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Sample records for rat extracardiac tissues

  1. [Therapy of organ failure in primary extracardiac diseases].

    PubMed

    Reith, S; Werdan, K

    2005-03-01

    There are a number of primary extracardiac circulatory disorders leading to organ dysfunction, multi-organ dysfunction syndrome and finally to multi-organ-failure. The origin of this hemodynamic disturbances are potentially different forms of circulatory shock (septic, hypovolemic, anaphylactic or neurogenic shock) and the systemic inflammatory reaction syndrome (SIRS). The primary aim of therapy is the removal of the underlying causes and the restoration of adequate tissue perfusion by using fluids, vasopressors and inotropics. The supportive treatment of the individual organ dysfunction is - at present - unequally efficient.

  2. Pediatric imaging/doppler ultrasound of the chest: Extracardiac diagnosis

    SciTech Connect

    Huhta, J.C.

    1986-01-01

    In this book the author spells out new diagnostic applications in pediatrics for high resolution cross-sectional ultrasonography, and demonstrates the ways in which Doppler techniques complement the cross-sectional method. This reference presents practical, step-by-step methods for non-invasive ultrasound examination of extra-cardiac anatomy and assessment of vascular blood flow.

  3. [Extracardiac pulmonary bypass in the treatment of tricuspid atresia].

    PubMed

    Hvass, U; Debauchez, M; Abou-Eid, G; Pansard, Y; Bohm, G; Depoix, J P; Cloez, J L; Worms, A M

    1992-05-01

    Six patients aged 1.5 to 4 years with type 13 tricuspid atresia underwent extracardiac bicavopulmonary repair. This corrective procedure comprises control of palliative aorto-pulmonary anastomosis, the construction of an anastomosis between the superior vena cava and right pulmonary artery and the interposition of an extracardiac tube of autologous pediculated pericardium between the inferior vena cava and the main pulmonary artery. This tube, fashioned from a rectangular flap, remains attached along its right border, conserving its vascular pedicle with the pericardium. Its diameter is calibrated to that of the inferior vena cava. The postoperative course was uncomplicated: all children survived. Assisted respiration was discontinued 24 to 36 hours after surgery, and the pleural drains withdrawn after 48 to 72 hours. The rhythm remained sinusal. Central venous pressure ranged from 8 to 12 mmHg. Peripheral arterial situation was over 95%. At follow-up at 3 to 15 months, the children were very active, reflecting good exercise capacity. Holter monitoring was normal. Saturation was 94 to 97%. Doppler echocardiography showed laminar blood flow. This technique insures good venous drainage without any prosthetic thrombogenic material. In addition, the pediculated pericardium conserves a potential for growth, justifying its use in small children. Long-term evaluation is essential but the initial results are encouraging and encourage perseverance with this method.

  4. Coefficient of distribution of some organophosphorous pesticides in rat tissue.

    PubMed

    Garcia-Repetto, R; Martinez, D; Repetto, M

    1995-06-01

    Coefficient of distribution in tissue is proposed as an indicator of the affinity of xenobiotics for different tissues and their tendency to accumulate. The present study shows the distribution of some organophosphorous pesticides in rat tissues. Using the coefficient of distribution we established the preference of these insecticides for the various tissues. Each pesticide had a specific pattern of affinity for different tissues.

  5. Naturally occurring anti-tissue antibodies in rat sera

    PubMed Central

    Weir, D. M.; Pinckard, R. N.; Elson, C. J.; Suckling, Deirdre E.

    1966-01-01

    Seventy per cent of normal rat sera have been shown to contain heat labile serum component(s) active against various rat organ homogenates as demonstrated by haemolytic complement fixation and passive haemagglutination tests. The main antigenic activity in rat liver has been found in the mitochondrial fractions. It was also demonstrated by the indirect fluorescent antibody technique that both guinea-pig complement and high molecular weight rat globulins were fixed to rat organ sections. Chemotactic activity has also been observed with rat serum and rat liver mitochondria and it is suggested that these naturally occurring antibodies may be implicated in the removal of tissue breakdown products. PMID:5338951

  6. Extracardiac abnormalities on rubidium-82 cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Mirpour, Sahar; Khandani, Amir H

    2011-04-01

    The role of rubidium-82 (Rb) in recognizing extracardiac diseases is minimally investigated. The aim of this study was to evaluate the frequency and incremental added value of extracardiac findings on Rb cardiac positron emission tomography/computed tomography (PET/CT) studies. The study included all consecutive patients who were referred from July 2008 to June 2010 for Rb cardiac PET/CT to our institution. A blinded reader reviewed the images retrospectively to assess abnormal extracardiac PET findings. Images of 406 patients (142 men; 264 women) with a mean age±standard deviation of 59.72±12.93 years (range: 18-91 years) were reviewed. Incidental extracardiac abnormalities were found in 67 of 406 patients (16.5%). Among them, eight patients had malignant etiologies (1.9%). Incidental extracardiac findings were present in a significant portion of patients undergoing Rb cardiac PET/CT studies. Although most of the extracardiac findings on Rb cardiac PET/CT studies represented clinically known pathologies, these incidental findings on routine Rb cardiac PET/CT scans may have a significant clinical impact on a small number of patients, and offer the referring physician the chance to obtain additional clinically relevant information.

  7. Bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphatase in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Cameselle, J C; Costas, M J; Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1982-01-01

    The occurrence and distribution of bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphatase activity towards dinucleoside tetraphosphates between the 27 000 g supernatant and sedimented fraction were studied in liver, kidney, brain, muscle and intestinal mucosa from rat. The p1p4-bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphate-hydrolysing activities found in total homogenates were 0.77, 1.44, 0.39, 0.36 and 2.14 units (mumol/min)/g respectively. The activities found in the 27000 g-sedimented fractions were 74, 49, 11, 4 and 96% of those present in the homogenates respectively. The properties of the soluble enzymes were investigated. All of them have low Km values for p1p4-bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphate (from 2 to 50 microM), are competitively inhibited by guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate with K1 values from 10 to 160 nM, have molecular weights of about 21 000, require Mg2+ or Mn2+ and are inhibited by Ca2+. These properties show that bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17), an enzyme previously characterized in Artemia salina and rat liver [Warner & Finamore (1965) Biochemistry 4, 1568-1575; Vallejo, Sillero & Sillero (1974) Biochim, Biophys. Acta 358, 117-125; Lobatón, Vallejo, Sillero & Sillero (1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 50, 495-501], is present in all the rat tissues examined. The inhibition of the enzyme by Ca2+ could be related to the effect of p1p4-bis-(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate as a trigger of DNA synthesis [Grummt, Waltl, Jantzen, Hamprecht, Huebscher & Kuenzle (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 6081-6085]. PMID:6282267

  8. Bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphatase in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Cameselle, J C; Costas, M J; Sillero, M A; Sillero, A

    1982-02-01

    The occurrence and distribution of bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphatase activity towards dinucleoside tetraphosphates between the 27 000 g supernatant and sedimented fraction were studied in liver, kidney, brain, muscle and intestinal mucosa from rat. The p1p4-bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphate-hydrolysing activities found in total homogenates were 0.77, 1.44, 0.39, 0.36 and 2.14 units (mumol/min)/g respectively. The activities found in the 27000 g-sedimented fractions were 74, 49, 11, 4 and 96% of those present in the homogenates respectively. The properties of the soluble enzymes were investigated. All of them have low Km values for p1p4-bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphate (from 2 to 50 microM), are competitively inhibited by guanosine 5'-tetraphosphate with K1 values from 10 to 160 nM, have molecular weights of about 21 000, require Mg2+ or Mn2+ and are inhibited by Ca2+. These properties show that bis-(5'-guanosyl) tetraphosphatase (EC 3.6.1.17), an enzyme previously characterized in Artemia salina and rat liver [Warner & Finamore (1965) Biochemistry 4, 1568-1575; Vallejo, Sillero & Sillero (1974) Biochim, Biophys. Acta 358, 117-125; Lobatón, Vallejo, Sillero & Sillero (1975) Eur. J. Biochem. 50, 495-501], is present in all the rat tissues examined. The inhibition of the enzyme by Ca2+ could be related to the effect of p1p4-bis-(5'-adenosyl) tetraphosphate as a trigger of DNA synthesis [Grummt, Waltl, Jantzen, Hamprecht, Huebscher & Kuenzle (1979) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 76, 6081-6085].

  9. Extracardiac Fontan operation after late bidirectional Glenn shunt.

    PubMed

    Ganigara, Madhusudan; Prabhu, Atul; Varghese, Roy; Pavithran, Sreeja; Valliatu, John; Nair, Raghavan Suresh Kumar

    2010-06-01

    The outcomes of 33 consecutive extracardiac Fontan operations performed between 1999 and 2008 in patients who mostly had initial Glenn shunts beyond infancy were reviewed. Preoperatively, the median oxygen saturation was 76.2% and mean pulmonary artery pressure was 10.5 mm Hg. The median age was 4.1 years at Glenn shunt procedure and 10 years at Fontan operation. The duration of chest tube drainage was longer in these patients than in series where Glenn shunts were created at a younger age. All patients received warfarin for 1 year, then warfarin and/or aspirin. At follow-up (median, 14 months), there was no significant ventricular dysfunction. Median oxygen saturation at the last follow-up was 92%. All patients in sinus rhythm preoperatively continued in this status. There was no Fontan failure or mortality. All patients were in New York Heart Association class I or II, although objective cardiopulmonary exercise evaluation in 8 patients showed impaired exercise tolerance. Despite a trend towards prolonged pleural effusion, there was no adverse outcome in the short or intermediate term. Long-term follow-up is required to see whether delayed creation of a Glenn shunt is associated with late disadvantages.

  10. ANF disappearance and tissue distribution in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Widimsky, J. Jr.; Debinski, W.; Kuchel, O.; Buu, N.T. )

    1990-01-01

    The disappearance of ({sup 125}I)atrial natriuretic factor (ANF; Ser99-Tyr126) from the circulation and its tissue distribution with or without nonlabeled ANF pretreatment were investigated in normotensive Sprague-Dawley rats. Preadministration of the cold peptide increased plasma radioactivity levels for over 8 min following labeled ANF injection but did not change the half-life of circulating labeled ANF. The metabolic clearance rate (MCR) and volume of distribution in the first, second, and steady state phase were significantly decreased after cold ANF pretreatment. Circulating iodo-labeled ANF was taken up by several organs, even by tissues such as fat or bone, but its urinary excretion was very low. The highest uptake was found in the liver (16 +/- 1% of the injected dose), lung (14 +/- 1%), and kidney (12 +/- 1%), diminishing by 21, 89, and 59%, respectively, after cold ANF preinjection. The brain radioactivity was negligible implying an inability of ({sup 125}I)ANF to cross the blood-brain barrier. Our data underscore the importance of the uptake-mediated, cold ANF preadministration suppressible clearance of ANF from the circulation, probably one of its basic elimination mechanisms. The liver, lung, and kidney are probably the most important participants in the MCR of ANF.

  11. Tissue Engineering to Repair Diaphragmatic Defect in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Liao, G. P.; Vojnits, K.; Xue, H.; Aroom, K.; Meng, F.; Pan, H. Y.; Hetz, R. A.; Corkins, C. J.; Hughes, T. G.; Triolo, F.; Johnson, A.; Moise, Kenneth J.; Lally, K. P.

    2017-01-01

    Tissue engineering is an emerging strategy for repairing damaged tissues or organs. The current study explored using decellularized rat diaphragm scaffolds combined with human amniotic fluid-derived multipotent stromal cells (hAFMSC) to provide a scaffold, stem cell construct that would allow structural barrier function during tissue ingrowth/regeneration. We created an innovative cell infusion system that allowed hAFMSC to embed into scaffolds and then implanted the composite tissues into rats with surgically created left-sided diaphragmatic defects. Control rats received decellularized diaphragm scaffolds alone. We found that the composite tissues that combined hAFMSCs demonstrated improved physiological function as well as the muscular-tendon structure, compared with the native contralateral hemidiaphragm of the same rat. Our results indicate that the decellularized diaphragm scaffolds are a potential support material for diaphragmatic hernia repair and the composite grafts with hAFMSC are able to accelerate the functional recovery of diaphragmatic hernia. PMID:28928772

  12. Angiotensinogen expression in vascular tissues of simulated weightless rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Bao, Jun-Xiang; Zhang, Zi-Tai; Zhang, Li-Fan; Ma, Jin

    2005-08-01

    The aim was to elucidate whether changes of angiotensinogen (AGT) are involved in the adaptation of arteries to simulated weightlessness. Conventional and real-time RT-PCR and Western blot were performed to examine mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in arterial tissues of tail-suspended (SUS) rats. The results showed that compared with CON rats, mRNA and protein expressions of AGT in basilar arterial tissue were significantly increased in SUS rats, but had no obvious change in carotid tissues. In mesenteric and femoral tissues, mRNA expressions of AGT were significantly decreased in SUS rats, but protein expression of AGT just showed a tendency of decrease. The results suggest that local renin-angiotensin system (L-RAS) may play a pivotal role in adaptation of arteries to weightlessness.

  13. Tissue distribution of bitespiramycin and spiramycin in rats.

    PubMed

    Shi, Xiang-guo; Sun, Yu-ming; Zhang, Yu-feng; Zhong, Da-fang

    2004-11-01

    To investigate the tissue distribution of bitespiramycin (BSPM) and spiramycin (SPM) in rats. Liquid chromatographic-mass spectrometric assay was applied for the determination of three major components (isovalerylspiramycins, ISV-SPMs) of BSPM and their major active metabolites (SPMs) in rat tissues and plasma after an oral dose of bitespiramycin, as well as SPMs. High levels of drug concentrations were observed in most tissues, especially in the liver, stomach, intestine, spleen, lung, womb, and pancreas. BSPM persisted long time in many rat tissues such that the drug concentration in spleen was 69.4 nmol/g at 60 h post-dose and it was still above the minimum inhibitory concentration of many susceptible pathogens. At 2.5 h post-dose, the total concentrations of ISV-SPMs and SPMs achieved in tissues were from 6 to 215 times higher than the corresponding concentrations in plasma. At 2.5 h post-dose, the mean C(t)/C(p) of BSPM appeared to be 2- or 3-fold those of SPM in most tissues. The tissue to plasma concentration ratios following oral dose of BSPM were higher than those of SPM in most tissues. The drug was not detected in brain and testis after a single dose of BSPM and SPM. Both BSPM and SPM penetrate into rat tissues well and BSPM has higher tissue affinity than SPM.

  14. Isatin, regional distribution in rat brain and tissues.

    PubMed

    Watkins, P; Clow, A; Glover, V; Halket, J; Przyborowska, A; Sandler, M

    1990-01-01

    Isatin has recently been identified in rat tissues and normal human urine, where it forms the major proportion of the endogenous monoamine oxidase inhibitor, tribulin. In this paper, we show that isatin, measured by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry, has a distinct regional distribution in rat tissues, with highest concentrations in seminal vesicles (1.6 ?g/g) and vas deferens (3.4 ?g/g). There was also a discontinuous distribution within rat brain, concentrations being highest in the hippocampus (0.13 ?g/g).

  15. Endogenous synthesis of taurine and GABA in rat ocular tissues.

    PubMed

    Heinämäki, A A

    1988-01-01

    The endogenous production of taurine and gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) in rat ocular tissues was investigated. The activities of taurine-producing enzyme, cysteine sulfinic acid decarboxylase (CSAD), and GABA-synthesizing enzyme, glutamic acid decarboxylase (GAD), were observed in the retina, lens, iris-ciliary body and cornea. The highest specific activity of CSAD was in the cornea and that of GAD in the retina. The discrepancy between CSAD activity and taurine content within the ocular tissues indicates that intra- or extraocular transport processes may regulate the concentration of taurine in the rat eye. The GAD activity and the content of GABA were distributed in parallel within the rat ocular tissues. The quantitative results suggest that the GAD/GABA system has functional significance only in the retina of the rat eye.

  16. Ciprofloxacin-induced glutathione redox status alterations in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Gürbay, Aylin; Hincal, Filiz

    2004-08-01

    The possible oxidative stress inducing effect of a fluoroquinolone (FQ) antibiotic, ciprofloxacin (CPFX), was investigated in rats measuring glutathione redox status. For this purpose, the drug was administered to rats as two different single doses (100 and 150 mg/kg, ip) or a repeated dose (500 mg/kg/d, ig, for 5d). Then, total and oxidized glutathione levels were determined in hepatic and cerebral tissues of the rats by an enzymatic cycling assay, and the glutathione redox status was calculated. The possible protective effects of vitamin E or allopurinol against CPFX-induced alterations on glutathione system have also been examined. Following both routes of administration of CPFX, the total glutathione content of the liver, but not of brain decreased significantly. The oxidized glutathione (GSSG) in the brain increased after single or repeated dose treatments, but only with repeated doses of CPFX in the liver. CPFX induced dose-dependent alterations in the glutathione redox status in both tissues. With single doses the effect was more pronounced in cerebral tissue, and with repeated ig doses it was significant in both tissues. Pretreatment of rats with vitamin E or allopurinol before the administration of CPFX provided marked protection against glutathione redox status alterations in both tissues. Our results, thus, indicate that CPFX treatment introduces an oxidative stress in cerebral and hepatic tissues of rat.

  17. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-07-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue.

  18. Brain tumor imaging of rat fresh tissue using terahertz spectroscopy

    PubMed Central

    Yamaguchi, Sayuri; Fukushi, Yasuko; Kubota, Oichi; Itsuji, Takeaki; Ouchi, Toshihiko; Yamamoto, Seiji

    2016-01-01

    Tumor imaging by terahertz spectroscopy of fresh tissue without dye is demonstrated using samples from a rat glioma model. The complex refractive index spectrum obtained by a reflection terahertz time-domain spectroscopy system can discriminate between normal and tumor tissues. Both the refractive index and absorption coefficient of tumor tissues are higher than those of normal tissues and can be attributed to the higher cell density and water content of the tumor region. The results of this study indicate that terahertz technology is useful for detecting brain tumor tissue. PMID:27456312

  19. Percutaneous Transthoracic Computed Tomography-Guided AICD Insertion in a Patient with Extracardiac Fontan Conduit

    SciTech Connect

    Murphy, Darra T. Moynagh, Michael R.; Walsh, Kevin P.; Noelke, Lars; Murray, John G.

    2011-02-15

    Percutaneous pulmonary venous atrial puncture was performed under computed tomography guidance to successfully place an automated implantable cardiac defibrillator into a 26-year-old patient with extracardiac Fontan conduit who had presented with two out-of-hospital cardiac arrests. The procedure avoided the need for lead placement at thoracotomy.

  20. Bioengineered Dental Tissues Grown in the Rat Jaw

    PubMed Central

    Duailibi, S.E.; Duailibi, M.T.; Zhang, W.; Asrican, R.; Vacanti, J.P.; Yelick, P.C.

    2009-01-01

    Our long-term objective is to develop methods to form, in the jaw, bioengineered replacement teeth that exhibit physical properties and functions similar to those of natural teeth. Our results show that cultured rat tooth bud cells, seeded onto biodegradable scaffolds, implanted into the jaws of adult rat hosts and grown for 12 weeks, formed small, organized, bioengineered tooth crowns, containing dentin, enamel, pulp, and periodontal ligament tissues, similar to identical cell-seeded scaffolds implanted and grown in the omentum. Radiographic, histological, and immunohistochemical analyses showed that bioengineered teeth consisted of organized dentin, enamel, and pulp tissues. This study advances practical applications for dental tissue engineering by demonstrating that bioengineered tooth tissues can be regenerated at the site of previously lost teeth, and supports the use of tissue engineering strategies in humans, to regenerate previously lost and/or missing teeth. The results presented in this report support the feasibility of bioengineered replacement tooth formation in the jaw. PMID:18650546

  1. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering of rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Aydin, Omer; Kahraman, Mehmet; Kiliç, Ertuğul; Culha, Mustafa

    2009-06-01

    Surface-enhanced Raman scattering (SERS) is proven to be a powerful tool for investigation of biological structures. In this study, tissues obtained from different rat organs are examined using SERS. The tissue samples are crushed with a pestle after sudden freezing in liquid nitrogen and mixed with a concentrated colloidal silver nanoparticle suspension. The reproducibility of SERS spectra acquired from several tissue samples from different organs is demonstrated. The collected spectra are comparatively evaluated based on the physiological function of the organ from which the tissue is obtained. The spectra from the tissues show significant differences and indicate that they can be used for tissue characterization and differentiation. The identification of the origins of the bands on the spectra is also attempted. This study suggests that SERS can be used to monitor the changes at the molecular level during metabolic changes in an organ or tissue as a result of a disease or another cause.

  2. Characterization of rat apical tissues in different root development stage.

    PubMed

    Xu, Lin; Yang, Zhenhua; Jin, Fang; Duan, Yinzhong; Jin, Yan

    2011-10-01

    In this study, we try to compare the histological characteristics and the odontogenic capability of apical tissues (AT) at different root development stages of rat molar teeth. AT of mandibular first molars from 8-day-old, 21-day-old, and 35-day-old Sprague-Dawley rats were selected as being representative of root-initiating, root-forming, and root-completing stages, respectively. Cell counting, flow cytometry assays, alkaline phosphatase activity, alizarin red staining, and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction were performed to assess the proliferation and mineralization potential of apical tissue cells at different stages of root development in vitro. In vivo transplantation of apical tissue cells combined with ceramic bovine bone was used to characterize the differentiation capacity. It was shown that there was a structurally and functionally dynamic change in the apical tissue of developing tooth root of rats, of which the unique developmental potential will reduce gradually with the ending up of root development. The AT of root-initiating and root-forming stage exhibited much higher proliferation and tissue-regenerative capacity than those of root-completing stage. Our present results indicate that the apical tissue, with the sustainable developmental ability throughout almost the whole process of tooth development, can yet be regarded as a competent candidate source for root/periodontal tissues regeneration.

  3. Determination of dehydrodiisoeugenol in rat tissues using HPLC method.

    PubMed

    Li, Fei; Yang, Xiu-Wei

    2008-11-01

    Dehydrodiisoeugenol (DDIE) is a bioactive neolignan from the seeds of Myristica fragrans Houtt., which exhibits good anti-inflammatory activity. A rapid and simple high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the determination of DDIE in rat tissues after intravenous administration. The tissue samples were processed by liquid-liquid extraction. The analyses were successfully carried out on a Diamonsiltrade mark ODS C18 column (250 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm) equipped with a C18 guard column (8 x 4.6 mm i.d., 5 microm). The mobile phase was the system of methanol-water (4:1, v/v). The UV detection was set at 270 nm. The calibration curves were linear from 0.4 to 200.0 microg/g with the correlation coefficients (r(2)) greater than 0.998. The intra- and inter-day precisions in quality control samples were less than 10% and the accuracies were in the range 85.4-110.3%. The average recoveries from all the tissues were between 84.4 and 106.0%. This assay method has been successfully used to study the tissues distribution of DDIE in rats after intravenous administration. The result suggests that DDIE is distributed to rat tissues rapidly with possibly greater initial concentrations in liver and brain than in other tissues.

  4. Morphological analysis of tissue reaction caused by a new endodontic paste in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Marques, André Af; Sponchiado, Emilio C; Garcia, Lucas Fr; Garrido, Angela Db; França, Suzelei C; Lia, Raphael Cc

    2011-07-01

    To assess the biocompatibility of an experimental endodontic paste based on the ethyl acetate fraction of Pothomorphe umbellata + calcium hydroxide, using propylene glycol as vehicle, in connective tissue of rats. Fifteen rats had four polyethylene tubes implanted in their backs, with each one containing the experimental paste. The tube side was considered the control group. After 7, 21, and 42 days, animals were euthanized. Intense inflammatory reaction was noticed after 7 days for experimental paste and it was moderate for control group. At 21 days, the inflammatory reaction was moderate for experimental paste and discrete for control group; and at 42 days, it was discrete for experimental paste and control group. Statistical analysis (Dunn's test, P < 0.01) demonstrated significant difference between the fibrous capsule area at 7 and 42 days (P > 0.01) for experimental paste. Experimental endodontic paste presented satisfactory tissue reaction in the connective tissue of rats.

  5. 5. cap alpha. -reductase activity in rat adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Zyirek, M.; Flood, C.; Longcope, C.

    1987-11-01

    We measured the 5 ..cap alpha..-reductase activity in isolated cell preparations of rat adipose tissue using the formation of (/sup 3/H) dihydrotestosterone from (/sup 3/H) testosterone as an endpoint. Stromal cells were prepared from the epididymal fat pad, perinephric fat, and subcutaneous fat of male rats and from perinephric fat of female rats. Adipocytes were prepared from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat of male rats. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad and perinephric fat contained greater 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity than did the adipocytes from these depots. Stromal cells from the epididymal fat pad contained greater activity than those from perinephric and subcutaneous depots. Perinephric stromal cells from female rats were slightly more active than those from male rats. Estradiol (10/sup -8/ M), when added to the medium, caused a 90% decrease in 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity. Aromatase activity was minimal, several orders of magnitude less than 5..cap alpha..-reductase activity in each tissue studied.

  6. Wound Hypoxia in Deep Tissue after Incision in the Rats

    PubMed Central

    Kang, Sinyoung; Lee, Dongchul; Theusch, Brett E.; Arpey, Christopher J.; Brennan, Timothy J.

    2013-01-01

    Our previous studies using rat models of incisional pain have demonstrated that tissue lactate levels increase and pH decreases for several days after incision, suggesting the presence of an ischemic-like condition. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the time course and the extent of tissue hypoxia that develops in incised muscle and skin. We directly measured oxygen tension at several time points after incisions of the gastrocnemius muscle, the paraspinal skin, and the plantar hindpaw in anesthetized rats using an oxygen-sensitive microelectrode. In vivo hypoxia of the incised tissues was also evaluated immunohistochemically using a hypoxia marker pimonidazole hydrochloride. To minimized inter-subject variability, unincised contralateral tissues were used as a control. Tissue oxygen tension was decreased in both skeletal muscle and skin compared to control, for several days after incision: when measured directly, oxygen tension decreased immediately and remained low for several days after incisions. Pimonidazole immunostaining revealed hypoxic areas in incised muscle and skin for several days. By postoperative day 10, tissue oxygen tension recovered to that of control tissue. These results support the evidence that a hypoxic condition is present in deep tissue after incisions and that an ischemic-like mechanism may contribute to postoperative pain. PMID:23926943

  7. Identification, purification, and localization of tissue kallikrein in rat heart.

    PubMed Central

    Xiong, W; Chen, L M; Woodley-Miller, C; Simson, J A; Chao, J

    1990-01-01

    A tissue kallikrein has been isolated from rat heart extracts by DEAE-Sepharose and aprotinin-affinity column chromatography. The purified cardiac enzyme has both N-tosyl-L-arginine methyl ester esterolytic and kinin-releasing activities, and displays parallelism with standard curves in a kallikrein radioimmunoassay, indicating it to have immunological identity with tissue kallikrein. The enzyme is inhibited by aprotinin, antipain, leupeptin and by high concentrations of soybean trypsin inhibitor, but stimulated by lima-bean or ovomucoid trypsin inhibitor and low concentrations of soybean trypsin inhibitor. By using a specific monoclonal antibody to tissue kallikrein in Western blot as well as active-site labelling with [14C]di-isopropyl fluorophosphate, the cardiac enzyme was identified as a protein of 38 kDa, a molecular mass identical with that of tissue kallikrein. Immunocytochemistry at the electron-microscopic level localized this enzyme to the sarcoplasmic reticulum and granules of rat atrial myocytes. Two cardiac kallikrein precursors, (38 and 40 kDa) were identified from the translation in vitro of heart mRNA by immunoprecipitation and electrophoresis of [35S]methionine-labelled cell-free translation products. Kallikrein mRNA in the rat heart was also demonstrated by dot-blot analysis using a tissue kallikrein cDNA probe. These results indicate that the tissue kallikrein gene is expressed in the rat heart and that the purified enzyme is indistinguishable from tissue kallikrein with respect to enzymic and immunological characteristics. Images Fig. 4. Fig. 5. Fig. 6. Fig. 7. Fig. 8. PMID:2140256

  8. Tissue glutathione and cysteine levels in methionine-restricted rats.

    PubMed

    Richie, John P; Komninou, Despina; Leutzinger, Yvonne; Kleinman, Wayne; Orentreich, Norman; Malloy, Virginia; Zimmerman, Jay A

    2004-09-01

    Previously, we demonstrated that lifelong methionine (Met) restriction (MR) increases lifespan, decreases the incidence of aging-related diseases, increases blood glutathione (GSH) levels, and prevents loss of GSH during aging in rats. Our present objective was to elucidate the effects of MR on GSH metabolism and transport by determining the time course and nature of GSH and cysteine changes in blood and other tissues in young and mature rats. Male F-344 rats were placed on control (0.86% Met) or MR (0.17% Met) defined amino acid diets at age 7 wk and killed at different times thereafter. MR was also initiated in adult (12-mo-old) rats. Throughout the first 2 mo of MR, blood GSH levels increased 84% and liver GSH decreased 66% in relation to controls. After this period, liver GSH levels remained constant through at least 6 mo. GSH levels also decreased in the pancreas (80%) and kidney (22%) but remained unchanged in other tissues examined after 11 wk of MR. The increase in blood GSH was evident as soon as 1 wk after initiating MR and reached a plateau by 6 wk. A similar increase in erythrocyte GSH levels was observed when MR was administered to mature adult rats. Fasting decreased liver GSH in controls but had no further effect in MR animals. By 1 mo, cysteine levels had decreased in all tissues except brain. These results suggest that adaptive changes occur in the metabolism of Met, cysteine, and/or GSH as a result of MR in young and adult rats. These early metabolic changes lead to conservation of GSH levels in most extrahepatic tissues and increased GSH in erythrocytes by depleting liver GSH to a critical level.

  9. Kinetics of tissue iron in experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis in rats.

    PubMed

    Tota, Marin; Jakovac, Hrvoje; Grebić, Damir; Marinić, Jelena; Broznić, Dalibor; Čanadi-Jurešić, Gordana; Milin, Cedomila; Radošević-Stašić, Biserka

    2011-10-01

    To elucidate the role of iron in the pathomechanisms of autoimmune CNS disorders, we estimated the tissue concentrations of Fe(2+) in the brain, spinal cord, and liver in the chronic relapsing form of experimental autoimmune encephalomyelitis (EAE). The disease was induced in Dark Agouti (DA) strain of rats, by subcutaneous injection of bovine brain homogenate in complete Freund's adjuvant (CFA). Control rats consisted of unsensitized rats and of rats treated with CFA or saline. The data obtained by clinical assessment and by inductively coupled plasma spectrometry have shown that the attacks of disease (on the 12th and 22nd post-immunization day) were followed by high accumulation of iron in the liver. Additionally, during the second attack of disease, the decreased concentration of Fe(2+) was found in cervical spinal cord. The data point to regulatory effects of iron and hepatic trace elements regulating mechanisms in the pathogenesis of EAE.

  10. Biocompatibility evaluation of alendronate paste in rat's subcutaneous tissue.

    PubMed

    Mori, Graziela Garrido; de Moraes, Ivaldo Gomes; Nunes, Daniele Clapes; Castilho, Lithiene Ribeiro; Poi, Wilson Roberto; Capaldi, Maria Luciana P Manzoli

    2009-04-01

    Alendronate is a known inhibitor of root resorption and the development of alendronate paste would enhance its utilization as intracanal medication. Therefore, this study aimed to investigate the biocompatibility of experimental alendronate paste in subcutaneous tissue of rats, for utilization in teeth susceptible to root resorption. The study was conducted on 15 male rats, weighing approximately 180-200 grams. The rats' dorsal regions were submitted to one incision on the median region and, laterally to the incision, the subcutaneous tissue was raised and gently dissected for introduction of two tubes, in each rat. The tubes were sealed at one end with gutta-percha and taken as control. The tubes were filled with experimental alendronate paste. The animals were killed at 7, 15 and 45 days after surgery and the specimens were processed in laboratory. The histological sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed by light microscopy. Scores were assigned to the inflammatory process and statistically compared by the Tukey test (P < 0.05). Alendronate paste promoted severe inflammation process at 7 days, with statistically significant difference compared to the control (P < 0.05%). However, at 15 days, there was a regression of inflammation and the presence of connective tissue with collagen fibers, fibroblasts and blood vessels was observed. After 45 days, it was observed the presence of well-organized connective tissue, with collagen fibers and fibroblasts, and few inflammatory cells. No statistical difference was observed between the control and experimental paste at 15 and 45 days. The experimental alendronate paste was considered biocompatible with subcutaneous tissue of rat.

  11. A case of primary intracardiac yolk sac tumour with extracardiac extension

    PubMed Central

    Kunhi, Moosa; Sanagar, Sachin; Jagadeesh, N.; Gangadharan, Vadanattathil P.; Kumar., Anand; Mahadevan, Pushpa

    2016-01-01

    Primary cardiac tumour is a rare entity as secondaries in the heart are more common. A 2-year-old child was having repeated respiratory tract infection with poor oral intake and poor activity for 3 months. His symptoms progressed from New York Heart Association (NYHA) Class II to IV. On evaluation he had an intracardiac mass with extracardiac extension. Emergency tumour excision under deep hypothermic circulatory arrest was performed with provisional diagnosis of sarcoma. But Serum markers, histopathological examination and immunohistochemistry confirmed diagnosis of yolk sac tumour. Postoperative recovery was uneventful and the child was receiving adjuvant chemotherapy. Extensive literature review revealed only four cases of primary intracardiac yolk sac tumour published till date. Our case report is unique, in that intracardiac tumour had extracardiac extension by infiltration through right atrial wall. Previous four reports mention purely intracardiac mass. PMID:27887023

  12. Contraction of the Ventral Abdomen Potentiates Extracardiac Retrograde Hemolymph Propulsion in the Mosquito Hemocoel

    PubMed Central

    Andereck, Jonathan W.; King, Jonas G.; Hillyer, Julián F.

    2010-01-01

    Background Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. Methodology/Principal Findings We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. Conclusions/Significance These data show that

  13. Contraction of the ventral abdomen potentiates extracardiac retrograde hemolymph propulsion in the mosquito hemocoel.

    PubMed

    Andereck, Jonathan W; King, Jonas G; Hillyer, Julián F

    2010-09-23

    Hemolymph circulation in mosquitoes is primarily controlled by the contractile action of a dorsal vessel that runs underneath the dorsal midline and is subdivided into a thoracic aorta and an abdominal heart. Wave-like peristaltic contractions of the heart alternate in propelling hemolymph in anterograde and retrograde directions, where it empties into the hemocoel at the terminal ends of the insect. During our analyses of hemolymph propulsion in Anopheles gambiae, we observed periodic ventral abdominal contractions and hypothesized that they promote extracardiac hemolymph circulation in the abdominal hemocoel. We devised methods to simultaneously analyze both heart and abdominal contractions, as well as to measure hemolymph flow in the abdominal hemocoel. Qualitative and quantitative analyses revealed that ventral abdominal contractions occur as series of bursts that propagate in the retrograde direction. Periods of ventral abdominal contraction begin only during periods of anterograde heart contraction and end immediately following a heartbeat directional reversal, suggesting that ventral abdominal contractions function to propel extracardiac hemolymph in the retrograde direction. To test this functional role, fluorescent microspheres were intrathoracically injected and their trajectory tracked throughout the hemocoel. Quantitative measurements of microsphere movement in extracardiac regions of the abdominal cavity showed that during periods of abdominal contractions hemolymph flows in dorsal and retrograde directions at a higher velocity and with greater acceleration than during periods of abdominal rest. Histochemical staining of the abdominal musculature then revealed that ventral abdominal contractions result from the contraction of intrasegmental lateral muscle fibers, intersegmental ventral muscle bands, and the ventral transverse muscles that form the ventral diaphragm. These data show that abdominal contractions potentiate extracardiac retrograde

  14. Dorsal spinal cord stimulation obtunds the capacity of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons to transduce myocardial ischemia

    PubMed Central

    Ardell, Jeffrey L.; Cardinal, René; Vermeulen, Michel; Armour, J. Andrew

    2009-01-01

    Populations of intrathoracic extracardiac neurons transduce myocardial ischemia, thereby contributing to sympathetic control of regional cardiac indices during such pathology. Our objective was to determine whether electrical neuromodulation using spinal cord stimulation (SCS) modulates such local reflex control. In 10 anesthetized canines, middle cervical ganglion neurons were identified that transduce the ventricular milieu. Their capacity to transduce a global (rapid ventricular pacing) vs. regional (transient regional ischemia) ventricular stress was tested before and during SCS (50 Hz, 0.2 ms duration at 90% MT) applied to the dorsal aspect of the T1 to T4 spinal cord. Rapid ventricular pacing and transient myocardial ischemia both activated cardiac-related middle cervical ganglion neurons. SCS obtunded their capacity to reflexly respond to the regional ventricular ischemia, but not rapid ventricular pacing. In conclusion, spinal cord inputs to the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system obtund the latter's capacity to transduce regional ventricular ischemia, but not global cardiac stress. Given the substantial body of literature indicating the adverse consequences of excessive adrenergic neuronal excitation on cardiac function, these data delineate the intrathoracic extracardiac nervous system as a potential target for neuromodulation therapy in minimizing such effects. PMID:19515981

  15. An extracardiac unruptured right sinus of valsalva aneurysm complicated with atherothrombosis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Jun; Liu, Ligang; Deng, Youbin

    2016-01-01

    Summary We present quite a rare case of extracardiac unruptured right sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SVA) complicated with atherothrombosis in a young adult man. A 35-year-old male with a giant unruptured SVA arising from the right coronary sinus (RCS) with extracardiac protrusion was diagnosed by echocardiography. Contrast-enhanced computed tomography (CT) revealed a huge calcified aneurysm with mural thrombi originating from the aortic root, and about 80% stenosis at the initial segment of the right coronary artery (RCA). Intraoperative exploration demonstrated a giant unruptured aneurysm arising from the RCS. Different from other SVAs reported before, this aneurismal wall appeared thick and atheromatous-like. In this aneurysm, there was a small localized intima tearing and mural thrombosis, and the orifice of the RCA was almost blocked. This patient underwent surgical patch repair to prevent aneurysm rupture and coronary artery bypass grafting for RCA revascularization. In conclusion, the pathological examination demonstrated marked foam cells, inflammatory cells, and thrombosis in the aneurismal wall. Learning points Echocardiographic characteristics of sinus of valsalva aneurysm (SVA). Diagnostic evaluation of extracardiac unruptured SVA. Pathology of rare SVA. PMID:27249813

  16. Stereological determination of the volume of the rat hemimandible tissues.

    PubMed

    Silva, M A; Merzel, J

    2001-07-01

    Rodent incisors are useful models to study the development and behavior of dental and periodontal tissues. Some studies require three-dimensional reconstructions of the tooth but none of the described methods yield actual volumetric data. Unlike the rat lower incisors the hemimandible can be easily isolated and its volume was determined by Cavalieri's geometrical principle. This method associated with point-counting volumetry was used to calculate the volume of the structures found in that bone mainly those related to the lower incisor. For 172 g male rats the mean volume of the hemimandible was 182.7 mm(3), statistically not different from 184.9 mm(3) the mean volume of the same hemimandibles determined by Archimedes' principle. The coefficients of error (CE) of Cavalieri's estimates for the hemimandible, incisor as a whole (the tooth itself, odontogenic region and periodontium) and bone tissue were less than 0.04. For the incisor individual tissues the CEs were usually above 0.05, however their calculated volumes are probably not different from the actual ones. The data for incisors and their periodontal tissues and for bone, because of continuous growth of these structures, are meaningful only for rats of the same gender, strain and weight range. Copyright 2001 Wiley-Liss, Inc.

  17. Extracardiac repair versus intracardiac baffle repair of complex unroofed coronary sinus.

    PubMed

    van Son, J A; Black, M D; Haas, G S; Falk, V; Hambsch, J; Onnasch, J F; Mohr, F W

    1998-12-01

    Complex unroofed coronary sinus with a persistent left superior vena cava has as its commonest major associated intracardiac anomaly a partial or complete atrioventricular canal defect. In this clinical setting, biventricular repair with construction of a complex intra-atrial baffle from the pulmonary veins to the mitral valve has a reported mortality rate of as high as 50%. Looking for an improvement, we have carried out an extracardiac repair of the anomalous systemic venous component with atrial septation. In 2 infants (aged 7 and 12 weeks) with unroofed coronary sinus, bilateral superior venae cavae, right isomerism, and complete atrioventricular canal, in addition to patch closure of the ventricular component of the atrioventricular septal defect, a baffle was constructed between the pulmonary veins and the mitral valve. In four subsequent infants (aged 7,10,16, and 20 weeks) with unroofed coronary sinus, bilateral superior venae cavae, complete atrioventricular canal, right isomerism (n = 2), and mild infundibular stenosis (n = 1), repair consisted of end-to-side anastomosis of the left superior vena cava to the right superior vena cava and complete repair of the atrioventricular canal and associated conditions. There was no mortality. The early postoperative course in the two patients with intra-atrial baffle was characterized by increased left-atrial pressure (18 and 20 mm Hg), with varying degrees of pulmonary venous congestion, supraventricular tachycardias, and systemic hypotension. The pulmonary venous congestion increased, so that one patient was successfully converted 10 weeks postoperatively to an extracardiac repair with septation of the atria and the other will probably follow. In the 4 patients with a primary extracardiac repair, the hemodynamic result was excellent, with a median left-atrial pressure of 11 mm Hg on the first postoperative day. At a median follow-up of 12 months, all 5 patients with an extracardiac repair are clinically well with

  18. Microwave power absorption differences between normal and malignant tissue. [Rats

    SciTech Connect

    Joines, W.T.; Jirtle, R.L.; Rafal, M.D.; Schaefer, D.J.

    1980-06-01

    An open-ended coaxial probe that produced a fringing field in the termination tissue was used to measure the fractional power absorption for malignant tumors and normal adjacent tissue in female W/Fu isogeneic rats over the 30 to 2000 MHz range. The fractional power absorption was determined as the difference in measured incident and reflected power divided by the incident power for SMT-2A tumors, and for normal adjacent muscle and mammary tissue. For the coaxial probe, the ratio of power absorbed in malignant to that in normal adjacent tissue peaked at 180 MHz with values of 4.28 and 1.40 for malignant/mammary and malignant/muscle, respectively. By fitting the measured data to an equation for power absorption because of the fringing-field probe, tissue conductivity and dielectric constant versus frequency were determined. These tissue properties were used to determine the ratio of power absorbed in malignant to normal tissue versus frequency for a propagating plane wave. For plane waves, peak differential absorption occurs at 300 MHz; 4.81 and 1.46 for malignant/mammary and malignant/muscle, respectively. Since direct-contact applicators for microwave hyperthermia have both fringing-field and plane-wave characteristics, our results indicate that any operating frequency from 180 to 300 MHz would provide a near optimum differential power absorption between malignant and normal tissue.

  19. Dissecting Target Toxic Tissue and Tissue Specific Responses of Irinotecan in Rats Using Metabolomics Approach

    PubMed Central

    Yao, Yiran; Zhang, Pei; Wang, Jing; Chen, Jiaqing; Wang, Yong; Huang, Yin; Zhang, Zunjian; Xu, Fengguo

    2017-01-01

    As an anticancer agent, irinotecan (CPT-11) has been widely applied in clinical, especially in the treatment of colorectal cancer. However, its clinical use has long been limited by the side effects and potential tissue toxicity. To discriminate the target toxic tissues and dissect the specific response of target tissues after CPT-11 administration in rats, untargeted metabolomic study was conducted. First, differential metabolites between CPT-11 treated group and control group in each tissue were screened out. Then, based on fold changes of these differential metabolites, principal component analysis and hierarchical cluster analysis were performed to visualize the degree and specificity of the influences of CPT-11 on the metabolic profiles of nine tissues. Using this step-wise method, ileum, jejunum, and liver were finally recognized as target toxic tissues. Furthermore, tissue specific responses of liver, ileum, and jejunum to CPT-11 were dissected and specific differential metabolites were screened out. Perturbations in Krebs cycle, amino acid, purine and bile acid metabolism were observed in target toxic tissues. In conclusion, our study put forward a new approach to dissect target toxic tissues and tissue specific responses of CPT-11 using metabolomics. PMID:28344557

  20. Association between gravitational force and tissue metabolism in periparturient rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzewska, E. I.; Maple, R.; Lintault, L.; Wade, C.; Baer, L.; Ronca, A.; Plaut, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, interest in mammalian reproduction and offspring survival in altered gravity has been growing. Because successful lactation is critical for mammalian neonate survival, we have been studying the effect of gravity metabolism. We have shown an exponential relationship between glucose metabolic rate in mammary tissue of periparturient rats and an increase in gravity load. In this study we showed that changes in mammary metabolic rate due to gravity force were accompanied by a decrease in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and by a reduced size of adipocytes. We assume that these changes are likely due to changes in prolactin or leptin levels related to altered gravity load.

  1. BPA uptake in rat tissues after partial hepatectomy

    SciTech Connect

    Slatkin, D.N.; Nawrocky, M.M.; Coderre, J.A.; Fisher, C.D.; Joel, D.D.; Lombardo, D.T.; Micca, P.L.

    1996-12-31

    In boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT), boron given as boronophenylalanine (BPA) accumulates transiently not only in tumors but also in normal tissues. Average boron concentrations in transplanted 9L gliosarcoma tumors of 20 rats were 2.5 to 3.7 times concentrations found in blood. Although boron levels in a variety of tissues were also higher than blood the concentrations were less than the lowest found in the tumor. Further note than although BPA is a structural analogue of phenylalanine (Phe), the pathway of BPA uptake into regenerating liver may not be linked to Phe uptake mechanisms.

  2. Association between gravitational force and tissue metabolism in periparturient rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zakrzewska, E. I.; Maple, R.; Lintault, L.; Wade, C.; Baer, L.; Ronca, A.; Plaut, K.

    2004-01-01

    Recently, interest in mammalian reproduction and offspring survival in altered gravity has been growing. Because successful lactation is critical for mammalian neonate survival, we have been studying the effect of gravity metabolism. We have shown an exponential relationship between glucose metabolic rate in mammary tissue of periparturient rats and an increase in gravity load. In this study we showed that changes in mammary metabolic rate due to gravity force were accompanied by a decrease in glucose metabolism in adipose tissue and by a reduced size of adipocytes. We assume that these changes are likely due to changes in prolactin or leptin levels related to altered gravity load.

  3. Lead Induces Apoptosis and Histone Hyperacetylation in Rat Cardiovascular Tissues.

    PubMed

    Xu, Li-Hui; Mu, Fang-Fang; Zhao, Jian-Hong; He, Qiang; Cao, Cui-Li; Yang, Hui; Liu, Qi; Liu, Xue-Hui; Sun, Su-Ju

    2015-01-01

    Acute and chronic lead (Pb) exposure might cause hypertension and cardiovascular diseases. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of early acute exposure to Pb on the cellular morphology, apoptosis, and proliferation in rats and to elucidate the early mechanisms involved in the development of Pb-induced hypertension. Very young Sprague-Dawley rats were allowed to drink 1% Pb acetate for 12 and 40 days. Western blot analysis indicated that the expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) decreased in the tissues of the abdominal and thoracic aortas and increased in the cardiac tissue after 12 and 40 days of Pb exposure, respectively. Bax was upregulated and Bcl-2 was downregulated in vascular and cardiac tissues after 40 days of Pb exposure. In addition, an increase in caspase-3 activity was observed after 40 days of exposure to Pb. In terms of morphology, we found that the internal elastic lamina (IEL) of aorta lost the original curve and the diameter of cardiac cell was enlarged after 40 days. Furthermore, the exposure led to a marked increase in acetylated histone H3 levels in the aortas and cardiac tissue after 12 and 40 days, than that in the control group. These findings indicate that Pb might increase the level of histone acetylation and induce apoptosis in vascular and cardiac tissues. However, the mechanism involved need to be further investigated.

  4. Toxic effect of acyclovir on testicular tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Movahed, Elham; Nejati, Vahid; Sadrkhanlou, Rajabali; Ahmadi, Abbas

    2013-02-01

    Acyclovir (ACV), a synthetic purine nucleoside analogue, is known to be toxic to gonads. The current study evaluated cytotoxicity of ACV on histopathological changes in testis tissue and serum testosterone and lipid peroxidation concentrations of male rats. Animals were divided into five groups. One group served as control and one group served as control sham. In the drug treated groups ACV administered for 15 days. 18 days after the last injection, animals were sacrificed. Histopathological and histomorphometrical analysis of the testis was carried out. Serum levels of testosterone and Lipid Peroxidation and potential fertility of animals was evaluated. Male rats exposed to ACV had significant reduction in serum testosterone concentrations at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). ACV induced histopathological changes in the testis and also increase the mean number of mast cells in peritubular or interstitial tissue in the testis at at 16 and 48mg/kg dose-levels (p<0.01). In addition ACV caused increase of serum level of Lipid Peroxidation at 48mg/kg dose-level (p<0.05). As well ACV decreased potential fertility in male rats. The present results highly support the idea that ACV has adverse effect on the reproductive system in male rat.

  5. Biocompatibility evaluation of biodentine in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Mori, Graziela Garrido; Teixeira, Ligia Moraes; de Oliveira, Danilo Louzada; Jacomini, Larissa Menegucci; da Silva, Sindinéia Rodrigues

    2014-09-01

    Biodentine (Septodont, St-Maur-des-Fossés, France) is a new material suitable for various clinical situations in endodontics, such as perforation repair, retrograde filling, pulp capping, and others. Because it is a new material, its properties should be analyzed before routine clinical use. Thus, this study evaluated the biocompatibility of Biodentine in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. This study was conducted on 15 male rats. Two incisions were made on the dorsal region of each animal for the introduction of 4 tubes. One tube was empty, 1 was filled with zinc oxide-eugenol cement, 1 was filled with mineral trioxide aggregate, and the last tube was filled with Biodentine. After 7, 14, and 30 days, the animals were sacrificed, and the specimens were submitted to histotechnical preparation. The histologic sections were stained with hematoxylin-eosin and analyzed using light microscopy. Scores were established according to the inflammatory process and were statistically compared using the Kruskal-Wallis test (P < .05). The analysis of the histologic sections evidenced a nonsignificant or mild presence of inflammatory reaction in the connective tissue in contact with the empty tube and the tube containing MTA, which was different from the tube containing zinc oxide eugenol. The connective tissue was moderately inflamed at 7 days when in contact with Biodentine; however, at 14 and 30 days, the inflammatory process was mild or nonsignificant. Biodentine was biocompatible with tissue after the 14th day. Copyright © 2014 American Association of Endodontists. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Tissue distribution of isoniazid and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaneo, Y; Kubo, H; Tabata, T; Matsuyama, K; Noda, A; Iguchi, S

    1981-08-01

    Distribution of isoniazid and its metabolites was observed in the liver, kidney, lung and plasma after the subcutaneous administration of isoniazid to rats. The tissue levels of isoniazid, acetylisoniazid, acetylhydrazine, 1,2-diacetylhydrazine and hydrazine were determined by mass fragmentography using a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple ion detector-peak matcher. Using the compounds labeled with a stable isotope as an internal standard, namely the isotope dilution method, made it possible to estimate trace amounts of these metabolites in the tissues. The amount of hydrazine was much less than the other hydrazines, but the metabolite which is well known as a mutagen, could be successfully detected in the tissues and plasma. The greater part of free hydrazine is formed through a direct hydrolysis of isoniazid. The isoniazid-hydrolyzing activity was found to be significantly higher in the liver homogenate. This suggested that hydrazine formation is mainly caused by hepatic hydrolysis.

  7. Role of insulin in the growth of fetal rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Cooke, P S; Nicoll, C S

    1984-02-01

    The effect of insulin on the growth of fetal rat tissues was investigated using a transplant system. Paws from 15-day-old fetal rats were transplanted under the kidney capsule of 1-month-old syngeneic hosts, where they grew and differentiated normally. After 11 days of incubation, growth of transplants in hosts made diabetic by streptozotocin injection was reduced by 37% compared to growth in nondiabetic controls, but tissue differentiation and bone formation were normal in the absence of insulin. Injections of insulin (2 U, twice daily) into diabetic hosts restored paw growth to normal. Growth of transplants in hypophysectomized (HX) and in HX-diabetic hosts was reduced to the same degree (i.e. by 65%). Thus, the growth decrements produced by host hypophysectomy and diabetes are not additive. In contrast to the results with insulin-deficient hosts, the transplants failed to differentiate normally in the HX hosts. Injections of exogenous insulin (3 U, twice daily) to produce transient hyperinsulinemia failed to increase transplant growth in intact hosts over 11 days of incubation. The transplants were exposed to frequent periods of hyperglycemia and hyperinsulinemia by injecting 0.66 g glucose/100 g BW four times per day into intact hosts during 6 days of incubation. This treatment also failed to stimulate transplant growth. These results indicate that normal growth of transplanted fetal paw tissue is partially dependent on insulin, but whether the insulin acts directly or indirectly to support growth is not known. Supranormal insulin levels or frequent periods of hyperglycemia with hyperinsulinemia are not capable of producing overgrowth of the fetal paws. The HX, diabetic, and HX-diabetic host rats did not grow, as judged by tail length increase, and they lost weight. Accordingly, the juvenile host tissues have an obligatory dependence on insulin and GH for normal growth, but the fetal tissue is only partially dependent, because the paw transplants continued to

  8. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  9. Protein turnover in adipose tissue from fasted or diabetic rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Tischler, Marc E.; Ost, Alan H.; Coffman, Julia

    1986-01-01

    Protein synthesis and degradation in vitro were compared in epididymal fat pads from animals deprived of food for 48 h or treated 6 or 12 days prior with streptozotocin to induce diabetes. Although both fasting and diabetes led to depressed (-24 to -57 percent) protein synthesis, the diminution in protein degradation (-63 to -72 percent) was even greater, so that net in vitro protein balance improved dramatically. Insulin failed to inhibit protein degradation in fat pads of these rats as it does for fed animals. Although insulin stimulated protein synthesis in fat pads of fasted and 12 day diabetic rats, the absolute change was much smaller than that seen in the fed state. The inhibition of protein degradation by leucine also seems to be less in fasted animals, probably because leucine catabolism is slower in fasting. These results show that fasting and diabetes may improve protein balance in adipose tissue but diminish the regulatory effects of insulin.

  10. Lability of renal papillary tissue composition in the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Atherton, J C

    1978-01-01

    1. The acute effects of (a) a minor operative procedure using ether as the anaesthetic, and (b) the administration of 0.9% saline as a single I.V. injection in the conscious rat, on renal tissue composition were studied in hydropenic and normally hydrated rats. 2. The operative procedure and anaesthesia induced a rapid and transient decrease in papillary osmolality in both hydropenic and normally hydrated animals, the important contributing factor being a significant decrease in urea content. 3. Administration of a small volume of saline caused a rapid decrease in urea content, and an increase in water content. 4. It is concluded that papillary composition is extremely labile, large changes being produced by relatively minor experimental procedures. PMID:624997

  11. Microvascular and Tissue Oxygen Gradients in the Rat Mesentery

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Tsai, Amy G.; Friesenecker, Barbara; Mazzoni, Michelle C.; Kerger, Heinz; Buerk, Donald G.; Johnson, Paul C.; Intaglietta, Marcos

    1998-06-01

    One of the most important functions of the blood circulation is O2 delivery to the tissue. This process occurs primarily in microvessels that also regulate blood flow and are the site of many metabolic processes that require O2. We measured the intraluminal and perivascular pO2 in rat mesenteric arterioles in vivo by using noninvasive phosphorescence quenching microscopy. From these measurements, we calculated the rate at which O2 diffuses out of microvessels from the blood. The rate of O2 efflux and the O2 gradients found in the immediate vicinity of arterioles indicate the presence of a large O2 sink at the interface between blood and tissue, a region that includes smooth muscle and endothelium. Mass balance analyses show that the loss of O2 from the arterioles in this vascular bed primarily is caused by O2 consumption in the microvascular wall. The high metabolic rate of the vessel wall relative to parenchymal tissue in the rat mesentery suggests that in addition to serving as a conduit for the delivery of O2 the microvasculature has other functions that require a significant amount of O2.

  12. Divergent phenotype of rat thoracic and abdominal perivascular adipose tissues

    PubMed Central

    Jenkins, Nathan T.; Vieira-Potter, Victoria J.; Laughlin, M. Harold

    2013-01-01

    Perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) is implicated as a source of proatherogenic cytokines. Phenotypic differences in local PVAT depots may contribute to differences in disease susceptibility among arteries and even regions within an artery. It has been proposed that PVAT around the abdominal and thoracic aorta shares characteristics of white and brown adipose tissue (BAT), respectively; however, a detailed comparison of the phenotype of these PVAT depots has not been performed. Using young and older adult rats, we compared the phenotype of PVATs surrounding the abdominal and thoracic aorta to each other and also to epididymal white and subscapular BAT. Compared with young rats, older rats exhibited greater percent body fat (34.5 ± 3.1 vs. 10.4 ± 0.9%), total cholesterol (112.2 ± 7.5 vs. 58.7 ± 6.3 mg/dl), HOMA-insulin resistance (1.7 ± 0.1 vs. 0.9 ± 0.1 a.u.), as well as reduced ACh-induced relaxation of the aorta (maximal relaxation: 54 ± 10 vs. 77 ± 6%) (all P < 0.05). Expression of inflammatory genes and markers of immune cell infiltration were greater in abdominal PVAT than in thoracic PVAT, and overall, abdominal and thoracic PVATs resembled the phenotype of white adipose tissue (WAT) and BAT, respectively. Histology and electron microscopy indicated structural similarity between visceral WAT and abdominal PVAT and between BAT and thoracic PVAT. Our data provide evidence that abdominal PVAT is more inflamed than thoracic PVAT, a difference that was by and large independent of sedentary aging. Phenotypic differences in PVAT between regions of the aorta may be relevant in light of the evidence in large animals and humans that the abdominal aorta is more vulnerable to atherosclerosis than the thoracic aorta. PMID:23389108

  13. Pharmacokinetics and skin-tissue penetration of daptomycin in rats

    PubMed Central

    Matsumoto, Kazuaki; Kitaoka, Masashi; Kuroda, Yuko; Ikawa, Kazuro; Morikawa, Norifumi; Sasaki, Junichi; Iketani, Osamu; Iwata, Satoshi; Horino, Tetsuya; Hori, Seiji; Kizu, Junko

    2015-01-01

    Background Daptomycin is recommended for complicated skin and skin-structure infections. However, information on the penetration of daptomycin into skin is limited. Therefore, the aim of this in vivo investigation was to determine the pharmacokinetics and skin penetration of daptomycin in rats. Materials and methods Concentrations of daptomycin were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography. A noncompartmental pharmacokinetic analysis was conducted to estimate the rate and extent of daptomycin penetration from the systemic circulation into skin tissue. Since protein binding of daptomycin in rat serum was 89.3%, the free maximum concentration (Cmax) and free area under the curve from time 0 to infinity (AUC0–∞) for plasma were calculated as follows: fCmax, plasma = (1 – 0.893) × Cmax, plasma, fAUC0–∞, plasma = (1 – 0.893) × AUC0–∞, plasma. Results The following values (mean ± standard deviation) were obtained: 0.06±0 L/h/kg for total clearance (CLtotal), 0.44±0.06 hours for elimination-rate constant, 1.58±0.23 hours for half-life, 0.14±0.02 L/kg for steady-state volume distribution, and 2.28±0.33 hours for mean residence time. Time to Cmax was 3.0 hours for plasma and skin tissue. Cmax and AUC0–∞ for plasma were 175.8±5.1 μg/mL and 811.8±31.9 μg × h/mL, respectively. Cmax and AUC0–∞ for skin tissue were 19.1±1.7 μg/mL and 113.9±21.8 μg × h/mL, respectively. Furthermore, fCmax and fAUC0–∞ for plasma were 18.8 μg/mL and 86.9 μg × h/mL, respectively. The degrees of skin-tissue penetration, defined as the Cmax, skin tissue/fCmax, plasma ratio and AUC0–∞, skin tissue/fAUC0–∞, plasma ratio, were 1.0 and 1.3, respectively. Conclusion Daptomycin exhibited good penetration into skin tissue, supporting its use for the treatment of complicated skin and skin-structure infections. However, further studies are needed in infected patients in order to investigate the relationship between the antimicrobial efficacy

  14. Extracardiac septum transversum/proepicardial endothelial cells pattern embryonic coronary arterio-venous connections.

    PubMed

    Cano, Elena; Carmona, Rita; Ruiz-Villalba, Adrián; Rojas, Anabel; Chau, You-Ying; Wagner, Kay D; Wagner, Nicole; Hastie, Nicholas D; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Pérez-Pomares, José M

    2016-01-19

    Recent reports suggest that mammalian embryonic coronary endothelium (CoE) originates from the sinus venosus and ventricular endocardium. However, the contribution of extracardiac cells to CoE is thought to be minor and nonsignificant for coronary formation. Using classic (Wt1(Cre)) and previously undescribed (G2-Gata4(Cre)) transgenic mouse models for the study of coronary vascular development, we show that extracardiac septum transversum/proepicardium (ST/PE)-derived endothelial cells are required for the formation of ventricular coronary arterio-venous vascular connections. Our results indicate that at least 20% of embryonic coronary arterial and capillary endothelial cells derive from the ST/PE compartment. Moreover, we show that conditional deletion of the ST/PE lineage-specific Wilms' tumor suppressor gene (Wt1) in the ST/PE of G2-Gata4(Cre) mice and in the endothelium of Tie2(Cre) mice disrupts embryonic coronary transmural patterning, leading to embryonic death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ST/PE-derived endothelial cells contribute significantly to and are required for proper coronary vascular morphogenesis.

  15. Extracardiac septum transversum/proepicardial endothelial cells pattern embryonic coronary arterio–venous connections

    PubMed Central

    Cano, Elena; Ruiz-Villalba, Adrián; Rojas, Anabel; Chau, You-Ying; Wagner, Kay D.; Wagner, Nicole; Hastie, Nicholas D.; Muñoz-Chápuli, Ramón; Pérez-Pomares, José M.

    2016-01-01

    Recent reports suggest that mammalian embryonic coronary endothelium (CoE) originates from the sinus venosus and ventricular endocardium. However, the contribution of extracardiac cells to CoE is thought to be minor and nonsignificant for coronary formation. Using classic (Wt1Cre) and previously undescribed (G2-Gata4Cre) transgenic mouse models for the study of coronary vascular development, we show that extracardiac septum transversum/proepicardium (ST/PE)-derived endothelial cells are required for the formation of ventricular coronary arterio–venous vascular connections. Our results indicate that at least 20% of embryonic coronary arterial and capillary endothelial cells derive from the ST/PE compartment. Moreover, we show that conditional deletion of the ST/PE lineage-specific Wilms’ tumor suppressor gene (Wt1) in the ST/PE ofG2-Gata4Cre mice and in the endothelium of Tie2Cre mice disrupts embryonic coronary transmural patterning, leading to embryonic death. Taken together, our results demonstrate that ST/PE-derived endothelial cells contribute significantly to and are required for proper coronary vascular morphogenesis. PMID:26739565

  16. [Treatment strategy for patients with extracardiac structural anomalies and congenital heart disease].

    PubMed

    Murakami, Arata

    2011-07-01

    The surgical treatment of patients with extracardiac structural anomalies and congenital heart disease often carries major risk and remains a challenging field. An appropriate, solid treatment plan should be developed during the early phase with interactive intelligence sharing between a pediatric surgery team and congenital heart surgery team. As the top of the chain of command, the role of a neonatologist is important. This article reviews the history of surgery for congenital heart disease and the progress of the Japan Congenital Cardiovascular Surgery Database. Finally, as an example of a combination of diseases, the clinical course and intelligence sharing during treatment of a patient with biliary atresia requiring living-donor liver transplantation and hypoplastic left heart syndrome is reported. The National Quality Forum provided structural measures, process measures, and outcome measures for congenital heart surgery. Structural measures provided by the National Quality Forum included participation in a preoperative multidisciplinary conference. To improve the outcome of surgical treatment of patients with congenital heart disease and extracardiac structural anomalies, the importance of a preoperative multidisciplinary conference involving not only pediatric surgeons, pediatric cardiologists, and pediatric cardiac surgeons but also neonatologists, anesthesiologists, and nurses cannot be overemphasized.

  17. Estradiol release kinetics determine tissue response in ovariectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Otto, Christiane; Kantner, Ingrid; Nubbemeyer, Reinhard; Schkoldow, Jenny; Fuchs, Iris; Krahl, Elisabeth; Vonk, Richardus; Schüler, Christiane; Fritzemeier, Karl-Heinrich; Erben, Reinhold G

    2012-04-01

    Estrogen replacement is an effective therapy of postmenopausal symptoms such as hot flushes, bone loss, and vaginal dryness. Undesired estrogen effects are the stimulation of uterine and mammary gland epithelial cell proliferation as well as hepatic estrogenicity. In this study, we examined the influence of different estradiol release kinetics on tissue responsivity in ovariectomized (OVX) rats. Pulsed release kinetics was achieved by ip or sc administration of estradiol dissolved in physiological saline containing 10% ethanol (EtOH/NaCl) whereas continuous release kinetics was achieved by sc injection of estradiol dissolved in benzylbenzoate/ricinus oil (1+4, vol/vol). Initial 3-d experiments in OVX rats showed that pulsed ip estradiol administration had profoundly reduced stimulatory effects on the uterus and the liver compared with continuous release kinetics. On the other hand, both administration forms prevented severe vaginal atrophy. Based on these results, we compared the effects of pulsed (sc in EtOH/NaCl) vs. continuous (sc in benzylbenzoate/ricinus oil) estradiol release kinetics on bone, uterus, mammary gland, and liver in a 4-month study in OVX rats. Ovariectomy-induced bone loss was prevented by both administration regimes. However, pulsed estradiol resulted in lower uterine weight, reduced induction of hepatic gene expression, and reduced mammary epithelial hyperplasia relative to continuous estradiol exposure. We conclude that organ responsivity is influenced by different hormone release kinetics, a fact that might be exploited to reduce undesired estradiol effects in postmenopausal women.

  18. Albumin extravasation rates in tissues of anesthetized and unanesthetized rats

    SciTech Connect

    Renkin, E.M.; Joyner, W.L.; Gustafson-Sgro, M.; Plopper, G.; Sibley, L.

    1989-05-01

    Bovine serum albumin (BSA) labeled with /sup 131/I was injected intravenously in chronically prepared, unanesthetized rats and into pentobarbital-anesthetized rats that had received 2 ml 5% BSA to help sustain plasma volume. Initial uptake rates (clearances) in skin, skeletal muscles, diaphragm, and heart (left ventricle) were measured over 1 h. BSA labeled with /sup 125/I was injected terminally to correct for intravascular /sup 131/I-BSA. Observed clearances were in the following order in both groups of animals: heart much greater than diaphragm approximately equal to skin greater than resting skeletal muscles. Differences between unanesthetized and anesthetized animals were small and inconsistently directed. Our results suggest that the lower albumin clearances reported in the literature for anesthetized rats are not the result of their immobility or any direct effect of anesthesia on albumin transport in these tissues. The lower transport rates appear to result indirectly from changes produced by anesthesia and/or surgery in controllable parameters such as plasma volume and intravascular protein mass.

  19. Tissue decorporation of polonium-210 in rats by DMPA

    SciTech Connect

    Aposhian, H.V.; Dart, R.C.; Aposhian, M.M.; Dawson, B.V.

    1987-11-01

    Polonium-210 exposures, although rare, have occurred due to accidents in nuclear working environments. This alpha emitting radioactive element can bind thiols and thiol-containing proteins in vivo. Since thiol-containing chelating agents compete with many thiols for heavy metals, a number of these chelating agents have been investigated as protective agents against the lethal effects of /sup 210/Po and as tissue decorporating agents for it. Rats given /sup 210/Po (40 microCi/kg) ip had a median survival time (mst) of 39 days. The mst was increased to 106 days when N-(2,3-dimercaptopropyl)phthalamidic acid (DMPA), meso-dimercaptosuccinic acid (DMSA) or the Na salt of 2,3-dimercapto-1-propanesulfonic acid (DMPS) was administered sc (p less than .002). Decorporation studies were performed by giving rats /sup 210/Po (0.4 microCi) sc, followed by a series of thiol injections beginning one hour later. After 21 days, kidney levels of /sup 210/Po in rats given DMPA were only 28% of those of the untreated controls and significantly lower than those receiving DMSA, DMPS, N-acetyl-L-cysteine, or WR2721. After DMPA treatment, the /sup 210/Po levels of the spleen were 25% of the saline-treated control. DMPA appears to be a new and consistent decorporating agent for polonium-210.

  20. Structural differences in ferritins from normal and malignant rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Linder, M C; Moor, J R; Munro, H N; Morris, H P

    1975-04-29

    Ferritins purified from several normal and malignant rat tissues were examined for amino acid composition, content of tryptic peptides, available sulfhydryl groups and subunit sizes and proportion. Ferritin extracted from adult kidney, neonatal liver and hepatic and renal tumors differed from the ferritin of adult rat liver in migration on electrophoretic gels and in antibody affinity, but did not differ among themselves. Nevertheless, they showed distinctive differences in amino acid composition and tryptic peptide content. All of them and also adult liver ferritin contained two major species of subunits differing in molecular weight. The proportions of subunits, and the available sulfhydryl groups of the intact ferritin molecules, differed among these tissue ferritins. On the basis of amino acid and peptide content, the ferritins of hepatomas and the renal tumor analyzed showec the greatest similarity but not identity. The ferritin of neonatal liver was next most similar. Kidney ferritin differed considerably in composition from tumor and neonatal ferritins, while adult liver ferritin was the most extremely divergent of the series examined. A similar progressive difference was found on examining the proportions of subunits and sulfhydryl groups in these ferritins. However, changes in subunit proportion cannot explain the amino acid and peptide compositional changes.

  1. D-AMPHETAMINE MORTALITY AND RELATED LEVELS IN TISSUE OF RATS EXPOSED TO ALTITUDE.

    DTIC Science & Technology

    AMPHETAMINES, MORTALITY RATES ), (*HIGH ALTITUDE, PHARMACOLOGY), TISSUES(BIOLOGY), DISTRIBUTION, DOSAGE, EXPOSURE(PHYSIOLOGY), TOXIC TOLERANCES, SPACE FLIGHT, BIOCHEMISTRY, LABELED SUBSTANCES, RATS, TOXICITY

  2. Tissue distribution, disposition, and metabolism of cyclosporine in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Wagner, O.; Schreier, E.; Heitz, F.; Maurer, G.

    1987-05-01

    Tissue distribution, disposition, and metabolism of /sup 3/H-cyclosporine were studied in rats after single and repeated oral doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg and after an iv dose of 3 mg/kg. The oral doses of 10 and 30 mg/kg were dissolved in polyethylene glycol 200/ethanol or in olive oil/Labrafil/ethanol. Absorption from both formulations was slow and incomplete, with peak /sup 3/H blood levels at 3-4 hr. Approximately 30% of the radioactive dose was absorbed, which is consistent with oral bioavailability data for cyclosporine. More than 70% of the radioactivity was excreted in feces and up to 15% in urine. Elimination via the bile accounted for 10 and 60% of the oral and iv doses, respectively. Since unchanged cyclosporine predominated in both blood and tissues at early time points, the half-lives of the distribution phases (t 1/2 alpha) of parent drug and of total radioactivity were similar. In blood, kidney, liver, and lymph nodes, t 1/2 alpha of cyclosporine ranged from 6-10 hr. Elimination of radioactivity from the systemic circulation was multiphasic, with a terminal half-life of 20-30 hr. /sup 3/H-Cyclosporine was extensively distributed throughout the body, with highest concentrations in liver, kidney, endocrine glands, and adipose tissue. The concentrations of both total radioactivity and parent drug were greater in tissues than in blood, which is consistent with the high lipid solubility of cyclosporine and some of its metabolites. Skin and adipose tissue were the main storage sites for unchanged cyclosporine. Elimination half-lives were slower for most tissues than for blood and increased with multiple dosing. The amount of unchanged drug was negligible in urine and bile.

  3. Effects of microgravity on rat bone, cartlage and connective tissues

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Doty, S.

    1990-01-01

    The response to hypogravity by the skeletal system was originally thought to be the result of a reduction in weight bearing. Thus a reduced rate of new bone formation in the weight-bearing bones was accepted, when found, as an obvious result of hypogravity. However, data on non-weight-bearing tissues have begun to show that other physiological changes can be expected to occur to animals during spaceflight. This overview of the Cosmos 1887 data discusses these results as they pertain to individual bones or tissues because the response seems to depend on the architecture and metabolism of each tissue under study. Various effects were seen in different tissues from the rats flown on Cosmos 1887. The femur showed a reduced bone mineral content but only in the central region of the diaphysis. This same region in the tibia showed changes in the vascularity of bone as well as some osteocytic cell death. The humerus demonstrated reduced morphometric characteristics plus a decrease in mechanical stiffness. Bone mineral crystals did not mature normally as a result of flight, suggesting a defect in the matrix mineralization process. Note that these changes relate directly to the matrix portion of the bone or some function of bone which slowly responds to changes in the environment. However, most cellular functions of bone are rapid responders. The stimulation of osteoblast precursor cells, the osteoblast function in collagen synthesis, a change in the proliferation rate of cells in the epiphyseal growth plate, the synthesis and secretion of osteocalcin, and the movement of water into or out of tissues, are all processes which respond to environmental change. These rapidly responding events produced results from Cosmos 1887 which were frequently quite different from previous space flight data.

