ability of an A2A receptor agonist, polydeoxyribonucleotide (PDRN), to restore tissue structural integrity in two experimental colitis models using male Sprague-Dawley rats. In the first model, colitis was induced with a single intra-colonic instillation of dinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (DNBS), 25 mg diluted in 0.8 ml 50% ethanol. After 6 h, animals were randomized to receive either PDRN (8 mg/kg/i.p.), or PDRN + the A2A antagonist [3,7-dimethyl-1-propargylxanthine (DMPX); 10 mg/kg/i.p.], or vehicle (0.8 ml saline solution) daily. In the second model, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) was dissolved in drinking water at a concentration of 8%. Control animals received standard drinking water. After 24 h animals were randomized to receive PDRN or PDRN+DMPX as described above. Rats were sacrificed 7 days after receiving DNBS or 5 days after DSS. In both experimental models of colitis, PDRN ameliorated the clinical symptoms and weight loss associated with disease as well as promoted the histological repair of damaged tissues. Moreover, PDRN reduced expression of inflammatory cytokines, myeloperoxidase activity, and malondialdehyde. All these effects were abolished by the concomitant administration of the A2A antagonist DMPX. Our study suggests that PDRN may represent a promising treatment for improving tissue repair during inflammatory bowel diseases. PMID:27601997

  3. Types of Ulcerative Colitis

    MedlinePlus

    ... total) Colitis Affects the entire colon. Symptoms include diarrhea, severe abdominal pain, cramps, and extensive weight loss. Potentially serious complications include massive bleeding and acute dilation of the colon (toxic megacolon), which may ...

  4. Lubiprostone induced ischemic colitis.

    PubMed

    Sherid, Muhammed; Sifuentes, Humberto; Samo, Salih; Deepak, Parakkal; Sridhar, Subbaramiah

    2013-01-14

    Ischemic colitis accounts for 6%-18% of the causes of acute lower gastrointestinal bleeding. It is often multifactorial and more commonly encountered in the elderly. Several medications have been implicated in the development of colonic ischemia. We report a case of a 54-year old woman who presented with a two-hour history of nausea, vomiting, abdominal pain, and bloody stool. The patient had recently used lubiprostone with close temporal relationship between the increase in the dose and her symptoms of rectal bleeding. The radiologic, colonoscopic and histopathologic findings were all consistent with ischemic colitis. Her condition improved without any serious complications after the cessation of lubiprostone. This is the first reported case of ischemic colitis with a clear relationship with lubiprostone (Naranjo score of 10). Clinical vigilance for ischemic colitis is recommended for patients receiving lubiprostone who are presenting with abdominal pain and rectal bleeding.

  5. Therapeutic effects of triptolide via the inhibition of IL-1β expression in a mouse model of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Haifeng; Gong, Chen; Qu, Lishuai; Ding, Xiaoling; Cao, Wei; Chen, Haiqin; Zhang, Bin; Zhou, Guoxiong

    2016-01-01

    The present study aimed to investigate the effect of triptolide (TL) on ulcerative colitis (UC) and explore the potential association between the therapeutic effects of TL and IL-1β expression using a 4,4-dimethyl-4-silapentane-1-sulfonic acid (DSS)-induced mouse model to simulate human UC. A total of 70 BALB/c female mice were randomly allocated into seven equal groups: Group A, blank control; group B, normal saline injection; group C, propylene glycol injection; group D (TL1), 0.2 mg/kg TL; group E (TL2), 0.4 mg/kg TL; group F (TL3), 0.6 mg/kg TL; and group G, dexamethasone injection. Mice activity, diet and stool characteristics were recorded daily. Mice were sacrificed by cervical dislocation on day 8, and disease activity indices, colon tissue histological scores and colonic histopathological scores were subsequently calculated. Serum levels of IL-1β were evaluated by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, and IL-1β expression levels were examined by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction with colonic mucosa specimen at the gene level and western blot analysis at the protein level. The IL-1β mRNA and protein expression levels were significantly elevated in the normal saline injection and propylene glycol injection groups compared with the blank control group and (P<0.01). In TL (TL2 and TL3)- and dexamethasone-treated mice, IL-1β expression levels were significantly decreased, as compared with the normal saline and propylene glycol injection groups (P<0.05). No significant difference was detected between TL (TL2 and TL3) and dexamethasone treatments. The results of the present study indicated that IL-1β expression was upregulated in the UC mouse model, which may be associated with the development and progression of UC. Furthermore, TL inhibited IL-1β expression, suggesting that TL may be a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of UC. PMID:27588050

  6. Differential Angiogenic Regulation of Experimental Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Chidlow, John H.; Langston, Will; Greer, James J.M.; Ostanin, Dmitry; Abdelbaqi, Maisoun; Houghton, Jeffery; Senthilkumar, Annamalai; Shukla, Deepti; Mazar, Andrew P.; Grisham, Matthew B.; Kevil, Christopher G.

    2006-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBDs) are chronic inflammatory disorders of the intestinal tract with unknown multifactorial etiology that, among other things, result in alteration and dysfunction of the intestinal microvasculature. Clinical observations of increased colon microvascular density during IBD have been made. However, there have been no reports investigating the physiological or pathological importance of angiogenic stimulation during the development of intestinal inflammation. Here we report that the dextran sodium sulfate and CD4+CD45RBhigh T-cell transfer models of colitis stimulate angiogenesis that results in increased blood vessel density concomitant with increased histopathology, suggesting that the neovasculature contributes to tissue damage during colitis. We also show that leukocyte infiltration is an obligatory requirement for the stimulation of angiogenesis. The angiogenic response during experimental colitis was differentially regulated in that the production of various angiogenic mediators was diverse between the two models with only a small group of molecules being similarly controlled. Importantly, treatment with the anti-angiogenic agent thalidomide or ATN-161 significantly reduced angiogenic activity and associated tissue histopathology during experimental colitis. Our findings identify a direct pathological link between angiogenesis and the development of experimental colitis, representing a novel therapeutic target for IBD. PMID:17148665

  7. Evaluation of the effect of soymilk fermented by a riboflavin-producing Lactobacillus plantarum strain in a murine model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Levit, R; de Giori, G Savoy; de Moreno de LeBlanc, A; LeBlanc, J G

    2017-02-07

    Inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) are idiopathic diseases of the gastrointestinal tract characterised by recurrent inflammation that require lifelong treatments. It has been shown that certain strains of lactic acid bacteria (LAB) can produce specific health-promoting compounds in foods or in the gastrointestinal tract that can in turn prevent and/or treat IBD. This study was designed to evaluate the possible therapeutic potential of soymilk fermented by the riboflavin-producing strain Lactobacillus plantarum CRL 2130 in a trinitrobenzene sulfonic induced colitis mouse model. Mice that received soymilk fermented by L. plantarum CRL 2130 showed a decrease in weight loss, lower damage scores in their large intestines, lower microbial translocation to liver and decreased cytokines levels in their intestinal fluids compared to animals that received unfermented soymilk or soymilk fermented by a non-riboflavin-producing L. plantarum strain. This is the first report that demonstrates that a riboflavin-producing LAB was able to prevent experimental colitis in a murine model.

  8. Deoxyschizandrin Suppresses DSS-Induced Ulcerative Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Wen-feng; Yang, Yan; Su, Xin; Xu, Da-yan; Yan, Yu-li; Gao, Qiao; Duan, Ming-hua

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims: Deoxyschizandrin as one of the most important component of Schisandra chinensis (Turcz.) Baill plays an immunomodulatory role in a variety of diseases, yet its role in ulcerative colitis remains to be elucidated. We aimed to investigate the role of deoxyschizandrin in DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice. Patients and Methods: In the present study, an inflammation model of cells was constructed to confirm the anti-inflammatory effect of deoxyschizandrin. Then a mouse model with Dextran sulfate sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced ulcerative colitis was constructed, and the effects of deoxyschizandrin on mouse colon inflammation, apoptosis, and CD4 T lymphocyte infiltration in ulcerative colitis were examined. Result: Deoxyschizandrin could improve the symptoms of ulcerative colitis, determined by hematoxylin-eosin (HE) staining and histopathological scores. Moreover, deoxyschizandrin reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines, suppressed CD4 T cell infiltration, and effectively inhibited apoptosis in the colon of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis mice. Conclusion: In summary, deoxyschizandrin can effectively rescue the symptoms of DSS-induced ulcerative colitis in mice by inhibiting inflammation. T cell infiltration and apoptosis in the colon, suggesting that deoxyschizandrin could be a potential drug in treating ulcerative colitis. PMID:27976641

  9. Spinal NMDA NR1 Subunit Expression Following Transient TNBS Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Zhou, QiQi; Price, Donald D.; Caudle, Robert M.; Verne, G. Nicholas

    2009-01-01

    Background: N-methyl-D-aspartic acid (NMDA) receptors play an important role in the development of hypersensitivity to visceral and somatic stimuli following inflammation or tissue injury. Our objective was to investigate the role of NMDA NR1 receptors in the spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) of a subset of rats that remain hypersensitive following histological resolution of TNBS-induced colitis compared to saline treated rats and rats that had recovered both behaviorally and histologically. We hypothesized that NMDA NR1 subunit expression mediates hypersensitivity following transient TNBS colitis. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats (150g-250g) received 20mg/rat intracolonic trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in 50% ethanol or saline. Animals underwent nociceptive visceral/somatic pain testing 16 weeks after resolution of TNBS colitis. Animals were sacrificed and their spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) was retrieved and 2-dimensional polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis and immunohistocytochemistry techniques were used to investigate spinal-NMDA receptor expression. Results: NR1001 was the only NMDA NR1 receptor subunit that was expressed in recovered and control rats, whereas hypersensitive animals expressed NR1011 and NR1111 as well as NR1001 subunits. Immunohistochemistry analysis demonstrated increased expression of NMDA NR1-N1, C1, and C2-plus expression in lamina I & II of the spinal cord (T10-L1; L4-S1) in hypersensitive rats but not in recovered/control rats. Conclusions: Selective increases in the expression of the NMDA NR1 splice variants occur in hypersensitive rats following resolution of TNBS colitis. This suggests that the NMDA NR1 receptor play an important role in the development of neuronal plasticity and central sensitization. The recombination of NR1 splice variants may serve as a key functional protein that maintains hypersensitivity following resolution of TNBS colitis. PMID:19406112

  10. Microbial Anti-Inflammatory Molecule (MAM) from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Shows a Protective Effect on DNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway

    PubMed Central

    Breyner, Natalia M.; Michon, Cristophe; de Sousa, Cassiana S.; Vilas Boas, Priscilla B.; Chain, Florian; Azevedo, Vasco A.; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean M.

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice. Recently, we described 7 peptides found in the F. prausnitzii supernatant, all belonging to a protein called Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule (MAM). These peptides were able to inhibit NF-κB pathway in vitro and showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in a DiNitroBenzene Sulfate (DNBS)-induced colitis model. In this current proof we tested MAM effect on NF-κB pathway in vivo, using a transgenic model of mice producing luciferase under the control of NF-κB promoter. Moreover, we tested this protein on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. To study the effect of MAM we orally administered to the mice a Lactococcus lactis strain carrying a plasmid containing the cDNA of MAM under the control of a eukaryotic promoter. L. lactis delivered plasmids in epithelial cells of the intestinal membrane allowing thus the production of MAM directly by host. We showed that MAM administration inhibits NF-κB pathway in vivo. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of MAM in DNBS-induced colitis but also in DSS model. In DSS model MAM was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 immune response while in DNBS model MAM reduced Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune response and increased TGFβ production. PMID:28203226

  11. Microbial Anti-Inflammatory Molecule (MAM) from Faecalibacterium prausnitzii Shows a Protective Effect on DNBS and DSS-Induced Colitis Model in Mice through Inhibition of NF-κB Pathway.

    PubMed

    Breyner, Natalia M; Michon, Cristophe; de Sousa, Cassiana S; Vilas Boas, Priscilla B; Chain, Florian; Azevedo, Vasco A; Langella, Philippe; Chatel, Jean M

    2017-01-01

    Faecalibacterium prausnitzii and its supernatant showed protective effects in different chemically-induced colitis models in mice. Recently, we described 7 peptides found in the F. prausnitzii supernatant, all belonging to a protein called Microbial Anti-inflammatory Molecule (MAM). These peptides were able to inhibit NF-κB pathway in vitro and showed anti-inflammatory properties in vivo in a DiNitroBenzene Sulfate (DNBS)-induced colitis model. In this current proof we tested MAM effect on NF-κB pathway in vivo, using a transgenic model of mice producing luciferase under the control of NF-κB promoter. Moreover, we tested this protein on Dextran Sodium Sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis in mice. To study the effect of MAM we orally administered to the mice a Lactococcus lactis strain carrying a plasmid containing the cDNA of MAM under the control of a eukaryotic promoter. L. lactis delivered plasmids in epithelial cells of the intestinal membrane allowing thus the production of MAM directly by host. We showed that MAM administration inhibits NF-κB pathway in vivo. We confirmed the anti-inflammatory properties of MAM in DNBS-induced colitis but also in DSS model. In DSS model MAM was able to inhibit Th1 and Th17 immune response while in DNBS model MAM reduced Th1, Th2, and Th17 immune response and increased TGFβ production.

  12. Cytomegalovirus Colitis in Immunocompetent Patients

    PubMed Central

    Hussain, Qulsoom; Shafique, Khurram; Tasleem, Syed H; Hurairah, Abu

    2016-01-01

    Cytomegalovirus colitis is common in immunocompromised patients, but rare in immunocompetent patients. The present study not only represents the colonoscopy and pathological findings, but also applies the method of diagnosing and treating cytomegalovirus colitis in immunocompetent patients. PMID:27980888

  13. Anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive action of the dimeric enkephalin peptide biphalin in the mouse model of colitis: new potential treatment of abdominal pain associated with inflammatory bowel diseases.

    PubMed

    Sobczak, Marta; Pilarczyk, Andrzej; Jonakowski, Mateusz; Jarmuż, Agata; Sałaga, Maciej; Lipkowski, Andrzej W; Fichna, Jakub

    2014-10-01

    Biphalin, a mixed MOP/DOP agonist, displays a potent antinociceptive activity in numerous animal models of pain. The aim of the study was to characterize the anti-inflammatory and antinociceptive action of biphalin in the mouse models of colitis. The anti-inflammatory effect of biphalin (5mg/kg, twice daily, i.c. and i.p.) was characterized in a semi-chronic mouse model of colitis, induced by i.c. injection of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS). The antinociceptive action of biphalin (5mg/kg, i.p. and i.c.) in inflamed mice was assessed in mustard oil-induced model of visceral pain and in the hot plate test. In the semi-chronic mouse model of colitis, biphalin i.c. (5mg/kg), but not i.p. improved colitis macroscopic score (2.88±0.19 and 4.99±0.80 units for biphalin and vehicle treated animals, respectively). Biphalin injected i.p. and i.c. (5mg/kg) displayed a potent antinociceptive action in the mustard oil-induced pain test. In the hot plate test, biphalin (5mg/kg, i.p.) produced a potent antinociceptive activity in inflamed mice, suggesting central site of action. Our data suggest that biphalin may become a novel opioid-based analgesic agent in IBD therapy and warrant further investigation of its pharmacological profile.

  14. Autofluorescence spectroscopy for multimodal tissues characterization in colitis-associated cancer murine model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Dorez, Hugo; Sablong, Raphaël.; Canaple, Laurence; Saint-Jalmes, Hervé; Gaillard, Sophie; Moussata, Driffa; Beuf, Olivier

    2015-07-01

    The purpose of this research project is to assess mice colon wall, using three optical modalities (conventional endoscopy, confocal endomicroscopy and optical spectroscopy) and endoluminal MRI. The study is done in the context of inflammatory bowel disease and colorectal cancer that represent 13% of new cases of cancer, every year in western countries. An optical spectroscopic bench (autofluorescence and reflectance) was developed with a flexible fiber probe. This latter has been combined with a mini multi-purpose rigid endoscope and a confocal endomicroscope. The optical modalities were first used in vivo on SWISS mice. Then, a specific optical a phantom (containing two layers of distinct fluorophores) was developed in order to evaluate our two-channel spectroscopic probe as a basic depth-sensitive measurement tool. The preliminary results show the feasibility to combine such modalities in the same in vivo protocol. Conventional endoscopy is useful to depict inflammation along colon wall. Confocal endomicroscopy provides high-contrasted images of microvascularization. Measured optical spectra both depend on biochemical tissue content and layered structure of the medium. The light collected from one channel is not similar to the other, in terms of intensity and spectroscopic profile as the interaction with the medium observed volume is different. A comparative analysis of the spectra based on our in vitro model exhibits a strong correlation between simple index extracted from spectral data and two main phantom characteristics (fluorophore concentrations and superficial layer thickness). This work suggests that this technique could contribute to assess tissues alterations through autofluorescence spectroscopic measurement under endoscopy.

  15. PBPK MODELING OF DELTAMETHRIN IN RATS

    EPA Science Inventory

    The pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin is cleared nearly twice as rapidly in human liver microsomes compared to rat liver microsomes. A species difference such as this could influence the toxic potency of deltamethrin between rats and humans. PBPK modeling is a tool that can be ut...

  16. Novel effects of ectoine, a bacteria-derived natural tetrahydropyrimidine, in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Abdel-Aziz, Heba; Wadie, Walaa; Abdallah, Dalaal M; Lentzen, Georg; Khayyal, Mohamed T

    2013-05-15

    Evidence suggests an important role of intestinal barrier dysfunction in the etiology of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Therefore stabilizing mucosal barrier function constitutes a new therapeutic approach in its management. Ectoine is a compatible solute produced by aerobic chemoheterotrophic and halophilic/halotolerant bacteria, where it acts as osmoprotectant and effective biomembrane stabilizer, protecting the producing cells from extreme environmental stress. Since this natural compound was also shown to prevent inflammatory responses associated with IBD, its potential usefulness was studied in a model of colitis. Groups of rats were treated orally with different doses of ectoine (30-300 mg/kg) or sulfasalazine (reference drug) daily for 11 days. On day 8 colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid, when overt signs of lesions develop within the next 3 days. On day 12, blood was withdrawn from the retro-orbital plexus of the rats and the animals were sacrificed. The colon was excised and examined macroscopically and microscopically. Relevant parameters of oxidative stress and inflammation were measured in serum and colon homogenates. Induction of colitis led to marked weight loss, significant histopathological changes of the colon, and variable changes in levels of myeloperoxidase, reduced glutathione, malondialdehyde, and all inflammatory markers tested. Treatment with ectoine ameliorated the inflammatory changes in TNBS-induced colitis. This effect was associated with reduction in the levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, ICAM-1, PGE2 and LTB4. The findings suggest that intestinal barrier stabilizers from natural sources could offer new therapeutic measures for the management of IBD.

  17. Gravitational Biology: The Rat Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    1997-01-01

    In this session, Session JP3, the discussion focuses on the following topics: Morphology of brain, pituitary and thyroid in the rats exposed to altered gravity; Biochemical Properties of B Adrenoceptors After Spaceflight (LMS-STS78) or Hindlimb Suspension in Rats; Influence of Hypergravity on the Development of Monoaminergic Systems in the Rat Spinal Cord; A Vestibular Evoked Potentials (VsEPs) Study of the Function of the Otolith Organs in Different Head Orientations with respect to Earth Gravity Vector in the Rat; Quantitative Observations on the Structure of Selected Proprioceptive Components in Adult Rats that Underwent About Half of their Fetal Development in Space; Effects of a Nine-Day Shuttle Mission on the Development of the Neonatal Rat Nervous System, A Behavioral Study; Muscle Atrophy Associated to Microgravity in Rat, Basic Data For Countermeasures; Simulated Weightlessness by Unloading in the Rat, Results of a Time Course Study of Biochemical Events Occurring During Unloading and Lack of Effect of a rhBNP-2 Treatment on Bone Formation and Bone Mineral Content in Unloading Rats; and Cytological Mechanism of the Osteogenesis Under Microgravity Conditions.

  18. Increased lymphocyte apoptosis in mouse models of colitis upon ABT-737 treatment is dependent upon BIM expression.

    PubMed

    Lutz, C; Mozaffari, M; Tosevski, V; Caj, M; Cippà, P; McRae, B L; Graff, C L; Rogler, G; Fried, M; Hausmann, M

    2015-08-01

    Exaggerated activation of lymphocytes contributes to the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Medical therapies are linked to the BCL-2 family-mediated apoptosis. Imbalance in BCL-2 family proteins may cause failure in therapeutic responses. We investigated the role of BCL-2 inhibitor ABT-737 for lymphocyte apoptosis in mice under inflammatory conditions. B.6129P2-interleukin (IL)-10(tm1Cgn) /J (IL-10(-/-) ) weighing 25-30 g with ongoing colitis were used. Fifty mg/kg/day ABT-737 was injected intraperitoneally (i.p.). Haematological analyses were performed with an ADVIA 2120 flow cytometer and mass cytometry with a CyTOF 2. Following i.p. administration, ABT-737 was detected in both spontaneous and acute colitis in peripheral blood (PBL) and colon tissue. Treatment led to lymphopenia. CD4(+) CD44(+) CD62L(+) central memory and CD8(+) , CD44(+) CD62L(-) central memory T cells were decreased in PBL upon ABT-737 compared to vehicle-receiving controls. Increased apoptosis upon ABT-737 was determined in blood lymphocytes, splenocytes and Peyer's patches and was accompanied by a decrease in TNF and IL-1B. ABT-737 positively altered the colonic mucosa and ameliorated inflammation, as shown by colonoscopy, histology and colon length. A decreased BIM/BCL-2 ratio or absence of BIM in both Bim(-) (/) (-) and Il10(-) (/) (-) × Bim(-) (/) (-) impeded the protective effect of ABT-737. The BIM/BCL-2 ratio decreased with age and during the course of treatment. Thus, long-term treatment resulted in adapted TNF levels and macroscopic mucosal damage. ABT-737 was efficacious in diminishing lymphocytes and ameliorating colitis in a BIM-dependent manner. Regulation of inappropriate survival of lymphocytes by ABT-737 may provide a therapeutic strategy in IBD.

  19. Huangqin-Tang Ameliorates TNBS-Induced Colitis by Regulating Effector and Regulatory CD4(+) T Cells.

    PubMed

    Zou, Ying; Li, Wen-Yang; Wan, Zheng; Zhao, Bing; He, Zhi-Wei; Wu, Zhu-Guo; Huang, Guo-Liang; Wang, Jian; Li, Bin-Bin; Lu, Yang-Jia; Ding, Cong-Cong; Chi, Hong-Gang; Zheng, Xue-Bao

    2015-01-01

    Huangqin-Tang decoction (HQT) is a classic traditional Chinese herbal formulation that is widely used to ameliorate the symptoms of gastrointestinal disorders, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the therapeutic potential and immunological regulatory activity of HQT in experimental colitis in rats. Using an animal model of colitis by intrarectally administering 2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS), we found that administration of HQT significantly inhibited the severity of TNBS-induced colitis in a dose-dependent manner. In addition, treatment with HQT produced better results than that with mesalazine, as shown by improvedweight loss bleeding and diarrhoea scores, colon length, and intestinal inflammation. As for potential immunological regulation of HQT action, the percentages of Th1 and Th17 cells were reduced, but those Th2 and Treg cells were enhanced in LPMCs after HQT treatment. Additionally, HQT lowered the levels of Th1/Th17-associated cytokines but increased production of Th2/Treg-associated cytokines in the colon and MLNs. Furthermore, we observed a remarkable suppression of the Th1/Th17-associated transcription factors T-bet and ROR-γt. However, expression levels of the Th2/Treg-associated transcription factors GATA-3 and Foxp3 were enhanced during treatment with HQT. Our results suggest that HQT has the therapeutic potential to ameliorate TNBS-induced colitis symptoms. This protective effect is possibly mediated by its effects on CD4(+) T cells subsets.

  20. Eosinophilic colitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Horowska-Ziaja, Sabina; Kajor, Maciej; Więcek, Sabina; Chlebowczyk, Wojciech; Woś, Halina

    2017-01-01

    Introduction Eosinophilic colitis, which is a rare form of eosinophilic gastrointestinal diseases, occurs as primary and secondary allergic eosinophilic colitis of the gastrointestinal tract infection, inflammatory bowel disease, celiac disease, and vasculitis. The diagnosis is based on a significant amount of eosinophils in the inflammatory infiltrate of the colon wall. Aim To analyze the clinical picture taking into account comorbidities and endoscopic picture in children with eosinophilic colitis. Material and methods The test group consisted of 43 children, the average age – 12.1 years diagnosed with eosinophilic colitis (according to the Whitington scale) hospitalized in the Gastroenterology Unit, Department of Pediatrics of the Medical University of Silesia in Katowice. Testing for food allergies, celiac disease, inflammatory bowel disease, gastrointestinal diseases and parasitic diseases was performed in the group of children and the analysis concerned the intensity of eosinophilic infiltration of the colon mucosa with the severity of clinical symptoms, endoscopic picture, the presence of inflammatory bowel disease, and food allergy. Results Half of the tested children suffered from isolated eosinophilic colitis but the rest of them had eosinophilic infiltrate with inflammatory bowel disease more often, however, the Crohn’s disease. The endoscopic image was uncharacteristic, and grade III in the Whitington scale was predominant in the histopathological examination, in most cases located in the entire large intestine. The higher level of total IgE was found in less than half of the patients and it did not correlate with the severity of eosinophilic infiltration. It was shown that the severity of eosinophilic infiltration correlated with exacerbation of clinical symptoms, endoscopic image, and the presence of inflammatory bowel disease. The higher level of antibodies of ASCA and ANCA was found in approximately 20% of the children with isolated eosinophilic

  1. Changes in protein expression after treatment with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory products in a mouse model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Sotillo, Javier; Ferreira, Ivana; Potriquet, Jeremy; Laha, Thewarach; Navarro, Severine; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason

    2017-02-13

    Different reports have highlighted the potential use of helminths and their secretions in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions; however, no reports have investigated their effects at a proteome level. Herein, we characterise the protein expression changes that occur in lamina propria (LP) and the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis treated with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory (ES) products using a quantitative proteomic approach. We have shown how parasite products can significantly alter the expression of proteins involved in immune responses, cell death and with an antioxidant activity. Interestingly, significant changes in the expression levels of different mucins were observed in this study. MUC13, a mucin implicated in gastrointestinal homeostasis, was upregulated in the LP of mice with DSS-induced colitis treated with ES, while MUC2, a major component of mucus, was upregulated in the IEC. In addition, A. caninum proteins have an important effect on proteins with antioxidant functions and proteins involved in intestinal homeostasis and tissue integrity and regeneration. Understanding how parasites can ameliorate IBD pathogenesis can help us design novel treatments for autoimmune diseases.

