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Sample records for rat colon loops

  1. In Situ Perfusion Model in Rat Colon for Drug Absorption Studies: Comparison with Small Intestine and Caco-2 Cell Model.

    PubMed

    Lozoya-Agullo, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Isabel; González-Álvarez, Marta; Merino-Sanjuán, Matilde; Bermejo, Marival

    2015-09-01

    Our aim is to develop and to validate the in situ closed loop perfusion method in rat colon and to compare with small intestine and Caco-2 cell models. Correlations with human oral fraction absorbed (Fa) and human colon fraction absorbed (Fa_colon) were developed to check the applicability of the rat colon model for controlled release (CR) drug screening. Sixteen model drugs were selected and their permeabilities assessed in rat small intestine and colon, and in Caco-2 monolayers. Correlations between colon/intestine/Caco-2 permeabilities versus human Fa and human Fa_colon have been explored to check model predictability and to apply a BCS approach in order to propose a cut off value for CR screening. Rat intestine perfusion with Doluisio's method and single-pass technique provided a similar range of permeabilities demonstrating the possibility of combining data from different laboratories. Rat colon permeability was well correlated with Caco-2 cell-4 days model reflecting a higher paracellular permeability. Rat colon permeabilities were also higher than human colon ones. In spite of the magnitude differences, a good sigmoidal relationship has been shown between rat colon permeabilities and human colon fractions absorbed, indicating that rat colon perfusion can be used for compound classification and screening of CR candidates. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. and the American Pharmacists Association.

  2. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats

    PubMed Central

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-01-01

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body’s H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production. PMID:26853722

  3. Colonic Fermentation Promotes Decompression sickness in Rats.

    PubMed

    de Maistre, Sébastien; Vallée, Nicolas; Gempp, Emmanuel; Lambrechts, Kate; Louge, Pierre; Duchamp, Claude; Blatteau, Jean-Eric

    2016-02-08

    Massive bubble formation after diving can lead to decompression sickness (DCS). During dives with hydrogen as a diluent for oxygen, decreasing the body's H2 burden by inoculating hydrogen-metabolizing microbes into the gut reduces the risk of DCS. So we set out to investigate if colonic fermentation leading to endogenous hydrogen production promotes DCS in fasting rats. Four hours before an experimental dive, 93 fasting rats were force-fed, half of them with mannitol and the other half with water. Exhaled hydrogen was measured before and after force-feeding. Following the hyperbaric exposure, we looked for signs of DCS. A higher incidence of DCS was found in rats force-fed with mannitol than in those force-fed with water (80%, [95%CI 56, 94] versus 40%, [95%CI 19, 64], p < 0.01). In rats force-fed with mannitol, metronidazole pretreatment reduced the incidence of DCS (33%, [95%CI 15, 57], p = 0.005) at the same time as it inhibited colonic fermentation (14 ± 35 ppm versus 118 ± 90 ppm, p = 0.0001). Pre-diveingestion of mannitol increased the incidence of DCS in fasting rats when colonic fermentation peaked during the decompression phase. More generally, colonic fermentation in rats on a normal diet could promote DCS through endogenous hydrogen production.

  4. Nuclear microscopy of rat colon epithelial cells

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ren, M.; Rajendran, Reshmi; Ng, Mary; Udalagama, Chammika; Rodrigues, Anna E.; Watt, Frank; Jenner, Andrew Michael

    2011-10-01

    Using Nuclear microscopy, we have investigated iron distributions in the colons of Sprague Dawley rats, in order to elucidate heme uptake. Four groups of five Sprague Dawley rats (mean weight 180 g) were fed different purified diets containing either heme diet (2.5% w/w hemoglobin), high fat diet (HFD) (18% w/w fat, 1% w/w cholesterol), 'western' diet (combination of hemoglobin 2.5% and 18% fat, 1% cholesterol) or control diet (7% w/w fat). After 4 weeks, animals were sacrificed by exsanguination after anaesthesia. Thin sections of frozen colon tissue were taken, freeze dried and scanned using nuclear microscopy utilising the techniques PIXE, RBS and STIM. The new data acquisition system (IonDaq) developed in CIBA was used to obtain high resolution images and line scans were used to map the iron distributions across the colon boundaries. The nuclear microscope results indicate that when HFD is given in addition to heme, the iron content of the epithelial cells that line the colon decreases, and the zinc in the smooth muscle wall increases. This implies that the level of heme and fat in diet has an important role in colon health, possibly by influencing epithelial cells directly or changing luminal composition such as bacterial flora or levels of metabolites and cytotoxins.

  5. [NET WATER TRANSPORT VIA RAT COLON EPITELIUM UNDER THE EXPERIMENTAL DYSBIOSIS].

    PubMed

    Dovbynchuk, T; Zakordonets, L; Putnikov, A; Vareniuk, I; Tiapko, O; Roslova, N; Sergiychuk, T; Lynchak, O; Dzerzhynsky, M; Beregova, T; Tolstanova, G

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of cephalosporin antibiotic ceftriaxone (50 mg/kg, i/m) and mac- rolide antibiotic azithromycin (15 mg/kg, per.os.) on net water transport across rat colonic epithelium. Study was done on male Wistar rats (180-250 g). Azithromycin or ceftriaxone was injected daily for 5 days. Net water transport was evaluated on the 6th day by isolated colonic loop perfusion technique in vivo on anaesthetized rats. Treatment with azithromycin increased 2,4-fold the absorption of water, while ceftriaxone caused decrease 1,9-fold water absorption. The antibiotics treatment within five days didn't change the composition of the fecal and colonic parietal microbiota. Azithromycin-induced increase in water absorption was associated with upregulation of AQP 8 water channel expression (P < 0.05) in colonic mucosa. Ceftriaxone treatment didn't change protein level of AQP8 but induced pro-inflammatory changes in colonic mucosa structure and mast cells degranulation. We showed for the first time the opposite effects ofmacrolide and cephalosporin antibiotics on net water transport across rat colonic epithelium.

  6. Acute experimental distal colitis alters colonic transit in rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, B S; Dempsey, D T; Yasar, S; Martin, J S; Parkman, H P; Ryan, J P

    1997-04-01

    Data from humans with active distal colitis suggest that the proximal colon exhibits increased contractile activity and delayed transit, whereas the distal colon shows decreased contractile activity and rapid transit. The present study used the acetic acid rat model of experimental colitis to determine the effect of distal colitis on total and regional colonic transit in vivo and on the in vitro contractility of circular smooth muscle from the proximal and distal colon. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 4% acetic acid; sham control rats received saline enemas. Control and colitic rats were studied 2 days postenemas. Total colon transit was determined by calculating the geometric center of distribution of a radiolabeled marker (51Cr) instilled into the proximal colon. Regional transit was assessed by expressing the radioactivity in the cecum, proximal and distal colon, and excreted stool as a percent of total radioactivity. Muscle strips from the proximal and distal colon were stimulated with 100 microM acetylcholine (ACh) and 60 mM KCl and the tension was expressed as kilograms per square centimeter. Distal colitis was characterized by decreased total colon transit, increased retention of marker in the cecum and proximal colon, and decreased retention of marker in the distal colon. In vitro contractility studies revealed that distal colitis increased proximal colon circular smooth muscle contractility and decreased distal colon circular smooth muscle contractility to both ACh and potassium. Distal colitis is associated with regional differences in colonic circular smooth muscle contractility, which may contribute to delayed transit in the proximal colon and rapid transit in the distal colon.

  7. Correlation between colonic secretion and colonic motility in rats: Role of ghrelin

    PubMed Central

    Huang, Hsien-Hao; Ting, Ching-Heng; Syu, Yu-Fong; Chang, Shi-Chuan; Chen, Chih-Yen

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the relationship between colonic secretory function and colonic motility. METHODS Using a rat model chronically implanted with intracerebroventricular (ICV) and cecal catheters, we validated the correlation between colonic secretion and colonic motor functions, as well as the role of ICV injection volume. RESULTS Compared to saline controls (5 μL/rat), ICV acyl ghrelin at 1 nmol/5 μL enhanced the total fecal weight, accelerated the colonic transit time, and increased the fecal pellet output during the first hour post-injection, while ICV des-acyl ghrelin at 1 nmol/5 μL only accelerated the colonic transit time. These stimulatory effects on colonic motility and/or secretion from acyl ghrelin and des-acyl ghrelin disappeared when the ICV injection volume increased to 10 μL compared with saline controls (10 μL/rat). Additionally, the ICV injection of 10 μL of saline significantly shortened the colonic transit time compared with the ICV injection of 5 μL of saline. The total fecal weight during the first hour post-injection correlated with the colonic transit time and fecal pellet output after the ICV injection of acyl ghrelin (1 nmol/5 μL), whereas the total fecal weight during the first hour post-injection correlated with the fecal pellet output but not the colonic transit time after the ICV injection of des-acyl ghrelin (1 nmol/5 μL). CONCLUSION Colonic secretion does not always correlate with colonic motility in response to different colonic stimulations. Acyl ghrelin stimulates colonic secretion. PMID:28028362

  8. Corrupted colonic crypt fission in carcinogen-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2017-01-01

    The colonic crypts in rats reproduce themselves by symmetric fission at the base of the crypts, and proceeding upwards, generate two separate identical crypts. Recently we reported corrupted colonic crypt fission (CCCF) in rats with colonic carcinoma. Here we investigated whether CCCF also occurred in the colonic mucosa without carcinoma in carcinogen-treated rats. Filed Swiss-roll sections from 35 male rats (25 treated with 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH) suspended in EDTA solution, and 10 EDTA-treated) were reviewed. CCCF were regarded those with either asymmetric basal fission, asymmetric lateral sprouting/lateral fission, basal dilatations, or spatial aberrations of the normal (vertical) axis. 202 CCCF (38%) were recorded amongst 533 crypts with fission in DMH-treated rats, and only one CCCF (0.1%) was found amongst 571 crypts with fission in EDTA-treated rats (p<0.05). The basal aspect of four adenomas included in Swiss roll sections exhibited CCCF lined either with indigenous (non-dysplastic) epithelium or with dysplastic epithelium. It was demonstrated that CCCF without dysplasia develop in carcinogen-treated SD rats. As judged by the figures presented, the possibility that the epithelium in those corrupted crypts was successively replaced by top-down growing dysplastic cells, could not be totally rejected. This is the first report showing that non-dysplastic CCCF may antedate the very early stages of colonic carcinogenesis in SD rats.

  9. Corrupted colonic crypt fission in carcinogen-treated rats

    PubMed Central

    2017-01-01

    Background The colonic crypts in rats reproduce themselves by symmetric fission at the base of the crypts, and proceeding upwards, generate two separate identical crypts. Recently we reported corrupted colonic crypt fission (CCCF) in rats with colonic carcinoma. Here we investigated whether CCCF also occurred in the colonic mucosa without carcinoma in carcinogen-treated rats. Methods Filed Swiss-roll sections from 35 male rats (25 treated with 1,2-dimethyhydrazine (DMH) suspended in EDTA solution, and 10 EDTA-treated) were reviewed. CCCF were regarded those with either asymmetric basal fission, asymmetric lateral sprouting/lateral fission, basal dilatations, or spatial aberrations of the normal (vertical) axis. Results 202 CCCF (38%) were recorded amongst 533 crypts with fission in DMH-treated rats, and only one CCCF (0.1%) was found amongst 571 crypts with fission in EDTA-treated rats (p<0.05). The basal aspect of four adenomas included in Swiss roll sections exhibited CCCF lined either with indigenous (non-dysplastic) epithelium or with dysplastic epithelium. Conclusion It was demonstrated that CCCF without dysplasia develop in carcinogen-treated SD rats. As judged by the figures presented, the possibility that the epithelium in those corrupted crypts was successively replaced by top-down growing dysplastic cells, could not be totally rejected. This is the first report showing that non-dysplastic CCCF may antedate the very early stages of colonic carcinogenesis in SD rats. PMID:28273142

  10. Taenia taeniaeformis: colonic hyperplasia in heavily infected rats.

    PubMed

    Lagapa, Jose Trinipil; Oku, Yuzaburo; Kamiya, Masao

    2008-12-01

    Only one study previously mentioned the involvement of colon during Taenia taeniaeformis larvae infection in rats with inconsistent occurrence of lesions. Present study aimed to determine the consistency of histopathologic changes in colonic epithelia, and the proliferation of mucosal cells through BrdU and PCNA immunohistochemistry. Results demonstrated that crypt hyperplasia of the colon was found in all infected rats, although variable in degree even in a single tissue section. Cystic cavities were frequently seen in severely hyperplastic mucosa. Proliferative zone lengths were significantly increased and PCNA positive cells were observed throughout the colonic crypt lengths at 9 but not at 6 weeks post infection. Cell proliferation involving the major types of cells in the epithelial colon was also increased in infected rats at 9 weeks post infection, with labeling indices significantly greater than the control rats throughout the BrdU time course labeling. Findings suggested that massive increases in epithelial cells and depth of colonic crypts were due to a remarkable increase in cell proliferation. The study concluded that enteropathy in the colon during T. taeniaeformis infection could be consistently observed in heavily infected rats.

  11. Serotype-Specific Protection Against Treponema hyodysenteriae Infection in Ligated Colonic Loops of Pigs Recovered from Swine Dysentery

    PubMed Central

    Joens, L. A.; Whipp, S. C.; Glock, R. D.; Neussen, Mary E.

    1983-01-01

    Resistance to Treponema hyodysenteriae (serotypes 1, 2, 3, and 4) infection was evaluated in ligated colonic loops in pigs recovered from swine dysentery. Lesions were present in most loops from recovered swine inoculated with heterologous serotypes; however, lesions were not present in loops of recovered swine inoculated with homologous serotypes. PMID:6822429

  12. Triptolide ameliorates colonic fibrosis in an experimental rat model

    PubMed Central

    TAO, QINGSONG; WANG, BAOCHAI; ZHENG, YU; LI, GUANWEI; REN, JIANAN

    2015-01-01

    Triptolide is known to exert anti-inflammatory and immunomodulatory activities; however, its impact on intestinal fibrosis has not been previously examined. Based on our previous studies of the suppressive activity of triptolide on human colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts and the therapeutic efficacy of triptolide in Crohn’s disease, it was hypothesized that triptolide may have beneficial effects on intestinal fibrosis. In the present study, colonic fibrosis was induced in rats by 6 weekly repeated administration with a low-dose of 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) and was then treated with triptolide or PBS daily (control) simultaneously. Extracellular matrix (ECM) deposition in the colon was examined with image analysis of Masson Trichrome staining. Total collagen levels in colonic homogenates were measured by a Sircol assay. Collagen Iα1 transcripts and collagen I protein were measured ex vivo in the isolated colonic subepithelial myofibroblasts by reverse transcription-quantitative polymerase chain reaction and immunoblot analysis, respectively. The results indicated that triptolide decreased ECM deposition and collagen production in the colon, and inhibited collagen Iα1 transcripts and collagen I protein expression in the isolated subepithelial myofibroblasts of the rats with colonic fibrosis. In conclusion, triptolide ameliorates colonic fibrosis in the experimental rat model, suggesting triptolide may be a promising compound for inflammatory bowel disease treatment. PMID:25845760

  13. Complement activation of electrogenic ion transport in isolated rat colon.

    PubMed

    McCole, D F; Otti, B; Newsholme, P; Baird, A W

    1997-11-15

    The complement cascade is an important component in many immune and inflammatory reactions and may contribute to both the diarrhoea and inflammation associated with inflammatory bowel disease. Isolated rat colonic mucosae were voltage clamped in Ussing chambers. Basolateral addition of zymosan-activated whole human serum (ZAS) induced a rapid onset, transient inward short circuit current (SCC). This response was concentration dependent and was significantly attenuated by pre-heating ZAS at 60 degrees C for 30 min. Depletion of complement from normal human serum with cobra venom factor (CVF) significantly lowered SCC responses. Chloride was the primary charge carrying ion as responses to ZAS were abolished in the presence of the loop diuretic bumetanide. The complement component C3a stimulated ion transport but not to the same extent as whole serum. Exogenous C5 was without effect. The cyclooxygenase inhibitor piroxicam significantly attenuated the response to ZAS. These findings support the possibility that complement activation may contribute to the pathophysiology of secretory diarrhoea since activation of electrogenic chloride secretion converts intestinal epithelia to a state of net fluid secretion.

  14. Piroxicam decreases postirradiation colonic neoplasia in the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Northway, M.G.; Scobey, M.W.; Cassidy, K.T.; Geisinger, K.R. )

    1990-12-01

    This study evaluated the effects of the nonsteroidal antiinflammatory agent piroxicam on chronic radiation proctitis in the rat. Forty female Wistar rats received a 2250-cGy dose of irradiation to the distal 2 cm of the colon. Twenty received piroxicam 8.0 mg/kg orally 30 minutes before exposure and 24 hours after exposure; 20 rats served as irradiated controls. All animals were evaluated by colonoscopy 1 and 3 weeks postexposure and every third week until death or killing at 1 year. At killing, colons were removed for light microscopic examination. One year postirradiation results showed no differences in mortality, vascular changes, acute inflammation, colitis cystica profunda, or rectal stricture between the control and piroxicam-treated groups. However, at 1 year postirradiation the control group demonstrated neoplasia in 15 of 19 animals compared with eight of 20 animals in the piroxicam-treated group. The first endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasm occurred at 15 weeks postirradiation in one control irradiated rat whereas the first evidence of endoscopic neoplasm in the piroxicam-treated group did not occur until 36 weeks postirradiation. Histologic examination documented a tendency toward a greater presence of adenocarcinomas in the control group compared with the piroxicam-treated group. The authors conclude that piroxicam treatment significantly decreased the incidence of colonic neoplasia in general as well as delayed the endoscopic appearance of colonic neoplasia in rats after pelvic irradiation. 41 references.

  15. Mucin secretion is modulated by luminal factors in the isolated vascularly perfused rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Barcelo, A; Claustre, J; Moro, F; Chayvialle, J; Cuber, J; Plaisancie, P

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Mucins play an important protective role in the colonic mucosa. Luminal factors modulating colonic mucus release have been not fully identified.
AIM—To determine the effect of some dietary compounds on mucus discharge in rat colon.
METHODS—An isolated vascularly perfused rat colon model was used. Mucus secretion was induced by a variety of luminal factors administered as a bolus of 1 ml for 30 minutes in the colonic loop. Mucin release was evaluated using a sandwich enzyme linked immunosorbent assay supported by histological analysis.
RESULTS—The three dietary fibres tested in this study (pectin, gum arabic, and cellulose) did not provoke mucus secretion. Luminal administration of sodium alginate (an algal polysaccharide used as a food additive) or ulvan (a sulphated algal polymer) induced a dose dependent increase in mucin discharge over the concentration range 1-25 mg/l (p<0.05 for 25 mg/l alginate and p<0.05 for 10 and 25 mg/l ulvan). Glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid, which are major constituents of a variety of fibres, produced significant mucin secretion (p<0.05). Hydrogen sulphide and mercaptoacetate, two sulphides produced in the colonic lumen by microbial fermentation of sulphated polysaccharides, did not modify mucin secretion. Among the short chain fatty acids, acetate (5-100 mM) induced a dose dependent release of mucus (p<0.05 for 100 mM acetate). Interestingly, butyrate at a concentration of 5 mM produced colonic mucin secretion (p<0.05), but increasing its concentration to 100 mM provoked a gradual decrease in mucus discharge. Propionate (5-100 mM) did not induce mucin release. Several dietary phenolic compounds (quercetin, epicatechin, resveratrol) did not provoke mucus discharge.
CONCLUSIONS—Two algal polysaccharides (alginate and ulvan), two uronic acids (glucuronic acid and galacturonic acid), and the short chain fatty acids acetate and butyrate induce mucin secretion in rat colon. Taken together, these

  16. Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and rat colon smooth muscle.

    PubMed

    Gómez, A; Martos, F; Bellido, I; Marquez, E; Garcia, A J; Pavia, J; Sanchez de la Cuesta, F

    1992-06-09

    Muscarinic receptor subtypes in human and rat colon smooth muscle homogenates were characterized with [3H]N-methylscopolamine ([3H]NMS) by ligand binding studies. [3H]NMS saturation experiments show the existence of a homogeneous population of non-interacting binding sites with similar affinity (KD values of 1.38 +/- 0.20 nM in human colon smooth muscle and 1.48 +/- 0.47 nM in rat colon smooth muscle) and with Hill slopes close to unity in both samples of tissue. However, a significant (P less than 0.01) increase in muscarinic receptor density (Bmax) is found in human colon (29.9 +/- 2.9 fmol/mg protein) compared with rat colon (17.2 +/- 1.5 fmol/mg protein). Inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by non-labelled compounds shows the following order in human colon: atropine greater than AF-DX 116 greater than pirenzepine. Whereas in rat colon the rank order obtained is atropine greater than pirenzepine greater than AF-DX 116. Atropine and pirenzepine bind to a homogeneous population of binding sites, although pirenzepine shows higher affinity to bind to the sites present in rat colon (Ki = 1.08 +/- 0.08 microM) than those in human colon (Ki = 1.74 +/- 0.02 microM) (P less than 0.05). Similarly, IC50 values obtained in AF-DX 116 competition experiments were significantly different (P less than 0.01) in human colon (IC50 = 1.69 +/- 0.37 microM) than in rat colon (IC50 = 3.78 +/- 0.75 microM). Unlike atropine and pirenzepine, the inhibition of [3H]NMS binding by AF-DX 116 did not yield a simple mass-action binding curve (nH less than 1, P less than 0.01) suggesting the presence of more than one subtype of muscarinic receptor in both species. Computer analysis of these curves with a two binding site model suggests the presence of two populations of receptor. The apparent Ki1 value for the high affinity binding site is 0.49 +/- 0.07 microM for human colon smooth muscle and 0.33 +/- 0.05 microM for rat colon smooth muscle. The apparent Ki2 for the low affinity binding site is 8

  17. Biochemical characterization of rat colonic mucins secreted in response to Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed

    Tse, S K; Chadee, K

    1992-04-01

    Invasion of the colonic mucosa by Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites is preceded by colonic mucus depletion. The aim of our studies was to determine whether E. histolytica caused a differential secretion of mucin species in a rat colonic loop model. Mucus secretion in response to amoebae was followed by release of acid-precipitable 3H-glucosamine metabolically labelled glycoproteins and in vitro labelling of glycoprotein secretion with NaB3H4. The secretory response consisted of high-Mr goblet cell mucins and an increase in the secretion of low-Mr nonmucin glycoproteins as determined by Sepharose 4B column chromatography. High-Mr mucins subfractionated by Cellex-E (ECTEOLA) ion-exchange chromatography demonstrated a minor neutral and a major acidic mucin (greater than 98%) species. Marked differences between the neutral and acidic mucin species were indicated by immunogenicity and amino acid compositions. Thin-section histochemistry of rat colons confirmed secretion of neutral and acidic mucins in response to E. histolytica and demonstrated secretory activity from goblet cells from both the crypts and interglandular epithelium. E. histolytica mucus secretagogue activity was generalized and may function to deplete the host's protective mucus layer, facilitating invasion by the parasites.

  18. [Age characteristics of K(+) transport in the rat distal colon].

    PubMed

    Aĭzman, R I; Borovets, E N; Gerasev, A D

    2000-01-01

    In vitro and in vivo experiments with perfusion in 20- and 60-day old rats revealed that K+ absorption in the gut as well as 86Rb uptake in the distal colon was significantly higher in younger rats due probable, to the higher activity of the apex-located K+-dependent ATPase and lower activity of the basolateral K+-carriers. The luminal blockade of K+ absorbing pumps with ouabain or omeprazole resulted in a decrease of the K+ absorption and K2 accumulation in skeletal muscles. The higher K+-absorbing/K_ secreting mechanisms ratio in younger rats contributes to the positive potassium balance.

  19. Decreased colonic mucus in rats with loperamide-induced constipation.

    PubMed

    Shimotoyodome, A; Meguro, S; Hase, T; Tokimitsu, I; Sakata, T

    2000-06-01

    Constipation is a risk factor of colorectal cancer. Mucin is a major component of lumenal mucus, which protects the colorectal mucosa against mechanical and chemical damage. The aim of this study was to evaluate mucus production and to quantitate lumen mucus in a rat model of spastic constipation. We induced constipation with loperamide (1.5 mg/kg), and histochemically evaluated mucus production and the thickness of the mucus layer at the fecal surface. We quantitated the mucus attached to the mucosal surface using colonic perfusion with N-acetylcysteine. While more feces remained in the colon, there was less fecal excretion and lower fecal water content in loperamide-administered rats than in control rats. Crypt epithelial cells contained less mucus in constipated rats than in control rats. The mucus layer at the fecal surface was thinner and less mucus was recovered from the mucosal surface in constipated rats than in control rats. Mucus production of crypt epithelial cells and mucus at the fecal and mucosal surface were reduced by loperamide-induced constipation.

  20. The effects of iloprost on colonic anastomotic healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, G; Pramateftakis, M G; Raptis, D; Mantzoros, I; Kanellos, D; Angelopoulos, S; Koliakos, G; Zaraboukas, T; Lazaridis, C

    2011-10-01

    The purpose of this experimental study is to investigate the effects of iloprost on colonic anastomotic healing in rats, after intraperitoneal administration. Forty male Albino-Wistar rats were randomized into two groups of twenty animals each. They all underwent colonic resection followed by an inverted anastomosis. The rats of Group A (control) received 3 ml of NaCl intraperitoneally, while those of Group B (iloprost) received iloprost (2 μg/kg body weight), immediately postoperatively and daily until killed. Each group was further divided into two equal subgroups, depending on the day of killing. The animals of subgroups 1 were killed on the fourth postoperative day, while those of subgroups 2 on the eighth. Macroscopical and histological assessments were performed. Besides, anastomotic bursting pressures and the tissue concentrations in hydroxyproline and collagenase I were also evaluated. No anastomotic dehiscence was noted. The mean bursting pressure was higher in the iloprost group compared with the control group, but a significant difference was revealed only on the fourth postoperative day. Furthermore, iloprost significantly increased the new vessel formation on the fourth, as well as on the eighth postoperative day. Iloprost enhances the early phase of colonic anastomotic healing in rats.

  1. Perforated closed-loop obstruction secondary to gallstone ileus of the transverse colon: a rare entity.

    PubMed

    Carr, S P; MacNamara, F T; Muhammed, K M; Boyle, E; McHugh, S M; Naughton, P; Leahy, A

    2015-01-01

    Introduction. Gallstone ileus (GSI) of the colon is an extremely rare entity with potentially serious complications including perforation. Case Presentation. An 88-year-old man presented to the emergency department with abdominal pain and distension. Clinical exam revealed signs of peritonism. Computed tomography (CT) revealed GSI of the transverse colon with a closed-loop large bowel obstruction (LBO) and caecal perforation. The patient underwent emergency laparotomy. A right hemicolectomy was performed, the gallstone was removed, and a primary bowel anastomosis was undertaken. A Foley catheter was sutured into the residual gallbladder bed to create a controlled biliary fistula. The patient recovered well postoperatively with no complications. He was discharged home with the Foley catheter in situ. Discussion. Gallstone ileus is a difficult diagnosis both clinically and radiologically with only 50% of cases being diagnosed preoperatively. Most commonly it is associated with impaction at the ileocaecal valve and small bowel obstruction. Gallstone ileus should also be considered as a rare but potential cause of LBO. This is the first reported case of caecal perforation secondary to gallstone ileus of the transverse colon. Successful operative management consisted of a one-stage procedure with right hemicolectomy and formation of a controlled biliary fistula.

  2. Neural mechanisms of peristalsis in the isolated rabbit distal colon: a neuromechanical loop hypothesis

    PubMed Central

    Dinning, Phil G.; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Omari, Taher; Arkwright, John W.; Spencer, Nick J.; Brookes, Simon J. H.; Costa, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Propulsive contractions of circular muscle are largely responsible for the movements of content along the digestive tract. Mechanical and electrophysiological recordings of isolated colonic circular muscle have demonstrated that localized distension activates ascending and descending interneuronal pathways, evoking contraction orally and relaxation anally. These polarized enteric reflex pathways can theoretically be sequentially activated by the mechanical stimulation of the advancing contents. Here, we test the hypothesis that initiation and propagation of peristaltic contractions involves a neuromechanical loop; that is an initial gut distension activates local and oral reflex contraction and anal reflex relaxation, the subsequent movement of content then acts as new mechanical stimulus triggering sequentially reflex contractions/relaxations at each point of the gut resulting in a propulsive peristaltic contraction. In fluid filled isolated rabbit distal colon, we combined spatiotemporal mapping of gut diameter and intraluminal pressure with a new analytical method, allowing us to identify when and where active (neurally-driven) contraction or relaxation occurs. Our data indicate that gut dilation is associated with propagating peristaltic contractions, and that the associated level of dilation is greater than that preceding non-propagating contractions (2.7 ± 1.4 mm vs. 1.6 ± 1.2 mm; P < 0.0001). These propagating contractions lead to the formation of boluses that are propelled by oral active neurally driven contractions. The propelled boluses also activate neurally driven anal relaxations, in a diameter dependent manner. These data support the hypothesis that neural peristalsis is the consequence of the activation of a functional loop involving mechanical dilation which activates polarized enteric circuits. These produce propulsion of the bolus which activates further anally, polarized enteric circuits by distension, thus closing the neuromechanical loop

  3. Neural mechanisms of peristalsis in the isolated rabbit distal colon: a neuromechanical loop hypothesis.

    PubMed

    Dinning, Phil G; Wiklendt, Lukasz; Omari, Taher; Arkwright, John W; Spencer, Nick J; Brookes, Simon J H; Costa, Marcello

    2014-01-01

    Propulsive contractions of circular muscle are largely responsible for the movements of content along the digestive tract. Mechanical and electrophysiological recordings of isolated colonic circular muscle have demonstrated that localized distension activates ascending and descending interneuronal pathways, evoking contraction orally and relaxation anally. These polarized enteric reflex pathways can theoretically be sequentially activated by the mechanical stimulation of the advancing contents. Here, we test the hypothesis that initiation and propagation of peristaltic contractions involves a neuromechanical loop; that is an initial gut distension activates local and oral reflex contraction and anal reflex relaxation, the subsequent movement of content then acts as new mechanical stimulus triggering sequentially reflex contractions/relaxations at each point of the gut resulting in a propulsive peristaltic contraction. In fluid filled isolated rabbit distal colon, we combined spatiotemporal mapping of gut diameter and intraluminal pressure with a new analytical method, allowing us to identify when and where active (neurally-driven) contraction or relaxation occurs. Our data indicate that gut dilation is associated with propagating peristaltic contractions, and that the associated level of dilation is greater than that preceding non-propagating contractions (2.7 ± 1.4 mm vs. 1.6 ± 1.2 mm; P < 0.0001). These propagating contractions lead to the formation of boluses that are propelled by oral active neurally driven contractions. The propelled boluses also activate neurally driven anal relaxations, in a diameter dependent manner. These data support the hypothesis that neural peristalsis is the consequence of the activation of a functional loop involving mechanical dilation which activates polarized enteric circuits. These produce propulsion of the bolus which activates further anally, polarized enteric circuits by distension, thus closing the neuromechanical loop.

  4. Oncogene-mediated transformation of fetal rat colon in vitro.

    PubMed

    Pories, S; Jaros, K; Steele, G; Pauley, A; Summerhayes, I C

    1992-05-01

    Short-term maintenance of fetal rat colonic tissue in vitro has been demonstrated using a collagen matrix organ culture system. The introduction of single (v-myc, v-rasH, v-src) oncogenes or combinations of oncogenes (v-myc/rasH, v-myc/src) into normal colon mucosal elements was established using retroviral vectors, resulting in enhanced proliferation and migration of epithelial cells from the lumen of tissue implants. Expression of a single oncogene in normal colon epithelium did not result in the establishment of cell lines. In contrast, expression of cooperating oncogenic elements resulted in cell lines in greater than 80% of experiments, revealing different morphological characteristics dependent upon the oncogene combination used. Confirmation of the expression of viral transcripts was determined using Northern blot analysis and viral oncoprotein expression using Western blot analysis (p21) and an immunoprecipitation kinase assay (src). Expression of keratin filaments was lost following passaging of cell lines but could be induced by the myc/ras transformants by growth on Rat-1 feeder layers. This induction phenomenon was not observed with myc/src lines, and although these expressed high levels of sucrase isomaltase the epithelial origin of these cells is unclear. Karyotypic analysis performed on three myc/ras-transformed cell lines revealed a normal chromosome complement associated with transformation. In this report we describe a novel in vitro transformation system for normal rat colonic epithelium mediated by the introduction of oncogene elements using different retroviral vector constructs. The potential to generate cell lines representing different stages of neoplastic progression using relevant genetic components presents significant advantages for the study of cellular and molecular interactions underlying colon neoplastic progression.

  5. Ischemia/reperfusion injury in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S; Hui-Qi, Q; Sakai, T; Depace, D E; Fondacaro, J D

    1997-04-01

    This study investigated metabolic and biochemical consequences of colonic ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) in the rat and evaluated whether antioxidants prevent I/R-induced functional damage in the rat colon. The surgical preparation involved a 10 cm segment of the colon and occlusion of the superior mesenteric artery (SMA) to induce I/R. Arterial blood from the aorta and venous blood from the superior mesenteric vein (SMV) was collected to measure blood gases, lactic acid (LA) and arachidonic acid (AA) metabolites. Tissue xanthine oxidase (XO) and thiobarbituric acid (TBA) derivatives were measured before and after reperfusion. In addition, vascular and mucosal permeability, and the effect of MDL 73404 (a water soluble vitamin E analog) and 5-aminosalicylic acid on LA, AA, XO and TBA was measured. After ischemia, the colon displayed a metabolic shift from aerobic to anaerobic course by increasing lactic acid production in the colon (183% increase in SMV lactate level compared 87% in the SMA; p < 0.03). After 10 minutes of reperfusion, circulating 6-keto-prostaglandin F1 alpha increased by 3.85 fold (p < 0.001) and thromboxane B2 increased by 2 to 3 fold. An Ischemia time longer than 60 minutes was required to cause changes in tissue XO levels. Tissue TBA levels showed a good dose response corresponding with I/R time. I/R (60 minutes) caused a three and 16 fold increase (p < 0.01) in vascular and mucosal permeability, respectively. MDL 73404 and 5-aminosalicylic acid significantly inhibited the vascular permeability and decreased LA, AA, XO and TBA. These observations provide the first direct experimental evidence for I/R-induced damage in the colon and some of its effects can be reversed by conventional and novel antioxidants.

  6. Colonic epithelial cell proliferation in a rat model of nongenotoxin-induced colonic neoplasia.

    PubMed

    Wilcox, D K; Higgins, J; Bertram, T A

    1992-09-01

    The effect on colonic cell proliferation of poligeenan, a nongenotoxic polysaccharide that induces colon tumors in rats, was compared with guar gum and carrageenan. Fischer 344 rats were fed a basal diet supplemented with carrageenan and poligeenan fibers for up to 91 days. The quantitative levels of proliferation, location of the proliferating cells, and the ability of the mucosa to readapt by removing the experimental fibers from the diet were tested. The mucosal epithelium exhibited a 5-fold increase in thymidine kinase activity in both the carrageenan and poligeenan groups. Proliferating cells appeared at the luminal surface only in the poligeenan-treated rats, and the number of proliferating cells in the upper third of the crypt increased 35-fold. A second and third set of animals were fed one of the three test diets for either 28 or 64 days, followed by a 28-day recovery period. Proliferation in the guar- and carrageenan-treated groups returned to basal levels. In poligeenan-treated rats, thymidine kinase levels, and proliferating cells in the upper third of the crypt remained 2- and 11-fold, respectively, above controls. The difference in recovery time between the poligeenan group and the others, and the luminal location of proliferating cells may prove useful as markers in understanding early events in the carcinogenic process induced by a nongenotoxin.

  7. Water immersion colonoscopy facilitates straight passage of the colonoscope through the sigmoid colon without loop formation: randomized controlled trial.

    PubMed

    Asai, Satoshi; Fujimoto, Naoki; Tanoue, Koujirou; Akamine, Eisuke; Nakao, Eisuke; Hashimoto, Kirie; Ichinona, Takumi; Nambara, Mikio; Sassa, Seitarou; Yanagi, Hideo; Hirooka, Norifumi; Mori, Takuji; Ogawa, Minoru; Ogawa, Atsuhiro

    2015-03-01

    One of the major causes of pain during colonoscopy is looping of the instrument during insertion through the sigmoid colon, which causes discomfort by stretching the mesentery. There are many studies in colonoscope techniques, but they have not been assessed objectively with respect to colonoscope passage through the sigmoid colon without loop formation. The aim of the present study was to determine whether cap-fitted colonoscopy and water immersion increase the success rate of insertion through the sigmoid without loop formation. A total of 1005 patients were randomized to standard colonoscopy, cap-fitted colonoscopy or water immersion technique. All examinations were carried out under a magnetic endoscope imaging device. Main outcome was the success rate of insertion without loop formation. Success rate of insertion without loop formation was 37.5%, 40.0%, and 53.8% in the standard, cap, and water groups, respectively (standard vs water P = 0.00014, cap vs water P = 0.00186). There were no significant differences among the groups regarding cecal intubation rate, cecal intubation time and number of polyps ≥5 mm per patient. Water immersion increases the success rate of insertion through the sigmoid colon without loop formation. This practical technique, requiring only preparation of a cap and water, is useful without compromising cecal intubation rate, cecal intubation time, or polyp detection rate. © 2014 The Authors. Digestive Endoscopy © 2014 Japan Gastroenterological Endoscopy Society.

  8. A Grading Score for Colon Preservation Injury in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Bresler, A; Ionac, M; Oltean, M

    2016-03-01

    Colon transplantation is rarely performed because of the fear for an advanced ischemic injury that may favor septic complications. Systematic studies on colon preservation are missing. The score used to evaluate the preservation injury of the colon is adapted from that used for the small intestine, despite histological and biological differences between the two organs. We studied sequentially the tissue changes in the rat colon during prolonged cold storage (CS) in histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and designed a grading score specific for the colon. Large bowels of Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 9) were perfused in situ with HTK and stored at 4°C for 6 hours, 12 hours, 18 hours, and 24 hours. Samples from the proximal colon were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and alcian blue. Tight junction protein zonulla occludens (ZO)-1 was also studied. Minimal subepithelial edema (hallmark of small intestinal preservation injury) was observed throughout the 24 hours of CS. The two major changes observed during the colonic CS were progressive submucosal edema and the depletion of Goblet cells (GC). The submucosal edema was absent at 6 hours, started after 12 hours, and become significant (over 50% of the circumference) after 18 hours of CS. Depletion of GC started in the luminal half of the crypts between 12 and 18 hours of CS, and all samples revealed significant GC depletion only after 24 hours. The overall appearance of the mucosa was little affected under the CS, and ZO-1 expression was frequently maintained throughout the first 18 hours. The colon is more resilient to cold ischemia than the small bowel and maintains its histological epithelial features longer than the small intestine. On the basis of these serial observations, we suggest the following grading score: grade 0: normal mucosa, repleted GC, mucosa adhering to the muscular layer; grade 1: limited submucosal edema, repleted GC; grade 2: limited submucosal edema, GC depletion in the luminal half of

  9. Adherence of Entamoeba histolytica trophozoites to rat and human colonic mucosa.

    PubMed Central

    Ravdin, J I; John, J E; Johnston, L I; Innes, D J; Guerrant, R L

    1985-01-01

    We studied the adherence of [3H]thymidine-labeled axenic Entamoeba histolytica (strain HM1-IMSS) to in vitro preparations of rat and human colonic mucosa. Studies were performed with fixed or unfixed rat colonic mucosa, unfixed rat mucosa exposed to trypsin, unfixed rat submucosa, and fixed human colonic mucosa. Twenty percent of the amebae adhered to fixed rat colonic mucosa; adherence was specifically inhibited by N-acetyl-D-galactosamine (GalNAc), galactose, and asialofetuin. The adherence of amebae to fixed human colonic mucosa was also GalNAc inhibitable. Greater adherence was found with unfixed rat colonic mucosa (40.9%) and was not GalNAc inhibitable unless the tissue was first exposed to trypsin. However, GalNAc did inhibit the adherence of amebae to unfixed rat submucosa. Glutaraldehyde fixation of amebae inactivates known amebic adhesion proteins; there was a markedly decreased adherence of fixed amebae to trypsin-exposed mucosa or fixed rat colonic mucosa. However, fixed or viable amebae had equal levels of adherence to unfixed rat colonic mucosa, suggesting the presence of a host adhesion protein that binds to receptors on amebae. Human (10%) and rabbit (5%) immune sera reduced the adherence of viable amebae to fixed rat colonic mucosa. We concluded that the GalNAc-inhibitable adhesion protein on the surface of E. histolytica trophozoites mediated adherence to fixed rat mucosa, fixed human colonic mucosa, trypsin-exposed unfixed rat mucosa, and unfixed rat submucosa. The surface of unfixed rat colonic mucosa contained a glutaraldehyde- and trypsin-sensitive host adhesion protein, perhaps in the overlying mucus blanket, which bound viable or fixed E. histolytica trophozoites. Images PMID:2580787

  10. Effects of vasopressin on electrolyte transport across isolated colon from normal and dexamethasone-treated rats.

    PubMed Central

    Bridges, R J; Rummel, W; Wollenberg, P

    1984-01-01

    Vasopressin enhanced the absorption of Na+ and Cl- across the short-circuited colon descendens from normal rats. This effect of vasopressin results from an increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in the short-circuit current (ISC). Neither the base-line absorption of Na+ and Cl-, the vasopressin-induced increase in Na+ and Cl- absorption nor the decrease in ISC were inhibited by amiloride in the colon from normal rats. Colon descendens from rats treated for 3 days with dexamethasone had remarkably higher transmural potential difference (p.d.), tissue conductance (Gt) and ISC. The absorption of Na+ across the short-circuited colon descendens from dexamethasone-treated rats was increased 3-fold when compared to colon from normal rats. The absorption of Cl- in normal rats was reversed to Cl- secretion in treated rats. Amiloride rapidly and reversibly decreased the p.d., Gt and ISC in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. The transport of Na+ was nearly completely inhibited by amiloride in treated rats. In contrast to its enhancing effects on Na+ absorption in colon from normal rats vasopressin did not enhance Na+ absorption in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- absorption by vasopressin was retained in colon from treated rats. This enhancement of Cl- transport was due solely to a decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- and was accompanied with a decrease in ISC and Gt. The results support the hypothesis that vasopressin causes inhibition of the electrogenic secretion of Cl- in colon from dexamethasone-treated rats. Furthermore, the results suggest that the increase in the mucosal to serosal movement of Na+ and Cl- and the decrease in the serosal to mucosal movement of Cl- in colon from normal rats are caused by independent effects of vasopressin. PMID:6491990

  11. Carbohydrate digestibility predicts colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Jacobsen, Helene; Poulsen, Morten; Dragsted, Lars Ove; Ravn-Haren, Gitte; Meyer, Otto; Lindecrona, Rikke Hvid

    2006-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to compare the effect of carbohydrate structure and digestibility on azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis. Five groups of male Fischer 344 rats each comprising 30 animals were injected with AOM and fed a high-fat diet with 15% of various carbohydrates. The carbohydrate sources used were sucrose, cornstarch (a linear starch, reference group), potato starch (a branched starch), a short-chained oligofructose (Raftilose), and a long-chained inulin-type fructan (Raftiline). An interim sacrifice was performed after 9 wk to investigate markers of carbohydrate digestibility, including caecal fermentation (caecum weight and pH) and glucose and lipid metabolism [glucose, fructoseamine, HbA1c, triglycerides, and insulin-like growth factor (IGF) 1]. In addition potential early predictors of carcinogenicity [cell proliferation and aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] at 9 wk and their correlation to colon cancer risk after 32 wk were investigated. Tumor incidence was significantly reduced in animals fed oligofructose, and the number of tumors per animal was significantly reduced in animals fed inulin and oligofructose at 32 wk after AOM induction compared to the reference group fed sucrose. Increased caecum weight and decreased caecal pH were seen in groups fed oligofructose, inulin, and potato starch. Plasma triglyceride was decreased in rats fed oligofructose and inulin. Cell proliferation was increased in the proximal colon of rats fed sucrose, oligofructose, and inulin, and the number of cells per crypt decreased in rats fed oligofructose and inulin. The total number of ACF's was unaffected by treatment, and the size and multiplicity of ACF was unrelated to tumor development. It was concluded that less digestible carbohydrates with an early effect on caecum fermentation and plasma triglyceride decreased subsequent tumor incidence and multiplicity. This was unrelated to ACF, cell proliferation, and other markers of glucose and lipid metabolism.

  12. Strain gauge transducer technique for investigation of the pathophysiology of postoperative colonic ileus in awake rats.

    PubMed

    Huge, A; Habermann, F M; Jehle, E C; Zittel, T T

    1998-12-01

    Postoperative inhibition of colonic motility is a major contributor to postoperative ileus, but only limited information is available on its pathophysiology. We developed a model to record perioperative gastrointestinal motility in awake rats and investigated the effect of nitric oxide (NO) synthesis blockade on postoperative colonic ileus in rats. Rats were equipped with an i.v. catheter. Two strain gauge transducers were sutured to the colon, and the effects of NO synthesis blockade on postoperative colonic motility were investigated. NO synthesis blockade slightly increased baseline colonic motility. Abdominal surgery profoundly inhibited colonic motility. Blockade of NO synthesis did not prohibit intraoperative inhibition of colonic motility, but significantly hastened recovery of postoperative colonic ileus compared to vehicle. We established a model to record gastric, small intestinal and colonic motility in awake rats postoperatively. Laparotomy and short manipulation of the cecum produced a prolonged inhibition of colonic motility. Inhibition of NO synthesis improved recovery of postoperative colonic motility, indicating that NO partly mediates postoperative colonic ileus in rats.

  13. Effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ on rats with cathartic colon.

    PubMed

    Li, Hai-Yan; Yan, Xiang; Xue, Quan-Lai; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Gao, Yan; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yong-Ming; Ran, Jun-Tao

    2007-01-07

    To demonstrate the change and effect of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the colon of rats with cathartic colon. The cathartic colon model was established by feeding rats rhubarb for 3 mo, the changes of colonic electromyography were investigated by both suspension muscle strips test and serosal recordings of colonic myoelectrical activity. Immunohistochemical staining (S-P methods) and image analysis were used to determine the changes of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the proximal colon and distal colon of rats with cathartic colon. Suspension muscle strips test in vitro showed OFQ (10(-9)-10(-6) mol/L) concentration dependently caused an immediate tonic contraction in the isolated colon. But the increase of tension in cathartic colon was less than control groups (P < 0.01). Intravenous administration of OFQ (1 microg/kg) caused phasic contractions in the proximal colon, while the amplitude of phasic contractions caused by OFQ in cathartic colon was much lower than that in the control groups (2.58 +/- 0.41 vs 4.16 +/- 0.53, t = -2.6, P = 0.012). OFQ was highly expressed in the myenteric plexus of the rat colon but not in the muscle cells. The immunoreactivity of OFQ in the proximal colon in cathartic colon rats decreased significantly compared with the control group (P = 0.001). Colonic smooth muscle of cathartic colon showed low sensitivity to the stimulation of OFQ, suggesting that it might be caused by the abnormal distribution of OFQ or the abnormalities of receptors, leading to the disorganization of dynamic and incoordinated contractions.

  14. Effects of nociceptin/orphanin FQ on rats with cathartic colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hai-Yan; Yan, Xiang; Xue, Quan-Lai; Zhou, Yong-Ning; Gao, Yan; Wang, Rui; Liu, Yong-Ming; Ran, Jun-Tao

    2007-01-01

    AIM: To demonstrate the change and effect of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the colon of rats with cathartic colon. METHODS: The cathartic colon model was established by feeding rats rhubarb for 3 mo, the changes of colonic electromyography were investigated by both suspension muscle strips test and serosal recordings of colonic myoelectrical activity. Immunohistochemical staining (S-P methods) and image analysis were used to determine the changes of nociceptin/orphanin FQ in the proximal colon and distal colon of rats with cathartic colon. RESULTS: Suspension muscle strips test in vitro showed OFQ (10-9-10-6 mol/L) concentration dependently caused an immediate tonic contraction in the isolated colon. But the increase of tension in cathartic colon was less than control groups (P < 0.01). Intravenous administration of OFQ (1 μg/kg) caused phasic contractions in the proximal colon, while the amplitude of phasic contractions caused by OFQ in cathartic colon was much lower than that in the control groups (2.58 ± 0.41 vs 4.16 ± 0.53, t = -2.6, P = 0.012). OFQ was highly expressed in the myenteric plexus of the rat colon but not in the muscle cells. The immunoreactivity of OFQ in the proximal colon in cathartic colon rats decreased significantly compared with the control group (P = 0.001). CONCLUSION: Colonic smooth muscle of cathartic colon showed low sensitivity to the stimulation of OFQ, suggesting that it might be caused by the abnormal distribution of OFQ or the abnormalities of receptors, leading to the disorganization of dynamic and incoordinated contractions. PMID:17206761

  15. Red meat and colon cancer: dietary haem, but not fat, has cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects on rat colonic epithelium.

    PubMed

    Sesink, A L; Termont, D S; Kleibeuker, J H; Van Der Meer, R

    2000-10-01

    High intake of red meat is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. It has been suggested that fat from red meat is responsible, because high fat intake increases the concentration of cytotoxic lipids in the colon. Experimental studies have not unequivocally supported such a role for fat, however. Recently, we showed that dietary haem, which is abundant in red meat, increased colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial proliferation. In this study, we wanted to clarify whether dietary fat affects colon cancer risk by itself or by modulating the detrimental effects of haem on the colonic epithelium. Rats were fed control or haem-supplemented diets with 10%, 25% or 40% of the energy derived from fat for 14 days. Faeces were collected for biochemical analyses. Colonic cytotoxicity was determined from the degree of lysis of erythrocytes by faecal water. Colonic epithelial proliferation was measured in vivo using [(3)H]thymidine incorporation. Increasing the fat content of the control diets stimulated faecal disposal of both fatty acids and bile acids. It also increased the concentration of fatty acids, but not that of bile acids, in faecal water in control rats. The cytolytic activity of faecal water and colonic epithelial proliferation were unaffected. Dietary haem increased faecal cation content and cytolytic activity of faecal water at all fat levels, suggesting that the colonic mucosa was exposed to high amounts of luminal irritants. This effect was smaller in rats on the low-fat diet. Dietary haem also increased colonic epithelial proliferation at all fat levels. The haem-induced effects were independent of fatty acids or bile acids in the faecal water. In western societies, 30-40% of ingested energy is supplied by dietary fat, so our results suggest that the association between consumption of red meat and risk of colon cancer is mainly due to its haem content, and is largely independent of dietary fat content.

  16. Disodium Cromoglycate Reverses Colonic Visceral Hypersensitivity and Influences Colonic Ion Transport in a Stress-Sensitive Rat Strain

    PubMed Central

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O’Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders. PMID:24367692

  17. Disodium cromoglycate reverses colonic visceral hypersensitivity and influences colonic ion transport in a stress-sensitive rat strain.

    PubMed

    Carroll, Siobhan Yvonne; O'Mahony, Siobhain Mary; Grenham, Susan; Cryan, John Francis; Hyland, Niall Patrick

    2013-01-01

    The interface between psychiatry and stress-related gastrointestinal disorders (GI), such as irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), is well established, with anxiety and depression the most frequently occurring comorbid conditions. Moreover, stress-sensitive Wistar Kyoto (WKY) rats, which display anxiety- and depressive-like behaviors, exhibit GI disturbances akin to those observed in stress-related GI disorders. Additionally, there is mounting preclinical and clinical evidence implicating mast cells as significant contributors to the development of abdominal visceral pain in IBS. In this study we examined the effects of the rat connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) stabiliser, disodium cromoglycate (DSCG) on visceral hypersensitivity and colonic ion transport, and examined both colonic and peritoneal mast cells from stress-sensitive WKY rats. DSCG significantly decreased abdominal pain behaviors induced by colorectal distension in WKY animals independent of a reduction in colonic rat mast cell mediator release. We further demonstrated that mast cell-stimulated colonic ion transport was sensitive to inhibition by the mast cell stabiliser DSCG, an effect only observed in stress-sensitive rats. Moreover, CTMC-like mast cells were significantly increased in the colonic submucosa of WKY animals, and we observed a significant increase in the proportion of intermediate, or immature, peritoneal mast cells relative to control animals. Collectively our data further support a role for mast cells in the pathogenesis of stress-related GI disorders.

  18. Chemopreventive effects of rosmarinic acid on rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Furtado, Ricardo A; Oliveira, Barthira R; Silva, Luciana R; Cleto, Sabrina S; Munari, Carla C; Cunha, Wilson R; Tavares, Denise C

    2015-03-01

    Rosmarinic acid (RA) is a polyphenolic compound that shows a number of interesting biological activities, such as antiapoptotic, antifibrotic, antioxidant, hepatoprotective, antineurodegenerative, and anti-inflammatory properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the ability of RA to prevent 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced primary DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in Wistar rat colon. The animals were treated by gavage with doses of 4, 8, and 16 mg/kg body weight/day. Next, the animals received a single subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg DMH and were killed 4 h later for the evaluation of DNA damage using the comet assay. In addition, two doses of 40 mg/kg DMH were administered weekly for 2 weeks and the animals were killed 2 weeks after the last injection for the evaluation of ACF formation in rat colon. The results showed that RA exerted no genotoxic/carcinogenic effects. Treatment with different doses of RA combined with DMH led to a significant reduction in the extent of DNA damage and in the frequency of ACF compared with animals treated with DMH alone. These findings suggest that RA reduces DNA damage and suppresses the formation of ACF.

  19. Cocoa polyphenols and fiber modify colonic gene expression in rats.

    PubMed

    Massot-Cladera, Malen; Franch, Àngels; Castell, Margarida; Pérez-Cano, Francisco J

    2017-08-01

    Cocoa intake has been associated with health benefits, improving cardiovascular function and metabolism, as well as modulating intestinal immune function. The aim of this study was to take an in-depth look into the mechanisms affected by the cocoa intake by evaluating the colonic gene expression after nutritional intervention, and to ascertain the role of the fiber of cocoa in these effects. To achieve this, Wistar rats were fed for 3 weeks with either a reference diet, a diet containing 10 % cocoa (C10), a diet based on cocoa fiber (CF) or a diet containing inulin (I). At the end of the study, colon was excised to obtain the RNA to evaluate the differential gene expression by microarray. Results were validated by RT-PCR. The C10 group was the group with most changes in colonic gene expression, most of them down-regulated but a few in common with the CF diet. The C10 diet significantly up-regulated the expression of Scgb1a1 and Scnn1 g and down-regulated Tac4, Mcpt2, Fcer1a and Fabp1 by twofold, most of them related to lipid metabolism and immune function. The CF and I diets down-regulated the expression of Serpina10 and Apoa4 by twofold. Similar patterns of expression were found by PCR. Most of the effects attributed to cocoa consumption on genes related to the immune system (B cell and mast cell functionality) and lipid metabolism in the colon tissue were due not only to its fiber content, but also to the possible contribution of polyphenols and other compounds.

  20. Western diet enhances benzo(a)pyrene-induced colon tumorigenesis in a polyposis in rat coli (PIRC) rat model of colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Harris, Kelly L.; Pulliam, Stephanie R.; Okoro, Emmanuel; Guo, Zhongmao; Washington, Mary K.; Adunyah, Samuel E.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2016-01-01

    Consumption of Western diet (WD), contaminated with environmental toxicants, has been implicated as one of the risk factors for sporadic colon cancer. Our earlier studies using a mouse model revealed that compared to unsaturated dietary fat, the saturated dietary fat exacerbated the development of colon tumors caused by B(a)P. The objective of this study was to study how WD potentiates B(a)P-induced colon carcinogenesis in the adult male rats that carry a mutation in the Apc locus - the polyposis in the rat colon (PIRC) rats. Groups of PIRC rats were fed with AIN-76A standard diet (RD) or Western diet (WD) and received 25, 50, or 100 μg B(a)P/kg body weight (wt) via oral gavage for 60 days. Subsequent to exposure, rats were euthanized; colons were retrieved and preserved in 10% formalin for counting the polyp numbers, measuring the polyp size, and histological analyses. Blood samples were collected and concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and leptin were measured. Rats that received WD + B(a)P showed increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and leptin in comparison to RD + B(a)P groups or controls. The colon tumor numbers showed a B(a)P dose-response relationship. Adenomas with high grade dysplasia were prominent in B(a)P + WD rats compared to B(a)P + RD rats and controls (p < 0.05). The larger rat model system used in this study allows for studying more advanced tumor phenotypes over a longer duration and delineating the role of diet - toxicant interactions in sporadic colon tumor development. PMID:26959117

  1. Western diet enhances benzo(a)pyrene-induced colon tumorigenesis in a polyposis in rat coli (PIRC) rat model of colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Harris, Kelly L; Pulliam, Stephanie R; Okoro, Emmanuel; Guo, Zhongmao; Washington, Mary K; Adunyah, Samuel E; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Ramesh, Aramandla

    2016-05-17

    Consumption of Western diet (WD), contaminated with environmental toxicants, has been implicated as one of the risk factors for sporadic colon cancer. Our earlier studies using a mouse model revealed that compared to unsaturated dietary fat, the saturated dietary fat exacerbated the development of colon tumors caused by B(a)P. The objective of this study was to study how WD potentiates B(a)P-induced colon carcinogenesis in the adult male rats that carry a mutation in the Apc locus - the polyposis in the rat colon (PIRC) rats. Groups of PIRC rats were fed with AIN-76A standard diet (RD) or Western diet (WD) and received 25, 50, or 100 μg B(a)P/kg body weight (wt) via oral gavage for 60 days. Subsequent to exposure, rats were euthanized; colons were retrieved and preserved in 10% formalin for counting the polyp numbers, measuring the polyp size, and histological analyses. Blood samples were collected and concentrations of cholesterol, triglycerides, glucose, insulin and leptin were measured. Rats that received WD + B(a)P showed increased levels of cholesterol, triglycerides, and leptin in comparison to RD + B(a)P groups or controls. The colon tumor numbers showed a B(a)P dose-response relationship. Adenomas with high grade dysplasia were prominent in B(a)P + WD rats compared to B(a)P + RD rats and controls (p < 0.05). The larger rat model system used in this study allows for studying more advanced tumor phenotypes over a longer duration and delineating the role of diet - toxicant interactions in sporadic colon tumor development.

  2. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Irving, Amy A; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hart, Marcia L; Parker, Taybor; Clipson, Linda; Ford, Madeline R; Kuramoto, Takashi; Dove, William F; Amos-Landgraf, James M

    2014-11-01

    Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer.

  3. The utility of Apc-mutant rats in modeling human colon cancer

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A.; Yoshimi, Kazuto; Hart, Marcia L.; Parker, Taybor; Clipson, Linda; Ford, Madeline R.; Kuramoto, Takashi; Dove, William F.; Amos-Landgraf, James M.

    2014-01-01

    Prior to the advent of genetic engineering in the mouse, the rat was the model of choice for investigating the etiology of cancer. Now, recent advances in the manipulation of the rat genome, combined with a growing recognition of the physiological differences between mice and rats, have reignited interest in the rat as a model of human cancer. Two recently developed rat models, the polyposis in the rat colon (Pirc) and Kyoto Apc Delta (KAD) strains, each carry mutations in the intestinal-cancer-associated adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc) gene. In contrast to mouse models carrying Apc mutations, in which cancers develop mainly in the small intestine rather than in the colon and there is no gender bias, these rat models exhibit colonic predisposition and gender-specific susceptibility, as seen in human colon cancer. The rat also provides other experimental resources as a model organism that are not provided by the mouse: the structure of its chromosomes facilitates the analysis of genomic events, the size of its colon permits longitudinal analysis of tumor growth, and the size of biological samples from the animal facilitates multiplexed molecular analyses of the tumor and its host. Thus, the underlying biology and experimental resources of these rat models provide important avenues for investigation. We anticipate that advances in disease modeling in the rat will synergize with resources that are being developed in the mouse to provide a deeper understanding of human colon cancer. PMID:25288683

  4. Ultrastructural changes in rat colon following 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis: protection by zinc.

    PubMed

    Chadha, Vijayta Dani; Dhawan, D K

    2010-01-01

    The present study evaluated the modulatory effects of zinc on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced ultrastructural changes in rat colon as well as on [(3)H]thymidine uptake and [(14)C]D-glucose metabolism. The rats were segregated into four groups: normal control, DMH treated, zinc treated, DMH + zinc treated. Initiation and induction of colon carcinogenesis was achieved through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 8 and 16 weeks, respectively. Zinc was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 227 mg/L in drinking water, ad libitum for two different time durations of 8 and 16 weeks. The study revealed a significant decrease in zinc concentration in serum and colon following DMH treatment to rats, which upon zinc supplementation were recovered to near normal levels. A significant increase in in vitro [(3)H]thymidine uptake was observed following 16 weeks of DMH treatment. Further, a significant increase in the [(14)C]glucose turnover was observed following 8 and 16 weeks of DMH treatment. Simultaneous supplementation of zinc to DMH-treated rats for 16 weeks significantly decreased the uptake of [(3)H]thymidine and [(4)C]glucose when compared to DMH alone-treated rats. Changes in the ultrastructural architecture of colonic cells were evident following both treatment schedules of DMH; however, the changes were more distinguishable following 16 weeks of DMH treatment. The most obvious changes were seen in nuclear shape and disruption of cellular integrity, which upon zinc supplementation was appreciably improved. In conclusion, the study suggests positive beneficial effect of zinc against chemically induced colonic preneoplastic progression in rats.

  5. Estradiol upregulates the expression of oxytocin receptor in colon in rats.

    PubMed

    Feng, Mei; Qin, Junfang; Wang, Chao; Ye, Yanfang; Wang, Shuanglian; Xie, Dongping; Wang, Paulus S; Liu, Chuanyong

    2009-05-01

    The study was designed to investigate the effect of estradiol on the excitatory effect of oxytocin (OT) on colon motility. Female Wistar rats were used, and some of them were ovariectomized (OVX) and treated with vehicle or estradiol (E(2)). A plastic balloon made of condom was inserted into colon to monitor the change of colonic pressure in vivo. Longitudinal muscle strips of distal colon were prepared to monitor the spontaneous contraction of colon in vitro. Expression of OT receptor (OTR) was investigated by Western blot analysis. Expression of OTR mRNA was detected by RT-PCR. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate OTR. In OVX rats, pretreatment of E(2) (4-100 microg/kg sc) dose-dependently increased the excitatory effect of OT on colon motility both in vivo and in vitro and increased the expression of OTR and OTR mRNA in colon. Systemic administration of OT excited the colon motility in vivo in rats at perioda of proestrus and estrus but did not influence it at diestrus period, when the concentration of plasma E(2) was lowest in the estrous cycle. Pretreatment of atosiban, the specific OTR antagonist, and TTX, the blocker of voltage-dependent sodium channel on nerve fiber, attenuated the excitatory effect of OT on colon motility. OTR was located in myenteric plexus of colon. These results suggested that E(2) increased the excitatory effect of OT on colon motility by upregulating the expression of OTR in myenteric plexus.

  6. The short-circuited everted sac of rat colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Goerg, K J; Wanitschke, R; Soergel, K H; Wood, C M; Nell, G

    1981-01-01

    A short-circuited preparation of everted rat colon sacs is described. The serosal current electrode is a AgAgCl wire. A cylindrical agar bridge or AgAgCl electrode may be employed on the mucosal side. Effects of Ag+ ions liberated from the electrodes on ion transport could not be demonstrated. Fluid and sodium are absorbed ad bicarbonate secreted. Potassium and chloride movements are not significantly different form zero. The preparation remains stable for at least 2 h. Sodium absorption is diminished by 50% and bicarbonate secretion abolished in the absence of glucose. In principle, similar ion transport properties were found as in Ussing-chamber preparations. The advantage of the everted sac is the capability of measuring net transport of fluid and electrolytes simultaneously and directly because of the large surface/inner volume ratio of the sac.

  7. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats.

    PubMed

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O

    2015-01-01

    Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not.

  8. Anthocyanin-rich extracts inhibit multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Lala, Geeta; Malik, Minnie; Zhao, Cuiwei; He, Jian; Kwon, Youngjoo; Giusti, M Monica; Magnuson, Bernadene A

    2006-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the chemoprotective activity of anthocyanin-rich extracts (AREs) from bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.), chokeberry (Aronia meloncarpa E.), and grape (Vitis vinifera) by assessing multiple biomarkers of colon cancer in male rats treated with a colon carcinogen, azoxymethane. Fischer 344 male rats were fed the AIN-93 diet (control) or AIN-93 diet supplemented with AREs for 14 wk. Biomarkers that were evaluated included the number and multiplicity of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF), colonic cell proliferation, urinary levels of oxidative DNA damage, and expression of cyclooxygenase (COX) genes. To assess the bioavailability, levels of anthocyanins in serum, urine, and feces were evaluated. Total ACF were reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry, chokeberry, and grape diet groups compared with the control group. The number of large ACF was also reduced (P<0.05) in bilberry and chokeberry ARE-fed rats. Colonic cellular proliferation was decreased in rats fed bilberry ARE and chokeberry ARE diets. Rats fed bilberry and grape ARE diets had lower COX-2 mRNA expression of gene. High levels of fecal anthocyanins and increased fecal mass and fecal moisture occurred in ARE-fed rats. There was also a significant reduction (P<0.05) in fecal bile acids in ARE-fed rats. The levels of urinary 8-hydroxyguanosine were similar among rats fed different diets. These results support our previous in vitro studies suggesting a protective role of AREs in colon carcinogenesis and indicate multiple mechanisms of action.

  9. Candida albicans Airway Colonization Facilitates Subsequent Acinetobacter baumannii Pneumonia in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Tan, Xiaojiang; Chen, Ruilan; Zhu, Song; Wang, Huijun; Yan, Dongxing; Zhang, Xiangdong; Farmakiotis, Dimitrios; Mylonakis, Eleftherios

    2016-06-01

    The objective of the study was to determine the effects of Candida albicans respiratory tract colonization on Acinetobacter baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Rats were colonized with C. albicans by instillation of 3 × 10(6) CFU into their airways, while sterile saline was instilled in the control group. The colonized rats were further divided into two groups: treated with amphotericin B or not. The rats were subsequently infected with A. baumannii (10(8) CFU by tracheobronchial instillation). A. baumannii lung CFU counts, cytokine lung levels, and rates of A. baumannii pneumonia were compared between groups. In vitro expression of A. baumannii virulence genes was measured by reverse transcription (RT)-PCR after 24-hour incubation with C. albicans or with Mueller-Hinton (MH) broth alone. Rats with Candida colonization developed A. baumannii pneumonia more frequently and had higher A. baumannii CFU burdens and heavier lungs than controls. After A. baumannii infection, lung interleukin 17 (IL-17) concentrations were lower and gamma interferon (IFN-γ) concentrations were higher in Candida-colonized rats than in controls. Candida-colonized rats treated with amphotericin B had a decreased rate of A. baumannii pneumonia and lower IFN-γ levels but higher IL-17 levels than untreated rats. Expression of basC, barB, bauA, ptk, plc2, and pld2 was induced while expression of ompA and abaI was suppressed in A. baumannii cultured in the presence of C. albicans C. albicans colonization facilitated the development of A. baumannii pneumonia in a rat model. Among Candida-colonized rats, antifungal treatment lowered the incidence of A. baumannii pneumonia. These findings could be due to modification of the host immune response and/or expression of A. baumannii virulence genes by Candida spp. Copyright © 2016, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

  10. Effects of adlay on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Shih, Chun-Kuang; Chiang, Wenchang; Kuo, Min-Liang

    2004-08-01

    Adlay (Coix lachryma-jobi L. var. ma-yuen Stapf) is a grass crop used in traditional Chinese medicine and as a nutritious food. It has been reported that adlay has anti-inflammatory and anti-tumor activity. Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) is an inducible enzyme functionally related to both inflammation and colon carcinogenesis and is the target of many chemopreventive agents. This study investigated the effect of adlay on colon carcinogenesis and COX-2 expression. In a short-term experiment, male F344 rats were fed diets containing different doses of dehulled adlay and received the colon-specific carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM), by intraperitoneal injection. All rats were killed after 5 weeks of feeding, and the colons were examined for the preneoplastic lesion, aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Dietary dehulled adlay at levels of 10%, 20%, or 40% significantly reduced the numbers of ACF and aberrant crypts. Dehulled adlay reduced the number of ACF of different sizes but did not affect the crypt multiplicity. Most ACF were found in the middle and distal colons; dehulled adlay significantly suppressed the formation of ACF in the middle colon. In a long-term experiment, male F344 rats were fed diets containing different doses of dehulled adlay and injected with AOM. All rats were killed after 52 weeks of feeding, and colons were examined for tumors and COX-2 protein expression. The results indicated that dehulled adlay did not inhibit colon tumors in spite of a slight suppressing effect in the proximal colon. Rats fed diets containing 20% dehulled adlay had less COX-2 protein expression in both proximal and distal colon tumors. The inconsistent effects between COX-2 protein expression and tumor outcome may be due to regional differences in the colon and the malignancy of the tumors. These findings suggest that dehulled adlay suppresses early events in colon carcinogenesis but not the formation of tumors.

  11. Effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on contraction of isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon.

    PubMed

    Liu, Bao-Hua; Mo, Ping; Zhang, Sheng-Ben

    2004-06-01

    To study the effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on the isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon. Cathartic colon model was established by feeding rats with contact laxatives, and effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on electricity-stimulated contraction of isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon were observed. Compared with control group, exogenous mu and kappa agonists inhibited significantly electricity-stimulated contraction of strips of cathartic colon (8.50+/-0.89 mm, 6.24+/-0.91 mm, 3.35+/-0.6 mm vs 11.40+/-0.21 mm P<0.01; 8.98+/-0.69 mm, 6.89+/-0.71 mm, 4.43+/-0.99 mm vs 11.40+/-0.21 mm, P<0.01). In contrast, the exogenous mu antagonist significantly enhanced electricity-stimulated contraction of isolated colon strips (13.18+/-0.93 mm, 15.87+/-0.98 mm, 19.46+/-1.79 mm vs 11.40+/-0.21 mm, P<0.01), but kappa antagonist had no effect on the isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon. Mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in the regulation of colon motility of rats with cathartic colon.

  12. Effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on contraction of isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon

    PubMed Central

    Liu, Bao-Hua; Mo, Ping; Zhang, Sheng-Ben

    2004-01-01

    AIM: To study the effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on the isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon. METHODS: Cathartic colon model was established by feeding rats with contact laxatives, and effects of mu and kappa opioid receptor agonists and antagonists on electricity-stimulated contraction of isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon were observed. RESULTS: Compared with control group, exogenous mu and kappa agonists inhibited significantly electricity-stimulated contraction of strips of cathartic colon (8.50 ± 0.89 mm, 6.24 ± 0.91 mm, 3.35 ± 0.6 mm vs 11.40 ± 0.21 mm P < 0.01; 8.98 ± 0.69 mm, 6.89 ± 0.71 mm, 4.43 ± 0.99 mm vs 11.40 ± 0.21 mm, P < 0.01). In contrast, the exogenous mu antagonist significantly enhanced electricity-stimulated contraction of isolated colon strips (13.18 ± 0.93 mm, 15.87 ± 0.98 mm, 19.46 ± 1.79 mm vs 11.40 ± 0.21 mm, P < 0.01), but kappa antagonist had no effect on the isolated colon strips of rats with cathartic colon. CONCLUSION: Mu and kappa opioid receptors are involved in the regulation of colon motility of rats with cathartic colon. PMID:15162549

  13. Hydroxy-α sanshool induces colonic motor activity in rat proximal colon: a possible involvement of KCNK9

    PubMed Central

    Kubota, Kunitsugu; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Mase, Akihito; Imamura, Sachiko; Sudo, Yuka; Miyano, Kanako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru

    2015-01-01

    Various colonic motor activities are thought to mediate propulsion and mixing/absorption of colonic content. The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100), which is widely used for postoperative ileus in Japan, accelerates colonic emptying in healthy humans. Hydroxy-α sanshool (HAS), a readily absorbable active ingredient of TU-100 and a KCNK3/KCNK9/KCNK18 blocker as well as TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, has been investigated for its effects on colonic motility. Motility was evaluated by intraluminal pressure and video imaging of rat proximal colons in an organ bath. Distribution of KCNKs was investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Current and membrane potential were evaluated with use of recombinant KCNK3- or KCNK9-expressing Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Defecation frequency in rats was measured. HAS dose dependently induced strong propulsive “squeezing” motility, presumably as long-distance contraction (LDC). TRPV1/TRPA1 agonists induced different motility patterns. The effect of HAS was unaltered by TRPV1/TRPA1 antagonists and desensitization. Lidocaine (a nonselective KCNK blocker) and hydroxy-β sanshool (a geometrical isomer of HAS and KCNK3 blocker) also induced colonic motility as a rhythmic propagating ripple (RPR) and a LDC-like motion, respectively. HAS-induced “LDC,” but not lidocaine-induced “RPR,” was abrogated by a neuroleptic agent tetrodotoxin. KCNK3 and KCNK9 were located mainly in longitudinal smooth muscle cells and in neural cells in the myenteric plexus, respectively. Administration of HAS or TU-100 increased defecation frequency in normal and laparotomy rats. HAS may evoke strong LDC possibly via blockage of the neural KCNK9 channel in the colonic myenteric plexus. PMID:25634809

  14. Hydroxy-α sanshool induces colonic motor activity in rat proximal colon: a possible involvement of KCNK9.

    PubMed

    Kubota, Kunitsugu; Ohtake, Nobuhiro; Ohbuchi, Katsuya; Mase, Akihito; Imamura, Sachiko; Sudo, Yuka; Miyano, Kanako; Yamamoto, Masahiro; Kono, Toru; Uezono, Yasuhito

    2015-04-01

    Various colonic motor activities are thought to mediate propulsion and mixing/absorption of colonic content. The Japanese traditional medicine daikenchuto (TU-100), which is widely used for postoperative ileus in Japan, accelerates colonic emptying in healthy humans. Hydroxy-α sanshool (HAS), a readily absorbable active ingredient of TU-100 and a KCNK3/KCNK9/KCNK18 blocker as well as TRPV1/TRPA1 agonist, has been investigated for its effects on colonic motility. Motility was evaluated by intraluminal pressure and video imaging of rat proximal colons in an organ bath. Distribution of KCNKs was investigated by RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemistry. Current and membrane potential were evaluated with use of recombinant KCNK3- or KCNK9-expressing Xenopus oocytes and Chinese hamster ovary cells. Defecation frequency in rats was measured. HAS dose dependently induced strong propulsive "squeezing" motility, presumably as long-distance contraction (LDC). TRPV1/TRPA1 agonists induced different motility patterns. The effect of HAS was unaltered by TRPV1/TRPA1 antagonists and desensitization. Lidocaine (a nonselective KCNK blocker) and hydroxy-β sanshool (a geometrical isomer of HAS and KCNK3 blocker) also induced colonic motility as a rhythmic propagating ripple (RPR) and a LDC-like motion, respectively. HAS-induced "LDC," but not lidocaine-induced "RPR," was abrogated by a neuroleptic agent tetrodotoxin. KCNK3 and KCNK9 were located mainly in longitudinal smooth muscle cells and in neural cells in the myenteric plexus, respectively. Administration of HAS or TU-100 increased defecation frequency in normal and laparotomy rats. HAS may evoke strong LDC possibly via blockage of the neural KCNK9 channel in the colonic myenteric plexus.