  4. Somatostatin in rat tissues is depleted by cysteamine administration

    SciTech Connect

    Szabo, S.; Reichlin, S.

    1981-12-01

    Administration of cysteamine (mercaptoethylamine) induces in rats severe perforating duodenal ulcers. Because the ulcerogenic properties of cysteamine are markedly reduced by treatment with somatostatin, we considered the possibility that cysteamine-induced duodenal ulcer might be mediated by depletion of tissue somatostatin, and thereby of its paracrine influences on gastrin and gastric acid secretion. To test this hypothesis, we measured the concentration of immunoreactive somatostatin (IR-somatostatin) in stomach and duodenal mucosa at intervals after administration of a single ulcerogenic dose (30 mg/kg by stomach tube). IR-somatostatin in these tissues fell rapidly to reach a minimum at 4 h (stomach 31%, duodenum 60% of control respectively). IR-somatostatin in hypothalamus and pancreas decreased gradually to a minimum at 7 h. Another duodenal ulcerogen, propionitrile (10 mg/100 g bw, s.c.) which is more toxic than cysteamine, and several stressful procedures including ether anesthesia, restraint and s.c. formalin did not lower stomach or duodenal IR-somatostatin. Gut, pancreas and hypothalamic VIP levels were not influenced by cysteamine. These findings suggest that cysteamine is a relatively specific depletor of tissue somatostatin. Because blood levels of somatostatin fell, and only trivial amounts of the peptide were found in the stomach lumen after cysteamine administration, it appears likely that this agent acts at the cellular level to cause breakdown of preformed somatostatin and/or to acutely reduce its synthesis.

  5. Developmental changes in purine phosphoribosyltransferases in human and rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Adams, A; Harkness, R A

    1976-01-01

    1. The hypoxanthine/guanine and adenine phosphoribosyltransferase activities in a wide variety of human tissues were studied during their growth and development from foetal life onward. A wide range of activities develop after birth, with especially high values in the central nervous system and testes. 2. Postnatal development of hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase was also defined in the rat. Although there were increases in the central nervous system and testes, there was also a rise in activity in the liver, which was less marked in man. 3. A sensitive radiochemical assay method, using dTTP to inhibit 5'-nucleotidase activity, suitable for tissue extracts, was developed. 4. No definite evidence of the existence of tissue-specific isoenzymes of hypoxanthine/guanine or adenine phosphoribosyltransferase was found. Hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase in testes, however, had a significantly different thermal-denaturation rate constant. 5. The findings are discussed in an attempt to relate activity of hypoxanthine/guanine phosphoribosyltransferase to biological function. Growth as well as some developmental changes appear to be related to increase in the activity of this enzyme. PMID:1016239

  6. Comparative analysis of tissue reactions to anesthetic solutions: histological analysis in subcutaneous tissue of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Ribeiro, Paulo Domingos; Sanches, Marcio Giampietro; Okamoto, Tetuo

    2003-01-01

    Postanesthetic pain is a relatively common complication after local anesthesia. This complication may be caused by the anesthetic technique or by the anesthetic solution used. Tissue reactions induced by the anesthetic solutions may be one of the factors resulting in pain after anesthesia. The objective of this study was to comparatively analyze tissue reactions induced by different anesthetic solutions in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. The following solutions were utilized: 2% lidocaine without vasoconstrictor; a 0.5% bupivacaine solution with 1:200,000 adrenaline; a 4% articaine solution and 2% mepivacaine, both with 1:100,000 adrenaline; and a 0.9% sodium chloride solution as a control. Sterilized absorbent paper cones packed inside polyethylene tubes were soaked in the solutions and implanted in the subcutaneous region. The sacrifice periods were 1, 2, 5, and 10 days after surgery. The specimens were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin for histological analysis. The results showed that there is a difference in tissue irritability produced by the local anesthetic solutions. The results also showed that there is no relation between the concentration of the drug and the inflammatory intensity, that the mepivacaine and articaine solutions promoted less inflammatory reaction than the bupivacaine, and that the lidocaine solution produced the least intense inflammation. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 Figure 8 Figure 9 Figure 10 Figure 11 PMID:14959905

  7. Pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution of liposomal etoposide in rats.

    PubMed

    Sistla, Anand; Smith, David J; Kobrinsky, Nathan L; Kumar, Krishna

    2009-11-01

    Precipitation of etoposide and adverse events associated with the co-solvents in intravenous solutions can be avoided by using liposomal etoposide (LE). The pharmacokinetics and distribution of the commercial formulation (ETPI) and LE were compared in rats. The pharmacokinetic profiles were biphasic and similar in the initial phase (C(max), Vd, and t(1/2alpha)). However, LE showed a 60% increase in AUC with a 35% decrease in clearance (p < 0.05). This decreased clearance resulted in a 70% increase in the MRT of etoposide. The uptake of etoposide from LE was higher in macrophage-phagocytic endowed tissues indicating that LE is superior to ETPI for targeted delivery of etoposide.

  8. [Impedance testing of compact bone tissue in hypokinetic rats].

    PubMed

    Berezovs'kyĭ, V Ia; Levashov, O M; Safonov, S L; Levashov, M I; Litovka, I H

    2005-01-01

    The bioelectrical impedance method was used for determination of compact bone status in white rats after 28th days of strong hypokinesia. It was shown that the lowering of mechanical loading leads to disturbances in dielectric properties and changes in electrical impedance parameters. These disturbances had different direction and manifestation. It was distinguished the two typical variants of bone dielectric properties changes. The first variant was more characteristic for early stages of hypokinetic osteodestruction, the second variant was more characteristic for the fully development hypokinetic disturbances. It was determine a correlation between the changes in electrical impedance parameters and mane components of bone matrix. The results of this study show that hyperhydratation of bone tissue play important role in hypokinetic changes of bone dielectric properties. Electroimpedance method may be used for early diagnostic of bone state in clinic and experiments.

  9. Distribution of biglycan and decorin in rat dental tissue.

    PubMed

    Tenório, D M H; Santos, M F; Zorn, T M T

    2003-08-01

    Biglycan and decorin are small leucine-rich proteoglycans that play several biological and structural roles in different tissues and organs. Several reports have indicated that biglycan participates in odontoblast and ameloblast differentiation and in the calcification process. In the present study we show that the expression of biglycan changes from within the ameloblasts and odontoblasts to the extracellular space according to the stage of animal development. In predentin and in the pulp space, however, biglycan was continually expressed throughout the period of investigation. In contrast, decorin was absent in odontoblasts and in ameloblasts and was exclusively expressed in predentin throughout the period of observation. In young rats, however, decorin was expressed in the extracellular spaces of the pulp, where it was concentrated mainly in the peripheral pulp.

  10. Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, K.C.; Wahner, H.W.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Puga, F.J.; Danielson, G.K.; Chesebro, J.H.; Feldt, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with In-111-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth post-operative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time.

  11. Imaging of platelets in right-sided extracardiac conduits in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Agarwal, K.C.; Wahner, H.W.; Dewanjee, M.K.; Fuster, V.; Puga, F.J.; Danielson, G.K.; Chesebro, J.H.; Feldt, R.H.

    1982-04-01

    As a connection between the systemic venous ventricle and the pulmonary artery, valved Dacron extracardiac conduits have remarkably influenced the surgical approach to many complex congenital heart defects. Obstruction of the conduit, however, can reduce the long-term effectiveness of this corrective procedure. In addition to stenosis of the porcine valve, formation of thick fibrous neointima plays a major role in the pathogenesis of conduit obstruction. The purpose of this study was to determine whether platelet deposition could be demonstrated in these conduits by external imaging with /sup 111/In-labeled autologous platelets. After injection of labeled platelets either immediately after operation or on the fifth to eighth postoperative day, imaging was performed by standard procedures. Eight of nine patients had platelet accumulation in the conduit, and treatment with aspirin and dipyridamole caused no recognizable change in platelet deposition. This study demonstrates the feasibility of imaging platelet deposition in Dacron conduits and shows that the pattern of deposition varies with time.

  12. Detection and severity classification of extracardiac interference in ⁸²Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging.

    PubMed

    Orton, Elizabeth J; Al Harbi, Ibraheem; Klein, Ran; Beanlands, Rob S B; deKemp, Robert A; Glenn Wells, R

    2014-10-01

    Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. When MPI studies are performed with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioactive tracer rubidium-82 chloride ((82)Rb), a small but non-negligible fraction of studies (∼10%) suffer from extracardiac interference: high levels of tracer uptake in structures adjacent to the heart which mask the true cardiac tracer uptake. At present, there are no clinically available options for automated detection or correction of this problem. This work presents an algorithm that detects and classifies the severity of extracardiac interference in (82)Rb PET MPI images and reports the accuracy and failure rate of the method. A set of 200 (82)Rb PET MPI images were reviewed by a trained nuclear cardiologist and interference severity reported on a four-class scale, from absent to severe. An automated algorithm was developed that compares uptake at the external border of the myocardium to three thresholds, separating the four interference severity classes. A minimum area of interference was required, and the search region was limited to that facing the stomach wall and spleen. Maximizing concordance (Cohen's Kappa) and minimizing failure rate for the set of 200 clinician-read images were used to find the optimal population-based constants defining search limit and minimum area parameters and the thresholds for the algorithm. Tenfold stratified cross-validation was used to find optimal thresholds and report accuracy measures (sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa). The algorithm was capable of detecting interference with a mean [95% confidence interval] sensitivity/specificity/Kappa of 0.97 [0.94, 1.00]/0.82 [0.66, 0.98]/0.79 [0.65, 0.92], and a failure rate of 1.0% ± 0.2%. The four-class overall Kappa was 0.72 [0.64, 0.81]. Separation of mild versus moderate-or-greater interference was performed with good accuracy (sensitivity/specificity/Kappa = 0.92 [0.86, 0.99]/0.86 [0.71, 1

  13. Detection and severity classification of extracardiac interference in {sup 82}Rb PET myocardial perfusion imaging

    SciTech Connect

    Orton, Elizabeth J. Kemp, Robert A. de; Glenn Wells, R.; Al Harbi, Ibraheem; Klein, Ran; Beanlands, Rob S. B.

    2014-10-15

    Purpose: Myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) is used for diagnosis and prognosis of coronary artery disease. When MPI studies are performed with positron emission tomography (PET) and the radioactive tracer rubidium-82 chloride ({sup 82}Rb), a small but non-negligible fraction of studies (∼10%) suffer from extracardiac interference: high levels of tracer uptake in structures adjacent to the heart which mask the true cardiac tracer uptake. At present, there are no clinically available options for automated detection or correction of this problem. This work presents an algorithm that detects and classifies the severity of extracardiac interference in {sup 82}Rb PET MPI images and reports the accuracy and failure rate of the method. Methods: A set of 200 {sup 82}Rb PET MPI images were reviewed by a trained nuclear cardiologist and interference severity reported on a four-class scale, from absent to severe. An automated algorithm was developed that compares uptake at the external border of the myocardium to three thresholds, separating the four interference severity classes. A minimum area of interference was required, and the search region was limited to that facing the stomach wall and spleen. Maximizing concordance (Cohen’s Kappa) and minimizing failure rate for the set of 200 clinician-read images were used to find the optimal population-based constants defining search limit and minimum area parameters and the thresholds for the algorithm. Tenfold stratified cross-validation was used to find optimal thresholds and report accuracy measures (sensitivity, specificity, and Kappa). Results: The algorithm was capable of detecting interference with a mean [95% confidence interval] sensitivity/specificity/Kappa of 0.97 [0.94, 1.00]/0.82 [0.66, 0.98]/0.79 [0.65, 0.92], and a failure rate of 1.0% ± 0.2%. The four-class overall Kappa was 0.72 [0.64, 0.81]. Separation of mild versus moderate-or-greater interference was performed with good accuracy (sensitivity

  14. Histochemical demonstration of phospholipase B (lysolecithinase) activity in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Ottolenghi, A; Pickett, J P; Greene, W B

    1966-12-01

    A method has been developed for the histochemical demonstration of phospholipase B (lysolecithinase) of rat tissues. The enzyme attacks lysolecithin with liberation of 1 mole of glycerylphosphorylcholine and 1 mole of fatty acid. The recommended procedure involves use of 6-10 micro frozen sections, fixed in cold calcium-formol and incubated at 37 degrees C in Tris buffered medium at pH 6.6 containing 2.2 X 10(-3) M lysolecithin and 1% cobalt acetate. The fatty acid liberated by enzymatic hydrolysis is trapped as a cobalt precipitate and is then converted to a black-brown precipitate by treatment with dilute ammonium sulfide in cold isotonic saline. Equivalent amounts of fatty acid and glycerylphosphorylcholine are recovered by extraction and analysis of the incubated sections and of the incubation medium, thus proving that lysolecithin hydrolysis occurs under the proposed reaction conditions. Staining is reduced by treating the sections with copper ions, mercury compounds, alcohols, acetone and by heating at 60 degrees C prior to incubation with substrate. Lowering of the pH of the incubation medium has similar effect. These findings are interpreted as evidence of the enzymatic nature of the reaction. Cells exhibiting a positive staining are found in the lamina propria of the intestinal villi and crypts, in the red pulp of the spleen and in the interstitial tissue of lung, liver and thymus. Similar elements are present in bone marrow smears and in leukocyte preparations obtained by peritoneal lavage. The morphologic and staining characteristics of these cells correspond to those of the eosinophilic leukocytes. Physical and chemical agents (x-irradiation, corticosteroids) which sharply decrease the number of eosinophils also reduce the number of cells shown histochemically to hydrolyze lysolecithin. A correspondent diminution of phospholipase B activity of homogenates of the same tissues can be shown in vitro. Differences in tissue distribution and chemical

  15. Regulation of cholesteryl ester transfer activity in adipose tissue: comparison between hamster and rat species.

    PubMed

    Shen, G X; Angel, A

    1995-07-01

    The present study demonstrates cholesteryl ester transfer activity (CETA) in cultured hamster and rat adipose tissue. Cultured hamster and rat adipose tissue fragments released CETA into the conditioned medium, and this was associated with a reciprocal decrease in adipose tissue CETA. Regional variations in adipose CETA were observed. The levels of CETA released from cultured hamster and rat adipocytes were higher than those from adipose tissue fragments. In hamsters but not in rats, the secretion of CETA from cultured adipose tissue was increased by insulin and inhibited by EDTA in a dose-dependent fashion. Monoclonal antibodies against human cholesteryl ester transfer protein inhibited the CETA secreted from hamster adipose tissue but not that from rat adipose tissue. Fasting for 24 h and a high-cholesterol saturated fat-rich diet increased adipose CETA in hamsters and rats, and this was associated with an elevation of plasma CETA only in hamsters. This supports the view that, in hamsters, adipose CETA has in situ and intravascular functions, whereas in rats the role of adipose CETA is restricted to tissue-specific functions. Hamster cholesteryl ester transfer protein may differ from rat adipose-associated CETA in the structure of the active site and the regulatory mechanism for its secretion.

  16. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-01

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  17. Biocompatibility of different intracanal medications in rat bucal submucosa tissue.

    PubMed

    Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the buccal tissue responses of Wistar rats to 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and the association of both products. For this purpose, 30 specimens were randomly implanted in the filtrum of the four upper and lower hemiarches with a polyethylene tube containing one of the following substances: 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine solution (test groups); calcium hydroxide and distilled water and distilled water (control groups). Ten rats each were distributed according to time interval of evaluation at 7, 15 and 30 days. The histological sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Analysis was performed with an optical microscope at x100, x200 and x400 magnifications by an expert examiner blinded to the materials. The sections were classified by scores attributed to inflammatory events and by a ranking determined according to the severity of the inflammation. The results of the inflammatory events and severity ranking were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant difference occurred among the tested materials; however, all materials showed a decreased of severity with respect to longer time intervals.

  18. BIOCOMPATIBILITY OF DIFFERENT INTRACANAL MEDICATIONS IN RAT BUCCAL SUBMUCOSA TISSUE

    PubMed Central

    Semenoff, Tereza Aparecida Delle Vedove; Semenoff Segundo, Alex; de Figueiredo, José Antonio Poli

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study was to analyze the buccal tissue responses of Wistar rats to 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and the association of both products. For this purpose, 30 specimens were randomly implanted in the filtrum of the four upper and lower hemiarches with a polyethylene tube containing one of the following substances: 2% chlorhexidine solution, calcium hydroxide and 2% chlorhexidine solution (test groups); calcium hydroxide and distilled water and distilled water (control groups). Ten rats each were distributed according to time interval of evaluation at 7, 15 and 30 days. The histological sections were stained with Harris hematoxylin and eosin. Analysis was performed with an optical microscope at x100, x200 and x400 magnifications by an expert examiner blinded to the materials. The sections were classified by scores attributed to inflammatory events and by a ranking determined according to the severity of the inflammation. The results of the inflammatory events and severity ranking were submitted to the Kruskal-Wallis test at a 0.05 level of significance. No statistically significant difference occurred among the tested materials; however, all materials showed a decreased of severity with respect to longer time intervals. PMID:19089283

  19. Enantioselective Tissue Distribution of Ketorolac and its Enantiomers in Rats.

    PubMed

    Dubey, S K; Anand, A; Saha, R N

    2015-08-01

    The difference in tissue distribution of Ketorolac and its enantiomers were investigated in wistar rats. Separate high performance liquid chromatographic method was developed and validated for determination of Ketorolac and its enantiomers. Oyster BDS (150 × 4.6 mm id., 5 μm particle size) column was used for determination of concentration of Ketorolac. Ketorolac enantiomers were determined using Chiral-AGP column (100 × 4.0 mm I.D., particle size 5 μ, Chrom tech Ltd, Sweden). Detection was done at wavelength of 322 nm using an ultraviolet detector in the analytical system. Ketorolac enantiomers exhibit difference in their disposition in Wistar rats. In kidney, there was a significant difference in pharmacokinetic parameters. The Cmax was nearly 4 times and AUC 0-∞ was found to be more than double for S (-) Ketorolac than that of R (+) Ketorolac. MRT, Ke and t1/2 differ significantly in kidney. In liver, Cmax was found to be approximately 69% higher for S (-) Ketorolac compared to R (+) Ketorolac. AUC 0-∞ did not differ significantly for the enantiomers in liver. In liver, S (-) Ketorolac eliminated very fast in comparison to R (+) Ketorolac having t1/2 (one third) in comparison to R (+) Ketorolac. In lungs, there was no difference observed for Cmax and other parameters but AUC 0-∞ was found to be marginally higher for S (-) ketorolac. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  20. Optimization of Evans blue quantitation in limited rat tissue samples.

    PubMed

    Wang, Hwai-Lee; Lai, Ted Weita

    2014-10-10

    Evans blue dye (EBD) is an inert tracer that measures plasma volume in human subjects and vascular permeability in animal models. Quantitation of EBD can be difficult when dye concentration in the sample is limited, such as when extravasated dye is measured in the blood-brain barrier (BBB) intact brain. The procedure described here used a very small volume (30 µl) per sample replicate, which enabled high-throughput measurements of the EBD concentration based on a standard 96-well plate reader. First, ethanol ensured a consistent optic path length in each well and substantially enhanced the sensitivity of EBD fluorescence spectroscopy. Second, trichloroacetic acid (TCA) removed false-positive EBD measurements as a result of biological solutes and partially extracted EBD into the supernatant. Moreover, a 1:2 volume ratio of 50% TCA ([TCA final] = 33.3%) optimally extracted EBD from the rat plasma protein-EBD complex in vitro and in vivo, and 1:2 and 1:3 weight-volume ratios of 50% TCA optimally extracted extravasated EBD from the rat brain and liver, respectively, in vivo. This procedure is particularly useful in the detection of EBD extravasation into the BBB-intact brain, but it can also be applied to detect dye extravasation into tissues where vascular permeability is less limiting.

  1. Tissue distribution of lycopene in ferrets and rats after lycopene supplementation.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, A L; Yeum, K J; Liu, C; Smith, D; Krinsky, N I; Wang, X D; Russell, R M

    2000-05-01

    To determine lycopene uptake and tissue distribution in ferrets (Mustela putorius furo) and F344 rats, we supplemented orally 4.6 mg/(kg body wt.d) lycopene in a tomato oleoresin-corn oil mixture (experimental groups). After 9 wk of supplementation, the animals were killed and blood and organs were collected. Plasma and tissue carotenoids were extracted and measured using HPLC. Mean concentrations of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissues of ferrets were as follows: liver 933, intestine 73, prostate 12.7 and stomach 9.3. Levels of lycopene (nmol/kg wet tissue) in saponified tissue of rats were as follows: liver 14213, intestine 3125, stomach 78.6, prostate 24 and testis 3.9. When these organs were extracted without saponification, the lycopene levels were lower, except for rat testis. All-trans-lycopene was the predominant isomer found in tomato oleoresin and in the majority of rat tissues, whereas cis-lycopenes were predominant in rat prostate and plasma. This pattern was reversed in ferrets. The results show the following: 1) lycopene from tomato oleoresin is absorbed and stored primarily in the liver of both animals; 2) saponification generally improves the extraction of lycopene from most tissues of both animals; 3) cis-lycopene and all-trans-lycopene are the predominant isomers in ferret and rat tissues, respectively; and 4) rats absorb lycopene more effectively than ferrets.

  2. Refinement of Tissue-Engineering Chamber Implantation in the Rat.

    PubMed

    Medved, Fabian; Haas, Robert; Bösch, Cedric; Pronk, Roderick F; Fischborn, Till; Schaller, Hans-Eberhard; Weitgasser, Laurenz

    2017-04-01

    Rodent in vivo models that successfully generate new adipose, muscle, or vascular tissue in a tissue-engineering chamber (TEC) has advanced in the last decade. In this article, technical refinements in these operative foreign body implantations have been described to improve the execution of animal models in a way so that they can reduce wastage of time and resources. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were studied and randomly divided into two equal sized groups. In each group, a different operative procedure was used for implanting the TEC. Twenty animals were operated with diagonal incisions in the groin region, followed by staples for wound closure after TEC implantation. The remaining 20 animals received longitudinal incisions in the abdominal region followed by wound closure with ongoing intradermal nonresorbable sutures and skin glue. The outcome of both procedures with regard to complications, animal growth, and experimental failure was compared. Statistical analysis was performed using the nonparametric chi-squared (χ(2)) test. Significant difference in wound dehiscence was recorded in Group I as compared to Group II (p = 0.0001). Consequently, 55% of the experiments had to be aborted in Group I and the animals were removed from the experiment. On the contrary, in Group II, all the animals could be kept. Median longitudinal incisions and thorough wound closure with ongoing intradermal nonresorbable sutures, followed by application of skin glue, are strongly recommended to prevent surgical site complications, such as wound dehiscence, animal harm, and failure of the individual experiment.

  3. RATS: Rapid Automatic Tissue Segmentation in rodent brain MRI.

    PubMed

    Oguz, Ipek; Zhang, Honghai; Rumple, Ashley; Sonka, Milan

    2014-01-15

    High-field MRI is a popular technique for the study of rodent brains. These datasets, while similar to human brain MRI in many aspects, present unique image processing challenges. We address a very common preprocessing step, skull-stripping, which refers to the segmentation of the brain tissue from the image for further processing. While several methods exist for addressing this problem, they are computationally expensive and often require interactive post-processing by an expert to clean up poorly segmented areas. This further increases total processing time per subject. We propose a novel algorithm, based on grayscale mathematical morphology and LOGISMOS-based graph segmentation, which is rapid, robust and highly accurate. Comparative results obtained on two challenging in vivo datasets, consisting of 22 T1-weighted rat brain images and 10 T2-weighted mouse brain images illustrate the robustness and excellent performance of the proposed algorithm, in a fraction of the computational time needed by existing algorithms. In comparison to current state-of-the-art methods, our approach achieved average Dice similarity coefficient of 0.92 ± 0.02 and average Hausdorff distance of 13.6 ± 5.2 voxels (vs. 0.85 ± 0.20, p<0.05 and 42.6 ± 22.9, p < 0.001) for the rat dataset, and 0.96 ± 0.01 and average Hausdorff distance of 21.6 ± 12.7 voxels (vs. 0.93 ± 0.01, p <0.001 and 33.7 ± 3.5, p <0.001) for the mouse dataset. The proposed algorithm took approximately 90s per subject, compared to 10-20 min for the neural-network based method and 30-90 min for the atlas-based method. RATS is a robust and computationally efficient method for accurate rodent brain skull-stripping even in challenging data. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. The role of oxidative stress in diazinon-induced tissues toxicity in Wistar and Norway rats.

    PubMed

    Jafari, Mahvash; Salehi, Maryam; Ahmadi, Sediq; Asgari, Alireza; Abasnezhad, Maryam; Hajigholamali, Mansoure

    2012-10-01

    Diazinon (DZN) is an organophosphate pesticide widely used in agricultural to control insects and in veterinary medicine to control ectoparasites. This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the brain, heart, and spleen of Wistar and Norway rats treated with acute doses of DZN. Female Wistar and Norway rats were treated with 25, 50, 100, and 200 mg/kg of DZN by intraperitoneal injection. The animals were sacrificed 24 h after treatment, and tissues were isolated and analyzed. The result of this study shows that DZN at higher doses increased the level of malondialdehyde, superoxide dismutase and glutathione S-transferase activities and decreased glutathione (GSH) level, lactate dehydrogenase, and cholinesterase activities in the brain, heart, and spleen of both rat strains. At these concentrations, DZN toxicity also lead to a significant decrease in catalase (CAT) activity in all tissues of Wistar rat and brain of Norway rat, while it increased heart CAT activity in Norway rat. However, the alteration of these parameters was observed at lower doses of DZN in Wistar rat. These results suggest that DZN at higher doses induces the production of free radicals and oxidative stress in rat tissues and strains by alteration of antioxidant enzyme activity, depletion of GSH, and increasing lipid peroxidation. Induction of oxidative stress in DZN-treated rats is in the order of brain > heart > spleen. Wistar rats appear to be more sensitive to the effects of DZN on oxidative stress induction compared to Norway rat.

  5. Leptospira in breast tissue and milk of urban Norway rats (Rattus norvegicus).

    PubMed

    DE Oliveira, D; Figueira, C P; Zhan, L; Pertile, A C; Pedra, G G; Gusmão, I M; Wunder, E A; Rodrigues, G; Ramos, E A G; Ko, A I; Childs, J E; Reis, M G; Costa, F

    2016-08-01

    Leptospirosis is a zoonosis caused by bacteria of the genus Leptospira. The disease is globally distributed and a major public health concern. The Norway rat (Rattus norvegicus) is the main reservoir of the pathogen in urban slums of developing and developed countries. The potential routes of intra-specific leptospire transmission in rats are largely unknown. Herein, we identified pathogenic Leptospira spp. in breast tissue and milk of naturally infected rats. We examined kidney, breast tissue and milk from 24 lactating rats for the presence of leptospires using immunofluorescence, immunohistochemistry, polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and scanning electronic microscopy. All 24 rats had evidence for Leptospira in the kidneys, indicating chronic carriage. The majority of kidney-positive rats had detectable leptospires in milk (18, 75%) and breast tissue (16, 67%), as evidenced by immunofluorescence assay and immunohistochemistry. Four (17%) milk samples and two (8%) breast tissue samples were positive by quantitative real-time PCR. Scanning electron microscopy confirmed the presence of leptospires in breast tissue. No major pathological changes in breast tissue were found. This study, for the first time, identified leptospires in the milk and breast tissue of wild Norway rats, suggesting the possibility of milk-borne transmission of leptospirosis to neonates.

  6. Telomerase activity (TMA) in tumour and peritumoural tissues in a rat liver cancer model.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Huo-Jun; Yang, Ji-Jin; Tian, Jian-Ming; Wang, Pei-Jun; Shao, Cheng-Wei; Zuo, Chang-Jing; Zhang, Shun-Min; Gupta, Sanjay

    2009-02-01

    To study the levels of telomerase activity (TMA) in tumour and peritumoural tissues in a liver cancer model in rats, and to study the change in TMA expression over time. Using the telomeric repeated amplification protocol (TRAP), TMA was measured in tumour tissue, peritumoural tissue and normal liver tissue of Walker-256 tumour-bearing rats at 4, 6 and 8 days after tumour implantation. TMA at day 4, 6 and 8 was 0.767+/-0.117, 0.768+/-0.118 and 0.774+/-0.111 in tumour tissue, 0.389+/-0.263, 0.492+/-0.253 and 0.584+/-0.239 in peritumoural tissue, and 0.231+/-0.022, 0.229+/-0.022 and 0.233+/-0.021 in normal liver tissue, respectively. TMA in tumour tissue was higher than that in peri-tumour and normal liver tissues at all time points of measurement (P < 0.05). The TMA levels in tumour tissue and normal liver tissue did not show any change over time. TMA level in the peritumoural tissue increased with time; TMA level in animals sacrificed at day 8 was higher than that seen in animals sacrificed at day 4 (P < 0.05). TMA in walker-256 tumour-bearing rats was higher than that in normal and peritumoural tissues. TMA level in the peritumoural tissue increased with time suggesting that TMA activation in peritumoural tissue may be an important factor promoting tumour growth.

  7. Biodistribution of Etanercept to Tissues and Sites of Inflammation in Arthritic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Chen, Xi; DuBois, Debra C.; Almon, Richard R.

    2015-01-01

    Many monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) and other protein drugs have targets usually residing within tissues, making tissue concentrations of mAbs relevant to their pharmacologic effects. Therefore, knowledge of tissue distribution kinetics is important to better understand their pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. The tissue distribution of mAbs is affected by many physiologic factors that may be altered in disease status. In the present work, we studied the tissue distribution kinetics of the fusion protein etanercept in inflamed joint tissues and examined the impact of inflammation on the tissue distribution of etanercept. Etanercept concentration profiles in plasma, blister fluid, and different tissues were obtained from healthy and collagen-induced arthritic (CIA) rats by use of a fluorescence quantification method via IRDye800CW labeling. Stepwise minimal and full physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) approaches were applied to characterize the distribution kinetics of etanercept in tissues in healthy and diseased animals. Etanercept exhibited modest tissue access (tissue/plasma area under the concentration curve [AUC] ratios 0.03–0.15 and estimated tissue reflection coefficients [σ] of 0.6–1.0), but with good penetration into arthritic paws (tissue/plasma AUC ratio 0.23 and σ 0.36). Etanercept exposure in the inflamed paws of CIA rats was approximately 3-fold higher than in normal paws taken from either CIA or healthy rats (tissue/plasma AUC ratios 0.23 versus 0.07 and σ 0.36 versus 0.71). The tissue distribution kinetics of etanercept in arthritic paws were well characterized with PBPK modeling approaches. Etanercept shows good penetration to arthritic paws in CIA rats. Our study indicates that inflammation produced increased tissue distribution of etanercept in CIA rats. PMID:25834031

  8. Correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain exposed to hypoxia

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Uozumi, Yoichi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Ishihara, Miya; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2010-02-01

    Light scattering signal is a potential indicator of tissue viability in brain because cellular and subcellular structural integrity should be associated with cell viability in brain tissue. We previously performed multiwavelength diffuse reflectance measurement for a rat global ischemic brain model and observed a unique triphasic change in light scattering at a certain time after oxygen and glucose deprivation. This triphasic scattering change (TSC) was shown to precede cerebral ATP exhaustion, suggesting that loss of brain tissue viability can be predicted by detecting scattering signal. In the present study, we examined correlation between light scattering signal and tissue reversibility in rat brain in vivo. We performed transcranial diffuse reflectance measurement for rat brain; under spontaneous respiration, hypoxia was induced for the rat by nitrogen gas inhalation and reoxygenation was started at various time points. We observed a TSC, which started at 140 +/- 15 s after starting nitrogen gas inhalation (mean +/- SD, n=8). When reoxygenation was started before the TSC, all rats survived (n=7), while no rats survived when reoxygenation was started after the TSC (n=8). When reoxygenation was started during the TSC, rats survived probabilistically (n=31). Disability of motor function was not observed for the survived rats. These results indicate that TSC can be used as an indicator of loss of tissue reversibility in brains, providing useful information on the critical time zone for treatment to rescue the brain.

  9. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover.

    PubMed

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I E; Pedro, Liliana D; Powell, Jonathan J

    2015-06-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague-Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n=8-10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2-6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague-Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially lower than

  10. The decrease in silicon concentration of the connective tissues with age in rats is a marker of connective tissue turnover☆

    PubMed Central

    Jugdaohsingh, Ravin; Watson, Abigail I.E.; Pedro, Liliana D.; Powell, Jonathan J.

    2015-01-01

    Silicon may be important for bone and connective tissue health. Higher concentrations of silicon are suggested to be associated with bone and the connective tissues, compared with the non-connective soft tissues. Moreover, in connective tissues it has been suggested that silicon levels may decrease with age based upon analyses of human aorta. These claims, however, have not been tested under controlled conditions. Here connective and non-connective tissues were collected and analysed for silicon levels from female Sprague–Dawley rats of different ages (namely, 3, 5, 8, 12, 26 and 43 weeks; n = 8–10 per age group), all maintained on the same feed source and drinking water, and kept in the same environment from weaning to adulthood. Tissues (696 samples) were digested in nitric acid and analysed by inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry for total silicon content. Fasting serum samples were also collected, diluted and analysed for silicon. Higher concentrations of silicon (up to 50-fold) were found associated with bone and the connective tissues compared with the non-connective tissues. Although total silicon content increased with age in all tissues, the highest connective tissue silicon concentrations (up to 9.98 μg/g wet weight) were found in young weanling rats, decreasing thereafter with age (by 2–6 fold). Fasting serum silicon concentrations reflected the pattern of connective tissue silicon concentrations and, both measures, when compared to collagen data from a prior experiment in Sprague–Dawley rats, mirrored type I collagen turnover with age. Our findings confirm the link between silicon and connective tissues and would imply that young growing rats have proportionally higher requirements for dietary silicon than mature adults, for bone and connective tissue development, although this was not formally investigated here. However, estimation of total body silicon content suggested that actual Si requirements may be substantially

  11. MEETING AT BALTIMORE, MD: DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the tissue distribution and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, immature male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered environmentally relevant doses of (a) Aroclor 1254 or (b) an environmental mixture extracted from s...

  12. MEETING AT BALTIMORE, MD: DISTRIBUTION OF CHIRAL PCBS IN SELECTED TISSUES IN THE LABORATORY RAT

    EPA Science Inventory

    In order to investigate the tissue distribution and enantiomeric fractions (EFs) of Polychlorinated Biphenyl (PCB) atropisomers, immature male Sprague-Dawley rats were administered environmentally relevant doses of (a) Aroclor 1254 or (b) an environmental mixture extracted from s...

  13. Effect of chronic low-dose tadalafil on penile cavernous tissues in diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Mostafa, Mohamed E; Senbel, Amira M; Mostafa, Taymour

    2013-06-01

    To assess the effect of chronic low-dose administration of tadalafil (Td) on penile cavernous tissue in induced diabetic rats. The study investigaged 48 adult male albino rats, comprising a control group, sham controls, streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, and induced diabetic rats that received Td low-dose daily (0.09 mg/200 g weight) for 2 months. The rats were euthanized 1 day after the last dose. Cavernous tissues were subjected to histologic, immunohistochemical, morphometric studies, and measurement of intracavernosal pressure and mean arterial pressure in anesthetized rats. Diabetic rats demonstrated dilated cavernous spaces, smooth muscles with heterochromatic nuclei, degenerated mitochondria, vacuolated cytoplasm, and negative smooth muscle immunoreactivity. Nerve fibers demonstrated a thick myelin sheath and intra-axonal edema, where blood capillaries exhibited thick basement membrane. Diabetic rats on Td showed improved cavernous organization with significant morphometric increases in the area percentage of smooth muscles and elastic tissue and a significant decrease of fibrous tissue. The Td-treated group showed enhanced erectile function (intracavernosal pressure/mean arterial pressure) at 0.3, 0.5, 1, 3, and 5 Hz compared with diabetic group values at the respective frequencies (P <.05) that approached control values. Chronic low-dose administration of Td in diabetic rats is associated with substantial improvement of the structure of penile cavernous tissue, with increased smooth muscles and elastic tissue, decreased fibrous tissue, and functional enhancement of the erectile function. This raises the idea that the change in penile architecture with Td treatment improves erectile function beyond its half-life and its direct pharmacologic action on phosphodiesterase type 5. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Imaging analysis of platelet deposition on the extracardiac valved conduit in humans

    SciTech Connect

    Kawata, H.; Matsuda, H.; Isaka, Y.; Kaneko, M.; Matsuwaka, R.; Kobayashi, J.; Matsuki, O.; Nakano, S.; Kimura, K.; Kawashima, Y. )

    1989-07-01

    In 14 patients (aged 2-29 yr) with Hancock (n = 11) or Carpentier-Edwards extracardiac valved conduits (n = 3), platelet deposition (PD) was investigated using indium 111 ({sup 111}In) platelet imaging. Repeated studies were performed in five patients. By visual analysis, 71% (5/7) of the imagings (7 images/5 patients) showed PD at early study 1-3 months after surgery, 9% (1/11) at intermediate study at 6-46 months (mean 21 mon) (11 images/10 patients) and 0% at late study at 81-132 months (3 images/3 patients). Quantitative analysis was made using relative ratio of radioactivity at the graft area to the area of the brachiocephalic artery (platelet accumulation index or PAI). The PAI was 1.85 {plus minus} 0.47 (mean {plus minus} SD) at early study, 1.51 {plus minus} 0.23 at intermediate, and 1.36 {plus minus} 0.37 at late study (NS). There was no significant difference in the late pressure gradients across the conduit (16-68 mon postoperatively) between the two groups with (n = 3) and without (n = 5) PD at the early stage (1-18 mon postoperatively, n = 8). The result may indicate that PD to the valved conduit in the right ventricular (RV) outflow tract occurs early postoperatively (mostly within 3 mon). The relationship of the PD detected by this method to late obstruction was not clarified in this study.

  15. Direct gene delivery of human tissue kallikrein reduces blood pressure in spontaneously hypertensive rats.

    PubMed Central

    Wang, C; Chao, L; Chao, J

    1995-01-01

    Hypertension is a multigene and multifactorial disorder affecting approximately 25% of the population. To demonstrate potential therapeutic effects of human tissue kallikrein in hypertension, spontaneously hypertensive rats were subjected to somatic gene therapy. Two human tissue kallikrein DNA constructs, one under the promoter control of the metallothionein metal response element and the other under the control of the Rous sarcoma virus 3'-LTR, were generated. We delivered naked DNA constructs into spontaneously hypertensive rats via intravenous injection. The expression of human tissue kallikrein in rats was identified in the heart, lung, and kidney by reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction followed by Southern blot analysis and an ELISA specific for human tissue kallikrein. A single injection of both human kallikrein plasmid DNA constructs caused a sustained reduction of blood pressure which began 1 wk after injection and continued for 6 wk. A maximal effect of blood pressure reduction of 46 mmHg in rats was observed 2-3 wk after injection with kallikrein DNA as compared to rats with vector DNA (n = 6, P < 0.05). The hypotensive effect caused by somatic gene delivery of human tissue kallikrein in hypertensive rats is reversed by subcutaneous injection of aprotinin, a potent tissue kallikrein inhibitor. No antibodies to either human tissue kallikrein or kallikrein DNA were detected in rat sera after injection of the human kallikrein gene. These results show that direct gene delivery of human tissue kallikrein causes a sustained reduction in systolic blood pressure in genetically hypertensive rats and indicate that the feasibility of kallikrein gene therapy for treating human hypertension should be studied. Images PMID:7535795

  16. Effects of exposure to dietary chromium on tissue mineral contents in rats fed diets with fiber.

    PubMed

    Prescha, Anna; Krzysik, Monika; Zabłocka-Słowińska, Katarzyna; Grajeta, Halina

    2014-06-01

    This study evaluated the effects of diets with fiber (cellulose and/or pectin) supplemented with chromium(III) on homeostasis of selected minerals in femurs, thigh muscles, livers, and kidneys of rats. For 6 weeks, male rats were fed experimental diets: a fiber-free diet (FF), a diet containing 5% cellulose (CEL), 5% pectin (PEC), or 2.5% cellulose and 2.5% pectin (CEL+PEC). These diets had 2.53 or 0.164 mg Cr/kg diet. The tissue levels of Ca, Mg, Zn, Fe, and Cr were determined by using atomic absorption spectrometry. Supplementing diets with Cr resulted in significantly higher Cr levels in the femurs of rats fed the CEL diet and significantly higher Cr and Fe levels in the rats fed the CEL+PEC diet compared to the rats fed FF diet. Muscle Ca content was significantly lower in the rats fed the CEL+PEC+Cr diet compared to the rats fed FF+Cr diet. The rats consuming the PEC+Cr diet had the highest liver Cr content. The highest kidney Zn content was observed in the rats fed diets containing Cr and one type of fiber. These results indicate that diets containing chromium at elevated dose and fiber have a significant effect on the mineral balance in rat tissues.

  17. [Effect of peptide regulators on the structural and functional status of bone tissue in ageing rats].

    PubMed

    Povorozniuk, V V; Khavinson, V Kh; Makogonchuk, A V; Ryzhak, G A; Kreslov, E A; Gopkalova, I V

    2007-01-01

    The wide spread of osteoporosis in women in the post-menopausal period stipulates the need for new effective means of prevention and correction of pathologic alterations in the bone tissue. Effect of two peptide bioregulators: cartilages preparation based on the cartilaginous tissue extract and T-31 substance on the mineral density of rat bone tissue has been studied in the experimental model of osteoporosis. The study has revealed an osteoprotective effect of both studied substances, with significantly higher efficacy of the preparation based on cartilaginous tissue extract. The substances exerted both prophylactic effect on the status of the cartilaginous tissue, preventing the decrease of mineral density of the bone tissue in rats after ovariectomy, and corrective effect by increasing the bone tissue density, which was reduced as a result of ovariectomy.

  18. Effect of naturally mouldy wheat or fungi administration on metallothioneins level in brain tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Vasatkova, Anna; Krizova, Sarka; Krystofova, Olga; Adam, Vojtech; Zeman, Ladislav; Beklova, Miroslava; Kizek, Rene

    2009-01-01

    The aim of this study is to determine level of metallothioneins (MTs) in brain tissues of rats administered by feed mixtures with different content of mouldy wheat or fungi. Selected male laboratory rats of Wistar albino at age of 28 days were used in our experiments. The rats were administered by feed mixtures with different content of vitamins, naturally mouldy wheat or fungi for 28 days. At the very end of the experiment, the animals were put to death and brains were sampled. MT level was determined by differential pulse voltammetry Brdicka reaction. We found that MTs' level in brain tissues from rats administered by standard feed mixtures was significantly higher compared to the level of MTs in rats supplemented by vitamins. Further we studied the effect of supplementation of naturally mouldy wheat on MTs level in rats. In mouldy wheat we detected the presence of following fungi species: Mucor spp., Absidia spp., Penicillium spp., Aspergillus spp. and Fusarium spp. Moreover we also identified and quantified following mycotoxins - deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, T2-toxin and aflatoxins. Level of MTs determined in rats treated with 33 or 66% of mouldy wheat was significantly lower compared to control ones. On the other hand rats treated with 100% of mouldy wheat had less MTs but not significantly. Supplementation of vitamins to rats fed by mouldy wheat had adverse effect on MTs level compared to rats with no other supplementation by vitamins. Moreover vitamins supplementation has no effect on MTs level in brain tissues of rats treated or non-treated with Ganoderma lucidum L. Both mycotoxins and vitamins have considerable effect on level of MTs in brain tissues. It can be assumed that the administered substances markedly influence redox metabolism, which could negatively influence numerous biochemical pathways including those closely related with MTs.

  19. Angiotensinogen gene is expressed and differentially regulated in multiple tissues of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    Campbell, D J; Habener, J F

    1986-01-01

    To define the role of local synthesis of angiotensinogen in tissue angiotensin production, we have quantitated angiotensinogen messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in 17 different tissues of four groups of rats: control rats, nephrectomized rats, rats given dexamethasone, ethynylestradiol, and triiodothyronine, and nephrectomized rats given dexamethasone, ethynylestradiol, and triiodothyronine. Angiotensinogen mRNA was identified in 12 tissues: liver, kidney, brain, spinal cord, aorta, mesentery, atria, lung, adrenal, large intestine, stomach, and spleen. Angiotensinogen mRNA was not identified in pituitary, ventricle, testis, small intestine, or pancreas. When expressed per gram tissue wet weight, angiotensinogen mRNA levels of extrahepatic tissues were less than 4% of hepatic levels. However, when expressed per milligram total RNA, angiotensinogen mRNA levels of brain, spinal cord, aorta, and mesentery were 26-42% of hepatic levels. Regulation of angiotensinogen mRNA levels was tissue specific. This demonstration of a widespread tissue distribution of angiotensinogen mRNA may indicate a similarly widespread distribution of local angiotensin systems that are independent of the circulating renin-angiotensin system. Images PMID:3013940

  20. Resistant starch improves insulin resistance and reduces adipose tissue weight and CD11c expression in rat OLETF adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Harazaki, Tomomi; Inoue, Seiya; Imai, Chihiro; Mochizuki, Kazuki; Goda, Toshinao

    2014-05-01

    CD11s/CD18 dimers induce monocyte/macrophage infiltration into many tissues, including adipose tissues. In particular, it was reported that β2-integrin CD11c-positive macrophages in adipose tissues are closely associated with the development of insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine whether intake of resistant starch (RS) reduces macrophage accumulation in adipose tissues and inhibits the development of insulin resistance at an early stage in Otsuka Long-Evans Tokushima Fatty (OLETF) rats. Twenty-two-wk-old male OLETF rats were fed a control diet (55% α-corn starch) or an RS diet (55% RS) for 5 wk. An oral glucose tolerance test was performed after 4 wk of feeding; tissues (mesenteric and epididymal adipose tissues, and liver) and tail vein blood were collected after 5 wk of feeding the test diets. Feeding the RS diet to OLETF rats for 5 wk improved insulin resistance, reduced the mesenteric adipose tissue weight, and enhanced the number of small adipocytes. CD68 expression, a macrophage infiltration marker, was not changed by the RS diet, whereas the gene expression levels of integrins such as CD11c, CD11d, and CD18, but not CD11a, and CD11b, were significantly reduced. CD11c protein expression was reduced by the RS diet. These findings suggest that part of the mechanism for the improved insulin resistance by the RS diet involves a reduction of CD11c expression in adipose tissues. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Macrophages Undergo M1-to-M2 Transition in Adipose Tissue Regeneration in a Rat Tissue Engineering Model.

    PubMed

    Li, Zhijin; Xu, Fangfang; Wang, Zhifa; Dai, Taiqiang; Ma, Chao; Liu, Bin; Liu, Yanpu

    2016-10-01

    Macrophages are involved in the full processes of tissue healing or regeneration and play an important role in the regeneration of a variety of tissues. Although recent evidence suggests the role of different macrophage phenotypes in adipose tissue expansion, metabolism, and remodeling, the spectrum of macrophage phenotype in the adipose tissue engineering field remains unknown. The present study established a rat model of adipose tissue regeneration using a tissue engineering chamber. Macrophage phenotypes were assessed during the regenerative process in the model. Neo-adipose tissue was generated 6 weeks after implantation. Macrophages were obvious in the chamber constructs 3 days after implantation, peaked at day 7, and significantly decreased thereafter. At day 3, macrophages were predominantly M1 macrophages (CCR7+), and there were few M2 macrophages (CD206+). At day 7, the percentage of M2 macrophages significantly increased and remained stable at day 14. M2 macrophages became the predominant macrophage population at 42 days. Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay demonstrated transition of cytokines from pro-inflammatory to anti-inflammatory, which was consistent with the transition of macrophage phenotype from M1 to M2. These results showed distinct transition of macrophage phenotypes from a pro-inflammatory M1 phenotype to an anti-inflammatory M2 in adipose tissue regeneration in our tissue engineering model. This study provides new insight into macrophage phenotype transition in the regeneration of adipose tissue.

  2. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex inhibits periodontal tissue loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis

    PubMed Central

    Dundar, Serkan; Eltas, Abubekir; Hakki, Sema S; Malkoc, Sıddık; Uslu, M Ozay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Komorowski, James; Ozercan, I Hanifi; Akdemir, Fatih; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower in rats fed a diet containing ASI complex after experimental periodontitis. These results indicate that ASI complex could be an alternative agent for host modulation. PMID:27895467

  3. Effect of insulin on in vivo glucose utilization in individual tissues of anesthetized lactating rats

    SciTech Connect

    Burnol, A.F.; Ferre, P.; Leturque, A.; Girard, J.

    1987-02-01

    Glucose utilization rate has been measured in skeletal muscles, white adipose tissue, and mammary gland of anesthetized nonlactating and lactating rats. During lactation, basal (1-TH) glucose utilization is decreased by 40% in periovarian white adipose tissue and by 65% in epitrochlearis and extensor digitorum longus but not in soleus muscle. This may be related to the lower blood glucose and plasma insulin concentrations observed during lactation. Basal glucose utilization rate in the mammary gland was, respectively, 18 +/- 2 and 350 +/- 50 g/min in nonlactating and lactating rats. During the euglycemic hyperinsulinemic clamp, a physiological increment in plasma insulin concentration induces a similar increase in glucose utilization rate in skeletal muscles and white adipose tissue in the two groups of rats. Furthermore this low increase in plasma insulin concentration does not alter mammary glucose utilization rate in nonlactating rats but induces the same increase as a maximal insulin concentration in lactating rats. These data show that the active mammary gland is the most insulin-sensitive tissue of the lactating rat that has been tested. The overall increase in insulin sensitivity and responsiveness that has been described in lactating rats can then mainly be attributed to the presence of the active mammary gland. Plasma insulin was determined by radioimmunoassay.

  4. Dietary arginine silicate inositol complex inhibits periodontal tissue loss in rats with ligature-induced periodontitis.

    PubMed

    Dundar, Serkan; Eltas, Abubekir; Hakki, Sema S; Malkoc, Sıddık; Uslu, M Ozay; Tuzcu, Mehmet; Komorowski, James; Ozercan, I Hanifi; Akdemir, Fatih; Sahin, Kazim

    2016-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to induce experimental periodontitis in rats previously fed diets containing arginine silicate inositol (ASI) complex and examine the biochemical, immunological, and radiological effects. Fifty two 8-week-old female Sprague Dawley rats were equally divided into four groups. The control group included those fed a standard rat diet with no operation performed during the experiment. The periodontitis, ASI I, and ASI II groups were subjected to experimental periodontitis induction for 11 days after being fed a standard rat diet alone, a diet containing 1.81 g/kg ASI complex, or a diet containing 3.62 g/kg ASI complex, respectively, for 8 weeks. Throughout the 11-day duration of periodontitis induction, all rats were fed standard feed. The rats were euthanized on the eleventh day, and their tissue and blood samples were collected. In the periodontitis group, elevated tissue destruction parameters and reduced tissue formation parameters were found, as compared to the ASI groups. Levels of enzymes, cytokines, and mediators associated with periodontal tissue destruction were lower in rats fed a diet containing ASI complex after experimental periodontitis. These results indicate that ASI complex could be an alternative agent for host modulation.

  5. Effects of running training on in vitro brown adipose tissue thermogenesis in rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Nozu, Tsukasa; Kikuchi, Kazue; Ogawa, Koji; Kuroshima, Akihiro

    1992-06-01

    Brown adipose tissue (BAT) is a major site of nonshivering thermogenesis (NST) during cold acclimation for most mammals. Repetitive nonthermal stress such as immobilization has been shown to enhance the capacity of NST as cold acclimation. In the present study, the effects of running training, another type of nonthermal stress, were investigated on in vitro thermogenesis and the cellularity of interscapular BAT in rats. The rats were subjected to treadmill running for 30 min daily at 30 m/min under 8° inclination for 4 5 weeks. In vitro thermogenesis was then measured in minced tissue blocks incubated in a Krebs-Ringer phosphate buffer containing glucose and albumin at 37° C, using a Clark type oxygen electrode. The trained rats showed less body weight gain during the experiment. The weights of BAT and epididymal white adipose tissue were smaller in the trained rats. Noradrenaline- and glucagon-stimulated oxygen consumption were also significantly smaller in the trained rats. The tissue DNA level was greater in the trained rats, but the DNA content per tissue pad did not significantly differ. The results indicate that running training reduces BAT thermogenesis, possibly as an adaptation to conserve energy substrates for physical work.

  6. Estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats: can resistance training re-establish angiogenesis in visceral adipose tissue?

    PubMed

    do Valle Gomes-Gatto, Camila; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2016-09-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on angiogenesis markers of visceral adipose tissue in ovariectomized rats. Adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group): sham-sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-resistance training and ovariectomized resistance training. The rats were allowed to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails and the weights were progressively increased. Sessions were performed three times per week for 10 weeks. Visceral adipose tissue angiogenesis and morphology were analyzed by histology. VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. Ovariectomy resulted in higher body mass (p=0.0003), adipocyte hypertrophy (p=0.0003), decreased VEGF-A mRNA (p=0.0004) and protein levels (p=0.0009), and decreased micro-vascular density (p=0.0181) in the visceral adipose tissue of the rats. Resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to attenuate the reduced angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of the ovariectomized rats. Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study could not ameliorate low angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats.

  7. Estrogen deficiency in ovariectomized rats: can resistance training re-establish angiogenesis in visceral adipose tissue?

    PubMed Central

    do Valle Gomes-Gatto, Camila; Duarte, Fernanda Oliveira; Stotzer, Uliana Sbeguen; Rodrigues, Maria Fernanda Cury; de Andrade Perez, Sérgio Eduardo; Selistre-de-Araujo, Heloisa Sobreiro

    2016-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of resistance training on angiogenesis markers of visceral adipose tissue in ovariectomized rats. METHOD: Adult Sprague-Dawley female rats were divided into four groups (n=6 per group): sham-sedentary, ovariectomized sedentary, sham-resistance training and ovariectomized resistance training. The rats were allowed to climb a 1.1-m vertical ladder with weights attached to their tails and the weights were progressively increased. Sessions were performed three times per week for 10 weeks. Visceral adipose tissue angiogenesis and morphology were analyzed by histology. VEGF-A mRNA and protein levels were analyzed by real-time PCR and ELISA, respectively. RESULTS: Ovariectomy resulted in higher body mass (p=0.0003), adipocyte hypertrophy (p=0.0003), decreased VEGF-A mRNA (p=0.0004) and protein levels (p=0.0009), and decreased micro-vascular density (p=0.0181) in the visceral adipose tissue of the rats. Resistance training for 10 weeks was not able to attenuate the reduced angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of the ovariectomized rats. CONCLUSION: Our findings indicate that the resistance training program used in this study could not ameliorate low angiogenesis in the visceral adipose tissue of ovariectomized rats. PMID:27652835

  8. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-936 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; Praslická, M

    1982-01-01

    The content of triglycerides, total cholesterol, phospholipids and nonesterified fatty acids was measured in plasma and tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days on Cosmos-936 in the weightless and centrifuged state. The weightlessness exposure increased lipid fractions in plasma and tissues, and artificial gravity produced a beneficial effect.

  9. Changes of gas metabolism, gas homeostasis and tissue respiration in rats during prolonged hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Popkov, V. L.; Mailyan, E. S.; Galushko, Y. S.; Kovalenko, Y. A.; Zaytseva, Y. I.; Nitochkina, I. A.; Stulova, L. V.; Ryazhskiy, A. F.

    1979-01-01

    The oxygen uptake and tissue gas homeostasis of restrained albinic rats remained relatively constant during a 60 day experiment. The gas metabolism in some tissues changed, and O2 consumption increased in the liver and decreased in the myocardium. Capacity for physical work was reduced by five times. Hypokinesia for 60 days resulted in a delay in the animals growth.

  10. Locomotor activity and tissues levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats

    EPA Pesticide Factsheets

    raw motor activity counts and tissue levelsThis dataset is associated with the following publication:Moser, G., Z. Liu, C. Schlosser, T. Spanogle, A. Chandrasekaran, and K. Mcdaniel. Locomotor activity and tissue levels following acute administration of lambda- and gamma-cyhalothrin in rats. TOXICOLOGY AND APPLIED PHARMACOLOGY. Academic Press Incorporated, Orlando, FL, USA, 313: 97-103, (2016).

  11. Effect of urinary excretion on the bladder tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones in rats.

    PubMed

    Izawa, Shigeru; Yamaoka, Makiko; Deguchi, Takashi

    2015-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate which of blood or urine has the greater effect on bladder tissue concentrations of fluoroquinolones important for the treatment of urinary tract infections by measuring concentrations of fluoroquinolones in the vesical tissue (chemically and immunohistochemically) and intravesical space (chemically). Thirty-minute incubation of isolated rat bladders with fluoroquinolones showed only a 1.9-fold difference in transferability among norfloxacin, levofloxacin, ciprofloxacin and sparfloxacin. Intravesical instillation of norfloxacin and sparfloxacin in rats yielded similar vesical tissue distributions. Thus, there were no large differences in vesical tissue transfer among the four fluoroquinolones. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin (high urinary excretion-type) and sparfloxacin (low urinary excretion-type) at 1 h after a single oral dose (10 mg/kg) to rats were 15.4 and 1.3, respectively. The bladder tissue/plasma concentration ratios of norfloxacin after an intravenous injection (10 mg/kg) to ureter-catheterized and sham-operated rats were 1.36 and 57.8. Thus the bladder tissue distribution was significantly higher in the urine-exposed bladder. Immunohistochemical examination of the vesical tissue localization of norfloxacin in rats given a single intravenous dose revealed the presence of the drug-positive image in the cytoplasm of surface layer cells (both in umbrella and cover cells) of the bladder transitional epithelium. In conclusion, the results suggest that norfloxacin and other fluoroquinolones are excreted into urine and then transferred to the surface layer of the bladder transitional epithelium. Therefore, the urine levels have a greater effect on the vesicle tissue distribution of fluoroquinolones than the plasma levels in rats. Copyright © 2015 Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Identification and partial characterization of a prolactin-like hormone produced by rat decidual tissue.

    PubMed Central

    Jayatilak, P G; Glaser, L A; Basuray, R; Kelly, P A; Gibori, G

    1985-01-01

    Previous studies have strongly, but indirectly, suggested that rat decidual tissue produces a prolactin-like hormone, decidual luteotropin, which markedly affects luteal cell function. However, it was also found that extracts of decidual tissue do not cross-react with antisera to either rat or ovine prolactin (PRL). The purpose of this study was to determine whether the decidual tissue contains a substance that binds to PRL receptors in rat luteal membranes and, if so, to identify, quantitate, and characterize this molecule with the use of an ovarian radioreceptor assay. Decidual tissue was induced in day 5 pseudopregnant rats by scratching the antimesometrial wall of the uterus; it was collected on day 9 and homogenized and extracted. Decidual tissue extracts bound specifically to ovarian PRL receptors. Graded dilutions of the extracts yielded curves that were parallel to the ovine PRL standard, indicating that decidual luteotropin competes for the same receptor sites on rat luteal membranes. To determine the levels of decidual luteotropin throughout pseudopregnancy, decidual tissue was obtained on each day between days 6-12. The PRL-like activity was detectable in decidual tissue as early as day 6, reached a maximum on day 9, and declined thereafter. The elution profile obtained from gel filtration of a day 9 decidual tissue extract displayed a major component of decidual luteotropin eluting at a Ve/Vo ratio of approximately equal to 2.0. Column chromatography indicated that decidual luteotropin corresponds to a protein with a molecular weight of 23,500. The hormone was heat labile, digestible by trypsin, and appears to contain disulfide linkages. In summary, this study reports the identification, quantitation, and partial characterization of a PRL-like hormone produced by the decidual tissue of the rat. Images PMID:2982145

  13. JNK and IKKβ phosphorylation is reduced by glucocorticoids in adipose tissue from insulin-resistant rats.

    PubMed

    Motta, Katia; Barbosa, Amanda Marreiro; Bobinski, Franciane; Boschero, Antonio Carlos; Rafacho, Alex

    2015-01-01

    Peripheral insulin resistance (IR) is one of the main side effects caused by glucocorticoid (GC)-based therapies, and the molecular mechanisms of GC-induced IR are not yet fully elucidated. Thus, we aimed to investigate the effects of dexamethasone treatment on the main components of insulin and inflammatory signaling in the adipose tissue of rats. Male Wistar rats received daily injections of dexamethasone (1mg/kg body weight (b.w.), intraperitoneally (i.p.)) for 5 days (DEX), whereas control rats received saline (CTL). The metabolic status was investigated, and the epididymal fat fragments were collected for lipolysis and western blot analyses. The DEX rats became hyperglycemic, hyperinsulinemic, insulin resistant and glucose intolerant, compared with the CTL rats (P<0.05). The basal glycerol release in the fat fragments was 1.5-fold higher in the DEX rats (P<0.05). The phosphorylation of protein kinase B (PKB) at ser(473) decreased by 44%, whereas, the phosphorylation of insulin receptor substrate (IRS)-1 at ser(307) increased by 93% in the adipose tissue of the DEX rats after an oral bolus of glucose (P<0.05). The basal phosphorylation of c-jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK) and inhibitor of nuclear factor kappa-B (IKKβ) proteins was reduced by 46% and 58%, respectively, in the adipose tissue of the DEX rats (P<0.05). This was paralleled with a significant reduction (47%) in the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) protein content in the adipose tissue of the DEX rats (P<0.05). The insulin-resistant status of rats induced by dexamethasone administration have PKB and IRS-1 activity attenuated in epididymal fat without increases in the phosphorylation of the proinflammatory signals JNK and IKKβ. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats

    PubMed Central

    Tahaei, Leila Sadat; Eimani, Hussein; Hajmusa, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Rouhollah; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak

    2015-01-01

    Background This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2) levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. Results The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97%) and female (24.14%) rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%). Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5%) and female (19.49%) transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%). Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0%) and female (0.06 ± 0.0%) rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0%) rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05). Conclusion Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development. PMID:26644859

  15. Follicle Development of Xenotransplanted Sheep Ovarian Tissue into Male and Female Immunodeficient Rats.

    PubMed

    Tahaei, Leila Sadat; Eimani, Hussein; Hajmusa, Ghazaleh; Fathi, Rouhollah; Rezazadeh Valojerdi, Mojtaba; Shahverdi, Abdolhossein; Eftekhari-Yazdi, Poopak

    2015-01-01

    This study aimed to assess follicle survival after xenotransplantation of sheep ovarian tissue into male and female immunodeficient rats. We evaluated the effects of gonadotropin treatment on follicular development in the transplanted tissue. In this experimental study, sheep ovarian cortical strips were transplanted into the neck back muscles of 8 male and 8 female immunodeficient, castrated rats. Fourteen days after surgery, each rat was treated with human menopausal gonadotropin (hMG) for 9 weeks. One day after the last injection, ovarian tissues were removed and fixed for histology assessment. Histology analyses were performed before and after grafting. Estradiol (E2) levels were measured before and after gonadectomy, and at the end of the experiment. The control group consisted of 7 male and 7 female noncastrated/non-grafted rats and the sham group comprised 7 male and 7 female castrated/ non-grafted rats for comparison of serum E2 concentrations. The percentage of primordial follicles decreased after transplantation in male (25.97%) and female (24.14%) rats compared to the control group (ovarian tissue nongrafted; 37.51%). Preantral follicles increased in the male (19.5%) and female (19.49%) transplanted rats compared to the control group (11.4%). Differences in antral follicles between male (0.06 ± 0.0%) and female (0.06 ± 0.0%) rats were not noticeable compared to control (1.25 ± 0.0%) rats. We observed a significantly higher percent of mean E2 secretion in grafted males compared to grafted females (P˂0.05). Despite significant differences in E2 secretion between xenografted male and female rats, we observed no statistical differences in terms of follicular development.

  16. Dietary magnesium intake alters age-related changes in rat adipose tissue cellularity.

    PubMed

    Devaux, Sylvie; Adrian, Markus; Laurant, Pascal; Berthelot, Alain; Quignard-Boulangé, Annie

    2016-04-01

    Obesity and related metabolic diseases are associated with increased risk of cardiovascular disease. We have previously shown the beneficial effects of dietary magnesium (Mg) supplementation on cardiovascular disease in rats. Therefore, we aimed to examine the effect of an Mg-deficient or supplemented diet on adipose tissue cellularity changes during aging, and on blood pressure (BP), in rats. Male rats received for one (young adult) or 22 months (old), an Mg-deficient (Def) (150 mg/kg), standard (Std) (800 mg/kg) or Mg-supplemented (Sup) (3200 mg/kg) diet. Adipose tissue development and cellularity, BP and leptinemia were evaluated. In rats fed a standard diet, the large increase in adipose tissue weight observed during aging was related to an increase in both size and number of adipocytes. In young adult rats, although adiposity was unchanged, Mg supplementation resulted in a shift of the frequency distribution of adipocytes toward greater sizes, adipose cell weight increasing by 62%. Mg deficiency did not modify adipocyte size, but increased their number (30% more than for the standard or Sup-diet). In old rats, the Def-diet led to relative adipocyte hypotrophy, which was counterbalanced by an increase in the number of adipocyte. Conversely, adipocyte size and number were similar in the Sup-diet and standard diet-fed rats. BP was modified in old rats according to dietary Mg, whereas it remained unchanged young adult rats regardless of the diet received. This study suggests that Mg intake may affect age-related changes in rat adipose tissue lipid storage capacity.

  17. Testosterone uptake by prostatic tissue from young and old rats.

    PubMed

    Ghanadian, R; Fotherby, K

    1975-01-01

    The uptake of [3H]-testosterone in vitro by the ventral lobe of the prostate of rats more than 11 months old was significantly less than that of rats 4-5 weeks old. There were significant decreases between young and old rats in the RNA and DNA content of the prostate but not in the activity of acid or alkaline phosphatases. Alkaline phosphatase activity was higher than that of acid phosphatase. Testosterone uptake by the prostate was higher in culture medium TC199 than in Krebs-Ringer buffer solution.

  18. Evaluation of a novel Y-shaped extracardiac Fontan baffle using computational fluid dynamics.

    PubMed

    Marsden, Alison L; Bernstein, Adam J; Reddy, V Mohan; Shadden, Shawn C; Spilker, Ryan L; Chan, Frandics P; Taylor, Charles A; Feinstein, Jeffrey A

    2009-02-01

    The objective of this work is to evaluate the hemodynamic performance of a new Y-graft modification of the extracardiac conduit Fontan operation. The performance of the Y-graft design is compared to two designs used in current practice: a t-junction connection of the venae cavae and an offset between the inferior and superior venae cavae. The proposed design replaces the current tube grafts used to connect the inferior vena cava to the pulmonary arteries with a Y-shaped graft. Y-graft hemodynamics were evaluated at rest and during exercise with a patient-specific model from magnetic resonance imaging data together with computational fluid dynamics. Four clinically motivated performance measures were examined: Fontan pressures, energy efficiency, inferior vena cava flow distribution, and wall shear stress. Two variants of the Y-graft were evaluated: an "off-the-shelf" graft with 9-mm branches and an "area-preserving" graft with 12-mm branches. Energy efficiency of the 12-mm Y-graft was higher than all other models at rest and during exercise, and the reduction in efficiency from rest to exercise was improved by 38%. Both Y-graft designs reduced superior vena cava pressures during exercise by as much as 5 mm Hg. The Y-graft more equally distributed the inferior vena cava flow to both lungs, whereas the offset design skewed 70% of the flow to the left lung. The 12-mm graft resulted in slightly larger regions of low wall shear stress than other models; however, minimum shear stress values were similar. The area-preserving 12-mm Y-graft is a promising modification of the Fontan procedure that should be clinically evaluated. Further work is needed to correlate our performance metrics with clinical outcomes, including exercise intolerance, incidence of protein-losing enteropathy, and thrombus formation.

  19. Impact of extracardiac findings during cardiac MR on patient management and outcome.

    PubMed

    Dunet, Vincent; Barras, Heloise; Boulanger, Xavier; Monney, Pierre; Qanadli, Salah D; Meuli, Reto; Schwitter, Juerg; Beigelman-Aubry, Catherine

    2015-05-06

    Cardiac magnetic resonance (CMR) is increasingly used to assess heart diseases. Relevant non-cardiac diseases may also be incidentally found on CMR images. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence and nature of incidental extra-cardiac findings (IEF) and their clinical impact in non-selected patients referred for CMR. MR images of 762 consecutive patients (515 men, age: 56±18 years) referred for CMR were prospectively interpreted by 2 radiologists blinded for any previous imaging study. IEFs were classified as major when requiring treatment, follow-up, or further investigation. Clinical follow-up was performed by checking hospital information records and by calling referring physicians. The 2 endpoints were: 1) non-cardiac death and new treatment related to major IEFs, and 2) hospitalization related to major IEFs during follow-up. Major IEFs were proven in 129 patients (18.6% of the study population), 14% of those being unknown before CMR. During 15±6 month follow-up, treatment of confirmed major IEFs was initiated in 1.4%, and no non-cardiac deaths occurred. Hospitalization occurred in 8 patients (1.0% of the study population) with confirmed major IEFs and none occurred in the remaining 110 patients with unconfirmed/unexplored major IEFs (p<0.001). Screening for major IEFs in a population referred for routine CMR changed management in 1.4% of patients. Major IEFs unknown before CMR but without further exploration, however, carried a favorable prognosis over a follow-up period of 15 months.

  20. Prognostic value of extracardiac incidental findings on attenuation correction cardiac computed tomography.

    PubMed

    Qureshi, Waqas T; Alirhayim, Zaid; Khalid, Fatima; Al-Mallah, Mouaz H

    2016-12-01

    Attenuation corrected computed tomography (CTAC) is often performed to improve the specificity of single-photon emission tomography imaging. Extracardiac incidental findings are frequently observed. It is unclear whether these findings have any prognostic value. Consecutive patients (n = 1139) at a tertiary care center were retrospectively evaluated for incidental findings on CTAC. Clinically significant incidental findings were defined as findings warranting physician follow-up. Information regarding subsequent resource utilization was obtained by chart review. Cox proportional hazard model adjusted for demographic and clinical variables was used to evaluate association of these incidental findings with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality. A total of 135 (12%) patients with incidental findings were identified, 83 of whom (68%) were newly diagnosed. Lung nodules were the most common finding, present in 92 (68%) patients. Over a median follow-up of 468 days, incidental findings were not significantly associated with increased risk of all-cause mortality (HR 1.34; 95% CI 0.77-2.33, P = 0.29) but was significantly associated with cancer-specific mortality (HR 3.21; 95% CI 1.26-8.14, P = 0.01). This association remained statistically significant when the analysis was limited to newly diagnosed incidental findings. Among patients with incidental findings, follow-up radiographic studies were conducted in 87%, and invasive procedures performed in 32%. Physician office-based follow-up of these findings occurred in 42% of patients and incidental finding-related hospitalization occurred in 14%. This study shows that incidental findings are common and were associated with all-cause and cancer-specific mortality but only the later remained statistically significant after multivariable adjustment.