  2. Changes in protein expression after treatment with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory products in a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Sotillo, Javier; Ferreira, Ivana; Potriquet, Jeremy; Laha, Thewarach; Navarro, Severine; Loukas, Alex; Mulvenna, Jason

    2017-01-01

    Different reports have highlighted the potential use of helminths and their secretions in the treatment of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) conditions; however, no reports have investigated their effects at a proteome level. Herein, we characterise the protein expression changes that occur in lamina propria (LP) and the intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) of mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis treated with Ancylostoma caninum excretory/secretory (ES) products using a quantitative proteomic approach. We have shown how parasite products can significantly alter the expression of proteins involved in immune responses, cell death and with an antioxidant activity. Interestingly, significant changes in the expression levels of different mucins were observed in this study. MUC13, a mucin implicated in gastrointestinal homeostasis, was upregulated in the LP of mice with DSS-induced colitis treated with ES, while MUC2, a major component of mucus, was upregulated in the IEC. In addition, A. caninum proteins have an important effect on proteins with antioxidant functions and proteins involved in intestinal homeostasis and tissue integrity and regeneration. Understanding how parasites can ameliorate IBD pathogenesis can help us design novel treatments for autoimmune diseases. PMID:28191818

  3. Expression of catalase in Lactobacillus fermentum and evaluation of its anti-oxidative properties in a dextran sodium sulfate induced mouse colitis model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Jiang; Liu, Hong; Wang, Qingwei; Hou, Chengli; Thacker, Philip; Qiao, Shiyan

    2013-12-01

    Lactic acid bacteria are generally sensitive to hydrogen peroxide (H₂O₂). Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC14431 is one of the few lactic acid bacteria able to degrade H₂O₂ through the action of a manganese-dependent catalase (containing the katA gene). However, it is not a natural inhabitant of the intestinal tract and its bio-efficacy and survival in the gastrointestinal tract have never been tested. In this study, we successfully expressed the katA gene from L. plantarum ATCC14431 in L. fermentum I5007 and the recombinant L. fermentum exhibited almost 20-fold higher catalase activity than the empty vector control. The anti-oxidative properties of this catalase-producing L. fermentum were evaluated using a dextran sodium sulphate (DSS) induced colitis mice model. Compared with the control, mice receiving DSS alone had increased diarrhea and mucosa histological scores (P < 0.05), as well as lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05), myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05), and active NF-κB in colonic tissue (P < 0.05). Similar to vitamin E, treatment with recombinant L. fermentum mitigate these effects accompanied by a improvement in mucosa histological scores in the proximal colon (P < 0.05) and decreased lipid peroxidation (P < 0.05), myeloperoxidase (P < 0.05) and active NF-κB in colonic tissue (P < 0.05). In conclusion, the expression of catalase in L. fermentum increased its ability to survive when exposed to aerated environment in vitro and conferred the anti-oxidative and anti-inflammatory effects in the DSS induced colitis model.

  4. Trametes versicolor Protein YZP Activates Regulatory B Lymphocytes – Gene Identification through De Novo Assembly and Function Analysis in a Murine Acute Colitis Model

    PubMed Central

    Kuan, Yen-Chou; Wu, Ying-Jou; Hung, Chih-Liang; Sheu, Fuu

    2013-01-01

    Background Trametes versicolor (Yun-Zhi) is a medicinal fungus used as a chemotherapy co-treatment to enhance anti-tumor immunity. Although the efficacies of T. versicolor extracts have been documented, the active ingredients and mechanisms underlying the actions of these extracts remain uncharacterized. Results We purified a new protein, YZP, from the fruiting bodies of T. versicolor and identified the gene encoding YZP using RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies. YZP is a 12-kDa non-glycosylated protein comprising 139 amino acids, including an 18-amino acids signal peptide. YZP induced a greater than 60-fold increase in IL-10 secretion in mice B lymphocytes; moreover, YZP specifically triggered the differentiation of CD1d+ B cells into IL-10-producing regulatory B cells (Bregs) and enhanced the expression of CD1d. YZP-induced B cells suppressed approximately 40% of the LPS-activated macrophage production of inflammatory cytokines in a mixed leukocyte reaction and significantly alleviated the disease activity and colonic inflammation in a DSS-induced acute colitis murine model. Furthermore, YZP activated Breg function via interaction with TLR2 and TLR4 and up-regulation of the TLR-mediated signaling pathway. Conclusions We purified a novel Breg-stimulating protein, YZP, from T. versicolor and developed an advanced approach combining RNA-seq and de novo assembly technologies.to clone its gene. We demonstrated that YZP activated CD1d+ Breg differentiation through TLR2/4-mediated signaling pathway, and the YZP-stimulated B cells exhibited anti-inflammatory efficacies in vitro and in murine acute colitis models. PMID:24019869

  5. Consensus Modeling of Oral Rat Acute Toxicity

    EPA Science Inventory

    An acute toxicity dataset (oral rat LD50) with about 7400 compounds was compiled from the ChemIDplus database. This dataset was divided into a modeling set and a prediction set. The compounds in the prediction set were selected so that they were present in the modeling set used...

  6. The anti-inflammatory potential of phenolic compounds in grape juice concentrate (G8000™) on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Neto, Ricardo Artigiani; Marchi, Patrícia; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Pazine, Vanessa Lima; Noguti, Juliana; Pastrelo, Mauricio Mercaldi; Gollücke, Andréa Pittelli Boiago; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki

    2013-09-28

    Chronic inflammatory bowel disease is characterised by an up-regulation of the synthesis and release of a variety of pro-inflammatory mediators leading to excessive tissue injury. Flavonoids are able to inhibit enzymes and/or due to their antioxidant properties regulate the immune response. The goal of the present study was to evaluate the mechanisms of action of phenolic compounds present in grape juice on 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. A total of forty-one male Wistar rats were randomised into seven groups: negative control group; TNBS non-treated induced colitis; 2% grape juice control group; 1% grape juice 24 h after TNBS colitis induction; 1% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction; 2% grape juice 24 h after colitis induction; 2% grape juice on day 7 after colitis induction. The 1% grape juice-treated induced colitis group showed marked clinical improvement when compared with the TNBS-induced colitis group. Rats that received 1% grape juice, on day 7 after colitis induction, presented reduced intensity of macroscopic and histological scores. Statistically significant differences (P,0·05) of TNF-a and inducible NO synthase mRNA expression were detected in the groups treated with grape juice at the 1% dose after inducing experimental colitis when compared with the TNBS group. Grape juice reduced the noxious effects induced by colitis caused by TNBS, especially at the 1% dose.

  7. A rat model for hepatitis E virus

    PubMed Central

    Mishra, Niraj; Verbeken, Erik; Ramaekers, Kaat; Dallmeier, Kai

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Hepatitis E virus (HEV) is one of the prime causes of acute viral hepatitis, and chronic hepatitis E is increasingly recognized as an important problem in the transplant setting. Nevertheless, the fundamental understanding of the biology of HEV replication is limited and there are few therapeutic options. The development of such therapies is partially hindered by the lack of a robust and convenient animal model. We propose the infection of athymic nude rats with the rat HEV strain LA-B350 as such a model. A cDNA clone, pLA-B350, was constructed and the infectivity of its capped RNA transcripts was confirmed in vitro and in vivo. Furthermore, a subgenomic replicon, pLA-B350/luc, was constructed and validated for in vitro antiviral studies. Interestingly, rat HEV proved to be less sensitive to the antiviral activity of α-interferon, ribavirin and mycophenolic acid than genotype 3 HEV (a strain that infects humans). As a proof-of-concept, part of the C-terminal polymerase sequence of pLA-B350/luc was swapped with its genotype 3 HEV counterpart: the resulting chimeric replicon replicated with comparable efficiency as the wild-type construct, confirming that LA-B350 strain is amenable to humanization (replacement of certain sequences or motifs by their counterparts from human HEV strains). Finally, ribavirin effectively inhibited LA-B350 replication in athymic nude rats, confirming the suitability of the rat model for antiviral studies. PMID:27483350

  8. The Helsinki Rat Microsurgical Sidewall Aneurysm Model

    PubMed Central

    Marbacher, Serge; Marjamaa, Johan; Abdelhameed, Essam; Hernesniemi, Juha; Niemelä, Mika; Frösen, Juhana

    2014-01-01

    Experimental saccular aneurysm models are necessary for testing novel surgical and endovascular treatment options and devices before they are introduced into clinical practice. Furthermore, experimental models are needed to elucidate the complex aneurysm biology leading to rupture of saccular aneurysms. Several different kinds of experimental models for saccular aneurysms have been established in different species. Many of them, however, require special skills, expensive equipment, or special environments, which limits their widespread use. A simple, robust, and inexpensive experimental model is needed as a standardized tool that can be used in a standardized manner in various institutions. The microsurgical rat abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm model combines the possibility to study both novel endovascular treatment strategies and the molecular basis of aneurysm biology in a standardized and inexpensive manner. Standardized grafts by means of shape, size, and geometry are harvested from a donor rat's descending thoracic aorta and then transplanted to a syngenic recipient rat. The aneurysms are sutured end-to-side with continuous or interrupted 9-0 nylon sutures to the infrarenal abdominal aorta. We present step-by-step procedural instructions, information on necessary equipment, and discuss important anatomical and surgical details for successful microsurgical creation of an abdominal aortic sidewall aneurysm in the rat. PMID:25350840

  9. Oleic acid, hydroxytyrosol and n-3 fatty acids collectively modulate colitis through reduction of oxidative stress and IL-8 synthesis; in vitro and in vivo studies.

    PubMed

    Reddy, K Vijay Kumar; Naidu, K Akhilender

    2016-06-01

    Our recent study has demonstrated that medium chain triglycerides (MCT) and monounsaturated fatty acids potentiate the beneficial effects of fish oil on risk factors of cardiovascular disease. In the present study, we have investigated the influence of MCT or olive oil on the protective and mucosal healing ability of fish oil in ulcerative colitis using cell simulation and animal models. Caco-2 cells grown in medium chain fatty acids enriched medium has exaggerated t-butyl hydroperoxide induced cell damage, GSH depletion, and IL-1β induced IL-8 synthesis, compared to the cells grown in oleic acid & hydroxytyrosol (OT) enriched medium. Further, combined treatment of cells with eicosapentaenoic acid, docosahexaenoic acid, and OT has remarkably attenuated the cell damage, and IL-8 synthesis, compared to individual treatments. To evaluate the effect of these lipid formulations in vivo, adult Wistar rats were fed diet enriched with high amount of medium chain triglycerides (MCT), virgin olive oil, or their combination with fish oil. Colitis was induced in rats using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) for 7days followed by 10-days of recovery period. Rats of MCT group exhibit severe disease activity, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon compared to the olive oil group. Furthermore, there was persistent body weight loss, loose stools, higher levels of inflammatory cytokines in the rats of MCT group, even after DSS was withdrawn from drinking water. Conversely, fish oil has remarkably attenuated the DSS induced alterations in both MCT and olive oil diet groups with significantly greater effect in the olive oil group. Thus, MCT increase the susceptibility to colitis through oxidative damage and IL-8 synthesis in intestinal epithelial cells. The beneficial effects of virgin olive oil could be partially attributed to hydroxytyrosol. Combined treatment of hydroxytyrosol, oleic acid and n-3 fatty acids exhibit huge therapeutic benefits in colitis.

  10. NS6180, a new KCa3.1 channel inhibitor prevents T-cell activation and inflammation in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease

    PubMed Central

    Strøbæk, D; Brown, DT; Jenkins, DP; Chen, Y-J; Coleman, N; Ando, Y; Chiu, P; Jørgensen, S; Demnitz, J; Wulff, H; Christophersen, P

    2013-01-01

    Background and Purpose The KCa3.1 channel is a potential target for therapy of immune disease. We identified a compound from a new chemical class of KCa3.1 inhibitors and assessed in vitro and in vivo inhibition of immune responses. Experimental Approach We characterized the benzothiazinone NS6180 (4-[[3-(trifluoromethyl)phenyl]methyl]-2H-1,4-benzothiazin-3(4H)-one) with respect to potency and molecular site of action on KCa3.1 channels, selectivity towards other targets, effects on T-cell activation as well as pharmacokinetics and inflammation control in colitis induced by 2,4-dinitrobenzene sulfonic acid, a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Key Results NS6180 inhibited cloned human KCa3.1 channels (IC50 = 9 nM) via T250 and V275, the same amino acid residues conferring sensitivity to triarylmethanes such as like TRAM-34. NS6180 inhibited endogenously expressed KCa3.1 channels in human, mouse and rat erythrocytes, with similar potencies (15–20 nM). NS6180 suppressed rat and mouse splenocyte proliferation at submicrolar concentrations and potently inhibited IL-2 and IFN-γ production, while exerting smaller effects on IL-4 and TNF-α and no effect on IL-17 production. Antibody staining showed KCa3.1 channels in healthy colon and strong up-regulation in association with infiltrating immune cells after induction of colitis. Despite poor plasma exposure, NS6180 (3 and 10 mg·kg−1 b.i.d.) dampened colon inflammation and improved body weight gain as effectively as the standard IBD drug sulfasalazine (300 mg·kg−1 q.d.). Conclusions and Implications NS6180 represents a novel class of KCa3.1 channel inhibitors which inhibited experimental colitis, suggesting KCa3.1 channels as targets for pharmacological control of intestinal inflammation. PMID:22891655

  11. Ischemic Colitis Revealing Polyarteritis Nodosa

    PubMed Central

    Hamzaoui, Amira; Litaiem, Noureddine; Smiti Khanfir, M.; Ayadi, Sofiene; Nfoussi, Haifa; Houman, M. H.

    2013-01-01

    Ischemic colitis is one of the most common intestinal ischemic injuries. It results from impaired perfusion of blood to the bowel and is rarely caused by vasculitis. We report a case of ischemic colitis revealing polyarteritis nodosa (PAN) in a 55-year-old man. Histological examination of the resected colon led to the diagnosis of PAN. PMID:24382967

  12. Digital replantation teaching model in rats.

    PubMed

    Ad-El, D D; Harper, A; Hoffman, L A

    2000-01-01

    Replant surgery is a complex procedure that requires advanced microsurgical skills and is usually performed as an emergency operation, lasting many hours. For these reasons, teaching replantation is difficult. Although teaching models exist, they are often too general or complicated for routine use and do not simulate the stages and the pitfalls of human replant surgery. We have designed a model that is simple and imitates human replant surgery. After reviewing the rat anatomy, students dissect and replant a rat hind limb that has been sharply amputated by the instructor. They follow the same principles of "real" surgery like debridement, minimizing ischemia time, and stable fixation before anatomosis of vessels. After marking the structures, bony fixation followed by vessel and nerve anastomosis are performed. Muscle is reattached to the skin and limb vascularity evaluated. After we designed this model, plastic surgery residents performed the technique on 10 rats. An 80% limb viability rate was achieved. This model is simple to perform, simulates all the relevant structures and pitfalls of human surgery, and the rats are relatively cheap and can be used for other parallel projects.

  13. Decreased colonization of fecal Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale species from ulcerative colitis patients in an in vitro dynamic gut model with mucin environment.

    PubMed

    Vermeiren, Joan; Van den Abbeele, Pieter; Laukens, Debby; Vigsnaes, Louise Kristine; De Vos, Martine; Boon, Nico; Van de Wiele, Tom

    2012-03-01

    The mucus layer in the colon, acting as a barrier to prevent invasion of pathogens, is thinner and discontinuous in patients with ulcerative colitis (UC). A recent developed in vitro dynamic gut model, the M-SHIME, was used to compare long-term colonization of the mucin layer by the microbiota from six healthy volunteers (HV) and six UC patients and thus distinguish the mucin adhered from the luminal microbiota. Although under the same nutritional conditions, short-chain fatty acid production by the luminal communities from UC patients showed a tendency toward a lower butyrate production. A more in-depth community analysis of those microbial groups known to produce butyrate revealed that the diversity of the Clostridium coccoides/Eubacterium rectale and Clostridium leptum group, and counts of Faecalibacterium prausnitzii were lower in the luminal fractions of the UC samples. Counts of Roseburia spp. were lower in the mucosal fractions of the UC samples. qPCR analysis for butyryl-CoA:acetate CoA transferase, responsible for butyrate production, displayed a lower abundance in both the luminal and mucosal fractions of the UC samples. The M-SHIME model revealed depletion in butyrate producing microbial communities not restricted to the luminal but also in the mucosal samples from UC patients compared to HV.

  14. MODELING OPERANT BEHAVIOR IN THE PARKINSONIAN RAT

    PubMed Central

    Avila, Irene; Reilly, Mark P.; Sanabria, Federico; Posadas-Sánchez, Diana; Chavez, Claudia L.; Banerjee, Nikhil; Killeen, Peter; Castañeda, Edward

    2009-01-01

    Mathematical principles of reinforcement (MPR; Killeen, 1994) is a quantitative model of operant behavior that contains 3 parameters representing motor capacity (δ), motivation (a), and short term memory (λ). The present study applied MPR to characterize the effects of bilateral infusions of 6-OHDA into the substantia nigra pars compacta in the rat, a model of Parkinson’s disease. Rats were trained to lever press under a 5-component fixed ratio (5, 15, 30, 60, and 100) schedule of food reinforcement. Rats were tested for 15 days prior to dopamine lesions and again for 15 days post-lesion. To characterize functional loss relative to lesion size, rats were grouped according to the extent and the degree of lateralization of their dopamine loss. Response rates decreased as a function of dopamine depletion, primarily at intermediate ratios. MPR accounted for 98% of variance in pre- and post-lesion response rates. Consistent with reported disruptions in motor behavior induced by dopaminergic lesions, estimates of δ increased when dopamine was severely depleted. There was no support for different estimates of a based on pre- and post-lesion performance of any lesion group, suggesting that dopamine loss has negligible effects on incentive motivation. The present study demonstrates the usefulness of combining operant techniques with a theoretical model to better understand the effects of a neurochemical manipulation. PMID:19073222

  15. Degraded carrageenan causing colitis in rats induces TNF secretion and ICAM-1 upregulation in monocytes through NF-kappaB activation.

    PubMed

    Benard, Claudine; Cultrone, Antonietta; Michel, Catherine; Rosales, Carlos; Segain, Jean-Pierre; Lahaye, Marc; Galmiche, Jean-Paul; Cherbut, Christine; Blottière, Hervé M

    2010-01-13

    Carrageenan (CGN) is a high molecular weight sulphated polysaccharide derived from red seaweeds. In rodents, its degraded forms (dCGN) can induce intestinal inflammation associated with macrophage recruitment and activation. The aim of this study was: 1) to analyze the size-dependent effects of dCGN on colon inflammation in vivo, and 2) to correlate these effects with monocyte/macrophage proliferation, cytokine production and expression of various cell surface antigens including ICAM-1 adhesion molecule. Peripheral blood monocytes (PBM) and THP-1 monocytic cells were cultured in the presence of either 10 or 40 kDa, dCGN. The 40 kDa, but not the 10 kDa dCGN, induced colitis in in vivo. Degraded CGN inhibited THP-1 cell proliferation in vitro, arresting the cells in G1 phase. In addition, dCGN increased ICAM-1 expression in both PBM and THP-1 cells with a major effect seen after 40 kDa dCGN exposure. Also, dCGN stimulated monocyte aggregation in vitro that was prevented by incubation with anti-ICAM-1 antibody. Finally, dCGN stimulated TNF-alpha expression and secretion by both PBM and THP-1 cells. All these effects were linked to NF-kappaB activation. These data strongly suggest that the degraded forms of CGN have a pronounced effect on monocytes, characteristic of an inflammatory phenotype.

  16. Effect of a Ropy Exopolysaccharide-Producing Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis Strain Orally Administered on DSS-Induced Colitis Mice Model.

    PubMed

    Hidalgo-Cantabrana, Claudio; Algieri, Francesca; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Vezza, Teresa; Martínez-Camblor, Pablo; Margolles, Abelardo; Ruas-Madiedo, Patricia; Gálvez, Julio

    2016-01-01

    Exopolysaccharide (EPS)-producing bifidobacteria, particularly Bifidobacterium animalis subsp. lactis strains, are used in the functional food industry as promising probiotics with purported beneficial effects. We used three isogenic strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis, with different EPS producing phenotypes (mucoid-ropy and non-ropy), in order to determine their capability to survive the murine gastrointestinal tract transit, as well as to evaluate their role in improving clinical outcomes in a chemically-induced colitis model. The three strains were able to survive in the intestinal tract of C57BL/6J mice during the course of the intervention study. Furthermore, the disease activity index (DAI) of the animal group treated with the ropy strain was significantly lower than of the DAI of the placebo group at the end of the treatment. However, no significant differences were found among the three strains. The analysis of several immune parameters, such as TNFα and IL-10 quantified in blood plasma and lymphocyte populations enumerated in mesenteric nodes, showed some significant variations among the four experimental animal groups. Remarkably, a higher capability of the ropy strain to increase regulatory T-cells in mesenteric lymphoid nodes was demonstrated, suggesting a higher ability of this strain to regulate inflammatory responses at mucosal level. Our data indicate that strains of B. animalis subsp. lactis producing EPS that confer a mucoid-ropy phenotype could represent promising candidates to perform further studies targeting intestinal inflammatory processes.

  17. On the rat model of human osteopenias and osteoporoses

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Frost, Harold M.; Jee, Webster S. S.

    1992-01-01

    The idea that rats cannot model human osteopenias errs. The same mechanisms control gains in bone mass (longitudinal bone growth and modeling drifts) and losses (BMU-based remodeling), in young and aged rats and humans. Furthermore, they respond similarly in rats and man to mechanical influences, hormones, drugs and other agents.

  18. Refractory Ulcerative Colitis Treatment

    PubMed Central

    Green, Jesse A.

    2007-01-01

    Treatment of refractory ulcerative colitis (UC) is a common clinical challenge. In either acute or chronic refractory UC, the disease may continue to remain active, even though the patient is on appropriate therapy. It is important to reassess and characterize the patient's disease before adding new medications to the current medical regimen. After determining the current extent and severity of the UC—ruling out other causes of bloody diarrhea and determining what complications are present—new treatment approaches can then be started. It is critical to first optimize oral 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy combined with rectal 5-ASA or corticosteroid suppositories, plus corticosteroid or 5-ASA enemas or foam preparations. Oral or intravenous corticosteroids are appropriate to use if needed, but alternative approaches must be used for long-term maintenance. 6-Mercaptopurine (6-MP) or azathioprine can be very helpful for severe chronic refractory UC. In those patients who do not respond to 5-ASA medications, corticosteroids, and 6-MP or azathioprine, infliximab offers an important approach for induction and maintenance of remission for refractory chronic ulcerative colitis as well as for select cases of refractory acute UC. Cyclosporine use is an alternative medical approach for the refractory acute UC patient. Colectomy with ileal pouch-anal anastomosis remains a valuable option for the refractory chronic or acute UC patient, because it can provide both a “cure” for the disease, as well as eliminate ineffective medications with their associated side effects. PMID:21960779

  19. Silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute a vector for controlled release of resveratrol in an experimental model of inflammatory bowel disease in rats

    PubMed Central

    Lozano-Pérez, Antonio Abel; Rodriguez-Nogales, Alba; Ortiz-Cullera, Víctor; Algieri, Francesca; Garrido-Mesa, José; Zorrilla, Pedro; Rodriguez-Cabezas, M Elena; Garrido-Mesa, Natividad; Utrilla, M Pilar; De Matteis, Laura; de la Fuente, Jesús Martínez; Cenis, José Luis; Gálvez, Julio

    2014-01-01

    Purpose We aimed to evaluate the intestinal anti-inflammatory properties of silk fibroin nanoparticles, around 100 nm in size, when loaded with the stilbene compound resveratrol, in an experimental model of rat colitis. Methods Nanoparticles were loaded with resveratrol by adsorption. The biological effects of the resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles were tested both in vitro, in a cell culture of RAW 264.7 cells (mouse macrophages), and in vivo, in the trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid model of rat colitis, when administered intracolonically. Results The resveratrol liberation in 1× phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.4) was characterized by fast liberation, reaching the solubility limit in 3 hours, which was maintained over a period of 80 hours. The in vitro assays revealed immunomodulatory properties exerted by these resveratrol-loaded nanoparticles since they promoted macrophage activity in basal conditions and inhibited this activity when stimulated with lipopolysaccharide. The in vivo experiments showed that after evaluation of the macroscopic symptoms, inflammatory markers, and intestinal barrier function, the fibroin nanoparticles loaded with resveratrol had a better effect than the single treatments, being similar to that produced by the glucocorticoid dexamethasone. Conclusion Silk fibroin nanoparticles constitute an attractive strategy for the controlled release of resveratrol, showing immunomodulatory properties and intestinal anti-inflammatory effects. PMID:25285004

  20. The effect of melatonin on TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Necefli, Ahmet; Tulumoğlu, Burcu; Giriş, Murat; Barbaros, Umut; Gündüz, Mücteba; Olgaç, Vakur; Güloğlu, Recep; Toker, Gülçin

    2006-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a multifactorial inflammatory disease of the colon and rectum with an unknown etiology. The present study was undertaken to investigate the effect of melatonin administration on oxidative damage and apoptosis in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis. Rats were divided into four groups as follows: Group 1 (n=8)-T-NBS colitis; Group 2 (n=8)--melatonin, 10 mg/kg/day ip, for 15 days in addition to TNBS; Group 3 (n=8)--melatonin alone, 10 mg/kg/day ip, for 15 days; and Group 4 (n=8)-isotonic saline solution, 1 ml/rat ip, for 15 days (sham control group). Colonic myeloperoxidase (MPO) activities, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels, and glutathione (GSH) levels are indicators of oxidative damage, while caspase-3 activities reveal the degree of apoptosis of the colonic tissue. In all TNBS-treated rats, colonic MPO activity and MDA levels were found to be increased significantly compared to those in the sham group. Colonic MPO activity and MDA levels were significantly lower in the melatonin treatment group compared to TNBS-treated rats. GSH levels of colonic tissues were found to be significantly lower in TNBS-treated rats compared to the sham group. Treatment with melatonin significantly increased GSH levels compared to those in TNBS-treated rats. Caspas-3 activity of colonic tissues was found to be significantly higher in TNBS-treated rats compared to the sham group. Treatment with melatonin significantly decreased caspase-3 activity compared to that in TNBS-treated rats. These results imply a reduction in mucosal damage due to anti-inflammatory and anti-apoptotic effects of melatonin.