  15. Green vegetables, red meat and colon cancer: chlorophyll prevents the cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects of haem in rat colon.

    PubMed

    de Vogel, Johan; Jonker-Termont, Denise S M L; van Lieshout, Esther M M; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof

    2005-02-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with increased colon cancer risk. This association might be partly due to the haem content of red meat. In rats, dietary haem is metabolized in the gut to a cytotoxic factor that increases colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial proliferation. Green vegetables contain chlorophyll, a magnesium porphyrin structurally analogous to haem. We studied whether green vegetables inhibit the unfavourable colonic effects of haem. First, rats were fed a purified control diet or purified diets supplemented with 0.5 mmol haem/kg, spinach (chlorophyll concentration 1.2 mmol/kg) or haem plus spinach (n = 8/group) for 14 days. In a second experiment we also studied a group that received haem plus purified chlorophyll (1.2 mmol/kg). Cytotoxicity of faecal water was determined with a bioassay and colonic epithelial cell proliferation was quantified in vivo by [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation into newly synthesized DNA. Exfoliation of colonocytes was measured as the amount of rat DNA in faeces. In both studies haem increased cytotoxicity of the colonic contents approximately 8-fold and proliferation of the colonocytes almost 2-fold. Spinach or an equimolar amount of chlorophyll supplement in the haem diet inhibited these haem effects completely. Haem clearly inhibited exfoliation of colonocytes, an effect counteracted by spinach and chlorophyll. Finally, size exclusion chromatography showed that chlorophyll prevented formation of the cytotoxic haem metabolite. We conclude that green vegetables may decrease colon cancer risk because chlorophyll prevents the detrimental, cytotoxic and hyperproliferative colonic effects of dietary haem.

  16. α-fetoprotein involvement during glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Min; Sun, Peng; Liu, Xiao-Yan; Dong, Dan; Du, Jun; Gu, Luo; Ge, Ying-Bin

    2011-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the role of α-fetoprotein (AFP), a cancer-associated fetal glycoprotein, in glucocorticoid-induced precocious maturation in rat colon. METHODS: Colons from suckling Sprague-Dawley rats were used in this study. Corticosterone acetate at a dose of 100 μg/g body weight was given to normal pups on days 7, 9 and 11 after birth to induce hypercorticoidism. Control animals were injected with identical volumes of normal saline. Some rats receiving corticosterone 7 d after birth were also treated with mifepristone (RU38486), a glucocorticoid cytoplasm receptor antagonist to investigate the effects of glucocorticoids (GCs). The morphological changes of the crypt depth and villous height of the villous zone in colon were observed as indices of colon maturation. Expression levels of AFP in colons were detected by reverse transcriptase polymerase chain reaction and Western blotting. To identify the cellular localization of AFP in developing rat colons, double-immunofluorescent staining was performed using antibodies to specific mesenchymal cell marker and AFP. RESULTS: Corticosterone increased the crypt depth and villous height in the colon of 8- and 10-d-old rats with hypercorticoidism compared with that in the control animals (120% in 8-d-old rats and 118% in 10-d-old rats in villous height, P = 0.021; 145% in 8-d-old rats and 124% in 10-d-old rats in crypt depth, P = 0.017). These increases were accompanied by an increase of AFP expression in both mRNA and protein (2.5-folds in 8-d-old and 2.5-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.035; 1.8-folds in 8-d-old and 1.3-folds in 10-d-old rats higher than in control animals, P = 0.023). Increased crypt depth and villous height and increased expression of AFP in the colon of rats with hypercorticoidism were blocked by mifepristone. Both had positive staining for AFP or vimentin, and overlapped in mesenchymal cells at each tested colon. CONCLUSION: GCs promote the development of rat colon

  17. Protein Malnutrition During Juvenile Age Increases Ileal and Colonic Permeability in Rats.

    PubMed

    Eyzaguirre-Velásquez, Johana; Olavarría-Ramírez, Loreto; González-Arancibia, Camila; Díaz-Merino, Camila; Ariz, Raúl; López, Silvana; Quiroz, Waldo; Beltrán, Caroll J; Bravo, Javier A; Julio-Pieper, Marcela

    2017-05-01

    Protein malnutrition can lead to morphological and functional changes in jejunum and ileum, affecting permeability to luminal contents. Regarding the large intestine, data are scarce, especially at juvenile age. We investigated whether low-protein (LP) diet could modify ileal and colonic permeability and epithelial morphology in young rats. Isocaloric diets containing 26% (control diet) or 4% protein were given to male rats between postnatal days 40 and 60. LP-diet animals failed to gain weight and displayed decreased plasma zinc levels (a marker of micronutrient deficiency). In addition, transepithelial electrical resistance and occludin expression were reduced in their ileum and colon, indicating increased gut permeability. Macromolecule transit was not modified. Finally, LP diet induced shortening of colonic crypts without affecting muscle thickness. These data show that protein malnutrition increases not only ileum but also colon permeability in juvenile rats. Enhanced exposure to colonic luminal entities may be an additional component in the pathophysiology of protein malnutrition.

  18. Mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the colon of rats treated with azoxymethane (AOM) are useful biomarkers for colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Dolara, Piero; Caderni, Giovanna

    2004-02-01

    Crypt foci with absent or scant mucous production (mucin-depleted foci, MDF) were recently described by our group in the colon of azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rats. Since MDF are dysplastic and easy to quantify, we think that MDF are pre-neoplastic lesions that could be used as biomarkers for carcinogenesis. To test this hypothesis, we studied MDF in azoxymethane (AOM)-initiated rats treated with cholic acid (CHA), a promoter of colon carcinogenesis or with piroxicam (PXC), a colon cancer-inhibiting drug. Aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were determined as well. F344 male rats were treated with AOM (15 mg/kg x 2, s.c.) and then divided into: controls, which were fed AIN76 diet; CHA group, which was fed AIN76 diet containing CHA 0.5% w/w; PXC group, which was fed AIN76 diet containing PXC 0.02% w/w. Ten weeks after the first dose of AOM, the total number of MDF was significantly increased in rats treated with CHA (P<0.05) and drastically reduced (P<0.01) in rats treated with PXC (MDF/colon were 6.10 +/- 1.26, 10.59 +/- 1.96 and 1.31 +/- 0.21 in controls, CHA and PXC groups, respectively, means +/- SE). The multiplicity of MDF was also increased in CHA-treated rats. On the contrary, ACF multiplicity was significantly decreased by CHA. In PXC-treated rats there were fewer ACF with lower multiplicity. The effect of PXC was also investigated 15 weeks after the first AOM dose and the results showed that the total number of MDF in the PXC group was significantly lower than in controls. The number of 'large' MDF, formed by 12 or more crypts, was also reduced (P<0.01) by PXC ('large' MDF were 1.7 +/- 0.5 and 0.4 +/- 0.2 in control and PXC groups, respectively). Since CHA promotes and PXC reduces colon cancer, MDF are correlated with carcinogenesis and can be proposed as endpoints to study the modulation of colon carcinogenesis in short-term experiments.

  19. Effect of entacapone on colon motility and ion transport in a rat model of Parkinson's disease.

    PubMed

    Li, Li-Sheng; Liu, Chen-Zhe; Xu, Jing-Dong; Zheng, Li-Fei; Feng, Xiao-Yan; Zhang, Yue; Zhu, Jin-Xia

    2015-03-28

    To study the effects of entacapone, a catechol-O-methyltransferase inhibitor, on colon motility and electrolyte transport in Parkinson's disease (PD) rats. Distribution and expression of catechol-O-methyltransferase (COMT) were measured by immunohistochemistry and Western blotting methods. The colonic smooth muscle motility was examined in vitro by means of a muscle motility recording device. The mucosal electrolyte transport of PD rats was examined by using a short-circuit current (ISC ) technique and scanning ion-selective electrode technique (SIET). Intracellular detection of cAMP and cGMP was accomplished by radioimmunoassay testing. COMT was expressed in the colons of both normal and PD rats, mainly on the apical membranes of villi and crypts in the colon. Compared to normal controls, PD rats expressed less COMT. The COMT inhibitor entacapone inhibited contraction of the PD rat longitudinal muscle in a dose-dependent manner. The β2 adrenoceptor antagonist ICI-118,551 blocked this inhibitory effect by approximately 67% (P < 0.01). Entacapone increased mucosal ISC in the colon of rats with PD. This induction was significantly inhibited by apical application of Cl(-) channel blocker diphenylamine-2, 2'-dicarboxylic acid, basolateral application of Na(+)-K(+)-2Cl(-)co-transporter antagonist bumetanide, elimination of Cl(-) from the extracellular fluid, as well as pretreatment using adenylate cyclase inhibitor MDL12330A. As an inhibitor of prostaglandin synthetase, indomethacin can inhibit entacapone-induced ISC by 45% (P < 0.01). When SIET was applied to measure Cl(-) flux changes, this provided similar results. Entacapone significantly increased intracellular cAMP content in the colonic mucosa, which was greatly inhibited by indomethacin. COMT expression exists in rat colons. The β2 adrenoceptor is involved in the entacapone-induced inhibition of colon motility. Entacapone induces cAMP-dependent Cl(-) secretion in the PD rat.

  20. Differential colon DNA damage induced by azo food additives between rats and mice.

    PubMed

    Shimada, Chihiro; Kano, Kiyoshi; Sasaki, Yu F; Sato, Itaru; Tsudua, Shuji

    2010-08-01

    Azo dyes, amaranth, allura red and new coccine, which are currently used as food color additives in Japan, have been reported to cause colon specific DNA damage in mice. To examine species difference in the DNA damage between rats and mice, each of dyes was administered to male mice (1 and 10 mg/kg) and male rats (10, 100 and 1,000 mg/kg) by gavage. Brain, lung, liver, kidney, glandular stomach, colon, urinary bladder and bone marrow were sampled 3 hr (for mice) and 3, 6, 12 and 24 hr (for rats) after the treatment. The alkaline comet assay showed DNA damage in the mouse colon 3 hr after the administration of all of the dyes at 10 mg/kg. In rats, however, none of the dyes damaged DNA. Azo dyes should undergo metabolic reduction in the colon to be adducted to DNA. To determine transit time of the dyes to the colon after their administration, gastric emptying and intestinal transport in mice and rats were examined using brilliant blue FCF (BB) as an indicator. The half times of gastric emptying were 70 and 80 min for mice and rats, respectively; and about 60% of the BB was removed from the stomach 1 hr after the gastric intubation in both mice and rats. BB reached the mouse and rat colon 1 and 3 hr after the administration, respectively. Considering the wide dose range and sampling times well covering the transit time to the colon, rats may be insensitive to these azo dye-induced DNA damage.

  1. Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide system and its paracrine function in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Kim, Jong Hun; Yang, Sung Hoon; Yu, Mo Young; Lee, Hye Kyung; Kim, So Young; Kim, Suhn Hee

    2004-08-15

    Dendroaspis natriuretic peptide (DNP), a 38-amino-acid peptide, was isolated from the venom of Green Mamba. It has structural and functional similarities to other members of the natriuretic peptide family. The purpose of this study was to determine whether DNP system is present in the rat colon and to define its biological functions. The serial dilution curve of extracts of colonic tissues was parallel to the standard curve of DNP and a major peak of molecular profile by HPLC was synthetic DNP. The concentration of DNP was 0.5 +/- 0.04 ng/g of colonic tissues. DNP as well as atrial natriuretic peptide and C-type natriuretic peptide caused dose-dependent increases in cGMP production in the purified membrane of colonic tissues. Three types of natriuretic peptide receptor mRNAs were detected using semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functionally, synthetic DNP inhibited the spontaneous contraction of rat colonic circular muscle in a concentration-dependent manner. The potency appeared to be at least 10 times greater than that of CNP. Furthermore, DNP inhibited carbachol-induced muscle contraction, suggesting that it also can modulate the nerve regulation of colonic motility. This study demonstrates the presence of DNP system in rat colon and its function as a local regulator of colonic motility.

  2. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. METHODS: Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. RESULTS: Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Colonic smooth muscle contractile response to oxytocin decreased, and the inhibitory effect of oxytocin on muscle contractility was enhanced by cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Atosiban and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of oxytocin on colonic motility. Oxytocin receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P < 0.05). Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P < 0.05). However, in ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment increased blood oxytocin, and the response of colonic muscle strips to oxytocin was attenuated. CONCLUSION: Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent. PMID:25152590

  3. Oxytocin decreases colonic motility of cold water stressed rats via oxytocin receptors.

    PubMed

    Yang, Xiao; Xi, Tao-Fang; Li, Yu-Xian; Wang, Hai-Hong; Qin, Ying; Zhang, Jie-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Huang, Meng-Ting; Shen, Ji-Qiao; Fan, Xi-Min; Shi, Xuan-Zheng; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2014-08-21

    To investigate whether cold water intake into the stomach affects colonic motility and the involvement of the oxytocin-oxytocin receptor pathway in rats. Female Sprague Dawley rats were used and some of them were ovariectomized. The rats were subjected to gastric instillation with cold (0-4 °C, cold group) or room temperature (20-25 °C, control group) saline for 14 consecutive days. Colon transit was determined with a bead inserted into the colon. Colonic longitudinal muscle strips were prepared to investigate the response to oxytocin in vitro. Plasma concentration of oxytocin was detected by ELISA. Oxytocin receptor expression was investigated by Western blot analysis. Immunohistochemistry was used to locate oxytocin receptors. Colon transit was slower in the cold group than in the control group (P < 0.05). Colonic smooth muscle contractile response to oxytocin decreased, and the inhibitory effect of oxytocin on muscle contractility was enhanced by cold water intake (0.69 ± 0.08 vs 0.88 ± 0.16, P < 0.05). Atosiban and tetrodotoxin inhibited the effect of oxytocin on colonic motility. Oxytocin receptors were located in the myenteric plexus, and their expression was up-regulated in the cold group (P < 0.05). Cold water intake increased blood concentration of oxytocin, but this effect was attenuated in ovariectomized rats (286.99 ± 83.72 pg/mL vs 100.56 ± 92.71 pg/mL, P < 0.05). However, in ovariectomized rats, estradiol treatment increased blood oxytocin, and the response of colonic muscle strips to oxytocin was attenuated. Cold water intake inhibits colonic motility partially through oxytocin-oxytocin receptor signaling in the myenteric nervous system pathway, which is estrogen dependent.

  4. Modifying effects of Terminalia catappa on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Morioka, T; Suzui, M; Nabandith, V; Inamine, M; Aniya, Y; Nakayama, T; Ichiba, T; Yoshimi, N

    2005-04-01

    The modifying effects of dietary administration of an herb, Terminalia catappa (TC), were investigated on rat colon carcinogenesis induced by a carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). The number of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and beta-catenin accumulated crypts (BCACs) in the colon, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labelling index in the colonic epithelium were examined in a total of 36 male F344 rats. All animals were randomly divided into five experimental groups (4-10 rats in each group). At 6 weeks of age, rats in groups 1, 2 and 3 were given s.c. injections of AOM once a week for 2 weeks at a concentration of 20 mg/kg body weight. One week before the first injection of AOM, rats in groups 2 and 3 were fed a diet containing 0.02 and 0.1% TC, respectively, throughout the experiment. Rats in group 4 were fed a diet containing 0.1% TC. Rats in group 5 were served as untreated controls. All animals were sacrificed at the experimental week 5 after the start of the experiment. Oral administration of TC at both doses significantly decreased the numbers of both ACF/colon/rat (P<0.05 for 0.02% TC, P<0.005 for 0.1% TC) and BCAC/cm/rat (P<0.05 for both 0.02 and 0.1% TC), when compared with the control group (group 1). Colonic PCNA labelling index in groups 2 and 3 was also significantly lower than that in group 1 (P<0.001 for 0.02% TC, P<0.005 for 0.1% TC). These results suggest that TC has a potent short-term chemopreventive effect on biomarkers of colon carcinogenesis and this effect may be associated with the inhibition of the development of ACF and BCACs.

  5. Effect of spices on lipid metabolism in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Nalini, N; Manju, V; Menon, V P

    2006-01-01

    Colon cancer is the second most common cancer among men and women worldwide. We investigated the effect of red chilli (Capsicum annum L.), cumin (Cuminum cyminum L.), and black pepper (Piper nigrum L.) on colon cancer induced in rats by a colon-specific carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Colon cancer was induced by subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dosage of 20 mg/kg of body weight (15 doses, at 1-week intervals). The rats were continued with the standard pellet diet and supplemented red chilli [C. annum L., 0.015% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], cumin seeds [C. cyminum L., 1.25% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet], and black pepper (P. nigrum L., 0.5% (wt/wt) mixed with the diet] throughout the experimental period. After the total experimental period of 32 weeks (including 2 weeks of acclimatization) the incidence and number of tumors in the colon were observed to be significantly higher in the rats administered DMH and/or red chillis, as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. No tumors were observed in the control, cumin + DMH, or black pepper + DMH groups. The levels of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols in 24-hour fecal samples were significantly decreased in DMH + chilli-administered rats, while the excretion of fecal bile acids and neutral sterols was significantly increased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMH-administered rats. In DMH-, chilli-, and chilli + DMH-administered rats the levels of cholesterol, cholesterol/phospholipid ratio, and 3-hydroxy-3-methylglutaryl-CoA reductase activity were decreased in cumin + DMH- and black pepper + DMH-treated rats. The phospholipid levels were reduced in the DMH, chilli, and chilli + DMH groups as compared with the cumin + DMH and black pepper + DMH groups. Our results show that chilli supplementation promotes colon carcinogenesis, whereas cumin or black pepper suppresses colon carcinogensis in the presence of the procarcinogen DMH.

  6. Colon Necrosis Due to Sodium Polystyrene Sulfonate with and without Sorbitol: An Experimental Study in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Ayoub, Isabelle; Oh, Man S.; Gupta, Raavi; McFarlane, Michael; Babinska, Anna; Salifu, Moro O.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Based on a single rat study by Lillemoe et al, the consensus has been formed to implicate sorbitol rather than sodium polystyrene sulfonate (SPS) as the culprit for colon necrosis in humans treated with SPS and sorbitol. We tested the hypothesis that colon necrosis by sorbitol in the experiment was due to the high osmolality and volume of sorbitol rather than its chemical nature. Methods 26 rats underwent 5/6 nephrectomy. They were divided into 6 groups and given enema solutions under anesthesia (normal saline, 33% sorbitol, 33% mannitol, SPS in 33% sorbitol, SPS in normal saline, and SPS in distilled water). They were sacrificed after 48 hours of enema administration or earlier if they were very sick. The gross appearance of the colon was visually inspected, and then sliced colon tissues were examined under light microscopy. Results 1 rat from the sorbitol and 1 from the mannitol group had foci of ischemic colonic changes. The rats receiving SPS enema, in sorbitol, normal saline, distilled water, had crystal deposition with colonic necrosis and mucosal erosion. All the rats not given SPS survived until sacrificed at 48 h whereas 11 of 13 rats that received SPS in sorbitol, normal saline or distilled water died or were clearly dying and sacrificed sooner. There was no difference between sorbitol and mannitol when given without SPS. Conclusions In a surgical uremic rat model, SPS enema given alone or with sorbitol or mannitol seemed to cause colon necrosis and high mortality rate, whereas 33% sorbitol without SPS did not. PMID:26413782

  7. Colon emptying induced by sequential electrical stimulation in rats.

    PubMed

    Sevcencu, Cristian; Rijkhoff, Nico J M; Sinkjaer, Thomas

    2005-12-01

    Electrical stimulation could be used to induce colon emptying. The present experiments were performed to establish a stimulation pattern to optimize the stimulation parameters and to test neural involvement in propulsion induced by electrical stimulation. Colon segments were sequentially stimulated using rectangular pulses. The resulting propulsive activity displaced intraluminal content in consecutive propulsion steps. The propulsion steps differed in displacement latency, distance, and velocity along the stimulated colon. Increasing the pulse duration or amplitude resulted in a decrease of the latency. Increasing the stimulation amplitude doubled the displacement distance. The frequencies tested in the present study did not affect propulsion. Inhibition of cholinergic and nitrergic pathways inhibited propulsion. Electrical stimulation can induce colonic propulsion. Motor differences are present along the descending colon. The most suitable combination of pulse parameters regarding colon stimulation is 0.3 ms, 5 mA, 10 Hz. Neural circuits are involved in propulsion when using these values.

  8. Microvascular architecture of experimental colon tumors in the rat.

    PubMed

    Skinner, S A; Tutton, P J; O'Brien, P E

    1990-04-15

    Tumor cell proliferation is dependent upon concurrent growth of a supporting vasculature. This study aims to characterize the structural features of the microvasculature within a primary tumor model. There were 22 colon tumors induced in 16 rats by repeated administration of dimethylhydrazine. A cast of the microvessels was prepared by intraarterial administration of acrylic resin (Mercox). After corrosion of the tissue, the cast was examined by scanning electron microscopy. Tumors 2.6 to 12.0 mm in diameter were examined. Within polypoid carcinomas up to 5.7 mm in diameter, there were two distinct vascular zones, a luminal vascular zone continuous with the vasculature of normal mucosa and a central zone continuous with the normal submucosa and muscularis propria vessels. Within both vascular zones, the organization of microvessels had the same general pattern as in normal mucosa. However, in tumors with diameters greater than 5.7 mm, the vasculature was seen to be disorganized and of a greater density than normal. In the smallest tumors, few morphological changes were seen in the individual microvessels when compared to normal. However, with tumor growth, there was elongation and increased diameters of the microvessels within the tumor. Microvessels within the luminal zone of the tumors which could definitely be traced to veins had diameters of 50 to 100 microns (compared to 12 to 30 microns for normal venules). Individual microvessels varied in diameter along their course forming saccular dilations in places. Networks of frequently anastomosing microvessels were formed. Extravasation of resin occurred from some microvessels. Elongated vessels of uniform diameter which travel distances up to 2 mm without branching were seen and were probably arterioles. These appearances indicate that there are two distinct stages of development of the vasculature within primary tumors, an early phase where the tumor is supplied by the preexisting host microvessels, followed by a

  9. Relationship between oxidative damage and colon carcinogenesis in irradiated rats: influence of dietary countermeasures

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Turner, Nancy; Sanders, Lisa; Wu, Guoyao; Davidson, Laurie; Ford, John; Braby, Leslie; Carroll, Raymond; Chapkin, Robert; Lupton, Joanne

    Galactic cosmic radiation not only kills colon epithelial cells, it also generates a cellular environment that can lead to oxidative DNA damage. We previously demonstrated that a diet containing fish oil and pectin protects against initiation of colon cancer by enhancing apoptotic removal of cells with oxidative DNA adducts (8-OHdG), and that apoptosis was highly correlated with colon cancer suppression. We hypothesized this diet combination will mitigate the oxidative damage occurring from radiation and thus reduce colon cancer. The experiment tested the effect of radiation (± 1 Gy, 1 GeV/n Fe ions) on redox balance, apoptosis, and 8-OHdG levels at initiation and colon tumor incidence. Diets contained fish oil or corn oil, and cellulose or pectin (2x2 factorial design). Rats received the diets 3 wk before irradiation (half of the rats), followed by azoxymethane (AOM) injections 10 and 17 d later (all rats). Just prior to AOM injection, irradiated fish oil/pectin rats had a more reduced redox state in colonocytes (lower GSSG, P < 0.05; higher GSH/GSSG ratio), which was not observed in irradiated corn oil/cellulose rats. A shift to a more oxidative state (lower GSH and GSH/GSSG ratio, P < 0.05) occurred between 6 and 12 h after AOM in the fish oil/pectin irradiated rats. Changes in redox balance likely contributed to lower 8-OHdG levels in colonocytes from rats consuming the fish oil diets. Dietary pectin enhanced (P < 0.04) apoptosis induction 12 h after AOM injection in irradiated rats. Similar to the 8-OHdG results, colon tumor incidence was 42% higher (P < 0.05) in rats fed corn oil vs fish oil diets. In summary, fish oil/pectin diets created a more reduced colon environment in irradiated rats that was evident 10 d after irradiation. The ensuing oxidative shift in those rats after AOM injection may have enhanced apoptosis; effectively eliminating more DNA damaged cells. Thus, inclusion of fish oil and pectin in diets for long-duration space flights should help

  10. Low power interstitial Nd YAG laser photocoagulation in normal and neoplastic rat colon.

    PubMed Central

    Matthewson, K; Barton, T; Lewin, M R; O'Sullivan, J P; Northfield, T C; Bown, S G

    1988-01-01

    The effects of low power (1-2 Watts), long exposure (30-400 seconds), interstitial Nd YAG laser therapy on dimethylhydrazine induced rat colonic neoplasms and normal rat colon have been studied. After a single exposure with appropriate laser parameters, dimethylhydrazine induced rat colonic neoplasms underwent coagulative necrosis, sloughed off over a four day period, and left an ulcer which healed within 28 days. Inadequate laser energy resulted in incomplete tumour necrosis whilst excessive laser power or energy increased the likelihood of perforation. Treatment of normal colon with 1 Watt for 30 seconds or longer resulted in coagulative damage which healed by granulation. Mean colonic bursting pressures were significantly decreased one hour after treatment with 1 Watt for 75 or 100 seconds compared with untreated colon (p less than 0.05 and p less than 0.001 respectively) but not in colon treated with 1 Watt for 30 or 50 seconds. In animals treated with 1 Watt for 100 seconds mean bursting pressures were significantly lower than untreated animals when the animals were killed two, four, and seven days after lasering (p less than 0.001 in each case) but not in animals killed at 11, 17, or 21 days. The technique may be of value in the treatment of some inoperable colorectal cancers and sessile polyps in man. Images Fig. 1 Fig. 2 Fig. 3 Fig. 4 Fig. 5 PMID:3343010

  11. Colonic mast cell infiltration in rats with TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity.

    PubMed

    Ohashi, Katsuyo; Sato, Yasushi; Iwata, Hiroshi; Kawai, Mitsuhisa; Kurebayashi, Yoichi

    2007-12-01

    Colonic mucosal mast cells are implicated in the pathogenesis of visceral hypersensitivity associated with irritable bowel syndromes. This study was designed to investigate the roles of mucosal mast cells in development of an experimental visceral hypersensitivity induced by 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS) in rats. TNBS, when injected into the proximal colon through laparotomy, produced a significant decrease in pain threshold of the distal colon to mechanical distention, indicating a visceral hypersensitivity. In the proximal colon that was directly insulted by TNBS, mucosal necrosis and extensive inflammatory cell infiltration were observed with concomitant increase in tissue myeloperoxide (MPO) activity. In the distal colon where distention stimuli were applied, the number of mucosal mast cells significantly increased following TNBS treatment, although neither mucosal injury nor increase in tissue MPO activity was observed. In an organ culture, spontaneous release of a mucosal mast cell-specific protease (RMCP-2) from the distal colon tissue of TNBS-treated rats was significantly larger than that of sham animals. Furthermore, TNBS-induced visceral hypersensitivity was significantly suppressed by subcutaneous pretreatment with a mast cell stabilizer doxantrazole in a dose-dependent manner. These findings suggest that prominent colonic mast cell infiltration associated with an enhanced spontaneous mediator release is responsible, at least partly, for development of visceral hypersensitivity induced by TNBS in rats.

  12. Rat and human colonic mucins bind to and inhibit adherence lectin of Entamoeba histolytica.

    PubMed Central

    Chadee, K; Petri, W A; Innes, D J; Ravdin, J I

    1987-01-01

    Establishment of adherence by Entamoeba histolytica is mediated by a 170-kD Gal/GalNAc inhibitable lectin and is required for cytolysis and phagocytosis of mammalian target cells. We studied the biochemical mechanisms of the in vitro interaction between rat and human colonic mucins and axenic E. histolytica trophozoites. Crude mucus prevented amebic adherence to Chinese hamster ovary (CHO) cells by up to 70%. Purification of the colonic mucins by Sepharose 4B chromatography, nuclease digestion, and cesium chloride gradient centrifugation resulted in a 1,000-fold enrichment of the inhibitory mucins. Purified rat mucin inhibited amebic adherence to and cytolysis of homologous rat colonic epithelial cells. Oxidation and enzymatic cleavage of rat mucin Gal and GalNAc residues completely abrogated mucin inhibition of amebic adherence. The binding of rat 125I-mucin to amebae was galactose specific, saturable, reversible, and pH dependent. A monoclonal antibody specific for the 170-kD amebic Gal/GalNAc lectin completely inhibited the binding of rat 125I-mucin. Rat mucin bound to Affigel affinity purified the amebic lectin from conditioned medium. Colonic mucin glycoproteins act as an important host defense by binding to the parasite's adherence lectin, thus preventing amebic attachment to and cytolysis of host epithelial cells. Images PMID:2890655

  13. Lack of protective effects of zinc gluconate against rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    da Silva, Flávia Regina Moraes; Dias, Marcos Correa; Barbisan, Luis Fernando; Rodrigues, Maria Aparecida Marchesan

    2013-01-01

    Zinc has been proposed as a promising chemopreventive candidate against colon cancer. However, few studies on the potential beneficial effects of this trace element on cancer chemoprevention are available. The present study was designed to investigate the potential modifying influence of zinc gluconate (ZnGly) on the initiation step of colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Male Wistar rats received orally ZnGly (15 mg elemental zinc/kg, 3 times per wk) 2 wk before and during DMH treatment (3 × 40 mg/kg, once a wk). The animals were euthanized at the end of 4th and 16th wk. Colons were analyzed for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumor development. Blood and colon zinc levels, cell proliferation, and apoptosis indexes in colonic crypts were analyzed 24 h after the last DMH administration. Oral treatment with ZnGly did neither alter the number of ACF nor the indexes of cell proliferation and apoptosis in the colonic mucosa. The incidence and multiplicity of colon tumors induced by DMH and their histopathological patterns were not modified by previous treatment with ZnGly. These findings indicate a lack of chemopreventive action of zinc gluconate supplementation on the initiation step of rat colon carcinogenesis induced by DMH.

  14. Colon cancer chemopreventive efficacy of silibinin through perturbation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, Nagarajan; Viswanathan, Periyaswamy; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2012-01-15

    Our findings reported so far demonstrate that silibinin modulates gut microbial enzymes, colonic oxidative stress and Wnt/β-catenin signaling, to exert its antiproliferative effect against 1,2 di-methylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis. Since xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes play a crucial role in carcinogen activation and metabolism, we aimed to explore the effect of silibinin on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes during DMH induced colon carcinogenesis. Male albino rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 served as control and group 2 rats received 50mg/kg body weight of silibinin p.o. every day. Groups 3-6 rats were given DMH at a dose of (20mg/kg body weight subcutaneously) once a week for 15 weeks to induce colonic tumors. In addition to DMH, group 4 (initiation), group 5 (post-initiation) and group 6 (entire period) rats received silibinin (50mg/kg body weight, p.o., everyday) at different time points during the experimental period of 32 weeks. Rats exposed to DMH alone showed increased activities of phase I enzymes (cytochrome b5, cytochrome b5 reductase, cytochromeP450, cytochromeP450 reductase, cytochromP4502E1) and decreased activities of phase II enzymes (Uridine diphospho glucuronyl transferase, Glutathione-S-transferase and DT-Diaphorase) in the liver and colonic mucosa as compared to control rats. Silibinin supplementation modulates the xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes favoring carcinogen detoxification. Evaluation of lipid peroxidation and antioxidants status showed that silibinin supplementation counteracts DMH induced hepatic and circulatory oxidative stress. Tumor burden in experimental animals was assessed both macroscopically and microscopically in the colon tissues. Our findings emphasize the potential chemopreventive action of silibinin against DMH induced colon carcinogenesis.

  15. Colonic transit in rats: effect of ovariectomy, sex steroid hormones, and pregnancy

    SciTech Connect

    Ryan, J.P.; Bhojwani, A.

    1986-07-01

    In vitro studies suggest that the female sex steroid hormones (estrogen (E) and progesterone (P)) can affect the myoelectric and mechanical activity of colonic smooth muscle. The present study was designed to examine the influence of the hormones on colonic transit in vivo. Transit was assessed by quantifying the distribution within the colon of a radiolabeled marker (0.5 Ci Na2V CrO4), using the geometric center method of analysis. Studies were performed with adult male rats and the following groups of female rats: nonpregnant, ovariectomized, ovariectomy plus hormone pretreatment, and pregnant (day 18). Hormone-pretreated animals were studied 24 h following the fourth injection. The data can be summarized as follows. 1) Colonic transit was affected by the timing of the estrus cycle. 2) Ovariectomy eliminated the biphasic transit pattern observed in estruscycling females and resulted in a geometric center value comparable with that of the metestrus-diestrus animals. 3) E + P pretreatment of ovariectomized rats resulted in a significant decrease in the geometric center compared with the untreated ovariectomized rats. 4) The geometric center value in pregnant anials and hormone-pretreated animals. 5) Adult male rats had a geometric center value of 4.12 +/- 0.29. The results suggest that a relation exists between colonic transit and the circulating levels of the steroid hormones.

  16. Healing of colonic ischemic anastomoses in the rat: role of superoxide radicals.

    PubMed

    Garcia, J G; Criado, F J; Persona, M A; Alonso, A G

    1998-07-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the role of superoxide radicals in the healing of ischemic colonic anastomoses in the rat. Adult male Wistar rats were used in a factorial design with two factors (normal or ischemic colonic anastomoses) each having two levels (treatment with saline or allopurinol). Colonic anastomoses were performed either in normal or previously devascularized colons (ischemic anastomoses) at identical locations, using the same technique. On the fourth postoperative day, animals were killed, and specimens were taken for determinations. Ischemic anastomoses displayed significant increases in superoxide radical (assayed as superoxide anion), superoxide dismutase, and glutathione peroxidase concentrations. Bursting strength and hydroxyproline levels were also significantly lower in these anastomoses. Allopurinol administration elicited a significant decrease in superoxide anions and raised both bursting strength and hydroxyproline levels only in ischemic anastomoses. Superoxide radicals are involved in the delay in healing of ischemic anastomoses. Allopurinol lowers superoxide anion production and has beneficial effects on the cicatrization of ischemic anastomoses.

  17. Diclofenac causes anastomotic leakage in the proximal colon but not in the distal colon of the rat.

    PubMed

    Yauw, Simon T K; Lomme, Roger M L M; van der Vijver, Rozemarijn J; Hendriks, Thijs; van Laarhoven, Kees J H M; van Goor, Harry

    2015-08-01

    Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs have been associated with anastomotic leakage. It was studied if diclofenac affects anastomoses differently depending on the location in the gut. Ninety-five rats were randomized to 6 groups with an anastomosis in either ileum (IL), proximal colon (PC), or distal colon (DC). Groups IL+ (n = 10), PC+ (n = 30), and DC+ (n = 10) received diclofenac (3 mg/kg/day) from day 0 until sacrifice on day 3. Group PC- (n = 15) did not receive diclofenac. Groups PC1+ and PC2+ (n = 15 each) were given diclofenac from day 1 to 4 and from day 2 to 5. Leak rates were 10/10 in group IL+, 22/30 in PC+, 1/10 in DC+, and 1/15 in PC-. Delayed administration of diclofenac by 1 or 2 days (6/15, P = .05) resulted in reduced leakage rates. Mechanical strength results corresponded with leak rates. Diclofenac causes leakage of anastomoses in rat IL and PC, but not in the DC. This suggests a role for the ileal and proximal colonic content in diclofenac-induced leakage. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  18. Cervical vagotomy increased the distal colon distention to urinary bladder inhibitory reflex in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kaddumi, Ezidin G

    2016-02-01

    Many studies have demonstrated the convergence of vagal inputs into brainstem centers with inputs from the urinary bladder and colon, as well as the convergence of vagal inputs into other centers controlling the urinary bladder and colon reflexes. However, the effect of the vagal inputs on the interaction between the urinary bladder and other pelvic organs has not been studied. In this study, the effect of bilateral cervical vagotomy on the distal colon to urinary bladder reflex was examined. Changes to cystometry parameters in response to increased distal colon distensions (1, 2, and 3 ml) were tested in urethane-anesthetized male rats with or without bilateral cervical vagotomy. In animals with intact vagus nerves, 1 and 2 ml distal colon distentions had no significant effects on micturition frequency; however, 3 ml distal colon distention significantly decreased the frequency of micturition cycles. Also, 3 ml distal colon distention inhibited micturition cycles in 37.5 % of these animals. On the other hand, following cervical vagotomy, 1 ml distal colon distention was enough to significantly decrease the frequency of micturition cycles and to inhibit the cycles in 75 % of the animals. These results demonstrate the presence of supraspinal inhibitory regulation, via the vagus nerve, over the distal colon to urinary bladder inhibitory reflex.

  19. Lack of chemoprevention of dietary Agaricus blazei against rat colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    PubMed

    Ziliotto, L; Barbisan, L F; Rodrigues, M A M

    2008-06-01

    The mushroom Agaricus blazei (Ab) has been widely used in folk medicine to treat various diseases including cancer. No information is available on its possible protective effects on the development of colon cancer. The potential blocking effect of Ab intake on the initiation stage of colon carcinogenesis was investigated in a short-term (4-week) bioassay using aberrant crypt foci (ACF) as biomarker. Male Wistar rats were given four subcutaneous injections of the carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH, 40 mg/kg bw, twice a week), during 2 weeks to induce ACF. The diet containing Ab at 5% was given 2 weeks before and during carcinogen treatment to investigate the potential beneficial effects of this edible mushroom on DMH-induced ACF. All groups were killed at the end of the fourth week. The colons were analyzed for ACF formation in 1% methylene blue whole-mount preparations and for cell proliferation in histological sections immunohistochemically stained for the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA). All DMH-treated rats developed ACF mainly in the middle and distal colon. Agaricus blazei intake at 5% did not alter the number of ACF induced by DMH or the PCNA indices in the colonic mucosa. Thus, the results of the present study did not confirm a chemopreventive activity of Ab on the initiation stage of rat colon carcinogenesis.

  20. Resistant starch alters colonic contractility and expression of related genes in rats fed a Western diet.

    PubMed

    Patten, Glen S; Kerr, Caroline A; Dunne, Robert A; Shaw, Janet M; Bird, Anthony R; Regina, Ahmed; Morell, Matthew K; Lockett, Trevor J; Molloy, Peter L; Abeywardena, Mahinda Y; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2015-06-01

    Dietary fiber shortens gut transit time, but data on the effects of fiber components (including resistant starch, RS) on intestinal contractility are limited. We have examined RS effects in male Sprague-Dawley rats fed either a high-amylose maize starch (HAMS) or a wholemeal made from high-amylose wheat (HAW) on ileal and colonic contractility ex vivo and expression of genes associated with smooth muscle contractility. Rats were fed diets containing 19 % fat, 20 % protein, and either low-amylose maize starch (LAMS), HAMS, wholemeal low-amylose wheat (LAW) or HAW for 11 week. Isolated ileal and proximal colonic sections were induced to contract electrically, or by receptor-independent (KCl) or receptor-dependent agents. Colonic gene expression was assessed using an Affymetrix microarray. Ileal contractility was unaffected by treatment. Maximal proximal colonic contractility induced electrically or by angiotensin II or carbachol was lower for rats fed HAMS and LAW relative to those fed LAMS (P < 0.05). The colonic expression of genes, including cholinergic receptors (Chrm2, Chrm3), serotonin receptors (Htr5a, Htr7), a protease-activated receptor (F2r), a prokineticin receptor (Prokr1), prokineticin (Prok1), and nitric oxide synthase 2 (Nos2), was altered by dietary HAMS relative to LAMS (P < 0.05). HAW did not significantly affect these genes or colonic contractility relative to effects of LAMS. RS and other fiber components could influence colorectal health through modulation of stool transit time via effects on muscular contractility.

  1. iNOS-Dependent Increase in Colonic Mucus Thickness in DSS-Colitic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Schreiber, Olof; Petersson, Joel; Waldén, Tomas; Ahl, David; Sandler, Stellan; Phillipson, Mia; Holm, Lena

    2013-01-01

    Aim To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Methods Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h), the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h) and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS −/− mice were used. Results Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm). During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (−16±5 µm vs −14±2 µm). While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm), L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (−33±4 µm vs −10±3 µm). The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS−/− mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. Conclusion Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an i

  2. iNOS-dependent increase in colonic mucus thickness in DSS-colitic rats.

    PubMed

    Schreiber, Olof; Petersson, Joel; Waldén, Tomas; Ahl, David; Sandler, Stellan; Phillipson, Mia; Holm, Lena

    2013-01-01

    To investigate colonic mucus thickness in vivo in health and during experimental inflammatory bowel disease. Colitis was induced with 5% DSS in drinking water for 8 days prior to experiment, when the descending colonic mucosa of anesthetized rats was studied using intravital microscopy. Mucus thickness was measured with micropipettes attached to a micromanipulator. To assess the contributions of NOS and prostaglandins in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, the non-selective NOS-inhibitor L-NNA (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h), the selective iNOS-inhibitor L-NIL (10 mg/kg bolus followed by 3 mg/kg/h) and the non-selective COX-inhibitor diclofenac (5 mg/kg) were administered intravenously prior to experiment. To further investigate the role of iNOS in the regulation of colonic mucus thickness, iNOS -/- mice were used. Colitic rats had a thicker firmly adherent mucus layer following 8 days of DSS treatment than untreated rats (88±2 µm vs 76±1 µm). During induction of colitis, the thickness of the colonic mucus layer initially decreased but was from day 3 significantly thicker than in untreated rats. Diclofenac reduced the mucus thickness similarly in colitic and untreated rats (-16±5 µm vs -14±2 µm). While L-NNA had no effect on colonic mucus thickness in DSS or untreated controls (+3±2 µm vs +3±1 µm), L-NIL reduced the mucus thickness significantly more in colitic rats than in controls (-33±4 µm vs -10±3 µm). The importance of iNOS in regulating the colonic mucus thickness was confirmed in iNOS-/- mice, which had thinner colonic mucus than wild-type mice (35±3 µm vs 50±2 µm, respectively). Furthermore, immunohistochemistry revealed increased levels of iNOS in the colonic surface epithelium following DSS treatment. Both prostaglandins and nitric oxide regulate basal colonic mucus thickness. During onset of colitis, the thickness of the mucus layer is initially reduced followed by an iNOS mediated increase.

  3. PCR Conditions for 16S Primers for Analysis of Microbes in the Colon of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Camacho, H.; Tuero, A. D.; Bacardí, D.; Palenzuela, D. O.; Aguilera, A.; Silva, J. A.; Estrada, R.; Gell, O.; Suárez, J.; Ancizar, J.; Brown, E.; Colarte, A. B.; Castro, J.; Novoa, L. I.

    2016-01-01

    The study of the composition of the intestinal flora is important to the health of the host, playing a key role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis and the evolution of the immune system. For these studies, various universal primers of the 16S rDNA gene are used in microbial taxonomy. Here, we report an evaluation of 5 universal primers to explore the presence of microbial DNA in colon biopsies preserved in RNAlater solution. The DNA extracted was used for the amplification of PCR products containing the variable (V) regions of the microbial 16S rDNA gene. The PCR products were studied by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) analysis and DNA sequence, whose percent of homology with microbial sequences reported in GenBank was verified using bioinformatics tools. The presence of microbes in the colon of rats was quantified by the quantitative PCR (qPCR) technique. We obtained microbial DNA from rat, useful for PCR analysis with the universal primers for the bacteria 16S rDNA. The sequences of PCR products obtained from a colon biopsy of the animal showed homology with the classes bacilli (Lactobacillus spp) and proteobacteria, normally represented in the colon of rats. The proposed methodology allowed the attainment of DNA of bacteria with the quality and integrity for use in qPCR, sequencing, and PCR-RFLP analysis. The selected universal primers provided knowledge of the abundance of microorganisms and the formation of a preliminary test of bacterial diversity in rat colon biopsies. PMID:27382362

  4. Kupffer cells of cirrhotic rat livers sensitize colon cancer cells to Fas-mediated apoptosis.

    PubMed

    Song, E; Chen, J; Ouyang, N; Wang, M; Exton, M S; Heemann, U

    2001-05-04

    Metastasis of colorectal carcinomas rarely occurs in cirrhotic livers. Our study investigated the influence of activated Kupffer cells from cirrhotic rat livers on hepatic colonization and FasR-mediated apoptosis of colon cancer cells. A rat colon cancer cell line, RCN-9, was used to inoculate rat livers. Treatment with conditioned media of Kupffer cells isolated from CCl(4)-induced cirrhotic rat livers (cirrhotic KCM) significantly reduced the incidence of hepatic colonization of RCN-9 cells. In vitro cytotoxicity of Kupffer cells and tumour infiltrating lymphocytes (TILs) on RCN-9 cells was evaluated using [(3)H]-release assay. RCN-9 cells were resistant to cytotoxicity mediated by cirrhotic Kupffer cells, but were sensitized to TIL-mediated killing after treatment with cirrhotic KCM. The specific killing induced by TILs was FasR-mediated, as it was inhibited by ZB4, an antagonistic anti-FasR antibody. In agreement, cirrhotic KCM increased recombinant Fas ligand-induced apoptosis of RCN-9 cells, and up-regulated FasR expression on RCN-9 cells as evaluated by RT-PCR and flow cytometry. These findings suggest that Kupffer cells in cirrhotic livers sensitize metastatic colon cancer cells to FasR-mediated apoptosis by up-regulating the receptors, which thus prepare them to be eliminated by infiltrating lymphocytes.

  5. Fecal excretion pattern of bile acids in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin in induced colon tumorigenesis.

    PubMed

    Panda, S K; Broitman, S A

    1999-09-06

    Neomycin augments colon tumorigenesis in 1,2 - dimethylhydrazine treated rats fed polyunsaturated fat diet and decreases fecal cholic acid excretion, while it inhibits tumorigenesis with increased cholic acid and decreased deoxycholic acid excretions in rats fed high cholesterol diet. Participation of other fecal bile acids seems to be insignificant in relation to colon carcinogenesis.

  6. Anti-hypertensive effects of a closed-loop chip system in renovascular hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Li-Min; Zhu, Guo-Qing; Wang, Han-Jun; Zhao, Cong-Kan; Xu, Yao; Gao, Xing-Ya

    2008-08-01

    The authors' previous study showed a closed-loop chip system that was used to control arterial pressure in normal rabbits and rats. In the present study the anti-hypertensive effects of the chip system were investigated in anaesthetized two-kidney one-clip (2K1C) renovascular hypertensive rats and compared with sham-operated rats. The chip system recorded, sampled, and processed the signals of arterial pressure and instantaneously controlled arterial pressure by stimulating the left aortic depressor nerve. The frequency of stimulation was determined according to the feedback signals of arterial pressure. The chip system, running three different programs, successfully achieved a different degree of depressor effects. It effectively decreased not only mean arterial pressure (MAP), but also renal sympathetic nerve activity (RSNA) in both 2K1C rats and sham-operated rats. The chip system significantly increased the baroreflex gain in the 2K1C rats, but not in the sham-operated rats. It normalized the increased left ventricle developing pressure and maximal rise rate of the left ventricle pressure (dP/dtmax) in the 2K1C rats. These results indicate that the depressor effect can be controlled by changing the programs of the chip system. The closed-loop chip system effectively decreased arterial pressure and sympathetic outflow, increased baroreflex gain, and normalized the enhanced cardiac contractility in renovascular hypertensive rats.

  7. Apoptosis induction in colon cancer cell lines and alteration of aberrant crypt foci in rat colon by purple rice (Oryza sativa L. var. glutinosa) extracts.

    PubMed

    Wongjaikam, Suwakon; Summart, Ratasak; Chewonarin, Teera

    2014-01-01

    Crude ethanol extracts (CEE) of purple rice was fractionated to obtain hexane soluble (HSF) and ethyl acetate soluble fractions (EASF). Total antioxidant capacity was higher in CEE than the HSF and EASF. However, HSF exhibited strong antiproliferation and apoptosis induction against colon cancer cell lines, both p53 wild-type (RKO) and mutant (SW620) strains. Then, the CEE was used to determine the effects on the progression of aberrant crypt foci (ACF), a preneoplastic lesion seen in colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were subcutaneously injected of 40 mg/kg body weight dimethylhydrazin (DMH) once weekly for 2 wk. After 2 wk, rats were orally administered ethanol extract at 100 and 1000 mg/kg body weight, for 4 wk. Rats fed with only the high dose of CEE had significantly decreased numbers of ACF per rat (45.56%) and crypt multiplicity (AC/focus) (16.67%) compared to rats that received DMH alone. The result also demonstrated that CEE induced apoptosis in colonic epithelium cells of rat received colon carcinogen as detected the increasing of caspase-3 activity. This finding could be concluded that purple rice extracts inhibited aberrant colonic epithelial cell progression via apoptosis induction.

  8. Frequent mutation of Apc gene in rat colon tumors and mucin-depleted foci, preneoplastic lesions in experimental colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Dolara, Piero; Giannini, Augusto; Salvadori, Maddalena; Biggeri, Annibale; Caderni, Giovanna

    2007-01-15

    Mucin-depleted foci (MDF) are microscopic dysplastic lesions induced in the colon of rodents by specific colon carcinogens. Most MDF show Wnt pathway activation, whereas only a subset shows mutations in the Ctnnb1 gene, coding for beta-catenin. Because Apc is a member of the Wnt pathway and the most frequent mutated gene in human colon cancer, we tested whether MDF harbor Apc mutations. F344 rats were treated twice with 150 mg/kg of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. After 15 or 28 weeks, MDF, aberrant crypt foci (ACF), and tumors were collected. We screened a segment of the Apc gene comprising the region homologous to the mutation cluster region (MCR) of human APC, which frequently shows mutations in experimental colon tumors. Mutations were identified by PCR amplification and sequencing in 6:24 MDF (25%), 7:23 tumors (30%), 0:24 ACF (0%). Most of the mutations (92%) in MDF and tumors were localized in a region upstream from the MCR. All mutations were single-base substitutions and mainly formed by G:C-->A:T and C:G-->T:A transitions. The pattern of nucleotide changes was similar in MDF and tumors, and, interestingly, the same mutation in codon 1047 was found in two MDF and in three tumors. Four out of the six mutations found in MDF were nonsense mutations, and two were missense. All mutations in tumors determined a protein truncation. These results show that Apc mutations are present in MDF with a frequency similar to that of tumors, strengthening the evidence that they are precancerous lesions in colon carcinogenesis.

  9. Decreased oral colonization of Streptococcus mutans during aging of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Van Houte, J; Upeslacis, V N; Edelstein, S

    1977-04-01

    The colonization by streptomycin-resistant Streptococcus mutans strains of the teeth of conventional and ex-germfree Sprague-Dawley rats of various ages fed either a high-sucrose or a high-glucose diet was studied. Bacterial colonization occurred with increasingly greater difficulty as the rats became older. This was observed in studies of the implantation of the test organism after oral inoculation with different cell numbers as well as its transmission between infected and uninfected rats. With rat fed sucrose diet, the effect of age could not be demonstrated until they were age 3 months or older; the results from rats fed a glucose diet suggest that changes may already have occurred early after weaning. Changes in susceptibility to colonization during aging manifested themselves as a decrease in the proportions of rats which became infected as well as lower population levels in infected rats. The possible mechanism(s) involved as well as the possible significance of the findings was discussed.

  10. Effects of immunostimulation with OK432, coenzyme Q10, or levamisole on dimethylhydrazine-induced colonic carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Suzuki, H; Yamamoto, J; Iwata, Y; Matsumoto, K; Iriyama, K

    1986-03-01

    Effects of immunostimulation with OK432, Coenzyme Q10 (Co-Q10), or levamisole on dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colonic carcinogenesis were investigated in 45 Donryu-rats. The manipulation with one of these immunopotentiators did not prevent DMH-induced colonic carcinogenesis in these rats. However, the number of tumors was significantly reduced and the incidence of invasive carcinomas decreased by immunostimulation. The treatment also reduced the number of lesions with epithelial dysplasia within the flat colonic mucosa.

  11. Architecture of kangaroo rat inner medulla: segmentation of descending thin limb of Henle's loop

    PubMed Central

    Urity, Vinoo B.; Issaian, Tadeh; Braun, Eldon J.; Dantzler, William H.

    2012-01-01

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to more than 6,000 mosmol/kgH2O water, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary nephron segments in the initial 3,000 μm below the outer medulla were assessed with digital reconstructions from physical tissue sections. Descending thin limbs of Henle (DTLs), ascending thin limbs of Henle (ATLs), and collecting ducts (CDs) were identified by immunofluorescence using antibodies that label segment-specific proteins associated with transepithelial water flux (aquaporin 1 and 2, AQP1 and AQP2) and chloride flux (the chloride channel ClC-K1); all tubules and vessels were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin. In the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla, AQP1-positive DTLs lie at the periphery of groups of CDs. ATLs lie inside and outside the groups of CDs. Immunohistochemistry and reconstructions of loops that form their bends in the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla show that, relative to loop length, the AQP1-positive segment of the kangaroo rat is significantly longer than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. The length of ClC-K1 expression in the prebend region at the terminal end of the descending side of the loop in kangaroo rat is about 50% shorter than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. Tubular fluid of the kangaroo rat DTL may approach osmotic equilibrium with interstitial fluid by water reabsorption along a relatively longer tubule length, compared with Munich-Wistar rat. A relatively shorter-length prebend segment may promote a steeper reabsorptive driving force at the loop bend. These structural features predict functionality that is potentially significant in the production of a high urine osmolality in the kangaroo rat. PMID:22237592

  12. Architecture of kangaroo rat inner medulla: segmentation of descending thin limb of Henle's loop.

    PubMed

    Urity, Vinoo B; Issaian, Tadeh; Braun, Eldon J; Dantzler, William H; Pannabecker, Thomas L

    2012-03-15

    We hypothesize that the inner medulla of the kangaroo rat Dipodomys merriami, a desert rodent that concentrates its urine to more than 6,000 mosmol/kgH(2)O water, provides unique examples of architectural features necessary for production of highly concentrated urine. To investigate this architecture, inner medullary nephron segments in the initial 3,000 μm below the outer medulla were assessed with digital reconstructions from physical tissue sections. Descending thin limbs of Henle (DTLs), ascending thin limbs of Henle (ATLs), and collecting ducts (CDs) were identified by immunofluorescence using antibodies that label segment-specific proteins associated with transepithelial water flux (aquaporin 1 and 2, AQP1 and AQP2) and chloride flux (the chloride channel ClC-K1); all tubules and vessels were labeled with wheat germ agglutinin. In the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla, AQP1-positive DTLs lie at the periphery of groups of CDs. ATLs lie inside and outside the groups of CDs. Immunohistochemistry and reconstructions of loops that form their bends in the outer 3,000 μm of the inner medulla show that, relative to loop length, the AQP1-positive segment of the kangaroo rat is significantly longer than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. The length of ClC-K1 expression in the prebend region at the terminal end of the descending side of the loop in kangaroo rat is about 50% shorter than that of the Munich-Wistar rat. Tubular fluid of the kangaroo rat DTL may approach osmotic equilibrium with interstitial fluid by water reabsorption along a relatively longer tubule length, compared with Munich-Wistar rat. A relatively shorter-length prebend segment may promote a steeper reabsorptive driving force at the loop bend. These structural features predict functionality that is potentially significant in the production of a high urine osmolality in the kangaroo rat.

  13. Expression and significance of nerve growth factor receptor p75 in rats' cathartic colonic wall.

    PubMed

    Fan, Yi Hong; Lu, Bin; Wang, Mei; Ni, Gui Bao; Chen, Ming Tao; Xu, Yi

    2006-01-01

    To investigate the expression of nerve growth factor receptor p75 in a normal and cathartic colon and its significance in the formation of the cathartic colon in rats. Sixty Sprague-Dawley rats were equally divided into normal control group, rhubarb group and phenolphthalein group. A model of the cathartic colon was constructed by gastric infusion with rhubarb or phenolphthalein in rats. The first dose of rhubarb and phenolphthalein was both 200 mg/kg/d and was increased by 200 mg/kg/d with each passing day. The last dose of rhubarb and phenolphthalein was 3200 mg/kg/d and 4200 mg/kg/d, respectively. The transit function of colon was measured by the Chinese ink expulsion test; the p75 in colon wall was determined by the immunohistochemical method. The transit speed was much slower in the cathartic colon group than that in the control group. The imprinted Chinese ink length and the ratio of imprinted length/total colon length in the rhubarb-induced cathartic colon was significantly shorter than that of the control group (77.38 +/- 8.42 vs 94.25 +/- 7.07 cm, P < 0.01). Those in the phenolphthalein-induced group (83.38 +/- 9.75 cm) were also significantly shorter than those of the control group but to a lesser degree (P < 0.05). p75 was abundantly expressed in the submucosal nerve plexus and weakly expressed in the myenteric plexus. The expression of p75 was much higher in the rhubarb-induced group. The expression was strongly positive in the submucosal nerve plexus, significantly higher than that in the controls (P < 0.01). In the myenteric plexus, p75 was also highly expressed (P < 0.05). In the case of the phenolphthalein-induced group, the expression of p75 was positive in the submucosal nerve plexus but was positive in the myenteric plexus of three rats only. The remaining rats were negative or weakly positive. This was not significantly different from that of the control group. The abnormal expression of p75 in cathartic colon probably has some effect on the

  14. K+ transport by rat colon: adaptation to a low potassium diet

    SciTech Connect

    Tannen, R.L.; Marino, R.; Dawson, D.C.

    1986-03-01

    Recent studies with the isolated perfused rat kidney have demonstrated the existence of an intrinsic renal adaptation to conserve K+ in response to ingestion of a low K+ diet for 3 days. To determine whether the colon alters its K+ transport properties in a similar fashion, we measured transmural 86Rb fluxes across sheets of distal colonic epithelium under short-circuit conditions. Preliminary studies using a double-isotope technique demonstrated that 86Rb and 42K fluxes were similar; therefore 86Rb flux was considered equivalent to K+ flux. The distal half of the colon from each rat was divided into two segments, referred to as early and late distal colon. Experiments were carried out using rats fed a K+ -free, control (0.15 mmol/g), and high K+ (1.13 mmol/g) powdered diet of otherwise identical electrolyte content. Net K+ secretion (Jnet) by the early distal colon was reduced from 0.45 in the controls to -0.02 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 by a low K+ diet as a result of a decrease in serosal-to-mucosal flux (Jsm), with no change in mucosal-to-serosal flux (Jms). Conductance (GT) and short-circuit current (Isc) were unchanged. Jnet by the late distal colon averaged 0.17 in the controls and 0.01 mueq X cm-2 X h-1 with a low K+ diet, but this difference was not significant statistically. In comparison with the controls, a high K+ diet had no effect on Jnet by the early distal colon (0.48 mueq X cm-2 X h-1) but increased Jnet by the late distal colon substantially (0.77 mueq X cm-2 X h-1).

  15. Pineal gland function is required for colon antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in rats.

    PubMed

    Frajacomo, F T T; de Paula Garcia, W; Fernandes, C R; Garcia, S B; Kannen, V

    2015-10-01

    Light-at-night exposure enhances the risk of cancer. Colon cancer is among the most dangerous tumors affecting humankind. Physical exercise has shown positive effects against colon cancer. Here, we investigated whether pineal gland modulates antipreneoplastic effects of physical exercise in the colon. Surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments were performed to clarify the relationship between the pineal gland activity and manifestation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. Next, a progressive swimming training was applied in rats exposed or not to either non-surgical pineal impairment or carcinogen treatment for 10 weeks. Both surgical and non-surgical pineal impairments increased the development of colon preneoplasia. It was further found that impairing the pineal gland function, higher rates of DNA damage were induced in colonic epithelial and enteric glial cells. Physical exercise acted positively against preneoplasia, whereas impairing the pineal function with constant light exposure disrupts its positive effects on the development of preneoplastic lesions in the colon. This was yet related to increased DNA damage in glial cells and enteric neuronal activation aside from serum melatonin levels. Our findings suggest that protective effects of physical exercise against colon cancer are dependent on the pineal gland activity.

  16. Trypanosomiasis-Induced Megacolon Illustrates How Myenteric Neurons Modulate the Risk for Colon Cancer in Rats and Humans

    PubMed Central

    Kannen, Vinicius; de Oliveira, Enio C.; Motta, Bruno Zene; Chaguri, Annuar Jose; Brunaldi, Mariângela Ottoboni; Garcia, Sérgio B.

    2015-01-01

    Background Trypanosomiasis induces a remarkable myenteric neuronal degeneration leading to megacolon. Very little is known about the risk for colon cancer in chagasic megacolon patients. To clarify whether chagasic megacolon impacts on colon carcinogenesis, we investigated the risk for colon cancer in Trypanosoma cruzi (T. cruzi) infected patients and rats. Methods Colon samples from T. cruzi-infected and uninfected patients and rats were histopathologically investigated with colon cancer biomarkers. An experimental model for chemical myenteric denervation was also performed to verify the myenteric neuronal effects on colon carcinogenesis. All experiments complied the guidelines and approval of ethical institutional review boards. Results No colon tumors were found in chagasic megacolon samples. A significant myenteric neuronal denervation was observed. Epithelial cell proliferation and hyperplasia were found increased in chagasic megacolon. Analyzing the argyrophilic nucleolar organiser regions within the cryptal bottom revealed reduced risk for colon cancer in Chagas’ megacolon patients. T. cruzi-infected rats showed a significant myenteric neuronal denervation and decreased numbers of colon preneoplastic lesions. In chemical myenteric denervated rats preneoplastic lesions were reduced from the 2nd wk onward, which ensued having the colon myenteric denervation significantly induced. Conclusion/Significance Our data suggest that the trypanosomiasis-related myenteric neuronal degeneration protects the colon tissue from carcinogenic events. Current findings highlight potential mechanisms in tropical diseases and cancer research. PMID:25884710

  17. Characterization of AQPs in Mouse, Rat, and Human Colon and Their Selective Regulation by Bile Acids

    PubMed Central

    Yde, Jonathan; Keely, Stephen; Wu, Qi; Borg, Johan F.; Lajczak, Natalia; O’Dwyer, Aoife; Dalsgaard, Peter; Fenton, Robert A.; Moeller, Hanne B.

    2016-01-01

    In normal individuals, the epithelium of the colon absorbs 1.5–2 l of water a day to generate dehydrated feces. However, in the condition of bile acid malabsorption (BAM), an excess of bile acids in the colon results in diarrhea. Several studies have attempted to address the mechanisms contributing to BAM induced by various bile acids. However, none have addressed a potential dysregulation of aquaporin (AQP) water channels, which are responsible for the majority of transcellular water transport in epithelial cells, as a contributing factor to the onset of diarrhea and the pathogenesis of BAM. In this study, we aimed to systematically analyze the expression of AQPs in colonic epithelia from rat, mouse, and human and determine whether their expression is altered in a rat model of BAM. Mass spectrometry-based proteomics, RT-PCR, and western blotting identified various AQPs in isolated colonic epithelial cells from rats (AQP1, 3, 4, 7, 8) and mice (AQP1, 4, 8). Several AQPs were also detected in human colon (AQP1, 3, 4, 7–9). Immunohistochemistry localized AQP1 to the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells in the bottom of the crypts, whereas AQP3 (rat, human) and AQP4 (mice, human) were localized predominantly in the basolateral plasma membrane. AQP8 was localized intracellularly and at the apical plasma membrane of epithelial cells. Rats fed sodium cholate for 72 h had significantly increased fecal water content, suggesting development of BAM-associated diarrhea. Colonic epithelial cells isolated from this model had significantly altered levels of AQP3, 7, and 8, suggesting that these AQPs may be involved in the pathogenesis of bile acid-induced diarrhea. PMID:27777930

  18. Inhibition of colon carcinogenesis by post-initiation induction of NQO1 in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Begleiter, Asher; Sivananthan, Kosala; Lefas, Georgia M; Maksymiuk, Andrew W; Bird, Ranjana P

    2009-06-01

    Inducers of phase II detoxifying enzymes have been studied as chemopreventive agents for a variety of cancers. Phase II detoxifying enzymes may play a significant role in preventing carcinogen-induced colon cancer at the initiation and post-initiation stage, but the contribution of NAD(P) H:quinone oxidoreductase 1 (NQO1) to this effect remains unclear. Using the carcinogen-induced colon cancer Sprague-Dawley rat model, we previously showed that oltipraz selectively induces NQO1 in the colons of these rats without inducing other phase II detoxifying enzymes. We demonstrated that selective induction of NQO1 in the rat colon prior to treatment with a carcinogen significantly inhibited the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Using the same rat model, we found that rats fed oltipraz containing diet following treatment with the colon carcinogen, azoxymethane (AOM), had 60% fewer ACF after 12 weeks compared with rats fed a control diet. In addition, rats fed oltipraz containing diet after AOM treatment developed 40% fewer colon adenomas and fewer colon tumors than rats fed a control diet. There was also a 60% increase in the percentage of apoptotic cells in ACF from oltipraz fed rats compared with ACF from control fed rats. Together, these results suggest that NQO1 can contribute to inhibition of colon carcinogenesis at the post-initiation stage. A possible mechanism for this effect may be that induction of NQO1 increases apoptosis in carcinogen initiated colonic epithelial cells that prevents these cells from progressing to a neoplastic state. Thus, NQO1 may be an important target for chemoprevention of colon cancer.

  19. Inhibitory effect of oxytocin on accelerated colonic motility induced by water-avoidance stress in rats.

    PubMed

    Matsunaga, M; Konagaya, T; Nogimori, T; Yoneda, M; Kasugai, K; Ohira, H; Kaneko, H

    2009-08-01

    Recent studies have indicated that brain and gut activities are interrelated and exposure to several stressors, such as water-avoidance stress, stimulates the motor function of the gut through corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF)-signalling pathways in the brain. Central oxytocin is known to attenuate stress responses, including CRF expression in the brain. Here, we examined whether central oxytocin attenuated the acceleration of colonic motility induced by water-avoidance stress. A force transducer was attached to the distal colon of male rat, and the colonic motility and faecal pellet output were recorded while the rats were exposed to water-avoidance stress. Intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injections of oxytocin (5, 50 and 500 pmol) and the oxytocin receptor antagonist tocinoic acid (25 microg) were administered before exposure to water-avoidance stress, and the effect of oxytocin on colonic motor function was determined. Centrally administered oxytocin inhibited the accelerated colonic motility induced by water-avoidance stress. The effective dose ranged between 5 and 50 pmol on i.c.v. injection. Oxytocin also decreased the number of CRF-positive cells in the paraventricular nucleus and corticosterone release. The inhibitory effect of oxytocin on accelerated colonic motility was blocked by pretreatment with oxytocin receptor antagonist. Furthermore, centrally administered tocinoic acid enhanced the acceleration of colonic motility. These results suggested that endogenous central oxytocin may contribute to the regulation of colonic function and inhibit the brain CRF-signalling pathways targeting the gut, resulting in the inhibition of stress-induced colonic contractions.

  20. Natural chlorophyll but not chlorophyllin prevents heme-induced cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects in rat colon.

    PubMed

    de Vogel, Johan; Jonker-Termont, Denise S M L; Katan, Martijn B; van der Meer, Roelof

    2005-08-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In rats, dietary heme, mimicking red meat, increases colonic cytotoxicity and proliferation of the colonocytes, whereas addition of chlorophyll from green vegetables inhibits these heme-induced effects. Chlorophyllin is a water-soluble hydrolysis product of chlorophyll that inhibits the toxicity of many planar aromatic compounds. The present study investigated whether chlorophyllins could inhibit the heme-induced luminal cytotoxicity and colonic hyperproliferation as natural chlorophyll does. Rats were fed a purified control diet, the control diet supplemented with heme, or a heme diet with 1.2 mmol/kg diet of chlorophyllin, copper chlorophyllin, or natural chlorophyll for 14 d (n = 8/group). The cytotoxicity of fecal water was determined with an erythrocyte bioassay and colonic epithelial cell proliferation was quantified in vivo by [methyl-(3)H]thymidine incorporation into newly synthesized DNA. Exfoliation of colonocytes was measured as the amount of rat DNA in feces using quantitative PCR analysis. Heme caused a >50-fold increase in the cytotoxicity of the fecal water, a nearly 100% increase in proliferation, and almost total inhibition of exfoliation of the colonocytes. Furthermore, the addition of heme increased TBARS in fecal water. Chlorophyll, but not the chlorophyllins, completely prevented these heme-induced effects. In conclusion, inhibition of the heme-induced colonic cytotoxicity and epithelial cell turnover is specific for natural chlorophyll and cannot be mimicked by water-soluble chlorophyllins.

  1. The Histogenesis of the Third Pathway of Colonic Carcinogenesis in Rats.

    PubMed

    Rubio, Carlos A

    2017-03-01

    Conventional (tubular or villous) adenomas, and the more recently described serrated adenomas, are non-invasive neoplasias that precede colon carcinomas in carcinogen-treated rats. In contrast, the histological steps antedating carcinomas in gut-associated lymphoid tissue (GALT) in rats, i.e. the third pathway of colonic carcinogenesis, remain unidentified. Aim of the study was to investigate the histological changes preceding colonic GALT carcinomas in Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats. Archived sections from previous experiments showing GALT mucosal domains in 292 rats were re-evaluated: 276 were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) suspended in ethylenedia-minetetra-acetic acid (EDTA), and 16 were controls (8 EDTA-treated, and 8 untreated). A total of 402 colonic GALT mucosal domains were found in the 292 rats: 382 in 276 DMH-treated, 10 in eight EDTA-treated, and 10 in eight-untreated rats. In DMH-treated rats, corrupted crypts (CCS; i.e. with asymmetric fission or abnormal crypt-alignment) were recorded in 50% of the GALT domains (15% had no dysplasia and 35% had epithelial dysplasia). Adenomas on top of GALT domains were found in 7%, and GALT carcinomas in 53%. Histology of the 146 colonic GALT carcinomas revealed highly differentiated carcinomas or signet-ring cell carcinomas. EDTA-treated and untreated animals showed no dysplastic CCS, or other neoplasia. This study demonstrated that GALT mucosal domains in carcinogen-treated rats often develop dysplastic CCS. Non-dysplastic CCS appear to act as scaffolds for the top-down replacement/transformation by dysplastic cells. Importantly, highly differentiated carcinomas were seen to evolve from dysplastic CCS and from adenomas, and signet-ring cell carcinomas from dysplastic goblet cells present at the base of crypts. This is the first study showing that non-invasive neoplastic lesions (dysplastic CCS and adenomas) antedate colonic GALT carcinomas in DMH-treated SD rats. The DMH-SD paradigm permits detailed study of

  2. Morphological and Molecular Alterations in 1,2 Dimethylhydrazine and Azoxymethane Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Perše, Martina; Cerar, Anton

    2011-01-01

    The dimethyhydrazine (DMH) or azoxymethane (AOM) model is a well-established, well-appreciated, and widely used model of experimental colon carcinogenesis. It has many morphological as well as molecular similarities to human sporadic colorectal cancer (CC), which are summarized and discussed in this paper. In addition, the paper combines present knowledge of morphological and molecular features in the multistep development of CC recognized in the DMH/AOM rat model. This understanding is necessary in order to accurately identify and interpret alterations that occur in the colonic mucosa when evaluating natural or pharmacological compounds in DMH/AOM rat colon carcinogenesis. The DMH/AOM model provides a wide range of options for investigating various initiating and environmental factors, the role of specific dietary and genetic factors, and therapeutic options in CC. The limitations of this model and suggested areas in which more research is required are also discussed. PMID:21253581

  3. Effects of albumin/glutaraldehyde glue on healing of colonic anastomosis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Despoudi, Kalliopi; Mantzoros, Ioannis; Ioannidis, Orestis; Cheva, Aggeliki; Antoniou, Nikolaos; Konstantaras, Dimitrios; Symeonidis, Savvas; Pramateftakis, Manousos George; Kotidis, Efstathios; Angelopoulos, Stamatis; Tsalis, Konstantinos

    2017-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effect of local surgical adhesive glue (albumin/glutaraldehyde-Bioglue) on the healing of colonic anastomoses in rats. METHODS Forty Albino-Wistar male rats were randomly divided into two groups, with two subgroups of ten animals each. In the control group, an end-to-end colonic anastomosis was performed after segmental resection. In the Bioglue group, the anastomosis was protected with extraluminar application of adhesive glue containing albumin and glutaraldehyde. Half of the rats were sacrificed on the fourth and the rest on the eighth postoperative day. Anastomoses were resected and macroscopically examined. Bursting pressures were calculated and histological features were graded. Other parameters of healing, such as hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations, were evaluated. The experimental data were summarized and computed from the results of a one-way ANOVA. Fisher’s exact test was applied to compare percentages. RESULTS Bursting pressures, adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, and collagen deposition were significantly higher on the fourth postoperative day in the albumin/glutaraldehyde group than in the control group. Furthermore, albumin/glutaraldehyde significantly increased adhesion formation, inflammatory cell infiltration, neoangiogenesis, and collagen deposition on the eighth postoperative day. There was no difference in fibroblast activity or hydroxyproline and collagenase concentrations. CONCLUSION Albumin/glutaraldehyde, when applied on colonic anastomoses, promotes their healing in rats. Therefore, the application of protective local agents in colonic anastomoses leads to better outcomes. PMID:28883693

  4. THE INDUCTION OF COLON NEOPLASIA IN MALE RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INDUCTION OF COLON NEOPLASIA IN MALE RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALO METHANES (THMs) IN THE DRINKING WATER
    Christopher Sistrunk and Tony DeAngelo, North Carolina Central University and US Environmental Protection Agency
    The THMs are the most widely distributed and the most co...

  5. THE INDUCTION OF COLON NEOPLASIA IN MALE RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALOMETHANES (THMS) IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    THE INDUCTION OF COLON NEOPLASIA IN MALE RATS EXPOSED TO TRIHALO METHANES (THMs) IN THE DRINKING WATER
    Christopher Sistrunk and Tony DeAngelo, North Carolina Central University and US Environmental Protection Agency
    The THMs are the most widely distributed and the most co...

  6. Diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin for colonic drug targeting: In vivo performance in rats.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amélia C F; Serra, Arménio C; Veiga, Francisco J; Gonsalves, António M d'A Rocha; Basit, Abdul W; Murdan, Sudaxshina

    2016-03-16

    The aim of this in vivo study was to assess the ability of the prodrug conjugate diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin to release diclofenac in the colon following oral administration, using sulfapyridine (a metabolite of sulfasalazine) as a marker of colonic absorption. Two groups of rats were used; the test rats received a suspension containing the two prodrugs, diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin and sulfasalazine, while the control rats received a suspension containing the corresponding free drugs, sodium diclofenac and sulfapyridine. The rats were fasted overnight with free access to water before and throughout the first 12h of the study. Blood was collected from the tail vein at pre-determined time points and the plasma analyzed for the concentrations of diclofenac and sulfapyridine. Following the oral administration of the two prodrugs, a more extended absorption profile was observed and Cmax was achieved 10h post-dose, in contrast to rapid absorption of the free drugs (tmax of diclofenac being 1.3h, and that of sulfapyridine being 2.1h). In addition to a later tmax, conjugation of diclofenac to β-cyclodextrin also resulted in a reduced Cmax and a reduced AUC. The same tmax for diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin as for sulfasalazine confirms the colonic metabolism of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin. This study shows the potential of this new cyclodextrin-based prodrug to target and release diclofenac specifically in the colon following oral administration. Copyright © 2016 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Depressor effect of closed-loop chip system in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing-Ya; Huang, Xing-Lin; Wang, Han-Jun; Zhou, Li-Min; Xu, Yao; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2007-12-30

    We previously reported that a closed-loop chip system was designed to decrease arterial pressure in normal rabbits and rats. In the present study, the depressor effects of the chip system were investigated in spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY). The arterial pressure was recorded, sampled, operated and processed in the chip system. The chip system instantaneously controlled arterial pressure by stimulating the left aortic depressor nerve according to the feedback signals of arterial pressure. The closed-loop chip system effectively decreased mean arterial pressure (MAP) and heart rate (HR) in both SHR and WKY rats. It decreased the duration and the maximal MAP level of the pressor response evoked by either intravenous injection of phenylephrine or cutaneous nociceptive stimulation in SHR, but had no significant effect on the magnitude of the increase in MAP. Furthermore, the chip system significantly increased the baroreflex gain in SHR, but not in normal WKY rats. These results suggest that the closed-loop chip system effectively decreases the arterial pressure and increases baroreflex gain in SHR. The chip system does not abolish the arterial pressure responses to accidental pressor events, but decreases the duration and the maximal MAP level of the pressor responses.