  1. Rare DNA copy number variants in cardiovascular malformations with extracardiac abnormalities

    PubMed Central

    Lalani, Seema R; Shaw, Chad; Wang, Xueqing; Patel, Ankita; Patterson, Lance W; Kolodziejska, Katarzyna; Szafranski, Przemyslaw; Ou, Zhishuo; Tian, Qi; Kang, Sung-Hae L; Jinnah, Amina; Ali, Sophia; Malik, Aamir; Hixson, Patricia; Potocki, Lorraine; Lupski, James R; Stankiewicz, Pawel; Bacino, Carlos A; Dawson, Brian; Beaudet, Arthur L; Boricha, Fatima M; Whittaker, Runako; Li, Chumei; Ware, Stephanie M; Cheung, Sau Wai; Penny, Daniel J; Jefferies, John Lynn; Belmont, John W

    2013-01-01

    Clinically significant cardiovascular malformations (CVMs) occur in 5–8 per 1000 live births. Recurrent copy number variations (CNVs) are among the known causes of syndromic CVMs, accounting for an important fraction of cases. We hypothesized that many additional rare CNVs also cause CVMs and can be detected in patients with CVMs plus extracardiac anomalies (ECAs). Through a genome-wide survey of 203 subjects with CVMs and ECAs, we identified 55 CNVs >50 kb in length that were not present in children without known cardiovascular defects (n=872). Sixteen unique CNVs overlapping these variants were found in an independent CVM plus ECA cohort (n=511), which were not observed in 2011 controls. The study identified 12/16 (75%) novel loci including non-recurrent de novo 16q24.3 loss (4/714) and de novo 2q31.3q32.1 loss encompassing PPP1R1C and PDE1A (2/714). The study also narrowed critical intervals in three well-recognized genomic disorders of CVM, such as the cat-eye syndrome region on 22q11.1, 8p23.1 loss encompassing GATA4 and SOX7 and 17p13.3-p13.2 loss. An analysis of protein-interaction databases shows that the rare inherited and de novo CNVs detected in the combined cohort are enriched for genes encoding proteins that are direct or indirect partners of proteins known to be required for normal cardiac development. Our findings implicate rare variants such as 16q24.3 loss and 2q31.3-q32.1 loss, and delineate regions within previously reported structural variants known to cause CVMs. PMID:22929023

  2. Stenting the Fontan pathway in paediatric patients with obstructed extracardiac conduits.

    PubMed

    Udink Ten Cate, Floris E A; Trieschmann, Uwe; Germund, Ingo; Hannes, Tobias; Emmel, Mathias; Bennink, Gerardus; Sreeram, Narayanswami

    2017-07-01

    An unobstructed extracardiac conduit (ECC) is essential for optimal Fontan haemodynamics. We aimed to evaluate the feasibility and results of percutaneous transcatheter stenting of the ECC in paediatric patients with a significant Fontan pathway obstruction. Our institutional database was searched to identify all Fontan patients who had a stent placed in their ECC. Medical records, cardiac catheterisation data and echocardiographic investigations were reviewed. Vessel diameters were normalised to account for differences in body surface area. Nineteen Fontan patients (age 6.5±3.2 years; male 78.9%) with a significant stenosis of their Dacron ECC graft were identified. Seven patients presented with protein-losing enteropathy (36.8%). An ECC obstruction was suspected on echocardiography in only 6/19 patients (31.6%). The mean minimum diameter of the ECC was 8.3±2.4 mm. A stenosis of >45% was seen in the majority of patients (n=12, 63.1%). Significant correlations between the severity of the ECC obstruction and Fontan pathway vessel diameters were found (all p<0.05). Stenting was successful in all children. The ECC diameter increased significantly after stenting (p<0.0001). An acute clinical benefit of ECC stenting was observed in 18/19 (94.7%) patients. ECC patency was good during a mean follow-up of 1.8±0.9 years. The feasibility and acute results of percutaneous transcatheter ECC stenting are promising and may provide a good alternative to postpone surgery to a later age. The mechanisms contributing to the development of ECC stenoses are likely multifactorial. © Article author(s) (or their employer(s) unless otherwise stated in the text of the article) 2017. All rights reserved. No commercial use is permitted unless otherwise expressly granted.

  3. Cryopreserved human amniotic membrane for soft tissue repair in rats.

    PubMed

    Kesting, Marco Rainer; Loeffelbein, Denys John; Steinstraesser, Lars; Muecke, Thomas; Demtroeder, Cedric; Sommerer, Florian; Hoelzle, Frank; Wolff, Klaus-Dietrich

    2008-06-01

    Fresh amniotic membrane has been used in medicine since 1910. The reconstruction of immunologic privileged ocular surfaces with cryopreserved amniotic membrane was introduced in the 1990s. The aim of this study was to analyze the use of cryopreserved human amniotic membrane (HAM) as a surgical patch in immunologic unprivileged anatomic sites. In part I of the investigation, the abdominal wall muscle of 36 rats was covered with mono- and multilayered HAM. After 3, 14, and 28 days, respectively, these grafts were evaluated macro- and microscopically. Multilayer samples displayed slower degradation and less inflammation compared with monolayer coverage. In part II of the study, abdominal wall closure with multilayer HAM and with polypropylene mesh was conducted in 20 rats. All rats showed sufficient closure after 21 days, but significantly lower intraabdominal adhesion formation was observed in the HAM rats. The results of this study might pave the way for the use of cryopreserved HAM as graft material in reconstructive surgery.

  4. Observations on Preadipocytes and Their Distribution Patterns in Rat Adipose Tissue

    DTIC Science & Technology

    1981-01-01

    enzyme lipoprotein lipase (Hietanen and viously (Stiles et al., 󈨏) in rat adipose tissue Greenwood, 󈨑). Exercise training initiated and suggest that...Huston, C.G. Plopper, and A.L. Hecker increased hormone sensitivity during in vitro adipocyte (1975) Adipose tissue cellularity and lipolysis : Response to... adipose tissue developing into adipocytes. J. Usuku, G., K. Iyama, and K. Ohzono (1978) Ultrastructural Lipid Res., 19: 316-324. studies on the white

  5. Implanted depleted uranium fragments cause soft tissue sarcomas in the muscles of rats.

    PubMed Central

    Hahn, Fletcher F; Guilmette, Raymond A; Hoover, Mark D

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we determined the carcinogenicity of depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments containing 0.75% titanium in muscle tissues of rats. The results have important implications for the medical management of Gulf War veterans who were wounded with DU fragments and who retain fragments in their soft tissues. We compared the tissue reactions in rats to the carcinogenicity of a tantalum metal (Ta), as a negative foreign-body control, and to a colloidal suspension of radioactive thorium dioxide ((232)Th), Thorotrast, as a positive radioactive control. DU was surgically implanted in the thigh muscles of male Wistar rats as four squares (2.5 x 2.5 x 1.5 mm or 5.0 x 5.0 x 1.5 mm) or four pellets (2.0 x 1.0 mm diameter) per rat. Ta was similarly implanted as four squares (5.0 x 5.0 x 1.1 mm) per rat. Thorotrast was injected at two sites in the thigh muscles of each rat. Control rats had only a surgical implantation procedure. Each treatment group included 50 rats. A connective tissue capsule formed around the metal implants, but not around the Thorotrast. Radiographs demonstrated corrosion of the DU implants shortly after implantation. At later times, rarifactions in the radiographic profiles correlated with proliferative tissue responses. After lifetime observation, the incidence of soft tissue sarcomas increased significantly around the 5.0 x 5.0 mm squares of DU and the positive control, Thorotrast. A slightly increased incidence occurred in rats implanted with the 2.5 x 2.5 mm DU squares and with 5.0 x 5.0 mm squares of Ta. No tumors were seen in rats with 2.0 x 1.0 mm diameter DU pellets or in the surgical controls. These results indicate that DU fragments of sufficient size cause localized proliferative reactions and soft tissue sarcomas that can be detected with radiography in the muscles of rats. PMID:11781165

  6. Implanted depleted uranium fragments cause soft tissue sarcomas in the muscles of rats.

    PubMed

    Hahn, Fletcher F; Guilmette, Raymond A; Hoover, Mark D

    2002-01-01

    In this study, we determined the carcinogenicity of depleted uranium (DU) metal fragments containing 0.75% titanium in muscle tissues of rats. The results have important implications for the medical management of Gulf War veterans who were wounded with DU fragments and who retain fragments in their soft tissues. We compared the tissue reactions in rats to the carcinogenicity of a tantalum metal (Ta), as a negative foreign-body control, and to a colloidal suspension of radioactive thorium dioxide ((232)Th), Thorotrast, as a positive radioactive control. DU was surgically implanted in the thigh muscles of male Wistar rats as four squares (2.5 x 2.5 x 1.5 mm or 5.0 x 5.0 x 1.5 mm) or four pellets (2.0 x 1.0 mm diameter) per rat. Ta was similarly implanted as four squares (5.0 x 5.0 x 1.1 mm) per rat. Thorotrast was injected at two sites in the thigh muscles of each rat. Control rats had only a surgical implantation procedure. Each treatment group included 50 rats. A connective tissue capsule formed around the metal implants, but not around the Thorotrast. Radiographs demonstrated corrosion of the DU implants shortly after implantation. At later times, rarifactions in the radiographic profiles correlated with proliferative tissue responses. After lifetime observation, the incidence of soft tissue sarcomas increased significantly around the 5.0 x 5.0 mm squares of DU and the positive control, Thorotrast. A slightly increased incidence occurred in rats implanted with the 2.5 x 2.5 mm DU squares and with 5.0 x 5.0 mm squares of Ta. No tumors were seen in rats with 2.0 x 1.0 mm diameter DU pellets or in the surgical controls. These results indicate that DU fragments of sufficient size cause localized proliferative reactions and soft tissue sarcomas that can be detected with radiography in the muscles of rats.

  7. Tissue bioavailability of anthocyanins from whole tart cherry in healthy rats.

    PubMed

    Kirakosyan, Ara; Seymour, E Mitchell; Wolforth, Janet; McNish, Robert; Kaufman, Peter B; Bolling, Steven F

    2015-03-15

    Our aim was to confirm and identify the presence of tart cherry anthocyanins in several target tissues of healthy rats. Liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis was employed for detection and characterisation of anthocyanin metabolites. It was shown that four native anthocyanins, namely cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside, cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-D-glucoside, and peonidin 3-rutinoside were differentially distributed among targeted tissues of rats. Bladder and kidney contained more total anthocyanins than all other tissues analysed. It was also revealed that the bioavailability pattern of these native anthocyanins among tissues is varied. The highest concentration of individual anthocyanin cyanidin 3-glucosylrutinoside (2339 picograms/gram of tissue) was detected in bladder, followed by cyanidin 3-rutinoside 5-β-d-glucoside (916 picograms/gram) in the liver of rats. Although the diverse distribution of tart cherry anthocyanins in different rat tissues still requires further explanation, it may provide an evidentiary link between tissue bioavailability and health-enhancing properties of anthocyanins at target sites.

  8. Decreased adipose tissue zinc content is associated with metabolic parameters in high fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Gatiatulina, Evgenia R; Skalnaya, Anastasia A; Yakovenko, Elena N; Alchinova, Irina B; Karganov, Mikhail Y; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2016-01-01

    Limited data on adipose tissue zinc content in obesity exist. At the same time, the association between adipose tissue zinc content and metabolic parameters in dietary-induced obesity is poorly studied. Therefore, the primary objective of this study is to assess adipose tissue zinc content and its association  with morphometric parameters, adipokine spectrum, proinflammatory cytokines, and apolipoprotein profile in high fat fed Wistar rats. A total of 48 adult female Wistar rats were used in the present study. Rats were fed either control (10% of fat) or high fat diet (31.6% of fat). Adipose tissue zinc content was assessed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry. Rats' serum was examined for adiponectin, leptin, insulin, interleukin-6, and tumor necrosis factor-α using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay kits. Serum glucose and apolipoprotein spectrum were also evaluated. High fat feeding resulted in a significant 34% decrease in adipose tissue zinc content in comparison to the control values. Fat pad zinc levels were significantly inversely associated with morphometric parameters, circulating leptin, insulin, tumor necrosis factor-α levels and HOMA-IR values. At the same time,      a significant correlation with apolipoprotein A1 concentration was observed. Generally, the obtained data indicate that (1) high fat feeding results in decreased adipose tissue zinc content; (2) adipose tissue zinc content is tightly associated with excessive adiposity, inflammation, insulin resistance and potentially atherogenic changes.

  9. Tissue Pharmacology of Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction in Experimental Acute Pancreatitis in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Xianlin; Zhang, Yumei; Li, Juan; Wan, Meihua; Zhu, Shifeng; Guo, Hui; Xiang, Jin; Thrower, Edwin C.; Tang, Wenfu

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. The Chinese herbal medicine Da-Cheng-Qi Decoction (DCQD) can ameliorate the severity of acute pancreatitis (AP). However, the potential pharmacological mechanism remains unclear. This study explored the potential effective components and the pharmacokinetic characteristics of DCQD in target tissue in experimental acute pancreatitis in rats. Methods. Acute pancreatitis-like symptoms were first induced in rats and then they were given different doses of DCQD (6 g/kg, 12 g/kg, and 24 g/kg body weight) orally. Tissue drug concentration, tissue pathological score, and inflammatory mediators in pancreas, intestine, and lung tissues of rats were examined after 24 hours, respectively. Results. Major components of DCQD could be found in target tissues and their concentrations increased in conjunction with the intake dose of DCQD. The high-dose compounds showed maximal effect on altering levels of anti-inflammatory (interleukin-4 and interleukin-10) and proinflammatory markers (tumor necrosis factor α and interleukin-6) and ameliorating the pathological damage in target tissues (P < 0.05). Conclusions. DCQD could alleviate pancreatic, intestinal, and lung injury by altering levels of inflammatory cytokines in AP rats with tissue distribution of its components. PMID:26199633

  10. Adipose tissue chromium and vanadium disbalance in high-fat fed Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Tinkov, Alexey A; Popova, Elizaveta V; Polyakova, Valentina S; Kwan, Olga V; Skalny, Anatoly V; Nikonorov, Alexandr A

    2015-01-01

    The primary objective of the current study is to investigate the relationship between adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content and adipose tissue dysfunction in a model of diet-induced obesity. A total of 26 female Wistar rats were fed either standard or high-fat diet (31.6% of fat from total caloric content) for 3 months. High-fat-feeding resulted in 21 and 33% decrease in adipose tissue chromium and vanadium content, respectively. No change was seen in hair chromium or vanadium levels. Statistical analysis revealed a significant inverse correlation of adipose tissue Cr and V with animal morphometric parameters and adipocyte size. Significant inverse dependence was observed between adipose tissue Cr and V and serum leptin and proinflammatory cytokines' levels. At the same time, adipose tissue Cr and V levels were characterized by positive correlation between serum adiponectin and adiponectin/leptin ratio. Adipose tissue Cr and V were inversely correlated (p<0.05) with insulin and homeostatic model assessment insulin resistance index (HOMA-IR) levels. Cr and V concentrations were not correlated with serum glucose in either high-fat fed or control rats; however, both serum glucose and HOMA-IR levels were significantly higher in high-fat fed, compared to control, rats. The results allow to hypothesize that impairment of adipose tissue Cr and V content plays a certain role in the development of adipose tissue endocrine dysfunction in obesity.

  11. Arsenic increased lipid peroxidation in rat tissues by a mechanism independent of glutathione levels.

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, O; Carrizales, L; Yáñez, L; Mejía, J; Batres, L; Ortíz, D; Díaz-Barriga, F

    1995-01-01

    The role of lipid peroxidation in the mechanism of arsenic toxicity was investigated in female rats pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, a glutathione [GSH] inducer) or with buthionine sulfoximine (BSO, a GSH depletor). Rats were challenged with sodium arsenite, and sacrificed 1 hr after this treatment. Results showed that arsenic decreased GSH levels and increased lipid peroxidation in liver, kidney, and heart, with a larger effect at 18.2 mg/kg than at 14.8 mg/kg for lipid peroxidation induction. In the liver of rats treated with arsenic, pretreatment with NAC increased the levels of GSH and decreased lipid peroxidation. In kidney and heart, NAC pretreatment protected the tissues against arsenic-induced depletion of GSH levels, but the same degree of protection was not found for lipid peroxidation induction. In its turn, BSO had an additive effect with arsenic in lowering the levels of GSH in the liver and kidney, but an inverse correlation between GSH levels and lipid peroxidation was found only in liver. Arsenic content in tissues of rats pretreated with NAC was lower than in rats treated only with arsenic. In rats with depleted levels of GSH (BSO-pretreated rats), a shift in arsenic tissue distribution was found, with higher levels in skin and lower levels in kidney. A clear tendency for a positive correlation between arsenic concentration and lipid peroxidation levels was found in liver, kidney, and heart. PMID:7621808

  12. Energy metabolism in the granulation tissue of diabetic rats during cutaneous wound healing.

    PubMed

    Gupta, Asheesh; Raghubir, Ram

    2005-02-01

    The skin cells chiefly depend on carbohydrate metabolism for their energy requirement during cutaneous wound healing. Since the glucose metabolism is greatly hampered in diabetes and this might affect wound repair process. This prompted us to investigate the intermediate steps of energy metabolism by measuring enzyme activities in the wound tissues of normal and streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats following excision-type of cutaneous injury. The activities of key regulatory enzymes namely hexokinase (HK), phosphofructokinase (PFK), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), citrate synthase (CS) and glucose-6 phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) have been monitored in the granulation tissues of normal and diabetic rats at different time points (2, 7, 14 and 21 days) of postwounding. Interestingly, a significant alteration in all these enzyme activities was observed in diabetic rats. The activity of PFK was increased but HK, LDH and CS showed a decreased activity in the wound tissue of diabetics as compared to normal rats. However G6PD exhibited an elevated activity only at early stage of healing in diabetic rats. Thus, the results suggest that significant alterations in the activities of energy metabolizing enzymes in the wound tissue of diabetic rats may affect the energy availability for cellular activity needed for repair process and this may perhaps be one of the factor responsible for impaired healing in these subjects.

  13. Identification of intracellular peptides in rat adipose tissue: Insights into insulin resistance.

    PubMed

    Berti, Denise A; Russo, Lilian C; Castro, Leandro M; Cruz, Lilian; Gozzo, Fábio C; Heimann, Joel C; Lima, Fabio B; Oliveira, Ariclécio C; Andreotti, Sandra; Prada, Patrícia O; Heimann, Andrea S; Ferro, Emer S

    2012-08-01

    Intracellular peptides generated by the proteasome and oligopeptidases have been suggested to function in signal transduction and to improve insulin resistance in mice fed a high-caloric diet. The aim of this study was to identify specific intracellular peptides in the adipose tissue of Wistar rats that could be associated with the physiological and therapeutic control of glucose uptake. Using semiquantitative mass spectrometry and LC/MS/MS analyses, we identified ten peptides in the epididymal adipose tissue of the Wistar rats; three of these peptides were present at increased levels in rats that were fed a high-caloric Western diet (WD) compared with rats fed a control diet (CD). The results of affinity chromatography suggested that in the cytoplasm of epididymal adipose tissue from either WD or CD rats, distinctive proteins bind to these peptides. However, despite the observed increase in the WD animals, the evaluated peptides increased insulin-stimulated glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes treated with palmitate. Thus, intracellular peptides from the adipose tissue of Wistar rats can bind to specific proteins and facilitate insulin-induced glucose uptake in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. © 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. The influence of dietary Cu and diabetes on tissue sup 67 Cu retention kinetics in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Uriu-Hare, J.Y.; Rucker, R.B.; Keen, C.L. )

    1991-03-11

    Compared to controls, diabetes results in higher plasma, liver and kidney Cu concentrations. Since alterations in Cu metabolism may be associated with diabetic pathology, the authors investigated how Cu metabolism is affected by diabetes and dietary Cu intake. Nondiabetic and STZ diabetic rats were fed Cu suppl. or Cu def. diets for 5 wks. Rats were intubated with 28 {mu}Ci {sup 67}Cu and killed after 8, 16, 24, 32, 64, or 128 h. There were marked effects of both diet and diabetes on {sup 67}Cu metabolism. Independent of diabetes, deficient rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, brain, lung, uterus, and intestine than adequate Cu rats. Independent of dietary Cu, diabetic rats had a lower % of retained {sup 67}Cu in liver, plasma, RBC, muscle, spleen, lung, bone, pancreas, skin, uterus and heart than controls. Differential effects were noted for kidney; adequate Cu diabetic rats had a higher % of retained {sup 67}Cu than all other groups. Marked effects of both diet and diabetes were evident when tissue Cu turnover was examined. Compared to Cu suppl. rats, Cu def. rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu, in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, brain, muscle, spleen, lung and heart. Diabetic rats had a slower turnover of {sup 67}Cu than nondiabetic rats in liver, plasma, intestine, pancreas, eye, kidney, RBC and uterus. The data imply that a focus on Cu metabolism with regard to cellular Cu trafficking and pathology may be warranted.

  15. Down-regulation of Zac1 gene expression in rat white adipose tissue by androgens.

    PubMed

    Mirowska, Agnieszka; Sledzinski, Tomasz; Smolenski, Ryszard T; Swierczynski, Julian

    2014-03-01

    ZAC1 is a zinc-finger protein transcription factor, a transcriptional cofactor for nuclear receptors, and a co-activator of nuclear receptors, which interacts with multiple signaling pathways affecting apoptosis, cell cycle arrest, and metabolism. Some data suggest that ZAC1 regulates the expression of genes associated with function of adipose tissue. Since there is no information about the levels of Zac1 gene expression in white adipose tissue (WAT), and the expression of several genes associated with metabolic function of WAT is significantly lower in male than female animals, we have examined: (a) the relative ZAC1 mRNA levels in some organs/tissues, including three main depots of WAT, in 3-month-old male rats; (b) the relative ZAC1 mRNA levels in WAT of male and female rats; (c) the effect of orchidectomy and orchidectomy with concomitant testosterone treatment on ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels; (d) the effect of ovariectomy and ovariectomy with concomitant 17β-estradiol treatment on ZAC1 mRNA levels; (e) the effect of dihydrotestosterone on ZAC1 mRNA levels in isolated adipocytes. Our results indicate that: (a) ZAC1 mRNA levels are relatively high in WAT in comparison with other organs/tissues; (b) ZAC1 mRNA levels in subcutaneous WAT are approximately 2-fold lower than in epididymal and retroperitoneal adipose tissue; (c) ZAC1 mRNA levels in WAT of adult female rats are approximately 2-fold higher than in male rats; (d) testosterone is inversely related to ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels in WAT of male rats; and (e) dihydrotestosterone decreases the ZAC1 mRNA levels in adipocytes in dose dependent manner. In conclusion, Zac1 gene is highly expressed in white adipose tissue of adult rats. Androgens could play an important role in down-regulation of the ZAC1 mRNA and protein levels in rats.

  16. Pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats: role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution

    SciTech Connect

    Cheung, W.K.

    1985-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to explore the role of serum protein binding and tissue distribution in the non-linear pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. The first phase of the research was an attempt to elucidate the causes of intersubject differences in serum protein binding of warfarin in rats. It was found that the distribution of S-warfarin between blood and liver, kidneys, muscle, or fatty tissue was non-linear. Based on the tissue distribution data obtained, a physiologically-based pharmacokinetic model was developed to describe the time course of S-warfarin concentrations in the serum and tissues of rats. The proposed model was able to display the dose-dependent pharmacokinetics of warfarin in rats. Namely a lower clearance and a smaller apparent volume of distribution with increasing dose, which appear to be due to the presence of capacity-limited, high-affinity binding sites for warfarin in various tissues. To determine if the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the liver of rats is reversible, concentrations of S-warfarin in the liver and serum of rats were monitored for a very long time after an intravenous injection of a 1 mg/kg dose. In another study in rats, non-radioactive warfarin was found to be able to displace tissue-bound C/sup 14/-warfarin which was administered about 200 hours before the i.v. injection of the non-radioactive warfarin, showing that the binding of warfarin to the high-affinity binding sites in the body is persistent and reversible.

  17. Endothelin-1 receptors in rat tissues: characterization by bosentan, ambrisentan and CI-1020.

    PubMed

    Yokoyama, Yoshinari; Osano, Ayaka; Hayashi, Hideki; Itoh, Kunihiko; Okura, Takashi; Deguchi, Yoshiharu; Ito, Yoshihiko; Yamada, Shizuo

    2014-01-01

    The present study aimed to characterize comparatively endothelin-1 (ET-1) receptors in rat tissues by radioligand binding assay using [(125)I]ET-1 and to examine receptor binding after oral administration of bosentan. Significant amount of specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding was detected in the lung, heart, kidney, bladder and cerebral cortex of rats. ET-1, bosentan, ambrisentan, and CI-1020 inhibited specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding in these tissues in a concentration-dependent manner. The Hill coefficients of each agent in the rat lung and cerebral cortex and those of bosentan and ET-1 in the heart, kidney and bladder were close to unity, while the Hill coefficients of ambrisentan and CI-1020 in the heart, kidney and bladder were less than one. The nonlinear least squares regression analysis revealed the presence of high- and low-affinity ET-1 receptor sites in these tissues for ambrisentan and CI-1020. Oral administration of bosentan caused a dose-dependent decrease in specific [(125)I]ET-1 binding in the rat lung, kidney and bladder, suggesting significant binding of the tissue ET-1 receptors in vivo. In conclusion, it has been shown that a significant amount of pharmacologically relevant ET-1 receptors may exist in rat tissues and that ET-1 receptor antagonists such as bosentan at pharmacological doses may exert some pharmacological effects by binding these ET-1 receptors.

  18. Laser-induced fluorescence quantitation of choloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate concentration in rat tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Panjehpour, Masoud; Sneed, Rick E.; Frazier, Donita L.; Barnhill, Mary Ann; O'Brien, Sherrie; Harb, Bill; Overholt, Bergein F.

    1992-06-01

    The determination of photosensitizer concentration in tissue will allow improved planning of photodynamic therapy. Laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) has been used to measure fluorescence of drugs in tissue. This study was designed to determine if in-vivo fluorescence intensities could be correlated with tissue concentration of chloroaluminum phthalocyanine tetrasulfonate in rat tissues. Following LIF measurement, the animals were euthanized and the concentration of AlPcs in different tissues were determined using chemical extraction technique. In-vivo fluorescence intensities were correlated with the extracted AlPcs for several tissues. A linear relationship between concentration and in-vivo fluorescence intensity was found for all tissues examined with correlation coefficient being highest in tissues such as liver, spleen, kidney and tumor. The correlation coefficient in skin, leg muscle and tongue was lower.

  19. Effect of 3-methylcholanthrene-induced increases in ascorbic acid levels on tissue. beta. -glucuronidase activity in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Calabrese, E.J.; Barrett, T.J.; Leonard, D.A.; Horton, H.M.; Kenyon, E.M.

    1988-01-01

    The interrelationship between tissue ascorbic acid levels and tissue ..beta..-glucuronidase activity was examined in rats injected with 3-methylcholanthrene, an agent which induces ascorbic acid synthesis in rats. Six Fisher 344 rats were dosed intraperitoneally (IP) with 30 mg/kg of 3-methylcholanthrene. Ascorbic acid levels and ..beta..-glucuronidase (..beta..-G) activity were determined for lung, liver and kidney tissues. In a follow-up study, rats were dosed for three consecutive days with 3-methylcholanthrene. Controls in both groups were dosed IP with Emulphor (EL-620). Animals were sacrificed one week after the final dosage and lung, liver and kidney tissues were examined.

  20. Changes in the dielectric properties of rat tissue as a function of age at microwave frequencies

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Peyman, A.; Rezazadeh, A. A.; Gabriel, C.

    2001-06-01

    The dielectric properties of ten rat tissues at six different ages were measured at 37 °C in the frequency range of 130 MHz to 10 GHz using an open-ended coaxial probe and a computer controlled network analyser. The results show a general decrease of the dielectric properties with age. The trend is more apparent for brain, skull and skin tissues and less noticeable for abdominal tissues. The variation in the dielectric properties with age is due to the changes in the water content and the organic composition of tissues. The percentage decrease in the dielectric properties of certain tissues in the 30 to 70 day old rats at cellular phone frequencies have been tabulated. These data provide an important input in the provision of rigorous dosimetry in lifetime-exposure animal experiments. The results provide some insight into possible differences in the assessment of exposure for children and adults.

  1. Exposure to industrial wideband noise increases connective tissue in the rat liver.

    PubMed

    Oliveira, Maria João R; Freitas, Diamantino; Carvalho, António P O; Guimarães, Laura; Pinto, Ana; Águas, Artur P

    2012-01-01

    Rats were daily exposed (eight hours/day) for a period of four weeks to the same high-intensity wideband noise that was recorded before in a large textile plant. Histologic observation of liver sections of the rats was used to perform quantitative comparison of hepatic connective tissue (dyed by Masson trichromic staining) between the noise-exposed and control animals. For that, we have photographed at random centrolobular areas of stained rat liver sections. We found that noise exposure resulted in significant enhancement in the area of collagen-rich connective tissue present in the centrolobular domain of the rat liver. Our data strengthen previous evidence showing that fibrotic transformation is a systemic effect of chronic exposure of rodents and humans to industrial wideband noise.

  2. Relationship between tissue distributions of modified Wuzi Yanzong prescription () in rats and meridian tropism theory.

    PubMed

    Wang, Lin-Lin; Li, Wei-Wei; Wu, Cai-Sheng; Zhang, Jin-Lan; Song, Yi-Xiang; Song, Fang-Jiao; Fu, Hong; Liu, Geng-Xin; Wang, Xue-Mei

    2016-12-20

    To investigate the relationship between tissue distributions of modified Wuzi Yanzong prescription (, MWP) in rats and meridian tropism theory. A high-performance liquid chromatography with Fourier transform-mass spectrometry (HPLC-FT) method was used to identify the metabolites of MWP in different tissues of rats after continued oral administration of MWP for 7 days. The relationship between MWP and meridian tropism theory was studied according to the tissue distributions of the metabolites of MWP in rats and the relevant literature. Nineteen metabolites, mainly flavanoid compounds, were detected in the different rat tissues and classified to each herb in MWP. Further, it was able to establish that the tissue distributions of the metabolites of MWP were consistent with the descriptions of meridian tropism of MWP available in literature, this result might be useful in clarifying the mechanism of MWP on meridian tropism. In the long run, these data might provide scientific evidence of the meridian tropism theory to further promote the reasonable, effective utilization, and modernization of Chinese medicine. The tissue distributions of MWP in vivo were consistent with the descriptions of meridian tropism of MWP.

  3. [Plasma and tissue lipids in rats after a flight on the Kosmos-1129 biosatellite].

    PubMed

    Ahlers, J; Tigranian, R A; D'jatelinka, J; Smajda, B; Toropila, M

    1982-01-01

    Concentrations of triglycerides, total cholesterol, lipid phosphorus and nonesterified fatty acids were measured in blood plasma, liver, thymus, bone marrow and adipose tissues of rats flown for 18.5 days onboard the biosatellite Cosmos-1129. This exposure was accompanied by increases in lipomobilization, content of total cholesterol and lipid phosphorus in plasma, and triglycerides in the thymus and bone marrow. The postflight exposure to repeated stresses demonstrated changes in the lipid content in all animal groups, especially in flight rats.

  4. Altered activities of transcription factors and their related gene expression in cardiac tissues of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Nishio, Y; Kashiwagi, A; Taki, H; Shinozaki, K; Maeno, Y; Kojima, H; Maegawa, H; Haneda, M; Hidaka, H; Yasuda, H; Horiike, K; Kikkawa, R

    1998-08-01

    Gene regulation in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic subjects has been reported to be altered. To examine abnormal activities in transcription factors as a possible cause of this altered gene regulation, we studied the activity of two redox-sensitive transcription factors--nuclear factor-kappaB (NF-kappaB) and activating protein-1 (AP-1)--and the change in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1, which is regulated by these transcription factors in the cardiac tissues of rats with streptozotocin-induced diabetes. Increased activity of NF-kappaB and AP-1 but not nuclear transcription-activating factor, as determined by an electrophoretic mobility shift assay, was found in the hearts of 4-week diabetic rats. Glycemic control by a subcutaneous injection of insulin prevented these diabetes-induced changes in transcription factor activity. In accordance with these changes, the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 was increased fourfold in 4-week diabetic rats and threefold in 24-week diabetic rats as compared with control rats (P < 0.01 and P < 0.05, respectively). Insulin treatment also consistently prevented changes in the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1. The oral administration of an antioxidant, probucol, to these diabetic rats partially prevented the elevation of the activity of both NF-kappaB and AP-1, and normalized the mRNA content of heme oxygenase-1 without producing any change in the plasma glucose concentration. These results suggest that elevated oxidative stress is involved in the activation of the transcription factors NF-kappaB and AP-1 in the cardiac tissues of diabetic rats, and that these abnormal activities of transcription factors could be associated with the altered gene regulation observed in the cardiovascular tissues of diabetic rats.

  5. Towards a Tissue-Engineered Contractile Fontan-Conduit: The Fate of Cardiac Myocytes in the Subpulmonary Circulation

    PubMed Central

    Biermann, Daniel; Eder, Alexandra; Arndt, Florian; Seoudy, Hatim; Reichenspurner, Hermann; Mir, Thomas; Riso, Arlindo; Kozlik-Feldmann, Rainer; Peldschus, Kersten; Kaul, Michael G.; Schuler, Tillman; Krasemann, Susanne; Hansen, Arne; Eschenhagen, Thomas; Sachweh, Jörg S.

    2016-01-01

    The long-term outcome of patients with single ventricles improved over time, but remains poor compared to other congenital heart lesions with biventricular circulation. Main cause for this unfavourable outcome is the unphysiological hemodynamic of the Fontan circulation, such as subnormal systemic cardiac output and increased systemic-venous pressure. To overcome this limitation, we are developing the concept of a contractile extracardiac Fontan-tunnel. In this study, we evaluated the survival and structural development of a tissue-engineered conduit under in vivo conditions. Engineered heart tissue was generated from ventricular heart cells of neonatal Wistar rats, fibrinogen and thrombin. Engineered heart tissues started beating around day 8 in vitro and remained contractile in vivo throughout the experiment. After culture for 14 days constructs were implanted around the right superior vena cava of Wistar rats (n = 12). Animals were euthanized after 7, 14, 28 and 56 days postoperatively. Hematoxylin and eosin staining showed cardiomyocytes arranged in thick bundles within the engineered heart tissue-conduit. Immunostaining of sarcomeric actin, alpha-actin and connexin 43 revealed a well -developed cardiac myocyte structure. Magnetic resonance imaging (d14, n = 3) revealed no constriction or stenosis of the superior vena cava by the constructs. Engineered heart tissues survive and contract for extended periods after implantation around the superior vena cava of rats. Generation of larger constructs is warranted to evaluate functional benefits of a contractile Fontan-conduit. PMID:27875570

  6. Tissue distribution of arsenic after subcutaneous implantation of arsenic trioxide pellet in rats.

    PubMed

    ASO, T; Abiko, Y

    1978-05-01

    In control rats, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was 1.59 and 10.79 microgram/g wet tissue, respectively. In the kidney, lung, heart, brain, and hair, the arsenic level was lower than 1.1 microgram/g wet tissue. In rats in which a pellet containing 2 mg of arsenic tsioxide was implanted subcutaneously, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was markedly high for at least 2 months after implantation; after 67 days of implantation, the arsenic level in the spleen and blood cells was 16.79 and 66.34 microgram/g wet tissue, respectively. In the kidney, liver, lung, heart, brain, and hair, the increase in arsenic after implantation was smaller than that in the spleen. In the plasma, arsenic was not detected before and after arsenic implantation. It is concluded that arsenic implanted subcutaneously concentrates in the blood cells, possibly in the red cells, in rats.

  7. Experimental orthotopic transplantation of a tissue-engineered oesophagus in rats.

    PubMed

    Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Jungebluth, Philipp; Lim, Mei Ling; Haag, Johannes C; Gustafsson, Ylva; Lemon, Greg; Baiguera, Silvia; Burguillos, Miguel Angel; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Rodríguez, Antonio Beltrán; Sotnichenko, Alexander; Kublickiene, Karolina; Ullman, Henrik; Kielstein, Heike; Damberg, Peter; Bianco, Alessandra; Heuchel, Rainer; Zhao, Ying; Ribatti, Domenico; Ibarra, Cristián; Joseph, Bertrand; Taylor, Doris A; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2014-04-15

    A tissue-engineered oesophageal scaffold could be very useful for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with benign or malignant diseases such as carcinomas, trauma or congenital malformations. Here we decellularize rat oesophagi inside a perfusion bioreactor to create biocompatible biological rat scaffolds that mimic native architecture, resist mechanical stress and induce angiogenesis. Seeded allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells spontaneously differentiate (proven by gene-, protein and functional evaluations) into epithelial- and muscle-like cells. The reseeded scaffolds are used to orthotopically replace the entire cervical oesophagus in immunocompetent rats. All animals survive the 14-day study period, with patent and functional grafts, and gain significantly more weight than sham-operated animals. Explanted grafts show regeneration of all the major cell and tissue components of the oesophagus including functional epithelium, muscle fibres, nerves and vasculature. We consider the presented tissue-engineered oesophageal scaffolds a significant step towards the clinical application of bioengineered oesophagi.

  8. Experimental orthotopic transplantation of a tissue-engineered oesophagus in rats

    PubMed Central

    Sjöqvist, Sebastian; Jungebluth, Philipp; Ling Lim, Mei; Haag, Johannes C.; Gustafsson, Ylva; Lemon, Greg; Baiguera, Silvia; Angel Burguillos, Miguel; Del Gaudio, Costantino; Rodríguez, Antonio Beltrán; Sotnichenko, Alexander; Kublickiene, Karolina; Ullman, Henrik; Kielstein, Heike; Damberg, Peter; Bianco, Alessandra; Heuchel, Rainer; Zhao, Ying; Ribatti, Domenico; Ibarra, Cristián; Joseph, Bertrand; Taylor, Doris A.; Macchiarini, Paolo

    2014-01-01

    A tissue-engineered oesophageal scaffold could be very useful for the treatment of pediatric and adult patients with benign or malignant diseases such as carcinomas, trauma or congenital malformations. Here we decellularize rat oesophagi inside a perfusion bioreactor to create biocompatible biological rat scaffolds that mimic native architecture, resist mechanical stress and induce angiogenesis. Seeded allogeneic mesenchymal stromal cells spontaneously differentiate (proven by gene-, protein and functional evaluations) into epithelial- and muscle-like cells. The reseeded scaffolds are used to orthotopically replace the entire cervical oesophagus in immunocompetent rats. All animals survive the 14-day study period, with patent and functional grafts, and gain significantly more weight than sham-operated animals. Explanted grafts show regeneration of all the major cell and tissue components of the oesophagus including functional epithelium, muscle fibres, nerves and vasculature. We consider the presented tissue-engineered oesophageal scaffolds a significant step towards the clinical application of bioengineered oesophagi. PMID:24736316

  9. Garlic and vitamin E provides antioxidant defence in tissues of female rats treated with nicotine.

    PubMed

    Iranloye, B O; Oludare, G O

    2011-11-23

    Nicotine is known to induce oxidative stress in rat tissues and the antioxidant properties of garlic have been reported. This study was designed to determine if the peroxidative damage caused by nicotine administration can be effectively prevented with garlic juice, and vitamin E, a known antioxidant.Four groups of six rats each were divided into: Group I: (control) received 0.2ml of 0.9% normal saline, group II (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w subcutaneously), group III (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + garlic juice 100mg/kg b.w orally), and group IV (received nicotine 0.6mg/kg b.w + Vitamin E 100mg/kg b.w orally). All animals were treated for 21 days. The pituitary gland, ovary, uterus, heart, liver and kidney of the animals were harvested, weighed and homogenized. Malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and reduced glutathione (GSH) were then measured.Concentration of MDA was significantly increased in tissues of nicotine treated rats when compared with the control. In group III and IV, MDA levels were significantly reduced when compared with nicotine group. The activities of SOD and GSH significantly decreased in group II (nicotine only) rat tissues, while it was significantly increased in group III and IV rat tissues. The study showed that garlic juice extract (100mg/kg b.w) and vitamin E (100mg/kg b.w) administration prevented oxidative damage in rat tissues treated with nicotine. The study also showed that vitamin E has a more potent antioxidant activity than garlic juice in preventing nicotine induced oxidative damage in rat.

  10. Radioimmunoassay of carbonic anhydrase III in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Shiels, A; Jeffery, S; Wilson, C; Carter, N

    1984-01-01

    A specific and sensitive radioimmunoassay for the rat carbonic anhydrase III isoenzyme was developed. High concentrations of carbonic anhydrase III were detected in soleus muscle and male liver. Female liver and other skeletal muscles contained significantly lower concentrations, and only trace amounts were found in heart, prostate, kidney, brain, plasma, urine and, possibly, erythrocytes. PMID:6424658

  11. [Oxidative damage of gasoline engine exhausts to rat lung tissues].

    PubMed

    Che, Wang-Jun; Wang, Ling; Luo, Qing-Ying; Wu, Mei; Zhang, Zun-Zhen

    2009-01-01

    To study the effects of extracts of condensate, particulates and semivolatile organic compounds from gasoline engine exhaust on DNA damage, 8-oxoguanine DNA glycosylase-1 (OGG1) expression, and changes of ultra-structures in lungs of rats. Organic extracts of gasoline engine exhaust (GEE) was intratrachealy instilled into rat lungs at 0, 5.6, 16.7, and 50.0 L/kg body weight, respectively, once a week for a month. The single DNA strand break was measured by comet assay. The OGG1 was determined using immunohistochemistry method. The ultrastructure of lung cells was observed with electronic microscope. The rates of tailed cells detected by the comet assay increased significantly when the rats were exposed to 16.7 and 50.0 L/kg of GEE compared with those exposed to solvent only (P < 0.05). However, the tail length did not differ significantly between the groups. Similarly, exposure to 16.7 and 50.0 L/kg of GEE led to increased OGG1 significantly. Significant changes of mitochondria in type I and II alveolar cells as well as respiratory bronchiole epithelial cells were observed, which included decrease of numbers, pyknosis and swelling. Gasoline engine exhausts induce single DNA strand break, increase OGG1 expression, decrease numbers of mitochondria, and destroy ultrastructures of mitochondria in various lung cells of rats.

  12. Effect of Food Restriction on Adipose Tissue in Spontaneously Diabetic Torii Fatty Rats

    PubMed Central

    Morinaga, Hisayo; Ohta, Takeshi; Matsui, Kenichi; Sasase, Tomohiko; Fukuda, Sumiaki; Ito, Makoto; Ueda, Masatoshi; Ishii, Yukihito; Miyajima, Katsuhiro; Matsushita, Mutsuyoshi

    2009-01-01

    Spontaneously Diabetic Torii-fa/fa (SDT fatty) rat is a new model of obese type 2 diabetes. SDT fatty rat exhibits obesity associated with hyperphagia. In this study, SDT fatty rats were subjected to pair-feeding with SDT-+/+ (SDT) rats from 6 to 22 weeks of age. The ratio of visceral fat weight to subcutaneous fat weight (V/S) decreased at 12 weeks of age in the pair-feeding rats. The intraperitoneal fat weight such as epididymal and retroperitoneal fat weight decreased, whereas mesenteric fat weight had no change. Cell size of the epididymal fat in the pair-feeding rats tended to decrease. Glucose oxidation level in epididymal fat in the pair-feeding rats at 12 weeks of age was recovered to a similar level with that in SDT rats. These results indicated that SDT fatty rat is a useful model to evaluate the functional or the morphological features in adipose tissue and develop a novel drug for antiobesity. PMID:19696902

  13. Early genetic responses in rat vascular tissue after simulated diving.

    PubMed

    Eftedal, Ingrid; Jørgensen, Arve; Røsbjørgen, Ragnhild; Flatberg, Arnar; Brubakk, Alf O

    2012-12-18

    Diving causes a transient reduction of vascular function, but the mechanisms behind this are largely unknown. The aim of this study was therefore to analyze genetic reactions that may be involved in acute changes of vascular function in divers. Rats were exposed to 709 kPa of hyperbaric air (149 kPa Po(2)) for 50 min followed by postdive monitoring of vascular bubble formation and full genome microarray analysis of the aorta from diving rats (n = 8) and unexposed controls (n = 9). Upregulation of 23 genes was observed 1 h after simulated diving. The differential gene expression was characteristic of cellular responses to oxidative stress, with functions of upregulated genes including activation and fine-tuning of stress-responsive transcription, cytokine/cytokine receptor signaling, molecular chaperoning, and coagulation. By qRT-PCR, we verified increased transcription of neuron-derived orphan receptor-1 (Nr4a3), plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (Serpine1), cytokine TWEAK receptor FN14 (Tnfrsf12a), transcription factor class E basic helix-loop-helix protein 40 (Bhlhe40), and adrenomedullin (Adm). Hypoxia-inducible transcription factor HIF1 subunit HIF1-α was stabilized in the aorta 1 h after diving, and after 4 h there was a fivefold increase in total protein levels of the procoagulant plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (PAI1) in blood plasma from diving rats. The study did not have sufficient power for individual assessment of effects of hyperoxia and decompression-induced bubbles on postdive gene expression. However, differential gene expression in rats without venous bubbles was similar to that of all the diving rats, indicating that elevated Po(2) instigated the observed genetic reactions.

  14. Arginine-deficient diets alter plasma and tissue amino acids in young and aged rats.

    PubMed

    Gross, K L; Hartman, W J; Ronnenberg, A; Prior, R L

    1991-10-01

    Blood and urine metabolites were measured in two experiments for young (2-mo-old) and aged (20-mo-old) male Sprague-Dawley rats fed arginine-devoid diets made isonitrogenous to a control 1.12% arginine diet by adding alanine or glycine. Diet, fed for 7 or 13 d, had little effect on urinary or plasma ammonia and urea. Urinary orotate excretion was more than 40-fold higher in rats fed the arginine-deficient diets (P less than 0.01) in both experiments. Source of nonessential N (alanine or glycine) in the arginine-deficient diets did not alter orotic acid excretion or plasma or urine ammonia or urea. Changes in plasma arginine, alanine and glycine concentrations reflected the levels of these amino acids in the diet. Tissue ornithine levels reflected dietary arginine level, but tissue citrulline was unaffected by dietary arginine. Glutamate and glutamine were greater in the plasma and liver of rats fed arginine-deficient diets. Plasma concentrations of glutamate and glutamine were positively correlated with urinary orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.05) and ornithine and arginine were negatively correlated with orotic acid excretion (P less than 0.01). Increased tissue glutamine may be related to the greater orotate excretion in rats fed arginine-devoid diets. The metabolic responses to dietary arginine deficiency were similar in young and aged rats. In general, concentrations of amino acids in plasma, liver and spleen were higher in aged rats.

  15. Changes in UCP expression in tissues of Zucker rats fed diets with different protein content.

    PubMed

    Masanés, R M; Yubero, P; Rafecas, I; Remesar, X

    2002-09-01

    The effect of dietary protein content on the uncoupling proteins (UCP) 1, 2 and 3 expression in a number of tissues of Zucker lean and obese rats was studied. Thirty-day-old male Zucker lean (Fa/?) and obese (fa/fa) rats were fed on hyperproteic (HP, 30% protein), standard (RD, 17% protein) or hypoproteic (LP, 9% protein) diets ad libitum for 30 days. Although dietary protein intake affected the weights of individual muscles in lean and obese animals, these weights were similar. In contrast, huge differences were observed in brown adipose tissue (BAT) and liver weights. Lean rats fed on the LP diet generally increased UCP expression, whereas the HP group had lower values. Obese animals, HP and LP groups showed higher UCP expression in muscles, with slight differences in BAT and lower values for UCP3 in subcutaneous adipose tissue. The mean values of UCP expression in BAT of obese rats were lower than in their lean counterpart, whereas the expression in skeletal muscle was increased. Thus, expression of UCPs can be modified by dietary protein content, in lean and obese rats. A possible thermogenic function of UCP3 in muscle and WAT in obese rats must be taken into account.

  16. Functional Local Renin-Angiotensin System in Human and Rat Periodontal Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Santos, Carlos F.; Morandini, Ana C.; Dionísio, Thiago J.; Faria, Flávio A.; Lima, Marta C.; Figueiredo, Caio M.; Colombini-Ishikiriama, Bella L.; Sipert, Carla R.; Maciel, Rubens P.; Akashi, Ana P.; Souza, Gabriela P.; Garlet, Gustavo P.; Rodini, Camila O.; Amaral, Sandra L.; Becari, Christiane; Salgado, Maria C.; Oliveira, Eduardo B.; Matus, Isaac; Didier, Daniela N.; Greene, Andrew S.

    2015-01-01

    The initiation or progression of periodontitis might involve a local renin-angiotensin system (RAS) in periodontal tissue. The aim of this study was to further characterize the local RAS in human and rat periodontal tissues between healthy and periodontally-affected tissue. Components of the RAS were investigated using in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo experiments involving both human and Wistar rat periodontium. Although not upregulated when challenged with P. gingivalis-lipopolysaccharide, human gingival and periodontal ligament fibroblasts expressed RAS components. Likewise, healthy and inflamed human gingiva expressed RAS components, some of which were shown to be functional, yet no differences in expression were found between healthy and diseased gingiva. However, in inflamed tissue the immunoreactivity was greater for the AT1R compared to AT2R in fibroblasts. When compared to healthy tissue, ACE activity was increased in human gingiva from volunteers with gingivitis. Human-gingiva homogenates generated Ang II, Ang 1-9 and Ang 1-7 when incubated with precursors. In gingiva homogenates, Ang II formation from Ang I was nearly abolished only when captopril and chymostatin were combined. Ang 1-7 formation was significantly greater when human gingiva homogenates were incubated with chymostatin alone compared to incubation without any inhibitor, only captopril, or captopril and chymostatin. In rat gingiva, RAS components were also found; their expression was not different between healthy and experimentally induced periodontitis (EP) groups. However, renin inhibition (aliskiren) and an AT1R antagonist (losartan) significantly blocked EP-alveolar-bone loss in rats. Collectively, these data are consistent with the hypothesis that a local RAS system is not only present but is also functional in both human and rat periodontal tissue. Furthermore, blocking AT1R and renin can significantly prevent periodontal bone loss induced by EP in rats. PMID:26244896

  17. Chinese green tea consumption reduces oxidative stress, inflammation and tissues damage in smoke exposed rats

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Akash, Muhanad; Aburubaiha, Zaid; Talib, Wamidh H.; Shehadeh, Hayel

    2014-01-01

    Objective(s): One cause of cigarette smoking is oxidative stress that may alter the cellular antioxidant defense system, induce apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. It has been shown that Chinese green tea (CGT) (Lung Chen Tea) has higher antioxidant property than black tea. In this paper, we will explore the preventive effect of CGT on cigarette smoke-induced oxidative damage, apoptosis and tissues inflammation in albino rat model. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were randomly divided into four groups, i.e. sham air (SA), cigarette smoke (CS), CGT 2% plus SA or plus CS. The exposure to smoking was carried out as a single daily dose (1 cigarette/rat) for a period of 90 days using an electronically controlled smoking machine. Sham control albino rats were exposed to air instead of cigarette smoke. Tissues were collected 24 hr after last CS exposure for histology and all enzyme assays. Apoptosis was evidenced by the fragmentation of DNA using TUNEL assay. Results: Long-term administration of cigarette smoke altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and damage in liver, lung, and kidney. All these pathophysiological and biochemical events were significantly improved when the cigarette smoke-exposed albino rats were given CGT infusion as a drink instead of water. Conclusion: Exposure of albino rat model to cigarette smoke caused oxidative stress, altered the cellular antioxidant defense system, induced apoptosis in lung tissue, inflammation and tissues damage, which could be prevented by supplementation of CGT. PMID:25729541

  18. Pharmacokinetic study of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue by RP-HPLC method.

    PubMed

    He, Fan; Dou, De-Qiang; Hou, Qiang; Sun, Yu; Kang, Ting-Guo

    2013-01-01

    A high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) technique was developed for the determination of arctigenin in plasma and various organs of rats after the oral administration of 30, 50 and 70 mgkg(-1) of arctigenin to the Sprague-Dawley rats. Results showed that the validated HPLC method was simple, fast, reproducible and suitable to the determination of arctigenin in rat plasma and organ tissue and one-compartmental model with zero-order absorption process can well describe the changes of arctigenin concentration in the plasma. The concentration of compound was highest in the spleen, less in the liver and the least in the lung.

  19. Tissue Distribution and Associated Toxicological Effects of Decabrominated Diphenyl Ether in Subchronically Exposed Male Rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Fuxin; Wang, Jianshe; Hu, Guocheng; Luo, Xiaojun; Mai, Bixian; Dai, Jiayin

    2011-01-01

    Concerns about decabrominated diphenyl ether (BDE-209) have arisen recently due to its increasing concentrations in the environment. We investigated the tissue concentration, distribution, and the debromination of BDE-209 after oral exposure, using rats as a model. Three groups of male rats were administrated by oral gavage with corn oil containing 0, 10, or 50 mg/kg bw/day of BDE-209 over 90 days. After exposure, BDE-209 and its metabolites levels in the liver, kidney, and adipose of the rats were measured. The mRNA expression levels of cytochrome P450 (CYP) enzymes in liver, serum thyroid hormone levels, and open-field tests were also measured. BDE-209 and several octa- and nona-BDE congeners were detected in the tissues of the dosed rats, indicating that BDE-209 was bioavailable and biotransformative in male rats. BDE-209 and its debrominated congeners had no mRNA level effect on selective genes from the CYP family in the liver or on the spontaneous behavior of adult male rats. Conversely, the level of thyroid hormone, total triiodothyronine (T3) in rats from the dosed treatments increased significantly compared to the control group. PMID:23724291

  20. L-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats.

    PubMed

    Rodríguez-Gómez, Isabel; Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2016-03-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  1. l-Arginine metabolism in cardiovascular and renal tissue from hyper- and hypothyroid rats

    PubMed Central

    Moliz, Juan N; Quesada, Andrés; Montoro-Molina, Sebastian; Vargas-Tendero, Pablo; Osuna, Antonio; Wangensteen, Rosemary; Vargas, Félix

    2015-01-01

    This study assessed the effects of thyroid hormones on the enzymes involved in l-arginine metabolism and the metabolites generated by the different metabolic pathways. Compounds of l-arginine metabolism were measured in the kidney, heart, aorta, and liver of euthyroid, hyperthyroid, and hypothyroid rats after 6 weeks of treatment. Enzymes studied were NOS isoforms (neuronal [nNOS], inducible [iNOS], and endothelial [eNOS]), arginases I and II, ornithine decarboxylase (ODC), ornithine aminotransferase (OAT), and l-arginine decarboxylase (ADC). Metabolites studied were l-arginine, l-citrulline, spermidine, spermine, and l-proline. Kidney heart and aorta levels of eNOS and iNOS were augmented and reduced (P < 0.05, for each tissue and enzyme) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively. Arginase I abundance in aorta, heart, and kidney was increased (P < 0.05, for each tissue) in hyperthyroid rats and was decreased in kidney and aorta of hypothyroid rats (P < 0.05, for each tissue). Arginase II was augmented in aorta and kidney (P < 0.05, for each tissue) of hyperthyroid rats and remained unchanged in all organs of hypothyroid rats. The substrate for these enzymes, l-arginine, was reduced (P < 0.05, for all tissues) in hyperthyroid rats. Levels of ODC and spermidine, its product, were increased and decreased (P < 0.05) in hyper- and hypothyroid rats, respectively, in all organs studied. OAT and proline levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in liver but not in the other tissues. ADC protein levels were positively modulated by thyroid hormones in all tissues. According to these findings, thyroid hormone treatment positively modulates different l-arginine metabolic pathways. The changes recorded in the abundance of eNOS, arginases I and II, and ADC protein in renal and cardiovascular tissues may play a role in the hemodynamic and renal manifestations observed in thyroid disorders. Furthermore, the changes in ODC and spermidine might

  2. Biochemical and connective tissue changes in cyclophosphamide-induced lung fibrosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Venkatesan, N; Punithavathi, D; Chandrakasan, G

    1998-10-01

    The present investigation was designed to characterize the biochemical and connective tissue components and to correlate the significance of morphological and biochemical perturbations in cyclophosphamide (CP)-induced lung fibrosis in rats. Lung fibrosis was induced in male Wistar rats by intraperitoneal injection of 20 mg/100 g body weight of CP, and their pneumotoxic derangements were characterized during an early destructive phase followed by a proliferative and synthetic phase. Serum angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) activity was higher in CP-treated rats at days 2, 3, 5, 7, and 11, but there was a significant decrease in lung ACE activity during the same time period. Elevated levels of beta-glucuronidase activity were observed in the lung lavage fluid of CP-administered rats days 2, 3, 5, and 7. Lung myeloperoxidase activity was higher in CP rats. Of significance was the presence of collagenase and collagenolytic cathepsin in the lavage fluid of CP rats, when compared with the barely detectable levels in controls. A similar increase in these enzyme activities was also noticed in the lung tissue of CP rats during the same experimental period. Lavage fluid hydroxyproline content was higher in CP rats when compared with controls. Similarly, lung protein and DNA levels were elevated significantly after treatment with CP. The pulmonary histamine and serotonin contents were significantly higher in CP rats. The incorporation of [3H]thymidine into lung total DNA, [3H]proline into lung hydroxyproline, and [35S]sulphate into lung glycosaminoglycan, measured as indicators of lung DNA, collagen, and glycosaminoglycan synthesis, respectively, was also higher in CP groups. Increased levels of hydroxyproline, elastin, hexosamine, total hexose, fucose, sialic acid, and uronic acid in the lungs of rats 14, 28, and 42 days after CP insult were characterized as biomarkers of CP-induced interstitial changes. These findings indicate that CP-induced lung fibrosis results in

  3. Untargeted plasma and tissue metabolomics in rats with chronic kidney disease given AST-120

    PubMed Central

    Velenosi, Thomas J.; Hennop, Anzel; Feere, David A.; Tieu, Alvin; Kucey, Andrew S.; Kyriacou, Polydoros; McCuaig, Laura E.; Nevison, Stephanie E.; Kerr, Michael A.; Urquhart, Bradley L.

    2016-01-01

    Chronic kidney disease (CKD) results in the accumulation of metabolic waste products that are normally cleared by the kidney, known as uremia. Many of these waste products are from bacteria metabolites in the gut. Accumulation of uremic toxins in plasma and tissue, as well as the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis are important for understanding pathophysiological mechanisms of comorbidities in CKD. In this study, an untargeted metabolomics approach was used to determine uremic toxin accumulation in plasma, liver, heart and kidney tissue in rats with adenine-induced CKD. Rats with CKD were also given AST-120, a spherical carbon adsorbent, to assess metabolic changes in plasma and tissues with the removal of gut-derived uremic toxins. AST-120 decreased >55% of metabolites that were increased in plasma, liver and heart tissue of rats with CKD. CKD was primarily defined by 8 gut-derived uremic toxins, which were significantly increased in plasma and all tissues. These metabolites were derived from aromatic amino acids and soy protein including: indoxyl sulfate, p-cresyl sulfate, hippuric acid, phenyl sulfate, pyrocatechol sulfate, 4-ethylphenyl sulfate, p-cresol glucuronide and equol 7-glucuronide. Our results highlight the importance of diet and gut-derived metabolites in the accumulation of uremic toxins and define the gut-plasma-tissue metabolic axis in CKD. PMID:26932318

  4. Absorption and tissue distribution of lead in thiamin-replete and thiamin-deficient rats.

    PubMed

    Sasser, L B; Hall, G G; Bratton, G R; Zmudzki, J

    1984-10-01

    Previous experimental results revealed that thiamin (vitamin B1) reduced lead (Pb) toxicity in calves and decreased tissue lead content in lead-treated calves and rodents. The objective of this experiment was to study the uptake and tissue distribution of lead in rats deprived of thiamin or given excess thiamin and to determine the effect of thiamin on lead absorption. Rats were divided into four groups and fed a thiamin-deficient or thiamin-supplemented diet. The thiamin-replete group also received daily injections of thiamin hydrochloride. Experimental diets were fed for 5 weeks, after which the rats were administered 10 muCi of 203Pb acetate (25 micrograms lead) and killed 6, 24, 48 or 72 hours later. Lead content and concentration of tissues increased twofold in the thiamin-replete group at 24 hours after dosing, but returned to control values 24 hours later. Tissue lead concentration of the thiamin-depleted group was slightly depressed at 24 hours after dosing, but this trend was reversed at the end of the experiment. Tissue lead concentrations in the pair-fed control group were three to seven times greater than in the other treatment groups 6 hours after dosing. The results indicate that thiamin facilitated absorption and increased the amount of lead initially taken up by tissue. Thiamin may also promote more rapid release of lead from tissues.

  5. Distribution of bisphenol A into tissues of adult, neonatal, and fetal Sprague-Dawley rats

    SciTech Connect

    Doerge, Daniel R.; Twaddle, Nathan C.; Vanlandingham, Michelle; Brown, Ronald P.; Fisher, Jeffrey W.

    2011-09-15

    Bisphenol A (BPA) is an important industrial chemical used in the manufacture of polycarbonate plastic products and epoxy resin-based food can liners. The presence of BPA metabolites in urine of > 90% of Americans aged 6-60 suggests ubiquitous and frequent exposure in the range of 0.02-0.2 {mu}g/kg bw/d (25th-95th percentiles). The current study used LC/MS/MS to measure placental transfer and concentrations of aglycone (receptor-active) and conjugated (inactive) BPA in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats administered deuterated BPA (100 {mu}g/kg bw) by oral and IV routes. In adult female rat tissues, the tissue/serum concentration ratios for aglycone BPA ranged from 0.7 in liver to 5 in adipose tissue, reflecting differences in tissue perfusion, composition, and metabolic capacity. Following IV administration to dams, placental transfer was observed for aglycone BPA into fetuses at several gestational days (GD), with fetal/maternal serum ratios of 2.7 at GD 12, 1.2 at GD 16, and 0.4 at GD 20; the corresponding ratios for conjugated BPA were 0.43, 0.65, and 3.7. These ratios were within the ranges observed in adult tissues and were not indicative of preferential accumulation of aglycone BPA or hydrolysis of conjugates in fetal tissue in vivo. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in GD 20 fetal brain were higher than in liver or serum. Oral administration of the same dose did not produce measurable levels of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues. Amniotic fluid consistently contained levels of BPA at or below those in maternal serum. Concentrations of aglycone BPA in tissues of neonatal rats decreased with age in a manner consistent with the corresponding circulating levels. Phase II metabolism of BPA increased with fetal age such that near-term fetus was similar to early post-natal rats. These results show that concentrations of aglycone BPA in fetal tissues are similar to those in other maternal and neonatal tissues and that maternal Phase II metabolism, especially following oral

  6. Metabolic disposition of ivermectin in tissues of cattle, sheep, and rats

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, S.H.; Sestokas, E.; Taub, R.; Buhs, R.P.; Green, M.; Sestokas, R.; Vandenheuvel, W.J.; Arison, B.H.; Jacob, T.A.

    1986-09-01

    The metabolic disposition of ivermectin, a new antiparasitic drug, has been studied in cattle, sheep, and also in rats dosed with the drug labeled with tritium in the C-22,23 positions. In the edible tissues of these animals, the unaltered drug was the major tissue residue component and was quantitated by HPLC-reverse isotope dilution assay. The depletion half-lives of the drug ranged between 1 and 6 days, similar to those of the total tissue residue in these species. Most metabolites present in the liver tissues were more polar than the parent drug. Based on spectral (NMR, mass spectrometric) analysis and chromatographic comparison with authentic compounds prepared by in vitro rat or steer microsomal incubations, three of these metabolites have been isolated and identified as the hydroxylation derivatives of ivermectin, i.e. 24-hydroxymethyl-H/sub 2/B1a, its monosaccharide, and 24-hydroxymethyl-H/sub 2/B1b.

  7. [Cultivation and morphological characteristics of rat adipose tissue-derived vascular endothelial cells in vitro].

    PubMed

    Lin, Yunfeng; Chen, Xizhe; Tian, Weidong; Yan, Zhengbin; Zheng, Xiaohui

    2006-08-01

    The subcutaneous adipose tissue from the inguen of four Sprague-Dawley rats was obtained, then digested with one volume of collagenase type I and cultured with BGJb medium. The obtained adipose stromal cells were induced in human endothelial-SFM for 7 d. The cells were observed under inverted microscope every day and identified by transmission electron microscope and immunocytochemical staining with factor VIII antigen. The results showed the induced cells uniformly had characteristic cobblestone morphology of endothelial cells. Factor VIII antigen staining was positive in cytoplasm. Under transmission electron microscope, the cells displayed many finger like microvilli and numerous lysosomes, mitochondria, a few coarse endoplasmic reticulum and Weibel-Palade bodies. The characteristics of the rat adipose tissue-derived endothelial cells were consistent with those of vascular endothelial cells derived from other tissues. It seems that subcutaneous adipose tissue may represent a new alternative source of endogenous vascular endothelial cells.

  8. Rats retain chromium in tissues following chronic ingestion of drinking water containing hexavalent chromium.

    PubMed

    Sutherland, J E; Zhitkovich, A; Kluz, T; Costa, M

    2000-04-01

    Humans have sometimes been exposed to as much as 10 ppm Cr(VI) in drinking water from contaminated wells. The risks to these individuals are not well understood because the digestive tract reduces some of the Cr(VI) to the less bioavailable Cr(III) prior to absorption, and the disposition of the remaining Cr(VI) has not been well studied. We determined tissue Cr concentrations in rats after chronic ingestion of Cr(VI) in drinking water at concentrations relevant to human exposure levels. Adult male and female Fischer 344 rats consumed ad libitum 0, 0.5, 3, or 10 ppm Cr(VI) as K2CrO4 in drinking water for 44 wk. Rats then were given deionized water 4-6 d prior to sample collection. Females given 3 or 10 ppm Cr(VI) consumed more Cr(VI) per unit of body weight than did males. Bone Cr concentrations were significantly elevated in rats that drank 10 ppm Cr(VI). Renal Cr concentrations were significantly elevated in male rats that drank 3 or 10 ppm Cr(VI) and in female rats dosed with 10 ppm Cr(VI). Female rats had elevated liver Cr concentrations after drinking 3 or 10 ppm Cr(VI). Testicular Cr concentrations were slightly elevated in rats that drank 10 ppm Cr(VI). Brain, ovarian, and whole-blood Cr concentrations were below detection limits in all exposure groups. Although tissue Cr accumulation may have resulted from absorption of Cr(III), it is poorly absorbed. Therefore, the increased tissue retention may also have resulted, in part, from increased absorption of Cr(VI) and its subsequent uptake from the systemic circulation.

  9. Distribution of 3H-nicotine in rat tissues under the influence of simulated microgravity.

    PubMed

    Chowdhury, P; Soulsby, M E; Pasley, J N

    1999-06-01

    Rat tail suspension offers a useful model to reproduce physiologic responses to weightlessness. The present study was conducted in the head-down-tilt (HDT) rat model to assess changes in metabolism of body tissues employing 3H-nicotine. Twelve male rats were used in the study. Half of the rats were tail suspended at 30 degrees for two weeks on a 12/12 light/dark cycle. During this period, body weight, food and fluid intakes were measured. At term, animals were anesthetized and injected i.v. with a solution containing 4 microcuries of nicotine. After 90 min the animals were sacrificed, exsanguinated and tissues (brain, blood, trachea, salivary gland, lung, heart, esophagus, spleen, kidneys and testes) were harvested. The distribution of 3H-nicotine per gram of each tissue was determined and calculated as percent of total injected radioactivity. Final body weights of suspended animals were significantly (P < 0.05) lower than those of controls (309 +/- 21 vs 350 +/- 11 g). 3H-Nicotine was retained in greatest amounts by the kidneys, followed in order by salivary glands, spleen, and gastrointestinal tissues. Compared to non-suspended control, the tissue retention of nicotine in suspended animals was decreased in the following tissues: esophagus (25%), aorta (25%), fundus (25%), trachea (22%), adrenals (18%), spleen (17%), and pancreas (12%). The decreased retention of nicotine in tissues from suspended animals may be indicative of the fluid shifts and changes in blood flow to those tissue beds. The lack of differences in nicotine retention in liver and kidney between control and suspended groups may implicate a normal metabolic function of these organs even under simulated weightlessness.

  10. Interaction between heat acclimation and exogenous insulin in brown adipose tissue of rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, H.; Yamashita, H.; Sato, N.; Habara, Y.; Gasa, S.; Nagasawa, J.; Sato, Y.; Ishikawa, M.; Segawa, M.; Yamamoto, M.

    1992-09-01

    Seventy-one male Wistar strain rats (7 weeks old) were kept at 5, 25, or 34° C, respectively, for 2 weeks with or without insulin administration. Insulin (Novo Lente MC) was given subcutaneously in a dose of 3.62 nmol/125 µl saline per 100 g body weight. An apparent effect of insulin treatment was noted only in heat-exposed rats, resulting in a remarkable gain in inter-scapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) mass of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight. The BAT from heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats had significantly higher levels of protein, DNA, RNA, and triglyceride than BAT from heat-acclimated, saline-treated rats. Therefore, it seems likely that the growth of BAT in heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats was mostly due to the anabolic effects of insulin. The uncoupling protein mRNA was, however, present in BAT of heat-acclimated, insulin-treated rats at rather a depressed level, explaining a corresponding decrease in cold tolerance. On the other hand, the expression of insulin receptor mRNA was attenuated in BAT of rats from all the insulin-treated groups, possibly due to the down-regulation of insulin. Thus, there appeared to be some linkage among BAT, heat acclimation, and insulin.

  11. Tissue distribution of hydrazine and its metabolites in rats.

    PubMed

    Kaneo, Y; Iguchi, S; Kubo, H; Iwagiri, N; Matsuyama, K

    1984-08-01

    The tissue distribution and the urinary excretion of hydrazines, hydrazine, acetylhydrazine and 1,2-diacetylhydrazine, were determined by mass fragmentography using a gas chromatography-mass spectrometer equipped with a multiple ion detector-peak matcher. Using the compounds labeled with a stable isotope as an internal standard, namely the isotope dilution method, made it possible to estimate trace amounts of hydrazine and its metabolites in the tissues. Significantly high levels of all hydrazines were detected in the kidney. Especially, acetylhydrazine, a metabolite of hydrazine, accumulated to a great extent in the kidney. Free hydrazine which was liberated from acetylhydrazine was detected both in the tissues and in the urine after the administration of acetylhydrazine. This demonstrates clearly that the metabolic pathway between hydrazine and acetylhydrazine is reversible.

  12. In vivo effects of T-2 mycotoxin on synthesis of proteins and DNA in rat tissues

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, W.L.; Wannemacher, R.W. Jr. )

    1990-09-15

    Rats were given an ip injection of T-2 mycotoxin (T-2), the T-2 metabolite, T-2 tetraol (tetraol), or cycloheximide. Serum, liver, heart, kidney, spleen, muscle, and intestine were collected at 3, 6, and 9 hr postinjection after a 2-hr pulse at each time with (14C)leucine and (3H)thymidine. Protein and DNA synthesis levels in rats were determined by dual-label counting of the acid-precipitable fraction of tissue homogenates. Rats given a lethal dose of T-2, tetraol, or cycloheximide died between 14 and 20 hr. Maximum inhibition of protein synthesis at the earliest time period was observed in additional rats given the same lethal dose of the three treatments and continued for the duration of the study (9 hr). With sublethal doses of T-2 or tetraol, the same early decrease in protein synthesis was observed but, in most of the tissues, recovery was seen with time. In the T-2-treated rats. DNA synthesis in the six tissues studied was also suppressed, although to a lesser degree. With sublethal doses, complete recovery of DNA synthesis took place in four of the six tissues by 9 hr after toxin exposure. The appearance of newly translated serum proteins did not occur in the animals treated with T-2 mycotoxin or cycloheximide, as evidenced by total and PCA-soluble serum levels of labeled leucine. An increase in tissue-pool levels of free leucine and thymidine in response to T-2 mycotoxin was also noted. T-2 mycotoxin, its metabolite, T-2 tetraol, and cycloheximide cause a rapid inhibition of protein and DNA synthesis in all tissue types studied. These results are compared with the responses seen in in vitro studies.

  13. Rice bran enzymatic extract-supplemented diets modulate adipose tissue inflammation markers in Zucker rats.

    PubMed

    Candiracci, Manila; Justo, Maria Luisa; Castaño, Angelica; Rodriguez-Rodriguez, Rosalia; Herrera, Maria Dolores

    2014-04-01

    Chronic low-grade inflammation in obesity is characterized by macrophage accumulation in white adipose tissue and adipokine production deregulation. Obesity also is characterized by oxidative stress related to inflammatory signaling. The aim of this study was to analyze whether dietary supplementation with a rice bran enzymatic extract (RBEE), rich in bioactive compounds with antioxidant and hypocholesterolemic properties, would ameliorate the inflammatory state existing in visceral adipose tissue of obese Zucker rats. Obese Zucker rats and their littermate controls, lean Zucker rats ages 8 wk, were daily fed an enriched diet with either 1% or 5% RBEE supplementation over 20 wk. Measurement of adipocyte size and mRNA expression of proinflammatory molecules from visceral abdominal/epididymal tissue was performed. An RBEE-supplemented diet decreased the overproduction of tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin (IL)-6, IL-1 β, and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS), as well as the overproduction of IL-6 and iNOs in visceral abdominal adipose tissue and visceral epididymal adipose tissue, respectively. An RBEE-supplemented diet modified the adipocyte-size distribution pattern in both abdominal and epididymal adipose tissue, shifting it toward smaller cell sizes. Chronic administration of a novel water-soluble RBEE, rich in polyphenols, tocotrienols and γ-oryzanol, could be a suitable treatment to ameliorate the obesity-associated proinflammatory response. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Biokinetics of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies in heterotransplanted nude rats: Evaluation of corrected specific tissue uptake

    SciTech Connect

    Ingvar, C.; Norrgren, K.; Strand, S.E.; Brodin, T.; Joensson, P.E.S.; Sjoegren, H.O. )

    1989-07-01

    A tumor model is presented to study the biokinetics and localization of radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies (MAb) in the nude rat (Rowett RNu/RNu) heterotransplanted with human melanoma metastases. The nude rat is larger, less sensitive, and lives longer than the nude mouse. It is, therefore, well suited for in vivo studies of tumor localization with radiolabeled monoclonal antibodies. The tumor-to-host weight ratio was closer to the human situation for the nude rat than for the mouse, and quantitative imaging could be performed with a parallel hole collimator. We followed the antibody biokinetics for as long as 8 days, with repeated blood sampling and imaging. Specific uptake of MAb was higher in tumor tissue than in all other tissues except blood. Initial high uptake was also recorded in the bone marrow. The lymph glands showed a slow uptake of specific and control antibody. A simple in vitro correction procedure is described to calculate the corrected specific tissue uptake (STUcorr) that takes the blood activity into account. Thus it was shown that 80% of the tissue uptake in the dissected liver at 30 hr was due to labeled antibodies circulating in the blood. The specific tissue uptake ratio of antibodies 96.5 and OKT3 (nonspecific control) was unity for all other organs except for tumor tissue, where the ratio was greater than two and even higher when correction for blood content of labeled antibody was made.