  1. Interleukin 19 reduces inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Matsuo, Yukiko; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Yoshida, Natsuho; Ikeda, Yoshihito; Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2015-12-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. Interleukin (IL)-19, a member of the IL-10 family, functions as an anti-inflammatory cytokine. Here, we investigated the contribution of IL-19 to intestinal inflammation in a model of T cell-mediated colitis in mice. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) model of acute colitis. IL-19 deficiency aggravated TNBS-induced colitis and compromised intestinal recovery in mice. Additionally, the exacerbation of TNBS-induced colonic inflammation following genetic ablation of IL-19 was accompanied by increased production of interferon-gamma, IL-12 (p40), IL-17, IL-22, and IL-33, and decreased production of IL-4. Moreover, the exacerbation of colitis following IL-19 knockout was also accompanied by increased production of CXCL1, G-CSF and CCL5. Using this model of induced colitis, our results revealed the immunopathological relevance of IL-19 as an anti-inflammatory cytokine in intestinal inflammation in mice.

  2. Computed tomography of neutropenic colitis

    SciTech Connect

    Frick, M.P.; Maile, C.W.; Crass, J.R.; Goldberg, M.E.; Delaney, J.P.

    1984-10-01

    Four patients developed neutropenic colitis as a complication of acute leukemia (three) or aplastic anemia (one). On computed tomography (CT), neutropenic colitis was characterized by cecal wall thickening (four) and pneumatosis (one). Intramural areas of lower density presumably reflected edema or hemorrhage. Clinical improvement and return of adequate numbers of functioning neutrophils coincided with decrease in cecal wall thickening on CT. Prompt radiologic recognition of this serious condition is crucial, since surgical intervention is probably best avoided.

  3. Collagenous colitis: an unrecognised entity.

    PubMed Central

    Bogomoletz, W V; Adnet, J J; Birembaut, P; Feydy, P; Dupont, P

    1980-01-01

    A patient is reported with chronic abdominal pain, diarrhoea, and associated radiological and endoscopic abnormalities of the sigmoid colon. Light and electron microscopic study of colorectal mucosa showed abnormal collagenous thickening of the subepithelial basement membrane. The authors felt that the clinical and morphological features justified a diagnosis of collagenous colitis. Review of the literature suggested that collagenous colitis was still an unrecognised entity. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 PMID:7380341

  4. Chronic Paraspinal Muscle Injury Model in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Cho, Tack Geun; Kim, Young Baeg

    2016-01-01

    Objective The objective of this study is to establish an animal model of chronic paraspinal muscle injury in rat. Methods Fifty four Sprague-Dawley male rats were divided into experimental group (n=30), sham (n=15), and normal group (n=9). Incision was done from T7 to L2 and paraspinal muscles were detached from spine and tied at each level. The paraspinal muscles were exposed and untied at 2 weeks after surgery. Sham operation was done by paraspinal muscles dissection at the same levels and wound closure was done without tying. Kyphotic index and thoracolumbar Cobb's angle were measured at preoperative, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the first surgery for all groups. The rats were sacrificed at 4, 8, and 12 weeks after the first surgery, and performed histological examinations. Results At 4 weeks after surgery, the kyphotic index decreased, but, Cobb's angle increased significantly in the experimental group (p<0.05), and then that were maintained until the end of the experiment. However, there were no significant differences of the kyphotic index and Cobb's angle between sham and normal groups. In histological examinations, necrosis and fibrosis were observed definitely and persisted until 12 weeks after surgery. There were also presences of regenerated muscle cells which nucleus is at the center of cytoplasm, centronucleated myofibers. Conclusion Our chronic injury model of paraspinal muscles in rats shows necrosis and fibrosis in the muscles for 12 weeks after surgery, which might be useful to study the pathophysiology of the degenerative thoracolumbar kyphosis or degeneration of paraspinal muscles. PMID:27651859

  5. Constitutive activation of epithelial TLR4 augments inflammatory responses to mucosal injury and drives colitis-associated tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Fukata, Masayuki; Shang, Limin; Santaolalla, Rebeca; Sotolongo, John; Pastorini, Cristhine; España, Cecilia; Ungaro, Ryan; Harpaz, Noam; Cooper, Harry S.; Elson, Greg; Kosco-Vilbois, Marie; Zaias, Julia; Perez, Maria T.; Mayer, Lloyd; Vamadevan, Arunan S.; Lira, Sergio A.; Abreu, Maria T.

    2010-01-01

    Chronic intestinal inflammation culminates in cancer and a link to TLR4 has been suggested by our observation that TLR4 deficiency prevents colitis-associated neoplasia. In the current study, we address the effect of the aberrant activation of epithelial TLR4 on induction of colitis and colitis-associated tumor development. We take a translational approach to address the consequences of increased TLR signaling in the intestinal mucosa. Mice transgenic for a constitutively-active TLR4 under the intestine-specific villin promoter (villin-TLR4 mice) were treated with DSS for acute colitis and azoxymethane-dextran sulfate sodium. TLR4 expression was analyzed by immunohistochemistry in colonic tissue from patients with ulcerative colitis and ulcerative colitis associated cancer. The effect of an antagonist TLR4 Ab was tested in prevention of colitis-associated neoplasia in the AOM-DSS model. Villin-TLR4 mice were highly susceptible to both acute colitis and colitis-associated neoplasia. Villin-TLR4 mice had increased epithelial expression of COX-2 and mucosal PGE2 production at baseline. Increased severity of colitis in villin-TLR4 mice was characterized by enhanced expression of inflammatory mediators and increased neutrophilic infiltration. In human UC samples, TLR4 expression was upregulated in almost all CAC and progressively increases with grade of dysplasia. As a proof of principle, a TLR4/MD-2 antagonist antibody inhibited colitis-associated neoplasia in the mouse model. Our results show that regulation of TLR's can affect the outcome of both acute colitis and its consequences—cancer. Targeting TLR4 and other TLR's may ultimately play a role in prevention or treatment of colitis-associated cancer. PMID:21674704

  6. Anthocyanin-rich fractions from red raspberries attenuate inflammation in both RAW264.7 macrophages and a mouse model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Li, Li; Wang, Liyan; Wu, Zhiqin; Yao, Lijun; Wu, Yonghou; Huang, Lian; Liu, Kan; Zhou, Xiang; Gou, Deming

    2014-08-29

    Edible berries have a broad spectrum of biomedical functions, including improving immune responses and reducing risk for chronic diseases. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of crude extracts (CEs), anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs), and des-anthocyanin fractions (DAFs) from seven berries were evaluated based on their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/IFN-γ-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. ARFs from red raspberries (RR-ARFs) exhibited the highest efficiency in suppressing NO synthesis. The anti-inflammatory properties were also demonstrated by reducing the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the activities of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways were significantly suppressed by RR-ARFs. Further studies showed that RR-ARFs decreased the phosphorylation of IKK, IκBα, p65 and JNK and the nuclear translocation of p65 in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In a mouse colitis model, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced weight loss and histological damage were significantly ameliorated by RR-ARFs treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that RR-ARFs attenuate inflammation both in vitro and in vivo primarily by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. The anti-inflammatory of RR-ARFs could be harnessed and applied in animal agriculture, drug and food industries.

  7. Anthocyanin-rich fractions from red raspberries attenuate inflammation in both RAW264.7 macrophages and a mouse model of colitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Li; Wu, Zhiqin; Yao, Lijun; Wu, Yonghou; Huang, Lian; Liu, Kan; Zhou, Xiang; Gou, Deming

    2014-01-01

    Edible berries have a broad spectrum of biomedical functions, including improving immune responses and reducing risk for chronic diseases. In this study, the anti-inflammatory activities of crude extracts (CEs), anthocyanin-rich fractions (ARFs), and des-anthocyanin fractions (DAFs) from seven berries were evaluated based on their inhibitory effects on nitric oxide (NO) production in lipopolysaccharide (LPS)/IFN-γ-activated RAW264.7 macrophages. ARFs from red raspberries (RR-ARFs) exhibited the highest efficiency in suppressing NO synthesis. The anti-inflammatory properties were also demonstrated by reducing the expression levels of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), interleukin-1 beta (IL-1β) and IL-6 in RAW264.7 cells. The luciferase reporter assay demonstrated that the activities of NF-κB and AP-1 signaling pathways were significantly suppressed by RR-ARFs. Further studies showed that RR-ARFs decreased the phosphorylation of IKK, IκBα, p65 and JNK and the nuclear translocation of p65 in LPS/IFN-γ-stimulated RAW264.7 cells. In a mouse colitis model, dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced weight loss and histological damage were significantly ameliorated by RR-ARFs treatment. Taken together, our results indicate that RR-ARFs attenuate inflammation both in vitro and in vivo primarily by inhibiting the activation of NF-κB and MAPKs. The anti-inflammatory of RR-ARFs could be harnessed and applied in animal agriculture, drug and food industries. PMID:25167935

  8. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases.

    PubMed

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok; Kim, Kyung Sik

    2011-05-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and diverse clinical symptoms, adverse reactions, and complications due to the pathological physiology. Also, it is not easy to reproduce identically various clinical situations in animal models. Recently, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has tightened up the regulations, and therefore it is advisable to select the appropriate animals and decide upon the appropriate quantities through scientific and systemic considerations before conducting animal testing. Therefore, in this review article the authors examined various white rat animal testing models and determined the appropriate usable rat model, and the pros and cons of its application in liver disease research. The authors believe that this review will be beneficial in selecting proper laboratory animals for research purposes.

  9. Ideal Experimental Rat Models for Liver Diseases

    PubMed Central

    Lee, Sang Woo; Kim, Sung Hoon; Min, Seon Ok

    2011-01-01

    There are many limitations for conducting liver disease research in human beings due to the high cost and potential ethical issues. For this reason, conducting a study that is difficult to perform in humans using appropriate animal models, can be beneficial in ascertaining the pathological physiology, and in developing new treatment modalities. However, it is difficult to determine the appropriate animal model which is suitable for research purposes, since every patient has different and diverse clinical symptoms, adverse reactions, and complications due to the pathological physiology. Also, it is not easy to reproduce identically various clinical situations in animal models. Recently, the Guide for the Care and Use of Laboratory Animals has tightened up the regulations, and therefore it is advisable to select the appropriate animals and decide upon the appropriate quantities through scientific and systemic considerations before conducting animal testing. Therefore, in this review article the authors examined various white rat animal testing models and determined the appropriate usable rat model, and the pros and cons of its application in liver disease research. The authors believe that this review will be beneficial in selecting proper laboratory animals for research purposes. PMID:26421020

  10. Myrrh attenuates oxidative and inflammatory processes in acetic acid-induced ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Fatani, Amal Jamil; Alrojayee, Fatima Salih; Parmar, Mihir Yogeshkumar; Abuohashish, Hatem Mustafa; Ahmed, Mohammed Mahboobuddin; Al-Rejaie, Salim Salih

    2016-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC) has been associated with a weakened antioxidant capacity and increased inflammatory processes. Myrrh is traditionally used for the treatment of inflammatory diseases due to its antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. The present study aimed to evaluate the effects of myrrh on an experimental rat model of UC. UC was induced in rats using acetic acid (AA) after pre-treatment with myrrh (125, 250 or 500 mg/kg/day) or mesalazine (MES; 300 mg/kg/day) for 7 days. The levels of various inflammatory cytokines, prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rat colon tissues were assessed. In addition, the colonic levels of thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and non-protein sulfhydryl groups (NP-SH), as well as the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), were estimated. Furthermore, total protein (TP) contents and the levels of DNA and RNA were measured, and histopathological changes in colonic tissues were analyzed. The results indicated that the levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines, PGE2, NO and TBARS were markedly increased. By contrast, the levels of interleukin-10, NP-SH, TP and nucleic acids, and the enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were significantly decreased in the AA model group. In addition, pretreatment with myrrh and MES was able to attenuate the impaired oxidative stress response and upregulation of inflammatory biomarkers. Furthermore, the enzymatic activities of SOD and CAT were near to normal in the myrrh and MES pretreated groups. The ability of myrrh to protect against UC was further confirmed by histopathological analysis, and the high dose of myrrh exerted an effect comparable to MES. In conclusion, the results of the present study suggested that myrrh has potent therapeutic value in the amelioration of experimental colitis in laboratory animals by downregulating the expression of proinflammatory mediators and improving endogenous antioxidative activities. PMID

  11. MODELING VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUND PHARMACOKINETICS IN RAT PUPS

    EPA Science Inventory

    PBPK model predictions of internal dosimetry in young rats were compared to adult animals for benzene, chloroform (CHL), methylene chloride, methyl ethly ketone (MEK), perchloroethylene, and trichloroethylene.

  12. Paternal chronic colitis causes epigenetic inheritance of susceptibility to colitis

    PubMed Central

    Tschurtschenthaler, Markus; Kachroo, Priyadarshini; Heinsen, Femke-Anouska; Adolph, Timon Erik; Rühlemann, Malte Christoph; Klughammer, Johanna; Offner, Felix Albert; Ammerpohl, Ole; Krueger, Felix; Smallwood, Sébastien; Szymczak, Silke; Kaser, Arthur; Franke, Andre

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) arises by unknown environmental triggers in genetically susceptible individuals. Epigenetic regulation of gene expression may integrate internal and external influences and may thereby modulate disease susceptibility. Epigenetic modification may also affect the germ-line and in certain contexts can be inherited to offspring. This study investigates epigenetic alterations consequent to experimental murine colitis induced by dextran sodium sulphate (DSS), and their paternal transmission to offspring. Genome-wide methylome- and transcriptome-profiling of intestinal epithelial cells (IECs) and sperm cells of males of the F0 generation, which received either DSS and consequently developed colitis (F0DSS), or non-supplemented tap water (F0Ctrl) and hence remained healthy, and of their F1 offspring was performed using reduced representation bisulfite sequencing (RRBS) and RNA-sequencing (RNA-Seq), respectively. Offspring of F0DSS males exhibited aberrant methylation and expression patterns of multiple genes, including Igf1r and Nr4a2, which are involved in energy metabolism. Importantly, DSS colitis in F0DSS mice was associated with decreased body weight at baseline of their F1 offspring, and these F1 mice exhibited increased susceptibility to DSS-induced colitis compared to offspring from F0Ctrl males. This study hence demonstrates epigenetic transmissibility of metabolic and inflammatory traits resulting from experimental colitis. PMID:27538787

  13. Tumor fibroblast–derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK

    PubMed Central

    Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J.; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R.; Threadgill, David W.; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F.

    2013-01-01

    Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms. PMID:23549083

  14. Tumor fibroblast-derived epiregulin promotes growth of colitis-associated neoplasms through ERK.

    PubMed

    Neufert, Clemens; Becker, Christoph; Türeci, Özlem; Waldner, Maximilian J; Backert, Ingo; Floh, Katharina; Atreya, Imke; Leppkes, Moritz; Jefremow, Andre; Vieth, Michael; Schneider-Stock, Regine; Klinger, Patricia; Greten, Florian R; Threadgill, David W; Sahin, Ugur; Neurath, Markus F

    2013-04-01

    Molecular mechanisms specific to colitis-associated cancers have been poorly characterized. Using comparative whole-genome expression profiling, we observed differential expression of epiregulin (EREG) in mouse models of colitis-associated, but not sporadic, colorectal cancer. Similarly, EREG expression was significantly upregulated in cohorts of patients with colitis-associated cancer. Furthermore, tumor-associated fibroblasts were identified as a major source of EREG in colitis-associated neoplasms. Functional studies showed that Ereg-deficient mice, although more prone to colitis, were strongly protected from colitis-associated tumors. Serial endoscopic studies revealed that EREG promoted tumor growth rather than initiation. Additionally, we demonstrated that fibroblast-derived EREG requires ERK activation to induce proliferation of intestinal epithelial cells (IEC) and tumor development in vivo. To demonstrate the functional relevance of EREG-producing tumor-associated fibroblasts, we developed a novel system for adoptive transfer of these cells via mini-endoscopic local injection. It was found that transfer of EREG-producing, but not Ereg-deficient, fibroblasts from tumors significantly augmented growth of colitis-associated neoplasms in vivo. In conclusion, our data indicate that EREG and tumor-associated fibroblasts play a crucial role in controlling tumor growth in colitis-associated neoplasms.

  15. Immunological studies in ulcerative colitis. IV. Origin of autoantibodies.

    PubMed

    Lagercrantz, R; Hammarström, S; Perlmann, P; Gustafsson, B E

    1968-12-01

    The incidence and height of antibody titers to colon, assayed by indirect hemagglutination with a heat stable colon extract from germ free rats, is significantly higher in sera from patients with ulcerative colitis than in those from healthy controls or from patients with amebic liver abscess or dysentery. While sera from ulcerative colitis patients and controls are indistinguishable in regard to incidence and height of antibody titers to Forsman antigen, Staphylococcus aureus S 209, Clostridium difficile, and several common strains of E. coli, they have elevated titers and increased incidence of antibodies to a heat stable antigen of E. coli O14. Patients with amebic dysentery have normal titers of such antibodies. Absorption of patients' sera with E. coli O14 antigen inhibits the colon directed hemagglutination reaction in approximately 30% of the cases tested. Likewise, the anti-E. coli O14 reaction can sometimes be inhibited with the colon extract. Other E. coli strains and other bacteria are inactive or have only weak inhibitory activity. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments show that germ free rat colon and E. coli O14 contain common structures, depicted by antibodies in the patients' sera. This pattern of reactivity closely resembles that seen in rats made autoimmune to colon by injection of newborn rabbit colon. E. coli O14 is known to carry a heterogenetic antigen present in lower concentration (or activity) in most Enterobacteriaceae. Hemagglutination inhibition experiments with rabbit antisera to E. coli O14 suggest that the antigen common for E. coli O14 and colon is related to this heterogenetic antigen. The findings imply that this antigen, which is constantly present in low concentrations in the human colon, may give rise to anticolon antibody formation in ulcerative colitis through breakage of tolerance. Since this antigen is present in healthy individuals as well, additional factors are required to explain the induction of anti

  16. NLRP3 inflammasome has a protective effect against oxazolone-induced colitis: a possible role in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Itani, Shigehiro; Watanabe, Toshio; Nadatani, Yuji; Sugimura, Naoki; Shimada, Sunao; Takeda, Shogo; Otani, Koji; Hosomi, Shuhei; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-01-01

    The inflammasomes induce maturation of pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and pro-IL-18. We investigated roles of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). After induction of oxazolone-induced colitis, a mouse UC model, colonic tissues were assayed for inflammatory mediators. Histological studies were performed on inflamed colonic tissue from mice and UC patients. Histological severity of murine colitis peaked on day 1, accompanied by an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13. Oxazolone treatment stimulated maturation of pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1β, while it reduced IL-18 expression. Either exogenous IL-1β or IL-18 ameliorated the colitis with or without reduction in Th2 cytokine expression, respectively. Induction of colitis decreased MUC2 expression, which was reversed by administration of IL-18, but not IL-1β. Compared to wild-type mice, NLRP3−/− mice exhibited higher sensitivity to oxazolone treatment with enhancement of Th2 cytokine expression and reduction of mature IL-1β and IL-18 production; this phenotype was rescued by exogenous IL-1β or IL-18. Immunofluorescent studies revealed positive correlation of NLRP3 expression with disease severity in UC patients, and localization of the inflammasome-associated molecules in macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β and IL-18 may play a protective role against UC through different mechanisms. PMID:27966619

  17. NLRP3 inflammasome has a protective effect against oxazolone-induced colitis: a possible role in ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Itani, Shigehiro; Watanabe, Toshio; Nadatani, Yuji; Sugimura, Naoki; Shimada, Sunao; Takeda, Shogo; Otani, Koji; Hosomi, Shuhei; Nagami, Yasuaki; Tanaka, Fumio; Kamata, Noriko; Yamagami, Hirokazu; Tanigawa, Tetsuya; Shiba, Masatsugu; Tominaga, Kazunari; Fujiwara, Yasuhiro; Arakawa, Tetsuo

    2016-12-14

    The inflammasomes induce maturation of pro-interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and pro-IL-18. We investigated roles of the NLRP3 inflammasome in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis (UC). After induction of oxazolone-induced colitis, a mouse UC model, colonic tissues were assayed for inflammatory mediators. Histological studies were performed on inflamed colonic tissue from mice and UC patients. Histological severity of murine colitis peaked on day 1, accompanied by an increase in the expression of Th2 cytokines including IL-4 and IL-13. Oxazolone treatment stimulated maturation of pro-caspase-1 and pro-IL-1β, while it reduced IL-18 expression. Either exogenous IL-1β or IL-18 ameliorated the colitis with or without reduction in Th2 cytokine expression, respectively. Induction of colitis decreased MUC2 expression, which was reversed by administration of IL-18, but not IL-1β. Compared to wild-type mice, NLRP3(-/-) mice exhibited higher sensitivity to oxazolone treatment with enhancement of Th2 cytokine expression and reduction of mature IL-1β and IL-18 production; this phenotype was rescued by exogenous IL-1β or IL-18. Immunofluorescent studies revealed positive correlation of NLRP3 expression with disease severity in UC patients, and localization of the inflammasome-associated molecules in macrophages. The NLRP3 inflammasome-derived IL-1β and IL-18 may play a protective role against UC through different mechanisms.

  18. Etanercept attenuates TNBS-induced experimental colitis: role of TNF-α expression.

    PubMed

    Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Miszputen, Sender Jankiel; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Franco, Marcello

    2011-10-01

    Crohn's disease (CD) is associated with gut barrier dysfunction. Tumour necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) plays an important role into the pathogenesis of several inflammatory diseases because its expression is increased in inflamed mucosa of CD patients. Anti-TNF therapy improves significantly mucosal inflammation. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the effect of Etanercept (ETC), a tumour necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) antagonist on the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced experimental colitis. A total of 18 Wistar rats were randomized into four groups, as follows: (1) Sham: sham induced-colitis; (2) TNBS: non-treated induced-colitis; (3) ETC control; (4) ETC-treated induced-colitis. Rats from group 4 presented significant improvement either of macroscopic or of histopathological damage in the distal colon. The gene expression of TNF-α mRNA, decreased significantly in this group compared to the TNBS non-treated group. The treatment with etanercept attenuated the colonic damages and reduced the inflammation caused by TNBS. Taken together, our results suggest that ETC attenuates intestinal colitis induced by TNBS in Wistar rats by TNF-α downregulation.

  19. Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa Extract Attenuates DSS-Induced Murine Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jang, Jong-Chan; Lee, Kang Min

    2016-01-01

    We examined the protective effects of Angelica acutiloba Kitagawa (AAK) extract on a murine model of acute experimental colitis. Colitis was induced by 4% dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) in the drinking water of male C57BL/6 mice, for 7 consecutive days. Oral administration of AAK extract (500 mg/kg/day) significantly alleviated DSS-induced symptoms such as anorexia, weight loss, events of diarrhea or bloody stools, and colon shortening. Histological damage was also ameliorated, as evidenced by the architectural preservation and suppression of inflammatory cell infiltration in colonic samples. Treatment improved the colonic mRNA expression of different inflammatory markers: cytokines, inducible enzymes, matrix metalloproteinases, and tight junction-related proteins. In the isolated serum, IgE levels were downregulated. Collectively, these findings indicate the therapeutic potentials of AAK as an effective complementary or alternative modality for the treatment of ulcerative colitis. PMID:27293323

  20. The emerging role for rat models in gene discovery

    PubMed Central

    Dwinell, Melinda R.; Lazar, Jozef; Geurts, Aron M.

    2011-01-01

    Rat models have been used for many decades to study physiological and pathophysiological mechanisms. Prior to the release of the rat genome and new technologies for targeting gene manipulation, the rat had been the underdog in the genomics era, despite the abundance of physiological data compared to the mouse. The overarching goal of biomedical research is to improve health and advance medical science. Translating human disease gene discovery and validation in the rat, through the use of emerging technologies and integrated tools and databases, is providing power to understand the genetics, environmental influences, and biology of disease. In this review, we will briefly outline the rat models, bioinformatic tools, and technologies that are changing the landscape of translational research. The strategies used to translate disease traits to genes to function, and ultimately, to improve human health will be discussed. Finally, our perspectives on how rat models will continue to positively impact biomedical research will be provided. PMID:21732192

  1. Immune-protective effect of echinococcosis on colitis experimental model is dependent of down regulation of TNF-α and NO production.