  8. Alosetron, cilansetron and tegaserod modify mesenteric but not colonic blood flow in rats.

    PubMed

    Painsipp, Evelin; Shahbazian, Anaid; Holzer, Peter

    2009-11-01

    As the use of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist alosetron (GlaxoSmithKline) and the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist tegaserod (Novartis) in patients with irritable bowel syndrome has been associated with cases of ischaemic colitis, the effects of alosetron, cilansetron (Solvay) and tegaserod on the rat splanchnic circulation were evaluated. Phenobarbital-anaesthetised rats were instrumented to record blood flow in the superior mesenteric artery and transverse colon and to calculate mesenteric and colonic vascular conductance. Intravenous alosetron (0.03-0.3 mg.kg(-1)) did not alter blood pressure or heart rate but reduced mesenteric blood flow and vascular conductance by 15-20%. This activity profile was also seen after intraduodenal alosetron and shared by the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist cilansetron. In contrast, blood flow, vascular conductance and intraluminal pressure in the colon were not modified by alosetron and cilansetron. Intravenous or intraduodenal tegaserod (0.3-1.0 mg.kg(-1)) had no inhibitory effect on mesenteric and colonic blood flow. Peroral treatment of rats with alosetron or tegaserod for 7 days did not modify mesenteric haemodynamics at baseline and after blockade of nitric oxide synthesis. Mild inflammation induced by dextran sulphate sodium failed to provoke a vasoconstrictor effect of cilansetron in the colon. Alosetron and cilansetron, not tegaserod, caused a small and transient constriction of the rat mesenteric vascular bed, whereas blood flow in the colon remained unaltered. The relevance of these findings to the treatment-associated occurrence of ischaemic colitis in patients with irritable bowel syndrome remains open.

  9. Tangshen Formula Attenuates Colonic Structure Remodeling in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Pengmin; Zhao, Jingbo; Yang, Xin; Zhao, Tingting; Yan, Meihua; Pan, Lin; Li, Xin; Zhang, Yun

    2017-01-01

    Aim. This study investigated the effect and mechanism of the Chinese herbal medicine Tangshen Formula (TSF) on GI structure remodeling in the rat model of diabetes. Methods. Type 2 diabetic rats were used. Wet weight per unit length, layer thicknesses, levels of collagens I and III, nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB), interferon-γ (IFN-γ), interleukin-6 (IL-6), transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), and Smad2/3 expression in the rat colon were measured. Results. Compared with the control group animals, wet weight and layer thicknesses of the colon increased, and expressions of collagens I and III, NF-κB, IFN-γ, IL-6, TGF-β1, and Smad2/3 increased significantly in the diabetic animals. TSF inhibited increase in colonic wet weight and layer thicknesses, downregulated expressions of collagens I and III in the mucosal layer, and downregulated expressions of NF-κB, IFN-γ, IL-6, TGF-β1, and Smad2/3 in the colon wall. Furthermore, level of expression of NF-κB was associated with those of TGF-β1 and Smad2/3. Expression of TGF-β1 was associated with the most histomorphometric parameters including colonic weight, mucosal and muscle thicknesses, and levels of collagens I and III in mucosal layer. Conclusion. TSF appears to attenuate colonic structure remodeling in type 2 diabetic rats through inhibiting the overactivated pathway of NF-κB, thus reducing expressions of TGF-β1. PMID:28303157

  10. Developmental origins of colon smooth muscle dysfunction in IBS-like rats

    PubMed Central

    Li, Qingjie; Winston, John H.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that subsets of adult and pediatric patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) have prior exposures to psychological or inflammatory stress. We investigated the cellular mechanisms of colonic smooth muscle dysfunction in adult rats subjected to neonatal inflammation. Ten-day-old male rat pups received 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid to induce colonic inflammation. Colonic circular smooth muscle strips were obtained 6 to 8 wk later. We found that about half of the neonate pups subjected to inflammatory insult showed a significant increase in expression of the pore-forming α1C-subunit of Cav1.2b channels in adult life. These were the same rats in whom Vip mRNA increased in the colon muscularis externae. Additional experiments showed reduced interaction of histone deacetylase (HDAC) 3 with α1C1b promoter that increased the acetylation of histone H3 lysine 9 (H3K9) in the core promoter region. Vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) treatment of naïve muscularis externae swiftly recruited CREB-binding protein (CBP) to the α1C1b promoter and dissociated HDAC3 from this region to initiate transcription. The CBP interaction with the α1C1b promoter was transient, but the dissociation of HDAC3 persisted to sustain H3K9 hyperacetylation and increase in transcription. Intraperitoneal treatment of adult naïve rats with butyrate mimicked the effects of neonatal colon inflammation. We concluded that neonatal inflammation upregulates VIP in the colon muscularis externae, which modulates epigenetic events at the α1C1b promoter to activate α1C1b gene transcription. Inflammatory insult in early life may be one of the etiologies of smooth muscle dysfunction in adult life, which contributes to the altered motility function in patients with diarrhea-predominant IBS. PMID:23886858

  11. Cruciferous vegetables reduce morphological markers of colon cancer risk in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Arikawa, Andrea Y; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2008-03-01

    Consumption of cruciferous vegetables has been associated with reduced colon cancer risk in human populations. However, little experimental evidence exists to support this association. Here, we report the effects of diets containing cruciferous vegetables on colon cancer risk. In Expt. 1, rats were fed a vegetable-free (basal) diet or diets containing different lyophilized cruciferous vegetables in concentrations between 4 and 10%. In Expt. 2, rats were fed the basal diet or diets containing 10-22.6% fresh cruciferous vegetables. Diets were fed for 2 wk (Expt. 1) or 3 wk (Expt. 2) before and 7 wk (Expt. 1) or 12 wk (Expt. 2) after administration of the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine. Rats fed fresh vegetables were also injected with a low dose of carcinogen 18-24 h prior to termination. Groups fed lyophilized vegetables did not differ in aberrant crypt foci (ACF), sialomucin-producing foci, or mucin-depleted foci (MDF) numbers. However, all fresh vegetable diets significantly decreased ACF (approximately 40%) and MDF numbers. Activities of the hepatic phase I enzyme CYP2E1 did not differ among groups in either experiment. Hepatic glutathione S-transferase (GST) and quinone reductase activities did not differ among groups fed fresh vegetables, whereas the lyophilized cabbage diets decreased GST activity compared with the basal diet. Groups did not differ in apoptosis and cell proliferation labeling indices in colonic mucosa. This study indicates that fresh but not lyophilized cruciferous vegetables reduce colon cancer risk in rats. These results do not support changes in hepatic carcinogen metabolism or colonic crypt cytokinetics as a mechanism.

  12. Chemopreventive effects of lupulone, a hop {beta}-acid, on human colon cancer-derived metastatic SW620 cells and in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Lamy, Virginie; Roussi, Stamatiki; Chaabi, Mehdi; Gossé, Francine; Schall, Nicolas; Lobstein, Annelise; Raul, Francis

    2007-07-01

    The bitter acids of hops (Humulus lupulus L.) mainly consist of humulones or alpha-acids and lupulones or beta-acids. We aimed to evaluate the antiproliferative mechanisms of lupulones on a human metastatic colon carcinoma-derived cell line (SW620 cells) and to assess their chemopreventive effects in a model of colon carcinogenesis. SW620 cell growth was inhibited by 70% after a 48 h exposure to lupulones (40 microg/ml). Lupulones up-regulated the expression of Fas receptor (Fas) and Fas ligand (FasL) as well as TNF-related apoptosis inducing ligand (TRAIL)-R1 (DR4) and -R2 (DR5) receptor proteins, suggesting the involvement of Fas and TRAIL receptors-mediated pathways in lupulone-induced apoptosis. Lupulones also increased the mitochondrial membrane permeability. Colon carcinogenesis was initiated in Wistar rats by intra-peritoneal injections of azoxymethane (AOM), once a week for 2 weeks. One week after the last injection, rats received lupulones (0.001 or 0.005%) in drinking water, and AOM-control rats received the excipient. After 7 months of treatment, the colon of rats receiving 0.001 and 0.005% lupulones showed, respectively, a 30 and a 50% reduction (P < 0.05) of the number of preneoplastic lesions (aberrant crypt foci). In addition, we observed a drastic reduction (70-80%) of the total number of tumors in the colon of rats treated with lupulones when compared with the AOM control group. Lupulones induced apoptosis in SW620 colon-derived metastatic cells by activating both Fas and TRAIL death receptor signaling pathways, and antagonize at a low dose (4 mg/kg/day) colon cancer development. These observations suggest the use of lupulones for colon cancer chemoprevention trials.

  13. Pan-colonic pharmacokinetics of catechins and procyanidins in male Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Goodrich, Katheryn M; Smithson, Andrew T; Ickes, Anne K; Neilson, Andrew P

    2015-10-01

    Poor absorption and bioavailability of procyanidins from the upper gastrointestinal tract result in the majority of the dose reaching the colon. During colonic transit, progressive microbial metabolism likely produces gradients of procyanidins and microbial metabolites along the length of the colon, suggesting that proximal and distal regions are exposed to different profiles of procyanidins and metabolites. However, previous studies have largely treated the colon as a single organ or looked at fecal profiles, and differences in the profiles of native and metabolite compounds between regions have not been observed. The metabolism kinetics of procyanidins larger than trimers and formation of metabolites in the colon have not been well characterized. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine the kinetics of delivery and microbial metabolism of monomeric, dimeric and oligomeric procyanidins in the cecum and proximal, mid and distal colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were gavaged grape seed extract and sacrificed over 18 h. Analysis of luminal contents showed distinct native and metabolite profiles for each region. Procyanidins had maximum concentrations at approximately 3h postgavage for all sections. Metabolites reached maximum concentrations from 3 to 18 h postgavage. The appearance of metabolites was highly dependent on species: larger metabolites were found at earlier times in the more proximal segments, and smaller metabolites were found at later times in more distal regions. This study allowed for the observation of regions in the lower gastrointestinal tract, giving insight into the distribution and delivery of procyanidins and their microbial metabolites throughout the colon.

  14. Chemopreventive effect of sinapic acid on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Balaji, C; Muthukumaran, J; Nalini, N

    2014-12-01

    Sinapic acid (SA) is a naturally occurring phenolic acid found in various herbal plants which is attributed with numerous pharmacological properties. This study was aimed to investigate the chemopreventive effect of SA on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. Rats were treated with DMH injections (20 mg kg(-1) bodyweight (b.w.) subcutaneously once a week for the first 4 consecutive weeks and SA (20, 40 and 80 mg kg(-1) b.w.) post orally for 16 weeks. At the end of the 16-week experimental period, all the rats were killed, and the tissues were evaluated biochemically. Our results reveal that DMH alone treatment decreased the levels/activities of lipid peroxidation by-products such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances, conjugated dienes and antioxidants such as superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and reduced glutathione in the intestine and colonic tissues which were reversed on supplementation with SA. Moreover, the activities of drug-metabolizing enzymes of phase I (cytochrome P450 and P4502E1) were enhanced and those of phase II (glutathione-S-transferase, DT-diaphorase and uridine diphosphate glucuronosyl transferase) were diminished in the liver and colonic mucosa of DMH alone-treated rats and were reversed on supplementation with SA. All the above changes were supported by the histopathological observations of the rat liver and colon. These findings suggest that SA at the dose of 40 mg kg(-1) b.w. was the most effective dose against DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis, and thus, SA could be used as a potential chemopreventive agent.

  15. Effect of nitrergic system on colonic motility in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Temiz, Tijen Kaya; Demir, Omer; Simsek, Fatma; Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Bahceci, Selen; Karadas, Barıs; Celik, Aslı; Koyluoglu, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO)-mediated colonic motility was altered in rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model, using different isoforms of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors. The animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was induced by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) in saline once daily from postnatal days 8 to 21. Control animals received saline instead of AA. Experiments were performed at the end of 8 weeks. Distal colon tissues were resected and direct effects of different NOS inhibitors; N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, (L-NAME), ARL-17477 dihydrochloride hydrate (ARL 17477), N-[3-(Aminomethyl) phenyl] methyl]-ethanimidamidedihydrochloride (1400 W), and N5-(1-Iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride (L-NIO) were evaluated concentration-dependently in vitro tissue bath. Besides, morphology of both groups was assessed with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and the impact of NO antibodies was determined using the immunohistochemical method. The mean pressure values of spontaneous contractions and KCL (80 mmol/L) responses of distal colonic segments were similar in normal and IBS rats. L-NAME and ARL-17477 significantly increased the mean pressure of spontaneous colonic contractions in normal rats versus own base values (P < 0.05), but this increase did not significantly different when compared to IBS rats. In H and E staining, there was no difference with regard to morphology between two groups. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunoreactivity was found to be significantly decreased in IBS when compared to control groups (P < 0.05). L-NAME and ARL-17477 mediated mean pressure values were found to be slightly decreased in IBS rats. These findings may be related to a decrease in nNOS level in IBS.

  16. Effect of nitrergic system on colonic motility in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome

    PubMed Central

    Temiz, Tijen Kaya; Demir, Omer; Simsek, Fatma; Kaplan, Yusuf Cem; Bahceci, Selen; Karadas, Barıs; Celik, Aslı; Koyluoglu, Gokhan

    2016-01-01

    Aim: The aim of this study is to investigate whether nitric oxide (NO)-mediated colonic motility was altered in rat irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) model, using different isoforms of NO-synthase (NOS) inhibitors. Materials and Methods: The animal model of IBS-like visceral hypersensitivity was induced by intra-colonic infusion of 0.5% acetic acid (AA) in saline once daily from postnatal days 8 to 21. Control animals received saline instead of AA. Experiments were performed at the end of 8 weeks. Distal colon tissues were resected and direct effects of different NOS inhibitors; N-omega-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester hydrochloride, (L-NAME), ARL-17477 dihydrochloride hydrate (ARL 17477), N-[3-(Aminomethyl) phenyl] methyl]-ethanimidamidedihydrochloride (1400 W), and N5-(1-Iminoethyl)-L-ornithine dihydrochloride (L-NIO) were evaluated concentration-dependently in vitro tissue bath. Besides, morphology of both groups was assessed with hematoxylin and eosin (H and E) staining and the impact of NO antibodies was determined using the immunohistochemical method. Results: The mean pressure values of spontaneous contractions and KCL (80 mmol/L) responses of distal colonic segments were similar in normal and IBS rats. L-NAME and ARL-17477 significantly increased the mean pressure of spontaneous colonic contractions in normal rats versus own base values (P < 0.05), but this increase did not significantly different when compared to IBS rats. In H and E staining, there was no difference with regard to morphology between two groups. Neuronal NOS (nNOS) immunoreactivity was found to be significantly decreased in IBS when compared to control groups (P < 0.05). Conclusion: L-NAME and ARL-17477 mediated mean pressure values were found to be slightly decreased in IBS rats. These findings may be related to a decrease in nNOS level in IBS. PMID:27756955

  17. The effect of peritoneal lavage on the postoperative course after colonic anastomosis and perforation in the rat.

    PubMed

    Arnesjö, B; Breland, U; Petersson, B G

    1975-01-01

    Peritoneal lavage was given during four days to rats subjected either to transection and re-anastomosis or perforation of the descending part of the colon or caecum. Control rats were treated in the smae way but did not receive peritoneal lavage. The rats which were treated with a colonic anastomosis and peritoneal lavage had significantly less abdominal adhesions, peritonitis and peritoneal fluid observed at autopsy 11 or 60 days after surgery. No rats developed anastomosis insufficiency and all survived. Peritoneal lavage in rats subjected to colonic or caecal perforation increased the survival time and reduced the mortality rate, the frequency of adhesions and the signs of peritonitis. An increased frequency of peritoneal adhesions was observed after extensive mobilization of the colon during operation when no peritoneal lavage had been given. The peritoneal lavage catheter per se did not cause adhesions.

  18. Therapy effect of antiulcer agents on new chronic cysteamine colon lesion in rat.

    PubMed

    Sikiric, P; Seiwerth, S; Aralica, G; Perovic, D; Staresinic, M; Anic, T; Gjurasin, M; Prkacin, I; Separovic, J; Stancic-Rokotov, D; Lovric-Bencic, M; Mikus, D; Turkovic, B; Rotkvic, I; Mise, S; Rucman, R; Petek, M; Ziger, T; Sebecic, B; Ivasovic, Z; Jagic, V; Komericki, L; Balen, I; Boban-Blagaic, A; Sjekavica, I

    2001-01-01

    After demonstration that cysteamine induced duodenal lesions in gastrectomized rats, while a number of antiulcer drugs mitigated these lesions, it was shown that one single intrarectal (i.r.) cysteamine application produced severe colon lesions in acute studies in rats. Thus, the further focus was on the protracted effect of cysteamine challenge (400 mg/kg b.w. i.r.) and therapy influence in chronic experiments in female rats. Regularly, cysteamine colon lesions were markedly mitigated by ranitidine (10), omeprazole (10), atropine (10), methylprednisolone (1), sulphasalazine (50; mg/kg), pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (PL-10, PLD-116; 10 microg or 10 ng/kg). Specifically, after 1 or 3 months following initial challenge (cysteamine 400 mg/kg i.r.) in female rat, the therapy [BPC 157 (PL-10, PLD-116 (10.0 microg or 10.0 ng/kg; i.g., i.p., i.r.), ranitidine, omeprazole, atropine, methylprednisolone, sulphasalazine (i.p.)] reversed the protracted cysteamine colon injury: the 1 week-regimen (once daily application) started after 1 month post-cysteamine, as well as the 2 weeks-regimen (once daily application), which started after 3 months. The effect on recidive lesion was also tested. These cysteamine lesions may reappear after stopping therapy (after stopping therapy for 3 weeks at the end of 2-weeks regimen started in 3 months-cysteamine female rats) in sulphasalazine group, while this reappearance is markedly antagonized in pentadecapeptide BPC 157 (PL-10, PLD-116)-rats (cysteamine-colon lesion still substantially low).

  19. Iloprost reduces colonic injury in ischemic colitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Karatepe, Oguzhan; Cakir, Affan; Unal, Orçun; Battal, Muharrem; Adas, Gokhan; Kamali, Gülcin; Kemik, Ahu; Aydin, Timucin; Kamali, Sedat; Karahan, Servet R; Aksoy, Murat

    2011-06-01

    Evaluate the effects of iloprost administration in the early period of ischemic colitis and the mechanism that how these effects develop. Thirty two Wistar albino female rats with an average weight of 220g were divided into four groups of eight rats. In group 1 the rats were given iloprost and sacrificed after 24 hours and in group 2 they were sacrificed after 24 hours without any iloprost. The rats in group 3 were administrated iloprost and sacrificed after 72 hours and in group 4 they were sacrificed at 72th hour without iloprost. The differences between the groups as tissue damage, vascularization or apoptosis were assessed statistically. Oxidative damage and apoptosis were less pronounced and vascularization was better developed in rats that were given iloprost and sacrificed at 24th hour later in contrast to the rats that were not treated with iloprost. But there was no statistical difference among the groups at 72th hour. Iloprost inhibited leucocyte infiltration, decreased proinflammatory cytokines and enhanced angiogenesis so that the oxidative stress and inflammatory response decreased resulting in lesser tissue damage.

  20. Forskolin induced chloride secretion across the isolated mucosa of rat colon descendens.

    PubMed

    Bridges, R J; Rummel, W; Simon, B

    1983-08-01

    The effects of forskolin, a diterpene reported to stimulate adenylate cyclase, on electrolyte transport across the isolated colonic mucosa of rat colon descendens were investigated. Forskolin, over a concentration range of 10(-7)-10(-5) M, dose-dependently increased short circuit current (Isc) and transmural potential difference (Vms). The nearly 2-fold increase in Isc and Vms caused by forskolin was accompanied by a small increase in transmural conductance (Gt). The effects of forskolin were rapid and completely reversible without any loss in tissue sensitivity. Forskolin (5 X 10(-6) M) inhibited the absorption of Na+ and reversed Cl- absorption to secretion. These effects were due to an inhibition of the mucosal-to-serosal fluxes of Na+ and Cl-. Ion substitution experiments revealed that the effects of forskolin were both Na+ and Cl- dependent and these ions were required in the serosal solution. Furosemide (10(-4) M) as well as scilliroside (10(-4) M) reversed and prevented the increase in Isc caused by forskolin. Adenylate cyclase activity in homogenates of colonic mucosa was increased 3-fold by forskolin. These results with rat colon are compared with those reported for rabbit colon and ileum and the mechanism of cyclic-AMP induced Cl- secretion in these epithelia is discussed.

  1. Ultrastructural and histochemical study on the Paneth cells in the rat ascending colon.

    PubMed

    Mantani, Youhei; Nishida, Miho; Yuasa, Hideto; Yamamoto, Kyouji; Takahara, Ei-Ichirou; Omotehara, Takuya; Udayanga, Kankanam Gamage Sanath; Kawano, Junichi; Yokoyama, Toshifumi; Hoshi, Nobuhiko; Kitagawa, Hiroshi

    2014-08-01

    Paneth cells (PCs) contribute to the host defense against indigenous bacteria in the small intestine. We found Paneth cell-like cells (PLCs) in the rat ascending colon, but the nature of PLCs is never clarified. Therefore, the present study aimed to clarify the cytological characteristics of PLCs and discuss their cellular differentiation. PLCs were localized in the bases of intestinal crypts, especially follicle-associated intestinal crypts in proximal colonic lymphoid tissue, but were very seldom found in the ordinary intestinal crypts of the ascending colon. PLCs possessed specific granules with highly electron-dense cores and haloes, as well as PCs in the small intestine. The secretory granules of PLCs were positive for PAS reaction, lysozyme and soluble phospholipase A2, but negative for Alcian blue staining, β-defensin-1 and -2, as well as the ones of PCs. Furthermore, intermediate cells possessing both the PLC-specific granules and the mucus granules similar to those of goblet cells (GCs) were occasionally found in the vicinity of PLCs. Intermediate cells ranged from goblet cell-like cells rich in mucus granules to PLC-like cells with few mucus granules. The cellular condensation and fragmentation were exclusively found in PLCs but never seen in intermediate cells or GCs. The PLCs, which were identified as PC, were suggested to be transformed from GCs through intermediate cells and finally to die by apoptosis in intestinal crypts of proximal colonic lymphoid tissue in the rat ascending colon. Copyright © 2014 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  2. Anti-stress effects of transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) on colonic motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoshimoto, Sazu; Babygirija, Reji; Dobner, Anthony; Ludwig, Kirk; Takahashi, Toku

    2012-05-01

    Disorders of colonic motility may contribute to symptoms in patients with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), and stress is widely believed to play a major role in developing IBS. Stress increases corticotropin releasing factor (CRF) of the hypothalamus, resulting in acceleration of colonic transit in rodents. In contrast, hypothalamic oxytocin (OXT) has an anti-stress effect via inhibiting CRF expression and hypothalamic-pituitary-adrenal axis activity. Although transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS) and acupuncture have been shown to have anti-stress effects, the mechanism of the beneficial effects remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression resulting in reduced CRF expression and restoration of colonic dysmotility in response to chronic stress. Male SD rats received different types of stressors for seven consecutive days (chronic heterotypic stress). TENS was applied to the bilateral hind limbs every other day before stress loading. Another group of rats did not receive TENS treatment. TENS significantly attenuated accelerated colonic transit induced by chronic heterotypic stress, which was antagonized by a central injection of an OXT antagonist. Immunohistochemical study showed that TENS increased OXT expression and decreased CRF expression at the paraventricular nucleus (PVN) following chronic heterotypic stress. It is suggested that TENS upregulates hypothalamic OXT expression which acts as an anti-stressor agent and mediates restored colonic dysmotility following chronic stress. TENS may be useful to treat gastrointestinal symptoms associated with stress.

  3. Effect of meat (beef, chicken, and bacon) on rat colon carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Parnaud, Géraldine; Peiffer, Ginette; Taché, Sylviane; Corpet, Denis E.

    1998-01-01

    High intake of red meat or processed meat is associated with increased risk of colon cancer. In contrast, consumption of white meat (chicken) is not associated with risk and might even reduce the occurrence of colorectal cancer. We speculated that a diet containing beef or bacon would increase and a diet containing chicken would decrease colon carcinogenesis in rats. One hundred female Fischer 344 rats were given a single injection of azoxymethane (20 mg/kg i.p.), then randomized to 10 different AIN-76-based diets. Five diets were adjusted to 14% fat and 23% protein and five other diets to 28% fat and 40% protein. Fat and protein were supplied by 1) lard and casein, 2) olive oil and casein, 3) beef, 4) chicken with skin, and 5) bacon. Meat diets contained 30% or 60% freeze-dried fried meat. The diets were given ad libitum for 100 days, then colon tumor promotion was assessed by the multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci [number of crypts per aberrant crypt focus (ACF)]. The ACF multiplicity was nearly the same in all groups, except bacon-fed rats, with no effect of fat and protein level or source (p = 0.7 between 8 groups by analysis of variance). In contrast, compared with lard- and casein-fed controls, the ACF multiplicity was reduced by 12% in rats fed a diet with 30% bacon and by 20% in rats fed a diet with 60% bacon (p < 0.001). The water intake was higher in bacon-fed rats than in controls (p < 0.0001). The concentrations of iron and bile acids in fecal water and total fatty acids in feces changed with diet, but there was no correlation between these concentrations and the ACF multiplicity. Thus the hypothesis that colonic iron, bile acids, or total fatty acids can promote colon tumors is not supported by this study. The results suggest that, in rats, beef does not promote the growth of ACF and chicken does not protect against colon carcinogenesis. A bacon-based diet appears to protect against carcinogenesis, perhaps because bacon contains 5% NaCl and increased

  4. Aging-induced alterations in female rat colon smooth muscle: the protective effects of hormonal therapy.

    PubMed

    Pascua, P; Camello-Almaraz, C; Pozo, M J; Martin-Cano, F E; Vara, E; Fernández-Tresguerres, J A; Camello, P J

    2012-06-01

    Aging is associated to oxidative damage and alterations in inflammatory and apoptotic pathways. Aging impairs secretion of several hormones, including melatonin and estrogens. However, the mechanisms involved in aging of smooth muscle are poorly known. We have studied the changes induced by aging in the colonic smooth muscle layer of female rats and the protective effect of hormonal therapy. We used young, aged, and ovariectomized aged female rats. Two groups of ovariectomized rats (22 months old) were treated either with melatonin or with estrogen for 10 weeks before sacrifice. Aging induced oxidative imbalance, evidenced by H(2)O(2) accumulation, lipid peroxidation, and decreased catalase activity. The oxidative damage was enhanced by ovariectomy. In addition, aged colonic muscle showed enhanced expression of the pro-inflammatory enzyme cyclooxygenase 2. Expression of the activated forms of caspases 3 and 9 was also enhanced in aged colon. Melatonin and estrogen treatment prevented the oxidative damage and the activation of caspases. In conclusion, aging of colonic smooth muscle induces oxidative imbalance and activation of apoptotic and pro-inflammatory pathways. Hormonal therapy has beneficial effects on the oxidative and apoptotic changes associated to aging in this model.

  5. Inhibition of azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis by potassium hydrogen D-glucarate.

    PubMed

    Yoshimi, N; Walaszek, Z; Mori, H; Hanausek, M; Szemraj, J; Slaga, T J

    2000-01-01

    While calcium D-glucarate was shown to inhibit chemical carcinogenesis in various animal models, the effect of potassium hydrogen D-glucarate has not been extensively investigated. In the present study, potassium hydrogen D-glucarate markedly inhibited azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male F344 rats. Potassium hydrogen D-glucarate (PHG) or potassium hydrogen carbonate (PHC) were administered to rats in a diet (140 mmol/kg). Continual post-initiation treatment with potassium hydrogen D-glucarate reduced both tumor incidence and multiplicity at sacrifice by ca. 60%, while PHC had no effect. amelioration of overexpression of the betaG gene in rat colon carcinomas was observed using RT-PCR and Northern blot analysis. We hypothesize that previously demonstrated conversion of PHG to D-glucaro-1,4-lactone, a potent inhibitor of beta-glucuronidase (betaG), may be responsible for this effect. The mechanism of PHG inhibition of colon carcinogenesis may also involve suppression of cell proliferation and possibly alterations in cholesterol synthesis or cholesterol metabolism to bile acids. In conclusion, PHG possesses excellent potential as a natural, apparently non-toxic inhibitor to prevent colon cancer.

  6. Negligible Colon Cancer Risk from Food-Borne Acrylamide Exposure in Male F344 Rats and Nude (nu/nu) Mice-Bearing Human Colon Tumor Xenografts

    PubMed Central

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Sondagar, Chandni; Kapal, Kamla; Aziz, Syed A.; Caldwell, Don; Mehta, Rekha

    2013-01-01

    Acrylamide, a possible human carcinogen, is formed in certain carbohydrate-rich foods processed at high temperature. We evaluated if dietary acrylamide, at doses (0.5, 1.0 or 2.0 mg/kg diet) reflecting upper levels found in human foods, modulated colon tumorigenesis in two rodent models. Male F344 rats were randomized to receive diets without (control) or with acrylamide. 2-weeks later, rats in each group received two weekly subcutaneous injections of either azoxymethane (AOM) or saline, and were killed 20 weeks post-injections; colons were assessed for tumors. Male athymic nude (nu/nu) mice bearing HT-29 human colon adenocarcinoma cells-derived tumor xenografts received diets without (control) or with acrylamide; tumor growth was monitored and mice were killed 4 weeks later. In the F344 rat study, no tumors were found in the colons of the saline-injected rats. However, the colon tumor incidence was 54.2% and 66.7% in the control and the 2 mg/kg acrylamide-treated AOM-injected groups, respectively. While tumor multiplicity was similar across all diet groups, tumor size and burden were higher in the 2 mg/kg acrylamide group compared to the AOM control. These results suggest that acrylamide by itself is not a “complete carcinogen”, but acts as a “co-carcinogen” by exacerbating the effects of AOM. The nude mouse study indicated no differences in the growth of human colon tumor xenografts between acrylamide-treated and control mice, suggesting that acrylamide does not aid in the progression of established tumors. Hence, food-borne acrylamide at levels comparable to those found in human foods is neither an independent carcinogen nor a tumor promoter in the colon. However, our results characterize a potential hazard of acrylamide as a colon co-carcinogen in association with known and possibly other environmental tumor initiators/promoters. PMID:24040114

  7. Anti-carcinogenic properties of omeprazole against human colon cancer cells and azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Jagan M R; Zhang, Yuting; Li, Qian; Steele, Vernon E; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2012-01-01

    Omeprazole is a proton pump inhibitor, a widely used drug to treat ulcers and gastroesophageal refluxdisease. We have evaluated colon cancer chemopreventive properties of omeprazole using azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male F344 rats and analyzed cell growth inhibition and apoptosis induction in human colon cancer cells. Five-week-old male F344 rats were fed a control or experimental diet containing two doses of omeprazole (200 and 400 ppm). After one week, all animals were s.c. injected with AOM (15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for two weeks). Rats continued on experimental diets for seven more weeks before being sacrificed. Colons were histopathologically evaluated for ACF. Human colon cancer HCT-116 and HCA-7 cells treated with omeprazole were evaluated for different markers associated with proliferation and apoptotic markers using Western blot technique. Rats fed with 200 and 400 ppm of omeprazole significantly suppressed total colonic ACF formation (~30%, P<0.001) and showed significant suppression of multi-crypt foci (~30-50%, P<0.05-0.001). Omeprazole produced significant dose-response effects on inhibition of multi-crypt foci (≥4). Omeprazole treatment in human colon cancer cell lines HCT-116 and HCA-7 cells resulted in induction of p21waf1/cip1 and decreased the expression of anti-apoptotic proteins Bcl-2, Bcl-XL and survivin in a dose-dependent manner. Anticancer properties observed in colon cancer cell lines suggest that omeprazole may induce key signaling molecules of antiproliferation and inhibition of anti-apoptotic proteins.

  8. Non-promoting effects of lean beef in the rat colon carcinogenesis model.

    PubMed

    Pence, B C; Butler, M J; Dunn, D M; Miller, M F; Zhao, C; Landers, M

    1995-05-01

    Recent epidemiologic studies have implicated red meat consumption as a risk factor for colon cancer in both men and women. However, it has been very difficult to separate the effects of meat as a protein source from the accompanying fat content of the diets analyzed in these studies. Experimental data from rodent feeding trials show mixed results, with no firm conclusions being possible in terms of the colon-cancer promoting effects of meat fat. The goal of the present study was to compare, in an experimental animal model, the effects of beef with casein as a protein source, within the context of a low- and high-fat diet containing either corn oil or beef tallow, on promotion of colon carcinogenesis. Tumors were induced in Sprague-Dawley rats with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg body wt for 10 weeks). Two hundred and eighty male weanling rats were randomized to eight dietary treatment groups of a 2x2x2 factorial design with fat source (corn oil vs. beef tallow), fat level (5% vs. 20%), and protein source (very lean beef vs. casein) as the factors. Diets were fed ad libitum before, during and after carcinogen treatment for a total of 27 weeks. At termination of the study, animals were examined for location, size and type of colon or extracolonic lesions. The total incidence and number of colon tumors were significantly lower in the groups fed beef rather than casein. High fat levels, regardless of source, significantly increased the number of colon adenomas. These results demonstrate that when lean beef is used as the protein source in the context of a low-fat diet, fewer intestinal tumors develop. These data do not support the belief that red meat consumption increases the risk for colon carcinogenesis, but underscores the importance of fat level in dietary context.

  9. Quantification of two isomeric flavones in rat colon tissue using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Whitted, Crystal L; Palau, Victoria E; Torrenegra, Ruben D; Rodriguez, Oscar E; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2017-01-07

    Antineoplastic activity has been previously shown for two isomeric flavones, 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy flavone (flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy flavone (flavone B), against colon cancer cell lines (Thomas et al. in PLoS ONE 7:e39806, 5). Here, we present modified methods for the extraction and quantification of flavones A and B in rat colon tissue after intravenous dosing via high performance liquid chromatography, from the originally described procedure for extraction and quantification in rat plasma (Whitted et al. in J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 1001:150-155, 7). Modifications included tissue homogenization (1 g tissue: 2 mL water), filtration of the supernatant with a PVDF membrane, and the use of only one calibration curve to determine the concentration of each flavone in colon tissue. Good separation was achieved and representative equations were linear with r (2)  ≥ 0.99 for both flavones. Precision and accuracy for flavone A ranged from 0.88-24.03 and 109-116%. Precision and accuracy for flavone B ranged from 1.62-33.56 and 98-113%. Concentrations of 1639 ± 601 ng/g flavone A and 5975 ± 2480 ng/g of flavone B were detected in rat colon tissue 6 h post dosing. Modifications to the extraction methods for flavone A and flavone B from rat colon tissue had good separation, precision, and accuracy.

  10. A simple, quantitative method using alginate gel to determine rat colonic tumor volume in vivo.

    PubMed

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-04-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the Apc(Pirc/+) rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm³. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained.

  11. A Simple, Quantitative Method Using Alginate Gel to Determine Rat Colonic Tumor Volume In Vivo

    PubMed Central

    Irving, Amy A; Young, Lindsay B; Pleiman, Jennifer K; Konrath, Michael J; Marzella, Blake; Nonte, Michael; Cacciatore, Justin; Ford, Madeline R; Clipson, Linda; Amos-Landgraf, James M; Dove, William F

    2014-01-01

    Many studies of the response of colonic tumors to therapeutics use tumor multiplicity as the endpoint to determine the effectiveness of the agent. These studies can be greatly enhanced by accurate measurements of tumor volume. Here we present a quantitative method to easily and accurately determine colonic tumor volume. This approach uses a biocompatible alginate to create a negative mold of a tumor-bearing colon; this mold is then used to make positive casts of dental stone that replicate the shape of each original tumor. The weight of the dental stone cast correlates highly with the weight of the dissected tumors. After refinement of the technique, overall error in tumor volume was 16.9% ± 7.9% and includes error from both the alginate and dental stone procedures. Because this technique is limited to molding of tumors in the colon, we utilized the ApcPirc/+ rat, which has a propensity for developing colonic tumors that reflect the location of the majority of human intestinal tumors. We have successfully used the described method to determine tumor volumes ranging from 4 to 196 mm3. Alginate molding combined with dental stone casting is a facile method for determining tumor volume in vivo without costly equipment or knowledge of analytic software. This broadly accessible method creates the opportunity to objectively study colonic tumors over time in living animals in conjunction with other experiments and without transferring animals from the facility where they are maintained. PMID:24674588

  12. Newly defined aberrant crypt foci as a marker for dysplasia in the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Ochiai, Masako; Hippo, Yoshitaka; Izumiya, Masashi; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2014-01-01

    Dysplasia represents a preneoplastic status in multistep colon carcinogenesis. Whereas laborious preparation of thin sections is required for its diagnosis, we here show that newly defined aberrant crypt foci (ACF) simply mark the majority of the dysplasia on the whole colon. Specifically, decoloring of the azoxymethane-treated rat colon after scoring classical ACF (cACF) resulted in visualization of a subset of aberrant crypts that remained densely stained. They were morphologically classified into three subtypes, of which two with compressed luminal openings proved highly correlated with dysplasia. Accordingly, we designated those foci harboring either of the two crypt subtypes as dysplasia-associated ACF (dACF). By serially applying different detection methods for known preneoplastic lesions to the same colon, we showed that most dACF had already been identified as cACF, and a few newly identified dACF contained an entire population of more advanced lesions, such as flat ACF and mucin-depleted foci. Consequently, integrative scoring of cACF and dACF enabled capture of all early lesions of the colon. Furthermore, 94% of the dACF showed dysplasia and 90% of the dysplastic lesions proved to be dACF. Thus, dACF is a promising marker for dysplasia, likely facilitating precise identification of the early stages of colon carcinogenesis. PMID:24827115

  13. Effects of chemical sympathectomy on mucus secretion by surface goblet cells from rat colon

    SciTech Connect

    Thomas, D.E.; Specian, R.D.

    1986-03-01

    The authors examined the effects of 6-hydroxydopamine (60HDA), the beta adrenergic agonist isoproterenol (ISO) and normal saline (NS) diluent on baseline mucus secretion from rat colonic goblet cells. Mucus secretion was evaluated by labeling mucin granules with /sup 3/H-glucosamine (10 ..mu..Ci/g BW). All rats were sacrificed at 2 or 4 hrs after administration of either 60HDA (100 mg/kg), ISO (100mg/kg) or NS. Samples of colon were fixed and processed for microscopy. Sections were mounted, stained, dipped in photographic emulsion and exposed for 3-5 wks. Rates of mucus synthesis and secretion were determined by scoring each favorably oriented surface goblet cell for the maximal apical translocation of labeled granules from cell base (1) to apical surface (7). Means and S.D. (N=50) were determined for each treatment group. Non-sympathectomized control rats treated with ISO showed a highly significant decrease in mucus secretion at both 2 and 8 hrs after dosing (p<0.001). Rats pretreated with 60HDA at time 0 and 5 days prior to sacrifice showed decreased mucus section at 2 hours and increased secretion at 4 hrs after dosing (p<0.001). A highly significant difference in mucus secretion was observed between 2 and 4 hr scores for the time 60HDA group. Results of this study strongly suggest that baseline synthesis/secretion rates in goblet cells are under sympathetic control in the colon.

  14. Biochemical and molecular mechanisms underlying the chemopreventive efficacy of rosmarinic acid in a rat colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Venkatachalam, Karthikkumar; Gunasekaran, Sivagami; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2016-11-15

    To shed light on colon cancer chemoprevention, natural phytochemicals attract researchers by virtue of their beneficial biological effects. The chemopreventive potential of rosmarinic acid (RA) was tested by using the colon carcinogen, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) by evaluating the Aberrant crypt foci (ACF), tumour incidence, lipid peroxidative byproducts, phase I & II drug metabolizing enzymes, cell proliferative and apoptotic proteins. Rats were divided into six groups and received modified pellet diet. Group 1 served as control rats, group 2 rats received RA (5mg/kg b.w. p.o.), rats in groups 3-6 received DMH (20mg/kg b.w., s.c.) for the first fifteen weeks. In addition to DMH, groups 4-6 received RA at the dose of 5mg/kg b.w. during initiation, post initiation stages and also for the entire study period. DMH treated rats showed an increase in the development of ACF, tumour formation and multiplicity and decrease in lipid peroxidative byproducts. Moreover, it modulates xenobiotic enzymes and reduces the expressions of proapoptotic proteins; increases expressions of anti apoptotic proteins at the end of the study. Supplementation with RA to carcinogen treated rats protected them from the above deleterious effects caused by DMH and thus RA may be used as a potent chemopreventive agent.

  15. Aldosterone induction of electrogenic sodium transport in the apical membrane vesicles of rat distal colon

    SciTech Connect

    Rajendran, V.M.; Kashgarian, M.; Binder, H.J. )

    1989-11-05

    Na-H exchange is present in apical membrane vesicles (AMV) isolated from distal colon of normal rats. Because in intact tissue aldosterone both induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium transport and inhibits electroneutral sodium absorption, these studies with AMV were designed to establish the effect of aldosterone on sodium transport. An outward-directed proton gradient stimulated 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from distal colon of normal and dietary sodium depleted (with elevated aldosterone levels) experimental rats. Unlike normal AMV, proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in experimental AMV was inhibited when uptake was measured under voltage-clamped conditions. 10 microM amiloride inhibited the initial rate of proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in AMV of normal and experimental rats by 30 and 75%, respectively. In contrast, 1 mM amiloride produced comparable inhibition (90 and 80%) of 22Na uptake in normal and experimental AMV. Intravesicular-negative potential stimulated 22Na uptake in experimental but not in normal AMV. This increase was inhibited by 90% by 10 microM amiloride. An analogue of amiloride, 5-(N-ethylisopropyl) amiloride (1 microM), a potent inhibitor of electroneutral Na-H exchange in AMV of normal rat distal colon, did not alter potassium diffusion potential-dependent 22Na uptake. Increasing sodium concentration saturated proton gradient-dependent 22Na uptake in normal AMV. However, in experimental AMV, 22Na uptake stimulated by both proton gradient and potassium diffusion potential did not saturate as a function of increasing sodium concentration. We conclude from these results that an electrically sensitive conductive channel, not electroneutral Na-H exchange, mediates 22Na uptake in AMV isolated from the distal colon of aldosterone rats.

  16. Computer simulation of flow-dependent absorption in microperfused short Henle's loop of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Baines, A D; Basmadjian, D; Wang, B C

    1979-01-01

    With computer simulation we examined the extent to which current theories and experimental data explain function of single microperfused superficial Henle's loops in rats. In the model standard phenomenological equations describe transport; two sets of transport parameters labeled rat and rabbit were taken from published experiments; Michaelis-Menten kinetics in the ascending thick limb were adjusted arbitrarily; tubular radius is either constant or depends on luminal pressure with compliance based on experimental observations; the interstitium is an infinite sink with salt and urea concentrations constant in the cortex and exponentially increasing in the outer medulla; concentrations resemble those found in hydropenic or saline diuretic rats. The following predictions were obtained. The model with rabbit parameters does not recirculate urea and will not operate with high medullary urea concentrations; with rat parameters too much urea recirculates an the results of perfusion with equilibrium solution are not reproduced. Using a compromise between rat and rabbit parameters, the model reproduces water absorption, salt reabsorption, and urea recirculation as observed in vivo in rat loops perfused at 5-40 nl/min. It also simulates perfusion with saline, equilibrium solution, saline plus furosemide, and 300 mM mannitol. When the model includes a short early distal segment, effluent salt concentration reaches a minimum at a 15 nl/min perfusion rate as observed in vivo; however, concentration at the macula densa is a monotonically increasing function of flow. When permeation rate is a function of wall surface area and thickness a better fit to experimental results is produced. However, the effect is small: water absorption alters by 4% or less and effluent salt concentration is reduced by up to 10% at low perfusion rates. Comparison of rigid and compliant loops shows no relationship between transit time per se and reabsorption. PMID:262377

  17. Role of sucrose in colonization of Streptococcus mutans in conventional Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Van Houte, J; Upeslacis, V N; Jordan, H V; Skobe, Z; Green, D B

    1976-01-01

    The role of sucrose in the colonization of S mutans strain 6715 in conventional Sprague-Dawley rats was studied. A diet with 56% sucrose favored the oral colonization of the test strain compared to diets with 56% glucose or fructose or to laboratory chow as determined by recoveries from extracted teeth ground in tissue grinders. S mutans strain 6715 cells became well established in all rats fed a high sucrose diet with cell inoculums ranging from 10(8) to the lowest effective dose of 10(5) CFU once orally administered; in rats on nonsucrose diets, inoculation with even the highest dose only infrequently resulted in the establishment of S mutans strain 6715. Sucrose- and glucose- grown cells appeared to behave similarly. Colonization of S mutans strain 6715 occurred in all rats fed diets with a sucrose content ranging from 56 to as low as 1%. The establishment of S mutans strain 6715 on the teeth of rats fed diets with a sucrose concentration of 0.1 or 0.01% was impaired and comparable to the diet containing 56% glucose. In rats fed a high glucose diet, uniform establishment and persistence of the test strain occurred after frequent inoculations with about 5 X 10(8) CFU. The colonization under these conditions appeared to be independent of the intestinal canal as a bacterial cell source. These data suggest the possibility that S mutans can establish itself in the human mouth in the absence of dietary sucrose. In rats fed a high glucose diet and inoculated with 10(7) CFU or less, the cells gradually disappeared from the teeth; in contrast, the test strain implanted well in rats fed the sucrose favors firmer attachment of initially weakly attached cells via in situ new glucan synthesis. S mutans strain 6715 also appeared to have some affinity for teeth in the absence of dietary sucrose that may be of ecological significance. Once firmly established in rats fed a high sucrose diet, S mutans strain 6715 maintained itself in high numbers on the teeth after a switch to a

  18. THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) IN THE COLONS OF RATS BY TRIHALOMETHANES ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and bromoform (TBM) had been demonstrated to be colon carcinogens in male and female F344/N rats following administration by corn oil gavage. Our chronic bioassay of BDCM administered in the drinking water failed to demonstrate an enhanced colon cance...

  19. THE INDUCTION OF ABERRANT CRYPT FOCI (ACF) IN THE COLONS OF RATS BY TRIHALOMETHANES ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER

    EPA Science Inventory

    Bromodichloromethane (BDCM) and bromoform (TBM) had been demonstrated to be colon carcinogens in male and female F344/N rats following administration by corn oil gavage. Our chronic bioassay of BDCM administered in the drinking water failed to demonstrate an enhanced colon cance...

  20. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated the increased contraction of distal colon in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats via IL-6 receptor pathway.

    PubMed

    Chang, Xin-Wen; Qin, Ying; Jin, Zhi; Xi, Tao-Fang; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Ze-Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Chen, Shao-Jun; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Colonic dysmotility occurs in diabetes and blood plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels are significantly elevated in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor pathway mediates colonic dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Male SD rats were treated with a single intraperitoneally injected dose of streptozotocin (STZ), and those displaying sustained high blood glucose were selected as diabetes mellitus models. Longitudinal muscle strips of colon were prepared to monitor colonic contraction in vitro. Contractile responses of strips of colon were recorded following treatment with IL-6 in control animals, and following anti IL-6 antibody treatment in STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Concentration of IL-6 in plasma and colon were determined by ELISA. Expressions of IL-6 α-receptor and IL-6 β-receptor in colon tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis. The non-diabetes rats treated with IL-6 and the untreated diabetes rats showed increased contraction of distal colon, whereas the diabetes rats treated with anti-IL-6 antibody showed decreased contraction of distal colon compared with the untreated diabetes rats. The IL-6 levels of plasma but not colon increased in diabetes rats. The expression of IL-6 α-receptor increased in diabetes rats. These results indicate that diabetes rats show an increase in the contractions of distal colon partly via the IL-6-IL-6 receptor pathway.

  1. Interleukin-6 (IL-6) mediated the increased contraction of distal colon in streptozotocin-induced diabetes in rats via IL-6 receptor pathway

    PubMed Central

    Chang, Xin-Wen; Qin, Ying; Jin, Zhi; Xi, Tao-Fang; Yang, Xiao; Lu, Ze-Hao; Tang, Yu-Ping; Cai, Wen-Ting; Chen, Shao-Jun; Xie, Dong-Ping

    2015-01-01

    Colonic dysmotility occurs in diabetes and blood plasma interleukin (IL)-6 levels are significantly elevated in type 1 diabetes mellitus. The aim of this study was to investigate whether IL-6 and the IL-6 receptor pathway mediates colonic dysfunction in type 1 diabetes mellitus. Male SD rats were treated with a single intraperitoneally injected dose of streptozotocin (STZ), and those displaying sustained high blood glucose were selected as diabetes mellitus models. Longitudinal muscle strips of colon were prepared to monitor colonic contraction in vitro. Contractile responses of strips of colon were recorded following treatment with IL-6 in control animals, and following anti IL-6 antibody treatment in STZ-induced diabetes in rats. Concentration of IL-6 in plasma and colon were determined by ELISA. Expressions of IL-6 α-receptor and IL-6 β-receptor in colon tissues were determined by immunohistochemistry or Western blot analysis. The non-diabetes rats treated with IL-6 and the untreated diabetes rats showed increased contraction of distal colon, whereas the diabetes rats treated with anti-IL-6 antibody showed decreased contraction of distal colon compared with the untreated diabetes rats. The IL-6 levels of plasma but not colon increased in diabetes rats. The expression of IL-6 α-receptor increased in diabetes rats. These results indicate that diabetes rats show an increase in the contractions of distal colon partly via the IL-6-IL-6 receptor pathway. PMID:26191141

  2. Effects of luminal thymol on epithelial transport in human and rat colon.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Izumi; Karaki, Shin-ichiro; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2011-06-01

    Gut lumen is continually exposed to a great variety of agents, including noxious compounds. Chemical receptors that detect the luminal environment are thought to play an important role as sensors and to modulate gastrointestinal functions. Recently, it has been reported that odorant receptors (ORs) are expressed in the small intestinal mucosa and that odorants stimulate serotonin secretion. However, ion transport in the responses to odorants has rarely been discussed, particularly in relation to the large intestine. In the present study, we examined the effects of the OR ligand thymol on ion transport in human and rat colonic epithelia using an Ussing chamber. In the mucosal-submucosal preparations, the mucosal addition of thymol evoked anion secretion concentration dependently. In addition, dextran (4 kDa) permeability was enhanced by the mucosal treatment with thymol. The response to thymol was not affected by tetrodotoxin (TTX) or piroxicam treatments in human or rat colon. Thymol-evoked electrogenic anion secretion was abolished under Ca(2+)-free conditions or mucosal treatment with transient receptor potential (TRP) A1 blocker (HC-030031). Pretreatment of thymol did not affect electrical field stimulation-evoked anion secretion but significantly attenuated short-chain fatty acid-evoked secretion in a concentration-dependent manner. OR1G1 and TRPA1 expression was investigated in isolated colonic mucosa by RT-PCR. The present results provide evidence that the OR ligand thymol modulates epithelial permeability and electrogenic anion secretion in human and rat colon. The anion secretion by luminal thymol is most likely mediated by direct activation of TRPA1 channel. We suggest that the sensing and responding to odorants in the colon also plays a role in maintaining intestinal homeostasis.

  3. Dose-response efficacy of caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Kamaleeswari, Muthaiyan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2006-08-01

    Colon cancer is a leading cause of cancer death and its prevention is of great interest throughout the world. This study was conducted to examine the efficacy of different doses of dietary caraway (Carum carvi L.) on tissue lipid peroxidation (LPO) and antioxidant profile in rat colon carcinogenesis. Wistar male rats were divided into 6 groups and were fed a modified pellet diet for the whole of 30 weeks. To induce colon cancer, rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) (based on body weight) for the first 15 weeks. Caraway was supplemented every day orally at doses of 30, 60 and 90 mg kg(-1) for different groups of rats for the total period of 30 weeks. All rats were sacrificed at the end of 30 weeks, the colons were examined visually for masses and were subsequently evaluated histologically. The results showed diminished levels of intestinal, colonic and caecal LPO products, such as conjugated dienes (CD), lipid hydroperoxides (LOOH) and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS) and also the antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), reduced glutathione (GSH) and glutathione reductase (GR) in DMH treated rats, which were significantly reversed (P<0.05) on caraway supplementation. Moreover, enhanced activity of intestinal, colonic and caecal glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione S-transferase (GST) and colonic ascorbic acid and alpha-tocopherol levels were observed in carcinogen-treated rats, which were significantly (P<0.05) reduced on caraway supplementation. Thus, our study showed that caraway supplementation at a dose of 60 mg kg(-1) had a modulatory role on tissue LPO, antioxidant profile and prevented DMH-induced histopathological lesions in colon cancer rats.

  4. Chemopreventive effect of zingerone against colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rats.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, Rajenderan; Vinothkumar, Rajamanickam; Sudha, Mani; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2014-09-01

    Zingerone [4-(4-hydroxy-3-methoxyphenyl)-2-butane], one of the active phenolic components isolated from Zingiber officinale, has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. In our study, we have evaluated the effect of different doses of zingerone on lipid peroxidation (thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, lipid hydroxyl radical and conjugated dienes), tissue enzymatic antioxidants (superoxide dismutase, catalase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione reductase), and nonenzymatic antioxidants (reduced glutathione, vitamin E, vitamin C), and also the formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in male albino Wistar rats with colon cancer induced using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The rats were divided into six groups. Group 1 served as a control group and received a modified pellet diet; the rats in group 2 received a modified pellet diet along with zingerone (40 mg/kg b.w., orally every day); groups 3-6 were administered DMH (20 mg/kg b.w., subcutaneously) once a week for the first 4 weeks; and groups 4-6 received zingerone at three different doses of 10, 20 and 40 mg/kg b.w., respectively, every day for 16 weeks. Increased tumour incidence and ACF formation were accompanied by a decrease in the tissue lipid peroxidation, enzymatic and nonenzymatic antioxidant activities observed in the colon of DMH-treated rats. Supplementation with zingerone in DMH-treated rats led to a significant decrease in the tumour incidence and ACF formation with simultaneous modulation in the level of tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status. Thus, in conclusion, we can suggest that zingerone effectively inhibits DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.

  5. Neurochemical features of endomorphin-2-containing neurons in the submucosal plexus of the rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Jun-Ping; Zhang, Ting; Gao, Chang-Jun; Kou, Zhen-Zhen; Jiao, Xu-Wen; Zhang, Lian-Xiang; Wu, Zhen-Yu; He, Zhong-Yi; Li, Yun-Qing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the distribution and neurochemical phenotype of endomorphin-2 (EM-2)-containing neurons in the submucosal plexus of the rat colon. METHODS: The mid-colons between the right and left flexures were removed from rats, and transferred into Kreb’s solution. For whole-mount preparations, the mucosal, outer longitudinal muscle and inner circular muscle layers of the tissues were separated from the submucosal layer attached to the submucosal plexus. The whole-mount preparations from each rat mid-colon were mounted onto seven gelatin-coated glass slides, and processed for immunofluorescence histochemical double-staining of EM-2 with calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), nitric oxide synthetase (NOS), neuron-specific enolase (NSE), substance P (SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP). After staining, all the fluorescence-labeled sections were observed with a confocal laser scanning microscope. To estimate the extent of the co-localization of EM-2 with CGRP, ChAT, NOS, NSE, SP and VIP, ganglia, which have a clear boundary and neuronal cell outline, were randomly selected from each specimen for this analysis. RESULTS: In the submucosal plexus of the mid-colon, many EM-2-immunoreactive (IR) and NSE-IR neuronal cell bodies were found in the submucosal plexus of the rat mid-colon. Approximately 6 ± 4.2 EM-2-IR neurons aggregated within each ganglion and a few EM-2-IR neurons were also found outside the ganglia. The EM-2-IR neurons were also immunopositive for ChAT, SP, VIP or NOS. EM-2-IR nerve fibers coursed near ChAT-IR neurons, and some of these fibers were even distributed around ChAT-IR neuronal cell bodies. Some EM-2-IR neuronal cell bodies were surrounded by SP-IR nerve fibers, but many long processes connecting adjacent ganglia were negative for EM-2 immunostaining. Long VIP-IR processes with many branches coursed through the ganglia and surrounded the EM-2-IR neurons. The percentages of the EM-2-IR neurons

  6. Oxygen consumption and chloride secretion in rat distal colon isolated mucosa.

    PubMed

    Saraví, Fernando D; Saldeña, Teobaldo A; Carrera, Cristian A; Ibañez, Jorge E; Cincunegui, Liliana M; Carra, Graciela E

    2003-09-01

    The aerobic metabolic cost of chloride secretion was studied in rat distal colon isolated mucosa under several conditions by simultaneous measurement of short-circuit current and oxygen consumption under conditions that preserve vectorial ion transport. A low-chloride solution and the presence of bumetanide plus diphenylamine-2-carboxylate reduced short-circuit current by 75% and oxygen consumption by 25%. Ouabain decreased short-circuit current by 93% and oxygen consumption by 32%. Serotonin increased both variables by 59% and 33%, respectively. Bumetanide and diphenylamine-2-carboxylate reduced but did not abolish the effect of serotonin on short-circuit current and oxygen consumption. Changes in short-circuit current and oxygen consumption were linearly correlated under all conditions tested. It is concluded that, in the unstimulated rat distal colon epithelium, chloride secretion accounts for about 75% of ouabain-sensitive short-circuit current and oxygen consumption. Stimulated chloride secretion may demand over 40% of total oxygen consumption.

  7. Effect of dairy products on initiation of precursor lesions of colon cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Abdelali, H; Cassand, P; Soussotte, V; Daubeze, M; Bouley, C; Narbonne, J F

    1995-01-01

    This study reports the modulating effect of some dairy products on initiation of putative preneoplasic lesions in rat colon (aberrant crypts) by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine dihydrochloride. Uninoculated skim milk, skim milk fermented with Bifidobacterium sp Bio (Danone strain 173010), and a suspension of the same lactic acid bacteria were incorporated in the animals' diet. The tested diets significantly reduced the incidence of aberrant crypts compared with the control diet by 51%, 49%, and 61%, respectively. The effects of the diets on cecal pH, hepatic UDP-glucuronyltransferase activity, and cecal microflora enzyme beta-glucuronidase were also studied. There was no significant difference in cecal pH between rats fed experimental diets and control rat. The diet supplemented with the Bifidobacterium strain suspension significantly decreased only the cecal beta-glucuronidase activity. Both enzyme activities were reduced in rats fed fermented skim milk- or uninoculated skim milk-supplemented diets compared with control animals.

  8. Influence of feeding regimens on rat gut fluids and colonic metabolism of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin.

    PubMed

    Vieira, Amélia C F; Murdan, Sudaxshina; Serra, Arménio C; Veiga, Francisco J; Gonsalves, António M d'A Rocha; Basit, Abdul W

    2014-11-04

    Feeding states may affect the performance of colonic prodrugs. The aim is to investigate the influence of feeding regimen in Wistar rats on: (i) distribution and pH contents along the gut and (ii) metabolism of two colonic prodrugs, diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin and a commercially available control, sulfasalazine, within the caecal and colonic contents. Male Wistar rats were subject to four different feeding regimens, the gut contents characterized (mass and pH) and the metabolism of prodrugs investigated. The feeding regimen affects gut contents (mass and pH), more specifically in the stomach and lower intestine, and affects the rate of metabolism of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin, but not that of sulfasalazine. The latter's degradation is much faster than that of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin while the metabolism of both prodrugs is faster in colonic (versus caecal) contents. Fasting results in most rapid degradation of diclofenac-β-cyclodextrin, possibly due to lack of competition (absence of food) for microbial enzymatic activity.

  9. Nucleoside-nucleotide free diet protects rat colonic mucosa from damage induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.

    PubMed Central

    Adjei, A A; Morioka, T; Ameho, C K; Yamauchi, K; Kulkarni, A D; Al-Mansouri, H M; Kawajiri, A; Yamamoto, S

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Growing evidence suggests that intestinal recovery from injury induced by radiation, endotoxin, and protein deficiency is improved by the ingestion of nucleosides and nucleotides. AIM: This study examined the effect of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides supplementation on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colonic damage in experimental colitis. METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into two groups and fed nucleic acid free 20% casein diet (control) or this diet supplemented with 0.5% nucleoside-nucleotide mixture for four weeks. On the second week, colonic inflammation was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol containing 25 mg of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Additionally, other sets of rats were treated with 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol, 25 mg of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in 0.25 ml saline, or 0.25 ml of 0.9% saline. RESULTS: After two weeks, colon weight, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the nucleoside-nucleotide supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented control groups. The same variables seen in the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-ethanol group fed nucleoside-nucleotide free diet were greater (p < 0.05) than in the rest of the groups fed nucleoside-nucleotide free diet and treated with ethanol, trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in saline, or saline. Histologically, segmental ulceration and inflammation associated with significantly increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts were observed in the supplemented group compared with the controls. In the nucleoside-nucleotide supplemented group the epithelial damage, mucosal erosion, oedema, and coagulative necrosis of the muscularis propria was more extensive in comparison to the non-supplemented control groups. CONCLUSIONS: This study suggests that dietary nucleosides and nucleotides may aggravate colonic damage and inflammation in chemically

  10. Nucleoside-nucleotide free diet protects rat colonic mucosa from damage induced by trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid.

    PubMed

    Adjei, A A; Morioka, T; Ameho, C K; Yamauchi, K; Kulkarni, A D; Al-Mansouri, H M; Kawajiri, A; Yamamoto, S

    1996-09-01

    Growing evidence suggests that intestinal recovery from injury induced by radiation, endotoxin, and protein deficiency is improved by the ingestion of nucleosides and nucleotides. This study examined the effect of dietary nucleosides and nucleotides supplementation on trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid induced colonic damage in experimental colitis. Sprague-Dawley rats were randomised into two groups and fed nucleic acid free 20% casein diet (control) or this diet supplemented with 0.5% nucleoside-nucleotide mixture for four weeks. On the second week, colonic inflammation was induced in rats by intracolonic administration of 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol containing 25 mg of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid. Additionally, other sets of rats were treated with 0.25 ml of 50% ethanol, 25 mg of trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in 0.25 ml saline, or 0.25 ml of 0.9% saline. After two weeks, colon weight, macroscopic and microscopic damage scores, were significantly greater (p < 0.05) in the nucleoside-nucleotide supplemented group compared with the non-supplemented control groups. The same variables seen in the trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid-ethanol group fed nucleoside-nucleotide free diet were greater (p < 0.05) than in the rest of the groups fed nucleoside-nucleotide free diet and treated with ethanol, trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid in saline, or saline. Histologically, segmental ulceration and inflammation associated with significantly increased infiltration of polymorphonuclear leucocytes, macrophages, lymphocytes, fibroblasts were observed in the supplemented group compared with the controls. In the nucleoside-nucleotide supplemented group the epithelial damage, mucosal erosion, oedema, and coagulative necrosis of the muscularis propria was more extensive in comparison to the non-supplemented control groups. This study suggests that dietary nucleosides and nucleotides may aggravate colonic damage and inflammation in chemically induced experimental colitis in rats; and that

  11. Lipopolysaccharides Facilitate Colonic Motor Alterations Associated to the Sensitization to a Luminal Antigen in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Jardí, Ferran; Aguilera, Mònica; Vergara, Patri; Martínez, Vicente

    2015-01-01

    Background/Aims Enteric dysbiosis is a risk factor for dietary proteins-associated intestinal alterations, contributing to the development of food allergies and the symptomatology of functional gastrointestinal disorders, mainly irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). We explored if a dysbiotic-like state, simulated by intraperitoneal administration of bacterial lipopolysaccharides (LPS), facilitates the sensitization to a luminal antigen, ovalbumin (OVA), in rats. Methods Rats were exposed to oral OVA for 1 week, alone or with LPS. Thereafter, colonic histology, goblet cell density, mucosal eosinophils and mucosal mast cell (MMC) and connective tissue mast cell (CTMC) were evaluated. Colonic expression (real-time quantitative polymerase chain reaction) of interleukins, IFN-α1 and integrins was assessed to determine local immune responses. Luminal and wall adhered microbiota were characterized by fluorescence in situ hybridization. Colonic contractility (in vitro) served to assess functional changes associated to OVA and/or LPS. Results Neither OVA nor LPS, alone or combined, lead to structural alterations, except for a reduced goblet cell density in OVA-LPS-treated rats. MMC density was unaffected, while CTMC counts increased within the submucosa of OVA-LPS-treated animals. Marginal immune activation (IFN-α1 up-regulation) was observed in OVA-LPS-treated rats. LPS induced a dysbiotic-like state characterized by decreased luminal bacterial counts, with a specific loss of clostridia. LPS facilitated Clostridium spp. wall adherence, an effect prevented by OVA. Colonic contractility was altered in OVA-LPS-treated animals, showing increased basal activity and enhanced motor responses to OVA. Conclusions Changes in gut microbiota and/or direct effects of LPS might enhance/facilitate local neuroimmune responses to food antigens leading to motor alterations similar to those observed in IBS. PMID:25843075

  12. Differences in spinal distribution and neurochemical phenotype of colonic afferents in mouse and rat.

    PubMed

    Christianson, Julie A; Traub, Richard J; Davis, Brian M

    2006-01-10

    Visceral pain is a prevalent clinical problem and one of the most common ailments for which patients seek medical attention. Recent studies have described many of the physiological properties of visceral afferents, but not much is known regarding their anatomical characteristics. To determine the spinal distribution and neurochemical phenotype of colonic afferents in rodents, Alexa Fluor-conjugated cholera toxin-beta (CTB) was injected subserosally into the proximal and distal portions of the descending colon in Sprague Dawley rats and C57Bl/6 mice. Dorsal root ganglia (T10-S2) were processed for fluorescent immunohistochemistry and visualized by confocal microscopy. In the mouse, CTB-positive neurons were most numerous in the lumbosacral region (LS; L6-S1), with a smaller contribution in the thoracolumbar ganglia (TL; T13-L1). In contrast, CTB-positive neurons in the rat were most numerous in the TL ganglia, with a smaller contribution in the LS ganglia. The vast majority of CTB-positive neurons in both mouse and rat were positive for TRPV1 and CGRP and most likely unmyelinated, in that most colonic afferents were not positive for neurofilament heavy chain. In the mouse, the TL ganglia had a significantly higher percentage of TRPV1- and CGRP-positive neurons than did the LS ganglia, whereas no differences were observed in the rat. The high incidence of TRPV1-positive colonic afferents in rodents suggests that hypersensitivity from the viscera may be partially a TRPV1-mediated event, thereby providing a suitable target for the treatment of visceral pain.

  13. Ethanol Does Not Promote MeIQx-initiated Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Based on Evidence from Analysis of a Colon Cancer Surrogate Marker

    PubMed Central

    Kushida, Masahiko; Wanibuchi, Hideki; Wei, Min; Kakehashi, Anna; Ozaki, Keisuke; Sukata, Tokuo; Miyata, Kaori; Ogata, Keiko; Uwagawa, Satoshi; Fukushima, Shoji

    2009-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that alcohol consumption increases the risk of developing colorectal cancer. However, the data are confounded by numerous cosegregating variables. To cast further light on the relationships between alcohol intake and colon cancer development, 21-day-old male F344/DuCrj rats were fed 200 ppm 2-amino-3,8-dimethylimidazo[4,5-f]quinoxaline (MeIQx) in their diet for 8 weeks and doses of 0, 0.1, 0.3, 1, 3, 10 and 20% of ethanol in their drinking water ad libitum for 16 weeks thereafter. The rats were sacrificed after 24 weeks of experiment, and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), surrogate lesions for colon cancer, were examined under a light microscope at low magnification. Ethanol was found not to affect the ACF formation at any dose compared with the initiated-controls. Furthermore, ethanol did not alter colon epithelial cell proliferation. These data, obtained by analysis of a colon cancer surrogate marker lesion, indicate that ethanol lacks promotion activity for MeIQx-initiated rat colon carcinogenesis. PMID:22271977

  14. Sensory and inflammatory colonic changes induced by vincristine in distinct rat models of colitis.

    PubMed

    Viana-Cardoso, K V; Silva, M T B; Peixoto-Junior, A A; Marinho, L S; Matias, N S; Soares, P M G; Santos, A A; Brito, G A C; Rola, F H; Gondim, F de A A

    2015-04-01

    Preclinical and clinical studies show that gastrointestinal (GI) inflammation can evoke sensory changes occasionally far from the original inflammatory site. Animal models of colitis with either trinitrobenzenesulphonic acid (TNBS) or mustard oil (MO) produce distinct patterns of somatic and visceral sensory changes. We evaluated the effects of four doses of i.v. vincristine 150 μg kg(-1) (total of 600 μg kg(-1) ) treatment on the somatic (thermal nociceptive threshold) and colonic (morphological) changes induced by TNBS or MO in rats. TNBS and MO groups were further submitted to vincristine or saline pretreatments. TNBS induced somatic hypersensitivity, while MO induced somatic hyposensitivity (P < 0.05) when compared to the saline and ethanol control groups. Vincristine per se induced somatic hypersensitivity (P < 0.05). This effect was enhanced by TNBS and reversed by MO treatments. Although vincristine increased the colitis area (colonic weight length(-1) ratio) and the Morris' score in TNBS-treated rats, it did not alter the colitis area and even lowered the Morris' score in MO-treated rats. Compared to the saline (control) group, vincristine did not alter the colonic microscopic pattern. However, such lesions scores are higher (P < 0.05) in colitis groups induced by TNBS and MO, pretreated or not with vincristine. In conclusion, the somatic changes induced by different models of experimental colitis are diverse and modulated differently by vincristine.

  15. Hyperenteroglucagonaemia and small intestinal mucosal growth after colonic perfusion of glucose in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Miazza, B M; Al-Mukhtar, M Y; Salmeron, M; Ghatei, M A; Felce-Dachez, M; Filali, A; Villet, R; Wright, N A; Bloom, S R; Crambaud, J C

    1985-01-01

    Beside intraluminal factors, humoral agents play an important role in intestinal adaptation. Enteroglucagon, the mucosal concentration of which is maximal in the terminal ileum and colon, is the strongest candidate for the role of small intestinal mucosal growth factor. The present experiment was designed to study the role of colonic enteroglucagon in stimulating mucosal growth in rats with a normal small intestine. After eight days of glucose large bowel perfusion, enteroglucagon plasma concentrations were 120.7 +/- SEM 9.2 pmol/l, versus 60.1 +/- 6.8 in mannitol perfused control rats (p less than 0.001). Gastrin, cholecystokinin, neurotensin, pancreatic glucagon, and insulin plasma concentrations were unchanged. Crypt cell proliferation, measured by the vincristine metaphase arrest technique, increased significantly in the small intestine of glucose perfused animals (p less than 0.005-0.001) in comparison with the controls. This resulted in a greater mucosal mass in both proximal and distal small bowel: mucosal wet weight, DNA, protein and alpha D-glucosidase per unit length intestine were all significantly higher (p less than 0.05-0.001) than in mannitol perfused rats. Our data, therefore, support the hypothesis that enteroglucagon is an enterotrophic factor and stress the possible role of the colon in the regulation of small bowel trophicity. PMID:3996942

  16. Luteolin supplementation adjacent to aspirin treatment reduced dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Osman, Neamt H A; Said, Usama Z; El-Waseef, Ahmed M; Ahmed, Esraa S A

    2015-02-01

    Previous studies have shown that aspirin is used in colon cancer treatment. However, long-term of Aspirin usage is limited to gastric and renal toxicity. Luteolin (LUT) has cancer prevention and anti-inflammatory effects. The present study was designed to investigate the effect of LUT supplementation and Aspirin treatment in dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced carcinogenesis in rats. DMH (20 mg/kg BW/week) treated rats received gavages with Aspirin (50 mg/kg BW/week) and LUT (0.2 mg/kg BW/day) for 15 weeks. DMH injections induce colon polyps and renal bleeding, significantly increasing carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), oxidative stress, and kidney function tests and reducing antioxidant markers. Either Aspirin or LUT gavages alone or combined produce a significant decrease in colon polyp number and size, significantly decreasing CEA, COX-2, and oxidative stress and increasing antioxidant markers. In conclusion, the supplementations of LUT adjacent to Aspirin in the treatment of DMH-induced carcinogenesis in rats reflect a better effect than the use of Aspirin alone.

  17. Protective effect ofAgave salmiana fructans in azoxymethane- induced colon cancer in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Dávila-Céspedes, Antonio; Juárez-Flores, Bertha I; Pinos-Rodríguezc, Juan M; Aguirre-Riverab, Juan R; Oros-Ovalled, A Cuahutemoc; Loyola-Martínez, E D; Andrade-Zaldívar, Hera

    2014-10-01

    Colon cancer is a world concerning disease; it shows a high mortality rate and may be related to eating habits. Studies using inulin-like fructans, which are produced as energy supplies by several plants, have demonstrated a chemo-protective effect of these fructans in colon cancer. However, agavins a structurally different type of fructans from the Agave genus with demonstrated prebiotic effects, have been poorly studied for their possible protective effects in cancer. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect ofAgave fructan-rich diets in colon cancer progress using a rat model and "Agave mezcalero potosino" A. salmiana Otto ex Salm Dick, which is widely distributed in Mexico. Results showed a significant decrease (p<0.05) in early lesions of colon cancer (aberrant crypt foci) compared with the control group. These data suggest that fructans from A. salmiana may contribute to a reduction in the risk of colon cancer as well as inulin-like compounds.

  18. Differential stimulation of S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase by difluoromethylornithine in the rat colon and small intestine.