  15. Periodontal tissue reaction during orthodontic relapse in rat molars.

    PubMed

    Franzen, Tanya J; Brudvik, Pongsri; Vandevska-Radunovic, Vaska

    2013-04-01

    Relapse after orthodontic tooth movement (OTM) is an undesirable outcome that involves a number of factors. This study investigated the remodelling of the alveolar bone and related periodontal structures during orthodontic relapse in rat molars. The maxillary right first molars of 35 Wistar rats were moved mesially by a fixed orthodontic appliance for 10 days and the contralateral molars served as controls. The appliances were removed and six animals killed. The molars were allowed to relapse, and the remaining animals were sacrificed at 1, 3, 5, 7, 14, and 21 days. The jaws were sectioned and stained with haematoxylin and eosin and tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRAP). One day after appliance removal, the molars relapsed to a mean 62.5 per cent of the achieved OTM and then steadily relapsed to 86.1 per cent at 21 days. The number of osteoclasts situated along the alveolar bone of the first molars was highest at the end of active treatment and significantly decreased during the relapse period. In the OTM group, osteoclasts were most numerous in the pressure side of the periodontal ligament (PDL). As the molars relapsed over time, the osteoclast distribution shifted, and after 7 days of relapse, TRAP-positive cells were registered in previous pressure and tension sides of the first molars. After 21 days, these cells were concentrated in the distal parts of the PDL of all three maxillary right molars. These results indicate that orthodontic relapse in the rat model occurs rapidly and remodelling of the alveolar bone and PDL plays a central role in the relapse processes of both actively moved and adjacent teeth.

  16. Tissue fluid shift, forelimb loading, and tail tension in tail-suspended rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Hargens, A. R.; Steskal, J.; Johansson, C.; Tipton, C. M.

    1984-01-01

    The tail suspension model (head-down tilt) simulates hypogravity in terms of musculoskeletal loss in the rat. However, little is known of tissue fluid shifts and body weight distribution in this model. Tissue fluid pressures were measured by wick catheters in 12 Munich-Wistar rats before, during, and after 48 hrs of tail suspension (about 30 deg head-down tilt). Subcutaneous tissue fluid pressure in the neck increased from -2.2 + or - 0.4 (normal horizontal position) to +4.0 + or - 1.5 cm H2O during tail suspension, indicating a cephalic fluid shift and significant edema during head-down tilt. In a separate study, six rats were suspended at 30-70 deg, and forelimb load and tail tension were measured by a balance and force transducer, respectively. Approximately 50 percent of body weight (BW) was loaded on forelimbs at a head-down tilt angle of 30 deg and forelimb load declined linearly to 10 percent BW at 70 deg. Furthermore, tail tension increased from 50 percent BW at 30 deg to 85 percent BW at 70 deg. These results indicate that less than normal loads are applied to forelimbs of rats suspended at angles of less than 30 deg and that the tail bears an increasing proportion of the rat's body weight at head-down tilt angles of less than 30 deg.

  17. Metformin Ameliorates Podocyte Damage by Restoring Renal Tissue Podocalyxin Expression in Type 2 Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Zhai, Limin; Gu, Junfei; Yang, Di; Wang, Wei; Ye, Shandong

    2015-01-01

    Podocalyxin (PCX) is a signature molecule of the glomerular podocyte and of maintaining integrity of filtration function of glomerulus. The aim of this study was to observe the effect of different doses of metformin on renal tissue PCX expression in type 2 diabetic rats and clarify its protection on glomerular podocytes. Type 2 diabetic Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats in which diabetes was induced by high-fat diet/streptozotocin (HFD-STZ) were treated with different doses of metformin (150, 300, and 500 mg/kg per day, resp.) for 8 weeks. Various biochemical parameters, kidney histopathology, and renal tissue PCX expression levels were examined. In type 2 diabetic rats, severe hyperglycemia and hyperlipidemia were developed. Urinary albumin and PCX were markedly increased. Diabetes induced significant alterations in renal glomerular structure. In addition, protein and mRNA expression of renal tissue PCX were highly decreased. However, treatment of rats with different doses of metformin restored all these changes to a varying degree. These results suggested that metformin can ameliorate glomerular podocyte damage in type 2 diabetic rats, which may be partly associated with its role in restoring PCX expression and inhibiting urinary excretion of PCX with dose dependence. PMID:26075281

  18. The effect of Mentha spicata Labiatae on uterine tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Güney, Mehmet; Oral, Baha; Karahanli, Nermin; Mungan, Tamer; Akdogan, Mehmet

    2006-09-01

    The plant Mentha spicata, or peppermint, is commonly used in the treatment of loss of appetite, common cold, bronchitis, sinusitis, fever, nausea and vomiting, and indigestion as a herbal agent. In this study, we aimed to investigate the biochemical and histological effects of M. spicata Labiatae, growing on the Anamas high plateau of Yenisarbademli town, on rat uterine tissue. Twenty female Wistar albino rats weighing 160+/-10 g were used for this study. Rats were divided into two groups of ten animals: group I received no herbal tea (control group) and group II received 20 g/L M. spicata tea. Control group rats were given commercial drinking water (Hayat DANONESA water). Herbal tea was prepared daily and provided at all times to the rats over 30 days as drinking water. Plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were determined. In addition, uterine tissues were submitted for histopathologic examination. MDA levels were increased in group II when compared with the control group. The difference between group II and the control group was statistically significant (P<0.01). In the M. spicata Labiatae-treated group, histopathological changes like apoptosis and diffuse eosinophil leucocyte infiltration in surface and stromal glandular epithelium were observed in both endometrium and endocervix. It was concluded that lipid peroxidation and uterine damage occurs after M. spicata administration in rat uterus. Despite the beneficial effects of M. spicata Labiatae in indigestion, we should also be aware of the toxic effects when it is not used in the recommended fashion, at the recommended dose.

  19. Effect of adipose tissue-derived stem cell injection in a rat model of urethral fibrosis

    PubMed Central

    Sangkum, Premsant; Yafi, Faysal A.; Kim, Hogyoung; Bouljihad, Mostafa; Ranjan, Manish; Datta, Amrita; Mandava, Sree Harsha; Sikka, Suresh C; Abdel-Mageed, Asim B.; Hellstrom, Wayne J.G.

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: We sought to evaluate the therapeutic effect of adi-pose tissue-derived stem cells (ADSCs) in a rat model of urethral fibrosis. Methods: Eighteen (18) male Sprague-Dawley rats (300‒350 g) were divided into three groups: (1) sham (saline injection); (2) urethral fibrosis group (10 μg transforming growth factor beta 1 (TGF-β1) injection); and (3) ADSCs group (10 μg TGF-β1 injection plus 2 × 105 ADSCs). Rat ADSCs were harvested from rat inguinal fat pads. All study animals were euthanized at two weeks after urethral injection. Following euthanasia, rat urethral tissue was harvested for histologic evaluation. Type I and III collagen levels were quantitated by Western blot analysis. Results: TGF-β1 injection induced significant urethral fibrosis and increased collagen type I and III expression (p<0.05). Significant decrease in submucosal fibrosis and collagen type I and III expression were noted in the ADSCs group compared with the urethral fibrosis group (p<0.05). TGF-β1 induced fibrotic changes were ameliorated by injection of ADSCs. Conclusions: Local injection of ADSCs in a rat model of urethral fibrosis significantly decreased collagen type I and III. These findings suggest that ADSC injection may prevent scar formation and potentially serve as an adjunct treatment to increase the success rate of primary treatment for urethral stricture disease. Further animal and clinical studies are needed to confirm these results. PMID:27790299

  20. Biopersistence of silver nanoparticles in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Lee, Ji Hyun; Kim, Yong Soon; Song, Kyung Seuk; Ryu, Hyun Ryol; Sung, Jae Hyuck; Park, Jung Duck; Park, Hyun Min; Song, Nam Woong; Shin, Beom Soo; Marshak, Daniel; Ahn, Kangho; Lee, Ji Eun; Yu, Il Je

    2013-08-01

    Silver nanoparticles are known to be distributed in many tissues after oral or inhalation exposure. Thus, understanding the tissue clearance of such distributed nanoparticles is very important to understand the behavior of silver nanoparticles in vivo. For risk assessment purposes, easy clearance indicates a lower overall cumulative toxicity. Accordingly, to investigate the clearance of tissue silver concentrations following oral silver nanoparticle exposure, Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned to 3 groups: control, low dose (100 mg/kg body weight), and high dose (500 mg/kg body weight), and exposed to two different sizes of silver nanoparticles (average diameter 10 and 25 nm) over 28 days. Thereafter, the rats were allowed to recover for 4 months. Regardless of the silver nanoparticle size, the silver content in most tissues gradually decreased during the 4-month recovery period, indicating tissue clearance of the accumulated silver. The exceptions were the silver concentrations in the brain and testes, which did not clear well, even after the 4-month recovery period, indicating an obstruction in transporting the accumulated silver out of these tissues. Therefore, the results showed that the size of the silver nanoparticles did not affect their tissue distribution. Furthermore, biological barriers, such as the blood-brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, seemed to play an important role in the silver clearance from these tissues.

  1. Biopersistence of silver nanoparticles in tissues from Sprague–Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    2013-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles are known to be distributed in many tissues after oral or inhalation exposure. Thus, understanding the tissue clearance of such distributed nanoparticles is very important to understand the behavior of silver nanoparticles in vivo. For risk assessment purposes, easy clearance indicates a lower overall cumulative toxicity. Accordingly, to investigate the clearance of tissue silver concentrations following oral silver nanoparticle exposure, Sprague–Dawley rats were assigned to 3 groups: control, low dose (100 mg/kg body weight), and high dose (500 mg/kg body weight), and exposed to two different sizes of silver nanoparticles (average diameter 10 and 25 nm) over 28 days. Thereafter, the rats were allowed to recover for 4 months. Regardless of the silver nanoparticle size, the silver content in most tissues gradually decreased during the 4-month recovery period, indicating tissue clearance of the accumulated silver. The exceptions were the silver concentrations in the brain and testes, which did not clear well, even after the 4-month recovery period, indicating an obstruction in transporting the accumulated silver out of these tissues. Therefore, the results showed that the size of the silver nanoparticles did not affect their tissue distribution. Furthermore, biological barriers, such as the blood–brain barrier and blood-testis barrier, seemed to play an important role in the silver clearance from these tissues. PMID:24059869

  2. Establishment of a novel rat model for deep tissue injury deterioration.

    PubMed

    Sari, Yunita; Minematsu, Takeo; Huang, Lijuan; Noguchi, Hiroshi; Mori, Taketoshi; Nakagami, Gojiro; Nagase, Takashi; Oe, Makoto; Sugama, Junko; Yoshimura, Kotaro; Sanada, Hiromi

    2015-04-01

    Deep tissue injuries (DTIs) can become significant problems because of their rapid deterioration into deep pressure ulcers. Presently, no animal model of DTI deterioration has been developed. By concentrating pressure and shear stress in deep tissues while minimising pressure and shear stress in the overlying skin, we produced an effective rat model of DTI deterioration. Two-dimensional finite element method (FEM) simulated the distribution of pressure and shear stress under several pressure-loading conditions. FEM showed that concentrated shear stress in deep tissue with minimum shear stress in the overlying skin could be created by using a prominence and a cushion, respectively. On the basis of the results of FEM analysis, we selected suitable conditions for testing the rat DTI deterioration model. The compressed area was macroscopically observed until day 13, and histopathologic analysis via haematoxylin and eosin (H&E) staining was performed on days 3, 7 and 13. H&E staining showed that the distribution of tissue damage was similar to the predicted FEM results. Deep ulceration and tissue damage extending from deep tissues to the overlying skin and surrounding tissues were observed in the DTI deterioration model, which are similar to the clinical manifestations of DTI deterioration. In conclusion, a representative DTI deterioration model was established by concentrating high shear stress in deep tissues while minimising shear stress in the overlying skin. This model will allow a better understanding of the mechanisms behind DTI deterioration and the development of preventative strategies.

  3. Changes in gas exchange, tissue respiration and glycolysis in rats during hypokinesia

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zorya, L. V.

    1980-01-01

    The results of an experiment which studied changes in oxygen balance under conditions of hypokinesia in rats is presented. The effect of the stress during hypokinesia is expressed most clearly in the changes of general gas exchange, and in the intensity of liver and myocardial tissue respiration.

  4. Extraction and Quantification of Carbon Nanotubes in Biological Matrices with Application to Rat Lung Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Doudrick, Kyle; Corson, Nancy; Oberdörster, Günter; Elder, Alison; Herckes, Pierre; Halden, Rolf U.; Westerhoff, Paul

    2013-01-01

    Extraction of carbon nanotubes (CNTs) from biological matrices such as rat lung tissue is integral to developing a quantification method for evaluating the environmental and human health exposure and toxicity of CNTs. The ability of various chemical treatment methods, including Solvable (2.5% sodium hydroxide/surfactant mixture), ammonium hydroxide, nitric acid, sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, hydrofluoric acid, hydrogen peroxide, and proteinase K, to extract CNTs from rat lung tissue was evaluated. CNTs were quantified using programmed thermal analysis (PTA). Two CNTs were used to represent the lower (500°C) and upper (800°C) PTA limit of CNT thermal stability. The recovery efficiency of each of the eight chemical reagents evaluated was found to depend on the ability to (1) minimize oxidation of CNTs, (2) remove interfering background carbon from the rat lung tissue, and (3) separate the solid-phase CNTs from the liquid-phase dissolved tissue via centrifugation. A two-step extraction method using Solvable and proteinase K emerged as the optimal approach, enabling a recovery of 98 ± 15% of a 2.9 ± 0.19 µg CNT loading that was spiked into whole rat lungs. Due to its high yield and applicability to low organ burdens of nanomaterials, this extraction method is particularly well suited for in vivo studies to quantify clearance rates and retained CNTs in lungs and other organs. PMID:23992048

  5. Roles of Fatty Acid Oversupply and Impaired Oxidation in Lipid Accumulation in Tissues of Obese Rats

    PubMed Central

    Oakes, Nicholas D.; Kjellstedt, Ann; Thalén, Pia; Ljung, Bengt; Turner, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    To test the roles of lipid oversupply versus oxidation in causing tissue lipid accumulation associated with insulin resistance/obesity, we studied in vivo fatty acid (FA) metabolism in obese (Obese) and lean (Lean) Zucker rats. Indices of local FA utilization and storage were calculated using the partially metabolizable [9,10-3H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate (3H-R-BrP) and [U-14C]-palmitate (14C-P) FA tracers, respectively. Whole-body FA appearance (R a) was estimated from plasma 14C-P kinetics. Whole-body FA oxidation rate (R ox) was assessed using 3H2O production from 3H-palmitate infusion, and tissue FA oxidative capacity was evaluated ex vivo. In the basal fasting state Obese had markedly elevated FA levels and R a, associated with elevated FA utilization and storage in most tissues. Estimated rates of muscle FA oxidation were not lower in obese rats and were similarly enhanced by contraction in both lean and obese groups. At comparable levels of FA availability, achieved by nicotinic acid, R ox was lower in Obese than Lean. In Obese rats, FA oxidative capacity was 35% higher than that in Lean in skeletal muscle, 67% lower in brown fat and comparable in other organs. In conclusion, lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues of obese Zucker rats appears to result largely from systemic FA oversupply. PMID:23762564

  6. Roles of Fatty Acid oversupply and impaired oxidation in lipid accumulation in tissues of obese rats.

    PubMed

    Oakes, Nicholas D; Kjellstedt, Ann; Thalén, Pia; Ljung, Bengt; Turner, Nigel

    2013-01-01

    To test the roles of lipid oversupply versus oxidation in causing tissue lipid accumulation associated with insulin resistance/obesity, we studied in vivo fatty acid (FA) metabolism in obese (Obese) and lean (Lean) Zucker rats. Indices of local FA utilization and storage were calculated using the partially metabolizable [9,10-(3)H]-(R)-2-bromopalmitate ((3)H-R-BrP) and [U-(14)C]-palmitate ((14)C-P) FA tracers, respectively. Whole-body FA appearance (R a ) was estimated from plasma (14)C-P kinetics. Whole-body FA oxidation rate (R ox) was assessed using (3)H2O production from (3)H-palmitate infusion, and tissue FA oxidative capacity was evaluated ex vivo. In the basal fasting state Obese had markedly elevated FA levels and R a , associated with elevated FA utilization and storage in most tissues. Estimated rates of muscle FA oxidation were not lower in obese rats and were similarly enhanced by contraction in both lean and obese groups. At comparable levels of FA availability, achieved by nicotinic acid, R ox was lower in Obese than Lean. In Obese rats, FA oxidative capacity was 35% higher than that in Lean in skeletal muscle, 67% lower in brown fat and comparable in other organs. In conclusion, lipid accumulation in non-adipose tissues of obese Zucker rats appears to result largely from systemic FA oversupply.

  7. Pixe analysis of trace elements in tissues of rats treated with anticonvulsants

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Hurd, R. W.; Van Rinsvelt, H. A.; Kinyua, A. M.; O'Neill, M. P.; Wilder, B. J.; Houdayer, A.; Hinrichsen, P. F.

    1987-04-01

    Several lines of evidence implicate metals in epilepsy. Anticonvulsant drugs are noted to alter levels of metals in humans and animals. PIXE analysis was used to investigate effects of three anticonvulsant drugs on tissue and brain cortex trace elements. The content of zinc and copper was increased in liver and spleen of rats treated with anticonvulsants while selenium was decreased in cortex.

  8. Comparison of hemp and cotton fiber implants in muscle rat tissue. Study of the inflammatory response.

    PubMed

    Dorfman, S; Dorfman, D; Leonardi, R; Maroso, J; Cardozo, J; Durán, A

    1994-03-01

    Hemp fiber is obtained from the plant Musa textilis. The cost of preparation of its raw fibers is low. The purpose of this paper was to compare the inflammatory response in the rat muscle tissue originated by both hemp and cotton fibers. Both types of fibers, were implanted in gluteal muscles of Sprague Dawley rats. The rats were sacrificed at 15, 30 and 60 postoperative days. Muscle tissue sections were stained with hematoxilyneosin. The inflammatory response was measured by subtracting the suture surface area from the total granulomatous area. At 15 days, the inflammatory response was more conspicuous for hemp than for cotton fiber (P < 0.05). At 30 and 60 days, responses were similar (P > 0.05). We cannot conclude that the hemp fiber is superior to cotton, nevertheless, they behave the same. Therefore, hemp constitutes an alternative as suture material.

  9. Tissue distribution comparison between healthy and fatty liver rats after oral administration of hawthorn leaf extract.

    PubMed

    Yin, Jingjing; Qu, Jianguo; Zhang, Wenjie; Lu, Dongrui; Gao, Yucong; Ying, Xixiang; Kang, Tingguo

    2014-05-01

    Hawthorn leaves, a well-known traditional Chinese medicine, have been widely used for treating cardiovascular and fatty liver diseases. The present study aimed to investigate the therapeutic basis treating fatty liver disease by comparing the tissue distribution of six compounds of hawthorn leaf extract (HLE) in fatty liver rats and healthy rats after oral administration at first day, half month and one month, separately. Therefore, a sensitive and specific HPLC method with internal standard was developed and validated to determine chlorogenic acid, vitexin-4''-O-glucoside, vitexin-2''-O-rhamnoside, vitexin, rutin and hyperoside in the tissues including heart, liver, spleen, kidney, stomach and intestine. The results indicated that the six compounds in HLE presented some bioactivity in treating rat fatty liver as the concentrations of the six compounds varied significantly in inter- and intragroup comparisons (healthy and/or fatty liver group).

  10. The effect of artificial gravity on plasma and tissue lipids in rats: The Cosmos 936 experiment

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ahlers, I.; Praslička, M.; Tigranyan, R. A.

    Plasma and tissue lipids in male SPF Wistar rats flown for 18.5 days aboard the Cosmos 936 biosatellite were analyzed. One group of rats was subjected to artificial gravity by use of a centrifuge during the flight. An experiment simulating known space flight factors other than weightlessness was done on Earth. An increase of total cholesterol in plasma, of nonesterified fatty acids in plasma and brown adipose tissue, of triacylglycerols in plasma, liver, thymus and bone marrow was noted several hours after biosatellite landing. Smaller changes were observed in the terrestrial control experiment. With the exception of triacylglycerol accumulation in bone marrow, these increases disappeared 25 days after biosatellite landing. Exposing the rats aboard the biosatellite to artificial gravity was beneficial in the sense that such exposure inhibited the phospholipid and triacylglycerol increase in plasma and inhibited the increase of triacylglycerol in liver and especially in bone marrow.

  11. Perfusion assessment in rat spinal cord tissue using photoplethysmography and laser Doppler flux measurements

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Phillips, Justin P.; Cibert-Goton, Vincent; Langford, Richard M.; Shortland, Peter J.

    2013-03-01

    Animal models are widely used to investigate the pathological mechanisms of spinal cord injury (SCI), most commonly in rats. It is well known that compromised blood flow caused by mechanical disruption of the vasculature can produce irreversible damage and cell death in hypoperfused tissue regions and spinal cord tissue is particularly susceptible to such damage. A fiberoptic photoplethysmography (PPG) probe and instrumentation system were used to investigate the practical considerations of making measurements from rat spinal cord and to assess its suitability for use in SCI models. Experiments to assess the regional perfusion of exposed spinal cord in anesthetized adult rats using both PPG and laser Doppler flowmetry (LDF) were performed. It was found that signals could be obtained reliably from all subjects, although considerable intersite and intersubject variability was seen in the PPG signal amplitude compared to LDF. We present results from 30 measurements in five subjects, the two methods are compared, and practical application to SCI animal models is discussed.

  12. Effect of dietary manganese on tissue antioxidants in STZ diabetic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Thompson, K.H.; Lee, M. )

    1991-03-15

    The objective of this experiment was to investigate the effect of Mn deficiency on tissue antioxidant levels under conditions of STZ (streptozotocin)-induced diabetes. Weanling, male Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned randomly to 1 of 6 groups: (1) Mn+ (manganese-sufficient), nondiabetic; (2) Mn{minus} (manganese-deficient), nondiabetic; (3) Mn+, diabetic for 4 weeks; (4) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 4 weeks; (5) Mn+, diabetic for 8 weeks; and (6) Mn{minus}, diabetic for 8 weeks. Decreased Mn levels in all tissues of Mn{minus} rats were accompanied by decreased MnSOD activity in kidney and heart, but not in liver or pancreas. Hepatic vitamin E was progressively increased in 4 and 8-week diabetic rats. Overall, diabetogenic effects of STZ were not amplified by manganese deficiency.

  13. A study of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gaull, Gerald E.; Gaitonde, M. K.

    1967-01-01

    1. In a study of the metabolism of l-[35S]methionine in vivo, the labelled sulphur compounds of rat liver and brain were separated first by ion-exchange chromatography into two fractions containing (i) free sulphur amino acids such as methionine, cystathionine, cyst(e)ine and homocyst(e)ine and (ii) glutathione. 2. Two-dimensional paper chromatography with butan-1-ol–acetic acid or propionic acid–water in the first direction and 80% acetone or acetone–ethyl methyl ketone–water in the second direction was found superior to other solvent systems for separating the sulphur amino acids. 3. At 10min. after injection of [35S]methionine only a small part of the 35S was found combined in free methionine or other free sulphur amino acids. 4. Evidence was obtained of the presence of adenosyl[35S]methionine and adenosyl[35S]homocysteine in perchloric acid extracts of rat liver and brain. 5. The trans-sulphuration pathway was active in brain as well as in liver. PMID:6030290

  14. Iron supplementation at high altitudes induces inflammation and oxidative injury to lung tissues in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Salama, Samir A.; Omar, Hany A.; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A.; AlSaeed, Mohammed S.; EL-Tarras, Adel E.

    2014-01-01

    Exposure to high altitudes is associated with hypoxia and increased vulnerability to oxidative stress. Polycythemia (increased number of circulating erythrocytes) develops to compensate the high altitude associated hypoxia. Iron supplementation is, thus, recommended to meet the demand for the physiological polycythemia. Iron is a major player in redox reactions and may exacerbate the high altitudes-associated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to explore the potential iron-induced oxidative lung tissue injury in rats at high altitudes (6000 ft above the sea level). Iron supplementation (2 mg elemental iron/kg, once daily for 15 days) induced histopathological changes to lung tissues that include severe congestion, dilatation of the blood vessels, emphysema in the air alveoli, and peribronchial inflammatory cell infiltration. The levels of pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-1β, IL-6, and TNF-α), lipid peroxidation product and protein carbonyl content in lung tissues were significantly elevated. Moreover, the levels of reduced glutathione and total antioxidant capacity were significantly reduced. Co-administration of trolox, a water soluble vitamin E analog (25 mg/kg, once daily for the last 7 days of iron supplementation), alleviated the lung histological impairments, significantly decreased the pro-inflammatory cytokines, and restored the oxidative stress markers. Together, our findings indicate that iron supplementation at high altitudes induces lung tissue injury in rats. This injury could be mediated through excessive production of reactive oxygen species and induction of inflammatory responses. The study highlights the tissue injury induced by iron supplementation at high altitudes and suggests the co-administration of antioxidants such as trolox as protective measures. - Highlights: • Iron supplementation at high altitudes induced lung histological changes in rats. • Iron induced oxidative stress in lung tissues of rats at high altitudes. • Iron

  15. Bioavailability, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of the novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor tolsultazolamide in rats

    PubMed Central

    Wang, Jin-da; Shi, Yong-ping; Yin, Jing; Pan, Zhi-yuan; Cui, Wen-yu; Zhang, Yan-fang; Wang, Hai

    2014-01-01

    Aim: Tolsultazolamide, a novel carbonic anhydrase inhibitor, is designed for the prophylaxis and treatment of acute mountain sickness. The aim of this study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion characteristics of tolsultazolamide and the sex difference in pharmacokinetics in rats. Methods: For pharmacokinetic study, rats were intravenously injected tolsultazolamide at 1 and 2 mg/kg or orally administered tolsultazolamide at 20, 40, or 80 mg/kg) in a pharmacokinetic study. The concentrations of tolsultazolamide in plasma were determined with high-performance liquid chromatography, with a liquid–liquid extraction. For tissue distribution study, tolsultazolamide (80 mg/kg) was orally administered to overnight fasted rats (six per group and three per sex). Samples were collected from the brain, heart, lung, liver, spleen, muscle, kidney, stomach, fat, intestines, pancreas and sexual gland. For excretion study, tolsultazolamide (40 mg/kg) was orally administered to 6 rats (three per sex). The urine, feces, and bile samples were collected at 24, 48, and 72 h. Results: After its intravenous administration, tolsultazolamide was rapidly eliminated from the plasma, with T1/2 of about 60–90 min. The AUC0–t and the initial concentration (C0) values were proportional to the intravenous doses. After its oral administration, tolsultazolamide showed dose-independent pharmacokinetic characteristics, with Tmax and T1/2 of approximately 2 h and 5–7 h, respectively, and good oral absolute bioavailability of about 60%. Tolsultazolamide was distributed widely in various tissues. The highest tolsultazolamide levels were detected in the stomach, intestine, spleen, lung, and kidney. Total excretion of unchanged tolsultazolamide in the urine, feces, and bile was less than 2%. The Cmax and AUC of tolsultazolamide were significantly higher in female rats than those in male rats. Clearance and volume of distribution were greater in male rats than

  16. Adipose Tissue Deficiency and Chronic Inflammation in Diabetic Goto-Kakizaki Rats

    PubMed Central

    Xue, Bai; Sukumaran, Siddharth; Nie, Jing; Jusko, William J.; DuBois, Debra C.; Almon, Richard R.

    2011-01-01

    Type 2 diabetes (T2DM) is a heterogeneous group of diseases that is progressive and involves multiple tissues. Goto-Kakizaki (GK) rats are a polygenic model with elevated blood glucose, peripheral insulin resistance, a non-obese phenotype, and exhibit many degenerative changes observed in human T2DM. As part of a systems analysis of disease progression in this animal model, this study characterized the contribution of adipose tissue to pathophysiology of the disease. We sacrificed subgroups of GK rats and appropriate controls at 4, 8, 12, 16 and 20 weeks of age and carried out a gene array analysis of white adipose tissue. We expanded our physiological analysis of the animals that accompanied our initial gene array study on the livers from these animals. The expanded analysis included adipose tissue weights, HbA1c, additional hormonal profiles, lipid profiles, differential blood cell counts, and food consumption. HbA1c progressively increased in the GK animals. Altered corticosterone, leptin, and adiponectin profiles were also documented in GK animals. Gene array analysis identified 412 genes that were differentially expressed in adipose tissue of GKs relative to controls. The GK animals exhibited an age-specific failure to accumulate body fat despite their relatively higher calorie consumption which was well supported by the altered expression of genes involved in adipogenesis and lipogenesis in the white adipose tissue of these animals, including Fasn, Acly, Kklf9, and Stat3. Systemic inflammation was reflected by chronically elevated white blood cell counts. Furthermore, chronic inflammation in adipose tissue was evident from the differential expression of genes involved in inflammatory responses and activation of natural immunity, including two interferon regulated genes, Ifit and Iipg, as well as MHC class II genes. This study demonstrates an age specific failure to accumulate adipose tissue in the GK rat and the presence of chronic inflammation in adipose

  17. Antioxidant Effect of Sericin in Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Oxidative Stress Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats.

    PubMed

    Deori, Meetali; Devi, Dipali; Kumari, Sima; Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Sarma, Rahul; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE) from Antheraea assamensis in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w.)/day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control, high cholesterol fed (HCF), HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF), HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD), and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD). In brain, heart, liver, serum, and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC) brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC) excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies.

  18. Antioxidant Effect of Sericin in Brain and Peripheral Tissues of Oxidative Stress Induced Hypercholesterolemic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Deori, Meetali; Devi, Dipali; Kumari, Sima; Hazarika, Ankita; Kalita, Himadri; Sarma, Rahul; Devi, Rajlakshmi

    2016-01-01

    This study evaluated the antioxidant effect of crude sericin extract (CSE) from Antheraea assamensis in high cholesterol fed rats. Investigation was conducted by administering graded oral dose of 0.25 and 0.5 gm/kg body weight (b.w.)/day of CSE for a period of 28 days. Experiments were conducted in 30 rats and were divided into five groups: normal control, high cholesterol fed (HCF), HCF + 0.065 gm/kg b.w./day fenofibrate (FF), HCF + sericin 0.25 gm/kg b.w./day (LSD), and HCF + sericin 0.5 gm/kg b.w./day (HSD). In brain, heart, liver, serum, and kidney homogenates nitric oxide (NO), thiobarbituric acid reactive substances (TBARS), protein carbonyl content (PCC), superoxide dismutase, reduced glutathione (GSH) was measured. LSD treatment prevented the alterations in GSH and PCC levels in hypercholesterolemic (HyC) brain tissue homogenates of rats. CSE lowers the serum total cholesterol level in HyC rats by promoting fecal cholesterol (FC) excretion. CSE increases FC level by promoting inhibition of cholesterol absorption in intestine. The endogenous antioxidant reduced significantly and the oxidative stress marker TBARS level increases significantly in the peripheral tissue of HCF rats. However, the administration of LSD and HSD exhibited a good antioxidant activity by reducing the TBARS level and increasing the endogenous antioxidant in peripheral tissue. In addition, a histological examination revealed loss of normal liver and kidney architecture in cholesterol fed rats which were retained in sericin treated groups. The findings of this study suggested that CSE improves hypercholesterolemia in rats fed a HyC diet. Clinical relevance of this effect of CSE seems worthy of further studies. PMID:27695419

  19. Antioxidant peroxiredoxin 3 expression is regulated by 17beta-estradiol in rat white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Bauzá-Thorbrügge, Marco; M Galmés-Pascual, Bel; Sbert-Roig, Miquel; J García-Palmer, Francisco; Gianotti, Magdalena; M Proenza, Ana; Lladó, Isabel

    2017-09-01

    Peroxiredoxin 3 (PRX3) plays a role as a regulator of the adipocyte mitochondrial function due to its antioxidant activity. We have previously reported the existence of a sexual dimorphism in the mitochondrial oxidative stress status of many rat tissues such as white (WAT) and brown (BAT) adipose tissues. The aim was to elucidate whether sex hormones may play a role in PRX3 expression in the adipose tissues of rats. In in vivo experiments, male and female standard diet fed rats, high fat diet (HFD) fed rats and rosiglitazone-supplemented HFD (HDF+Rsg) fed rats, as well as ovariectomized (OVX) and 17beta-estradiol-supplemented OVX (OVX+E2) female rats were used. 3T3-L1 adipocytes and brown adipocyte primary culture were used to study the roles of both E2 and testosterone in in vitro experiments. PRX3 levels were greater in the WAT of female rats than in males. This sexual dimorphism disappeared by HFD feeding but was magnified with Rsg supplementation. PRX3 sexual dimorphism was not observed in BAT, and neither HFD nor ovariectomy modified PRX3 levels. Rsg increased Prx3 expression in the BAT of both sexes. In vitro studies supported the results obtained in vivo and confirmed the contribution of E2 to sex differences in WAT Prx3 expression. Finally, we reported an E2 upregulation of both PRX3 and thioredoxin 2 (TRX2) in WAT but not in BAT that could play a key role in the sex dimorphism reported in the antioxidant defence of WAT in order to palliate the detrimental effect of the oxidative stress. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  20. Age related changes in the antilipolytic effects of nicotinic acid in rat adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Caparrotta, L; Fassina, G; Gaion, R M; Tessari, F

    1983-12-01

    The effect of nicotinic acid on lipolysis was tested in vitro in adipose tissue from three groups of rats, selected according to age: 6-7 weeks, 10-12 weeks and 16-20 weeks old. Although the changes were not statistically significant, the basal release of free fatty acid (FFA) was increased and glycerol was decreased by nicotinic acid (0.01-1 mM); the drug caused a statistically significant increase in basal FFA: glycerol ratio in a concentration-dependent manner. This ratio also increased with age in the absence of drug. (-)-Noradrenaline (10 microM) and theophylline (3 mM) each stimulated lipolysis. When glycerol release was calculated as a percentage increase, the effects of these drugs became more marked with age. By contrast, the highest absolute rate of induced release occurred in adipose tissue from the youngest rats. The lipolytic effect of 10 microM (-)-noradrenaline was generally unaffected by nicotinic acid except in adipose tissue from the oldest rats when the glycerol release was reduced by 1 mM nicotinic acid, although it did not alter FFA:glycerol ratio. The stimulation of glycerol release induced by 3 mM theophylline was not affected by the presence of nicotinic acid in the youngest rats, but the drug elicited a concentration-dependent antilipolytic effect in adipose tissue from 10-12 weeks old rats, which was even more pronounced in the oldest animals. Lower theophylline concentrations (0.6-1 mM) were also sensitive to nicotinic acid inhibition in the 6-7 weeks old rats. In the presence of theophylline, nicotinic acid had no effect on FFA:glycerol ratio. These data show a direct influence of age on the antilipolytic action of nicotinic acid.

  1. Evidence for activation of inflammatory lipoxygenase pathways in visceral adipose tissue of obese Zucker rats

    PubMed Central

    Chakrabarti, Swarup K.; Wen, Yeshao; Dobrian, Anca D.; Cole, Banumathi K.; Ma, Qian; Pei, Hong; Williams, Michael D.; Bevard, Melissa H.; Vandenhoff, George E.; Keller, Susanna R.; Gu, Jiali

    2011-01-01

    Central obesity is associated with low-grade inflammation that promotes type 2 diabetes and cardiovascular disease in obese individuals. The 12- and 5-lipoxygenase (12-LO and 5-LO) enzymes have been linked to inflammatory changes, leading to the development of atherosclerosis. 12-LO has also been linked recently to inflammation and insulin resistance in adipocytes. We analyzed the expression of LO and proinflammatory cytokines in adipose tissue and adipocytes in obese Zucker rats, a widely studied genetic model of obesity, insulin resistance, and the metabolic syndrome. mRNA expression of 12-LO, 5-LO, and 5-LO-activating protein (FLAP) was upregulated in adipocytes and adipose tissue from obese Zucker rats compared with those from lean rats. Concomitant with increased LO gene expression, the 12-LO product 12-HETE and the 5-LO products 5-HETE and leukotriene B4 (LTB4) were also increased in adipocytes. Furthermore, upregulation of key proinflammatory markers interleukin (IL)-6, TNFα, and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 were observed in adipocytes isolated from obese Zucker rats. Immunohistochemistry indicated that the positive 12-LO staining in adipose tissue represents cells in addition to adipocytes. This was confirmed by Western blotting in stromal vascular fractions. These changes were in part reversed by the novel anti-inflammatory drug lisofylline (LSF). LSF also reduced p-STAT4 in visceral adipose tissue from obese Zucker rats and improved the metabolic profile, reducing fasting plasma glucose and increasing insulin sensitivity in obese Zucker rats. In 3T3-L1 adipocytes, LSF abrogated the inflammatory response induced by LO products. Thus, therapeutic agents reducing LO or STAT4 activation may provide novel tools to reduce obesity-induced inflammation. PMID:20978234

  2. Characteristics of lipolysis in white adipose tissues of SHR/NDmc-cp rats, a model of metabolic syndrome.

    PubMed

    Harikai, Naoki; Hashimoto, Ayu; Semma, Masanori; Ichikawa, Atsushi

    2007-06-01

    This study shows the characteristics of hormone-dependent lipolysis in white adipose tissues from corpulent spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR/NDmc-cp(cp/cp)). The glycerol-releasing activity on addition of norepinephrine (NE) and corticotropin (ACTH) was diminished in slices of epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric adipose tissues from cp/cp rats compared with those from Wistar Kyoto rats and lean spontaneous hypertensive rats (SHR/NDmc-cp(+/+)). 8-Bromo-cyclic adenosine monophosphate had a slight effect on lipolysis in epididymal, retroperitoneal, and mesenteric adipose tissues from cp/cp rats, and addition of NE and ACTH resulted in a slight accumulation of cyclic adenosine monophosphate in epididymal adipose tissue from cp/cp rats. Therefore, the alteration of hormone-dependent lipolysis-related genes was analyzed using quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction. It was found that the expression of beta(3)-adrenergic receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, and perilipin messenger RNAs was limited in epididymal, retroperitoneal, mesenteric, and subcutaneous adipose tissues from cp/cp rats compared with +/+ rats. These results indicate that in white adipose tissue from cp/cp rats, the diminished lipolytic response to NE and ACTH may be caused by impaired expression of beta(3)-adrenergic receptor, melanocortin 2 receptor, hormone-sensitive lipase, and perilipin.

  3. Effect of chemical form of selenium on tissue glutathione peroxidase activity in developing rats

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Lane, Helen W.; Strength, Ralph; Johnson, Janet; White, Marguerite T.

    1991-01-01

    The hypothesis that the stage of development of rats may affect the availability of various forms of selenium for the activity of glutathione peroxidase (GSHPx) in the rat was experimentally investigated. One experiment evaluated the availability of selenium as selenite or selenomethionine for GSPHx activity during three developmental states in rats: fetus and 7-day old and 14-day old nursing pups. In all tissues studied, GSHPx activity was highest in the 14-day-old pups whose dams were in the selenomethionine group. Rat pups given intraperitoneal selenite had higher liver and kidney GSHPx activity than pups given the same amount of selenium as intraperitoneal selenomethionine. In a second experiment, all dams were fed the same basal diet and pups were weaned to diets containing one of two levels of selenium and one of three forms of selenium (selenite, selenomethionine, or selenocystine). The results also supported the hypothesis these dietary forms of selenium are differentially available for GSHPx activity.

  4. Fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue in genetically heat-tolerant FOK rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ohno, T.; Furuyama, F.; Kuroshima, A.

    The phospholipid fatty acid composition of brown adipose tissue (BAT) was examined in inbred heat-tolerant FOK rats and compared with that in conventional Wistar rats not previously exposed to heat. The FOK rats showed higher unsaturation states, as indicated by higher levels of polyunsaturated fatty acids and a higher unsaturation index and polyunsaturated fatty acids/saturated fatty acids ratio. This higher level of unsaturation was characterized by the higher amount of polyunsaturated fatty acids such as linoleic acid, arachidonic acid and docosahexaenoic acid. It may be concluded that the increased docosahexaenoic acid level in BAT phospholipids brings about the hyperplasia of BAT, causing an enhancement of its in vivo thermogernic activity as well as the systemic non-shivering thermogenesis observed in heat-tolerant FOK rats.

  5. Changes in metabolic rate and brown adipose tissue composition during nutritional rehabilitation of postnatally undernourished rats.

    PubMed

    Rothwell, N J; Stephens, D N; Stock, M J

    1982-01-01

    Rats previously undernourished (PU) during the first 3 postnatal weeks gained less weight than controls during the subsequent rehabilitation period, in spite of similar levels of food intake per body weight 0.75. Resting oxygen consumption (ml/min/kg0.75) was significantly elevated (15-22%) in the PU group after 36 days of age but this difference was almost completely abolished by beta-adrenergic blockade with propranolol. PU rats also showed a greater thermogenic activity after noradrenaline (25 micrograms/100 g b.wt.) than controls. The mass of brown adipose tissue (BAT, mg/100 g b.wt.) was reduced by undernutrition but during rehabilitation BAT increased in PU rats to a value greater than that of controls. These results indicate that the low weight gain of PU rats may result partly from a high metabolic rate due to sympathetic activation of BAT.

  6. [Lymphatic tissue of the nose (NALT) and larynx (LALT) in species comparison: human, rat, mouse].

    PubMed

    Pabst, R

    2010-07-01

    Nose- and larynx associated lymphatic tissues (NALT and LALT) vary markedly between humans, rats and mice. NALT of rats and mice is formed by paired lymphoid aggregates in the nasal cavity, while it consists of individual mucosa associated lymphoid follicles throughout the nose in humans. In addition to NALT, tonsils are present in humans, but not in rats and mice. In the larynx, LALT can be found in humans, but not in rats. Size and functionality of NALT, tonsils and LALT vary with age. The extrapolation of data obtained from rodents to humans should be carefully evaluated due to these differences. The term common mucosal immune system should replaced by the term "integrated" MALT and the immunological differences between respiratory and digestive tract should always be considered.

  7. State of the mineral component of rat bone tissue during hypokinesia and the recovery period

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Volozhin, A. I.; Stupakov, G. P.; Pavlova, M. N.; Muradov, I. S.

    1980-01-01

    Experiments were conducted on young growing rats. Hypokinesia lasting from 20 to 200 days caused retarded gain in weight and volume of the femur and delayed development of the cortical layer of the diaphysis. In contrast, the density of the cortical layer of the femoral diaphysis increased due to elevation of the mineral saturation of the bone tissue microstructures. Incorporation of Ca into the bone tissue in hypokinesia had a tendency to reduce. Partial normalization of the bone tissue mineral component occurred during a 20 day recovery period following hypokinesia.

  8. Follicular development in cryopreserved Common Wombat ovarian tissue xenografted to Nude rats.

    PubMed

    Wolvekamp, M C; Cleary, M L; Cox, S L; Shaw, J M; Jenkin, G; Trounson, A O

    2001-01-31

    The Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus krefftii) is a highly endangered marsupial species and every possible option for sustaining the species needs to be explored. One important approach may be the development of assisted reproductive technologies in the non-endangered Common Wombat (Vombatus ursinus) and Southern Hairy-nosed Wombat (Lasiorhinus latifrons) for application in breeding the Northern Hairy-nosed Wombat. In this study, it was examined whether cryopreserved Wombat ovarian tissue would develop following xenografting to immunologically deficient rats. Ovarian tissue was collected from Common Wombats (n = 3) and cryopreserved as small cortical pieces. After thawing the cortical pieces were grafted underneath the kidney capsule of Nude rats (n = 16). The grafts were recovered at 2, 4, and 10 weeks after transplantation and their gross and histological appearance investigated. Two weeks after grafting (n = 2), the tissue was revascularized and healthy primordial follicles were present. At week 4 (n = 2), some follicular development was present. At week 10, six rats received human chorionic gonadotrophin (hCG) to trigger follicle and oocyte maturation while another six rats were not given any treatment. The administration of hCG did not induce preovulatory follicles and oocyte maturation although type 5 follicles were present in ovarian tissue collected 10 weeks posttransplantation in both treated and untreated groups. This study demonstrates for the first time that Wombat ovarian tissue can survive and function when grafted into immunocompromized rats and that Wombat ovarian follicles can be recruited to growth and development in an ovarian xenograft. This model system has the potential to produce mature oocytes from endangered species for use in assisted reproductive technologies such as in vitro fertilization (IVF), intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI), and mature oocytes from non-endangered species for nuclear transfer which may be necessary for

  9. Triglyceride kinetics, tissue lipoprotein lipase, and liver lipogenesis in septic rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lanza-Jacoby, S.; Tabares, A. )

    1990-04-01

    The mechanism for the development of hypertriglyceridemia during gram-negative sepsis was studied by examining liver production and clearance of very-low-density lipoprotein (VLDL) triglyceride (TG). To assess liver output and peripheral clearance the kinetics of VLDL-TG were determined by a constant iv infusion of (2-3H)glycerol-labeled VLDL. Clearance of VLDL-TG was also evaluated by measuring activities of lipoprotein lipase (LPL) in heart, soleus muscle, and adipose tissue from fasted control, fasted E. coli-treated, fed control, and fed E. coli-treated rats. Lewis inbred rats, 275-300 g, were made septic with 8 x 10(7) live E. coli colonies per 100 g body wt. Twenty-four hours after E. coli injection, serum TG, free fatty acids (FFA), and cholesterol of fasted E. coli-treated rats were elevated by 170, 76, and 16%, respectively. The elevation of serum TG may be attributed to the 67% decrease in clearance rate of VLDL-TG in fasted E. coli-treated rats compared with their fasted controls. The suppressed activities of LPL in adipose tissue, skeletal muscle, and heart were consistent with reduced clearance of TG. Secretion of VLDL-TG declined by 31% in livers of fasted E. coli-treated rats, which was accompanied by a twofold increase in the composition of liver TG. Rates of in vivo TG synthesis in livers of the fasted E. coli-treated rats were twofold higher than in those of fasted control rats. Decreased rate of TG appearance along with the increase in liver synthesis of TG contributed to the elevation of liver lipids in the fasted E. coli-treated rats.

  10. Tissue distribution and excretion of copper-67 intraperitoneally administered to rats fed fructose or starch

    SciTech Connect

    Holbrook, J.; Fields, M.; Smith, J.C. Jr.; Reiser, S.

    1986-05-01

    It has been suggested that impaired gut absorption of copper is the cause of the exacerbated copper deficiency signs in rats fed fructose when compared to rats fed starch. The present study was designed to examine how rats fed fructose or starch diets, either copper-deficient or supplemented, distributed and excreted /sup 67/Cu when the isotope was administered i.p. Intraperitoneal administration was chosen in an effort to circumvent primary gut absorption as a factor in the metabolism of /sup 67/Cu. After 7 wk of dietary treatment, rats received an i.p. injection of /sup 67/Cu and were placed in metabolic cages for 4 d. Regardless of dietary carbohydrate, copper-deficient rats retained similar levels of radioactivity in various tissues and excreted similar amounts of /sup 67/Cu in feces and urine. This similarity in copper metabolism in copper-deficient rats fed either fructose or starch when the gut was circumvented for isotope administration suggests that the gut could be responsible, at least in part, for the exacerbated signs associated with the copper deficiency in rats fed fructose. The possibility is discussed that alterations in metabolism may increase the requirement for copper when fructose is the main dietary carbohydrate.

  11. Tissue-specific extravasation of albumin-bound Evans blue in hypothermic and rewarmed rats.

    PubMed

    Matthew, Candace B; Sils, Ingrid V; Bastille, Amy M

    2002-03-01

    The effects of hypothermia and rewarming on endothelial integrity were examined in intestines, kidney, heart, gastrocnemius muscle, liver, spleen, and brain by measuring albumin-bound Evans blue loss from the vasculature. Ten groups of twelve rats, normothermic with no pentobarbital, normothermic sampled at 2, 3, or 4 h after pentobarbital, hypothermic to 20, 25, or 30 degrees C, and rewarmed from 20, 25, or 30 degrees C, were cooled in copper coils through which water circulated. Hypothermic rats were cooled to the desired core temperature and maintained there for 1 h; rewarmed rats were cooled to the same core temperatures, maintained there for 1 h, and then rewarmed. Following Evans blue administration, animals were euthanized with methoxyflurane, tissues removed, and Evans blue extracted. Because hypothermia and rewarming significantly decrease blood flow, organ-specific flow rates for hypothermic and rewarmed tissues were used to predict extravasation. Hypothermia decreased extravasation in tissues with continuous endothelium (brain, muscle) and increased it in tissues with discontinuous endothelium (liver, lung, spleen). All tissues exhibited significant (p < 0.05) differences from normothermic controls. These differences are attributed to a combination of anesthesia, flow, and (or) change in endothelial permeability, suggesting that appropriate choice of organ and temperature would facilitate testing pharmacological means of promoting return to normal perfusion.

  12. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model.

    PubMed

    Mann-Gow, Travis K; King, Benjamin J; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe-Ducheyne, Christine; Kida, Masatoshi; Dall, Ole M; Krhut, Jan; Zvara, Peter

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile.

  13. Novel Bioceramic Urethral Bulking Agents Elicit Improved Host Tissue Responses in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Mann-Gow, Travis K.; King, Benjamin J.; El-Ghannam, Ahmed; Knabe-Ducheyne, Christine; Kida, Masatoshi; Dall, Ole M.; Krhut, Jan

    2016-01-01

    Objectives. To test the physical properties and host response to the bioceramic particles, silica-calcium phosphate (SCPC10) and Cristobalite, in a rat animal model and compare their biocompatibility to the current clinically utilized urethral bulking materials. Material and Methods. The novel bulking materials, SCPC10 and Cristobalite, were suspended in hyaluronic acid sodium salt and injected into the mid urethra of a rat. Additional animals were injected with bulking materials currently in clinical use. Physiological response was assessed using voiding trials, and host tissue response was evaluated using hard tissue histology and immunohistochemical analysis. Distant organs were evaluated for the presence of particles or their components. Results. Histological analysis of the urethral tissue five months after injection showed that both SCPC10 and Cristobalite induced a more robust fibroblastic and histiocytic reaction, promoting integration and encapsulation of the particle aggregates, leading to a larger bulking effect. Concentrations of Ca, Na, Si, and P ions in the experimental groups were comparable to control animals. Conclusions. This side-by-side examination of urethral bulking agents using a rat animal model and hard tissue histology techniques compared two newly developed bioactive ceramic particles to three of the currently used bulking agents. The local host tissue response and bulking effects of bioceramic particles were superior while also possessing a comparable safety profile. PMID:27688751

  14. Gene Expression Profiling during Pregnancy in Rat Brain Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Mann, Phyllis E.

    2014-01-01

    The neurophysiological changes that occur during pregnancy in the female mammal have led to the coining of the phrases “expectant brain” and “maternal brain”. Although much is known of the hormonal changes during pregnancy, alterations in neurotransmitter gene expression have not been well-studied. We examined gene expression in the ventromedial nucleus of the hypothalamus (VMH) during pregnancy based on the fact that this nucleus not only modulates the physiological changes that occur during pregnancy but is also involved in the development of maternal behavior. This study was designed to identify genes that are differentially expressed between mid- and late-pregnancy in order to determine which genes may be associated with the onset and display of maternal behavior and the development of the maternal brain. A commercially available PCR array containing 84 neurotransmitter receptor and regulator genes (RT2 Profiler PCR array) was used. Brains were harvested from rats on days 12 and 21 of gestation, frozen, and micropunched to obtain the VMH. Total RNA was extracted, cDNA prepared, and SYBR Green qPCR was performed. In the VMH, expression of five genes were reduced on day 21 of gestation compared to day 12 (Chrna6, Drd5, Gabrr2, Prokr2, and Ppyr1) whereas Chat, Chrm5, Drd4, Gabra5, Gabrg2, LOC289606, Nmu5r2, and Npy5r expression was elevated. Five genes were chosen to be validated in an additional experiment based on their known involvement in maternal behavior onset. This experiment confirmed that gene expression for both the CCK-A receptor and the GABAAR γ2 receptor increases at the end of pregnancy. In general, these results identify genes possibly involved in the establishment of the maternal brain in rats and indicate possible new genes to be investigated. PMID:24961703

  15. Effect of Hypothyroidism and Hyperthyroidism on Tissue Thyroid Hormone Concentrations in Rat

    PubMed Central

    Donzelli, Riccardo; Colligiani, Daria; Kusmic, Claudia; Sabatini, Martina; Lorenzini, Leonardo; Accorroni, Alice; Nannipieri, Monica; Saba, Alessandro; Iervasi, Giorgio; Zucchi, Riccardo

    2016-01-01

    Background and Objective The present study was aimed at determining the effects of experimental hypothyroidism and hyperthyroidism on tissue thyroid hormones by a mass spectrometry-based technique. Methods Rats were subjected to propylthiouracil treatment or administration of exogenous triiodothyronine (T3) or thyroxine (T4). Tissue T3 and T4 were measured by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry in the heart, liver, kidney, visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue, and brain. Results Baseline tissue T3 and T4 concentrations ranged from 0.2 to 20 pmol ∙ g-1 and from 3 to 125 pmol ∙ g-1, respectively, with the highest values in the liver and kidney, and the lowest values in the adipose tissue. The T3/T4 ratio (expressed as a percentage) was in the 7-20% range in all tissues except the brain, where it averaged 75%. In hypothyroidism, tissue T3 was more severely reduced than serum free T3, averaging 1-6% of the baseline versus 30% of the baseline. The extent of tissue T3 reduction, expressed as percentage of the baseline, was not homogeneous (p < 0.001), with liver = kidney > brain > heart > adipose tissue. The tissue T3/T4 ratio significantly increased in all organs except the kidney, averaging 330% in the brain and 50-90% in the other tissues. By contrast, exogenous T3 and T4 administration produced similar increases in serum free T3 and in tissue T3, and the relative changes were not significantly different between different tissues. Conclusions While the response to increased thyroid hormones availability was similar in all tissues, decreased thyroid hormone availability induced compensatory responses, leading to a significant mismatch between changes in serum and in specific tissues. PMID:27099836

  16. Characterization and tissue distribution of conjugated metabolites of pyrene in the rat

    PubMed Central

    SAENGTIENCHAI, Aksorn; IKENAKA, Yoshinori; DARWISH, Wageh Sobhy; NAKAYAMA, Shouta M.M.; MIZUKAWA, Hazuki; ISHIZUKA, Mayumi

    2015-01-01

    Pyrene (PY) is a polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) that is often used as a biomarker for human and wildlife exposure to PAHs. As the metabolites of PAHs, similar to their parent compounds, pose public health risks, it is necessary to study their characteristics and tissue-specific distribution. The present study was performed to experimentally characterize PY metabolites and analyze the tissue-specific distribution of the conjugated metabolites after oral administration of PY to rats. PY metabolites, such as pyrenediol-disulfate (PYdiol-diS), pyrenediol-sulfate (PYdiol-S), pyrene-1-sufate (PYOS), pyrene-1-glucuronide (PYOG) and 1-hydroxypyrene (PYOH), were detected in rat urine. Although glucuronide conjugate was the predominant metabolite, the metabolite composition varied among tissues. Interestingly, the proportion of PYOH was high in the large intestine. Furthermore, PYOH was the only PY metabolite detected in feces. PMID:26028020

  17. Immunohistochemical distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Elis Yildiz, S; Deprem, T; Karadag Sari, E; Bingol, S A; Koral Tasci, S; Aslan, S; Nur, G; Sozmen, M

    2015-05-01

    We examined using immunohistochemistry the distribution of leptin in kidney tissues of melatonin treated, streptozotocin (STZ) diabetic rats. The animals were divided into five groups: control, sham, melatonin-treated, diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic. Kidney sections were prepared and stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and Crossman's triple staining for histological examination. The immunohistochemical localization of leptin in the kidney tissue was determined using the streptavidin-biotin-peroxidase method. We determined that on days 7 and 14, the leptin immunoreactivity of the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups was weaker than for the other groups. Weak immunoreactivity was found in the proximal and distal tubules of the kidney in the diabetic and melatonin-treated diabetic groups on days 7 and 14, and strong immunoreactivity was found in the control, sham and melatonin groups. Melatonin application had no significant effect on leptin production in the kidney tissues of diabetic rats.

  18. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats.

    PubMed

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2015-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS) is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20-60 µm) with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc) PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles.

  19. Identification of Primo-Vascular System in Abdominal Subcutaneous Tissue Layer of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lim, Chae Jeong; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2015-01-01

    The primo-vascular system (PVS) is a novel network identified in various animal tissues. However, the PVS in subcutaneous tissue has not been well identified. Here, we examined the putative PVS on the surface of abdominal subcutaneous tissue in rats. Hemacolor staining revealed dark blue threadlike structures consisting of nodes and vessels, which were frequently observed bundled with blood vessels. The structure was filled with various immune cells including mast cells and WBCs. In the structure, there were inner spaces (20–60 µm) with low cellularity. Electron microscopy revealed a bundle structure and typical cytology common with the well-established organ surface PVS, which were different from those of the lymphatic vessel. Among several subcutaneous (sc) PVS tissues identified on the rat abdominal space, the most outstanding was the scPVS aligned along the ventral midline. The distribution pattern of nodes and vessels in the scPVS closely resembled that of the conception vessel meridian and its acupoints. In conclusion, our results newly revealed that the PVS is present in the abdominal subcutaneous tissue layer and indicate that the scPVS tissues are closely correlated with acupuncture meridians. Our findings will help to characterize the PVS in the other superficial tissues and its physiological roles. PMID:26379751

  20. Caspase-3 inhibitor prevents the apoptosis of brain tissue in rats with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Sun, Yuhua; Xu, Yuming; Geng, Lijiao

    2015-07-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk on the apoptosis of the brain tissues of rats with acute cerebral infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to establish a rat model of infarction, and the rats were randomly divided into a sham group (n=15), model group (n=15) and treatment group (n=15). z-DEVD-fmk (2.5 µg/kg) was injected into the intracranial artery of rats in the treatment group, while the same volume of phosphate-buffered saline solution was administered to the rats of the sham and model groups. After 48 h, all rats were sacrificed and their brain tissues were removed. The caspase-3 mRNA level, protein level and activity, brain cell apoptosis index and infarction scope of the three groups were analyzed. Neurological impairment was also assessed. At 48 h after model establishment, the caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels in the brain tissues of the model group were significantly higher than those of the sham group, and those in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group (P<0.05); however, they remained significantly higher than those in the sham group. Caspase-3 activity in the model group was significantly higher than that in the sham group, and treatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor significantly reduced caspase-3 activity compared with that in the model group (P<0.05). The apoptosis index and infarction scope in the model and treatment groups were significantly increased compared with those in the sham group, and were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the model group (P<0.05). The neurological impairment of rats in the model and treatment groups was increased significantly compared with that in the sham group, and the treatment group exhibited a significantly lower level of neurological impairment than the model group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk effectively inhibited apoptosis and delayed the necrosis of

  1. Caspase-3 inhibitor prevents the apoptosis of brain tissue in rats with acute cerebral infarction

    PubMed Central

    SUN, YUHUA; XU, YUMING; GENG, LIJIAO

    2015-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk on the apoptosis of the brain tissues of rats with acute cerebral infarction. Middle cerebral artery occlusion was used to establish a rat model of infarction, and the rats were randomly divided into a sham group (n=15), model group (n=15) and treatment group (n=15). z-DEVD-fmk (2.5 µg/kg) was injected into the intracranial artery of rats in the treatment group, while the same volume of phosphate-buffered saline solution was administered to the rats of the sham and model groups. After 48 h, all rats were sacrificed and their brain tissues were removed. The caspase-3 mRNA level, protein level and activity, brain cell apoptosis index and infarction scope of the three groups were analyzed. Neurological impairment was also assessed. At 48 h after model establishment, the caspase-3 mRNA and protein levels in the brain tissues of the model group were significantly higher than those of the sham group, and those in the treatment group were significantly lower than those in the model group (P<0.05); however, they remained significantly higher than those in the sham group. Caspase-3 activity in the model group was significantly higher than that in the sham group, and treatment with the caspase-3 inhibitor significantly reduced caspase-3 activity compared with that in the model group (P<0.05). The apoptosis index and infarction scope in the model and treatment groups were significantly increased compared with those in the sham group, and were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the model group (P<0.05). The neurological impairment of rats in the model and treatment groups was increased significantly compared with that in the sham group, and the treatment group exhibited a significantly lower level of neurological impairment than the model group (P<0.05). In conclusion, the caspase-3 inhibitor z-DEVD-fmk effectively inhibited apoptosis and delayed the necrosis of

  2. Comparative physiology of mice and rats: radiometric measurement of vascular parameters in rodent tissues.

    PubMed

    Boswell, C Andrew; Mundo, Eduardo E; Ulufatu, Sheila; Bumbaca, Daniela; Cahaya, Hendry S; Majidy, Nicholas; Van Hoy, Marjie; Schweiger, Michelle G; Fielder, Paul J; Prabhu, Saileta; Khawli, Leslie A

    2014-05-05

    A solid understanding of physiology is beneficial in optimizing drug delivery and in the development of clinically predictive models of drug disposition kinetics. Although an abundance of data exists in the literature, it is often confounded by the use of various experimental methods and a lack of consensus in values from different sources. To help address this deficiency, we sought to directly compare three important vascular parameters at the tissue level using the same experimental approach in both mice and rats. Interstitial volume, vascular volume, and blood flow were radiometrically measured in selected harvested tissues of both species by extracellular marker infusion, red blood cell labeling, and rubidium chloride bolus distribution, respectively. The latter two parameters were further compared by whole-body autoradiographic imaging. An overall good interspecies agreement was observed for interstitial volume and blood flow on a weight-normalized basis in most tissues. In contrast, the measured vascular volumes of most rat tissues were higher than for mouse. Mice and rats, the two most commonly utilized rodent species in translational drug development, should not be considered as interchangeable in terms of vascular volume per gram of tissue. This will be particularly critical in biodistribution studies of drugs, as the amount of drug in the residual blood of tissues is often not negligible, especially for biologic drugs (e.g., antibodies) having long circulation half-lives. Physiologically based models of drug pharmacokinetics and/or pharmacodynamics also rely on accurate knowledge of biological parameters in tissues. For tissue parameters with poor interspecies agreement, the significance and possible drivers are discussed.

  3. Quantification of two isomeric flavones in rat colon tissue using reverse phase high performance liquid chromatography.

    PubMed

    Whitted, Crystal L; Palau, Victoria E; Torrenegra, Ruben D; Rodriguez, Oscar E; Harirforoosh, Sam

    2017-01-07

    Antineoplastic activity has been previously shown for two isomeric flavones, 5,7-dihydroxy-3,6,8-trimethoxy flavone (flavone A) and 3,5-dihydroxy-6,7,8-trimethoxy flavone (flavone B), against colon cancer cell lines (Thomas et al. in PLoS ONE 7:e39806, 5). Here, we present modified methods for the extraction and quantification of flavones A and B in rat colon tissue after intravenous dosing via high performance liquid chromatography, from the originally described procedure for extraction and quantification in rat plasma (Whitted et al. in J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 1001:150-155, 7). Modifications included tissue homogenization (1 g tissue: 2 mL water), filtration of the supernatant with a PVDF membrane, and the use of only one calibration curve to determine the concentration of each flavone in colon tissue. Good separation was achieved and representative equations were linear with r (2)  ≥ 0.99 for both flavones. Precision and accuracy for flavone A ranged from 0.88-24.03 and 109-116%. Precision and accuracy for flavone B ranged from 1.62-33.56 and 98-113%. Concentrations of 1639 ± 601 ng/g flavone A and 5975 ± 2480 ng/g of flavone B were detected in rat colon tissue 6 h post dosing. Modifications to the extraction methods for flavone A and flavone B from rat colon tissue had good separation, precision, and accuracy.

  4. Effect of decellularized tissue powders on a rat model of acute myocardial infarction.

    PubMed

    Tabuchi, Masaki; Negishi, Jun; Yamashita, Akitatsu; Higami, Tetsuya; Kishida, Akio; Funamoto, Seiichi

    2015-11-01

    Many research groups are currently investigating new treatment modalities for myocardial infarction. Numerous aspects need to be considered for the clinical application of these therapies, such as low cell integration and engraftment rates of cell injection techniques. Decellularized tissues are considered good materials for promoting regeneration of traumatic tissues. The properties of the decellularized tissues are sustained after processing to powder form. In this study, we examined the use of decellularized tissue powder in a rat model of acute myocardial infarction. The decellularized tissue powders, especially liver powder, promoted cell integration and neovascularization both in vitro and in vivo. Decellularized liver powder induced neovascularization in the infarct area, resulting in the suppression of myocardial necrosis. The results of this study suggest that decellularized liver powder has good potential for application as a blood supply material for the treatment of myocardial infarction. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Spreading depolarization remarkably exacerbates ischemia-induced tissue acidosis in the young and aged rat brain.

    PubMed

    Menyhárt, Ákos; Zölei-Szénási, Dániel; Puskás, Tamás; Makra, Péter; Orsolya, M Tóth; Szepes, Borbála É; Tóth, Réka; Ivánkovits-Kiss, Orsolya; Obrenovitch, Tihomir P; Bari, Ferenc; Farkas, Eszter

    2017-04-25

    Spreading depolarizations (SDs) occur spontaneously in the cerebral cortex of subarachnoid hemorrhage, stroke or traumatic brain injury patients. Accumulating evidence prove that SDs exacerbate focal ischemic injury by converting zones of the viable but non-functional ischemic penumbra to the core region beyond rescue. Yet the SD-related mechanisms to mediate neurodegeneration remain poorly understood. Here we show in the cerebral cortex of isoflurane-anesthetized, young and old laboratory rats, that SDs propagating under ischemic penumbra-like conditions decrease intra and- extracellular tissue pH transiently to levels, which have been recognized to cause tissue damage. Further, tissue pH after the passage of each spontaneous SD event remains acidic for over 10 minutes. Finally, the recovery from SD-related tissue acidosis is hampered further by age. We propose that accumulating acid load is an effective mechanism for SD to cause delayed cell death in the ischemic nervous tissue, particularly in the aged brain.

  6. Pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and excretion of salidroside in rats.

    PubMed

    Zhang, Ying; Li, Liqun; Lin, Li; Liu, Jianxun; Zhang, Zaohua; Xu, Dongjin; Xiang, Feijun

    2013-10-01

    The present study investigated the pharmacokinetics, excretion, and tissue distribution of salidroside, a main active constituent in the roots of Rhodiola species. The plasma concentration declined rapidly following the intravenous dosing at 7.5, 15, and 30 mg/kg with a short half-life time of about 1 h. The mean values of area under the concentration-time curve (300.48 ± 36.73, 514.51 ± 134.99, and 1036.64 ± 101.67 mg · min/L), total body clearance (0.025 ± 0.003, 0.031 ± 0.008, and 0.029 ± 0.003 L/min/kg), and distribution value (2.02 ± 0.80, 2.47 ± 1.09 and 2.58 ± 0.68 L/kg) suggested linear pharmacokinetics between the three doses. After intravenous injection of salidroside at 15 mg/kg, the total cumulative recovery of salidroside in urine was 53.67 ± 12.03 % over 48 h, but only 0.09 ± 0.03 % and 0.18 ± 0.18 % of the dosage was excreted in bile and feces. Concentrations of salidroside in 12 tissues as well as plasma were evaluated at 15, 40, and 120 min after dosing. At all time points, no higher concentration of salidroside was detected in tissues than that in plasma, with the lowest concentration of salidroside being observed in the brain, liver, fat, and skeletal muscle were tissues with a higher concentration of salidroside. A better distribution was also observed in the ovary and testis than that in the kidney and spleen. This finding demonstrated that salidroside is eliminated from plasma rapidly mainly by kidney clearance and conspicuously penetrated well into the skeletal muscle, fat, ovary and testis. A total recovered salidroside of about 54 % from excretion routes suggested that the metabolism was likely to take an important role in its elimination. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  7. Incidental pathologic extracardiac uptake of (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin in myocardial perfusion imaging: Importance of patient background evaluation.

    PubMed

    González García, B; García Vicente, A M; Palomar Muñoz, A; Poblete García, V M; Jiménez Londoño, G A; Soriano Castrejón, A M

    2015-01-01

    (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin single photon emission computed tomography ((99m)Tc-tetrofosmin SPECT) has an important role in the assessment of coronary artery disease. Despite being its main indication, this study does not only evaluate myocardial perfusion, but much more. Moreover, during the SPECT acquisition, the field area covered includes many important organs of the thorax and abdomen, so extracardiac abnormalities can be observed. The correct etiologic diagnosis of them is only possible if we understand how (99m)Tc-tetrofosmin works and make a comprehensive investigation of the clinical history of the patient. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier España, S.L.U. and SEMNIM. All rights reserved.

  8. Studies on guanine deaminase and its inhibitors in rat tissue

    PubMed Central

    Kumar, S.; Josan, V.; Sanger, K. C. S.; Tewari, K. K.; Krishnan, P. S.

    1967-01-01

    1. In kidney, but not in rat whole brain and liver, guanine-deaminase activity was localized almost exclusively in the 15000g supernatant fraction of iso-osmotic sucrose homogenates. However, as in brain and liver, the enzymic activity recovered in the supernatant was higher than that in the whole homogenate. The particulate fractions of kidney, especially the heavy mitochondria, brought about powerful inhibition of the supernatant guanine-deaminase activity. 2. In spleen, as in kidney, guanine-deaminase activity was localized in the 15000g supernatant fraction of iso-osmotic sucrose homogenates. However, the particulate fractions did not inhibit the activity of the supernatant. 3. Guanine-deaminase activity in rat brain was absent from the cerebellum and present only in the cerebral hemispheres. The inhibitor of guanine deaminase was located exclusively in the cerebellum, where it was associated with the particles sedimenting at 5000g from sucrose homogenates. 4. Homogenates of cerebral hemispheres, the separated cortex or the remaining portion of the hemispheres had significantly higher guanine-deaminase activity than homogenates of whole brain. The enzymic activity of the subcellular particulate fractions was nearly the same. 5. Guanine deaminase was purified from the 15000g supernatant of sucrose homogenates of whole brain. The enzyme separated as two distinct fractions, A and B, on DEAE-cellulose columns. 6. The guanine-deaminase activity of the light-mitochondrial fraction of whole brain was fully exposed and solubilized by treatment with Triton X-100, and partially purified. 7. Tested in the form of crude preparations, the inhibitor from kidney did not act on the brain and liver supernatant enzymes and the inhibitor from cerebellum did not act on kidney enzyme, but the inhibitor from liver acted on both brain and kidney enzyme. 8. The inhibitor of guanine deaminase was purified from the heavy mitochondria of whole brain and liver and the 5000g residue of

  9. Development and tissue distribution of sucrase-isomaltase mRNA in rats.

    PubMed

    Leeper, L L; Henning, S J

    1990-01-01

    Previous studies of sucrase-isomaltase (SI) activities have shown this complex to be absent in the suckling rat and to appear during the weaning period. We describe here the cloning of a heterologous SI cDNA and its use for the quantitation of SI mRNA as a first step toward understanding the molecular basis of SI development. A survey of RNA from 12 tissues of mature rats by Northern blot analysis showed a 6-kb band of SI mRNA only in the small intestine. Within the latter, both sucrase activity and SI mRNA peaked in the jejunum. Assay of jejunal tissue from developing rats showed sucrase activity and SI mRNA to be first detectable at 18 days, to rise in parallel through 24 days, and then to diverge a little (enzyme activity being lower) by 36 days. When glucocorticoid was administered to 10-day-old rats, neither sucrase activity nor SI mRNA was detectable 12 h later. Both parameters were readily detected 24 h postinjection, although the mRNA had risen relatively more than the enzyme activity. The two parameters increased in concert through 5 days postinjection and then plateaued. We conclude that, with respect to distribution along the intestine and to normal and precocious development, activities of SI in the rat are determined primarily by the abundance of its mRNA.