    PubMed

    Khelifi, Lila; Soufli, Imene; Labsi, Moussa; Touil-Boukoffa, Chafia

    2017-02-01

    Hydatid disease (echinococcosis) is a chronic, endemic helminthic disease caused by the larval stage of the tapeworm, Echinococcus granulosus. This disease is endemic in many parts of the world, such as the Mediterranean area, and in particular in Algeria. Helminth parasites have developed complex strategies to modulate the immune responses of their hosts through versatile immune-regulatory mechanisms. These mechanisms may regulate immune responses associated with inflammatory diseases such as inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD). the goal of this study was to investigate the effect of Echinococcus granulosus infection on the development of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. Our results demonstrated that E. granulosus infection significantly improved the clinical symptoms and histological scores observed during DSS-induced colitis, and also maintained mucus production by goblet cells. Interestingly, this infection reduced Nitric oxide (NO) and tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α) production and attenuated inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) expression in colonic tissues. Collectively, our data support the hygiene hypothesis and indicate that prior infection with E. granulosus can effectively protect mice from DSS-induced colitis by enhancing immune-regulatory mechanisms.

  2. Chemically Defined Diet Alters the Protective Properties of Fructo-Oligosaccharides and Isomalto-Oligosaccharides in HLA-B27 Transgenic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Valcheva, Rosica; Gänzle, Michael G.; Dieleman, Levinus A.

    2014-01-01

    Non-digestible oligosaccharides (NDO) were shown to reduce inflammation in experimental colitis, but it remains unclear whether microbiota changes mediate their colitis-modulating effects. This study assessed intestinal microbiota and intestinal inflammation after feeding chemically defined AIN-76A or rat chow diets, with or without supplementation with 8 g/kg body weight of fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS) or isomalto-oligosaccharides (IMO). The study used HLA-B27 transgenic rats, a validated model of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), in a factorial design with 6 treatment groups. Intestinal inflammation and intestinal microbiota were analysed after 12 weeks of treatment. FOS and IMO reduced colitis in animals fed rat chow, but exhibited no anti-inflammatory effect when added to AIN-76A diets. Both NDO induced specific but divergent microbiota changes. Bifidobacteria and Enterobacteriaceae were stimulated by FOS, whereas copy numbers of Clostridium cluster IV were decreased. In addition, higher concentrations of total short-chain fatty acids (SCFA) were observed in cecal contents of rats on rat chow compared to the chemically defined diet. AIN-76A increased the relative proportions of propionate, iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate irrespective of the oligosaccharide treatment. The SCFA composition, particularly the relative concentration of iso-butyrate, valerate and iso-valerate, was associated (P≤0.004 and r≥0.4) with increased colitis and IL-1 β concentration of the cecal mucosa. This study demonstrated that the protective effects of fibres on colitis development depend on the diet. Although diets modified specific cecal microbiota, our study indicates that these changes were not associated with colitis reduction. Intestinal inflammation was positively correlated to protein fermentation and negatively correlated with carbohydrate fermentation in the large intestine. PMID:25369019

  3. Psychopharmacology of male rat sexual behavior: modeling human sexual dysfunctions?

    PubMed

    Olivier, B; Chan, J S W; Pattij, T; de Jong, T R; Oosting, R S; Veening, J G; Waldinger, M D

    2006-01-01

    Most of our current understanding of the neurobiology, neuroanatomy and psychopharmacology of sexual behavior and ejaculatory function has been derived from preclinical studies in the rat. When a large population of male rats is tested on sexual activity during a number of successive tests, over time individual rats display a very stable sexual behavior that is either slow, normal or fast as characterized by the number of ejaculations performed. These sexual endophenotypes are postulated as rat counterparts of premature (fast rats) or retarded ejaculation (slow rats). Psychopharmacology in these endophenotypes helps to delineate the underlying mechanisms and pathology. This is illustrated by the effects of serotonergic antidepressants and serotonergic compounds on sexual and ejaculatory behavior of rats. These preclinical studies and models contribute to a better understanding of the neurobiology of ejaculation and boost the development of novel drug targets to treat ejaculatory disorders such as premature and retarded ejaculation.

  4. Dietary intervention with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulins protects barrier function in a mouse model of colitis.

    PubMed

    Pérez-Bosque, Anna; Miró, Lluïsa; Maijó, Mònica; Polo, Javier; Campbell, Joy; Russell, Louis; Crenshaw, Joe; Weaver, Eric; Moretó, Miquel

    2015-06-15

    Dietary supplementation with immunoglobulins from animal plasma has anti-inflammatory effects on intestinal and lung models of acute inflammation. Here, we aimed to establish whether dietary intervention with serum-derived bovine immunoglobulin (SBI) can prevent alterations in intestinal barrier function in a mouse model with a genetic predisposition to inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). Wild-type (WT) mice and mice lacking the mdr1a gene (KO) were fed diets supplemented with either SBI (2% wt/wt) or milk proteins (control diet), from day 21 (weaning) until day 56. The epithelial permeability of distal colon crypts was measured by confocal microscopy using a fluorescent marker. The expression of junctional epithelial E-cadherin and β-catenin proteins were determined by Western blot and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) by immunofluorescence. Mucins (MUC1, MUC2, MUC4), TFF3, cytokines (TNF-α, IFN-γ), and inducible nitric oxide synthase RNA expression were quantified by real-time PCR. SBI blocked the increase in colon crypt permeability and partially prevented the reduction in E-cadherin and ZO-1 expression that characterize the KO mouse model (both P < 0.05). SBI inclusion also reduced the mucosal expression of the inflammatory markers TNF-α, IFN-γ, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (all P < 0.005). The number of goblet cells in the colon of KO mice was low and correlated well with MUC2 and TFF3 expression (P < 0.001), whereas dietary supplementation with SBI attenuated these effects (all P < 0.05). In short, dietary SBI ameliorated colonic barrier alterations and reduced the expression of mucosal inflammatory markers in a genetic model of IBD.

  5. Glutamine treatment attenuates endoplasmic reticulum stress and apoptosis in TNBS-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Crespo, Irene; San-Miguel, Beatriz; Prause, Carolina; Marroni, Norma; Cuevas, María J; González-Gallego, Javier; Tuñón, María J

    2012-01-01

    Endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress and apoptotic cell death play an important role in the pathogenesis and perpetuation of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). We aimed to explore the potential of glutamine to reduce ER stress and apoptosis in a rat model of experimental IBD. Colitis was induced in male Wistar rats by intracolonic administration of 30 mg of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS). Glutamine (25 mg/dL) was given by rectal route daily for 2 d or 7 d. Both oxidative stress (TBARS concentration and oxidised/reduced glutathione ratio) and ER stress markers (CHOP, BiP, calpain-1 and caspase-12 expression) increased significantly within 48 h of TNBS instillation, and glutamine attenuated the extent of the changes. Glutamine also inhibited the significant increases of ATF6, ATF4 and spliced XBP-1 mRNA levels induced by TNBS instillation. TNBS-colitis resulted in a significant increase in p53 and cytochrome c expression, and a reduced Bcl-xL expression and Bax/Bcl-2 ratio. These effects were significantly inhibited by glutamine. Treatment with the amino acid also resulted in significant decreases of caspase-9, caspase-8 and caspase-3 activities. Double immunofluorescence staining showed co-localization of CHOP and cleaved caspase-3 in colon sections. Phospho-JNK and PARP-1 expression was also significantly higher in TNBS-treated rats, and treatment with glutamine significantly decreased JNK phosphorylation and PARP-1 proteolysis. To directly address the effect of glutamine on ER stress and apoptosis in epithelial cells, the ER stress inducers brefeldin A and tunicamycin were added to Caco-2 cells that were treated with glutamine (5 mM and 10 mM). The significant enhancement in PERK, ATF6 phosphorylated IRE1, BiP and cleaved caspase-3 expression induced by brefeldin A and tunicamycin was partly prevented by glutamine. Data obtained indicated that modulation of ER stress signalling and anti-apoptotic effects contribute to protection by glutamine against damage

  6. ENU mutagenesis to generate genetically modified rat models.

    PubMed

    van Boxtel, Ruben; Gould, Michael N; Cuppen, Edwin; Smits, Bart M G

    2010-01-01

    The rat is one of the most preferred model organisms in biomedical research and has been extremely useful for linking physiology and pathology to the genome. However, approaches to genetically modify specific genes in the rat germ line remain relatively scarce. To date, the most efficient approach for generating genetically modified rats has been the target-selected N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea (ENU) mutagenesis-based technology. Here, we describe the detailed protocols for ENU mutagenesis and mutant retrieval in the rat model organism.

  7. Use of a Novel Genetic Mouse Model to Investigate the Role of Folate in Colitis-Associated Colon Cancer

    PubMed Central

    Chapkin, Robert S.; Kamen, Barton A.; Callaway, Evelyn S.; Davidson, Laurie A.; George, Nysia I.; Wang, Naisyin; Lupton, Joanne R.; Finnell, Richard H.

    2009-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at high risk for developing folate deficiency and colon cancer. Since it is difficult to study the subtle global and gene-specific epigenetic mechanisms involved in folate-mediated tumor initiation and promotion, we have generated genetically modified mouse models by targeting the reduced folate carrier (RFC1) and folate binding protein (Folbp1) genes. The transgenic mice were fed semi-purified diets for 8 wk containing either normal (2 mg) or deficient (0.1 mg folate/kg diet) levels of folate. Compound heterozygous mice (Folbp1+/−RFC1+/−) mice fed an adequate folate diet exhibited a reduction in plasma folate concentrations compared to heterozygous (Folbp1+/−) and littermate wild-type mice (p<0.05). In contrast, no differences were observed in colonic mucosa. Consumption of a low folate diet significantly reduced (3–4 fold) plasma and tissue folate levels in all animal models, although plasma homocysteine levels were not altered. In order to elucidate the relationship between folate status and inflammation-associated colon cancer, animals were injected with azoxymethane followed by dextran sodium sulphate treatment in the drinking water. Mice were fed a normal folate diet and were terminated 5 wks after carcinogen injection. The number of high multiplicity aberrant crypt foci per cm of colon was significantly elevated (p<0.05) in compound Folbp1+/− RFC1+/− (3.5±0.4) mice as compared to Folbp1+/− (1.9±0.3) and wild-type control mice (1.1±0.1). These data demonstrate that the ablation of two receptor/carrier-mediated pathways for folate transport increases the risk for developing inflammation-associated colon cancer. PMID:18926688

  8. Use of a novel genetic mouse model to investigate the role of folate in colitis-associated colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Chapkin, Robert S; Kamen, Barton A; Callaway, Evelyn S; Davidson, Laurie A; George, Nysia I; Wang, Naisyin; Lupton, Joanne R; Finnell, Richard H

    2009-08-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) patients are at high risk for developing folate deficiency and colon cancer. Since it is difficult to study the subtle global and gene-specific epigenetic mechanisms involved in folate-mediated tumor initiation and promotion, we have generated genetically modified mouse models by targeting the reduced folate carrier (RFC1) and folate-binding protein (Folbp1) genes. The transgenic mice were fed semi-purified diets for 8 weeks containing either normal (2 mg) or deficient (0.1 mg folate/kg diet) levels of folate. Compound heterozygous mice (Folbp1(+/-); RFC1(+/-)) fed an adequate folate diet exhibited a reduction in plasma folate concentrations compared to heterozygous (Folbp1(+/-)) and littermate wild-type mice (P<.05). In contrast, no differences were observed in colonic mucosa. Consumption of a low folate diet significantly reduced (three- to fourfold) plasma and tissue folate levels in all animal models, although plasma homocysteine levels were not altered. In order to elucidate the relationship between folate status and inflammation-associated colon cancer, animals were injected with azoxymethane followed by dextran sodium sulphate treatment in the drinking water. Mice were fed a normal folate diet and were terminated 5 weeks after carcinogen injection. The number of high multiplicity aberrant crypt foci per centimeter of colon was significantly elevated (P<.05) in compound Folbp1(+/-); RFC1(+/-) (3.5+/-0.4) mice as compared to Folbp1(+/-) (1.9+/-0.3) and wild-type control mice (1.1+/-0.1). These data demonstrate that the ablation of two receptor/carrier-mediated pathways for folate transport increases the risk for developing inflammation-associated colon cancer.

  9. Variation in rat sciatic nerve anatomy: implications for a rat model of neuropathic pain.

    PubMed

    Asato, F; Butler, M; Blomberg, H; Gordh, T

    2000-03-01

    We discovered a variation of rat sciatic nerve anatomy as an incidental finding during the anatomical exploration of the nerve lesion site in a rat neuropathic pain model. To confirm the composition and distribution of rat sciatic nerve, macroscopic anatomical investigation was performed in both left and right sides in 24 adult Sprague-Dawley rats. In all rats, the L4 and L5 spinal nerves were fused tightly to form the sciatic nerve. However, the L6 spinal nerve did not fuse with this nerve completely as a part of the sciatic nerve, but rather sent a thin branch to it in 13 rats (54%), whereas in the remaining 11 rats (46%), L6 ran separately along with the sciatic nerve. Also, the L3 spinal nerve sent a thin branch to the L4 spinal nerve or sciatic nerve in 6 rats (25%). We conclude that the components of sciatic nerve in Sprague-Dawley rats vary from L3 to L6; however, the major components are L4 and L5 macroscopically. This finding is in contrast to the standard textbooks of rat anatomy which describe the sciatic nerve as having major contributions from L4, L5, and L6.

  10. Substance P modulates colitis-associated fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Koon, Hon Wai; Shih, David; Karagiannides, Iordanes; Zhao, Dezheng; Fazelbhoy, Zafeer; Hing, Tressia; Xu, Hua; Lu, Bao; Gerard, Norma; Pothoulakis, Charalabos

    2010-11-01

    Substance P (SP) and the neurokinin-1 receptor (NK-1R) are involved in the development of colitis and mucosal healing after colonic inflammation. We studied whether SP modulates colonic fibrosis by using a chronic model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis in wild-type (WT) and NK-1R-deficient (NK-1R KD) mice. We found increased mRNA expression levels of collagen, vimentin, and the fibrogenic factors transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1 in the chronically inflamed colons of WT mice treated with repeated intracolonic TNBS administrations. Fibrosis in TNBS-treated mice was also evident immunohistochemically by collagen deposition in the colon. Treatment of TNBS-exposed WT mice with the NK-1R antagonist CJ-12255 reduced colonic inflammation, colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of the fibrogenic factors. NK-1R knockout mice chronically exposed to TNBS had similar colonic inflammation compared with WT, but reduced colonic fibrosis, fibroblast accumulation, and expression levels of fibrogenic factors. Immunohistochemical staining also showed co-localization of NK-1R with fibroblasts in inflamed colons of mice and in colonic mucosa of patients with Crohn's disease. Exposure of human colonic CCD-18Co fibroblasts to SP (10 nmol/L) increased cell migration. SP stimulated collagen synthesis in CCD-18Co fibroblasts in the presence of transforming growth factor β1 and insulin-like growth factor 1, and this effect was reduced by Akt inhibition. Thus, SP, via NK-1R, promotes intestinal fibrogenesis after chronic colitis by stimulating fibrotic responses in fibroblasts.

  11. Interleukin-19 contributes as a protective factor in experimental Th2-mediated colitis.

    PubMed

    Fujimoto, Yasuyuki; Azuma, Yasu-Taka; Matsuo, Yukiko; Kuwamura, Mitsuru; Kuramoto, Nobuyuki; Miki, Mariko; Azuma, Naoki; Teramoto, Midori; Nishiyama, Kazuhiro; Izawa, Takeshi; Nakajima, Hidemitsu; Takeuchi, Tadayoshi

    2017-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease results from chronic dysregulation of the mucosal immune system and aberrant activation of both the innate and adaptive immune responses. IL-19 is a member of the IL-10 family, and IL-10 plays an important role in inflammatory bowel disease. We have previously shown that IL-19 knockout mice are more susceptible to innate-mediated colitis. Next, we ask whether IL-19 contributes to T cells-mediated colitis. Here, we investigated the role of IL-19 in a mouse model of Th2 cell-mediated colitis. Inflammatory responses in IL-19-deficient mice were assessed using a Th2-mediated colitis induced by oxazolone. The colitis was evaluated by analyzing the body weight loss and histology of the colon. Lymph node cells were cultured in vitro to determine cytokine production. IL-19 knockout mice exacerbated oxazolone-induced colitis by stimulating the transport of inflammatory cells into the colon, and by increasing IgE production and the number of circulating eosinophil. The exacerbation of oxazolone-induced colonic inflammation following IL-19 knockout mice was accompanied by an increased production of IL-4 and IL-9, but no changes in the expression of IL-5 and IL-13 in lymph node cells. IL-19 plays an anti-inflammatory role in the Th2-mediated colitis model, suggesting that IL-19 may represent a potential therapeutic target for reducing colonic inflammation.

  12. Distraction of skeletal muscle: evolution of a rat model.

    PubMed

    Green, Stuart A; Horton, Eric; Baker, Michael; Utkan, Ali; Caiozzo, Vincent

    2002-10-01

    To better study the effects of limb lengthening on skeletal muscle, the authors developed a rat model that uses a miniature external skeletal fixator applied to the tibia of an adult Sprague-Dawley rat. The mounting and lengthening protocols follow the principles developed by Ilizarov. With the initial version of the fixator, the rats had progressive equinus contractures develop because the calf muscles resisted elongation. By incorporating a footplate in the distraction apparatus, tibial lengthening can be achieved without concomitant equinus.

  13. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice.

    PubMed

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P<0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P<0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P<0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression.

  14. Somatostatin regulates tight junction proteins expression in colitis mice

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xiao; Wang, Qian; Xu, Hua; Tao, Liping; Lu, Jing; Cai, Lin; Wang, Chunhui

    2014-01-01

    Tight junction plays a critical role in intestinal defence. The alteration and perturbation of tight junction proteins could induce intestine barrier damage, and lead to the malabsorption of electrolytes and water. Previous studies had showed that colonic infection and inflammation could lead to the alteration of tight junction function, and somatostatin could protect intestinal epithelia. Thus, this study could explore that whether somatostatin could regulate tight junction in colitis mice. Colitis mice with diarrhea were induced by Citrobacter rodentium (CR) and Dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). In CR infected model, cladudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); after octreotide treatment, claudin-1 and claudin-3 expression significantly increased compared with untreated CR infected mice (P < 0.05). In DSS colitis model, occludin and claudin-3 expression significantly decreased compared with the control mice (P < 0.05); and octreotide treatment could only significantly upregulate claudin-3 expression compared with untreated DSS colitis mice (P < 0.05). To testify our results in vivo, we repeated the models in caco-2 cells by exposed with enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (E. Coli) and Tumor necrosis factor α (TNF-α). The results in vitro were consistent with in vivo study. The results suggested that somatostatin play a role in intestinal barrier protection by modulating tight junction proteins expression. PMID:24966923

  15. Incidence and prevalence of ulcerative colitis in Punjab, North India

    PubMed Central

    Sood, A; Midha, V; Sood, N; Bhatia, A S; Avasthi, G

    2003-01-01

    Introduction: Ulcerative colitis occurs worldwide. It is considered common in most of Europe and North America and uncommon in most of the developing Asian countries. The incidence/prevalence of ulcerative colitis varies not only according to geographical region but also with race and ethnicity. There are no reported data from India on the incidence of the disease and its prevalence. Material and methods: A house to house survey was conducted by questionnaire, formulated to enquire about symptoms that are suggestive of ulcerative colitis. Those with prolonged diarrhoea with or without rectal bleeding were considered as suspected cases. These suspected cases were subjected to video sigmoidoscopy/colonoscopy and rectal biopsy. In addition, patients already diagnosed and receiving treatment for ulcerative colitis, encountered during the survey, were reviewed. Resurvey of the same areas was conducted after a one year interval to detect new cases. Using direct methods, standardised rates were calculated using world standard population weights 22, 18, 16, 12, 12, 9, 7, 3, and 1 for each 10 year age group. Standardised rates were also obtained separately for males, females, and combined populations, using the Punjab state 1991 population census data. Rates were also estimated according to UK 2000 population data. Ninety five per cent confidence intervals (95% CI) of prevalence and incidence rates of ulcerative colitis were estimated under the assumption that the distribution of cases followed a Poisson probability model. Results: A total population of 51 910 were screened from January to March 1999. We identified 147 suspected cases and of these 23 were finally established as ulcerative colitis cases, giving a crude prevalence rate of 44.3 per 100 000 inhabitants (95% CI 29.4–66.6). A second visit to the same areas after one year identified 10 suspected cases in a population of 49 834. Of these, three were confirmed as “definite” ulcerative colitis giving a crude

  16. Colitis in chronic granulomatous disease

    PubMed Central

    Schappi, M; Smith, V; Goldblatt, D; Lindley, K; Milla, P

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Involvement of the gut in chronic granulomatous disease (CGD) has been previously described and colitis highlighted. However, the nature and histopathology of the colitis are unclear and have been thought to be non-specific or similar to Crohn's disease.
METHODS—Seven patients with CGD, suffering from gastrointestinal symptoms were prospectively studied.
RESULTS—All patients had anaemia; other symptoms were failure to thrive (5/7) and diarrhoea (5/7). Most had microcytic anaemia (5/7), increased platelets (7/7), and increased erythrocyte sedimentation rate (6/6). Endoscopically there was a friable erythematous mucosa in 6/7. The histological features present in all patients consisted of a colitis with paucity of neutrophils, increased numbers of eosinophils, eosinophilic crypt abscesses, pigmented macrophages, and nuclear debris. In some granulomas were present (2/7).
CONCLUSIONS—Colitis is a common cause of gastrointestinal symptoms in CGD and is caused by a non-infective inflammatory process. The histology has specific features, which are distinctive from those seen in Crohn's disease.

 PMID:11159292

  17. Haemorrhagic Colitis Caused by Dasatinib

    PubMed Central

    Patodi, Nishant; Sagar, Nidhi; Rudzki, Zbigniew; Langman, Gerald; Sharma, Naveen

    2012-01-01

    Gastrointestinal bleeding appears to be a common adverse event associated with dasatinib therapy. Here we present a case of a 59-year-old man with chronic myeloid leukaemia (CML) developing the rarest complication of haemorrhagic colitis with dasatinib therapy which resolved rapidly after treatment withdrawal. PMID:23316400

  18. Behavioral Treatment of Mucous Colitis

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Youell, Katherine J.; McCullough, James P.

    1975-01-01

    A 22-year-old female graduate student who suffered colitis attacks at the onset of therapy was apparently successfully treated by a procedure in which the therapist labeled antecedent stress events that appeared to be precipitating the attacks. The client was then taught a behavioral coping strategy to counter the stress events. (Author)

  19. [Ulcerative colitis and cytomegalovirus infection].

    PubMed

    Tárraga Rodríguez, I; Ferreras Fernández, P; Vicente Gutiérrez, M; de Arriba, J J; García Mouriño, M L

    2003-02-01

    Colitis ulcerous and citomegalovirus infection association have been reported in medical literature in sometimes, althougth this prevalence have lately increased. We report a case record of this association and do a review of this subject. It is not clear what factors are involved in this association, being necessary hore studies to know them.

  20. Heligmosomoides polygyrus bakeri infection activates colonic FoxP3+ T cells enhancing their capacity to prevent colitis

    Technology Transfer Automated Retrieval System (TEKTRAN)

    Helminthic infections protect mice from colitis in murine models of inflammatory bowel disease and also may protect people. Helminths like Heligmosomoides bakeri (Hpb) can induce Tregs. Experiments explored if Hpb infection could protect mice from colitis through activation of colonic Treg and exam...

  1. A Rat Excised Larynx Model of Vocal Fold Scar

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Welham, Nathan V.; Montequin, Douglas W.; Tateya, Ichiro; Tateya, Tomoko; Choi, Seong Hee; Bless, Diane M.

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: To develop and evaluate a rat excised larynx model for the measurement of acoustic, aerodynamic, and vocal fold vibratory changes resulting from vocal fold scar. Method: Twenty-four 4-month-old male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 1 of 4 experimental groups: chronic vocal fold scar, chronic vocal fold scar treated with 100-ng basic…

  2. Therapeutic treatment with a novel hypoxia-inducible factor hydroxylase inhibitor (TRC160334) ameliorates murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Gupta, Ram; Chaudhary, Anita R; Shah, Binita N; Jadhav, Avinash V; Zambad, Shitalkumar P; Gupta, Ramesh Chandra; Deshpande, Shailesh; Chauthaiwale, Vijay; Dutt, Chaitanya

    2014-01-01

    Background and aim Mucosal healing in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) can be achieved by improvement of intestinal barrier protection. Activation of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) has been identified as a critical factor for barrier protection during mucosal insult and is linked with improvement in symptoms of colitis. Although prophylactic efficacy of HIF hydroxylase inhibitors in murine colitis have been established, its therapeutic efficacy in clinically relevant therapeutic settings have not been established. In the present study we aim to establish therapeutic efficacy of TRC160334, a novel HIF hydroxylase inhibitor, in animal models of colitis. Methods The efficacy of TRC160334 was evaluated in two different mouse models of colitis by oral route. A prophylactic efficacy study was performed in a 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-induced mouse model of colitis representing human Crohn’s disease pathology. Additionally, a therapeutic efficacy study was performed in a dextran sulfate sodium-induced mouse model of colitis, a model simulating human ulcerative colitis. Results TRC160334 treatment resulted in significant improvement in disease end points in both models of colitis. TRC160334 treatment resulted into cytoprotective heatshock protein 70 induction in inflamed colon. TRC160334 successfully attenuated the rate of fall in body weight, disease activity index, and macroscopic and microscopic scores of colonic damage leading to overall improvement in study outcome. Conclusion Our findings are the first to demonstrate that therapeutic intervention with a HIF hydroxylase inhibitor ameliorates IBD in disease models. These findings highlight the potential of TRC160334 for its clinical application in the treatment of IBD. PMID:24493931

  3. Generation of TALEN-mediated FH knockout rat model.

    PubMed

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Zhirui; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Long; Xu, Benling; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Hongquan; Ji, Zhenyu; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Nesland, Jahn M; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-09-20

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are valuable tools for precise genome engineering of laboratory animals. Here we utilized this technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a fumarate hydratase (FH) gene knockout rat model, in which there was an 11 base-pair deletion in the first exon of the FH gene in 111 rats. 18 live-born targeted mutation offsprings were produced from 80 injected zygotes with 22.5% efficiency, indicating high TALEN knockout success in rat zygots. Only heterozygous deletion was observed in the offsprings. Sixteen pairs of heterozygous FH knockout (FH+/-) rats were arranged for mating experiments for six months without any homozygous KO rat identified. Sequencing from the pregnant rats embryo samples showed no homozygous FH KO, indicating that homozygous FH KO is embryonically lethal. Comparatively, the litter size was decreased in both male and female FH+/- KO rats. There was no behaviour difference between the FH+/- KO and the control rats except that the FH+/- KO male rats showed significantly higher body weight in the 16-week observation period. Clinical haematology and biochemical examinations showed hematopoietic and kidney dysfunction in the FH+/- KO rats. Small foci of anaplastic lesions of tubular epithelial cells around glomeruli were identified in the FH+/- kidney, and these anaplastic cells were comparatively positive for Ki67, p53 and Sox9, and such findings are most probably related to the kidney dysfunction reflected by the biochemical examinations of the rats. In conclusion, we have successfully established an FH+/- KO rat model, which will be useful for further functional FH studies.