    PubMed Central

    Halline, A G; Dudeja, P K; Brasitus, T A

    1989-01-01

    The effects of chronic inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) by the specific inhibitor difluoromethylornithine (DFMO) in the rat colon and small intestine on mucosal contents of polyamines, decarboxylated S-adenosylmethionine (decarboxylated AdoMet) and S-adenosylmethionine decarboxylase (AdoMet decarboxylase) activity were studied. Administration of 1% DFMO in the drinking water for 10 or 15 weeks resulted in inhibition of ODC and decreases in intracellular putrescine and spermidine contents in both proximal and distal segments of small intestine and colon. At both time points DFMO administration resulted in a dramatic stimulation of AdoMet decarboxylase activity and a rise in decarboxylated AdoMet content in the proximal and distal small-intestinal segments compared with controls, which was not seen in either colonic segment of DFMO-treated animals. This differential stimulation of AdoMet decarboxylase by DFMO in the small intestine and colon could not be entirely explained on the basis of differences in polyamine contents, which are known to regulate this enzyme activity. Kinetic and inhibition studies of AdoMet decarboxylase in control small and large intestine revealed that: (1) there was no difference in Vmax. values between the tissues; (2) the Km for AdoMet was higher in the small intestine than in the colon; and (3) the Ki for product inhibition by decarboxylated AdoMet was higher in the small intestine than in the colon. These results suggest that the differential stimulation of AdoMet decarboxylase by DFMO in the small intestine and colon may be due to different isoenzymes and could play a significant role in the regulation of polyamine contents throughout the gut. PMID:2497738

  19. Mechanisms involved in carbachol-induced Ca2+ sensitization of contractile elements in rat proximal and distal colon

    PubMed Central

    Takeuchi, Tadayoshi; Kushida, Masahiko; Hirayama, Nobue; Kitayama, Muneyoshi; Fujita, Akikazu; Hata, Fumiaki

    2004-01-01

    Mechanisms involved in Ca2+ sensitization of contractile elements induced by the activation of muscarinic receptors in membrane-permeabilized preparations of the rat proximal and distal colon were studied. In α-toxin-permeabilized preparations from the rat proximal and distal colon, Ca2+ induced a rapid phasic and subsequent tonic component. After Ca2+-induced contraction reached a plateau, guanosine 5′-triphosphate (GTP) and carbachol (CCh) in the presence of GTP further contracted preparations of both the proximal and distal colon (Ca2+ sensitization). Y-27632, a rho-kinase inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization more significantly in the proximal colon than in the distal colon. Y-27632 at 10 μM had no effect on Ca2+-induced contraction or slightly inhibited phorbol-12,13-dibutyrate-induced Ca2+ sensitization in either proximal or distal colon. Chelerythrine, a protein kinase C inhibitor, inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization in the distal colon, but not in the proximal colon. The component of Ca2+ sensitization that persisted after the chelerythrine treatment was completely inhibited by Y-27632. In β-escin-permeabilized preparations of the proximal colon, C3 exoenzyme completely inhibited GTP plus CCh-induced Ca2+ sensitization, but PKC(19–31) did not. In the distal colon, C3 exoenzyme abolished GTP-induced Ca2+ sensitization. It inhibited CCh-induced sensitization by 50 % and the remaining component was inhibited by PKC(19–31). These results suggest that both protein kinase C and rho pathways in parallel mediate the Ca2+ sensitization coupled to activation of muscarinic receptors in the rat distal colon, whereas the rho pathway alone mediates this action in the proximal colon. PMID:15159278

  20. A novel NSAID derivative, phospho-ibuprofen, prevents AOM-induced colon cancer in rats

    PubMed Central

    OUYANG, NENGTAI; JI, PING; WILLIAMS, JENNIE L.

    2013-01-01

    The cancer chemopreventive properties and gastrointestinal toxicity of ibuprofen are well documented. Modification of existing NSAIDs has improved on the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent and reduced its toxicity. In this study, ibuprofen and a modified derivative (phospho-modified ibuprofen or p-ibuprofen) were used in a chemically induced model of colon cancer. Fisher 344 rats were injected with azoxymethane then treated with either ibuprofen (500 ppm) or p-ibuprofen (900 ppm) for 20 weeks to observe aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or 40 weeks to evaluate tumor incidence and multiplicity. β-catenin and p65 were measured in colonic tissues by immunofluorescence staining. Equal molar doses of ibuprofen (75 and 670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (135 and 1,215 mg/kg) were administered to rats for 7 days to assess acute toxicity. The in vitro effect of p-ibuprofen on COX-2 and PGE2 synthesis, β-catenin expression and NF-κB activity were examined in RAW 264.7 macrophage and HCT 116 colon cancer cells. At week 20, p-ibuprofen and ibuprofen significantly reduced the multiplicity of ACF compared with control (p<0.05); 31.2 and 37.9%, respectively. At week 40, p-ibuprofen and ibuprofen reduced the multiplicity of colon tumors compared with control (p<0.01) by 47.2 and 56.6%, respectively. Equal molar concentrations of ibuprofen (670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (1,215 mg/kg) resulted in stomach ulceration in 85.7% (6 out of 7) and 14.3% (1 out of 7) of rats, respectively, with p<0.01. Immunofluoresence staining and western blot analysis demonstrated that both ibuprofen and p-ibuprofen suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation in colon cancer cells. In addition, p-ibuprofen but not ibuprofen inhibited NF-κB activation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that p-ibuprofen is a potential effective novel drug for long-term use in colon cancer prevention. PMID:23291777

  1. A novel NSAID derivative, phospho-ibuprofen, prevents AOM-induced colon cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Ouyang, Nengtai; Ji, Ping; Williams, Jennie L

    2013-02-01

    The cancer chemopreventive properties and gastrointestinal toxicity of ibuprofen are well documented. Modification of existing NSAIDs has improved on the chemopreventive efficacy of this agent and reduced its toxicity. In this study, ibuprofen and a modified derivative (phospho-modified ibuprofen or p-ibuprofen) were used in a chemically induced model of colon cancer. Fisher 344 rats were injected with azoxymethane then treated with either ibuprofen (500 ppm) or p-ibuprofen (900 ppm) for 20 weeks to observe aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or 40 weeks to evaluate tumor incidence and multiplicity. β-catenin and p65 were measured in colonic tissues by immunofluorescence staining. Equal molar doses of ibuprofen (75 and 670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (135 and 1,215 mg/kg) were administered to rats for 7 days to assess acute toxicity. The in vitro effect of p-ibuprofen on COX-2 and PGE(2) synthesis, β-catenin expression and NF-κB activity were examined in RAW 264.7 macrophage and HCT 116 colon cancer cells. At week 20, p-ibuprofen and ibuprofen significantly reduced the multiplicity of ACF compared with control (p<0.05); 31.2 and 37.9%, respectively. At week 40, p-ibuprofen and ibuprofen reduced the multiplicity of colon tumors compared with control (p<0.01) by 47.2 and 56.6%, respectively. Equal molar concentrations of ibuprofen (670 mg/kg) and p-ibuprofen (1,215 mg/kg) resulted in stomach ulceration in 85.7% (6 out of 7) and 14.3% (1 out of 7) of rats, respectively, with p<0.01. Immunofluoresence staining and western blot analysis demonstrated that both ibuprofen and p-ibuprofen suppressed β-catenin nuclear translocation in colon cancer cells. In addition, p-ibuprofen but not ibuprofen inhibited NF-κB activation in colon cancer cells. Collectively, these results suggest that p-ibuprofen is a potential effective novel drug for long-term use in colon cancer prevention.

  2. Aldehyde dehydrogenases of the rat colon: comparison with other tissues of the alimentary tract and the liver.

    PubMed

    Koivisto, T; Salaspuro, M

    1996-05-01

    Intracolonic bacteria have previously been shown to produce substantial amounts of acetaldehyde during ethanol oxidation, and it has been suggested that this acetaldehyde might be associated with alcohol-related colonic disorders, as well as other alcohol-induced organ injuries. The capacity of colonic mucosa to remove this bacterial acetaldehyde by aldehyde dehydrogenase (ALDH) is, however, poorly known. We therefore measured ALDH activities and determined ALDH isoenzyme profiles from different subcellular fractions of rat colonic mucosa. For comparison, hepatic, gastric, and small intestinal samples were studied similarly. Alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) activities were also measured from all of these tissues. Rat colonic mucosa was found to possess detectable amounts of ALDH activity with both micromolar and millimolar acetaldehyde concentrations and in all subcellular fractions. The ALDH activities of colonic mucosa were, however, generally low when compared with the liver and stomach, and they also tended to be lower than in small intestine. Mitochondrial low K(m) ALDH2 and cytosolic ALDH with low K(m) for acetaldehyde were expressed in the colonic mucosa, whereas some cytosolic high K(m) isoenzymes found in the small intestine and stomach were not detectable in colonic samples. Cytosolic ADH activity corresponded well to ALDH activity in different tissues: in colonic mucosa, it was approximately 6 times lower than in the liver and about one-half of gastric ADH activity. ALDH activity of the colonic mucosa should, thus, be sufficient for the removal of acetaldehyde produced by colonic mucosal ADH during ethanol oxidation. It may, however, be insufficient for the removal of the acetaldehyde produced by intracolonic bacteria. This may lead to the accumulation of acetaldehyde in the colon and colonic mucosa after ingestion of ethanol that might, at least after chronic heavy alcohol consumption, contribute to the development of alcohol-related colonic morbidity

  3. Characterization of apical potassium channels induced in rat distal colon during potassium adaptation.

    PubMed

    Butterfield, I; Warhurst, G; Jones, M N; Sandle, G I

    1997-06-15

    1. Chronic dietary K+ loading stimulates an active K+ secretory process in rat distal colon, which involves an increase in the macroscopic apical K+ conductance of surface epithelial cells. In the present study, the abundance and characteristics of K+ channels constituting this enhanced apical K+ conductance were evaluated using patch clamp recording techniques. 2. In isolated non-polarized surface cells, K+ channels were seen in 9 of 90 (10%) cell-attached patches in cells from control animals, and in 247 of 437 (57%) cell-attached patches in cells from K(+)-loaded animals, with a significant (P < 0.001) shift in distribution density. Similarly, recordings from cell-attached patches of the apical membrane of surface cells surrounding the openings of distal colonic crypts revealed identical K+ channels in 1 of 11 (9%) patches in control animals, and in 9 of 13 (69%) patches in K(+)-loaded animals. 3. In isolated surface cells and surface cells in situ, K+ channels had mean slope conductances of 209 +/- 6 and 233 +/- 14 pS, respectively, when inside-out patches were bathed symmetrically in K2SO4 solution. The channels were sensitive to 'cytosolic' Ca2+ concentration, were voltage sensitive at 'cytosolic' Ca2+ concentrations encountered in colonic epithelial cells, and were inhibited by 1 mM quinidine, 20 mM TEA or 5 mM Ba2+ ions. 4. The data show that dietary K+ loading increases the abundance of Ca(2+)- and voltage-sensitive large-conductance K+ channels in the apical membrane of surface cells in rat distal colon. These channels constitute the enhanced macroscopic apical K+ conductance previously identified in these cells, and are likely to play a critical role in the active K+ secretory process that typifies this model of colonic K+ adaptation.

  4. Neurotensin Changes Propulsive Activity into a Segmental Motor Pattern in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Li, Hongfei; Chen, Ji-Hong; Yang, Zixian; Huang, Min; Yu, Yuanjie; Tan, Shiyun; Luo, Hesheng; Huizinga, Jan D

    2016-01-01

    Background/Aims Neurotensin is a gut-brain peptide with both inhibitory and excitatory actions on the colonic musculature; our objective was to understand the implications of this for motor patterns occurring in the intact colon of the rat. Methods The effects of neurotensin with concentrations ranging from 0.1–100 nM were studied in the intact rat colon in vitro, by investigating spatio-temporal maps created from video recordings of colonic motility before and after neurotensin. Results Low concentration of neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibited propagating long distance contractions and rhythmic propagating motor complexes; in its place a slow propagating rhythmic segmental motor pattern developed. The neurotensin receptor 1 antagonist SR-48692 prevented the development of the segmental motor pattern. Higher concentrations of neurotensin (10 nM and 100 nM) were capable of restoring long distance contraction activity and inhibiting the segmental activity. The slow propagating segmental contraction showed a rhythmic contraction—relaxation cycle at the slow wave frequency originating from the interstitial cells of Cajal associated with the myenteric plexus pacemaker. High concentrations given without prior additions of low concentrations did not evoke the segmental motor pattern. These actions occurred when neurotensin was given in the bath solution or intraluminally. The segmental motor pattern evoked by neurotensin was inhibited by the neural conduction blocker lidocaine. Conclusions Neurotensin (0.1–1 nM) inhibits the dominant propulsive motor patterns of the colon and a distinct motor pattern of rhythmic slow propagating segmental contractions develops. This motor pattern has the hallmarks of haustral boundary contractions. PMID:26882114

  5. Prevention of Histological Changes after Colonic Diversion in Rats: An Experimental Study

    PubMed Central

    M, Pathak; M, Srinivas; A, Shariff

    2017-01-01

    AIM : To determine the beneficial effects of Glutamine, Psyllium, Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), and Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK), in preventing the histological changes after diversion colostomy. MATERIAL AND METHODS : After ethical clearance, male wistar rats (n=40) underwent diversion colostomy. Rats were divided into five groups of 8 rats each. Each group was given, after diversion colostomy, per rectally, one of the five agents being tested as an enema (3 ml/kg/day). Group I: Normal saline. Group II: Glutamine Group III: Psyllium, Group IV: MAK. Group V: Short chain fatty acid. The rats were euthanised 45 days after performing diversion colostomy. Morphometrical analysis of defunctionalised colon was done. Statistical analysis was done using SSPS statistical analysis software. RESULTS : On comparison with Group I epithelial cell height and mucosal thickness was significantly higher in Group II. Muscularis externae thickness was significantly higher in Group III on comparison with Group I. Group V had least inflammatory changes. CONCLUSIONS : Atrophic and inflammatory changes in the diverted colon can be prevented by per rectal administration of Glutamine, Psyllium and Short chain fatty acids. PMID:28770123

  6. Prevention of Histological Changes after Colonic Diversion in Rats: An Experimental Study.

    PubMed

    M, Pathak; M, Srinivas; A, Shariff

    2017-01-01

    To determine the beneficial effects of Glutamine, Psyllium, Short Chain Fatty Acids (SCFA), and Maharishi Amrit Kalash (MAK), in preventing the histological changes after diversion colostomy. After ethical clearance, male wistar rats (n=40) underwent diversion colostomy. Rats were divided into five groups of 8 rats each. Each group was given, after diversion colostomy, per rectally, one of the five agents being tested as an enema (3 ml/kg/day). Group I: Normal saline. Group II: Glutamine Group III: Psyllium, Group IV: MAK. Group V: Short chain fatty acid. The rats were euthanised 45 days after performing diversion colostomy. Morphometrical analysis of defunctionalised colon was done. Statistical analysis was done using SSPS statistical analysis software. On comparison with Group I epithelial cell height and mucosal thickness was significantly higher in Group II. Muscularis externae thickness was significantly higher in Group III on comparison with Group I. Group V had least inflammatory changes. Atrophic and inflammatory changes in the diverted colon can be prevented by per rectal administration of Glutamine, Psyllium and Short chain fatty acids.

  7. Effect of parenteral zinc sulfate on colon anastomosis repair in the rat.

    PubMed

    Agren, M S; Andersen, L; Heegaard, A M; Jorgensen, L N

    2008-09-01

    To prevent colonic anastomotic dehiscence, pharmaceutical interventions should inhibit degradation of existing submucosal collagen fibers and accelerate the synthesis of new collagen molecules. Zinc has multiple functions in collagen metabolism and was recently found beneficial in colonic anastomosis repair. We have investigated the effect of daily intraperitoneal zinc (2 mg/kg) injections on the development of the biomechanical integrity of left colon anastomoses. Sixty Sprague-Dawley male rats (median 245 g) were allocated to treatment with zinc sulfate in saline (n = 30) or with saline alone (n = 30) starting 1 h before the anastomoses were made. Serum zinc levels and anastomotic breaking strength were determined on postoperative days 3 (n = 30) and 7 (n = 30). The initial breaking strength or suture-binding capacity was determined in additional ten non-treated animals (277 g). The breaking strength of the anastomoses decreased in the two groups combined (n = 30) by 50% (p < 0.001) on day 3 but was regained by postoperative day 7 compared with the initial anastomotic biomechanical strength. Serum zinc levels also increased from day 3 to day 7 in both intervention groups and correlated significantly with breaking strength (r = 0.57, p < 0.001). Although the median serum zinc level was 14% higher (p < 0.01) on day 7 in zinc-treated than in saline-treated animals, the breaking strength did not differ significantly between zinc-treated and saline-treated rats on either day 3 (p = 0.95) or day 7 (p = 0.70). In contrast to previous report in rabbits, we failed to demonstrate the beneficial effects of parenteral zinc supplementation on colon anastomosis repair in a rat model.

  8. In Vivo Evaluation of 5-ASA Colon-Specific Tablets Using Experimental-Induced Colitis Rat Animal Model.

    PubMed

    Sawarkar, Sujata P; Deshpande, S G; Bajaj, A N; Nikam, V S

    2015-12-01

    Colonic drug delivery is intended not only for local treatment in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) but also for systemic delivery of therapeutics. Intestinal myeloperoxidase (MPO) determination could be used to estimate the average level of inflammation in colon as well as to determine the efficacy of drugs to be used in the treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases or study the specificity of dosage forms to be used for colonic targeting of anti-inflammatory drugs. Colonic prodrug sulfasalazine (SASP) gets metabolized to give 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA), which is the active portion of SASP. However, when given orally, 5-ASA is absorbed in upper part of gastrointestinal tract (GIT) and not made available in colon. In the present study, colon-targeted delivery of 5-ASA was achieved by formulating tablets with two natural polymers namely guar gum and pectin using compression coating method. Colonic specificity of 5-ASA tablets (prepared using guar gum and pectin as polymers) was evaluated in vitro using simulated fluids mimicking in vivo environment as well as in vivo method using chemically (2,4,6-trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid and acetic acid)-induced colitis rat model. Both colon-specific formulations of 5-ASA (guar gum and pectin) were observed to be more effective in reducing inflammation in chemically induced colitis rat models when compared to colon-specific prodrug sulfasalazine as well as conventional 5-ASA administered orally.

  9. Fermentable Carbohydrates Differentially Affect Colon Tumor Formation in Azoxymethane-Induced Male Fischer 344 Rats.

    PubMed

    Raju, Jayadev; Roberts, Jennifer; Chen, QiXuan; Aziz, Syed A; Caldwell, Don; Bird, Ranjana P; Scoggan, Kylie A; Brooks, Stephen Pj

    2016-03-09

    The role of fermentation compared with the source or type of the fermentable material in colon tumorigenesis remains an issue in refining the definition of dietary fiber (DF). The aim of this study was to investigate the fermentation and source-specific effects of various carbohydrates in a medium-term colon tumorigenesis model. Six-week-old male Fischer 344 rats were randomly allocated into 6 groups (n = 36/group) to receive either AIN-93G (control) or diets containing fructooligosaccharides, wheat bran (WB), oat bran (OB), polydextrose, or high-amylose maize starch (HAMS), each adjusted to contain a total DF concentration of 7% (wt:wt) and have a fermentability of 3% (wt:wt). After 2 wk, 24 rats/group received 2 subcutaneous doses of azoxymethane (at 15 mg/kg body weight) 1 wk apart while 12 rats/group were injected with a saline vehicle; all rats were maintained on the assigned diets for 24 wk postinjection and then killed. Colon tumor outcomes and pathology together with cecal short-chain fatty acid composition were assessed. No tumors were found in saline-injected rats, and all subsequent analyses were restricted to azoxymethane-injected rats. Colon tumor incidence was significantly lower in the polydextrose (21%) and WB (13%) groups than in the control group (63%; P < 0.05) but not different from the fructooligosaccharide (58%), HAMS (46%), and OB (33%) groups. In comparison to the control group (8 proximal/31 total tumors), fermentable materials reduced the number of tumors (P < 0.05) originating in the proximal colon: HAMS (5/15), polydextrose (2/7), OB (2/9), fructooligosaccharides (1/21), and WB (1/3). The mean ± SEM number of tumors/tumor-bearing rats was significantly lower in the WB (1.00 ± 0.00), OB (1.13 ± 0.13), and HAMS (1.36 ± 0.15) groups than in the control group (2.07 ± 0.27; P < 0.02); other groups did not differ. The mean ± SEM tumor burden/diet group was lower in the WB (1.2 ± 0.7 mm(2)), polydextrose (6.7 ± 3.2 mm(2)), and OB (7.0

  10. Effect of Spirogyra neglecta on the early stages of 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Taya, Sirinya; Thumvijit, Tarika; Chewonarin, Teera; Punvittayagul, Charatda; Wongpoomchai, Rawiwan

    2016-12-06

    This study focused on the chemopreventive effects of Spirogyra neglecta extract (SNE) and dried S. neglecta mixed diet on the early stages of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Male Wistar rats were injected with DMH to initiate aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation. In the initiation stage, SNE significantly decreased the number of ACF in the colon of DMH-treated rats. Rats that received a low dose of SNE showed enhanced activity of several detoxifying and antioxidant enzymes. In the postinitiation stage, a low dose of SNE significantly decreased the number of ACF in the colon of DMH-treated rats. It significantly reduced the number of proliferating cell nuclear antigen-positive cells and increased the number of apoptotic cells in colonic crypts. S. neglecta thus inhibited the development of the early stages of DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats by modulation of xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes and inhibition of cell proliferation as well as induction of apoptosis.

  11. Bioavailability of lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) polyphenols in rats: impact of colonic inflammation.

    PubMed

    Felgines, Catherine; Fraisse, Didier; Besson, Catherine; Vasson, Marie-Paule; Texier, Odile

    2014-05-28

    Lemon verbena (Aloysia triphylla) infusion, a widely consumed herbal tea, contains significant amounts of polyphenols such as flavone diglucuronides and phenylpropanoid glycosides (mainly verbascoside). We have recently shown that lemon verbena infusion offers beneficial effects against dextran sodium sulphate (DSS)-induced colonic inflammation in rats. The present study aimed to evaluate the bioavailability and intestinal absorption of polyphenols derived from lemon verbena infusion in both healthy and colitic rats. For this purpose, lemon verbena infusion was given to rats ad libitum for 14 d, and then 4 % DSS was added to the infusion for 7 d. Before and after DSS administration, 24 h urinary excretion of polyphenols was determined. Flavones were excreted in the urine as conjugated aglycones, and their excretion was not significantly altered by colonic inflammation. Only trace amounts of verbascoside were excreted in the urine, but various metabolites (hydroxycinnamic acids) were detected. The urinary excretion of hydroxycinnamic acids, particularly that of caffeic acid, increased after DSS administration (P< 0·05). Only flavone aglycones (luteolin and diosmetin) were excreted in the faeces in small proportions (3·2 % of ingested flavones). Intestinal absorption of lemon verbena polyphenols was examined using an in situ intestinal perfusion model. Intestinal absorption of verbascoside and flavone diglucuronides did not significantly differ between the healthy and colitic rats. Collectively, these results show that intestinal absorption and urinary excretion of lemon verbena flavone diglucuronides were not altered by colonic inflammation, but that urinary excretion of hydroxycinnamic acids derived from verbascoside was affected in a colitic situation.

  12. Targeting normal and neoplastic tissues in the rat jejunum and colon with boronated, cationic acrylamide copolymers.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abdel-Kareem; Srebnik, Morris; Doviner, Victoria; Rubinstein, Abraham

    2005-08-18

    A series of boronated cationic copolymers, composed of different ratios of acrylamide, N-acryloyl-3-aminophenylboronic acid and N-acryloyl-diaminoethane (the cationic moiety), were prepared with the intention of localizing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimentally induced polyps on the luminal side of the gut of the rat. The goals of this study were to: (a) test the effect of cationization of the boronated copolymers on their uptake by polyps and normal adjacent epithelium; (b) compare the whole rat body distribution of aminophenylboronic acid (APB) and polymeric APB after local application; (c) measure the effect of micro-environmental parameters such as pH, the presence of mucin and cations on the interaction between the APB-copolymers and the epithelium of the rat intestines. Direct analysis of tissue boron levels showed that polymeric APB-uptake was higher in the colonic polyps than in the surrounding normal tissues. Free APB, however, was found in similar quantities in both. When tested in the normal jejunum and colon of the rat, polymeric APB uptake was directly proportional to the molar content of the cationic monomer in the copolymers. The presence of magnesium ions, free boron cationic monomer and mucin interfered with this uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was pH-independent at pH 5, 7 and 10. APB accumulation in the colon polyps was inversely proportional to the cationic monomer content in the copolymers, suggesting an increased amount of mucus around the polyps, which probably impeded the electrostatic attachment of the polymer to the malignant tissue. The use polymeric APB for targeting BNCT in perioperative treatment of colorectal carcinoma is suggested, especially in the cases of microscopic residual disease after curative resection.

  13. Fibrinogen-thrombin collagen patch reinforcement of high-risk colonic anastomoses in rats

    PubMed Central

    Suárez-Grau, Juan Manuel; Bernardos García, Carlos; Cepeda Franco, Carmen; Mendez García, Cristina; García Ruiz, Salud; Docobo Durantez, Fernando; Morales-Conde, Salvador; Padillo Ruiz, Javier

    2016-01-01

    AIM To evaluate the effectiveness of human fibrinogen-thrombin collagen patch (TachoSil®) in the reinforcement of high-risk colon anastomoses. METHODS A quasi-experimental study was conducted in Wistar rats (n = 56) that all underwent high-risk anastomoses (anastomosis with only two sutures) after colectomies. The rats were divided into two randomized groups: Control group (24 rats) and treatment group (24 rats). In the treatment group, high-risk anastomosis was reinforced with TachoSil® (a piece of TachoSil® was applied over this high-risk anastomosis, covering the gap). Leak incidence, overall survival, intra-abdominal adhesions, and histologic healing of anastomoses were analyzed. Survivors were divided into two subgroups and euthanized at 15 and 30 d after intervention in order to analyze the adhesions and histologic changes. RESULTS Overall survival was 71.4% and 57.14% in the TachoSil® group and control group, respectively (P = 0.29); four rats died from other causes and six rats in the treatment group and 10 in the control group experienced colonic leakage (P > 0.05). The intra-abdominal adhesion score was similar in both groups, with no differences between subgroups. We found non-significant differences in the healing process according to the histologic score used in both groups (P = 0.066). CONCLUSION In our study, the use of TachoSil® was associated with a non-statistically significant reduction in the rate of leakage in high-risk anastomoses. TachoSil® has been shown to be a safe product because it does not affect the histologic healing process or increase intra-abdominal adhesions. PMID:27721926

  14. Effects of nobiletin on PhIP-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis in F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Tang, Ming Xi; Ogawa, Kumiko; Asamoto, Makoto; Chewonarin, Teera; Suzuki, Shugo; Tanaka, Takuji; Shirai, Tomoyuki

    2011-01-01

    The current study was designed to investigate the effects of nobiletin (5,6,7,8,3',4'-hexamethoxy flavone) on 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine (PhIP)-induced prostate and colon carcinogenesis. PhIP was administered to 6-wk-old F344 male rats intragastrically (100 mg/kg) twice a wk for 10 wk. The animals were given 0.05% nobiletin or the basal diet for 50 wk. At the end of the experiment, serum testosterone, estrogen, and leptin did not differ between the 2 groups. The body weights of nobiletin-treated rats were significantly higher than controls (P<0.05), and feeding of nobiletin significantly reduced the relative prostate (P<0.05) and testes (P<0.05) weights as well as the Ki67 labeling index in the normal epithelium in the ventral prostate (P<0.01). The incidence and multiplicity of adenocarcinomas in nobiletin-treated ventral prostate were 50% and 36%, respectively, of controls, but the differences were not statistically significant. However, nobiletin did significantly reduce the total number of colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) compared to the control value (P<0.05). Nobiletin, therefore, may have potential for chemoprevention of early changes associated with carcinogenesis in both the prostate and colon.

  15. [Effect of dietary fiber in the quantitative expression of butyrate receptor GPR43 in rats colon].

    PubMed

    Corte Osorio, L Y; Martínez Flores, H E; Ortiz Alvarado, R

    2011-01-01

    Short chain fatty acids (SCFA) acetate, propionate and butyrate are the major anions produced by the bacterial fermentation of dietary fiber (DF) in colon. Recently, butyrate has been recently studied because is important to maintain colonic functions and because it has been related with a protective effect in colorectal cancer, which is mainly, explained by its potential to regulate gene expression by inhibiting enzyme histonedeacetylase (HDAC). Several investigationsshown that SCFAreceptor GPR43 is involved insignal transduction mechanisms once they bind to ligands such as butyrate to generate different physiological effects in colonocytes. Determine if dietary fiber consumption from nopal (Opuntia ficus I.) containing a ratio of soluble-insoluble fiber 40/60, has a direct influence on the quantitative expression of butyrate-specific receptor GPR43. Wistar rats were fed with four different diets formulated at different concentrations of dietary fiber of 0, 5, 15 and 25% of dietary fiber from opuntia, respectively. The results shown an increase in the expression of GPR43 (93.1%) when rats was fed with a 5% fiber diet, using β-actin as a reference gene. The results of this investigation will contribute to determinate the relation of diet with intestinal health for the purpose of expanding the knowledge of butyric acid on colonic functions.

  16. Icodextrin and Seprafilm do not interfere with colonic anastomosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Baca, B; Boler, D E; Onur, E; Akca, O; Hamzaoglu, I; Karahasanoglu, T; Erdamar, S; Atukeren, P; Dirican, A

    2007-01-01

    Physical barriers and instilled solutions have been studied to prevent intra-abdominal adhesions. However, undesirable side effects of these substances on the healing of intestinal anastomoses may limit their use. This study was designed to compare the effects of antiadhesives on the healing of colonic anastomosis in rats. Sixty female Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups of 20. The animals received isotonic saline and 7.5% icodextrin, intraperitoneally after standard left colonic anastomosis. In group 3, Seprafilm was wrapped around the anastomosis and also laid over the abdominal viscera. Half of the animals from each group were killed on postoperative day (POD) 4 and the remaining half on POD 21. Adhesion scoring, bursting pressure and tissue hydroxyproline measurements and histopathological assessment were performed. Mean hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in groups receiving icodextrin and Seprafilm compared with the control group, whereas mean bursting pressures were significantly higher in the group that received icodextrin (p < 0.05). Intraperitoneal administration of icodextrin resulted in significant reduction of adhesion formation on POD 21 (p < 0.05). Seprafilm does not prevent formation of adhesions as much as icodextrin does, but its effect on the healing of colonic anastomoses is similar. Copyright 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  17. Electrolyte transport in distal colon of sodium-depleted rats: Effect of sodium repletion

    SciTech Connect

    Turnamian, S.G.; Binder, H.J. )

    1988-09-01

    Dietary sodium depletion increases plasma aldosterone level and, as a result, induces amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption and electrogenic potassium secretion and stimulates Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity in rat distal colon, while inhibiting electroneutral sodium chloride absorption. To assess the events that occur as the aldosterone-stimulated colon reverts to normal, unidirectional {sup 22}Na and {sup 36}Cl fluxes were measured under voltage-clamp conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of rats that were initially dietary sodium depleted for 7 days and then sodium repleted for varying periods of time before the study. Within 8 h of dietary sodium repletion, plasma aldosterone level and Na{sup +}-K{sup +}-ATPase activity declined to normal, amiloride-sensitive electrogenic sodium absorption decreased by >90%, and active electrogenic potassium secretion also decreased markedly. In contrast, electroneutral sodium chloride absorption did not completely return to levels seen in normal animals until {approximately}64-68 h. These results demonstrate that maintenance of electrogenic sodium absorption and potassium secretion are directly dependent on elevated plasma aldosterone levels. The inhibition of electroneutral sodium absorption, although initiated by excess aldosterone, persists after normalization of the plasma aldosterone level, thereby implying that the inhibition is dependent on additional factor(s).

  18. Epithelial response to a high-protein diet in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Beaumont, Martin; Andriamihaja, Mireille; Armand, Lucie; Grauso, Marta; Jaffrézic, Florence; Laloë, Denis; Moroldo, Marco; Davila, Anne-Marie; Tomé, Daniel; Blachier, François; Lan, Annaïg

    2017-01-31

    High-protein diets (HPD) alter the large intestine microbiota composition in association with a metabolic shift towards protein degradation. Some amino acid-derived metabolites produced by the colon bacteria are beneficial for the mucosa while others are deleterious at high concentrations. The aim of the present work was to define the colonic epithelial response to an HPD. Transcriptome profiling was performed on colonocytes of rats fed an HPD or an isocaloric normal-protein diet (NPD) for 2 weeks. The HPD downregulated the expression of genes notably implicated in pathways related to cellular metabolism, NF-κB signaling, DNA repair, glutathione metabolism and cellular adhesion in colonocytes. In contrast, the HPD upregulated the expression of genes related to cell proliferation and chemical barrier function. These changes at the mRNA level in colonocytes were not associated with detrimental effects of the HPD on DNA integrity (comet assay), epithelium renewal (quantification of proliferation and apoptosis markers by immunohistochemistry and western blot) and colonic barrier integrity (Ussing chamber experiments). The modifications of the luminal environment after an HPD were associated with maintenance of the colonic homeostasis that might be the result of adaptive processes in the epithelium related to the observed transcriptional regulations.

  19. Morphological study of the regeneration mechanism of acetic acid-injured colon crypts in the rat.

    PubMed

    Cheng, L; Araki, K; Furuya, Y; Matsuoka, T; Mashima, K; Kobayashi, M; Matsuura, K

    2000-01-01

    The regeneration mechanism of injured rat colonic mucosa with 1% acetic acid was certified in this study. The injured colons were studied periodically on experimental days 1, 3, 5, 7, 15, and 20 with light and scanning electron microscopy. Specimens were examined in paraffin sections stained with hematoxylin and eosin; crypts were isolated with the HCl digestion method; and three-dimensional stromal collagen tissue was prepared with the NaOH cell maceration method. Damage to the mucosal and submucosal layers peaked between the 1st and 3rd days with edema, regeneration, necrosis, and inflammation. The edema and inflammation subsided, and mucosal atrophy and crypt reduction remained at around 1 week. At 2 weeks the mucosa became thick, and crypts showed many branches in their lower two-thirds; and by 3 weeks the mucosa had recovered to almost normal. The ratio of number of crypts at the base and surface was almost 1.5 on the 15th day and 1.0 on the 20th day, suggesting that each branch progresses upward to create an independent crypt. We believe that the fission mechanism plays an important role in crypt repair after acetic acid injury of the colonic mucosa. As the proliferative zone of the colonic crypt is localized at the crypt base, fission of the crypt starting at the base and progressing up to the surface is the most reasonable and efficient mechanism for repair by increasing the number of crypts.

  20. Role of TRPV1 in high-threshold rat colonic splanchnic afferents is revealed by inflammation.

    PubMed

    Phillis, Benjamin D; Martin, Chris M; Kang, Daiwu; Larsson, Håkan; Lindström, Erik A; Martinez, Vicente; Blackshaw, L Ashley

    2009-08-07

    The vanilloid-1 receptor TRPV1 is known to play a role in extrinsic gastrointestinal afferent function. We investigated the role of TRPV1 in mechanosensitivity in afferents from normal and inflamed tissue. Colonic mechanosensitivity was determined in an in vitro rat colon preparation by recording from attached splanchnic nerves. Recordings were made from serosal/mesenteric afferents responding only at high thresholds to graded mechanical stimulation with von Frey probes. Colonic inflammation was induced by adding 5% dextran sulphate sodium (DSS) to the drinking water for 5 days, and was confirmed by histopathology. The selective TRPV1 antagonist, SB-750364 (10(-8) to 10(-6)M), was tested on mechanosensory stimulus response functions of afferents from normal and inflamed preparations (N=7 each). Mechanosensory responses had thresholds of 1-2g, and maximal responses were observed at 12 g. The stimulus response function was not affected by DSS-induced colitis. SB-750364 had no effect on stimulus response functions in normal preparations, but reduced (up to 60%) in a concentration-dependent manner those in inflammation (2-way ANOVA, p<0.05). Moreover, in inflamed tissue, spontaneous afferent activity showed a dose-dependent trend toward reduction with SB-750364. We conclude that mechanosensitivity of high-threshold serosal colonic splanchnic afferents to graded stimuli is unaffected during DSS colitis. However, there is a positive influence of TRPV1 in mechanosensitivity in inflammation, suggesting up-regulation of excitatory TRPV1-mediated mechanisms.

  1. Azithromycin and erythromycin ameliorate the extent of colonic damage induced by acetic acid in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Mahgoub, Afaf . E-mail: afaf_mahgoub@yahoo.com; El-Medany, Azza; Mustafa, Ali; Arafah, Maha; Moursi, Mahmoud

    2005-05-15

    Ulcerative colitis is a common inflammatory bowel disease (IBD) of unknown etiology. Recent studies have revealed the role of some microorganisms in the initiation and perpetuation of IBD. The role of antibiotics in the possible modulation of colon inflammation is still uncertain. In this study, we evaluated the effects of two macrolides, namely azithromycin and erythromycin, at different doses on the extent and severity of ulcerative colitis caused by intracolonic administration of 3% acetic acid in rats. The lesions and the inflammatory response were assessed by histology and measurement of myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity, nitric oxide synthetase (NOS) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF{alpha}) in colonic tissues. Inflammation following acetic acid instillation was characterized by oedema, diffuse inflammatory cell infiltration and necrosis. Increase in MPO, NOS and TNF{alpha} was detected in the colonic tissues. Administration of either azithromycin or erythromycin at different dosage (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg orally, daily for 5 consecutive days) significantly (P < 0.05) reduced the colonic damage, MPO and NOS activities as well as TNF{alpha} level. This reduction was highly significant with azithromycin when given at a dose of 40 mg/kg. It is concluded that azithromycin and erythromycin may have a beneficial therapeutic role in ulcerative colitis.

  2. Experimental colonic carcinogenesis: changes in faecal bile acids after promotion of intestinal tumours by small bowel resection in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Savage, A P; Sian, M S; Matthews, J L; Bloom, S R; Cooke, T

    1988-01-01

    Small bowel resection promotes the development of colonic tumours in azoxymethane treated rats. As high faecal bile acid concentrations are associated with colonic cancer and may be altered by resection, we have studied changes in faecal bile acid concentrations during promotion of colonic carcinogenesis by increasing small bowel resection. Twenty rats in each group underwent either jejunal transection or 20%, 50%, or 80% proximal small bowel resection. Tumours were induced with azoxymethane 10 mg/kg by 12 weekly subcutaneous injections, and faecal bile acid concentrations were measured at six and 16 weeks. Colonic tumour number rose from 0.6 per rat in the transection group to 1.6 per rat in the 50% resection group (p less than 0.01) but were not significantly different to transection values at 0.8 per rat in the 80% resection group. Total daily faecal bile acid excretion and bile acid concentrations fell with increasing resection from 14.2 (1.6) mg/rat/day and 5.8 (0.7) mg/g dry faeces respectively in the transection group to 6.5 (0.5) mg/rat/day and 2.9 (0.2) mg/g respectively in the 80% resection group (p less than 0.001). The greatest reduction was seen in the concentration of deoxycholic acid which has been particularly associated with the aetiology of colonic cancer. The promotion of colonic tumours following small bowel resection in carcinogen treated rats is unlikely to be mediated by changes in faecal bile acid concentration or composition. PMID:3371718

  3. Soy isoflavones modulate azoxymethane-induced rat colon carcinogenesis exposed pre- and postnatally and inhibit growth of DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma cells by increasing the expression of estrogen receptor-beta.

    PubMed

    Raju, Jayadev; Bielecki, Agnieszka; Caldwell, Donald; Lok, Eric; Taylor, Marnie; Kapal, Kamla; Curran, Ivan; Cooke, Gerard M; Bird, Ranjana P; Mehta, Rekha

    2009-03-01

    We studied the effects of lifetime exposure to dietary soy isoflavones in an azoxymethane (AOM)-induced rat colon cancer model. Male pups born to Sprague-Dawley rats exposed (including during pregnancy and lactation) to soy isoflavones at either no (0 mg = control), low (40 mg), or high (1000 mg) doses/kg diet were weaned and continued receiving their respective parental diets until the end of the study. Weaned rats received 2 subcutaneous injections (15 mg/kg body weight) of AOM 1 wk apart. After 26 wk, rats were killed and the coordinates of colon aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and tumors were determined. Expression of estrogen receptor (ER)-beta was assessed in rat colon tumors and in DLD-1 human colon adenocarcinoma cells exposed to soy isoflavones. Compared with the control, soy isoflavones did not affect incidences or multiplicities of colon ACF or tumors. Low-dose soy isoflavones decreased tumor burden and size compared with the control (P < 0.05). Expression of ERbeta increased in colon tumors of soy isoflavone-treated groups compared with the control. Soy isoflavones dose-dependently arrested the growth of DLD-1 cells and at subcytotoxic levels increased the expression of ERbeta. Our results suggest that pre- and postnatal exposure to dietary soy isoflavones suppresses the growth of colon tumors in male rats. The overexpression of ERbeta in both rat colon tumors and DLD-1 cells caused by soy isoflavones suggests that ERbeta is a critical mediator in mitigating its cancer-preventive effects.

  4. The hypersensitivity to colonic distension of IBS patients can be transferred to rats through their fecal microbiota.

    PubMed

    Crouzet, L; Gaultier, E; Del'Homme, C; Cartier, C; Delmas, E; Dapoigny, M; Fioramonti, J; Bernalier-Donadille, A

    2013-04-01

    Alterations of intestinal microbiota and hypersensitivity to colonic distension are two features of the irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). However, the role of intestinal microbiota in visceral hypersensitivity of IBS patients is far to be established. The aim of our study was to determine whether the intestinal microbiota is involved in the visceral hypersensitivity in IBS. The painful response to colorectal distension and colonic mucosal parameters were assessed in gnotobiotic rats. Germfree (GF) rats were inoculated with the fecal microbiota from IBS patients characterized by hypersensitivity to colorectal distension (IBS HMA rats) or from non-hypersensitive healthy volunteers (Healthy HMA rats). Conventional rats were studied as normosensitivity control. Fecal microbial analyses were carried out in human and HMA rats fecal samples using cultural and molecular approaches. The microbial dysbiosis of the IBS gut microbiota (more sulfate-reducing bacteria and Enterobacteriaceae and less bifidobacteria) could be maintained in gnotobiotic rats. The number of abdominal contractions in response to colorectal distensions was significantly higher in IBS HMA rats than in healthy HMA rats. No difference was observed between healthy HMA and conventional rats. Colorectal compliance, epithelial paracellular permeability, and density of colonic mucosal mast cells were similar in the three groups of rats. We herein showed that sensitivity to colonic distension of IBS patients can be transferred to rats by the fecal microbiota. Mucosal alterations associated with microbiota transfer are not involved in this hypersensitivity. The altered IBS microbiota may have important role in the hypersensitivity characterizing IBS patients through specific bacterial metabolites. © 2013 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

  5. A mathematical model of rat proximal tubule and loop of Henle

    PubMed Central

    2015-01-01

    Proximal tubule and loop of Henle function are coupled, with proximal transport determining loop fluid composition, and loop transport modulating glomerular filtration via tubuloglomerular feedback (TGF). To examine this interaction, we begin with published models of the superficial rat proximal convoluted tubule (PCT; including flow-dependent transport in a compliant tubule), and the rat thick ascending Henle limb (AHL). Transport parameters for this PCT are scaled down to represent the proximal straight tubule (PST), which is connected to the thick AHL via a short descending limb. Transport parameters for superficial PCT and PST are scaled up for a juxtamedullary nephron, and connected to AHL via outer and inner medullary descending limbs, and inner medullary thin AHL. Medullary interstitial solute concentrations are specified. End-AHL hydrostatic pressure is determined by distal nephron flow resistance, and the TGF signal is represented as a linear function of end-AHL cytosolic Cl concentration. These two distal conditions required iterative solution of the model. Model calculations capture inner medullary countercurrent flux of urea, and also suggest the presence of an outer medullary countercurrent flux of ammonia, with reabsorption in AHL and secretion in PST. For a realistically strong TGF signal, there is the expected homeostatic impact on distal flows, and in addition, a homeostatic effect on proximal tubule pressure. The model glycosuria threshold is compatible with rat data, and predicted glucose excretion with selective 1Na+:1glucose cotransporter (SGLT2) inhibition comports with observations in the mouse. Model calculations suggest that enhanced proximal tubule Na+ reabsorption during hyperglycemia is sufficient to activate TGF and contribute to diabetic hyperfiltration. PMID:25694479

  6. Advantages of the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system for the rat colon rupture pressure test.

    PubMed

    Ji, Chengdong; Guo, Xuan; Li, Zhen; Qian, Shuwen; Zheng, Feng; Qin, Haiqing

    2013-01-01

    Many studies have been conducted on colorectal anastomotic leakage to reduce the incidence of anastomotic leakage. However, how to precisely determine if the bowel can withstand the pressure of a colorectal anastomosis experiment, which is called anastomotic bursting pressure, has not been determined. A task force developed the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system to provide precise measurement of the maximum pressure that an anastomotic colon can withstand, and to compare it with the commonly used method such as the mercury and air bag pressure manometer in a rat colon rupture pressure test. Forty-five male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the manual ball manometry (H) group, the tracing machine manometry pressure gauge head (MP) group, and the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system (ME) group. The rats in each group were subjected to a cut colon rupture pressure test after injecting anesthesia in the tail vein. Colonic end-to-end anastomosis was performed, and the rats were rested for 1 week before anastomotic bursting pressure was determined by one of the three methods. No differences were observed between the normal colon rupture pressure and colonic anastomotic bursting pressure, which were determined using the three manometry methods. However, several advantages, such as reduction in errors, were identified in the ME group. Different types of manometry methods can be applied to the normal rat colon, but the colonic anastomotic bursting pressure test using the experimental animal hollow organ mechanical testing system is superior to traditional methods. Copyright © 2013 Surgical Associates Ltd. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Acute and chronic effects of rat colon after photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy: a comparative study

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sassy, T.; Breiter, N.; Sroka, Ronald; Ernst, Helmut

    1994-03-01

    After clinical photodynamic therapy (PDT) and radiotherapy (RT) of the colon carcinoma acute and late damages on adjacent normal tissue were seen. Therefore it was the aim of this experimental study to investigate these damages on normal colon tissue of rats after PDT in comparison with RT. Within the first hours after PDT the endoscopic examination showed a severe acute damage. The histopathological examination showed that the acute ulceration depends on the energy density applied within the first three days. This study indicates different progresses of acute effects after PDT and RT, respectively. Late damages were observed only by RT in contrast to PDT. Synthetic diet prevents acute damages after PDT. However, the synthetic diet after RT can prevent the late damage for the duration of the diet administration.

  8. Correlation of neomycin, faecal neutral and acid sterols with colon carcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Panda, S K; Chattoraj, S C; Broitman, S A

    1999-01-01

    High fat diets have been implicated in incidence of colon cancer both in epidemiological and animal studies. Present investigation deals with the incidence, location and numbers of large and small bowel tumours induced by 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin. Neomycin was used to modify the faecal sterol metabolism and the relationship of the high fat diet and faecal neutral and acid sterols to the large bowel tumorigenesis was evaluated. DMH administered rats were fed with (a) 20% safflower oil; (b) 20% safflower oil and neomycin; (c) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol and cholic acid; and (d) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol, cholic acid and neomycin. Neomycin was found to be associated with both increase and decrease of tumour numbers. The faecal sterols lithocholic and deoxycholic acids were found to have no participation, while cholesterol and cholic acid were found to decrease with increase in tumour numbers. However, faecal coprostanol has been found to have a significant positive correlation with tumorigenesis in all dietary groups. Therefore coprostanol might possibly be associated with colon carcinogenesis in DMH-fed rats and cholesterol metabolism in gut appears to be related to the development of tumours. © 1999 Cancer Research Campaign PMID:10376962

  9. Correlation of neomycin, faecal neutral and acid sterols with colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Panda, S K; Chattoraj, S C; Broitman, S A

    1999-06-01

    High fat diets have been implicated in incidence of colon cancer both in epidemiological and animal studies. Present investigation deals with the incidence, location and numbers of large and small bowel tumours induced by 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) in rats fed high fat diets and neomycin. Neomycin was used to modify the faecal sterol metabolism and the relationship of the high fat diet and faecal neutral and acid sterols to the large bowel tumorigenesis was evaluated. DMH administered rats were fed with (a) 20% safflower oil; (b) 20% safflower oil and neomycin; (c) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol and cholic acid; and (d) 20% safflower oil, cholesterol, cholic acid and neomycin. Neomycin was found to be associated with both increase and decrease of tumour numbers. The faecal sterols lithocholic and deoxycholic acids were found to have no participation, while cholesterol and cholic acid were found to decrease with increase in tumour numbers. However, faecal coprostanol has been found to have a significant positive correlation with tumorigenesis in all dietary groups. Therefore coprostanol might possibly be associated with colon carcinogenesis in DMH-fed rats and cholesterol metabolism in gut appears to be related to the development of tumours.

  10. Vanillin differentially affects azoxymethane-injected rat colon carcinogenesis and gene expression.

    PubMed

    Ho, Ket Li; Chong, Pei Pei; Yazan, Latifah Saiful; Ismail, Maznah

    2012-12-01

    Vanillin is the substance responsible for the flavor and smell of vanilla, a widely used flavoring agent. Previous studies reported that vanillin is a good antimutagen and anticarcinogen. However, there are also some contradicting findings showing that vanillin was a comutagen and cocarcinogen. This study investigated whether vanillin is an anticarcinogen or a cocarcinogen in rats induced with azoxymethane (AOM). Rats induced with AOM will develop aberrant crypt foci (ACF). AOM-challenged rats were treated with vanillin orally and intraperitoneally at low and high concentrations and ACF density, multiplicity, and distribution were observed. The gene expression of 14 colorectal cancer-related genes was also studied. Results showed that vanillin consumed orally had no effect on ACF. However, high concentrations (300 mg/kg body weight) of vanillin administered through intraperitoneal injection could increase ACF density and ACF multiplicity. ACF were mainly found in the distal colon rather than in the mid-section and proximal colon. The expression of colorectal cancer biomarkers, protooncogenes, recombinational repair, mismatch repair, and cell cycle arrest, and tumor suppressor gene expression were also affected by vanillin. Vanillin was not cocarcinogenic when consumed orally. However, it was cocarcinogenic when being administered intraperitoneally at high concentration. Hence, the use of vanillin in food should be safe but might have cocarcinogenic potential when it is used in high concentration for therapeutic purposes.

  11. The effects of iloprost on colonic anastomotic healing in rats under obstructive ileus conditions.

    PubMed

    Galanopoulos, Georgios; Raptis, Dimitrios; Pramateftakis, Manousos-Georgios; Mantzoros, Ioannis; Kanellos, Ioannis; Lazarides, Charalambos

    2014-06-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of iloprost, on colonic anastomotic healing in rats, under obstructive ileus conditions. Eighty male Albino rats were randomized into four groups of 20 animals each. They underwent colonic resection followed by an inverted anastomosis. The rats of group 1 (control) and group 2 (ileus) received 3 mL of saline 0.9% intraperitoneally and those of group 3 (iloprost), and group 4 (ileus + iloprost) iloprost (2 μg/kg of body weight), immediately postoperatively and daily until the day of sacrifice. Each group was further divided into two equal subgroups, depending on the day of sacrifice. The animals of subgroup "a" were sacrificed on the fourth postoperative day, whereas those of "b" on the eighth day. Macroscopic and histologic assessment was performed, whereas anastomotic bursting pressures and the tissue concentrations in hydroxyproline and collagenase I were evaluated. Means of bursting pressure, neoangiogenesis, fibroblast activity, and hydroxyproline concentration were significantly increased in group 4 compared with group 2. In addition, on the fourth postoperative day, the inflammatory cell infiltration and the collagenase I concentration were significantly decreased in group 4 compared with group 2. Moreover, on the eighth postoperative day, collagen deposition was significantly increased in group 4 compared with group 2. Iloprost after intraperitoneal administration reverses the negative effect of obstructive ileus. It promotes not only the angiogenic activity but also collagen formation, resulting in increased bursting pressures on the fourth and eighth postoperative days. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  12. Effects of metoclopramide on healing of colonic anastomoses in a rat model of abdominal sepsis.

    PubMed

    Marques e Silva, Silvana; Carneiro, Fabiana Pirani; Ferreira, Vânia Maria Moraes; Oliveira, Paulo Gonçalves de; Sousa, João Batista de

    2013-10-01

    Metoclopramide is often used in the treatment of postoperative nausea and vomiting, but a literature review failed to find reports on the influence of this drug on the healing of bowel anastomoses in the setting of abdominal sepsis. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effects of metoclopramide on the healing of left colonic anastomoses in rats with induced abdominal sepsis. Forty rats were divided into two groups of 20 animals each to receive either metoclopramide (experimental group: E) or saline (control group: C). Each group was further divided into subgroups of 10 animals each to be killed on the third (E3 and C3) or seventh postoperative day (E7 and C7). A segmental resection of the left colon was performed, followed by end-to-end anastomosis. Sepsis was induced by cecal ligation and puncture. On the day of reoperation, the total number of adhesions was assessed and the anastomosed bowel segment was removed for tensile strength testing, histopathological analysis, measurement of hydroxyproline levels, and histomorphometric evaluation of collagen. Intraoperative findings, number of intra-abdominal adhesions in the anastomosed area, and tensile strength before anastomosis rupture were similar among all subgroups at all assessments. On the third postoperative day, the anastomoses of animals treated with metoclopramide showed significantly lower hydroxyproline levels (p = 0.01) when compared with controls. Collagen content was similar among all subgroups. Metoclopramide does not have deleterious effects on the healing of bowel anastomoses in rats subjected to experimental abdominal sepsis.

  13. Opioid receptors and associated regulator of G protein signaling are involved in the cathartic colon of rats.

    PubMed

    Wu, Jinsong; Liu, Baohua; Tong, Weidong; Zhang, Anping; Li, Fan; Lin, Jing; Wang, L I

    2015-04-01

    A cathartic colon is characteristic of slow transit constipation (STC), which can result following the long-term use of irritant laxatives. In the present study, the involvement of three opioid receptor subtypes (μ, MOR; δ, DOR; and κ, KOR), regulator of G protein signaling 4 (RGS-4) and β-arrestin-2 were investigated in the cathartic colon of rats. A rat model of a cathartic colon was established by feeding the animals with phenolphthalein, while normal rats were used as a control. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the opioid receptors, RGS-4 and β-arrestin-2 were detected in the rat colon using semi-quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction and western blot analysis, respectively. The rat model of a cathartic colon was successfully established using the phenolphthalein stimulus, and was shown to result in shrunken myenteric neurons and loose muscle fibers in the intestinal wall. The mRNA and protein expression levels of the three opioid receptor subtypes, RGS-4 and β-arrestin-2 were significantly higher in the cathartic colon group when compared with the levels in the normal control group (all P<0.01). With regard to the protein expression levels, MOR protein increased 2.4 fold, DOR expression increased 1.5 fold, KOR levels increased 1.5 fold, RGS-4 protein increased 3.5 fold and β-arrestin-2 expression increased 2.0 fold. Therefore, the expression levels of opioid receptors were found to increase in the cathartic colons of the rats, indicating that opioid receptors and downstream RGS-4 and β-arrestin-2 signaling may play an important role in the pathogenesis of STC.

  14. Postnatal development of myenteric neurochemical phenotype and impact on neuromuscular transmission in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    de Vries, P; Soret, R; Suply, E; Heloury, Y; Neunlist, M

    2010-08-01

    Profound changes in intestinal motility occur during the postnatal period, but the involvement of the enteric nervous system (ENS), a key regulator of gastrointestinal (GI) motility, in these modifications remains largely unknown. We therefore investigated the postnatal development of the ENS phenotype and determined its functional repercussion on the neuromuscular transmission in the rat colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were euthanized at postnatal day (P) 1, P3, P5, P7, P14, P21, and P36. Whole mounts of colonic myenteric plexus were stained with antibodies against choline acetyltransferase (ChAT), neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS), and HuC/D. Colonic contractile response induced by electrical field stimulation (EFS) was investigated in organ chambers in absence or presence of N-nitro-l-arginine methyl ester (l-NAME) and/or atropine. In vivo motility was assessed by measurement of the colonic bead latency time. Randomly occurring ex vivo contractions appeared starting at P5. Starting at P14, rhythmic phasic contractions occurred whose frequency and amplitude increased over time. In vivo, bead latency was significantly reduced between P14 and P21. Ex vivo, EFS-induced contractile responses increased significantly over time and were significantly reduced by atropine starting at P14 but were sensitive to l-NAME only after P21. The proportion of ChAT-immunoreactive (IR) neurons increased time dependently starting at P14. The proportion of nNOS-IR neurons increased as early as P5 compared with P1 but did not change afterward. Our data support a key role for cholinergic myenteric pathways in the development of postnatal motility and further identify them as putative therapeutic target for the treatment of GI motility disorders in the newborn.

  15. Repeated otilonium bromide administration prevents neurotransmitter changes in colon of rats underwent to wrap restraint stress.

    PubMed

    Traini, Chiara; Evangelista, Stefano; Girod, Vincent; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana

    2017-04-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is a spasmolytic drug successfully used for the treatment of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). Its efficacy has been attributed to the block of L- and T-type Ca(2+) channels and muscarinic and tachykinin receptors in the smooth muscle. Furthermore, in healthy rats, repeated OB administration modified neurotransmitter expression and function suggesting other mechanisms of action. On this basis, we investigated whether repeated OB treatment prevented the functional and neurochemical changes observed in the colon of rats underwent to wrap restrain stress (WRS) a psychosocial stressor considered suitable to reproduce the main IBS signs and symptoms. In control, WRS and OB/WRS rats functional parameters were measured in vivo and morphological investigations were done ex vivo in the colon. The results showed that OB counteracts most of the neurotransmitters changes caused by WRS. In particular, the drug prevents the decrease in SP-, NK1r-, nNOS-, VIP-, and S100β-immunoreactivity (IR) and the increase in CGRP-, and CRF1r-IR. On the contrary, OB does not affect the increase in CRF2r-IR neurons observed in WRS rats and does not interfere with the mild mucosal inflammation due to WRS. Finally, OB per se increases the Mr2 expression in the muscle wall and decreases the number of the myenteric ChAT-IR neurons. Functional findings show a significantly reduction in the number of spontaneous abdominal contraction in OB treated rats. The ability of OB to block L-type Ca(2+) channels, also expressed by enteric neurons, might represent a possible mechanism through which OB exerts its actions. © 2016 The Authors. Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd and Foundation for Cellular and Molecular Medicine.

  16. Oxidation of hydrogen sulfide and methanethiol to thiosulfate by rat tissues: a specialized function of the colonic mucosa.

    PubMed

    Furne, J; Springfield, J; Koenig, T; DeMaster, E; Levitt, M D

    2001-07-15

    Colonic bacteria release large quantities of the highly toxic thiols hydrogen sulfide (H(2)S) and methanethiol (CH(3)SH). These gases rapidly permeate the colonic mucosa, and tissue damage would be expected if the mucosa could not detoxify these compounds rapidly. We previously showed that rat cecal mucosa metabolizes these thiols via conversion to thiosulfate. The purpose of the present study in rats was to determine if this conversion of thiols to thiosulfate is (a) a generalized function of many tissues, or (b) a specialized function of the colonic mucosa. The tissues studied were mucosa from the cecum, right colon, mid-colon, ileum, and stomach; liver; muscle; erythrocytes; and plasma. The metabolic rate was determined by incubating homogenates of the various tissues with H(2)(35)S and CH(3)(35)SH and measuring the rate of incorporation of (35)S into thiosulfate and sulfate. The detoxification activity of H(2)S (expressed as nmol/mg per min) that resulted in thiosulfate production was at least eight times greater for cecal and right colonic mucosa than for the non-colonic tissues. Thiosulfate production from CH(3)SH was at least five times more rapid for cecal and right colonic mucosa than for the non-colonic tissues. We conclude that colonic mucosa possesses a specialized detoxification system that allows this tissue to rapidly metabolize H(2)S and CH(3)SH to thiosulfate. Presumably, this highly developed system protects the colon from what otherwise might be injurious concentrations of H(2)S and CH(3)SH. Defects in this detoxification pathway possibly could play a role in the pathogenesis of various forms of colitis.

  17. The effects of Pycnogenol(®) on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    PubMed

    Değer, K Cumhur; Şeker, Ahmet; Özer, Ilter; Bostancı, E Birol; Dalgıç, Tahsin; Akmansu, Müge; Ekinci, Özgür; Erçin, Uğur; Bilgihan, Ayşe; Akoğlu, Musa

    2013-01-01

    Pycnogenol(®) has excellent radical scavenging properties and enhances the production of antioxidative enzymes which contributes to the anti-inflammatory effect of the extract. Irradiation delivered to the abdominal region, typically results in severe damage to the intestinal mucosa. The effects of ionizing radiation are mediated by the formation of free radicals through radiolysis. Irradiation has local effects on tissues. These local effects of irradiation on the bowel are believed to involve a two-stage process which includes both short and long term components. In our study we aimed to investigate the short term effects of Pycnogenol(®) on the healing of colon anastomoses in irradiated bowel. Sixty male Wistar-Albino rats were used in this study. There were three groups: Group I, control group (n = 20); group II which received preoperative irradiation (n = 20); group III which received per oral Pycnogenol(®) before irradiation (n = 20). Only segmeter colonic resection and anastomosis was performed to the control group (Group I). The other groups (Group II, III) underwent surgery on the 5th day after pelvic irradiation. On postoperative days 3 and 7, half of the rats in each group were sacrificed and then relaparotomy was performed. There was no statistical difference between groups with respect to biochemical parameters. Bursting pressure was significantly higher in the Control and Group III compared with the Group II. In conclusion, the present study showed that preoperative irradiation effect negatively on colonic anastomoses in rats by means of mechanical parameters and administration of Pycnogenol(®) preoperatively ameliorates this unfavorable effect.

  18. Endoluminal ultrasound biomicroscopy as a reliable tool for in vivo assessment of colonic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    de Britto, Marcelo Alexandre Pinto; Soletti, Rossana Colla; Schanaider, Alberto; Madi, Kalil; de Souza, Heitor Siffert Pereira; Machado, João Carlos

    2013-12-01

    Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS) imaging of the colon is an important diagnostic tool for early neoplasia, although usually restricted to the rectum in inflammatory bowel disease (IBD). This study aimed to evaluate the ability of an endoluminal ultrasound biomicroscopic (eUBM) system to detect and characterize lesions simulating Crohn's disease in the colon of rats in vivo. Colitis was induced with trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid instillated in the distal colon. Eighteen Wistar rats were submitted to eUBM in three time points: week 1 group (18 animals examined on day 3 after colitis induction), week 2 group (12 animals on days 3 and 10), and week 3 group (7 animals on days 3, 10, and 17). This design yielded distinct inflammation intensities. Three untreated rats were used for acquisition of control images. Scores were used for comparison with histology. Scores for eUBM and histology in the different moments of examination achieved a Spearman's rank correlation coefficient of 0.87 (p < 0.001). Findings of wall thickening presented positive predictive value (PPV) and sensitivity of 94 and of 100 %, respectively. Superficial and deep ulcers presented a PPV of 89 and 80 %, respectively, and negative predictive values of 100 and 85 %, respectively. Accurate detection and analysis of the lesions was achieved. The model is essential for the clinical development of the technique and a reproducible method for the evaluation of experimental colitis. eUBM might be applicable in different segments of the gut, developing into a novel adjunct method for IBD evaluation.

  19. Successful radioimmunotherapy of established syngeneic rat colon carcinoma with 211At-mAb

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Background Most carcinomas are prone to metastasize despite successful treatment of the primary tumor. One way to address this clinical challenge may be targeted therapy with α-emitting radionuclides such as astatine-211 (211At). Radioimmunotherapy utilizing α-particle emitting radionuclides is considered especially suitable for the treatment of small cell clusters and single cells, although lesions of different sizes may also be present in the patient. The aim of this study was primarily to evaluate the toxicity and secondarily in vivo efficacy of a 211At-labeled monoclonal antibody (mAb) directed against colon carcinoma with tumor diameters of approximately 10 mm. Methods Eighteen rats with subperitoneal syngeneic colon carcinoma were allocated to three groups of six animals together with three healthy rats in each group. The groups were injected intravenously with either 150 μg of unlabeled mAbs (controls) or 2.5 or 5 MBq 211At-mAbs directed towards the Lewis Y antigen expressed on the cell membrane of several carcinomas. Tumor volume, body weight, and blood cell counts were monitored for 100 days after treatment. Results Local tumors were non-palpable in five out of six rats after treatment with both activities of 211At-mAbs, compared to one out of six in the control group. At the study end, half of the animals in each group given 211At-BR96 and one animal in the control group were free from disease. Radioimmunotherapy resulted in dose-dependent, transient weight loss and myelotoxicity. Survival was significantly better in the groups receiving targeted alpha therapy than in those receiving unlabeled mAbs. Conclusions This study demonstrates the possibility of treating small, solid colon carcinoma tumors with α-emitting radionuclides such as 211At bound to mAbs, with tolerable toxicity. PMID:23557183

  20. Wheat germ extract inhibits experimental colon carcinogenesis in F-344 rats.

    PubMed

    Zalatnai, A; Lapis, K; Szende, B; Rásó, E; Telekes, A; Resetár A; Hidvégi, M

    2001-10-01

    It has been demonstrated for the first time that a wheat germ extract prevents colonic cancer in laboratory animals. Four-week-old inbred male F-344 rats were used in the study. Colon carcinogenesis has been induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Ten rats served as untreated controls (group 1). For the treatment of the animals in group 2, AOM was dissolved in physiologic saline and the animals were given three subcutaneous injections 1 week apart, 15 mg/kg body weight (b/w) each. In two additional groups Avemar (MSC), a fermented wheat germ extract standardized to 2,6-dimethoxy-p-benzoquinone was administered as a tentative chemo-preventive agent. MSC was dissolved in water and was given by gavage at a dose of 3 g/kg b/w once a day. In group 3, animals started to receive MSC 2 weeks prior to the first injection of AOM daily and continuously thereafter until they were killed 32 weeks later. In group 4 the basal diet and MSC were administered only. At the end of the experiment all the rats were killed by exsanguination, the abdominal large vessels were cut under a light ether anesthesia and a complete autopsy was performed. Percentage of animals developing colon tumors and number of tumors per animals: group 1 - 0 and 0; group 2- 83.0 and 2.3; group 3 - 44.8 (P < 0.001) and 1.3 (P < 0.004), group 4 - 0 and 0. All the tumors were of neoplastic nature also histologically. The numbers of the aberrant crypt foci (ACF) per area (cm(2)) in group 2 were 4.85 while in group 3 the ACF numbers were 2.03 only (P < 0.0001).

  1. Postoperative peridural analgesia increases the strength of colonic contractions without impairing anastomotic healing in rats.

    PubMed

    Jansen, Marc; Lynen Jansen, Petra; Junge, Karsten; Anurov, Michael; Titkova, Svetlana; Ottinger, Alexander; Schumpelick, Volker

    2003-01-01

    Peridural analgesia (PDA) is a common treatment in postoperative management after abdominal surgery to shorten postoperative ileus and to permit early postoperative nutrition. There are conflicting opinions on the effect of early peristalsis on healing of colonic anastomoses. A short segment of the distal colon was resected in 32 Wistar rats. Two strain gauge transducers were placed on the serosa proximal to the anastomosis to measure the strength and periodicity of bowel contractions. A peridural catheter was placed between lumbar vertebra 7 and the sacral crest. The animals received 4, 16, 20, and 24 h after operation an injection of either 0.03 ml ropivacaine 0.75%/kg body weight or the same amount of sodium chloride (controls). After 3 and 10 days the colonic anastomoses were resected to measure the bursting pressure. The anastomoses were prepared for histopathological examination and determination of relative collagen content. Postoperative PDA led to an increasing amplitude of phasic and tonic contractions while the frequency of contractions was not significantly affected. None of the groups presented with any anastomotic complications. The bursting pressure after 3 and 10 days was similar in the two groups. The relative amount of collagen I in the anastomotic area was significantly higher after treatment with peridural ropivacaine. Postoperative PDA with ropivacaine increases the strength of colonic contractions. The increase in phasic contractions suggests a better propulsive bowel function. The significantly higher amount of collagen I in the anastomosis of animals in the PDA group supports the idea that healing of colonic anastomoses is improved rather than diminished by PDA.

  2. Antibiotic suppression of intestinal microbiota reduces heme-induced lipoperoxidation associated with colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Martin, O C B; Lin, C; Naud, N; Tache, S; Raymond-Letron, I; Corpet, D E; Pierre, F H

    2015-01-01

    Epidemiological studies show that heme iron from red meat is associated with increased colorectal cancer risk. In carcinogen-induced-rats, a heme iron-rich diet increases the number of precancerous lesions and raises associated fecal biomarkers. Heme-induced lipoperoxidation measured by fecal thiobarbituric acid reagents (TBARs) could explain the promotion of colon carcinogenesis by heme. Using a factorial design we studied if microbiota could be involved in heme-induced carcinogenesis, by modulating peroxidation. Rats treated or not with an antibiotic cocktail were given a control or a hemoglobin-diet. Fecal bacteria were counted on agar and TBARs concentration assayed in fecal water. The suppression of microbiota by antibiotics was associated with a reduction of crypt height and proliferation and with a cecum enlargement, which are characteristics of germ-free rats. Rats given hemoglobin diets had increased fecal TBARs, which were suppressed by the antibiotic treatment. A duplicate experiment in rats given dietary hemin yielded similar results. These data show that the intestinal microbiota is involved in enhancement of lipoperoxidation by heme iron. We thus suggest that microbiota could play a role in the heme-induced promotion of colorectal carcinogenesis.

  3. Acute effect of substance P in immunologic vasculitis in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Murthy, S N; DePace, D M; Shah, R S; Podell, R

    1991-01-01

    Substance P has been implicated as a neuronal mediator of inflammation in various inflammatory conditions. However, the exact role played by substance P in inflammatory bowel diseases or in experimental colonic vasculitis has not been clearly understood. In this study, we examined the effect of close superior mesenteric artery injection of substance P under prevailing inflammatory conditions induced by intravenous human albumin antialbumin immune complex followed by intracolonic perfusion of 2.5% formaldehyde in rats or intracolonic perfusion of 5% alcohol alone. The immune complex- and formaldehyde-treated rats showed severe microvascular changes such as microvascular plugging by red blood cells, endothelial breakage and extravasation of plasma proteins and red blood cells. The bolus injection of 10(-8) M substance P reduced extravasation of Evans blue dye by 50% and the tissue wet to dry ratio by 20% in immune complex- and formaldehyde-perfused rats. Myeloperoxidase activity was not changed. Substance P also significantly inhibited (44%) the extravasation in alcohol-perfused rats. Pretreatment of immune complex- and formaldehyde-treated rats with substance P antagonist reversed the effect of substance P. These findings suggest that the most immediate effect of substance P may be vasodilation and clearing of vascular plugs induced by immune complex and formaldehyde. This effect of substance P differs from its chronic effect, which causes vasodilation and extravasation.

  4. Acyl-homoserine lactones suppresses IEC-6 cell proliferation and increase permeability of isolated rat colon.

    PubMed

    Joe, Ga-Hyun; Andoh, Midori; Nomura, Mikako; Iwaya, Hitoshi; Lee, Jae-Sung; Shimizu, Hidehisa; Tsuji, Youhei; Maseda, Hideaki; Miyazaki, Hitoshi; Hara, Hiroshi; Ishizuka, Satoshi

    2014-01-01

    We investigated to determine whether a variety of acyl-homoserine lactones (AHLs) influences epithelial cell proliferation and mucosal permeability. 3-Oxo-C12-homoserine lactone (HSL) and 3-oxo-C14-HSL significantly suppressed IEC-6 cell proliferation. A significant increase in mucosal permeability was observed in isolated rat colon tissue exposed to C12-HSL, 3-oxo-C12-HSL, and 3-oxo-C14-HSL. These data indicate that AHLs suppress epithelial proliferation and disrupt barrier function in intestinal mucosa.

  5. A study on the effect of aqueous extract of Lobelia chinensis on colon precancerous lesions in rats.

    PubMed

    Han, Shao-Rong; Lv, Xiao-Yan; Wang, Yan-Ming; Gong, Hai; Zhang, Cong; Tong, An-Na; Yan, Ning

    2013-01-01

    This paper studies the effects of Lobelia chinensis on colon precancerous lesions and on colonic epithelial proliferation and apoptosis in DMH-induced rats. After two weeks of feeding, 50 Wistar rats were randomly divided into five groups, namely the normal group, model group, Lobelia chinensis low-dose group, medium-dose group and high-dose group. Lobelia chinensis was made into ACF model, and administered to experimental groups for 10 consecutive weeks. Control group was given equivalent amount of normal saline. After feeding for 10 weeks, the rats in each group were sacrificed and the changes in colonic ACF number of rats in experimental groups were observed, and the inhibition rates were calculated. The results showed that among the rats fed for 24 h and 48 h, the number of apoptotic cells in colonic crypts of rats in DMH group did not differ significantly from the control group, while the difference was obvious between the control group and Lobelia chinensis treatment groups. The medium and high doses, that is, 0.45 g/kg and 1.35 g/kg can significantly inhibit ACF formation (P<0.01). The inhibition rates of low, medium and high doses were 8.12%, 59.42% and 65.44%, respectively.

  6. Relationship between host age and susceptibility to oral colonization by Actinomyces viscosus in Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Brecher, S M; van Houte, J

    1979-12-01

    The colonization of Actinomyces viscosus strain Ny-1R on the molar teeth of conventional and ex-germfree rats of various ages fed either a high-sucrose diet, a high-glucose diet, or laboratory chow was studied. Conventional rats directly after weaning and up to 30 days of age are less susceptible to experimental infection by strain Ny-1R than are older rats regardless of the test diet. The relationship between host age and susceptibility to infection is also demonstrable in ex-germfree rats fed a high-sucose diet. Host factors responsible for the differences in susceptibility were investigated. The results from these studies do not implicate host antibodies, host indigenous flora, or host saliva. In other studies, it was demonstrated that within the mouths of rats, strain Ny-1R preferentially colonizes in the pits and fissures of the molar teeth rather than on the dorsum of the tongue or on the vestibular mucosa. In short-term experiments, it was found that strain Ny-1R attaches to the first molars of 40-day-old conventional rats to a greater extent than it attaches to the first molars of 20-day-old rats. The differences in attachment and subsequent colonization of strain Ny-1R in 20- and 40-day-old rats may be related to the varying amounts of the reduced enamel epithelium and connective tissue present in the fissures of the molar teeth.

  7. Purple rice extract supplemented diet reduces DMH- induced aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon by inhibition of bacterial β-glucuronidase.

    PubMed

    Summart, Ratasark; Chewonarin, Teera

    2014-01-01

    Purple rice has become a natural product of interest which is widely used for health promotion. This study investigated the preventive effect of purple rice extract (PRE) mixed diet on DMH initiation of colon carcinogenesis. Rats were fed with PRE mixed diet one week before injection of DMH (40 mg/kg of body weight once a week for 2 weeks). They were killed 12 hrs after a second DMH injection to measure the level of O6-methylguanine and xenobiotic metabolizing enzyme activities. In rats that received PRE, guanine methylation was reduced in the colonic mucosa, but not in the liver, whereas PRE did not affect xenobiotic conjugation, with reference to glutathione-S-transferase or UDP-glucuronyl transferase. After 5 weeks, rats that received PRE with DMH injection had fewer ACF in the colon than those treated with DMH alone. Interestingly, a PRE mixed diet inhibited the activity of bacterial β-glucuronidase in rat feces, a critical enzyme for free methylazoxymethanol (MAM) release in the rat colon. These results indicated that purple rice extract inhibited β-glucuronidase activity in the colonic lumen, causing a reduction of MAM-induced colonic mucosa DNA methylation, leaded to decelerated formation of aberrant crypt foci in the rat colon. The supplemented purple rice extract might thus prevent colon carcinogenesis by the alteration of the colonic environment, and thus could be further developed for neutraceutical products for colon cancer prevention.