  10. Effects of dexamethasone on aquaporin-4 expression in brain tissue of rat with bacterial meningitis

    PubMed Central

    Du, Kai-Xian; Dong, Yan; Zhang, Yan; Hou, Li-Wei; Fan, Dong-Xia; Luo, Yu; Zhang, Xiao-Li; Jia, Tian-Ming; Lou, Ji-Yu

    2015-01-01

    Aquaporin-4 (AQP4) is the most popular water channel protein expressed in brain tissue and plays a very important role in regulating the water balance in and outside of brain parenchyma. To investigate the expression of aquaporin-4 in the rat brain tissue after dexamethasone therapy of meningitis induced by Streptococcus pneumonia, total 40 of 3-week old Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into infection group (n=30) and normal control group (n=10). The meningitis groups were infected with 1×107 cfu/ml of Streptococcus pneumoniae and then randomized into no treatment (untreated group, n=10), treatment with ceftriaxone (CTRX group, n=10) and treatment with dexamethasone combined ceftriaxone (CTRX + DEXA group, n=10). The normal control group was established by using saline. The rats were euthanized when they reached terminal illness or five days after infection, followed by detection of AQP4 through using immunohistochemistry and Western blot methods. Data has showed that expression of AQP4 in model group remained higher than the control and treatment group (P<0.05). AQP4 expression in CTRX + DEXA group was lower than that in CTRX group (P<0.05). There was no statistical difference between CTRX + DEXA group and the control group (P>0.05). These data suggested that Dexamethasone could down-regulate the expression of AQP4 in the brain tissue of rats with meningitis and provides evidence for the mechanism of protective effect of Dexamethasone on central neurosystem. PMID:26045822

  11. Obesity And Laboratory Diets Affects Tissue Malondialdehyde (MDA) Levels In Obese Rats

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chowdhury, Parimal; Scott, Joseph; Holley, Andy; Hakkak, Reza

    2010-04-01

    This study was conducted to investigate the interaction of obesity and laboratory diets on tissue malondialdehyde levels in rats. Female Zucker obese and lean rats were maintained on either regular grain-based diet or purified casein diet for two weeks, orally gavaged at day 50 with 65 mg/kg DMBA and sacrificed 24 hrs later. Malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were measured in blood and harvested tissues. Data were recorded as mean ± SEM and analyzed statistically. Results show that the obese group on purified casein diet had reduction of MDA levels in the brain, duodenum, liver, lung and kidney tissues as compared to lean group, p <0.05. Obese group on grain-based diet showed significant increase in MDA levels only in the duodenum, p <0.05. We conclude that dietary intervention differentially affects the oxidative markers in obese rats. It appears that purified casein diets were more effective than grain-based diet in reduction of oxidative stress in obese rats.

  12. Serum and tissue iodine concentrations in rats fed diets supplemented with kombu powder or potassium iodide.

    PubMed

    Yoshida, Munehiro; Mukama, Ayumi; Hosomi, Ryota; Fukunaga, Kenji; Nishiyama, Toshimasa

    2014-01-01

    Serum and tissue iodine concentration was measured in rats fed a diet supplemented with powdered kombu (Saccharina sculpera) or potassium iodide to evaluate the absorption of iodine from kombu. Eighteen male 5-wk-old Wistar rats were divided into three groups and fed a basal AIN93G diet (iodine content, 0.2 mg/kg) or the basal diet supplemented with iodine (183 mg/kg) either in the form of kombu powder or potassium iodine (KI) for 4 wk. There were no differences in weight gain or serum biochemistry tests (alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase activity, and total serum cholesterol and triglyceride concentration) after iodine supplementation. In addition, serum levels of the thyroid hormones thyroxine and triiodothyronine, as well as thyroid-stimulating hormone, were not affected. On the other hand, serum and tissue (thyroid, liver and kidney) iodine concentrations were markedly elevated after iodine supplementation. There was no difference in thyroid iodine concentration between KI and kombu supplementation. However, there was a significant difference observed in the iodine concentrations of serum, liver and kidney between the two iodine sources; rats fed KI had iodine concentrations in these tissues 1.8 to 1.9 times higher than those in rats fed kombu powder. These results suggest that the absorption of iodine from kombu is reduced compared to that from potassium iodide.

  13. The comparative evaluation of apoptosis produced by leuprolide or orchiectomy on rat prostate tissue.

    PubMed

    Cakiroglu, Basri; Hazar, Aydin Ismet; Eyyupoglu, Seyit Erkan; Can Balci, Mustafa Bahadir; Sinanoglu, Orhun; Tuzlali, Pinar

    2016-01-14

    Organisms are constantly in a balance meaning that while new cells are produced, some of the older ones die which takes place in 2 ways: necrosis or apoptosis. Apoptosis is the programmed cellular death triggered by intrinsic or extrinsic stimuli. In this study we have evaluated the apoptosis of prostate tissue generated by surgical or medical orchiectomy. In this experimental study, we used 36 adult male rats that were evaluated in 3 groups. The first group (Group 1) consisted of 12 rats that had bilateral orchiectomy; the second group (Group 2) included 12 rats that were given leuprolide acetate and the third group (Group 3) consisted of 12 control rats. Immunohistochemical staining of the prostate of all rats was performed and the presence of glandular atrophy and apoptosis were evaluated in the three groups. The statistical differences between the two groups were evaluated by the Fisher exact test. Glandular atrophy was not determined in any rat of the control group, and the apoptotic staining was in the normal limits in all the control rats. In Leuprolide group, glandular atrophy was mild in 7 cases, and moderate in 3 rats. In 2 rats of the Leuprolide group, atrophy was not demonstrated. In surgical orchiectomy group, glandular atrophy was present in all cases. Atrophy was observed as cystic atrophy. Statistical analysis with the Fisher exact test revealed that glandular atrophy was statistically significantly more common in surgical orchiectomy group compared with Leuprolide group (p = 0,012). If the aim of treatment in androgen dependent prostatic adenocarcinoma or benign prostate hypertrophy is the construction of a robust apoptosis, bilateral orchiectomy generates a more powerful apoptosis compared with Leuprolide.

  14. Leanness of Lou/C rats does not require higher thermogenic capacity of brown adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Belouze, Maud; Sibille, Brigitte; Rey, Benjamin; Roussel, Damien; Romestaing, Caroline; Teulier, Loïc; Baetz, Delphine; Koubi, Harry; Servais, Stéphane; Duchamp, Claude

    2011-10-24

    Lou/C rats, an inbred strain of Wistar origin, remain lean throughout life and therefore represent a remarkable model of obesity resistance. To date, the exact mechanisms responsible for the leanness of Lou/C rats remain unknown. The aim of the present study was to investigate whether the leanness of Lou/C rats relies on increased thermogenic capacities in brown adipose tissue (BAT). Results showed that although daily energy expenditure was higher in Lou/C than in Wistar rats, BAT thermogenic capacity was not enhanced in Lou/C rats kept at thermoneutrality as demonstrated by reduced thermogenic response to norepinephrine in vivo, similar oxidative activity of BAT isolated mitochondria in vitro, similar levels of UCP1 mRNA and lower abundance of UCP1 protein in interscapular BAT depots. Relative abundance of β3-adrenergic receptor mRNA was lower in Lou/C BAT while that of GLUT4, FABP or CPT1 was not altered. Activity-related energy expenditure was however considerably increased at thermoneutrality as Lou/C rats demonstrated an impressively high spontaneous running activity in voluntary running wheels. Prolonged cold-exposure (4 °C) depressed the spontaneous running activity of Lou/C rats while BAT thermogenic capacity was increased as reflected by rises in BAT mass, oxidative activity and UCP1 expression. It is concluded that the leanness of Lou/C rats cannot be ascribed to higher thermogenic capacity of brown fat but rather to, at least in part, increased locomotor activity. BAT is not deficient in this rat strain as it can be stimulated by cold exposure when locomotor activity is reduced suggesting some substitution between these thermogenic processes. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  15. Functional evaluation of extracardiac ventriculopulmonary conduits and of the right ventricle with magnetic resonance imaging and velocity mapping.

    PubMed

    Holmqvist, C; Oskarsson, G; Ståhlberg, F; Thilén, U; Björkhem, G; Laurin, S

    1999-03-15

    Extracardiac ventriculopulmonary conduits tend to deteriorate over time, developing both obstruction and regurgitation. In this prospective study, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) was compared with Doppler echocardiography to determine whether MRI improves the noninvasive evaluation of conduit patients. Twenty-five patients (median age 10 years, range 2.5 to 32) were investigated 27 times with Doppler echocardiography and an MRI protocol with spin echo sequences for morphology, velocity mapping, and multislice gradient echo technique for right ventricular volume measuring. Cardiac catheterization data were available in 6 patients. Echocardiography could assess the morphology of the conduits in 6 patients, whereas MRI demonstrated all conduits efficiently. Doppler echocardiography could evaluate the occurrence of regurgitation in 18 patients and could quantify peak velocity in 20 of the patients. A technically adequate MRI velocity mapping was obtained in 25 patients. There was good agreement between MRI and Doppler echocardiography in establishing or not establishing regurgitation, but Doppler echocardiography was less reliable in evaluating the degree of regurgitation. The correlation between peak velocity determined with Doppler and magnetic resonance imaging was r = 0.63 [corrected]. Correlations between catheterization pressure gradients and noninvasive techniques were r = 0.97 for magnetic resonance imaging [corrected] versus catheterization, and r = 0.86 [corrected] for Doppler versus catheterization. MRI can provide complete information on the morphology and function of extracardiac ventriculopulmonary conduits, as well as of the right ventricle. If the results of MRI and echocardiography with Doppler are in agreement, heart catheterization and angiography can be avoided, even in patients considered for conduit replacement.

  16. 3,5-Diiodo-L-Thyronine Activates Brown Adipose Tissue Thermogenesis in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lombardi, Assunta; Senese, Rosalba; De Matteis, Rita; Busiello, Rosa Anna; Cioffi, Federica; Goglia, Fernando; Lanni, Antonia

    2015-01-01

    3,5-diiodo-l-thyronine (T2), a thyroid hormone derivative, is capable of increasing energy expenditure, as well as preventing high fat diet-induced overweight and related metabolic dysfunction. Most studies to date on T2 have been carried out on liver and skeletal muscle. Considering the role of brown adipose tissue (BAT) in energy and metabolic homeostasis, we explored whether T2 could activate BAT thermogenesis. Using euthyroid, hypothyroid, and T2-treated hypothyroid rats (all maintained at thermoneutrality) in morphological and functional studies, we found that hypothyroidism suppresses the maximal oxidative capacity of BAT and thermogenesis, as revealed by reduced mitochondrial content and respiration, enlarged cells and lipid droplets, and increased number of unilocular cells within the tissue. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats activated BAT thermogenesis and increased the sympathetic innervation and vascularization of tissue. Likewise, T2 increased BAT oxidative capacity in vitro when added to BAT homogenates from hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 to hypothyroid rats enhanced mitochondrial respiration. Moreover, UCP1 seems to be a molecular determinant underlying the effect of T2 on mitochondrial thermogenesis. In fact, inhibition of mitochondrial respiration by GDP and its reactivation by fatty acids were greater in mitochondria from T2-treated hypothyroid rats than untreated hypothyroid rats. In vivo administration of T2 led to an increase in PGC-1α protein levels in nuclei (transient) and mitochondria (longer lasting), suggesting a coordinate effect of T2 in these organelles that ultimately promotes net activation of mitochondrial biogenesis and BAT thermogenesis. The effect of T2 on PGC-1α is similar to that elicited by triiodothyronine. As a whole, the data reported here indicate T2 is a thyroid hormone derivative able to activate BAT thermogenesis. PMID:25658324

  17. Albumin resuscitation improves ventricular contractility and myocardial tissue oxygenation in rat endotoxemia.

    PubMed

    Tokunaga, Chiho; Bateman, Ryon M; Boyd, John; Wang, Yingjin; Russell, James A; Walley, Keith R

    2007-05-01

    Fluid resuscitation to improve delivery of oxygen to vital organs is a principal clinical intervention for septic patients. We previously reported that albumin resuscitation in rat endotoxemia improved contractility in isolated cardiomyocytes, but whether this effect occurs in vivo is unknown. We hypothesized that albumin resuscitation would improve decreased ventricular contractility and myocardial tissue oxygenation in vivo. Randomized, controlled, prospective animal study. University animal laboratory. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (250-350 g). Rats were randomized into three groups: control with no lipopolysaccharide (n = 8), lipopolysaccharide (10 mg/kg) without albumin resuscitation (n = 8), and lipopolysaccharide with albumin resuscitation (n = 6). Five hours after lipopolysaccharide injection, animals were resuscitated with 10 mL/kg 5% rat albumin in 0.9% saline. Six hours after 10 mL/kg lipopolysaccharide, a pressure-volume conductance catheter (MIKRO-Tip 2.0-Fr, Millar Instruments, Houston, TX) was inserted into the left ventricle to quantify maximum elastance as an index of contractility. Myocardial tissue Po2 was measured using a fiberoptic oxygen probe. Maximum elastance decreased after lipopolysaccharide relative to control (47%, from 5.9 +/- 0.8 to 3.1 +/- 0.4 mm Hg/microL, p < .05). Albumin resuscitation prevented the lipopolysaccharide-induced decrease in maximum elastance (7.0 +/- 1.2 mm Hg/microL, p < .05 vs. lipopolysaccharide). Myocardial tissue Po2 was reduced in endotoxemia compared with control (53%, from 10.1 +/- 0.9 to 4.7 +/- 0.6 mm Hg, p < .05), and albumin resuscitation improved the lipopolysaccharide-induced tissue hypoxia toward the control value (9.0 +/- 1.4 mm Hg, p < .05). Albumin resuscitation improved decreased ventricular contractility and myocardial oxygenation in endotoxemic rats. This result suggests that albumin resuscitation may improve ventricular dysfunction by improving myocardial hypoxia.

  18. Discriminating healthy from tumor and necrosis tissue in rat brain tissue samples by Raman spectral imaging.

    PubMed

    Amharref, Nadia; Beljebbar, Abdelilah; Dukic, Sylvain; Venteo, Lydie; Schneider, Laurence; Pluot, Michel; Manfait, Michel

    2007-10-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate molecular changes associated with glioma tissues by Raman microspectroscopy in order to develop its use in clinical practice. Spectroscopic markers obtained from C6 glioma tissues were compared to conventional histological and histochemical techniques. Cholesterol and phospholipid contents were highest in corpus callosum and decreased gradually towards the cortex surface as well as in the tumor. Two different necrotic areas have been identified: a fully necrotic zone characterized by the presence of plasma proteins and a peri-necrotic area with a high lipid content. This result was confirmed by Nile Red staining. Additionally, one structure was detected in the periphery of the tumor. Invisible with histopathological hematoxylin and eosin staining, it was revealed by immunohistochemical Ki-67 and MT1-MMP staining used to visualize the proliferative and invasive activities of glioma, respectively. Hierarchical cluster analysis on the only cluster averaged spectra showed a clear distinction between normal, tumoral, necrotic and edematous tissues. Raman microspectroscopy can discriminate between healthy and tumoral brain tissue and yield spectroscopic markers associated with the proliferative and invasive properties of glioblastoma. Development of in vivo Raman spectroscopy could thus accurately define tumor margins, identify tumor remnants, and help in the development of novel therapies for glioblastoma.

  19. Schisandrin B protects against solar irradiation-induced oxidative stress in rat skin tissue.

    PubMed

    Lam, Philip Y; Yan, Chung Wai; Chiu, Po Yee; Leung, Hoi Yan; Ko, Kam Ming

    2011-04-01

    Schisandrin B (Sch B) and schisandrin C (Sch C), but not schisandrin A and dimethyl diphenyl bicarboxylate, protected rat skin tissue against solar irradiation-induced oxidative injury, as evidenced by a reversal of solar irradiation-induced changes in cellular reduced glutathione and α-tocopherol levels, as well as antioxidant enzyme activities and malondialdehyde production. The cytochrome P-450-mediated metabolism of Sch B or Sch C caused ROS production in rat skin microsomes. Taken together, Sch B or Sch C, by virtue of its pro-oxidant action and the subsequent eliciting of a glutathione antioxidant response, may prevent photo-aging of skin.

  20. Nutritional and exercise interventions variably affect estrogen receptor expression in the adipose tissue of male rats.

    PubMed

    Metz, Lore; Gerbaix, Maude; Masgrau, Aurélie; Guillet, Christelle; Walrand, Stéphane; Boisseau, Nathalie; Boirie, Yves; Courteix, Daniel

    2016-03-01

    Energy-dense food consumption and lack of physical activity are implicated in the development of the current obesity epidemic. The role of estrogen in adiposity and fuel partitioning is mediated mainly though the estrogen receptor α (ERα) isoform. We hypothesized that nutritional adaptation and exercise training, either individually or combined, could impact ERα expression in adipose tissue relative to glucose tolerance. Seventy-two Wistar rats were submitted to a high-fat, high-sucrose (HF-HS) diet for 16weeks. The first phase of our study was to investigate the effect of an HF-HS diet on whole-body glucose tolerance, as well as on body composition and ERα expression in different adipose tissues. Second, we investigated the effect of switching to a well-balanced diet, with or without exercise training for 8 weeks, on those same parameters. After the first part of this study, HF-HS-fed rats were fatter (8%) than control rats. Despite a decrease in glucose tolerance, ERα expression in adipose tissues was not significantly altered by an HF-HS diet. The return to a well-balanced diet significantly increased ERα expression in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue, but there was no effect of diet or exercise training on whole-body glucose tolerance. The present findings suggest that diet is a powerful modulator of ERα expression in adipose tissue, as nutritional modulation after an HF-HS diet strongly affects ERα expression, particularly in perirenal and epididymal adipose tissue. However, ERα expression in adipose tissue does not appear to be associated with whole-body glucose tolerance. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Lacteal secretion, fetal and maternal tissue distribution of dasatinib in rats.

    PubMed

    He, Kan; Lago, Michael W; Iyer, Ramaswamy A; Shyu, Wen-Chyi; Humphreys, William G; Christopher, Lisa J

    2008-12-01

    Dasatinib [N-(2-chloro-6-methylphenyl)-2-[[6-[4-(2-hydroxyethyl)-1-piperazinyl]-2-methyl-4-pyrimidinyl]amino]-5-thiazolecarboxamide; BMS-354825] is a potent and broad-spectrum kinase inhibitor used for the treatment of chronic myeloid leukemia and Philadelphia chromosome positive (Ph+) acute lymphoblastic leukemia. Dasatinib exhibited extensive lacteal secretion in Sprague-Dawley rats following a single p.o. dose of [14C]dasatinib (10 mg/kg, 300 microCi/kg). Radioactivity was detected through 72 h postdose, with a milk/plasma area under concentration-time curve from 0 to infinity (AUC(0-inf)) ratio of approximately 25. The majority of the total radioactivity in milk was attributed to unchanged dasatinib. After a single dose of [14C]dasatinib to pregnant Sprague-Dawley rats at gestation day 18, radioactivity was extensively distributed in maternal tissues. The radioactivity detected by tissue excision or quantitative whole-body autoradiography was highest in adrenal gland, mammary tissue, lungs, kidneys, liver, and placenta. Compared with maternal tissues, a relatively low level of radioactivity was detected in fetal tissues. The concentrations of dasatinib-equivalents in fetal liver and kidneys were <13% of the respective maternal organs. The C(max) of dasatinib-equivalents in fetal blood was approximately 39% of that in maternal blood; however, the AUC values were comparable. Fetal brain/blood ratios of C(max) and AUC(0-inf) were approximately 1.58 and 1.48, respectively, which were much greater than the maternal ratios of 0.12 and 0.13. In summary, dasatinib was extensively distributed in maternal tissues and secreted into milk, but its penetration into the adult brain was limited. Transporters may be involved in mediating dasatinib distribution in the adult rat, whereas in the fetus, tissue and blood exposures were similar, suggesting that distribution in the fetus is predominantly mediated by diffusion.

  2. [The level of RORγt increases in rat lung tissues of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus].

    PubMed

    Gao, Meng; Wu, Fuling; Li, Yingying; Shi, Tao; Tian, Lijun; Han, Tingting; Wang, Haiying

    2015-11-01

    To study the level of retinoic acid receptor-related orphan receptor γt (RORγt) in rat lung tissues of bronchiolitis caused by respiratory syncytial virus (RSV) and its implication. The rats were randomly divided into normal group and bronchiolitis group. After the model of bronchiolitis was established successfully by nasal dripping, the pathological changes of lung tissues were detected by HE staining; the plasma levels of interleukin 23 (IL-23), IL-17 were detected by ELISA; the level of RORγt mRNA in lung tissues and peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) were detected by real-time quantitative PCR; the level of RORγt protein in lung tissues was examined by Western blotting. Compared with the normal group, the rats with bronchiolitis presented with pulmonary interstitial hyperemia and edema, more inflammatory cell infiltration, wider alveolar septa and bronchial collapse and deformation. Compared with the normal group, the level of RORγt mRNA in the lung tissues and PBMCs increased in rats with bronchiolitis. The level of RORγt protein in lung tissues and the plasma levels of IL-23 and IL -17 were higher in rats with bronchiolitis than in normal rats. The level of RORγt was elevated in the lung tissues of rats with RSV-induced bronchiolitis.

  3. Short-term oleoyl-estrone treatment affects capacity to manage lipids in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Salas, Anna; Noé, Véronique; Ciudad, Carlos J; Romero, M Mar; Remesar, Xavier; Esteve, Montserrat

    2007-01-01

    Background Short-term OE (oleoyl-estrone) treatment causes significant decreases in rat weight mainly due to adipose tissue loss. The aim of this work was to determine if OE treatment affects the expression of genes that regulate lipid metabolism in white adipose tissue. Results Gene expression in adipose tissue from female treated rats (48 hours) was analysed by hybridization to cDNA arrays and levels of specific mRNAs were determined by real-time PCR. Treatment with OE decreased the expression of 232 genes and up-regulated 75 other genes in mesenteric white adipose tissue. The use of real-time PCR validate that, in mesenteric white adipose tissue, mRNA levels for Lipoprotein Lipase (LPL) were decreased by 52%, those of Fatty Acid Synthase (FAS) by 95%, those of Hormone Sensible Lipase (HSL) by 32%, those of Acetyl CoA Carboxylase (ACC) by 92%, those of Carnitine Palmitoyltransferase 1b (CPT1b) by 45%, and those of Fatty Acid Transport Protein 1 (FATP1) and Adipocyte Fatty Acid Binding Protein (FABP4) by 52% and 49%, respectively. Conversely, Tumour Necrosis Factor (TNFα) values showed overexpression (198%). Conclusion Short-term treatment with OE affects adipose tissue capacity to extract fatty acids from lipoproteins and to deal with fatty acid transport and metabolism. PMID:17725831

  4. [The metabolism of [2-(14)C] glycine in rat tissues in vivo].

    PubMed

    Brodin, S V; Ianovych, V H

    1996-01-01

    It is found that two hours after intraperitoneal injection of [2-(14)C] glycine to rats its higher amount (83.6%) is used in the protein synthesis and 16.4% is catabolized. The carbonic chain of the amino acid is used to the greater extent in the synthesis of lipids than in the oxidation and glucogenesis. Radioactivity of the proteins in the investigated organs and tissues of rats varies within L7-50.6 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue and decreases in a series: small intestine mucosa, kidneys, liver, stomach mucosa, heart, lungs, cardiac muscle, skin, skeletal muscle, adipose tissue, brain. Radioactivity of lipids is within the limits of 0.2-5.1 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue 11.7-81.6% of protein radioactivity) and decreases in a series: liver, adipose tissue, kidneys, lungs, cardiac muscle, stomach mucosa, skin, skeletal muscle, brain. The total radioactivity of glucose+glycogen varies within 0.05-0.34 thou. DPM per 100 mg of wet tissue (0.8-10.7% of protein radioactivity) and decreases is a series: kidneys, liver, brain, skeletal muscle.

  5. Soya protein attenuates abnormalities of the renin-angiotensin system in adipose tissue from obese rats.

    PubMed

    Frigolet, María E; Torres, Nimbe; Tovar, Armando R

    2012-01-01

    Several metabolic disturbances during obesity are associated with adipose tissue-altered functions. Adipocytes contain the renin-angiotensin system (RAS), which regulates signalling pathways that control angiogenesis via Akt in an autocrine fashion. Soya protein (Soy) consumption modifies the gene expression pattern in adipose tissue, resulting in an improved adipocyte function. Therefore, the aim of the present work is to study whether dietary Soy regulates the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes and its association with the phosphorylated state of Akt in the adipose tissue of obese rats. Animals were fed a 30 % Soy or casein (Cas) diet containing 5 or 25 % fat for 160 d. mRNA abundance was studied in the adipose tissue, and Akt phosphorylation and hormone release were measured in the primary adipocyte culture. The present results show that Soy treatment in comparison with Cas consumption induces lower angiotensin release and increased insulin-stimulated Akt activation in adipocytes. Furthermore, Soy consumption varies the expression of RAS and angiogenesis-related genes, which maintain cell size and vascularity in the adipose tissue of rats fed a high-fat diet. Thus, adipocyte hypertrophy and impaired angiogenesis, which are frequently observed in dysfunctional adipose tissue, were avoided by consuming dietary Soy. Taken together, these findings suggest that Soy can be used as a dietary strategy to preserve adipocyte functionality and to prevent obesity abnormalities.

  6. Blood flow in an experimental rat brain tumor by tissue equilibration and indicator fractionation.

    PubMed

    Graham, M M; Spence, A M; Abbott, G L; O'Gorman, L; Muzi, M

    1987-01-01

    The tissue equilibration technique (Kety) was compared with the indicator fractionation technique for the measurement of blood flow to normal brain and an experimental brain tumor in the rat. The tumor was a cloned astrocytic glioma implanted in the cerebral hemisphere of F-344 rats. I-125 Iodoantipyrine, using a rising infusion for one minute, was used for the tissue equilibration technique. C-14 butanol, injected as a bolus 8 seconds before sacrifice, was used for the indicator fractionation technique. Samples were assayed using liquid scintillation counting and the iodoantipyrine results were regressed against the butanol results. For normal tissue R = 0.832, SEE = 0.115 ml/g/min, and Slope = 0.626. For tumor R = 0.796, SEE = 0.070 ml/g/min, and Slope = 0.441. The iodoantipyrine tissue/blood partition coefficient for normal hemisphere (gray and white matter) was 0.861 +/-0.037 (SD) and for tumor was 0.876 +/-0.042. The indicator fractionation technique with C-14 butanol underestimated blood flow in a consistent manner, probably because of incomplete extraction, early washout of activity from tissue and from evaporation of butanol during processing. Our experiments revealed no differences between tumor and normal brain tissue that might invalidate the comparison of iodoantipyrine blood flow results in brain tumors and surrounding normal brain.

  7. Release of Zn from maternal tissues in pregnant rats deficient in Zn or Zn and Ca

    SciTech Connect

    Hurley, L.S.; Masters, D.G.; Lonnerdal, B.; Keen, C.L.

    1986-03-05

    Earlier studies have shown that diets that increase tissue catabolism reduce the teratogenic effects of Zn deficiency. The hypothesis that Zn may be released from body tissues when the metabolic state is altered was further tested. Nonpregnant Sprague Dawley females were injected with Zn-65; after equilibration, the two major pools of Zn, bone and muscle, had different specific activities (SA), muscle being much higher. Females were mated and fed diets adequate in Zn and Ca (C) or deficient in Zn (ZnD) or deficient in both Zn and Ca (ZnCaD). Calculations using weight loss in ZnD and ZnCaD rats, Zn content of maternal bone and muscle, and total fetal Zn at term indicated that in ZnCaD rats a relatively small amount of Zn from bone early in pregnancy was sufficient to prevent abnormal organogenesis, but most fetal Zn came from breakdown of maternal muscle in the last 3 days of pregnancy. Isotope data supported this conclusion. SA of Zn in ZnD fetuses was equal and high, indicating that most Zn came from the same maternal tissue. High muscle SA prior to mating, and increased SA in tibia and liver during pregnancy suggest that muscle provided Zn for other maternal tissues as well as fetuses. In contrast, SA in C fetuses was less than 30% of that of the D groups, consistent with the earlier hypothesis that most fetal Zn in C rats is accrued directly from the diet.

  8. Absorption, tissue distribution, and excretion of tritium-labeled ivermectin in cattle, sheep, and rat

    SciTech Connect

    Chiu, Shuething Lee; Green, M.L.; Baylis, F.P.; Eline, D.; Rosegay, A.; Meriwether, H.; Jacob, T.A. )

    1990-11-01

    Tritium-labeled ivermectin was studied in cattle, sheep, and rat for absorption, tissue residue distribution, and excretion at doses of 0.3 mg/kg of body weight. The drug was absorbed by various dosing routes. By intraruminal and subcutaneous dosing routes, highest tissue residues were present in fat and liver of cattle, with half-lives of 6-8 and 4-5 days, respectively. Shorter half-lives (1-2 days) were observed in sheep and rat. The tissue residue distribution pattern was essentially the same for all species studied and similar in male and female rats. With doses of tritium-labeled avermectin B{sub 1a} ranging from 0.06 to 7.5 mg/kg of body weight, plasma and tissue residue concentrations increased proportionally with the dose. When ivermectin was administered by various routes (ip, sc, iv, oral, and intraruminal), blood residue levels converged to 20-50 ppb 4 h after dosing and then depleted at similar rate regardless of the dosing route. Ivermectin was excreted primarily in the feces, with only less than 2% of the doses being eliminated in the urine in all three species studied.

  9. Restricted passage of insulin across capillary endothelium in perfused rat adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Chernick, S.S.; Gardiner, R.J.; Scow, R.O. )

    1987-11-01

    Passage of insulin across capillary endothelium was monitored in perfused rat parametrial adipose tissue by the effect of intra-arterially infused insulin on oxidation of (U-{sup 14}C)glucose to CO{sub 2}. Glucose oxidation was constant at 34 nmol C {center dot} g{sup {minus}1} {center dot} min{sup {minus}1} for 90 min in tissues perfused with 0 or 50 {mu}U/ml. The rate of oxidation was doubled in 90 min at 100 {mu}U/ml and maximal in 40 min at 200 {mu}U/ml and in 20-30 min at 500 {mu}U/ml. The slow decline in oxidation rate when insulin infusion was stopped suggested that insulin was sequestered in the tissue. Although half-maximal response to insulin occurred in perfused tissues at 100 {mu}U/ml, it occurred at 8 {mu}U/ml in incubated adipocytes and at 30 {mu}U/ml in incubated tissue. In addition, the time required for maximal response to insulin was longer in perfused adipose tissue than in incubated cells and tissues. The data indicate that the transfer of insulin from blood to parenchymal cells in perfused tissue was restricted. The minimal amount of insulin needed for a response by adipocytes in perfused tissue was estimated at be <1% of that in blood. The findings are consistent with the concept that insulin is transferred across capillary endothelium by a receptor-mediated process.

  10. Substrate specificity of rat brain neurolysin disclosed by molecular display system and putative substrates in rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Kadonosono, Tetsuya; Kato, Michiko; Ueda, Mitsuyoshi

    2007-07-01

    To search for the substrates, other than neurotensin, of rat brain neurolysin, a novel method of determining peptidase activity was developed using a yeast molecular display system. This is a useful and convenient method of handling homogenously pure proteins to evaluate the properties of neurolysin. The neurolysin gene was ligated to the C-terminal half of the alpha-agglutinin gene with a FLAG tag sequence and a yeast cell-surface molecular displaying plasmid was constructed. Display of neurolysin with correct folding and appropriate activity was verified by immunofluorescence staining and activity measurement of a bradykinin-related peptide. The cleavage sites of peptides were determined by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and matrix assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). The results showed the amino acid preferences of hydrophobic, aromatic, and basic residues, which were the same as those of soluble neurolysin. Moreover, this method clearly showed the presence of two recognition motifs in neurolysin. By using these motifs, novel substrate candidates of neurolysin in rat tissues were screened, and several bioactive peptides that regulate feeding were found. We also discussed the ubiquitous distribution of neurolysin in rat tissues and the functions of substrate candidate peptides.

  11. Metformin ameliorates podocyte damage by restoring renal tissue nephrin expression in type 2 diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Zhai, Limin; Gu, Junfei; Yang, Di; Hu, Wen; Wang, Wei; Ye, Shandong

    2017-05-01

    Previous studies found that metformin provided some renoprotection for diabetic renal damage. In the present study, we evaluated the effects of different doses of metformin on the expression of renal tissue nephrin in type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) model rats and the possible mechanism underlying its protective effect in kidney podocytes. A high-fat diet combined with a low dose of streptozotocin was used to induce T2DM model rats. Diabetic rats were treated with 150, 300, or 500 mg/kg metformin for 8 weeks. At the end of the study, urine and blood samples were collected for measurement of different indices. Light microscopy and transmission electron microscopy were used to identify morphological changes. Renal expression of nephrin protein was assayed by immunohistochemical staining, whereas real-time polymerase chain reaction was used to detect renal nephrin (Nphs1) mRNA expression. Metformin treatment of T2DM rats produced dose-dependent significant reductions in urinary albumin and nephrin concentrations, glomerular basement membrane thickness (GBMT), and the foot process fusion rate (FPFR) compared with control T2DM model rats, whereas renal expression of nephrin protein and Nphs1 mRNA was dose-dependently increased by metformin treatment. Metformin protects kidney podocytes in T2DM model rats by dose-dependently adjusting renal nephrin expression. © 2016 Ruijin Hospital, Shanghai Jiaotong University School of Medicine and John Wiley & Sons Australia, Ltd.

  12. Effect of Urtica dioica L. (Urticaceae) on testicular tissue in STZ-induced diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Ghafari, S; Balajadeh, B Kabiri; Golalipour, M J

    2011-08-15

    Urtica dioica L. (Stinging nettle) has already been known for a long time as a medicinal plant in the world. This histopathological and morphometrical study was conducted to determine the effects of the hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves on testis of streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats. Eighteen male Wistar rats were allocated to equally normal, diabetic and treatment groups. Hyperglycemia was induced by Streptozotocin (80 mg kg(-1)) in animals of diabetic and treatment groups. One week after STZ injection (80 mg kg(-1)), the rats of treatment group received the extract of U. dioica (100 mg/kg/day) IP for 28 days. After 5 weeks of study, all the rats were sacrificed and testes were removed and fixed in bouin and after tissue processing stained with H and E technique. Tubular cell disintegration, sertoli and spermatogonia cell vacuolization and decrease in sperm concentration in seminiferous tubules were seen in diabetic and treatment groups group in comparison with control. External Seminiferous Tubular Diameter (STD) and Seminiferous Epithelial Height (SEH) significantly reduced (p < 0.05) in the diabetic rats compared with controls and these parameters in the treatment group were similar to diabetics animals. This study showed that hydroalcoholic extract of Urtica dioica leaves, after induction of diabetes; has no treatment effect on seminiferous tubules alterations in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats.

  13. [Effects of Jiaweisinisan dispersion on content and gene expression of gastric tissue GASR and jejunal tissue VIPR2 of physical and mental stress model rat].

    PubMed

    Xie, Hui-Chen; Liu, Fen; Yang, Qiang; Xiong, Chang-Chu

    2013-11-01

    To observe the effects of Jiaweisini dispersion (JWSNS) on the ultrastructure of gastric mucosa, the content and gene expression of gastric antrum tissue gastrin receptor (GASR) and jejunal tissue vasoactive intestinal peptide receptor 2 (VIPR2) in chronic stress gastric ulcer rats, and to elucidate its mechanism. 60 Wistar rats were randomly divided into normal group, model group, JWSNS large, medium, small dose groups, and omeprazole group, 10 rats in each group. Chronic stress method was used to establish the stress ulcer rat model. The every rat in JWSNS small, medium, large dose groups were gavaged with 0.25, 0.5, 1.0 g/ mL Chinese medicine Decoction on 2 mL respectively daily, rats in omeprazole group were gavaged with 0.3 mg/mL omeprazole solution on 2 mL daily, rats in normal group and model group were gavaged 2 mL NS daily. After modeling was end, transmission electron microscopy (TEM) was used to observe gastric mucosa cells and intercellular connections changes of ultrastructure of glandular stomach area and immunohistochemical method and Real time-PCR method were used to detect the protein content and gene expression changes of gastric antrum tissue GASR and jejunal tissue cell VIPR2. TEM observation demonstrated that in the normal group the gastric mucosa epithelial cells connected compact, cell membrane integrity, cell nuclear shape and size was normal; in model group rats the gastric mucosal cells were severely damaged; the rats in the rest treatment groups were better than those in the model group in different degree. After The treatment of JWSNS and omeprazole, the expression of GASR protein and mRNA in gastric antrum tissue were increased when compared with that of model group (P < 0.05), the expression of VIPR2 protein and mRNA in the jejunum tissue were lower than that of the model group (P < 0.05). The expression of GASR, VIPR2 protein and mRNA in the JWSNS large dose group was closed to the normal group with no significant difference (P > 0

  14. Deduced primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor and expression of the mRNA in rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Tashiro, K; Hagiya, M; Nishizawa, T; Seki, T; Shimonishi, M; Shimizu, S; Nakamura, T

    1990-01-01

    The primary structure of rat hepatocyte growth factor (HGF) was elucidated by determining the base sequence of the complementary DNA (cDNA) of HGF. The cDNA for rat HGF was isolated by screening a liver cDNA library with oligonucleotides based on the partial N-terminal amino acid sequence of the beta subunit of purified rat HGF. HGF is encoded in an mRNA of about 6 kilobases. Both alpha and beta subunits of HGF are specified in a single open reading frame for a 728-amino acid protein with a calculated molecular weight of 82,904. The N-terminal part of HGF has a signal sequence and a prosequence with 30 and 25 amino acid residues, respectively. The mature heterodimer structure is derived proteolytically from this single pre-pro precursor polypeptide. The calculated molecular weights of the alpha and beta subunits are 50,664 and 25,883, respectively, and each subunit has two potential N-linked glycosylation sites. The amino acid sequence of HGF is 38% identical with that of plasminogen. The alpha subunit of HGF contains four "kringle" structures, and the beta subunit has 37% amino acid identity with the serine protease domain of plasmin. Northern blot analysis revealed that HGF mRNA was expressed in rat various tissues, including the liver, kidney, lung, and brain. Images PMID:2139229

  15. Evaluating Radioprotective Effect of Hesperidin on Acute Radiation Damage in the Lung Tissue of Rats

    PubMed Central

    Rezaeyan, A.; Fardid, R.; Haddadi, G.H.; Takhshid, M.A.; Hosseinzadeh, M.; Najafi, M.; Salajegheh, A.

    2016-01-01

    Background: Oxidative stress plays an important role in the pathogenesis and progression of γ-irradiation-induced cellular damage, Lung is a radiosensitive organ and its damage is a dose-limiting factor in radiotherapy. The administration of dietary antioxidants has been suggested to protect against the succeeding tissue damage. The present study aimed to evaluate the radioprotective efficacy of Hesperidin (HES) against γ-irradiation-induced tissue damage in the lung of male rats. Materials and Methods: Thirty two rats were divided into four groups. Rats in Group 1 received PBS and underwent sham irradiation. Rats in Group 2 received HES and underwent sham irradiation. Rats in Group 3 received PBS and underwent γ-irradiation. Rats in Group 4 received HES and underwent γ-irradiation. These rats were exposed to γ-radiation 18 Gy using a single fraction cobalt-60 unit, and were administered HES (100 mg/kg/d, b.w, orally) for 7 days prior to irradiation. Rats in each group were sacrificed 24 hours after radiotherapy (RT) for the determination of superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione (GSH), malondialdehyde (MDA) and histopathological evaluations. Results: Compared to group 1, the level of SOD and GSH significantly decreased and MDA level significantly increased in group 3 at 24 h following irradiation, (p=0.001, p<0.001, p=0.001), respectively. A statistically significant difference in all parameters was observed for rats in group 4 as compared to group 3 (p<0.05). Histopathological results 24 hours after RT showed that radiation has increased inflammation, lymphocyte, macrophage and neutrophil compared to group 1 ( p<0.0125). Oral administration of HES before RT significantly decreased macrophage and neutrophil when compared to group 3 (p<0.0125), but partly there was inflammation and lymphocyte that indicated there was no significant difference when compared to group 3 (p>0.0125). Conclusion: Oral administration of HES was found to offer protection against

  16. [Rosuvastatin improves insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by high fat diet. Role of SIRT1 in adipose tissue].

    PubMed

    Valero-Muñoz, María; Martín-Fernández, Beatriz; Ballesteros, Sandra; Cachofeiro, Victoria; Lahera, Vicente; de Las Heras, Natalia

    2014-01-01

    To study the effects of rosuvastatin on insulin resistance in overweight rats induced by high fat diet, as well as potential mediators. We used male Wistar rats fed with a standard diet (CT) or high fat diet (33.5% fat) (HFD); half of the animals HFD were treated with rosuvastatin (15mg/kg/day) (HFD+Rosu) for 7 weeks. HFD rats showed increased body, epididymal and lumbar adipose tissue weights. Treatment with Rosu did not modify body weight or the weight of the adipose packages in HFD rat. Plasma glucose and insulin levels and HOMA index were higher in HFD rats, and rosuvastatin treatment reduced them. Leptin/adiponectin ratio in plasma and lumbar adipose tissue were higher in HDF rats, and were reduced by rosuvastatin. SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 protein expression in lumbar adipose tissue were lower in HFD rats and Rosu normalized expression of the three mediators. Rosuvastatin ameliorates insulin sensitivity induced by HFD in rats. This effect is mediated by several mechanisms including reduction of leptin and enhancement of SIRT-1, PPAR-γ and GLUT-4 expression in white adipose tissue. SIRT1 could be considered a major mediator of the beneficial effects of rosuvastatin on insulin sensitivity in overweight rats induced by diet. Copyright © 2013 Sociedad Española de Arteriosclerosis. Published by Elsevier España. All rights reserved.

  17. Exercise and adrenaline increase PGC-1α mRNA expression in rat adipose tissue

    PubMed Central

    Sutherland, Lindsey N; Bomhof, Marc R; Capozzi, Lauren C; Basaraba, Susan A U; Wright, David C

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of the present investigation was to explore the effects of exercise and adrenaline on the mRNA expression of PGC-1α, a master regulator of mitochondrial biogenesis, in rat abdominal adipose tissue. We hypothesized that (1) exercise training would increase PGC-1α mRNA expression in association with increases in mitochondrial marker enzymes, (2) adrenaline would increase PGC-1α mRNA expression and (3) the effect of exercise on PGC-1α mRNA expression in white adipose tissue would be attenuated by a β-blocker. Two hours of daily swim training for 4 weeks led to increases in mitochondrial marker proteins and PGC-1α mRNA expression in epididymal and retroperitoneal fat depots. Additionally, a single 2 h bout of exercise led to increases in PGC-1α mRNA expression immediately following exercise cessation. Adrenaline treatment of adipose tissue organ cultures led to dose-dependent increases in PGC-1α mRNA expression. A supra-physiological concentration of adrenaline increased PGC-1α mRNA expression in epididymal but not retroperitoneal adipose tissue. β-Blockade attenuated the effects of an acute bout of exercise on PGC-1α mRNA expression in epididymal but not retroperitoneal fat pads. In summary, this is the first investigation to demonstrate that exercise training, an acute bout of exercise and adrenaline all increase PGC-1α mRNA expression in rat white adipose tissue. Furthermore it would appear that increases in circulating catecholamine levels may be one potential mechanism mediating exercise induced increases in PGC-1α mRNA expression in rat abdominal adipose tissue. PMID:19221126

  18. Decreased interleukin-2 production by rat uterine artery, aorta and uterine tissues during pregnancy.

    PubMed

    Huleihel, M; Leiberman, J R; Yohay, D; Glezerman, M

    1996-06-01

    Changes in size and function during pregnancy are unique to the uterine artery. The aim of this study was to determine the interleukin (IL)-6 activity of the uterine artery wall tissue in pregnant rats. A total of 18 Charles River white rats (nine virgin and nine in midpregnancy) were used for the study. Bilateral uterine arteries were obtained, together with reference tissues from aorta and uterus. IL-6 production was measured as optical density (OD)/mg protein, in control culture media, and in the presence of stimulants including IL-1, tumour necrosis factor alpha and lipopolysaccharide. Polyclonal rabbit anti-human IL-6 antibodies were used to assess IL-6 activity. In control culture medium, uterine artery tissue samples from virgin rats produced significantly higher concentrations of IL-6 than samples obtained from pregnancy animals (1.8 +/- 0.3 versus 0.9 +/- 0.25 OD/mg protein respectively (mean +/- SE, P = 0.001). Stimulation by lipopolysaccharide increased IL-6 activity of the uterine artery wall. In comparison with the uterine artery, the aorta produced higher activities of IL-6, and its production in virgin animal samples was higher than during pregnancy. Stimulants increased IL-6 production by both aorta and uterus tissues. Neutralization of IL-6 activity was obtained in a range of 77-93% in all samples. The lower level of IL-6 activity during pregnancy in the uterine artery and in reference tissues including aorta and uterus, may be related to acceptance of pregnancy by maternal tissues.

  19. Effect of Gymnema montanum Leaves on Serum and Tissue Lipids in Alloxan Diabetic Rats

    PubMed Central

    Latha, M.; Ramkumar, K. M.; Pari, L.; Baskar, C.; Bai, V. Narmatha

    2003-01-01

    The effect of Gymnema montanum leaves on alloxaninduced hyperlipidemia was studied in male Wistar rats. Ethanolic extract of G. montanum leaves was administered orally and different doses of the extract on blood glucose, serum and tissue lipids, hexokinase, glucose-6-phosphatase, thiobarbituric acid–reactive substances (TBARS), hydroperoxides, and glutathione in alloxan-induced diabetic rats were studied. G. montanum leaf extract (GLEt) at doses of 50, 100, 200 mg/kg body weight for 3 weeks suppressed the elevated blood glucose and lipid levels in diabetic rats. GLEt at 200 mg/kg body weight was found to be comparable to glibenclamide, a reference drug. These data indicate that G. montanum represents an effective antihyperglycemic and antihyperlipidemic adjunct for the treatment of diabetes and a potential source of discovery of new orally active agent for future therapy. PMID:15061646

  20. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  1. Normalization of periodontal tissues in osteopetrotic mib mutant rats, treated with CSF-1

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Wojtowicz, A.; Yamauchi, M.; Sotowski, R.; Ostrowski, K.

    1998-01-01

    The osteopetrotic mib mutation in rats causes defects in the skeletal bone tissue in young animals. These defects, i.e. slow bone remodelling, changes in both crystallinity and mineral content, are transient and undergo normalization, even without any treatment in 6-wk-old animals. Treatment with CSF-1 (colony stimulating factor-1) accelerates the normalization process in skeletal bones. The periodontal tissues around the apices of incisors show abnormalities caused by the slow remodelling process of the mandible bone tissue, the deficiency of osteoclasts and their abnormal morphology, as well as the disorganization of periodontal ligament fibres. In contrast to the skeletal tissues, these abnormalities would not undergo spontaneous normalization. Under treatment with colony stimulating factor 1 (CSF-1), the primitive bone trabeculae of mandible are resorbed and the normalization of the number of osteoclasts and their cytology occurs. The organization of the periodontal ligament fibres is partially restored, resembling the histological structure of the normal one.

  2. Superoxide dismutase levels in various radioresistant and radiosensitive tissues of irradiated rats.

    PubMed

    Krízala, J; Kovárová, H; Stoklasová, A; Ledvina, M

    1982-01-01

    The activity of superoxide dismutase (E.C. 1.15.1.1; SOD) was determined in male Wistar rats in order to evaluate the possible relationship between both the enzyme content in tissue and the resistance of this tissue to ionizing radiation (8,0 Gy, 60Co). Our results showed that some non-irradiated radioresistant organs (liver) had a high SOD activity and on the contrary, in some radiosensitive tissue (bone marrow) the SOD content was low. In spite of this observation it is not possible to generalize the statement that the radiosensitivity is directly conditioned by the SOD level without any exception. The SOD content in the spleen was higher than in the brain, but the spleen is remarkably radiosensitive, whereas the brain is not. The radiosensitivity of individual tissues probably reflected the changes of SOD activity after the irradiation.

  3. The distribution of carnosine and related dipeptides in rat and human tissues.

    PubMed

    Jackson, M C; Lenney, J F

    1996-03-01

    Carnosine and anserine are present in high concentrations in most skeletal muscles. In addition, carnosine and homocarnosine have been detected in brain and cardiac muscle. Other tissues have been found to be devoid of these histidine-containing dipeptides. However, Flancbaum et al. reported that carnosine was present in every rodent and human tissue analyzed. These authors postulated that carnosine serves as a non-mast cell reservoir for histidine which becomes available for histamine synthesis during periods of physiological stress. We have analyzed many rat and human tissues using an immunohistochemical procedure. Carnosine and related dipeptides were detected in skeletal muscle, cardiac muscle and brain, but not in kidney, liver, lung or several other organs. These negative results seem valid since the immunoassay gave positive staining in the tissues generally known to contain carnosine.

  4. Increased oxidative stress in the placenta tissue and cell culture of tumour-bearing pregnant rats.

    PubMed

    Toledo, M T; Ventrucci, G; Gomes-Marcondes, M C C

    2011-11-01

    Placental dysfunction leads to foetal damage, which jeopardises the exchange between the maternal and foetal systems. We evaluated the effects of tumour growth on the activity of antioxidant enzymes and oxidative stress in placental tissue and cell culture from tumour-bearing pregnant rats compared to non-tumour-bearing pregnant rats that were ascitic fluid injected. Ascitic fluid is obtained from Walker tumour-bearing rats and contains a cytokine called Walker factor (WF), which is a molecule similar to proteolysis-inducing factor (PIF), and induces changes in protein metabolism and oxidative stress. Pregnant Wistar rats were distributed into control (C), tumour-bearing (W) and ascitic fluid injected (A) groups and were sacrificed on days 16, 19 and 21 of pregnancy to analyse the profile of enzyme activities (glutathione-S-transferase (GST), catalase (CAT), alkaline phosphatase (AP)) and malondialdehyde (MDA) content in placental tissue. Meanwhile, placenta samples from all groups were obtained on day 21, placed in primary culture and treated with WF for 72 h. The presence of tumour or ascitic fluid reduced the protein content of the placental tissue. On day 16 there was a significant reduction in AP activity in W rats, and on day 19, CAT activity and MDA content significantly increased. These results indicate that the presence of cancer decreased antioxidant enzyme capacity in the placenta, increasing the amount of oxidation in these cells, which may contribute to irreversible placental damage and compromisefoetal development. WF treatment induces similar changes in placental cells in primary culture, resulting in less cell viability and increased oxidative stress. These results indicate that WF, provided by the tumour or inoculation of ascitic fluid, has negative effects on placental homeostasis, which impairs foetal health.

  5. Effect of Nrf2 on rat ovarian tissues against atrazine-induced anti-oxidative response

    PubMed Central

    Zhao, Fan; Li, Kun; Zhao, Lijing; Liu, Jian; Suo, Qi; Zhao, Jing; Wang, Hebin; Zhao, Shuhua

    2014-01-01

    The environmental persistence and bioaccumulation of herbicide atrazine may pose a significant threat to human health. In this experiment, Wistar rats were treated by 5, 25 and 125 mg·kg-1 atrazine respectively for 28 days, and the oxidative stress responses as well as the activations of Nrf2 signaling pathway in ovarian tissues induced by atrazine were observed. The results showed that after be treated by atrazine, the proportion of atretic follicles in the rat ovary were increased, the contents of NO and MDA in the tissue homogenates were increased, the over-expressed Nrf2 transferred into the nuclei and played an antioxidant role by up-regulated the expression of II phase detoxifying enzymes such as HO1 and NQO1 and the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as CAT, SOD and GSH-PX. PMID:25031697

  6. Therapeutic effects of an oral chelator targeting skeletal tissue damage in experimental postmenopausal osteoporosis in rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, Gang; Men, Ping; Kenner, Gerry H; Miller, Scott C

    2008-01-01

    Earlier studies revealed that age-associated iron accumulation plays an important causal role in osteopenic development after estrogen deficiency. It is believed that an increase in iron content is associated with an increased likelihood of oxidative damage at the point of iron accumulation. However, there is no direct evidence that the iron accumulated in skeletal tissue causes free radical oxidative damage and consequent bone loss. Iron depletion from skeletal tissues of ovariectomized (OVX) rats was carried out with the oral chelator [1-N-docosyl-triethylenetetraminepentaacetic acid (DoTTPA)]. Results suggest the causal role of iron in oxidative damage that may lead to bone loss in the rats. The results also show the therapeutic potential of the bone-targeted chelator to protect against bone loss associated with age-iron accumulation as well as iron overload diseases.

  7. Structural organization and tissue-specific expression of the gene encoding rat cysteine dioxygenase.

    PubMed

    Tsuboyama, N; Hosokawa, Y; Totani, M; Oka, J; Matsumoto, A; Koide, T; Kodama, H

    1996-11-28

    Cysteine dioxygenase (CDO) is a key enzyme involved in the metabolism of L-cysteine. Genomic clones containing the 5'-flanking sequence of the rat CDO gene were isolated and characterized. The CDO gene spanned about 15 kb, and comprised 5 exons. All boundaries between the exons and introns matched the GT/AG rule. The major transcription start point (tsp) was A at 213 bp upstream from the ATG codon. The 5'-flanking region contained a TATA-box-like sequence and putative cis-acting regulatory elements. The 3' end of CDO was polyadenylated at several sites. Northern blots of RNA from rat tissues revealed the highest CDO mRNA level in the liver. Significant levels were observed in the kidney, lung and brain, implying tissue-specific differences in CDO promoter function.

  8. Effect of running training on uncoupling protein mRNA expression in rat brown adipose tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamashita, Hitoshi; Yamamoto, Mikio; Sato, Yuzo; Izawa, Tetsuya; Komabayashi, Takao; Saito, Daizo; Ohno, Hideki

    1993-03-01

    The effect was investigated of endurance training on the expression of uncoupling protein (UCP) mRNA in brown adipose tissue (BAT) of rats. The exercised rats were trained on a rodent treadmill for 5 days per week and a total of 9 weeks. After the training programme, a marked decrease in BAT mass was found in terms of weight or weight per unit body weight; there was a corresponding decrease in DNA content and a downward trend in RNA and glycogen levels. The UCP mRNA was present at a markedly decreased level in BAT of trained animals. In consideration of the reduced levels of mRNAs for hormone-sensitive lipase and acylCoA synthetase, the brown adipose tissue investigated appeared to be in a relatively atrophied and thermogenically quiescent state.

  9. Protective Effect of PPARγ Agonists on Cerebellar Tissues Oxidative Damage in Hypothyroid Rats

    PubMed Central

    Baghcheghi, Yousef; Beheshti, Farimah; Salmani, Hossein; Soukhtanloo, Mohammad

    2016-01-01

    The aim of the current study was to investigate the effects of peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARγ) agonists on cerebellar tissues oxidative damage in hypothyroid rats. The animals included seven groups: group I (control), the animals received drinking water; group II, the animals received 0.05% propylthiouracil (PTU) in drinking water; besides PTU, the animals in groups III, IV, V, VI, and VII, were injected with 20 mg/kg vitamin E (Vit E), 10 or 20 mg/kg pioglitazone, and 2 or 4 mg/kg rosiglitazone, respectively. The animals were deeply anesthetized and the cerebellar tissues were removed for biochemical measurements. PTU administration reduced thiol content, superoxide dismutase (SOD), and catalase (CAT) activities in the cerebellar tissues while increasing malondialdehyde (MDA) and nitric oxide (NO) metabolites. Vit E, pioglitazone, and rosiglitazone increased thiol, SOD, and CAT in the cerebellar tissues while reducing MDA and NO metabolites. The results of present study showed that, similar to Vit E, both rosiglitazone and pioglitazone as PPARγ agonists exerted protective effects against cerebellar tissues oxidative damage in hypothyroid rats. PMID:28116157

  10. Quantification of phenylethylamine and p-tyramine in rat tissues using a new radioenzymatic assay

    SciTech Connect

    Hamburger, S.A.; Henry, D.P.

    1986-03-05

    Phenylethylamine (PEA) and p-tyramine (p-tym) are biologically active aralkylamines that are found in a number of mammalian tissues, including brain and plasma. The investigation of the biological role of these substances has been hampered by the lack of accessible assay methodology. They have developed a new radioenzymatic assay using barley root tyramine N-methyltransferase and tritiated S-adenosylmethionine. The products formed by the reaction are isolated by TLC. The assay sensitivity was 2.1 and 1.0 pg/tube for PEA and p-tym, respectively. The concentration of PEA and p-tym was determined simultaneously in tissues from Sprague-Dawley rats (280 gm). Plasma PEA and p-tym were 478 +/- 66 and 309 +/- 69 pg/ml, respectively. They conclude that this new procedure is applicable to all tissues examined in that all tissues contain both PEA and p-tym and that these amines are heterogeneously distributed in rat tissues.

  11. Stem cell delivery in tissue-specific hydrogel enabled meniscal repair in an orthotopic rat model.

    PubMed

    Yuan, Xiaoning; Wei, Yiyong; Villasante, Aránzazu; Ng, Johnathan J D; Arkonac, Derya E; Chao, Pen-Hsiu Grace; Vunjak-Novakovic, Gordana

    2017-04-04

    Interest in non-invasive injectable therapies has rapidly risen due to their excellent safety profile and ease of use in clinical settings. Injectable hydrogels can be derived from the extracellular matrix (ECM) of specific tissues to provide a biomimetic environment for cell delivery and enable seamless regeneration of tissue defects. We investigated the in situ delivery of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) in decellularized meniscus ECM hydrogel to a meniscal defect in a nude rat model. First, decellularized meniscus ECM hydrogel retained tissue-specific proteoglycans and collagens, and significantly upregulated expression of fibrochondrogenic markers by hMSCs versus collagen hydrogel alone in vitro. The meniscus ECM hydrogel in turn supported delivery of hMSCs for integrative repair of a full-thickness defect model in meniscal explants after in vitro culture and in vivo subcutaneous implantation. When applied to an orthotopic model of meniscal injury in nude rat, hMSCs in meniscus ECM hydrogel were retained out to eight weeks post-injection, contributing to tissue regeneration and protection from joint space narrowing, pathologic mineralization, and osteoarthritis development, as evidenced by macroscopic and microscopic image analysis. Based on these findings, we propose the use of tissue-specific meniscus ECM-derived hydrogel for the delivery of therapeutic hMSCs to treat meniscal injury.

  12. Structural characterization of rat ventricular tissue exposed to the smoke of two types of waterpipe

    PubMed Central

    Al-Awaida, Wajdy; Najjar, Hossam; Shraideh, Ziad

    2015-01-01

    Objective(s): this study focused on the effect of waterpipe smoke exposure toxicity on the structure of albino rat’s ventricular tissue and their recovery. Materials and Methods: Albino rats were divided into three groups: control, flavored, and unflavored. The control group was exposed to normal air while the flavored and unflavored groups were exposed to waterpipe smoke for a period of 90 days. Each group was followed by a period of 90 days of fresh air exposure. Following each period, the ventricular tissue was removed for biochemical and histopathological studies. Results: The ventricular tissues of waterpipe exposed rats showed some degree of separation between cardiac muscle fibers, infiltration of lymphocytes, and congestion of blood vessel. Also, thin cross sections of ventricular cells revealed pleomorphic mitochondria with partially disrupted cristae, partial disruption of the myofibrils, and deposited toxic materials. The unflavored waterpipe has more deleterious effects on heart ventricular tissues than the flavored one. Waterpipe smoke didn’t induce apoptosis in the ventricular tissue. We also found very high levels of plasma thiocyanate after exposure to smoke in the flavored and unflavored groups, while the control group showed no increase. After the recovery period, those tissues showed partial recovery. Conclusion: Waterpipe smoke induces structural changes in the heart ventricle tissues, causing a negative impact on the capacity of the cardiac muscle for pumping blood and may lead to heart attack due to accumulation of free radicals and tissue inflammation. Cessation of smoking is important in returning most of these changes to their normal structure. PMID:26730327

  13. Measurement of the optical properties of rat brain tissue using contact spatially resolved spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Gysbrechts, Barbara; Nguyen Do Trong, Nghia; Wang, Ling; Cabral, Henrique; Navratilova, Zaneta; Battaglia, Francesco P.; Saeys, Wouter; Bartic, Carmen

    2014-05-01

    Nowadays, biophotonics is widely used in neuroscience. The effectiveness of biophotonic techniques, such as fluorescence imaging and optogenetics, is affected by the optical properties of the examined tissue. Therefore, knowledge of these properties is essential to carefully plan experiments. Mice and rats are widely used in neuroscience studies. However, reports about optical properties of their brains are very rare. We measured optical absorption μa and reduced scattering μ's coefficients of native rat brain in the visible and near-infrared wavelength region, using contact spatially resolved spectroscopy (SRS). In this study, we estimate μa and μ's for the rat cortex and discuss their stability in time. Additionally, variations in optical properties within and between samples were characterized. The results extend the range of known optical properties for the rat cortex, especially in the visible range, relevant to optogenetics. μa and μ's are stable within a time span of four hours, and show low variation in and between brain samples. This indicates that a suitable protocol was used to estimate optical properties of rodent brain tissue. Since contact SRS is a non-destructive method, this technique could be used also to measure μa and μ's in living animals. Moreover, the probe has small dimensions, allowing the characterization of optical properties in different structures of the brain.

  14. Chronic consumption of fructose rich soft drinks alters tissue lipids of rats

    PubMed Central

    2010-01-01

    Background Fructose-based diets are apparently related to the occurrence of several metabolic dysfunctions, but the effects of the consumption of high amounts of fructose on body tissues have not been well described. The aim of this study was to analyze the general characteristics and the lipid content of different tissues of rats after chronic ingestion of a fructose rich soft drink. Methods Forty-five Wistar rats were used. The rats were divided into three groups (n = 15) and allowed to consume water (C), light Coca Cola ® (L) or regular Coca Cola® (R) as the sole source of liquids for eight weeks. Results The R group presented significantly higher daily liquid intake and significantly lower food intake than the C and L groups. Moreover, relative to the C and L groups, the R group showed higher triglyceride concentrations in the serum and liver. However, the L group animals presented lower values of serum triglycerides and cholesterol than controls. Conclusions Based on the results, it can be concluded that daily ingestion of a large amount of fructose- rich soft drink resulted in unfavorable alterations to the lipid profile of the rats. PMID:20573247

  15. Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues from Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Zalesak, Selina M.; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Scully, Robert R.; Williams, Kyle; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% of very fine dust (< 3 micron), that is respirable. The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues from rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m(exp 3) of lunar dust. Five rats per group were euthanized 1 day, and 3 months after the last inhalation exposure. The total RNAs were isolated from lung tissues after being lavaged. The Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray was used to profile global gene expression (44K). The genes with significant expression changes are identified and the gene expression data were further analyzed using various statistical tools.

  16. Mass spectrometric profiling of lipids in intestinal tissue from rats fed cereals processed for medical conditions.

    PubMed

    Dowlatshahi Pour, Masoumeh; Jennische, Eva; Lange, Stefan; Ewing, Andrew G; Malmberg, Per

    2016-06-11

    Time-of-flight secondary ion mass spectrometry (ToF-SIMS) was used for lipid profiling of intestine tissue sections from rats fed specially processed cereals and rats fed ordinary feed as a control. This cereal is known to increase the activity of antisecretory factor in plasma and the exact mechanism for the activation process at the cellular level is unclear. ToF-SIMS has been used to track food induced changes in lipid content in intestinal tissue sections to gain insight into the possible mechanisms involved. Data from 20 intestine sections belonging to four different rats from each group of control and specially processed cereals-fed rats were obtained using the stage scan macroraster with a lateral resolution of 5 μm. Data were subsequently subjected to orthogonal partial least squares discriminant analysis. The data clearly show that changes of certain lipids are induced by the specially processed cereal feed. Scores plots show a well-defined separation between the two groups. The corresponding loading plots reveal that the groups separate mainly due to changes of vitamin E, phosphocholine, and phosphosphingolipid fragments, and that for the c18:2 fatty acid. The observed changes in lipids might give insight into the working mechanisms of antisecretory factor in the body, and this has been successfully used to understand the working mechanism of specially processed cereal-induced antisecretory factor activation in intestine.

  17. Toxicity and bioaccumulation of the wood preservative copper dimethyldithiocarbamate in tissues of Long-Evans rats.

    PubMed

    Scharf, Brian; Trombetta, Louis David

    2008-01-01

    This study examined the toxicity and accumulation of copper in the livers and kidneys of Long-Evans rats after a subacute exposure to copper dimethyldithiocarbamate (CDCC) wood preservative. CDDC was recently introduced as an alternative to chromated copper arsenate (CCA) preserved wood. Female rats (220-270 g) were treated with 0, 25, 50, or 75 mg/kg CDDC by oral gavage for 3 wk. Light microscopy revealed that higher doses of CDDC induced diffuse necrosis and a loss of sinusoids in the livers of Long-Evans rats with vacuolization in the highest dose. Rats treated with 25 mg/kg CDDC displayed a thickening of the basement membrane of Bowman's capsule and the mesangium. Exposure to higher CDDC concentrations (50 and 75 mg/kg) showed moderate to marked expansion of the mesangial matrix and glomerular necrosis with an overall loss of glomerular structure seen in the highest dose. The concentration of copper was significantly increased in the tissues of animals exposed to CDDC in a dose-dependent manner. Western blot analysis revealed the induction of the stress protein Hsp70 and the formation of 4-hydroxy-2-nonenal (4HNE) adducts in liver and renal tissues, indicating peroxidative damage. CDDC was shown to be toxic to the livers and kidneys, at all doses used, and this toxicity is related to peroxidative insult.

  18. [Ammonia, glutamine and glutamic acid content of rat tissues during and after hyperoxia].

    PubMed

    Gabibov, M M

    1975-01-01

    The content of ammonia, glutamine, glutamic acid was measured in the brain, liver, heart, spleen, kidneys, skeletal muscles and blood rats exposed to a 4 atm oxygen atmosphere and during aftereffects. The hyperoxic atmosphere resulted in an increase of ammonia and glutamic acid and in a decrease of glutamine in the tissues. The return to the norm of the compounds occurred slowly and nonuniformly, lasting for 40 to 60 posthyperoxic days.

  19. Effect of paeonol on tissue destruction in experimental periodontitis of rats.

    PubMed

    Chang, Chih-Yuan; Fu, Earl; Chiang, Cheng-Yang; Chang, Wei-Jeng; Cheng, Wan-Chien; Tu, Hsiao-Pei

    2014-01-01

    We evaluated the effects of paeonol, a phenolic compound of Moutan Cortex, on the tissue inflammation and destruction in experimental periodontitis of rats. The maxillary palatal bony surfaces of 18 rats received injections of lipopolysaccharide (LPS, 5 mg/mL), PBS or LPS-plus-paeonol (40 mg/kg, intra-peritoneal injection) for three days. Five days later, the osteoclasts were examined and compared after tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase staining. In another 36 rats, the experimental periodontitis was induced by placing the ligatures around the maxillary second and mandibular first molars. Seven days later, the periodontal destruction and inflammation in rats with paeonol (40 mg/kg or 80 mg/kg) and those who had no ligature or without paeonol were compared by dental radiography, micro-computerized tomography (micro-CT), and histology. Gingival mRNA expressions of pre-inflammatory cytokines, including IL-1β' IL-6 and TNF-α were also examined. Compared to the effect of the LPS positive control, the paeonol injection significantly reduced the induced osteoclast formation. In ligature-induced periodontitis, the periodontal bone supporting ratio was significantly higher in the ligature-plus-paeonol groups compared to that of the ligature group, although they were still less than those in the non-ligature group. By micro-CT and by histology/histometry, a consistent anti-destructive effect was observed when paeonol was added. Moreover, less amount of inflammatory cell-infiltrated connective tissue area, connective tissue attachment, and mRNA expressions of pro-inflammatory cytokines were presented in the ligature-plus-paeonol groups than those in the ligature group. These results suggested that paeonol might have a protective potential on gingival tissue inflammation and alveolar bone loss during the process of periodontitis by inhibiting pro-inflammatory cytokines.

  20. The use of thermography in early detection of tissue perfusion disorders in rats

    PubMed Central

    Łokaj, Marek; Falkowski, Aleksander; Prowans, Piotr

    2014-01-01

    Introduction Tissue perfusion disorders can be present in various diseases and progress in the form of arterial ischemia or venous stasis with accompanying local changes in temperature. Aim To use of thermography in the diagnostics of early periods of tissue perfusion disorders before the clinical symptoms occur. Material and methods Thirty-two male rats were used. After anesthesia the skin on lower limbs was shaved and femoral vessels of both sides were exposed. In 10 rats the left femoral artery was ligated, in 12 rats the left femoral vein was ligated and in the 10 remaining rats both left femoral vessels were ligated. Thermography of the limbs was performed before the vessels were ligated and after a period of 24 h. The pictures were taken every 5 s during 3 min. Before the measurement, the tissues were cooled down for 20 s with a 5°C water compress. The rate of temperature return to the limbs was evaluated. Results Statistically significant differences were observed after the 24-hour period on the thigh after the ligation of the vein, and on the shank and the foot after ligation of the artery. After the ligature of both vessels, statistically significant differences occurred immediately after their ligature within the thigh and shank and after 24 h on the foot. Conclusions The results show that cameras with an accuracy of 0.05°C can be used to detect tissue perfusion disorders. The special diagnostic value is the ability to detect perfusion disorders before clinical symptoms occur. PMID:25337154

  1. Changes of The Uterine Tissue in Rats with Polycystic Ovary Syndrome Induced by Estradiol Valerate

    PubMed Central

    Mirabolghasemi, Ghadire; Kamyab, Zahra

    2017-01-01

    Background Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is one of the most common hormonal disorders that can lead to irregular menstrual cycles and hyperandrogenism. Reduced levels of progesterone and increased estrogen in these women can perpetually stimulate the endometrial tissue of the uterus. In this study, we assess the effect of PCOS induction by estradiol valerate (EV) in a rat model. Materials and Methods In this experimental study, adult female Wistar rats that weighed approximately 200 g were divided into control, sham, and experimental groups (n=6 per group). The experimental group received subcutaneous injections of 2 mg EV for induction of PCOS. We confirmed the presence of PCOS in the experimental group rats. Rats from all groups were subsequently killed, after which their uteri were removed and fixed for histological and cytological analyses. The uterine tissue sections were stained with hematoxylin and eosin (H&E) and iron hematoxylin (iron-H). We examined epithelium height, thickness of the uterus wall, and frequency of the mitotic cells. The data were assessed at α=0.05. Results Uterine tissue findings from the experimental group showed significant increases in the height of the uterus luminal epithelium, the thickness of the uterus wall, and the frequency of eosinophils in the endometrial stroma. We observed an increased frequency of mitotic cells in the experimental group in both luminal and glandular epithelia of the uterus. An increased rate of the glandular epithelium region was noticeable and significant. Conclusion Induction of PCOS by EV could change the proliferation rate in the endo- metrial tissue of the uterus. PMID:28367305

  2. Whole tissue AC susceptibility after superparamagnetic iron oxide contrast agent administration in a rat model

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Lázaro, Francisco José; Gutiérrez, Lucía; Rosa Abadía, Ana; Soledad Romero, María; López, Antonio; Jesús Muñoz, María

    2007-04-01

    A magnetic AC susceptibility characterisation of rat tissues after intravenous administration of superparamagnetic iron oxide (Endorem ®), at the same dose as established for Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI) contrast enhancement in humans, has been carried out. The measurements reveal the presence of the contrast agent as well as that of physiological ferritin in liver and spleen while no traces have been magnetically detected in heart and kidney. This preliminary work opens suggestive possibilities for future biodistribution studies of any type of magnetic carriers.

  3. Long interspersed nuclear elements (LINEs) show tissue-specific, mosaic genome and methylation-unrestricted, widespread expression of noncoding RNAs in somatic tissues of the rat

    PubMed Central

    Singh, Deepak K.; Rath, Pramod C.

    2012-01-01

    We report strong somatic and germ line expression of LINE RNAs in eight different tissues of rat by using a novel ~2.8 kb genomic PstI-LINE DNA (P1-LINE) isolated from the rat brain. P1-LINE is present in a 93 kb LINE-SINE-cluster in sub-telomeric region of chromosome 12 (12p12) and as multiple truncated copies interspersed in all rat chromosomes. P1-LINEs occur as inverted repeats at multiple genomic loci in tissue-specific and mosaic patterns. P1-LINE RNAs are strongly expressed in brain, liver, lungs, heart, kidney, testes, spleen and thymus into large to small heterogeneous RNAs (~5.0 to 0.2 kb) in tissue-specific and dynamic patterns in individual rats. P1-LINE DNA is strongly methylated at CpG-dinucleotides in most genomic copies in all the tissues and weakly hypomethylated in few copies in some tissues. Small (700–75 nt) P1-LINE RNAs expressed in all tissues may be possible precursors for small regulatory RNAs (PIWI-interacting/piRNAs) bioinformatically derived from P1-LINE. The strong and dynamic expression of LINE RNAs from multiple chromosomal loci and the putative piRNAs in somatic tissues of rat under normal physiological conditions may define functional chromosomal domains marked by LINE RNAs as long noncoding RNAs (lncRNAs) unrestricted by DNA methylation. The tissue-specific, dynamic RNA expression and mosaic genomic distribution of LINEs representing a steady-state genomic flux of retrotransposon RNAs suggest for biological role of LINE RNAs as long ncRNAs and small piRNAs in mammalian tissues independent of their cellular fate for translation, reverse-transcription and retrotransposition. This may provide evolutionary advantages to LINEs and mammalian genomes. PMID:23064113

  4. [Tissue distribution of solid lipid nanoparticles loaded garlic oil in rats].