  4. Generation of TALEN-mediated FH knockout rat model

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Dandan; Zhong, Yali; Li, Xiaoran; Li, Yaqing; Li, Xiaoli; Cao, Jing; Fan, Zhirui; Fan, Huijie; Yuan, Long; Xu, Benling; Yuan, Yuan; Zhang, Hongquan; Ji, Zhenyu; Wen, Jian-Guo; Zhang, Mingzhi; Nesland, Jahn M.; Suo, Zhenhe

    2016-01-01

    Transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs) are valuable tools for precise genome engineering of laboratory animals. Here we utilized this technique for efficient site-specific gene modification to create a fumarate hydratase (FH) gene knockout rat model, in which there was an 11 base-pair deletion in the first exon of the FH gene in 111 rats. 18 live-born targeted mutation offsprings were produced from 80 injected zygotes with 22.5% efficiency, indicating high TALEN knockout success in rat zygots. Only heterozygous deletion was observed in the offsprings. Sixteen pairs of heterozygous FH knockout (FH+/−) rats were arranged for mating experiments for six months without any homozygous KO rat identified. Sequencing from the pregnant rats embryo samples showed no homozygous FH KO, indicating that homozygous FH KO is embryonically lethal. Comparatively, the litter size was decreased in both male and female FH+/− KO rats. There was no behaviour difference between the FH+/− KO and the control rats except that the FH+/− KO male rats showed significantly higher body weight in the 16-week observation period. Clinical haematology and biochemical examinations showed hematopoietic and kidney dysfunction in the FH+/− KO rats. Small foci of anaplastic lesions of tubular epithelial cells around glomeruli were identified in the FH+/− kidney, and these anaplastic cells were comparatively positive for Ki67, p53 and Sox9, and such findings are most probably related to the kidney dysfunction reflected by the biochemical examinations of the rats. In conclusion, we have successfully established an FH+/− KO rat model, which will be useful for further functional FH studies. PMID:27556703

  5. Orally Administered Enoxaparin Ameliorates Acute Colitis by Reducing Macrophage-Associated Inflammatory Responses

    PubMed Central

    Lean, Qi Ying; Eri, Rajaraman D.; Randall-Demllo, Sarron; Sohal, Sukhwinder Singh; Stewart, Niall; Peterson, Gregory M.; Gueven, Nuri; Patel, Rahul P.

    2015-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel diseases, such as ulcerative colitis, cause significant morbidity and decreased quality of life. The currently available treatments are not effective in all patients, can be expensive and have potential to cause severe side effects. This prompts the need for new treatment modalities. Enoxaparin, a widely used antithrombotic agent, is reported to possess anti-inflammatory properties and therefore we evaluated its therapeutic potential in a mouse model of colitis. Acute colitis was induced in male C57BL/6 mice by administration of dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Mice were treated once daily with enoxaparin via oral or intraperitoneal administration and monitored for colitis activities. On termination (day 8), colons were collected for macroscopic evaluation and cytokine measurement, and processed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Oral but not intraperitoneal administration of enoxaparin significantly ameliorated DSS-induced colitis. Oral enoxaparin-treated mice retained their body weight and displayed less diarrhea and fecal blood loss compared to the untreated colitis group. Colon weight in enoxaparin-treated mice was significantly lower, indicating reduced inflammation and edema. Histological examination of untreated colitis mice showed a massive loss of crypt architecture and goblet cells, infiltration of immune cells and the presence of edema, while all aspects of this pathology were alleviated by oral enoxaparin. Reduced number of macrophages in the colon of oral enoxaparin-treated mice was accompanied by decreased levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines. Oral enoxaparin significantly reduces the inflammatory pathology associated with DSS-induced colitis in mice and could therefore represent a novel therapeutic option for the management of ulcerative colitis. PMID:26218284

  6. β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis.

    PubMed

    Mogilevski, Tamara; Nickless, David; Hume, Sam

    2015-06-23

    A 42-year-old man with a history of childhood asthma presented with a 2-week history of watery diarrhoea and marked peripheral eosinophilia in the setting of recent use of cephalexin. His colonoscopy revealed patchy colitis. Biopsies were consistent with eosinophilic colitis. Two months later he received a course of amoxicillin resulting in recurrence of peripheral eosinophilia. Given the time-frame of β-lactam administration to symptom onset and elimination of all other precipitating causes, he was diagnosed with β-lactam-associated eosinophilic colitis. The patient's symptoms resolved and peripheral eosinophil count decreased with no specific treatment. Eosinophilic colitis is a rare heterogeneous condition, the pathogenesis of which is likely to be an interplay between environmental and genetic factors. It can be secondary to a helminthic infection or a drug reaction and has been associated with ulcerative colitis. If secondary causes of eosinophilic colitis have been excluded, the mainstay of treatment is with corticosteroids.

  7. Clear cell colitis: A form of microscopic colitis in children

    PubMed Central

    Józefczuk, Jan; Wozniewicz, Bogdan Marian

    2008-01-01

    AIM: To describe a new clinical and pathological subtype of microscopic colitis in children. METHODS: A selected group of children with abdominal pain, constipation and/or diarrhoea showing discrete or no macroscopic abnormalities on endoscopy was described. RESULTS: Multiple biopsies of colon showed large mononuclear clear cells in lamina propria of mucous membrane provided that good quality histological sections were performed and observed under a higher magnification. Otherwise, they could be misinterpreted as artefacts. Their presence in routine histology might suggest a systemic storage disease (Whipple’s disease), and neuronal intestine dysplasia. Using immunohistochemical staining and electron microscopy we confirmed their origin from CD68 positive mononuclear macrophages. CONCLUSION: The presence of large clear cells is a constant microscopic feature. Failure of transient large bowel stationary macrophages plays a role in the pathogenesis of this benign microscopic clear cell colitis, sometimes coexisting with allergy. PMID:18186560

  8. Agaricus bisporus attenuates dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Um, Min Young; Park, Jae Ho; Gwon, So Young; Ahn, Jiyun; Jung, Chang Hwa; Ha, Tae Youl

    2014-12-01

    Agaricus bisporus (white button mushroom, WBM) is widely consumed in most countries and is reported to have anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activities. However, little is known regarding its effects in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis, which are related to dysfunction of intestinal immunity. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effects of WBMs in an animal model of DSS-induced colitis. Male, 4-week-old ICR mice (n=10 per group) were fed a normal diet with or without 10% WBM for 4 weeks, and colitis was induced by 3% DSS in drinking water for 7 days. WBMs prevented DSS-induced shortening of colon length (P=.033) and diminished diarrhea (P=.049) and gross bleeding (P=.001), resulting in a decreased disease activity index. Results of histological analysis showed that WBMs suppressed mucosal damage. In addition, WBMs attenuated the DSS-induced increase in myeloperoxidase activity (P=.012) and upregulation of proinflammatory cytokine tumor necrosis factor-α (P=.020) in the colon segment. Taken together, these findings suggest a possible role for the WBM as an immunomodulator that can prevent and/or treat ulcerative colitis.

  9. CCR9 Antagonists in the Treatment of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Bekker, Pirow; Ebsworth, Karen; Walters, Matthew J.; Berahovich, Robert D.; Ertl, Linda S.; Charvat, Trevor T.; Punna, Sreenivas; Powers, Jay P.; Campbell, James J.; Sullivan, Timothy J.; Jaen, Juan C.; Schall, Thomas J.

    2015-01-01

    While it has long been established that the chemokine receptor CCR9 and its ligand CCL25 are essential for the movement of leukocytes into the small intestine and the development of small-intestinal inflammation, the role of this chemokine-receptor pair in colonic inflammation is not clear. Toward this end, we compared colonic CCL25 protein levels in healthy individuals to those in patients with ulcerative colitis. In addition, we determined the effect of CCR9 pharmacological inhibition in the mdr1a−/− mouse model of ulcerative colitis. Colon samples from patients with ulcerative colitis had significantly higher levels of CCL25 protein compared to healthy controls, a finding mirrored in the mdr1a−/− mice. In the mdr1a−/− mice, CCR9 antagonists significantly decreased the extent of wasting and colonic remodeling and reduced the levels of inflammatory cytokines in the colon. These findings indicate that the CCR9:CCL25 pair plays a causative role in ulcerative colitis and suggest that CCR9 antagonists will provide a therapeutic benefit in patients with colonic inflammation. PMID:26457007

  10. Alloferon Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Hyemin; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-01-01

    Dysfunction of gut immune regulation is involved in mucosal damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there is still no efficacious immune-regulator for the treatment of IBD. Alloferon is a novel immune-modulatory peptide that was originally isolated from infected insects. It shows anti-inflammatory effects by the regulation of cytokine production by immune cells and their activities. Therefore, we investigated the effect of alloferon in a mouse model of colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colitis was induced by administration of DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. It was confirmed by the presence of weight loss, diarrhea, hematochezia, and colon contraction. Alloferon was injected 4 days after DSS administration. We found that alloferon improved the pathogenesis of IBD based on the reduced disease activity index (DAI) and colon contraction. Edema, epithelial erosion, and immune cell infiltration were found in mice administered DSS, but the phenomena were reduced following alloferon treatment. The plasma level of IL-6, a classical pro-inflammatory cytokine in colitis, was also decreased by alloferon. Moreover, alloferon inhibited the TNF-α-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκB in Colo205 colon cancer cells. Taken together, these results show that alloferon has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates DSS-induced colitis. PMID:26140045

  11. Alloferon Alleviates Dextran Sulfate Sodium-induced Colitis.

    PubMed

    Kim, Hyemin; Im, Jong Pil; Kim, Joo Sung; Kang, Jae Seung; Lee, Wang Jae

    2015-06-01

    Dysfunction of gut immune regulation is involved in mucosal damage in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, there is still no efficacious immune-regulator for the treatment of IBD. Alloferon is a novel immune-modulatory peptide that was originally isolated from infected insects. It shows anti-inflammatory effects by the regulation of cytokine production by immune cells and their activities. Therefore, we investigated the effect of alloferon in a mouse model of colitis using dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Colitis was induced by administration of DSS in drinking water for 7 consecutive days. It was confirmed by the presence of weight loss, diarrhea, hematochezia, and colon contraction. Alloferon was injected 4 days after DSS administration. We found that alloferon improved the pathogenesis of IBD based on the reduced disease activity index (DAI) and colon contraction. Edema, epithelial erosion, and immune cell infiltration were found in mice administered DSS, but the phenomena were reduced following alloferon treatment. The plasma level of IL-6, a classical pro-inflammatory cytokine in colitis, was also decreased by alloferon. Moreover, alloferon inhibited the TNF-α-induced degradation and phosphorylation of IκB in Colo205 colon cancer cells. Taken together, these results show that alloferon has anti-inflammatory effects and attenuates DSS-induced colitis.

  12. Vitamin D treatment attenuates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Tianjing; Shi, Yongyan; Du, Jie; Ge, Xin; Teng, Xu; Liu, Lu; Wang, Enbo; Zhao, Qun

    2016-01-01

    Crohn’s disease (CD) and ulcerative colitis (UC) have different immunological mechanisms, while both of them are potential targets of vitamin D treatment. In this study, we have tried to address the role of vitamin D in CD and UC using two mouse models. Mice of C57B6L were given vitamin D before the induction of colitis. Our results showed that vitamin D attenuated 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis but not oxazolone-induced colitis. Vitamin D could preserve the local histology, alleviate inflammation, suppress apoptosis, maintain tight junction function and decrease permeability. Interestingly, it has more of an effect on local structure preservation and inflammation inhibition in CD than in UC mice. Vitamin D blocked the increase of helper T-cell type 1 (Th1)- and helper T-cell type 17 (Th17)-related cytokines in TNBS-induced colitis. But the increase of helper T-cell type 2 (Th2)- and regulatory T cells (Treg)-related cytokines was augmented at the same time in oxazolone-induced colitis which counteracted each other. Our study helps elucidate the differential protective effects of vitamin D on CD and UC patients, as reported in literature. PMID:27620138

  13. [Treatment of severe ulcerative colitis flares].

    PubMed

    Aceituno, Montserrat; Montserrat, Aceituno; Zabana, Yamile; Yamile, Zabana; Esteve, Maria; Maria, Esteve

    2014-10-01

    The treatment of severe ulcerative colitis remains a challenge for gastroenterologists. A not inconsiderable number of patients will experience severe flares throughout their lives and will require hospitalization. Mortality in severe ulcerative colitis is still high and consequently treatment must be aggressive, avoiding delays in rescue therapies or even surgery. The aim of this review was to describe the medical treatment of severe ulcerative colitis, highlighting recent therapeutic advances.

  14. [Colitis cystica profunda: report of one case].

    PubMed

    de Toro C, Gonzalo; Villaseca H, Miguel; Roa S, Juan Carlos

    2007-06-01

    Colitis cystica profunda is a benign condition that can be confused with adenocarcinoma. We report a 35 year-old woman that received radiotherapy for a uterine cervical carcinoma who presented intermittent hematochezia three times after ending the therapy. This episode was diagnosed and treated as a radiation colitis and the patient remained asymptomatic for six years. After this period she presented again intermittent hematochezia and a rectal mass that was surgically removed. The pathology report disclosed a colitis cystica profunda.

  15. Leptin Influences Healing in the Sprague Dawley Rat Fracture Model

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Pengcheng; Cai, Ming

    2017-01-01

    Background Leptin plays a crucial role in bone metabolism, and its level is related to bone callus formation in the fracture repair process. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of recombinant leptin on the healing process of femoral fractures in rats. Material/Methods Forty-eight male Sprague Dawley (SD) rats with an average body weight of 389 g (range: 376–398 g) and an average age of 10 weeks were included in this animal research, and all rats were randomly divided into two major groups. Then standardized femur fracture models were implemented in all SD rats. Rats in the control group were treated with only 0.5 mL of physiological saline, and rats in the experimental group were treated with recombinant leptin 5 μg/kg/d along with the same 0.5 mL of physiological saline for 42 days intraperitoneally. At the same time, each major group was evenly divided into three parallel subgroups for each parallel bone evaluation separately at the second, fourth, and sixth weeks. Each subgroup included eight rats. Results The total radiological evaluation results showed that the healing progress of femoral fracture in the experimental group was superior to that in the control group from the fourth week. At the sixth week, experimental group rats began to present significantly better femoral fracture healing progress than that of the control group rats. Results of biomechanics show the ultimate load (N) and deflection ultimate load (mm) of the experimental group rats was significantly increased compared with that of the control group rats from the fourth week. Conclusions Our results suggest that leptin may have a positive effect on SD rat femur fracture healing. PMID:28088810

  16. Transplant arteriosclerosis in a rat aortic model.

    PubMed Central

    Isik, F. F.; McDonald, T. O.; Ferguson, M.; Yamanaka, E.; Gordon, D.

    1992-01-01

    Transplant arteriosclerosis (TA) has emerged as an obstacle to the long-term survival of transplanted organs, especially cardiac transplants. The animal models that have been used to study TA have not been fully characterized with regard to features such as the time course of cell proliferation and the sequence of cell types arriving in the developing intimal lesion. We present a model of TA based on a transplanted segment of abdominal aorta that helps address these questions. Two strains of rats (PVG x DA) underwent orthotopic aortic transplantation without immunosuppression and were killed at 14, 20, 40, and 60 days after transplantation. The within-strain control group displayed minimal evidence of cellular rejection with minimal to absent intimal lesions. In contrast, the allograft group showed a linearly increasing intimal lesion, up through 60 days after transplantation. The mechanism of intimal thickening was by an increase in cell number at the earlier time points with the later deposition of extracellular matrix. The early intimal lesion consisted mostly of mononuclear inflammatory cells (45%) with gradually increasing presence of smooth muscle cells (SMC) in the intima between 20 and 60 days. Conversely, the media showed gradual infiltration by macrophage-type cells with virtual loss of all SMC from the media by 40 days. The proliferative index showed a peak of 6% and 8% at 20 days in both the intima and media, respectively, and was preceded by the presence of macrophages. In fact, most of the proliferating cells at the earlier time points were either monocytes/macrophages, or were immediately adjacent to monocyte-/macrophage-rich regions. This straight artery segment model of transplant arteriosclerosis provides an easily quantifiable system in which the effects of different interventions (e.g., immunosuppressive regimens) can be tested. Images Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 12 Figure 13 Figure 14 Figure 15 Figure 16 Figure

  17. Treatment of experimental colitis in mice with LMP-420, an inhibitor of TNF transcription

    PubMed Central

    Hale, Laura P; Cianciolo, George

    2008-01-01

    decrease the histologic severity of colitis. Longer term studies using colitis models that are more dependent on TNF elevation should be performed to more accurately assess the potential of LMP-420 for therapy of inflammatory bowel disease. PMID:18331642

  18. Polymyositis associated with ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed Central

    Chugh, S; Dilawari, J B; Sawhney, I M; Dang, N; Radotra, B D; Chawla, Y K

    1993-01-01

    An elderly woman with chronic ulcerative colitis who developed proximal muscle weakness, increased serum creatine phosphokinase activity, and histological and electromyographic abnormalities characteristic of polymyositis is described. Treatment with corticosteroids and 5-acetylsalicylic acid was followed by a remission in bowel symptoms, improvement in muscle power, and reversal of electromyographic changes. An autoimmune link between the two disorders seems likely. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 PMID:8491410

  19. Reaginic hypersensitivity in ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Jewell, D. P.; Truelove, S. C.

    1972-01-01

    Reaginic hypersensitivity in ulcerative colitis has been investigated in respect of a hypersensitivity to the cow's milk proteins and the frequency of atopic asthma, hay fever, and eczema. Intradermal tests were frequently positive, especially to casein, but the results did not differ from those found in healthy individuals and in groups of patients with Crohn's disease, hypolactasia, and the irritable colon syndrome. No circulating IgE-specific antibodies to the milk proteins were found. An increased frequency of atopic diseases was found in patients suffering from ulcerative colitis (15·7%) and Crohn's disease (13·3%) compared with the findings in a control group (1·2%). It is concluded that, if an allergy to milk proteins is a factor in the pathogenesis of ulcerative colitis, it is not mediated by reaginic antibodies. It is possible, however, that the frequent occurrence of atopy indicates a susceptibility to develop reaginic responses even though this mechanism does not apply to the milk proteins. PMID:4646293

  20. Chios mastic fractions in experimental colitis: implication of the nuclear factor κB pathway in cultured HT29 cells.

    PubMed

    Papalois, Apostolos; Gioxari, Aristea; Kaliora, Andriana C; Lymperopoulou, Aikaterini; Agrogiannis, George; Papada, Efstathia; Andrikopoulos, Nikolaos K

    2012-11-01

    The Pistacia lentiscus tree gives a resinous exudate called Chios mastic (CM) rich in triterpenoids. CM can be fractionated into acidic and neutral fractions (AF and NF, respectively). Oleanolic acid (OA) is a major triterpenic acid in CM with several antioxidant and anti-inflammatory properties. We have recently shown that CM is beneficial in experimental colitis in the form of powder mixture with inulin, as supplied commercially. However, the bioactive fraction or compound of CM is unidentified. Thus, based on the hypothesis that terpenoids exhibit functional activities via distinguishable pathways, we fractionated CM and applied different fractions or individual OA in experimental colitis. Furthermore, we investigated the mechanism underlying this effect in human colon epithelial cells. CM powder mixture (100 mg/kg of body weight) or the respective CM powder mixture components (i.e., inulin, AF, NF, or OA) were individually administered in trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid-treated rats. Colonic damage was assessed microscopically, and levels of tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, and intercellular adhesion molecule-1were measured. A model of inflammation in co-cultured human colon epithelial HT29 cells and monocytes/macrophages was established. Lactate dehydrogenase release and levels of TNF-α, IL-8, and nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) p65 were measured. In vivo, histological amelioration of colitis and significant regulation in inflammation occurred with CM powder mixture, even at the mRNA level. Although no histological improvement was observed, AF and NF reduced levels of inflammatory markers. Inulin was ineffective. In vitro, CM treatment down-regulated IL-8 and NF-κB p65. Neither fractions nor OA was the bioactive component solely. Most probably, the entire CM rather than its individual fractions reduces inflammation via NF-κB regulation.

  1. Boswellic Acid Improves Cognitive Function in a Rat Model Through Its Antioxidant Activity

    PubMed Central

    Ebrahimpour, Saeedeh; Fazeli, Mehdi; Mehri, Soghra; Taherianfard, Mahnaz; Hosseinzadeh, Hossein

    2017-01-01

    Objectives: Boswellic acid (BA), a compound isolated from the gum-resin of Boswellia carterii, is a pentacyclic terpenoid that is active against many inflammatory diseases, including cancer, arthritis, chronic colitis, ulcerative colitis, Crohn's disease, and memory impairment, but the mechanism is poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of boswellic acid on spatial learning and memory impairment induced by trimethyltin (TMT) in Wistar rats. Methods: Forty male Wistar rats were randomly divided into 5 groups: Normal group, TMT-administrated rats (8.0 mg/kg, Intraperitoneally, i.p.) and TMT + BA (40, 80 and 160 mg/kg, i.p.)-administrated rats. BA was used daily for 21 days. To evaluate the cognitive improving of BA, we performed the Morris water maze test. Moreover, to investigate the neuroprotective effect of BA, we determined the acetylcholinesterase (AchE) activity, the malondialdehyde (MDA) level as a marker of lipid peroxidation, and the glutathione (GSH) content in the cerebral cortex. Results: Treatment with TMT impaired learning and memory, and treatment with BA at a dose of 160 mg/kg produced a significant improvement in learning and memory abilities in the water maze tasks. Consistent with behavioral data, the activity of AChE was significantly increased in the TMT-injected rats compared to the control group (P < 0.01) whereas all groups treated with BA presented a more significant inhibitory effect against AChE than the TMT-injected animals. In addition, TMT reduced the GSH content and increased the MDA level in the cerebral cortex as compared to the control group) P < 0.01). On the other hand, treatment with BA at 160 mg/kg slightly increased the GSH content and reduced the MDA level in comparison to the TMT-administered group (P < 0.01). Conclusion: The above results suggest that the effect of BA in improving the cognitive function may be mediated through its antioxidant activity. PMID:28392957

  2. Lactobacillus casei prevents the upregulation of ICAM-1 expression and leukocyte recruitment in experimental colitis.

    PubMed

    Angulo, Sandra; Llopis, Marta; Antolín, María; Gironella, Meritxell; Sans, Miquel; Malagelada, Juan Ramon; Piqué, Josep Maria; Guarner, Francisco; Panés, Julián

    2006-12-01

    Lactobacillus casei has been shown to attenuate the severity of experimental colitis. The objective of the present study was to determine whether the effects of L. casei on colitis are related to modulation of leukocyte recruitment into the inflamed intestine. Rats with a colonic segment excluded from fecal transit were surgically prepared. The segment was decontaminated with antibiotics and recolonized with normal flora isolated from the inflamed rat colon, associated or not to L. casei. Control and colitic [2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced] animals were studied. Leukocyte-endothelial cell interactions were characterized in the colonic microcirculation by intravital microscopy, and ICAM-1 and VCAM-1 expression was measured by the radiolabeled antibody technique. Compared with the noninflamed colonic segment, induction of colitis by TNBS provoked a marked increase in the number of leukocytes firmly adherent to the venular wall (0.5 +/- 0.1 vs. 2.1 +/- 0.6 leukocytes/100 mum, P < 0.01). Colonization with L. casei significantly reduced the number of adherent leukocytes (1.3 +/- 0.4 leukocytes/100 mum; P < 0.05) but did not affect the increased rolling interactions associated with the induction of colitis. Compared with the noncolitic group, induction of colitis was associated with a marked increase in ICAM-1 expression (117 +/- 4 vs. 180 +/- 3 ng antibody/g tissue) that was abrogated when the colitic segment was colonized by L. casei (117 +/- 3 ng antibody/g tissue, P < 0.05). However, L. casei administration did not modify VCAM-1 upregulation in colitic animals. L. casei attenuates leukocyte recruitment observed in experimental colitis induced by TNBS. This effect is possibly related to abrogation of ICAM-1 upregulation.