  8. Only fibres promoting a stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem decrease the rate of aberrant crypt foci in rats

    PubMed Central

    Perrin, P; Pierre, F; Patry, Y; Champ, M; Berreur, M; Pradal, G; Bornet, F; Meflah, K; Menanteau, J

    2001-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Dietary fibres have been proposed as protective agents against colon cancer but results of both epidemiological and experimental studies are inconclusive.
AIMS—Hypothesising that protection against colon cancer may be restricted to butyrate producing fibres, we investigated the factors needed for long term stable butyrate production and its relation to susceptibility to colon cancer.
METHODS—A two part randomised blinded study in rats, mimicking a prospective study in humans, was performed using a low fibre control diet (CD) and three high fibre diets: starch free wheat bran (WB), type III resistant starch (RS), and short chain fructo-oligosaccharides (FOS). Using a randomised block design, 96 inbred rats were fed for two, 16, 30, or 44 days to determine the period of adaptation to the diets, fermentation profiles, and effects on the colon, including mucosal proliferation on day 44. Subsequently, 36 rats fed the same diets for 44 days were injected with azoxymethane and checked for aberrant crypt foci 30 days later.
RESULTS—After fermentation had stabilised (44 days), only RS and FOS produced large amounts of butyrate, with a trophic effect in the large intestine. No difference in mucosal proliferation between the diets was noted at this time. In the subsequent experiment one month later, fewer aberrant crypt foci were present in rats fed high butyrate producing diets (RS, p=0.022; FOS, p=0.043).
CONCLUSION—A stable butyrate producing colonic ecosystem related to selected fibres appears to be less conducive to colon carcinogenesis.


Keywords: fibre; fermentation; butyrate; colon carcinogenesis; aberrant crypt foci; rat PMID:11115823

  9. Rat colonic lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status: the effects of dietary luteolin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine challenge.

    PubMed

    Manju, Vaiyapuri; Balasubramaniyan, Vairappan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2005-01-01

    Colon cancer is the third most common cancer and second leading cause of cancer-related death in the United States. A number of recent articles demonstrate the importance of natural products as cancer chemopreventive agents. In this study, we evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of luteolin, a flavonoid, on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, which are used as biomarkers in DMH-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis. Rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of DMH at a dose of 20 mg/kg body weight for 15 weeks. Luteolin (0.2 mg/kg body weight/everyday p.o.) was given to the DMH-treated rats at the initiation and post-initiation stages of carcinogenesis. The animals were killed after 30 weeks. After a total experimental period of 32 weeks (including 2 weeks of acclimatization), tumor incidence was 100% in DMH-treated rats. In those DMH-treated rats that had received luteolin during the initiation or post-initiation stages of colon carcinogenesis, the incidence of cancer and the colon tumor size was significantly reduced as compared to that for DMH-treated rats not receiving luteolin. In the presence of DMH, relative to the results for the control rats, there were decreased levels of lipid peroxidation, as denoted by thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), conjugated dienes and lipid hydroperoxides, decreased activities of the enzymic antioxidants superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT), and elevated levels of glutathione and the glutathione-dependent enzymes reduced glutathione (GSH), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST) and glutathione reductase (GR), and of the non-enzymic antioxidants vitamin C and vitamin E. Our study shows that intragastric administration of luteolin inhibits colon carcinogenesis, not only by modulating lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status, but also by preventing DMH-induced histopathological changes. Our results thus indicate that luteolin could act as a potent

  10. Estrogens regulate the expression of NHERF1 in normal colon during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Cuello-Carrión, F Darío; Troncoso, Mariana; Guiñazu, Elina; Valdez, Susana R; Fanelli, Mariel A; Ciocca, Daniel R; Kreimann, Erica L

    2010-12-01

    In breast cancer cell lines, the Na(+)/H(+) exchanger regulator factor 1 (NHERF1) gene is regulated at the transcriptional level by estrogens, the protein expression levels correlate with the presence of estrogen receptors and the effect is blocked by anti-estrogens. However, there is limited information regarding the regulation of NHERF1 by estrogens in normal colon tissue. The NHERF1 protein has an important role in the maintenance of the intestine ultrastructure. NHERF1-deficient mice showed defects in the intestinal microvilli as well as molecular alterations in brush border membrane proteins. Here, we have studied the expression of NHERF1 in normal rat colon and uterus during the reproductive cycle of Wistar rats. We found that NHERF1 expression in rat colon during the estral cycle is modified by estrogen levels: higher expression of NHERF1 was observed during the proestrous and estrous stages and lower expression in diestrous 1 when estrogen levels decreased. In uterus, NHERF1 was expressed in the apical region of the luminal epithelium and glands in all stages of the estral cycle, and in both colon and uterus, the expression was independent of the proliferation status. Our results show that NHERF1 expression is regulated by estrogens in colon during the rat estral cycle.

  11. Chemopreventive potential of diallylsulfide, lycopene and theaflavin during chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rat colon through modulation of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase pathways.

    PubMed

    Sengupta, Archana; Ghosh, Samit; Das, Rajat Kumar; Bhattacharjee, Shamee; Bhattacharya, Sudin

    2006-08-01

    Chemoprevention of colorectal cancer has become essential in the modern industrialized world as cancer of the large bowel has become one of the major causes of cancer mortality, second only to lung cancer. Colon cancer integrates lifestyle factors and multistep genetic alterations, and without preventive intervention, a substantial part of the population is likely to develop colorectal cancer at some point during their lives. Diet and nutrition clearly play a role in the etiology of colon cancer. Inhibitory activity of aqueous suspensions of garlic, tomato and black tea was tested on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley rats during earlier studies. In the present study, the protective activity of diallylsulfide and lycopene and theaflavin, important antioxidative ingredients of garlic, tomato and black tea, respectively, was assessed during colon carcinogenesis. The effect was observed on aberrant crypt foci, the preneoplastic lesion. As inhibition of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase activities is correlated with the prevention of colon cancer, the study continues with the determination of the change in the expression of these proteins. Following treatment, significant reduction in the incidences of aberrant crypt foci (by 43.65% in diallylsulfide, 57.39% in lycopene and 66.08% in theaflavin group) was observed, which was in accordance with the reduced expression of cyclooxygenase-2 and inducible nitric oxide synthase. The effect of the intact source was found to be more pronounced than their components used separately.

  12. Preoperative intraluminal application of capsaicin increases postoperative gastric and colonic motility in rats.

    PubMed

    Zittel, T T; Meile, T; Huge, A; Kreis, M E; Becker, H D; Jehle, E C

    2001-01-01

    In a model to investigate postoperative gastrointestinal motility with strain gauge transducers in awake rats, we tested the effects of intraluminal capsaicin infusion into the cecum 2 days or 14 days prior to abdominal surgery. Acute infusion of capsaicin into the cecum for 30 minutes increased the gastric, small intestinal, and colonic motility index by up to 115%, 34%, and 59%, respectively, compared to vehicle infusion. Intraluminal capsaicin infusion 2 days prior to abdominal surgery significantly increased the intraoperative gastric and colonic motility index by 166% and 100%, respectively, compared to vehicle, but had no effect on small intestinal motility. The postoperative decrease in gastric or colonic motility was completely prevented by capsaicin pretreatment, representing a 73% and a 72% increase in the motility index during the first postoperative hour and a 40% and a 29% increase in the motility index during the second postoperative hour compared to vehicle, whereas the postoperative decrease in small intestinal motility was not altered by capsaicin pretreatment. In contrast, intraluminal capsaicin infusion 14 days prior to abdominal surgery had no effect on postoperative inhibition of gastrointestinal motility. Our results suggest that capsaicin-sensitive visceral afferent C-fibers, presumably of the submucosa, play an important role in mediating postoperative ileus. Intraluminal capsaicin does probably ablate these nerve fibers temporarily, with no systemic side effects observed with the use of the tail flick test as a measure of skin nociception.

  13. Determination of rheogenic ion transport in rat proximal colon in vivo.

    PubMed

    Haag, K; Lübcke, R; Knauf, H; Berger, E; Gerok, W

    1985-01-01

    A direct clamping technique is demonstrated, which allows monitoring of rapid changes of the short-circuit current (Isc) and the specific transepithelial resistance (Rm) as well as measurement of ion fluxes under short-circuit conditions in vivo. Due to the cylindrical symmetry of the colon the intraluminal electrode was devised as a centrally fixed silver rod, by which radial current injection was achieved. The geometrical arrangement of the electrodes guaranteed zero potential difference (PD) along the whole axis of the colon segment. The Isc was determined to 3.3 +/- 0.7 mueq h-1 cm-2 and Rm equal to 121 +/- 5 omega cm2. These data obtained by direct short-circuiting agree well with our earlier Rm and Isc data based on cable analysis, where the Isc was calculated from the open-circuit PD and Rm. This is considered as evidence for the reliability of the two independent in vivo techniques. Their validity was confirmed by the expected effects of drugs acting on rheogenic ion transport. Both the indirect (via Rm) as well as the direct Isc determination may be used alternatively as required; one may serve to match the other. For larger tubular structures like the rat colon the direct clamping should be preferred as the standard procedure for the Isc determination in vivo.

  14. Fetal programming of colon cancer in adult rats: correlations with altered neonatal trajectory, circulating IGF-I and IGFPBs, and testosterone

    USDA-ARS?s Scientific Manuscript database

    Lifelong consumption of soy protein isolate (SPI) reduces the incidence of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon tumors in adult male Sprague-Dawley rats. We determined if a maternal SPI diet during pregnancy could protect against colon cancer in progeny. Four groups of male rats were used: a lifetime ...

  15. IGF-1 Gene Expression in Rat Colonic Mucosa After Different Exercise Volumes

    PubMed Central

    Buehlmeyer, Katja; Doering, Frank; Daniel, Hannelore; Petridou, Anatoli; Mougios, Vassilis; Schulz, Thorsten; Michna, Horst

    2007-01-01

    The evidence is increasing for a close link between the insulin/insulin-like growth factor (IGF) system and colon cancer prevention by physical exercise. To reveal exercise-induced alterations in colon mucosa, gene expression of IGF-1 and related genes and serum IGF-1 were investigated. Twenty male Wistar rats performed a 12 week voluntary exercise program. Nine rats served as the control group. Gene expression of IGF-1, IGF-1 receptor (IGF-1R) and IGF-binding protein 3 (IGF-BP3) were quantified by real-time RT-PCR. Circulating IGF-1 was analyzed exercise volume-dependent. Based on 3 distinguished groups with low (L-EX, <2629 m·night-1), medium (M-EX, 3003-7458 m·night-1) and high exercise volume (H-EX, >8314 m·night-1), we observed lower serum IGF-1 levels (P < 0.05) in all exercise groups as compared to the control group and IGF-1 levels declined proportional to the increase in exercise volume. A significant (p < 0.05) positive correlation was found between IGF-1 concentration and body mass (r = 0.50) and a significant negative correlation exists between body mass and exercise volume (r = -0.50). Significant differences in colonic mRNA levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IGF-BP3 could not be observed. Based on our data we propose that the exercise as well as the body mass reduction leads to a decrease in circulating IGF-1 and this might represent a prime link to colon cancer prevention. Key pointsThere were significantly lower serum IGF-1 levels in all exercise groups as compared to the control group.GF-1 levels declined proportional to the increase in exercise volume.A significant positive correlation was found between IGF-1 concentration and body mass and a significant negative correlation was found between body mass and exercise volume.Significant differences in colonic mRNA levels of IGF-1, IGF-1R and IGF-BP3 could not be observed. PMID:24149475

  16. EFFECT OF OMEGA-3 FATTY ACID IN THE HEALING PROCESS OF COLONIC ANASTOMOSIS IN RATS

    PubMed Central

    de CASTILHO, Tiago Jacometo Coelho; CAMPOS, Antônio Carlos Ligocki; MELLO, Eneri Vieira de Souza Leite

    2015-01-01

    Background : The use of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids has been studied in the context of healing and tissue regeneration mainly due to its anti-inflammatory, immunoregulatory and antioncogenic properties. Previous studies have demonstrated beneficial effects with the use of enteral immunonutrition containing various farmaconutrients such as L-arginine, omega-3, trace elements, but the individual action of each component in the healing of colonic anastomosis remains unclear. Aim : To evaluate the influence of preoperative supplementation with omega-3 fatty acids on the healing of colonic anastomoses of well-nourished rats. Methods : Forty Wistar adult male rats, weighing 234.4±22.3 g were used. The animals were divided into two groups: the control group received for seven days olive oil rich in omega-9 oil through an orogastric tube, while the study group received isocaloric and isovolumetric omega-3 emulsion at a dose of 100 mg/kg/day, also for seven days. Both groups were submitted to two colotomies followed by anastomosis, in the right and left colon, respectively. Parameters evaluated included changes in body weight, anastomotic complications and mortality, as well as maximum tensile strength by using a tensiometer and collagen densitometry at the anastomotic site. Results : There were no differences in body weight or mortality and morbidity between groups. The value of the maximum tensile strength of the control group was 1.9±0.3 N and the study group 1.7±0.2, p=0.357. There was, however, a larger amount of type I collagen deposition in the study group (p=0.0126). The collagen maturation índex was 1.74±0.71 in the control group and 1.67±0.5 in the study group; p=0,719). Conclusions : Preoperative supplementation of omega-3 fatty acid in rats is associated with increased collagen deposition of type I fibers in colonic anastomoses on the 5th postoperative day. No differences were observed in the tensile strength or collagen maturation index. PMID

  17. Brewer's yeast and Saccharomyces boulardii both attenuate Clostridium difficile-induced colonic secretion in the rat.

    PubMed

    Izadnia, F; Wong, C T; Kocoshis, S A

    1998-09-01

    Saccharomyces boulardii (Sb), a nonpathogenic yeast, has been used to prevent recurrences of Clostridium difficile (C.diff) -associated diarrhea. A single report suggested that treatment with Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Sc), commonly called brewer's yeast (BY), facilitates treatment of persistent C.diff infection. We conducted this experiment to determine whether C.diff toxin A-induced colonic secretion in the rat is blunted by pretreatment with either Sb or BY. We employed closed cecal pouches in two groups of five adult male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with standard chow for five days prior to the experiment, another group whose water was supplemented with 20 x 10(9) colony-forming units (CFU) of Sb per day for five days, and another group whose water was supplemented with 20 x 10(9) CFU of Sc per day for five days. Cecal pouches were infused for 3 hr with one of the following: (1) normal saline alone for a control group, or (2) normal saline plus 5 microg of C.diff toxin A (for the other control group and for the two experimental groups). Water movement was measured by a nonabsorbable marker technique. Sodium movement and permeability to mannitol were also measured. Prior to the infusion, cecal contents were quantitatively cultured. In the three animals whose ceca were colonized with less than 10(6) CFU of either yeast per gram wet cecal content, toxin A-induced secretion could not be attenuated. In contrast, animals whose ceca were colonized with more than 10(6) CFU of either yeast per gram of wet cecal content showed significantly less secretion after toxin A application than those which were not fed yeast. S. cerevisiae reduced secretion by half (N = 5, P = 0.039 for water, 0.044 for sodium) and Sb by 75% (N = 4, P = 0.015 for water, 0.034 for sodium). Toxin-induced increases in permeability to [3H]mannitol from systemic circulation to cecum could not be blunted by either yeast. We conclude that rat ceca can be colonized by either organism and that both organisms

  18. Radiographic analysis of the effect of dietary fibers on rat colonic transit time

    SciTech Connect

    Lupton, J.R.; Meacher, M.M. )

    1988-11-01

    The effect of different fiber sources on colonic transit time was charted using serial radiographs. Sixty male Sprague-Dawley rats, 10 rats per group, were provided with either a fiber-free control diet or the control diet uniformly diluted to provide 8% dietary fiber from guar, pectin, cellulose, wheat bran, or oat bran. At surgery, radiopaque markers were inserted at defined distances in the mesentary closest to the large bowel. Three weeks postsurgery, the animals were intubated with 0.5 ml of a radiopaque marker, and radiographs were taken at 15-min intervals. Of the two poorly fermented fibers, cellulose was as slow as and wheat bran was faster than the fiber-free controls at five out of the six bowel segments measured. The fermentable fibers (pectin, guar, and oat bran) were fast through some bowel segments and slow through others. This study provides in vivo data on colonic transit time and shows that neither 24-h fecal weight nor total transit time is a good predictor of the rate of transit through particular gut segments.

  19. Wheat Type (Class) Influences Development and Regression of Colon Cancer Risk Markers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Islam, Ajmila; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2015-01-01

    We previously found red wheat more effective than white wheat in reducing colon cancer risk in rats when fed during initiation and postinitiation stages. Here we examine the effect of wheat on colon cancer risk in early and late postinitiation stages in carcinogen-treated rats. Four groups were fed a basal diet, 1 group a red wheat diet, and 1 group a white wheat diet. After 6 wk, 1 basal, the red and white groups were killed (early postinitiation stage). Of the remaining basal groups, 1 continued on the basal diet, 1 was switched to red and another to white wheat for 8 more wk (late postinitiation stage). Red and white wheat significantly reduced morphological [aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] and biochemical (β-catenin accumulated crypts) markers in both early and late postinitiation stages. Both wheat diets reduced dysplasia markers (sialomucin-expressing ACF and mucin depleted foci), compared to the basal diet, during the late postinitiation stage, but red wheat more so. Only red wheat significantly reduced the number of metallothionein-positive crypts, a stem cell mutation marker, in both stages. Overall, red wheat flour reduced risk markers more than white wheat flour, and this was more pronounced in the late post-initiation stage.

  20. Interaction of Lactobacillus fermentum BGHI14 with Rat Colonic Mucosa: Implications for Colitis Induction

    PubMed Central

    Lukic, Jovanka; Strahinic, Ivana; Milenkovic, Marina; Golic, Natasa; Kojic, Milan; Topisirovic, Ljubisa

    2013-01-01

    The present study was carried out to test the colonic mucosal response of rats to oral supplementation with Lactobacillus fermentum BGHI14 and to correlate the tissue reaction to trinitrobenzenesulfonate (TNBS)-induced colitis with mucosal barrier alterations caused by bacterial ingestion. An immune cell-mediated reaction of healthy colonic tissue was noticed after bacterial feeding. After prolonged bacterial treatment, the observed reaction had retreated to normality, but the mRNA levels of proinflammatory cytokines interleukin-1β (IL-1β) and tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α) remained elevated. These data point to the chronic low-grade inflammation that could be caused by long-term probiotic consumption. Although no detrimental effects of bacterial pretreatment were noticed in colitic rats, at least in the acute state of disease, the results obtained in our study point to the necessity of reassessment of existing data on the safety of probiotic preparations. Additionally, probiotic effects in experimental colitis models might depend on time coordination of disease induction with treatment duration. PMID:23851097

  1. Escherichia albertii, a novel human enteropathogen, colonizes rat enterocytes and translocates to extra-intestinal sites

    PubMed Central

    Yamamoto, Denise; Hernandes, Rodrigo T.; Liberatore, Ana Maria A.; Abe, Cecilia M.; de Souza, Rodrigo B.; Romão, Fabiano T.; Sperandio, Vanessa; Koh, Ivan H.

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death of children up to five years old in the developing countries. Among the etiological diarrheal agents are atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), one of the diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes that affects children and adults, even in developed countries. Currently, genotypic and biochemical approaches have helped to demonstrate that some strains classified as aEPEC are actually E. albertii, a recently recognized human enteropathogen. Studies on particular strains are necessary to explore their virulence potential in order to further understand the underlying mechanisms of E. albertii infections. Here we demonstrated for the first time that infection of fragments of rat intestinal mucosa is a useful tool to study the initial steps of E. albertii colonization. We also observed that an E. albertii strain can translocate from the intestinal lumen to Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and liver in a rat model. Based on our finding of bacterial translocation, we investigated how E. albertii might cross the intestinal epithelium by performing infections of M-like cells in vitro to identify the potential in vivo translocation route. Altogether, our approaches allowed us to draft a general E. albertii infection route from the colonization till the bacterial spreading in vivo. PMID:28178312

  2. Vitamin E (α-tocopherol) supplementation in diabetic rats: effects on the proximal colon

    PubMed Central

    2009-01-01

    Background Neuropathy is one of the complications caused by diabetes mellitus which is directly related to the gastrointestinal manifestations of the disease. Antioxidant substances, such as vitamin E, may play an important role in the reduction of the neurological damage caused by diabetes mellitus. The aim of the present study was to determine whether vitamin E (α-tocopherol) at different concentrations induces any effects on the morphology of the intestinal wall and intrinsic innervation in the proximal colon of diabetic rats. Methods Thirty rats (90-day-old) were assigned to the following groups: N (normoglycemic), NE1 (normoglycemic supplemented with vitamin E 0.1%), NE2 (normoglycemic supplemented with vitamin E 2%), D (diabetic), DE1 (diabetic supplemented with vitamin E 0.1%), and DE2 (diabetic supplemented with vitamin E 2%). Animals received vitamin E supplementation for 120 days and were sacrificed when they were 210 days old. The proximal colon of each animal was subjected to histology to study the intestinal wall and goblet cells and processed for whole-mount preparations to morphoquantitatively determine the total myenteric population. Results Supplementation with vitamin E significantly reduced glycemia and glycated hemoglobin values and preserved the number of myenteric neurons in group DE2, without affecting intestinal area or thickness of the intestinal wall or muscular tunic. Conclusion Vitamin E (2%) influenced the glycemic parameters and had a neuroprotective effect on the total myenteric population, but the morphometric characteristics of the intestinal wall were unaffected. PMID:19930636

  3. Escherichia albertii, a novel human enteropathogen, colonizes rat enterocytes and translocates to extra-intestinal sites.

    PubMed

    Yamamoto, Denise; Hernandes, Rodrigo T; Liberatore, Ana Maria A; Abe, Cecilia M; Souza, Rodrigo B de; Romão, Fabiano T; Sperandio, Vanessa; Koh, Ivan H; Gomes, Tânia A T

    2017-01-01

    Diarrhea is the second leading cause of death of children up to five years old in the developing countries. Among the etiological diarrheal agents are atypical enteropathogenic Escherichia coli (aEPEC), one of the diarrheagenic E. coli pathotypes that affects children and adults, even in developed countries. Currently, genotypic and biochemical approaches have helped to demonstrate that some strains classified as aEPEC are actually E. albertii, a recently recognized human enteropathogen. Studies on particular strains are necessary to explore their virulence potential in order to further understand the underlying mechanisms of E. albertii infections. Here we demonstrated for the first time that infection of fragments of rat intestinal mucosa is a useful tool to study the initial steps of E. albertii colonization. We also observed that an E. albertii strain can translocate from the intestinal lumen to Mesenteric Lymph Nodes and liver in a rat model. Based on our finding of bacterial translocation, we investigated how E. albertii might cross the intestinal epithelium by performing infections of M-like cells in vitro to identify the potential in vivo translocation route. Altogether, our approaches allowed us to draft a general E. albertii infection route from the colonization till the bacterial spreading in vivo.

  4. Acute experimental colitis decreases colonic circular smooth muscle contractility in rats.

    PubMed

    Myers, B S; Martin, J S; Dempsey, D T; Parkman, H P; Thomas, R M; Ryan, J P

    1997-10-01

    Distal colitis decreases the contractility of the underlying circular smooth muscle. We examined how time after injury and lesion severity contribute to the decreased contractility and how colitis alters the calcium-handling properties of the affected muscle. Distal colitis was induced in rats by intrarectal administration of 4% acetic acid. Contractile responses to acetylcholine, increased extracellular potassium, and the G protein activator NaF were determined for circular muscle strips from sham control and colitic rats at days 1, 2, 3, 7, and 14 postenemas. Acetylcholine stimulation of tissues from day 3 colitic rats was performed in a zero calcium buffer, in the presence of nifedipine, and after depletion of intracellular stores of calcium. The colitis was graded macroscopically as mild, moderate, or severe. Regardless of agonist, maximal decrease in force developed 2 to 3 days posttreatment, followed by a gradual return to control by day 14. The inhibitory effect of colitis on contractility increased with increasing severity of inflammation. Limiting extracellular calcium influx had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from colitic rats; intracellular calcium depletion had a greater inhibitory effect on tissues from control animals. The data suggest that both lesion severity and time after injury affect the contractile response of circular smooth muscle from the inflamed distal colon. Impaired utilization of intracellular calcium may contribute to the decreased contractility.

  5. Regulation of transepithelial ion transport in the rat late distal colon by the sympathetic nervous system.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X; Li, Y; Zhang, X; Duan, Z; Zhu, J

    2015-01-01

    The colorectum (late distal colon) is innervated by the sympathetic nervous system, and many colorectal diseases are related to disorders of the sympathetic nervous system. The sympathetic regulation of colorectal ion transport is rarely reported. The present study aims to investigate the effect of norepinephrine (NE) in the normal and catecholamine-depleted condition to clarify the regulation of the sympathetic adrenergic system in ion transport in the rat colorectum. NE-induced ion transport in the rats colorectum was measured by short-circuit current (I(sc)) recording; the expression of beta-adrenoceptors and NE transporter (NET) were quantified by real-time PCR, and western blotting. When the endogenous catecholamine was depleted by reserpine, the baseline I(sc) in the colorectum was increased significantly comparing to controls. NE evoked downward deltaI(sc) in colorectum of treated rats was 1.8-fold of controls. The expression of beta(2)-adrenoceptor protein in the colorectal mucosa was greater than the control, though the mRNA level was reduced. However, NET expression was significantly lower in catecholamine-depleted rats compared to the controls. In conclusion, the sympathetic nervous system plays an important role in regulating basal ion transport in the colorectum. Disorders of sympathetic neurotransmitters result in abnormal ion transport, beta-adrenoceptor and NET are involved in the process.

  6. Prostaglandin E2 Activates YAP and a Positive-Signaling Loop to Promote Colon Regeneration After Colitis but Also Carcinogenesis in Mice.

    PubMed

    Kim, Han-Byul; Kim, Minchul; Park, Young-Soo; Park, Intae; Kim, Tackhoon; Yang, Sung-Yeun; Cho, Charles J; Hwang, DaeHee; Jung, Jin-Hak; Markowitz, Sanford D; Hwang, Sung Wook; Yang, Suk-Kyun; Lim, Dae-Sik; Myung, Seung-Jae

    2017-02-01

    colitis after administration of DSS, but injection of PGE2 led to colon regeneration in these mice. However, YAP-knockout mice did not regenerate colon tissues and died soon after administration of DSS. 15-PGDH-knockout mice regenerated colon tissues more rapidly than control mice after withdrawal of DSS, and had faster recovery of body weight, colon length, and colitis histology scores. These effects were reversed by injection of indomethacin. SAV1-knockout or 15-PGDH-knockout mice did not develop spontaneous tumors after colitis induction, but SAV1/15-PGDH double-knockout mice developed polyps that eventually progressed to carcinoma in situ. Administration of indomethacin to these mice prevented spontaneous tumor formation. Levels of PGE2 correlated with those of YAP levels in human sporadic colorectal tumors and colitis-associated tumors. PGE2 signaling increases the expression and transcriptional activities of YAP1, leading to increased expression of cyclooxygenase 2 and EP4 to activate a positive signaling loop. This pathway promotes proliferation of colon cancer cell lines and colon tissue regeneration in mice with colitis. Constitutive activation of this pathway led to formation of polyps and colon tumors in mice. Copyright © 2017 AGA Institute. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Fish oil and flax seed oil supplemented diets increase FFAR4 expression in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Cheshmehkani, Ameneh; Senatorov, Ilya S; Kandi, Praveen; Singh, Monalisa; Britt, April; Hayslett, Renee; Moniri, Nader H

    2015-10-01

    Omega-3 fatty acids, such as α-linolenic acid (ALA), eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA), are polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) that have long been associated with anti-inflammatory activity and general benefit toward human health. Over the last decade, the identification of a family of cell-surface G protein-coupled receptors that bind and are activated by free-fatty acids, including omega-3 fatty acids, suggest that many effects of PUFA are receptor-mediated. One such receptor, free-fatty acid receptor-4 (FFAR4), previously described as GPR120, has been shown to modulate anti-inflammatory and insulin-sensitizing effects in response to PUFA such as ALA and DHA. Additionally, FFAR4 stimulates secretion of the insulin secretagogue glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) from the GI tract and acts as a dietary sensor to regulate energy availability. The aim of the current study was to assess the effects of dietary omega-3 fatty acid supplementation on FFAR4 expression in the rat colon. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed control soybean oil diets or alternatively, diets supplemented with either fish oil, which is enriched in DHA and EPA, or flaxseed oil, which is enriched in ALA, for 7 weeks. GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were monitored weekly and at the end of the study period, expression of FFAR4 and the inflammatory marker TNF-α was assessed. Our findings indicate that GLP-1 and blood glucose levels were unaffected by omega-3 fatty acid supplementation, however, animals that were fed fish or flaxseed oil-supplemented diets had significantly heightened colonic FFAR4 and actin expression, and reduced expression of the pro-inflammatory cytokine TNF-α compared to animals fed control diets. These results suggest that similar to ingestion of other fats, dietary-intake of omega-3 fatty acids can alter FFAR4 expression within the colon.

  8. Effects of β-glucan on colon anastomotic healing in rats given preoperative irradiation.

    PubMed

    Seker, Ahmet; Deger, Kamuran Cumhur; Bostanci, Erdal Birol; Ozer, Ilter; Dalgic, Tahsin; Bilgihan, Ayse; Akmansu, Muge; Ekinci, Ozgur; Ercin, Ugur; Akoglu, Musa

    2014-06-01

    Radiation therapy is an essential therapeutic modality in the management of a wide variety of tumors. We aimed to investigate the short-term effects of pelvic irradiation on the healing of colon anastomoses and to determine the potential protective effects of β-glucan in this situation. Sixty Wistar albino rats were randomized into three experimental groups: a control group (n = 20), an irradiation (IR) group (n = 20), and an irradiation+β-glucan (IR+β-glucan) group (n = 20). Only segmental colonic resection and anastomosis were performed on the control group. The IR group underwent the same surgical procedure as the control group 5 days after pelvic irradiation. In the IR+β-glucan group, the same procedure was applied as in the IR group after β-glucan administration. The groups were subdivided into subgroups according to the date of euthanasia (third [n = 10] or seventh [n = 10] postoperative [PO] day), and anastomotic colonic segments were resected to evaluate bursting pressures and biochemical and histopathological parameters. Bursting pressure values were significantly lower in the IR group (p < .001). Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were significantly higher in the IR group, whereas β-glucan significantly decreased MDA levels on the third PO day (p < .001). Granulation tissue formation scores were significantly lower in the IR+β-glucan group compared with the control group and the IR group (p < .001). The results of this study indicate that irradiation has negative effects on the early healing of colon anastomoses. The administration of β-glucan ameliorates these unfavorable effects by altering bursting pressures and biochemical parameters.

  9. Cloning and identification of tissue-specific expression of KCNN4 splice variants in rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Barmeyer, Christian; Rahner, Christoph; Yang, Youshan; Sigworth, Frederick J.; Binder, Henry J.

    2010-01-01

    KCNN4 channels that provide the driving force for cAMP- and Ca2+-induced anion secretion are present in both apical and basolateral membranes of the mammalian colon. However, only a single KCNN4 has been cloned. This study was initiated to identify whether both apical and basolateral KCNN4 channels are encoded by the same or different isoforms. Reverse transcriptase-PCR (RT-PCR), real-time quantitative-PCR (RT-QPCR), and immunofluorescence studies were used to clone and identify tissue-specific expression of KCNN4 isoforms. Three distinct KCNN4 cDNAs that are designated as KCNN4a, KCNN4b, and KCNN4c encoding 425, 424, and 395 amino acid proteins, respectively, were isolated from the rat colon. KCNN4a differs from KCNN4b at both the nucleotide and the amino acid level with distinct 628 bp at the 3′-untranslated region and an additional glutamine at position 415, respectively. KCNN4c differs from KCNN4b by lacking the second exon that encodes a 29 amino acid motif. KCNN4a and KCNN4b/c are identified as smooth muscle- and epithelial cell-specific transcripts, respectively. KCNN4b and KCNN4c transcripts likely encode basolateral (40 kDa) and apical (37 kDa) membrane proteins in the distal colon, respectively. KCNN4c, which lacks the S2 transmembrane segment, requires coexpression of a large conductance K+ channel β-subunit for plasma membrane expression. The KCNN4 channel blocker TRAM-34 inhibits KCNN4b- and KCNN4c-mediated 86Rb (K+ surrogate) efflux with an apparent inhibitory constant of 0.6 ± 0.1 and 7.8 ± 0.4 μM, respectively. We conclude that apical and basolateral KCNN4 K+ channels that regulate K+ and anion secretion are encoded by distinct isoforms in colonic epithelial cells. PMID:20445171

  10. Antinociceptive action against colonic distension by brain orexin in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-02-19

    Increasing evidence has suggested that brain orexins are implicated in a wide variety of physiological functions. With regard to gastrointestinal functions, orexin-A acts centrally to regulate gastrointestinal functions such as gastric and pancreatic secretion, and gastrointestinal motility. Visceral sensation is also known as one of key gastrointestinal functions which are controlled by the central nervous system. Little is, however, known about a role of central orexin in visceral sensation. This study was therefore performed to clarify whether brain orexin may be involved in the process of visceral sensation. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternally administered orexin-A dose-dependently increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR. In contrast, neither intraperitoneal injection of orexin-A nor intracisternal orexin-B altered the threshold volume. While intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, by itself failed to change the threshold volume, SB334867 injected centrally completely blocked the morphine-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that orexin-A specifically acts centrally in the brain to enhance antinociceptive response to colonic distension. We would furthermore suggest that endogenous orexin-A indeed mediates the antinociceptive effect of morphine on visceral sensation through the orexin 1 receptors. All these evidence might indicate that brain orexin plays a role in the pathophysiology of functional gastrointestinal disorders such as irritable bowel syndrome because visceral hypersensitivity of the gut is considered to play a vital role in the diseases.

  11. Protective effect of p-coumaric acid against 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colonic preneoplastic lesions in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sharma, Sharada H; Chellappan, David Raj; Chinnaswamy, Prabu; Nagarajan, Sangeetha

    2017-10-01

    Oxidative stress and gut microbial enzymes are intricately linked to the onset of colon carcinogenesis. Phytochemicals that modulate these two factors hold promise for the development of such agents as anticancer drugs. The present study evaluates the chemopreventive potential of p-coumaric acid (p-CA) - a phenolic acid in rats challenged with the colon specific procarcinogen DMH (1,2 di-methyl hydrazine). Rats were randomized into six groups (n=7/group). Group 1 (control); Group 2 (p-CA 200mg/kg b.w.); Group 3 (DMH 40mg/kg b.w.); Groups 4 (DMH+p-CA 50mg/kg b.w.) and Group 5 (DMH+p-CA 100mg/kg b.w.) and Group 6 (DMH+p-CA 200mg/kg b.w.). After the experimental duration of 15 weeks' rats were subjected to necropsy and tissues were collected for the histological and biochemical investigations. DMH induced colonic preneoplastic lesions viz., aberrant crypt foci (ACF), dysplastic ACF (DACF), mucin depleted foci (MDF) and beta catenin accumulated crypts (BCAC) were significantly suppressed by p-CA supplementation. Glucuronide conjugation of DMH in liver and its subsequent deconjugation mediated by microbes in the colon induced the formation of colonic preneoplastic lesions. p-CA inhibited these lesions and protected the rat colon against genotoxic insult by scavenging the free radicals via its strong antioxidant response and detoxification mechanism as measured by TBARS and enzymic antioxidants in control and experimental rats. Of the three tested doses, p-CA at a dose of 100mg/kg body weight is found to exhibit a significant optimum effect compared to the other two doses 50mg/kg body weight and 200mg/kg body weight. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Masson SAS. All rights reserved.

  12. Foci of aberrant crypts in the colons of mice and rats exposed to carcinogens associated with foods

    SciTech Connect

    Tudek, B.; Bird, R.P.; Bruce, W.R.

    1989-03-01

    Aberrant crypt foci can be identified in the colons of rodents treated 3 wk earlier with azoxymethane, a known colon carcinogen. These crypts can easily be visualized in the unsectioned methylene blue-stained colons under light microscopy, where they are distinguished by their increased size, more prominent epithelial cells, and pericryptal space. They occur as single aberrant crypts or as two, three, or four aberrant crypts in a cluster. We compared the reported ability of carcinogens associated with the human diet to induce colon cancer with the measured rate of induction of aberrant crypts in female CF1 mice and Sprague-Dawley rats. The carcinogens used were 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, methyl nitrosourea, N-nitrosodimethylamine, benzo(a)pyrene, aflatoxin B1, 2-amino-6-methyldipyrido(1,2-alpha:3',2'-d)imidazole, 2-amino-3-methylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline, and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole. Graded doses of these compounds were given to the animals by gavage twice with a 4-day interval, and the animals were terminated 3 wk later. All colon carcinogens induced aberrant crypts in a dose-related fashion. N-Nitrosodimethylamine and 3-amino-1-methyl-5H-pyrido(4,3-b)indole, carcinogenic compounds that do not induce colon cancer, did not induce them. The ability of the studied compounds to induce aberrant crypts was species specific; e.g., aflatoxin B1 and 2-amino-3,4-dimethylimidazo(4,5-P)quinoline induce about 20 times more in rats than mice. This relationship was consistent with their reported ability to induce colon cancer in these species. Results of the present study support the use of the aberrant crypt assays to screen colon-specific carcinogens and to study the process of colon carcinogenesis.

  13. Role of zinc in modulating histo-architectural and biochemical alterations during dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Malhotra, Anshoo; Chadha, Vijayta Dani; Nair, Praveen; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2009-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to gain insight into the putative anticancer effect of dietary zinc during 1,2 dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis. The rats were segregated into four groups, namely, normal control, DMH-treated, zinc-treated, and (DMH + zinc)-treated. Colon carcinogenesis was induced through weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 12 weeks. Zinc in the form of zinc sulfate was supplemented to rats at a dose level of 227 mg/L in drinking water, ad libitum for the entire duration of the study. The effects of different treatments were studied on lipid peroxidation (LPO), reduced glutathione (GSH), and antioxidative enzymes, which included superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione S-transferase (GST), glutathione reductase (GR), as well as on the histoarchitecture of the colon. A total of 12 weeks of DMH treatment resulted in a significant increase in LPO. GSH levels and the activities of SOD, CAT, and GST were found to be significantly decreased following DMH treatment. A significant elevation in the activity of GR was observed following 12 weeks of DMH treatment. Histopathological studies showed well-differentiated signs of dysplasia, which included nuclei enlargement, epithelial thickening, and nuclear pleomorphism indicative of promotional phase of colon carcinogenesis in DMH-administered rats. Administration of zinc to DMH-treated rats decreased the levels of LPO and GSH significantly, but the activities of SOD and CAT were found to be significantly increased following zinc treatment. Zinc supplementation along with DMH treatment did not reveal any significant change in the activity of GR but significantly improved the activity of GST, which was depressed following DMH treatment. Also, zinc treatment in DMH-treated rats showed signs of great improvement, but structureless masses of the cells and hyperchromic nuclei were still visible occasionally. In conclusion, the results of this study

  14. Removal of residual colonic ciprofloxacin in the rat by activated charcoal entrapped within zinc-pectinate beads.

    PubMed

    Khoder, Mouhamad; Tsapis, Nicolas; Domergue-Dupont, Valérie; Gueutin, Claire; Fattal, Elias

    2010-10-09

    Residual antibiotics reaching the colon have many deleterious effects on the colonic microbiota including the selection of new antibiotic resistances. In order to avoid the selection of ciprofloxacin resistance, intestine or colon-targeted zinc-pectinate beads containing activated charcoal (AC) were designed for the inactivation of residual ciprofloxacin in the gastrointestinal tract of rats. Bead stability after oral administration was adjusted by tuning the concentration of zinc in the gelling bath and the number of washings. Intestine and colon-targeted beads were administered along with 50mg/kg of ciprofloxacin and ciprofloxacin was dosed in the plasma and the feces using HPLC. Ciprofloxacin pharmacokinetics was not affected by the oral co-administration of beads. The co-administration of intestine-targeted beads led to a significant decrease of the residual fecal free ciprofloxacin with a pronounced dose effect. Our study suggests the rat model is not appropriate for the investigation of bacteria responsive colon-targeted beads probably due to the important anatomical and physiological differences between human and rat gastrointestinal tracts. The ability of AC loaded zinc-pectinate beads to selectively decrease the intestinal residual fraction of ciprofloxacin could provide a better protection of the intestinal microbiota and may prevent the emergence of ciprofloxacin resistance in the gastrointestinal tract.

  15. Comparative functional selectivity of imidafenacin and propiverine, antimuscarinic agents, for the urinary bladder over colon in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Muraki, Yukiko

    2015-11-01

    Antimuscarinics are the first-line choice of treatment for overactive bladder (OAB). Imidafenacin distributes in the bladder more selectively than in the submaxillary gland and colon, and hence, this drug is considered more useful for OAB than other antimuscarinics. However, the examination of imidafenacin selectivity to bladder over colon using in vivo models is limited. Thus, the author examined whether imidafenacin could induce more selective blockade of the bladder over colon in conscious rats using two pharmacological indices (colonic transit and neostigmine-induced fecal pellet output) and compared its bladder selectivity with propiverine. In the bladder study, the inhibitory doses of antimuscarinics were calculated using the area under the curve of the distension-induced rhythmic contraction in conscious rats. The relative bladder selectivity of imidafenacin to propiverine was 50-fold and 61-fold, respectively, in a dye marker colonic transit model and in a neostigmine-induced fecal pellet output model. This comparative study shows that the functional bladder selectivity of imidafenacin is higher than that of propiverine tested under the present conditions in conscious rats.

  16. Chemotherapeutic effect of Berberis integerrima hydroalcoholic extract on colon cancer development in the 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine rat model.

    PubMed

    Malayeri, Mohammad R Mohammadi; Dadkhah, Abolfazl; Fatemi, Faezeh; Dini, Salome; Torabi, Fatemeh; Tavajjoh, Mohammad M; Rabiei, Javad

    The aim of this study was to investigate the efficacy of a Berberis integerrima hydroalcoholic extract as a chemotherapeutic agent in colon carcinogenesis in the rat induced by 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). Male Wistar rats were divided into five groups: a negative control group without DMH treatment; a control group injected DMH (20 mg/kg b.w); two groups receiving B. integerrima extract (50 and 100 mg/kg b.w), concomitant with injected DMH, as chemotherapeutic groups; a positive control group receiving 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) along with DMH. The effects of the extracts were determined by assessment of hepatic malondialdehyde (MDA), glutathione (GSH), ferric reducing ability of plasma (FRAP), and the activities of hepatic glutathione S-transferase and cytochrome P450 (GST and CYP450). Additionally, colon tissues were assessed for colonic β-catenin and histopathological analysis. In DMH-treated rats, the extracts partially normalized the levels of FRAP, CYP450, β-catenin, and GST. Likewise, formation of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in colon tissue of DMH-treated was reduced by the extracts. Thus, the extracts possess chemotherapeutic activity against colon carcinogenesis.

  17. Bacteria used for the production of yogurt inactivate carcinogens and prevent DNA damage in the colon of rats.

    PubMed

    Wollowski, I; Ji, S T; Bakalinsky, A T; Neudecker, C; Pool-Zobel, B L

    1999-01-01

    Lactic acid-producing bacteria prevent carcinogen-induced preneoplastic lesions and tumors in rat colon. Because the mechanisms responsible for these protective effects are unknown, two strains of lactic acid bacteria, Lactobacillus delbrueckii ssp. bulgaricus 191R and Streptococcus salivarius ssp. thermophilus CH3, that are used to produce yogurt, were investigated in vitro and in vivo to elucidate their potential to deactivate carcinogens. Using the "Comet assay" to detect genetic damage, we found that L. bulgaricus 191R applied orally to rats could prevent 1, 2-dimethylhydrazine-induced DNA breaks in the colon in vivo, whereas St. thermophilus CH3 were not effective. However, in vitro, both strains prevented DNA damage induced by N-methyl-N'-nitro-N-nitrosoguanidine (MNNG) in isolated primary rat colon cells. Extracts prepared from milk fermented with St. thermophilus CH3 were as efficient in deactivating MNNG as was L-cysteine. Isolated metabolites arising from bacteria during fermentation in the colon or in milk [L(+) lactate, D(-) lactate, palmitic acid and isopalmitic acid] were not effective. We postulate that thiol-containing breakdown products of proteins, via catalysis by bacterial proteases, could be one mechanism by which MNNG or other carcinogens are deactivated in the gut lumen resulting in reduced damage to colonic mucosal cells.

  18. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations are critical for fibrin glue adherence in rat high-risk colon anastomoses

    PubMed Central

    Buen, Eliseo Portilla-de; Orozco-Mosqueda, Abel; Leal-Cortés, Caridad; Vázquez-Camacho, Gonzalo; Fuentes-Orozco, Clotilde; Alvarez-Villaseñor, Andrea Socorro; Macías-Amezcua, Michel Dassaejv; González-Ojeda, Alejandro

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: Fibrin glues have not been consistently successful in preventing the dehiscence of high-risk colonic anastomoses. Fibrinogen and thrombin concentrations in glues determine their ability to function as sealants, healers, and/or adhesives. The objective of the current study was to compare the effects of different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin on bursting pressure, leaks, dehiscence, and morphology of high-risk ischemic colonic anastomoses using fibrin glue in rats. METHODS: Colonic anastomoses in adult female Sprague-Dawley rats (weight, 250-350 g) treated with fibrin glue containing different concentrations of fibrinogen and thrombin were evaluated at post-operative day 5. The interventions were low-risk (normal) or high-risk (ischemic) end-to-end colonic anastomoses using polypropylene sutures and topical application of fibrinogen at high (120 mg/mL) or low (40 mg/mL) concentrations and thrombin at high (1000 IU/mL) or low (500 IU/mL) concentrations. RESULTS: Ischemia alone, anastomosis alone, or both together reduced the bursting pressure. Glues containing a low fibrinogen concentration improved this parameter in all cases. High thrombin in combination with low fibrinogen also improved adherence exclusively in low-risk anastomoses. No differences were detected with respect to macroscopic parameters, histopathology, or hydroxyproline content at 5 days post-anastomosis. CONCLUSIONS: Fibrin glue with a low fibrinogen content normalizes the bursting pressure of high-risk ischemic left-colon anastomoses in rats at day 5 after surgery. PMID:24714834

  19. Role of PGE2 in the colonic motility: PGE2 generates and enhances spontaneous contractions of longitudinal smooth muscle in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Iizuka, Yumiko; Kuwahara, Atsukazu; Karaki, Shin-Ichiro

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to determine which PGE2 receptors (EP1-4 receptors) influence colonic motility. Mucosa-free longitudinal smooth muscle strips of the rat middle colon spontaneously induced frequent phasic contractions (giant contractions, GCs) in vitro, and the GCs were almost completely abolished by a cyclooxygenase inhibitor, piroxicam, and by an EP3 receptor antagonist, ONO-AE3-240, but enhanced by tetrodotoxin (TTX). In the presence of piroxicam, exogenous PGE2, both ONO-AE-248 (EP3 agonist), and ONO-DI-004 (EP1 agonist) induced GC-like contractions, and increased the frequency and amplitude. These effects of EP receptor agonists were insensitive to TTX and ω-conotoxins. In immunohistochemistry, the EP1 and EP3 receptors were expressed in the longitudinal smooth muscle cells. These results suggest that the endogenous PGE2 spontaneously generates and enhances the frequent phasic contractions directly activating the EP1 and EP3 receptors expressed on longitudinal smooth muscle cells in the rat middle colon.

  20. [Chemoprotective effect of the alkaloid extract of Melocactus bellavistensis against colon cancer induced in rats using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine].

    PubMed

    Ríos-León, Karla; Fuertes-Ruiton, Cesar; Arroyo, Jorge; Ruiz, Julio

    2017-01-01

    To determine the toxicity and chemoprotective effect of the alkaloid extract of Melocactus bellavistensis against colon cancer induced in rats using 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). The alkaloid extract was obtained from the fleshy part of M. bellavistensis, and an acute toxicity test was then carried out on 30 mice of the Balb C57 strain. To assess its chemoprotective effect, colon cancer was induced in 45 Holtzman rats using DMH according to the following experimental design: one control group received 2 mL/kg sodium polysorbate, and four groups received 20 mg/kg DMH plus 0, 1, 5, or 10 mg/kg M. bellavistensis alkaloid extract. With a sample of 5 g of alkaloid extract, an LD50 greater than 1000 mg/mL was determined in the acute toxicity test. Histological indicators revealed that the 5 and 10 mg/kg doses had significant anti-tumor activity with 100% neoplasia inhibition against DMH- induced colon cancer in rats. Under experimental conditions, the alkaloid extract of M. bellavistensis has a chemoprotective effect against DMH-induced colon cancer in rats.

  1. Effect of Rumex Abyssinicus on preneoplastic lesions in dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Girma, Biniyam; Yimer, Getnet; Makonnen, Eyasu

    2015-10-15

    Cancer as a multistage process can be reversed or blocked by using chemopreventive agents. Colon cancer chemoprevention has been widely investigated using cyclooxygenase inhibitors and many other chemicals of synthetic or natural origin. This particular study was carried out to assess the colon cancer chemopreventive effect of hydro-methanol extract of Rumex abyssinicus rhizome on rats. Colon cancer chemopreventive potential of hydro-methanol extract of Rumex abyssinicus rhizome was determined based on the number and multiplicity of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). Fifteen DMH (1, 2-dimethylhydrazine) treated and five untreated Wistar female rats were used. DMH was administered subcutaneously 30 mg/kg, after its pH was adjusted to 6.5-7. Treatment groups started receiving extract after six weeks of weekly DMH injections. The rats were divided in to four groups: Group 1 received only oral normal saline, Group 2 received DMH and normal saline, Group 3 and 4 received DMH plus 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg extract, respectively. Specific phytoconstituents of the plant, which were reviewed from original articles, were virtually evaluated for cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibition. The binding energies and interactions of the phytochemicals from Rumex abyssinicus against COX-2 were determined by Autodock4.2. There was a statistically significant reduction (p-value < 0.05) in the number of aberrant crypt (AC) and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) at both administered doses. However, significant association (p-value > 0.05) was not observed in reducing crypt multiplicity. The docking process resulted in estimated binding energies [-6.83 kcal/mol to -7.9 kcal/mol] which are closer to the positive controls or Non-Steroidal Anti-Inflammatory Drugs (NSAIDs) [-4.55 kcal/mol to -10.84 kcal/mol]. The phytochemical-COX-2 interaction indicated the involvement of key amino acid residues in inhibition of cyclooxygenase like ARG120, TYR355, TYR385, SER530 and GLY526. Rumex abyssinicus had

  2. Magnolol inhibits colonic motility through down-regulation of voltage-sensitive L-type Ca2+ channels of colonic smooth muscle cells in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Man; Zang, Kai-Hong; Luo, Jia-Lie; Leung, Fung-Ping; Huang, Yu; Lin, Cheng-Yuan; Yang, Zhi-Jun; Lu, Ai-Ping; Tang, Xu-Dong; Xu, Hong-Xi; Sung, Joseph Jao-yiu; Bian, Zhao-Xiang

    2013-11-15

    This study aimed to investigate the effect of magnolol (5,5'-diallyl-2,2'-biphenyldiol) on contraction in distal colonic segments of rats and the underlying mechanisms. Colonic segments were mounted in organ baths for isometric force measurement. Whole-cell voltage-sensitive L-type Ca(2+) currents were recorded on isolated single colonic smooth muscle cells using patch-clamp technique. The spontaneous contractions and acetylcholine (ACh)- and Bay K 8644-induced contractions were inhibited by magnolol (3-100 μM). In the presence of Bay K8644 (100 nM), magnolol (10-100 μM) inhibited the contraction induced by 10 μM ACh. By contrast, tetrodotoxin (100 nM) and Nώ-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME 100 μM) did not change the inhibitory effect of magnolol (10 μM). In addition, magnolol (3-100 μM) inhibited the L-type Ca(2+) currents. The present results suggest that magnolol inhibits colonic smooth muscle contraction through downregulating L-type Ca(2+) channel activity.

  3. Neuropeptide Y, peptide YY, and pancreatic polypeptide modulate duodenal and colonic motility at a thoracic spinal site in rats.

    PubMed

    Wager-Pagé, S A; Ghazali, B; Anderson, W; Veale, W L; Davison, J S

    1992-01-01

    Neuropeptide Y, PYY, and PP (200 pmol) alter intraluminal pressure in the duodenum and colon of rats following their administration into the thoracic (T8-T10) region of the spinal cord. Neuropeptide Y decreases the tone of the duodenum and the colon following intrathecal (T8-T10) administration prior to an increase in tone to baseline or greater. There is no effect on intraluminal pressure of either the duodenum or the colon following intrathecal administration of NPY or PP into the lumbar (L4-L5) region of the spinal cord. Following intrathecal (T8-T10) administration of PYY and PP, increases in intraduodenal pressures are observed (+2.1 and +3.0 mmHg from saline baseline). Phasic contractions of the duodenum are increased following intrathecal administration of PYY into the thoracic spinal cord of rats. Neuropeptide Y, PYY, and PP increase intracolonic pressure +2.2, +3.3, and +3.7 mmHg from saline baseline, respectively. Phasic contractions of the colon are increased following PP intrathecal thoracic administration. Responsiveness of the duodenum or colon to the different ligands of the PP-fold peptide family in the absence of alpha-adrenergic blockade did not vary. The increases in intraluminal pressure of the duodenum and colon following intrathecal administration of the PP-fold peptides are attenuated by both alpha-1 adrenergic (prazosin) and alpha-2 adrenergic (yohimbine) blockade. There is a difference in responsiveness of the colon between the ligands of the PP-fold family in the presence of the alpha-2 adrenergic blockade. The findings of this study indicate that duodenal and colonic motility are modulated by the PP-fold peptides at thoracic spinal sites via alteration of sympathetic outflow.

  4. Absorption and metabolism of octanoate by the rat colon in vivo: concentration dependency and influence of alternative fuels

    PubMed Central

    Jørgensen, J R; Fitch, M D; Mortensen, P B; Fleming, S E

    2002-01-01

    Background: Compared with short and long chain fatty acids, medium chain fatty acids (MCFAs) have been shown to provide the highest colonic absorption of substrate carbon. Moreover, colonic epithelial cells fulfil their basic energy requirements as easily from MCFAs as from short chain fatty acids. Aims: To further characterise octanoate as a colonic luminal substrate, we determined in vivo the influence of (i) substrate concentration and (ii) alternative luminal fuels, on rat colonic transport and metabolism. Methods: Segments of rat proximal colon (8 cm) were cannulated and perfused for 100 min with 14C labelled octanoate. The right colic vein was also cannulated and venous blood analysed for total 14C, 14CO2, and metabolites by scintillation counting and high performance liquid chromatography. Results: Tracer appearance in mesenteric blood stabilised after 20–40 minutes of perfusion. Increasing luminal octanoate concentrations from 2 to 40 mM resulted in linear increases in total carbon absorption. Maximum CO2 production was reached near 10 mM. A substantial proportion of octanoate was absorbed without being metabolised (59–94%). The luminal presence of a mixture of alternative fuels had no influence on either octanoate transport or metabolism. Conclusions: This study demonstrated substantial concentration dependent colonic absorption of octanoate, rendering this MCFA a potential and much needed high energy substrate for patients with compromised small bowel function. Moreover, octanoate meets the basic energy requirements of colonic epithelial cells in vivo as well as butyrate. This study also demonstrates the divergence of in vitro and in vivo data regarding fatty acid absorption and metabolism in the colonic epithelium. PMID:12077096

  5. Modulatory effect of troxerutin on biotransforming enzymes and preneoplasic lesions induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine in rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, Rajamanickam; Vinoth Kumar, Rajenderan; Sudha, Mani; Viswanathan, Periyaswamy; Balasubramanian, Thangavel; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2014-02-01

    Colon cancer is the third most global oncologic problem faced by medical fraternity. Troxerutin, a flavonoid present in tea, coffee, cereal grains, and a variety of fruits and vegetables, exhibits various pharmacological and biological activities. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of troxerutin on xenobiotic metabolizing enzymes, colonic bacterial enzymes and the development of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced experimental rat colon carcinogenesis. Male albino Wistar rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group 1 served as control. Group 2 received troxerutin (50 mg/kg b.w., p.o. every day) for 16 weeks. Groups 3-6 received subcutaneous injections of DMH (20 mg/kg b.w.) once a week, for the first four weeks. In addition, groups 4-6 received different doses of troxerutin (12.5, 25, 50 mg/kg b.w., p.o. every day respectively) along with DMH injections. Our results reveal that DMH treated rats exhibited elevated activities of phase I enzymes such as cytochrome P450, cytochrome b5, cytochrome P4502E1, NADPH-cytochrome P450 reductase and NADH-cytochrome b5 reductase and reduced activities of phase II enzymes such as glutathione-S-transferase (GST), DT-diaphorase (DTD) and uridine diphospho glucuronyl transferase (UDPGT) in the liver and colonic mucosa of control and experimental rats. Furthermore, the activities of fecal and colonic mucosal bacterial enzymes, such as β-glucronidase, β-glucosidase, β-galactosidase and mucinase were found to be significantly higher in DMH alone treated rats than those of the control rats. On supplementation with troxerutin to DMH treated rats, the alterations in the activities of the biotransforming enzymes, bacterial enzymes and the pathological changes were significantly reversed, the effect being more pronounced when troxerutin was supplemented at the dose of 25 mg/kg b.w. Thus troxerutin could be considered as a good chemopreventive agent against the formation of

  6. Hypoxia/Reoxygenation Effects on Ion Transport across Rat Colonic Epithelium

    PubMed Central

    Schindele, Sabine; Pouokam, Ervice; Diener, Martin

    2016-01-01

    Ischemia causes severe damage in the gastrointestinal tract. Therefore, it is interesting to study how the barrier and transport functions of intestinal epithelium change under hypoxia and subsequent reoxygenation. For this purpose we simulated hypoxia and reoxygenation on mucosa-submucosa preparations from rat distal colon in Ussing chambers and on isolated crypts. Hypoxia (N2 gassing for 15 min) induced a triphasic change in short-circuit current (Isc): a transient decrease, an increase and finally a long-lasting fall below the initial baseline. During the subsequent reoxygenation phase, Isc slightly rose to values above the initial baseline. Tissue conductance (Gt) showed a biphasic increase during both the hypoxia and the reoxygenation phases. Omission of Cl− or preincubation of the tissue with transport inhibitors revealed that the observed changes in Isc represented changes in Cl− secretion. The radical scavenger trolox C reduced the Isc response during hypoxia, but failed to prevent the rise of Isc during reoxygenation. All changes in Isc were Ca2+-dependent. Fura-2 experiments at loaded isolated colonic crypts revealed a slow increase of the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration during hypoxia and the reoxygenation phase, mainly caused by an influx of extracellular Ca2+. Surprisingly, no changes could be detected in the fluorescence of the superoxide anion-sensitive dye mitosox or the thiol-sensitive dye thiol tracker, suggesting a relative high capacity of the colonic epithelium (with its low O2 partial pressure even under physiological conditions) to deal with enhanced radical production during hypoxia/reoxygenation. PMID:27445839

  7. Brewers’ rice modulates oxidative stress in azoxymethane-mediated colon carcinogenesis in rats

    PubMed Central

    Tan, Bee Ling; Norhaizan, Mohd Esa; Huynh, Ky; Yeap, Swee Keong; Hazilawati, Hamzah; Roselina, Karim

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the mechanistic action of brewers’ rice in regulating the Wnt/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB)/Nrf2-signaling pathways during colon carcinogenesis in male Sprague-Dawley rats. METHODS: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into the following five groups (six rats in each group): (G1) normal, (G2) azoxymethane (AOM) alone, (G3) AOM + 10% (weight (w)/weight (w)) brewers’ rice, (G4) AOM + 20% (w/w) brewers’ rice, and (G5) AOM + 40% (w/w) brewers’ rice. They were intraperitoneally administered 15 mg/kg body weight of AOM in saline once weekly over a two-week period and treated with an American Institute of Nutrition (AIN)-93G diet containing 10%, 20%, and 40% (w/w) brewers’ rice. The mRNA levels of glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3β), β-catenin, key inflammation markers, nuclear factor E2-related factor 2 (Nrf2), and heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1)-dependent transcriptional activity were assessed by quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analyses. The colon superoxide dismutase, malondialdehyde, and nitric oxide levels were also analyzed to assess the antioxidant effect of these treatments. The results were analyzed using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA), and a P value of < 0.05 was considered significant. RESULTS: The overall analyses demonstrated that the dietary administration of brewers’ rice in AOM-induced rat colon carcinogenesis resulted in the transcriptional upregulation of GSK3β, inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), Nrf2, and HO-1. We discovered that the dietary administration of brewers’ rice downregulated the β-catenin and NF-κB mRNA levels. A significant reduction in β-catenin expression was found in the groups administered with 20% (0.611 ± 0.034) and 40% (0.436 ± 0.045) (w/w) brewers’ rice compared with that of the group treated with AOM alone (1.000 ± 0.064) (P < 0.05). The NF-κB expression was significantly lower between the AOM-alone group (1.000 ± 0.048) and those groups fed with diets

  8. Oridonin Alleviates Visceral Hyperalgesia in a Rat Model of Postinflammatory Irritable Bowel Syndrome: Role of Colonic Enterochromaffin Cell and Serotonin Availability.

    PubMed

    Zang, Kai-Hong; Shao, Yun-Yun; Zuo, Xiao; Rao, Zhi; Qin, Hong-Yan

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this present study was to investigate the effect of oridonin on visceral hyperalgesia and colonic serotonin availability in a rat model of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid-induced postinflammatory irritable bowel syndrome (PI-IBS). Rats were randomly divided into five groups: normal control, PI-IBS model, PI-IBS+low-dose oridonin (5 mg/kg), PI-IBS+median-dose oridonin (10 mg/kg), and PI-IBS+high-dose oridonin (20 mg/kg). Rats in control and model groups were orally administered with water by gavage, whereas rats in oridonin-treated groups were orally administered with different dosages of oridonin, and drugs were given for 14 consecutive days. Compared with the control group, the pain threshold pressure was significantly reduced in PI-IBS rats. The colonic enterochromaffin (EC) cell number, serotonin content, and the protein expression of tryptophan hydroxylase (TPH) were markedly increased and the protein expression of serotonin reuptake transporter was significantly decreased in PI-IBS rats. The spleen index in PI-IBS rats was decreased, and the levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α, interferon (IFN)-γ, interleukin (IL)-4, and IL-13 in the colon of PI-IBS rats were also markedly decreased. Oridonin treatment dose dependently increased pain threshold pressure, and markedly decreased colon EC cell numbers, TPH expression, and serotonin content in PI-IBS rats. Oridonin treatment also significantly increased the spleen index as well as the levels of TNF-α, IFN-γ, IL-4, and IL-13 in the colon of PI-IBS rats. Results of this study demonstrate that the analgesic effect of oridonin in PI-IBS rats is associated with reduced colonic EC cell hyperplasia and 5-HT availability, the regulatory effect of oridonin on colonic cytokine production may be correlated with its effect on colonic EC cell number.

  9. Effect of oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) on pathological changes in dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Galbavy, S; Ozdin, L

    1998-01-01

    The effect of 5% of dried oyster mushroom (Pleurotus ostreatus) in the diet on the dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied in male Wistar rats. DMH in a dose of 20 mg/kg of body weight was applied to animals once a week during a period of 12 weeks. Mushroom diet was applied either after treatment with DMH for another 21 weeks or during the whole experiment. Mushroom diet reduced significantly the incidence of lymphoid hyperplasia foci when mushroom was supplemented during the whole experiment. Tumour lesions could be characterized either as carcinoma in situ, or as infiltrating adenocarcinoma. Mushroom diet did not affect significantly the incidence of tumours. Nevertheless, a reduction in total number of tumours was observed in both groups of animals fed mushroom diet. A significant reduction of the number of tumour foci of the type carcinoma in situ was observed in animals fed the oyster mushroom during the whole experiment. Also these animals had the significantly lower number of aberrant crypt foci. Mushroom diet reduced the ornithine decarboxylase activity in the colon and in the liver when oyster mushroom diet was administered during the whole experiment.

  10. Analysis of colon tumors in rats by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Duarte, Janaína; Hage, Raduan; Silveira, Landulfo, Jr.; Silveira, Fabricio; Pacheco, Marcos Tadeu T.; Munin, Egberto; Plapler, Hélio

    2007-02-01

    Biomedical applications of near-infrared Raman spectroscopy have increased their importance at the last ten years. This technique can determinate the molecular composition of materials, allowing a sensible and fast biological diagnosis. It has showed to be a promising tool for health diagnosis due to its high sensibility. Colorectal cancer (CRC) is one of the most common malignant tumors in humans beings. In the last decades many experimental models have been developed in animals based in the use of chemical composites to induce the formation and development of these tumors, many of them present similar characteristics to those of natural occurrence aiming to the attainment of information on genesis, evolution, as well as diagnosis and more efficient therapies for treating these neoplasias. Amongst the most used chemical composites is the 1,2- dimetilhydrazine (DMH) because its morphological and histological similarity to those tumors. This study aims to compare in vivo normal colon tissue and tumoral colon tissue, induced by DMH, in rats by near-infrared Raman spectroscopy to permit the use in the near future for an efficient diagnosis in real time besides being useful as an auxiliary method for several therapies, including the photodynamic therapy.

  11. Neurological and cellular regulation of visceral hypersensitivity induced by chronic stress and colonic inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, J; Winston, J H; Sarna, S K

    2013-09-17

    The role of inflammation in inducing visceral hypersensitivity (VHS) in ulcerative colitis patients remains unknown. We tested the hypothesis that acute ulcerative colitis-like inflammation does not induce VHS. However, it sets up molecular conditions such that chronic stress following inflammation exaggerates single-unit afferent discharges to colorectal distension. We used dextran sodium sulfate (DSS) to induce ulcerative colitis-like inflammation and a 9-day heterotypic chronic stress protocol in rats. DSS upregulated Nav1.8 mRNA in colon-responsive dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons, TRPV1 in colonic muscularis externae (ME) and BDNF in spinal cord without affecting the spike frequency in spinal afferents or VMR to CRD. By contrast, chronic stress did not induce inflammation but it downregulated Kv1.1 and Kv1.4 mRNA in DRG neurons, and upregulated TRPA1 and nerve growth factor in ME, which mediated the increase of spike frequency and VMR to CRD. Chronic stress following inflammation exacerbated spike frequency in spinal afferent neurons. TRPA1 antagonist suppressed the sensitization of afferent neurons. DSS-inflammation did not affect the composition or excitation thresholds of low-threshold and high-threshold fibers. Chronic stress following inflammation increased the percent composition of high-threshold fibers and lowered the excitation threshold of both types of fibers. We conclude that not all types of inflammation induce VHS, whereas chronic stress induces VHS in the absence of inflammation.

  12. Earliest lymphoid colonization of neonatal rat lymph nodes: an antigen-specific process?

    PubMed

    Sainte-Marie, G

    2001-07-01

    The present work studied the little known process of lymphoid cell colonization of neonatal lymph nodes, while considering the nodal site of entry of circulating lymphoid cells and the either random or antigen-specific character of the process. Tissue sections of a mesenteric, cervical and popliteal node from each of 57 rats, aged 4 hours to 3 weeks, were analysed. Observations bear on the relative importance of the implication of the subcapsular sinus versus venules of nodes, and the composition of their emerging lymphoid cell population by determining the proportion of lymphocytes and blast-related cells. At 16-20 hours after birth, cell counts yielded a mean proportion of 84% for blast-related cells which decreased to 18% at 3 weeks. These percentages are compatible with values expected for a selective antigen-specific entry of lymphoid cells in nodes, not with values that would result from a random entry of lymphocytes. Moreover, observations revealed that by far most colonizing cells initially enter nodes carried by the afferent lymph, little via their venules.

  13. Silibinin modulates caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2), an intestine specific tumor suppressor to abrogate colon cancer in experimental rats.

    PubMed

    Sangeetha, N; Nalini, N

    2015-01-01

    To authenticate the colon cancer preventive potential of silibinin, the efficacy of silibinin needs to be tested by evaluating an organ-specific biomarker. The aim of this study was to evaluate the impact of silibinin on the colonic expression of the caudal-type homeobox transcription factor (CDX2) an intestine specific tumor suppressor gene and its downstream targets in the colon of rats challenged with 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH). Rats of groups 1 and 2 were treated as control and silibinin control. Rats under groups 3 and 4 were given DMH (20 mg/kg body weight (b.w.) subcutaneously) once a week for 15 consecutive weeks from the 4th week of the experimental period. In addition, group 4 rats alone were treated with silibinin (50 mg/kg b.w. per os) everyday throughout the study period of 32 weeks. Histological investigation and messenger RNA and protein expression studies were performed in the colonic tissues of experimental rats. Findings of the study revealed that DMH administration significantly decreased the expression of CDX2 and Guanylyl cyclase C (GCC) in the colon of experimental rats. Further the decreased levels of CDX2 protein, colonic mucin content, and increased number of mast cells in the colon of DMH alone-administered rats reflects the onset of carcinogenesis. The pathological changes caused due to CDX2 suppression were attenuated by silibinin supplementation.

  14. Apple juice intervention modulates expression of ARE-dependent genes in rat colon and liver.

    PubMed

    Soyalan, Bülent; Minn, Jutta; Schmitz, Hans J; Schrenk, Dieter; Will, Frank; Dietrich, Helmut; Baum, Matthias; Eisenbrand, Gerhard; Janzowski, Christine

    2011-03-01

    The risk of cancer and other degenerative diseases is inversely correlated with consumption of fruits and vegetables. This beneficial effect is mainly attributed to secondary plant constituents such as polyphenols, supposed to play a major role in protection against ROS (reactive oxygen species)-associated toxicity. To elucidate the potential of differently manufactured apple juices (clear AJ/cloudy AJ/smoothie, in comparison with a polyphenol-free control juice) to modulate expression of ARE-dependent genes. In male Sprague-Dawley rats (n = 8/group; 10d juice intervention, 4d wash-out; 4 treatment cycles), expression of target genes (superoxide dismutase, SOD1/SOD2; glutathione peroxidase, GPX1/GPX2; γ-glutamylcysteine ligase, GCLC/GCLM; glutathione reductase, GSR; catalase, CAT; NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase-1, NQO1 and transcription factor erythroid-derived 2-like-2, Nrf2) was quantified with duplex RT-PCR, using glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) as control. In colon and liver of rats consuming polyphenol-free control juice, rather similar basic expressions were observed (relative GAPDH ratios ranging from 2 to 0.7 and 2.5-0.3, respectively). In the distal colon, apple juice intervention slightly but significantly induced most genes (e.g. GPX2, GSR, CAT, Nrf2; p < 0.001), whereas in the liver only GPX1 and NQO1 mRNA were up-regulated; other hepatic target genes were not affected or down-regulated (SOD1, SOD2, GCLC/M, GSR), concomitant with the absence of Nrf2 induction. Induction of antioxidant gene expression differed with juice type (cloudy AJ > clear AJ ~ smoothie). Taken together, the results underline the potential of polyphenol-rich apple juice to increase the expression of ARE-dependent antioxidant genes.

  15. Chemopreventive activity of grape juice concentrate (G8000TM) on rat colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Silva, Roseane Mendes; Campanholo, Vanessa Maria de Lima Pazine; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2015-11-01

    Colorectal cancer is the third most common cancer worldwide in both sexes, with similar geographic patterns between genders. This neoplasm has good prognosis if the disease is diagnosed at early stages. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of red grape juice on the expression of COX-2 and Ki-67 expression following colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM). Thirty-five rats were randomly distributed into seven groups (n=5 per group): G1: SHAM or negative control received only saline; G2 (positive control): animals received 15 mg/kg AOM; G3: animals received 1% red grape juice 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G4: animals received 2% red grape juice 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G5: animals received 1% red grape juice 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G6: animals received 2% red grape juice 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G7: animals received only 2% red grape juice. COX-2 mRNA expression was reduced in animals treated with 1% red grape juice before AOM induction or 2% red grape juice after AOM induction. COX-2 immunoexpression was also reduced to groups treated with red grape juice at 1% before and after AOM induction or 2% red grape juice after AOM induction. Decreased immunoexpression of Ki-67 positive cells was observed in animals treated with 1% grape juice before AOM-treated animals. Taken together, grape juice concentrate is able to exert some chemopreventive activity on rat colon carcinogenesis. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  16. A miR-34a-Numb Feedforward Loop Triggered by Inflammation Regulates Asymmetric Stem Cell Division in Intestine and Colon Cancer.

    PubMed

    Bu, Pengcheng; Wang, Lihua; Chen, Kai-Yuan; Srinivasan, Tara; Murthy, Preetish Kadur Lakshminarasimha; Tung, Kuei-Ling; Varanko, Anastasia Kristine; Chen, Huanhuan Joyce; Ai, Yiwei; King, Sarah; Lipkin, Steven M; Shen, Xiling

    2016-02-04

    Emerging evidence suggests that microRNAs can initiate asymmetric division, but whether microRNA and protein cell fate determinants coordinate with each other remains unclear. Here, we show that miR-34a directly suppresses Numb in early-stage colon cancer stem cells (CCSCs), forming an incoherent feedforward loop (IFFL) targeting Notch to separate stem and non-stem cell fates robustly. Perturbation of the IFFL leads to a new intermediate cell population with plastic and ambiguous identity. Lgr5+ mouse intestinal/colon stem cells (ISCs) predominantly undergo symmetric division but turn on asymmetric division to curb the number of ISCs when proinflammatory response causes excessive proliferation. Deletion of miR-34a inhibits asymmetric division and exacerbates Lgr5+ ISC proliferation under such stress. Collectively, our data indicate that microRNA and protein cell fate determinants coordinate to enhance robustness of cell fate decision, and they provide a safeguard mechanism against stem cell proliferation induced by inflammation or oncogenic mutation.

  17. Resetting blood pressure by a closed-loop implanted chip system in normotensive rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, Xing-Ya; Wang, Han-Jun; Zhang, Ying; Lu, Zu-Hong; Wang, Wei; Zhu, Guo-Qing

    2006-02-02

    A closed-loop implanted chip system was designed to control blood pressure without using drugs. The chip system instantaneously reset blood pressure by stimulating the left aortic depressor nerve according to the feedback signals of arterial blood pressure. The relationship between pressure signals and frequency of stimulation was identified in vitro and in vivo, and the efficiency of the chip system was evaluated in normal anesthetized Wistar rats. To determine whether the depressor effect of the chip was primarily independent on the bradycardia induced by the resetting, the effects of methyl atropine (1.5 g/kg, iv.) and bilateral vagotomy on depressor effect induced by the chip system were determined, respectively. The results indicated that the chip system worked well. The frequency of stimulus linearly increased following the elevation of pressure from 70 to 160 mm Hg. The frequency of the stimulus reached its maximum (100 Hz) when pressure exceeded 160 mm Hg, and the stimulation stopped when MAP was below 70 mm Hg. There were significant decreases in mean arterial pressure (MAP, -20.0+/-4.4 mm Hg) and heart rate (HR, -43.0+/-10.5 bpm) during the resetting in rats. After resetting, both MAP and HR recovered in a minute without any significant rebound. Pretreatment with either methyl atropine or bilateral vagotomy abolished the bradycardia effect but produced no significant effect on hypotension. The results demonstrated that the chip system successfully reset blood pressure in rats, and that the hypotension induced by the chip system was primarily independent on the bradycardia effect.