    PubMed

    Sun, Xue-hui; Guo, Tao; He, Jin; Zhao, Ming-hong; Nie, Shu-fang

    2008-12-01

    To investigate the tissue distribution of the diallyl disulfide (DADS) and diallyl trisulfide (DATS) in solid lipid nanoparticles loaded garlic oil (GO-SLN) in rats. The gas chromatography-electron capture detection (GC-ECD) method was established to determined the DADS and DATS simultaneously in the biological samples of rats after administration of 0.5 mL garlic oil injection or GO-SLN (containing about 10 mg garlic oil) via jugular vein cannula. The conditions for gas chromatographic separation were as follows. The oven temperature was set at 110 degrees C and maintained for 15 min. Temperatures at the injection port and detector were 180 degrees C and 300 degrees C, respectively. Ultra-pure nitrogen (purity > 99.999%, Shenyang Kerui Special Gases Co. Ltd., China) was used as a carrier gas and made-up gas at flow-rates of 1 mL x min(-1) and 60 mL x min(-1), respectively. All injections were carried out in the split injection mode with a split ratio of 1:10. The GC-ECD method was fit for determing the concentration of DADS and DATS in garlic oil. The distribution character of GO-SLN in rats had changed to some extent and the concentration of GO-SLN in tissues was higher than that of GO-Injection. The SLN can elevate the passive targeting of drugs and lengthen their action time in tissues.

  5. Pharmacokinetics, Tissue Distribution and Protein Binding Studies of Chrysocauloflavone I in Rats.

    PubMed

    Yang, Sufang; Shi, Peiying; Huang, Xiaomei; Zhao, Meifeng; Li, Shaoguang; Wu, Youjia; Lin, Xinhua; Yao, Hong

    2016-02-01

    Chrysocauloflavone I, an unfrequent biflavonoid, was purified from Selaginella doederleinii in this study. It showed cytotoxic effects on three human cancer cells, NCI-H1975, A549, and HepG-2, in vitro. In silico assessment of the physicochemical properties was performed for predicting the permeability and intestinal absorption of the tested compound. Subsequently, a rapid, sensitive, and specific high-performance liquid chromatography method was developed for determination of the compound in different biological samples to ascertain the pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and protein binding profiles of this active ingredient in rats. After intravenous dosing of chrysocauloflavone I at different levels (10 and 20 mg/kg), the elimination half-life was approximately 85 min, and the AUC0-∞ increased with the dose from 148.52 mg/L × min for 10 mg/kg to 399.01 mg/L × min for 20 mg/kg. After single intravenous dosing (20 mg/kg), chrysocauloflavone I was detected in all tissues studied with higher levels in the heart, blood, and lungs. The results of equilibrium dialysis indicated a very high protein binding degree (over 97%) for chrysocauloflavone I. After intragastric administration of 100 mg/kg chrysocauloflavone I to rats, no parent drug was detected in the rat plasma. This is the first report of the favorable bioactivities, plasma pharmacokinetics, tissue distribution, and protein binding profiles of the rare biflavone chrysocauloflavone I.

  6. Tissue Reaction and Biocompatibility of Implanted Mineral Trioxide Aggregate with Silver Nanoparticles in a Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Zand, Vahid; Lotfi, Mehrdad; Aghbali, Amirala; Mesgariabbasi, Mehran; Janani, Maryam; Mokhtari, Hadi; Tehranchi, Pardis; Pakdel, Seyyed Mahdi Vahid

    2016-01-01

    Introduction: Biocompatibility and antimicrobial activity of endodontic materials are of utmost importance. Considering the extensive applications of mineral trioxide aggregate (MTA) in dentistry and antimicrobial properties of silver nanoparticles, this study aimed to evaluate the subcutaneous inflammatory reaction of rat connective tissues to white MTA with and without nanosilver (NS) particles. Methods and Materials: Polyethylene tubes (1.1×8 mm) containing experimental materials (MTA and MTA+NS and empty control tubes) were implanted in subcutaneous tissues of seventy-five male rats. Animals were divided into five groups (n=15) according to the time of evaluation: group 1; after 7 days, group 2; after 15 days, group 3; after 30 days, group 4; after 60 days and group 5; after 90 days. The inflammatory reaction was graded and data was analyzed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U tests. Statistical significance was defined at 0.05. Results: Comparison of cumulative inflammatory reaction at all intervals revealed that the mean grade of inflammatory reaction to MTA, MTA+NS and control samples were 3, 2 and 2, respectively. According to the Mann-Whitney analysis there were no significant differences between MTA+NS and MTA (P=0.42). Conclusion: Incorporation of 1% nanosilver to MTA does not affect the inflammatory reaction of subcutaneous tissue in rat models. PMID:26843871

  7. The effect of toxic doses of 1,25-dihydroxycholecalciferol on dental tissues in the rat.

    PubMed

    Pitaru, S; Blaushild, N; Noff, D; Edelstein, S

    1982-01-01

    Vitamin D-depleted rats 4-weeks old were divided into three groups and given daily for 5 weeks cholecalciferol (0.25 microgram) or 1,25(OH)2D3 (0.075 microgram). The third group received no treatment with vitamin D sterols. A fourth control group was fed a diet containing vitamin D. The animals were killed after 5 weeks, plasma was prepared for calcium analysis, and incisors and molars were taken for histology. Growth was monitored throughout. Plasma calcium, body weight and the physical condition of the 1,25(OH)2D3-treated animals indicated that they were toxemic. The pulp-dentine complex of their incisors showed premature aging of fibroblasts and odontoblasts, disturbances in the dentinal matrix and osteodentine formation. That of molars was not affected. There was hypercementosis and bone-like tissue formation in the periodontal-ligament which in the incisors was considerably enlarged; some molars were ankylosed. The pulp-dentine complex of the incisors and molars of the rats in the remaining three groups appeared normal except for zones of hypomineralization in incisors of the third group. The supporting tissues of the teeth of the rats in the other three groups were within normal limits. Thus toxic doses of 1,25(OH)2D3 affected the dental tissues of both developing and mature teeth.

  8. Effects of dopamine on adenylyl cyclase activity and amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue.

    PubMed

    Hatta, S; Amemiya, N; Takemura, H; Ohshika, H

    1995-06-01

    Several previous studies have shown that dopamine causes amylase secretion from rat parotid tissue. However, the mechanism of this dopamine action is still unclear. The present study was designed to characterize dopamine action in rat parotid gland tissue by examining the effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release. Dopamine significantly enhanced accumulation of cyclic AMP in parotid slices and stimulated adenylyl cyclase activity in parotid membrane preparations. It also significantly stimulated amylase release from parotid slices. The stimulatory effects of dopamine on cyclic AMP accumulation, adenylyl cyclase activity, and amylase release were effectively blocked with propranolol, a beta-adrenergic antagonist, but not by either SCH 23390, a preferential D1 antagonist, or butaclamol, a preferential D2 antagonist. No substantial specific binding sites for D1 receptors were detectable by [3H]SCH 23390 binding in parotid membranes. These results suggest that the stimulatory effect of dopamine on amylase secretion in rat parotid tissue is not mediated through specific D1 dopamine receptors but rather through beta-adrenergic receptors.

  9. Dedifferentiated fat cells convert to cardiomyocyte phenotype and repair infarcted cardiac tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Jumabay, Medet; Matsumoto, Taro; Yokoyama, Shin-ichiro; Kano, Koichiro; Kusumi, Yoshiaki; Masuko, Takayuki; Mitsumata, Masako; Saito, Satoshi; Hirayama, Atsushi; Mugishima, Hideo; Fukuda, Noboru

    2009-11-01

    Adipose tissue-derived stem cells have been demonstrated to differentiate into cardiomyocytes and vascular endothelial cells. Here we investigate whether mature adipocyte-derived dedifferentiated fat (DFAT) cells can differentiate to cardiomyocytes in vitro and in vivo by establishing DFAT cell lines via ceiling culture of mature adipocytes. DFAT cells were obtained by dedifferentiation of mature adipocytes from GFP-transgenic rats. We evaluated the differentiating ability of DFAT cells into cardiomyocytes by detection of the cardiac phenotype markers in immunocytochemical and RT-PCR analyses in vitro. We also examined effects of the transplantation of DFAT cells into the infarcted heart of rats on cardiomyocytes regeneration and angiogenesis. DFAT cells expressed cardiac phenotype markers when cocultured with cardiomyocytes and also when grown in MethoCult medium in the absence of cardiomyocytes, indicating that DFAT cells have the potential to differentiate to cardiomyocyte lineage. In a rat acute myocardial infarction model, transplanted DFAT cells were efficiently accumulated in infarcted myocardium and expressed cardiac sarcomeric actin at 8 weeks after the cell transplantation. The transplantation of DFAT cells significantly (p<0.05) increased capillary density in the infarcted area when compared with hearts from saline-injected control rats. We demonstrated that DFAT cells have the ability to differentiate to cardiomyocyte-like cells in vitro and in vivo. In addition, transplantation of DFAT cells led to neovascuralization in rats with myocardial infarction. We propose that DFAT cells represent a promising candidate cell source for cardiomyocyte regeneration in severe ischemic heart disease.

  10. Weight loss and brown adipose tissue reduction in rat model of sleep apnea

    PubMed Central

    Martinez, Denis; Vasconcellos, Luiz FT; de Oliveira, Patricia G; Konrad, Signorá P

    2008-01-01

    Background - Obesity is related to obstructive sleep apnea-hypopnea syndrome (OSAHS), but its roles in OSAHS as cause or consequence are not fully clarified. Isocapnic intermittent hypoxia (IIH) is a model of OSAHS. We verified the effect of IIH on body weight and brown adipose tissue (BAT) of Wistar rats. Methods Nine-month-old male breeders Wistar rats of two groups were studied: 8 rats submitted to IIH and 5 control rats submitted to sham IIH. The rats were weighed at the baseline and at the end of three weeks, after being placed in the IIH apparatus seven days per week, eight hours a day, in the lights on period, simulating an apnea index of 30/hour. After experimental period, the animals were weighed and measured as well as the BAT, abdominal, perirenal, and epididymal fat, the heart, and the gastrocnemius muscle. Results Body weight of the hypoxia group decreased 17 ± 7 grams, significantly different from the variation observed in the control group (p = 0,001). The BAT was 15% lighter in the hypoxia group and reached marginally the alpha error probability (p = 0.054). Conclusion Our preliminary results justify a larger study for a longer time in order to confirm the effect of isocapnic intermittent hypoxia on body weight and BAT. PMID:18671859

  11. Development of T Lymphocytes in the Nasal-associated Lymphoid Tissue (NALT) from Growing Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Sosa, Gustavo A.

    2004-01-01

    The aim of the present report was to study the development of several T-lymphocyte subsets in the nasal-associated lymphoid tissue (NALT) of growing Wistar rats. CD5+ and CD4+ lymphocytes gradually increased with age. A predominance of CD8α+ over CD4+ T cells was found from 7 to 45 days but from 45 to 60 days of age T helper cells outnumbered the cytotoxic subpopulation. The majority of CD8+ T lymphocytes expressed the heterodimeric isoform. The most relevant findings by immunohistochemistry are: (1) the predominance of TCRγδ+ and CD8α+ cells at 7 days postpartum over all the other T-cell subpopulations; and (2) that TCRγβ+ outnumbered TCRαβ+ T cells from 7 to 45 days postpartum whereas αβ T cells predominated in 45- and 60-day-old rats. Besides, cytometric studies have shown that the percentages of TCRγ+, CD8+, as well as the population coexpressing both phenotypes (TCRγδ+CD8α+), were significantly higher in rats at 7 days postpartum when compared to 60 day-old rats. In the present study, the finding of a high number of γδ+ and CD8+ T cells early in NALT development may indicate the importance of these subpopulations in the protection of the nasal mucosa in suckling and weaning Wistar rats. PMID:15154609

  12. Tissue residues and toxicities of inorganic and protein-bound cadmium in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Lambert, R.J.

    1983-01-01

    Two separate feeding studies were conducted to evaluate the toxicity and retention of intrinsic tissue cadmium to Sprague-Dawley rats. The cadmium was derived from treated swine liver and kidney mixtures incorporated as 10% of the diets. Cadmium chloride was compared to intrinsic cadmium in one dietary study and in an intestinal perfusion study. These studies indicate that rats consuming low levels of biologically incorporated cadmium will accumulate that metal in their kidneys, but with continued exposure the accumulation proceeds at a slower rate than is seen in rats consuming a similar diet containing cadmium chloride. The lumen of the duodenum of anesthetized male rats was perfused for one hour with a 100 ..mu..M solution of cadmium as cadmium chloride, purified swine cadmium-thionein, or the 150 mM sodium chloride carrier solution alone. The villi of the cadmium chloride treated rats were seen to be severely damaged when viewed with the light microscope and scanning electron microscope. Villi exposed to the other two solutions had a normal appearance. Exposure to the cadmium chloride solution for 15, 30 and 45 minutes indicated that there was a time-dependent increase in villus damage.

  13. Distribution of monocarboxylate transporters MCT1-MCT8 in rat tissues and human skeletal muscle.

    PubMed

    Bonen, Arend; Heynen, Miriam; Hatta, Hideo

    2006-02-01

    In the past decade, a family of monocarboxylate transporters (MCTs) have been identified that can potentially transport lactate, pyruvate, ketone bodies, and branched-chain ketoacids. Currently, 14 such MCTs are known. However, many orphan transporters exist that have transport capacities that remain to be determined. In addition, the tissue distribution of many of these MCTs is not well defined. Such a cataloging can, at times, begin to suggest the metabolic role of a particular MCT. Recently, a number of antibodies against selected MCTs (MCT1, -2, -4, and -5 to -8) have become commercially available. Therefore, we examined the protein expression of these MCTs in a large number of rat tissues (heart, skeletal muscle, skin, brain, testes, vas deferens, adipose tissue, liver, kidney, spleen, and pancreas), as well as in human skeletal muscle. Unexpectedly, many tissues coexpressed 4-5 MCTs. In particular, in rat skeletal muscle MCT1, MCT2, MCT4, MCT5, and MCT6 were observed. In human muscle, these same MCTs were present. We also observed a pronounced MCT7 signal in human muscle, whereas a very faint signal occurred for MCT8. In rat heart, which is an important metabolic sink for lactate, we confirmed that MCT1 and -2 were expressed. In addition, MCT6 and -8 were also prominently expressed in this tissue, although it is known that MCT8 does not transport aromatic amino acids or lactate. This catalog of MCTs in skeletal muscle and other tissues has revealed an unexpected complexity of coexpression, which makes it difficult to associate changes in monocarboxylate transport with the expression of a particular MCT. The differences in transport kinetics for lactate and pyruvate are only known for MCT1, -2 and -4. Transport kinetics remain to be established for many other MCTs. In conclusion, this study suggests that in skeletal muscle, as well as other tissues, lactate and pyruvate transport rates may not only involve MCT1 and -4, as other monocarboxylate transporters are

  14. Global Gene Expression Profiling in Lung Tissues of Rat Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Yeshitla, Samrawit A.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Feiveson, Alan H.; Ploutz-Snyder, Robert; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.; Meyers, Valerie E.; Zhang, Ye

    2014-01-01

    The Moon's surface is covered by a layer of fine, potential reactive dust. Lunar dust contain about 1-2% respirable very fine dust (less than 3 micrometers). The habitable area of any lunar landing vehicle and outpost would inevitably be contaminated with lunar dust that could pose a health risk. The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in lung tissues of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. F344 rats were exposed for 4 weeks (6h/d; 5d/wk) in nose-only inhalation chambers to concentrations of 0 (control air), 2.1, 6.8, 21, and 61 mg/m3 of lunar dust. Animals were euthanized at 1 day and 13 weeks after the last inhalation exposure. After being lavaged, lung tissue from each animal was collected and total RNA was isolated. Four samples of each dose group were analyzed using Agilent Rat GE v3 microarray to profile global gene expression of 44K transcripts. After background subtraction, normalization, and log transformation, t tests were used to compare the mean expression levels of each exposed group to the control group. Correction for multiple testing was made using the method of Benjamini, Krieger, and Yekuteli (1) to control the false discovery rate. Genes with significant changes of at least 1.75 fold were identified as genes of interest. Both low and high doses of lunar dust caused dramatic, dose-dependent global gene expression changes in the lung tissues. However, the responses of lung tissue to low dose lunar dust are distinguished from those of high doses, especially those associated with 61mg/m3 dust exposure. The data were further integrated into the Ingenuity system to analyze the gene ontology (GO), pathway distribution and putative upstream regulators and gene targets. Multiple pathways, functions, and upstream regulators have been identified in response to lunar dust induced damage in the lung tissue.

  15. Duodenal Absorption and Tissue Utilization of Dietary Heme and Nonheme Iron Differ in Rats123

    PubMed Central

    Cao, Chang; Thomas, Carrie E.; Insogna, Karl L.; O'Brien, Kimberly O.

    2014-01-01

    Background: Dietary heme contributes to iron intake, yet regulation of heme absorption and tissue utilization of absorbed heme remains undefined. Objectives: In a rat model of iron overload, we used stable iron isotopes to examine heme- and nonheme-iron absorption in relation to liver hepcidin and to compare relative utilization of absorbed heme and nonheme iron by erythroid (RBC) and iron storage tissues (liver and spleen). Methods: Twelve male Sprague-Dawley rats were randomly assigned to groups for injections of either saline or iron dextran (16 or 48 mg Fe over 2 wk). After iron loading, rats were administered oral stable iron in the forms of 57Fe-ferrous sulfate and 58Fe-labeled hemoglobin. Expression of liver hepcidin and duodenal iron transporters and tissue stable iron enrichment was determined 10 d postdosing. Results: High iron loading increased hepatic hepcidin by 3-fold and reduced duodenal expression of divalent metal transporter 1 (DMT1) by 76%. Nonheme-iron absorption was 2.5 times higher than heme-iron absorption (P = 0.0008). Absorption of both forms of iron was inversely correlated with hepatic hepcidin expression (heme-iron absorption: r = −0.77, P = 0.003; nonheme-iron absorption: r = −0.80, P = 0.002), but hepcidin had a stronger impact on nonheme-iron absorption (P = 0.04). Significantly more 57Fe was recovered in RBCs (P = 0.02), and more 58Fe was recovered in the spleen (P = 0.01). Conclusions: Elevated hepcidin significantly decreased heme- and nonheme-iron absorption but had a greater impact on nonheme-iron absorption. Differential tissue utilization of heme vs. nonheme iron was evident between erythroid and iron storage tissues, suggesting that some heme may be exported into the circulation in a form different from that of nonheme iron. PMID:25332470

  16. Vascularization in tissue remodeling after rat hepatic necrosis induced by dimethylnitrosamine.

    PubMed

    Jin, Yu-Lan; Enzan, Hideaki; Kuroda, Naoto; Hayashi, Yoshihiro; Toi, Makoto; Miyazaki, Eriko; Hamauzu, Tadashi; Hiroi, Makoto; Guo, Li-Mei; Shen, Zhe-Shi; Saibara, Toshiji

    2006-03-01

    We observed postnecrotic tissue remodeling to examine vascularization in adult rat livers. Livers, bone marrow, and peripheral blood from rats at 24 h to 14 days after an injection of dimethylnitrosamine (DMN) were examined by light microscopic, immunohistochemical, and ultrastructural methods. Numerous ED-1 (a marker for rat monocytes/macrophages)-positive round mononuclear cells infiltrated in the necrotic areas at 36 h after DMN treatment. On day 5, when necrotic tissues were removed, some of the cells were transformed from round to spindle in shape. On day 7, these cells were contacted with residual reticulin fibers and became positive for SE-1, a marker of hepatic sinusoidal endothelial cells and Tie-1, an endothelial cell-specific surface receptor, associated with frequent occurrence of ED-1/SE-1 and ED-1/Tie-1 double-positive spindle cells. Ultrastructurally, the spindle cells simultaneously showed phagocytosis and endothelial cell-like morphology. With time necrotic areas diminished, and on day 14, the necrotic tissues were almost replaced by regenerated liver tissues and thin bundles of central-to-central bridging fibrosis. Bone marrow from 12 h to day 2 showed an increase of BrdU-positive mononuclear cells. Some of them were positive for ED-1. The BrdU-labeled and ED-1-positive cells appeared as early as 12 h after DMN injection and reached a peak in number at 36 h. They were similar in structure to ED-1-positive cells in necrotic liver tissues. These findings suggest that round mononuclear ED-1-positive cells proliferate first in bone marrow after DMN treatment, reach necrotic areas of the liver through the circulation, and differentiate to sinusoidal endothelial cells. Namely, hepatic sinusoids in DMN-induced necrotic areas may partly be reorganized possibly by vasculogenesis.

  17. Alteration of Cpn60 expression in pancreatic tissue of rats with acute pancreatitis

    PubMed Central

    Li, Xue-Li; Li, Kun; Feng, Yan; Gong, Qian; Li, Yan-Na; Li, Xue-Jin; Chen, Chang-Jie

    2008-01-01

    The expression of heat-shock protein 60 (also known as chaperonin 60, Cpn60) in experimental acute pancreatitis (AP) is considered to play an active role in the prevention of abnormal enzyme accumulation and activation in pancreatic acinar cells. However, there are controversial results in the literature regarding the relationship between the abnormality of Cpn60 expression and AP onset and development. The purpose of this study was to investigate the alternations of Cpn60 expression and the relationship between the abnormal expression of Cpn60 and AP progression in rat severe acute pancreatitis (SAP) models. In this report, we induced SAP in Sprague–Dawley (SD) rats by reverse injection of sodium deoxycholate into the pancreatic duct, and examined the dynamic changes of Cpn60 expression in pancreatic tissues from different time points and at different levels with techniques of real-time PCR, western blotting, and immunohistochemistry. At 1 h after SAP induction, the expression of Cpn60 mRNA in the AP pancreatic tissues was higher than those in the sham-operation group and normal control group, but decreased sharply as the time period was extended, and there was a significant difference between 1 h and 10 h after SAP induction (p < 0.05). In the AP process, Cpn60 protein expression showed transient elevation as well, and the increased protein expression occurred predominantly in affected, but not totally destroyed, pancreatic acinar cells. As AP progressed, the pancreatic tissues were seriously damaged, leading to a decreased overall Cpn60 protein expression. Our results show a complex pattern of Cpn60 expression in pancreatic tissues of SAP rats, and the causality between the damage of pancreatic tissues and the decrease of Cpn60 level needs to be investigated further. PMID:18766470

  18. The metabolic syndrome of omega3-depleted rats. II. Body weight, adipose tissue mass and glycemic homeostasis.

    PubMed

    Sener, Abdullah; Zhang, Ying; Bulur, Nurdan; Louchami, Karim; Malaisse, Willy J; Carpentier, Yvon A

    2009-07-01

    Exposure of 7-week-old normal rats for 3-7 months to a diet deprived of long-chain polyunsaturated omega3 fatty acids was recently reported to induce changes in the fatty acid content and pattern of liver phospholipids and triglycerides similar to those otherwise found in second generation omega3-depleted rats. In the present study, the changes in body weight, parametrial adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations and insulin resistance index were investigated in the same control and omega3-depleted rats, which were then given access for 2 to 4-5 weeks to either a flaxseed oil-enriched diet (control and omega3-depleted rats) or a soybean oil-enriched diet (control rats). The body weight failed to differ between control and omega3-depleted rats. The latter rats, however, displayed increases in adipose tissue mass, plasma glucose and insulin concentrations, and insulin resistance index. In the control rats given access to the soybean or flaxseed oil-enriched diet, body weight and adipose tissue mass were little affected, but both the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased. In the omega3-depleted rats given access to the flaxseed oil-enriched diet, both body weight and adipose tissue mass underwent a rapid, pronounced and sustained increase, whilst the plasma glucose concentration and insulin resistance index decreased similarly to those in the control rats. The present design of omega3 fatty acid dietary deprivation thus reproduces the visceral obesity and insulin resistance otherwise observed in second-generation omega3-depleted rats. However, the supply of exogenous omega3 fatty acids to the omega3-depleted rats failed to oppose visceral obesity, possibly as a result of the orexigenic effects of these omega3 fatty acids.

  19. Expression of keratin 10 in rat organ surface primo-vascular tissues.

    PubMed

    Kim, So Rim; Lee, Seul Ki; Jang, Soo Hwa; Choi, Jae-Hong; Lee, Byung-Cheon; Hwang, In Koo; Lee, So Yeong; Ryu, Pan Dong

    2011-06-01

    The primo-vascular system is described as the anatomical structure corresponding to acupuncture meridians and has been identified in several tissues in the body, but its detailed anatomy and physiology are not well understood. Recently, the presence of keratin 10 (Krt10) in primo-vascular tissue was reported, but this finding has not yet been confirmed. In this study, we compared Krt10 expression in primo-vascular tissues located on the surface of rat abdominal organs with Krt10 expression on blood and lymphatic vessels. Krt10 protein (approximately 56.5 kDa) was evaluated by western blot analysis and immunohistochemistry. Krt10 (IR) in the primo-node was visualized as patchy spots around each cell or as a follicle-like structure containing a group of cells. Krt10 IR was also identified in vascular and lymphatic tissues, but its distribution was diffuse over the extracellular matrix of the vessels. Thus Krt10 protein was expressed in all three tissues tested, but the expression pattern of Krt10 in primo-vascular tissue differed from those of blood and lymphatic vascular tissues, suggesting that structural and the regulatory roles of Krt10 in primo-vascular system are different from those in blood and lymphatic vessels.

  20. Dynamic expression of extracellular signal-regulated kinase in rat liver tissue during hepatic fibrogenesis

    PubMed Central

    Zhang, Xiao-Lan; Liu, Jin-Ming; Yang, Chang-Chun; Zheng, Yi-Lin; Liu, Li; Wang, Zhan-Kui; Jiang, Hui-Qing

    2006-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether extracellular signal-regulated kinase 1 (ERK1) is activated and associated with hepatic stellate cell (HSC) proliferation in fibrotic rat liver tissue. METHODS: Rat hepatic fibrosis was induced by bile duct ligation (BDL). Histopathological changes were evaluated by hematoxylin and eosin staining, and Masson’s trichrome method. ERK1 mRNA in rat liver tissue was determined by reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction, while the distribution of ERK1 was assessed by immunohistochemistry. ERK1 protein was detected by Western blotting analysis. The number of activated HSCs was quantified after alpha smooth muscle actin (α-SMA) staining. RESULTS: With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive staining cells of α-SMA increased obviously, and mainly resided in the portal ducts. Fiber septa and perisinuses were accompanied with proliferating bile ducts. The positive staining areas of the rat livers in model groups 1-4 wk after ligation of common bile duct (12.88% ± 2.63%, 22.65% ± 2.16%, 27.45% ± 1.86%, 35.25% ± 2.34%, respectively) were significantly larger than those in the control group (5.88% ± 1.46%, P < 0.01). With the development of hepatic fibrosis, the positive cells of ERK1 increased a lot, and were mainly distributed in portal ducts, fiber septa around the bile ducts, vascular endothelial cells and perisinusoidal cells. Western blotting analysis displayed that the expression of ERK1 and ERK2 protein was up-regulated during the model course, and its level was the highest 4 wk after operation, being 3.9-fold and 7.2-fold higher in fibrotic rat liver than in controls. ERK1 mRNA was expressed in normal rat livers as well, which was up-regulated two days after BDL and reached the highest 4 wk after BDL. The expression of ERK1 was positively correlated with α-SMA expression (r = 0.958,P < 0.05). CONCLUSION: The expression of ERK1 protein and mRNA is greatly increased in fibrotic rat liver tissues, which may play a

  1. Characterisation of rat and human tissue alkaline phosphatase isoforms by high-performance liquid chromatography and agarose gel electrophoresis.

    PubMed

    Dziedziejko, Violetta; Safranow, Krzysztof; Slowik-Zylka, Dorota; Machoy-Mokrzynska, Anna; Millo, Barbara; Machoy, Zygmunt; Chlubek, Dariusz

    2009-03-01

    Alkaline phosphatase (ALP) exists as several isoenzymes and many isoforms present in tissues and serum. The objective of this study was to separate tissue ALP forms in rats and humans and characterise their properties. The materials for the investigation were intestinal, bone, and liver tissue of rats and commercially available human preparations of tissue ALP. Two methods of separation were used: high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and agarose gel electrophoresis. Using HPLC in the rat tissues, two ALP isoforms in the intestine, one in the bone, and three in the liver were identified. In humans three intestinal, two bone, and one liver isoform were resolved. Electrophoresis showed two ALP activity bands in rat intestine, one wide band in the bone, and three bands in the liver. ALP of human tissues was visualised as a single wide band, with a different mobility observed for each organ. In both species the presence of a form with properties characteristic of the bone isoform of the tissue-nonspecific isoenzyme was observed in the intestine. HPLC offers a higher resolution than electrophoresis with respect to tissue ALP fractions in rats and in humans, but electrophoresis visualises high-molecular-mass insoluble enzyme forms.

  2. Sources and quantity of 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine in several tissues of the rat.

    PubMed Central

    van Doorn, J; van der Heide, D; Roelfsema, F

    1983-01-01

    The local conversion of thyroxine (T4), which is an important source of intracellular 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3) in several rat tissues, has been subject of recent investigations. In the present study the regulation of this phenomenon in vivo was investigated in various peripheral tissues of the rat. Intact euthyroid and radiothyroidectomized (Tx) rats received a continuous intravenous infusion of [125I]T4 and [131I]T3 until isotope equilibrium was attained. In addition to the labeled iodothyronines, Tx rats received a continuous intravenous infusion of 0.2 or 1.0 microgram carrier T4/100 g body wt per d, to create hypothyroid or slightly hypothyroid conditions, respectively. After the animals were bled and perfused the contribution of T3 derived from local conversion of T4 to T3 [Lc T3(T4)] to the total T3 in homogenates from several tissues and subcellular fractions from the liver, kidney, and anterior pituitary gland could be calculated. In all experiments T3 in muscle was derived exclusively from the plasma. In the cerebral cortex and cerebellum, however, most of the intracellular T3 was derived from the intracellular conversion of T4 to T3. It is demonstrated that for hypothyroid rats an increased relative contribution of Lc T3(T4) reduced the loss of total T3 in the brain. This phenomenon was also encountered for the anterior pituitary gland, although in this tissue the proportion of the total tissue T3, contributed by locally produced T3 was considerably lower than the values found for the cerebral cortex and cerebellum in all experiments. The present findings, regarding the source and quantity of pituitary nuclear T3 strongly suggest that both plasma T3 and T4 (through its local conversion into T3) play a role in the regulation of thyrotropin secretion. The contribution of Lc T3(T4) to the total pituitary nuclear T3 was of minor importance in euthyroid rats (approximately 20%), compared with that found for both groups in T4-supplemented athyreotic rats

  3. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats.

    PubMed

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1-4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1-4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3-4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P < 0.05-0.01), and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P < 0.05-0.01) in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living, and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions.

  4. Hypoxic Living and Exercise Training Alter Adipose Tissue Leptin/Leptin Receptor in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Lu, Yingli; Feng, Lianshi; Xie, Minhao; Zhang, Li; Xu, Jianfang; He, Zihong; You, Tongjian

    2016-01-01

    Background: Hypobaric hypoxia results in weight loss in obese individuals, and exercise training is advocated for the treatment of obesity and its related metabolic dysfunctions. The purpose of this study was to investigate the effects of hypoxic living and exercise training on obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor in dietary-induced obese rats. Methods: One hundred and thirty high-fat diet fed Sprague-Dawley rats were assigned into one of the following groups (n = 10 each): control, sedentary hypoxic living for 1–4 weeks (SH1, SH2, SH3, and SH4), living, and exercise training in normoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4), and living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 1–4 weeks (TN1, TN2, TN3, and TN4). Epididymal adipose tissue expression levels of leptin and leptin receptor were determined Results: Compared to hypoxic living and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions, living and exercise training in hypoxic conditions for 3–4 weeks resulted in lower Lee index (P < 0.05–0.01), and higher expression of leptin and leptin receptor (P < 0.05–0.01) in adipose tissue. Conclusion: In a rodent model of altitude training, living, and exercise training in hypoxic conditions resulted in greater alterations in obesity and adipose tissue leptin/leptin receptor than hypoxic living alone and living and exercise training in normoxic conditions. PMID:27932989

  5. Subcutaneous Connective Tissue Reaction to a New Nano Zinc-Oxide Eugenol Sealer in Rat Model

    PubMed Central

    Omidi, Salma; Javidi, Maryam; Zarei, Mina; Mushakhian, Siavash; Jafarian, Amirhossein

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: The aim of this animal study was to evaluate the histological response of the new nano zinc-oxide eugenol (NZOE) sealer in comparison with Pulp Canal Sealer (ZOE based) and AH-26 (epoxy resin sealer). Methods and Materials: A total of 27 Wistar rats were used. Four polyethylene tubes were implanted in the back of each rat (three tubes containing the test materials and an empty tube as a control). Then, 9 animals were sacrificed at each interval of 15, 30 and 60 days, and the implants were removed with the surrounding tissues.Samples were evaluated for the presence of inflammatory cell (mononuclear cell), vascular changes, fibrous tissue formation and present of giant cell. Comparisons between groups and time-periods were performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney U non-parametric tests. The level of significance was set at 0.05. Results: No significant difference was observed in tissue reactions and biocompatibility pattern of three sealers during 3 experimental periods (P<0.05). In all groups the tissue behavior showed tendency to decrease the irritation effect over time. Conclusion: The new nano zinc-oxide eugenol sealer has histocompatibility properties comparable to conventional commercial sealers. PMID:28179927

  6. Effects of Tannic Acid on the Ischemic Brain Tissue of Rats.

    PubMed

    Sen, Halil Murat; Ozkan, Adile; Guven, Mustafa; Akman, Tarık; Aras, Adem Bozkurt; Sehitoglu, Ibrahim; Alacam, Hasan; Silan, Coskun; Cosar, Murat; Ozisik Karaman, Handan Isın

    2015-08-01

    Many studies of brain ischemia have shown the role played by massive ischemia-induced production of reactive oxygen species, the main mechanism of neuronal death. However, currently, there is no treatment choice to prevent cell death triggered by reactive oxygen species. In our study, we researched the effects of tannic acid, an antioxidant, on the ischemic tissue of rats with induced middle cerebral artery occlusion. The animals were divided into three groups of eight animals. The sham group were only administered 10 % ethanol intraperitoneally, the second group had middle cerebral artery occlusion induced and were given 10 % ethanol intraperitoneally, while the third group had middle cerebral artery occlusion with 10 mg/kg dose tannic acid dissolved in 10 % ethanol administered within half an hour intraperitoneally. The rats were sacrificed 24 h later, and brain tissue was examined biochemically and histopathologically. Biochemical evaluation of brain tissue found that comparing the ischemic group with no treatment with the tannic acid-treated ischemia group; the superoxide dismutase (SOD) levels were higher, malondialdehyde (MDA) levels were lower, and nuclear respiratory factor-1 (NRF-1) was higher in the tannic acid-treated group. Histopathological examination showed that the histopathological results of the tannic acid group were better than the group not given tannic acid. Biochemical and histopathological results showed that tannic acid administration had an antioxidant effect on the negative effects of ischemia in brain tissue.

  7. Metabonomic changes from pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia to pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma in tissues from rats.

    PubMed

    Wen, Shi; Li, Zhishui; Feng, Jianghua; Bai, Jianxi; Lin, Xianchao; Huang, Heguang

    2016-06-01

    Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is one of the most malignant tumors and is difficult to diagnose in the early phase. This study was aimed at obtaining the metabolic profiles and characteristic metabolites of pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and PDAC tissues from Sprague-Dawley (SD) rats to establish metabonomic methods used in the early diagnosis of PDAC. In the present study, the animal models were established by embedding 7,12-dimethylbenzanthracene (DMBA) in the pancreas of SD rats to obtain PanIN and PDAC tissues. After the preprocessing of tissues, (1) H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy combined with multivariate and univariate statistical analysis was applied to identify the potential metabolic signatures and the corresponding metabolic pathways. Pattern recognition models were successfully established and differential metabolites, including glucose, amino acids, carboxylic acids and coenzymes, were screened out. Compared with the control, the trends in the variation of several metabolites were similar in both PanIN and PDAC. Kynurenate and methionine levels were elevated in PanIN but decreased in PDAC, thus, could served as biomarkers to distinguish PanIN from PDAC. Our results suggest that NMR-based techniques combined with multivariate statistical analysis can distinguish the metabolic differences among PanIN, PDAC and normal tissues, and, therefore, present a promising approach for physiopathologic metabolism investigations and early diagnoses of PDAC.

  8. Reaction of rat connective tissue to mineral trioxide aggregate and diaket

    PubMed Central

    2011-01-01

    Background The aim of this study was to compare the reaction of rat connective tissue to two root-end filling materials: white Mineral Trioxide Aggregate (WMTA) and Diaket. Methods Each of the materials was placed in dentine tubes and implanted subcutaneously in the dorsal connective tissue of 21 Wistar albino rats. Tissue biopsies were collected 7, 30, and 60 days after the implantation procedure. The specimens were processed and stained with hematoxylin and eosin and examined microscopically. After determining inflammatory cell numbers in sections from each specimen, inflammatory reaction scores were defined as follows: 0; no or few inflammatory cells (no reaction), 1; less than 25 cells (mild reaction), 2; 25 to 125 cells, (moderate reaction), and 3; 125 or more cells (severe reaction). Statistical analysis was performed using the Kruskal-Wallis and Mann-Whitney tests. Results There were statistically significant differences in the median inflammatory cell numbers throughout the three test periods, with the most severe degree of inflammation observed at the one-week period. Few cases of necrosis were observed with WMTA. Diaket exhibited the most severe degree of inflammation and necrosis. After 30 days, both materials provoked moderate inflammatory reaction. The eight-week period showed the least severe degree of inflammation in all groups. Conclusions It was concluded that WMTA exhibits a more favourable tissue response compared with Diaket which induced more severe inflammatory reaction than WMTA and the control. PMID:21569463

  9. Stage of development and fasting affect protein synthetic activity in the gastrointestinal tissues of suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Burrin, D G; Davis, T A; Fiorotto, M L; Reeds, P J

    1991-07-01

    We studied suckling rats from 1 to 28 d of age to determine the normal developmental changes in the protein synthetic activity of gastrointestinal tissue. We also studied the changes that occurred in response to 10 or 18 h of fasting at 5, 10, 16 and 28 d of age. Protein synthesis was measured in vivo using a flooding dose of L-[4-3H]phenylalanine. Fractional protein synthesis rates (FSR, %/d) of stomach and small intestines increased nearly 80% during the period normally associated with weaning (d 18 to 28). Between birth and 28 d, the pancreas FSR increased approximately 6.5-fold from 46 to 302%/d. The increases in stomach, small intestinal and pancreatic FSR were largely due to increases in translational efficiency (gram protein synthesized per gram RNA). At 5, 10, 16 and 28 d postpartum, both the FSR and translational efficiency in pancreatic and small intestinal tissues were decreased after 10 h of fasting; however, measures in stomach tissue were largely unaffected. The magnitude of decline in FSR and translational efficiency in response to fasting was greater during the earlier than in the later stages of development. The results suggest that the FSR in the pancreas, small intestines and stomach of suckling rats increase during the period of development associated with weaning. Fasting affected protein synthetic activity more profoundly in pancreatic and small intestinal tissue in the early stages of development.

  10. Fluorescence spectroscopy and cryoimaging of rat lung tissue mitochondrial redox state

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, R.; Audi, S.; Staniszewski, K.; Maleki, S.; Ranji, M.

    2011-07-01

    The objective of this study was to demonstrate the utility of optical cryoimaging and fluorometry to evaluate tissue redox state of the mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes NADH (Nicotinamide Adenine Dinucleotide) and FAD (Flavin Adenine Dinucleotide) in intact rat lungs. The ratio (NADH/FAD), referred to as mitochondrial redox ratio (RR), is a measure of the lung tissue mitochondrial redox state. Isolated rat lungs were connected to a ventilation-perfused system. Surface NADH and FAD fluorescence signals were acquired before and after lung perfusion in the absence (control perfusate) or presence of potassium cyanide (KCN, complex IV inhibitor) to reduce the mitochondrial respiratory chain (state 5 respiration). Another group of lungs were perfused with control perfusate or KCN-containing perfusate as above, after which the lungs were deflated and frozen rapidly for subsequent 3D cryoimaging. Results demonstrate that lung treatment with KCN increased lung surface NADH signal by 22%, decreased FAD signal by 8%, and as result increased RR by 31% as compared to control perfusate (baseline) values. Cryoimaging results also show that KCN increased mean lung tissue NADH signal by 37%, decreased mean FAD signal by 4%, and increased mean RR by 47%. These results demonstrate the utility of these optical techniques to evaluate the effect of pulmonary oxidative stress on tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact lungs.

  11. Increased in vivo glucose utilization in 30-day-old obese Zucker rat: Role of white adipose tissue

    SciTech Connect

    Krief, S.; Bazin, R.; Dupuy, F.; Lavau, M. )

    1988-03-01

    In vivo whole-body glucose utilization and uptake in multiple individual tissues were investigated in conscious 30-day-old Zucker rats, which when obese are hyperphagic, hyperinsulinemic, and normoglycemic. Whole-body glucose metabolism (assessed by (3-{sup 3}H)glucose) was 40% higher in obese (fa/fa) than in lean (Fa/fa) rats, suggesting that obese rats were quite responsive to their hyperinsulinemia. In obese compared with lean rats, tissue glucose uptake was increased by 15, 12, and 6 times in dorsal, inguinal, perigonadal white depots, respectively; multiplied by 2.5 in brown adipose tissue; increased by 50% in skin from inguinal region but not in that from cranial, thoracic, or dorsal area; and increased twofold in diaphragm but similar in heart in proximal intestine, and in total muscular mass of limbs. The data establish that in young obese rats the hypertrophied white adipose tissue was a major glucose-utilizing tissue whose capacity for glucose disposal compared with that of half the muscular mass. Adipose tissue could therefore play an important role in the homeostasis of glucose in obese rats in the face of their increased carbohydrate intake.

  12. The variation of macro- and micro-minerals of tissues in diabetic and non-diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Presley, Tennille D; Duncan, A'ja V; Jeffers, Anne B; Fakayode, Sayo O

    2017-01-01

    This study determined the levels of Ca, Mg, Fe, Zn, Cu, and Na in various tissues samples (liver, brain, kidney, intestines, muscle and hair) of diabetic and non-diabetic rats by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy, in order to assess the role of element levels during T2DM. The ratios of Ca/Mg, Zn/Cu, Ca/Zn, and Mg/Zn in diabetic and non-diabetic rat tissues were also calculated. The determined element levels were further subjected to a student-t test statistical analysis and multiple-linear-regression in order to evaluate similarities, differences, and an inter-element association in tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. The results of the study showed high variability in element levels and Ca/Mg Zn/Cu Mg/Zn Ca/Zn ratios in the tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats, but are tissue- and element-dependent, suggesting differences in the accumulation of the elements in tissues of diabetics and non-diabetics. The obtained significant differences in the levels of elements and Ca/Mg Zn/Cu Mg/Zn Ca/Zn ratios in several tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats in this study suggest that the investigated elements play considerable roles in the T2DM disease process. Strong inter-element associations (R(2)≥0.9) were observed for some elements in tissues of diabetic and non-diabetics rats. However, poor inter-elemental associations were obtained for some elements in the tissues of diabetic and non-diabetic rats. Published by Elsevier GmbH.

  13. Troglitazone increases the number of small adipocytes without the change of white adipose tissue mass in obese Zucker rats.

    PubMed Central

    Okuno, A; Tamemoto, H; Tobe, K; Ueki, K; Mori, Y; Iwamoto, K; Umesono, K; Akanuma, Y; Fujiwara, T; Horikoshi, H; Yazaki, Y; Kadowaki, T

    1998-01-01

    Troglitazone (CS-045) is one of the thiazolidinediones that activate the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPARgamma), which is expressed primarily in adipose tissues. To elucidate the mechanism by which troglitazone relieves insulin resistance in vivo, we studied its effects on the white adipose tissues of an obese animal model (obese Zucker rat). Administration of troglitazone for 15 d normalized mild hyperglycemia and marked hyperinsulinemia in these rats. Plasma triglyceride level was decreased by troglitazone in both obese and lean rats. Troglitazone did not change the total weight of white adipose tissues but increased the number of small adipocytes (< 2,500 micron2) approximately fourfold in both retroperitoneal and subcutaneous adipose tissues of obese rats. It also decreased the number of large adipocytes (> 5,000 micron2) by approximately 50%. In fact, the percentage of apoptotic nuclei was approximately 2.5-fold higher in the troglitazone-treated retroperitoneal white adipose tissue than control. Concomitantly, troglitazone normalized the expression levels of TNF-alpha which were elevated by 2- and 1.4-fold in the retroperitoneal and mesenteric white adipose tissues of the obese rats, respectively. Troglitazone also caused a dramatic decrease in the expression levels of leptin, which were increased by 4-10-fold in the white adipose tissues of obese rats. These results suggest that the primary action of troglitazone may be to increase the number of small adipocytes in white adipose tissues, presumably via PPARgamma. The increased number of small adipocytes and the decreased number of large adipocytes in white adipose tissues of troglitazone-treated obese rats appear to be an important mechanism by which increased expression levels of TNF-alpha and higher levels of plasma lipids are normalized, leading to alleviation of insulin resistance. PMID:9502777

  14. Excessive energy intake does not modify fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates in adult rats.

    PubMed

    Adéchian, Solange; Giardina, Silvana; Rémond, Didier; Papet, Isabelle; Buonocore, Daniela; Gaudichon, Claire; Dardevet, Dominique; Marzatico, Fulvio; Mosoni, Laurent

    2009-07-01

    The impact of chronic excessive energy intake on protein metabolism is still controversial. Male Wistar rats were fed ad libitum during 5 weeks with either a high-fat high-sucrose diet (HF: n = 9) containing 45% of total energy as lipids (protein 14%; carbohydrate 40% with 83.5% sucrose) or a standard diet (controls: n = 10). Energy intake and body weight were recorded. At the end of the experiment, we measured body composition, metabolic parameters (plasma amino acid, lipid, insulin, and glucose levels), inflammatory parameter (plasma alpha2-macroglobulin), oxidative stress parameters (antioxidant enzyme activities, lipoperoxidation (LPO), protein carbonyl content in liver and muscle), and in vivo fed-state fractional protein synthesis rates (FSRs) in muscle and liver. Energy intake was significantly higher in HF compared with control rats (+28%). There were significant increases in body weight (+8%), body fat (+21%), renal (+41%), and epidydimal (+28%) fat pads in HF compared with control rats. No effect was observed in other tissue weights (liver, muscle, spleen, kidneys, intestine). Liver and muscle FSRs, plasma levels of lipids, glucose, insulin and alpha2-macroglobulin, soleus and liver glutathione reductase and peroxidase activities, MnSOD activity, LPO, and protein carbonyl content were not altered by the HF diet. Only soleus muscle and liver Cu/ZnSOD activity and soleus muscle catalase activities were reduced in HF rats compared with control rats. Thus, chronic excessive energy intake and increased adiposity, in the absence of other metabolic alterations, do not stimulate fed-state tissue protein synthesis rates.

  15. Subacute toxic effects of zinc on various tissues and organs of rats.

    PubMed

    Piao, Fengyuan; Yokoyama, Kazuhito; Ma, Ning; Yamauchi, Toru

    2003-11-01

    In order to expand our knowledge of zinc toxicity and to assess further the toxicities of zinc systematically, we observed the toxic effects of zinc on the functions of various tissues and organs in rats. The rats were randomly divided into four groups (14 in each group), viz. one normal control group (received saline), two zinc groups (Znlow: 4 mg/kg of zinc acetate; Znhigh: 8 mg/kg of zinc acetate), and one cyclophosphamide group (50 mg/kg, as positive control of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MPCEs)). Saline and zinc acetate were administered intraperitoneally to the rats once every 2 days, seven times in total. Cyclophosphamide was given intraperitoneally to the rats once. The concentration of blood zinc was determined and accumulation of zinc was not observed in the experimental groups. The frequencies of basophilic stippled erythrocyte (BSE) and MPCEs in the Znhigh group were significantly higher than those in the control group (P<0.05). The levels of serum glutamic oxalacetic transaminase (GOT) and serum triiodothyronine (T3) in the Znhigh groups decreased significantly, compared with the control group (P<0.01 or 0.05). Moreover, we also observed that the level of serum cortisol, another adrenal corticoid hormone in rats, was increased by zinc acetate in a dose-dependent manner. According to the literature and our findings, exposure to zinc, especially at higher doses, may produce toxic effects on various tissues and organs including the hematopoietic system, cytogenetics, biochemistry and endocrine system function. Therefore, it is suggested that zinc should be used carefully, especially by high risk groups such as children and pregnant women despite its use as a food additive or in self-medication. At the same time, it is necessary to investigate and research further these toxicities of zinc with long-term administration of low dosage.

  16. Ameliorative effect of vanadium on oxidative stress in stomach tissue of diabetic rats

    PubMed Central

    Yilmaz-Ozden, Tugba; Kurt-Sirin, Ozlem; Tunali, Sevim; Akev, Nuriye; Can, Ayse; Yanardag, Refiye

    2014-01-01

    Between their broad spectrum of action, vanadium compounds are shown to have insulin mimetic/enhancing effects. Increasing evidence in experimental and clinical studies suggests that oxidative stress plays a major role in the pathogenesis of diabetes and on the onset of diabetic complications. Thus, preventive therapy can alleviate the possible side effects of the disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of vanadyl sulfate supplementation on the antioxidant system in the stomach tissue of diabetic rats. Male Swiss albino rats were randomly divided into 4 groups: control; control+vanadyl sulfate; diabetic; diabetic+vanadyl sulfate. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal injection of streptozotocin (STZ; 65 mg/kg body weight). Vanadyl sulfate (100 mg/kg body weight) was given daily by gavage for 60 days. At the last day of the experiment, stomach tissues were taken and homogenized to make a 10% (w/v) homogenate. Catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD), glutathione reductase (GR), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione-S-transferase (GST), myeloperoxidase (MPO), carbonic anhydrase (CA), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities were determined in the stomach tissue. CAT, SOD, GR, GPx, GST, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were increased in diabetic rats when compared to normal rats. Vanadium treatment significantly reduced the elevated activities of GR, GPx, GST compared with the diabetic group whereas the decreases in CAT, SOD, CA, G6PD and LDH activities were insignificant. No significant change was seen for MPO activity between the groups. It was concluded that vanadium could be used for its ameliorative effect against oxidative stress in diabetes. PMID:24856383

  17. Angiotensin converting enzyme binding sites in human heart and lung: comparison with rat tissues.

    PubMed Central

    Vago, T.; Bevilacqua, M.; Conci, F.; Baldi, G.; Ongini, E.; Chebat, E.; Monopoli, A.; Norbiato, G.

    1992-01-01

    1. Angiotensin converting enzyme (ACE), a dipeptidyl carboxypeptidase which catalyzes the final activation step in the formation of angiotensin II, was identified by radioligand studies in rat heart and lung. In this work we identified ACE binding sites in human left ventricle and lung by radioligand binding using the ACE inhibitor [3H]-ramiprilat in all tissues tested was saturable, temperature and zinc-dependent, and inhibited by EDTA. In human left ventricle homogenate we found a density of binding sites of 121 +/- 15 fmol mg-1 protein (n = 4) with an affinity (Kd) of 850 +/- 55 pM, whereas in rat left ventricle the same values were 23 +/- 4 fmol mg-1 protein and 315 +/- 30 pM, (n = 4), respectively. 3. [3H]-ramiprilat binding to rat (n = 4) and human lung (n = 4) showed a binding site density of 2132 +/- 155 and 1085 +/- 51 fmol mg-1 protein respectively with an affinity of 639 +/- 54 and 325 +/- 22 pM. The lung:heart ratio of ACE binding site density was about 9:1 in man and 100:1 in rat. 4. The binding affinities of 13 ACE inhibitors were evaluated on human heart and lung: the drugs tested showed a wide range of affinities for the ACE binding sites in both tissues, and the affinity for lung was significantly greater than for heart for most of the drugs. 5. The greater potency of some ACE inhibitors in displacing [3H]-ramiprilat in human lung compared with the heart indicates differences between ACE binding sites in these tissues and suggests the possibility of a selective organ-targeted therapeutic approach. PMID:1335341

  18. Targeting normal and neoplastic tissues in the rat jejunum and colon with boronated, cationic acrylamide copolymers.

    PubMed

    Azab, Abdel-Kareem; Srebnik, Morris; Doviner, Victoria; Rubinstein, Abraham

    2005-08-18

    A series of boronated cationic copolymers, composed of different ratios of acrylamide, N-acryloyl-3-aminophenylboronic acid and N-acryloyl-diaminoethane (the cationic moiety), were prepared with the intention of localizing boron neutron capture therapy (BNCT) in experimentally induced polyps on the luminal side of the gut of the rat. The goals of this study were to: (a) test the effect of cationization of the boronated copolymers on their uptake by polyps and normal adjacent epithelium; (b) compare the whole rat body distribution of aminophenylboronic acid (APB) and polymeric APB after local application; (c) measure the effect of micro-environmental parameters such as pH, the presence of mucin and cations on the interaction between the APB-copolymers and the epithelium of the rat intestines. Direct analysis of tissue boron levels showed that polymeric APB-uptake was higher in the colonic polyps than in the surrounding normal tissues. Free APB, however, was found in similar quantities in both. When tested in the normal jejunum and colon of the rat, polymeric APB uptake was directly proportional to the molar content of the cationic monomer in the copolymers. The presence of magnesium ions, free boron cationic monomer and mucin interfered with this uptake in a concentration-dependent manner. The uptake was pH-independent at pH 5, 7 and 10. APB accumulation in the colon polyps was inversely proportional to the cationic monomer content in the copolymers, suggesting an increased amount of mucus around the polyps, which probably impeded the electrostatic attachment of the polymer to the malignant tissue. The use polymeric APB for targeting BNCT in perioperative treatment of colorectal carcinoma is suggested, especially in the cases of microscopic residual disease after curative resection.

  19. Carbohydrate-responsive gene expression in the adipose tissue of rats.

    PubMed

    Shankar, Kartik; Harrell, Amanda; Kang, Ping; Singhal, Rohit; Ronis, Martin J J; Badger, Thomas M

    2010-01-01

    Although obesity is often associated with high-fat diets, it can develop from a variety of meal patterns. Excessive intake of simple carbohydrates is one consistent eating behavior leading to obesity. However, the impact of overconsumption of diets with high carbohydrate to fat ratios (C/F) on body composition and global adipose tissue gene expression remains unclear. We used total enteral nutrition to evaluate the effects of caloric intake and C/F on body weight gain and development of obesity. Female Sprague Dawley rats were fed diets with either low C/F or high C/F (HC) (reflecting a 19.5-fold increase in C/F) at two levels of caloric intake: 187 or 220 kcal/kg(3/4) x d (15% excess) for 4 wk. At the end of the study period, rats fed HC diets had about 20% higher body weight at either caloric intake compared with rats fed low C/F diets (P < 0.05). Body composition (assessed by nuclear magnetic resonance, computerized tomography, and adipose tissue weights) revealed higher percent fat mass (P < 0.05) in HC rats. Obesity was associated with increased serum resistin, leptin, fasting hyperinsulinemia, and insulin resistance after an oral glucose challenge (P < 0.05). Microarray analyses of adipose tissues revealed HC diets led to changes in 270 and 464 transcripts at 187 and 220 kcal/kg(3/4) x d intakes. Genes regulating glucose transport, glycolysis, fatty acid and triglyceride biosynthesis, desaturation and elongation, adipogenesis, and adipokines were affected by HC diets. These results suggest that C/F and interactions with excessive caloric intake per se may regulate body composition and play important roles in the development of obesity and metabolic syndrome.

  20. Fructose increases corticosterone production in association with NADPH metabolism alterations in rat epididymal white adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Prince, Paula D; Santander, Yanina A; Gerez, Estefania M; Höcht, Christian; Polizio, Ariel H; Mayer, Marcos A; Taira, Carlos A; Fraga, Cesar G; Galleano, Monica; Carranza, Andrea

    2017-08-01

    Metabolic syndrome is an array of closely metabolic disorders that includes glucose intolerance/insulin resistance, central obesity, dyslipidemia, and hypertension. Fructose, a highly lipogenic sugar, has profound metabolic effects in adipose tissue, and has been associated with the etiopathology of many components of the metabolic syndrome. In adipocytes, the enzyme 11 β-HSD1 amplifies local glucocorticoid production, being a key player in the pathogenesis of central obesity and metabolic syndrome. 11 β-HSD1 reductase activity is dependent on NADPH, a cofactor generated by H6PD inside the endoplasmic reticulum. Our focus was to explore the effect of fructose overload on epididymal white adipose tissue (EWAT) machinery involved in glucocorticoid production and NADPH and oxidants metabolism. Male Sprague-Dawley rats fed with a fructose solution (10% (w/v) in tap water) during 9 weeks developed some characteristic features of metabolic syndrome, such as hypertriglyceridemia, and hypertension. In addition, high levels of plasma and EWAT corticosterone were detected. Activities and expressions of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, NAPDH content, superoxide anion production, expression of NADPH oxidase 2 subunits, and indicators of oxidative metabolism were measured. Fructose overloaded rats showed an increased potential in oxidant production respect to control rats. In parallel, in EWAT from fructose overloaded rats we found higher expression/activity of H6PD and 11 β-HSD1, and NADPH/NADP(+) ratio. Our in vivo results support that fructose overload installs in EWAT conditions favoring glucocorticoid production through higher H6PD expression/activity supplying NADPH for enhanced 11 β-HSD1 expression/activity, becoming this tissue a potential extra-adrenal source of corticosterone under these experimental conditions. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Effects of a ketogenic diet on adipose tissue, liver, and serum biomarkers in sedentary rats and rats that exercised via resisted voluntary wheel running.

    PubMed

    Holland, Angelia Maleah; Kephart, Wesley C; Mumford, Petey W; Mobley, Christopher Brooks; Lowery, Ryan P; Shake, Joshua J; Patel, Romil K; Healy, James C; McCullough, Danielle J; Kluess, Heidi A; Huggins, Kevin W; Kavazis, Andreas N; Wilson, Jacob M; Roberts, Michael D

    2016-08-01

    We investigated the effects of different diets on adipose tissue, liver, serum morphology, and biomarkers in rats that voluntarily exercised. Male Sprague-Dawley rats (∼9-10 wk of age) exercised with resistance-loaded voluntary running wheels (EX; wheels loaded with 20-60% body mass) or remained sedentary (SED) over 6 wk. EX and SED rats were provided isocaloric amounts of either a ketogenic diet (KD; 20.2%-10.3%-69.5% protein-carbohydrate-fat), a Western diet (WD; 15.2%-42.7-42.0%), or standard chow (SC; 24.0%-58.0%-18.0%); n = 8-10 in each diet for SED and EX rats. Following the intervention, body mass and feed efficiency were lowest in KD rats, independent of exercise (P < 0.05). Absolute and relative (body mass-adjusted) omental adipose tissue (OMAT) masses were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and OMAT adipocyte diameters were lowest in KD-fed rats (P < 0.05). None of the assayed OMAT or subcutaneous (SQ) protein markers were affected by the diets [total acetyl coA carboxylase (ACC), CD36, and CEBPα or phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, AMPKα, and hormone-sensitive lipase (HSL)], although EX unexpectedly altered some OMAT markers (i.e., higher ACC and phosphorylated NF-κB/p65, and lower phosphorylated AMPKα and phosphorylated HSL). Liver triglycerides were greatest in WD rats (P < 0.05), and liver phosphorylated NF-κB/p65 was lowest in KD rats (P < 0.05). Serum insulin, glucose, triglycerides, and total cholesterol were greater in WD and/or SC rats compared with KD rats (P < 0.05), and serum β-hydroxybutyrate was greater in KD vs. SC rats (P < 0.05). In conclusion, KD rats presented a healthier metabolic profile, albeit the employed exercise protocol minimally impacts any potentiating effects that KD has on fat loss.

  2. Characterization of a local renin-angiotensin system in rat gingival tissue

    PubMed Central

    Santos, C.F.; Akashi, A.E.; Dionísio, T.J.; Sipert, C.R.; Didier, D.N.; Greene, A.S.; Oliveira, S.H.P.; Pereira, H.J.; Becari, C.; Oliveira, E.B.; Salgado, M.C.O.

    2009-01-01

    Background Systemic renin-angiotensin system (RAS) promotes plasmatic production of angiotensin (Ang) II, which acts through interaction with specific receptors. There is growing evidence that local systems in various tissues and organs are capable of generating angiotensins independently of circulating RAS. The aims of this work were to: 1) study the expression and localization of RAS components in rat gingival tissue and 2) evaluate the in vitro production of Ang II and other peptides catalyzed by rat gingival tissue homogenates incubated with different Ang II precursors. Methods Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assessed mRNA expression. Immunohistochemical (IHC) analysis aimed to detect and localize renin. Standardized fluorimetric method with tripeptide Hippuryl-Histidyl-Leucine (Hip-His-Leu) was used to measure tissue ACE activity, while high performance liquid chromatography (HLPC) showed products formed after incubation of tissue homogenates with Ang I or tetradecapeptide renin substrate (TDP). Results mRNA for renin, angiotensinogen, ACE and Ang II receptors (AT1a, AT1b and AT2) was detected in gingival tissue; cultured gingival fibroblasts expressed renin, angiotensinogen and AT1a receptor. Renin was present in the vascular endothelium and intensely expressed in the epithelial basal layer of periodontally affected gingival tissue. ACE activity was detected (4.95±0.89 nmol His-Leu/g.min). When Ang I was used as substrate, Ang 1-9 (0.576±0.128 nmol/mg.min), Ang II (0.066±0.008 nmol/mg.min) and Ang 1-7 (0.111±0.017 nmol/mg.min) were formed, whereas these same peptides (0.139±0.031; 0.206±0.046 and 0.039±0.007 nmol/mg.min, respectively) and Ang I (0.973±0.139 nmol/mg.min) were formed when TDP was the substrate. Conclusion Results presented here clearly show existence of a local RAS in rat gingival tissue, which is capable of generating Ang II and other vasoactive peptides in vitro. PMID:19228099

  3. Application of prospective ECG-gated high-pitch 128-slice dual-source CT angiography in the diagnosis of congenital extracardiac vascular anomalies in infants and children.

    PubMed

    Nie, Pei; Yang, Guangjie; Wang, Ximing; Duan, Yanhua; Xu, Wenjian; Li, Haiou; Cao, Ting; Liu, Xuejun; Ji, Xiaopeng; Cheng, Zhaoping; Wang, Anbiao

    2014-01-01

    To investigate the value of prospective ECG-gated high-pitch 128-slice dual-source CT (DSCT) angiography in the diagnosis of congenital extracardiac vascular anomalies in infants and children in comparison with transthoracic echocardiography (TTE). Eighty consecutive infants or children clinically diagnosed of congenital heart disease and suspected with extracardiac vascular anomaly were enrolled, and 75 patients were finally included in this prospective study. All patients underwent prospective ECG-gated high-pitch DSCT angiography after TTE with an interval of 1-7 days. The diagnostic accuracy and sensitivity of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE were compared according to the surgical/CCA findings. The image quality of DSCT was assessed using a five-point scale. The effective radiation dose (ED) was calculated. A total of 17 congenital heart diseases and 162 separate extracardiac vascular anomalies were confirmed by surgical/CCA findings in 75 patients. The diagnostic accuracy of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE was 99.67% and 97.89%, respectively. The sensitivity of high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE was 97.53% and 79.62%, respectively. There was significant difference regarding to the diagnostic accuracy and the sensitivity between high-pitch DSCT angiography and TTE (χ2 = 23.561 and 28.013, P<0.05). The agreement on the image quality scoring of DSCT between the two observers was excellent (κ = 0.81), and the mean score of image quality was 4.1±0.7. The mean ED of DSCT was 0.29±0.08 mSv. Prospective ECG-gated high-pitch 128-slice DSCT angiography with low radiation dose and high diagnostic accuracy has higher sensitivity compared to TTE in the detection of congenital extracardiac vascular anomalies in infants and children.

  4. A pulsatile hemodynamic evaluation of the commercially available bifurcated Y-graft Fontan modification and comparison with the lateral tunnel and extracardiac conduits.

    PubMed

    Trusty, Phillip M; Restrepo, Maria; Kanter, Kirk R; Yoganathan, Ajit P; Fogel, Mark A; Slesnick, Timothy C

    2016-06-01

    Fontan completion, resulting in a total cavopulmonary connection, is accomplished using a lateral tunnel, extracardiac conduit, or bifurcated Y-graft. The use of Y-grafts is hypothesized to provide symmetric hepatic blood flow distribution to the lungs, a factor related to pulmonary arteriovenous malformations. The present study evaluates the hemodynamic performance of the largest commercially available Y-graft cohort to date, highlights 6 representative cases, and compares commercially available Y-graft performance with lateral tunnel/extracardiac conduit connections. A total of 30 patients with commercially available Y-grafts and 30 patients with lateral tunnel/extracardiac conduits were analyzed. Total cavopulmonary connection anatomies and flow waveforms were reconstructed using cardiac magnetic resonance images and phase-contrast cardiac magnetic resonance. Computational fluid dynamic simulations were performed to quantify total cavopulmonary connection power loss, resistance, and hepatic flow distribution. Comparisons between graft types were investigated. Total cavopulmonary connection resistance was significantly higher for Y-grafts. Hepatic flow distribution was similar overall but showed discrepancies at extreme values with more unbalanced flow in the Y-graft cohort. Power loss was more sensitive to left pulmonary artery stenosis in the Y-graft cohort. Prediction of Y-graft hepatic flow distribution is multifactorial. Commercially available Y-grafts do not inherently provide more balanced hepatic flow distribution than lateral tunnel/extracardiac conduit connections, which are more energetically favorable and less sensitive to pulmonary artery stenosis. Graft type should be considered on an individual basis because hemodynamic performance is based on a combination of factors, including pulmonary flow distribution, pulmonary artery stenosis, and superior vena cava positioning. Copyright © 2016 The American Association for Thoracic Surgery. Published by

  5. Energy metabolism disorders in rat salivary glands tissues in connection with chronic sodium nitrate intoxication.

    PubMed

    Avetikov, D; Bondarenko, V; Danylchenko, S; Pronina, E; Stavytskyi, S

    2014-12-01

    The purpose of the research was the study of nitrite impact on energy metabolism in salivary gland tissues in connection with chronic nitrate intoxication. The study has been carried out on 100 Wistar rats, weighing 160-250 g, which were divided into following groups: the 1st group consisted of intact rodents (control); the 2nd group consisted of experimental rodents, where chronic nitrate intoxication has been reproduced during 14, 30, 60 and 90 days. Intoxication leads to hypoxia, which complications cause tissue hypoxia. Has been established that prolonged intake of nitrates in low doses leads to their accumulation in salivary glands tissues all these result in derangement of metabolism at the intermembrane cellular level. At the same time energy metabolism in salivary glands is inhibited, resulting in their dysfunction at the excretory and endocrine levels.

  6. Distribution of phospholipase C isozymes in various rat tissues and cultured cells

    SciTech Connect

    Suh, P.G.; Ryu, S.H.; Choi, W.C.; Lee, K.Y.; Rhee, S.G.

    1987-05-01

    Monoclonal antibodies prepared against PLC-I or PLC-II enzyme did not cross-react with the other. Using a pair of antibodies which recognizes 2 different antigenic sites on the same molecule, radioimmunoassays were developed for the quantitation of PLC-I and PLC-II in homogenates of various tissues and cultured cells, prepared by homogenization in a 2 M KCl buffer. The contents of PLC enzymes were measured in 19 rat tissues, in human platelets and in 17 cultured cells. Results indicate that the concentration of PLC-I and PLC-II is very high in brain, PLC-I is localized mainly in brain and partly in seminal vesicles, PLC-II is found in most tissues and cells. PLC-I is highly localized even in brain: 5 different neuroblastoma did not contain PLC-I while 2 glioma and 1 astrocytoma contained significant amounts.

  7. Melatonin Supplementation Ameliorates Energy Charge and Oxidative Stress Induced by Acute Exercise in Rat Heart Tissue.

    PubMed

    Cimen, Behzat; Uz, Ali; Cetin, Ihsan; Cimen, Leyla; Cetin, Aysun

    2017-09-01

    Regular physical exercises may help people to be more resistant to everyday problems; however, how acute and intense exercises affect the heart tissues functioning with maximum capacity and how melatonin changes the effect of acute and intense exercises are still not obvious. We aimed to comprehend whether melatonin intravenous injection supports the oxidative/antioxidative conditions and energy charge in heart tissues of rats exposed to acute swimming exercise. Thirty Wistar-albino male rats were categorized into 3 groups with equal number of subjects. Control group performed no application, and acute intensive swimming exercise group were subjected to acute intensive swimming exercise for 30 minutes, and melatonin group were applied 25 mg/kg single dose melatonin administration prior to 30 minutes acute intensive swimming exercise. The levels of malondialdehyde (MDA), and superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase activities were measured by spectrophotometric method; and the levels of 3-nitrotyrosine (3-NT) and energy charge were determined by a high performance liquid chromatography. Tissue MDA and 3-NT levels of the acute intensive exercise group were found to be higher than the control group. It was also found that the melatonin administration increased the energy charge and antioxidant activities, while decreased tissue MDA and 3-NT levels in heart tissues. Our results provide evidence for melatonin that can exert potent protective effects on oxidative stress and energy charge for heart tissues in acute swimming exercise. These findings suggest that the direct beneficial effects of melatonin could be potentially applied on prevention of oxidative stress and energy deficit.

  8. Terahertz spectroscopy and detection of brain tumor in rat fresh-tissue samples

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Yamaguchi, S.; Fukushi, Y.; Kubota, O.; Itsuji, T.; Yamamoto, S.; Ouchi, T.

    2015-03-01

    Terahertz (THz) spectroscopy and imaging of biomedical samples is expected to be an important application of THz analysis techniques. Identification and localization of tumor tissue, imaging of biological samples, and analysis of DNA by THz spectroscopy have been reported. THz time-domain spectroscopy (TDS) is useful for obtaining the refractive index over a broad frequency range. However, THz-TDS spectra of fresh tissue samples are sensitive to procedures such as sample preparation, and a standardized measurement protocol is required. Therefore, in this work, we establish a protocol for measurements of THz spectra of fresh tissue and demonstrate reliable detection of rat brain tumor tissue. We use a reflection THz-TDS system to measure the refractive index spectra of the samples mounted on a quartz plate. The tissue samples were measured immediately after sectioning to avoid sample denaturalization during storage. Special care was taken in THz data processing to eliminate parasitic reflections and reduce noise. The error level in our refractive index measurements was as low as 0.02 in the frequency range 0.8-1.5 THz. With increasing frequency, the refractive index in the tumor and normal regions monotonically decreased, similarly to water, and it was 0.02 higher in the tumor regions. The spectral data suggest that the tumor regions have higher water content. Hematoxylin-eosin stained images showed that increased cell density was also responsible for the observed spectral features. A set of samples from 10 rats showed consistent results. Our results suggest that reliable tumor detection in fresh tissue without pretreatment is possible with THz spectroscopy measurements. THz spectroscopy has the potential to become a real-time in vivo diagnostic method.

  9. Rat subcutaneous tissue response to MTA Fillapex® and Portland cement.

    PubMed

    Marques, Nádia Carolina Teixeira; Lourenço Neto, Natalino; Fernandes, Ana Paula; Rodini, Camila de Oliveira; Duarte, Marco Antônio Hungaro; Oliveira, Thais Marchini

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the response of rat subcutaneous tissue to MTA Fillapex® (Angelus), an experimental root canal filling material based on Portland cement and propylene glycol (PCPG), and a zinc oxide, eugenol and iodoform (ZOEI) paste. These materials were placed in polyethylene tubes and implanted into the dorsal connective tissue of Wistar rats for 7 and 15 days. The specimens were stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and evaluated regarding inflammatory reaction parameters by optical microscopy. The intensity of inflammatory response against the sealers was analyzed by two blinded and previously calibrated examiners for all experimental periods (kappa=0.96). The histological evaluation showed that all materials caused a moderate inflammatory reaction at 7 days, which subsided with time. A greater inflammatory reaction was observed at 7 days in the tubes filled with ZOEI paste. Tubes filled with MTA Fillapex presented some giant cells, macrophages and lymphocytes after 7 days. At 15 days, the presence of fibroblasts and collagen fibers was observed indicating normal tissue healing. The tubes filled with PCPG showed similar results to those observed in MTA Fillapex. At 15 days, the inflammatory reaction was almost absent at the tissue, with several collagen fibers indicating normal tissue healing. Data were analyzed by the nonparametric Kruskal-Wallis test (α=0.05). Statistically significant difference (p<0.05) was found only between PCPG at 15 days and ZOEI at 7 days groups. No significant differences were observed among the other groups/periods (p>0.05). MTA Fillapex and Portland cement added with propylene glycol had greater tissue compatibility than the PCPG paste.