  3. Early Detection of T cell Transfer-induced Autoimmune Colitis by In Vivo Imaging System

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Yu-Ling; Chen, Yi-Ting; Lo, Cheng-Feng; Hsieh, Ching-I; Chiu, Shang-Yi; Wu, Chang-Yen; Yeh, Yu-Shan; Hung, Shu-Hsuan; Cheng, Po-Hao; Su, Yu-Hsuan; Jiang, Si-Tse; Chin, Hsian-Jean; Su, Yu-Chia

    2016-01-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease is a chronic and progressive inflammatory intestinal disease that includes two major types, namely ulcerative colitis and Crohn’s disease (CD). CD is characterized by intestinal epithelial hyperplasia and inflammatory cell infiltration. Transfer of CD25−CD45RBhiCD4+ (naïve) T cells into immunodeficiency mice induces autoimmune colitis with pathological lesions similar to CD and loss of body weight 4 weeks after cell transfer. However, weight loss neither has sufficient sensitivity nor totally matches the pathological findings of CD. To establish an early and sensitive indicator of autoimmune colitis model, the transferred T cell-induced colitis mouse model was modified by transferring luciferase-expressing donor T cells and determining the colitis by in vivo imaging system (IVIS). Colitis was detected with IVIS 7–10 days before the onset of body weight loss and diarrhea. IVIS was also applied in the dexamethasone treatment trial, and was a more sensitive indicator than body weight changes. All IVIS signals were parallel to the pathological abnormalities of the gut and immunological analysis results. In summary, IVIS provides both sensitive and objective means to monitor the disease course of transferred T cell-induced CD and fulfills the 3Rs principle of humane care of laboratory animals. PMID:27762297

  4. Angiogenesis blockade as a new therapeutic approach to experimental colitis

    PubMed Central

    Danese, Silvio; Sans, Miquel; Spencer, David M; Beck, Ivy; Doñate, Fernando; Plunkett, Marian L; de la Motte, Carol; Redline, Raymond; Shaw, David E; Levine, Alan D; Mazar, Andrew P; Fiocchi, Claudio

    2007-01-01

    Background Neoangiogenesis is a critical component of chronic inflammatory disorders. Inhibition of angiogenesis is an effective treatment in animal models of inflammation, but has not been tested in experimental colitis. Aim To investigate the effect of ATN‐161, an anti‐angiogenic compound, on the course of experimental murine colitis. Method Interleukin 10‐deficient (IL10−/−) mice and wild‐type mice were kept in ultra‐barrier facilities (UBF) or conventional housing, and used for experimental conditions. Dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)‐treated mice were used as a model of acute colitis. Mice were treated with ATN‐161 or its scrambled peptide ATN‐163. Mucosal neoangiogenesis and mean vascular density (MVD) were assessed by CD31 staining. A Disease Activity Index (DAI) was determined, and the severity of colitis was determined by a histological score. Colonic cytokine production was measured by ELISA, and lamina propria mononuclear cell proliferation by thymidine incorporation. Result MVD increased in parallel with disease progression in IL10−/− mice kept in conventional housing, but not in IL10−/− mice kept in UBF. Angiogenesis also occurred in DSS‐treated animals. IL10−/− mice with established disease treated with ATN‐161, but not with ATN‐163, showed a significant and progressive decrease in DAI. The histological colitis score was significantly lower in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in scrambled peptide‐treated mice. Inhibition of angiogenesis was confirmed by a significant decrease of MVD in ATN‐161‐treated mice than in ATN‐163‐treated mice. No therapeutic effects were observed in the DSS model of colitis. ATN‐161 showed no direct immunomodulatory activity in vitro. Conclusion Active angiogenesis occurs in the gut of IL10−/− and DSS‐treated colitic mice and parallels disease progression. ATN‐161 effectively decreases angiogenesis as well as clinical severity and histological inflammation in IL10

  5. Impact of dextran sulphate sodium-induced colitis on the intestinal transport of the colon carcinogen PhIP.

    PubMed

    Nicken, Petra; von Keutz, Anne; Willenberg, Ina; Ostermann, Annika I; Schebb, Nils Helge; Giovannini, Samoa; Kershaw, Olivia; Breves, Gerhard; Steinberg, Pablo

    2016-05-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the most frequent cancers in Western countries. Chronic intestinal diseases such as Crohn's disease and ulcerative colitis, in which the intestinal barrier is massively disturbed, significantly raise the risk of developing a colorectal tumour. 2-Amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP) is a genotoxic heterocyclic aromatic amine that is formed after strongly heating fish and meat. In this study, the hypothesis that PhIP uptake in the gut is increased during chronic colitis was tested. Chronic colitis was induced by oral administration of dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) to Fischer 344 rats. The transport of PhIP in eight different rat intestinal segments was examined in Ussing chambers. The tissues were incubated with 10 µM PhIP for 90 min, and the concentration of PhIP was determined in the mucosal and serosal compartments of the Ussing chambers as well as in the clamped tissues by LC-MS. Although chronic colitis was clearly induced in the rats, no differences in the intestinal transport of PhIP were observed between control and DSS-treated animals. The hypothesis that in the course of chronic colitis more PhIP is taken up by the intestinal epithelium, thereby increasing the risk of developing colorectal cancer, could not be confirmed in the present report.

  6. Spontaneous trigeminal allodynia in rats: a model of primary headache.

    PubMed

    Oshinsky, Michael L; Sanghvi, Menka M; Maxwell, Christina R; Gonzalez, Dorian; Spangenberg, Rebecca J; Cooper, Marnie; Silberstein, Stephen D

    2012-10-01

    Animal models are essential for studying the pathophysiology of headache disorders and as a screening tool for new therapies. Most animal models modify a normal animal in an attempt to mimic migraine symptoms. They require manipulation to activate the trigeminal nerve or dural nociceptors. At best, they are models of secondary headache. No existing model can address the fundamental question: How is a primary headache spontaneously initiated? In the process of obtaining baseline periorbital von Frey thresholds in a wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat, we discovered a rat with spontaneous episodic trigeminal allodynia (manifested by episodically changing periorbital pain threshold). Subsequent mating showed that the trait is inherited. Animals with spontaneous trigeminal allodynia allow us to study the pathophysiology of primary recurrent headache disorders. To validate this as a model for migraine, we tested the effects of clinically proven acute and preventive migraine treatments on spontaneous changes in rat periorbital sensitivity. Sumatriptan, ketorolac, and dihydroergotamine temporarily reversed the low periorbital pain thresholds. Thirty days of chronic valproic acid treatment prevented spontaneous changes in trigeminal allodynia. After discontinuation, the rats returned to their baseline of spontaneous episodic threshold changes. We also tested the effects of known chemical human migraine triggers. On days when the rats did not have allodynia and showed normal periorbital von Frey thresholds, glycerol trinitrate and calcitonin gene related peptide induced significant decreases in the periorbital pain threshold. This model can be used as a predictive model for drug development and for studies of putative biomarkers for headache diagnosis and treatment.

  7. Astragaloside IV ameliorates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis implicating regulation of energy metabolism.

    PubMed

    Jiang, Xu-Guang; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Wang, Ming-Xia; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Chong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-She; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-02-02

    Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days. On day 1 and day 7, colon tissue was collected for macroscopic and histological examination, ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. TNBS impaired colonic mucosa with an injured epithelial architecture, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased colonic blood flow. Lgr5 positive cell number in crypt and β-catenin nuclear translocation were down-regulated by TNBS treatment. TNBS induced epithelial F-actin disruption and junctional protein degradation. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and ATP synthase subunit β expression in the colon tissue were significantly decreased after TNBS stimulation. All of the aforementioned alterations were relieved by ASIV post-treatment. The present study revealed that ASIV promoted mucosal healing process in TNBS-induced colitis, which was most likely attributed to regulating energy metabolism.

  8. Astragaloside IV ameliorates 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS)-induced colitis implicating regulation of energy metabolism

    PubMed Central

    Jiang, Xu-Guang; Sun, Kai; Liu, Yu-Ying; Yan, Li; Wang, Ming-Xia; Fan, Jing-Yu; Mu, Hong-Na; Li, Chong; Chen, Yuan-Yuan; Wang, Chuan-She; Han, Jing-Yan

    2017-01-01

    Dysfunction of energy metabolism is involved in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study was designed to investigate the potential of astragaloside IV (ASIV), an active ingredient of Radix Astragalus, to ameliorate colonic mucosal injury, with focusing on the implication of energy restoration in the underlying mechanism. Experimental colitis model was established in rats by injecting 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) through anus. After 24 hours, ASIV was administrated once daily by gavage for 6 days. On day 1 and day 7, colon tissue was collected for macroscopic and histological examination, ELISA, Western blot and immunohistochemical analysis. TNBS impaired colonic mucosa with an injured epithelial architecture, increased inflammatory cell infiltration, and decreased colonic blood flow. Lgr5 positive cell number in crypt and β-catenin nuclear translocation were down-regulated by TNBS treatment. TNBS induced epithelial F-actin disruption and junctional protein degradation. Furthermore, adenosine triphosphate (ATP) content and ATP synthase subunit β expression in the colon tissue were significantly decreased after TNBS stimulation. All of the aforementioned alterations were relieved by ASIV post-treatment. The present study revealed that ASIV promoted mucosal healing process in TNBS-induced colitis, which was most likely attributed to regulating energy metabolism. PMID:28150820

  9. Study of a Monoclonal Antibody KHK4083 in Moderate Ulcerative Colitis

    ClinicalTrials.gov

    2017-01-11

    Ulcerative Colitis; Digestive System Diseases; Colitis, Ulcerative; Colitis; Gastrointestinal Diseases; Inflammatory Bowel Diseases; Intestinal Diseases; Colonic Diseases; Autoimmune Disease; Abdominal Pain

  10. Novel rat model for neurocysticercosis using Taenia solium.

    PubMed

    Verastegui, Manuela R; Mejia, Alan; Clark, Taryn; Gavidia, Cesar M; Mamani, Javier; Ccopa, Fredy; Angulo, Noelia; Chile, Nancy; Carmen, Rogger; Medina, Roxana; García, Hector H; Rodriguez, Silvia; Ortega, Ynes; Gilman, Robert H

    2015-08-01

    Neurocysticercosis is caused by Taenia solium infecting the central nervous system and is the leading cause of acquired epilepsy and convulsive conditions worldwide. Research into the pathophysiology of the disease and appropriate treatment is hindered by lack of cost-effective and physiologically similar animal models. We generated a novel rat neurocysticercosis model using intracranial infection with activated T. solium oncospheres. Holtzman rats were infected in two separate groups: the first group was inoculated extraparenchymally and the second intraparenchymally, with different doses of activated oncospheres. The groups were evaluated at three different ages. Histologic examination of the tissue surrounding T. solium cysticerci was performed. Results indicate that generally infected rats developed cysticerci in the brain tissue after 4 months, and the cysticerci were observed in the parenchymal, ventricle, or submeningeal brain tissue. The route of infection did not have a statistically significant effect on the proportion of rats that developed cysticerci, and there was no dependence on infection dose. However, rat age was crucial to the success of the infection. Epilepsy was observed in 9% of rats with neurocysticercosis. In histologic examination, a layer of collagen tissue, inflammatory infiltrate cells, perivascular infiltrate, angiogenesis, spongy change, and mass effect were observed in the tissue surrounding the cysts. This study presents a suitable animal model for the study of human neurocysticercosis.

  11. Animal models of dystonia: Lessons from a mutant rat.

    PubMed

    LeDoux, Mark S

    2011-05-01

    Dystonia is a motor sign characterized by involuntary muscle contractions which produce abnormal postures. Genetic factors contribute significantly to primary dystonia. In comparison, secondary dystonia can be caused by a wide variety of metabolic, structural, infectious, toxic and inflammatory insults to the nervous system. Although classically ascribed to dysfunction of the basal ganglia, studies of diverse animal models have pointed out that dystonia is a network disorder with important contributions from abnormal olivocerebellar signaling. In particular, work with the dystonic (dt) rat has engendered dramatic paradigm shifts in dystonia research. The dt rat manifests generalized dystonia caused by deficiency of the neuronally restricted protein caytaxin. Electrophysiological and biochemical studies have shown that defects at the climbing fiber-Purkinje cell synapse in the dt rat lead to abnormal bursting firing patterns in the cerebellar nuclei, which increases linearly with postnatal age. In a general sense, the dt rat has shown the scientific and clinical communities that dystonia can arise from dysfunctional cerebellar cortex. Furthermore, work with the dt rat has provided evidence that dystonia (1) is a neurodevelopmental network disorder and (2) can be driven by abnormal cerebellar output. In large part, work with other animal models has expanded upon studies in the dt rat and shown that primary dystonia is a multi-nodal network disorder associated with defective sensorimotor integration. In addition, experiments in genetically engineered models have been used to examine the underlying cellular pathologies that drive primary dystonia. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled "Advances in dystonia".

  12. Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced colitis in the guinea-pig: studies of colonic lamina propria lymphocytes.

    PubMed Central

    Glick, M E; Falchuk, Z M

    1981-01-01

    Dinitrochlorobenzene-induced colitis in guinea-pigs may be immunologically mediated: animals must be presensitised to dinitrochlorobenzene to develop colitis, sensitivity can be passively transferred by lymphocytes and the injury can be mitigated by immunosuppression. In this study, we examined lamina propria lymphocytes isolated from colons of animals with dinitrochlorobenzene-induced colitis, and appropriate controls. Lamina propria lymphocytes from colitis animals have a greater percentage of rabbit erythrocyte-rosetting cells (T cells) (20.1 +/- 3.0 vs 2.3 +/- 0.8, p less than .01) and a greater capacity to mediate mitogen-induced cellular cytotoxicity with phytohaemagglutinin than lamina propria lymphocytes from normal colon (% specific cytoxicity = 29.4 +/- 8.7 vs 5.0 +/- 4.5, P less than .005). There was no difference in the percentage of rosetting cells or cytotoxicity index of spleen or mesenteric lymph node lymphocytes between the colitis animals and controls. These data suggest that there are changes in the distribution and functional characteristics of lamina propria lymphocytes which correlate with mucosal cell injury in the dinitrochlorobenzene-colitis model. Images Figure PMID:6971239

  13. Suppressive effect of berberine on experimental dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Hong, Tie; Yang, Zhen; Lv, Chuan-Feng; Zhang, Yu

    2012-06-01

    The anti-inflammatory effect of berberine was evaluated in murine model of acute experimental colitis induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS). Berberine, given orally at 40, 20, 10 mg/kg for 10 days, ameliorated all the supposed inflammatory symptoms of the induced colitis, such as body weightloss, blood hemoglobin reduction, high myeloperoxidase levels, and malondialdehyde content-inflamed mucosa. Furthermore, the cytokine production of splenic lymphocytes was analyzed. The results showed the IFN-γ and IL-12 were increased, but IL-4 and IL-10 were decreased in DSS-induced colitis,when those were compared with the normal control. But the administration of berberine to DSS-induced colitis mice showed lower production of IFN-γ and IL-12 and higher production of IL-4 and IL-10 than the DSS-induced colitis mice. The results suggest that the protective effects of berberine against the DSS-induced colitis may be associated with the regulation of cytokine production.

  14. Contribution of epithelial innate immunity to systemic protection afforded by prolyl hydroxylase inhibition in murine colitis

    PubMed Central

    Keely, Simon; Campbell, Eric L.; Baird, Alan W.; Hansbro, Philip M.; Shalwitz, Robert A.; Kotsakis, Anna; McNamee, Eoin N.; Eltzschig, Holger K.; Kominsky, Douglas J.; Colgan, Sean P.

    2013-01-01

    Pharmacological stabilization of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) through prolyl hydroxylase (PHD) inhibition limits mucosal damage associated with models of murine colitis. However, little is known about how PHD inhibitors (PHDi) influence systemic immune function during mucosal inflammation or the relative importance of immunological changes to mucosal protection. We hypothesized that PHDi enhances systemic innate immune responses to colitis-associated bacteremia. Mice with colitis induced by TNBS were treated with AKB-4924, a new HIF-1 isoform-predominant PHDi and clinical, immunological and biochemical endpoints were assessed. Administration of AKB-4924 led to significantly reduced weight loss and disease activity compared to vehicle controls. Treated groups were pyrexic, but did not become subsequently hypothermic. PHDi treatment augmented epithelial barrier function and led to an approximately 50-fold reduction in serum endotoxin during colitis. AKB-4924 also decreased cytokines involved in pyrogenesis and hypothermia, significantly reducing serum levels of IL-1β, IL-6 and TNF-α, while increasing IL-10. Treatment offered no protection against colitis in epithelial-specific HIF-1α deficient mice, strongly implicating epithelial HIF-1α as the tissue target for AKB-4924-mediated protection. Taken together, these results indicate that inhibition of prolyl hydroxylase with AKB-4924 enhances innate immunity and identifies the epithelium is a central site of inflammatory protection afforded by PHDi in murine colitis. PMID:23695513

  15. Looking for the best anti-colitis medicine: A comparative analysis of current and prospective compounds

    PubMed Central

    Chumanevich, Anastasiya A.; Chaparala, Anusha; Witalison, Erin E.; Tashkandi, Hossam; Hofseth, Anne B.; Lane, Corey; Pena, Edsel; Liu, Piaomu; Pittman, Doug L.; Nagarkatti, Prakash; Nagarkatti, Mitzi; Hofseth, Lorne J.; Chumanevich, Alexander A.

    2017-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic lifelong inflammatory disorder of the colon, which, while untreated, has a relapsing and remitting course with increasing risk of progression toward colorectal cancer. Current medical treatment strategies of UC mostly focus on inhibition of the signs and symptoms of UC to induce remission and prevent relapse of disease activity, minimizing the impact on quality of life, but not affecting the cause of disease. To date, however, there is no single reliable treatment agent and/or strategy capable of effectively controlling colitis progression throughout the patient's life without side effects, remission, or resistance. Taking into consideration an urgent need for the new colitis treatment strategies, targets and/or modulators of inflammation, we have tested current and prospective compounds for colitis treatment and directly compared their anti-colitis potency using a dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) mouse model of colitis. We have introduced a composite score – a multi-parameters comparison tool – to assess biological potency of different compounds. PMID:27974688

  16. Chinese medicinal herbs in treating model rats with hepatic fibrosis.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Yun-Xiao; Chen, Jiu; Li, Jian-Ping; Wang, Yan-Li; Jin, Xiao-Dong

    2009-12-30

    The objective of this study was to examine the effects of Chinese medicine formula-Yu Zhang Dan (YZD, composed of Herba Lysimachiae, Rhizoma Polygoni Cuspidati, Radix Curcumae) on the model rats with hepatic fibrosis. Forty male Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats were used in the present study, and they were separated randomly into 4 groups: a normal control group (Group A, n=5), a model control (Group B, n=15), a high dose of YZD (Group C, n=10), and a low dose of YZD (Group D, n=10). Hepatic fibrosis in rats was induced by carbon tetrachloride (CCl(4)). The variation of the serum alanine transaminase (ALT), aspartate aminotransferase (AST), hyaluronate acid (HA), laminin (LN), type • • procollagen peptide (P• •NP), L-Glutathione (GSH) was respectively measured with radioimmunoassay (RIA) and detection of transforming growth factor-beta 1 (TGF-β1) and smooth muscle alpha actin (α-SMA) was conducted with immunohistochemistry. The ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the ALT, AST HA, LN and PIII NP levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The TGF-β1 and α-SMA levels of the model control group were significantly higher than those of the normal control group (P<0.05), and both of the high dose of YZD and low dose of YZD significantly decreased the TGF-β1 levels of the model rats (P<0.05) , and only the high dose of YZD significantly decreased the α-SMA levels of the model rats (P<0.05). The expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in the liver tissues of the rats were in the cytoplasm of the cells. It may be through decreasing the ALT, AST, HA, LN and PIII NP levels in the serum of the model rats and decreasing the expression of TGF-β1 and α-SMA in the liver tissues of the model rats that YZD significantly relieved the hepatic fibrosis.

  17. Development of a Rat Model of Hypothermia

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2005-06-01

    Fall and MAJ Len Murray and their animal care technicians, SGT Jeffrey Hunter, SPC Robert Powers and SPC Melissa Valliere vi EXECUTIVE SUMMARY... Bastille . Tissue-specific extravasation of albumin-bound Evans blue in hypothermic and rewarmed rats. Can. J. Physiol. Pharmacol. 80:233-243, 2002

  18. Colitis after polytrauma: case report.

    PubMed

    Carter, William E; Darko, Isaac A; Chandan, Priya; Pai, Ajit B

    2014-01-01

    Across the medical literature, delayed diagnosis and treatment leads to more costly and worse outcomes. Rehabilitation patients, especially those with polytrauma, often have a complex mixture of medical, social, and psychological health problems that can impair effective diagnosis and treatment. The case presentation describes the procession toward the diagnosis of ulcerative colitis in a preinjury asymptomatic male, suggesting a potential mechanism for its emergence and describing the effect of delayed diagnosis on the efficiency of rehabilitative care. As such, the differential diagnosis for early posttraumatic diarrhea should remain broad, particularly if unexplained or ineffectively controlled.

  19. Peculiar Presentation of Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Diab, Amany; Ahmed, Ayman; Abohamad, Samar; Elgendy, Hala

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory and recurrent disorder that is characterized by bowel inflammation. Among the extraintestinal manifestations (EIMs) that associate UC are the joints and renal manifestations. Joint affection in the form of arthritis can precede the intestinal manifestations of UC. However, renal affection with amyloidosis does not precede the UC diagnosis. Herein, we report a case of 26-year-old male diagnosed with UC after having peripheral arthritis for long time in addition to spondylitis and kidney amyloidosis. PMID:27042365

  20. Cerebral microbleeds in a neonatal rat model

    PubMed Central

    Carusillo Theriault, Brianna; Woo, Seung Kyoon; Karimy, Jason K.; Keledjian, Kaspar; Stokum, Jesse A.; Sarkar, Amrita; Coksaygan, Turhan; Ivanova, Svetlana; Gerzanich, Volodymyr

    2017-01-01

    Background In adult humans, cerebral microbleeds play important roles in neurodegenerative diseases but in neonates, the consequences of cerebral microbleeds are unknown. In rats, a single pro-angiogenic stimulus in utero predisposes to cerebral microbleeds after birth at term, a time when late oligodendrocyte progenitors (pre-oligodendrocytes) dominate in the rat brain. We hypothesized that two independent pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero would be associated with a high likelihood of perinatal microbleeds that would be severely damaging to white matter. Methods Pregnant Wistar rats were subjected to intrauterine ischemia (IUI) and low-dose maternal lipopolysaccharide (mLPS) at embryonic day (E) 19. Pups were born vaginally or abdominally at E21-22. Brains were evaluated for angiogenic markers, microhemorrhages, myelination and axonal development. Neurological function was assessed out to 6 weeks. Results mRNA (Vegf, Cd31, Mmp2, Mmp9, Timp1, Timp2) and protein (CD31, MMP2, MMP9) for angiogenic markers, in situ proteolytic activity, and collagen IV immunoreactivity were altered, consistent with an angiogenic response. Vaginally delivered pups exposed to prenatal IUI+mLPS had spontaneous cerebral microbleeds, abnormal neurological function, and dysmorphic, hypomyelinated white matter and axonopathy. Pups exposed to the same pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero but delivered abdominally had minimal cerebral microbleeds, preserved myelination and axonal development, and neurological function similar to naïve controls. Conclusions In rats, pro-angiogenic stimuli in utero can predispose to vascular fragility and lead to cerebral microbleeds. The study of microbleeds in the neonatal rat brain at full gestation may give insights into the consequences of microbleeds in human preterm infants during critical periods of white matter development. PMID:28158198

  1. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia

    PubMed Central

    Selten, Martijn M.; Meyer, Francisca; Ba, Wei; Vallès, Astrid; Maas, Dorien A.; Negwer, Moritz; Eijsink, Vivian D.; van Vugt, Ruben W. M.; van Hulten, Josephus A.; van Bakel, Nick H. M.; Roosen, Joey; van der Linden, Robert J.; Schubert, Dirk; Verheij, Michel M. M.; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Martens, Gerard J. M.

    2016-01-01

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that affects cognitive function and has been linked, both in patients and animal models, to dysfunction of the GABAergic system. However, the pathophysiological consequences of this dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we examined the GABAergic system in an animal model displaying schizophrenia-relevant features, the apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rat and its phenotypic counterpart, the apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rat at postnatal day 20–22. We found changes in the expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 specifically in the prelimbic- but not the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), indicative of reduced inhibitory function in this region in APO-SUS rats. While we did not observe changes in basal synaptic transmission onto LII/III pyramidal cells in the mPFC of APO-SUS compared to APO-UNSUS rats, we report reduced paired-pulse ratios at longer inter-stimulus intervals. The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 55845 abolished this reduction, indicating that the decreased paired-pulse ratio was caused by increased GABAB signaling. Consistently, we find an increased expression of the GABAB1 receptor subunit in APO-SUS rats. Our data provide physiological evidence for increased presynaptic GABAB signaling in the mPFC of APO-SUS rats, further supporting an important role for the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia. PMID:27687783

  2. A New Model of Severe Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rönn, Thomas; Lendemans, Sven; de Groot, Herbert; Petrat, Frank

    2011-01-01

    We here introduce a fixed-pressure model of hemorrhagic shock in rats that maximizes effects on mean arterial blood pressure (MAP) during shock and yet maintains high reproducibility and controllability. The MAP of rats was adjusted to 25 to 30 mm Hg by blood withdrawals during 30 min. After a shock period of 60 min, rats were resuscitated either with lactated Ringer solution (LR) only or with the collected blood 3-fold diluted with LR (LR + blood) and monitored for further 150 min. Throughout the experiment, vital parameters and plasma marker enzyme activities and creatinine concentration were assessed. Thereafter, liver, kidneys, small intestine, heart, and lung were harvested and evaluated histopathologically. Vital parameters, plasma marker enzyme activities, creatinine concentration, and histopathology indicated pronounced but reliable and reproducible systemic effects and marked organ damage due to hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation. In contrast to rats that received LR + blood, which survived the postresuscitation period, rats receiving LR only invariably died shortly after resuscitation. The hemorrhagic shock model we present here maximally affects MAP and yet is highly reproducible in rats, allowing the study of various aspects of hemorrhagic shock and resuscitation under clinically relevant conditions. PMID:22330349

  3. Mapping genetic determinants of kidney damage in rat models.

    PubMed

    Schulz, Angela; Kreutz, Reinhold

    2012-07-01

    During the last two decades, significant progress in our understanding of the development of kidney diseases has been achieved by unravelling the mechanisms underlying rare familial forms of human kidney diseases. Due to the genetic heterogeneity in human populations and the complex multifactorial pathogenesis of the disease phenotypes, the dissection of the genetic basis of common chronic kidney diseases (CKD) remains a difficult task. In this regard, several inbred rat models provide valuable complementary tools to uncover the genetic basis of complex renal disease phenotypes that are related to common forms of CKD. In this review, data obtained in nine experimental rat models, including the Buffalo (BUF), Dahl salt-sensitive (SS), Fawn-hooded hypertensive (FHH), Goto-Kakizaki (GK), Lyon hypertensive (LH), Munich Wistar Frömter (MWF), Sabra hypertension-prone (SBH), spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHR) and stroke-prone spontaneously hypertensive rat (SHRSP) inbred strains, that contributed to the genetic dissection of renal disease phenotypes are presented. In this panel of inbred strains, a large number of quantitative trait loci (QTL) linked to albuminuria/proteinuria and other functional or structural kidney abnormalities could be identified by QTL mapping analysis and follow-up studies including consomic and congenic rat lines. The comprehensive exploitation of the genotype-renal phenotype associations that are inherited in this panel of rat strains is suitable for making a significant contribution to the development of an integrated approach to the systems genetics of common CKD.