  18. Moxibustion regulates inflammatory mediators and colonic mucosal barrier in ulcerative colitis rats

    PubMed Central

    Ma, Tie-Ming; Xu, Na; Ma, Xian-De; Bai, Zeng-Hua; Tao, Xing; Yan, Hong-Chi

    2016-01-01

    AIM: To observe the efficacy and mechanism of grain-sized moxibustion at different acupoints in a rat model of ulcerative colitis (UC). METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into control, UC model, grain-sized moxibustion at a single acupoint (CV 12), grain-sized moxibustion at two acupoints (CV 12 and CV 4), grain-sized moxibustion at three acupoints (CV 12, CV 4, and ST 36), and medication groups (n = 8/group). The UC model was established by enema of trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid. Direct moxibustion was used once a day for 7 d. Disease activity index (DAI) was evaluated before and after the treatment. Morphologic changes of intestinal tissue were observed under an optical microscope. The expression of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-α and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase (p38MAPK) in colonic tissue was detected using Western blot, and the levels of occludin and zonula occludens-1 (ZO-1) mRNAs were detected using reverse transcription PCR. RESULTS: Compared with the control group, the intestinal mucosae were incomplete in the model group, glandular structures were irregular, and submucosae were edematous, hyperemic, and infiltrated with inflammatory cells. The DAI scores and expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were increased significantly in the model group compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were reduced significantly (Ps < 0.01). Compared with the model group, colonic mucosa and the arrangement of glands were complete and regular in the treatment groups. DAI scores and the expression of TNF-α and p38MAPK were reduced significantly in moxibustion groups compared to controls (Ps < 0.01), while the mRNA levels of occludin and ZO-1 were increased significantly (Ps < 0.01). The improvements in the above indices in the three acupoints group and the medication group were superior to those in the single and two acupoints groups (all P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: Reduction of TNF-α and p38MAPK and increased expression of

  19. Reduction in colon cancer risk by consumption of kava or kava fractions in carcinogen-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Triolet, Julie; Shaik, Ahmad Ali; Gallaher, Daniel D; O'Sullivan, Michael G; Xing, Chengguo

    2012-08-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that kava reduces colon cancer risk. However, no experimental studies of the chemopreventive properties of kava toward colon cancer have been reported. Further, there are concerns regarding hepatotoxicity of kava. The goal of this study was to determine whether kava consumption reduces markers of colon cancer in an animal model and to study the safety of kava. An ethanolic extract and polar and nonpolar fractions of the kava extract were fed to rats for 12 days prior to, during, and after administration of dimethylhydrazine, a colon-specific carcinogen. After 14 wk, rats fed the nonpolar extract had a significant reduction in precancerous lesions [aberrant crypt (AC) foci (ACF)] as well as large (≥ 4 AC/ACF) sialomucin-only expressing foci, an indicator of greater tumorigenic potential, compared to the control group. Groups fed the ethanolic extract and polar kava fraction trended toward reductions in ACF and large sialomucin-only expressing foci. The combined kava groups had significantly fewer total AC, ACF, large ACF, and large sialomucin-only expressing foci compared to the control group. Histological examination found no hepatic lesions in animals consuming the kava diets, suggesting that kava is safe to consume. Our results support that kava may reduce colon cancer risk.

  20. Impact of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 synthesis capacity on healing in rats with dextran sodium sulfate-induced colitis.

    PubMed

    Ağış, Erol R; Savaş, Berna; Melli, Mehmet

    2015-09-01

    Ulcerative colitis is a chronic inflammatory disease of the colon. This study evaluates the role of colonic mucosal lipoxin A4 (LXA4) synthesis in an experimental rat model of dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. Wistar rats were randomly assigned to four groups: healthy controls, DSS-induced colitis with no or vehicle therapy, misoprostol or 5-aminosalicylic acid (5-ASA) therapy groups. Disease severity and colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis was assessed specifically during the acute phase (day 5), chronic phase (day 15) and healing phases (day 19). Both misoprostol and 5-ASA reduced histopathologic score during the acute phase and reduced disease activity score at the healing phase. In addition, misoprostol reduced histopathologic score and colon weight/length ratio during the healing phase. Only misoprostol therapy increased colonic mucosal LXA4 synthesis. Furthermore, LXA4 levels correlated negatively with disease progression (R=-0.953). Collectively, our findings suggest that misoprostol-induced LXA4 synthesis may be favorable for the healing of ulcerative colitis.

  1. Regulation of biokinetics of (65)Zn by curcumin and zinc in experimentally induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Jain, Kinnri; Dhawan, Devinder K

    2014-10-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the role of curcumin and zinc on the biokinetics and biodistribution of (65)Zn during colon carcinogenesis. Male wistar rats were divided into five groups, namely normal control, 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) treated, DMH + curcumin treated, DMH + zinc treated, and DMH + curcumin + zinc treated. Weekly subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg/kg body weight) for 16 weeks initiated colon carcinogenesis. Curcumin (100 mg/kg body weight orally) and ZnSO4 (227 mg/L in drinking water) were supplemented for 16 weeks. This study revealed a significant depression in the fast (Tb1) and slow component (Tb2) of biological half-life of (65)Zn in the whole body of DMH-treated rats, whereas liver showed a significant elevation in these components. Further, DMH treatment showed a significant increase in the uptake values of (65)Zn in colon, small intestine, and kidneys. Subcellular distribution depicted a significant increase in (65)Zn uptake values in mitochondrial, microsomal, and postmicrosomal fractions of colon. However, curcumin and zinc supplementation when given separately or in combination reversed the trends and restored the uptake values close to normal range. Our study concludes that curcumin and zinc supplementation during colon carcinogenesis shall prove to be efficacious in regulating the altered zinc metabolism.

  2. Involvement of the dopaminergic system in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2015-09-25

    We have recently demonstrated that orexin acts centrally in the brain to induce antinociceptive action against colonic distension through orexin 1 receptors in conscious rats. Although the dopaminergic system can induce antinociceptive action for somatic pain, the association between changes in the dopaminergic system and visceral pain perception has not been investigated. In the present study, we hypothesized that the dopaminergic system may be involved in visceral nociception, and if so, the dopaminergic system may mediate the orexin-induced visceral antinociception. Visceral sensation was evaluated using the colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Intracisternal injection of D1 (SKF38398) or D2 (quinpirole) dopamine receptor agonist increased the threshold volume of colonic distension-induced AWR in a dose-dependent manner. Pretreatment with either the D1 or D2 dopamine receptor antagonist (SCH23390 or sulpiride, respectively) potently blocked the centrally injected orexin-A-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension. These results suggest for the first time that dopaminergic signaling via D1 and D2 dopamine receptors in the brain may induce visceral antinociception and that the dopaminergic signaling may be involved in the central orexin-induced antinociceptive action against colonic distension.

  3. The cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor etoricoxib is a potent chemopreventive agent of colon carcinogenesis in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Sharma, Pinky; Kaur, Jasmeet; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2009-01-01

    Cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2), an inducible prostaglandin G/H synthase, is overexpressed in several human cancers, including colon cancer, and therefore the potential ability of a selective COX-2 inhibitor, etoricoxib, is considered in the prevention of the 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in the rat model. DMH was injected s.c. for 6 weeks, whereas etoricoxib was fed orally to the rats on a daily basis. The results showed that DMH produced a very high number of multiple plaque lesions (MPLs), putative neoplastic biomarkers, localized throughout the colon, whereas considerable regression was observed with etoricoxib treatment. In addition, the etoricoxib group was the only group that exhibited very few of these lesions. Histopathological analysis revealed extreme dysplasia, a few adenomas, and other carcinogenic changes in the DMH group, which are distinctly absent in the etoricoxib-treated group. COX-2 was also seen to be highly expressed following DMH treatment. The DMH treatment caused very few apoptotic cells, as determined by the TUNEL assay of the colonic mucosa in paraffin sections whose number greatly increased following etoricoxib treatment. Because all these changes were clearly reversed by etoricoxib in DMH-treated animals, and the use of etoricoxib alone did not produce a neoplastic effect per se, it appears that etoricoxib, a selective COX-2 inhibitor, might be a safe and potentially chemopreventive agent in colon cancer.

  4. Resistant starch prevents colonic DNA damage induced by high dietary cooked red meat or casein in rats.

    PubMed

    Toden, Shusuke; Bird, Anthony R; Topping, David L; Conlon, Michael A

    2006-03-01

    In a previous study we have shown that high levels of dietary protein (as casein) result in increased levels of colonic DNA damage, measured by the comet assay, and thinning of the colonic mucus layer in rats when dietary resistant starch (RS) is negligible. Feeding RS abolishes these effects. This study aimed to establish whether a diet high in protein as cooked red meat would have similar effects and whether RS was protective. Rats were fed a diet containing 15% or 25% casein or 25% cooked lean red beef, each with or without the addition of 48% high amylose maize starch (a rich source of RS) for four weeks. As expected, high dietary casein caused a 2-fold increase in colonic DNA damage compared with a low casein diet and reduced the thickness of the colonic mucus layer by 41%. High levels of cooked meat caused 26% greater DNA damage than the high casein diet but reduced mucus thickness to a similar degree to casein. Addition of RS to the diet abolished the increase in DNA damage and the loss of colonic mucus thickness induced by either high protein diet. Cecal and fecal short chain fatty acid pools were also increased by inclusion of RS in the diet. Because DNA damage is an early step in the initiation of cancer, these findings suggest that increased DNA damage due to high dietary protein as cooked red meat or casein could increase colorectal cancer risk but inclusion of resistant starch in the diet could significantly reduce that risk.

  5. Effect of grape seed proanthocyanidins on colon aberrant crypts and breast tumors in a rat dual-organ tumor model.

    PubMed

    Singletary, K W; Meline, B

    2001-01-01

    Cancers of the colon and breast are two of the most prevalent cancers in developed countries. The present experiments were conducted to determine the influence of several dietary doses of grape seed proanthocyanidins on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced mammary tumorigenesis and azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation in a dual-organ tumor model. In addition, the effects of the grape seed proanthocyanidins on liver cytochrome P-450 1A and 2E1 and glutathione S-transferase activities and on colonic ornithine decarboxylase activity were examined to determine possible mechanisms of action. Feeding female rats diets containing 0.1-1.0% grape seed proanthocyanidins was associated with a significant 72-88% inhibition of AOM-induced aberrant crypt foci formation and a 20-56% inhibition of ornithine decarboxylase activity in the distal third of the colon. Feeding the grape proanthocyanidins resulted in no significant effect on the activity of liver cytochrome P-450 2E1. There was no effect of feeding these doses of proanthocyanidins on 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene-induced rat mammary tumorigenesis. This lack of action on mammary tumorigenesis in part may be due to lack of effect of dietary proanthocyanidins on the liver carcinogen-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P-450 1A and glutathione S-transferase. These results indicate that grape polyphenolics warrant further evaluation as potential colon cancer chemopreventive agents.

  6. [Effects of oculo-acupuncture therapy on colonic serotonin reuptake transporter expression in rats with irritable bowel syndrome].

    PubMed

    Song, Shi-yi; Wang, Yan-jie; Wang, De-shan; Chai, Ji-yan

    2011-04-01

    To investigate the effect of oculo-acupuncture therapy (OAT) on the alteration of colonic serotonin reuptake transporter (SERT) expression in rats with irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) so as to explore its underlying mechanism in relieving IBS. Thirty male Wistar rats were randomized into control, IBS model and OAT groups (n = 10/group). IBS model was established by repeated stress stimulation [water-intake inhibition (24 h), warm box keeping (40 degrees C,5 min), electric shock stimulation (30 V, 120 s), forced cool water swimming (14 t, 5 min), 24 h fasting, and tail clamping (180 s)] for 18 days. Oculo-acupuncture stimulation was given to "Xiajiao" (Lower Energizer), "Dachang" (Large Intestine), "Gan" (Liver) and "Pi" (Spleen) areas for 20 min by using filiform acupuncture needles (manipulated 1 min once every 10 min). The treatment was conducted once every 12 h for 7 days. Colonic SERT mRNA and protein expression levels were examined by RT-PCR and Western Blot. In comparison with the control group, the expression levels of both colonic SERT mRNA and protein in the model group were down-regulated remarkably (P < 0.05). Compared with the model group, the expression levels of SERT gene and protein in the OAT group were increased remarkably (P < 0.05). OAT can increase colonic SERT protein and gene expression in IBS rats, which may play a role in relieving IBS in OAT clinic.

  7. Changes in nitrergic and tachykininergic pathways in rat proximal colon in response to chronic treatment with otilonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Cipriani, G; Gibbons, S J; Saravanaperumal, S A; Malysz, J; Sha, L; Szurszewski, J H; Linden, D R; Evangelista, S; Faussone-Pellegrini, M S; Vannucchi, M G; Farrugia, G

    2015-07-01

    Otilonium bromide (OB) is used as a spasmolytic drug in the treatment of the functional bowel disorder irritable bowel syndrome. Although its acute effects on colonic relaxation are well-characterized, little is known about the effects of chronic administration of OB on enteric neurons, neuromuscular transmission, and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), key regulators of the gut function. Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with OB in drinking water at a dose of 2 mg/kg for 30 days. The colons of OB-treated and age-matched control rats were studied by confocal immunohistochemistry to detect immunoreactivity (IR) in myenteric plexus neurons for nitrergic and tachykininergic markers, and also by microelectrode electrophysiology. Using immunohistochemistry, chronic OB administration did not change total neuron number, assessed by anti-Hu IR, but resulted in a significant increase in NK1 receptor positive neurons, a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase expressing neurons, and a reduction in volume of substance P in nerve fibers in the myenteric plexus. Chronic OB administration potentiated inhibitory and excitatory junction potentials evoked by repetitive electrical field stimulation. The various types of colonic ICC, detected by Kit IR, were not altered nor were slow waves or smooth muscle membrane potential. Chronic treatment with OB caused significant changes in the nitrergic and tachykinergic components of the myenteric plexus and in both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the rat colon. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  8. Changes in Nitrergic and Tachykininergic Pathways in Rat Proximal Colon In Response to Chronic Treatment With Otilonium Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Cipriani, Gianluca; Gibbons, Simon J.; Arumugam, Saravanaperumal Siva; Malysz, John; Sha, Lei; Szurszewski, Joseph H.; Linden, David R.; Evangelista, Stefano; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana; Farrugia, Gianrico

    2015-01-01

    Background Otilonium bromide (OB) is used as a spasmolytic in the treatment of the functional bowel disorder irritable bowel syndrome. Although its acute effects on colonic relaxation are well-characterized, little is known about the effects of chronic administration of OB on enteric neurons, neuromuscular transmission, and interstitial cells of Cajal (ICC), key regulators of the gut function. Methods Adult Sprague-Dawley rats were treated with OB in drinking water at a dose of 2 mg/kg for 30 days. The colons of OB-treated and age-matched control rats were studied by confocal immunohistochemistry to detect immunoreactivity (IR) in myenteric plexus neurons for nitrergic and tachykininergic markers, and also by microelectrode electrophysiology. Results Using immunohistochemistry, chronic OB administration did not change total neuron number, assessed by anti-Hu IR, but resulted in a significant increase in NK1 receptor positive neurons, a decrease in neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS) expressing neurons, and a reduction in volume of substance P in nerve fibers in the myenteric plexus. Chronic OB administration potentiated inhibitory and excitatory junction potentials evoked by repetitive electrical field stimulation. The various types of colonic ICC, detected by Kit IR, were not altered nor were slow waves or smooth muscle membrane potential. Conclusions and Inferences Chronic treatment with OB caused significant changes in the nitrergic and tachykinergic components of the myenteric plexus and in both inhibitory and excitatory neurotransmission in the rat colon. PMID:25930994

  9. Beef tallow increases apoptosis and decreases aberrant crypt foci formation relative to soybean oil in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Khil, Jinmo; Gallaher, Daniel D

    2004-01-01

    Although epidemiological studies have implicated red meat as increasing colon cancer risk, animal studies have generally not been supportive of such an effect. This study examined red meat components, such as beef protein and tallow, on markers of colon cancer risk. Rats administered dimethylhydrazine were fed either casein or beef protein as the protein source and soybean oil or tallow as the fat source in a 2 2 factorial design for 9 wk. There were fewer preneoplastic lesions [aberrant crypt foci (ACF)] and a greater apoptotic labeling index (P < 0.05) in the distal colonic mucosa of rats fed tallow compared with soybean oil. Fecal bile acid concentrations were significantly lower in rats fed tallow compared with soybean oil. There were no significant differences in mucosal cell proliferation. No significant effects were found due to protein source or to interactions between fat and protein sources for ACF, cell proliferation labeling indexes, or bile acid concentrations. However, there was a significant protein by fat source interaction for the apoptotic labeling index. The decreased number of ACF, decreased fecal bile acid concentration, and increased mucosal apoptosis with tallow consumption are not consistent with a role for this fat in increasing risk of colon cancer.

  10. Expression Patterns of Cancer Stem Cell Markers During Specific Celecoxib Therapy in Multistep Rat Colon Carcinogenesis Bioassays.

    PubMed

    Salim, Elsayed I; Hegazi, Mona M; Kang, Jin Seok; Helmy, Hager M

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the role of colon cancer stem cells (CSCs) during chemicallyinduced rat multi-step colon carcinogenesis with or without the treatment with a specific cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitor drug (celecoxib). Two experiments were performed, the first, a short term 12 week colon carcinogenesis bioassay in which only surrogate markers for colon cancer, aberrant crypt foci (ACF) lesions, were formed. The other experiment was a medium term colon cancer rat assay in which tumors had developed after 32 weeks. Treatment with celecoxib lowered the numbers of ACF, as well as the tumor volumes and multiplicities after 32 weeks. Immunohistochemical proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) labeling indexes LI (%) were downregulated after treatment by celecoxib. Also different cell surface antigens known to associate with CSCs such as the epithelial cell adhesion molecule (EpCAM), CD44 and CD133 were compared between the two experiments and showed differential expression patterns depending on the stage of carcinogenesis and treatment with celecoxib. Flow cytometric analysis demonstrated that the numbers of CD133 cells were increased in the colonic epithelium after 12 weeks while those of CD44 but not CD133 cells were increased after 32 weeks. Moreover, aldehyde dehydrogenase-1 activity levels in the colonic epithelium (a known CSC marker) detected by ELISA assay were found down-regulated after 12 weeks, but were up-regulated after 32 weeks. The data have also shown that the protective effect of celecoxib on these specific markers and populations of CSCs and on other molecular processes such as apoptosis targeted by this drug may vary depending on the genetic and phenotypic stages of carcinogenesis. Therefore, uncovering these distinction roles of CSCs during different phases of carcinogenesis and during specific treatment could be useful for targeted therapy.

  11. Fish oil blocks azoxymethane-induced rat colon tumorigenesis by increasing cell differentiation and apoptosis rather than decreasing cell proliferation.

    PubMed

    Chang, W L; Chapkin, R S; Lupton, J R

    1998-03-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine whether the protective effect of fish oil against colon carcinogenesis is due to decreased proliferation, increased differentiation and/or increased apoptosis. Male Sprague Dawley rats (n = 260) were fed one of two oils (corn or fish) and two fibers (pectin or cellulose), plus or minus the carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM). Rats were killed at wk 18 (n = 80) or 36 (n = 180) for cytokinetic measurements. In vivo cell proliferation was measured by incorporation of bromodeoxyuridine into DNA, differentiation by binding of Dolichos biflorus agglutinin and apoptosis by immunoperoxidase detection of digoxigenin labeled genomic DNA. Fish oil resulted in a lower adenocarcinoma incidence (56.1 vs. 70.3%) compared with corn oil. There was no effect of fat or fiber on number of proliferative cells/crypt column in either the proximal or distal colon. In contrast, fish oil resulted in a greater degree of differentiation compared with corn oil in both colonic sites. In addition, fish oil resulted in a higher number of apoptotic cells/crypt column in both the proximal and distal colon as compared with corn oil. AOM treatment increased the ratio of proliferative cells/crypt column to apoptotic cells/crypt column in both the proximal and distal colon compared with saline controls. Fish oil, however, resulted in a lower ratio in both sites in the colon as compared with corn oil. These results suggest that an increase in apoptosis and differentiation, rather than a decrease in proliferation, accounts for the protective effect of fish oil against experimentally induced colon tumorigenesis.

  12. Dietary-feeding of Grape Seed Extract Prevents Azoxymethane-induced Colonic Aberrant Crypt Foci Formation in Fischer 344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Velmurugan, Balaiya; Singh, Rana P.; Agarwal, Rajesh; Agarwal, Chapla

    2010-01-01

    Chemoprevention by dietary agents/supplements has emerged as a novel approach to control various malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC). This study assessed dietary grape seed extract (GSE) effectiveness in preventing azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation and associated mechanisms in Fischer 344 rats. Six-week old rats were injected with AOM, and fed control diet or the one supplemented with 0.25% or 0.5% (w/w) GSE in pre- and post-AOM or only post-AOM experimental protocols. At 16 weeks of age, rats were sacrificed and colons were evaluated for ACF formation followed by cell proliferation, apoptosis and molecular analyses by immunohistochemistry. GSE-feeding caused strong chemopreventive efficacy against AOM-induced ACF formation in terms of upto 60% (P<0.001) reduction in number of ACF and 66% (P<0.001) reduction in crypt multiplicity. Mechanistic studies showed that GSE-feeding inhibited AOM-induced cell proliferation but enhanced apoptosis in colon including ACF, together with a strong decrease in cyclin D1, COX-2, iNOS and survivin levels. Additional studies showed that GSE-feeding also decreased AOM-caused increase in β-catenin and NF-κB levels in colon tissues. Compared to control animals, GSE alone treatment did not show any considerable change in these biological and molecular events in colon, and was non-toxic. Together, these findings show the chemopreventive efficacy of GSE against the early steps of colon carcinogenesis in rats via likely targeting of β-catenin and NF-κB signaling, and suggest its potential usefulness for the prevention of human CRC. PMID:20564341

  13. Calcium inhibits promotion by hot dog of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced mucin-depleted foci in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Santarelli, Raphaelle L; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M; Mirvish, Sidney S; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2013-12-01

    Epidemiology suggests that processed meat is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but few experimental studies support this association. We have shown that a model of cured meat made in a pilot workshop promotes preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the colon of rats. This study had two aims: to check if real store-bought processed meats also promote MDF, and to test if calcium carbonate, which suppresses heme-induced promotion, can suppress promotion by processed meat. A 14-day study was done to test the effect of nine purchased cured meats on fecal and urinary biomarkers associated with heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. Fecal water from rats given hot dog or fermented raw dry sausage was particularly cytotoxic. These two cured meats were thus given to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, to evaluate their effect on colorectal carcinogenesis. After a 100-days feeding period, fecal apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) were assayed and colons were scored for MDF. Hot dog diet increased fecal ATNC and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (3.0 ± 1.7 vs. 1.2 ± 1.4, p < 0.05). In a third study, addition of calcium carbonate (150 µmol/g) to the hot dog diet decreased the number of MDF/colon and fecal ATNC compared with the hot dog diet without calcium carbonate (1.2 ± 1.1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.4, respectively, p < 0.05). This is the first experimental evidence that a widely consumed processed meat promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. It also shows that dietary prevention of this detrimental effect is possible.

  14. Calcium Inhibits Promotion by Hot Dog of 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine-Induced Mucin-Depleted Foci in Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Santarelli, Raphaelle L.; Naud, Nathalie; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Zhou, Lin; Anwar, Muhammad M.; Mirvish, Sidney S.; Corpet, Denis E.; Pierre, Fabrice H.F.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiology suggests that processed meat is associated with colorectal cancer risk, but few experimental studies support this association. We have shown that a model of cured meat made in a pilot workshop promotes preneoplastic lesions, mucin-depleted foci (MDF) in the colon of rats. This study had two aims: to check if real store-bought processed meats also promote MDF, and to test if calcium carbonate, which suppresses heme-induced promotion, can suppress promotion by processed meat. A 14-day study was done to test the effect of nine purchased cured meats on fecal and urinary biomarkers associated with heme-induced carcinogenesis promotion. Fecal water from rats given hot dog or fermented raw dry sausage was particularly cytotoxic. These two cured meats were thus given to rats pretreated with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, to evaluate their effect on colorectal carcinogenesis. After a 100-d feeding period, fecal apparent total N-nitroso compounds (ATNC) were assayed and colons were scored for MDF. Hot dog diet increased fecal ATNC and the number of MDF per colon compared with the no-meat control diet (3.0±1.7 vs. 1.2±1.4, P<0.05). In a third study, addition of calcium carbonate (150 μmol/g) to the hot dog diet decreased the number of MDF/colon and fecal ATNC compared with the hot dog diet without calcium carbonate (1.2 ± 1.1 vs. 2.3 ± 1.4, respectively, P<0.05). This is the first experimental evidence that a widely consumed processed meat promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. It also shows that dietary prevention of this detrimental effect is possible. PMID:23712585

  15. Prevention of N-methylnitrosourea-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats by oxygenated carotenoid capsanthin and capsanthin-rich paprika juice.

    PubMed

    Narisawa, T; Fukaura, Y; Hasebe, M; Nomura, S; Oshima, S; Inakuma, T

    2000-06-01

    Epidemiological and animal studies have provided evidence that dietary carotenoids may reduce the risk of certain types of cancer. An inhibitory activity of oxygenated carotenoid capsanthin, a potent antioxidant, and paprika juice rich in capsanthin (3.54 mg/100 ml) against colon carcinogenesis was investigated in F344 rats. In Experiment I (short-term assay), six rats each were given a gavage of 5 mg, 0.2 mg, or 0.008 mg capsanthin six times a week for Weeks 2-6 after receiving three intrarectal doses of 4 mg N-methylnitrosourea in Week 1. The number of colonic aberrant crypt foci, preneoplastic lesions, at Week 6 was significantly fewer (by 42%) in the 0.2 mg capsanthin group, but not in other groups, than the control group. In Experiment II (long-term assay), five groups of 30 or 25 rats each received an intrarectal dose of 2 mg N-methylnitrosourea three times a week for Weeks 1-3, and had either of 10 p.p.m. or 2 p.p.m. capsanthin solutions, 1:2.5 and 1:16.7 diluted solution of paprika juice (containing 10 p.p.m. or 2 p.p.m. capsanthin), and tap water (control fluid) as drinking fluid throughout the experiment. The experimental groups were fed 0.2 mg or 0.04 mg capsanthin/day/rat. The colon cancer incidence at Week 30 was significantly lower in the highly diluted paprika juice group (40%), but not in the moderately diluted paprika juice group (60%) and the capsanthin solution groups (68% and 68%) than the control group (83%). The results suggested that paprika juice may affect colon carcinogenesis. However, capsanthin alone failed to inhibit colon tumorigenesis, in spite of suppression of aberrant crypt foci formation in the short-term assay. Further studies are needed to explain this discrepancy.

  16. Partially Hydrolyzed Guar Gum Increases Ferroportin Expression in the Colon of Anemic Growing Rats

    PubMed Central

    Carvalho, Luciana; Brait, Débora; Vaz, Márcia; Lollo, Pablo; Morato, Priscila; Oesterreich, Silvia; Raposo, Jorge; Freitas, Karine

    2017-01-01

    Studies have reported a positive effect of prebiotics on the bioavailability of iron. This study evaluated the effect of partially hydrolyzed guar gum (PHGG) on iron absorption mechanisms in anemic rats. Male Wistar rats were fed 75g American Institute of Nutrition Rodent Diets for growth, pregnancy and lactation (AIN93-G) without iron for three weeks in order to induce iron deficiency anemia. Then they were fed a control diet (n = 12; without fiber) or a diet with 7.5% of PHGG (n = 12), both without iron. Food intake, body growth and the feed efficiency coefficient (FEC) were measured. The animals were euthanized after two weeks of treatment. The weight of the organs, the pH of the cecal content, and the hepatic iron and ferroportin expression in the cecum, duodenum, and liver were assessed. The intake of PHGG reduced food intake without affecting body growth, and there was a difference between the groups regarding the FEC (p = 0.026), with the highest value found in the PHGG group. The weight of the cecal content increased (p ≤ 0.001) and the pH of the cecal content was significantly lower in the PHGG group. The intake of PHGG significantly increased ferroportin expression in the cecum;however, the difference was not significant in the duodenum and the liver. PHGG seems to have a positive influence on iron absorption through transporter expression, and structural and physiological changes in the colon of anemic growing animals. PMID:28273797

  17. Dietary polyamines promote the growth of azoxymethane-induced aberrant crypt foci in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Paulsen, J E; Reistad, R; Eliassen, K A; Sjaastad, O V; Alexander, J

    1997-10-01

    We have examined whether dietary polyamines influence the formation and initial growth of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rat colon. Effects of a combination of dietary polyamines at three dose levels (putrescine: 50, 280, 740 nmol/g; spermidine: 10, 261, 763 nmol/g; spermine: 1, 31, 91 nmol/g) in the polyamine-poor AIN-76A diet were studied in animals in two different experimental situations: animals treated with AOM alone and animals treated with AOM + difluoromethylornithine (DFMO), a specific inhibitor of endogenous polyamine synthesis. In both experimental situations, dietary polyamines enhanced the growth of ACF, expressed as the number of large ACF (foci with three or more aberrant crypts, ACF > or = 3), whereas the formation of ACF, expressed as the number of ACF, was apparently not altered. In animals treated with AOM alone, maximal growth enhancing effect on ACF was nearly obtained with the median level of dietary polyamine. In rats fed a low polyamine diet, basic AIN-76A, DFMO reduced the growth of AOM-induced ACF by 83%. This inhibitory effect of DFMO was counteracted by dietary polyamines in a dose-dependent manner, and it was abolished at the highest level of polyamines. In conclusion, it was demonstrated that dietary polyamines are able to enhance the growth of AOM-induced ACF. Further, dietary polyamines reversed the DFMO-caused inhibition of ACF growth, probably by compensating for the DFMO-reduced endogenous polyamine synthesis.

  18. Electroacupuncture attenuates visceral hyperalgesia and inhibits the enhanced excitability of colon specific sensory neurons in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Xu, G-Y; Winston, J H; Chen, J D Z

    2009-12-01

    The causes of irritable bowel syndrome remain elusive and there are few effective treatments for pain in this syndrome. Electroacupunture (EA) is used extensively for treatment of various painful conditions including chronic visceral hyperalgesia (CVH). However, mechanism of its analgesic effect remains unknown. This study was designed to investigate effect of EA on colon specific dorsal root ganglion (DRG) neurons in rats with CVH. CVH was induced by intracolonic injection of acetic acid (AA) in 10-day-old rats. Electromyography and patch clamp recordings were performed at age of 8-10 weeks. Colon DRG neurons were labelled by injection of DiI into the colon wall. EA was given at ST36 in both hindlimbs. As adults, neonatal AA-injected rats displayed an increased sensitivity to colorectal distension (CRD) and an enhanced excitability of colon DRG neurons. EA treatment for 40 min significantly attenuated the nociceptive responses to CRD in these rats; this attenuation was reversed by pretreatment with naloxone. EA treatment for 40 min per day for 5 days produced a prolonged analgesic effect and normalized the enhanced excitability of colon DRG neurons. Furthermore, in vitro application of [D-Ala(2), N-MePhe(4), Gly(5)-Ol] enkephalin (DAMGO) suppressed the enhanced excitability of colon neurons from rats with CVH. These findings suggest that EA produced-visceral analgesia, which might be mediated in a large part by endogenous opioids pathways, is associated with reversal of the enhanced excitability of colon DRG neurons in rats with CVH.

  19. Regional Differences in Chronic Stress-induced Alterations in Mast Cell and Protease-activated Receptor-2-positive Cell Numbers in the Colon of Ws/Ws Rats.

    PubMed

    Kim, Yong Sung; Lee, Moon Young; Ryu, Han Seung; Choi, Eul-Sig; Oh, Jung Taek; Yun, Ki Jung; Choi, Suck Chei

    2014-01-01

    There have been no reports on the effect of chronic psychological stress on colonic immune cells or the regional differences. We aimed to investigate the effect of chronic psychological stress on the number of mast cells and protease-activated receptor (PAR)-2-positive cells in the rat colonic mucosa. Six-week-old and 14-week-old Ws/Ws rats, which lack mast cells after 10 weeks, were used as control and mast cell-deficient groups, respectively. The rats were divided into stress and sham-treated groups. Rats in the stressed group were exposed to water avoidance stress (WAS, 1 hour/day) for 13 days. Fecal pellet output and the number of mast cells and PAR-2-positive cells in colonic mucosa were compared between the WAS and sham groups. In 6-week-old rats, the WAS group showed a significantly higher number of mast cells compared to the sham group. In 14-week-old rats, mast cells were nearly absent in the colonic mucosa. WAS significantly increased PAR-2-positive cells in 14-week-old rats, but not in 6-week-old rats. Indirect estimation of PAR-2-positive mast cells in 6-week-old rats suggested that the majority of increased mast cells following WAS did not express PAR-2. WAS increased mast cells and PAR-2-positive cells mainly in the proximal colon. Fecal pellet output was continuously higher in the WAS group than in the sham group, and the difference was significant for both 6-week-old and 14-week-old rats. Chronic psychological stress increased the number of mast cells and PAR-2-positive cells in rat colonic mucosa, and these increases were more prominent in the proximal colon.

  20. Comprehensive study of the intestinal stage of listeriosis in a rat ligated ileal loop system.

    PubMed

    Pron, B; Boumaila, C; Jaubert, F; Sarnacki, S; Monnet, J P; Berche, P; Gaillard, J L

    1998-02-01

    The intestinal stage of listeriosis was studied in a rat ligated ileal loop system. Listeria monocytogenes translocated to deep organs with similar efficiencies after inoculation of loops with or without Peyer's patches. Bacterial seeding of deep organs was demonstrated as early as 15 min after inoculation. It was dose dependent and nonspecific, as the delta inlAB, the delta hly, and the delta actA L. monocytogenes mutants and the nonpathogenic species, Listeria innocua, translocated similarly to wild-type L. monocytogenes strains. The levels of uptake of listeriae by Peyer's patches and villous intestine were similar and low, 50 to 250 CFU per cm2 of tissue. No listeria cells crossing the epithelial sheet of Peyer's patches and villous intestine were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The lack of significant interaction of listeriae and the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer's patches was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The follicular tissue of Peyer's patches was a preferential site of Listeria replication. With all doses tested, the rate of bacterial growth was 10 to 20 times higher in Peyer's patches than in villous intestine. At early stages of Peyer's patch infection, listeriae were observed inside mononuclear cells of the dome area. Listeriae then disseminated throughout the follicular tissue except for the germinal center. The virulence determinants hly and, to a lesser extent, actA, but not inlAB, were required for the completion of this process. This study suggests that Peyer's patches are preferential sites for replication rather than for entry of L. monocytogenes, due to the presence of highly permissive mononuclear cells whose nature remains to be defined.

  1. Comprehensive Study of the Intestinal Stage of Listeriosis in a Rat Ligated Ileal Loop System

    PubMed Central

    Pron, Benedicte; Boumaila, Claire; Jaubert, Francis; Sarnacki, Sabine; Monnet, Jean-Paul; Berche, Patrick; Gaillard, Jean-Louis

    1998-01-01

    The intestinal stage of listeriosis was studied in a rat ligated ileal loop system. Listeria monocytogenes translocated to deep organs with similar efficiencies after inoculation of loops with or without Peyer’s patches. Bacterial seeding of deep organs was demonstrated as early as 15 min after inoculation. It was dose dependent and nonspecific, as the ΔinlAB, the Δhly, and the ΔactA L. monocytogenes mutants and the nonpathogenic species, Listeria innocua, translocated similarly to wild-type L. monocytogenes strains. The levels of uptake of listeriae by Peyer’s patches and villous intestine were similar and low, 50 to 250 CFU per cm2 of tissue. No listeria cells crossing the epithelial sheet of Peyer’s patches and villous intestine were observed by transmission electron microscopy. The lack of significant interaction of listeriae and the follicle-associated epithelium of Peyer’s patches was confirmed by scanning electron microscopy. The follicular tissue of Peyer’s patches was a preferential site of Listeria replication. With all doses tested, the rate of bacterial growth was 10 to 20 times higher in Peyer’s patches than in villous intestine. At early stages of Peyer’s patch infection, listeriae were observed inside mononuclear cells of the dome area. Listeriae then disseminated throughout the follicular tissue except for the germinal center. The virulence determinants hly and, to a lesser extent, actA, but not inlAB, were required for the completion of this process. This study suggests that Peyer’s patches are preferential sites for replication rather than for entry of L. monocytogenes, due to the presence of highly permissive mononuclear cells whose nature remains to be defined. PMID:9453636

  2. Oral supplementation with troxerutin (trihydroxyethylrutin), modulates lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Vinothkumar, R; Vinoth Kumar, R; Karthikkumar, V; Viswanathan, P; Kabalimoorthy, J; Nalini, N

    2014-01-01

    The present study was aimed to investigate the chemopreventive potential of troxerutin on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced rat colon carcinogenesis by evaluating the antioxidant and lipid peroxidation (LPO) status. Rats were randomly divided into six groups. Group I rats served as control. Group II rats received troxerutin (50 mg/kgb.w., p.o.) for 16 weeks. Groups III-VI rats received subcutaneous injections of DMH (20 mg/kgb.w., s.c.) once a week, for the first 4 weeks. In addition to DMH, groups IV-VI rats received troxerutin at the doses of 12.5, 25 and 50 mg/kgb.w., respectively. In DMH treated rats, our results showed decreased activities of antioxidants and increased levels of LPO in the liver. Moreover, LPO and antioxidants in the colon were found to be significantly diminished in DMH the treated rats. Furthermore, enhanced activity of colonic vitamin C and vitamin E levels were observed in DMH alone treated rats (group III), which was significantly reversed on troxerutin supplementation. Troxerutin at the dose of 25 mg/kgb.w. had shown profound beneficial effects by exhibiting near normal biochemical profile and well-preserved colon histology as compared to the other two tested doses (12.5 and 50 mg/kgb.w.). These findings suggest that troxerutin could serve as a novel agent for colon cancer chemoprevention.

  3. Red Wine and Pomegranate Extracts Suppress Cured Meat Promotion of Colonic Mucin-Depleted Foci in Carcinogen-Induced Rats.

    PubMed

    Bastide, Nadia M; Naud, Nathalie; Nassy, Gilles; Vendeuvre, Jean-Luc; Taché, Sylviane; Guéraud, Françoise; Hobbs, Ditte A; Kuhnle, Gunter G; Corpet, Denis E; Pierre, Fabrice H F

    2017-01-01

    Processed meat intake is carcinogenic to humans. We have shown that intake of a workshop-made cured meat with erythorbate promotes colon carcinogenesis in rats. We speculated that polyphenols could inhibit this effect by limitation of endogenous lipid peroxidation and nitrosation. Polyphenol-rich plant extracts were added to the workshop-made cured meat and given for 14 days to rats and 100 days to azoxymethane-induced rats to evaluate the inhibition of preneoplastic lesions. Colons of 100-d study were scored for precancerous lesions (mucin-depleted foci, MDF), and biochemical end points of peroxidation and nitrosation were measured in urinary and fecal samples. In comparison with cured meat-fed rats, dried red wine, pomegranate extract, α-tocopherol added at one dose to cured meat and withdrawal of erythorbate significantly decreased the number of MDF per colon (but white grape and rosemary extracts did not). This protection was associated with the full suppression of fecal excretion of nitrosyl iron, suggesting that this nitroso compound might be a promoter of carcinogenesis. At optimized concentrations, the incorporation of these plant extracts in cured meat might reduce the risk of colorectal cancer associated with processed meat consumption.

  4. Mesenchymal stem cells promote tumor engraftment and metastatic colonization in rat osteosarcoma model.

    PubMed

    Tsukamoto, Shinji; Honoki, Kanya; Fujii, Hiromasa; Tohma, Yasuaki; Kido, Akira; Mori, Toshio; Tsujiuchi, Toshifumi; Tanaka, Yasuhito

    2012-01-01

    Although mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) are considered to be the cells of origin for most sarcomas, the role of MSCs as a source of tumor stroma is not fully understood in this tumor type. The current study investigated whether MSCs affect the tumor growth and metastatic ability in rat osteosarcoma model. Results from subcutaneous co-implantation of rat osteosarcoma COS1NR cells, established in our laboratory, with rat MSCs isolated from femur bone marrow showed that the incidence of tumor formation and tumor growth rate was higher until 5 weeks compared to COS1NR cell inoculation alone. However, no difference was observed in tumor growth afterwards and in the number of metastatic nodules at 9 weeks (0.75 vs. 1.2). Intravenous MSC injection at weeks 3 and 5 after subcutaneous inoculation of COS1NR cells significantly increased the number of lung nodules in the group with MSC injection compared to the group without MSC injection (17.33 vs. 2.0), while no difference was observed in subcutaneous tumor growth between those groups. Pathway analysis from gene expression profile identified that genes involved in focal adhesion, cytokine-cytokine receptor and extracellular matrix-receptor pathways such as CAMs (ICAM and VCAM)-integrins were highly expressed in MSCs, possibly participating in the tumor progression of osteosarcoma. These results suggest that MSCs could provide a source of microenvironments for osteosarcoma cells, and might enhance the ability of settlement and colonization which lead to early onset of growth and metastasis, possibly through their activated pathways interaction.

  5. Anticarcinogenic efficacy of phytic acid extracted from rice bran on azoxymethane-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Norazalina, S; Norhaizan, M E; Hairuszah, I; Norashareena, M S

    2010-05-01

    This study is carried out to determine the potential of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in the suppression of colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane (AOM) in rats. Seventy-two male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 6 groups with 12 rats in each group. The intended rats for cancer treatment received two intraperitoneal injections of AOM in saline (15mg/kg bodyweight) over a 2-week period. The treatments of phytic acid were given in two concentrations: 0.2% (w/v) and 0.5% (w/v) during the post-initiation phase of carcinogenesis phase via drinking water. The colons of the animals were analyzed for detection and quantification of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) after 8 weeks of treatment. The finding showed treatment with 0.2% (w/v) extract phytic acid (EPA) gave the greatest reduction in the formation of ACF. In addition, phytic acid significantly suppressed the number of ACF in the distal, middle and proximal colon as compared to AOM alone (p<0.05). For the histological classification of ACF, treatment with 0.5% (w/v) commercial phytic acid (CPA) had the highest percentage (71%) of non-dysplastic ACF followed by treatment with 0.2% (w/v) EPA (61%). Administration of phytic acid also reduced the incidence and multiplicity of total tumors even though there were no significant differences between groups. In conclusion, this study found the potential value of phytic acid extracted from rice bran in reducing colon cancer risk in rats.

  6. Extravirgin olive oil up-regulates CB₁ tumor suppressor gene in human colon cancer cells and in rat colon via epigenetic mechanisms.

    PubMed

    Di Francesco, Andrea; Falconi, Anastasia; Di Germanio, Clara; Micioni Di Bonaventura, Maria Vittoria; Costa, Antonio; Caramuta, Stefano; Del Carlo, Michele; Compagnone, Dario; Dainese, Enrico; Cifani, Carlo; Maccarrone, Mauro; D'Addario, Claudio

    2015-03-01

    Extravirgin olive oil (EVOO) represents the typical lipid source of the Mediterranean diet, an eating habit pattern that has been associated with a significant reduction of cancer risk. Diet is the more studied environmental factor in epigenetics, and many evidences suggest dysregulation of epigenetic pathways in cancer. The aim of our study was to investigate the effects of EVOO and its phenolic compounds on endocannabinoid system (ECS) gene expression via epigenetic regulation in both human colon cancer cells (Caco-2) and rats exposed to short- and long-term dietary EVOO. We observed a selective and transient up-regulation of CNR1 gene - encoding for type 1 cannabinoid receptor (CB₁) - that was evoked by exposure of Caco-2 cells to EVOO (100 ppm), its phenolic extracts (OPE, 50 μM) or authentic hydroxytyrosol (HT, 50 μM) for 24 h. None of the other major elements of the ECS (i.e., CB₂; GPR55 and TRPV1 receptors; and NAPE-PLD, DAGL, FAAH and MAGL enzymes) was affected at any time point. The stimulatory effect of OPE and HT on CB₁ expression was inversely correlated to DNA methylation at CNR1 promoter and was associated with reduced proliferation of Caco-2 cells. Interestingly, CNR1 gene was less expressed in Caco-2 cells when compared to normal colon mucosa cells, and again this effect was associated with higher level of DNA methylation at CNR1. Moreover, in agreement with the in vitro studies, we also observed a remarkable (~4-fold) and selective increase in CB₁ expression in the colon of rats receiving dietary EVOO supplementation for 10 days. Consistently, CpG methylation of rat Cnr1 promoter, miR23a and miR-301a, previously shown to be involved in the pathogenesis of colorectal cancer and predicted to target CB₁ mRNA, was reduced after EVOO administration down to ~50% of controls. Taken together, our findings demonstrating CB₁ gene expression modulation by EVOO or its phenolic compounds via epigenetic mechanism, both in vitro and in vivo, may

  7. Effect of high amylose maize starches on colonic fermentation and apoptotic response to DNA-damage in the colon of rats.

    PubMed

    Le Leu, Richard K; Hu, Ying; Brown, Ian L; Young, Graeme P

    2009-03-07

    We investigated in rats the effects of feeding different forms of high amylose maize starches (HAMS) rich in resistant starch (RS) to understand what the implications of RS heterogeneity might be for colonic biology, including innate cellular responses to DNA-damage. A range of maize starches were compared: digestible cornstarch (Control), HYLON® VII, Hi-maize® 1043, Hi-maize® 240, Hi-maize® 260 and NOVELOSE® 330. Included in the comparison was Cellulose. End-points after 4 weeks included: pH, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) levels, colonic epithelial cell kinetics and apoptotic response to carcinogen 'azoxymethane' in the colonic epithelium. The RS diets significantly increased SCFA and reduced pH in caecal content and faeces. Hi-maize 260 resulted in the highest butyrate concentrations. All RS diets prevented the mucosal atrophy as seen in the rats fed the Control diet. Epithelial cell turnover was increased in the Control and Cellulose groups compared to the Hi-maize 260, HYLON VII and NOVELOSE 330 groups (P < 0.01). The apoptotic response to azoxymethane was higher only in the Hi-maize 260 group compared to the Control group (P < 0.01). Butyrate correlated positively with the apoptotic response (P < 0.01). The consumption of RS elicits a range of beneficial physiological and protective effects associated with the fermentation of RS. Increased production of butyrate seems a likely explanation by which RS enhances the apoptotic response to carcinogen-induced DNA damage which is consistent with the proposed role of this SCFA in promoting a normal cell phenotype and preventing the development of abnormal cell populations.

  8. Closed-loop Continuous Infusions of Etomidate and Etomidate Analogs in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Cotten, Joseph F.; Le Ge, Ri; Banacos, Natalie; Pejo, Ervin; Husain, S. Shaukat; Williams, James H.; Raines, Douglas E.

    2012-01-01

    Background Etomidate is a sedative–hypnotic that is often given as a single intravenous bolus but rarely as an infusion because it suppresses adrenocortical function. Methoxycarbonyl etomidate and (R)-ethyl 1-(1-phenylethyl)-1H-pyrrole-2-carboxylate (carboetomidate) are etomidate analogs that do not produce significant adrenocortical suppression when given as a single bolus. However, the effects of continuous infusions on adrenocortical function are unknown. In this study, we compared the effects of continuous infusions of etomidate, methoxycarbonyl etomidate, and carboetomidate on adrenocortical function in a rat model. Methods A closed-loop system using the electroencephalographic burst suppression ratio as the feedback was used to administer continuous infusions of etomidate, methoxycarbonyl etomidate, or carboetomidate to Sprague–Dawley rats. Adrenocortical function was assessed during and after infusion by repetitively administering adrenocorticotropic hormone 1–24 and measuring serum corticosterone concentrations every 30 min. Results The sedative–hypnotic doses required to maintain a 40% burst suppression ratio in the presence of isoflurane, 1%, and the rate of burst suppression ratio recovery on infusion terminationvaried(methoxycarbonyletomidate>carboetomidate > etomidate). Serum corticosterone concentrations were reduced by 85% and 56% during 30-min infusions of etomidate and methoxycarbonyl etomidate, respectively. On infusion termination, serum corticosterone concentrations recovered within 30 min with methoxycarbonyl etomidate but persisted beyond an hour with etomidate. Carboetomidate had no effect on serum corticosterone concentrations during or after continuous infusion. Conclusions Our results suggest that methoxycarbonyl etomidate and carboetomidate may have clinical utility as sedative–hypnotic maintenance agents when hemodynamic stability is desirable. PMID:21572317

  9. Inhibitory effect of TongXie-YaoFang formula on colonic contraction in rats

    PubMed Central

    Yang, Cheng; Zhang, Sheng-Sheng; Li, Xiao-Ling; Wang, Zheng-Fang; Zhao, Lu-Qing

    2015-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the pharmacological effect of TongXie-YaoFang (TXYF) formula and its underlying mechanisms. METHODS: A neonatal maternal separation plus restraint stress (NMS + RS) model of diarrhea-predominant irritable bowel syndrome was developed by subjecting male Sprague-Dawley rats to daily maternal separation from postnatal days 2 to 21 plus restraint stress from days 50 to 59. Rats were randomly divided into two groups (NMS + RS and TXYF formula), and rats with no handling or separation were used as normal controls. Starting from postnatal day 60, rats were administered TXYF formula (9.84 g/100 g body weight) orally twice daily for 14 consecutive days, while the normal and NMS + RS groups were given distilled water. The distinctions of movement index (MI, area under the curve of contraction intensity/min, mg/min) and contraction frequency (CF, number of contractions/min, times/min) of isolated colonic longitudinal smooth muscle strips (CLSMs) in the three groups before and after treatment were observed with a Power Lab system. Different inhibitors were applied, and then 10-4 mol/L acetylcholine chloride (Ach) was added to CLSMs to induce muscle contraction. RESULTS: Before treatment, the MI of CLSMs in the NMS + RS and TXYF formula groups was similar and both higher than that in the normal group (545.49 ± 73.66 mg/min vs 245.76 ± 34.44 mg/min and 551.09 ± 54.29 mg/min vs 245.76 ± 34.44 mg/min, P < 0.01, respectively). After treatment, the MI in the TXYF formula group was lower than that in the NMS + RS group (261.39 ± 38.59 mg/min vs 533.9 ± 61.63 mg/min, P < 0.01). In the same way, the CF of CLSMs in the NMS + RS and TXYF formula groups was similar and both higher than that in the normal group (3.42 ± 0.25 times/min and 3.31 ± 0.21 vs 1.1 ± 0.17 times/min, P < 0.01) before treatment. After treatment, the CF in the TXYF formula group was lower than that in the NMS + RS group (1.42 ± 0.87 times/min vs 3.11 ± 0.82 times/min, P < 0.01) and

  10. Chemopreventive Effects of an HDAC2-Selective Inhibitor on Rat Colon Carcinogenesis and APCmin/+ Mouse Intestinal Tumorigenesis

    PubMed Central

    Ravillah, Durgadevi; Mohammed, Altaf; Qian, Li; Brewer, Misty; Zhang, Yuting; Biddick, Laura; Steele, Vernon E.

    2014-01-01

    Epigenetic modulators, particularly histone deacetylases (HDACs), are valid targets for cancer prevention and therapy. Recent studies report that HDAC2 overexpression is associated with colon tumor progression and is a potential target for colon cancer prevention. This study tested chemopreventive and dose-response effects of Ohio State University HDAC42 (OSU-HDAC42), a selective HDAC2 inhibitor, using a rat colon carcinogenesis model to assess aberrant crypt foci inhibition and a familial adenomatous polyposis model to assess intestinal tumor inhibition. Colonic aberrant crypt foci were induced by azoxymethane (AOM) (15 mg/kg body weight, once-weekly subcutaneous injections at 8 and 9 weeks age). One week after AOM treatment, groups of rats were fed an AIN-76A diet containing 0, 75, 150, and 300 ppm OSU-HDAC42 for 8 weeks, and colonic aberrant crypt foci were evaluated. To assess the inhibitory effect of OSU-HDAC42 on small-intestinal polyps and colon tumor growth, 6-week-old male C57Bl/6J-APCmin/+mice were fed an AIN-76A diet containing 150 ppm OSU-HADC42 or 300 ppm pan-HDAC inhibitor suberoylanilide hydroxyamic acid (SAHA) for 80 days. Our results demonstrate that dietary OSU-HDAC42 produced dose-dependent inhibition of AOM-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci formation (13–50%; P < 0.01 to < 0.0001) and reduced multiple crypts with ≥4 crypts per focus (25–57%; P < 0.01 to < 0.0001) in F344 rats. Our findings show that 150 ppm OSU-HDAC42 significantly inhibited small-intestinal polyps (>46%; P < 0.001), with polyp size measuring >1 mm (P < 0.001), and colon tumors (>26%) in APCmin/+mice, whereas 300 ppm SAHA showed nonsignificant inhibition. Mice fed 150 ppm OSU-HDAC42 had significantly decreased HDAC2, proliferating cell nuclear antigen, B cell lymphoma 2, cyclin-dependent kinase 2, and cell division cycle homolog 25C expression levels and increased p53 expression levels. These observations demonstrate the chemopreventive efficacy of OSU-HDAC42 against

  11. Cholecalciferol or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol neither prevents nor treats adenomas in a rat model of familial colon cancer.

    PubMed

    Irving, Amy A; Plum, Lori A; Blaser, William J; Ford, Madeline R; Weng, Chao; Clipson, Linda; DeLuca, Hector F; Dove, William F

    2015-02-01

    Epidemiologic studies in humans have shown associations between greater sunlight exposure, higher serum 25-hydroxycholecalciferol [25(OH)D3] concentrations, and reduced colon cancer risk. However, results from a limited number of vitamin D supplementation trials in humans have not shown a protective effect. We sought to determine whether adding to the diet increasing amounts of either 25(OH)D3, the stable metabolite measured in serum and associated with cancer risk, or cholecalciferol (vitamin D3), the compound commonly used for supplementation in humans, could reduce emergent adenomas (chemoprevention) or decrease the growth of existing adenomas (treatment) in the colons of vitamin D-sufficient rats carrying a truncation mutation of adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc), a model of early intestinal cancer. Apc(Pirc/+) rats were supplemented with either vitamin D3 over a range of 4 doses [6-1500 μg/(kg body weight · d)] or with 25(OH)D3 over a range of 6 doses [60-4500 μg/(kg body weight · d)] beginning after weaning. Rats underwent colonoscopy every other week to assess effects on adenoma number and size. At termination (140 d of age), the number of tumors in the small intestine and colon and the size of tumors in the colon were determined, and serum calcium and 25(OH)D3 measurements were obtained. At lower doses (those that did not affect body weight), neither of the vitamin D compounds reduced the number of existing or emergent colonic tumors (P-trend > 0.24). By contrast, supplementation at higher doses (those that caused a suppression in body weight gain) with either 25(OH)D3 or vitamin D3 caused a dose-dependent increase in colonic tumor number in both males and females (P-trend < 0.003). No evidence for protection against colon tumor development was seen with lower dose supplementation with either cholecalciferol or 25-hydroxycholecalciferol. Thus, the association between sunlight exposure and the incidence of colon cancer may involve factors other than

  12. [Effect of Electroacupuncture Intervention on Constipation-predominant Irritable Bow l Syndrome and Colonic CGRP and SP Expression in Rats].

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ya-nan; Zhao, Hai-jun; Wang, Yuan; Lu, Yan; Wang, Shi-jun

    2016-02-01

    To observe the effect of electroacupuncture (EA) intervention on constipation-predominant irritable bowel syndrome (C-IBS) and colonic calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) and substance P (SP) expression levels in IBS rats, so as to reveal its mechanism underlying improvement of lBS. A total of 32 male Wistar rats were equally ran-domized into normal control, model, EA-Shangjuxu (ST 37) and EA-Dachangshu (BL 25) groups. The C-IBS model was established according to Peng's methods (2004). EA (2 Hz/100 Hz, 0.1-0.2 mA) was applied to bilateral ST 37 and BL 25 for 30 min, once daily for 7 days. The stool properties (hardness or softness, water content, etc.) were typed (1-7 points) and the fecal water content was calculated by wet weight minus dry weight. The relative expression levels of CGRP and SP proteins in the colon tissues were detected by Western blot. Compared to the control group, the stool property score and stool water content were significantly lower in the model group (P < 0.01). After EA intervention, both stool property scores and stool water contents were obviously higher in the EA-ST 37 and EA-BL 25 groups than in the model group (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). The expression levels of colonic CGRP and SP proteins were significantly higher in the model group than in the control group, and obviously down-regulated in the two EA intervention groups (P < 0.01). No significant differences were found between the EA-ST 37 and EA-BL 25 groups in the stool property score and stool water content, and colonic CGRP and SP protein expression levels (P > 0.05). EA intervention can ameliorate the fecal property in C-IBS rats, which may be associated with its function in inhibi-ting the expression of colonic CGRP and SP proteins.

  13. Enhanced sympathetic nerve activity induced by neonatal colon inflammation induces gastric hypersensitivity and anxiety-like behavior in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Winston, John H; Sarna, Sushil K

    2016-07-01

    Gastric hypersensitivity (GHS) and anxiety are prevalent in functional dyspepsia patients; their underlying mechanisms remain unknown largely because of lack of availability of live visceral tissues from human subjects. Recently, we demonstrated in a preclinical model that rats subjected to neonatal colon inflammation show increased basal plasma norepinephrine (NE), which contributes to GHS through the upregulation of nerve growth factor (NGF) expression in the gastric fundus. We tested the hypothesis that neonatal colon inflammation increases anxiety-like behavior and sympathetic nervous system activity, which upregulates the expression of NGF to induce GHS in adult life. Chemical sympathectomy, but not adrenalectomy, suppressed the elevated NGF expression in the fundus muscularis externa and GHS. The measurement of heart rate variability showed a significant increase in the low frequency-to-high frequency ratio in GHS vs. the control rats. Stimulus-evoked release of NE from the fundus muscularis externa strips was significantly greater in GHS than in the control rats. Tyrosine hydroxylase expression was increased in the celiac ganglia of the GHS vs. the control rats. We found an increase in trait but not stress-induced anxiety-like behavior in GHS rats in an elevated plus maze. We concluded that neonatal programming triggered by colon inflammation upregulates tyrosine hydroxylase in the celiac ganglia, which upregulates the release of NE in the gastric fundus muscularis externa. The increase of NE release from the sympathetic nerve terminals concentration dependently upregulates NGF, which proportionately increases the visceromotor response to gastric distention. Neonatal programming concurrently increases anxiety-like behavior in GHS rats. Copyright © 2016 the American Physiological Society.

  14. In vitro effects of wood creosote on enterotoxin-induced secretion measured electrophysiologically in the rat jejunum and colon.

    PubMed

    Kuge, T; Venkova, K; Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B

    2001-06-01

    Secretory diarrhea occurs when the balance between intestinal absorption and secretion is disturbed by excessive secretion caused by enterotoxins produced by the pathogen. Wood creosote has long been used as a traditional antidiarrheal remedy. The goal of our study was to extend our knowledge about the antisecretory action of wood creosote against Escherichia coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in the small intestine and colon. Experiments were performed in mucosal sheets of rat jejunum and colon which were stripped of the external muscle layers to eliminate interactions with smooth muscle activity and local blood flow. Mucosal sheets were placed in modified Ussing chambers and hypersecretory conditions were induced by heat-labile (LT) or heat-stable (STa) E. coli enterotoxins added cumulatively (0.01-10 microg/ml) to the mucosal bathing solution. Intestinal secretion was monitored electrophysiologically as transmucosal short circuit current (Isc). LT induced a concentration-dependent increase in Isc in the rat jejunum, with no effect in the colon. In contrast, STa induced a significant increase in colonic Isc, without causing any change in Isc across the jejunum. In separate experiments the effects of increasing concentrations of wood creosote (0.1-50 microg/ml), added to the mucosal or serosal bathing solution, were examined against the secretory responses induced by LT or STa. In the small intestine the antisecretory activity of wood creosote against LT-induced secretion was more potent following serosal application, whereas in the colon wood creosote inhibited STa-induced secretion with equal potency following either serosal or mucosal addition. In summary, our findings demonstrate that wood creosote possesses antidiarrheal activity suppressing E. coli enterotoxin-induced secretion in both the small intestine and colon.

  15. Amylase-binding proteins A (AbpA) and B (AbpB) differentially affect colonization of rats' teeth by Streptococcus gordonii.

    PubMed

    Tanzer, J M; Grant, L; Thompson, A; Li, L; Rogers, J D; Haase, E M; Scannapieco, F A

    2003-09-01

    Streptococcus gordonii produces two alpha-amylase-binding proteins, AbpA and AbpB, that have been extensively studied in vitro. Little is known, however, about their significance in oral colonization and cariogenicity (virulence). To clarify these issues, weanling specific pathogen-free Osborne-Mendel rats, TAN : SPFOM(OM)BR, were inoculated either with wild-type strains FAS4-S or Challis-S or with strains having isogenic mutations of abpA, abpB, or both, to compare their colonization abilities and persistence on the teeth. Experiments were done with rats fed a sucrose-rich diet containing low amounts of starch or containing only starch. The mutants and wild-types were quantified in vivo and carious lesions were scored. In 11 experiments, S. gordonii was a prolific colonizer of the teeth when rats were fed the sucrose (with low starch)-supplemented diet, often dominating the flora. Sucrose-fed rats had several-fold higher recoveries of inoculants than those eating the sucrose-free, starch-supplemented diet, regardless of inoculant type. The strain defective in AbpB could not colonize teeth of starch-only-eating rats, but could colonize rats if sucrose was added to the diet. Strains defective in AbpA surprisingly colonized better than their wild-types. A double mutant deficient in both AbpA and AbpB (abpA/abpB) colonized like its wild-type. Wild-types FAS4-S and Challis-S had no more than marginal cariogenicity. Notably, in the absence of AbpA, cariogenicity was slightly augmented. Both the rescue of colonization by the AbpB- mutant and the augmentation of colonization by AbpA- mutant in the presence of dietary sucrose suggested additional amylase-binding protein interactions relevant to colonization. Glucosyltransferase activity was greater in mutants defective in abpA and modestly increased in the abpB mutant. It was concluded that AbpB is required for colonization of teeth of starch-eating rats and its deletion is partially masked if rats eat a sucrose

  16. Virulence-related physiological changes and antigenic variation in populations of Streptococcus mutans colonizing gnotobiotic rats.

    PubMed

    Gibbons, R J; Qureshi, J V

    1980-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to determine if populations of Streptococcus mutans which were undergoing antigenic variation while colonizing gnotobiotic rats concomitantly became altered in physiological characteristics which affected their virulence. S. mutans strain JBP (serotype c), which was freshly isolated from a carious lesion in a 6-year old child, was used to inoculate gnotobiotic rats; uninfected animals served as controls. Substrains were isolated from animals 1, 2, 3, 4, and 12 weeks after infection; samples of pilocarpine-stimulated saliva were also obtained from representative animals for antibody analyses. Isolates derived from stock cultures of strain JBP proved to be homogeneous with respect to all of the physiological characteristics monitored. However, substrains isolated from the animals within 4 weeks after infection were altered with respect to their ability to agglutinate in the presence of sucrose, their ability to form adherent growth in sucrose broth, and the terminal pH attained in glucose broth. Some isolates obtained 12 weeks after infection no longer synthesized detectable levels of c antigen or intracellular glycogen, and they formed atypical smooth colonies on mitis salivarius agar. With an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, low levels of immunoglobulin A (IgA) antibodies reactive with whole JBP cells were detected in saliva samples of uninfected control animals at each sampling period; these evidently were induced to antigens contained in the diet of the animals. Significantly higher levels of IgA antibodies were present in saliva samples from animals infected with strain JBP for 3 weeks or longer. Thus, the emergence of antigenic and physiological variants of S. mutans in the animals was paralleled by increased levels of salivary IgA antibodies. The reactivity of salivary IgG with JBP cells was low, and it fluctuated in both groups of animals. No antibodies of the IgM class were detected. When tested in gnotobiotic rats, several

  17. Multiple mucin depleted foci, high proliferation and low apoptotic response in the onset of colon carcinogenesis of the PIRC rat, mutated in Apc.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Soares, Paulo Victoria; Lodovici, Maura; Caderni, Giovanna

    2015-03-15

    PIRC rats (F344/NTac-Apc (am1137) ) mutated in the Apc gene spontaneously develop colon tumors thus mimicking familial adenomatous polyposis (FAP) and sporadic colorectal cancer (CRC) more closely than Apc-based rodent models developing tumors mostly in the small intestine. To understand whether microscopic dysplastic lesions precede the development of macroscopic tumors, PIRC rat colon was examined for the presence of mucin depleted foci (MDF), microadenomas of the rodent and human colon. Few MDF (about 4/animal) were already present in 1-month-old rats and their number rapidly increases to about 250 in 8-month-old rats. These lesions showed Wnt signaling activation (nuclear β-catenin accumulation) and were dramatically decreased by sulindac (320 ppm), a drug with chemopreventive activity (MDF/rat at 4 months: 156 ± 8 and 38 ± 6 in controls and sulindac-treated rats, respectively, means ± SE, p < 0.001). Since altered proliferation and apoptosis could underlie the early phases of carcinogenesis, we studied these processes in the apparently normal colon mucosa (NM) of 1-month-old PIRC and wt rats. Colon proliferation (PCNA expression) was significantly higher in PIRC rats. Notably, PIRC rat NM showed resistance to apoptosis since it sustained proliferation and had lower apoptosis after a cytotoxic insult with 1,2 dimethylhydrazine. Gene expression of Myc, p21, Birc5, Ogg1, Apex1 and Sod2 were significantly up-regulated in the NM of PIRC rat. The overall results put forward PIRC rat as useful model of colon carcinogenesis, either to study the process itself or to test in vivo chemopreventive agents in both short- and long-term studies.

  18. Effects of di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate exposure on 1,2-dimethyhydrazine-induced colon tumor promotion in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Hsin-Pao; Pan, Min-Hsiung; Chou, Yuan-Yi; Sung, Chieh; Lee, Kuo-Hsin; Leung, Chung-Man; Hsu, Ping-Chi

    2017-05-01

    Di(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate (DEHP) may cause carcinogenicity in the liver; however, few have detailed on the potential effects of DEHP exposure on colorectal cancer. Male Sprague-Dawley rats received i.p. injections of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) once-a-week for the first 4 weeks, and rats in each group were treated with DEHP through oral gavage daily for either 7, 10 or 15 weeks; after which, all rats were euthanized and their colons were assessed (a) morphologically for aberrant crypt foci (ACF) or tumors, (b) cytologically for mitotic index (MI), and (c) immunohistochemically for the expression of β-catenin, cyclooygenase (COX)-2, vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, and c-myc. Our results indicated that the mean total ACF, tumor incidence, and MI were significantly higher in the DEHP-treated DMH compared to control and the DEHP-alone groups. The level of β-catenin and cyclin D1 was increased in DEHP-exposed rats. Expression of β-catenin, COX-2, VEGF, and cyclin D1 was significantly higher in the combined DMH and DEHP-treated rats by comparison to that of the DMH group. In conclusion, this study indicates that exposure to DEHP may exacerbate DMH-induced colon tumorigenesis and provides impetus to evaluate the effect of DEHP in conjunction with other carcinogens.

  19. Preventive effects of chrysin on the development of azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats.

    PubMed

    Miyamoto, Shingo; Kohno, Hiroyuki; Suzuki, Rikako; Sugie, Shigeyuki; Murakami, Akira; Ohigashi, Hajime; Tanaka, Takuji

    2006-05-01

    The modifying effects of dietary feeding with chrysin (5,7-dihydroxyflavone) on the development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) were investigated in male F344 rats. We also assessed the effect of chrysin on mitosis and apoptosis in 'normal appearing' crypts. To induce ACF, rats were given two weekly subcutaneous injections of AOM (20 mg/kg body weight). They also received an experimental diet containing chrysin (0.001 or 0.01%) for 4 weeks, starting 1 week before the first dose of AOM. AOM exposure produced a substantial number of ACF (73+/-13/rat) at the end of the study (week 4). Dietary administration of chrysin caused significant reduction in the frequency of ACF: 0.001% chrysin, 37+/-17/rat (49% reduction, P<0.001); and 0.01% chrysin, 40+/-10/rat (45% reduction, P<0.001). In addition, chrysin administration significantly reduced the mitotic index and significantly increased the apoptotic index in 'normal appearing' crypts. These findings might suggest a possible chemopreventive activity of chrysin in the early step of colon tumorigenesis through modulation of cryptal cell proliferation activity and apoptosis.

  20. Dose-dependent effect of oregano (Origanum vulgare L.) on lipid peroxidation and antioxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Srihari, Thummala; Sengottuvelan, Murugan; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2008-06-01

    Colon cancer is a major cause of morbidity and mortality in developed and developing countries. Diet and dietary constituents play a major role in the aetiology of colon cancer. We have investigated the effect of an aqueous extract of oregano (Origanum vulgare. L.) on lipid peroxidation and anti-oxidant status in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. We aimed to identify the important antioxidants present in Indian oregano using RP-HPLC. DMH (20 mgkg(-1)) was administered subcutaneously once a week for the first four weeks and then discontinued. Oregano was supplemented every day orally at a dose of 20, 40 or 60 mgkg(-1) to different groups of rats for 15 weeks. After this time the rats were killed and the colons were examined visually and evaluated biochemically. The levels of lipid peroxidation products, such as thiobarbituric acid reactive substances and conjugated dienes were significantly higher in the liver whereas in caecum and colon the levels were lower in DMH-treated animals as compared with control rats. The levels of the anti-oxidants superoxide dismutase, catalase, reduced glutathione, glutathione reductase, glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase were decreased in DMH-treated rats, but were significantly reversed on oregano supplementation. Oregano supplementation (40 mgkg(-1)) had a modulatory role on tissue lipid peroxidation and antioxidant profile in colon cancer-bearing rats, which suggested a possible anti-cancer property of oregano.

  1. Exclusion of the RET proto-oncogene as candidate for total colonic aganglionsis in the spotting lethal (sl) rat strain

    SciTech Connect

    Ceccherini, I.; Matera, I.; Devoto, M.

    1994-09-01

    Causative germline mutations and deletions of the RET proto-oncogene have been demonstrated in a number of Hirschsprung disease (HSCR) patients showing either short- or long-segment intestinal aganglionosis, including both sporadic and familial cases with an autosomal dominant mode of inheritance. The spotting lethal (sl) rats show autosomal recessive recurrence of total colonic aganglionosis which resembles the long-segment HSCR type in humans with 100% mortality of the homozygotes at 4-5 weeks of age. Heterozygotes were backcrossed with DA rats and the F2 offspring was used to test the possible cosegregation of the aganglionosis and the RET proto-oncogene. A genomic DNA fragment of the rat RET gene was amplified using degenerated oligonucleotides, subcloned and sequenced. The coding portion of this DNA fragment (300bp) shares 93% and 81% of its amino acids with the murine and human RET proto-oncogene, respectively. An A{yields}G transition in the third nucleotide of the alanine codon corresponding to amino acid Glu90 of the human RET gene was identified in the sl but not in the wild type DA strain. This mutation creates a Bsp 1286I restriction site. Restriction analysis performed on 57 affected rats (mutated homozygotes) of the F2 generation revealed independent segregation between the rat colonic aganglionosis gene and RET, thus allowing the exclusion of the latter proto-oncogene as candidate for the mutation present in the sl rat strain. Several different candidate rat chromosomal regions are being analyzed in order to proceed with the mapping of the genetic defect in the sl rats.

  2. The nutritive effect of glucose on teh structure and function of jejunal self-emptying blind loops in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Menge, H; Werner, H; Lorenz-Meyer, H; Riecken, E O

    1975-01-01

    In an attempt to obtain further information on the influence of the intestinal contents on the development of mucosal structure and function, self-emptying blind loops of rat jejunum were constructed, and the oral end was exteriorized with a stoma to permit infusion of different solutions into the loop. Ringer solution or media containing glucose or galactose was instilled into the loops three times daily for 27 days before functional and structural examination of the loops. The body weight and food intake of the animals did not differ significantly from one group to another. Treatment with glucose, but not with galactose or Ringer solution alone, induced a significant increase in the villus height. Disaccharidase but not dipeptidase activity was concomitantly increased. Infusion of glucose or galactose both led to an increase in the transport capacity of the loop, as determined by glucose absorption in vivo. These results indicate that glucose has a nutritive effect, probably due to its intracellular metabolism, which is responsible for the structural alterations observed. On the other hand, the increase in transport capacity may be attributed to substrate-induced stimulation of the specific monosaccharide transport system in the epithelial cell. PMID:1150116

  3. A genome-wide survey on basic helix-loop-helix transcription factors in rat and mouse.

    PubMed

    Zheng, Xiaodong; Zheng, X; Wang, Yong; Wang, Y; Yao, Qin; Yao, Q; Yang, Zhe; Yang, Z; Chen, Keping; Chen, K

    2009-04-01

    The basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) proteins play essential roles in a wide range of developmental processes in higher organisms. bHLH family members have been identified in over 20 organisms, including nematode, fruit fly, and human. Our study identified 114 rat and 14 additional mouse bHLH members in rat and mouse genomes, respectively. Phylogenetic analyses revealed that both rat and mouse had 49, 26, 15, 4, 12, and 4 bHLH members in groups A, B, C, D, E, and F, respectively. Only the rat Mxi1 gene has two copies in the genome. All other rat bHLH genes and all mouse bHLH genes are single-copy genes. The chromosomal distribution pattern of mouse, rat, and human bHLH genes suggests the emergence of some bHLH genes through gene duplication, which probably happened at least before the divergence of vertebrates from invertebrates. The present study provides useful information for future studies using rat as a model animal for mammalian development.

  4. [Vaccination by suicide gene therapy against a model of hepatic metastasis from colon cancer in the rat].

    PubMed

    Gavelli, A; Baqué, P; Mala, M; Saint-Paul, M C; Staccini, P; Brossette, N; Chazal, M; Milano, G; Gugenheim, J; Benchimol, D; Bourgeon, A; Huguet, C; Rossi, B; Pierrefite-Carle, V

    2000-07-01

    Suicide gene therapy consists of transferring into tumor cells a viral or bacterial gene encoding for an enzyme which converts a non-toxic product into a lethal drug. To analyze the therapeutic potential of vaccination with tumor cells expressing the bacterial cytosine deaminase (CD) gene and 5-fluorocytosine (5-FC) treatment in a rat liver metastasis model. We used a rat colon carcinoma cell line which, after subcapsular or intraportal injection in syngenic animals, generates single or multiple experimental liver metastases, respectively. We have shown that introduction of a vector expressing the CD gene in this colon carcinoma cell line results in 5-FC sensitivity (PRObCD). Intrahepatic subcapsular injection of PRObCD tumor cells, followed by 5-FC treatment, induces total regression of a wild-type tumor pre-established in the contralateral liver lobe in 45% of animals with a 96% decrease in mean volume (p < 0.0001), demonstrating the existence of a distant bystander effect. This vaccination significantly increased the survival of rats with single (log-rank p < 0.0001) or multiple (log-rank p = 0.01) liver metastasis These results suggest that suicide gene-modified tumor cells can act as potent therapeutic vaccines against liver metastasis from colon carcinoma.