  10. A Model of Free Tissue Transfer: The Rat Epigastric Free Flap

    PubMed Central

    Casal, Diogo; Pais, Diogo; Iria, Inês; Mota-Silva, Eduarda; Almeida, Maria-Angélica; Alves, Sara; Pen, Cláudia; Farinho, Ana; Mascarenhas-Lemos, Luís; Ferreira-Silva, José; Ferraz-Oliveira, Mário; Vassilenko, Valentina; Videira, Paula A.; Gory O'Neill, João

    2017-01-01

    Free tissue transfer has been increasingly used in clinical practice since the 1970s, allowing reconstruction of complex and otherwise untreatable defects resulting from tumor extirpation, trauma, infections, malformations or burns. Free flaps are particularly useful for reconstructing highly complex anatomical regions, like those of the head and neck, the hand, the foot and the perineum. Moreover, basic and translational research in the area of free tissue transfer is of great clinical potential. Notwithstanding, surgical trainees and researchers are frequently deterred from using microsurgical models of tissue transfer, due to lack of information regarding the technical aspects involved in the operative procedures. The aim of this paper is to present the steps required to transfer a fasciocutaneous epigastric free flap to the neck in the rat. This flap is based on the superficial epigastric artery and vein, which originates from and drain into the femoral artery and vein, respectively. On average the caliber of the superficial epigastric vein is 0.6 to 0.8 mm, contrasting with the 0.3 to 0.5 mm of the superficial epigastric artery. Histologically, the flap is a composite block of tissues, containing skin (epidermis and dermis), a layer of fat tissue (panniculus adiposus), a layer of striated muscle (panniculus carnosus), and a layer of loose areolar tissue. Succinctly, the epigastric flap is raised on its pedicle vessels that are then anastomosed to the external jugular vein and to the carotid artery on the ventral surface of the rat's neck. According to our experience, this model guarantees the complete survival of approximately 70 to 80% of epigastric flaps transferred to the neck region. The flap can be evaluated whenever needed by visual inspection. Hence, the authors believe this is a good experimental model for microsurgical research and training. PMID:28117814

  11. Comparison of in vivo effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation and INSIG-1/2 in rat liver and human and rat adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Boden, Guenther; Salehi, Sajad; Cheung, Peter; Homko, Carol; Song, Weiwei; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil

    2013-06-01

    The stimulatory effects of insulin on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver, where it is an important contributor to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, is strong and well established. In contrast, insulin plays only a minor role in DNL in adipose tissue. The reason why insulin stimulates DNL more in liver than in fat is not known but may be due to differential regulation of the transcription and post-translational activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). To test this hypothesis, we have examined effects of insulin on activation of SREBP-1c in liver of rats and in adipose tissue of rats and human subjects. Liver and epidydimal fat were obtained from alert rats and subcutaneous adipose tissue from human subjects in response to 4 h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Here we show that acutely raising plasma insulin levels in rats and humans increased SREBP-1 mRNA comparably 3-4 fold in rat liver and rat and human adipose tissue, but increased post-translational activation of SREBP-1c only in rat liver, while decreasing it in adipose tissue. These differential effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation in liver and adipose tissue were associated with robust changes in the opposite direction of INSIG-1 and to a lesser extent of INSIG-2 mRNA and proteins. We conclude that these findings support the hypothesis that insulin stimulated activation of SREBP-1c in the liver, at least in part, by suppressing INSIG-1 and -2, whereas in adipose tissue, an increase in INSIG-1 and -2 prevented SREBP-1c activation. Copyright © 2012 The Obesity Society.

  12. Comparison of In Vivo Effects of Insulin on SREBP-1c Activation and INSIG-1/2 in Rat Liver and Human and Rat Adipose Tissue

    PubMed Central

    Boden, Guenther; Salehi, Sajad; Cheung, Peter; Homko, Carol; Song, Weiwei; Loveland-Jones, Catherine; Jayarajan, Senthil

    2012-01-01

    The stimulatory effects of insulin on de novo lipogenesis (DNL) in the liver, where it is an important contributor to non-alcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD), hepatic and systemic insulin resistance, is strong and well established. In contrast, insulin plays only a minor role in DNL in adipose tissue. The reason why insulin stimulates DNL more in liver than in fat is not known but may be due to differential regulation of the transcription and post-translational activation of sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs). To test this hypothesis, we have examined effects of insulin on activation of SREBP-1c in liver of rats and in adipose tissue of rats and human subjects. Liver and epidydimal fat were obtained from alert rats and subcutaneous adipose tissue from human subjects in response to 4 h euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps. Here we show that acutely raising plasma insulin levels in rats and humans increased SREBP-1 mRNA comparably 3-4 fold in rat liver and rat and human adipose tissue, but increased post-translational activation of SREBP-1c only in rat liver, while decreasing it in adipose tissue. These differential effects of insulin on SREBP-1c activation in liver and adipose tissue were associated with robust changes in the opposite direction of INSIG-1 and to a lesser extent of INSIG-2 mRNA and proteins. We conclude that these findings support the hypothesis that insulin stimulated activation of SREBP-1c in the liver, at least in part, by suppressing INSIG-1 and -2, whereas in adipose tissue, an increase in INSIG-1 and -2 prevented SREBP-1c activation. PMID:23913732

  13. Covalent protein binding and tissue distribution of houttuynin in rats after intravenous administration of sodium houttuyfonate

    PubMed Central

    Deng, Zhi-peng; Zhong, Da-fang; Meng, Jian; Chen, Xiao-yan

    2012-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the potential of houttuynin to covalently bind to proteins in vitro and in vivo and to identify the adduct structures. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with sodium houttuyfonate (10 mg/kg). The concentrations of houttuynin in blood, plasma and five tissues tested were determined using an LC/MS/MS method. The covalent binding values of houttuynin with hemoglobin, plasma and tissue proteins were measured in rats after intravenous injection of [1-14C]sodium houttuyfonate (10 mg/kg, 150 mCi/kg). Human serum albumin was used as model protein to identify the modification site(s) and structure(s) through enzymatic digestion and LC/MSn analysis. Results: The drug was widely distributed 10 min after intravenous injection. The lungs were the preferred site for disposition, followed by the heart and kidneys with significantly higher concentrations than that in the plasma. The extent of covalent binding was correlated with the respective concentrations in the tissues, ranging from 1137 nmol/g protein in lung to 266 nmol/g protein in liver. Houttuynin reacted primarily with arginine residues in human serum albumin to form a pyrimidine adduct at 1:1 molar ratio. The same adduct was detected in rat lungs digested by pronase E. Conclusion: This study showed that the β-keto aldehyde moiety in houttuynin is strongly electrophilic and readily confers covalent binding to tissue proteins, especially lung proteins, by a Schiff's base mechanism. The findings explain partially the idiosyncratic reactions of houttuyniae injection in clinical use. PMID:22388072

  14. Covalent protein binding and tissue distribution of houttuynin in rats after intravenous administration of sodium houttuyfonate.

    PubMed

    Deng, Zhi-peng; Zhong, Da-fang; Meng, Jian; Chen, Xiao-yan

    2012-04-01

    To investigate the potential of houttuynin to covalently bind to proteins in vitro and in vivo and to identify the adduct structures. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were intravenously injected with sodium houttuyfonate (10 mg/kg). The concentrations of houttuynin in blood, plasma and five tissues tested were determined using an LC/MS/MS method. The covalent binding values of houttuynin with hemoglobin, plasma and tissue proteins were measured in rats after intravenous injection of [1-(14)C]sodium houttuyfonate (10 mg/kg, 150 mCi/kg). Human serum albumin was used as model protein to identify the modification site(s) and structure(s) through enzymatic digestion and LC/MS(n) analysis. The drug was widely distributed 10 min after intravenous injection. The lungs were the preferred site for disposition, followed by the heart and kidneys with significantly higher concentrations than that in the plasma. The extent of covalent binding was correlated with the respective concentrations in the tissues, ranging from 1137 nmol/g protein in lung to 266 nmol/g protein in liver. Houttuynin reacted primarily with arginine residues in human serum albumin to form a pyrimidine adduct at 1:1 molar ratio. The same adduct was detected in rat lungs digested by pronase E. This study showed that the β-keto aldehyde moiety in houttuynin is strongly electrophilic and readily confers covalent binding to tissue proteins, especially lung proteins, by a Schiff's base mechanism. The findings explain partially the idiosyncratic reactions of houttuyniae injection in clinical use.

  15. Stereotactic use of the 980-nm diode laser in rat cortical and subcortical tissues

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Guelsoy, Murat; Celikel, Tansu; Kurtkaya, Ozlem; Sav, Aydin; Kurt, Adnan; Canbeyli, Resit; Cilesiz, Inci F.

    2001-01-01

    The use of 980 nm diode laser irradiation within cortical tissue was investigated by the author's previous work. In the present study the lesions created in cortical and subcortical tissues and lesioning effects of diode laser applied in continuous and pulsed regimes were compared. In vivo stereotaxic neurosurgical procedure was performed on female Wistar rats' cortical and subcortical tissues. 980 nm diode laser was applied in two different regimes, cw and pulsed wave respectively. Lesion dimensions were measured and compared. The lasing parameters were found suitable for both brain regions. No significant difference was found between tissues. Lesions diameters varied in the range of 1.0-9.0 mm. Histological examination revealed data for a limited thermal damage in the surrounding tissue for all lesions. Cortical and subcortical tissues did not show significant differences due to same amount of energy delivered. The lasing regime did not influence the dimensions of lesions. Applied energy was found the key element determining the amount of lesion. Results were consistent with the findings found in the previous dosimetry studies.

  16. Sinusoidal electromagnetic fields promote bone formation and inhibit bone resorption in rat femoral tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Zhou, Jian; Ma, Xiao-Ni; Gao, Yu-Hai; Yan, Juan-Li; Shi, Wen-Gui; Xian, Cory J; Chen, Ke-Ming

    2016-01-01

    Effects of sinusoidal electromagnetic fields (SEMFs) on bone metabolism have not yet been well defined. The present study investigated SEMF effects on bone formation and resorption in rat femur bone tissues in vitro. Cultured femur diaphyseal (cortical bone) and metaphyseal (trabecular bone) tissues were treated with 50 Hz 1.8 mT SEMFs 1.5 h per day for up to 12 days and treatment effects on bone formation and resorption markers and associated gene expression were examined. Treatment with SEMFs caused a significant increase in alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity and inhibited the tartrate-resistant acid phosphatase (TRACP) activity in the femoral diaphyseal or metaphyseal tissues. SEMFs also significantly increased levels of mRNA expression of osterix (OSX), insulin-like growth factor (IGF-1) and ALP in the bone tissues. SEMF treatment decreased glucose content and increased lactic acid contents in the culture conditioned medium. In addition, treatment with SEMFs decreased mRNA expression levels of bone resorption-related genes TRACP, macrophage colony stimulating factor (M-CSF) and cathepsin K (CTSK) in the cultured bone tissues. In conclusion, the current study demonstrated that treatment with 1.8 mT SEMFs at 1.5 h per day promoted bone formation, increased metabolism and inhibited resorption in both metaphyseal and diaphyseal bone tissues in vitro.

  17. Complete Human and Rat Ex Vivo Spermatogenesis from Fresh or Frozen Testicular Tissue.

    PubMed

    Perrard, Marie-Hélène; Sereni, Nicolas; Schluth-Bolard, Caroline; Blondet, Antonine; D Estaing, Sandrine Giscard; Plotton, Ingrid; Morel-Journel, Nicolas; Lejeune, Hervé; David, Laurent; Durand, Philippe

    2016-10-01

    Until now, complete ex vivo spermatogenesis has been reported only in the mouse. In this species, the duration of spermatogenesis is 35 days, whereas it is 54 days in the rat and 74 days in humans. We performed long-term (until 60 days) cultures of fresh or frozen rat or human seminiferous tubule segments in a bioreactor made of a hollow cylinder of chitosan hydrogel. Testicular tissues were obtained from 8- or 20-day-old male rats or from adult human subjects who had undergone hormone treatments leading to a nearly complete regression of their spermatogenesis before bilateral orchiectomy for gender reassignment. The progression of spermatogenesis was assessed by cytological analyses of the cultures; it was related to a dramatic increase in the levels of the mRNAs specifically expressed by round spermatids, Transition protein 1, Transition protein 2, and Protamine 3 in rat cultures. From 2% to 3.8% of cells were found to be haploid cells by fluorescence in situ hybridization analysis of human cultures. In this bioreactor, long-term cultures of seminiferous tubule segments from prepubertal rats or from adult men allowed completion of the spermatogenic process leading to morphologically mature spermatozoa. Further studies will need to address the way of optimizing the yield of every step of spermatogenesis by adjusting the composition of the culture medium, the geometry, and the material properties of the chitosan hydrogel bioreactors. Another essential requirement is to assess the quality of the gametes produced ex vivo by showing their ability to produce normal offspring (rat) or their biochemical normality (human). © 2016 by the Society for the Study of Reproduction, Inc.

  18. Identification and characterization of a tissue kallikrein in rat skeletal muscles.

    PubMed Central

    Shimojo, N; Chao, J; Chao, L; Margolius, H S; Mayfield, R K

    1987-01-01

    A tissue kallikrein was purified from rat skeletal muscle. Characterization of the enzyme showed that it has alpha-N-tosyl-L-arginine methylesterase activity and releases kinin from purified bovine low-Mr kininogen substrate. The pH optimum (9.0) of its esterase activity and the profile of inhibition by serine-proteinase inhibitors are identical with those of purified RUK (rat urinary kallikrein). Skeletal-muscle kallikrein also behaved identically with urinary kallikrein in a radioimmunoassay using a polyclonal anti-RUK antiserum. On Western-blot analysis, rat muscle kallikrein was recognized by affinity-purified monoclonal anti-kallikrein antibody at a position similar to that of RUK (Mr 38,000). Immunoreactive-kallikrein levels were measured in skeletal muscles which have different fibre types. The soleus, a slow-contracting muscle with high mitochondrial oxidative-enzyme activity, had higher kallikrein content than did the extensor digitorum longus or gastrocnemius, both fast-contracting muscles with low oxidative-enzyme activity. Streptozotocin-induced diabetes reduced muscle weights, but did not alter the level of kallikrein (pg/mg of protein) in skeletal muscle, suggesting that insulin is not a regulator of kallikrein in this tissue. Although the role of kallikrein in skeletal muscle is unknown, its localization and activity in relation to muscle functions and disease can now be studied. Images Fig. 4. PMID:3311022

  19. Epiphany root canal sealer prepared with resinous solvent is irritating to rat subcutaneous tissues

    PubMed Central

    Daleffe, Élcio; Vieira-Ozório, José E.; Sousa-Neto, Manoel D

    2012-01-01

    Objective: This study assessed the biocompatibility of the Epiphany endodontic sealer prepared with resinous solvent of Epiphany system (Thinning resin) in rat subcutaneous tissues. Study Design: Polyethylene tubes were filled with the sealer and 4 groups were established: GI, Epiphany prepared with 1 drop of resinous solvent (RS); GII, Epiphany prepared with 1 drop of RS and photoactivated; GIII, Epiphany associated with self-etch primer and prepared with 1 drop of RS; GIV, Epiphany associated with self-etch primer, prepared with 1 drop of RS and photoactivated. The filled tubes were implanted into 4 different regions of the dorsum of 20 adult male rats. Results: After 7, 14 and 21 days, all groups presented a moderate to severe chronic inflammation, necrosis and foreign-body giant cells. At 42 days, although the intensity of chronic inflammatory reaction decreased, the other features still were observed. Conclusion: The Epiphany sealer prepared with the RS was irritating to rat subcutaneous tissues. Key words:Biocompatibility, Epiphany, methacrylate resin sealer, resinous solvent, root canal sealer. PMID:22322512

  20. Healing of Perforating Rat Corneal Incisions Closed With Photodynamic Laser-Activated Tissue Glue

    PubMed Central

    Khadem, John; Martino, Michael; Anatelli, Florencia; Dana, M. Reza; Hamblin, Michael R.

    2011-01-01

    Background and Objectives Laser-activated photodynamic biologic tissue glues may be useful for closing incisions in ophthalmology. We report on the use of two such preparations to close perforating corneal incisions in living rats. Study Design/Materials and Methods A previously described preparation containing a covalent albumin-chlorin e6 (ce6) conjugate (bovine serum albumin (BSA)–ce6), and a novel mixture of albumin and Janus Green (BSA/JG), both activated with a 665-nm diode laser were used to glue mouse skin ex vivo. The optimized glues were then used to seal incisions in rat corneas and results were compared to control incisions. Rats were sacrificed at day 1, 7, and 14 and eyes tested for leaking pressure and examined histopathologically. Results One day after treatment eyes closed with BSA–ce6 had a leaking pressure (in mmHg) of 357 compared to 193 for control incisions (P<0.01); closure with BSA/JG gave a leaking pressure of 430 (P<0.05 compared to BSA–ce6, and P<0.001 compared to control). Histological examination showed eyes sealed with BSA/JG have less inflammation present than untreated eyes at 7 days. Conclusions These data demonstrate that photodynamic laser activated tissue glues can be used to effectively seal corneal incisions in living animals without thermal damage or undue inflammation. PMID:15493025

  1. [Treatment with isoflavones replaces estradiol effect on the tissue fat accumulation from ovariectomized rats].

    PubMed

    Torrezan, Rosana; Gomes, Rodrigo M; Ferrarese, Maria L; de Melo, Fernando Ben-Hur; Ramos, Aparecida M D; Mathias, Paulo C F; Scomparin, Dionizia X

    2008-12-01

    Isoflavones (ISO) present in soybean are named phytoestrogens because they show estrogen effect. The use of isoflavones has beneficial effect in disturbance of post-menopause, which is characterized by ovarian function suppression. Decreasing of estrogen secretion and consequent morphologic and metabolic disarrangements are observed in female hormonal decline. The aim of present work was to investigate the effect of ISO on the fat accretion of uterine endometric tissue, and HDL and glucose blood concentration from ovariectomized rats (OVX). Female Wistar rats with 60 days-old were submitted a surgery to remove bilaterally the ovarium. After 8-day recovery period the animals were distributed into three groups: sham operate (GC); OVX ISO untreated (GI) and OVX supplemented with ISO (G II). Total uterus mass, uterus fat and retroperitoneal fat pad, were removed, washed and weighted. Samples of uterus were histological processed to measure endometrium thickness. Blood samples were also collected to analyze the concentration of HDL and glucose. The OVX caused endometric atrophy, decrease of uterus weight and HDL reduction. The treatment with ISO provoked decrease of uterine and retroperitoneal fat pad. HDL increase and glycemia reduction were also observed. However, there was no uterotrophic effect. ISO treatment causes decrease in tissue fat accretion from ovariectomized rats.

  2. Whole-body tissue distribution of total radioactivity in rats after oral administration of [¹⁴C]-bilastine.

    PubMed

    Lucero, María Luisa; Patterson, Andrew B

    2012-06-01

    This study evaluated the tissue distribution of total radioactivity in male albino, male pigmented, and time-mated female albino rats after oral administration of a single dose of [¹⁴C]-bilastine (20 mg/kg). Although only 1 animal was analyzed at each time point, there were apparent differences in bilastine distribution. Radioactivity was distributed to only a few tissues at low levels in male rats, whereas distribution was more extensive and at higher levels in female rats. This may be a simple sex-related difference. In each group and at each time point, concentrations of radioactivity were high in the liver and kidney, reflecting the role of these organs in the elimination process. In male albino rats, no radioactivity was measurable by 72 hours postdose. In male pigmented rats, only the eye and uveal tract had measurable levels of radioactivity at 24 hours. Measureable levels of radioactivity were retained in these tissues at the final sampling time point (336 hours postdose), indicating a degree of melanin-associated binding. In time-mated female rats, but not in albino or pigmented male rats, there was evidence of low-level passage of radioactivity across the placental barrier into fetal tissues as well as low-level transfer of radioactivity into the brain.

  3. Brown adipose tissue activation by rutin ameliorates polycystic ovary syndrome in rat.

    PubMed

    Hu, Tao; Yuan, Xiaoxue; Ye, Rongcai; Zhou, Huiqiao; Lin, Jun; Zhang, Chuanhai; Zhang, Hanlin; Wei, Gang; Dong, Meng; Huang, Yuanyuan; Lim, Wonchung; Liu, Qingsong; Lee, Hyuek Jong; Jin, Wanzhu

    2017-09-01

    Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is a complex endocrinopathy that is characterized by anovulation, hyperandrogenism and polycystic ovary. However, there is a lack of effective treatment for PCOS at present because the pathologic cause of PCOS has not been elucidated. Although it has been known that brown adipose tissue transplantation ameliorates PCOS by activating endogenous BAT, BAT transplantation is not applicable in clinic. Therefore, BAT activation with natural compound could be an effective treatment strategy for PCOS patients. Here, we found that 3 weeks of rutin (a novel compound for BAT activation) treatment increased BAT activation, thereby it improved thermogenesis and systemic insulin sensitivity in dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA)-induced PCOS rat. In addition, the expression levels of ovarian steroidogenic enzymes such as P450C17, aromatase, 3β-HSD, 17β-HSD and STAR were up-regulated in rutin-treated PCOS rat. Furthermore, acyclicity and the serum level of luteinizing hormone were normalized, and a large number of mature ovulated follicle with a reduction of cystic formation were observed in PCOS rat after rutin treatment. Finally, rutin treatment surprisingly improved fertility and birth defect in PCOS rat. Collectively, our results indicate that rutin treatment significantly improves systemic insulin resistance and ovarian malfunction in PCOS, and our findings in this study provide a novel therapeutic option for the treatment of PCOS by activating BAT with rutin. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  4. Relation between plasma and tissue parameters of leucine metabolism in fed and starved rats

    SciTech Connect

    Vazquez, J.A.; Paul, H.S.; Adibi, S.A.

    1986-06-01

    By use of a primed continuous infusion of (1-/sup 14/C)leucine, the authors investigated parameters of leucine metabolism in plasma, expired air, and tissues of fed and 48-h starved rats. The ratios of muscle to plasma specific activity of ..cap alpha..-ketoisocaproate (KIC) in fed and starved rats were not significantly different from 1. The ratio of muscle to plasma specific activity of leucine was also not significantly different from 1 in fed rats, but was significantly lower than 1 in starved rats. The rate of leucine oxidation was 28-34% higher when calculation was based on plasma KIC rather than leucine specific activity. However, starvation significantly increased the rate of leucine oxidation with either specific activity. The rates of leucine incorporation into whole-body protein, calculated as the difference between plasma leucine turnover and oxidation, were unaffected by starvation, but the incorporations into total protein measured directly were significantly decreased in liver and muscle. They conclude that a) leucine or KIC specific activity in muscle is better predicted by plasma KIC than leucine specific activity, and b) the difference between rates of plasma leucine turnover and oxidation does not appear to be a valid measurement of leucine incorporation into whole-body protein.

  5. Maternal undernutrition programs the apelinergic system of adipose tissue in adult male rat offspring.

    PubMed

    Lecoutre, S; Marousez, L; Drougard, A; Knauf, C; Guinez, C; Eberlé, D; Laborie, C; Vieau, D; Lesage, J; Breton, C

    2017-02-01

    Based on the Developmental Origin of Health and Disease concept, maternal undernutrition has been shown to sensitize adult offspring to metabolic pathologies such as obesity. Using a model of maternal 70% food restriction in pregnant female rats throughout gestation (called FR30), we previously reported that obesity-prone adult male rat offspring displayed hyperleptinemia with modifications in leptin and leptin receptor messenger RNA (mRNA) levels in white adipose tissue (WAT). Apelin is a member of the adipokine family that regulates various aspects of energy metabolism and WAT functionality. We investigated whether apelin and its receptor APJ could be a target of maternal undernutrition. Adult male rat offspring from FR30 dams showed increased plasma apelin levels and apelin gene expression in WAT. Post-weaning high-fat diet led to marked increase in APJ mRNA and protein levels in offspring's WAT. We demonstrate that maternal undernutrition and post-weaning diet have long-term consequences on the apelinergic system of adult male rat offspring.

  6. Tissue inhibitor of metalloproteinase-1 and -2 RNA expression in rat and human liver fibrosis.

    PubMed Central

    Herbst, H.; Wege, T.; Milani, S.; Pellegrini, G.; Orzechowski, H. D.; Bechstein, W. O.; Neuhaus, P.; Gressner, A. M.; Schuppan, D.

    1997-01-01

    The remodeling of extracellular matrix during chronic liver disease may partially be attributed to altered activity of matrix metalloproteinases and their tissue inhibitors (TIMPs). Expression of TIMP-1 and -2 was studied by in situ hybridization combined with immunohistochemistry in rat (acute and chronic carbon tetrachloride intoxication and secondary biliary fibrosis) and human livers and on isolated rat hepatic stellate cells. TIMP-1 and -2 transcripts appeared in rat livers within 1 to 3 hours after intoxication, pointing to a role in the protection against accidental activation of matrix metalloproteinases, and were present at high levels in all fibrotic rat and human livers predominantly in stellate cells. TIMP-2 RNA distribution largely matched with previously reported patterns of matrix metalloproteinase-2 (72-kd gelatinase) expression, suggesting generation of a TIMP-2/matrix metalloproteinase-2 complex (large inhibitor of metalloproteinases). Isolated stellate cells expressed TIMP-1 and -2 RNA. Addition of transforming growth factor-beta 1 enhanced TIMP-1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 RNA levels in vitro, whereas TIMP-2-specific signals were reduced, likely to result in a stoichiometric excess of matrix-metalloproteinase-2 over TIMP-2. In the context of previous demonstrations of transforming growth factor-beta 1 and matrix metalloproteinase-2 in vivo, these patterns suggest an intrahepatic environment permitting only limited matrix degradation, ultimately resulting in redistribution of extracellular matrix with relative accumulation of collagen type 1. Images Figure 1 Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 4 Figure 5 Figure 6 Figure 7 PMID:9137090

  7. Oral nicotine administration decreases tumor necrosis factor-alpha expression in fat tissues in obese rats.

    PubMed

    Liu, R H; Kurose, T; Matsukura, S

    2001-01-01

    To investigate the effect of oral nicotine administration on insulin resistance and insulin secretion in an animal model of obesity, Zucker fatty rats were administered nicotine tartrate dihydrate orally through tap water (4.6 mg/kg/d, N group). Plasma nicotine concentrations in N group were 33.67 +/- 10.49 ng/mL. The control (C) group consisted of pair-fed control rats. After 8 weeks of nicotine administration, both groups of rats were administered glucose (2 g/kg) orally in an anesthetized state, and blood was collected for glucose and plasma insulin measurements. The pancreases were isolated and perfused in vitro under pentobarbital anesthesia 1 week after glucose administration. The fat tissues were excised. The levels of tumor necrosis factor (TNF)-alpha protein were assessed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) or Western blot analysis. Serum leptin levels were measured using radioimmunoassay (RIA). Blood glucose levels in N group were significantly lower than in C group before and 120 minutes after glucose administration. The insulin secretion from the isolated perfused pancreases of N group appeared to be decreased compared with C group, but there was no significant difference. Histologic examination showed that the mean size of the pancreatic islets in N group was significantly smaller than in C group. The composition ratios of alpha and beta cell mass of the pancreatic islets and fibroelastic tissues were not altered by nicotine administration. Portal TNF-alpha levels were comparable to peripheral levels in both groups. There were no significant differences in peripheral serum levels of TNF-alpha, free fatty acids (FFA), or leptin levels between N and C group. The TNF-alpha levels in visceral fat tissues in N group were significantly lower than those in C group. These results suggest that oral nicotine administration reduces insulin resistance in obese diabetic rats by decreasing production of TNF-alpha in the visceral fat tissues. Decreased

  8. Monitoring the process of tissue healing of rat skin in vivo after laser irradiation based on optical coherence tomography

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    He, Youwu; Wu, Shulian; Li, Zhifang; Cai, Shoudong; Li, Hui

    2010-11-01

    It is imperative to evaluate the tissue wound healing response after laser irradiation so as to develop effective devices for this clinical indication, and evaluate the thermal damage degree to take appropriate treatment. In our research, we prepare 6 white rat (approximately 2 months old, weight :28+/-2g). Each rat was injected intraperitoneally a single dose of 2% pentobarbital sodium. After the rat was anesthetized, the two side of the rats' back were denuded and antisepsised a standardized. An Er:YAG laser (2940nm, 2.5J/cm2, single spot, 4 times) was irradiated on rat skin in vivo, and the skin which before irradiated and the process of renovating scathe that irradiated after Er:YAG laser were observed by an Optical coherence tomography (OCT). The tissue recovery is about a twelve -day period. The results indicate that the scattering coefficient of post- tissue has changed distinctly. The and flexibility fiber is the chief component of rat dermis and the collagen is the main scattering material. The normal tissue has a large scattering coefficient, after laser irradiated, the collagen became concreting and putrescence and caused the structure change. It became more uniform density distribution, which results in a reduced scattering coefficient. In a word, OCT can noninvasively monitor changes in collagen structure and the recover process in thermal damage through monitor the tissue scattering coefficient.

  9. Effect of quercetin against lindane induced alterations in the serum and hepatic tissue lipids in wistar rats

    PubMed Central

    Padma, Viswanadha Vijaya; Lalitha, Gurusamy; Shirony, Nicholson Puthanveedu; Baskaran, Rathinasamy

    2012-01-01

    Objective To assess the effect of quercetin (flavonoid) against lindane induced alterations in lipid profile of wistar rats. Methods Rats were administered orally with lindane (100 mg/kg body weight) and quercetin (10 mg/kg body weight) for 30 days. After the end of treatment period lipid profile was estimated in serum and tissue. Results Elevated levels of serum cholesterol, triglycerides, low density lipoprotein (LDL), very Low Density Lipoprotein (VLDL) and tissue triglycerides, cholesterol with concomitant decrease in serum HDL and tissue phospholipids were decreased in lindane treated rats were found to be significantly decreased in the quercetin and lindane co-treated rats. Conclusions Our study suggests that quercetin has hypolipidemic effect and offers protection against lindane induced toxicity in liver by restoring the altered levels of lipids. The quercetin cotreatment along with lindane for 30 days reversed these biochemical alterations in lipids induced by lindane. PMID:23569870

  10. Comparison of tissue metal concentrations in Zucker lean, Zucker obese, and Zucker diabetic fatty rats and the effects of chromium supplementation on tissue metal concentrations.

    PubMed

    Staniek, Halina; Rhodes, Nicholas R; Di Bona, Kristin R; Deng, Ge; Love, Sharifa T; Pledger, Leigh Ann; Blount, Jeremy; Gomberg, Emmalea; Grappe, Frances; Cernosek, Chelsea; Peoples, Brittany; Rasco, Jane F; Krejpcio, Zbigniew; Vincent, John B

    2013-03-01

    Diabetes results in several metabolic changes, including alterations in the transport, distribution, excretion, and accumulation of metals. While changes have been examined in several rat models of insulin resistance and diabetes, the metal ion concentrations in the tissues of Zucker lean, Zucker obese (an insulin resistance and early stage diabetes model), and Zucker diabetic fatty (ZDF, a type 2 diabetes model) have not previously been examined in detail. The concentration of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg, and Ca were examined in the liver, kidney, heart and spleen, and Cr concentration in the liver and kidney of these rats were examined. Zucker obese rats have a reduction in the concentration of Cu, Zn, Fe, Mg in the liver compared to ZDF and/or lean Zucker rats, presumably as a result of the increased fat content of the liver of the obese rats. ZDF rats have increased concentrations of kidney Cu compared to the lean rats, while kidney Ca concentrations are increased in the Zucker obese rats. Spleen Fe concentrations are decreased in Zucker obese rats compared to the lean rats. No effects on metal concentrations in the heart were observed between the lean, obese, and ZDF rats, and no effects on Cr concentrations were identified. Cr(III) complexes have previously been shown to have beneficial effects on the signs of insulin resistance in Zucker obese and ZDF rats. The effects of daily gavage administration of chromium picolinate ([Cr(pic)(3)]) (1 mg Cr/kg body mass), CrCl(3) (1 mg Cr/kg body mass), and Cr3 ([Cr(3)O(propionate)(6)(H(2)O)(3)](+)) (33 μg and 1 mg Cr/kg body mass) on metal concentrations in these tissues were examined. Treatment with CrCl(3) and Cr3, but not [Cr(pic)(3)], at 1 mg Cr/kg resulted in a statistically significant accumulation of Cr in the kidney of lean and obese but not ZDF rats but resulted in lowering the elevated levels of kidney Cu in ZDF rats, suggesting a beneficial effect on this symptom of type 2 diabetes.

  11. Extraction of optical properties and prediction of light distribution in rat brain tissue

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Azimipour, Mehdi; Baumgartner, Ryan; Liu, Yuming; Jacques, Steven L.; Eliceiri, Kevin; Pashaie, Ramin

    2014-07-01

    Predicting the distribution of light inside any turbid media, such as biological tissue, requires detailed information about the optical properties of the medium, including the absorption and scattering coefficients and the anisotropy factor. Particularly, in biophotonic applications where photons directly interact with the tissue, this information translates to system design optimization, precision in light delivery, and minimization of unintended consequences, such as phototoxicity or photobleaching. In recent years, optogenetics has opened up a new area in deep brain stimulation with light and the method is widely adapted by researchers for the study of the brain circuitries and the dynamics of neurological disorders. A key factor for a successful optogenetic stimulation is delivering an adequate amount of light to the targeted brain objects. The adequate amount of light needed to stimulate each brain object is identified by the tissue optical properties as well as the type of opsin expressed in the tissue, wavelength of the light, and the physical dimensions of the targeted area. Therefore, to implement a precise light delivery system for optogenetics, detailed information about the optical properties of the brain tissue and a mathematical model that incorporates all determining factors is needed to find a good estimation of light distribution in the brain. In general, three measurements are required to obtain the optical properties of any tissue, namely diffuse transmitted light, diffuse reflected light, and transmitted ballistic beam. In this report, these parameters were measured in vitro using intact rat brain slices of 500 μm thickness via a two-integrating spheres optical setup. Then, an inverse adding doubling method was used to extract the optical properties of the tissue from the collected data. These experiments were repeated to cover the whole brain tissue with high spatial resolution for the three different cuts (transverse, sagittal, and coronal

  12. Gingival tissue healing following Er:YAG laser ablation compared to electrosurgery in rats.

    PubMed

    Sawabe, Masanori; Aoki, Akira; Komaki, Motohiro; Iwasaki, Kengo; Ogita, Mayumi; Izumi, Yuichi

    2015-02-01

    The erbium-doped yttrium aluminum garnet (Er:YAG) laser is currently used for periodontal soft tissue management with favorable outcomes. However, the process of wound healing after Er:YAG laser (ErL) treatment has not been fully elucidated yet. The aim of this study was to investigate the gingival tissue healing after ErL ablation in comparison with that after electrosurgery (ElS). Gingival defects were created in 28 rats by ablation with ErL irradiation or ElS. The chronological changes in wound healing were evaluated using histological, histometrical, and immunohistochemical analyses. The ErL-ablated gingival tissue revealed much less thermal damage, compared to the ElS. In the ElS sites, the postoperative tissue destruction continued due to thermal damage, while in the ErL sites, tissue degradation was limited and the defects were re-epithelialized early. Heat shock protein (Hsp) 72/73 expression was detected abundantly remote from the wound in the ElS, whereas it was slightly observed in close proximity to the wound in the ErL sites. Hsp47 expression was observed in the entire connective tissue early in the wound healing and was found limited in the wound area later. This phenomenon proceeded faster in the ErL sites than in the ElS sites. Expression of proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) persisted in the epithelial tissue for a longer period in the ElS than that in the ErL. The ErL results in faster and more favorable gingival wound healing compared to the ElS, suggesting that the ErL is a safe and suitable tool for periodontal soft tissue management.

  13. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Skeletal Tissues (Bones, Joints, and Teeth)

    PubMed Central

    Fossey, Stacey; Vahle, John; Long, Philip; Schelling, Scott; Ernst, Heinrich; Boyce, Rogely Waite; Jolette, Jacquelin; Bolon, Brad; Bendele, Alison; Rinke, Matthias; Healy, Laura; High, Wanda; Roth, Daniel Robert; Boyle, Michael; Leininger, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is an initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the skeletal tissues and teeth of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of many common lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material were databases from government, academic and industrial laboratories throughout the world. PMID:27621538

  14. Nonproliferative and Proliferative Lesions of the Rat and Mouse Skeletal Tissues (Bones, Joints, and Teeth).

    PubMed

    Fossey, Stacey; Vahle, John; Long, Philip; Schelling, Scott; Ernst, Heinrich; Boyce, Rogely Waite; Jolette, Jacquelin; Bolon, Brad; Bendele, Alison; Rinke, Matthias; Healy, Laura; High, Wanda; Roth, Daniel Robert; Boyle, Michael; Leininger, Joel

    2016-01-01

    The INHAND (International Harmonization of Nomenclature and Diagnostic Criteria for Lesions in Rats and Mice) Project (www.toxpath.org/inhand.asp) is an initiative of the Societies of Toxicological Pathology from Europe (ESTP), Great Britain (BSTP), Japan (JSTP) and North America (STP) to develop an internationally accepted nomenclature for proliferative and nonproliferative lesions in laboratory animals. The purpose of this publication is to provide a standardized nomenclature for classifying microscopic lesions observed in the skeletal tissues and teeth of laboratory rats and mice, with color photomicrographs illustrating examples of many common lesions. The standardized nomenclature presented in this document is also available on the internet (http://www.goreni.org/). Sources of material were databases from government, academic and industrial laboratories throughout the world.

  15. A procedure for the quantitative analysis of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues.

    PubMed

    Gaitonde, M K; Gaull, G E

    1967-03-01

    1. A method is described for the quantitative separation of the sulphur compounds in a single sample of tissue by passing an extract through a serial assembly of ion-exchange resins in the order: Dowex 2 (Cl(-) form), Dowex 1 (CO(3) (2-) form), Amberlite CG-50 (H(+) form) and Zeo-Karb 225 (H(+) form). 2. Groups of sulphur amino acids were eluted separately from each column; the recovery of sulphur compounds after their labelling with (35)S in vivo by injection of l-[(35)S]-methionine was 91-106%. Individual sulphur compounds were further resolved by one-dimensional or two-dimensional paper chromatography. 3. Evidence is presented on the occurrence of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in rat liver and brain. Rat liver and brain contained 83.6 and 31.4mmu-moles/g. respectively of S-adenosylmethionine.

  16. A procedure for the quantitative analysis of the sulphur amino acids of rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Gaitonde, M. K.; Gaull, G. E.

    1967-01-01

    1. A method is described for the quantitative separation of the sulphur compounds in a single sample of tissue by passing an extract through a serial assembly of ion-exchange resins in the order: Dowex 2 (Cl− form), Dowex 1 (CO32− form), Amberlite CG-50 (H+ form) and Zeo-Karb 225 (H+ form). 2. Groups of sulphur amino acids were eluted separately from each column; the recovery of sulphur compounds after their labelling with 35S in vivo by injection of l-[35S]-methionine was 91–106%. Individual sulphur compounds were further resolved by one-dimensional or two-dimensional paper chromatography. 3. Evidence is presented on the occurrence of S-adenosylmethionine and S-adenosylhomocysteine in rat liver and brain. Rat liver and brain contained 83·6 and 31·4mμ-moles/g. respectively of S-adenosylmethionine. PMID:16742516

  17. [Influence of Shenshuai Capsule on renal tissue apoptosis of rats with chronic renal failure].

    PubMed

    Wang, Shaohua; Chen, Jing; Fu, Qiang

    2004-03-01

    To explore the influence of Shenshuai Capsule on renal tissue apoptosis of Wistar rats with chronic renal failure. Wistar rats were fed with adenine to establish chronic renal failure model, and then they were divided into three groups separately fed with Shenshuai capsule (high or low dosage) and Niaoduqing. RIA, immunohistochemical method and electron microscopy were used. The parameters of renal function between the treatment group (high dosage) and the Niaoduqing group were significantly different respectively. Shenshuai capsule could inhibit tubular epicyte apoptosis and Fas genetic expression, and improve Bcl-2 genetic expression. Shenshuai capsule could inhibit epicyte apoptosis, and adjust Fas genetic expression. Bcl-2 genetic expression indicated that this may be one of the mechanism to postpone the renal failure by Shunshuai capsule.

  18. Destruction of Tissue, Cells and Organelles in Type 1 Diabetic Rats Presented at Macromolecular Resolution

    PubMed Central

    Ravelli, Raimond B. G.; Kalicharan, Ruby D.; Avramut, M. Cristina; Sjollema, Klaas A.; Pronk, Joachim W.; Dijk, Freark; Koster, Abraham J.; Visser, Jeroen T. J.; Faas, Frank G. A.; Giepmans, Ben N. G.

    2013-01-01

    Finding alternatives for insulin therapy and making advances in etiology of type 1 diabetes benefits from a full structural and functional insight into Islets of Langerhans. Electron microscopy (EM) can visualize Islet morphology at the highest possible resolution, however, conventional EM only provides biased snapshots and lacks context. We developed and employed large scale EM and compiled a resource of complete cross sections of rat Islets during immuno-destruction to provide unbiased structural insight of thousands of cells at macromolecular resolution. The resource includes six datasets, totalling 25.000 micrographs, annotated for cellular and ultrastructural changes during autoimmune diabetes. Granulocytes are attracted to the endocrine tissue, followed by extravasation of a pleiotrophy of leukocytes. Subcellullar changes in beta cells include endoplasmic reticulum stress, insulin degranulation and glycogen accumulation. Rare findings include erythrocyte extravasation and nuclear actin-like fibers. While we focus on a rat model of autoimmune diabetes, our approach is general applicable. PMID:23652855

  19. [Effects of carbon dioxide laser radiation on bone tissue: macroscopic study on rats].

    PubMed

    Niccoli-Filho, W; Sampaio, T A; Guimarães-Filho, R

    2001-01-01

    The use of CO2 laser in osseous tissue to execute osteotomies is still questionable, mainly due to the increase of temperature in the site of irradiation. The purpose of this research was to carry out a pilot study in order to analyze macroscopically the effect of CO2 laser irradiation on rat tibia and to establish security parameters regarding power. Twelve rats were submitted to irradiation with 1, 3 and 5 watts of power and were examined immediately, 3, 7 and 14 days after irradiation. The results showed better healing when irradiation was carried out with the power of 1 watt; the 3- and 5-watt powers caused delay in the chronology of healing.

  20. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats.

    PubMed

    Von Böhl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M; Fudalej, Piotr S; Maltha, Jaap C

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals.

  1. Effects of isomers of apomorphines on dopamine receptors in striatal and limbic tissue of rat brain

    SciTech Connect

    Kula, N.S.; Baldessarini, R.J.; Bromley, S.; Neumeyer, J.L.

    1985-09-16

    The optical isomers of apomorphine (APO) and N-propylnorapomorphine (NPA) were interacted with three biochemical indices of dopamine (Da) receptors in extrapyramidal and limbic preparations of rat brain tissues. There were consistent isomeric preferences for the R(-) configuration of both DA analogs in stimulation adenylate cyclase (D-1 sites) and in competing for high affinity binding of /sup 3/H-spiroperidol (D-2 sites) and of /sup 3/H-ADTN (DA agonist binding sites) in striatal tissue, with lesser isomeric differences in the limbic tissue. The S(+) apomorphines did not inhibit stimulation of adenylate cyclase by DA. The tendency for greater activity of higher apparent affinity of R(-) apomorphines in striatum may reflect the evidently greater abundance of receptor sites in that region. There were only small regional differences in interactions of the apomorphine isomers with all three receptor sites, except for a strong preference of (-)NPA for striatal D-2 sites. These results do not parallel our recent observations indicating potent and selective antidopaminergic actions of S(+) apomorphines in the rat limbic system. They suggest caution in assuming close parallels between current biochemical functional, especially behavioral, methods of evaluating dopamine receptors of mammalian brain.

  2. Proteomic Analysis of Lysine Acetylation Sites in Rat Tissues Reveals Organ Specificity and Subcellular Patterns

    PubMed Central

    Lundby, Alicia; Lage, Kasper; Weinert, Brian T.; Bekker-Jensen, Dorte B.; Secher, Anna; Skovgaard, Tine; Kelstrup, Christian D.; Dmytriyev, Anatoliy; Choudhary, Chunaram; Lundby, Carsten; Olsen, Jesper V.

    2014-01-01

    SUMMARY Lysine acetylation is a major posttranslational modification involved in a broad array of physiological functions. Here, we provide an organ-wide map of lysine acetylation sites from 16 rat tissues analyzed by high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry. We quantify 15,474 modification sites on 4,541 proteins and provide the data set as a web-based database. We demonstrate that lysine acetylation displays site-specific sequence motifs that diverge between cellular compartments, with a significant fraction of nuclear sites conforming to the consensus motifs G-AcK and AcK-P. Our data set reveals that the subcellular acetylation distribution is tissue-type dependent and that acetylation targets tissue-specific pathways involved in fundamental physiological processes. We compare lysine acetylation patterns for rat as well as human skeletal muscle biopsies and demonstrate its general involvement in muscle contraction. Furthermore, we illustrate that acetylation of fructose-bisphosphate aldolase and glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase serves as a cellular mechanism to switch off enzymatic activity. PMID:22902405

  3. Subcutaneous Reaction of Rat Tissues to Nanosilver Coated Gutta-Percha

    PubMed Central

    Mozayeni, Mohammad Ali; Dianat, Omid; Tahvildari, Shahin; Mozayani, Maryam; Paymanpour, Payam

    2017-01-01

    Introduction: Gutta-percha (GP), is a neutral and non-toxic material. The aim of this animal study was to compare the biocompatibility of nanosilver coated GP (NS-GP) with conventional GP in subcutaneous tissues in a rat model. Methods and Materials: Conventional GP and NS-GP were subcutaneously implanted in the backs of 20 male Wistar rats (n=10). A control animal was assigned for each trial period. Ten animals were sacrificed after 7 and 30 days and light microscopic evaluation of tissue reaction to NS-GP (n=20) and conventional GP (n=20) was accomplished. The Mann-Whitney U, Wilcoxon Signed Ranks, Fisher Exact, and McNemar tests were used for statistical analysis of the data. Results: After 7 days, inflammation was moderate and mild for NS-GP and conventional GP, respectively (P<0.001). After 30 days, no inflammation was discernible in conventional GP. However, mild inflammation was reported for NS-GP (P<0.001). Regarding inflammatory cell type, there was a significant difference between two experimental groups at both times (P<0.001). Conclusion: Inflammation decreased over time in both groups. Fibrous connective tissue, a representative of healing and control of inflammatory process, surrounded both test materials. NS-GP was biocompatible and might be a reasonable endodontic obturation material. PMID:28512478

  4. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate.

    PubMed

    Coelho, Deise Riba; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Saint'Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2014-07-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 > 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen > bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies.

  5. [Bioaccumulation of silver and gold nanoparticles in organs and tissues of rats by neutron activation analysis].

    PubMed

    Buzulukov, Iu P; Arianova, E A; Demin, V F; Safenkova, I V; Gmoshinskiĭ, I V; Tutel'ian, V A

    2014-01-01

    Bioaccumulation of silver (Ag) and gold (Au) nanoparticles (NPs) with mean sizes of 6 nm and 35 nm, respectively, has been studied after their intragastric administration to rats at a dose of 100 μg/kg of body weight for 28 or 14 days. The organs and tissues (liver, kidney, spleen, heart, gonads brain, and blood) were subjected to thermal neutron activation, and, then, the activity of the 110mAg and 198Au isotopes generated was measured. The NPs of both metals were detected in all biological samples studied, the highest specific weight and content of Ag NP being found in the liver, and those of Au being found in kidneys of animals. The content of Ag NPs detected in the brain was 66.4 ± 5.6 ng (36 ng/g tissue), no more than 7% ofthese NPs being localized in the lumen of brain blood vessels. The content of Ag and Au NPs found in organs and tissues of rats could be regarded as nonhazardous (nontoxic) in accordance with the known literature data.

  6. Paclitaxel-loaded niosomes for intravenous administration: pharmacokinetics and tissue distribution in rats.

    PubMed

    Bayindir, Zerrin Sezgin; Be, Arzu Beşikci; Yüksel, Nilüfer

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate and compare the pharmacokinetic behavior and tissue distribution of paclitaxel, delivered as commercial preparation Taxol or through Span 40 niosomes, after intravenous injection to rats. Paclitaxel-loaded Span 40 niosomes were prepared using the thin-film method. An HPLC method was developed and validated for paclitaxel determination in rat plasma and tissues. The area under the curve value of the niosome-recipient group (3.22 ± 0.255 μg h/mL) was significantly higher compared to that of the Taxol group (0.725 ± 0.163 μg h/mL). The mean residence time and the elimination half-life of paclitaxel were 1.66 ± 0.133 h and 1.15 ± 0.085 h for Taxol administration, respectively. The elimination half-life (7.63 ± 0.380 h) and the mean residence time (11.0 ± 0.6 h) of paclitaxel were significantly increased, and a pronounced delay was observed in general excretion of paclitaxel from plasma (0.0925 ± 0.00490 h(-1)) after niosomal administration. The spleen was the main tissue that accumulated paclitaxel from both niosomes and Taxol. The findings of this study show that niosomal formulation might be a useful drug delivery system for intravenous administration of paclitaxel.

  7. Age-related changes of dental pulp tissue after experimental tooth movement in rats

    PubMed Central

    Von Böhl, Martina; Ren, Yijin; Kuijpers-Jagtman, Anne M.; Maltha, Jaap C.

    2016-01-01

    It is generally accepted that the effect of orthodontic tooth movement on the dental pulp in adolescents is reversible and that it has no long-lasting effect on pulpal physiology. However, it is not clear yet if the same conclusion is also valid for adult subjects. Thus, in two groups of rats, aged 6 and 40 weeks respectively, 3 molars at one side of the maxilla were moved together in a mesial direction with a standardized orthodontic appliance delivering a force of 10 cN. The contralateral side served as a control. Parasagittal histological sections were prepared after tooth movement for 1, 2, 4, 8, and 12 weeks. The pulp tissue was characterized for the different groups, with special emphasis on cell density, inflammatory cells, vascularity, and odontoblasts. Dimensions of dentin and the pulpal horns was determined and related with the duration of orthodontic force application and age ware evaluated. We found that neither in young nor in adult rats, force application led to long-lasting or irreversible changes in pulpal tissues. Dimensional variables showed significant age-related changes. In conclusion, orthodontic tooth movement per se has no long-lasting or irreversible effect on pulpal tissues, neither in the young nor in the adult animals. PMID:26855867

  8. Tissue distribution of residual antimony in rats treated with multiple doses of meglumine antimoniate

    PubMed Central

    Coelho, Deise Riba; Miranda, Elaine Silva; Saint’Pierre, Tatiana Dillenburg; Paumgartten, Francisco José Roma

    2014-01-01

    Meglumine antimoniate (MA) and sodium stibogluconate are pentavalent antimony (SbV) drugs used since the mid-1940s. Notwithstanding the fact that they are first-choice drugs for the treatment of leishmaniases, there are gaps in our knowledge of their toxicological profile, mode of action and kinetics. Little is known about the distribution of antimony in tissues after SbV administration. In this study, we evaluated the Sb content of tissues from male rats 24 h and three weeks after a 21-day course of treatment with MA (300 mg SbV/kg body wt/d, subcutaneous). Sb concentrations in the blood and organs were determined by inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry. In rats, as with in humans, the Sb blood levels after MA dosing can be described by a two-compartment model with a fast (t1/2 = 0.6 h) and a slow (t1/2 >> 24 h) elimination phase. The spleen was the organ that accumulated the highest amount of Sb, while bone and thyroid ranked second in descending order of tissues according to Sb levels (spleen >> bone, thyroid, kidneys > liver, epididymis, lungs, adrenals > prostate > thymus, pancreas, heart, small intestines > skeletal muscle, testes, stomach > brain). The pathophysiological consequences of Sb accumulation in the thyroid and Sb speciation in the liver, thyroid, spleen and bone warrant further studies. PMID:25075781

  9. Subcutaneous tissue reaction to castor oil bean and calcium hydroxide in rats

    PubMed Central

    CAMARGO, Samira Esteves Afonso; RODE, Sigmar de Mello; do PRADO, Renata Falchete; CARVALHO, Yasmin Rodarte; CAMARGO, Carlos Henrique Ribeiro

    2010-01-01

    Castor oil bean cement (COB) is a new material that has been used as an endodontic sealer, and is a candidate material for direct pulp capping. Objective The purpose of this study was to evaluate the biocompatibility of a new formulation of COB compared to calcium hydroxide cement (CH) and a control group without any material, in the subcutaneous tissue of rats. Material and methods The materials were prepared, packed into polyethylene tubes, and implanted in the rat dorsal subcutaneous tissue. Animals were sacrificed at the 7th and 50th days after implantation. A quantitative analysis of inflammatory cells was performed and data were subjected to ANOVA and Tukey's tests at 5% significance level. Results Comparing the mean number of inflammatory cells between the two experimental groups (COB and CH) and the control group, statistically significant difference (p=0.0001) was observed at 7 and 50 days. There were no significant differences (p=0.111) between tissue reaction to CH (382 inflammatory cells) and COB (330 inflammatory cells) after 7 days. After 50 days, significantly more inflammatory cells (p=0.02) were observed in the CH group (404 inflammatory cells) than in the COB group (177 inflammatory cells). Conclusions These results demonstrate that the COB cement induces less inflammatory response within long periods. PMID:20857007

  10. Mesenchymal stem cells protect against the tissue fibrosis of ketamine-induced cystitis in rat bladder

    PubMed Central

    Kim, Aram; Yu, Hwan Yeul; Heo, Jinbeom; Song, Miho; Shin, Jung-Hyun; Lim, Jisun; Yoon, Soo-Jung; Kim, YongHwan; Lee, Seungun; Kim, Seong Who; Oh, Wonil; Choi, Soo Jin; Shin, Dong-Myung; Choo, Myung-Soo

    2016-01-01

    Abuse of the hallucinogenic drug ketamine promotes the development of lower urinary tract symptoms that resemble interstitial cystitis. The pathophysiology of ketamine-induced cystitis (KC) is largely unknown and effective therapies are lacking. Here, using a KC rat model, we show the therapeutic effects of human umbilical cord-blood (UCB)-derived mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs). Daily injection of ketamine to Sprague-Dawley rats for 2-weeks resulted in defective bladder function, indicated by irregular voiding frequency, increased maximum contraction pressure, and decreased intercontraction intervals and bladder capacity. KC bladders were characterized by severe mast-cell infiltration, tissue fibrosis, apoptosis, upregulation of transforming growth factor-β signaling related genes, and phosphorylation of Smad2 and Smad3 proteins. A single administration of MSCs (1 × 106) into bladder tissue not only significantly ameliorated the aforementioned bladder voiding parameters, but also reversed the characteristic histological and gene-expression alterations of KC bladder. Treatment with the antifibrotic compound N-acetylcysteine also alleviated the symptoms and pathological characteristics of KC bladder, indicating that the antifibrotic capacity of MSC therapy underlies its benefits. Thus, this study for the first-time shows that MSC therapy might help to cure KC by protecting against tissue fibrosis in a KC animal model and provides a foundation for clinical trials of MSC therapy. PMID:27481042

  11. Detection and characterization of chemical-induced abnormal tissue and rat tumors at different stages using fluorescence spectroscopy

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Chen, Wei R.; Jassemnejad, Baha; Crull, Jason; Knobbe, Edward T.; Nordquist, Robert E.

    1996-04-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy of diseased tissues, including chemical-induced rat liver, kidney and testis lesions, as well as murine mammary tumor, was studied. The rat liver, kidney and testis tissues were excited by radiation of 350 and 366 nm, which appeared to provide the optimal differentiation between normal and lesion tissues; the tumor tissues were excited by both 350 nm and 775 nm wavelengths. In comparison with normal liver tissue, at (lambda) ex equals 366 nm, the fluorescent spectrum of liver lesion showed a clear red shift around the emission peak of 470 nm, the major native fluorescent peak of organized tissue. When excited by 350 nm wavelength, all the chemically induced lesion tissues (liver, kidney and testis) appeared to cause a significant reduction of emission intensity at the 470 nm peak. While the 775 nm excitation did not reveal any significant difference among tumor, muscle and skin tissues, the 350 nm excitation did provide some interesting features among the tumor tissues at different stages. Compared with muscle tissue, the viable tumor showed an overall reduction of emission intensity around 470 nm. In addition, the viable tumor tissue showed a secondary emission peak at 390 nm with necrotic tumor tissue having a reduced intensity. The histology of both viable and necrotic tumor tissue was examined and appeared to correlate with the results of the fluorescent spectroscopy observation.

  12. Differences in substrate and inhibitor sequence specificity of human, mouse and rat tissue kallikreins.

    PubMed Central

    Fogaça, Sandro E; Melo, Robson L; Pimenta, Daniel C; Hosoi, Kazuo; Juliano, Luiz; Juliano, Maria A

    2004-01-01

    The kininogenase activities of mouse (mK1), rat (rK1) and human (hK1) tissue kallikreins were assayed with the bradykinin-containing synthetic peptides Abz-MTEMARRPPGFSPFRSVTVQNH2 (where Abz stands for o-aminobenzoyl) and Abz-MTSVIRRPPGFSPFRAPRV-NH2, which correspond to fragments Met374-Gln393 and Met375-Val393 of mouse and rat LMWKs (low-molecular-mass kininogens) with the addition of Abz. Bradykinin was released from these peptides by the mK1- and rK1-mediated hydrolysis of Arg-Arg and Arg-Ser (or Arg-Ala) peptide bonds. However, owing to preferential hydrolysis of Phe-Arg compared with the Arg-Ala bond in the peptide derived from rat LMWK, hK1 released bradykinin only from the mouse LMWK fragment and preferentially released des-[Arg9]bradykinin from the rat LMWK fragment (Abz-MTSVIRRPPGFSPFRAPRV-NH2). The formation of these hydrolysis products was examined in more detail by determining the kinetic parameters for the hydrolysis of synthetic, internally quenched fluorescent peptides containing six N- or C-terminal amino acids of bradykinin added to the five downstream or upstream residues of mouse and rat kininogens respectively. One of these peptides, Abz-GFSPFRAPRVQ-EDDnp (where EDDnp stands for ethylenediamine 2,4-dinitrophenyl), was preferentially hydrolysed at the Phe-Arg bond, confirming the potential des-[Arg9]bradykinin-releasing activity of hK1 on rat kininogen. The proline residue that is two residues upstream of bradykinin in rat kininogen is, in part, responsible for this pattern of hydrolysis, since the peptide Abz-GFSPFRASRVQ-EDDnp was preferentially cleaved at the Arg-Ala bond by hK1. Since this peptidase accepts the arginine or phenylalanine residue at its S1 subsite, this preference seems to be determined by the prime site of the substrates. These findings also suggested that the effects observed in rats overexpressing hK1 should consider the activation of B1 receptors by des-[Arg9]bradykinin. For further comparison, two short internally quenched

  13. Finasteride reduces microvessel density and expression of vascular endothelial growth factor in renal tissue of diabetic rats.

    PubMed

    Tian, He-lin; Zhao, Chao-xian; Wu, Hai-ying; Xu, Zhong-xin; Wei, Li-shun; Zhao, Ru-tong; Jin, Dong-ling

    2015-06-01

    Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) plays a critical role in the pathogenesis of diabetic microvascular complications. Finasteride has been confirmed to decrease VEGF expression in prostate and prostatic suburethral tissue resulting in limiting hematuria from human benign prostatic hyperplasia. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of finasteride on microvessel density (MVD), VEGF protein and mRNA expressions in the renal tissue of diabetic rats. Diabetic rats induced by streptozotocin were intragastrically given finasteride at 30 mg/kg body weight once a day for 4 weeks. Histomorphologic changes in kidney were observed under light microscope. Immunohistochemistry for CD34 and VEGF on kidney sections was performed to assess MVD and VEGF protein expression in glomeruli of rats, respectively. The VEGF mRNA expression in the renal tissue was examined using reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis. The glomerular tuft area, glomerular volume, MVD, VEGF protein expression in glomeruli and VEGF mRNA expression in the renal cortex tissue were significantly increased in diabetic rats and finasteride-treated rats when compared with controls (P < 0.01, P < 0.05). When compared with diabetic rats, the glomerular tuft area, glomerular volume, MVD, VEGF protein expression in glomeruli and VEGF mRNA expression in the renal cortex tissue of finasteride-treated rats were significantly decreased (P < 0.05, P < 0.01). Finasteride reduces the VEGF expression and decreases the MVD in the renal tissue of diabetic rats, suggesting the therapeutic potential of finasteride on diabetic microvascular complications.

  14. Tissue distribution of sup 3 H-nicotine in rats after bolus or constant injection

    SciTech Connect

    Chowdhury, P.; Pasley, J.N.; Rayford, P.L. )

    1989-01-01

    Two groups of rats, (N = 7), were fasted for 24 hrs prior to the study. On the day of the experiment, the animals were anesthetized and infused with either 5 ml nicotine solution (200 {mu}g/L) in saline containing 5 {mu}c {sup 3}H-nicotine, (sp. activity 50-80 mCi/mol) for 90 minutes or injected as a bolus with 0.5 ml of the same nicotine (200 {mu}g/L) solution. The animals were sacrificed 60 minutes after the injection or after the infusion was stopped. Blood and tissue samples were counted by liquid scintillation counting. Percent distribution of {sup 3}H-nicotine per gm of tissue was calculated from the total radioactivity recovered in individual tissues over the total activity injected into the rat and the values were compared using student's t test. Results: Distribution of {sup 3}H-nicotine was found highest in kidney (45-49%) among all tissues examined and was not different between routes of administration. Significantly higher retention of {sup 3}H-nicotine was found with continuous infusion in esophagus, fundus, antrum, spleen, cecum, pancreas, testes, heart and muscle when {sup 3}H-nicotine retentions were compared with bolus injection. In contrast, the distribution of {sup 3}H-nicotine in adrenal gland, was significantly lower in continuous infusion group. Distribution in blood was 6 fold higher in continuous infusion (7.26%) compared to bolus (1.11%) injection. The distribution {sup 3}H-nicotine in other tissues were not different by either routes of injection.

  15. The cytotoxic evaluation of mineral trioxide aggregate and bioaggregate in the subcutaneous connective tissue of rats

    PubMed Central

    Acar, Gözde; Yalcin, Yagmur; Dindar, Seckin; Sancakli, Hande; Erdemir, Ugur

    2013-01-01

    Objectives: The purpose of this study was to evaluate and compare the cytotoxic effects of ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BA, a bioceramic nanoparticulate cement, on subcutaneous rat tissue. Study Design: Fifty Sprouge Dawley rats were used in this study. Polyethylene tubes filled with ProRoot MTA and DiaRoot BioAggregate, along with a control group of empty, were implanted into dorsal connective tissue of rats for 7, 15, 30, 60, and 90 days. After estimated time intervals the rats were sacrificed. The specimens were fixed, stained with hematoxylin and eosin, and then evaluated under a light microscope for inflammatory reactions and mineralization. Results: All groups evoked a severe to moderate chronic inflammatory reaction at 7 and 15 days, which decreased with time. Both the MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar inflammatory reactions, except at 90 days when MTA showed statistically significant greater inflammation (p>0.05). The MTA group showed foreign body reaction at all times. Compared to BioAggregate, MTA showed significantly more foreign body reaction at 60 and 90 days (p<0.0001). After 30 days foreign body reaction of BioAggregate decreased significantly. Both MTA and BioAggregate groups showed similar necrosis at 7 and 15 days (p=0.094 and p=0.186 respectively). No necrosis was observed after 15 days. Similarly there was no fibrosis after 30 days for both MTA and BioAggregate groups (p>0.05). Conclusions: Since DiaRoot BioAggregate showed significantly better results than MTA, we can conclude that it is more biocompatible. However, further studies are required to confirm this result. Key words:Biocompatibility, mineral trioxide aggregate, bioAggregate. PMID:23722144

  16. Incorporation of Integra in tissue defects: a pilot study in the rat model.

    PubMed

    Upadhyaya, Manasvi; Orford, J E; Smith, Nicholas; Barker, Andrew; Gollow, I

    2007-07-01

    Integra has been shown to be very useful in accelerating the growth of neodermis. It has found extensive use in case of burns as a primary dressing immediately after a burn, after release of contractures and following scar revision. It has been used to achieve cover after the debridement of extensive infective processes involving the skin. Encouraged by these results we have assessed the application of Integra to augment and/or patch defects of the urinary bladder, diaphragm and the abdominal wall in the rat model. This was a pilot study and involved the incorporation of Integra in the diaphragm, the urinary bladder (extramucosal) and the muscle layer of the abdominal wall. Eight adult Wistar rats were given general anaesthesia and Integra was implanted with absorbable sutures at the sites mentioned. The omentum was hitched to the collagen matrix surface to revascularise the graft. The silicone was left in situ. The operative period was covered with antibiotics. The anaesthesia was then reversed. Postoperatively the rats were given analgesia and feeds started immediately. The rats were sacrificed after 3 weeks. The abdominal cavity was examined for adhesions. The Integra implant along with adjacent tissue was harvested and examined histologically. There were no visible intra-abdominal adhesions. The histology revealed good degree of neovascularisation and fibrosis in and adjacent to the implant. This was comparable to the changes seen in the skin. This pilot study has shown that implanting Integra invokes a similar response in deeper tissues and it can develop neovascularisation from the omentum. Hence, this could find some application in treating congenital conditions such as diaphragmatic hernias, abdominal wall defects and for bladders requiring augmentation. Our initial results are quite encouraging and we feel that this field should be further explored.

  17. Diffusion of Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated dendrimers in rat aortic tissue.

    PubMed

    Cho, Brenda S; Roelofs, Karen J; Majoros, Istvan J; Baker, James R; Stanley, James C; Henke, Peter K; Upchurch, Gilbert R

    2006-11-01

    In this study, the distribution of labeled dendrimers in native and aneurysmal rat aortic tissue was examined. Adult male rats underwent infrarenal aorta perfusion with generation 5 (G5) acetylated Alexa Fluor 488-conjugated dendrimers for varying lengths of time. In a second set of experiments, rats underwent aortic elastase perfusion followed by aortic dendrimer perfusion 7 days later. Aortic diameters were measured prior to and postelastase perfusion, and again on the day of harvest. Aortas were harvested 0, 12, or 24 h postperfusion, fixed, and mounted. Native aortas were harvested and viewed as negative controls. Aortic cross-sections were viewed and imaged using confocal microscopy. Dendrimers were quantified (counts/high-powered field). Results were evaluated by repeated measures ANOVA and Student's t-test. We found that in native aortas, dendrimers penetrated the aortic wall in all groups. For all perfusion times, fewer dendrimers were present as time between dendrimer perfusion and aortic harvest increased. Longer perfusion times resulted in increased diffusion of dendrimers throughout the aortic wall. By 24 h, the majority of the dendrimers were through the wall. Dendrimers in aneurysmal aortas, on day 0 postdendrimer perfusion, diffused farther into the aortic wall than controls. In conclusion, this study documents labeled dendrimers delivered intra-arterially to native rat aortas in vivo, and the temporal diffusion of these molecules within the aortic wall. Increasing perfusion time and length of time prior to harvest resulted in continued dendrimer diffusion into the aortic wall. These preliminary data provide a novel mechanism whereby local inhibitory therapy may be delivered locally to aortic tissue.

  18. Rat transferrin gene expression: tissue-specific regulation by iron deficiency.

    PubMed Central

    Idzerda, R L; Huebers, H; Finch, C A; McKnight, G S

    1986-01-01

    Rats raised on a low-iron diet were used as a model system for investigating the regulation of transferrin gene expression by iron deficiency. We quantitated transferrin mRNA in a variety of tissues from normal and iron-deficient rats and found that the level of transferrin mRNA in normal rat liver was about 6500 molecules per cell, while the level in iron-deficient animals was 2.4-fold higher. The increase of transferrin mRNA in iron deficiency was the result of a specific induction of transferrin gene transcriptional activity as measured in isolated nuclei. This increase in transferrin gene expression resulted in a corresponding increase in serum total-iron-binding capacity. Of the other tissues examined, moderate amounts of transferrin mRNA were found in brain (83 molecules per cell) and testis (114 molecules per cell), and low levels were measured in spleen and kidney. The transferrin mRNA content of brain, testis, spleen, and kidney remained unchanged in iron deficiency. The small intestine had no detectable transferrin mRNA in either normal or iron-deficient rats; however, transferrin protein was present, and its level was 2-fold higher in the iron-deficient group. We hypothesize that intestinal transferrin is synthesized in the liver and is delivered to the gut via the bile. Consistent with this idea, bile transferrin content was found to be elevated in iron deficiency and appeared to be sufficient to account for intestinal transferrin levels. In addition, treatment of plasma transferrin with bile caused an acidic shift in its isoelectric-focusing behavior so that it comigrated with intestinal transferrin. Images PMID:3459151

  19. Experimental hyperprolinemia induces mild oxidative stress, metabolic changes, and tissue adaptation in rat liver.

    PubMed

    Ferreira, Andréa G K; da Cunha, Aline A; Machado, Fernanda R; Pederzolli, Carolina D; Dalazen, Giovana R; de Assis, Adriano M; Lamers, Marcelo L; dos Santos, Marinilce F; Dutra-Filho, Carlos S; Wyse, Angela T S

    2012-01-01

    The present study investigated the effects of chronic hyperprolinemia on oxidative and metabolic status in liver and serum of rats. Wistar rats received daily subcutaneous injections of proline from their 6th to 28th day of life. Twelve hours after the last injection the rats were sacrificed and liver and serum were collected. Results showed that hyperprolinemia induced a significant reduction in total antioxidant potential and thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances. The activities of the antioxidant enzymes catalase and superoxide dismutase were significantly increased after chronic proline administration, while glutathione (GSH) peroxidase activity, dichlorofluorescin oxidation, GSH, sulfhydryl, and carbonyl content remained unaltered. Histological analyses of the liver revealed that proline treatment induced changes of the hepatic microarchitecture and increased the number of inflammatory cells and the glycogen content. Biochemical determination also demonstrated an increase in glycogen concentration, as well as a higher synthesis of glycogen in liver of hyperprolinemic rats. Regarding to hepatic metabolism, it was observed an increase on glucose oxidation and a decrease on lipid synthesis from glucose. However, hepatic lipid content and serum glucose levels were not changed. Proline administration did not alter the aminotransferases activities and serum markers of hepatic injury. Our findings suggest that hyperprolinemia alters the liver homeostasis possibly by induction of a mild degree of oxidative stress and metabolic changes. The hepatic alterations caused by proline probably do not implicate in substantial hepatic tissue damage, but rather demonstrate a process of adaptation of this tissue to oxidative stress. However, the biological significance of these findings requires additional investigation. Copyright © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  20. [Changes of MDA, SOD, TNF-alpha, and IL-1beta in rat brain tissue after concussion].

    PubMed

    Gao, Feng; Zhao, Li; Gu, Zhen-Yong; Cong, Bin

    2014-02-01

    To observe the changes of malondialdehyde (MDA), superoxide dismutase (SOD), tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) in rat brain tissue and to explore the mechanism of secondary cerebral injury after brain concussion. The brain concussion model was established with the pathological changes of rat brain tissue by Weil stain. The expressions of MDA and SOD in brain tissue were examined by photochemical method. The expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta in cerebral cortex and hippocampus were examined by immunochemistry. Nerve myelin sheath showed disorder, disruption, gryposis and swelling by Weil stain. Above changes were more severe at 12h. The quantity of MDA in rat brain tissue after concussion was significantly higher than that in the control group. The activity of SOD was significantly lower than that in the control group. The expressions of TNF-alpha and IL-1beta increased more significantly in cerebral cortex and hippocampus in rat brain tissue after concussion than that in the control group. Oxidative stress and inflammatory injury in the rat brain tissue, which may play an important role in secondary cerebral injury after concussion.

  1. Effect of delta sleep-inducing peptide on oxidative modification of proteins in rat tissues and blood during physiological aging.

    PubMed

    Bondarenko, T I; Sorokina, I A; Mayboroda, E A; Durkanaeva, O A; Kutilin, D S; Mikhaleva, I I

    2012-07-01

    Accumulation of oxidized proteins (evaluated by the levels of carbonyl and SH groups) in tissues of 2-24-month-old rats (spleen>myocardium>testicles>liver>skeletal muscles) has been demonstrated. Exogenous delta sleep-inducing peptide injected subcutaneously to rats of different age in a dose of 100 μg/kg by monthly 5-day courses protected proteins of the studied tissues from oxidation; its effect was tissue-specific. Delta sleep-inducing peptide exhibited a hypoglycemic effect: it prevented nonenzymatic glycosylation of hemoglobin and reduced the level of defective protein molecules during aging.

  2. The neuroprotective effect of cornus MAS on brain tissue of Wistar rats.

    PubMed

    Francik, Renata; Kryczyk, Jadwiga; Krośniak, Mirosław; Berköz, Mehmet; Sanocka, Ilona; Francik, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease) or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet). This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma.

  3. The Neuroprotective Effect of Cornus mas on Brain Tissue of Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    Francik, Renata; Kryczyk, Jadwiga; Krośniak, Mirosław; Berköz, Mehmet; Sanocka, Ilona; Francik, Sławomir

    2014-01-01

    Cornelian cherry (Cornus mas) is a valuable source of phenolic antioxidants. Flavonoid derivatives as nonenzymatic antioxidants are important in the pathophysiology of many diseases including neurological disorders (e.g., Alzheimer's disease) or heart disease. In this study, we examined the effect of an addition of freeze-dried fruit of cornelian cherry on three types of diets: control diet, fructose diet, and diet enriched in fats (high-fat diet). This effect was studied by determining the following antioxidant parameters in both brain tissue and plasma in rats: catalase, ferric reducing ability of plasma, paraoxonase, protein carbonyl groups, and free thiol groups. Results indicate that both fructose diet and high-fat diet affect the antioxidant capacity of the organism. Furthermore, an addition of cornelian cherry resulted in increased activity of catalase in brain tissue, while in plasma it caused the opposite effect. In turn, with regard to paraoxonase activity in both brain tissue and plasma, it had a stimulating effect. Adding cornelian cherry to the tested diets increased the activity of PON in both tested tissues. Moreover, protective effect of fruits of this plant was observed in the process of oxidation of proteins by decreasing levels of protein carbonyl groups and thiol groups in brain tissue as well as in plasma. PMID:25401157

  4. Adipose tissue depot specific differences of PLIN protein content in endurance trained rats

    PubMed Central

    Ramos, Sofhia V.; Turnbull, Patrick C.; MacPherson, Rebecca E. K.