  4. Increased GABAB receptor signaling in a rat model for schizophrenia.

    PubMed

    Selten, Martijn M; Meyer, Francisca; Ba, Wei; Vallès, Astrid; Maas, Dorien A; Negwer, Moritz; Eijsink, Vivian D; van Vugt, Ruben W M; van Hulten, Josephus A; van Bakel, Nick H M; Roosen, Joey; van der Linden, Robert J; Schubert, Dirk; Verheij, Michel M M; Kasri, Nael Nadif; Martens, Gerard J M

    2016-09-30

    Schizophrenia is a complex disorder that affects cognitive function and has been linked, both in patients and animal models, to dysfunction of the GABAergic system. However, the pathophysiological consequences of this dysfunction are not well understood. Here, we examined the GABAergic system in an animal model displaying schizophrenia-relevant features, the apomorphine-susceptible (APO-SUS) rat and its phenotypic counterpart, the apomorphine-unsusceptible (APO-UNSUS) rat at postnatal day 20-22. We found changes in the expression of the GABA-synthesizing enzyme GAD67 specifically in the prelimbic- but not the infralimbic region of the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC), indicative of reduced inhibitory function in this region in APO-SUS rats. While we did not observe changes in basal synaptic transmission onto LII/III pyramidal cells in the mPFC of APO-SUS compared to APO-UNSUS rats, we report reduced paired-pulse ratios at longer inter-stimulus intervals. The GABAB receptor antagonist CGP 55845 abolished this reduction, indicating that the decreased paired-pulse ratio was caused by increased GABAB signaling. Consistently, we find an increased expression of the GABAB1 receptor subunit in APO-SUS rats. Our data provide physiological evidence for increased presynaptic GABAB signaling in the mPFC of APO-SUS rats, further supporting an important role for the GABAergic system in the pathophysiology of schizophrenia.

  5. Detection of visual signals by rats: A computational model

    EPA Science Inventory

    We applied a neural network model of classical conditioning proposed by Schmajuk, Lam, and Gray (1996) to visual signal detection and discrimination tasks designed to assess sustained attention in rats (Bushnell, 1999). The model describes the animals’ expectation of receiving fo...

  6. Proteomic Patterns of Colonic Mucosal Tissues Delineate Crohn’s Colitis and Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Seeley, Erin H.; Washington, Mary K.; Caprioli, Richard M.; M’Koma, Amosy E.

    2013-01-01

    Purpose Although Crohn’s colitis (CC) and ulcerative colitis (UC) share several clinical features, they have different causes, mechanisms of tissue damage, and treatment options. Therefore, the accurate diagnosis is of paramount importance in terms of medical care. The distinction between UC/CC is made on the basis of clinical, radiologic, endoscopic, and pathologic interpretations but cannot be differentiated in up to 15% of IBD patients. Correct management of this “indeterminate colitis” (IC) depends on the accuracy of future, and yet not known, destination diagnosis (CC/UC). Experimental design We have developed a proteomic methodology that has the potential to discriminate between UC/CC. The histologic layers of 62 confirmed UC/CC tissues were analyzed using MALDI-MS for proteomic profiling. Results A Support Vector Machine algorithm consisting of 25 peaks was able to differentiate spectra from CC and UC with 76.9% spectral accuracy when using a leave-20%-out cross validation. Application of the model to the entire data set resulted in accurate classification of 19/26 CC patients and 36/36 UC patients when using a 2/3 correct cutoff. A total 114 peaks were found to have Wilcoxin p-values of less than 0.05. Conclusion/Clinical relevance This information may provide new avenues for the development of novel personalized therapeutic targets. PMID:23382084

  7. Terahertz reflectometry of burn wounds in a rat model

    PubMed Central

    Arbab, M. Hassan; Dickey, Trevor C.; Winebrenner, Dale P.; Chen, Antao; Klein, Mathew B.; Mourad, Pierre D.

    2011-01-01

    We present sub-millimeter wave reflectometry of an experimental rat skin burn model obtained by the Terahertz Time-Domain Spectroscopy (THz-TDS) technique. Full thickness burns, as confirmed by histology, were created on rats (n = 4) euthanized immediately prior to the experiments. Statistical analysis shows that the burned tissue exhibits higher reflectivity compared to normal skin over a frequency range between 0.5 and 0.7 THz (p < 0.05), likely due to post-burn formation of interstitial edema. Furthermore, we demonstrate that a double Debye dielectric relaxation model can be used to explain the terahertz response of both normal and less severely burned rat skin. Finally, our data suggest that the degree of conformation between the experimental burn measurements and the model for normal skin can potentially be used to infer the extent of burn severity. PMID:21833370

  8. Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 heals cysteamine-colitis and colon-colon-anastomosis and counteracts cuprizone brain injuries and motor disability.

    PubMed

    Klicek, R; Kolenc, D; Suran, J; Drmic, D; Brcic, L; Aralica, G; Sever, M; Holjevac, J; Radic, B; Turudic, T; Kokot, A; Patrlj, L; Rucman, R; Seiwerth, S; Sikiric, P

    2013-10-01

    Stable gastric pentadecapeptide BPC 157 was suggested to link inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis, and thereby, shown to equally counteract the models of both of those diseases. For colitis, cysteamine (400 mg/kg intrarectally (1 ml/rat)) and colon-colon anastomosis (sacrifice at day 3, 5, 7, and 14) were used. BPC 157 (10 μg/kg, 10 ng/kg) was applied either intraperitoneally once time daily (first application immediately after surgery, last at 24 hours before sacrifice) or per-orally in drinking water (0.16 μg/ml/12 ml/day till the sacrifice) while controls simultaneously received an equivolume of saline (5 ml/kg) intraperitoneally or drinking water only (12 ml/day). A multiple sclerosis suited toxic rat model, cuprizone (compared with standard, a several times higher regimen, 2.5% of diet regimen + 1 g/kg intragastrically/day) was combined with BPC 157 (in drinking water 0.16 μg or 0.16 ng/ml/12 ml/day/rat + 10 μg or 10 ng/kg intragastrically/day) till the sacrifice at day 4. In general, the controls could not heal cysteamine colitis and colon-colon anastomosis. BPC 157 induced an efficient healing of both at the same time. Likewise, cuprizone-controls clearly exhibited an exaggerated and accelerated damaging process; nerve damage appeared in various brain areas, with most prominent damage in corpus callosum, laterodorsal thalamus, nucleus reunions, anterior horn motor neurons. BPC 157-cuprizone rats had consistently less nerve damage in all damaged areas, especially in those areas that otherwise were most affected. Consistently, BPC 157 counteracted cerebellar ataxia and impaired forelimb function. Thereby, this experimental evidence advocates BPC 157 in both inflammatory bowel disease and multiple sclerosis therapy.

  9. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic modeling of deltamethrin: Development of a rat and human diffusion-limited model

    EPA Science Inventory

    Mirfazaelian et al. (2006) developed a physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model for the pyrethroid pesticide deltamethrin in the rat. This model describes gastrointestinal tract absorption as a saturable process mediated by phase III efflux transporters which pump delta...

  10. Rosiglitazone for Active Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Lewis, James D.; Lichtenstein, Gary R.; Deren, Julius J; Sands, Bruce E.; Hanauer, Stephen B.; Katz, Jeffry A.; Lashner, Bret; Present, Daniel H.; Chuai, Shaokun; Ellenberg, Jonas H.; Nessel, Lisa; Wu, Gary D.

    2008-01-01

    Background Thiazolidinedione ligands for the gamma subtype of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARγ), widely used to treat type 2 diabetes mellitus, have been proposed as novel therapies for ulcerative colitis. Methods This multicenter randomized, double blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial compared the efficacy of rosiglitazone (Avandia™) 4 mg orally twice daily versus placebo twice daily for 12 weeks in 105 patients with mild to moderately active UC. Disease activity was measured with the Mayo Score. The primary endpoint was clinical response (≥ 2 point reduction) at week 12. Clinical remission (Mayo Score ≤2), endoscopic remission, and quality of life were secondary outcomes. Results After 12 weeks of therapy, 23 patients (44%) treated with rosiglitazone and 12 patients (23%) treated with placebo achieved clinical response (p=0.04). Remission was achieved in 9 patients (17%) treated with rosiglitazone and 1 patient (2%) treated with placebo (p=0.01). Endoscopic remission was uncommon in either treatment arm (8% rosiglitazone vs. 2% placebo, p=0.34). Clinical improvement was evident as early as 4 weeks (p=0.049). Quality of life was significantly improved at week 8 (p=0.01) but not at week 4 (p=0.48) or 12 (p=0.14). Serious adverse events were rare. Conclusions Rosiglitazone was efficacious in the treatment of mild to moderately active ulcerative colitis. PMID:18325386

  11. Characterizing a Rat Brca2 Knockout Model

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2007-05-01

    this treatment (Figure 2b). Aspermatogenesis Meiosis in Brca2/ rats proceeds normally through leptotene and early zygotene (Figure 3a) with 40...Zygotene Late Zygotene Scp3Scp3 Scp3 Scp3 Scp1 CREST CRESTCREST Merge a b Figure 3 (a) Meiosis in Brca2/ spermatocytes does not progress beyond late...control of noncrossover and crossover recombination during meiosis . Cell 106: 47–57. Barlow C, Liyanage M, Moens PB, Tarsounas M, Nagashima K, Brown K

  12. Transgenic Rat Models for Breast Cancer Research

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1999-10-01

    Introduction 6 6. Body 9 7. Key Research Accomplishments 15 8. Reportable Outcomes 15 9. Conclusions 16 10. References 17 11. Bibliography 20 12. Personnel 20...seen in human breast cancer (2-4). Third, a high percentage of the resulting rat mammary cancers are hormonally responsiveness, closely mimicking that...13, 17), activated c-neu (18-20), wild type c-neu (21), deregulated growth hormone (22), and deregulated transforming growth factor a (23-25) has

  13. Morphofunctional analysis of experimental model of esophageal achalasia in rats.

    PubMed

    Sabirov, A G; Raginov, I S; Burmistrov, M V; Chelyshev, Y A; Khasanov, R Sh; Moroshek, A A; Grigoriev, P N; Zefirov, A L; Mukhamedyarov, M A

    2010-10-01

    We carried out a detailed analysis of rat model of esophageal achalasia previously developed by us. Manifest morphological and functional disorders were observed in experimental achalasia: hyperplasia of the squamous epithelium, reduced number of nerve fibers, excessive growth of fibrous connective tissue in the esophageal wall, high contractile activity of the lower esophageal sphincter, and reduced motility of the longitudinal muscle layer. Changes in rat esophagus observed in experimental achalasia largely correlate with those in esophageal achalasia in humans. Hence, our experimental model can be used for the development of new methods of disease treatment.

  14. Aberrant Mucin Assembly in Mice Causes Endoplasmic Reticulum Stress and Spontaneous Inflammation Resembling Ulcerative Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Price, Gareth R; Tauro, Sharyn B; Taupin, Douglas; Thornton, David J; Png, Chin Wen; Crockford, Tanya L; Cornall, Richard J; Adams, Rachel; Kato, Masato; Nelms, Keats A; Hong, Nancy A; Florin, Timothy H. J; Goodnow, Christopher C; McGuckin, Michael A

    2008-01-01

    Background MUC2 mucin produced by intestinal goblet cells is the major component of the intestinal mucus barrier. The inflammatory bowel disease ulcerative colitis is characterized by depleted goblet cells and a reduced mucus layer, but the aetiology remains obscure. In this study we used random mutagenesis to produce two murine models of inflammatory bowel disease, characterised the basis and nature of the inflammation in these mice, and compared the pathology with human ulcerative colitis. Methods and Findings By murine N-ethyl-N-nitrosourea mutagenesis we identified two distinct noncomplementing missense mutations in Muc2 causing an ulcerative colitis-like phenotype. 100% of mice of both strains developed mild spontaneous distal intestinal inflammation by 6 wk (histological colitis scores versus wild-type mice, p < 0.01) and chronic diarrhoea. Monitoring over 300 mice of each strain demonstrated that 25% and 40% of each strain, respectively, developed severe clinical signs of colitis by age 1 y. Mutant mice showed aberrant Muc2 biosynthesis, less stored mucin in goblet cells, a diminished mucus barrier, and increased susceptibility to colitis induced by a luminal toxin. Enhanced local production of IL-1β, TNF-α, and IFN-γ was seen in the distal colon, and intestinal permeability increased 2-fold. The number of leukocytes within mesenteric lymph nodes increased 5-fold and leukocytes cultured in vitro produced more Th1 and Th2 cytokines (IFN-γ, TNF-α, and IL-13). This pathology was accompanied by accumulation of the Muc2 precursor and ultrastructural and biochemical evidence of endoplasmic reticulum (ER) stress in goblet cells, activation of the unfolded protein response, and altered intestinal expression of genes involved in ER stress, inflammation, apoptosis, and wound repair. Expression of mutated Muc2 oligomerisation domains in vitro demonstrated that aberrant Muc2 oligomerisation underlies the ER stress. In human ulcerative colitis we demonstrate similar

  15. Fluvastatin reduced liver injury in rat model of extrahepatic cholestasis.

    PubMed

    Demirbilek, Savaş; Tas, Erkan; Gurunluoglu, Kubilay; Akin, Melih; Aksoy, Rauf T; Emre, Memet H; Aydin, Nasuhi E; Ay, Selma; Ozatay, Nilufer

    2007-02-01

    Inhibitors of 3-hydroxy-3methylglutarly coenzyme A, reductase, namely statins, exert pleiotropic actions beyond lipid-lowering effects. In ex vivo and in vitro studies, statins have antioxidative and antiinflammatory effects. Herein, we sought to determine whether treatment with fluvastatin (FV) would be beneficial in a rat model of common bile duct ligation (BDL)-induced liver injury. Female rats were subjected to a sham (n=10) or BDL (n=20). Obstructive jaundice was induced in rats by the ligation and division of the common bile duct. Three days after operation, rats subjected to CBDL were randomized to receive treatment with either FV (10 mg/kg) or saline every day over a 10 days experimental period. High levels of alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, and gamma glutamyltransferase decreased significantly (P<0.05) in animals treated with FV with compared to saline-administrated BDL animals. Compared with sham-operated rats, CBDL rats showed significantly higher levels of total nitrite and nitrate, malondihaldehyde, tumor necrosis factor alpha, myeloperoxidase, and lower concentrations of glutathione, superoxide dismutase, and catalase in the liver tissue (P<0.001). All of these changes were significantly attenuated (P<0.05) by treatment with FV after CBDL. CBDL was associated with increased apoptosis and nuclear factor kappa beta expression in saline-treated rats. Treatment with FV also decreased these parameters. These data support the view that FV ameliorates hepatic inflammation, lipid peroxidation, and tissue injury in rats subjected to CDBL. FV warrants further evaluation as an adjunctive treatment to ameliorate liver injury from extrahepatic biliary obstruction.

  16. Rodent models in neuroscience research: is it a rat race?

    PubMed

    Ellenbroek, Bart; Youn, Jiun

    2016-10-01

    Rodents (especially Mus musculus and Rattus norvegicus) have been the most widely used models in biomedical research for many years. A notable shift has taken place over the last two decades, with mice taking a more and more prominent role in biomedical science compared to rats. This shift was primarily instigated by the availability of a much larger genetic toolbox for mice, particularly embryonic-stem-cell-based targeting technology for gene disruption. With the recent emergence of tools for altering the rat genome, notably genome-editing technologies, the technological gap between the two organisms is closing, and it is becoming more important to consider the physiological, anatomical, biochemical and pharmacological differences between rats and mice when choosing the right model system for a specific biological question. The aim of this short review and accompanying poster is to highlight some of the most important differences, and to discuss their impact on studies of human diseases, with a special focus on neuropsychiatric disorders.

  17. Minocycline attenuates experimental colitis in mice by blocking expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase and matrix metalloproteinases

    SciTech Connect

    Huang, T.-Y.; Chu, H.-C.; Lin, Y.-L.; Lin, C.-K.; Hsieh, T.-Y.; Chang, W.-K.; Chao, Y.-C.; Liao, C.-L.

    2009-05-15

    In addition to its antimicrobial activity, minocycline exerts anti-inflammatory effects in several disease models. However, whether minocycline affects the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel disease has not been determined. We investigated the effects of minocycline on experimental colitis and its underlying mechanisms. Acute and chronic colitis were induced in mice by treatment with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of minocycline on colonic injury was assessed clinically and histologically. Prophylactic and therapeutic treatment of mice with minocycline significantly diminished mortality rate and attenuated the severity of DSS-induced acute colitis. Mechanistically, minocycline administration suppressed inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) expression and nitrotyrosine production, inhibited proinflammatory cytokine expression, repressed the elevated mRNA expression of matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) 2, 3, 9, and 13, diminished the apoptotic index in colonic tissues, and inhibited nitric oxide production in the serum of mice with DSS-induced acute colitis. In DSS-induced chronic colitis, minocycline treatment also reduced body weight loss, improved colonic histology, and blocked expression of iNOS, proinflammatory cytokines, and MMPs from colonic tissues. Similarly, minocycline could ameliorate the severity of TNBS-induced acute colitis in mice by decreasing mortality rate and inhibiting proinflammatory cytokine expression in colonic tissues. These results demonstrate that minocycline protects mice against DSS- and TNBS-induced colitis, probably via inhibition of iNOS and MMP expression in intestinal tissues. Therefore, minocycline is a potential remedy for human inflammatory bowel diseases.

  18. Changes in the composition of intestinal fungi and their role in mice with dextran sulfate sodium-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Qiu, Xinyun; Zhang, Feng; Yang, Xi; Wu, Na; Jiang, Weiwei; Li, Xia; Li, Xiaoxue; Liu, Yulan

    2015-05-27

    Intestinal fungi are increasingly believed to greatly influence gut health. However, the effects of fungi on intestinal inflammation and on gut bacterial constitution are not clear. Here, based on pyrosequencing method, we reveal that fungal compositions vary in different intestinal segments (ileum, cecum, and colon), prefer different colonization locations (mucosa and feces), and are remarkably changed during intestinal inflammation in dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-colitis mouse models compare to normal controls: Penicillium, Wickerhamomyces, Alternaria, and Candida are increased while Cryptococcus, Phialemonium, Wallemia and an unidentified Saccharomycetales genus are decreased in the guts of DSS-colitis mice. Fungi-depleted mice exhibited aggravated acute DSS-colitis associated with gain of Hallella, Barnesiella, Bacteroides, Alistipes, and Lactobacillus and loss of butyrate-producing Clostridium XIVa, and Anaerostipes compare with normal control. In contrast, bacteria-depleted mice show attenuated acute DSS-colitis. Mice with severely chronic recurrent DSS-colitis show increased plasma (1,3)-β-D-glucan level and fungal translocation into the colonic mucosa, mesenteric lymph nodes and spleen. This work demonstrate the different roles of fungi in acute and chronic recurrent colitis: They are important counterbalance to bacteria in maintaining intestinal micro-ecological homeostasis and health in acutely inflamed intestines, but can harmfully translocate into abnormal sites and could aggravate disease severity in chronic recurrent colitis.

  19. RORγt(+) hematopoietic cells are necessary for tumor cell proliferation during colitis-associated tumorigenesis in mice.

    PubMed

    Martin, Maria; Kesselring, Rebecca K; Saidou, Balam; Brunner, Stefan M; Schiechl, Gabriela; Mouris, Verena F; Wege, Anja K; Rümmele, Petra; Schlitt, Hans J; Geissler, Edward K; Fichtner-Feigl, Stefan

    2015-06-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common tumor entities. In patients with inflammatory bowel diseases, the development of colitis-associated colon cancer is considered a dangerous long-term complication. IL-17A and the transcription factor retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) play fundamental roles in the pathogenesis of inflammatory bowel diseases; in human studies, we detected a dense infiltration of RORγt-dependent CD4(+) IL17A(+) T helper (Th)17 cells in specimens of CRC, ulcerative colitis, and ulcerative colitis-associated colorectal cancer. However, the mechanistic role of RORγt(+) hematopoietic cells in colitis-associated tumorigenesis remains unclear. To investigate colitis-associated colon tumorigenesis, we conducted studies in the AOM+DSS mouse model that revealed the importance of RORγt for colon tumor progression. In the absence of RORγt-dependent Th17 lymphocytes, mice showed signs of intense chronic colitis, but developed significantly fewer macroscopic tumor nodules. The reduction of tumor development in RORγt(-/-) mice was not due to reduced colon tumor initiation. However, the proliferation rate of tumor cells was reduced in the absence of RORγt-dependent Th17 cells and tumor cells showed pronounced signs of senescence-associated epigenetic and lysosomal changes. These results indicate an important role for the immunological milieu in colitis-associated cancer, which is shaped in-part by RORγt-dependent Th17 lymphocytes that support CRC growth.

  20. Vagotomy affects the development of oral tolerance and increases susceptibility to develop colitis independently of the alpha-7 nicotinic receptor.

    PubMed

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Bosmans, Goele; Meroni, Elisa; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Florens, Morgane; Farro, Giovanna; Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy

    2016-06-14

    Vagotomy (VGX) increases the susceptibility to develop colitis suggesting a crucial role for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the regulation of the immune responses. Since oral tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to preserve mucosal immune homeostasis, we studied the effect of vagotomy and the involvement of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChR) at the steady state and during colitis. Therefore, the development of both oral tolerance and colitis (induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or via T cell transfer) was studied in vagotomized mice and in α7nAChR(-/-) mice. VGX, but not α7nAChR deficiency, prevented oral tolerance establishment. This effect was associated with reduced Treg conversion in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymphnodes. To the same extent, vagotomized mice, but not α7nAChR(-/-) mice, developed a more severe DSS colitis compared with control mice treated with DSS, associated with a decreased number of colonic Tregs. However, neither VGX nor absence of α7nAChR in recipient mice affected colitis development in the T cell transfer model. In line, deficiency of α7nAChR exclusively in T cells did not influence the development of colitis induced by T cell transfer. Our results indicate a key role for the vagal intestinal innervation in the development of oral tolerance and colitis, most likely by modulating induction of Tregs independently of α7nAChR.

  1. Vagotomy Affects the Development of Oral Tolerance and Increases Susceptibility to Develop Colitis Independently of α-7 Nicotinic Receptor

    PubMed Central

    Di Giovangiulio, Martina; Bosmans, Goele; Meroni, Elisa; Stakenborg, Nathalie; Florens, Morgane; Farro, Giovanna; Gomez-Pinilla, Pedro J; Matteoli, Gianluca; Boeckxstaens, Guy E

    2016-01-01

    Vagotomy (VGX) increases the susceptibility to develop colitis suggesting a crucial role for the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway in the regulation of the immune responses. Since oral tolerance and the generation of regulatory T cells (Tregs) are crucial to preserve mucosal immune homeostasis, we studied the effect of vagotomy and the involvement of α7 nicotinic receptors (α7nAChR) at the steady state and during colitis. Therefore, the development of both oral tolerance and colitis (induced by dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or via T cell transfer) was studied in vagotomized mice and in α7nAChR-/- mice. VGX, but not α7nAChR deficiency, prevented oral tolerance establishment. This effect was associated with reduced Treg conversion in the lamina propria and mesenteric lymphnodes. To the same extent, vagotomized mice, but not α7nAChR-/- mice, developed a more severe DSS colitis compared with control mice treated with DSS, associated with a decreased number of colonic Tregs. However, neither VGX nor absence of α7nAChR in recipient mice affected colitis development in the T cell transfer model. In line, deficiency of α7nAChR exclusively in T cells did not influence the development of colitis induced by T cell transfer. Our results indicate a key role for the vagal intestinal innervation in the development of oral tolerance and colitis, most likely by modulating induction of Tregs independently of α7nAChR. PMID:27341335

  2. Spontaneous Trigeminal Allodynia in Rats: A Model of Primary Headache

    PubMed Central

    Oshinsky, Michael L.; Sanghvi, Menka M.; Maxwell, Christina R.; Gonzalez, Dorian; Spangenberg, Rebecca J.; Cooper, Marnie; Silberstein, Stephen D.