  5. Suppression of colonic aberrant crypt foci by soy isoflavones is dose-independent in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    PubMed

    Min, Won-Kyung; Sung, Hye-Young; Choi, Young-Sun

    2010-06-01

    The potential of soy isoflavones (SIs) to reduce colon cancer has been investigated in animal models. These studies have found that outcomes are variable and depend on SI dose. The present study investigated dose-response effects of SIs on colon carcinogenesis in a chemically induced rat cancer model. Sprague-Dawley male rats were injected with 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) and were provided experimental diets that contained 0, 10, 50, 150, or 500 mg of SI aglycones/kg of diet for 12 weeks. Plasma concentrations of genistein, daidzein, and equol were determined using time-resolved fluoroimmunoassay. Plasma concentrations of these SIs tended to increase in a dose-dependent manner in DMH-treated rats. The numbers of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and the expression of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) proteins of colons were significantly decreased in the SI-fed groups compared with the control group; however, suppression was not dose-dependent. Furthermore, there were no significant correlations between plasma SI concentrations and ACF or COX-2 expression. Increased SI intake and increased plasma levels of SIs and metabolites were not associated with tissue levels of lipid peroxidation. We conclude that dietary supplementation of SIs suppresses DMH-induced ACF formation and COX-2 expression in a dose-independent manner.

  6. Anticarcinogenic Effect of Corn Tortilla Against 1,2-Dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-Induced Colon Carcinogenesis in Sprague-Dawley Rats.

    PubMed

    Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Guerrero-Villanueva, Guadalupe; Figueroa, Juan de Dios; Gallegos-Corona, Marco A; Mendoza, Sandra; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe; Ramos-Gomez, Minerva

    2015-06-01

    Mexico has the highest per capita consumption of corn in the world, which is consumed mainly as tortilla. However, only a few in vivo studies have demonstrated the anticarcinogenic potential of some maize components against colon cancer, but not as a whole food product. Therefore, our objective was to evaluate the protective effect of corn tortillas against the development of colon cancer. First, blue, red, yellow and white corn grains were lime-cooked and processed to elaborate tortillas. Then, tortillas were administered into the diet (27% w/w) to male Sprague-Dawley rats induced with the colon carcinogen 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH). Our results indicated that consumption of tortillas, particularly from white and blue corns, significantly decreased adenocarcinoma incidence (up to 77.5%) and mean number compared to DMH-treated animals. In addition, an inhibition of β-glucuronidase activity, and induction of detoxifying enzymes in liver and colon, as well as a decrease in the expression of the two most important proliferative proteins (K-ras and β-catenin) involved in colon carcinogenesis, were also observed. These results highlight some of the molecular mechanisms related to the chemopreventive effect of tortillas, thus indicating that corn products retain their biological properties even after nixtamalization and tortilla processing.

  7. Chemopreventive effects of aloin against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Hamiza, O O; Rehman, M U; Khan, R; Tahir, M; Khan, A Q; Lateef, A; Sultana, S

    2014-02-01

    Chemoprevention opens new window in the prevention of all types of cancers including colon cancer. Aloin, an anthracycline in plant pigment, can be utilized as a protective agent in cancer induction. In the present study, we have evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of aloin against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced preneoplastic lesions in the colon of Wistar rats. DMH-induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) and mucin-depleted foci (MDF) have been used as biomarkers of colon cancer. Efficacy of aloin against the colon toxicity was evaluated in terms of biochemical estimation of antioxidant enzyme activities, lipid peroxidation, ACF, MDF, histopathological changes, and expression levels of molecular markers of inflammation and tumor promotion. Aloin pretreatment ameliorates the damaging effects induced by DMH through a protective mechanism that involved reduction in increased oxidative stress enzymes (p < 0.001), ACF, MDF, cyclooxygenase-2, inducible nitric oxide synthase, interleukin-6, proliferating cell nuclear antigen protein expression, and tumor necrosis factor-α (p < 0.001) release. From the results, it could be concluded that aloin clearly protects against chemically induced colon toxicity and acts reasonably by inducing antioxidant level, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative markers.

  8. Yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 reduce the early phases of colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    da Silva Almeida, Ana Paula; Avi, Camilla Martins; Barbisan, Luís Fernando; de Moura, Nelci Antunes; Caetano, Brunno Felipe Ramos; Romualdo, Guilherme Ribeiro; Sivieri, Kátia

    2015-08-01

    The modifying effects of aqueous yacon extract (AYE) and Lactobacillus acidophilus CRL 1014 against colon carcinogenesis induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in male Wistar rats were investigated. Animals were allocated into five groups: G1: untreated group; G2: DMH-treated group; G3: DMH+L. acidophilus-treated group; G4: DMH+AYE-treated group; G5: DMH+L. acidophilus and AYE-treated group. A significant reduction (p<0.05) in leukocyte DNA damage and in colonic cell proliferation was observed after the first DMH administration in G3 (probiotic), G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. In this moment, a significant increase (p<0.05) in colonic apoptosis was also observed in G3 (probiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. In special, at five months after DMH administrations, a significant reduction (p<0.05) in ACF development was observed in G3 (probiotic), G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups. Incidence of colon tumors was lower at five months in G4 (prebiotic) and G5 (synbiotic) groups but not in eight months after DMH administrations. In conclusion, the findings suggest that the oral treatments have potential effects as a chemopreventive agent against colon carcinogenesis on an early stage of tumor development. Copyright © 2015. Published by Elsevier Ltd.

  9. Chemopreventive efficacy of green tea drinking against 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H

    2013-04-01

    Colorectal cancer is one of the leading causes of tumour-related deaths. In the present study, the chemopreventive effect of green tea on 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis was studied in male Wistar rats. The DMH group received subcutaneous injections of DMH (30 mg kg(-1) body weight) once a week for 30 weeks, the normal group received the vehicle of DMH, and the DMH + green tea group received DMH simultaneously with 1% green tea as their sole source of drinking fluid throughout the experimental period. In the DMH group treated with green tea, significant reductions in gene overexpressions of colonic nuclear factor κB (NF-κB), tumour necrosis factor α, inducible nitric oxide synthase and cyclooxygenase 2, and NF-κB immunostaining indicates the anti-inflammatory effect of green tea in attenuating colon cancer. Moreover, the anti-angiogenic and anti-invasiveness effects of green tea were revealed as reductions of both vascular endothelial growth factor and matrix metalloproteinase-7 mRNA expression levels. These effects were confirmed by the significant reduction of serum tumour necrosis factor α, C-reactive protein levels, inhibition of tumour incidence, and nearly normal survival rate and colonic architecture. It can be concluded that green tea exerts a potent chemopreventive effect on colon carcinogenesis possibly due to the inhibition of NF-κB.

  10. Potassium secretion in rat distal colon during dietary potassium loading: role of pH regulated apical potassium channels

    PubMed Central

    Sandle, G; Butterfield, I

    1999-01-01

    Background—Chronic dietary K+ loading increases the abundance of large conductance (210 pS) apical K+ channels in surface cells of rat distal colon, resulting in enhanced K+ secretion in this epithelium. However, the factors involved in the regulation of these K+ channels are at present unclear. 
Aims—To evaluate the effect of dietary K+ loading on intracellular pH and its relation to large conductance apical K+ channel activity in surface cells of rat distal colon. 
Methods/Results—As assessed by fluorescent imaging, intracellular pH was higher in K+ loaded animals (7.48 (0.09)) than in controls (7.07 (0.04); p<0.01) when surface cells were bathed in NaCl solution, and a similar difference in intracellular pH was observed when cells were bathed in Na2SO4 solution (7.67 (0.09) and 6.92 (0.05) respectively; p<0.001). Ethylisopropylamiloride (EIPA; an inhibitor of Na+-H+ exchange; 1 µM) decreased intracellular pH when surface cells from K+ loaded animals were bathed in either solution, although the decrease was greater when the solution contained NaCl (ΔpH 0.50 (0.03)) rather than Na2SO4 (ΔpH 0.18 (0.02); p<0.05). In contrast, EIPA had no effect in cells from control animals. As assessed by patch clamp recording techniques, the activity of large conductance K+ channels in excised inside-out membrane patches from distal colonic surface cells of K+ loaded animals increased twofold when the bath pH was raised from 7.40 to 7.60. As assessed by cell attached patches in distal colonic surface cells from K+ loaded animals, the addition of 1 µM EIPA decreased K+ channel activity by 50%, consistent with reversal of Na+-H+ exchange mediated intracellular alkalinisation. 
Conclusion—Intracellular alkalinisation stimulates pH sensitive large conductance apical K+ channels in rat distal colonic surface cells as part of the K+ secretory response to chronic dietary K+ loading. Intracellular alkalinisation seems to reflect an increase in EIPA sensitive Na

  11. Most Lung and Colon Cancer Susceptibility Genes Are Pair-Wise Linked in Mice, Humans and Rats

    PubMed Central

    Quan, Lei; Stassen, Alphons P. M.; Ruivenkamp, Claudia A. L.; van Wezel, Tom; Fijneman, Remond J. A.; Hutson, Alan; Kakarlapudi, Neelima; Hart, Augustinus A. M.; Demant, Peter

    2011-01-01

    Genetic predisposition controlled by susceptibility quantitative trait loci (QTLs) contributes to a large proportion of common cancers. Studies of genetics of cancer susceptibility, however, did not address systematically the relationship between susceptibility to cancers in different organs. We present five sets of data on genetic architecture of colon and lung cancer susceptibility in mice, humans and rats. They collectively show that the majority of genes for colon and lung cancer susceptibility are linked pair-wise and are likely identical or related. Four CcS/Dem recombinant congenic strains, each differing from strain BALB/cHeA by a different small random subset of ±12.5% of genes received from strain STS/A, suggestively show either extreme susceptibility or extreme resistance for both colon and lung tumors, which is unlikely if the two tumors were controlled by independent susceptibility genes. Indeed, susceptibility to lung cancer (Sluc) loci underlying the extreme susceptibility or resistance of such CcS/Dem strains, mapped in 226 (CcS-10×CcS-19)F2 mice, co-localize with susceptibility to colon cancer (Scc) loci. Analysis of additional Sluc loci that were mapped in OcB/Dem strains and Scc loci in CcS/Dem strains, respectively, shows their widespread pair-wise co-localization (P = 0.0036). Finally, the majority of published human and rat colon cancer susceptibility genes map to chromosomal regions homologous to mouse Sluc loci. 12/12 mouse Scc loci, 9/11 human and 5/7 rat colon cancer susceptibility loci are close to a Sluc locus or its homologous site, forming 21 clusters of lung and colon cancer susceptibility genes from one, two or three species. Our data shows that cancer susceptibility QTLs can have much broader biological effects than presently appreciated. It also demonstrates the power of mouse genetics to predict human susceptibility genes. Comparison of molecular mechanisms of susceptibility genes that are organ-specific and those with trans

  12. Alteration of the rat cecal microbiome during colonization with the helminth Hymenolepis diminuta

    PubMed Central

    McKenney, Erin A; Williamson, Lauren; Yoder, Anne D; Rawls, John F; Bilbo, Staci D; Parker, William

    2015-01-01

    The microbiome is now widely recognized as being important in health and disease, and makes up a substantial subset of the biome within the ecosystem of the vertebrate body. At the same time, multicellular, eukaryotic organisms such as helminths are being recognized as an important component of the biome that shaped the evolution of our genes. The absence of these macroscopic organisms during the early development and life of humans in Western culture probably leads to a wide range of human immunological diseases. However, the interaction between the microbiome and macroscopic components of the biome remains poorly characterized. In this study, the microbiome of the cecum in rats colonized for 2 generations with the small intestinal helminth Hymenolepis diminuta was evaluated. The introduction of this benign helminth, which is of considerable therapeutic interest, led to several changes in the cecal microbiome. Most of the changes were within the Firmicutes phylum, involved about 20% of the total bacteria, and generally entailed a shift from Bacilli to Clostridia species in the presence of the helminth. The results point toward ecological relationships between various components of the biome, with the observed shifts in the microbiome suggesting potential mechanisms by which this helminth might exert therapeutic effects. PMID:25942385

  13. Noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging of the development of individual colon cancer tumors in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Mook, Olaf R F; Jonker, Ard; Strang, Aart C; Veltien, Andor; Gambarota, Giulio; Frederiks, Wilma M; Heerschap, Arend; Van Noorden, Cornelis J F

    2008-04-01

    Monitoring tumor development is essential for the understanding of mechanisms involved in tumor progression and to determine efficacy of therapy. One of the evolving approaches is longitudinal noninvasive magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumors in experimental models. We applied high-resolution MRI at 7 Tesla to study the development of colon cancer tumors in rat liver. MRI acquisition was triggered to the respiratory cycle to minimize motion artifacts. A special radio frequency (RF) coil was designed to acquire detailed T1-weighted and T2-weighted images of the liver. T2-weighted images identified hyperintense lesions representing tumors with a minimum diameter of 2 mm, enabling the determination of growth rates and morphological aspects of individual tumors. It is concluded that high-resolution MRI using a dedicated RF coil and triggering to the respiratory cycle is an excellent tool for quantitative and morphological analysis of individual diffusely distributed tumors throughout the liver. However, at present, MRI requires expensive equipment and expertise and is a time-consuming methodology. Therefore, it should preferably be used for dedicated applications rather than for high-throughput assessment of total tumor load in animals.

  14. Epithelial transport pathways of rat colon determined in vivo by impulse response analysis.

    PubMed

    Edmonds, C J; Smith, T

    1979-11-01

    1. A method is described for studying transepithelial pathways for the movement of different solutes and water. Using the blood and the secretory curves of changing tracer activity following an intravenous bolus, the rate of transit of molecules together with their impulse response functions, which reflect the transfer processes can be examined. 2. Movements of Na, Cl, I, urea and water from blood to lumen across rat colonic epithelium were all consistent with simple diffusion through a paracellular route. Most of the secreted K, however, passed through a K selective route associated with a significant K epithelial pool. 3. Adding cyanide to the luminal solution caused a reversible fall of transepithelial potential difference associated with changes in the impulse response functions of water, urea and K indicating reduction of the restriction on diffusion. Cellular K content was unaffected. 4. K entered the bulk of the epithelial cellular K almost exclusively from the blood side. A small epithelial K pool, identified by studies with a miniature GM counter, had kinetic characteristics like those of the K selective pathway observed in the studies of impulse response functions.

  15. Gene expression profile and genomic alterations in colonic tumours induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Azoxymethane (AOM) or 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats shares many phenotypical similarities with human sporadic colon cancer and is a reliable model for identifying chemopreventive agents. Genetic mutations relevant to human colon cancer have been described in this model, but comprehensive gene expression and genomic analysis have not been reported so far. Therefore, we applied genome-wide technologies to study variations in gene expression and genomic alterations in DMH-induced colon cancer in F344 rats. Methods For gene expression analysis, 9 tumours (TUM) and their paired normal mucosa (NM) were hybridized on 4 × 44K Whole rat arrays (Agilent) and selected genes were validated by semi-quantitative RT-PCR. Functional analysis on microarray data was performed by GenMAPP/MappFinder analysis. Array-comparative genomic hybridization (a-CGH) was performed on 10 paired TUM-NM samples hybridized on Rat genome arrays 2 × 105K (Agilent) and the results were analyzed by CGH Analytics (Agilent). Results Microarray gene expression analysis showed that Defcr4, Igfbp5, Mmp7, Nos2, S100A8 and S100A9 were among the most up-regulated genes in tumours (Fold Change (FC) compared with NM: 183, 48, 39, 38, 36 and 32, respectively), while Slc26a3, Mptx, Retlna and Muc2 were strongly down-regulated (FC: -500; -376, -167, -79, respectively). Functional analysis showed that pathways controlling cell cycle, protein synthesis, matrix metalloproteinases, TNFα/NFkB, and inflammatory responses were up-regulated in tumours, while Krebs cycle, the electron transport chain, and fatty acid beta oxidation were down-regulated. a-CGH analysis showed that four TUM out of ten had one or two chromosomal aberrations. Importantly, one sample showed a deletion on chromosome 18 including Apc. Conclusion The results showed complex gene expression alterations in adenocarcinomas encompassing many altered pathways. While a-CGH analysis showed a low degree of

  16. Prevention of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colon cancer cell seeding using a pirarubicin solution in rats and nude mice.

    PubMed

    Favoulet, Patrick; Benoit, Laurent; Osmak, Liliana; Polycarpe, Emmanuel; Esquis, Philippe; Duvillard, Christian; Guiu, Boris; Rat, Patrick; Favre, Jean Pierre; Chauffert, Bruno

    2004-05-01

    Free malignant cells, which are frequently detected in the washing liquid from the peritoneal cavity before and after resection of human colorectal cancer, are suspected to cause recurrent peritoneal cancer. We carried out an experimental study to compare the prophylactic efficacy of washing the peritoneum with several anticancer drugs and the antiseptic povidone-iodine against the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colonic origin in rats and nude mice. The in vitro anticancer activity of a short, 15-minute exposure of pirarubicin, doxorubicin, 5-fluorouracil, cisplatin, mitomycin C, and 1% povidone-iodine was first evaluated by an MTT assay on DHD/K12/PROb rat and LS174T human colon cancer cells. For the in vivo experiments, BDIX rats were inoculated intraperitoneally (i.p.) with 1 x 10(6) DHD/K12/PROb cells followed by peritoneal scarring and a colocolic anastomosis. A 15-minute peritoneal washing with the anticancer drugs or povidone-iodine was then performed. Nude mice were i.p.-inoculated with 1 x 10(7) LS174T human cells and treated 2 hours later with i.p. pirarubicin. Only pirarubicin, mitomycin C, and povidone-iodine were fully cytotoxic in vitro against DHD/K12/PROb rat colon cancer cells. In contrast to pirarubicin and povidone-iodine, mitomycin C was not completely active against LS174Tcells. In vivo, pirarubicin cured DHD/K12/PROb-inoculated rats, even at the site of the peritoneal scarring and intestinal anastomosis. i.p. pirarubicin prevented the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis and liver metastasis in LS174T-inoculated mice. i.p. washing with pirarubicin cured 2-day-old, but not 7-day-old, peritoneal carcinomatosis in rats. Short exposure to i.p. pirarubicin is nontoxic and more active than povidone-iodine and other anticancer drugs in preventing the development of peritoneal carcinomatosis from colonic origin in rats and mice. The prophylactic effect of preoperative peritoneal washing with pirarubicin on the development of

  17. Effect of Ozone Therapy (OT) on Healing of Colonic Anastomosis in a Rat Model of Peritonitis

    PubMed Central

    Erginel, Başak; Erginel, Turgay; Aksoy, Bilgin; Dokucu, Ali İhsan

    2014-01-01

    significantly more oedema and necrosis in the control group rats, and collagen deposition in the anastomotic tissue was significantly higher in the ozone-treated groups on postoperative day 7. Hydroxyproline levels were significantly higher in groups O0 and O24 compared to the peritonitis group (P). Conclusion: Ozone therapy has a beneficial effect on anastomotic healing of the colon in the presence of peritonitis. PMID:25337422

  18. The effect of intraoperative colonic lavage with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on anastomotic healing in the presence of left-sided colonic obstruction in the rat.

    PubMed

    Erbil, Y; Calis, A; Berber, E; Mercan, S

    2000-01-01

    The effect of intraoperative colonic lavage with NG-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) on the healing of colonic anastomosis in the presence of a left-sided obstruction in the rat was investigated. Left-sided colonic obstruction was created in 144 Wistar rats. The obstruction site was excised 24h later and anastomosis was performed after either no irrigation or colonic lavage with either saline, povidone iodine (PI), short-chain fatty acids (SCFA), L-NAME, or glutamine, in 24 animals each. Animals were killed on days 3 and 6, and a 4-cm colonic segment with the anastomosis at the center was excised. Bursting pressure (BP) and hydroxyproline (HP) content were measured. In the saline, PI, and SCFA groups, BP was higher (P < 0.05, P < 0.05, and P < 0.001, respectively) and HP concentration was similar compared with controls. Both the BP and HP concentrations were higher in the glutamine group compared with controls (P < 0.001). BP was lower (P < 0.05) and HP concentration was similar in the L-NAME group compared with the control group. Colonocyte nutrition and tissue perfusion are the mainstays of anastomotic healing. Intraoperative colonic lavage with L-NAME suppresses colonic anastomotic healing in the presence of a left-sided obstruction.

  19. [Screening study of the kinetogenic effects of serum containing four Chinese materia medicas on the colonic smooth muscle cells in rats].

    PubMed

    Shi, Yan-Ting; Si, Chun-Feng; Liu, Bin

    2009-05-01

    To study the kinetogenic effects of serum containing Semen Arecae, Dandelion, Semen raphani and Atractylodes macrocephala on the colonic smooth muscle cells of rats. Serum containing Chinese materia medicas was made according to standard methods. Smooth muscle cells were isolated from the muscle layers of Wistar rat's colon, referred to modified Bitar's method. The contractile response of colonic smooth muscle cells to serum containing Chinese materia medicas (10%, 50%, 100% concentration) and other medicines (blank and 1 x 10(-3) mol/L acetylcholine) were separately observed. The contractility was presented by the decrease of the cell length between the drug groups and the control. Serum containing each Chinese materia medica can make dose-dependent contraction at different concentrations (P < 0.05), but the strongest effect of each serum had no significant difference (P > 0.05). Serum containing Semen Arecae, Dandelion, Semen raphani and Atractylodes macrocephala can make notable contraction on colonic smooth muscle cells in rats.

  20. Carbohydrate Metabolism Is Essential for the Colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the Digestive Tract of Gnotobiotic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Thomas, Muriel; Wrzosek, Laura; Ben-Yahia, Leila; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Gitton, Christophe; Chevret, Didier; Langella, Philippe; Mayeur, Camille; Cherbuy, Claire; Rul, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8) and p27Kip1 cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance. PMID:22216112

  1. Carbohydrate metabolism is essential for the colonization of Streptococcus thermophilus in the digestive tract of gnotobiotic rats.

    PubMed

    Thomas, Muriel; Wrzosek, Laura; Ben-Yahia, Leila; Noordine, Marie-Louise; Gitton, Christophe; Chevret, Didier; Langella, Philippe; Mayeur, Camille; Cherbuy, Claire; Rul, Françoise

    2011-01-01

    Streptococcus thermophilus is the archetype of lactose-adapted bacterium and so far, its sugar metabolism has been mainly investigated in vitro. The objective of this work was to study the impact of lactose and lactose permease on S. thermophilus physiology in the gastrointestinal tract (GIT) of gnotobiotic rats. We used rats mono-associated with LMD-9 strain and receiving 4.5% lactose. This model allowed the analysis of colonization curves of LMD-9, its metabolic profile, its production of lactate and its interaction with the colon epithelium. Lactose induced a rapid and high level of S. thermophilus in the GIT, where its activity led to 49 mM of intra-luminal L-lactate that was related to the induction of mono-carboxylic transporter mRNAs (SLC16A1 and SLC5A8) and p27(Kip1) cell cycle arrest protein in epithelial cells. In the presence of a continuous lactose supply, S. thermophilus recruited proteins involved in glycolysis and induced the metabolism of alternative sugars as sucrose, galactose, and glycogen. Moreover, inactivation of the lactose transporter, LacS, delayed S. thermophilus colonization. Our results show i/that lactose constitutes a limiting factor for colonization of S. thermophilus, ii/that activation of enzymes involved in carbohydrate metabolism constitutes the metabolic signature of S. thermophilus in the GIT, iii/that the production of lactate settles the dialogue with colon epithelium. We propose a metabolic model of management of carbohydrate resources by S. thermophilus in the GIT. Our results are in accord with the rationale that nutritional allegation via consumption of yogurt alleviates the symptoms of lactose intolerance. © 2011 Thomas et al.

  2. Inner and Outer Portions of Colonic Circular Muscle: Ultrastructural and Immunohistochemical Changes in Rat Chronically Treated with Otilonium Bromide

    PubMed Central

    Traini, Chiara; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Evangelista, Stefano; Mazzaferro, Katia; Cipriani, Gianluca; Santicioli, Paolo; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Rat colonic circular muscle, main target of otilonium bromide (OB) spasmolytic activity, is subdivided in an inner and outer portion. Since the inner one is particularly rich in organelles involved in calcium availability (caveolae, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria), the expression of specific markers (Caveolin-1, eNOS, calreticulin, calsequestrin) in comparison with the outer portion was investigated. The possible changes of these organelles and related markers, and of muscarinic receptors (Mr2) were then studied after OB chronic exposition. Rats were treated with 2–20 mg/kg/OB for 10 or 30 days. Proximal colon was processed by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and western blot. In colon strips the stimulated contractility response to muscarinic agonist was investigated. The inner portion showed a higher expression of Caveolin-1 and Mr2, but not of eNOS, calreticulin and calsequestrin, compared to the outer portion. Chronic OB treatment caused similar ultrastructural and immunohistochemical changes in both portions. Organelles and some related markers were increased at 10 days; Mr2 expression and muscle contractility induced by methacholine was increased at 30 days. The present findings: 1) provide new information on the immunohistochemical properties of the inner portion of the circular layer that are in favour of a role it might play in colonic motility distinct from that of the outer portion; 2) demonstrate that chronically administered OB interferes with cell structures and molecules responsible for calcium handling and storage, and modifies cholinergic transmission. In conclusion, chronic OB administration in the colonic circular muscle layer directly interacts with the organelles and molecules calcium-related and with the Mr2. PMID:25122192

  3. Activation of TRPA1 by luminal stimuli induces EP4-mediated anion secretion in human and rat colon.

    PubMed

    Kaji, Izumi; Yasuoka, Yukiko; Karaki, Shin-Ichiro; Kuwahara, Atsukazu

    2012-04-01

    In gastrointestinal (GI) physiology, anion and fluid secretion is an important function for host defense and is induced by changes in the luminal environment. The transient receptor potential A1 (TRPA1) channel is considered to be a chemosensor in several sensory tissues. Although the function of TRPA1 has been studied in GI motility, its contribution to the transepithelial ion transport system has rarely been discussed. In the present study, we investigated the secretory effect of the potential TRPA1 agonist allyl isothiocyanate (AITC) in rat and human colon using an Ussing chamber. The mucosal application of AITC (10(-6)-10(-3) M) induced Cl(-) and HCO(3)(-) secretion in a concentration-dependent manner, whereas the serosal application induced a significantly weaker effect. AITC-evoked anion secretion was attenuated by tissue pretreatment with piroxicam and prostaglandin (PG) E(2); however, this secretion was not affected by TTX, atropine, or extracellular Ca(2+) depletion. These experiments indicate that TRPA1 activation induces anion secretion through PG synthesis, independent of neural pathways in the colon. Further analysis also indicates that AITC-evoked anion secretion is mediated mainly by the EP(4) receptor subtype. The magnitude of the secretory response exhibited segmental heterogeneity in rat colon. Real-time PCR analysis showed the segmental difference was corresponding to the differential expression of EP(4) receptor and cyclooxygenase-1 and -2. In addition, RT-PCR, in situ hybridization, and immunohistochemical studies showed TRPA1 expression in the colonic epithelia. Therefore, we conclude that the activation of TRPA1 in colonic epithelial cells is likely involved in the host defense mechanism through rapid anion secretion.

  4. Inner and outer portions of colonic circular muscle: ultrastructural and immunohistochemical changes in rat chronically treated with otilonium bromide.

    PubMed

    Traini, Chiara; Faussone-Pellegrini, Maria Simonetta; Evangelista, Stefano; Mazzaferro, Katia; Cipriani, Gianluca; Santicioli, Paolo; Vannucchi, Maria Giuliana

    2014-01-01

    Rat colonic circular muscle, main target of otilonium bromide (OB) spasmolytic activity, is subdivided in an inner and outer portion. Since the inner one is particularly rich in organelles involved in calcium availability (caveolae, smooth endoplasmic reticulum, mitochondria), the expression of specific markers (Caveolin-1, eNOS, calreticulin, calsequestrin) in comparison with the outer portion was investigated. The possible changes of these organelles and related markers, and of muscarinic receptors (Mr2) were then studied after OB chronic exposition. Rats were treated with 2-20 mg/kg/OB for 10 or 30 days. Proximal colon was processed by electron microscopy, immunohistochemistry, and western blot. In colon strips the stimulated contractility response to muscarinic agonist was investigated. The inner portion showed a higher expression of Caveolin-1 and Mr2, but not of eNOS, calreticulin and calsequestrin, compared to the outer portion. Chronic OB treatment caused similar ultrastructural and immunohistochemical changes in both portions. Organelles and some related markers were increased at 10 days; Mr2 expression and muscle contractility induced by methacholine was increased at 30 days. The present findings: 1) provide new information on the immunohistochemical properties of the inner portion of the circular layer that are in favour of a role it might play in colonic motility distinct from that of the outer portion; 2) demonstrate that chronically administered OB interferes with cell structures and molecules responsible for calcium handling and storage, and modifies cholinergic transmission. In conclusion, chronic OB administration in the colonic circular muscle layer directly interacts with the organelles and molecules calcium-related and with the Mr2.

  5. Effect of royal jelly on experimental colitis induced by acetic acid and alteration of mast cell distribution in the colon of rats

    PubMed Central

    Karaca, T.; Bayiroglu, F.; Yoruk, M.; Kaya, M.S.; Uslu, S.; Comba, B.; Mis, L.

    2010-01-01

    This study investigated the effects of royal jelly (RJ) on acetic acid-induced colitis in rats. Twenty adult female Wistar albino rats were divided into four treatment groups of 5 animals each, including a control group (Group I); Group II was treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg−1 body weight); Group III had acetic acid-induced colitis; and Group IV had acetic acid-induced colitis treated orally with RJ (150 mg kg−1 body weight) for 4 weeks. Colitis was induced by intracolonic instillation of 4% acetic acid; the control group received physiological saline (10 mL kg−1). Colon samples were obtained under deep anaesthesia from animals in all groups. Tissues were fixed in 10% formalin neutral buffer solution for 24 h and embedded in paraffin. Six-micrometre-thick sections were stained with Mallory’s triple stain and toluidine blue in 1% aqueous solution at pH 1.0 for 5 min (for Mast Cells). RJ was shown to protect the colonic mucosa against the injurious effect of acetic acid. Colitis (colonic damage) was confirmed histomorphometrically as significant increases in the number of mast cells (MC) and colonic erosions in rats with acetic acid-induced colitis. The RJ treatment significantly decreased the number of MC and reduced the area of colonic erosion in the colon of RJ-treated rats compared with rats with untreated colitis. The results suggest that oral treatment with RJ could be used to treat colitis. PMID:21263740

  6. Effects of Electroacupuncture on the Daily Rhythmicity of Intestinal Movement and Circadian Rhythmicity of Colonic Per2 Expression in Rats with Spinal Cord Injury

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Xueqiang; Zhang, Wenyi; Xie, Bin; Zhu, Zhaojin; Lu, Yuemei

    2016-01-01

    Background. Spinal cord injury (SCI) leads to bowel dysfunction. Electroacupuncture (EA) may improve bowel function. Objective. To assess EA on daily rhythmicity of intestinal movement and circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression in rats with SCI. Methods. Rats were randomized to the sham, SCI, and SCI+EA groups. EA was performed at bilateral Zusanli point (ST36) during daytime (11:00–11:30) for 14 days following SCI. Intestinal transit and daily rhythmicity of intestinal movement were assessed. Circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression was assessed by real-time RT-PCR. Results. EA shortened the stool efflux time and increased the dry fecal weight within 24 h in SCI rats. Daily rhythmicity of intestinal movements was unaffected by SCI. The expression of colonic Per2 peaked at 20:00 and the nadir was observed at 8:00 in the SCI and sham groups. In the SCI+EA group, colonic Per2 expression peaked at 12:00 and 20:00, and the nadir was observed at 8:00. Conclusion. SCI did not change the circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression in rats, and daily intestinal movement rhythmicity was retained. EA changed the daily rhythmicity of intestinal movement and the circadian rhythmicity of colonic Per2 expression in rats with SCI, increasing Per2 expression shortly after EA treatment. PMID:27999821

  7. Wood creosote prevents CRF-induced motility via 5-HT3 receptors in proximal and 5-HT4 receptors in distal colon in rats.

    PubMed

    Ataka, Koji; Kuge, Tomoo; Fujino, Kazunori; Takahashi, Toku; Fujimiya, Mineko

    2007-05-30

    Wood creosote has been used as an herbal medicine against acute diarrhea caused by food poisoning and has an inhibitory effect on colonic motility and enterotoxin-induced ion secretion. Since no previous studies have examined the effects of wood creosote on stress-induced alteration of colonic motility, we examined the effects on the colonic motility altered by intracerebroventricular (i.c.v.) injection of corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF), which is a key mediator in responses to stress. We recorded motor activity in proximal and distal colon of unrestrained conscious rats via two manometory catheters. The frequencies of phase III-like contraction and the % motor indices in both proximal and distal colon were measured. At the same time the number of fecal pellets excreted was counted. I.c.v. injection of CRF increased the motor activity in both proximal and distal colon, and these effects were completely antagonized by i.c.v. injection of a selective CRF type 1 antagonist but not by a CRF type 2 antagonist. Changes in colonic motility induced by CRF were reversed by intravenously administered wood creosote. Intraluminal administration of the 5-HT(3) receptor antagonist granisetron, or the 5-HT(4) receptor antagonist SB 204070 blocked the increase in colonic motility induced by i.c.v. injection of CRF. Wood creosote prevented the increase in colonic motility induced by the 5-HT(3) receptor agonist SR57227A in the proximal colon, while it prevented the increase in colonic motility induced by the 5-HT(4) receptor agonist RS67506 in the distal colon. These results indicate that wood creosote prevents the increase in colonic motility induced by CRF via 5-HT(3) receptors in the proximal colon, and via 5-HT(4) receptors in the distal colon, suggesting that wood creosote might be useful to treat stress-induced diarrhea.

  8. Liver and colon DNA oxidative damage and gene expression profiles of rats fed Arabidopsis thaliana mutant seeds containing contrasted flavonoids.

    PubMed

    Luceri, Cristina; Giovannelli, Lisa; Pitozzi, Vanessa; Toti, Simona; Castagnini, Cinzia; Routaboul, Jean-Marc; Lepiniec, Loic; Larrosa, Mar; Dolara, Piero

    2008-04-01

    Plant polyphenols, such as flavonoids, comprise many compounds, ranging from simple phenolic molecules (i.e. flavonols, anthocyanins) to polymeric structures with high molecular weight (as proanthocyanidins, PAs). We investigated the effects of flavonoids by feeding Wistar rats Arabidopsis thaliana seeds carrying mutations in key enzymes of the flavonoid biosynthetic pathway (15% w/w seeds for 4 weeks). The seeds used were: Ws-2 wild-type containing flavonols and PAs, tt3-4 mutant containing flavonols only, ban-5 accumulating flavonols and anthocyanins, tt4-8 mutant, deprived of flavonoids. DNA oxidative damage was significantly reduced only in the liver of rats fed tt3-4 mutant seeds. Microarray analysis of the liver revealed down-regulation of genes associated with oxidative stress, Krebs cycle, electron transport and proteasome degradation in all experimental groups compared to the tt4-8-fed reference rats; therefore, these effects were due to the flavonol content and not to high molecular weight compounds. We observed a down-regulation of inflammatory response genes in the colon mucosa in ban-5- fed rats, probably due to anthocyanin content. In conclusion, flavonols exhibited antioxidant effects at systemic level, whereas high molecular weight flavonoids affected only the colon, probably due to their limited absorption.

  9. Inhibitory effects of feeding with carrots or (-)-falcarinol on development of azoxymethane-induced preneoplastic lesions in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Kobaek-Larsen, Morten; Christensen, Lars P; Vach, Werner; Ritskes-Hoitinga, Jelmera; Brandt, Kirsten

    2005-03-09

    The effects of intake of dietary amounts of carrot or corresponding amounts of (-)-(3R)-falcarinol from carrots on development of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon preneoplastic lesions were examined in male BDIX rats. Three groups of eight AOM-treated rats were fed the standard rat feed Altromin supplemented with either 10% (w/w) freeze-dried carrots with a natural content of 35 mug falcarinol/g, 10% maize starch to which was added 35 mug falcarinol/g purified from carrots, or 10% maize starch (control). After 18 weeks, the animals were euthanized and the colon was examined for tumors and aberrant crypt foci (ACF), which were classified into four size classes. Although the number of small ACF was unaffected by the feeding treatments, the numbers of lesions as a function of increasing size class decreased significantly in the rats that received one of the two experimental treatments, as compared with the control treatment. This indicates that the dietary treatments with carrot and falcarinol delayed or retarded the development of large ACF and tumors. The present study provides a new perspective on the known epidemiological associations between high intake of carrots and reduced incidence of cancers.

  10. Mucin secreting cells in the stomach and colon are altered by combination antiretroviral treatment in an obese rat model.

    PubMed

    Truter, Danélle; Strijdom, Hans; Everson, Frans; Kotzé, Sanet H

    2017-03-01

    Mucins, secreted by intestinal goblet cells, form an integral part of the intestinal biofilm, which is important for the functioning of a healthy gastrointestinal tract (GIT). This mucous layer is sensitive to factors such as diet, drugs and inflammation. Histochemically, mucins can be classified as neutral or acidic, where acidic mucins can contain sulphate groups (sulphomucins) or sialic acid (sialomucins). The aim of the present study was to determine the composition of various mucin secreting cells using histochemical stains in rats fed on a high calorie diet (HCD) treated with antiretroviral therapy (ART). Wistar rats (N=24) were divided into a lean control group (C/ART-), high calorie diet group (C/HCD+), ART group (C/ART+) and HCD and ART group (HCD+/ART+). The body of the stomach as well as the colon were stained with Alcian Blue Periodic Schiff (ABPAS) to distinguish between neutral and acidic mucins and Alcian Blue Aldehyde Fuschin (ABAF) to distinguish between sialo-and sulphomucins. An increase of the total gastric mucous cells was observed in the HCD+/ART+ group compared to the C/ART- group using both ABPAS and ABAF. A decrease of neutral cells in the distal part of the colonic crypts in the C/HCD+ and C/ART+ groups compared to the C/ART- group were observed. Mixed goblet cells in the colonic crypts of the C/ART- and HCD+/ART+ groups were decreased in comparison to the C/ART+ group. The study showed that the total mean percentage of mucous cells in the stomach as well as the total amount of neutral goblet cells in the colon were most affected by ART and a HCD. These changes in a rat model suggest that the quality of the biofilm may be altered and should be considered when ART is prescribed to obese patients.

  11. The colonic groove or furrow: a comparative morphological study of six species of African mole-rats (Rodentia, Bathyergidae).

    PubMed

    Kotzé, S H; van der Merwe, E L; Ndou, R; O'Riain, M J; Bennett, N C

    2009-08-01

    Herbivorous mammals such as nutrias, guinea pigs, chinchillas, and mole-rats have a longitudinal mucosal colonic groove (furrow) in their ascending colon, which is thought to play a role in the colonic separation mechanism (CSM). It is not known whether this groove is structurally modified to adapt to this function in mole-rat species. The morphology of this groove was studied in 32 mol-rats, four species, one of which consisted of three subspecies, endemic to southern Africa and two species found in eastern Africa. The macroscopic morphology of the groove was documented, and samples for histological examination were taken. The groove was wide at its origin at the cecocolic junction and was lined on either side by a row of papillae with the opposing papillae slightly offset in arrangement. The papillated groove gradually decreased in size toward the distal part of the ascending colon where it disappeared. This pattern was similar in all species except in Heterocephalus glaber, where the papillae were absent and the groove was lined by two longitudinal ridges. A histological examination of cross sections revealed that the mucosa covering the inner and outer walls of the groove was rich in mucous-secreting goblet cells. The walls of the groove contained smooth muscle extending from the inner circular smooth muscle layer at the base to the tips of the papillae in all species examined as well as arteries, lymphatic vessels, and prominent sinusoid-like veins. The groove could be demonstrated both macroscopically and histologically in three Bathyergus suillus fetuses of varying sizes. The sinusoid-like veins present in all grooves, regardless of macroscopic shape, suggest that they have a role in the functioning of the groove. (c) 2009 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  12. [The effects of sacral nerve root electrostimulation on the colon function and its mechanisms in a rat model of spinal cord injury].

    PubMed

    Bai, Chun-hong; Ma, Xin-long

    2016-01-01

    To study the effects of sacral nerve root electrostimulation (SNS) on the colon function and its mechanisms in rats with spinal cord injury (SCI). One hundred and four Wistar rats were divided into three groups: A, B and C. A group ( n = 24) was divided into three subgroups (n = 8) for studying the bioelectricity: Normal group (NG), SCI group (SCI) and SCI group with SNS(SNS); B group( n = 24) was divided into three subgroups( n = 8) for studying the colon motility: NG, SCI and SNS. C group( n = 56) were divided into three groups for studying the change of morphology and neurotransmitters(SP and VIP): NG (n = 8), SCI (n = 24), and SNS (n = 24) . In SCI and SNS, included of three subgroups: 24, 48, 72 h after spinal cord injury (n = 8). In SCI group, the activity of bioelectricity in proximal and distal colon was reduced; the colon motility was lessened, and colon mucosa appeared different degree of damage; cell-cell connections between intestinal epithelial cells were destroyed. The expressions of substance P(SP) and vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) in colon were decreased obviously. SNS was found to activate the bioelectricity, promote the colon motility, improve the intestinal mucosal, and increase the expressions of SP and VIP. Conclusion: SNS can activate the peristalsis, rehabilitate the motility of denervated colon, protection of the intestinal mechanical barrier between intestinal epithelial cells and tight junction, rebuild the colon function through activating the bioelectricity and increase the expressions of SP and VIP.

  13. Mild moxibustion decreases the expression of prokineticin 2 and prokineticin receptor 2 in the colon and spinal cord of rats with irritable bowel syndrome.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Cili; Zhao, Jimeng; Wu, Luyi; Huang, Renjia; Shi, Yin; Wang, Xiaomei; Liao, Wen; Hong, Jue; Liu, Shimin; Wu, Huangan

    2014-01-01

    It has been proven that prokineticin 2 (PK2) and its receptor PKR2 play an important role in hyperalgesia, while mild moxibustion can relieve visceral hypersensitivity in a rat model of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS). The goal of the present study was to determine the effects of mild moxibustion on the expression of PK2 and PKR2 in colon and spinal cord in IBS rat model, which was induced by colorectal distension using inflatable balloons. After mild moxibustion treatment, abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) scores were assessed by colorectal distension; protein and mRNA expression of PK2 and PKR2 in rat colon and spinal cord was determined by immunohistochemistry and fluorescence quantitative PCR. Compared with normal rats, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly increased in the model group; compared with the model group, the AWR scores of rats and the expressions of PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in colon and spinal cord tissue were significantly decreased in the mild moxibustion group. These findings suggest that the analgesia effect of mild moxibustion may be associated with the reduction of the abnormally increased expression of the PK2/PKR2 proteins and mRNAs in the colon and spinal cord.

  14. Lactic acid fermentation of germinated barley fiber and proliferative function of colonic epithelial cells in loperamide-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Jeon, Jeong Ryae; Choi, Joon Hyuk

    2010-08-01

    To develop a functional food from the dietary fiber fraction of germinated barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) (GBF), lactic acid fermentation was attempted using Lactobacillus acidophilus, Streptococcus thermophilus, and Bifidobacterium bifidus. The quality characteristics of the lactic acid-fermented product and its effect on gastrointestinal function in an animal model were examined. The anaerobic fermentation of 1% and 2% GBF yielded lactic acid bacteria at 8.9 +/- 1.0 x 10(8) and 1.6 +/- 0.2 x 10(9) colony-forming units/mL, and it was considered acceptable for consumption by sensory assessment. To determine the effect on gastrointestinal function, Sprague-Dawley rats were fed with three types of diets: a normal chow diet and chow diets supplemented with 10% lactic acid bacteria or a yogurt fermented with 2% GBF (GBFY). The rats fed GBFY for 6 weeks gained less body weight, excreted more fecal mass, and had improved gastrointestinal transit as examined with barium sulfate. The effect of GBFY on colonic epithelial proliferation was investigated through loperamide (LPM)-induced constipation in rats. The rats fed with GBFY for 6 weeks were intraperitoneally administered LPM twice daily for 7 days. GBFY supplementation decreased fecal excretion and moisture content in feces and depleted goblet cells as observed by hematoxylin and eosin stain. However, the rats supplemented with GBFY prior to the LPM administration had enhanced bowel movement, mucin secretion, and production of short-chain fatty acids compared with values for the LPM-alone group. Immunohistochemistry revealed that the GBFY supplement increased the numbers of nuclei stained positively for Ki-67 and extended from the base to the middle zone of crypts. These results indicate that GBFY alleviates constipation via the proliferation of the colonic crypts in LPM-administered rats.

  15. Inhibition of 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon genotoxicity in rats by the administration of probiotic curd.

    PubMed

    Kumar, Arvind; Singh, Nikhlesh Kumar; Sinha, Pushpalata Rabindra

    2010-03-01

    Epidemiologic and experimental studies suggest that the probiotic organisms are effective in preventing colon carcinogenesis, which is the major cause of mortality and morbidity in western countries. Keeping this in view, a curd (a common Indian fermented milk product) was prepared by the addition of probiotic cultures Lactobacillus acidophilus, Lactobacillus casei and curd culture Lactococcus lactis biovar. diacetylactis. In present study, we have evaluated the anti tumor effect of probiotic curd by monitoring the DNA damage through comet assay. The rats were allocated to four groups, first group was DMH control group, second group was probiotic curd group in which probiotic curd was given along with DMH (1,2-dimethylhydrazine) injection, third group was normal curd group in which normal curd was given along with DMH injection and fourth group was normal control group. Animals received subcutaneous injection of DMH dissolved in normal saline at a dose rate of 20 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 15 weeks. The rats were dissected at 40th week of experiment and comet assay was done in colonic cells to assess the DNA damage. A significant reduction in DNA damage (54.7%) was observed in probiotic curd group as compared to DMH control group (88.1%). The probiotic curd was effective to significantly reduce the L:W ratio in comparison to DMH control group and normal curd. The results of present study show the protective effects of probiotic curd against DMH induced genotoxicity in colonic cells.

  16. Freeze-dried ham promotes azoxymethane-induced mucin-depleted foci and aberrant crypt foci in rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Pierre, Fabrice; Santarelli, Raphaëlle L; Chartron, Mickael; Allam, Ossama; Taché, Sylviane; Naud, Nathalie; Guéraud, Francoise; Corpet, Denis E

    2010-01-01

    Processed and red meat consumption is associated with the risk of colorectal cancer. Meta-analyses have suggested that the risk associated with processed meat is higher. Most processed meats are cured and cooked, which leads to formation of free nitrosyl heme. We speculated that free nitrosyl heme is more toxic than native myoglobin. The promoting effect of a freeze-dried, cooked, cured ham diet was looked for in a 100-day study. Colon carcinogenesis endpoints were aberrant crypt foci and mucin depleted foci (MDF). A second study (14 days) was designed 1) to compare the effect of ham, hemoglobin, and hemin; and 2) to test the effect of sodium chloride, nitrite, and phosphate in diet on early biomarkers associated with heme-induced promotion. In the 100-day study, control and ham-fed rats had 3.5 and 8.5 MDF/colon, respectively (P < 0.0001). Promotion was associated with cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation. In the short-term study, cytotoxicity and lipid peroxidation of fecal water, and the urinary marker of lipid peroxidation, increased dramatically in ham- and hemin-fed rat. In contrast, the hemoglobin diet, sodium chloride, nitrite, phosphate diet had no effect. Freeze-dried cooked ham can promote colon carcinogenesis in a rodent model. Hemin, but not hemoglobin, mimicked ham effect on early biochemical markers associated with carcinogenesis. PMID:20574917

  17. Inhibition of alcohol-associated colonic hyperregeneration by alpha-tocopherol in the rat.

    PubMed

    Vincon, P; Wunderer, J; Simanowski, U A; Koll, M; Preedy, V R; Peters, T J; Werner, J; Waldherr, R; Seitz, H K

    2003-01-01

    Chronic alcohol consumption results in colorectal mucosal hyperregeneration, a condition associated with an increased risk for colorectal cancer. Possible mechanisms may involve the effects of acetaldehyde and/or free radicals generated during alcohol metabolism. Vitamin E is part of the antioxidative defense system, and its concentration is decreased or its metabolic utilization increased in various tissues after chronic alcohol consumption. We wondered whether alpha-tocopherol supplementation may prevent ethanol-induced colorectal cell cycle behavior and whether these changes were related to alterations in protein synthesis. Five groups of male Wistar rats, each consisting of 14 animals, received liquid diets as follows: group 1, alcohol; group 2, alcohol + alpha-tocopherol; group 3, control (i.e., isocaloric glucose); group 4; control (i.e., isocaloric glucose) + alpha-tocopherol. Group 5 was fed a solid chow diet ad libitum. After 4 weeks of feeding, immunohistology was performed with anti-proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) or anti-BCL2 antibodies. Fractional (k(s)) and absolute (V(s)) rates of protein synthesis and rates of protein synthesis relative to RNA (k(RNA)) and DNA (k(DNA)) were measured with a flooding dose of L-[4-3H] phenylalanine with complementary analysis of protein and nucleic acid composition. The PCNA index was increased significantly in the colon after ethanol administration compared with controls (ethanol, 10.3 +/- 2.3 vs. control, 6.51 +/- 1.6% PCNA positive cells, p < 0.05), although neither the protein, RNA, and DNA concentrations nor k(s), k(RNA), k(DNA), and V(s) were affected. This increase in PCNA index was significantly diminished by coadministration of alpha-tocopherol (ethanol + alpha tocopherol, 7.86 +/- 1.71% PCNA positive cells, p < 0.05) without significant alterations in protein synthetic parameters. A similar result was obtained for the PCNA index in the rectal mucosa (ethanol, 14.6 +/- 4.4 vs. control, 12.1 +/- 4

  18. Aquaporins 1, 3 and 8 expression in irritable bowel syndrome rats' colon via NF-κB pathway.

    PubMed

    Chao, Guanqun; Zhang, Shuo

    2017-07-18

    Our research was to detect the expression of aquaporins. NF-κB in Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) rat models' colon so as to find novel pathogenesisof IBS. The expression of AQP1, AQP3, and AQP8 of IBS model group was down-regulated while NF-κB p65 was up-regulated comparing with control group (p < 0.05), and the expression of AQP1, AQP3, and AQP8 of inhibitor group was up-regulated while NF-κB p65 was down-regulated comparing with IBS model group (p < 0.05). 18 adult female SD big rats were divided into three groups:the rats in control group were normal rats,the rats in IBS model group and the rats of inhibitor group were injected with the inhibitor of NF-κB (PDTC). Immunohistochemical technique and western blot were performed to detect the expression of AQP1, AQP3, AQP8 and NF-κB p65. RT-PCR was performed to detect the expression of AQP1, AQP3, and AQP8. Liquid water metabolic abnormalities and intestine permeability alteration might be the mechanism of IBS by down-regulating AQP1, AQP3 and AQP8 via NF-κB pathway.

  19. Vegetable and fruit juice enhances antioxidant capacity and regulates antioxidant gene expression in rat liver, brain and colon

    PubMed Central

    Yuan, Linhong; Liu, Jinmeng; Zhen, Jie; Xu, Yao; Chen, Shuying; Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas Van; Xiao, Rong

    2017-01-01

    Abstract To explore the effect of fruit and vegetable (FV) juice on biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant gene expression in rats, 36 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, low FV juice dosage or high FV juice dosage treatment groups. The rats were given freshly extracted FV juice or the same volume of saline water daily for five weeks. After intervention, serum and tissues specimens were collected for biomarker and gene expression measurement. FV juice intervention increased total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, vitamin C, β-carotene, total polyphenols, flavonoids levels andglutathione peroxidaseenzyme activity in rat serum or tissues (p < 0.05). FV juice intervention caused reduction of malondialdehyde levels in rat liver (p < 0.05) and significantly modulated transcript levels of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase l (NQO1)in rat liver and brain (p < 0.05). The results underline the potential of FV juice to improve the antioxidant capacity and to prevent the oxidative damage in liver, brain and colon. PMID:28323302

  20. Vegetable and fruit juice enhances antioxidant capacity and regulates antioxidant gene expression in rat liver, brain and colon.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Linhong; Liu, Jinmeng; Zhen, Jie; Xu, Yao; Chen, Shuying; Halm-Lutterodt, Nicholas Van; Xiao, Rong

    2017-01-01

    To explore the effect of fruit and vegetable (FV) juice on biomarkers of oxidative damage and antioxidant gene expression in rats, 36 adult male Wistar rats were randomly divided into control, low FV juice dosage or high FV juice dosage treatment groups. The rats were given freshly extracted FV juice or the same volume of saline water daily for five weeks. After intervention, serum and tissues specimens were collected for biomarker and gene expression measurement. FV juice intervention increased total antioxidant capacity, glutathione, vitamin C, β-carotene, total polyphenols, flavonoids levels andglutathione peroxidaseenzyme activity in rat serum or tissues (p < 0.05). FV juice intervention caused reduction of malondialdehyde levels in rat liver (p < 0.05) and significantly modulated transcript levels of glutamate cysteine ligase catalytic subunit (GCLC) and NAD(P)H:quinone oxidoreductase l (NQO1)in rat liver and brain (p < 0.05). The results underline the potential of FV juice to improve the antioxidant capacity and to prevent the oxidative damage in liver, brain and colon.

  1. Carbon monoxide contributes to the constipating effects of granisetron in rat colon

    PubMed Central

    Nacci, Carmela; Fanelli, Margherita; Potenza, Maria Assunta; Leo, Valentina; Montagnani, Monica; De Salvia, Maria Antonietta

    2016-01-01

    AIM To investigate the mechanisms underlying the potential contribution of the heme oxygenase/carbon monoxide (HO/CO) pathway in the constipating effects of granisetron. METHODS For in vivo studies, gastrointestinal motility was evaluated in male rats acutely treated with granisetron [25, 50, 75 μg/kg/subcutaneous (sc)], zinc protoporphyrin IX [ZnPPIX, 50 μg/kg/intraperitoneal (ip)] and hemin (50 μmol/L/kg/ip), alone or in combination. For in vitro studies, the contractile neurogenic response to electrical field stimulation (EFS, 3, 5, 10 Hz, 14 V, 1 ms, pulse trains lasting 10 s), as well as the contractile myogenic response to acetylcholine (ACh, 0.1-100 μmol/L) were evaluated on colon specimens incubated with granisetron (3 μmol/L, 15 min), ZnPPIX (10 μmol/L, 60 min) or CO-releasing molecule-3 (CORM-3, 100, 200, 400 μmol/L) alone or in combination. These experiments were performed under co-treatment with or without atropine (3 μmol/L, a muscarinic receptor antagonist) or NG-nitro-L-Arginine (L-NNA, 100 μmol/L, a nitric oxide synthase inhibitor). RESULTS Administration of granisetron (50, 75 μg/kg) in vivo significantly increased the time to first defecation (P = 0.045 vs vehicle-treated rats), clearly suggesting a constipating effect of this drug. Although administration of ZnPPIX or hemin alone had no effect on this gastrointestinal motility parameter, ZnPPIX co-administered with granisetron abolished the granisetron-induced constipation. On the other hand, co-administration of hemin and granisetron did not modify the increased constipation observed under granisetron alone. When administered in vitro, granisetron alone (3 μmol/L) did not significantly modify the colon’s contractile response to either EFS or ACh. Incubation with ZnPPIX alone (10 μmol/L) significantly reduced the colon’s contractile response to EFS (P = 0.016) but had no effect on contractile response to ACh. Co-administration of ZnPPIX and atropine (3 μmol/L) abolished the Zn

  2. Spinal toll-like receptor 4-mediated signalling pathway contributes to visceral hypersensitivity induced by neonatal colonic irritation in rats.

    PubMed

    Chen, Z-Y; Zhang, X-W; Yu, L; Hua, R; Zhao, X-P; Qin, X; Zhang, Y-M

    2015-02-01

    Although visceral hypersensitivity is a major pathophysiological feature of irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), its underlying mechanisms remain elusive. Toll-like receptor 4 (TLR4) is a critical pattern recognition molecule of the innate immune system. In this study, we investigated whether the TLR4/myeloid differentiation factor 88 (MyD88)/nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-κB) signalling pathway in the spinal cord contributed to the visceral hypersensitivity induced by neonatal colonic irritation (CI) in rats. The Sprague-Dawley rat model of IBS was induced by colon irritation on post-natal day (PND) 8, PND10 and PND12. Experiments were conducted in adult rats. TLR4 mRNA and protein, and its downstream signalling molecules, MyD88, inhibitory nuclear factor-kappa B (IκB) and NF-κB protein expressions in L2-S4 spinal segments were detected by quantitative real-time reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction as well as Western blotting. TLR4 co-localization was determined by immunohistochemistry. Levels of tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) and interleukin 1β (IL-1β) were measured with enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay. We found that neonatal CI treatment induced long-lasting visceral hypersensitivity without identifiable structural abnormalities in descending colons of adult rats. Neonatal CI treatment evoked a significant up-regulation of the expressions of TLR4 in glia, MyD88, p-IκB-α and NF-κB in adult rats. Neonatal CI treatment also increased the levels of its downstream inflammatory agents TNF-α and IL-1β in the L2-S4 regions of the spinal cord of adult rats. These results suggest that neonatal CI stimulates the production of IL-1β and TNF-α through the TLR4/MyD88/NF-κB signalling pathway in the spinal cord, which contributed to visceral hypersensitivity induced by neonatal CI in rats. © 2014 European Pain Federation - EFIC®

  3. Evaluation of Chemopreventive Effects of Acanthus ilicifolius against Azoxymethane-Induced Aberrant Crypt Foci in the Rat Colon

    PubMed Central

    Almagrami, Amel A.; Alshawsh, Mohammed A.; Saif-Ali, Riyadh; Shwter, Abdrabuh; Salem, Sameer D.; Abdulla, Mahmood A.

    2014-01-01

    Background Acanthus ilicifolius, a mangrove medicinal plant, is traditionally used to treat a variety of diseases. The aim of this research is to assess the chemoprotective outcomes of A. ilicifolius ethanolic extract against azoxymethane (AOM) induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Methodology/Principal Findings In our study, rats were arranged in to five groups. Rats in the normal control group were given subcutaneous injections of normal saline once weekly for 2 weeks. The AOM control, reference and treatment groups were given subcutaneous injection of AOM, 15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks each. The reference group was treated with 35 mg/kg 5-Fluorouracil via intraperitoneal injection once weekly for 8 weeks, and the treatment groups were administered by gavage with 250 and 500 mg/kg A. ilicifolius extract daily for 8 weeks. Both normal and AOM control groups received the vehicle; 10% Tween-20 only. Rats treated with 250 mg/kg and 500 mg/kg of A. ilicifolius extracts showed a decrease in the mean number of ACF by 65% and 53%, respectively. Those fed with A. ilicifolius showed significantly decreased multiplicity of ACF formations when compared with the results from the AOM control group. The 250 mg/kg A. ilicifolius treatment group showed significant decreases in lipid peroxidation MDA levels when compared with the AOM control group. In immunohistochemistry staining, the proliferating nuclear cell antigen (PCNA)-positive cells were significantly higher in the AOM control group than in the A. ilicifolius-treated groups. RT-PCR showed that A. ilicifolius caused a change in the regulation of apoptosis-related genes expression. Conclusion/Significance The results of the current study show that AOM-treated rats receiving oral exposure to A. ilicifolius demonstrated a significant decrease in the number of ACF in the colon when compared to AOM-treated rats receiving vehicle only. A ilicifolius may be an effective herbal approach for the

  4. Inhibition of retinol oxidation by ethanol in the rat liver and colon

    PubMed Central

    Parlesak, A; Menzl, I; Feuchter, A; Bode, J; Bode, C

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Epidemiological evidence has been presented for an increased risk of development of colon cancer after chronic alcohol abuse. Alcohol is degraded by cytosolic alcohol dehydrogenases that also are capable of retinol oxidation. Inhibition of retinol oxidation to retinoic acid has been shown to occur in parallel with profound impairment of intracellular retinoid signal transduction and loss of cell differentiation control.
AIMS—In the present study, the change in cytosolic retinol oxidation and retinoic acid formation by ethanol concentrations that occur in body tissues in humans after social drinking was measured in cells from the liver, and small and large intestine of the rat.
RESULTS—The specific catalytic efficiency Vmax/Km (ml/min/g) of cytosolic retinol oxidation in the large intestine (28.9) was found to be distinctly higher than that in the liver (3.4), while the efficiency in the small intestine was negligible (0.20). In the presence of increasing ethanol concentrations (9, 17, and 34 mM), Vmax/Km for retinol oxidation decreased in a dose dependent manner to 7.8% of the initial value in the large intestine and to 12% in the liver. The Vmax/Km of retinoic acid formation in the liver cytosol decreased to 15%.
CONCLUSIONS—Our data demonstrate impairment of hepatic and intestinal cytosolic retinol oxidation and retinoic acid formation by ethanol at concentrations in body tissues after social drinking in humans. The results suggest that the increased risk of developing colorectal neoplasias after alcohol abuse may, at least in part, be caused by impaired retinoid signal transduction.


Keywords: retinol; retinoic acid; ethanol; alcohol; alcohol dehydrogenases; intestine PMID:11076882

  5. Otilonium bromide inhibits muscle contractions via L-type calcium channels in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Martin, M T; Hove-Madsen, L; Jimenez, M

    2004-04-01

    The aim of this study is to evaluate in vitro the effect of otilonium bromide (OB) on the mechanical and electrical activities of the rat colonic smooth muscle using muscle bath, microelectrodes and patch-clamp techniques. Otilonium bromide dose dependently inhibited the spontaneous activity (logIC(50) +/- SE: -5.31 +/- 0.05). This effect was not modified by TTX (10(-6) mol L(-1)). Cyclic depolarizations were abolished by OB (10(-4) mol L(-1)). Electrical field stimulation induced inhibitory junction potentials (IJPs) followed by a depolarization with superimposed spikes causing a contraction. In the presence of OB (10(-4) mol L(-1)) IJPs were recorded, but spikes and contractions were abolished. Otilonium bromide (3 x 10(-6) mol L(-1)) inhibited inward current obtained in isolated cells (amphotericin perforated patch technique). The otilonium-sensitive current amplitude was maximal (75pA) around 0 mV. The effect of different doses of OB was tested by depolarizing cells from -70 mV to 0 mV. OB dose dependently inhibited the inward current with an EC(50) of 885 nmol L(-1). Abolishment of the otilonium-sensitive current by 3 x 10(-6) mol L(-1) nifedipine confirmed that it was an L-type Ca(2+) current. Our results show that OB inhibits the spontaneous and triggered muscular contractions. This effect is produced by the inhibition of muscular action potentials carried by L-type calcium current, confirming the spasmolytic properties of OB.

  6. Dietary potassium modulates active potassium absorption and secretion in rat distal colon

    SciTech Connect

    Foster, E.S.; Sandle, G.I.; Hayslett, J.P.; Binder, H.J.

    1986-11-01

    To determine the effect of variations in body stores of potassium on the rate of active potassium transport in the large intestine, unidirectional 42K fluxes were performed under short-circuit conditions across isolated distal colonic mucosa of control, dietary potassium-depleted and dietary potassium-loaded rats. Potassium depletion stimulated net potassium absorption (JK net) (0.87 +/- 0.19 vs. 0.49 +/- 0.04 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.025) due to a 40% increase in mucosal-to-serosal potassium transport (JK m----s). In sodium-free Ringer solution JK net in the potassium-depleted group was also significantly greater than in controls (1.93 +/- 0.26 vs. 1.01 +/- 0.11 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.005). In contrast, in chloride-free Ringer solution JK net was identical in the control and potassium-depleted groups (0.39 +/- 0.05 vs. 0.46 +/- 0.07 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P = NS). Potassium loading reversed net potassium absorption to net potassium secretion (-0.76 +/- 0.08 mu eq X h-1 X cm-2, P less than 0.001) as the result of a decrease in JK m----s and an increase in serosal-to-mucosal potassium transport (JK s----m). Net potassium secretion was abolished in the absence of either sodium or chloride from the bathing solution but not by mucosal amiloride. In sodium-free Ringer solution JK net was similar in control and potassium-loaded groups, respectively.

  7. Involvement of nitric oxide in 5-HT(3) receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats.

    PubMed

    Veeresh, B; Patil, Basanagouda M; Veeresh Babu, S V; Jeedi, Neelakanth M; Unger, Banappa S

    2009-10-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide in 5-HT(3) receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats. Fluid movement in jejunum and colon were determined simultaneously in the same rat, by modifying the Beubler method. Nomega-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 20 mg/kg, s.c) alone and in combination with L-arginine (L-Arg, 150 mg/kg s.c) or D-arginine (D-Arg, 150 mg/kg, s.c) were administered 30 min before administration of 1-PBG (18.5 mug/kg, i.v). Intravenous administration of 1-phenylbiguanide (1-PBG) induced a net secretion of fluid in both jejunum and colon. 1-PBG had a more prominent secretory effect in the colon, causing a three-fold increase in volume of fluid secreted/g of colon than in the jejunum. Pretreatment with (L-NNA) prevented the 1-PBG-induced fluid accumulation in both jejunum and colon. The inhibitory effect of L-NNA on 1-PBG-induced fluid accumulation was reversed by L-Arg but not by D-Arg. These results provide evidence that nitric oxide plays an important role in 5-HT(3) receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats.

  8. Involvement of nitric oxide in 5-HT3 receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats

    PubMed Central

    Veeresh, B.; Patil, Basanagouda M.; Veeresh Babu, S.V.; Jeedi, Neelakanth M.; Unger, Banappa S.

    2009-01-01

    Objectives: The aim of the present study was to investigate the involvement of nitric oxide in 5-HT3 receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats. Materials and Methods: Fluid movement in jejunum and colon were determined simultaneously in the same rat, by modifying the Beubler method. Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NNA, 20 mg/kg, s.c) alone and in combination with L-arginine (L-Arg, 150 mg/kg s.c) or D-arginine (D-Arg, 150 mg/kg, s.c) were administered 30 min before administration of 1-PBG (18.5 μg/kg, i.v). Results: Intravenous administration of 1-phenylbiguanide (1-PBG) induced a net secretion of fluid in both jejunum and colon. 1-PBG had a more prominent secretory effect in the colon, causing a three-fold increase in volume of fluid secreted/g of colon than in the jejunum. Pretreatment with (L-NNA) prevented the 1-PBG-induced fluid accumulation in both jejunum and colon. The inhibitory effect of L-NNA on 1-PBG-induced fluid accumulation was reversed by L-Arg but not by D-Arg. Conclusion: These results provide evidence that nitric oxide plays an important role in 5-HT3 receptor agonist-induced fluid accumulation in jejunum and colon of anesthetized rats. PMID:20177493

  9. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints facilitates distal colonic motility via activating M3 receptors and somatic afferent C-fibers in normal, constipated, or diarrhoeic rats.

    PubMed

    Gao, X; Qin, Q; Yu, X; Liu, K; Li, L; Qiao, H; Zhu, B

    2015-12-01

    Previous studies have demonstrated the efficacy of somatic stimulation for patients with gastrointestinal motility disorders. However, little effort has been made to investigate the effects of acupuncture on colonic motility, particularly in pathological conditions. The precise mechanism employed in the regulation of acupuncture on colonic motility still remains unclear. We assessed the effect of acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints on distal colonic motility using a warm-water-filled manometric balloon inserted 5-6 cm into the rectum of anesthetized normal rats or rats with diarrhea or constipation. Choline chloride, 4-DAMP, cobra venom and capsaicin were separately applied to investigate the role of M3 receptors in the regulation of distal colonic motility by acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints, and whether Aδ- and/or C-fibers are required for triggering distal colonic motility by acupuncture. Acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints increased distal colonic motility not only in normal rats but also in rats with constipation or diarrhea. M3 receptors play an important role in the facilitation of distal colonic motility triggered by acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints. Afferent nerve Aδ- and C-fibers mediate the transduction of the acupuncture signal and C-fibers are essential for enhancing the effect of acupuncture at the heterotopic acupoint on distal colonic motility. Our results reveal that acupuncture at heterotopic acupoints increases distal colonic motility regardless of normal or pathological conditions via predominately activating C-fibers of somatic afferent nerve and M3 receptors. © 2015 The Authors.Neurogastroenterology & Motility published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

  10. Dietary folate suppresses DMH-induced colon carcinogenesis in a rat model and affects DMH-induced expression of four DNA repair enzymes.

    PubMed

    Sadik, Nermin A H; Shaker, Olfat G

    2012-01-01

    This study investigated the potential role of folate in the dimethylhydrazine (DMH) colon cancer model in male Wistar rats. For induction of colon cancer, group 1 rats were injected subcutaneously with 30 mg DMH/kg body weight weekly for 30 wk. Group 2 received DMH vehicle. Group 3 rats received DMH as in Group 1 but their diet was supplemented with 8 mg folate/kg diet. Group 4 was fed diet supplemented with 8 mg folate/kg diet. Upregulation of DNA damage repair genes Apurinic/apyrimidinic endonuclease 1, X-ray repair complementing defective repair in Chinese hamster cells 5, 8-oxoguanine-DNA glycosylase, and proliferating cell nuclear antigen, associated with a reduction of folic acid level was observed in colons of DMH group. Reductions of these gene upregulations and a significant increase of colonic folic acid level occurred in the DMH group supplemented with folic acid and this group also had significant inhibition of tumor incidence, normal survival rate and histologically nearly normal colonic architecture. It can be concluded that folate supplementation exerts a potent protective effect on rat colon carcinogenesis via significant modulation of DNA repair, providing a mechanism by which it plays a role in the etiology of human cancer.

  11. Differential staining of dysplastic aberrant crypt foci in the colon facilitates prediction of carcinogenic potentials of chemicals in rats.

    PubMed

    Ochiai, Masako; Watanabe, Masatoshi; Nakanishi, Masako; Taguchi, Ayako; Sugimura, Takashi; Nakagama, Hitoshi

    2005-03-18

    We developed a novel and simple method to identify dysplastic aberrant crypt foci (ACF) induced in rats by colon carcinogens more efficiently and selectively without conducting laborious histological examination, which usually requires enough time to get final diagnosis. By adding a simple decolorization process with 70% methanol after conventional 0.2% methylene blue staining, dysplastic ACF could be differentially contrasted. To examine the validity of this novel method, which we refer to as differential staining, we analyzed colonic lesions induced by three heterocyclic amines, including 2-amino-1-methyl-6-phenylimidazo[4,5-b]pyridine, and found that the number of dysplastic ACF detected more precisely reflected their carcinogenic potential than the total numbers of ACF.

  12. Initiation and promotion of colonic aberrant crypt foci in rats by 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde in thermolyzed sucrose.

    PubMed

    Zhang, X M; Chan, C C; Stamp, D; Minkin, S; Archer, M C; Bruce, W R

    1993-04-01

    We have previously shown that thermolyzed sucrose in the diet promotes the growth of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the rat. HPLC analysis of the light caramel colored product showed that it contained 1% 5-hydroxymethyl-2-furaldehyde (HMF), confirmed by mass and NMR spectroscopy. To determine whether HMF was responsible for the promotion of ACF by thermolyzed sucrose, 45 F344 female rats were initiated with the colon carcinogen azoxymethane (AOM), and a week later were randomized to four groups receiving AIN-76 diets containing untreated sucrose, 20% thermolyzed sucrose, 20% butanol extracted thermolyzed sucrose (HMF free) or 1% HMF. Thermolyzed sucrose in the diet led to larger ACF as previously observed. Thermolyzed sucrose extracted to remove HMF, did not affect ACF size, but 1% HMF added to the diet led to a larger ACF both with relation to average size and number of ACF of larger sizes (P < 0.05). To determine whether HMF had initiating effects, 172 female F344 rats were given water, HMF (at doses to 300 mg/kg) or AOM (5 mg/kg) by gavage twice and the total number of ACF was scored 30 days later. The results demonstrated that HMF induces ACF in a dose-dependent manner (P < 0.02), though the effect was much weaker than that of AOM. We conclude that sugar heated under household cooking conditions may act as both an initiator and a promoter of colon cancer because of the presence of HMF.

  13. Cyclooxygenase as a target in chemoprevention by probiotics during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Walia, Sohini; Kamal, Rozy; Kanwar, Sarbjit Singh; Dhawan, Davinder Kumar

    2015-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to assess the effects of potential probiotics in regulating the activity of cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) along with other morphological and histological analysis during 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. The rats were divided into 6 groups viz., normal control, Lactobacillus plantarum (AdF10) treated, Lactobacillus rhamnosus GG (LGG) treated, DMH treated, AdF10 + DMH treated and LGG + DMH treated. Probiotics were supplemented to rats at dose levels of 2 × 10(10) cells per day for 6 days in a week. All the treatments were continued for a period of 16 wk. DMH treatment resulted in a statistically significant increase in the levels of total sialic acid (TSA). However, on supplementation with probiotics, a significant reduction in TSA was observed. DMH treatment brought about a significant increase in the expression of COX-2. But, supplementation of probiotics brought down the protein expression to moderate level. Further, supplementation with probiotics was also able to reduce tumor incidence, tumor multiplicity and average tumor size. Therefore, treatment with probiotics has the potential of providing protection against colon cancer by suppressing the COX-2 expression as one of the protective mechanisms.

  14. Comparison of stress-induced modulation of smooth-muscle activity between ileum and colon in male rats.

    PubMed

    Kimoto, Mari; Zeredo, Jorge L; Ota, Masato S; Nihei, Zenro; Toda, Kazuo

    2014-07-01

    Stress is a well-known cause of numerous digestive conditions, including gastrointestinal-function disorders. The autonomic nervous system regulates intestinal movements via cholinergic and adrenergic efferent fibers; however it is not clear how stress could affect these control mechanisms and in particular whether in a site-dependent manner. In this study we tested in vitro the effects of topical application of acetylcholine (Ach) and adrenalin (Adr) on smooth-muscle contractions of intestinal segments isolated from stress-conditioned rats. Stress was loaded by hypergravity stimulation (10min/day) for periods of 1, 6 or 30days. As a result, stress-conditioning affected intestinal sensitivity to Ach and Adr differently at sections of the ileum and colon. In the ileum no significant differences were found between control and stress-conditioned rats, whereas in the colon, samples from 6- and 30-day stress-conditioned rats showed larger amplitudes of Ach-induced contraction, as well as greater antagonization by Adr application. These results suggest that stress conditioning can modify autonomic control of intestinal movements by altering smooth-muscle sensitivity to Ach and Adr.

  15. Regional differences in oxalate absorption by rat intestine: evidence for excessive absorption by the colon in steatorrhoea.