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Adipose tissue is classified as either white (WAT) or brown (BAT) and differs not only by anatomical location but also in function. WAT is the main source of stored energy and releases fatty acids in times of energy demand, whereas BAT plays a role in regulating non-shivering thermogenesis and oxidizes fatty acids released from the lipid droplet. The PLIN family of proteins has recently emerged as being integral in the regulation of fatty acid storage and release in adipose tissue. Previous work has demonstrated that PLIN protein content varies among adipose tissue depots, however an examination of endurance training-induced depot specific changes in PLIN protein expression has yet to be done. Male Sprague-dawley rats (n = 10) underwent 8-weeks of progressive treadmill training (18–25 m/min for 30–60 min at 10% incline) or remained sedentary as control. Following training, under isoflurane induced anesthesia epidydmal (eWAT), inguinal subcutaneous (iWAT) and intrascapular brown adipose tissue (BAT) was excised, and plasma was collected. Endurance training resulted in an increase in BAT PLIN5 and iWAT PLIN3 content, while there was no difference in PLIN protein content in endurance trained eWAT. Interestingly, endurance training resulted in a robust increase in ATGL and CGI-58 in eWAT alone. Together these results suggest the potential of a depot specific function of PLIN3 and PLIN5 in adipose tissue in response to endurance training. PMID:27386161

  5. Intrinsic optical signals of brains in rats during loss of tissue viability: effect of brain temperature

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Kawauchi, Satoko; Sato, Shunichi; Ooigawa, Hidetoshi; Nawashiro, Hiroshi; Kikuchi, Makoto

    2007-07-01

    Noninvasive, real-time monitoring of brain tissue viability is crucial for the patients with stroke, traumatic brain injury, etc. For this purpose, measurement of intrinsic optical signal (IOS) is attractive because it can provide direct information about the viability of brain tissue noninvasively. We performed simultaneous measurements of IOSs that are related to morphological characteristics, i.e., light scattering, and energy metabolism for rat brains during saline infusion as a model with temporal loss of brain tissue viability. The results showed that the scattering signal was steady in an initial phase but showed a drastic, triphasic change in a certain range of infusion time, during which the reduction of CuA in cytochrome c oxidase started and proceeded rapidly. The start time of triphasic scattering change was delayed for about 100 s by lowering brain temperature from 29°C to 24°C, demonstrating the optical detection of cerebroprotection effect by brain cooling. Electron microscopic observation showed morphological changes of dendrite and mitochondria in the cortical surface tissue after the triphasic scattering change, which was thought to be associated with the change in light scattering we observed. These findings suggest that the simultaneous measurement of the intrinsic optical signals related to morphological characteristics and energy metabolism is useful for monitoring tissue viability in brain.

  6. Effect of polyphenols on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in rat femoral tissues in vitro.

    PubMed

    Yamaguchi, M; Jie, Z

    2001-12-01

    The effect of various polyphenols on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues of young rats in vitro was investigated. Bone tissues were cultured for 24 h in serum-free Dulbecco's modified Eagle's medium containing either vehicle or various polyphenols (10(-7) - 10(-4) M). The presence of genistein (10(-6) - 10(-4) M) caused a significant increase in calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues. Resveratrol (10(-4) m) decreased metaphyseal calcium content significantly, and it (10(-6) - 10(-4) M) had a significant inhibitory effect on diaphyseal enzyme activity. Epigallocatechin gallate (EGCg; 10(-4) M) significantly inhibited alkaline phosphatase activity in the diaphyseal and metaphyseal tissues. EGCg (10(-7) - 10(-4) M) had no effect on bone calcium content. Meanwhile, glycitein, quercetin, or catechin in the range of 10(-7) to 10(-4) ml did not have an effect on calcium content and alkaline phosphatase activity in the femoral-diaphyseal and -metaphyseal tissues. The present study suggests that a phytoestrogen genistein has a unique anabolic effect on bone calcification in vitro.

  7. Optical assessment of tissue anisotropy in ex vivo distended rat bladders.

    PubMed

    Alali, Sanaz; Aitken, Karen J; Schröder, Annette; Shröder, Annette; Bagli, Darius J; Alex Vitkin, I

    2012-08-01

    Microstructural remodelling in epithelial layers of various hollow organs, including changes in tissue anisotropy, are known to occur under mechanical distension and during disease processes. In this paper, we analyze how bladder distension alters wall anisotropy using polarized light imaging (followed by Mueller matrix decomposition). Optical retardance values of different regions of normal rat bladders under different distension pressures are derived. Then optical coherence tomography is used to measure local bladder wall thicknesses, enabling the calculation of the tissue birefringence maps as a measure of the tissue anisotropy. Selected two-photon microscopy is also performed to better understand the compositional origins of the obtained anisotropy results. The dome region of the bladder shows maximum birefringence when the bladder is distended to high pressures, whereas the ventral remains roughly isotropic during distension. In addition, the average anisotropy direction is longitudinal, along the urethra to dome. The derived wall anisotropy trends are based on birefringence as an intrinsic property of the tissue organization independent of its thickness, to aid in understanding the structure-functions relation in healthy bladders. These new insights into the wall microstructure of ex vivo distending bladders may help improve the functionality of the artificially engineered bladder tissues.

  8. Arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects and distribution in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats.

    PubMed

    Patlolla, Anita K; Todorov, Todor I; Tchounwou, Paul B; van der Voet, Gijsbert; Centeno, Jose A

    2012-11-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well documented human carcinogen. However, its mechanisms of toxic action and carcinogenic potential in animals have not been conclusive. In this research, we investigated the biochemical and genotoxic effects of As and studied its distribution in selected tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of six male rats, each weighing approximately 60 ± 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once a day for 5 days with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg bw of arsenic trioxide. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water. Following anaesthetization, blood was collected and enzyme analysis was performed by spectrophotometry following standard protocols. At the end of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and the lung, liver, brain and kidney were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells. Arsenic exposure significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of plasma alanine aminotransferase-glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT/GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase-glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST/GOT), as well as the number of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the bone marrow cells. In contrast, the mitotic index in these cells was significantly reduced (p<0.05). These findings indicate that aminotransferases are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results also demonstrate that As has a strong genotoxic potential, as measured by the bone marrow SCA and MN tests in Sprague-Dawley rats. Total arsenic concentrations in tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with hydrogen gas was used to eliminate the ArCl interference at mass 75, in the measurement of total As. Total As doses in tissues tended to correlate with specific exposure levels.

  9. [Expression and significance of enkephalin and dopamine in experimental rat cerebral concussion tissue].

    PubMed

    Peng, Rui-Yun; Gao, Ya-Bing; Wang, De-Wen; Xiao, Xing-Yi; Chen, Hao-Yu; Wu, Xiao-Hong; Liu, Jie; Xu, Long-He; Hu, Wen-Hua

    2003-05-01

    To explore the expression and significance of enkephalin and dopamine in rat cerebral concussion tissue. 80 Wistar male rats were used to make animal model of cerebral concussion, which were sacrificed on 1,3,7,14 and 30 days after postconcussion and the brain tissues were taken out. The expression patterns of enkephalin and dopamine were studied in the course of cerebral concussion by immunohistochemical staining. The clinical manifestation with typical cerebral concussion character was seen in rat group with 100 g body weight. The mainly pathologic changes were cerebral vascular constriction and dilatation, congestion and edema of cerebral tissue, and neuronal degeneration and necrosis. Expression of enkephalin was increased on day 1 after injury and the enkephalin positive area was in the plasma of endothelial cells in cerebral cortex, hippocamp and cerebellum. The expression of enkephalin reached the peak on day 7 after injury, and the positive area was also seen in the plasma of neurons in cerebral cortex, hippocamp and cerebellum. From 14 days after injury, the expression of enkephalin decreased gradually, but until 30 days after injury it was still higher than that of controls. Expression of dopamine increased in 7 days after injury and the positive area was seen in the plasma of endothelial cells and in the vessel wall in cerebral cortex, hippocamp, thalamus and cerebellum, and had no notable changes at other time points. The mainly pathologic changes after cerebral concussion were blood circulatory disorder and denaturation and necrosis of parenchymal cells. Enkephalin and dopamine may participate in the pathophysiological course of cerebral injury after cerebral concussion, and play an important role in the blood vessel injury, regulation of blood-brain barrier and the denaturation and necrosis of nerve cells.

  10. Do adipose tissue-derived mesenchymal stem cells ameliorate Parkinson's disease in rat model?

    PubMed

    Ahmed, Hh; Salem, Am; Atta, Hm; Ghazy, Ma; Aglan, Ha

    2014-12-01

    Parkinson's disease (PD) is a common neurodegenerative disorder in middle-aged and elderly people. This study aimed to elucidate the role of mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) in management of PD in ovariectomized rat model. MSCs were excised from adipose tissue of both the omentum and the inguinal fat pad of male rats, grown, and propagated in culture; then characterized morphologically; and by the detection of surface markers gene expression. In this study, 40 ovariectomized animals were classified into 5 groups; group 1 was ovariectomized control, groups 2 to 5 were subcutaneously administered with rotenone for 14 days after 1 month of ovariectomy for induction of PD. Group 2 was left untreated; groups 3, 4, and 5 were treated with Sinemet(®), Cerebrolysin(®), and a single dose of adipose tissue-derived MSCs (ADMSCs), respectively. Y-chromosome gene (sry) was assessed by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) in brain tissue of the female rats. Serum transforming growth factor β (TGF-β), monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 (MCP-1), and brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF) levels were assayed using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay technique. Brain dopamine level was assayed fluorometrically, while brain tyrosine hydroxylase (TH) gene expression was detected by semiquantitative real-time PCR. The PD group showed significant increase in serum TGF-β and MCP-1 levels associated with significant decrease in serum BDNF, brain dopamine, and brain TH gene expression levels. In contrast, all treatments produce significant decrease in serum TGF-β and MCP-1 levels in concomitant with significant increase in serum BDNF, brain dopamine, and brain TH gene expression levels. In conclusion, the observed improvements in the studied biomarkers due to ADMSCs infusion might be attributed to their immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory, and neurotrophic effects.

  11. Arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects and distribution in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats

    PubMed Central

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Todorov, Todor I.; Tchounwou, Paul B.; van der Voet, Gijsbert; Centeno, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well documented human carcinogen. However, its mechanisms of toxic action and carcinogenic potential in animals have not been conclusive. In this research, we investigated the biochemical and genotoxic effects of As and studied its distribution in selected tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats. Four groups of six male rats, each weighing approximately 60 ± 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once a day for 5 days with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg bw of arsenic trioxide. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water. Following anaesthetization, blood was collected and enzyme analysis was performed by spectrophotometry following standard protocols. At the end of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and the lung, liver, brain and kidney were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells. Arsenic exposure significantly increased (p<0.05) the activities of plasma alanine aminotransferase-glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT/GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase-glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST/GOT), as well as the number of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the bone marrow cells. In contrast, the mitotic index in these cells was significantly reduced (p<0.05). These findings indicate that aminotransferases are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results also demonstrate that As has a strong genotoxic potential, as measured by the bone marrow SCA and MN tests in Sprague-Dawley rats. Total arsenic concentrations in tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with hydrogen gas was used to eliminate the ArCl interference at mass 75, in the measurement of total As. Total As doses in tissues tended to correlate with specific exposure levels. PMID:23175155

  12. Arsenic-induced biochemical and genotoxic effects and distribution in tissues of Sprague-Dawley rats

    USGS Publications Warehouse

    Patlolla, Anita K.; Todorov, Todor; Tchounwou, Paul B.; van der Voet, Gijsbert; Centeno, Jose A.

    2012-01-01

    Arsenic (As) is a well documented human carcinogen. However, its mechanisms of toxic action and carcinogenic potential in animals have not been conclusive. In this research, we investigated the biochemical and genotoxic effects of As and studied its distribution in selected tissues of Sprague–Dawley rats. Four groups of six male rats, each weighing approximately 60 ± 2 g, were injected intraperitoneally, once a day for 5 days with doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 mg/kg BW of arsenic trioxide. A control group was also made of 6 animals injected with distilled water. Following anaesthetization, blood was collected and enzyme analysis was performed by spectrophotometry following standard protocols. At the end of experimentation, the animals were sacrificed, and the lung, liver, brain and kidney were collected 24 h after the fifth day treatment. Chromosome and micronuclei preparation was obtained from bone marrow cells. Arsenic exposure significantly increased (p < 0.05) the activities of plasma alanine aminotransferase–glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT/GPT), and aspartate aminotransferase–glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST/GOT), as well as the number of structural chromosomal aberrations (SCA) and frequency of micronuclei (MN) in the bone marrow cells. In contrast, the mitotic index in these cells was significantly reduced (p < 0.05). These findings indicate that aminotransferases are candidate biomarkers for arsenic-induced hepatotoxicity. Our results also demonstrate that As has a strong genotoxic potential, as measured by the bone marrow SCA and MN tests in Sprague–Dawley rats. Total arsenic concentrations in tissues were measured by inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS). A dynamic reaction cell (DRC) with hydrogen gas was used to eliminate the ArCl interference at mass 75, in the measurement of total As. Total As doses in tissues tended to correlate with specific exposure levels.

  13. Stress response of bovine artery and rat brain tissue due to combined translational shear and fixed unconfined compression

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Leahy, Lauren

    During trauma resulting from impacts and blast waves, sinusoidal waves permeate the brain and cranial arterial tissue, both non-homogeneous biological tissues with high fluid contents. The experimental shear stress response to sinusoidal translational shear deformation at 1 Hz and 25% strain amplitude and either 0% or 33% compression is compared for rat brain tissue and bovine aortic tissue. Both tissues exhibit Mullins effect in shear. Harmonic wavelet decomposition, a novel application to the mechanical response of these tissues, shows significant 1 Hz and 3 Hz components. The 3 Hz component magnitude in brain tissue, which is much larger than in aortic tissue, may correlate to interstitial fluid induced drag forces that decrease on subsequent cycles perhaps because of damage resulting in easier fluid movement. The fluid may cause the quasiperiodic, viscoelastic behavior of brain tissue. The mechanical response differences under impact may cause shear damage between arterial and brain connections.

  14. Tissue distribution and elimination after oral and intravenous administration of different titanium dioxide nanoparticles in rats

    PubMed Central

    2014-01-01

    Objective The aim of this study was to obtain kinetic data that can be used in human risk assessment of titanium dioxide nanomaterials. Methods Tissue distribution and blood kinetics of various titanium dioxide nanoparticles (NM-100, NM-101, NM-102, NM-103, and NM-104), which differ with respect to primary particle size, crystalline form and hydrophobicity, were investigated in rats up to 90 days post-exposure after oral and intravenous administration of a single or five repeated doses. Results For the oral study, liver, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes were selected as target tissues for titanium (Ti) analysis. Ti-levels in liver and spleen were above the detection limit only in some rats. Titanium could be detected at low levels in mesenteric lymph nodes. These results indicate that some minor absorption occurs in the gastrointestinal tract, but to a very limited extent. Both after single and repeated intravenous (IV) exposure, titanium rapidly distributed from the systemic circulation to all tissues evaluated (i.e. liver, spleen, kidney, lung, heart, brain, thymus, reproductive organs). Liver was identified as the main target tissue, followed by spleen and lung. Total recovery (expressed as % of nominal dose) for all four tested nanomaterials measured 24 h after single or repeated exposure ranged from 64-95% or 59-108% for male or female animals, respectively. During the 90 days post-exposure period, some decrease in Ti-levels was observed (mainly for NM-100 and NM-102) with a maximum relative decrease of 26%. This was also confirmed by the results of the kinetic analysis which revealed that for each of the investigated tissues the half-lifes were considerable (range 28–650 days, depending on the TiO2-particle and tissue investigated). Minor differences in kinetic profile were observed between the various particles, though these could not be clearly related to differences in primary particle size or hydrophobicity. Some indications were observed for an

  15. Gene Expression Profiling of Lung Tissue of Rats Exposed to Lunar Dust Particles

    NASA Technical Reports Server (NTRS)

    Zhang, Ye; Feiveson, Alan H.; Lam, Chiu-Wing; Kidane, Yared H.; Ploutz-Snyder Robert; Yeshitla, Samrawit; Zalesak, Selina M.; Scully, Robert R.; Wu, Honglu; James, John T.

    2014-01-01

    The purpose of the study is to analyze the dynamics of global gene expression changes in the lung tissue of rats exposed to lunar dust particles. Multiple pathways and transcription factors were identified using the Ingenuity Pathway Analysis tool, showing the potential networks of these signaling regulations involved in lunar dust-induced prolonged proflammatory response and toxicity. The data presented in this study, for the first time, explores the molecular mechanisms of lunar dust induced toxicity. This work contributes not only to the risk assessment for future space exploration, but also to the understanding of the dust-induced toxicity to humans on earth.

  16. Histopathological changes induced in rat tissues by oral intake of lead acetate

    SciTech Connect

    Karmakar, N.; Saxena, R.; Anand, S.

    1986-10-01

    In the present study an attempt has been made to observe the pathological alterations brought about in the intestine, liver, and kidney of lead-intoxicated rats. A short-term exposure to a sublethal dose of lead (44 mg/kg body wt/day) is seen to cause conspicuous degenerative changes in the three tissues. The intestinal mucosal epithelium is affected which leads to malabsorption, while in the kidney proximal tubular cells degenerate causing secretion of essential materials such as glucose, amino acids, etc., in the urine.

  17. Fluoride Alteration of [(3)H]Glucose Uptake in Wistar Rat Brain and Peripheral Tissues.

    PubMed

    Rogalska, Anna; Kuter, Katarzyna; Żelazko, Aleksandra; Głogowska-Gruszka, Anna; Świętochowska, Elżbieta; Nowak, Przemysław

    2017-04-01

    The present study was designed to investigate the role of postnatal fluoride intake on [3H]glucose uptake and transport in rat brain and peripheral tissues. Sodium fluoride (NaF) in a concentration of 10 or 50 ppm was added to the drinking water of adult Wistar rats. The control group received distilled water. After 4 weeks, respective plasma fluoride levels were 0.0541 ± 0.0135 μg/ml (control), 0.0596 ± 0.0202 μg/ml (10 ppm), and 0.0823 ± 0.0199 μg/ml (50 ppm). Although plasma glucose levels were not altered in any group, the plasma insulin level in the fluoride (50 ppm) group was elevated (0.72 ± 0.13 μg/ml) versus the control group (0.48 ± 0.24 μg/ml) and fluoride (10 ppm) group. In rats receiving fluoride for 4 weeks at 10 ppm in drinking water, [3H]glucose uptake was unaltered in all tested parts of the brain. However, in rats receiving fluoride at 50 ppm, [3H]glucose uptake in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and thalamus with hypothalamus was elevated, versus the saline group. Fluoride intake had a negligible effect on [3H]glucose uptake by peripheral tissues (liver, pancreas, stomach, small intestine, atrium, aorta, kidney, visceral tissue, lung, skin, oral mucosa, tongue, salivary gland, incisor, molars, and jawbone). In neither fluoride group was glucose transporter proteins 1 (GLUT 1) or 3 (GLUT 3) altered in frontal cortex and striatum versus control. On the assumption that increased glucose uptake (by neural tissue) reasonably reflects neuronal activity, it appears that fluoride damage to the brain results in a compensatory increase in glucose uptake and utilization without changes in GLUT 1 and GLUT 3 expression.

  18. Dermal exposure to pesticides modifies antioxidant enzymes in tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Panemangalore, M; Bebe, F N

    2000-07-01

    Superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and glutathione peroxidase (GPX) activities were determined in rat tissues after dermal exposure to pesticides. Two experiments were conducted in male SD rats, 190-210 g body weight. Acephate (ACP), methamidophos (MAP) and nicotine (NIC) were dissolved either individually or together in 0.25 mL of 50% ethanol, which contained: AP = 12.6 or MAP 1.3 or NIC = 9.6 mg; EXP 1--individual pesticide exposure; 64 rats, 16/group; EXP 2--mixture of AP + MAP + NIC at levels of 1X, 2X, 3X; 48 rats, 12/group; 0.25 mL of solution or ethanol (Controls) was applied to 25 mm2 area of shaved skin 3 times a week. Half the rats were terminated after 4 weeks and the rest after 4 weeks of stopping exposure. Single pesticides decreased erythrocyte (RBC) SOD by 17% after exposure and in the NIC group after post exposure (P#0.05). Increasing concentrations of AP + MAP + NIC mixture elevated RBC SOD by 22% in the 2X and 3X groups and CAT by 13% in the 3X group (P#0.05); post exposure increased RBC SOD by 2-3 fold and CAT activity by 13% in all 3 groups. Liver GPX increased by 30-40% and CAT decreased by 12% in all exposed and post exposed groups (P#0.05). The results suggest that dermal exposure to mixtures of pesticides can selectively induce SOD, CAT and GPX activities in RBC and liver.

  19. Cullin 5 Expression in the Rat: Cellular and Tissue Distribution, and Changes in Response to Water Deprivation and Hemorrhagic Shock

    DTIC Science & Technology

    2006-05-31

    rehydration Table 2. cul-5 mRNA ( geometric mean + SEM) of rat tissue 86 following water deprivation and rehydration Chapter 5 Table 1...the arithmetic average was computed as the geometric mean for each tissue sample. The standard error of the geometric mean was computed by...multiplying the geometric mean values for each tissue by the ln of the standard error of the mean [see Casella and Berger, 1990, p. 330, for additional

  20. Chronic ingestion of Mn/sub 3/O/sub 4/ by young rats: tissue accumulation, distribution, and depletion

    SciTech Connect

    Rehnberg, G.L.; Hein, J.F.; Carter, S.D.; Linko, R.S.; Laskey, J.W.

    1981-02-01

    Mn accumulation, distribution, and disappearance were evaluated in selected tissues of preweanling rats dosed daily with particulate Mn/sub 3/O/sub 4/ for 12 or 27 d postpartum. Significant findings include a high rate of Mn absorption and localization in tissues, especially the cerebrum, hypothalamus, and pituitary. In these tissues, the return of Mn concentrations to control levels was much slower when Mn dosing was continued beyond 18-20 d postpartum.

  1. Normobaric hyperoxia retards the evolution of ischemic brain tissue toward infarction in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia.

    PubMed

    Xu, Ji; Zhang, Yuan; Liang, Zhouyuan; Wang, Ting; Li, Weiping; Ren, Lijie; Huang, Shaonong; Liu, Wenlan

    2016-01-01

    Oxygen therapy has been long considered a logical therapy for ischemic stroke. Our previous studies showed that normobaric hyperoxia (normobaric hyperoxia (NBO), 95% O2 with 5% CO2) treatment during ischemia reduced ischemic neuronal death and cerebromicrovascular injury in animal stroke models. In this study, we studied the effects of NBO on the evolution of ischemic brain tissue to infarction in a rat model of transient focal cerebral ischemia. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were given NBO (95% O2) or normoxia (21% O2) during 90-min filament occlusion of the middle cerebral artery (MCAO), followed by 3 or 22.5 h of reperfusion. 2,3,5-triphenyltetrazolium chloride (TTC) staining was used to evaluate the longitudinal evolution of tissue infarction. Results: In normoxic rats, MCA-supplied cortical and striatal tissue was infarcted after 90-min MCAO with 22.5 h of reperfusion. NBO-treated rats showed a 61.4% reduction in infarct size and tissue infarction mainly occurred in the ischemic striatum. When infarction was assessed at an earlier time point, i.e. at 3 h of reperfusion, normoxic rats showed significantly smaller but mature infarction (no TTC staining, white color), with the infarction mainly occurring in the striatum. Unexpectedly, NBO-treated rats only showed immature lesion (partially stained by TTC, light white color) in the ischemic striatum, indicating that NBO treatment also retarded the process of neuronal death in the ischemic core. Of note, NBO-preserved striatal tissue underwent infarction after prolonged reperfusion. Conclusions: Our results demonstrate that NBO treatment given during cerebral ischemia retards the evolution of ischemic brain tissue toward infarction and NBO-preserved cortical tissue survives better than NBO-preserved striatal tissue during the phase of reperfusion.

  2. Chronic tissue response to untethered microelectrode implants in the rat brain and spinal cord

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Ersen, Ali; Elkabes, Stella; Freedman, David S.; Sahin, Mesut

    2015-02-01

    Objective. Microelectrodes implanted in the central nervous system (CNS) often fail in long term implants due to the immunological tissue response caused by tethering forces of the connecting wires. In addition to the tethering effect, there is a mechanical stress that occurs at the device-tissue interface simply because the microelectrode is a rigid body floating in soft tissue and it cannot reshape itself to comply with changes in the surrounding tissue. In the current study we evaluated the scar tissue formation to tetherless devices with two significantly different geometries in the rat brain and spinal cord in order to investigate the effects of device geometry. Approach. One of the implant geometries resembled the wireless, floating microstimulators that we are currently developing in our laboratory and the other was a (shank only) Michigan probe for comparison. Both electrodes were implanted into either the cervical spinal cord or the motor cortices, one on each side. Main results. The most pronounced astroglial and microglial reactions occurred within 20 μm from the device and decreased sharply at larger distances. Both cell types displayed the morphology of non-activated cells past the 100 μm perimeter. Even though the aspect ratios of the implants were different, the astroglial and microglial responses to both microelectrode types were very mild in the brain, stronger and yet limited in the spinal cord. Significance. These observations confirm previous reports and further suggest that tethering may be responsible for most of the tissue response in chronic implants and that the electrode size has a smaller contribution with floating electrodes. The electrode size may be playing primarily an amplifying role to the tethering forces in the brain whereas the size itself may induce chronic response in the spinal cord where the movement of surrounding tissues is more significant.

  3. Tissue toxicokinetics of perfluoro compounds with single and chronic low doses in male rats.

    PubMed

    Iwabuchi, Katsumi; Senzaki, Norimasa; Mazawa, Daichi; Sato, Itaru; Hara, Michihiro; Ueda, Fukiko; Liu, Wei; Tsuda, Shuji

    2017-01-01

    To examine the kinetics of low doses of perfluoro compounds (PFCs), we administered perfluorohexanoic acid (C6A), perfluorooctanoic acid (C8A), perfluorononanoic acid (C9A) and perfluorooctane sulfonate (C8S) with a single oral dose (50-100 μg/kg BW), and in drinking water at 1, 5, and 25 μg/L for one and three months to male rats; and examined the distribution in the brain, heart, liver, spleen, kidney, whole blood and serum. C6A was very rapidly absorbed, distributed and eliminated from the tissues with nearly the same tissue t1/2 of 2-3 hr. Considering serum Vd, and the tissue delivery, C6A was mainly in the serum with the lowest delivery to the brain; and no tissue accumulation was observed in the chronic studies as estimated from the single dose study. For the other PFCs, the body seemed to be an assortment of independent one-compartments with a longer elimination t1/2 for the liver than the serum. The concentration ratio of liver/serum increased gradually from C0 to a steady state. The high binding capacity of plasma protein may be the reason for the unusual kinetics, with only a very small fraction of free PFCs moving gradually to the liver. Although the tissue specific distribution was time dependent and different among the PFCs, the Vd and ke of each tissue were constant throughout the study. The possibility of extremely high C6A accumulation in the human brain and liver was suggested, by comparing the steady state tissue concentration of this study with the human data reported by Pérez et al. (2013).

  4. Tissue structure of rat brain after microwave irradiation using maximum magnetic field component.

    PubMed

    Ikarashi, Y; Okada, M; Maruyama, Y

    1986-05-14

    A novel microwave instrument has recently been designed by New Japan Radio Co. Ltd., to provide more homogeneous distribution of the rapidly deposited heat in the rodent brain. Being the first commercial unit which concentrates the maximum magnetic field component of irradiation, rather than the usual electric field, it provides complete enzymatic inactivation in a typical rat brain when a power of 9 kW (90% of maximum) is applied for 0.80 s at the standard operating frequency of 2450 MHz. Tissue structural integrity was investigated in animals sacrificed by this approach or by the usual decapitation to see if any tissue disruption or pressure-induced spreading, a major problem with other microwave devices, might also be of concern for this new unit. Histological examination of tissue samples employed both light and electron microscopy. Using Luxol Fast Blue in the light microscopy, the microwave irradiated tissues exhibited a decreased affinity for the staining agent, an appearance of slight vacuoles, and the disappearance of fine fibrils in the parenchyma. However, the interfacial areas between distinct brain regions remained well preserved. Electron microscopic observation indicated that microwave irradiated tissue caused protein denaturation accompanied by the aggregation of nuclear chromatin, the disappearance of Nissl bodies, ribosomes and neurofilaments, and noticeably irregular myelin sheaths. However, the essential structure of nerve cell membranes and synaptic membranes were maintained, and synaptic vesicles were clearly defined. These results indicated that the rapid heating of brain tissue with maximal magnetic field concentration of the irradiation does not result in significant tissue disruption, pressure-induced spreading or cell breakdown.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Measurement of immunoreactive angiotensin peptides in rat tissues: some pitfalls in angiotensin II analysis.

    PubMed

    De Silva, P E; Husain, A; Smeby, R R; Khairallah, P A

    1988-10-01

    Angiotensin II, the major effector peptide of the renin-angiotensin system, is an endocrine and paracrine regulator of tissue function. To determine its physiological role, it is important to quantify angiotensin II and related fragment peptides in tissues and plasma as a first step toward understanding angiotensin II metabolism within tissues. A fully characterized, sensitive, and reproducible immunochemical assay has been developed for quantitating angiotensin II immunoreactivity in tissues and plasma. We identified two methodological events of critical importance, incompletely addressed in previously reported studies. First, the nonspecific interference resulting from Sep-Pak processing was found to be due to hydrophobic impurities in the octade-casilane absorbent which were eliminated by washing the Sep-Pak with tetrahydrofuran and hexane before use. Second, a significant discrepancy was observed in the recoveries of angiotensin II and 125I-angiotensin II added to tissue extracts following high-pressure liquid chromatography. Angiotensin II immunoreactivity extracted from decapitated rat adrenal gland, brain, and kidney (target organs for angiotensin II), ovary and uterus (potential target organs for angiotensin II), and plasma has been characterized. The predominant component of the angiotensin II immunoreactivity was the biologically active octapeptide angiotensin II. However, in the brain, the ratio of angiotensin II to C-terminal angiotensin II immunoreactive fragments was lower than observed in other tissues studied. Other angiotensin II C-terminal immunoreactive peptide fragments-the biologically active heptapeptide and the biologically inactive angiotensin(3-8) and angiotensin(4-8)--were also detected in variable quantities in the various tissues.

  6. Chronic Tissue Response to Untethered Microelectrode Implants in the Rat Brain and Spinal Cord

    PubMed Central

    ERSEN, Ali; ELKABES, Stella; FREEDMAN, David S.; SAHIN, Mesut

    2015-01-01

    Objective Microelectrodes implanted in the central nervous system (CNS) often fail in long term implants due to the immunological tissue response caused by tethering forces of the connecting wires. In addition to the tethering effect, there is a mechanical stress that occurs at the device-tissue interface simply because the microelectrode is a rigid body floating in soft tissue and it cannot reshape itself to comply with changes in the surrounding tissue. In the current study we evaluated the scar tissue formation to tetherless devices with two significantly different geometries in the rat brain and spinal cord in order to investigate the effects of device geometry. Approach One of the implant geometries resembled the wireless, floating microstimulators that we are currently developing in our laboratory and the other was a (shank only) Michigan probe for comparison. Both electrodes were implanted into either the cervical spinal cord or the motor cortices, one on each side. Main Results The most pronounced astroglial and microglial reactions occurred within 20 μm from the device and decreased sharply at larger distances. Both cell types displayed the morphology of non-activated cells past the 100 μm perimeter. Even though the aspect ratios of the implants were different, the astroglial and microglial responses to both microelectrode types were very mild in the brain, stronger and yet limited in the spinal cord. Significance These observations confirm previous reports and further suggest that tethering may be responsible for most of the tissue response in chronic implants and that the electrode size has a smaller contribution with floating electrodes. The electrode size may be playing primarily an amplifying role to the tethering forces in the brain whereas the size itself may induce chronic response in the spinal cord where the movement of surrounding tissues is more significant. PMID:25605679

  7. Tissue distribution and urinary excretion of dimethylated arsenic and its metabolites in dimethylarsinic acid- or arsenate-treated rats

    SciTech Connect

    Adair, Blakely M.; Moore, Tanya; Conklin, Sean D.; Creed, John T.; Wolf, Douglas C.; Thomas, David J. . E-mail: thomas.david@epa.gov

    2007-07-15

    Adult female Fisher 344 rats received drinking water containing 0, 4, 40, 100, or 200 parts per million of dimethylarsinic acid or 100 parts per million of arsenate for 14 days. Urine was collected during the last 24 h of exposure. Tissues were then taken for analysis of dimethylated and trimethylated arsenicals; urines were analyzed for these arsenicals and their thiolated derivatives. In dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats, highest concentrations of dimethylated arsenic were found in blood. In lung, liver, and kidney, concentrations of dimethylated arsenic exceeded those of trimethylated species; in urinary bladder and urine, trimethylated arsenic predominated. Dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were present in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats. Concentrations of dimethylated arsenicals were similar in most tissues of dimethylarsinic acid- and arsenate-treated rats, including urinary bladder which is the target for dimethylarsinic acid-induced carcinogenesis in the rat. Mean concentration of dimethylated arsenic was significantly higher (P < 0.05) in urine of dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats, suggesting a difference between treatment groups in the flux of dimethylated arsenic through urinary bladder. Concentrations of trimethylated arsenic concentrations were consistently higher in dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than in arsenate-treated rats; these differences were significant (P < 0.05) in liver, urinary bladder, and urine. Concentrations of dimethylthioarsinic acid and trimethylarsine sulfide were higher in urine from dimethylarsinic acid-treated rats than from arsenate-treated rats. Dimethylarsinic acid is extensively metabolized in the rat, yielding significant concentrations of trimethylated species and of thiolated derivatives. One or more of these metabolites could be the species causing alterations of cellular function that lead to tumors in the urinary bladder.

  8. Graft of autologous fibroblasts in gingival tissue in vivo after culture in vitro. Preliminary study on rats.

    PubMed

    Simain-Sato, F; Lahmouzi, J; Heinen, E; Defresne, M P; De Pauw-Gillet, M C; Grisar, T; Legros, J J; Legrand, R

    1999-08-01

    Several grafting techniques and guided tissue regeneration techniques (GTR) have been well-developed in periodontal surgery. However, these techniques could induce pain and side effects, such as a gingival recession during the healing period following the therapy. The graft of a small autologous connective tissue, using non-invasive surgical techniques could yield several benefits for the patients. Our preliminary study explores the feasibility of collecting healthy gingival tissues, culturing them in vitro to amplify rat gingival fibroblasts (RGF) and inoculating the obtained cells into autologous rat gingival tissues in vivo. Gingival tissues samples were cultured as explants as described by Freshney et al. and Adolphe. Confluent cells surrounding explants were detached after 7 d of culture from Petri dishes using 0.05% trypsin and designated "first transferred cells" (T1). At the third passage (T3), cells cultured as monolayer were either examined under microscopy--phase contrast, scanning, or transmission electron--or numerated after trypan blue exclusion test. Autologous RGF labelled with fluorochrome were inoculated at the vestibular and palatine site of gingival tissue close to the superior incisors. In this preliminary study, 12 Wistar rats were used; for each, 2 biopsies were dissected and fixed for phase contrast or fluorescence microscopy. On d 1, 3 and 7 after injection in rat gingival tissues, fluorochrome-labelled cells could be detected in all these.

  9. Transplanted embryonic spinal tissue promotes severed sciatic nerve regeneration in rats.

    PubMed

    Xiong, Ge; Ozaki, Noriyuki; Sugiura, Yasuo

    2009-07-01

    The effects of transplanted embryonic spinal tissue on host motor nerve regeneration and target muscle reinervation were investigated in severed sciatic nerves of rats. The electromyogram (EMG) responses and number of motor end plates (MEP) in target muscles, number of nerve axons, and retrogradely labeled motor neurons were examined in transplantation-, anastomosis without transplantation-, and naïve groups of the animals. The EMG patterns of the transplantation group returned to nearly normal at the 8th week, but those of the anastomosis group did not. MEP counts in the transplantation group were significantly higher than in the anastomosis group. The myelinated axon counts and myelin sheath thickness in the transplantation group were significantly higher than those in the anastomosis group. The number of retrogradely labeled motor neurons was significantly higher in the transplantation group. We conclude that transplanted embryonic spinal tissue can promote both host motor nerve regeneration and target muscle reinnervation.

  10. Characterization of the pseudocapsule of soft-tissue sarcomas. An experimental study in rats

    SciTech Connect

    Gitelis, S.; Thomas, R.; Templeton, A.; Schajowicz, F. )

    1989-09-01

    The effect of preoperative radiation therapy on the pseudocapsule of experimental rat soft-tissue sarcomas has not been histologically evaluated in a controlled study. The irradiated animal showed marked thickening of the capsular structure surrounding the sarcoma. Everywhere morphologically distinct from the tumor, there was no evidence of tumor invasion into or through this capsular structure. The membrane was consistently thicker and more hyalinized than in the control animals. The nonirradiated animals showed a minimal pseudocapsular structure with a characteristic tumor penetration. Irradiation produced distinct histologic changes in the pseudocapsule. Although assumed on the basis of clinical observations alone, irradiation-induced pseudocapsule has not previously been demonstrated in an experimental model of soft-tissue sarcoma.

  11. [Profile of the capacity for lipid synthesis in vivo in various rat tissues: effect of age].

    PubMed

    Santos-Ruiz, M A; Cascales, M; Benito, M; Cascales, C; Martín-Sanz, P; Santos-Ruiz, A

    1982-01-01

    Changes in 3H2O incorporation in vivo to lipid fractions have been studied in rats 1, 3 and 13 months old. The incorporation of tritiated water into non-saponifiable fraction showed and age-dependent decrease in liver. The values were 4.32, 2.91 and 2.56 mumol 3H2O incorporated/g wet weight of liver/hour, at 1, 3 and 13 months respectively. Similar variations could be observed in adipose tissue and in blood. The rates of lower lipogenesis increase markedly from 1 to 3 months (7.02 to 13.36 mumol 3H2O/g/h) and decrease sharply from the 3rd to 13th months (13.36 to 3.75 mumol 3H2O/g/h). The incorporation of radioactivity into blood and adipose tissue fatty acids, also decrease by age.

  12. Soft-tissue response to clinically retrieved titanium cover screws reimplanted in the rat abdominal wall.

    PubMed

    Sennerby, L; Lekholm, U; Ericson, L E

    1989-01-01

    Clinically retrieved titanium implant cover screws (Brånemark implant system), rinsed in saline or subjected to ultrasonic cleaning and sterilization, as well as unused sterile screws were studied by scanning electron microscopy and implanted in the rat abdominal wall for 6 weeks. Irrespective of cleaning procedure, the heads of the clinically retrieved screws were covered by numerous contaminants not present on the unused screws. The reimplanted screws elicited a different tissue response than the unused screws. The tissue response to the contaminated screws was characterized by a significantly thicker fibrous capsule and by a significantly larger number of macrophages located close to the implant. Moreover, judging from their ultrastructure, studied with transmission electron microscopy, the macrophages appeared to be in a more active state when compared to those located adjacent to unused screws.

  13. Lack of in vivo DNA binding of mercaptobenzothiazole to selected tissues of the rat

    SciTech Connect

    Brewster, D.W.; Mirly, K.J.; Wilson, A.G.; Barnett, J.W. Jr. )

    1989-11-30

    In this study, the in vivo binding of {sup 14}C-labelled 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT) to DNA was investigated. Male and female Fischer 344 rats were gavaged with 375 mg MBT/kg body weight and killed 8 hours later. DNA was extracted from the liver, adrenal glands, pituitary gland, pancreas, and bone marrow and the amount of radioactivity associated with the DNA was determined. Results from this study indicate that MBT does not significantly bind to DNA from any of the tissues examined. CBI values for liver for the 3 methods of purification were -1-3 which are on the low end of the covalent binding index. The CBI values for the other tissues were always less than 1. Other chemicals with similar CBI values include estrone and diethylstilbesterol. Strong hepatocarcinogens such as dimethylnitrosamine and aflatoxin have CBI values ranging from 6000 to greater than 20000.

  14. Kidney Tissue Targeted Metabolic Profiling of Unilateral Ureteral Obstruction Rats by NMR

    PubMed Central

    Li, Zhenyu; Li, Aiping; Gao, Jining; Li, Hong; Qin, Xuemei

    2016-01-01

    Renal interstitial fibrosis is a common pathological process in the progression of kidney disease. A nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) based metabolomic approach was used to analyze the kidney tissues of rats with renal interstitial fibrosis (RIF), induced by unilateral ureteral obstruction (UUO). The combination of a variety of statistical methods were used to screen out 14 significantly changed potential metabolites, which are related with multiple biochemical processes including amino acid metabolism, adenine metabolism, energy metabolism, osmolyte change and induced oxidative stress. The exploration of the contralateral kidneys enhanced the understanding of the disease, which was also supported by serum biochemistry and kidney histopathology results. In addition, the pathological parameters (clinical chemistry, histological and immunohistochemistry results) were correlated with the significantly changed differential metabolites related with RIF. This study showed that targeted tissue metabolomic analysis can be used as a useful tool to understand the mechanism of the disease and provide a novel insight in the pathogenesis of RIF. PMID:27695416

  15. MALDI imaging and in situ identification of integral membrane proteins from rat brain tissue sections

    PubMed Central

    Nicklay, Joshua J.; Harris, Glenn A.; Schey, Kevin L.; Caprioli, Richard M.

    2013-01-01

    Transmembrane proteins are greatly underrepresented in data generated by imaging mass spectrometry (IMS) because of analytical challenges related to their size and solubility. Here we present the first example of MALDI IMS of two highly modified multi-transmembrane domain proteins, myelin proteolipid protein (PLP, 30 kDa) and DM-20 (26 kDa), from various regions of rat brain, namely the cerebrum, cerebellum, and medulla. We utilize a novel tissue pre-treatment aimed at transmembrane protein enrichment to show the in situ distribution of fatty acylation of these proteins, particularly of post-translational palmitoylation. Additionally, we demonstrate the utility of protease-encapsulated hydrogels for spatially localized on-tissue protein digestion and peptide extraction for subsequent direct coupling to LC-MS/MS for protein identification. PMID:23829295

  16. Gamma-Glutamyl Cysteine Attenuates Tissue Damage and Enhances Tissue Regeneration in a rat Model of Lead-Induced Nephrotoxicity.

    PubMed

    Salama, Samir A; Arab, Hany H; Maghrabi, Ibrahim A; Hassan, Memy H; AlSaeed, Mohammed S

    2016-09-01

    Lead is a biohazardous metal that is commonly involved in human illness including renal injury. Although it is a non-redox reactive metal, lead-induced renal injury is largely based on oxidative stress. The current work aimed at exploring the possible protective effect of γ-glutamyl cysteine (γGC) against lead-induced renal injury. Rats were allocated to normal and γGC control groups, lead-treated group, and lead and γGC-treated group. γGC alleviated lead-induced renal injury as evidenced by attenuation of histopathological aberration, amelioration of oxidative injury as demonstrated by significant reduction in lipid and protein oxidation, elevation of total antioxidant capacity, and glutathione level. The activity of antioxidant enzymes superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), and glutathione peroxidase (GPx) was significantly elevated. γGC significantly decreased levels of the proinflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin (IL)-6, and IL-1β and the activity of the apoptotic marker caspase-3. In addition, γGC reduced kidney lead content, enhanced weight gain, and improved renal function as demonstrated by reduced serum levels of urea and creatinine. Importantly, γGC upregulated proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) expression, denoting enhanced renal regenerative capacity. Together, our findings highlight evidence for alleviating effects of γGC against lead-induced renal injury that is potentially mediated through diminution of oxidative tissue injury, reduction of inflammatory response, attenuation of apoptosis, and enhancement of renal regenerative capacity.

  17. Intermittent pneumatic compression enhances neurovascular ingrowth and tissue proliferation during connective tissue healing: a study in the rat.

    PubMed

    Dahl, Johan; Li, Jian; Bring, Daniel K-I; Renström, Per; Ackermann, Paul W

    2007-09-01

    Intermittent pneumatic compression (IPC) is a treatment method to decrease venous stasis and stimulate blood flow. Recently, it was hypothesized that IPC may exert positive effects on tissue healing, a process highly dependent upon adequate circulation. In this study, we investigated the effects of daily 1-h IPC treatment during 2 and 4 weeks post-rat Achilles tendon rupture. The tendons were subjectively and semiquantitatively analyzed for collagen organization, fibroblast density, angiogenesis, and the occurrence of sensory neuropeptides, substance P (SP) and calcitonine gene related peptide (CGRP), as well as for a nerve regeneration marker, growth associated protein 43 (GAP-43). After 2 weeks of treatment, fibroblast density increased by 53% (p = 0.0004), vessel density by 64% (p = 0.022), and the occurrence of SP by 110% (p = 0.047) and CGRP by 47% (p = 0.0163) compared to untreated controls. Following 4 weeks of treatment, both the occurrence of sensory neuropeptides and the vessel density remained significantly higher (p < 0.05), whereas fibroblast density returned to normal. However, at 4 weeks the treated tendons displayed a higher degree of organized parallel collagen fibers, a sign of increased maturation. Daily IPC treatment improves neurovascular ingrowth and fibroblast proliferation in the healing tendon and may accelerate the repair process.

  18. Teneligliptin Decreases Uric Acid Levels by Reducing Xanthine Dehydrogenase Expression in White Adipose Tissue of Male Wistar Rats

    PubMed Central

    2016-01-01

    We investigated the effects of teneligliptin on uric acid metabolism in male Wistar rats and 3T3-L1 adipocytes. The rats were fed with a normal chow diet (NCD) or a 60% high-fat diet (HFD) with or without teneligliptin for 4 weeks. The plasma uric acid level was not significantly different between the control and teneligliptin groups under the NCD condition. However, the plasma uric acid level was significantly decreased in the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared to the HFD-fed control rats. The expression levels of xanthine dehydrogenase (Xdh) mRNA in liver and epididymal adipose tissue of NCD-fed rats were not altered by teneligliptin treatment. On the other hand, Xdh expression was reduced significantly in the epididymal adipose tissue of the HFD-fed teneligliptin treated rats compared with that of HFD-fed control rats, whereas Xdh expression in liver did not change significantly in either group. Furthermore, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. DPP-4 treatment significantly increased Xdh expression in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. With DPP-4 pretreatment, teneligliptin significantly decreased Xdh mRNA expression compared to the DPP-4-treated 3T3-L1 adipocytes. In conclusion, our studies suggest that teneligliptin reduces uric acid levels by suppressing Xdh expression in epididymal adipose tissue of obese subjects. PMID:27652270

  19. Changes in Rat Brain Tissue Microstructure and Stiffness during the Development of Experimental Obstructive Hydrocephalus

    PubMed Central

    Jugé, Lauriane; Pong, Alice C.; Bongers, Andre; Sinkus, Ralph; Bilston, Lynne E.; Cheng, Shaokoon

    2016-01-01

    Understanding neural injury in hydrocephalus and how the brain changes during the course of the disease in-vivo remain unclear. This study describes brain deformation, microstructural and mechanical properties changes during obstructive hydrocephalus development in a rat model using multimodal magnetic resonance (MR) imaging. Hydrocephalus was induced in eight Sprague-Dawley rats (4 weeks old) by injecting a kaolin suspension into the cisterna magna. Six sham-injected rats were used as controls. MR imaging (9.4T, Bruker) was performed 1 day before, and at 3, 7 and 16 days post injection. T2-weighted MR images were collected to quantify brain deformation. MR elastography was used to measure brain stiffness, and diffusion tensor imaging (DTI) was conducted to observe brain tissue microstructure. Results showed that the enlargement of the ventricular system was associated with a decrease in the cortical gray matter thickness and caudate-putamen cross-sectional area (P < 0.001, for both), an alteration of the corpus callosum and periventricular white matter microstructure (CC+PVWM) and rearrangement of the cortical gray matter microstructure (P < 0.001, for both), while compression without gross microstructural alteration was evident in the caudate-putamen and ventral internal capsule (P < 0.001, for both). During hydrocephalus development, increased space between the white matter tracts was observed in the CC+PVWM (P < 0.001), while a decrease in space was observed for the ventral internal capsule (P < 0.001). For the cortical gray matter, an increase in extracellular tissue water was significantly associated with a decrease in tissue stiffness (P = 0.001). To conclude, this study characterizes the temporal changes in tissue microstructure, water content and stiffness in different brain regions and their association with ventricular enlargement. In summary, whilst diffusion changes were larger and statistically significant for majority of the brain regions studied

  20. Early postnatal rat ventricle resection leads to long‐term preserved cardiac function despite tissue hypoperfusion

    PubMed Central

    Zogbi, Camila; Saturi de Carvalho, Ana E. T.; Nakamuta, Juliana S.; Caceres, Viviane de M.; Prando, Silvana; Giorgi, Maria C. P.; Rochitte, Carlos E.; Meneghetti, Jose C.; Krieger, Jose E.

    2014-01-01

    Abstract One‐day‐old mice display a brief capacity for heart regeneration after apex resection. We sought to examine this response in a different model and to determine the impact of this early process on long‐term tissue perfusion and overall cardiac function in response to stress. Apical resection of postnatal rats at day 1 (P1) and 7 (P7) rendered 18 ± 1.0% and 16 ± 1.3% loss of cardiac area estimated by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), respectively (P > 0.05). P1 was associated with evidence of cardiac neoformation as indicated by Troponin I and Connexin 43 expression at 21 days postresection, while in the P7 group mainly scar tissue replacement ensued. Interestingly, there was an apparent lack of uniform alignment of newly formed cells in P1, and we detected cardiac tissue hypoperfusion for both groups at 21 and 60 days postresection using SPECT scanning. Direct basal cardiac function at 60 days, when the early lesion is undetectable, was preserved in all groups, whereas under hemodynamic stress the degree of change on LVDEP, Stroke Volume and Stroke Work indicated diminished overall cardiac function in P7 (P < 0.05). Furthermore, the End‐Diastolic Pressure–Volume relationship and increased interstitial collagen deposition in P7 is consistent with increased chamber stiffness. Taken together, we provide evidence that early cardiac repair response to apex resection in rats also leads to cardiomyocyte neoformation and is associated to long‐term preservation of cardiac function despite tissue hypoperfusion. PMID:25168870

  1. Comparison of osteogenic ability of rat mesenchymal stem cells from bone marrow, periosteum, and adipose tissue.

    PubMed

    Hayashi, Ousuke; Katsube, Yoshihiro; Hirose, Motohiro; Ohgushi, Hajime; Ito, Hiromoto

    2008-03-01

    Mesenchymal stem cells (MSCs) reside in many types of tissue and are able to differentiate into various functional cells including osteoblasts. Recently, adipose tissue-derived MSCs (AMSCs) have been shown to differentiate into many lineages, and they are considered a source for tissue regeneration. The purpose of this study was to compare the osteogenic differentiation capability of MSCs from bone marrow (BMSCs), MSCs from periosteum (PMSCs), and AMSCs using in vitro culture and in vivo implantation experiments. We harvested these MSCs from 7-week-old rats. The cells were seeded and cultured for 7 days in primary culture to assay a colony-forming unit. The frequency of the unit was the smallest in the BMSCs (P < 0.001). After primary culture, subculture was performed under osteogenic differentiation conditions for 1 and 2 weeks to detect mineralization as well as the bone-specific proteins of alkaline phosphatase and osteocalcin as osteogenic markers. BMSCs and PMSCs showed distinct osteogenic differentiation capability in comparison with other MSCs (P < 0.001). For the in vivo assay, composites of these cells and hydroxyapatite ceramics were subcutaneously implanted into syngeneic rats and harvested after 6 weeks. Micro-computed tomographic (CT) and histological analyses demonstrated that new bone formation was detected in the composites using BMSCs and PMSCs, although it was hard to detect in other composites. The CT analyses also demonstrated that the bone volume of BMSC composites was more than that of AMSC composites (P < 0.001). These results indicate that BMSCs and PMSCs could be ideal candidates for utilization in practical bone tissue regeneration.

  2. Combined chelation therapy in reducing tissue lead concentrations in suckling rats.

    PubMed

    Kostial, K; Blanusa, M; Piasek, M; Restek-Samarzija, N; Jones, M M; Singh, P K

    1999-01-01

    The very young are more prone to lead poisoning than adults, and the treatment with chelating agents, either as monotherapy or combined treatment, is still a matter of dispute. The purpose of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of three chelating agents administered either as monotherapies or as combined treatments in sucklings. Lead acetate (5 mg Pb kg(-1) i.p.) was administered to the 7-day-old rat pups in eight litters on experimental day 1 and chelating agents on experimental days 2 and 3. Pups were divided into six groups: (1) untreated control; (2) EDTA (calcium disodium ethylendiaminetetraacetate, 0.3 mmol kg(-1) i.p. at 4 p.m.); (3) meso-DMSA (meso-2,3-dimeracaptosuccinic acid, 0.5 mmol kg(-1) p.o. at 10 a.m.); (4) rac-DMSA (racemic-2,3-dimeracaptosuccinic acid, 0.5 mmol kg(-1) p.o. at 10 a.m.); (5) EDTA+meso-DMSA; and (6) EDTA+rac-DMSA. Rats were killed on experimental day 5. Tissue element concentrations were analyzed by atomic absorption spectrometry. Treatment with EDTA did not affect tissue Pb, but it reduced Zn in the carcass and liver. Meso-DMSA reduced Pb in the kidneys and brain, and it did not affect organ essential elements. Rac-DMSA most efficiently reduced Pb concentrations in the carcass, kidneys and brain, but it also reduced Zn and Cu in the liver and Zn in the kidneys. Combined treatments with EDTA never improved the efficiency of either DMSA isoform in decreasing tissue Pb but they did reduce tissue Zn concentrations. All treatments caused the same decrease in the carcass Ca concentrations. The results do not support combined treatment in this age group, which is especially sensitive to trace element deficiencies, and suggest that meso-DMSA might be the treatment of choice in acute lead poisoning in infants.

  3. Tissue distribution of vitamin E metabolites in rats after oral administration of tocopherol or tocotrienol.

    PubMed

    Uchida, Tomono; Nomura, Saki; Ichikawa, Tomio; Abe, Chisato; Ikeda, Saiko

    2011-01-01

    We previously found that 2,7,8-trimethyl-2(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (γCEHC), a metabolite of the vitamin E isoforms γ-tocopherol or γ-tocotrienol, accumulated in the rat small intestine. The aim of this study was to evaluate tissue distribution of vitamin E metabolites. A single dose of α-tocopherol, γ-tocopherol or a tocotrienol mixture containing α- and γ-tocotrienol was orally administered to rats. Total amounts of conjugated and unconjugated metabolites in the tissues were measured by HPLC with an electrochemical detector, and 6-hydroxy-2,5,7,8-tetramethylchroman-2-carboxylic acid (trolox) was used as an internal standard. Twenty-four hours later, the vitamin E isoforms were detected in most tissues and in the serum. However, 2,5,7,8-tetramethyl-2(2'-carboxyethyl)-6-hydroxychroman (αCEHC), a metabolite of α-tocopherol or α-tocotrienol, and γCEHC accumulated in the serum and in some tissues including the liver, small intestine and kidney. Administration of α-tocopherol increased the γCEHC concentration in the small intestine, suggesting that α-tocopherol enhances γ-tocopherol catabolism. In contrast, ketoconazole, an inhibitor of cytochrome P450 (CYP)-dependent vitamin E catabolism, markedly decreased the γCEHC concentration. These data indicate that vitamin E metabolite accumulates not only in the liver but also in the small intestine and kidney. We conclude that some dietary vitamin E is catabolized to carboxyethyl-hydroxychroman in the small intestine and is secreted into the circulatory system.

  4. Effect of baculovirus P35 protein on apoptosis in brain tissue of rats with acute cerebral infarction.

    PubMed

    Ji, J F; Ma, X H

    2015-08-10

    We explored the effect of baculovirus P35 protein on apoptosis in the brain tissue of rats with acute cerebral infarction (ACI). A rat model of middle cerebral artery infarction was created. The rats were randomly divided into sham, model, and treatment groups. Baculovirus P35 protein was injected into the intracranial arteries of the treatment group rats. The rats in the model group were given an equal volume of phosphate-buffered saline. The rats were sacrificed after 72 h and the brain tissue was separated. The levels of caspase-3, Bcl-2, and Bax mRNA, the brain cell apoptosis index, and the infarct size were determined. After 72 h, the levels of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA in the model and treatment groups were significantly greater than in the sham group, and the levels of Bcl-2 mRNA were significantly smaller (P < 0.05). The levels of caspase-3 and Bax mRNA were significantly lower in the treatment group than in the model group, and the level of Bcl-2 mRNA was significantly greater (P < 0.05). Compared with the sham group, the brain tissue apoptosis index and the cerebral infarction area increased significantly in the model and treatment groups (P < 0.05). The brain tissue apoptosis index and cerebral infarction area in the treatment group were significantly lower than in the model group (P < 0.05). Baculovirus P35 protein can effectively inhibit brain cell apoptosis in rats with ACI. It delayed apoptosis and necrosis in subjects with ACI tissue and had a protective effect on brain tissue.

  5. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress

    PubMed Central

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Audi, Said

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O2 (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs. PMID:22559688

  6. Optical imaging of tissue mitochondrial redox state in intact rat lungs in two models of pulmonary oxidative stress

    NASA Astrophysics Data System (ADS)

    Sepehr, Reyhaneh; Staniszewski, Kevin; Maleki, Sepideh; Jacobs, Elizabeth R.; Audi, Said; Ranji, Mahsa

    2012-04-01

    Ventilation with enhanced fractions of O2 (hyperoxia) is a common and necessary treatment for hypoxemia in patients with lung failure, but prolonged exposure to hyperoxia causes lung injury. Ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury of lung tissue is common in lung transplant or crush injury to the chest. These conditions are associated with apoptosis and decreased survival of lung tissue. The objective of this work is to use cryoimaging to evaluate the effect of exposure to hyperoxia and IR injury on lung tissue mitochondrial redox state in rats. The autofluorescent mitochondrial metabolic coenzymes nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NADH) and flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD) are electron carriers in ATP generation. These intrinsic fluorophores were imaged for rat lungs using low-temperature fluorescence imaging (cryoimaging). Perfused lungs from four groups of rats were studied: normoxia (control), control perfused with an mitochondrial complex IV inhibitor (potassium cyanide, KCN), rats exposed to hyperoxia (85% O2) for seven days, and from rats subjected to lung IR in vivo 24 hours prior to study. Each lung was sectioned sequentially in the transverse direction, and the images were used to reconstruct a three-dimensional (3-D) rendering. In KCN perfused lungs the respiratory chain was more reduced, whereas hyperoxic and IR lung tissue have a more oxidized respiratory chain than control lung tissue, consistent with previously measured mitochondrial dysfunction in both hyperoxic and IR lungs.

  7. Structural and metabolic characterization of RNAs from rats with experimental Guerin tumor - I. Nucleotide composition of RNAs from the liver and tumor tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, A; Galasinski, W

    1976-01-01

    The characteristics of the ribonucleic acids of Guerin tumor was the subject of this work. The effect of tumor development on the structure of the ribonucleic acids in the liver of tumor bearing rats was studied. Some differences of nucleotide compositions in RNAs isolated from subcellular fractions of liver of control and tumor bearing rats and of cancer tissue were observed. The nucleotide compositions of cancer nuclear RNA is distinctly different from liver RNA. The changes in primary structure of liver RNAs due by development of tumor in rats may be result of metabolic peculiarities of these RNAs.

  8. [Effect of topical application of aminoguanidine cream on skin tissue of rats with diabetes].

    PubMed

    Tian, Ming; Qing, Chun; Cao, Xiao-Zan; Niu, Yi-Wen; Lu, Shu-Liang

    2011-02-01

    To investigate the effects of aminoguanidine cream on the proliferation of keratinocytes (KC), content of advanced glycosylation end products (AGE) and oxidative stress in skin tissue of rats with diabetes. Stearic acid, liquid paraffin, vaseline, lanolin, isopropyl myristate fat, glycerol, 50 g/L alcohol paraben, aminoguanidine hydrochloride etc. were mixed in certain proportion to make aminoguanidine cream, and cream without aminoguanidine was used as matrix. The dorsal skin of normal rats were harvested and treated by aminoguanidine cream with dose of 5, 10 g/L, or 5 g/L together with 10 g/L azone. The transdermal effect was respectively measured at post treatment hour 2, 4, 7, 10, 12, 24. Thirty SD rats were divided into normal control (NC, n = 6), diabetes (D, n = 8), aminoguanidine cream-interfered (AI, n = 8), matrix cream-interfered groups (MI, n = 8) according to the random number table. Diabetes was reproduced by intraperitoneal injection of STZ (65 mg/kg) in rats of D, AI, and MI groups, and rats in NC group were injected with 0.05 mmol/L citrate buffer as control. One week later, dorsal skin of rats in AI and MI groups were respectively treated with 10 g/L aminoguanidine cream and matrix cream by external use for 4 weeks. AGE content was determined with fluorescence detection from skin collagen extract. KC cell cycle was detected by flow cytometry. Skin tissue specimens were obtained for determination of levels of superoxide dismutase (SOD), malondialdehyde (MDA), myeloperoxidase (MPO), and total antioxidant capacity. Data were processed with t test. Transdermal effect of aminoguanidine cream with dose of 10 g/L was better than that with 5 g/L or 5 g/L + 10 g/L azone cream. One rat was not induced successfully in MI group. Four weeks after model reproduction, 4 rats died in D group and 1 rat died in AI group. The AGE content in D group was obviously higher than that in NC group [(36.8 +/- 2.6), (24.6 +/- 2.7) U per milligram hydroxyproline, respectively

  9. Structural and metabolic characterization of RNAs from rats with experimental Guerin tumor - II. metabolic peculiarities of RNAs from the liver and tumor tissues of rats.

    PubMed

    Ratkiewicz, A; Galasinski, W

    1976-01-01

    Metabolic peculiarities of RNAs in the liver of the tumor bearing and in the tumor tissue were found. The synthesis of nuclear RNA in liver of tumor bearing rats is distinctly disordered in comparison to that of control rats. The level of 14C-orotic acid incorporation into RNA of cancer tissue is manifold lower than that into the liver RNA. The studies on turnover rate showed the metabolic heterogeneity of the nuclear RNAs. The part of them showed a short turnover, the other RNAs were degraded much slower.

  10. Implantation of juvenile human chondrocytes demonstrates no adverse effect on spinal nerve tissue in rats.

    PubMed

    Külling, Fabrice A; Liu, Jane J; Liebenberg, Ellen; Lotz, Jeffrey C

    2016-09-01

    Degenerative disc disease (DDD) is a common disabling condition for millions of individuals. Injection of xenogenic juvenile chondrocytes (XJC) into the disc space has been shown to have a therapeutic potential for disc repair. In the current study, XJC were injected extra-discally on neural structures in an in vivo rat hemilaminectomy model to compare the histological and behavioral effects on XJC and fibrin glue carrier. Twenty-four rats were assigned to four groups: cells plus carrier, carrier alone, sham hemi-laminectomy, and a positive control (nerve root ligation). A right-sided hemilaminectomy was performed and the study material was placed on and around the exposed L4 nerve root and the spinal cord. Pre- and postoperatively mechanical allodynia was tested on the ipsilateral hind paw using the von Frey up-down method. The lumbar spines were harvested after 6 and 12 weeks for nerve histology and TNF-α quantification. After a brief period of hyperalgesia, the von Frey data indicate there are no adverse effects of placing XJC on spinal nerve roots in rats. However ligation of nerve root showed significant allodynia compared to the other groups. These behavioral data were supported by histological analyses. While these results need to be confirmed over a larger period of time, they suggest that XJC transplantation into the disc space shows no adverse effect on nerve tissue.

  11. Application of Coenzyme Q10 for Accelerating Soft Tissue Wound Healing after Tooth Extraction in Rats

    PubMed Central

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-01-01

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6–7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05). At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats. PMID:25514392

  12. Application of coenzyme Q10 for accelerating soft tissue wound healing after tooth extraction in rats.

    PubMed

    Yoneda, Toshiki; Tomofuji, Takaaki; Kawabata, Yuya; Ekuni, Daisuke; Azuma, Tetsuji; Kataoka, Kota; Kunitomo, Muneyoshi; Morita, Manabu

    2014-12-10

    Accelerating wound healing after tooth extraction is beneficial in dental treatment. Application of antioxidants, such as reduced coenzyme Q10 (rCoQ10), may promote wound healing after tooth extraction. In this study, we examined the effects of topical application of rCoQ10 on wound healing after tooth extraction in rats. After maxillary first molars were extracted, male Fischer 344 rats (8 weeks old) (n = 27) received topical application of ointment containing 5% rCoQ10 (experimental group) or control ointment (control group) to the sockets for 3 or 8 days (n = 6-7/group). At 3 days after extraction, the experimental group showed higher collagen density and lower numbers of polymorphonuclear leukocytes in the upper part of socket, as compared to the control group (p < 0.05). Gene expression of interleukin-1β, tumor necrosis factor-α and nuclear factor-κB were also lower in the experimental group than in the control group (p < 0.05). At 8 days after tooth extraction, there were no significant differences in collagen density, number of polymorphonuclear leukocytes and bone fill between the groups. Our results suggest that topical application of rCoQ10 promotes wound healing in the soft tissue of the alveolar socket, but that rCoQ10 has a limited effect on bone remodeling in rats.

  13. Interaction of perivascular adipose tissue and sympathetic nerves in arteries from normotensive and hypertensive rats.

    PubMed

    Török, J; Zemančíková, A; Kocianová, Z

    2016-10-24

    The inhibitory action of perivascular adipose tissue (PVAT) in modulation of arterial contraction has been recently recognized and contrasted with the prohypertensive effect of obesity in humans. In this study we demonstrated that PVAT might have opposing effect on sympatho-adrenergic contractions in different rat conduit arteries. In superior mesenteric artery isolated from normotensive Wistar-Kyoto rats (WKY), PVAT exhibited inhibitory influence on the contractions to exogenous noradrenaline as well as to endogenous noradrenaline released from arterial sympathetic nerves during transmural electrical stimulation or after application of tyramine. In contrast, the abdominal aorta with intact PVAT responded with larger contractions to transmural electrical stimulation and tyramine when compared to the aorta after removing PVAT; the responses to noradrenaline were similar in both. This indicates that PVAT may contain additional sources of endogenous noradrenaline which could be responsible for the main difference in the modulatory effect of PVAT on adrenergic contractions between abdominal aortas and superior mesenteric arteries. In spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR), the anticontractile effect of PVAT in mesenteric arteries was reduced, and the removal of PVAT completely eliminated the difference in the dose-response curves to exogenous noradrenaline between SHR and WKY. These results suggest that in mesenteric artery isolated from SHR, the impaired anticontractile influence of PVAT might significantly contribute to its increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimuli.

  14. Effects of chronic tramadol administration on testicular tissue in rats: an experimental study.

    PubMed

    Abdellatief, R B; Elgamal, D A; Mohamed, E E M

    2015-08-01

    In a prospective experimental study, the effects of chronic tramadol administration on gonadotrophic and sex hormones, histopathological and morphometrical alterations in rat testicular tissue were investigated in a laboratory setting. Tramadol was given alone to adult male albino rats. Gonadotrophic and serum sex hormone levels were measured and testicular pathological and morphometric changes were observed in treated vs. After 30 days of treatment, tramadol induced a decrease in LH, FSH and testosterone serum levels. Histologically, degenerative changes in the seminiferous tubules were observed. They showed shrinkage, separation of tubular basement membrane, disorganisation and vacuolisation of spermatogenic layers. Morphometric analysis revealed significant decrease in the mean values of the tubular diameter and epithelial height. Ultrastructural abnormalities were detected in all cells of spermatogenic lineage in addition to the appearance of apoptotic cells. Sertoli cell vacuolation, huge lipid droplets and disrupted Sertoli cell junctions were observed. Leydig cells showed euchromatic nuclei and dilated smooth endoplasmic reticulum. In view of these findings, it is concluded that tramadol induces alterations in sex hormonal levels in conjunction with disruption of the normal histological structure of rat testis. This might lead to the risk of male infertility. Therefore, tramadol should be used with caution with appropriate dose monitoring. © 2014 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

  15. Strengthening of antioxidant defense by Azadirachta indica in alloxan-diabetic rat tissues

    PubMed Central

    Shailey, Sweta; Basir, Seemi Farhat

    2012-01-01

    Background: Azadirachta indica has been reported to correct altered glycaemia in diabetes. Objective: The aqueous extract of A. indica leaf and bark has been evaluated for its effect on antioxidant status of alloxan diabetic rats and compared with insulin treatment. Materials and Methods: The oral effective dose of A. indica leaf (500 mg/kg body weight) and A. indica bark (100 mg/kg body weight) were given once daily for 21 days to separate groups of diabetic rats. At the end of the experimental period blood glucose level and activity of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPx), glutathione reductase (GR), glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G-6-PD), and membrane lipid peroxidation were determined in different fractions of liver and kidney tissues. Results: Diabetic rats showed high blood glucose (P<0.01), increased level of malondialdehyde (P<0.05) and a significant decrease in the activity of antioxidant enzymes. Treatment with insulin, A. indica leaf extract (AILE), and A. indica bark extract (AIBE) restored the above altered parameters close to the control ones. Conclusions: Both AILE and AIBE were found significantly effective in reducing hyperglycemia-induced oxidative stress. The findings suggest further investigations for the possible use of A. indica as alternative medicine to prevent long-term complications of diabetes. PMID:23125509

  16. Protection of normal tissue against late radiation injury by WR-2721. [/sup 60/Co; rats

    SciTech Connect

    Utley, J.F.; Quinn, C.A.; White, F.C.; Seaver, N.A.; Bloor, C.M.

    1981-02-01

    The ability of WR-2721 to protect against late radiation damage has been studied in skin, muscle, and vascular tissues of rats. Animals treated with and without WR-2721 received irradiation to the left hind limb; representative groups were killed at intervals ranging from 72 h to 6 months. Comparison of all drug-treated and non-drug-treated animals showed significant protection (P = less than or equal to 0.05). The time pattern of injury in non-drug-treated rats was biphasic, with significant damage occurring at 72 h and 1 week, returning to normal between 1 and 3 months, but showing significant late damage at 6 months (P = less than or equal to 0.001). Again, this injury pattern did not appear in WR-2721-treated rats. Thus the ability of WR-2721 to protect against acute and chronic radiation injury in vessels, skin, and muscle indicates that an increased therapeutic gain can be expected when this drug is used in clinical radiation therapy.

  17. Supersensitivity of beta-adrenoceptor coupled adenylate cyclase in pulmonary tissue of the spontaneously hypertensive rat

    SciTech Connect

    Kamibayashi, C.; Ramanathan, S. )

    1989-01-01

    Basal adenylate cyclase activity was similar in plasma membranes prepared from the lungs of 12 week old spontaneously hypertensive rats (SHR) and normotensive Wister Kyoto rats (WKY). However, sensitivity to Gpp (NH)p, isoproterenol plus GTP or Gpp (NH)p was significantly greater in the SHR. Beta-receptor density measured by ({sup 3}H)DHA binding was unaltered. The dissociation constant, K{sub d}, revealed a significantly greater binding affinity of the radioligand in the SHR compared with the WKY. Activity of G{sub s} was assessed by complementing S49 cyc{sup {minus}} acceptor membranes with lung cholate extract. Basal activity of the reconstituted system was decreased 43% in the SHR. However, sensitivity to NaF, Gpp(NH)p, and isoproterenol plus Gpp(NH)p was significantly elevated. These data suggest that desensitization of the adenylate cyclase complex is not a generalized response to chronic hypertension. A tissue specific increase in sympathetic drive appears to be responsible for the lowered concentration of cardiac beta-adrenoceptors in the SHR. In contrast, both indirect and direct evidence indicate an enhanced functional sensitivity of pulmonary G{sub s} in the hypertensive rats.

  18. Light/dark cycle-dependent metabolic changes in adipose tissue of pinealectomized rats.

    PubMed

    Alonso-Vale, M I; Borges-Silva, C N; Anhê, G F; Andreotti, S; Machado, M A; Cipolla-Neto, J; Lima, F B

    2004-07-01

    We investigated the effects of pinealectomy on adipose tissue metabolism at different times of day. Adult male Wistar rats were divided into two groups: pinealectomi