    2014-01-01

    Animal models are essential for studying the pathophysiology of headache disorders and as a screening tool for new therapies. Most animal models modify a normal animal in an attempt to mimic migraine symptoms. They require manipulation to activate the trigeminal nerve or dural nociceptors. At best, they are models of secondary headache. No existing model can address the fundamental question: How is a primary headache spontaneously initiated? In the process of obtaining baseline periorbital von Frey thresholds in a wild-type Sprague-Dawley rat, we discovered a rat with spontaneous episodic trigeminal allodynia (manifested by episodically changing periorbital pain threshold). Subsequent mating showed that the trait is inherited. Animals with spontaneous trigeminal allodynia allow us to study the pathophysiology of primary recurrent headache disorders. To validate this as a model for migraine, we tested the effects of clinically proven acute and preventive migraine treatments on spontaneous changes in rat periorbital sensitivity. Sumatriptan, ketorolac, and dihydroergotamine temporarily reversed the low periorbital pain thresholds. Thirty days of chronic valproic acid treatment prevented spontaneous changes in trigeminal allodynia. After discontinuation, the rats returned to their baseline of spontaneous episodic threshold changes. We also tested the effects of known chemical human migraine triggers. On days when the rats did not have allodynia and showed normal periorbital von Frey thresholds, glycerol trinitrate and calcitonin gene related peptide induced significant decreases in the periorbital pain threshold. This model can be used as a predictive model for drug development and for studies of putative biomarkers for headache diagnosis and treatment. PMID:22963523

  3. Antihyperalgesic Activity of Rhodiola rosea in a Diabetic Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Déciga-Campos, Myrna; González-Trujano, Maria Eva; Ventura-Martínez, Rosa; Montiel-Ruiz, Rosa Mariana; Ángeles-López, Guadalupe Esther; Brindis, Fernando

    2016-02-01

    Preclinical Research Rhodiola rosea L. (Crassulaceae) is used for enhancing physical and mental performance. Recent studies demonstrated that R. rosea had anti-inflammatory activity in animal models, for example, carrageenan- and nystatin-induced edema in rats, possibly by inhibiting phospholipase A2 and cyclooxygenases-1 and -2. In addition, R. rosea had antinociceptive activity in thermal and chemical pain tests as well as mechanical hyperalgesia. The purpose of the present study was to assess the antihyperalgesic effect of an ethanol extract of Rhodiola rosea (R. rosea) in a diabetic rat model. Rats were administered a single dose of streptozotocin (STZ; 50 mg/kg, i.p.) and hyperalgesia was evaluated four weeks later. Formalin-evoked (0.5%) flinching was increased in diabetic rats compared with nondiabetic controls Systemic (1-100 mg/kg, i.p.) and local (0.1-10 mg/paw into the dorsal surface of the right hind paw) administration of R. rosea ethanol extract dose-dependently reduced formalin-induced hyperalgesia in diabetic rats. The antihyperalgesic effect of R. rosea was compared with gabapentin. These results suggest that R. rosea ethanol extract may have potential as a treatment for diabetic hyperalgesia.

  4. Crohn's Disease and Ulcerative Colitis: Emotional Factors

    MedlinePlus

    ... correct this common and erroneous impression. ARE CERTAIN PERSONALITY TYPES MORE PRONE TO DEVELOP ULCERATIVE COLITIS OR ... of medical disorders that were characteristic of certain personality traits and a specific biological predisposition. The latest ...

  5. Reducing Fear of the Laboratory Rat: A Participant Modeling Approach.

    ERIC Educational Resources Information Center

    Barber, Nigel

    1994-01-01

    Reports on the use of participant modeling in a study of 56 college-level students to reduce fear of laboratory rats. Discovers that even mild exposure reduced fear significantly. Finds that women were more fearful initially but that their fear reduction was equal to that of men. (CFR)

  6. Analgesic Effect of Xenon in Rat Model of Inflammatory Pain.

    PubMed

    Kukushkin, M L; Igon'kina, S I; Potapov, S V; Potapov, A V

    2017-02-01

    The analgesic effects of inert gas xenon were examined on rats. The formalin model of inflammatory pain, tail-flick test, and hot-plate test revealed the antinociceptive effects of subanesthetizing doses of inhalation anesthetic xenon. Inhalation of 50/50 xenon/oxygen mixture moderated the nociceptive responses during acute and tonic phases of inflammatory pain.

  7. PHARMACOKINETIC/PHARMACODYNAMIC MODELING OF PERMETHRIN IN THE RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    A physiologically-based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model was used to describe pharmacokinetics of permethrin and calibrated using experimental data on the concentration time-course of cis- and trans-permethrin in rat blood and brain tissues following oral administration...

  8. Beneficial effects of treatment with transglutaminase inhibitor cystamine on the severity of inflammation in a rat model of inflammatory bowel disease.

    PubMed

    Elli, Luca; Ciulla, Michele M; Busca, Giuseppe; Roncoroni, Leda; Maioli, Claudio; Ferrero, Stefano; Bardella, Maria Teresa; Bonura, Antonella; Paliotti, Roberta; Terrani, Claudia; Braidotti, Paola

    2011-03-01

    Inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) represents a socially and clinically relevant disorder, characterized by intestinal chronic inflammation. Cystamine (CysN) is a multipotent molecule with healthy effects and, moreover, it is an inhibitor of transglutaminases (TGs), including the TG type 2 (TG2), an enzyme with pleiotropic functions, involved in different pathways of inflammation and central in the pathogenesis of some human disorders as the IBD. Our aim was to evaluate the effect of CysN in an IBD rat model. A total of 30 rats were divided into 4 groups: controls without treatment (CTR; n=7); receiving the 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid enema (TNBS group; n=8); treated with TNBS enema plus oral CysN (TNBS-CysN group; n=8); treated with CysN (CysN group; n=7). After killing, bowel inflammation was evaluated applying specific scores. TG activity, TG2 and isopeptide bond immunohistochemical expression, and tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α) were evaluated in the colonic tissue, such as interleukin-6 (IL-6) serological levels (ELISA). TG2 was also evaluated on the luminal side of the colon by immunoautoradiography. Colonic samples from IBD patients were compared with animal results. TNBS-CysN group developed a less severe colitis compared with the TNBS group (macroscopic score 0.43±0.78 vs 3.28±0.95, microscopic score 6.62±12.01 vs 19.25±6.04, P<0.05, respectively) associated with a decrease of TG activity, TG2 and isopeptide bond immunohistochemical expression, TNF-α and IL-6 levels. No statistically significant differences were found between CysN and CTR groups. The colonic immunolocalization of TG2 was comparable in humans affected by IBD and TNBS-administered animals. This is the first demonstration that treatment with a CysN has an anti-inflammatory effect, reducing severity of colitis in a rat model. CysN could be tested as a possible treatment or co-treatment in IBD therapeutic trials.

  9. Calcium Balance in A Rat Space Flight Model

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Arnaud, Sara B.; Navidi, M.; Holton, Emily M. (Technical Monitor)

    1997-01-01

    One of the main characteristics of calcium (Ca) metabolism during space flight and the human bed rest model for microgravity is negative Ca balance, attributed, to an increase in urinary Ca excretion and depressed intestinal Ca absorption. No differences or less positive Ca balances are reported after skeletal unloading in similar studies in weaning or juvenile rats. To determine Ca balances and evaluate the Ca endocrine system in mature rats exposed to a space flight model which unloaded the hind limbs by tail suspension, we modified the cage to quantify dietary, fecal and urinary Ca. Five 2-5 d balance periods in 8 loaded (C) and 8 unloaded (S) rats were compared during a 4 week study in 6 month old 490 g male rats. The first period revealed negative balances of -16+/-3 and -14+/-5 mg/d which reflected adaptation to the cages, the change in diet from Purina to AIN 76 and weight loss in both C and S. Average Ca balances in rats fed 0.1% Ca and 0.3% phosphorus (Pi) diets, remained negative in S and were less than C after 6 -10 d (-2.9 vs 0.12 mg/d, p<.05) but not thereafter. In spite of eating 10% more food than C, initial weight loss, restored in C, was never recovered in S. Fecal excretion exceeded dietary intake by -3.7% in S and reflected absorption and retention of 8.4% dietary Ca in C. Urinary Ca was the same fraction of dietary intake in S and C (9.0 vs 8.6%, NS). Serum Ca, Pi, parathyroid hormone and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D were the same in both groups after 28 days. In contrast to the human, a major determinant of negative Ca balance in the mature rat exposed to a space flight model appears to be losses from gastrointestinal Ca secretion, rather than urinary Ca excretion.

  10. The economics of adalimumab for ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Xie, Feng

    2015-06-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease, characterized by diffuse mucosal inflammation in the colon. Adalimumab, as a TNF-α blocker, offers a safe and efficacious treatment option for patients with moderate to severe ulcerative colitis and refractory or intolerant to conventional medications; however, its cost-effectiveness profile has not yet been well established. Future economic evaluations should choose appropriate comparators in the context of target-reimbursement decision making and focus on cost-effectiveness over a long time horizon.

  11. Intestinal microbiota and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Ohkusa, Toshifumi; Koido, Shigeo

    2015-11-01

    There is a close relationship between the human host and the intestinal microbiota, which is an assortment of microorganisms, protecting the intestine against colonization by exogenous pathogens. Moreover, the intestinal microbiota play a critical role in providing nutrition and the modulation of host immune homeostasis. Recent reports indicate that some strains of intestinal bacteria are responsible for intestinal ulceration and chronic inflammation in inflammatory bowel diseases (IBD) such as ulcerative colitis (UC) and Crohn's disease (CD). Understanding the interaction of the intestinal microbiota with pathogens and the human host might provide new strategies treating patients with IBD. This review focuses on the important role that the intestinal microbiota plays in maintaining innate immunity in the pathogenesis and etiology of UC and discusses new antibiotic therapies targeting the intestinal microbiota.

  12. Biological therapy for ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Arora, Zubin; Shen, Bo

    2015-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a major form of inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) worldwide. Better understanding of the pathogenesis of UC has led to the development of novel therapeutic agents that target specific mediators of the inflammatory cascade. A number of biological agents have been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) for the treatment of UC and several more are currently in various phases of drug development. The commonly used agents include TNFα antagonists (e.g. infliximab, adalimumab, and golimumab) and anti-integrin agents (vedolizumab). These biological agents have profoundly influenced the management of UC patients, especially those with refractory disease. This paper reviews the currently available knowledge and evidence for the use of various biological agents in the treatment of UC. PMID:25344680

  13. Radiographical evaluation of ulcerative colitis

    PubMed Central

    Deepak, Parakkal; Bruining, David H.

    2014-01-01

    Radiographical modalities have become important diagnostic tools in cases of ulcerative colitis (UC). Imaging can be used non-invasively to determine the extent of involvement, severity of disease and to detect disease-related complications and extra-intestinal inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) manifestations. While abdominal X-rays and barium enemas still retain their relevance in specific clinical settings, the use of computed tomography enterography (CTE) or magnetic resonance enterography (MRE) are now used as first-line investigations to exclude active small bowel disease in IBD patients and can be utilized to detect active colonic inflammation. Additionally, CT colonography and MR colonography are emerging techniques with potential applications in UC. Ultrasonography, leukocyte scintigraphy and positron emission tomography are novel abdominal imaging modalities currently being explored for IBD interrogations. This plethora of radiological imaging options has become a vital component of UC assessments. PMID:24843072

  14. [Caesarean section for ulcerative colitis].

    PubMed

    Unda-Franco, Eduardo; Ramírez-Avilés, Eva María; Moreno-de Gante, Leonardo; González, Quintín Héctor

    2011-02-01

    We present a case of a 35-year-old patient with diagnosis of ulcerative colitis that presented failure and complications associated with medical treatment; with a report of a colonoscopy and biopsy of pancolitis with severe activity. The patient was submitted to laparoscopic restorative total proctocolectomy with ileal "J" pouch anal anastomosis. Two months later the ileostomy was reversed. The patient received progesterone at the same time she was receiving immunosuppressive drugs. This was suspended two months after the second colon surgery. The patient did not require treatment with ovulation induction to achieve pregnancy. At the fourth month of gestation, the patient developed a perianal abscess, which was successfully drained. After multidisciplinary assessment in week 38 of gestation, it was decided to perform cesarean birth as a way to not affect the ileal pouch and the anastomosis of the digestive tract. At present time, the patient has had no further complications.

  15. Colonic mucus, smoking and ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Pullan, R D

    1996-03-01

    Human colonic mucosal protection is not fully understood but may in part rely on a layer of mucus gel adherent to the mucosa. Ulcerative colitis may occur if mucosal protection breaks down. Two studies are presented, both of which relate to the aetiology of ulcerative colitis. First, a layer of adherent mucus gel was demonstrated by a simple, reliable method. Measurements of mucus layer thickness were made in freshly resected colonic specimens and shown to increase from a mean of 107 microns on the right colon to 155 microns in the rectum. In ulcerative colitis the layer is significantly thinner or absent, whereas in Crohn's disease the colonic mucus layer is significantly thicker. Second, the relationship between smoking and colitis is explored by a double-blind, randomised and placebo-controlled trial of transdermal nicotine in active disease. Significant clinical benefit was seen, indicating nicotine may be both useful therapeutically and the component of tobacco smoke that acts to protect against colitis. Since smoking and nicotine have actions on mucosae and mucus in other organs, it is argued that there is a mucus deficiency in ulcerative colitis that smoking acts to reverse.

  16. Collagenous colitis: new diagnostic possibilities with endomicroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hoffman, A.; Goetz, M.; Biesterfeld, S.; Galle, P. R.; Neurath, M. F.; Kiesslich, R.

    2006-02-01

    Collagenous colitis is a kind of microscopic colitis. It is characterized by chronic watery diarrhea and abdominal pain. The etiology is still unknown. So far, for the diagnose a histological evaluation was necessary with the presence of thickened subepithelial collagneous bands in the lamina propria. A new developed endoscope with a confocal laser allows analysing cellular and subcellular details of the mucosal layer at high resolution in vivo. In this case report we describe for the first time to diagnose collagenous colitis during ongoing colonoscopy by using this confocal endomicroscopy. In a 67 year old female patient with typical symptoms the characteristic histological changes could be identified in the endomicroscopic view. Biopsies could be targeted to affected areas and endomicroscopic prediction of the presence of collagenous bands could be confirmed in all targeted biopsies. First endomicroscopic experience in microscopic colitis could be confirmed in four additional patients. Future prospective studies are warranted to further evaluate these initial findings. However, collagenous colitis is frequently missed and endomicroscopy seems to be the ideal tool for accurate diagnosing collagenous colitis during ongoing endoscopy.

  17. The mathematical whisker: A review of numerical models of the rat׳s vibrissa biomechanics.

    PubMed

    Lucianna, Facundo Adrián; Albarracín, Ana Lía; Vrech, Sonia Mariel; Farfán, Fernando Daniel; Felice, Carmelo José

    2016-07-05

    The vibrissal system of the rat refers to specialized hairs the animal uses for tactile sensory perception. Rats actively move their whiskers in a characteristic way called "whisking". Interaction with the environment produces elastic deformation of the whiskers, generating mechanical signals in the whisker-follicle complex. Advances in our understanding of the vibrissal complex biomechanics is of interest not only for the biological research field, but also for biomimetic approaches. The recent development of whisker numerical models has contributed to comprehending its sophisticated movements and its interactions with the follicle. The great diversity of behavioral patterns and complexities of the whisker-follicle ensemble encouraged the creation of many different biomechanical models. This review analyzes most of the whisker biomechanical models that have been developed so far. This review was written so as to render it accessible to readers coming from different research areas.

  18. Oral delivery of Bifidobacterium longum expressing α-melanocyte-stimulating hormone to combat ulcerative colitis.

    PubMed

    Wei, Pijin; Yang, Yan; Ding, Qing; Li, Xiuying; Sun, Hanxiao; Liu, Zhaobing; Huang, Junli; Gong, Yahui

    2016-02-01

    α-Melanocyte-stimulating hormone (α-MSH) is a tridecapeptide derived from pro-opiomelanocortin that exhibits potent anti-inflammatory properties by regulating the production of inflammatory mediators. This peptide has been well established in several inflammatory models, including inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). However, its extremely short duration in vivo limits its clinical application. To address this limitation, Bifidobacterium was used here as a carrier to deliver α-MSH. We utilized α-MSH-engineered Bifidobacterium against IBD, which is closely linked to immune and intestinal microbiota dysfunction. First, we constructed a Bifidobacterium longum secreting α-MSH (B. longum-α-MSH). We then tested the recombinant α-MSH expression and determined its bioactivity in HT-29 cells. To assess its effectiveness, B. longum-α-MSH was used against an ulcerative colitis (UC) model in rats induced by dextran sulfate sodium. The data showed that α-MSH expression in B. longum-α-MSH was effective, and its biological activity was similar to the synthesized one. This UC model experiment indicated that B. longum-α-MSH successfully colonized the intestinal gut, expressed bioactive α-MSH and had a significant anti-inflammatory effect. The results demonstrate the feasibility of preventing IBD by using B. longum-α-MSH.

  19. A new rat model for studies of hypokinesia and antiorthostasis

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Musacchia, X. J.; Deavers, D. R.

    1982-01-01

    A new rat model (suspension and immobilization) is described for induction of hypokinesia and orthostatic manipulations. Hypokinetic responses were comparable to those in prolonged bed rest and weightlessness in humans, body or limb casted and small cage restrained animals. Responses to antiorthostasis (15 to 20 deg head down tilt) in rats were similar to those in neutral bouyancy tests in humans and animals and to those in prolonged bed rest in humans. During seven days of hypokinesia there was an atrophy of the gastrocnemius and increased excretion of urinary nitrogeneous end products. The antiorthostatic (AOH) 15 to 20 deg head down tilt resulted in diuresis, natriuresis and kaliuresis. No comparable responses were observed in orthostatic hypokinetic (OH) rats. Readaptation from AOH and OH occurred during one week recovery in metabolic cage conditions.

  20. Sonic hedgehog expression in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Luo-Wei; Lin, Han; Lu, Yi; Xia, Wei; Gao, Jun; Li, Zhao-Shen

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To analyze the activation of sonic hedgehog (SHh) signaling pathways in a rat model of chronic pancreatitis. METHODS: Forty Wistar rats were randomly divided into 2 groups: experimental group and control group (20 rats in each group). Dibutyltin dichloride was infused into the tail vein of the rats to induce chronic pancreatitis in the experimental group. The same volume of ethanol and glycerol mixture was infused in the control group. The expression of Ptch, Smo and Gli were analyzed using immunohistochemistry, and real-time reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR). RESULTS: Compared with the control group, significant histological changes in terms of the areas of abnormal architecture, glandular atrophy, fibrosis, pseudo tubular complexes, and edema were observed at week 4 in the experimental group. The expression of Ptch1, Smo and Gli1 in the pancreatic tissue increased significantly in the experimental group. Using RT-PCR, mRNA levels of Ptch, Smo and Gli in the experimental group increased significantly compared with the control group. CONCLUSION: The SHh signaling pathway is aberrantly activated in rats with chronic pancreatitis. The SHh signaling pathway plays an important role in the development of chronic pancreatitis. These results may be helpful in studies focusing on the relationship between chronic pancreatitis and pancreatic cancer. PMID:24782623

  1. Preventive and Therapeutic Euphol Treatment Attenuates Experimental Colitis in Mice

    PubMed Central

    Bento, Allisson F.; Marcon, Rodrigo; Schmidt, Éder C.; Bouzon, Zenilda L.; Pianowski, Luiz F.; Calixto, João B.

    2011-01-01

    Background The tetracyclic triterpene euphol is the main constituent found in the sap of Euphorbia tirucalli. This plant is widely known in Brazilian traditional medicine for its use in the treatment of several kinds of cancer, including leukaemia, prostate and breast cancers. Here, we investigated the effect of euphol on experimental models of colitis and the underlying mechanisms involved in its action. Methodology/Principal Findings Colitis was induced in mice either with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS) or with 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), and the effect of euphol (3, 10 and 30 mg/kg) on colonic injury was assessed. Pro-inflammatory mediators and cytokines were measured by immunohistochemistry, enzyme-Linked immunoabsorbent assay (ELISA), real time-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) and flow cytometry. Preventive and therapeutic oral administration of euphol attenuated both DSS- and TNBS-induced acute colitis as observed by a significant reduction of the disease activity index (DAI), histological/microscopic damage score and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity in colonic tissue. Likewise, euphol treatment also inhibited colon tissue levels and expression of IL-1β, CXCL1/KC, MCP-1, MIP-2, TNF-α and IL-6, while reducing NOS2, VEGF and Ki67 expression in colonic tissue. This action seems to be likely associated with inhibition of activation of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB). In addition, euphol decreased LPS-induced MCP-1, TNF-α, IL-6 and IFN-γ, but increased IL-10 secretion from bone marrow-derived macrophages in vitro. Of note, euphol, at the same schedule of treatment, markedly inhibited both selectin (P- and E-selectin) and integrin (ICAM-1, VCAM-1 and LFA-1) expression in colonic tissue. Conclusions/Significance Together, these results clearly demonstrated that orally-administered euphol, both preventive or therapeutic treatment were effective in reducing the severity of colitis in two models of chemically-induced mouse colitis and suggest this plant

  2. Experimental model of heterotopic ossification in Wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Zotz, T.G.G.; de Paula, J.B.; Moser, A.D.L.

    2012-01-01

    Heterotopic ossification (HO) is a metaplastic biological process in which there is newly formed bone in soft tissues adjacent to large joints, resulting in joint mobility deficit. In order to determine which treatment techniques are more appropriate for such condition, experimental models of induced heterotopic bone formation have been proposed using heterologous demineralized bone matrix implants and bone morphogenetic protein and other tissues. The objective of the present experimental study was to identify a reliable protocol to induce HO in Wistar rats, based on autologous bone marrow (BM) implantation, comparing 3 different BM volumes and based on literature evidence of this HO induction model in larger laboratory animals. Twelve male Wistar albino rats weighing 350/390 g were used. The animals were anesthetized for blood sampling before HO induction in order to quantify serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP). HO was induced by BM implantation in both quadriceps muscles of these animals, experimental group (EG). Thirty-five days after the induction, another blood sample was collected for ALP determination. The results showed a weight gain in the EG and no significant difference in ALP levels when comparing the periods before and after induction. Qualitative histological analysis confirmed the occurrence of heterotopic ossification in all 12 EG rats. In conclusion, the HO induction model was effective when 0.35 mL autologous BM was applied to the quadriceps of Wistar rats. PMID:22473322

  3. Rat model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Hua; Shen, Yan; Wang, Wei; Gao, Huanmin

    2015-01-01

    In the human brain, the dominant hemisphere is more complex than the non-dominant hemisphere. Hence, cerebral ischemia of the dominant hemisphere often leads to serious consequences. This study aims to establish a rodent model of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere. The quadruped feeding test was used to screen 70 male Sprague Dawley rats. From this test, 48 rats with right paw preference were selected and randomly assigned numbers. Half were assigned to the dominant hemisphere ischemia (DHI) group, and the other half were assigned to the non-dominant hemisphere ischemia (NDHI) group. The middle cerebral artery was occluded 2 h before reperfusion. Neurological functions were tested. TTC and HE staining were performed. The volume of cerebral infarction was calculated. Rats in the DHI group had significantly worse neurological scores than rats in the NDHI group (P < 0.05). TTC staining indicated ischemia had more severe consequences in the dominant hemisphere than in the non-dominant hemisphere. The dominant hippocampus indicated severe neuronal loss and disorderly cellular arrangement. The volume of cerebral infarction was also greater in the DHI group compared to the NDHI group (P < 0.05). Compared to MCA occlusion in the non-dominant hemisphere, MCA occlusion in the dominant hemisphere caused greater impairment in neurological functions. The proposed rodent model is reliable and has high levels of reproducibility. Therefore, his model can be reliably for investigating the mechanism of focal cerebral ischemia in the dominant hemisphere of human brains. PMID:25785023

  4. Pseudomembranous Collagenous Colitis: A Case of Not-so-Microscopic Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Mehta, Manisha; Sheth, Sunil G.

    2016-01-01

    We present a 72-year-old male who developed progressive, watery diarrhea despite anti-motility agents. On colonoscopy, the mucosa was inflamed and covered with an exudate. Stool studies for Clostridium difficile and Escherichia coli were negative. Biopsies revealed pseudomembranous collagenous colitis, a rare form of microscopic colitis. His symptoms improved dramatically with budesonide therapy. PMID:28119938

  5. Up-regulation of brain-derived neurotrophic factor is regulated by extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 5 and by nerve growth factor retrograde signaling in colonic afferent neurons in colitis

    PubMed Central

    Yu, Sharon J; Grider, John R; Gulick, Melisa A; Xia, Chun-mei; Shen, Shanwei; Qiao, Li-Ya

    2012-01-01

    Brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) plays an essential role in sensory neuronal activation in response to visceral inflammation. Here we report that BDNF up-regulation in the primary afferent neurons in the dorsal root ganglia (DRG) in a rat model of colitis is mediated by the activation of endogenous extracellular signal-regulated protein kinases (ERK) 5 and by nerve growth factor (NGF) retrograde signaling. At 7 days of colitis, the expression level of BDNF is increased in conventional neuronal tracing dye Fast Blue labeled primary afferent neurons project to the distal colon. In these neurons, the phosphorylation (activation) level of ERK5 is also increased. In contrast, the level of phospho-ERK1/2 is not changed in the DRG during colitis. Prevention of the ERK5 activation in vivo with an intrathecal application of the MEK inhibitor PD98059 significantly attenuates the colitis-induced increases in BDNF expression in the DRG. Further studies show that BDNF up-regulation in the DRG is triggered by NGF retrograde signaling which also involves activation of the MEK/ERK pathways. Application of exogenous NGF exclusively to the compartment containing DRG nerve terminals in an ex vivo ganglia-nerve preparation has markedly increased the BDNF expression level in the DRG neuronal cell body that is placed in a different compartment; this BDNF elevation is attenuated by U0126, PD98059 and a specific ERK5 inhibitor BIX02188. These results demonstrate the mechanisms and pathways by wh