    PubMed Central

    Saunders, D R; Sillery, J; McDonald, G B

    1975-01-01

    Clinical studies suggest that steatorrhoea can be associated with excessive absorption of dietary oxalate. We examined the influence of bile salts, Ca++, and long-chain fatty acid on the absorption of oxalate and water by rat intestine in vivo. Absorption was measured under steady-state conditions during single-pass infusions. Each intestinal segment served as its own control. In jejunum, 10 mM taurocholate, the principal salt in rat bile, depressed absorption of oxalate and water. Absorption was not depressed further by Ca++ or linoleic acid. In ileum, 10 mM taurocholate did not inhibit absorption. Linoleic acid, 2 mM, depressed absorption of both oxalate and water. In colon 10 mM taurocholate decreased absorption. Net water transport was depressed further when linoleic acid was added to the infusion, but oxalate absorption was enhanced. Ca++ negated these effects of linoleic acid. It is concluded that long-chain fatty acids may enhance the absorption of oxalate from the rat colon. This observation may be relevant to understanding hyperoxaluria in patients with steatorrhoea. PMID:1158192

  16. Oral Feeding of Probiotic Bifidobacterium infantis: Colonic Morphological Changes in Rat Model of TNBS-Induced Colitis

    PubMed Central

    Javed, Najma H.; Alsahly, Musaad B.; Khubchandani, Jagdish

    2016-01-01

    Ulcerative colitis (UC) is a chronic inflammatory bowel disease of unknown etiology. It has been proposed that modifying the bacterial flora in intestine with probiotics may decrease the inflammatory process and prevent relapses in UC. We investigated the possible protective and therapeutic effects of a single strand of probiotic, Bifidobacterium infantis (BI), on colonic inflammation, in rats with regular feedings. Two groups of Lewis rats were prepared (n = 8). The first group was the control, sham-fed group (n = 4). The other group was the experimental BI-fed group (n = 4). Colitis was induced in both groups by intrarectal administration of TNBS under light anesthesia. The sham-fed colitis induced groups received a daily oral gavage feeding of 1.0 mL distilled water, whereas the B. infantis-fed group received 0.205 g of B. infantis dissolved in 1.0 mL distilled water daily. The change in body weight and food and water intake was recorded over the course of each study and analyzed. The rats were euthanized and tissues from the descending colon were harvested and analyzed microscopically and histologically. Results of our study indicated significant reduction in inflammation, mucosal damage, and preservation of goblet cells, as compared to the control animals. Modulation of gastrointestinal (GI) flora suggests a promising field in developing strategies for prevention and treatment of inflammatory bowel diseases by dietary modifications. PMID:27127686

  17. Four-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprints as preneoplastic markers in the rat model of colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Roy, Hemant K; Liu, Yang; Wali, Ramesh K; Kim, Young L; Kromine, Alexei K; Goldberg, Michael J; Backman, Vadim

    2004-04-01

    Identification of preneoplastic changes in histologically normal epithelium (the "field effect") could provide a powerful screening tool for colorectal cancer. However, to date, reliable detection has not been possible. We have recently developed a new generation of optical technology, 4-dimensional elastic light-scattering fingerprinting (4D-ELF), which enables us to probe the nanoscale/microscale architecture of living cells. We therefore investigated whether 4D-ELF would be able to identify preneoplastic changes in the colonocytes of the azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat model of colon carcinogenesis. Forty-eight Fisher 344 rats were randomized to either 2 weekly injections of AOM or saline. Animals were killed 2-20 weeks after the second injection of AOM. Colons were removed and subjected to 4D-ELF analysis, with a subset undergoing assessment of aberrant crypt foci (ACF). All AOM-treated animals were compared with age-matched saline-treated controls. AOM-induced ACF became apparent at approximately 4-6 weeks and continued to increase over time. ACF were predominantly located in the distal colon. At 2 weeks (before development of ACF), there were marked changes in a number of 4D-ELF signatures. The relevance to carcinogenesis of these 4D-ELF-detected microarchitectural abnormalities is supported by their spatial and temporal correlation with subsequent development of ACF. All changes reported were highly statistically significant. We show that probing the nanoscale cellular architecture with 4D-ELF provided an unprecedented tool for detecting the earliest stages of colon carcinogenesis. Future studies are necessary to explore the clinical applicability of this technology and elucidate the biological determinants of these microarchitectural changes.

  18. Chemoprevention of Colon Cancer in a Rat Carcinogenesis Model Using a Novel Nanotechnology-based Combined Treatment System

    PubMed Central

    Chaudhary, Abhishek; Sutaria, Dhruvitkumar; Huang, Ying; Wang, Jeffrey; Prabhu, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the third most common cause of cancer death in the US, accounting for ~51,000 deaths each year. We have previously shown in vitro chemopreventive effects of mixtures of aspirin, folic acid and calcium (AFAC) on colon cancer cell lines. The objective of the present study was to evaluate the in vivo effects of orally administered, colon targeted chemopreventive combination regimens on the inhibition of aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in a rat model of colon carcinogenesis using (1) unmodified (free drug) combinations of AFAC, and (2) nanoparticle-encapsulated combinations of the same agents. A 14-week animal study was conducted in three phases to determine an optimal effective dose from AFAC combinations and evaluate the efficacy of nanotechnology-based chemopreventive regimens administered in combined (mixtures), and individual (single entity) forms. ACF inhibition when compared to azoxymethane (AOM)-treated rat control group was significant in both, the unmodified and the modified nanoparticle-mediated chemopreventive regimens, demonstrating a range of 31 – 38% (p < 0.05) and 50 – 75% (p < 0.001) reduction respectively, in the number of ACFs. In addition, the nanoparticulate combination regimens of AFAC demonstrated a 2-fold increase in suppression of ACF compared to free drug mixtures. Individual administration of nanoparticle encapsulated drugs showed no significant effect on the reduction of ACF. Histochemical analysis provided further confirmation of chemopreventive effects, demonstrating a significant reduction in cell nuclear proliferation. Overall, our results provide a strong proof-of-concept using nanoparticle-mediated combination treatment in the chemoprevention of colon cancer. PMID:21914855

  19. Modulation of Fourier transform infrared spectra and total sialic acid levels by selenium during 1,2 dimethylhydrazine-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Ghadi, Fereshteh Ezzati; Malhotra, Anshoo; Ghara, Abdollah Ramzani; Dhawan, D K

    2013-01-01

    The present study investigated the modulatory potential of selenium supplementation, if any, on Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra in brush border membranes (BBM) of colons and on serum total sialic acid as well as lipid bound sialic acid during 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colorectal carcinogenesis in rats. The FTIR spectra of BBM from the colons of DMH-treated rats revealed a significant increase in the lipid contents but showed a significant decline in the protein contents. Further, decrease in the collagen as well as creatine contents was also noticed in the colons of DMH-treated rats. Supplementation with selenium appreciably restored protein as well as collagen contents and resulted in decreased lipids levels in the colons of DMH-treated rats. Interestingly, a significant increase in the levels of total sialic acid in serum of DMH-treated rats was observed which, however, got moderated significantly upon selenium supplementation. Moreover, no significant changes were observed in the levels of lipid bound sialic acid in all the treated groups as compared to controls. In conclusion, the present study suggested that supplementation of selenium act as a chemopreventive agent and delays considerably the process of colon carcinogenesis.

  20. Soluble Fiber Dextrin and Soluble Corn Fiber Supplementation Modify Indices of Health in Cecum and Colon of Sprague-Dawley Rats

    PubMed Central

    Knapp, Brenda K.; Bauer, Laura L.; Swanson, Kelly S.; Tappenden, Kelly A.; Fahey, George C.; de Godoy, Maria R. C.

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to evaluate health outcomes resulting from dietary supplementation of novel, low-digestible carbohydrates in the cecum and colon of Sprague-Dawley rats randomly assigned to one of four treatment groups for 21 days: 5% cellulose (Control), Pectin, soluble fiber dextrin (SFD), or soluble corn fiber (SCF). Rats fed Pectin had a higher average daily food intake, but no differences in final body weights or rates of weight gain among treatments were observed. No differences were observed in total short-chain fatty acid (SCFA) or branched-chain fatty acid (BCFA) concentrations in the cecum and colon of rats fed either SFD or SCF. The SFD and SCF treatments increased cecal propionate and decreased butyrate concentrations compared to Control or Pectin. Pectin resulted in increased BCFA in the cecum and colon. Supplementation of SFD and SCF had no effect on cecal microbial populations compared to Control. Consumption of SFD and SCF increased total and empty cecal weight but not colon weight. Gut histomorphology was positively affected by SFD and SCF. Increased crypt depth, goblet cell numbers, and acidic mucin were observed in both the cecum and colon of rats supplemented with SFD, SCF, and Pectin. These novel, low-digestible carbohydrates appear to be beneficial in modulating indices of hindgut morphology when supplemented in the diet of the rat. PMID:23381099

  1. High fat mixed lipid diet modifies protective effects of exercise on 1,2 dimethylhydrazine induced colon cancer in rats.

    PubMed

    Perše, M; Injac, R; Štrukelj, B; Cerar, A

    2012-06-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of long-term swimming exercise in conjunction with a high fat mixed lipid (HFML) diet on colon cancer (CC) development and lipid peroxidation in the large bowel. We used forty male Wistar rats, which were randomly divided into one control group and four cancer groups: sedentary and swimming groups fed a standard diet (LFCO) and sedentary and swimming groups fed an HFML diet. Corticosterone was determined during the experiment. After 6 months of swimming, the rats were sacrificed and blood, heart, liver, muscle and large bowel were taken for determining the activity of serum enzymes, antioxidant capacity and CC development. The results demonstrate that exercise has a protective role in CC development. Attenuated development of CC and increased levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) in the large bowel of exercised rats show that one of the protective effects of exercise on developing CC is induction of oxidative stress. However, in terms of the combined effects of dietary fat and exercise, our results indicate that the protective role of exercise on CC development is significantly depressed by an HFML diet. An HFML diet significantly reduced the protective influence of exercise on colon carcinogenesis in rats and affected the degree of peroxidation in the large bowel during exercise, as well as concentrations of serum enzymes (LDH, α-HBDH, CK, ALT and AST). Our results indicate that an HFML diet, which reflects the composition of a Western style diet, is a significant modifier of the protective effects of exercise on CC development in rats.

  2. Dietary selenomethionine increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in rat liver and colon mucosa.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Huawei; Yan, Lin; Cheng, Wen-Hsing; Uthus, Eric O

    2011-08-01

    The regulation of site-specific DNA methylation of tumor suppressor genes has been considered as a leading mechanism by which certain nutrients exert their anticancer property. This study was to investigate whether selenium (Se) affects the methylation of globe genomic DNA and the exon-specific p53 gene. Three groups of rats (n = 6-7/group) were fed the AIN-93G basal diet supplemented with 0 [Se deficient (D)], 0.15 [Se adequate (A)], or 4 mg [Se supranutritional (S)] (Se as l-selenomethionine)/kg diet for 104 d, respectively. Rats fed the A or S diet had greater plasma and liver glutathione peroxidase activity, liver thioredoxin reductase activity, and plasma homocysteine concentration than those fed the D diet. However, compared with the A diet, rats fed the S diet did not further increase these Se-dependent enzyme activities or homocysteine concentration. In contrast, Se concentrations in kidney, liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and plasma were increased in a Se-dose-dependent manner. Interestingly, rats fed the S diet had significantly less global liver genomic DNA methylation than those fed the D diet. However, the S diet significantly increased the methylation of the p53 gene (exons 5-8) but not the β-actin gene (exons 2-3) DNA in liver and colon mucosa compared with those fed the D diet. Taken together, long-term Se consumption not only affects selenoprotein enzyme activities, homocysteine, tissue Se concentrations, and global genomic DNA methylation but also increases exon-specific DNA methylation of the p53 gene in a Se-dose-dependent manner in rat liver and colon mucosa.

  3. Radiation induced cytochrome c release causes loss of rat colonic fluid absorption by damage to crypts and pericryptal myofibroblasts

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajah, J; Gourmelon, P; Griffiths, N; Lebrun, F; Naftalin, R; Pedley, K

    2000-01-01

    BACKGROUND—Therapeutic or accidental exposure to radiation commonly causes gastrointestinal disturbances, including diarrhoea. Rats subjected to whole body ionising radiation at a dose of 8 Gy lose their capacity to absorb fluid via the descending colon after four days. After seven days, fluid absorption recovers to control levels.
AIMS—To investigate the effect of ionising radiation on colonic permeability together with its effect on mitochondria dependent apoptotic signals and intercellular adhesion molecules.
METHODS—Rats were irradiated with doses of 0-12 Gy. Colonic permeability was measured by accumulation of fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC) dextran in crypt lumens. Changes in levels of cytochrome c, caspase 3, E and OB cadherin, β-catenin smooth muscle actin, and collagen IV were assessed using immunocytochemistry with confocal microscopy.
RESULTS—Cytosolic cytochrome c increased after 8 Gy (t1/2 1.4 (0.6) hours) and peaked at approximately six hours. Caspase 3 increased more slowly, particularly in crypt epithelial cells (t1/2 57 (14.5) hours). Pericryptal myofibroblasts disintegrated within 24 hours as was evident from loss of OB cadherin and smooth muscle actin. This coincided with increased crypt permeability to dextran. Intercellular adhesion between crypt luminal cells was not lost until day 4 when both β-catenin and E-cadherin were minimal. The half maximal dose-response for these effects was in the range 2-4 Gy. Recovery of colonic transport was concurrent with recovery of pericryptal smooth muscle actin and OB cadherin. The pan caspase inhibitor Z-Val-Ala-Asp.fluoromethylketone (1 mg/kg per day) had a small effect in conserving the pericryptal sheath myofibroblasts and sheath permeability but had no systemic therapeutic effects.
CONCLUSIONS—These data suggest that radiation damage to the colon may be initiated by mitochondrial events. Loss of crypt fluid absorption and increased permeability coincided with decreased

  4. Food restriction enhances oxidative status in aging rats with neuroprotective effects on myenteric neuron populations in the proximal colon.

    PubMed

    Schoffen, João Paulo Ferreira; Santi Rampazzo, Ana Paula; Cirilo, Carla Possani; Zapater, Mariana Cristina Umada; Vicentini, Fernando Augusto; Comar, Jurandir Fernando; Bracht, Adelar; Natali, Maria Raquel Marçal

    2014-03-01

    Food restriction may slow the aging process by increasing the levels of antioxidant defenses and reducing cell death. We evaluated the effects of food restriction on oxidative and nutritional status, myenteric cell populations, and the colonic muscle layer in aging rats. Wistar rats were distributed into control groups (7, 12, and 23months of age) and subjected to food restriction (50% of normal diet) beginning at 7months of age. The animals were sacrificed, and blood was collected to evaluate its components and markers of oxidative status, including thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances, reduced glutathione, catalase, glutathione peroxidase, and total antioxidant capacity. The proximal colon was collected to evaluate HuC/D and neuronal nitric oxide synthase (nNOS)-positive and -negative myenteric neurons, S-100 glial cells, and the muscle layer. Age negatively affected oxidative status in the animals, which also increased the levels of total cholesterol, protein, and globulins and increased the thickness of the muscle layer. Aging also reduced the number and hypertrophied glial cell bodies, HuC/D neurons, and nNOS-negative and -positive neurons. An improvement was observed in oxidative status and the levels of total cholesterol and triglycerides with food restriction, which also provided neuroprotection of the intrinsic innervation. However, food restriction accentuated the loss of enteric glia and caused hypertrophy in the muscle layer at 23months. Food restriction improved oxidative and nutritional status in rats and protected HuC/D neurons and nNOS-negative and -positive neurons against neuronal loss. Nevertheless, food restriction caused morphoquantitative changes in glial cell populations, with possible interference with colonic neuromuscular control.

  5. The effect of red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) fiber on alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinogenesis in rats.

    PubMed

    Bobek, P; Galbavý, S; Mariássyová, M

    2000-06-01

    The effect of diet supplemented with 5% and 15% cellulose or with 15% fiber isolated from red beet (Beta vulgaris var. rubra) on the development of alimentary hypercholesterolemia and chemically induced colon carcinoma was studied in male Wistar rats. Hypercholesterolemia was induced by a diet containing 0.3% of cholesterol and colon carcinoma was induced by treatment with dimethylhydrazine (20 mg/kg, 12 doses applied s.c. in one-week intervals). Fibrous matter isolated from red beet contained 89% fiber, of which 9% was in water soluble form. Animals were killed 14 weeks after the application of dimethylhydrazine (i.e. 26 weeks after starting on the diets). Red beet fiber diet (and not the increased cellulose intake) caused a reduction of serum cholesterol and triacylglycerol levels (by 30 and 40%, respectively) and a significant increase in the fraction of cholesterol carried in HDL. This diet induced also a significant decrease (almost by 30%) of cholesterol content in aorta. Higher cellulose content in the diet and even more so the administration of red beet fiber caused a significant reduction of conjugated dienes content in plasma, erythrocytes and in liver. Also observed were increases in the activities of superoxide dismutase and catalase in erythrocytes and in colon and activities of glutathione peroxidase and glutathione-S-transferase in liver. The presence of both higher cellulose content and red beet fiber in the diet significantly reduced the incidence of precancerous lesions--aberrant crypt foci--in the colon. The diet containing red beet fiber did not affect significantly the incidence of colon tumours although the number of animals bearing tumours was reduced by 30%.

  6. δ- and γ-tocopherols, but not α-tocopherol, inhibit colon carcinogenesis in azoxymethane-treated F344 rats.

    PubMed

    Guan, Fei; Li, Guangxun; Liu, Anna B; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Zhihong; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung; Yang, Chung S

    2012-04-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E has been extensively discussed, but the activities of specific forms of tocopherols have not received sufficient attention. Herein, we compared the activities of δ-tocopherol (δ-T), γ-T, and α-T in a colon carcinogenesis model. Male F344 rats, seven weeks old, were given two weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (AOM) each at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Starting 1 week before the AOM injection, the animals were maintained on a modified AIN76A diet, or the same diet containing 0.2% of δ-T, γ-T, α-T, or a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT), until the termination of the experiment at 8 weeks after the second AOM injection. δ-T treatment showed the strongest inhibitory effect, decreasing the numbers of aberrant crypt foci by 62%. γ-T and γ-TmT were also effective, but α-T was not. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that δ-T and γ-T treatments reduced the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and the expression of cyclin D1 in the colon, preserved the expression of PPAR-γ, and decreased the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane. Supplementation with 0.2% δ-T, γ-T, or α-T increased the respective levels of tocopherols and their side-chain degradation metabolites in the serum and colon tissues. Rather high concentrations of δ-T and γ-T and their metabolites were found in colon tissues. Our study provides the first evidence for the much higher cancer preventive activity of δ-T and γ-T than α-T in a chemically induced colon carcinogenesis model. It further suggests that δ-T is more effective than γ-T. 2012 AACR

  7. δ- and γ-Tocopherols, but not α-Tocopherol, Inhibit Colon Carcinogenesis in Azoxymethane-Treated F344 Rats

    PubMed Central

    Guan, Fei; Li, Guangxun; Liu, Anna B; Lee, Mao-Jung; Yang, Zhihong; Chen, Yu-Kuo; Lin, Yong; Shih, Weichung; Yang, Chung S

    2012-01-01

    The cancer preventive activity of vitamin E has been extensively discussed, but the activities of specific forms of tocopherols have not received sufficient attention. Herein, we compared the activities of δ-tocopherol (δ-T), γ-T and α-T in a colon carcinogenesis model. Male F344 rats, 7 weeks old, were given 2 weekly subcutaneous injections of azoxymethane (AOM) each at a dose of 15 mg/kg body weight. Starting 1 week before the AOM injection, the animals were maintained on a modified AIN76A diet, or the same diet containing 0.2% of δ-T, γ-T, α-T or a γ-T-rich mixture of tocopherols (γ-TmT), until the termination of the experiment at 8 weeks after the second AOM injection. δ-T treatment showed the strongest inhibitory effect, decreasing the numbers of aberrant crypt foci by 62%. γ-T and γ-TmT were also effective, but α-T was not. Immunohistochemical analysis showed that δ-T and γ-T treatments reduced the levels of 4-hydroxynonenal and nitrotyrosine and the expression of cyclin D1 in the colon, preserved the expression of PPAR-γ, and decreased the serum levels of prostaglandin E2 and 8-isoprostane. Supplementation with 0.2% δ-T, γ-T or α-T increased the respective levels of tocopherols and their side-chain degradation metabolites in the serum and colon tissues. Rather high concentrations of δ-T and γ-T and their metabolites were found in colon tissues. Our study provides the first evidence for the much higher cancer preventive activity of δ-T and γ-T than α-T in a chemically-induced colon carcinogenesis model. It further suggests that δ-T is more effective than γ-T. PMID:22366914

  8. Ellagic acid prevents rat colon carcinogenesis induced by 1, 2 dimethyl hydrazine through inhibition of AKT-phosphoinositide-3 kinase pathway.

    PubMed

    Umesalma, Syed; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2011-06-25

    Colon cancer is the third most malignant neoplasm in the world and chemoprevention through dietary intervention is an emerging option to reduce its mortality. Ellagic acid (EA) a major component of berries possesses attractive biological deeds. This study is aimed to investigate the effect of ellagic acid in fostering apoptosis in 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH) mediated experimental colon carcinogenesis model. Wistar male rats were segregated into four groups: group I-control rats, group II-rats received ellagic acid (60 mg/kg body weight p.o. every day), rats in group III-induced with DMH (20 mg/kg body weight, s.c.) for 15 weeks, DMH-induced group IV rats were initiated with ellagic acid treatment. The present study is designed to explore the significance of phosphoinositide-3-kinase (PI3K)/Akt molecular pathway as well as ellagic acid's chemopreventive effect in colon cancer. DMH-induced rats exhibited elevated expressions of PI3K and Akt as confirmed by immunofluorescence, immunoblot and confocal microscopic analysis. Mechanistically, ellagic acid was found to prevent PI3K/Akt activation that in turn, results in modulation of its downstream Bcl-2 family proteins. Bax expression and caspase-3 activation was noted after ellagic acid supplementation leading to elevation of cytochrome c (cyt c) levels and finally cell death. These observations were supported by the DNA fragmentation results, which showed the occurrence of apoptosis. This study reveals the involvement of PI3K-Akt signaling through which ellagic acid induces apoptosis and subsequently suppresses colon cancer during DMH-induced rat colon carcinogenesis. In conclusion, our findings demonstrate that ellagic acid begets apoptosis in DMH-induced colon carcinoma.

  9. Chitosan shifts the fermentation site toward the distal colon and increases the fecal short-chain fatty acids concentrations in rats.

    PubMed

    Yao, Hsien-Tsung; Chiang, Meng-Tsan

    2006-03-01

    Chitosan has been shown to have lipid-lowering effects, but little is known about the effect of chitosan on colonic pH value and short-chain fatty acid (SFCA) concentration. This study was designed to investigate the effect of chitosan on colonic bacterial fermentation and fecal bacterial enzyme activity in rats fed a diet enriched in cholesterol. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were fed a diet containing 5% cellulose (CE) or 5% chitosan (CS) for 15 days. Significantly increased fecal cholesterol and triacylglycerols contents were observed in rats fed the chitosan diet. In addition, lower cecal acetate and butyrate concentrations and higher fecal acetate, propionate, and butyrate concentrations were observed in rats fed the CS diet when compared to those fed the CE diet. Although rats fed with the CS diet exhibited an elevated cecal (cecum with contents) weight and higher pH value, no significant difference in fecal pH value was observed between the CE group and the CS group. Chitosan significantly decreased fecal mucinase and beta-glucuronidase activities. Results from this study show that chitosan may alter fecal bacterial enzyme activities and SCFA concentrations and the beneficial effects of chitosan on the colonic environment may occur in the distal colon in rats.

  10. Chemopreventive effects of (-)-hinokinin against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced genotoxicity and preneoplastic lesions in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Barbosa, Lilian C; Furtado, Ricardo A; Bertanha, Humberto C C; Tomazella, Iara M; Costa, Eveline S; Bastos, Jairo K; Andrade e Silva, Márcio L; Tavares, Denise C

    2014-10-24

    (-)-Hinokinin (1) is a dibenzylbutyrolactone lignan obtained by the partial synthesis of (-)-cubebin. This study reports the antigenotoxic and anticarcinogenic potential of 1 by the comet and aberrant crypt focus assays in the peripheral blood and colon of 4-5-week-old Wistar rats, respectively. The rats were exposed to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (40 mg/kg) and were treated by gavage with doses of 10, 20, and 40 mg/kg of 1. The results showed that the dose of 40 mg/kg was neither genotoxic nor carcinogenic. In the comet assay, all 1 doses displayed antigenotoxic effects. In addition, this compound (20 and 40 mg/kg) exhibited an anticarcinogenic effect in the aberrant crypt focus assay.

  11. β-Catenin and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-δ coordinate dynamic chromatin loops for the transcription of vascular endothelial growth factor A gene in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Hwang, Injoo; Kim, Jeeho; Jeong, Sunjoo

    2012-11-30

    Vascular endothelial growth factor A (VEGFA) mRNA is regulated by β-catenin and peroxisome proliferator activated receptor δ (PPAR-δ) activation in colon cancer cells, but the detailed mechanism remains to be elucidated. As chromatin loops are generally hubs for transcription factors, we tested here whether β-catenin could modulate chromatin looping near the VEGFA gene and play any important role for PPAR-δ activated VEGFA transcription. First, we identified the far upstream site as an important site for VEGFA transcription by luciferase assay and chromatin immunoprecipitation in colorectal carcinoma HCT116 cells. Chromatin conformation capture analysis also revealed the chromatin loops formed by the β-catenin bindings on these sites near the VEGFA gene. Dynamic association and dissociation of β-catenin/TCF-4/PPAR-δ on the far upstream site and β-catenin/NF-κB p65 on the downstream site were also detected depending on PPAR-δ activation. Interestingly, β-catenin-mediated chromatin loops were relieved by PPAR-δ activation, suggesting a regulatory role of β-catenin for VEGFA transcription. Based on these data, we propose a model for PPAR-δ-activated VEGFA transcription that relies on β-catenin-mediated chromatin looping as a prerequisite for the activation. Our findings could extend to other β-catenin regulated target genes and could provide a general mechanism and novel paradigm for β-catenin-mediated oncogenesis.

  12. Bromelain improves decrease in defecation in postoperative rats: modulation of colonic gene expression of inducible nitric oxide synthase.

    PubMed

    Wen, Suping; Huang, Tom H W; Li, George Q; Yamahara, Johji; Roufogalis, Basil D; Li, Yuhao

    2006-01-25

    Ileus continues to be a common consequence of abdominal surgery, causing significant patient discomfort and often leading to more serious problems. The therapy available is limited, hence, ileus remains an important clinical problem. Activation of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) directly modulates intestinal dysmotility after bowel manipulation and plays an essential role in initiating intestinal inflammation. Nuclear factor (NF)-kappaB is known to be a critical component of iNOS gene transcriptional activation in response to inflammatory stimuli. Bromelain is a crude extract from the pineapple stem, which is sold as a nutritional supplement to "promote digestive health" and as an anti-inflammatory medication in some developed countries. Here, we have found that oral administration of bromelain improves decrease in defecation in abdominal postoperative rats. Results showed that bromelain increased the wet weight, dry weight, water content and number of fecal pellets in laparotomized plus mechanically manipulated rats, suggesting improvement of postoperative ileus. Furthermore, bromelain treatment inhibited overexpressed iNOS mRNA and restored down-regulated inhibitor kappaBalpha mRNA in the colon of the postoperative rats. From the in vitro experiments, bromelain inhibits lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced nitrite overproduction in macrophage cell lines and LPS-induced NF-kappaB luciferase reporter gene expression in RAW264.7 macrophages transfected with NF-kappaB luciferase reporter gene. Thus, our findings suggest that bromelain improves decrease in defecation in postoperative rats, at least in part, by inhibiting colonic iNOS overexpression via NF-kappaB pathway. Our data indicates that bromelain may benefit patients with postoperative ileus.

  13. A Comparison Between Radioimmunotherapy and Hyperthermic Intraperitoneal Chemotherapy for the Treatment of Peritoneal Carcinomatosis of Colonic Origin in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Hendriks, T.; Boerman, O. C.; Koppe, M. J.; Oyen, W. J. G.; Bleichrodt, R. P.

    2007-01-01

    Background Cytoreductive surgery (CS) followed by heated intraperitoneal chemotherapy (HIPEC) is considered the standard of care for the treatment of patients with peritoneal carcinomatosis (PC) of colorectal cancer (CRC). These surgical procedures result in a median survival of 2 years at the cost of considerable morbidity and mortality. In preclinical studies, radioimmunotherapy (RIT) improved survival after CS in a model of induced PC of colonic origin. In the present studies we aimed to compare the efficacy and toxicity of CS followed by adjuvant RIT in experimental PC to the standard of care, HIPEC. Methods PC was induced by intraperitoneal inoculation of CC-531 colon carcinoma cells in three groups of Wag/Rij rats. Treatment comprised CS only, CS + RIT or CS + HIPEC, immediately after surgery. RIT consisted of intraperitoneal administration of 74 MBq Lutetium-177 labeled MG1. HIPEC was performed by a closed abdomen perfusion technique using mitomycin C (16 mg/L during 60 minutes). The primary endpoint was survival. Results CS only or combined with RIT was well tolerated. Rats receiving CS + HIPEC were lethargic, suffered from diarrhea, and lost significantly more weight in the first postoperative week. Median survival of rats treated with CS + RIT was significantly longer than after CS alone (97 and 57 days, respectively, P < .004), whereas survival after CS + HIPEC or CS alone were not significantly different (76 and 57 days, respectively, P = .17). Conclusion Survival after CS was significantly improved by RIT with Lutetium-177-MG1 in rats with PC of colorectal origin. Adjuvant HIPEC did not improve survival and was more toxic than adjuvant RIT. PMID:17653591

  14. Effects of potato fiber and potato-resistant starch on biomarkers of colonic health in rats fed diets containing red meat.

    PubMed

    Paturi, Gunaranjan; Nyanhanda, Tafadzwa; Butts, Christine A; Herath, Thanuja D; Monro, John A; Ansell, Juliet

    2012-10-01

    The effects of red meat consumption with and without fermentable carbohydrates on indices of large bowel health in rats were examined. Sprague-Dawley rats were fed cellulose, potato fiber, or potato-resistant starch diets containing 12% casein for 2 wk, then similar diets containing 25% cooked beef for 6 wk. After week 8, cecal and colonic microbiota composition, fermentation end-products, colon structure, and colonocyte DNA damage were analyzed. Rats fed potato fiber had lower Bacteroides-Prevotella-Porphyromonas group compared to other diet groups. Colonic Bifidobacterium spp. and/or Lactobacillus spp. were higher in potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets than in the cellulose diet. Beneficial changes were observed in short-chain fatty acid concentrations (acetic, butyric, and propionic acids) in rats fed potato fiber compared with rats fed cellulose. Phenol and p-cresol concentrations were lower in the cecum and colon of rats fed potato fiber. An increase in goblet cells per crypt and longer crypts were found in the colon of rats fed potato fiber and potato-resistant starch diets. Fermentable carbohydrates had no effect on colonic DNA damage. Dietary combinations of red meat with potato fiber or potato-resistant starch have distinctive effects in the large bowel. Future studies are essential to examine the efficacy of different types of nondigestible carbohydrates in maintaining colonic health during long-term consumption of high-protein diets. Improved understanding of interactions between the food consumed and gut microbiota provides knowledge needed to make healthier food choices for large bowel health. The impact of red meat on large bowel health may be ameliorated by consuming with fermentable dietary fiber, a colonic energy source that produces less harmful by-products than the microbial breakdown of colonic protein for energy. Developing functional red meat products with fermentable dietary fiber could be one way to promote a healthy and balanced

  15. The Colonic Microbiome and Epithelial Transcriptome Are Altered in Rats Fed a High-Protein Diet Compared with a Normal-Protein Diet.

    PubMed

    Mu, Chunlong; Yang, Yuxiang; Luo, Zhen; Guan, Leluo; Zhu, Weiyun

    2016-03-01

    A high-protein diet (HPD) can produce hazardous compounds and reduce butyrate-producing bacteria in feces, which may be detrimental to gut health. However, information on whether HPD affects intestinal function is limited. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of an HPD on the microbiota, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome in the colons of rats. Adult male Wistar rats were fed either a normal-protein diet (20% protein, 56% carbohydrate) or an HPD (45% protein, 30% carbohydrate) for 6 wk (n = 10 rats per group, individually fed). After 6 wk, the colonic microbiome, microbial metabolites, and epithelial transcriptome were determined. Compared with the normal-protein diet, the HPD adversely altered the colonic microbiota by increasing (P < 0.05) Escherichia/Shigella, Enterococcus, Streptococcus, and sulfate-reducing bacteria by 54.9-fold, 31.3-fold, 5.36-fold, and 2.59-fold, respectively. However, the HPD reduced Ruminococcus (8.04-fold), Akkermansia (not detected in HPD group), and Faecalibacterium prausnitzii (3.5-fold) (P < 0.05), which are generally regarded as beneficial bacteria in the colon. Concomitant increases in cadaverine (4.88-fold), spermine (31.2-fold), and sulfide (4.8-fold) (P < 0.05) and a decrease in butyrate (2.16-fold) (P < 0.05) in the HPD rats indicated an evident shift toward the production of unhealthy microbial metabolites. In the colon epithelium of the HPD rats, transcriptome analysis identified an upregulation of genes (P < 0.05) involved in disease pathogenesis; these genes are involved in chemotaxis, the tumor necrosis factor signal process, and apoptosis. The HPD was also associated with a downregulation of many genes (P < 0.05) involved in immunoprotection, such as genes involved in innate immunity, O-linked glycosylation of mucin, and oxidative phosphorylation, suggesting there may be an increased disease risk in these rats. The abundance of Escherichia/Shigella, Enterococcus, and Streptococcus was

  16. Levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain in conscious rats.

    PubMed

    Okumura, Toshikatsu; Nozu, Tsukasa; Kumei, Shima; Takakusaki, Kaoru; Miyagishi, Saori; Ohhira, Masumi

    2016-02-01

    Levodopa possesses antinociceptive actions against several somatic pain conditions. However, we do not know at this moment whether levodopa is also effective to visceral pain. The present study was therefore performed to clarify whether levodopa is effective to visceral pain and its mechanisms. Visceral sensation was evaluated by colonic distension-induced abdominal withdrawal reflex (AWR) in conscious rats. Subcutaneously (80 mg/rat) or intracisternally (2.5 μg/rat) administered levodopa significantly increased the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR in conscious rats. The dose difference to induce the antinociceptive action suggests levodopa acts centrally to exert its antinociceptive action against colonic distension. While neither sulpiride, a D2 dopamine receptor antagonist, nor SCH23390, a D1 dopamine receptor antagonist by itself changed the threshold of colonic distension-induced AWR, the intracisternally injected levodopa-induced antinociceptive action was significantly blocked by pretreatment with subcutaneously administered sulpiride but not SCH23390. Treatment with intracisternal SB334867, an orexin 1 receptor antagonist, significantly blocked the subcutaneously administered levodopa-induced antinociceptive action. These results suggest that levodopa acts centrally to induce an antinociceptive action against colonic distension through activation of D2 dopamine receptors and the orexinergic system in the brain.

  17. Inhibitory effects of Baccharis dracunculifolia on 1,2-dimethylhidrazine-induced genotoxicity and preneoplastic lesions in rat colon.

    PubMed

    Munari, Carla C; Furtado, Ricardo A; Santiago, Mirian L; Manhas, Simony S; Bastos, Jairo K; Tavares, Denise C

    2014-07-01

    Baccharis dracunculifolia (Asteraceae), the main botanical source of green propolis, also known as 'alecrim-do-campo' and 'vassourinha', is a shrub of the Brazilian 'cerrado' and is native to the South and Southeast of Brazil. The effects of B. dracunculifolia ethyl acetate extract (Bd-EAE) were evaluated on the 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced DNA damage and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in the colon of male Wistar rats by the comet and ACF assays, respectively. The animals were treated by gavage with doses of 6, 12, and 24 mg/kg body weight/day. Animals were also administered a single subcutaneous injection of 40 mg/kg DMH and were killed after 4 h for evaluation of DNA damage. Also, two doses of 40 mg/kg of DMH were administered weekly for 2 weeks, and animals were killed 2 weeks after the last injection for evaluation of ACF development in the colon. The results showed a significant reduction in the frequency of DNA damage and ACF in the group treated with the Bd-EAE plus DMH in comparison with those treated with DMH alone, suggesting that Bd-EAE reduced DNA damage and suppressed the formation of ACF and also exerted a protective affect against colon carcinogenesis.

  18. Comparative analysis of theophylline and cholera toxin in rat colon reveals an induction of sealing tight junction proteins.

    PubMed

    Markov, Alexander G; Falchuk, Evgeny L; Kruglova, Natalia M; Rybalchenko, Oksana V; Fromm, Michael; Amasheh, Salah

    2014-11-01

    Claudin tight junction proteins have been identified to primarily determine intestinal epithelial barrier properties. While functional contribution of single claudins has been characterized in detail, information on the interplay with secretory mechanisms in native intestinal epithelium is scarce. Therefore, effects of cholera toxin and theophylline on rat colon were analyzed, including detection of sealing claudins. Tissue specimens were stripped off submucosal tissue layers and mounted in Ussing chambers, and short-circuit current (ISC) and transepithelial resistance (TER) were recorded. In parallel, expression and localization of claudins was analyzed and histological studies were performed employing hematoxylin-eosin staining and light and electron microscopy. Theophylline induced a strong increase of ISC in colon tissue specimens. In parallel, a decrease of TER was observed. In contrast, cholera toxin did not induce a significant increase of ISC, whereas an increase of TER was detected after 120 min. Western blots of membrane fractions revealed an increase of claudin-3 and -4 after incubation with cholera toxin, and theophylline induced an increase of claudin-4. In accordance, confocal laser-scanning microscopy exhibited increased signals of claudin-3 and -4 after incubation with cholera toxin, and increased signals of claudin-4 after incubation with theophylline, within tight junction complexes. Morphological analyses revealed no general changes of tight junction complexes, but intercellular spaces were markedly widened after incubation with cholera toxin and theophylline. We conclude that cholera toxin and theophylline have different effects on sealing tight junction proteins in native colon preparations, which may synergistically contribute to transport functions, in vitro.

  19. Comparison of the antidiarrheal effects of wood creosote and loperamide in the rat jejunum and colon in vitro.

    PubMed

    Greenwood-Van Meerveld, B; Tyler, K R; Venkova, K; Kuge, T

    2000-08-01

    Wood creosote, a mixture of guaiacol, creosol and related compounds, has long been used as an antidiarrheal agent. The goal of our study was to investigate the antisecretory effect of wood creosote and to compare it to the effect of loperamide, a synthetic opioid widely used in the treatment of diarrhea. Experiments were performed in rat jejunal and colonic mucosal sheets, mounted in modified Ussing chambers. Active electrogenic transport was monitored electrically as short circuit current (Isc) and hypersecretory responses were induced by acetylcholine (ACh). Neither loperamide nor wood creosote had any significant effect on basal lsc, when added to the serosal bathing solution at concentrations of 0.1-50microg/ml. In contrast, under hypersecretory conditions, both agents showed concentration-dependent (0.1--100microg/ml) antisecretory effects inhibiting ACh-induced responses in the jejunum and colon. However, the effects suggest regional differences, with loperamide being most potent in the jejunum, while wood creosote showed equal potency in both jejunum and colon. Based upon these in vitro findings, we conclude that like loperamide, the antidiarrheal action of wood creosote is due, at least in part, to its antisecretory activity.

  20. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon.

    PubMed

    Dalziel, Julie E; Anderson, Rachel C; Bassett, Shalome A; Lloyd-West, Catherine M; Haggarty, Neill W; Roy, Nicole C

    2016-12-14

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response.

  1. Influence of Bovine Whey Protein Concentrate and Hydrolysate Preparation Methods on Motility in the Isolated Rat Distal Colon

    PubMed Central

    Dalziel, Julie E.; Anderson, Rachel C.; Bassett, Shalome A.; Lloyd-West, Catherine M.; Haggarty, Neill W.; Roy, Nicole C.

    2016-01-01

    Whey protein concentrate (WPC) and hydrolysate (WPH) are protein ingredients used in sports, medical and pediatric formulations. Concentration and hydrolysis methods vary for whey sourced from cheese and casein co-products. The purpose of this research was to investigate the influence of whey processing methods on in vitro gastrointestinal (GI) health indicators for colonic motility, epithelial barrier integrity and immune modulation. WPCs from casein or cheese processing and WPH (11% or 19% degree of hydrolysis, DH) were compared for their effects on motility in a 1 cm section of isolated rat distal colon in an oxygenated tissue bath. Results showed that WPC decreased motility irrespective of whether it was a by-product of lactic acid or mineral acid casein production, or from cheese production. This indicated that regardless of the preparation methodology, the whey protein contained components that modulate aspects of motility within the distal colon. WPH (11% DH) increased contractile frequency by 27% in a delayed manner and WPH (19% DH) had an immediate effect on contractile properties, increasing tension by 65% and frequency by 131%. Increased motility was associated with increased hydrolysis that may be attributed to the abundance of bioactive peptides. Increased frequency of contractions by WPH (19% DH) was inhibited (by 44%) by naloxone, implicating a potential involvement of opioid receptors in modulation of motility. Trans-epithelial electrical resistance and cytokine expression assays revealed that the WPC proteins studied did not alter intestinal barrier integrity or elicit any discernible immune response. PMID:27983629

  2. Apple flavonoid phloretin inhibits Escherichia coli O157:H7 biofilm formation and ameliorates colon inflammation in rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Jin-Hyung; Regmi, Sushil Chandra; Kim, Jung-Ae; Cho, Moo Hwan; Yun, Hyungdon; Lee, Chang-Soo; Lee, Jintae

    2011-12-01

    Pathogenic biofilms have been associated with persistent infections due to their high resistance to antimicrobial agents, while commensal biofilms often fortify the host's immune system. Hence, controlling biofilm formation of both pathogenic bacteria and commensal bacteria is important in bacterium-related diseases. We investigated the effect of plant flavonoids on biofilm formation of enterohemorrhagic Escherichia coli O157:H7. The antioxidant phloretin, which is abundant in apples, markedly reduced E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation without affecting the growth of planktonic cells, while phloretin did not harm commensal E. coli K-12 biofilms. Also, phloretin reduced E. coli O157:H7 attachment to human colon epithelial cells. Global transcriptome analyses revealed that phloretin repressed toxin genes (hlyE and stx(2)), autoinducer-2 importer genes (lsrACDBF), curli genes (csgA and csgB), and dozens of prophage genes in E. coli O157:H7 biofilm cells. Electron microscopy confirmed that phloretin reduced fimbria production in E. coli O157:H7. Also, phloretin suppressed the tumor necrosis factor alpha-induced inflammatory response in vitro using human colonic epithelial cells. Moreover, in the rat model of colitis induced by trinitrobenzene sulfonic acid (TNBS), phloretin significantly ameliorated colon inflammation and body weight loss. Taken together, our results suggest that the antioxidant phloretin also acts as an inhibitor of E. coli O157:H7 biofilm formation as well as an anti-inflammatory agent in inflammatory bowel diseases without harming beneficial commensal E. coli biofilms.

  3. Gene Expression Profile of Colon Mucosa after Cytotoxic Insult in wt and Apc-Mutated Pirc Rats: Possible Relation to Resistance to Apoptosis during Carcinogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Luceri, Cristina; Lodovici, Maura; Crucitta, Stefania; Caderni, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Apc-mutated Pirc rats, spontaneously developing intestinal tumours, are resistant to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- (DMH-) induced colon apoptosis. To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed the expression of genotoxic stress-related genes Mgmt, Gsta1, and Gstp1 in the colon of wt and Pirc rats in basal conditions and 24 h after DMH; plasmatic oxidant/antioxidant status was also evaluated. After DMH, Mgmt expression was increased in both genotypes but significantly only in wt rats; Gsta1 expression was significantly increased in both genotypes. Gstp1 expression did not vary after DMH but was lower in Pirc rats. Moreover, for each genotype, we studied by microarray technique whole gene expression profile after DMH. By unsupervised cluster analysis, 28 genes were differentially modulated between the two genotypes. Among them were interferon-induced genes Irf7, Oas1a, Oasl2, and Isg15 and the transcription factor Taf6l, overexpressed in DMH-treated wt rats and unchanged in Pirc rats. RT-PCR confirmed their overexpression in DMH-treated wt rats and showed a slighter variation in DMH-treated Pirc rats. Taken together, despite a blunted induction of Irf7, Oas1a, and Mgmt, defective apoptosis in Pirc rats 24 h after DMH is not mirrored by major differences in gene expression compared with wt rats. PMID:27840820

  4. Gene Expression Profile of Colon Mucosa after Cytotoxic Insult in wt and Apc-Mutated Pirc Rats: Possible Relation to Resistance to Apoptosis during Carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Femia, Angelo Pietro; Luceri, Cristina; Lodovici, Maura; Crucitta, Stefania; Caderni, Giovanna

    2016-01-01

    Apc-mutated Pirc rats, spontaneously developing intestinal tumours, are resistant to 1,2-dimethylhydrazine- (DMH-) induced colon apoptosis. To understand this phenomenon, we analyzed the expression of genotoxic stress-related genes Mgmt, Gsta1, and Gstp1 in the colon of wt and Pirc rats in basal conditions and 24 h after DMH; plasmatic oxidant/antioxidant status was also evaluated. After DMH, Mgmt expression was increased in both genotypes but significantly only in wt rats; Gsta1 expression was significantly increased in both genotypes. Gstp1 expression did not vary after DMH but was lower in Pirc rats. Moreover, for each genotype, we studied by microarray technique whole gene expression profile after DMH. By unsupervised cluster analysis, 28 genes were differentially modulated between the two genotypes. Among them were interferon-induced genes Irf7, Oas1a, Oasl2, and Isg15 and the transcription factor Taf6l, overexpressed in DMH-treated wt rats and unchanged in Pirc rats. RT-PCR confirmed their overexpression in DMH-treated wt rats and showed a slighter variation in DMH-treated Pirc rats. Taken together, despite a blunted induction of Irf7, Oas1a, and Mgmt, defective apoptosis in Pirc rats 24 h after DMH is not mirrored by major differences in gene expression compared with wt rats.

  5. Evidence for modulation of pericryptal sheath myofibroblasts in rat descending colon by Transforming Growth Factor β and Angiotensin II.

    PubMed Central

    Thiagarajah, Jay R; Griffiths, Nina M; Pedley, Kevin C; Naftalin, Richard J

    2002-01-01

    Background Absorption of water and Na+ in descending colonic crypts is dependent on the barrier function of the surrounding myofibroblastic pericryptal sheath. Here the effects of high and low Na+ diets and exposure to whole body ionising radiation on the growth and activation of the descending colonic pericryptal myofibroblasts are evaluated. In addition the effect of a post-irradiation treatment with the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor Captopril was investigated. Methods The levels of Angiotensin II type 1 receptor (AT1), ACE, collagen type IV, transforming growth factor-β type 1 receptor (TGF-βR1), OB cadherin and α-smooth muscle actin in both descending colon and caecum were evaluated, using immunocytochemistry and confocal microscopy, in rats fed on high and low Na+ diets (LS). These parameters were also determined during 3 months post-irradiation with 8Gy from a 60Co source in the presence and absence of the angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitor, Captopril. Results Increases in AT1 receptor (135.6% ± 18.3, P < 0.001); ACE (70.1% ± 13.1, P < 0.001); collagen type IV (49.6% ± 15.3, P < 0.001); TGF-β1 receptors (291.0% ± 26.5, P < 0.001); OB-cadherin (26.3% ± 13.8, P < 0.05) and α-smooth muscle actin (82.5% ± 12.4, P < 0.001) were observed in the pericryptal myofibroblasts of the descending colon after LS diet. There are also increases in AT1 receptor and TGF-β1 receptor, smooth muscle actin and collagen type IV after irradiation. Captopril reduced all these effects of irradiation on the pericryptal sheath and also decreased the amount of collagen and smooth muscle actin in control rats (P < 0.001). Conclusions These results demonstrate an activation of descending colonic myofibroblasts to trophic stimuli, or irradiation, which can be attenuated by Captopril, indicative of local trophic control by angiotensin II and TGF-β release. PMID:11872151

  6. GFAP and Fos immunoreactivity in lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata after chronic colonic inflammation in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sun, Yi-Ning; Luo, Jin-Yan; Rao, Zhi-Ren; Lan, Li; Duan, Li

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the response of astrocytes and neurons in rat lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata induced by chronic colonic inflammation, and the relationship between them. METHODS: Thirty-three male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly divided into two groups: experimental group (n = 17), colonic inflammation was induced by intra-luminal administration of trinitrobenzenesulfonic acid (TNBS); control group (n = 16), saline was administered intra-luminally. After 3, 7, 14, and 28 d of administration, the lumbo-sacral spinal cord and medulla oblongata were removed and processed for anti-glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP), Fos and GFAP/Fos immunohistochemistry. RESULTS: Activated astrocytes positive for GFAP were mainly distributed in the superficial laminae (laminae I-II) of dorsal horn, intermediolateral nucleus (laminae V), posterior commissural nucleus (laminae X) and anterolateral nucleus (laminae IX). Fos-IR (Fos-immunoreactive) neurons were mainly distributed in the deeper laminae of the spinal cord (laminae III-IV, V-VI). In the medulla oblongata, both GFAP-IR astrocytes and Fos-IR neurons were mainly distributed in the medullary visceral zone (MVZ). The density of GFAP in the spinal cord of experimental rats was significantly higher after 3, 7, and 14 d of TNBS administration compared with the controls (50.4±16.8, 29.2±6.5, 24.1±5.6, P<0.05). The density of GFAP in MVZ was significantly higher after 3 d of TNBS administration (34.3±2.5, P<0.05). After 28 d of TNBS administration, the density of GFAP in the spinal cord and MVZ decreased and became comparable to that of the controls (18.0±4.9, 14.6±6.4, P>0.05). CONCLUSION: Astrocytes in spinal cord and medulla oblongata can be activated by colonic inflammation. The activated astrocytes are closely related to Fos-IR neurons. With the recovery of colonic inflammation, the activity of astrocytes in the spinal cord and medulla oblongata is reduced. PMID:16097052

  7. Effects of sleeve gastrectomy with jejuno-jejunal or jejuno-ileal loop on glycolipid metabolism in diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhong, Ming-Wei; Liu, Shao-Zhuang; Zhang, Guang-Yong; Zhang, Xiang; Hu, San-Yuan

    2016-01-01

    AIM To explore the effect of sleeve gastrectomy (SG) with jejuno-jejunal or jejuno-ileal loop on glycolipid metabolism in diabetic rats. METHODS Diabetic rats, which were induced by high-fat diet (HFD), nicotinamide and low-dose streptozotocin, underwent sham operations, SG, SG with jejuno-ileal loop (SG-JI) and SG with jejuno-jejunal loop (SG-JJ) followed by postoperative HFD. Then, at the time points of baseline and 2, 12 and 24 wk postoperatively, we determined and compared several variables, including the area under the curve for the results of oral glucose tolerance test (AUCOGTT), serum levels of triglyceride, cholesterol and ghrelin in fasting state, homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), body weight, calorie intake, glucagon-like peptide (GLP)-1 and insulin secretions after glucose gavage at dose of 1 g/kg. RESULTS At 2 wk postoperatively, rats that underwent SG, SG-JJ and SG-JI, compared with sham-operated (SHAM) rats, demonstrated lower body weight, calorie intake and ghrelin (P < 0.05 vs SHAM), enhanced secretion of insulin and GLP-1 after glucose gavage (P < 0.05 vs SHAM), improved AUCOGTT, HOMA-IR, fasting serum triglyceride and cholesterol (AUCOGTT: 1616.9 ± 83.2, 837.4 ± 83.7, 874.9 ± 97.2 and 812.6 ± 81.9, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; HOMA-IR: 4.31 ± 0.54, 2.94 ± 0.22, 3.17 ± 0.37 and 3.41 ± 0.22, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; Triglyceride: 2.35 ± 0.17, 1.87 ± 0.23, 1.98 ± 0.30 and 2.04 ± 0.21 mmol/L, P < 0.05 vs SHAM; Cholesterol: 1.84 ± 0.21, 1.53 ± 0.20, 1.52 ± 0.20 and 1.46 ± 0.23 mmol/L). At 12 wk postoperatively, rats receiving SG-JJ and SG-JI had lower body weight, reduced levels of triglyceride and cholesterol and elevated level of GLP-1 compared to those receiving SG (P < 0.05 vs SG). At 24 wk after surgery, compared with SG, the advantage of SG-JJ and SG-JI for glucolipid metabolism was still evident (P < 0.05 vs SG). SG-JI had a better performance in lipid metabolism and GLP-1 secretion of rats than did SG-JJ. CONCLUSION

  8. Fish oil improves the lipid profile and reduces inflammatory cytokines in Wistar rats with precancerous colon lesions.

    PubMed

    Rosa, Damiana Diniz; Lourenço, Fabíola Cesário; da Fonseca, Ana Carolina Machado; de Sales, Regiane Lopes; Ribeiro, Sônia Machado Rocha; Neves, Clóvis Andrade; Peluzio, Maria do Carmo Gouveia

    2012-01-01

    A fatty diet is regarded as one of the most important risk factors related to the etiology of colorectal cancer, and this effect is linked to the quantity and principal types of fatty acids consumed. In this study, the chemopreventive effects of different oils on rats were investigated. Forty Wistar rats received 1,2-dimetilhidrazine (DMH) and were divided into 4 groups fed normal lipid diets to which 4% olive, fish, flaxseed, or soybean oils (control) were added. The group fed with fish oil presented higher levels of eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid in hepatic tissue and greater levels of linolenic acid and EPA in adipose tissue compared to the other treatments. In the proximal portion of the colon, lower levels of aberrant crypt foci were found in the fish and flaxseed oil groups; however, this behavior was not observed in the middle and distal regions. Via a benchmarking method, the fish oil group showed a greater transforming growth factor β expression and lower interleukin-8 expression in relation to the other treatments. Fish oil in a normal lipid diet demonstrated a limited protective effect on the colonic precancerous mucosa in carcinogen-treated rodents, whereas it had a beneficial effect on inflammatory modulation.

  9. Grape juice concentrate (G8000™) modulates apoptosis but not oxidative stress following rat colon carcinogenesis induced by azoxymethane.

    PubMed

    Oshima, Celina Tizuko Fujiyama; Landman, Gilles; Paiotti, Ana Paula Ribeiro; Artigiani Neto, Ricardo; Silva, Roseane Mendes; Campanholo, Vanessa Maria De Lima Pazine; Gollucke, Andrea Pittelli Boiago; Ribeiro, Daniel Araki; Forones, Nora Manoukian

    2015-02-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate if grape juice concentrate is able to protect against experimental colon carcinogenesis. For this purpose, a total of 35 male Wistar rats were randomly distributed into seven groups: G1: SHAM animals receiving only saline; G2: animals receiving 15 mg/kg azoxymethane (AOM); G3: animals receiving 1% grape juice concentrate 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G4: animals receiving 2% grape juice concentrate 2 weeks before the administration of AOM; G5: animals receiving 1% grape juice concentrate 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G6: animals receiving 2% grape juice concentrate 4 weeks after the last administration of AOM; G7: animals receiving only 2% grape juice concentrate. The group that received 2% grape juice concentrate before induction with AOM showed the decreased expression of Bcl-2 compared to those animals that were induced by AOM (positive control). Regarding Bax, animals that received grape juice at 2% decreased Bax immunoexpression when compared to AOM group. Furthermore, animals that intake grape juice at 1% after induced by AOM decreased Bax immunoexpression as well. 8-OHdGLI did not show significant statistically differences (p > 0.05) among groups. In summary, our results demonstrate that grape juice is able to modulate rat colon carcinogenesis as a result of induction of apoptosis.

  10. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    SciTech Connect

    Nelson, T.A.; Holmes, S.; Alekseyenko, A.V.; Shenoy, M.; DeSantis, T.; Wu, C.H.; Andersen, G.L.; Winston, J.; Sonnenburg, J.; Pasricha, P.J.; Spormann, A.

    2010-12-01

    Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS.

  11. PhyloChip microarray analysis reveals altered gastrointestinal microbial communities in a rat model of colonic hypersensitivity

    PubMed Central

    NELSON, T. A.; HOLMES, S.; ALEKSEYENKO, A. V.; SHENOY, M.; DESANTIS, T.; WU, C. H.; ANDERSEN, G. L.; WINSTON, J.; SONNENBURG, J.; PASRICHA, P. J.; SPORMANN, A.

    2012-01-01

    Background Irritable bowel syndrome (IBS) is a chronic, episodic gastrointestinal disorder that is prevalent in a significant fraction of western human populations; and changes in the microbiota of the large bowel have been implicated in the pathology of the disease. Methods Using a novel comprehensive, high-density DNA microarray (PhyloChip) we performed a phylogenetic analysis of the microbial community of the large bowel in a rat model in which intracolonic acetic acid in neonates was used to induce long lasting colonic hypersensitivity and decreased stool water content and frequency, representing the equivalent of human constipation-predominant IBS. Key Results Our results revealed a significantly increased compositional difference in the microbial communities in rats with neonatal irritation as compared with controls. Even more striking was the dramatic change in the ratio of Firmicutes relative to Bacteroidetes, where neonatally irritated rats were enriched more with Bacteroidetes and also contained a different composition of species within this phylum. Our study also revealed differences at the level of bacterial families and species. Conclusions & Inferences The PhyloChip is a useful and convenient method to study enteric microflora. Further, this rat model system may be a useful experimental platform to study the causes and consequences of changes in microbial community composition associated with IBS. PMID:21129126

  12. Effect of Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI342 on the development of chemically induced precancerous growths in the rat colon.

    PubMed

    Chang, Jin-Hee; Shim, Youn Young; Cha, Seong-Kwan; Reaney, Martin J T; Chee, Kew Mahn

    2012-03-01

    Lactobacillus acidophilus KFRI342, isolated from the Korean traditional food kimchi, was investigated for its suitability as a dietary probiotic. The effects of L. acidophilus KFRI342 on the development of chemically induced (1,2-dimethylhydrazine; DMH) precancerous cytological changes of the colon were investigated in rats. Forty-five male F344 rats were randomly divided into three dietary groups. The control group received a high-fat diet (HF), a second group received a high-fat diet containing the carcinogen (HFC), and a final group received a high-fat diet containing the carcinogen and L. acidophilus KFRI342 (HFCL). L. acidophilus KFRI342 was administered orally three times per week at 2×10(9) c.f.u. ml(-1). L. acidophilus KFRI342 treatments decreased the number of Escherichia coli in faecal samples, the enzyme activities of β-glucuronidase and β-glucosidase, and plasma triglyceride concentration compared to the HF and HFC treatments (P<0.05). L. acidophilus KFRI342 consumption also decreased the ratio of aberrant crypts to aberrant crypt foci incidence and the number of aberrant crypts in HFCL rats. Therefore, L. acidophilus showed potential probiotic activity as an inhibitor of DMH-induced symptoms in live rats. Our in vivo studies indicate that L. acidophilus from kimchi may be suitable as a probiotic for human use.

  13. Effect of hesperetin, a citrus flavonoid, on bacterial enzymes and carcinogen-induced aberrant crypt foci in colon cancer rats: a dose-dependent study.

    PubMed

    Aranganathan, Selvaraj; Selvam, Jayabal Panneer; Nalini, Namasivayam

    2008-10-01

    Hesperetin, an important bioactive compound in Chinese traditional medicine, has antioxidant and anticarcinogenic properties. Hesperetin is found in abundance in orange and grape juices (200-590 mg L(-1)) consumed in the daily diet. We have investigated the effect of different doses of hesperetin on faecal and colonic mucosal bacterial enzymes and aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. The rats were divided into six groups and were fed a modified pellet diet for 16 weeks. Group 1 served as control and group 2 received the modified pellet diet along with hesperetin (30 mg kg(-1)). The rats in groups 3-6 rats were given a weekly subcutaneous injection of DMH (20 mg kg(-1)) for the first four weeks. Hesperetin was supplemented orally at different doses (10, 20 or 30 mg kg(-1)) for a total of 16 weeks. At the end of the experimental period all rats were killed. In DMH-treated rats, the activity of faecal and colonic mucosal bacterial enzymes, such as beta-glucuronidase, beta-galactosidase, beta-glucosidase, nitroreductase, sulfatase and mucinase, were significantly elevated, but in rats supplemented hesperetin along with DMH the activity was significantly lowered (P < 0.05). The total number of aberrant crypts was significantly increased in unsupplemented DMH-treated rats, while hesperetin supplementation to DMH-treated rats significantly reduced the total number of crypts. The results demonstrated that hesperetin supplementation at a dose of 20 mg kg(-1) played a potent role in suppressing the formation of aberrant crypt foci and reducing the activity of bacterial enzymes in colon cancer.

  14. Antiproliferative and apoptotic-inducing potential of ellagic acid against 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine-induced colon tumorigenesis in Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Umesalma, Syed; Nagendraprabhu, Ponnuraj; Sudhandiran, Ganapasam

    2014-03-01

    Colon cancer remains one of the major worldwide causes of cancer-related morbidity and mortality in Western countries and is increasingly common in Asia. Ellagic acid (EA), a major component of polyphenol possesses attractive remedial features. The aim of this study is to divulge the potential effect of EA during 1,2-dimethyl hydrazine (DMH)-induced colon cancer in male Wistar albino rats. The rats were segregated into four groups: group I, control rats; group II, rats received EA (60 mg/kg b.wt./day, orally); rats in group III, induced with DMH (20 mg/kg b.wt.) subcutaneously for 15 weeks; DMH-induced group IV rats were initiated with EA treatment. Colon of the rats treated with DMH exhibited higher glycoconjugates and proliferation index such as elevated expressions of argyrophilic nucleolar organizing regions (AgNORs), proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), cyclin D1, matrix metalloproteins (MMP-2 and -9), and mast cells. DMH induction also increased phase I-metabolizing enzymes with simultaneous decrease in the phase II detoxifying enzymes. In contrast, dietary administration of EA significantly (p < 0.05) down regulated the proliferation index and restored back the levels of biotransformation enzymes. The carcinogenic insult also altered the expression of pro-apoptotic protein p53, whereas dietary EA administration significantly (p < 0.01) up regulates p53 expression to further induce apoptotic pathway. Ultrastructural changes in colon were also in accord with the above aberrations. Overall findings suggested that the suppression of colon cancer by EA in vivo involves inhibition of cell proliferation, activation of apoptosis, and efficient detoxification.

  15. Microbial manipulation of the rat dam changes bacterial colonization and alters properties of the gut in her offspring.

    PubMed

    Fåk, Frida; Ahrné, Siv; Molin, Göran; Jeppsson, Bengt; Weström, Björn

    2008-01-01

    The impact of an altered bacterial colonization on gut development has not been thoroughly studied, despite the increased risk of certain diseases with a disturbed microbiota after birth. This study was conducted to determine the effect of microbial manipulation, i.e., antibiotic treatment or Escherichia coli exposure, of the dam on bacterial colonization and gut development in the offspring. Pregnant rats were administered either broad-spectrum antibiotics 3 days before parturition or live nonpathogenic E. coli Culture Collection of University of Göteborg, Sweden type strain (CCUG 29300(T)) 1 wk before parturition and up to 14 days of lactation in the drinking water. Cecal bacterial levels, gut growth, intestinal permeability, digestive enzyme levels, and intestinal inflammation were studied in 2-wk-old rats. Pups from dams that were antibiotic-treated had higher densities of Enterobacteriaceae, which correlated with a decreased stomach growth and function, lower pancreatic protein levels, higher intestinal permeability, and increased plasma levels of the acute phase protein, haptoglobin, compared with pups from untreated mothers. Exposure of pregnant/lactating mothers to E. coli CCUG 29300(T), also resulting in increased Enterobacteriaceae levels, gave in the offspring similar results on the stomach and an increased small intestinal growth compared with the control pups. Furthermore, E. coli pups showed increased mucosal disaccharidase activities, increased liver, spleen, and adrenal weights, as well as increased plasma concentrations of haptoglobin. These findings indicate that disturbing the normal bacterial colonization after birth, by increasing the densities of cecal Enterobacteriaceae, appears to have lasting effects on the postnatal microflora, which affects gut growth and function.

  16. Emodin via colonic irrigation modulates gut microbiota and reduces uremic toxins in rats with chronic kidney disease.

    PubMed

    Zeng, Yu-Qun; Dai, Zhenhua; Lu, Fuhua; Lu, Zhaoyu; Liu, Xusheng; Chen, Cha; Qu, Pinghua; Li, Dingcheng; Hua, Zhengshuang; Qu, Yanni; Zou, Chuan

    2016-04-05

    Gut microbiota plays a dual role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is closely linked to production of uremic toxins. Strategies of reducing uremic toxins by targeting gut microbiota are emerging. It is known that Chinese medicine rhubarb enema can reduce uremic toxins and improve renal function. However, it remains unknown which ingredient or mechanism mediates its effect. Here we utilized a rat CKD model of 5/6 nephrectomy to evaluate the effect of emodin, a main ingredient of rhubarb, on gut microbiota and uremic toxins in CKD. Emodin was administered via colonic irrigation at 5ml (1mg/day) for four weeks. We found that emodin via colonic irrigation (ECI) altered levels of two important uremic toxins, urea and indoxyl sulfate (IS), and changed gut microbiota in rats with CKD. ECI remarkably reduced urea and IS and improved renal function. Pyrosequencing and Real-Time qPCR analyses revealed that ECI resumed the microbial balance from an abnormal status in CKD. We also demonstrated that ten genera were positively correlated with Urea while four genera exhibited the negative correlation. Moreover, three genera were positively correlated with IS. Therefore, emodin altered the gut microbiota structure. It reduced the number of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium spp. that is positively correlated with both urea and IS, but augmented the number of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp. that is negatively correlated with urea. Thus, changes in gut microbiota induced by emodin via colonic irrigation are closely associated with reduction in uremic toxins and mitigation of renal injury.

  17. Emodin via colonic irrigation modulates gut microbiota and reduces uremic toxins in rats with chronic kidney disease

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Fuhua; Lu, Zhaoyu; Liu, Xusheng; Chen, Cha; Qu, Pinghua; Li, Dingcheng; Hua, Zhengshuang; Qu, Yanni; Zou, Chuan

    2016-01-01

    Gut microbiota plays a dual role in chronic kidney disease (CKD) and is closely linked to production of uremic toxins. Strategies of reducing uremic toxins by targeting gut microbiota are emerging. It is known that Chinese medicine rhubarb enema can reduce uremic toxins and improve renal function. However, it remains unknown which ingredient or mechanism mediates its effect. Here we utilized a rat CKD model of 5/6 nephrectomy to evaluate the effect of emodin, a main ingredient of rhubarb, on gut microbiota and uremic toxins in CKD. Emodin was administered via colonic irrigation at 5ml (1mg/day) for four weeks. We found that emodin via colonic irrigation (ECI) altered levels of two important uremic toxins, urea and indoxyl sulfate (IS), and changed gut microbiota in rats with CKD. ECI remarkably reduced urea and IS and improved renal function. Pyrosequencing and Real-Time qPCR analyses revealed that ECI resumed the microbial balance from an abnormal status in CKD. We also demonstrated that ten genera were positively correlated with Urea while four genera exhibited the negative correlation. Moreover, three genera were positively correlated with IS. Therefore, emodin altered the gut microbiota structure. It reduced the number of harmful bacteria, such as Clostridium spp. that is positively correlated with both urea and IS, but augmented the number of beneficial bacteria, including Lactobacillus spp. that is negatively correlated with urea. Thus, changes in gut microbiota induced by emodin via colonic irrigation are closely associated with reduction in uremic toxins and mitigation of renal injury. PMID:27003359

  18. Non-digestible fraction of cooked bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero suppresses colonic aberrant crypt foci in azoxymethane-induced rats.

    PubMed

    Vergara-Castañeda, Haydé Azeneth; Guevara-González, Ramón Gerardo; Ramos-Gómez, Minerva; Reynoso-Camacho, Rosalía; Guzmán-Maldonado, Horacio; Feregrino-Pérez, Ana Angélica; Oomah, B Dave; Loarca-Piña, Guadalupe

    2010-12-01

    The non-digestible fraction (NDF) of common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivar Bayo Madero was evaluated for its chemopreventive effect on azoxymethane (AOM) induced aberrant crypt foci (ACF) in rats. Diets containing cooked beans (CB) or its non-digestible fraction (NDF) were fed to 72 male rats after 2 azoxymethane injections (15 mg kg(-1) of body weight once a week for 2 weeks). ACF number, short chain fatty acids (SCFA) and β-glucuronidase activity were measured in colon sections from rats sacrificed 7 weeks after the last AOM injection. Food intake and weight gain of rats were unaffected by CB and NDF. CB and NDF suppressed the AOM-induced formation of ACF (0.8 and 1.5 ACF/distal zone, respectively vs. 6.6 ACF/distal zone based on methylene blue stain) and lowered β-glucuronidase activity in cecal, colonic and fecal content compared to AOM group. SCFA production was not significantly different among fecal, cecal and colonic content. These results indicate that CB and NDF from Bayo Madero provide direct chemoprotection against early stage of azoxymethane (AOM)-induced colon cancer in rats.

  19. Dietary folate protects against the development of macroscopic colonic neoplasia in a dose responsive manner in rats.

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Y I; Salomon, R N; Graeme-Cook, F; Choi, S W; Smith, D E; Dallal, G E; Mason, J B

    1996-01-01

    BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Diminished folate status is associated with enhanced colorectal carcinogenesis. This study investigated the potential chemopreventive role of dietary folate in the dimethylhydrazine colorectal cancer model. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Sprague-Dawley rats were fed diets containing either 0, 2 (daily dietary requirement), 8 or 40 mg folate/kg diet for 20 weeks. After five weeks of diet, rats were injected with dimethyl-hydrazine (44 mg/kg) weekly for 15 weeks. Fifteen weeks after the first injection of dimethylhydrazine, all rats were killed. Folate status was determined, and the entire colorectum from each rat was analysed for macroscopic and microscopic neoplasms. RESULTS: Plasma and colonic folate concentrations correlated directly with dietary folate levels (p < 0.005). The incidence of microscopic neoplasms was similar among the four groups. However, the incidence and the average number of macroscopic tumours per rat decreased progressively with increasing dietary folate levels up to 8 mg/kg diet (p < 0.05). In the strongly procarcinogenic milieu used in this study, folate supplementation at 20 times the basal requirement was associated with rates of macroscopic tumour development that were intermediate, and not statistically distinct, from rates observed at either 0 or 8 mg/kg diet. CONCLUSIONS: These data indicate that in this rat model, (a) increasing dietary folate up to four times the basal requirement leads to a progressive reduction in the evolution of macroscopic neoplasms from microscopic foci; and (b) folate supplementation beyond four times the requirement does not convey further benefit. PMID:9014775

  20. Chemoprevention of DMH-induced rat colon carcinoma initiation by combination administration of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin.

    PubMed

    Saini, Manpreet Kaur; Vaiphei, Kim; Sanyal, Sankar Nath

    2012-02-01

    Cancer research illustrated that combinatorial studies can provide significant improvement in safety and effectiveness over the monotherapy regimens. A combination of two drugs may restrain precancerous colon polyps, opening a new possible opportunity for chemoprevention of colon cancer. In this context, chemopreventive efficacy of a combination regimen of C-phycocyanin, a biliprotein present in Spirulina platensis, a cyanobacterium, which is a selective cycloxygenase-2 (COX-2) inhibitor and piroxicam, a traditional non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug was considered in 1,2 dimethylhyadrazine (DMH)-induced colon carcinogenesis in rats. Western blotting, immunohistochemistry, DNA fragmentation, fluorescent staining, PGE(2) enzyme immunoassay, and carrageenan-induced paw edema test were performed along with morphological and histological analysis. DMH treatment showed a rich presence of preneoplastic lesions such as multiple plaque lesions, aberrant crypt foci, and well-characterized dysplasia. These features were reduced with piroxicam and C-phycocyanin administration. The number of apoptotic cells was featured prominently in all the groups compared with DMH. DMH treatment revealed intact high molecular weight genomic DNA with no signs of laddering/DNA fragmentation while it was noticeable significantly in control and DMH + piroxicam + C-phycocyanin. DMH group showed highest COX-2 expression and PGE(2) level in comparison with other groups. Doses of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin used in the present study were established at an anti-inflammatory range. A combination regimen of piroxicam and C-phycocyanin, rather than individually has the much greater potential for reduction of DMH-induced colon cancer development and COX-2 being the prime possible target in such chemoprevention.

  1. Beta-escin inhibits colonic aberrant crypt foci formation in rats and regulates the cell cycle growth by inducing p21(waf1/cip1) in colon cancer cells.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Jagan M R; Raju, Jayadev; Swamy, Malisetty V; Rao, Chinthalapally V

    2006-06-01

    Extracts of Aesculus hippocastanum (horse chestnut) seed have been used in the treatment of chronic venous insufficiency, edema, and hemorrhoids. Most of the beneficial effects of horse chestnut are attributed to its principal component beta-escin or aescin. Recent studies suggest that beta-escin may possess anti-inflammatory, anti-hyaluronidase, and anti-histamine properties. We have evaluated the chemopreventive efficacy of dietary beta-escin on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci (ACF). In addition, we analyzed the cell growth inhibitory effects and the induction of apoptosis in HT-29 human colon cancer cell line. To evaluate the inhibitory properties of beta-escin on colonic ACF, 7-week-old male F344 rats were fed experimental diets containing 0%, 0.025%, or 0.05% beta-escin. After 1 week, the rats received s.c. injections of azoxymethane (15 mg/kg body weight, once weekly for 2 weeks) or an equal volume of normal saline (vehicle). Rats were continued on respective experimental diets and sacrificed 8 weeks after the azoxymethane treatment. Colons were evaluated histopathologically for ACF. Administration of dietary 0.025% and 0.05% beta-escin significantly suppressed total colonic ACF formation up to approximately 40% (P < 0.001) and approximately 50% (P < 0.0001), respectively, when compared with control diet group. Importantly, rats fed beta-escin showed dose-dependent inhibition (approximately 49% to 65%, P < 0.0001) of foci containing four or more aberrant crypts. To understand the growth inhibitory effects, HT-29 human colon carcinoma cell lines were treated with various concentrations of beta-escin and analyzed by flow cytometry for apoptosis and cell cycle progression. Beta-escin treatment in HT-29 cells induced growth arrest at the G1-S phase, which was associated with the induction of the cyclin-dependent kinase inhibitor p21(WAF1/CIP1), and this correlated with reduced phosphorylation of retinoblastoma protein. Results also indicate that

  2. Asiatic acid attenuates pre-neoplastic lesions, oxidative stress, biotransforming enzymes and histopathological alterations in 1,2-dimethylhydrazine-induced experimental rat colon carcinogenesis.

    PubMed

    Siddique, Aktarul Islam; Mani, Vijay; Arivalagan, Sivaranjani; Thomas, Nisha Susan; Namasivayam, Nalini

    2017-02-01

    Asiatic acid (AA), a pentacyclic triterpenoid, derived from the tropical medicinal plant Centella asiatica is known to exhibit numerous pharmacological properties. We hypothesized that AA will have chemopreventive potential against 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH)-induced experimental colon carcinogenesis in male Wistar rats. Rats were arbitrarily divided into six groups. Group I rats were processed as control. Group II rats recei